Sample records for amended noir letter

  1. 44 CFR 70.7 - Notice of Letter of Map Amendment. (United States)


    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Notice of Letter of Map Amendment. 70.7 Section 70.7 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY... Notice of Letter of Map Amendment. (a) The Federal Insurance Administrator, shall not publish a notice...


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    At the request of you, our readers, this year we are introducing a "Letters to the Editor" column. We value your comments, positive and negative, on our layout, content and pictures and will make continuous efforts to improve our magazine. We welcome your comments and views on all aspects of China. [We reserve the right to edit for content, clarity or length.]If your letter or e-mail is published, you receive a gift!

  3. Locating Nordic Noir

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim Toft; Waade, Anne Marit

    This book is a comprehensive study of Nordic Noir television drama from the 1990’s until today. The authors introduce the history of contemporary Nordic Noir from the perspective of place, production and location studies. The chapters include readings of well-known television crime dramas...... such as Beck, The Killing, Trapped and The Bridge as well as a range of other important Nordic Noir cases. The book positions the development of Nordic Noir on the global market for popular television drama and places the international attention towards Nordic crime dramas within regional development of drama...... production in Sweden, Denmark, Norway and Iceland. Consequently, Nordic Noir is read as both a transnational financial and creative phenomenon and as a local possibility for community building. The book is aimed at readers with an interest in crime drama as well as television scholars and students...


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Dear Editor, I am a loyal reader of your magazine. I read Issue No.9 (March 2, 2006) and was deeply impressed by the articles on tobacco. Tobacco is indeed a big problem in China. Well, I would like to introduce, through your letters page, an association closely related to tobacco control. It is called Green Breathing Association, a student organization in Xiamen University (probably the first one of its kind in China). The mission of Green Breathing is to promote the public awareness of tobac-

  5. Revue noire, une histoire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Loup Pivin


    Full Text Available Fig. 1 : Couverture du premier numéro de la Revue noire, 1991 Photographe anonyme. Titre: Ousmane Sow : Couple de lutteurs corps à corps, Nouba, 1987. Dimensions de l'image : 27,9 x 40 cm. Fonds : Revue noire. © Photo Revue noire Préambule Le premier numéro de cette revue de grand format, somptueusement illustrée, date de l’année 1991 et s’intitule « Ousmane Sow / African London ». Entièrement bilingue, Revue noire se donne pour objet de faire découvrir l’« African Contemporary Art / art co...

  6. Les trous noirs

    CERN Document Server

    Ioli, Elena


    L'univers est peuplé par des étoiles, des planètes, des galaxies, des astéroïdes, des comètes, mais les trous noirs en sont certainement les habitants les plus mystérieux et les plus fascinants ! Grâce à cette merveilleuse histoire racontée par papy Gino, professeur d'astronomie, les trous noirs n auront plus de secrets pour vous ! C est l'été, le soleil illumine le ciel, la plage est en feu : une journée à la plage pleine de jeux et de plongée qui va se transformer pour Bernardo, Gregorio et leurs deux amis en une aventure inattendue. Ils découvriront les secrets des trous noirs, d étranges objets célestes que personne n'a jamais vus mais qui existent bel et bien ! Grand-père Gino, un professeur d astronomie à la retraite, emmènera les enfants à l'intérieur d'un trou noir, leur expliquera pourquoi ils sont noirs, comment ils sont nés et comment les scientifiques pensent qu'ils vont mourir. Et Gino leur racontera même ce qui se trouve de l'autre côté d'un trou noir...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James E. Larsen


    Full Text Available Substantial empirical evidence indicates properties across the United States that are located within a Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA sell at a discount compared to similar properties otherwise located. This result is also true in our sample. Researchers have suggested the price discount equals a combination of the present value of the required flood insurance premiums and the value of uninsurable costs. To identify the portion of the discount applicable to each component, analysts have been required to estimate applicable insurance premiums and to assume a discount rate. The present paper presents a methodology that does not require these prerequisites, but still enables separation of the discount into the two components. in the united states, the federal emergency management agency sometimes issues a Letter of Map Amendment (LOMA, which exempts a property from the requirement that it be insured against flood damage as a prerequisite to the owner obtaining a federally-related mortgage loan. Therefore, any price difference between non-LOMA SFHA properties and similar properties outside the SFHA should continue to equal the sum of the two components and any significant price difference between SFHA properties with a LOMA and similar properties located outside the SFHA should equal the present value of the uninsurable costs only. Hedonic regression is used to test this proposal by comparing the selling prices of single-family house transactions for properties located within and outside the SFHA in Kettering, Ohio. In our sample, no significant uninsurable costs were detected.

  8. Letters (United States)


    The Editor welcomes letters, by e-mail to or by post to Dirac House, Temple Back, Bristol BS1 6BE, UK. Contents: Maths for physics? Help! Fire! Energy and mass Maths for physics? As a maths graduate working as a university research associate I should be well qualified to support my daughter, who has just started AS-level physics, with the maths she needs for the course. There seems to be little integration between the maths and physics departments, so that maths needed for physics has not yet been covered in maths lessons. This is a problem I remember from my own school days, but the shorter timescale and modular nature of the AS and A2 levels means that it is essential that this mismatch of knowledge is resolved now. I would like to know whether physics teachers in the UK have encountered this problem and whether there is a deficiency in the maths syllabus in relation to the requirements of the AS and A2 levels in Physics or whether this is a problem peculiar to my daughter's school. Eleanor Parent of A-level student, Sheffield, UK Help! Fire! Is there a crisis in physics education? Is physics didactics coming to an end? Yes and no. Being a delegate from Norway at the on-going conference Physics on Stage (6-10 November 2000) at CERN in Geneva, I have had the opportunity to discuss this with people from all over Europe. Yes, there is a crisis. (Look at the proceedings for details on this.) I'd like to take a broader look at this situation. Like Hari Seldon in Isaac Asimov's Foundation Trilogy, I believe that there is nothing like a real crisis to get things going... Famous is the quote from the American Patent Office around 1890: 'Everything has been invented that could be invented'. Fortunately, this spurred action. The Michelson and Morley experiment heralded a most exciting period for physics. Just a cosmic blink later we put a person on the Moon. Coming back to the crisis - I am certain that in the near future we will see an interesting development

  9. Letters (United States)


    The Editor welcomes letters, by e-mail to or by post to Dirac House, Temple Back, Bristol BS1 6BE, UK. Contents: Alternative view of education in Zambia Pedantry or compromise Alternative view of education in Zambia I have just read the 'On the Map' report of the International School of Lusaka with very mixed feelings (Physics Education, March 2001). I have recently spent some time in Zambia, in Lusaka, and share Sue Pears' love for the country and the Zambians. The ISL is indeed a good, prestigious school, similar to International Schools in many other countries. But, as in most other developing countries, there is enormous variation between the different types of schooling, and the ISL is at one end of the spectrum. Most schools in Zambia are less favoured. Zambia is a wonderful, beautiful country full of the most friendly and resourceful people I know. It is also a very poor country. It is a country of enormous contrasts and its schools reflect that variation. It has a tiny, affluent 'middle' class of professionals, politicians, businessmen, employees of international businesses and NGOs—nearly all paid from overseas budgets. It has an enormous majority of poor folk, cheerfully living in very basic conditions but sharing their lives in extended families without complaint. The government is virtually bankrupt, and consequently those paid by the government—teachers, police, nurses etc—get a pittance. The wage for a teacher in a typical school is #20 per month (compared to a typical teacher in the UK who gets 100 times more, about #2000 per month). The GNP in Zambia is about 1 per day per person, and this has to pay for all the schools, hospitals, police, and the civic infrastructure that we take so much for granted (the GNP in UK is about 60 per day per person). Consequently most state schools do not have resources; they have a classroom and a teacher but little else. What resources the school has will be paid for by the school fees that every

  10. Letters (United States)


    The Editor welcomes letters, by e-mail to or by post to Dirac House, Temple Back, Bristol BS1 6BE Contents: Force on a pendulum Sound slows down Bond is back Force on a pendulum The simple pendulum has been used by several educationalists for investigating the patterns of thinking among students and their observations that Aristotelian thinking persists among students at college level. I had also considered the simple pendulum in my 1985 letter in Physics Today [1], so I was interested to read the test given by Lenka Czudková and Jana Musilová [2]. When students were asked to draw net forces acting on the particle at various positions, 31.9% of students believed that the net force was tangential to the particle's path the whole time. To me this is no surprise because in our derivation of the equation for the period of a simple pendulum we assume that the unbalanced sine component provides the restoring force for the harmonic motion of the bob. Of course, Czudková and Musilová's question asked students for the net force on the particle, not the component. The student's answer fits well with the logic of the equilibrium of forces and the parallelogram law. Lastly, let me bring out the similarity between the student's answer and the thinking of George Gamow. He used to call positrons 'donkey' electrons because of their displacement against the applied force, before Paul Dirac termed them positrons. Victor Weisskeptf told me this anecdote in a letter in May 1982. References [1] Sathe D 1985 Phys. Today 38 144 [2] Czudková L and Musilová J 2000 Phys. Educ. 35 428 Dileep V Sathe Dadawala Jr College, Pune, India Sound slows down Without wanting to stir up more trouble amongst the already muddy waters of Physics teaching, consider how many times you have heard (or, more worryingly, read) this: 'Sound waves travel faster in a denser material' But...The velocity of simple longitudinal waves in a bulk medium is given by v = (K/ρ)1/2 where K is

  11. Letters (United States)


    The Editor welcomes letters, by e-mail to or by post to Dirac House, Temple Back, Bristol BS1 6BE, UK. Contents: M-set as metaphor The abuse of algebra M-set as metaphor 'To see a World in a Grain of Sand And a Heaven in a Wild Flower Hold Infinity in the palm of your hand And Eternity in an hour' William Blake's implied relativity of spatial and temporal scales is intriguing and, given the durability of this worlds-within-worlds concept (he wrote in 1803) in art, literature and science, the blurring of distinctions between the very large and the very small must strike some kind of harmonious chord in the human mind. Could this concept apply to the physical world? To be honest, we cannot be absolutely sure. Most cosmological thinking still retains the usual notions of a finite universe and an absolute size scale extending from smallest to largest objects. In the boundless realm of mathematics, however, the story is quite different. The M-set was discovered by the French mathematician Benoit Mandelbrot in 1980, created by just a few simple lines of computer code that are repeated recursively. As in Blake's poem, this 'world' has no bottom we have an almost palpable archetype for the concept of infinity. I would use the word 'tangible', but one of the defining features of the M-set is that nowhere in the labyrinth can one find a surface smooth enough for a tangent. Upon magnification even surfaces that appeared to be smooth explode with quills and scrolls and lightning bolts and spiral staircases. And there is something more, something truly sublime. Observe a small patch with unlimited magnifying power and, as you observe the M-set on ever-smaller scales, down through literally endless layers of ornate structure, you occasionally come upon a rapidly expanding cortex of dazzling colour with a small black structure at its centre. The black spot appears to be the M-set itself! There is no end to the hierarchy, no bottom-most level, just endless recursive

  12. Letters (United States)


    The Editor welcomes letters, by e-mail to or by post to Dirac House, Temple Back, Bristol BS1 6BE, UK. Contents: Quantum uncertainties Reflections in a plastic box A brief history of quantum physics Correction Grammar and gender Quantum uncertainties Whilst I enjoyed Gesche Pospiech's article ('Uncertainty and complementarity: the heart of quantum physics' 2000 Phys. Educ. 35 393 9) I would like to expand on two comments he makes. Firstly the author claims that QM is linear, and a consequence of this is that any two superimposed states form an admissible third state. This is rather too sweeping, as it is true only for degenerate states. Otherwise quantum mechanics would allow a continuum of energies between states by a simple admixture of levels. The proof of this statement is trivial. For a Hamiltonian H and two orthogonal wavefunctions, ψ1 and ψ2 with energies E1 and E2 then (ψ1 + ψ2) is not an eigenfunction of that Hamiltonian as H(ψ1 + ψ2) = E1ψ1 + E2ψ2 ≠ E(ψ1 + ψ2) for any value of E, unless E1 = E2. Secondly Pospiech states that quantum objects show wave- or particle-like behaviour, depending on the measuring apparatus, and that occasionally experiments (such as Taylor's) reveal both. I would contest the validity of this type of thinking. All experiments on quantum objects reveal both types of behaviour—even ones which simply show straight line motion of photons. What is important, in addition, is our interpretation of the results. It takes an understanding of QED, for example, to see that an experiment which otherwise shows particle behaviour is, in fact, showing quantum behaviour. More contentiously though I would suggest that detection apparatus is incapable of detecting anything other than particles. Wave-like behaviour is revealed only by an analysis of the paths the particle could have taken. In other words, the interference of continuous fields sometimes predicts the same results when the detection is averaged over many events

  13. Chat noir chat blanc


    David Querien


    Je suis chat noir, chat blanc,Choix gris.Toujours à cran, toujours épris,Jamais aigri, même amaigri mon âme écrit,Décrit mon temps.Je suis chat noir, chat blanc,Un chat sans thune, mais mis à prix.J’apprécie l'eau-de-vie,Hasta la victoria,J'ai combattu de Varsovie à Pretoria.J'ai fait des portées de chats partout dans le globe,Des chats de gouttières et des panthères aux belles robes.Je dérobe les valeurs de ceux qui veulent savoir l'avenir,T'as cru que j'étais qui pour t'en avertir ?Je danse...

  14. Nordic Noir Production Values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waade, Anne Marit; Jensen, Pia Majbritt


    In this article the authors argue that Nordic noir constitutes a set of production values utilised and conceptualised to make Danish television series attractive in the international market. The idea of production values is embedded into a media industrial context where market principles of target...... by relating the specific Nordic noir production values present in the two series to changing conditions in Danish television drama production, in particular the internationalisation of DR’s Drama Division....... groups, sales, funding and marketing/branding are as important as aesthetic principles. The Killing and The Bridge are used to illustrate how features such as setting, climate, light and language serve strategic as well as aesthetic purposes in the production process. Finally, the authors conclude...

  15. Voyage dans le noir. Trous noirs, matière noire, énergie noire et antimatière

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva; Alvarez-Gaume, Luis; Grojean, Christophe


    Et si nous faisions avec les physiciens un voyage dans le noir ? De l'astrophysique à la physique des particules les trois noirs, la matière noire, l'énergie noire ou l’antimatière intriguent et fascinent. Que sont ces objets qui bousculent nos idées et qui véhiculent parfois des craintes irraisonnées? Luis Alvarez-Gaume, Michael Doser et Christophe Grojean, physiciens du CERN vous invitent à mettre en lumière (!) les constituants de base de la matière et à explorer les mystères de la physique contemporaine. Une soirée lumineuse pour éclairer des concepts et ne plus avoir peur du noir.

  16. Censoring and Selling Film Noir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheri Chinen Biesen


    Full Text Available Film noir is known for its duplicity. Industry censors considered 1940s noir cinema provocative, salacious and ‘sordid.’ Hollywood studios walked a fine line between appearing to comply with Hays office Production Code censorship while simultaneously pushing the envelope of its moral constraints, then hyping and sensationalizing censorable sex, violence and hard-hitting themes to sell noir films to the public. In fact, studios capitalized on the racy explicit nature of noir pictures in publicity contradicting assurances of censorial compliance. For instance, censor Joseph Breen was “shocked” when MGM purchased James Cain’s The Postman Always Rings Twice. It was banned for a decade. Yet, ten years later as filmmakers adapted hardboiled fiction, Breen assured religious groups it would “not be offensive.” Yet, it was promoted as “torrid,” “too hot to handle” with Lana Turner in a bathing suit finding “Love at Laguna Beach” with hunky John Garfield who clamored, “You must be a she-devil,” suggesting far more sex, skin and “savage boldness” than is shown in the film. Film noir responded to Production Code censorship and other regulatory factors, including Office of War Information Bureau of Motion Pictures restrictions on Hollywood screen depictions of the domestic American home front (or overseas combat front, and Office of Censorship strictures such as a wartime ban on screen gangsters as ‘un-American’ for propaganda purposes in World War II-era noir films centering on criminals. These multiple censorship entities often collided. This regulatory climate catalyzed the development of film noir, a dark cycle of shadowy 1940s-50s crime films that boomed by World War II and evolved over the postwar era. I will investigate extensive primary archival research—including scripts, memos from industry censors, writers, directors, producers, and publicity records—to compare how film noir was censored and sold.

  17. Responses to lost letters about a 2000 General Election amendment to abolish prohibition of interracial marriages in Alabama. (United States)

    Bridges, F Stephen; Keeton, Kato B; Clark, L Nicholle


    A field study using 621 "lost" letters was conducted in the city of Mobile and in small towns in mostly rural Baldwin County, Alabama. Milgram's lost letter technique was validated against the actual votes cast during the November 7, 2000 General Election. The technique was successful as an unobtrusive measure useful for predicting patterns of voting behavior. Rates of return of lost letters "in favor of and opposed to legalizing interracial marriage" agreed with the actual election returns (chi-square "goodness of fit"). Community size seemed associated with return of lost letters.

  18. Nordic Noir - Location, Identity and Emotion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Gunhild


    Understanding and discussing the impact of the Nordic element in ‘Nordic Noir’ is the main purpose of this article. This is pursued by tracing the concepts of location, identity and emotion in selected episodes of TV series and serials representative of Nordic Noir – Wallander (2005-) Forbrydelsen...... and emotion (Sharma & Dahl 2013, Tygstrup 2013, Pribram 2011, Laine 2011). Their concepts are applied in the analyses. The article concludes with a perspective considering the role of Nordic Noir vis-à-vis international TV drama productions....

  19. Une balle blanche dans un roman noir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Vallas


    Full Text Available En 1982, Paul Auster fit paraître, sous le pseudonyme de Paul Benjamin, un roman noir intitulé Squeeze Play. Ce roman présente la particularité d’appartenir également au genre du baseball novel, l’intrigue se déroulant en partie dans le monde du base-ball et sa résolution intervenant grâce à une manœuvre rare et spectaculaire (un double suicide squeeze qui éclaire l’enquête sous un jour nouveau. Cet article se propose d’analyser la place du base-ball dans Squeeze Play : élément essentiel de la structuration du roman, le base-ball permet également à Auster d’étudier le mythe du héros américain déchu dans une société dont toutes les dimensions (sportive, politique, privée sont gangrenées par la corruption et la perversion. La relation particulière qu’Auster tisse entre roman noir et baseball novel est également étudiée.In 1982 Paul Auster published a roman noir entitled Squeeze Play under the pseudonym of Paul Benjamin. The novel is also a “baseball novel”: its plot essentially deals with a baseball New York team and its former, fallen star, and the final resolution of the mystery intervenes thanks to a revelation brought by a baseball game in which a rather rare and spectacular maneuver (the double suicide squeeze is used by one of the teams to turn the tables and win the game. This paper analyzes the place of baseball in Squeeze Play: it first appears as an essential element in the very structure of the plot, but it is also, for Auster, a way of questioning the myth of the hero in an American society whose main aspects (sports, politics, private life are eaten up by corruption and perversion. The links Auster establishes between roman noir and baseball novel are also dealt with.

  20. Black heel, talon noir or calcaneal petechiae? (United States)

    Urbina, Francisco; León, Lorena; Sudy, Emilio


    We describe a series of six patients with superficial cutaneous haemorrhages of the feet, including a classical case of black heel (talon noir) and other similar cases with diverse clinical presentations that do not match the typical description of that process. The main differences lay in production mechanism, morphology and location. The causes of these 'atypical' lesions were: burns with hot sand, friction against the rough edge of a swimming pool, wearing new shoes, jogging, or pricking a blister with a needle. Clinically, they consisted of isolated or multiple, small, large or linear, brown or black lesions located in areas that did not include the convex part of the heel, in which talon noir usually appears; on the contrary, the lesions affected the back third of the soles, the toes, periungual fold and plantar arch. As the presence of blood in the horny layer was a common final factor in all these cases, a better name for this process would be 'post-traumatic cutaneous intracorneal blood' to describe black heel and its diverse clinical presentations.

  1. Femme nue, femme noire de Calixte Beyala frente a "Femme noire" de Leopold Sedar Senghor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Nomo Ngamba


    Full Text Available La intención de este estudio consiste en resaltar algunos elementos semiótico-discursos de Femme nue, femme noire de Calixte Beyala frente a Femme noire de Léopold Sédar Senghor. Se trata de demostrar, a través de las nociones de intertextualidad, dialogismo, polifonía, transtextualidad, paratextualidad, etc…, desarrollados por algunos críticos como Genette, Bajtin, Barthes, Kristeva, Maingueneau, que todo texto es un intertexto, que el texto de Calixte Beyala se inspira en el de Sédar Senghor y que ambos autores, no obstante sus diferentes perspectivas y épocas, pertenecen a una misma red discursiva, es decir, a la corriente literario-ideológica de la Negritud.

  2. Nordic noir in the UK: the allure of accessible difference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob Stougaard-Nielsen


    Full Text Available This article takes a closer look at the recent success of Nordic noir in the United Kingdom considering especially the ways in which this particular aesthetic or popular cultural form has come to function as a medium for intercultural communication wherein the perceived Nordicness of the genre plays a central role in negotiating social and cultural desires and challenges pertaining mostly to the receiving culture. Nordic noir, I argue, is not merely a fleeting fashion but a publishing and media phenomenon that tells us something about particular patterns of cultural consumption in the first decades of the twenty-first century United Kingdom.

  3. Review - Le bergers du Fort Noir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Buffetrille


    Full Text Available Review of: Pascale Dollfus. 2012. Les bergers du Fort Noir. Nomades du Ladakh (Himalaya occidental Société d'ethnologie (collection "Haute Asie". This is a detailed ethnography by Pascale Dollfus of the Kharnakpa (Mkhar nag pa, a small community of Ladakhi nomads living at more than 4,200 meters in the Indian state of Jammu-Kashmir. The total population was only 150 in 2004, down from 375 in 1992, and 261 in 1996. The author started her fieldwork in the 1990s, and was thus able to observe the slow disappearance of the way of life of the shepherds of the Black Fort over the last twenty years. The book features thirteen chapters. The first deals with the problem of the definition of the terms 'nomads' and 'nomadism' and the relations between nomads and sedentary people. The author provides accounts related to the nomads of Ladakh that were written by missionaries, adventurers, scientists, and civil servants. In the second chapter, Dollfus questions the origins of the Ladakhi people, and more specifically of the Kharnakpa population, making use of written chronicles and oral traditions. In the third chapter, the community's religious life is introduced. All members belong to the Drugpa Kagyü ('Brug pa bka' brgyud sect of Tibetan Buddhism and consider Dat Monastery their ideal religious center, where all gather for the spring gyetsa (dge rtsa festival, which is described in detail. The fourth chapter deals with the social organization of these nomadic pastoralists who, in spite of the 1941 law prohibiting polyandry, still practice this type of marriage in order "to have a joint ..

  4. The Lethal "Femme Fatale" in the Noir Tradition. (United States)

    Boozer, Jack


    Traces the lethal seductress through Hollywood's "noir" history from "Double Indemnity" (1944) to "The Last Seduction" (1996). Examines how this figure largely abjures traditional romance and passive domesticity, choosing instead to apply her sexuality to homicidal plots toward greed. Argues that her narrative positioning serves as a barometer of…

  5. The Code Noir: Construction of Slavery in French Colonial Louisiana. (United States)

    Arlyck, Kevin


    Presents a lesson focusing on the history of slavery. Compares two systems of slavery in North America to teach students about slavery within and outside of the United States. States that the lesson uses the "Code Noir" to help students understand the similarities and differences between the systems. (CMK)

  6. Où sont passés les trous noirs primordiaux?

    CERN Document Server

    Barrau, A


    L'existence de minuscules trous noirs est théoriquement possible mais, toutes les expériences se sont soldées par un échec. Les physiciens son toujours optimistes: puisqu'ils les ont pensés, pourquoi n'existeraient-ils pas?" (6 pages).

  7. Nordic Noir on Television: The Killing I-III

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Gunhild


    The Nordic Noir has been applied by many countries as a slightly distorting mirror of tendencies in their own societies. On the background of its international appeal, the article analyses the prevalent genre of The Killing – the thriller – and relates it to the genres of crime fiction, political...

  8. D'Eichthal and Urbain's "Lettres sur la race noire et la race blanche": race, gender, and reconciliation after slave emancipation. (United States)

    Andrews, Naomi J


    This article is a close reading of Gustave D'Eichthal and Ishmayl Urbain's Lettres sur la race noire et la race blanche (1839), written during the decade prior to the "second" French emancipation in 1848. The article argues that the hierarchical gendering of race described in the letters is reflective of metropolitan concerns about potential for social disorder accompanying slave emancipation in the French colonies. In arguing for social reconciliation through interracial marriage and its offspring, the symbolically charged figure of the mulatto, the authors deployed gendered and familial language to describe a stable post-emancipation society.

  9. Trous noirs ces objets théoriques deviennent enfin réalité!

    CERN Document Server


    Les trous noirs font partie du bestiaire des astrophysiciens, mais ceux-ci doivent encore se contenter, en termes d'observations, des seuls effets indirects de leur présence. Peut-être plus pour longtemps : ce numéro montre que les premières images de trous noirs devraient prochainement voir le jour !

  10. Evolution tectonique de la Montagne noire: un modèle en transpression (United States)

    Démange, Michel


    Formation of the French Variscan belt results from the punching of several blocks that form at present the internal zones, by the Catalan Craton. Montagne Noire is located at the edge of this Catalan block, where transpressional stresses predominate. The whole orogenic evolution of Montagne Noire, from deep seated metamorphic nappes to doming and late wrenching, may be explained in this transpressional context.

  11. Où se cache la matière noire ?

    CERN Document Server

    Bouquet, Alain


    Pour calculer la masse totale de l’Univers, deux méthodes existent. On peut, à partir de la quantité de lumière reçue dans l’Univers, estimer la masse requise pour l'émettre : c’est ce que l’on appelle la masse « lumineuse ». On peut aussi estimer la masse nécessaire pour communiquer aux étoiles les vitesses observées : c’est ce que l’on appelle la masse « dynamique ». Problème : la masse dynamique est cinq à dix fois supérieure à la masse lumineuse ! Ce désaccord se résout simplement si l'on suppose que la plus grande partie de la matière – 80 à 90% – n'émet aucun rayonnement électromagnétique, qu'elle est donc « noire »… De nombreux indices, dans des domaines très variés de l’astrophysique, laissent même supposer que cette matière est de nature distincte de la matière lumineuse… La découverte d’une particule de matière noire constituerait un évènement considérable : plusieurs expériences la traquent en continu…

  12. 77 FR 62434 - Policy Letters on the International Convention on Standards of Training, Certification and... (United States)


    ... Standards of Training, Certification and Watchkeeping for Seafarers, 1978, as amended (STCW). These letters provide guidance on: The hours of rest requirements of the 2010 amendments to the STCW Convention and Code... guidance to affected parties until regulations implementing amendments to the STCW are promulgated....

  13. Letter to jane addams. (United States)

    Bloom, M


    This letter, written to one of the founding figures in social work, draws parallels between primary prevention at the beginning and the end of the twentieth century. As expected, the letter remains unanswered.

  14. Le LHC peut-il produire des trous noirs?

    CERN Document Server

    Chardin, Gabriel


    Dan Simmons, dans son ouvrage Ilium, imagine que les physiciens de l'Institut de Paris, à la suite d'une malencontreuse expérience, ont laissé s'échapper un trou noir microscopique qui, avant de se précipiter vers le centre de la Terre, a détruit une part non négligeable de Paris, appelé désormais « Paris Crater ». Les physiciens de tous pays rassemblés au CERN autour du LHC, le plus puissant accélérateur de particules au monde, sont-ils des apprentis sorciers et pourraient-ils déclencher la destruction de la Terre, voire de l’Univers entier ?

  15. Van: An Open Letter (United States)

    Tieman, John Samuel


    This essay is an open letter from a classroom teacher to a concerned citizen. The letter lists a variety of problems caused largely by standardization and the more corrosive effects of positivism. Many of these problems are unknown to those outside the immediate school setting. While the letter focuses on a specific setting, an inner city school…

  16. Bacterial mediation, red matrices diagenesis, Devonian, Montagne Noire (southern France) (United States)

    Préat, Alain; Mamet, Bernard; Bernard, Alain; Gillan, David


    Two Devonian red carbonate rock sections are studied in the Montagne Noire, at Coumiac (Frasnian/Famennian) and at the Pic de Vissou (Eifelian/Givetian). The sediments are grey-red mudstones and wackestones rich in pelagic fossils. They are characteristic of an outer ramp. The Coumiac sequence is condensed with numerous hardgrounds and hiatuses. The Pic de Vissou succession is more complete and of shallower origin. In both cases, the origin of the red coloration of the micritic matrix is probably linked to bacterial activity which produced submicronic hematite. Both iron and manganese concentrations are low (average 0.2%). Bacteria form ferruginous microstromatolites, blisters, microtufts, `hedgehogs' filling sponge perforations and thin continuous mineralized films (probably biofilms). Hardgrounds are underlined by ferruginous microstromatolites. The origin of the matrix color is probably related to the destruction of these bacterial constructions, the submicronic hematite ultimately coating the crystal faces of the calcite mosaic. During early lithification, microfissures appeared and were invaded by microbial colonies. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) shows that these colonies are composed of spheroidal beads. This suggests continuity of the bacterial activity during early diagenesis. Later on, these early fissures were cut by burrows. Subsequently a secondary fissure network transected all the previously mentioned sedimentary structures. This late fissure network is characterized by diagenetically remobilized hematite and/or calcite. The latest alterations are stylolites and ultimate tectonic fractures.

  17. Eighties' Film Noir: An Analysis of the Use of the "Double" in "Miami Vice's" Second and Third Seasons. (United States)

    Matviko, John W.

    A comparison of the current television series "Miami Vice" with the "film noir" genre of American movies from the forties and fifties reveals many similar elements, such as visual style, mood, theme, and sensibility. "Miami Vice" is set in a large city whose art deco architecture provides an ironic contrast to noir's…

  18. The Business Letter. (United States)

    Nederland Independent School District, TX.

    GRADES OR AGES: Grades 9-12. SUBJECT MATTER: Business. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: This guide, designed for direct student use, indicates the parts of a business letter, a placement guide, and steps for typing letters. Worksheets and illustrations indicate forms of block and indented styles; open, closed, and mixed punctuation; the…

  19. The development of transnationality in Danish Noir - from Unit One to The Team

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Gunhild


    Brostrøm, are selected to trace the transnational development in Danish Noir. Unit One is seen as the international breakthrough. The Eagle and The Protectors illustrate an increasing transnational development at all levels, and The Team represents its provisional culmination. The conclusion seeks......The idea of transnationality is often used as a key concept to explain current developments in production and distribution of TV drama. However, this term can be understood in different ways with different implications. The main purpose of this article is to map prevalent uses of the term...... and to investigate the development of transnationality in Danish Noir during the period 2000–2015. The concepts of internationalism and globalization as well as Nordic Noir are used to frame the theoretical discussion of transnationality. Inspired by recent developments in film theory, the argument...

  20. A fotografia no cinema noir: uma relação entre-imagens


    Marcia Ortegosa


    This article is an attempt of discussing some aesthetic elements of the relationship between the photograph and the cinema noir, in three films of the gender: The lady from Shangai (1948, Orson Welles), Blade runner (1982, Ridley Scott) and The public eye (1992, Howard Franklin). Este artigo é uma tentativa de discutir alguns elementos estéticos da relação entre a fotografia e o cinema noir, em três filmes do gênero: A dama de Shangai (1948, Orson Welles), Blade Runner, o caçador de androi...

  1. Letter of Map Revision (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL) data incorporates all Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map(DFIRM) databases published by FEMA, and any Letters Of Map Revision...

  2. Letters from Our Readers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Since the first publication of Cultural Exchang-China& World in October 1992,we have received a unmber of verykind letters from Chinese and foreign readers giving support andencouagement to this magazine.We would like to take thisopportunity to thank them all and to invite others to write in as well,especially if they have suggestions or criticisms to make.Thefollowing are letters from two of our overseas readers.

  3. Large Drought-Induced Variations in Oak Leaf Volatile Organic Compound Emissions during PINOT NOIR 2012 (United States)

    Leaf-level isoprene and monoterpene emissions were collected and analyzed from five of the most abundant oak (Quercus) species in Central Missouri’s Ozarks Region in 2012 during PINOT NOIR (Particle Investigations at a Northern Ozarks Tower ‐ NOx, Oxidants, Isoprene Research). Ju...

  4. A fotografia no cinema noir: uma relação entre-imagens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Ortegosa


    Full Text Available This article is an attempt of discussing some aesthetic elements of the relationship between the photograph and the cinema noir, in three films of the gender: The lady from Shangai (1948, Orson Welles, Blade runner (1982, Ridley Scott and The public eye (1992, Howard Franklin.

  5. Early Carboniferous ammonoid faunas and stratigraphy of the Montagne Noire (France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Korn


    Full Text Available The early Carboniferous (Mississippian sedimentary succession of the Montagne Noire is subdivided into three major lithostratigraphic units, in ascending order the Montagne Noire Griotte Group (Devonian to Early Tournaisian, the Tournaisian to Viséan Saint-Nazaire Group (with the Lydiennes, Faugères, Colonnes, and Puech Capel Formations, the latter new, and the Laurens Flysch Group (late Viséan. The ammonoid assemblages in these rock units are reviewed. A total of 29 Early Carboniferous ammonoid taxa at species level are determined. The new genus Nigrocyclus n. gen., and the new species Gattendorfia nazairensis n. sp., Globimitoceras albaillei n. sp., and Neogoniatites canovasi n. sp. are described. Die unterkarbonische Abfolge von Sedimentgesteinen in der Montagne Noire wird in drei lithostratigraphische Einheiten untergliedert, von unten nach oben die Montagne Noire Griotte Gruppe (Oberdevon bis Untertournai, die Saint-Nazaire Gruppe des Tournaisium und Viséum (mit den Lydiennes Faugères, Colonnes und Puech Capel Formationen, von denen die letzte neu ist, und der Laurens Flysch Gruppe (Oberviséum. Die Ammonoideen-Vergesellschaftungen in diesen Gesteinen werden revidiert. Insgesamt werden 29 unterkarbonische Ammonoideen-Taxa auf Artebene aufgeführt; neu beschrieben werden die Gattung Nigrocyclus n. gen. sowie die Arten Gattendorfia nazairensis n. sp., Globimitoceras albaillei n. sp. und Neogoniatites canovasi n. sp. doi:10.1002/mmng.200700002

  6. Temporal processing deficits in letter-by-letter reading. (United States)

    Ingles, Janet L; Eskes, Gail A


    Theories of the cognitive impairment underlying letter-by-letter reading vary widely, including prelexical and lexical level deficits. One prominent prelexical account proposes that the disorder results from difficulty in processing multiple letters simultaneously. We investigated whether this deficit extends to letters presented in rapid temporal succession. A letter-by-letter reader, G.M., was administered a rapid serial visual presentation task that has been used widely to study the temporal processing characteristics of the normal visual system. Comparisons were made to a control group of 6 brain-damaged individuals without reading deficits. Two target letters were embedded at varying temporal positions in a stream of rapidly presented single digits. After each stream, the identities of the two letters were reported. G.M. required an extended period of time after he had processed one letter before he was able to reliably identify a second letter, relative to the controls. In addition, G.M.'s report of the second letter was most impaired when it immediately followed the first letter, a pattern not seen in the controls, indicating that G.M. had difficulty processing the two items together. These data suggest that a letter-by-letter reading strategy may be adopted to help compensate for a deficit in the temporal processing of letters.

  7. Chemosensory characterization of Chardonnay and Pinot Noir base wines of Champagne. Two very different varieties for a common product. (United States)

    Herrero, Paula; Sáenz-Navajas, Pilar; Culleré, Laura; Ferreira, Vicente; Chatin, Amelie; Chaperon, Vincent; Litoux-Desrues, François; Escudero, Ana


    Five different methodologies were applied for the quantitative analysis of 86 volatile molecules in 32 Chardonnay and 30 Pinot Noir Champagne white base wines. Sensory characterization was carried out by descriptive analysis. Pinot Noir wines had more constitutive compounds while Chardonnay wines had more discriminant compounds. Only four compounds predominated in Chardonnay wines: 4-vinylphenol, guaiacol, sotolon and 4-methyl-4-mercapto-2-pentanone. Correlation studies and PLSR models were calculated with sensory and chemical variables. For Pinot Noir wines, they were not as revealing as for Chardonnay base wines. Sulfur-related compounds were suggested to be involved in tropical fruit, dried fruit and citric sensory notes. This family of compounds seemed to be responsible for discriminant sensory terms in Champagne base wines. Fermentative compounds (aromatic buffer) were found at significantly higher levels in Pinot Noir wines, which would explain the fact that these wines were more difficult to describe in comparison with Chardonnay base wines.

  8. Letters in this Issue (United States)


    Reforming the General Chemistry Textbook individual letters by Edward T. Samulski; Stephen J. Hawkes; Stephen J. Fisher; J. Stephen Hartman; A. R. H. Cole; Stanley Pine, Ronald Archer, and Herbert Kaesz; Jimmy Reeves; Robert Hill; and Brock Spencer, C. Bradley Moore and Nedah Rose. Re: article by R. J. Gillespie The author replies

  9. Letter to the Editor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Ann Marshall


    Full Text Available A letter to the Editor alerting the ASM education community to the passing of Dr. Joseph P. Caruso, influential colleague and co-author of an article included in the scientific citizenship-themed issue of the Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education (JMBE.

  10. The Scarlet Letter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hawthorne, Nathaniel


    The Scarlet Letter is the story of three New England settlers at odds with the Puritan society in which they live. Roger Chillingworth, an ageing scholar, arrives in New England after two years' separation from his wife Hester to find her on trial for adultery. She refuses to reveal her lover's iden

  11. The Fuzzy Scarlet Letter (United States)

    Pallas, Aaron M.


    Critics of the public release of teacher evaluation scores sometimes liken these ratings to the scarlet letter worn by Hester Prynne in Nathaniel Hawthorne's classic novel. The comparison is apt. But public school teachers who are subjected to public shaming because of their students' test scores can rarely expect the opportunities for redemption…

  12. Lincoln's Letter to Siam. (United States)

    Alexander, Mary; Childress, Marilyn


    Focuses on the problem of the U.S. president receiving gifts from foreign dignitaries. The reproducible letter from President Lincoln to King Rama IV of Siam in which he accepts two gifts and graciously declines proffered elephants serves as center for discussion of the problem. Suggestions for teaching and a crossword puzzle are included. (KC)

  13. On The Scarlet Letter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Reading The Scarlet Letter, one is mostly impressed by the spirit of The Bible the story depicted. The book chiefly discusses sin and how to atone for it. Hester Prynne is the heroine of the fiction. This paper researches her fate to illustrate the influence of The Bible to Hawthorne.

  14. Lapse resistance in the verbal letter reporting task. (United States)

    Arditi, Aries


    Lapses, or misreporting errors, can affect accuracy of threshold measurements. Assumptions about lapse rate, especially in untrained observers, have consequently guided the design of at least one clinical psychophysical test. Lapse rate was assessed using a verbal letter identification paradigm like that used in visual acuity and letter contrast sensitivity testing. Subjects occasionally made slip-of-the tongue errors but spontaneously corrected them. Lapse rate (excluding such errors) was 0-3 errors per 1,536 (average rate of 0.0005). In this common clinical paradigm, in which observers set their reporting pace, and where opportunity to amend responses is available, lapse rate is negligible.

  15. Symbolism in The Scarlet Letter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Nathaniel Hawthorne is the greatest American romantic novelist during the nineteenth century. This paper researches the symbolism in his masterpiece The Scarlet Letter from the aspect of the symbolic meaning of the scarlet letter.

  16. Initiatives de cooperation dans la région de la mer Noire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lebriz Yakacikli


    Full Text Available L’importance géostratégique de la région de la mer Noire connaît un regain d’intérêt dans l’après-guerre froide. Malgré de multiples initiatives de coopération dans les domaines économique et de sécurité, les conflits non résolus et l’implication d’acteurs externes avec des intérêts divergents réduisent les chances d’intégration régionale et de paix dans la zone de la mer Noire.

  17. Belleville rouge, Belleville noir, Belleville rose: The Complex Identity of a Parisian quartier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn Stott


    Full Text Available The Parisian quartier of Belleville has long been the subject of scholarly literature and popular culture due to its colourful history and diverse population. Its symbolic boundaries extend beyond the geographical limits imposed by its administrative demarcation. Myths abound as to the extent of its rebellious past, its contemporary image as a melting pot and its prevalence as a décor for the noir genre. In this article a three-tiered categorisation of Belleville is adopted which corresponds to various representations of the suburb in literature, popular culture and from the perspective of its inhabitants. Belleville rouge reflects the quartier’s revolutionary past and the late 20th century struggle associated with its physical metamorphosis. Belleville noir focusses on the quartier’s criminal face, as it is depicted in Parisian film and roman noir and as it exists in reality. Belleville rose highlights the pleasures of the quartier: its cosmopolitan character whose representation verges at times on utopian.    In his Malaussène series (1985-1995, writer and former resident Daniel Pennac portrays Belleville as a unique blend of rouge, noir and rose. This fusion of fairy tale, detective fiction, myth and reality establishes a complex Bellevillois identity distinct from other contemporary representations. The article concludes that it is impossible to associate a single identity with Belleville. The quartier’s contemporary face is inextricably linked to its past, the memory of which is preserved by its inhabitants and by social and literary commentators such as Pennac. In keeping with historian Pierre Nora’s concept of cultural memory, Pennac thus assumes the role of guardian of Belleville’s cultural memory in the face of the quartier’s perpetual evolution.

  18. Letters to a Young Writer. (United States)

    Wright, C. D.; Schulman, Grace


    Presents two letters to a young writer, modeled on the influential "Letters to a Young Poet" by Rainer Maria Rilke. Notes the first letter situates itself when a young writer first turns toward poetry; and the second addresses the relationship between mentorship and the imagination, questioning the right of any writer to presume to guide the…

  19. A Letter to Alien

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Dear Alien, 1 am sorry to hear that you have some problems. I hear you argued with your best friend. 1 think you could call him up or go to his home. You could write him a letter. And you could tell him you are sony. Or maybe you could give him a ticket to a ball game. I am sure you will get on well with him again.

  20. The Danish letters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beier, Sofie; Ejlers, Steen


    The talk will focus on Danish type designers and their work on Æ (AE), Ø (Oslash) and Å (Aring). These 'anomalies' found in the Danish written language, often causes difficulties for type designers. The counters of Ø/ø sometimes appear overcrowded, the uppercase Æ can result in an uncomfortably o......' attempt to create the optimal variation of these letters, we will give a brief introduction to the Danish typography tradition ranging from the early 20th Century and up until today....

  1. A comparison of letter and digit processing in letter-by-letter reading. (United States)

    Ingles, Janet L; Eskes, Gail A


    The extent to which letter-by-letter reading results from a specific orthographic deficit, as compared with a nonspecific disturbance in basic visuoperceptual mechanisms, is unclear. The current study directly compared processing of letters and digits in a letter-by-letter reader, G.M., using a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) task and a speeded matching task. Comparisons were made to a group of six brain-damaged individuals without reading deficits. In the RSVP task, G.M. had increased difficulty reporting the target identities when they were letters, as compared with digits. Although this general pattern was also evident in the control group, the magnitude of the letter-digit accuracy difference was greater in G.M. Similarly, in the matching task, G.M. was slower to match letters than digits, relative to the control group, although his response times to both item types were increased. These data suggest that letter-by-letter reading, at least in this case, results from a visuoperceptual encoding deficit that particularly affects letters, but also extends to processing of digits to a lesser extent. Results are consistent with the notion that a left occipitotemporal area is specialized for letter processing with greater bilaterality in the visual processing of digits.

  2. Letters to the Editor (United States)


    All the Letters to the Editor in this issue are in the same PostScript or PDF file. Contents Comment on `Magnetic and electric field strengths of high voltage power lines and household appliances' José Luis Giordano Dept. de Ciencia y Tecnología de Materiales y Fluidos, CPSI, Universidad de Zaragoza, Spain Twins paradox S R Carson Norton College, Malton, North Yorkshire, UK On alternative ways of finding the ratio of specific heats of gases Tomas Ficker Physics Department, Technical University of Brno, Czech Republic

  3. Open Letter to the European Commission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savin, Andrej; Schwemer, Sebastian Felix


    The recent developments, starting with the Communication on Online Platforms and the Digital Single Market Opportunities and Challenges for Europe released on 25/05/2016, followed by a series of proposals (Proposal for a Directive amending the Audiovisual Media Services Directive, Proposal...... Internet users, namely the rights protected by Articles 8 and 11 of the European Convention of Human Rights. Yet, the proposed Copyright Directive, in particular, seems to negatively affect both the domain and effect of Article 15 of the E-commerce Directive. The signatories of this open letter therefore...... urge the European Commission to take into account the human rights dimension of Article 15 of the E-commerce Directive, as made explicit by the Court of the Justice of the European Union, and to make sure its implications are carefully examined across sectors. Authors: Sophie Stalla-Bourdillon Eleonora...

  4. The genetic diversity of three peculiar populations descending from the slave trade: Gm study of Noir Marron from French Guiana. (United States)

    Brucato, Nicolas; Tortevoye, Patricia; Plancoulaine, Sabine; Guitard, Evelyne; Sanchez-Mazas, Alicia; Larrouy, Georges; Gessain, Antoine; Dugoujon, Jean-Michel


    The Noir Marron communities are the direct descendants of African slaves brought to the Guianas during the four centuries (16th to 19th) of the Atlantic slave trade. Among them, three major ethnic groups have been studied: the Aluku, the Ndjuka and the Saramaka. Their history led them to share close relationships with Europeans and Amerindians, as largely documented in their cultural records. The study of Gm polymorphisms of immunoglobulins may help to estimate the amount of gene flow linked to these cultural exchanges. Surprisingly, very low levels of European contribution (2.6%) and Amerindian contribution (1.7%) are detected in the Noir Marron gene pool. On the other hand, an African contribution of 95.7% redraws their origin to West Africa (F(ST) < or = 0.15). This highly preserved African gene pool of the Noir Marron is unique in comparison to other African American populations of Latin America, who are notably more admixed.

  5. Origin of a large-scale fold nappe in the Montagne Noire, Variscan belt, France (United States)

    Aerden, Domingo G. A. M.; Malavieille, Jacques


    Detailed structural analysis of a large recumbent fold in low-grade Palaeozoic sediments of the Montagne Noire, and the previously established tectonometamorphic history of its crystalline substratum, indicate a two-stage development history. First, relatively homogeneous crustal thickening produced folds with steep axial planes associated with a regional cleavage ( S1). Subsequently, these structures became rotated and amplified in a subhorizontal flow with pure shear and simple shear components related to low-angle thrusting. The development of an associated horizontal crenulation cleavage ( S2) with a component of vertical shortening of S1, plus evidence for a synchronous decompression of autochthonous units allows this flow regime to be placed in the context of a thrust wedge undergoing gravitational spreading above a continuously contracting footwall. Decoupling of an extending thrust wedge from a contracting footwall by a basal thrust with low shear resistance, explains bulk shortening, uplift and exhumation of mid- to lower-crustal autochthonous basement during thrusting and recumbent folding at higher levels. Structural relationships in the southern Montagne Noire demonstrate that traditional tectonic units recognized in this area, the so called 'nappes', are in fact unrelated to the recumbent folding as inferred previously. These 'nappes' postdate not only the recumbent folding, but also a later phase of refolding ( D3) associated with the formation of a gneiss dome. The traditional nappe division can be simplified to a hanging wall and footwall domain of a major décollement that formed during a second syn-collisional collapse ( D4) associated with the formation of intermontane Stephanian basins. The late timing of the 'nappes' and simplified tectonic structure of the southern Montagne Noire imply a thinner D2 recumbent fold structure with only one major anticline-syncline pair, and is in better agreement with the low metamorphic grade of the area.

  6. Revendication et politiques en paroles : chansons de la communauté noire américaine


    Bonnet, Valérie


    Le but de cet article est de placer les jalons d’un discours politique qui transparait dans les textes de chanson populaire noire américaine. De Martin Luther King à Malcom X, les grandes lignes du discours militant noir transparaissent progressivement dans des textes qui abandonnent peu à peu le rôle de musique d’agrément pour devenir un médium militant. This article marks out the political discourse portrayed in recent Black American popular songs. In broad outline, the words of such son...

  7. Chandler no Cinema Noir: algumas reflexões sobre "A simples arte de matar"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Misse


    Full Text Available O artigo trata da adaptação de novelas de Raymond Chandler para o cinema e de suas incursões como roteirista de filmes; na última parte, tendo por referência o ensaio de Chandler intitulado "A simples arte de matar", o autor reconsidera o apelo do crime e do mistério nas representações sociais presentes na estética "noir", que influencia ainda hoje o romance policial e de mistério.

  8. New Landscapes of the Noir: The Urban Jungle in 'The Wire' and 'The Shield'


    García-Martínez, A.N. (Alejandro Néstor)


    "The Shield (FX 2002-08) and The Wire (HBO 2002-08) are two of the most critically acclaimed TV-shows ever produced and both share a kinship with certain film noir products. The Wire transcends the cop-show genre by offering a multilayered portrait of the city of Baltimore: from police work to drug dealing, from union corruption to problems of the school system and to unethical journalism practices. On the other hand, The Shield takes the form of a fast-moving cop-show that displays much of t...

  9. Self-fashioning, Freedom, and the Problem of His-story: the return of noir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Loren


    Full Text Available With a mix of two patently American film genres - film noir and the western - David Cronenberg’s critically acclaimed A History of Violence (2005 sets up a group of oppositions through the story of a man who leaves a life of crime and violence behind to assume a new identity, start a family, and settle down in the quiet town of Millbrook, Indiana. The oppositions between gangster thug, super-killer and good citizen, family-man are paralleled in another opposition particularly typical to the ...

  10. Un lieu à l’oeuvre : « La chambre noire » de Marguerite Duras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Denes


    Full Text Available Partant du constat que chez Duras la poétique de l’espace oscille entre l’« outside » du « monde extérieur » et l’inside de « la vie matérielle » et domestique - autant de formules dont elle a fait des titres - comme elle-même se partage physiquement entre ses trois lieux de l’écrit, nous nous demanderons comment et jusqu’où ses lieux informent ses livres, et à l’inverse, comment l’écriture investit le lieu et se l’approprie. Emblématique est à cet égard la chambre des Roches noires érigée en concept de « chambre noire » de la création, cette chambre-livre avec vue se prêtant à la réflexion poétique comme à la projection dans l’imaginaire.

  11. Ordovician palaeogeography with new palaeomagnetic data from the Montagne Noire (Southern France) (United States)

    Nysæther, E.; Torsvik, T. H.; Feist, R.; Walderhaug, H. J.; Eide, E. A.


    A joint palaeomagnetic and 40Ar/ 39Ar study has been performed on two olistolithic blocks from the Cabrières Wildflysch in the Montagne Noire region of the Massif Central in France. There, andesitic volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks of Llanvirn-Early Caradoc age (ca 470-458 Ma) occur. Despite extensive secondary alteration, destruction of the dominant magnetic mineral phase and 40Ar/ 39Ar whole rock experiments that demonstrate that the volcanic rocks suffered significant argon loss, a positive fold test and the presence of dual polarities suggest that a primary, Ordovician magnetisation has mostly survived. This is one of the few documented cases where the argon system was substantially reset whilst a subordinate set of small, relatively unaltered magnetite grains, probably hosted in silicates, still carry the original, in this case Ordovician, remanence. The new data show that the Montagne Noire region was located at high southerly latitudes (68° +17/ -15) during the Mid-Ordovician. This latitude represents the location for NW Gondwana of which the Massif Central was a part. Palaeomagnetic data from all the Central European massifs and terranes demonstrate a close link to the Gondwana Margin during the Lower and Middle Ordovician.

  12. Il giallo-noir nella scrittura a quattro mani. Il caso di Acqua in bocca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Medaglia


    Full Text Available Crime Fiction in Co-Authored Writing Practice. The Case Study of Acqua in bocca This article focuses on the issue of literary genres in relation to co-authored literature. In particular it analyzes the ways in which co-authored writing practice affects the authors’ choice of genre. In order to effectively investigate this issue, it surveys a set of literary works published by two or more authors in Western context from 1700 to 2013. This quantitative research leads to highlight some significant recurrent characteristics. In fact, it identifies crime novel and noir fiction as the most exploited ‘sub-genres’. To underline and exemplify this finding it analyzes Acqua in bocca by Andrea Camilleri and Carlo Lucarelli. This novel superbly underlines the main features of contemporary Italian crime-noir fiction: it is consumer-oriented, the authors’ style is creolized, and no more than two writers are involved. In addition, this work has other interesting features: the epistolary structure used in the text has the aim of charming the reader and well-known characters are used without altering their peculiarities beloved by their audience.

  13. Checklist Evaluation for Teaching Business Letters. (United States)

    Javed, M. Latif


    Offers a checklist for use in evaluating business letters written by students. Contends that the checklist can simplify paper checking, objectify grading, help students better prepare their letter assignments, and facilitate their understanding of letter writing principles. (FL)

  14. Late Ordovician (post-Sardic) rifting branches in the North Gondwanan Montagne Noire and Mouthoumet massifs of southern France

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Javier Álvaro, J.; Colmenar Lallena, Jorge; Monceret, Eric


    Upper Ordovician-Lower Devonian rocks of the Cabrières klippes (southern Montagne Noire) and the Mouthoumet massif in southern France rest paraconformably or with angular discordance on Cambrian-Lower Ordovician strata. Neither Middle-Ordovician volcanism nor associated metamorphism is recorded...

  15. How to Write a Business Letter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    @@ Generally speaking, there are two kinds of letters, business letters and personal letters. By "business" we do not mean buying, selling, or exchanging goods with people or companies, although it can mean that, but important matters we have to discuss or deal with. A business letter may be a recommendation, a job/college application, an inquiry, an answer, an invitation, a complaint, etc. In other words, all letters that are not "personal"are "business" letters.

  16. 76 FR 72935 - Amended Authorization of Emergency Use of Doxycycline Hyclate Tablet Emergency Kits for Eligible... (United States)


    ... FD&C Act), as requested by the Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority (BARDA), Office..., BARDA submitted a request on behalf of ASPR to further amend the Authorization to reflect certain... response to BARDA's request, FDA amended the Authorization letter and reissued the Authorization in...

  17. 76 FR 22735 - Shaw AREVA MOX Services, Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility; License Amendment Request, Notice... (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Shaw AREVA MOX Services, Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility; License Amendment Request, Notice.... Introduction The NRC has received, by letter dated February 8, 2011, an amendment request from Shaw AREVA...

  18. Letter from the Friends Chairman (United States)

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues Letter from the Friends Chairman Past Issues / Fall 2006 Table of Contents ... FNLM Chairman Paul Rogers converse at a recent Friends function at the National Library of Medicine. Photo ...

  19. The Style of Business Letters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Kai


    This study explores the application of Systemic Functional Granunar (SFG) to the analysis of English Business Letters (EBL). With China's opening up to the outside, especially its entrance into WTO, international business is becoming more and more popular. Most of the transactions in international business are discussed in detail through airmail letters, telegrams, telexes, faxes or E-mails.As a world language, English is used widely in the negotiation of international businesses. Writing a piece of effective English Business Letter is of great importance. As a medium between the business partners, EBL affects the interaction and negotiation between them. This article is intended to seek the linguistic characteristics of business letters and prove that the theories of SFG can be used to analyze EBL discourse and they are actually effective.

  20. Two-stage partial melting during the Variscan extensional tectonics (Montagne Noire, France) (United States)

    Poujol, Marc; Pitra, Pavel; Van Den Driessche, Jean; Tartèse, Romain; Ruffet, Gilles; Paquette, Jean-Louis; Poilvet, Jean-Charles


    One of the striking features that characterise the late stages of the Variscan orogeny is the development of gneiss and migmatite domes, as well as extensional Late Carboniferous and Permian sedimentary basins. It remains a matter of debate whether the formation of domes was related to the well-documented late orogenic extension or to the contractional tectonics that preceded. Migmatization and magmatism are expected to predate extension if the domes are compression-related regional anticlines, but they must both precede and be contemporaneous with extension if they are extensional core complexes. In the Montagne Noire area (southern French Massif Central), where migmatization, magmatism and the deformation framework are well documented, the age of the extensional event was unequivocally constrained to 300-290 Ma. Therefore, dating migmatization in this area is a key point for discriminating between the two hypotheses and understanding the Late Palaeozoic evolution of this part of the Variscan belt. For this purpose, a migmatite and an associated anatectic granite from the Montagne Noire dome were dated by LA-ICP-MS (U-Th-Pb on zircon and monazite) and laser probe 40Ar-39Ar (K-Ar on muscovite). Although zircon did not record any Variscan age unequivocally related to compression (380-330 Ma), two age groups were identified from the monazite crystals. A first event, at ca. 319 Ma (U-Th-Pb on monazite), is interpreted as a first stage of migmatization and as the emplacement age of the granite, respectively. A second event at ca. 298-295 Ma, recorded by monazite (U-Th-Pb) and by the muscovite 40Ar-39Ar system in the migmatite and in the granite, could be interpreted as a fluid-induced event, probably related to a second melting event identified through the syn-extensional emplacement of the nearby Montalet leucogranite ca. 295 Ma ago. The ages of these two events post-date the Variscan compression and agree with an overall extensional context for the development of the

  1. Turbidity, SOLAR RADIATION - ATMOSPHERIC and other data from WHARF POINTE NOIRE from 1969-03-26 to 1982-08-22 (NCEI Accession 9000108) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains Shallow Station data collected from Wharf Pointe Noire in Guadalupe from April 1969 to August 1982. The primary productivity data were...

  2. Unit 2: Application Letters & The Job Interview


    Aleson Carbonell, Marian


    Unit 2a_ Letters of Application and the CV: Reading the employment section. Unit 2b_Letters of Application and the CV:Writing Letters and the Job Hunting Process. Unit 2c_ Letters of Application and the CV: The Job Interview.

  3. Essay: Physical Review Letters; Sam Goudsmit's Vision. (United States)

    Adair, Robert K


    Sam Goudsmit implemented his vision of converting the Letters section of Physical Review into a distinct journal fifty years ago. Physical Review Letters was designed to publish "only papers that really deserve rapid communication." The new journal became so successful with physicists throughout the world that Physical Review Letters now publishes 3500 Letters per year.

  4. Letter Writing: A Tool for Counselor Educators (United States)

    Hoffman, Rachel M.


    Letter writing is an integral component of narrative therapy practice. In addition to the benefits of letter writing in counseling practice, letter writing may hold interesting possibilities for use in counselor education. This article provides a brief review of the benefits of letter writing in counseling practice and discusses the potential use…

  5. L’art du cameo onirique dans Les minutes noires de Martín Solares


    Benmiloud, Karim


    Comme auteur de romans policiers, l'écrivain mexicain Martín Solares s'inscrit à la fois dans le désir de restituer une image de la vie mexicaine contemporaine et dans la continuité de ce sous-genre littéraire. Son roman Les minutes noires se donne un cadre imaginaire mais le lecteur a beau jeu d'y retrouver des données propres à la biographie de l'auteur. Le crime qui constitue le nœud de l'intrigue, assassinats en série de petites filles dans une région du Mexique, est lui-même dérivé d'un ...

  6. Pirates et esclaves noirs dans les Indes occidentales espagnoles (XVIe - XVIIe siècles)



    International audience; Le monopole accordé à l'Espagne par le Saint-Siège, détourné de sa finalité première, uniquement spirituelle, par la cupidité des conquérants et l'intérêt de la Couronne, se transforma rapidement en exclusivité d'exploitation du Nouveau-Monde. Le processus, bien connu, entraîna une forte chute démographique des peuples autochtones, d'abord dans les îles de la Caraïbe puis dans les deux vice-royautés du continent, justifiant ainsi le recours à la traite des Noirs. Avec ...

  7. Pinot noir wine volatile and anthocyanin composition under different levels of vine fruit zone leaf removal. (United States)

    Feng, Hui; Skinkis, Patricia A; Qian, Michael C


    The impacts of fruit zone leaf removal on volatile and anthocyanin compositions of Pinot noir wine were investigated over two growing seasons. Wine volatiles were analyzed by multiple techniques, including headspace solid phase microextraction-GC-MS (HS-SPME-GC-MS), headspace-GC-FID (HS-GC-FID) and stir bar sorptive extraction-GC-MS (SBSE-GC-MS). Fruit zone leaf removal affected the concentration of many grape-derived volatile compounds such as terpene alcohols and C13-norisoprenoids in wine, although the degree of impact depended on the vintage year and severity of leaf removal. Fruit zone leaf removal resulted in greater concentrations of linalool, α-terpineol and β-damascenone but had no impact on other terpene alcohols or β-ionone. Fruit zone leaf removal had no consistent impact on C6 alcohols, volatile phenols, lactones, fermentation-derived alcohols, acids, or most esters. Fruit zone leaf removal increased anthocyanins in final wine.

  8. Physical mapping in highly heterozygous genomes: a physical contig map of the Pinot Noir grapevine cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurman Irena


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most of the grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cultivars grown today are those selected centuries ago, even though grapevine is one of the most important fruit crops in the world. Grapevine has therefore not benefited from the advances in modern plant breeding nor more recently from those in molecular genetics and genomics: genes controlling important agronomic traits are practically unknown. A physical map is essential to positionally clone such genes and instrumental in a genome sequencing project. Results We report on the first whole genome physical map of grapevine built using high information content fingerprinting of 49,104 BAC clones from the cultivar Pinot Noir. Pinot Noir, as most grape varieties, is highly heterozygous at the sequence level. This resulted in the two allelic haplotypes sometimes assembling into separate contigs that had to be accommodated in the map framework or in local expansions of contig maps. We performed computer simulations to assess the effects of increasing levels of sequence heterozygosity on BAC fingerprint assembly and showed that the experimental assembly results are in full agreement with the theoretical expectations, given the heterozygosity levels reported for grape. The map is anchored to a dense linkage map consisting of 994 markers. 436 contigs are anchored to the genetic map, covering 342 of the 475 Mb that make up the grape haploid genome. Conclusions We have developed a resource that makes it possible to access the grapevine genome, opening the way to a new era both in grape genetics and breeding and in wine making. The effects of heterozygosity on the assembly have been analyzed and characterized by using several complementary approaches which could be easily transferred to the study of other genomes which present the same features.

  9. Strain partitioning along the anatectic front in the Variscan Montagne Noire massif (southern French Massif Central) (United States)

    Rabin, Mickael; Trap, Pierre; Carry, Nicolas; Fréville, Kevin; Cenki-Tok, Bénédicte; Lobjoie, Cyril; Goncalves, Philippe; Marquer, Didier


    We decipher late-orogenic crustal flow characterized by feedback relations between partial melting and deformation in the Variscan Montagne Noire gneiss dome. The dome shape and finite strain pattern of the Montagne Noire Axial Zone (MNAZ) result from the superimposition of three deformations (D1, D2 and D3). The early flat-lying S1 foliation is folded by D2 upright ENE-WSW folds and transposed in the central and southern part of the MNAZ into steep D2 high-strain zones consistent with D2 NW-SE horizontal shortening, in bulk contractional coaxial deformation regime that progressively evolved to noncoaxial dextral transpression. The D2 event occurred under metamorphic conditions that culminated at 0.65 ± 0.05 GPa and 720 ± 20°C. Along the anatectic front S1 and S2 foliations are transposed into a flat-lying S3 foliation with top-to-NE and top-to-SW shearing in the NE and SW dome terminations, respectively. These structures define a D3 transition zone related to vertical shortening during coaxial thinning with a preferential NE-SW to E-W directed stretching. Depending on structural level, the metamorphic conditions associated with D3 deformation range from partial melting conditions in the dome core to subsolidus conditions above the D3 transition zone. We suggest that D2 and D3 deformation events were active at the same time and resulted from strain partitioning on both sides of the anatectic front that may correspond to a major rheological boundary within the crust.

  10. Paris Noir. (United States)

    Vickers, Robert J.


    Describes a six-credit study abroad program open to undergraduate and graduate students through Syracuse University that explores historical, cultural, and intellectual connections between African Americans and Paris. (EV)

  11. Delphine Letort, Du film noir au néo-noir : mythes et stéréotypes de l’Amérique, 1941-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georges Fournier


    Full Text Available Face à la diversité des productions cinématographiques venues d’outre-Atlantique, cet ouvrage se propose de faire le point sur le film noir et les diverses sous-catégories qu’il a suscitées comme le polar ou bien le néo-noir. Revenant sur les nombreuses appellations, leurs usages et leurs contextes d’emploi, Delphine Letort s’attache à mettre en évidence la très grande porosité qui caractérise les innombrables sous-genres. Elle en dresse la généalogie en prenant soin de revenir sur les condit...

  12. Symbolism in the Scarlet Letter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    A famous writer in American Renaissance, Nathaniel Hawthorne was deeply influenced by three thoughts, Puritanism consciousness, transcendental philosophy and transcendentalism .Novel The Scarlet Letter is Hawthorne's most remarkable masterpiece. It thoroughly response to people's spirit wreck of Puritanism and unbridled pursuit for happy life. Meanwhile, The Scarlet Letter also makes Nathanael Hawthorne known all around the world. Hawthorne uses the symbolism so skilfful that it enhances the artistic effects of his work greatly. This paper researches the symbolism in this novel from the following aspects: the changing symbolic meaning of the scarlet letter, the names of the major characters and many objects that are described in the novel to make the symbolism clear to the readers.

  13. Symbolism in the Scarlet Letter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    A famous writer in American Renaissance, Nathaniel Hawthorne was deeply influenced by three thoughts, Puritanism consciousness, transcendental philosophy and transcendentalism .Novel The Scarlet Letter is Hawthorne's most remarkable masterpiece. It thoroughly response to people's spirit wreck of Puritanism and unbridled pursuit for happy life. Meanwhile, The Scarlet Letter also makes Nathaniel Hawthorne known all around the world. Hawthorne uses the symbolism so skillful that it enhances the artistic effects of his work greatly. This paper researches the symbolism in this novel from the following aspects: the changing symbolic meaning of the scarlet letter, the names of the major characters and many objects that are described in the novel to make the symbolism clear to the readers.

  14. L’Atlantique noir des créateurs de mode vestimentaire au xxie siècle


    Berloquin-Chassany, Pascale


    L’étonnement suscité par l’annonce à Paris d’un défilé de mode organisé par un créateur nigérien m’a conduite aux portes du désert de l’Aïr en octobre 1998. Des acteurs noirs, même installés en Afrique, offraient du luxe au point de mobiliser des couturiers aussi renommés que Kenzo et des médias internationaux. En poursuivant mes recherches, j’ai repéré la source de mes présupposés et leur banalisation. La Mode, pan de la modernité occidentale, excluait de son histoire les Noirs. La démonstra...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firdevs GÜNEŞ


    Full Text Available Today, the most superior way of obtaining knowledge is reading. Reading gives direction to the individual's language, cognitive, social skills and future. For this reason, great importance is given to the teaching of reading. The teaching of reading is carried out based on two basic skills including word recognition and comprehension. In the word recognition process, appearance of the letters the shapes of the wordswritten in uppercase or lowercase letters are effective. Brain research reveal that the words written in small letters more quickly recognized and understood. Based on the recognition of words written in capital letters, small letters become stronger and they are recognised easier than the capital letters. For this reason, a text written in small letter is read more quickly than in capital letters. In addition, text in lowercase letters makes to examine all the details of the text, in-depth awareness and understanding. Small letters are in the process of visual recognition, attention, and remember the rule affects reading, seeing, understanding, and accelerates the configuration tasks in mind. This situation makes the use of lowercase letters in advertising. The advertising in small letters and logos were more easily recognized and remembered. Therefore, in order to increase strength of association big companies and brands, are used lowercase letters. In reading activities taking these results into well known and necessary precautions should be taken about lowercase letters.

  16. Curriculum Vitae and Related Letters. (United States)

    Peterson, Sharyl Bender

    This booklet, which was developed by a college career center, explains the purpose of and procedures for writing curriculum vitae (CV) and related letters. The following topics are covered: when a CV is appropriate, points to consider when writing a CV, items usually included, possible sections to include in a CV, and steps in writing cover…

  17. Electronic Discharge Letter Mobile App

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lezcano, Leonardo; Triana, Michel; Ternier, Stefaan; Hartkopf, Kathleen; Stieger, Lina; Schroeder, Hanna; Sopka, Sasa; Drachsler, Hendrik; Maher, Bridget; Henn, Patrick; Orrego, Carola; Marcus, Specht


    The electronic discharge letter mobile app takes advantage of Near Field Communication (NFC) within the PATIENT project and a related post-doc study. NFC enabled phones to read passive RFID tags, but can also use this short-range wireless technology to exchange (small) messages. NFC in that sense co

  18. Large drought-induced variations in oak leaf volatile organic compound emissions during PINOT NOIR 2012. (United States)

    Geron, Chris; Daly, Ryan; Harley, Peter; Rasmussen, Rei; Seco, Roger; Guenther, Alex; Karl, Thomas; Gu, Lianhong


    Leaf-level isoprene and monoterpene emissions were collected and analyzed from five of the most abundant oak (Quercus) species in Central Missouri's Ozarks Region in 2012 during PINOT NOIR (Particle Investigations at a Northern Ozarks Tower - NOx, Oxidants, Isoprene Research). June measurements, prior to the onset of severe drought, showed isoprene emission rates and leaf temperature responses similar to those previously reported in the literature and used in Biogenic Volatile Organic Compound (BVOC) emission models. During the peak of the drought in August, isoprene emission rates were substantially reduced, and response to temperature was dramatically altered, especially for the species in the red oak subgenus (Erythrobalanus). Quercus stellata (in the white oak subgenus Leucobalanus), on the other hand, increased its isoprene emission rate during August, and showed no decline at high temperatures during June or August, consistent with its high tolerance to drought and adaptation to xeric sites at the prairie-deciduous forest interface. Mid-late October measurements were conducted after soil moisture recharge, but were affected by senescence and cooler temperatures. Isoprene emission rates were considerably lower from all species compared to June and August data. The large differences between the oaks in response to drought emphasizes the need to consider BVOC emissions at the species level instead of just the whole canopy. Monoterpene emissions from Quercus rubra in limited data were highest among the oaks studied, while monoterpene emissions from the other oak species were 80-95% lower and less than assumed in current BVOC emission models. Major monoterpenes from Q. rubra (and in ambient air) were p-cymene, α-pinene, β-pinene, d-limonene, γ-terpinene, β-ocimene (predominantly1,3,7-trans-β-ocimene, but also 1,3,6-trans-β-ocimene), tricyclene, α-terpinene, sabinene, terpinolene, and myrcene. Results are discussed in the context of canopy flux studies

  19. Effects of stimulus duration and inter-letter spacing on letter-in-string identification. (United States)

    Marzouki, Yousri; Grainger, Jonathan


    Effects of stimulus duration and inter-letter spacing were studied in a letter-in-string identification paradigm. Participants were shown strings of 5 random consonants (e.g., PGKDM) centered on fixation and were asked to identify the letter that had appeared at a post-cued location. Stimulus duration was manipulated in Experiment 1 (13 ms-91 ms), and inter-letter spacing manipulated in Experiment 2 (for a fixed stimulus duration of 26 ms). We contrasted performance to outer-letters (positions 1 and 5) with non-central inner letters (positions 2 and 4), the first-letter (position 1) with the final letter (position 5), and the central-letter (position 3) with the other inner letters (positions 2 and 4). The outer-letter advantage and the first-letter advantage were present throughout the entire range of exposure durations, whereas the central-letter advantage increased with longer exposures. On the other hand, increased spacing reduced both the outer-letter advantage and the first-letter advantage, whereas it led to a greater central-letter advantage. Changes in acuity and crowding as a function of stimulus exposure and inter-letter spacing, can account for this pattern of results.

  20. Letter to President [Lostwood National Wildlife Refuge (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a letter from the Secretary of the Interior to the President regarding the establishment of the Lostwood Wilderness area. The letter discusses the...

  1. The Presentation of Courtesy in Business Letter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Nowadays the tendency of economic globalization in the world brings about increasingly closer international trade cooperation. The business letter has been an important communicative tool in the international trade. A polite business letter could promote the trade and help achieve the business cooperation. Therefore the presentation of courtesy in the business letter is of great significance. This paper presents a study of the courtesy in the business letter from the lexical aspect.

  2. Beyond Zebra: Preschoolers' Knowledge about Letters. (United States)

    Treiman, Rebecca; Richmond-Welty, E. Daylene; Tincoff, Ruth


    Argues that an important type of child knowledge about letters is knowledge of the phonological structure of the letters' names in English. Concludes that learning the alphabet forms the basis for generalizations about the structure of letter names. (22 references) (Author/CK)

  3. Amendment 80 Permit Program (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Amendment 80 Program was adopted by the North Pacific Fishery Management Council (Council) in June 2006. The final rule implementing Amendment 80 published in...

  4. Le cygne noir la puissance de l'imprévisible

    CERN Document Server

    Taleb, Nassim Nicholas


    Quel est le point commun entre l'invention de la roue, Pompéi, le krach boursier de 1987, Harry Potter et Internet? Pourquoi ne devrait-on jamais lire un journal ni courir pour attraper un train? Que peuvent nous apprendre les amants de Catherine de Russie sur les probabilités? Pourquoi les prévisionnistes sont-ils pratiquement tous des arnaqueurs? Ce livre révèle tout des Cygnes Noirs, ces événements aléatoires, hautement improbables, qui jalonnent notre vie: ils ont un impact énorme, sont presque impossibles à prévoir, et pourtant, a posteriori, nous essayons toujours de leur trouver une explication rationnelle. Dans cet ouvrage éclairant, plein d'esprit d'impertinence et bien souvent prophétique, Taleb nous exhorte à ne pas tenir compte des propos de certains « experts », et nous montre comment cesser de tout prévoir ou comment tirer parti de l'incertitude.

  5. Influence of vine vigor on grape (Vitis vinifera L. Cv. Pinot Noir) and wine proanthocyanidins. (United States)

    Cortell, Jessica M; Halbleib, Michael; Gallagher, Andrew V; Righetti, Timothy L; Kennedy, James A


    The relationships between variations in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Pinot noir) growth and resulting fruit and wine phenolic composition were investigated. The study was conducted in a commercial vineyard consisting of the same clone, rootstock, age, and vineyard management practices. The experimental design involved monitoring soil, vine growth, yield components, and fruit composition (soluble solids, flavan-3-ol monomers, proanthocyanidins, and pigmented polymers) on a georeferenced grid pattern to assess patterns in growth and development. Vine vigor parameters (trunk cross-sectional area, average shoot length, and leaf chlorophyll) were used to delineate zones within both blocks to produce research wines to investigate the vine-fruit-wine continuum. There was no significant influence of vine vigor on the amount of proanthocyanidin per seed and only minimal differences in seed proanthocyanidin composition. However, significant increases were found in skin proanthocyanidin (mg/berry), proportion of (-)-epigallocatechin, average molecular mass of proanthocyanidins, and pigmented polymer content in fruit from zones with a reduction in vine vigor. In the wines produced from low-vigor zones, there was a large increase in the proportion of skin tannin extracted into the wine, whereas little change occurred in seed proanthocyanidin extraction. The level of pigmented polymers and proanthocyanidin molecular mass were higher in wines made from low-vigor fruit compared to wines made from high-vigor fruit, whereas the flavan-3-ol monomer concentration was lower.

  6. Terreneuvian orthothecid (Hyolitha digestive tracts from northern Montagne Noire, France; taphonomic, ontogenetic and phylogenetic implications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Léa Devaere

    Full Text Available More than 285 specimens of Conotheca subcurvata with three-dimensionally preserved digestive tracts were recovered from the Terreneuvian (early Cambrian Heraultia Limestone of the northern Montagne Noire, southern France. They represent one of the oldest occurrences of such preserved guts. The newly discovered operculum of some complete specimens provides additional data allowing emendation of the species diagnosis. Infestation of the U-shaped digestive tracts by smooth uniseriate, branching to anastomosing filaments along with isolated botryoidal coccoids attests to their early, microbially mediated phosphatisation. Apart from taphonomic deformation, C. subcurvata exhibits three different configurations of the digestive tract: (1 anal tube and gut parallel, straight to slightly undulating; (2 anal tube straight and loosely folded gut; and (3 anal tube straight and gut straight with local zigzag folds. The arrangement of the digestive tracts and its correlation with the mean apertural diameter of the specimens are interpreted as ontogenetically dependent. The simple U-shaped gut, usually considered as characteristic of the Hyolithida, developed in earlier stages of C. subcurvata, whereas the more complex orthothecid type-3 only appears in largest specimens. This growth pattern suggests a distinct phylogenetic relationship between these two hyolith orders through heterochronic processes.

  7. The Montagne Noire migmatitic dome emplacement (French Massif Central): new insights from petrofabric and AMS studies (United States)

    Charles, Nicolas; Faure, Michel; Chen, Yan


    In the southern French Massif Central, the Montagne Noire axial zone is a NE-SW elongated granite-migmatite dome emplaced within Visean south-verging recumbent folds and intruded by syn- to late-migmatization granitoids. The tectonic setting of this dome is still disputed, thus several models have been proposed. In order to better understand the emplacement mechanism of this dome, petrofabric and Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility (AMS) studies have been carried out. In the granites and migmatites that form the dome core, magmatic texture and to a lesser extent weak solid-state texture are dominant. As a paramagnetic mineral, biotite is the main carrier of the magnetic susceptibility. On the basis of 135 AMS sites, the magnetic fabrics appear as independent of the lithology but related to the dome architecture. Coupling our results with previous structural and geochronological studies, allows us to propose a new emplacement model. Between 340-325 Ma, the Palaeozoic series underwent a compressional deformation represented by nappes and recumbent folds involving the thermal event leading to partial melting. Until ˜325-310 Ma, the dome emplacement was assisted by diapiric processes. An extensional event took place at ˜300 Ma, after the emplacement of the late to post-migmatitic granitic plutons. In the northeast side of the dome, a brittle normal-dextral faulting controlled the opening of the Graissessac coal basin.

  8. Terreneuvian orthothecid (Hyolitha) digestive tracts from northern Montagne Noire, France; taphonomic, ontogenetic and phylogenetic implications. (United States)

    Devaere, Léa; Clausen, Sébastien; Alvaro, J Javier; Peel, John S; Vachard, Daniel


    More than 285 specimens of Conotheca subcurvata with three-dimensionally preserved digestive tracts were recovered from the Terreneuvian (early Cambrian) Heraultia Limestone of the northern Montagne Noire, southern France. They represent one of the oldest occurrences of such preserved guts. The newly discovered operculum of some complete specimens provides additional data allowing emendation of the species diagnosis. Infestation of the U-shaped digestive tracts by smooth uniseriate, branching to anastomosing filaments along with isolated botryoidal coccoids attests to their early, microbially mediated phosphatisation. Apart from taphonomic deformation, C. subcurvata exhibits three different configurations of the digestive tract: (1) anal tube and gut parallel, straight to slightly undulating; (2) anal tube straight and loosely folded gut; and (3) anal tube straight and gut straight with local zigzag folds. The arrangement of the digestive tracts and its correlation with the mean apertural diameter of the specimens are interpreted as ontogenetically dependent. The simple U-shaped gut, usually considered as characteristic of the Hyolithida, developed in earlier stages of C. subcurvata, whereas the more complex orthothecid type-3 only appears in largest specimens. This growth pattern suggests a distinct phylogenetic relationship between these two hyolith orders through heterochronic processes.

  9. Quantitative colorimetric assay for total protein applied to the red wine Pinot noir. (United States)

    Smith, Mark R; Penner, Mike H; Bennett, Samuel E; Bakalinsky, Alan T


    A standard method for assaying protein in red wine is currently lacking. The method described here is based on protein precipitation followed by dye binding quantification. Improvements over existing approaches include minimal sample processing prior to protein precipitation with cold trichloroacetic acid/acetone and quantification based on absorbance relative to a commercially available standard representative of proteins likely to be found in wine, the yeast mannoprotein invertase. The precipitation method shortened preparation time relative to currently published methods and the mannoprotein standard yielded values comparable to those obtained by micro-Kjeldahl analysis. The assay was used to measure protein in 48 Pinot noir wines from 6 to 32 years old. The protein content of these wines was found to range from 50 to 102 mg/L with a mean value of 70 mg/L. The availability of a simple and relatively rapid procedure for assaying protein provides a practical tool to quantify a wine component that has been overlooked in routine analyses of red wines.

  10. Michelangelo, a Tireless Letter Writer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelin Charles Fiorato


    Full Text Available A titan of artistic creation, the sculptor-painter-architect Michelangelo was also a tireless letter writer. Five hundred and eighteen of his letters have reached us, stretching from his youth to the eve of his death, but we know that many others have been lost. Written in a kind of familiar Florentine and in a style of minimalist ‘realism’ – which does not prevent the presence of either impetuous polemical flights or pages of literary indulgence – these letters deal mainly with everyday subjects: day-by-day relationships, either endearing or resentful, with his relatives, financial or property matters and, above all, the marriage problems which concerned his nephew Leonardo, the sole heir of the family. But one also discovers in them the artist’s warm feelings of friendship and love, his poetic and aesthetic exchanges, his relationships, often conflictual, with his fellow-artists and patrons as well as his reflections on old age and death. All in all, these letters represent a documentary chronicle of a Florentine bourgeois family and the technical hassle of an entrepreneur’s activity. If, on the one hand, the Carteggio does not shed light either on Michelangelo’s conception of art or the way in which he realized his works, on the other it illustrates certain latent aspects of his projects, as well as of his personality, which was at the same time melancholy and aggressive, surprisingly whole and manifold. This luxuriant correspondence presents, so to speak, a ‘genetic’ interest, since it reveals the hidden face of the brilliant conceiver and creator, of the artist and entrepreneur struggling with the obstacles whose overcoming makes creation possible. 

  11. Spatio-temporal properties of letter crowding (United States)

    Chung, Susana T. L.


    Crowding between adjacent letters has been investigated primarily as a spatial effect. The purpose of this study was to investigate the spatio-temporal properties of letter crowding. Specifically, we examined the systematic changes in the degradation effects in letter identification performance when adjacent letters were presented with a temporal asynchrony, as a function of letter separation and between the fovea and the periphery. We measured proportion-correct performance for identifying the middle target letter in strings of three lowercase letters at the fovea and 10° in the inferior visual field, for a range of center-to-center letter separations and a range of stimulus onset asynchronies (SOA) between the target and flanking letters (positive SOAs: target preceded flankers). As expected, the accuracy for identifying the target letters reduces with decreases in letter separation. This crowding effect shows a strong dependency on SOAs, such that crowding is maximal between 0 and ∼100 ms (depending on conditions) and diminishes for larger SOAs (positive or negative). Maximal crowding does not require the target and flanking letters to physically coexist for the entire presentation duration. Most importantly, crowding can be minimized even for closely spaced letters if there is a large temporal asynchrony between the target and flankers. The reliance of letter identification performance on SOAs and how it changes with letter separations imply that the crowding effect can be traded between space and time. Our findings are consistent with the notion that crowding should be considered as a spatio-temporal, and not simply a spatial, effect. PMID:27088895

  12. Spatio-temporal properties of letter crowding. (United States)

    Chung, Susana T L


    Crowding between adjacent letters has been investigated primarily as a spatial effect. The purpose of this study was to investigate the spatio-temporal properties of letter crowding. Specifically, we examined the systematic changes in the degradation effects in letter identification performance when adjacent letters were presented with a temporal asynchrony, as a function of letter separation and between the fovea and the periphery. We measured proportion-correct performance for identifying the middle target letter in strings of three lowercase letters at the fovea and 10° in the inferior visual field, for a range of center-to-center letter separations and a range of stimulus onset asynchronies (SOA) between the target and flanking letters (positive SOAs: target preceded flankers). As expected, the accuracy for identifying the target letters reduces with decreases in letter separation. This crowding effect shows a strong dependency on SOAs, such that crowding is maximal between 0 and ∼100 ms (depending on conditions) and diminishes for larger SOAs (positive or negative). Maximal crowding does not require the target and flanking letters to physically coexist for the entire presentation duration. Most importantly, crowding can be minimized even for closely spaced letters if there is a large temporal asynchrony between the target and flankers. The reliance of letter identification performance on SOAs and how it changes with letter separations imply that the crowding effect can be traded between space and time. Our findings are consistent with the notion that crowding should be considered as a spatio-temporal, and not simply a spatial, effect.

  13. A bread-and-butter letter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    @@ letter作"信"讲是很常用的词,私人信件是personal letter,业务信件叫做business letter,祝贺信是letter of congratulation,邀请信是letter of invitation 等等.还有一种信是a bread-and-butter letter,你知道是什么信吗?我们知道bread and butter是涂有黄油的面包,那么,a bread-and-butter letter就是"黄油面包信"吧?非也.

  14. The Montalet granite, Montagne Noire, France: An Early Permian syn-extensional pluton as evidenced by new U-Th-Pb data on zircon and monazite (United States)

    Poilvet, Jean-Charles; Poujol, Marc; Pitra, Pavel; Van Den Driessche, Jean; Paquette, Jean-Louis


    Dating the magmatism in the Montagne Noire gneiss dome in the southern French Massif Central is a key point for understanding the Late Palaeozoic evolution of this part of the Variscan belt, which is characterised by compressive tectonics during the Carboniferous and extensional tectonics during Stephanian-Permian times. The Montalet granite crops out in the north-western part of the dome and was first considered as an early syntectonic intrusion related to compressive deformation. More recently, it has been dated at 327 Ma and considered as contemporaneous with the diapiric ascent of the Montagne Noire gneiss dome before the Stephanian-Permian extension. We show that in fact, this pluton was emplaced 294 ± 1 Ma ago and is therefore contemporaneous with the Stephanian-Permian extension. This age is consistent with the interpretation of the Montagne Noire Massif as an extensional gneiss dome.

  15. Letters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Veggie Dream I was interested to read your articles about vegetarianism(January issue) and how it is catching on in China.I always imagined China to be a meat eating country before. Being vegetarian is very misunderstood by many people.I am a vegetarian and it has taught me to be very tolerant.If I go to any banquet,dinner,buffet,cocktail party,or any other event where food is served,I have learned to always try and eat beforehand or at least carry some of my own snacks.Vegetarians are rarely,if ever,catered for at social events,apart from the odd carrot or celery stick,tucked away in between the moun-

  16. Letters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    My name is Tom R. Chambers. I have been teaching English in Sheng Da College (near Zhengzhou) for two years,and faithfully reading your publication for over a year. I am also a documentary photographer, and I wonder if you'd be interested in publishing my experiences in China. I've created a Sheng Da College/China Travels website, which I feel is aninteresting approach to a travelogue,

  17. Letters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Give Peace a Chance The African Union(AU) has put forward a four-point formula to end the civil war in Libya.These points are:an immediate ceasefire by all military actions;continued humanitarian aid to those in need;protection of foreigners,including African expatriates living in Libya;and creation of a necessary political reforms agenda to eliminate the causes of the present crisis.This is all a clear indication that the AU is

  18. Letters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Female Farmers Zambian female farming groups are very happy to hear the news that the government has launched a $500,000 Sustainable Livelihood and Women Empowerment Project. Poor women farmer groups will now at least have some opportunity of getting financial help as well as help with new technology.We women farmers will also get help with training and livestock resources.The project is said to support 1,900 households and is in part of the process toward meeting the millennium goals.

  19. Letters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Despicable Acts Images of children starving to death are always disturbing.After reading a report about how food aid is being stolen and then sold on the market in Somalia I was saddened,sickened and outraged at the same time.A news report from Associated Press said that the food reaches the hungry people in the refugee camps and is then being removed from them with threats of violence and sold for profit.What kind of people are these that we share the planet with.What would make someone


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Dear Editor, Ref.To our tele talk to day,I have the honour to write you as you claimed that"Rarely do journalist challenge the Dalai Lama". Dalai Lama is an hypocrite who used to systematically fool people and his principle of peace are too bogus,he must be stopped in the frame work of peace as his fol-lowers are sluggish and kept themself burried under ignorance.

  1. Letters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    EkooniBaje It brings me much joy to write about your article on Lagos(February issue).I felt obliged to use this opportunity to show to China and the rest of the world that there is a home for them in Lagos."Eko o ni Baje" is a popular local slogan in Lagos,Nigeria which simply means "Lagos will not spoil." Recently,the Nigerian community in Beijing and across China together with the Chinese Government celebrated 40 years of bilateral trade relations with China.This is to

  2. Letters (United States)


    Coulombic Models in Chemical Bonding by Lawrence J. Sacks and by Derek W. Smith Re: articles by R. J. Gillespie and by D. W. Smith D. W. Smith replies Capsaicin Hazard by Paul E. Vorndam Re: article by J. D. Batchelor and B. T. Jones B. T. Jones reply Editor's Note: Hazards Re: JCE 1999, 76, 240 and JCE 2000, 77, 266.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Tobacco Problem Your recent cover story 'Tobacco Dilemma" (Issue No.9, March 2, 2006) should not be a dilemma at all. The Chinese Government should just come down very hard on cigarette smoking. It does not make sense to let tobacco smoking proliferate because it enriches government coffers through heftv taxes. Tobacco smokine is an

  4. Letters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Waste Not,Want Not I enjoy reading your magazine and was moved by your story about the massive famine in the Horn of Africa in your September issue.Last week I attended a banquet for an outgoing official at a popular restaurant in Beijing.We had many different dishes and after we had finished I noticed how much food remained uneaten on the table.After having read your story I thought about how so much is wasted in one place and so much needed in another.How does that happen? I felt guilty and wanted to do something to help at that moment. I think as people sharing the same planet we must be aware of what goes on


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Dear degyi, Number two arrived-it looks good-it looks normal Tibet again after all that NEWS NEWS NEWS we had last week about Lhasa.I haven't read it yet-just turning the pages to get first impression. I like the clear printing pictures of mountains Tibetan areas,Tibetan horse,Tibetan sheep grazing at foot of mountains,Tibetan girls in out of this world Tibetan dresses,Tibetan town under Heaven, Kyirong men,rope bridge with streamers.Tibetan history engraved in rock; I like beer-but I don't like beer tac...

  6. Regard noir sur la Cité des Anges : James Ellroy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric SOUNAC


    Full Text Available Le mythe de Los Angeles, largement associé à l’immensité de la ville et à la présence en son sein d’Hollywood, est en grande partie une création du roman noir : cité sismique, Sodome moderne, la « Cité des anges » est souvent décrite comme un lieu violent, pulsionnel, où toute tentative de rachat individuel est rendue impossible par l’omniprésence de la corruption. La décadence de la ville-monde, telle qu’elle est analysée de manière résolument pessimiste par le géographe Mike Davis dans Au-delà de Blade Runner, trouve dans les romans de Michael Connelly et de James Ellroy une puissante représentation fictionnelle. Le premier, à travers les errances de son détective Harry Bosch, tient un discours de type élégiaque, tandis que le deuxième, en élaborant une sorte de « réalisme tragique », élève la ville au rang d’allégorie de la Faute et du Mal. L’œuvre d’Ellroy, en particulier, repose sur un arpentage minutieux et obsessionnel des quartiers de Los Angeles, une observation cruelle de sa sociologie et de son histoire, un rapport de haine-amour avec son architecture : le schéma d’enquête, chez lui, relève d’une quête souvent fatale de la mémoire dans une cité que sa rage autodestructrice et ses mutations incessantes vouent à l’amnésie.The myth of Los Angeles, tightly linked to the city’s hugeness and its heart of hearts Hollywood, is to a great extent a creation of the « dark » novel, or « noir ». A sismic territory and modern Sodoma, the so-called « City of Angels » is often depicted as a violent and all impulse driven place, in which the individual yearning for redemption is always destroyed by endemic corruption. The decadent city analyzed in a rather pessimistic way by Mike Davis in his essay Beyond Blade Runner finds in Michael Connelly’s and James Ellroy’s crime fiction a powerful representation. Connelly’s world, with its whimsical main character detective

  7. European Climate and Pinot Noir Grape-Harvest Dates in Burgundy, since the 17th Century (United States)

    Tourre, Y. M.


    Time-series of growing season air temperature anomalies in the Parisian region and of 'Pinot Noir' grape-harvest dates (GHD) in Burgundy (1676-2004) are analyzed in the frequency-domain. Variability of both time-series display three significant frequency-bands (peaks significant at the 5% level) i.e., a low-frequency band (multi-decadal) with a 25-year peak period; a 3-to-8 year band period (inter-annual) with a 3.1-year peak period; and a 2-to-3 year band period (quasi-biennial) with a 2.4-year peak period. Joint sea surface temperature/sea level pressure (SST/SLP) empirical orthogonal functions (EOF) analyses during the 20th century, along with spatio-temporal patterns for the above frequency-bands are presented. It is found that SST anomalies display early significant spatial SST patterns in the North Atlantic Ocean (air temperature lagging by 6 months) similar to those obtained from EOF analyses. It is thus proposed that the robust power spectra for the above frequency-bands could be linked with Atlantic climate variability metrics modulating Western European climate i.e., 1) the global Multi-decadal Oscillation (MDO) with its Atlantic Multi-decadal Oscillation (AMO) footprint; 2) the Atlantic Inter-Annual (IA) fluctuations; and 3) the Atlantic Quasi-Biennial (QB) fluctuations, respectively. Moreover these specific Western European climate signals have effects on ecosystem health and can be perceived as contributors to the length of the growing season and the timing of GHD in Burgundy. Thus advance knowledge on the evolution and phasing of the above climate fluctuations become important elements for viticulture and wine industry management. It is recognized that anthropogenic effects could have modified time-series patterns presented here, particularly since the mid 1980s.

  8. [Exploratory study of road safety in Brazzaville and Pointe-Noire in Republic of the Congo]. (United States)

    Batala Mpondo, Georges; Bouanga, Marianne; Saya, Yvette Marie Clarisse; Maurice, Pierre; Burigusa, Guillaume


    Although road accidents in the Congo are reaching alarming levels (2,720 accidents in 2010 and 3,126 accidents in 2011), especially with the massive arrival of "Jakarta" mopeds, no evaluation has been conducted to identify and understand the factors responsible for this problem. This article reports the results of an exploratory study conducted in Brazzaville and Pointe-Noire based on information collected from existing documents and by semidirective questionnaire of people from various sectors able to elucidate the problem of road safety. Using William Haddon's matrix, the parameters investigated were : road user behaviour ; environmental and technological factors ; characteristics of road accident victims ; quality of care ; intervention times and organization of prevention. This study demonstrated the absence of a road safety policy in Congo. It also showed that the main factors responsible for road accidents are behavioural (failure to wear safety belts, failure to comply with road signs, fatigue, use of a telephone while driving, etc.), followed by environmental and technological factors (insufficient traffic lights, absence of sidewalks, disorganized occupation of roads, general state of vehicles). This study shows that, in order to improve road safety in the Congo, it is essential to promote the development of national road safety policies and an action plan, intervention on the determinants of road accidents, and a change of road user behaviours (compulsory use of safety belts, ban on the use of a telephone and smoking while driving, etc.). Effective organization of the management of road accident victims and allocation of a budget to implement a road safety policy are also necessary.

  9. Enhanced Stilbene Production and Excretion in Vitis vinifera cv Pinot Noir Hairy Root Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo-Paul Tisserant


    Full Text Available Stilbenes are defense molecules produced by grapevine in response to stresses including various elicitors and signal molecules. Together with their prominent role in planta, stilbenes have been the center of much attention in recent decades due to their pharmaceutical properties. With the aim of setting up a cost-effective and high purity production of resveratrol derivatives, hairy root lines were established from Vitis vinifera cv Pinot Noir 40024 to study the organ-specific production of various stilbenes. Biomass increase and stilbene production by roots were monitored during flask experiments. Although there was a constitutive production of stilbenes in roots, an induction of stilbene synthesis by methyl jasmonate (MeJA after 18 days of growth led to further accumulation of ε-viniferin, δ-viniferin, resveratrol and piceid. The use of 100 µM MeJA after 18 days of culture in the presence of methyl-β-cyclodextrins (MCDs improved production levels, which reached 1034µg/g fresh weight (FW in roots and 165 mg/L in the extracellular medium, corresponding to five-and 570-foldincrease in comparison to control. Whereas a low level of stilbene excretion was measured in controls, addition of MeJA induced excretion of up to 37% of total stilbenes. The use of MCDs increased the excretion phenomenon even more, reaching up to 98%. Our results demonstrate the ability of grapevine hairy roots to produce various stilbenes. This production was significantly improved in response to elicitation by methyl jasmonate and/or MCDs. This supports the interest of using hairy roots as a potentially valuable system for producing resveratrol derivatives.

  10. Pragmatic Functions of Hedges in Business Letters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The aim of the present research to explore the hedges used English business letters. Several samples have been chosen to make qualitative study in order to achieve the goal of answering the following question: what are the pragmatic functions of hedges being used in business letters? After analyzing the samples, the conclusion could be came that the employment of hedges in business letters has three pragmatic functions—giving the right amount of information, being polite and self-production.

  11. Resource Letter: GW-1: Global warming (United States)

    Firor, John W.


    This Resource Letter provides a guide to the literature on the possibility of a human-induced climate change—a global warming. Journal articles and books are cited for the following topics: the Greenhouse Effect, sources of infrared-trapping gases, climate models and their uncertainties, verification of climate models, past climate changes, and economics, ethics, and politics of policy responses to climate change. [The letter E after an item indicates elementary level or material of general interest to persons becoming informed in the field. The letter I, for intermediate level, indicates material of somewhat more specialized nature, and the letter A indicates rather specialized or advanced material.

  12. Effect of orthographic processes on letter-identity and letter-position encoding in dyslexic children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline eReilhac


    Full Text Available The ability to identify letters and encode their position is a crucial step of the word recognition process. However and despite their word identification problem, the ability of dyslexic children to encode letter-identity and letter-position within strings was not systematically investigated. This study aimed at filling this gap and further explored how letter identity and letter position encoding is modulated by letter context in developmental dyslexia. For this purpose, a letter-string comparison task was administered to French dyslexic children and two chronological-age (CA and reading-age (RA-matched control groups. Children had to judge whether two successively and briefly presented 4-letter-strings were identical or different. Letter-position and letter-identity were manipulated through the transposition (e.g., RTGM vs. RMGT or substitution of two letters (e.g., TSHF vs. TGHD. Non-words, pseudo-words and words were used as stimuli to investigate sub-lexical and lexical effects on letter encoding. Dyslexic children showed both substitution and transposition detection problems relative to CA controls. A substitution advantage over transpositions was only found for words in dyslexic children whereas it extended to pseudo-words in RA controls and to all type of items in CA controls. Letters were better identified in the dyslexic group when belonging to orthographically familiar strings. Letter position encoding was very impaired in dyslexic children who did not show any word context effect in contrast to CA controls. Overall, the current findings point to a strong letter identity and letter position encoding disorder in developmental dyslexia.

  13. Letters from the Future: Suggestions for Using Letter Writing as a School Counselling Intervention (United States)

    Kress, Victoria E.; Hinkle, Michelle Gimenez; Protivnak, Jake J.


    This article presents a school counselling intervention that utilises letters written from the future. Few peer-reviewed articles have addressed the use of letter writing in a school counselling context, and none have focused on the use of letters from the future as a means of school counsellor intervention. The authors present a theoretical…

  14. Disentangling the Developmental Trajectories of Letter Position and Letter Identity Coding Using Masked Priming (United States)

    Kezilas, Yvette; McKague, Meredith; Kohnen, Saskia; Badcock, Nicholas A.; Castles, Anne


    Masked transposed-letter (TL) priming effects have been used to index letter position processing over the course of reading development. Whereas some studies have reported an increase in TL priming over development, others have reported a decrease. These findings have led to the development of 2 somewhat contradictory accounts of letter position…

  15. Prefix Codes: Equiprobable Words, Unequal Letter Costs


    Golin, Mordecai; Young, Neal E.


    Describes a near-linear-time algorithm for a variant of Huffman coding, in which the letters may have non-uniform lengths (as in Morse code), but with the restriction that each word to be encoded has equal probability. [See also ``Huffman Coding with Unequal Letter Costs'' (2002).

  16. Genre Analysis of Letters of Complaint

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    This article makes a genre analysis of letter of complaint according to Swales’ theory in hope that some enlightenment wil be provided for the traders in writing letters of complaint in a more efficient way. The study focus on the structural features, grammatical features and lexical features.

  17. Feminist Criticism in The Scarlet Letter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏福林; 何志燕


    The Scarlet Letter written by Nathaniel Hawthorne is a great book. Through feminist criticism we can get how The Scarlet Letter may be read as dramatizing Hester Prynne's spiritual and physical struggle to survive as an individual in a society whose values authorize the privileged power of men.

  18. Reflection on Letter from Birmingham Jail

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张远艳; 罗瑞


    "Letter from Birmingham Jail" is written by Martin Luther King,Jr.,who is a famous American civil rights leader.This essay attempts to analyze three major arguments in this letter to arouse people’s consciousness to cherish and protect our freedom.

  19. Reflection on Letter from Birmingham Jail

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张远艳; 罗瑞


    Letter from Birmingham Jail” is written by Martin Luther King,Jr.,who is a famous American civil rights leader.This essay attempts to analyze three major arguments in this letter to arouse people’s consciousness to cherish and protect our freedom.

  20. Essay: the origin of physical review letters. (United States)

    Trigg, George L


    When Sam Goudsmit, then Editor of Physical Review, decided to publish the Letters separately, he asked me to become Assistant Editor of the new journal. I wound up staying at PRL for a quarter of a century. I describe some of the new techniques we developed to speed up review and production so that Letters could be quickly published.

  1. Design Improvements for Frequently Misrecognized Letters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beier, Sofie; Larson, Kevin


    To enhance typeface legibility we studied how to improve the design of individual letters. Three diff erent fonts were created, each containing several variations of the most frequently misrecognized letters. These variations were tested both with distance and short exposure methodologies. Creati...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erol DURAN


    Full Text Available This study is subject to forms of writing letters in cursive font. Research is descriptive screening model. Researcher, 227 primary school teachers with the first writing in cursive writing teaching to previously made in the province and district in Ankara, " Cursive Letters Shape Writing Assessment" named semi-structure interview form applied. Teachers in this survey, the shape of the letter, if appropriate, the letter an "appropriate" to write, did not find the appropriate letter in the shape of the new propositions were asked to spell. The data was descriptively analysed and interpreted after then. 16% of teachers participating in the research, the teaching of cursive writing not find a significant and steep wants to return to perpendicular to the basic text writing. 12% of the teachers, the cursive letters stated that the whole appropriate shape patterns grows. Participated in the study with other teachers, most of the letters in "appropriate" expression while falling, "b, d, f, k, r, s, ş, v, z, B, D, L, T, Z" the letters and shape patterns indicate that it should be changed new faces in this case suggested shape.

  3. Writing Back and Forth: Class Letters. (United States)

    Fulwiler, Toby


    Recommends that college teachers and their students exchange weekly letters, in either paper or electronic form, as a familiar and friendly means of communication. The method increases dialog, suggests rethinking, and encourages rewriting while keeping the stakes low. Students respond well to the assignment. Samples of student letters and comments…

  4. 24 CFR 241.1010 - Feasibility letter. (United States)


    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Feasibility letter. 241.1010 Section 241.1010 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development...-Eligibility Requirements § 241.1010 Feasibility letter. (a) Request for study. The owner may request...

  5. Jacob Lawrence’s Migration series: a pictorial memory of black America Les Migrations de Jacob Lawrence : souvenir pictural de l’Amérique noire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Elmaleh


    Full Text Available Jacob Lawrence, artiste afro-américain décédé en juin 2000, a étudié la condition humaine et plus spécifiquement la condition des Afro-américains durant plus de six décennies. Ses mises en scène visuelles, sous forme de séries de peintures aux thématiques variées vont d’événements historiques comme la Grande Migration des Noirs dans les années 1920-1930 à l’étude de personnages héroïques, symboles mythiques de la lutte pour l’émancipation et l’égalité. Cet article tente de mettre en lumière l’importance d’une période pour les Noirs américains qui, pour se libérer des lourdes conséquences de l’esclavage essayèrent de construire une nouvelle identité noire en affirmant l’existence d’une culture noire. Je tenterai de déterminer la façon dont Lawrence s’est positionné dans cette perspective et sa représentation de l’histoire afro-américaine au travers principalement de The Migration of the Negro, série de tableaux peints sous un mode narratif qui raconte la fuite de centaines de milliers de noirs américains du Sud rural vers le Nord urbain industrialisé après la Première Guerre mondiale. J’explorerai les multiples facettes de sa vision de la Grande Migration en tant qu’historien et artiste.

  6. From Numbers to Letters: Feedback Regularization in Visual Word Recognition (United States)

    Molinaro, Nicola; Dunabeitia, Jon Andoni; Marin-Gutierrez, Alejandro; Carreiras, Manuel


    Word reading in alphabetic languages involves letter identification, independently of the format in which these letters are written. This process of letter "regularization" is sensitive to word context, leading to the recognition of a word even when numbers that resemble letters are inserted among other real letters (e.g., M4TERI4L). The present…

  7. Letter identification and the neural image classifier. (United States)

    Watson, Andrew B; Ahumada, Albert J


    Letter identification is an important visual task for both practical and theoretical reasons. To extend and test existing models, we have reviewed published data for contrast sensitivity for letter identification as a function of size and have also collected new data. Contrast sensitivity increases rapidly from the acuity limit but slows and asymptotes at a symbol size of about 1 degree. We recast these data in terms of contrast difference energy: the average of the squared distances between the letter images and the average letter image. In terms of sensitivity to contrast difference energy, and thus visual efficiency, there is a peak around ¼ degree, followed by a marked decline at larger sizes. These results are explained by a Neural Image Classifier model that includes optical filtering and retinal neural filtering, sampling, and noise, followed by an optimal classifier. As letters are enlarged, sensitivity declines because of the increasing size and spacing of the midget retinal ganglion cell receptive fields in the periphery.

  8. Critical contrastive rhetoric: The influence of L2 letter writing instruction on L1letter writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrnoosh Fakharzadeh


    Full Text Available The present study employed critical contrastive rhetoric to investigate the L2 to L1 transfer of organizational pattern and directness level of speech acts in business complaint letters. By examining the L1 complaint letters of 30 tourism university students in two phases of study, pre and post instruction of English complaint letter, the study revealed that the rhetorical organization of Persian letters are in a state of hybridity. The post instruction comparison of letters, however, showed a tendency towards applying English conventions both in organization and directness level of complaint speech act in the L1 complaint letters. The results also revealed that after instruction the expert in the field of tourism viewed some letters as inappropriate in terms of politeness which is reflected through some lexical items.

  9. Illite crystallinity and conodont alteration index in a polymetamorphic nappe pile: the Montagne Noire (S-France) (United States)

    Doublier, M. P.


    The Montagne Noire is situated on the southern flank of the Variscan Belt in South France (e.g. MATTE 1991). The S flank is composed of a tectonic pile of recumbent, grossly southward facing fold nappes (D1, ECHTLER 1990) involving Cambrian to Carboniferous sedimentary rocks. In a second step, HT/LP gneisses were exhumed in a central "Zone Axiale" (D2). Since a laterally consistent sequence of Palaeozoic sediments (quartzites, greywackes, pelites, radiolarian cherts and carbonates) may be traced across the metamorphic zonation, from diagenesis into amphibolite facies, the Montagne Noire offers ideal conditions for methodical metamorphic studies. Earlier petrological studies have revealed a concentric zonation of low pressure metamorphism centred around the gneissic core (DEMANGE 1985). A field study was carried out on the southern part, in order to compare the records of the conodont alteration indexes (CAI) and illite crystallinity (IC) methods, and to provide additional constraints on the tectono-metamorphic evolution. Illite crystallinity is defined as the "full width at half maximum" (FWHM given in *2 of the basal 10 A illite peak. The IC values were transformed into Kuebler index values (KI) using the "crystallinity index standard" (CIS). CAI was analyzed in a continuous belt of Devonian to Early Carboniferoushemipelagic limestones (WIEDERER et al., 2002). Both methods show similar metamorphic evolution: CAI is highest (5-7) in the neighbourhood of the Zone Axiale, and decreases down to diagenetic grade (CAI = 2) at the southern margin of the Montagne Noire. The KI values show also a decreasing metamorphism (epizone to diagenetic zone) away from the "Zone Axiale". Since CAI and IC zonations cut across the overturned limbs of large recumbent D1 folds, the origin of CAI and the IC must post-date D1. It appears that metamorphism of both the Zone Axiale and its lower grade cover were controlled by the exhumation of the hot gneissic core. The correlation between

  10. Differences between English and Chinese Sales Promotion Letters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PANG Yu-yan


    This paper aims to figure out the differences in English and Chinese sales promotion letters by analyzing ten selected letters from business writing books and websites, which might provide more valuable information for businessmen in their sales promotion letter writing.

  11. A red-letter day !

    CERN Document Server


    Today is a red-letter day for the LHC and CERN as a beam of protons has travelled around the LHC ring for the very first time! The start of LHC operation marks the end of a long period in which you have given your all, and this first particle beam circulating in the accelerator now paves the way for discoveries that will open up a whole new field of knowledge. The history of the LHC began in 1984 with a debate on the possible objectives of a future accelerator, based on the state of our knowledge at that time. The CERN Council then approved the single-stage construction of the LHC in 1996, giving the go-ahead for the work that has now reached completion. For the past twelve years, physicists, engineers and technicians from CERN and its associated institutes have been engaged in constructing the three pillars of the LHC: the accelerator (including the upgrade of the existing accelerator chain), the four experiments, and the computing ...

  12. Statistical mechanics of letters in words. (United States)

    Stephens, Greg J; Bialek, William


    We consider words as a network of interacting letters, and approximate the probability distribution of states taken on by this network. Despite the intuition that the rules of English spelling are highly combinatorial and arbitrary, we find that maximum entropy models consistent with pairwise correlations among letters provide a surprisingly good approximation to the full statistics of words, capturing ∼92% of the multi-information in four-letter words and even "discovering" words that were not represented in the data. These maximum entropy models incorporate letter interactions through a set of pairwise potentials and thus define an energy landscape on the space of possible words. Guided by the large letter redundancy we seek a lower-dimensional encoding of the letter distribution and show that distinctions between local minima in the landscape account for ∼68% of the four-letter entropy. We suggest that these states provide an effective vocabulary which is matched to the frequency of word use and much smaller than the full lexicon.

  13. Le tourisme noir : l’étrange cas du Dr Jekyll et de M. Hyde




    Depuis quelques années déjà, de nombreux chercheurs et autres experts du tourisme s’intéressent à un intriguant phénomène que Malcom Foley et J. John Lennon (1996) ont nommé le « tourisme noir » (dark tourism). Philip R. Stone (2006), directeur de l’Institute for Dark Tourism Research, définit cette pratique comme « the act of travel to sites associated with death, suffering and the seemingly macabre » (2006 : 146). Cette pratique est généralement présentée comme un phénomène récent : comme s...

  14. Houssay-Holzschuch, Myriam. – Le Cap ville sud-africaine. Ville blanche, vies noires


    Gascon, Alain


    Ce livre est tiré de la thèse de géographie, dirigée par P. Claval, et soutenue en 1997 à l’Université de Paris 4, par Myriam Houssay-Holzschuch : Le territoire volé : une géographie culturelle des quartiers noirs de Cape Town. Il fait suite à une autre publication sur un sujet proche, mais à l’échelle de l’Afrique du Sud : Mythologies territoriales en Afrique du Sud, un essai de géographie culturelle qui reprend un mémoire de DEA. M. Houssay-Holzschuch dédie son ouvrage à la mémoire de Joël ...

  15. Le bassin de la mer Noire, un enjeu de la Grande Guerre en Méditerranée


    Delanoë, Igor


    Loin de constituer un théâtre d’affrontements secondaires, le bassin de la mer Noire se retrouve projeté au cœur des enjeux de la première guerre mondiale dès l’automne 1914. Pour les franco-britanniques, il s’agit de l’interface maritime permettant de venir en aide à l’allié russe afin que celui-ci poursuive la guerre à l’Est. Pour le Reich, aidé de l’allié Ottoman, il s’agit de la route vers le pétrole de la Caspienne, nécessaire à la poursuite de l’effort de guerre. Or, l’échec de l’Entent...

  16. Una red transmedia para el hombre araña: a propósito de Spider-Man Noir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago García Sanz


    Full Text Available An almost one-century old genre, comic books have tried to find their space as a means of artistic expression since the very beginning. Emerging from Stan Lee’s creative genius in 1962 in a complete break with the hero archetype that prevailed for over two decades, and based on a pulp-literature vigilante, the Spider-Man is an atypical teenage hero that became an icon, not only of its publishing house, but of 20th-century Western popular culture. Throughout its history, the myth of the Spider-Man has undergone several revisions that fall within the American uchronic tradition in different media. Spider-Man Noir re-interprets the character as a crime detective and has eventually swung from paper to screens in order to thrive in the new century.

  17. Exhumation of high-pressure rocks in a Variscan migmatite dome (Montagne Noire, France) (United States)

    Whitney, Donna; Roger, Francoise; Rey, Patrice; Teyssier, Christian


    The Variscan orogen contains numerous domal structures composed mostly of migmatitic gneiss and granite, with lesser amounts of mafic rock. In the Montagne Noire (MN) migmatite dome of the southern Massif Central (France), some mafic rocks record eclogite facies metamorphism that contrasts with the low-pressure/high-temperature (LP/HT) conditions recorded by host gneiss. To understand the relationship of eclogite to migmatite/gneiss evolution, we determined P-T-time conditions of eclogite and gneiss and evaluated the location of HP rocks within the dome in the context of dome dynamics. Migmatite and granite in the dome commonly contain sillimanite and/or cordierite, and the schist carapace also contains index minerals of LP/HT metamorphism (andalusite, cordierite, sillimanite). There is sparse evidence, however, for earlier HP conditions: relict kyanite in schist and gneiss. The age of this metamorphism is not known but the LP/HT metamorphism and migmatite/granite crystallization was ~315-300 Ma (monazite, zircon U-Pb). Most MN eclogites have been significantly retrogressed. We focused our study on a relatively fresh eclogite (Terme de Fourcaric locality) containing omphacite (Jd36) + zoned pyrope-rich garnet (up to prp50 at the rim) + rutile + zircon. P-T conditions determined from a pseudosection and from Zr-in-rutile and grt-cpx thermometry indicates T = 700-800 C at P ~ 1.5 GPa. U-Pb dating of zircon by LA-ICP-MS reveals core ages of ~360 Ma and rim ages of ~315 Ma. The zircon core age is similar to results obtained by Faure et al. (2014) for eclogite from the same general locality using a Sm-Nd grt-cpx-whole rock isochron (interpreted as age of eclogite metamorphism). The rim age is similar to their U-Pb zircon and rutile results that they interpreted as the age of "hydrothermal" metamorphism. The interpretation of Faure is consistent with regional geologic age information, although the lack of retrogression in the Fourcaric eclogite and the high prp content

  18. A letter from Janet Benshoof. (United States)

    Benshoof, J


    This letter to readers of "Reproductive Freedom News" criticizes the American Medical Association's (AMA) Board of Trustees for endorsing a bill in the US Senate that would ban "partial-birth" abortions and allow the imprisonment of physicians who perform the procedure. The decision of the Board of Trustees was made in total disregard to the AMA bylaws, because the decision ran counter to the recommendations of an AMA task force that concluded that the AMA should take no action on this bill but seek to preserve the ability of physicians to use their discretion in providing medical care and the viability line in abortion legislation. The proposed criminal ban fails to contain a viability line; provides no exception to protect a woman's health, medical choice, or safety; and provides no exception in cases of fetal anomaly. The action by the Board of Trustees seriously undermines the work of the Center for Reproductive Law and Policy and gives abortion opponents ammunition to mount a serious challenge to the Roe vs. Wade decision. The AMA endorsement goes beyond simply stating that the procedure should never be used; it endorses giving physicians who perform such abortions, for whatever reason, prison terms. This position undermines two critical principles long upheld by the AMA: 1) that physicians must be able to carry out their medical responsibilities free from government interference and 2) that women have a fundamental right to decide on the appropriate provision of abortion services within their physician-patient relationship. The damage from this endorsement can and should be undone by the AMA's House of Delegates at their meeting in June 1997.

  19. Amending Death Rules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    China’s Criminal Law is being revised to cut down on death sentences and tighten up punishment for surging crimes The eighth amendment to the Criminal Law, demanding moreprudent use of capital punishment

  20. Gender bias found in recommendation letters (United States)

    Kruesi, Liz


    Female postdoctoral fellowship applicants are half as likely as their male counterparts to receive glowing recommendation letters, according to a study by researchers at Columbia University's Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory (LDEO).

  1. Letter to President [Valentine National Wildlife Refuge (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a letter from the Secretary of the Interior to the President regarding the establishment of the Valentine National Wildlife Refuge Wilderness area....

  2. Stochastic Flips on Two-letter Words

    CERN Document Server

    Bodini, Olivier; Regnault, Damien


    This paper introduces a simple Markov process inspired by the problem of quasicrystal growth. It acts over two-letter words by randomly performing \\emph{flips}, a local transformation which exchanges two consecutive different letters. More precisely, only the flips which do not increase the number of pairs of consecutive identical letters are allowed. Fixed-points of such a process thus perfectly alternate different letters. We show that the expected number of flips to converge towards a fixed-point is bounded by $O(n^3)$ in the worst-case and by $O(n^{5/2}\\ln{n})$ in the average-case, where $n$ denotes the length of the initial word.

  3. 2013 FEMA Letter of Map Revision (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL) data incorporates all Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map(DFIRM) databases published by FEMA, and any Letters Of Map Revision...

  4. Scott's Lake Excavation Letters on Human Remains (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is two letters written about the repatriation of Santee Indian human remains and funerary objects to Santee Sioux Tribe. Includes an inventory of human remains...

  5. Symbols of Pearl in The Scarlet letter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Aiqing


    This article evaluates The Scatet Letter with the help of analyzing the symbolic meanings of Pearl. In this article, the author attempts to propose the symbols of Pearl from four aspects: the function of the letter, the symbol of Hester's distillation of instinct;the symbol of freedom; the symbol of consummation. From the interpretation of the symbols of Pearl, it has been proved that Pearl becomes Hawthorne' s best vehicle to convey his attitudes toward Puritanism.

  6. On the Commercial Features of Business Letters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Effective business communication is the"lifeblood"of every organization and a key to success in your business career. Generally,each trade or each business achieves an agreement and then draws up a contract after buyer and seller exchange business letter. Thus,a successful business letter is one of the most personal method to promote a business career. The paper informs how to write suc-cessful correspondence.

  7. On Coding Non-Contiguous Letter Combinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric eDandurand


    Full Text Available Starting from the hypothesis that printed word identification initially involves the parallel mapping of visual features onto location-specific letter identities, we analyze the type of information that would be involved in optimally mapping this location-specific orthographic code onto a location-invariant lexical code. We assume that some intermediate level of coding exists between individual letters and whole words, and that this involves the representation of letter combinations. We then investigate the nature of this intermediate level of coding given the constraints of optimality. This intermediate level of coding is expected to compress data while retaining as much information as possible about word identity. Information conveyed by letters is a function of how much they constrain word identity and how visible they are. Optimization of this coding is a combination of minimizing resources (using the most compact representations and maximizing information. We show that in a large proportion of cases, non-contiguous letter sequences contain more information than contiguous sequences, while at the same time requiring less precise coding. Moreover, we found that the best predictor of human performance in orthographic priming experiments was within-word ranking of conditional probabilities, rather than average conditional probabilities. We conclude that from an optimality perspective, readers learn to select certain contiguous and non-contiguous letter combinations as information that provides the best cue to word identity.

  8. Ewa Bogalska-Martin (dir.), Être Noir Au Brésil Aujourd'hui. Identités et mémoires en mutation


    Magdy, Mayada


    « Quand Ti-maître eut la certitude que le Noir pourrait apprendre, il cessa le jeu. Oui, le Noir apprenait ! », L’Histoire de Ponciá, Conceição Evaristo. En 2003, l’écrivaine brésilienne - Conceição Evaristo - a publié son roman qui porte sur le parcours de vie d’une petite-fille d’esclaves. Traduit en plusieurs langues, ce roman fait partie des œuvres stimulantes dans la littérature afrodescendante au Brésil. Dans le champ académique, plusieurs chercheurs abordent la question raciale, et sur...

  9. Défilé dans le désert : les créateurs de mode vestimentaire noirs de Paris à Agadez


    Berloquin-Chassany, Pascale


    Qu'est-ce qu'il ne faut pas faire pour vendre notre pauvre Afrique !(Propos d'une invitée, assistante d’un créateur, FIMA 98) Paul Gilroy a discuté de l’invisibilité des Noirs dans l’histoire culturelle (2000), invisibilité que j’ai retrouvée au cours de ma thèse de doctorat en examinant le champ de la Mode. Les raisons du monopole occidental sont historiques car les représentations des Noirs ne correspondent pas aux attentes du luxe. Le succès de la vogue ethnique et du sportswear dans les a...

  10. Letter Position Dyslexia in Arabic: From Form to Position (United States)

    Friedmann, Naama; Haddad-Hanna, Manar


    This study reports the reading of 11 Arabic-speaking individuals with letter position dyslexia (LPD), and the effect of letter form on their reading errors. LPD is a peripheral dyslexia caused by a selective deficit to letter position encoding in the orthographic-visual analyzer, which results in migration of letters within words, primarily of middle letters. The Arabic orthography is especially interesting for the study of LPD because Arabic letters have different forms in different positions in the word. As a result, some letter position errors require letter form change. We compared the rate of letter migrations that change letter form with migrations that do not change letter form in 10 Arabic-speaking individuals with developmental LPD, and one bilingual Arabic and Hebrew-speaking individual with acquired LPD. The results indicated that the participants made 40% letter position errors in migratable words when the resulting word included the letters in the same form, whereas migrations that changed letter form almost never occurred. The error rate of the Arabic-Hebrew bilingual reader was smaller in Arabic than in Hebrew. However, when only words in which migrations do not change letter form were counted, the rate was similar in Arabic and Hebrew. Hence, whereas orthographies with multiple letter forms for each letter might seem more difficult in some respects, these orthographies are in fact easier to read in some forms of dyslexia. Thus, the diagnosis of LPD in Arabic should consider the effect of letter forms on migration errors, and use only migratable words that do not require letter-form change. The theoretical implications for the reading model are that letter form (of the position-dependent type found in Arabic) is part of the information encoded in the abstract letter identity, and thus affects further word recognition processes, and that there might be a pre-lexical graphemic buffer in which the checking of orthographic well-formedness takes place

  11. Neural Correlates of Top-Down Letter Processing (United States)

    Liu, Jiangang; Li, Jun; Zhang, Hongchuan; Rieth, Cory A.; Huber, David E.; Li, Wu; Lee, Kang; Tian, Jie


    This fMRI study investigated top-down letter processing with an illusory letter detection task. Participants responded whether one of a number of different possible letters was present in a very noisy image. After initial training that became increasingly difficult, they continued to detect letters even though the images consisted of pure noise,…

  12. 33 CFR 127.009 - Letter of recommendation. (United States)


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Letter of recommendation. 127.009... General § 127.009 Letter of recommendation. After the COTP receives the Letter of Intent under § 127.007(a) or (b), the COTP issues a Letter of Recommendation as to the suitability of the waterway for LNG...

  13. Representation of Letter Position in Spelling: Evidence from Acquired Dysgraphia (United States)

    Fischer-Baum, Simon; McCloskey, Michael; Rapp, Brenda


    The graphemic representations that underlie spelling performance must encode not only the identities of the letters in a word, but also the positions of the letters. This study investigates how letter position information is represented. We present evidence from two dysgraphic individuals, CM and LSS, who perseverate letters when spelling: that…

  14. GC-MS Metabolite Profiling of Extreme Southern Pinot noir Wines: Effects of Vintage, Barrel Maturation, and Fermentation Dominate over Vineyard Site and Clone Selection. (United States)

    Schueuermann, Claudia; Khakimov, Bekzod; Engelsen, Søren Balling; Bremer, Phil; Silcock, Patrick


    Wine is an extremely complex beverage that contains a multitude of volatile and nonvolatile compounds. This study investiged the effect of vineyard site and grapevine clone on the volatile profiles of commercially produced Pinot noir wines from central Otago, New Zealand. Volatile metabolites in Pinot noir wines produced from five grapevine clones grown on six vineyard sites in close proximity, over two consecutive vintages, were surveyed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The raw GC-MS data were processed using parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC2), and final metabolite data were analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA). Winemaking conditions, vintage, and barrel maturation were found to be the most dominant factors. The effects of vineyard site and clone were mostly vintage dependent. Although four compounds including β-citronellol, homovanillyl alcohol, N-(3-methylbutyl)acetamide, and N-(2-phenylethyl)acetamide discriminated the vineyard sites independent of vintage, Pinot noir wines from different clones were only partially discriminated by PCA, and marker compound selection remained challenging.

  15. Thrust-related, diapiric, and extensional doming in a frontal orogenic wedge: example of the Montagne Noire, Southern French Hercynian Belt (United States)

    Soula, Jean-Claude; Debat, Pierre; Brusset, Stéphane; Bessière, Gilbert; Christophoul, Frédéric; Déramond, Joachim


    The Montagne Noire, which is situated at the toe of the orogenic wedge of the French Massif Central South European Variscides, appears to be a well-suited area for studying the origin and evolution of middle to upper crustal domes adjacent to foreland basins. The data reported in the present paper show that the Montagne Noire dome is a particular type of basement-involved frontal culmination in an orogenic wedge and foreland basin system. This frontal culmination is characterized by a syn-contractional HT decompression recorded by clockwise PTt paths and widespread strata overturning in thrust and fold structures, which controlled the sedimentation in the adjacent foreland basin. These unusual characteristics are interpreted to be a result of the succession of thrusting, diapirism and extensional collapse. Antiformal stacking of syn-metamorphic thrust sheets controlled the first stages of the foreland basin development. Diapirism was essentially responsible for the HT decompression and widespread strata overturning. Extensional doming was a result of late- to post-metamorphic collapse acting on the pre-existing high-amplitude dome. Diapirism and associated isothermal decompression metamorphism, which constitute the essential difference between the Montagne Noire and 'ordinary' frontal ridges in orogenic wedges, were probably enhanced by a local partial melting of the upper to middle crust. It is suggested that the occurrence of these phenomena in front of an orogenic wedge was related to local over-thickening due to the superposition of an upper crustal antiformal stack on top of a lower crustal ramp anticline.

  16. Letter-Transposition Effects Are Not Universal: The Impact of Transposing Letters in Hebrew (United States)

    Velan, Hadas; Frost, Ram


    We examined the effects of letter-transposition in Hebrew in three masked-priming experiments. Hebrew, like English has an alphabetic orthography where sequential and contiguous letter strings represent phonemes. However, being a Semitic language it has a non-concatenated morphology that is based on root derivations. Experiment 1 showed that…

  17. Alphabetic skills in preschool: a preliminary study of letter naming and letter writing. (United States)

    Molfese, Victoria J; Beswick, Jennifer; Molnar, Andrew; Jacobi-Vessels, Jill


    Development of letter naming and writing (skills in writing first name, dictated and copied letters, and dictated and copied numbers) was examined in 79 preschool children (M age = 56 months). Skills were assessed in the fall to determine the status of these procedural skills that are components of alphabetic knowledge at the start of the school year. Children with high letter-naming scores also had high scores on letter writing, including dictated or copied letters and writing some or all of the letters of their names. Letter-naming skills were related to number-writing skills whether the numbers were dictated or copied. The highest writing scores were found for first name writing compared to writing or copying letters and numbers. A focus on the development of procedural knowledge in the preschool period may yield the hopep for impacts on later reading skills that has not been found in curricula emphasizing conceptual knowledge (e.g., knowledge of print concepts, book conventions).

  18. ERP Correlates of Letter Identity and Letter Position Are Modulated by Lexical Frequency (United States)

    Vergara-Martinez, Marta; Perea, Manuel; Gomez, Pablo; Swaab, Tamara Y.


    The encoding of letter position is a key aspect in all recently proposed models of visual-word recognition. We analyzed the impact of lexical frequency on letter position assignment by examining the temporal dynamics of lexical activation induced by pseudowords extracted from words of different frequencies. For each word (e.g., BRIDGE), we created…

  19. The hercynian compressive then extensive tectonic of the north flank of the Montagne Noire (southern French Massif Central) (United States)

    Turpaud, P.; Matte, P.


    The Montagne Noire, (southernmost edge of the Massif Central) is well known on its southern flank by low-grade spectacular hercynian nappes and southward recumbent folds. The northern flank, much less known is separated from the southern nappes by a large high grade metamorphic dome, the Axial Zone, which has been interpreted either as a purely extensive metamorphic core complex or as a compressive migmatitic antiform. The northern flank made of Lower Paleozoic epizonal sediments and granitic orthogneisses was previously interpreted as tectonic units separated by, NE-SW trending, southeastward verging thrusts. Our recent kinematic study shows a more complex structure and history: -- Some of the so-called southeastward thrusts (Brusque area) are in fact large, kilometre thick, ductile sinistral shear-zones with a southwestward thrust component (Guérangé-Lozes et Alsac, 1986), southward verging folds and slaty cleavage. That is the first major deformation in the Northern Montagne Noire and it is still undated. -- Closer to the Axial dome, in the Lacaune area, the most conspicuous structures are younger and related to large northeastward detachment with a LP/MT metamorphism. NE-SW trending lineations are here significant of a strong top to the NE shearing well expressed by fish-like biotites, synkinematic cordierites with helicitic inclusion trails, asymmetric boudinage and F2 northeastward drag folds. This spectacular detachment tectonic, which affects as well the whole northern flank of the granitic-gneissic Axial Zone, is dated by Ar39/Ar40 laser method on synkinematic micas at about 300--310 Ma. This event helped to the exhumation and denudation of the gneissic Axial Zone, just before the deposit of Stephanian limnic coal basins. The MT/BP metamophism is contemporaneous of the ductile detachment tectonic but some clues of gaps of metamorphism in the PT section indicate probably late normal faults with the same kinematics but posterior to the metamorphic climax

  20. The Symbolic Significance of The Scarlet Letter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    As a great romantic novelist in America in 19th century, Hawthorne was outstanding in handling the application of symbolism. The Scarlet Letter is Hawthorne's most important symbolic novel, which stands as the best work of Hawthorne and one of the indubitable masterpieces of American literature. This thesis aims at the exploration of the usage of the symbolism in the novel. It mainly discusses the deep symbolic significance of the scarlet letter "A" and the little pearl. The scarlet letter is the central symbol of the novel. Its symbolic meaning changes from 'adultery' to 'able', even 'angelic' in the novel. It also examines the symbolic meanings of little Pearl and some typical natural surroundings such as the jail, the forest, the rosebush and so on.

  1. 78 FR 54321 - Joint Industry Plan; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of the Fourth Amendment to the... (United States)


    ...), 75 FR 34183 (June 16, 2010) (SR-FINRA-2010-025); 62883 (September 10, 2010), 75 FR 56608 (September... be amended, is attached as Exhibit A hereto. Pursuant to Rule 608(b)(3)(iii) under Regulation NMS,\\4... (``Transmittal Letter''). \\4\\ 17 CFR 242.608(b)(3)(iii). I. Rule 608(a) of Regulation NMS A. Purpose of the...

  2. 78 FR 12365 - License Amendment Request for United Nuclear Corporation, Church Rock Mill-License No. SUA-1475 (United States)


    ... COMMISSION License Amendment Request for United Nuclear Corporation, Church Rock Mill--License No. SUA-1475... Materials License Number SUA-1475 for the UNC Church Rock Mill site located in New Mexico (the UNC license... flow model for the UNC Church Rock Mill site and adjacent downgradient areas . In a letter...

  3. A bread-and-butter letter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    letter作“信”讲是很常用的词,私人信件是personal letter。业务信件叫做business letter,祝贺信是letter of congratulation,邀请信是letter of invitation等等。还有一种信是a bread—and—butter letter,你知道是什么信吗?我们知道bread and butter是涂有黄油的面包,那么,a bread—and—butter leuer就是“黄油面包信”吧?非也。

  4. Traditions of martyrdom in the Ignatian Letters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Fuhrmann


    Full Text Available The letters of Ignatius represent one of the key texts for the emergence of martyrdom during the second century AD in Christianity. This article is concerned with the question whether Ignatius contributed to a “theology of martyrdom” or whether he rather relied on previous traditions. The author argues, by undertaking an analysis of certain pragmatics and semantics, that the motif of martyrdom is solely used to buttress Ignatius’ claim for authority among his intended addressees by referring to an understanding of martyrdom that has its roots in the New Testament. An identification of the author of the letters with a historical martyr is regarded as unlikely.

  5. [Structured electronic consultation letter for shoulder disorders]. (United States)

    Paloneva, Juha; Oikari, Marjo; Ylinen, Jari; Ingalsuo, Minna; Ilkka, Kunnamo; Ilkka, Kiviranta


    Referral to a specialist has a significant influence on management of the patient and costs associated with the treatments. However, development and research of the process by which patients are referred has been almost neglected. Expectations considering the purpose, contents, and timing of the referral of the consulting physician and the consultant do not always meet. A structured, electronic consultation letter was developed to respond this need. Functionality and interactivity are the key elements of the referral, including (1) an electronic referral letter to a specialist, (2) interactive education in clinical examination and management of shoulder disorders, and (3) an instrument of clinical examination and documentation of shoulder disorders.

  6. Amending Death Rules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI LI


    @@ The eighth amendment to the Criminal Law, demanding more prudent use of capital punishment, has triggered hot debates in China after it was presented to the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress (NPC), China's top legislature, for the first reading at the end of August.

  7. 75 FR 49233 - Amendments to Form ADV (United States)


    ...''); comment letter of the Financial Planning Association (May 16, 2008) (``FPA Letter''); Fried Frank Letter... Management Company/USAA Financial Planning Services Insurance Agency, Inc. (May 16, 2008) (``USAA...

  8. Letters in the Forest: Global precedence effect disappears for letters but not for non-letters under reading-like conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eLachmann


    Full Text Available Normally-skilled reading involves special processing strategies for letters, which are habitually funneled into an abstract letter code. On the basis of previous studies we argue that this habit leads to the preferred usage of an analytic strategy for the processing of letters, while non-letters are preferably processed via a holistic strategy. The well-known Global Precedence Effect (GPE seems to contradict to this assumption, since, with compound, hierarchical figures, including letter items, faster responses are observed to the global than to the local level of the figure, as well as an asymmetric interference effect from global to local level. We argue that with letters these effects depend on presentation conditions; only when they elicit the processing strategies automatized for reading, an analytic strategy for letters in contrast to non-letters is to be expected. We compared the GPE for letters and non-letters in central viewing, with the global stimulus size close to the functional visual field in whole word reading (6.5o of visual angle and local stimuli close to the critical size for fluent reading of individual letters (.5o of visual angle. Under these conditions, the GPE remained robust for non-letters. For letters, however, it disappeared: letters showed no overall response time advantage for the global level and symmetric congruence effects (local-to-global as well as global-to local interference. We interpret these results as according to the view that reading is based on resident analytic visual processing strategies for letters.

  9. Late Ordovician (post-Sardic) rifting branches in the North Gondwanan Montagne Noire and Mouthoumet massifs of southern France (United States)

    Javier Álvaro, J.; Colmenar, Jorge; Monceret, Eric; Pouclet, André; Vizcaïno, Daniel


    Upper Ordovician-Lower Devonian rocks of the Cabrières klippes (southern Montagne Noire) and the Mouthoumet massif in southern France rest paraconformably or with angular discordance on Cambrian-Lower Ordovician strata. Neither Middle-Ordovician volcanism nor associated metamorphism is recorded, and the subsequent Middle-Ordovician stratigraphic gap is related to the Sardic phase. Upper Ordovician sedimentation started in the rifting branches of Cabrières and Mouthoumet with deposition of basaltic lava flows and lahar deposits (Roque de Bandies and Villerouge formations) of continental tholeiite signature (CT), indicative of continental fracturing. The infill of both rifting branches followed with the onset of (1) Katian (Ka1-Ka2) conglomerates and sandstones (Glauzy and Gascagne formations), which have yielded a new brachiopod assemblage representative of the Svobodaina havliceki Community; (2) Katian (Ka2-Ka4) limestones, marlstones, and shales with carbonate nodules, reflecting development of bryozoan-echinoderm meadows with elements of the Nicolella Community (Gabian and Montjoi formations); and (3) the Hirnantian Marmairane Formation in the Mouthoumet massif that has yielded a rich and diverse fossil association representative of the pandemic Hirnantia Fauna. The sealing of the subaerial palaeorelief generated during the Sardic phase is related to Silurian and Early Devonian transgressions leading to onlapping patterns and the record of high-angle discordances.

  10. Reply to letter to the editor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woelders, H.


    In response to the letter by Dr. Amir Arav I would like to mention the following. The application of the principle of directional solidification to cryopreservation of living cells was, as far as I am aware, not the invention of Dr. Arav. It was first published and patented by Rubinsky (Berkeley, CA

  11. Crowding Affects Letters and Symbols Differently (United States)

    Grainger, Jonathan; Tydgat, Ilse; Issele, Joanna


    Five experiments examined crowding effects with letter and symbol stimuli. Experiments 1 through 3 compared 2-alternative forced-choice (2AFC) identification accuracy for isolated targets presented left and right of fixation with targets flanked either by 2 other items of the same category or a single item situated to the right or left of targets.…

  12. Application of Politeness Strategies in Business Letters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    As is known to all,businesses are very image - conscious. Most of the companies try to conduct themselves decently and politely in their business transactions,among which business letters are major manifestations of politeness. Application of Politeness Strategies is of great significance.

  13. Varsity letters documenting modern colleges and universities

    CERN Document Server

    Samuels, Helen Willa


    A study of the functions of colleges and universities, Varsity Letters is intended to aid those responsible for the documentation of these institutions. Samuels offers specific advice about the records of modern colleges and universities and proposes a method to ensure their adequate documentation. She also offers a method to analyze and plan the preservation of records for any type of institution.

  14. Fallout from Chernobyl [Letters to the editor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, E.D. (Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Cambridge (United Kingdom)); Abelin, T.; Egger, M. (Bern Univ. (Switzerland)) (and others)


    Six brief letters discuss the possible health effects of fallout from the Chernobyl reactor accident including an increase in thyroid cancer in children in Belarus, chromosomal abnormalities in workers from Latvia who cleared up the Chernobyl accident site, an increased trisomy 21 in Berlin but a lack of increased childhood leukaemia incidence in Greece. (UK).

  15. Letter of the Editor-in-chief

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shiwen Wang; Mathew Sorrentino; Thach Nguyen


    @@ Dear Friends and Colleagues, In this letter, I would like to celebrate the second anniversary of the Journal of Geriatric Cardiology (JGC).With the help of all of you, friends and colleagues, readers,editorials consultants, authors and editorial staff, the JGC was able to grow and publish many quality papers from the world.

  16. Samuel Beckett: Color, Letter, and Line. (United States)

    Conley, Tom


    Through a bilingual reading of Beckett's "Mal vu mal dit," the illusion of painted relief for printed letters is created. Colors manifest themselves through the continual process of translation. The French translation adds color to the black and white English text. (DF)

  17. Researches Made on The Scarlet Letter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Being the first American native novel,a great number of researches have been made on The Scarlet Letter.This paper collects some popular researches that have been made on this novel and classifies them into five perspectives --- romance,symbolism,Puritanism,feminism and psychoanalysis.

  18. The Electronic Discharge Letter Mobile App

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lezcano, Leonardo; Ternier, Stefaan; Drachsler, Hendrik; Kalz, Marco; Specht, Marcus


    Lezcano, L., Ternier, S., Drachsler, H., Kalz, M., & Specht, M. (2013, September). The Electronic Discharge Letter Mobile App. In iProceedings of MEDICINE 2.0: 6th World Congress on Social Media, Mobile Apps, Internet/Web 2.0 (pp. 221-222). London, England. Retrieved from http://www.medicine20congre

  19. Readerly and Writerly "Letters from the Park." (United States)

    Conde, Susana


    Discusses in depth the film "Cartas del parque" ("Letters from the Park"), the first of six films in the "Amores Dificiles" series. Notes that the film is pervaded by the traditional overdetermination of gender roles. Suggests that an intrusive and authoritative narrator makes of this both a "readerly" and a…

  20. 42 CFR 93.202 - Charge letter. (United States)



  1. An Unknown Letter by Maria Komornicka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateusz Bourkane


    Full Text Available The study presents an unpublished letter by Maria Komornicka, which the poet sent in July 1899 to her aunt, Aleksandra Oszacka. The epistolary communication, which contains several pieces of information about the life and activities of the poet living in Warsaw, can be a valuable material for researchers interested in her biography.

  2. Hester Prynne in The Scarlet Letter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The Scarlet Letter is the masterpiece of Nathaniel Hawthorne, one of the great writers in the nineteenth century America. Since it was published in the year of 1850, it has been reread in the circle of literary criticism..In the book, Hawthorne Portrays H

  3. SiD Letter of Intent

    CERN Document Server

    Aihara, H; Oreglia, M.; Berger, E.L.; Guarino, V.; Repond, J.; Weerts, H.; Xia, L.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, Q.; Srivastava, A.; Butler, J.M.; Goldstein, Joel; Velthuis, J.; Radeka, V.; Zhu, R.-Y.; Lutz, P.; de Roeck, A.; Elsener, K.; Gaddi, A.; Gerwig, H.; Grefe, C.; Klempt, W.; Linssen, L.; Schlatter, D.; Speckmayer, P.; Thom, J.; Yang, J.; Christian, D.C.; Cihangir, S.; Cooper, W.E.; Demarteau, M.; Fisk, H.E.; Garren, L.A.; Krempetz, K.; Kutschke, R.K.; Lipton, R.; Para, A.; Tschirhart, R.; Wenzel, H.; Yarema, R.; Grunewald, M.; Pankov, A.; U., Gomel State Tech.; Dutta, T.; Dauncey, P.D.; Balbuena, J.P.; Fleta, C.; Lozano, M.; Ullan, M.; Christian, G.B.; Faus-Golfe, A.; Fuster, J.; Lacasta, C.; Marinnas, C.; Vos, M.; Duarte, J.; Fernandez, M.; Gonzalez, J.; Jaramillo, R.; Lopez, Virto, A.; Martinez-Eivero, C.; Moya, D.; Ruiz-Mimeno, A.; Vila, I.; Colledani, C.; Dorokhov, A.; Hu-Guo, C.; Winter, M.; Moortgat-Pick, G.; Onoprienko, D.V.; Kim, G.N.; Park, H.; Adloff, C.; Blaha, J.; Blaising, J.-J.; Cap, S.; Chefdeville, M.; Drancourt, C.; Espargiliare, A.; Gaglione, R.; Geffroy, N.; Jacquemier, J.; Karyotakis, Y.; Prast, J.; Vouters, G.; Gronberg, J.; Walston, S.; Wright, D.; Sawyer, L.; Laloum, M.; Ciobanu, C.; Chauveau, J.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Andricek, L.; Moser, H.-G.; Cowan, R.f.; Fisher, P.; Yamamoto, R.K.; Kenney, ClMl; Boos, E.E.; Merkin, M.; Chen, S.; Chakraborty, D.; Dyshkant, A.; Hedin, D.; Zutshi, V.; Galkin, V.; D'Ascenzo, N.; Ossetski, D.; Saveliev, V.; Kapusta, F.; De Masi, R.; Vrba, V.; Lu, C.; McDonald, K.T.; Smith, A.J.S.; Bortoletto, D.; Coath, R.; Crooks, J.; Damerell, C.; Gibson, M.; Nichols, A.; Stanitzki, M.; Strube, J.; Turchetta, R.; Tyndel, M.; Weber, M.; Worm, S.; Zhang, Z.; Barklow, T.L.; Belymam, A.; Breidenbach, M.; Cassell, R.; Craddock, W.; Deaconu, C.; Dragone, A.; Graf, N.A.; Haller, G.; Herbst, R.; Hewett, J.L.; Jaros, J.A.; Johnson, A.S.; Kim, P.C.; MacFarlane, D.B.; Markiewicz, T.; Maruyama, T.; McCormick, J.; Moffeit, K.; Neal, H.A.; Nelson, T.K.; Oriunno, M.; Partridge, R.; Peskin, M.E.; Rizzo, T.G.; Rowson, P.; Su, D.; Woods, M.; Chakrabarti, S.; Dieguez, A.; Garrido, Ll.; Kaminski, J.; Conway, J.S.; Chertok, M.; Gunion, J.; Holbrook, B.; Lander, R.L.; Tripathi, S.M.; Fadeyev, V.; Schumm, B.A.; Oreglia, M.; Gill, J.; Nauenberg, U.; Oleinik, G.; Wagner, S.R.; Ranjan, K.; Shivpuri, R.; Varner, G.S.; Orava, R.; Van Kooten, R.; Bilki, B.; Charles, M.; Kim, T.J.; Mallik, U.; Norbeck, E.; Onel, Y.; Brau, B.P.; Willocq, S.; Taylor, G.N.; Riles, Keith; Yang, H.-J.; Kriske, R.; Cremaldi, L.; Rahmat, R.; Lastovicka-Medin, G.; Seidel, S.; Hildreth, M.D.; Wayne, M.; Brau, J.E.; Frey, R.; Sinev, N.; Strom, D.M.; Torrence, E.; Banda, Y.; Burrows, P.N.; Devetak, E.; Foster, B.; Lastovicka, T.; Li, Y.-M.; Nomerotski, A.; Riera-Babures, J.; Vilasis-Cardona, X.; Manly, S.; Adeva, B.; Iglesias Escudero, C.; Vazquez Regueiro, P.; Saborido Silva, J.J.; Gallas Torreira, A.; Gao, D.; Jie, W.; Jungfeng, Y.; Li, C.; Liu, S.; Liu, Y.; Sun, Y.; Wang, Q.; Yi, J.; Yonggang, W.; Zhao, Z.; De, K.; Farbin, A.; Park, S.; Smith, J.; White, A.P.; Yu, J.; Lou, X.C.; Abe, T.; Aihara, H.; Iwasaki, M.; Lubatti, H.J.; Band, H.R.; Feyzi, F.; Prepost, R.; Karchin, P.E.; Milstene, C.; Baltay, C.; Dhawan, S.; Kwon, Y.-J.


    Letter of intent describing SiD (Silicon Detector) for consideration by the International Linear Collider IDAG panel. This detector concept is founded on the use of silicon detectors for vertexing, tracking, and electromagnetic calorimetry. The detector has been cost-optimized as a general-purpose detector for a 500 GeV electron-positron linear collider.

  4. The Best Use of a Cover Letter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    So when should you use a cover letter? Only as part of a limited, targeted campaign to reach potential employers. Take the time to research and understand a company before committing yourself on paper as a potential employee, if you have no idea what the company does,

  5. "Physical Review Letters" in the Classroom (United States)

    Angiolillo, Paul J.; Lynch, Jonathan


    Ask any physicist what the preeminent journal in the field is, and I think the almost unanimous answer will be "Physical Review Letters" ("PRL"). This weekly journal of the American Physical Society publishes high-impact research from all the major subdisciplines of physics. This journal is not the one you would think is the first place a high…

  6. An Open Letter to Ninth Graders (United States)

    Sullivan, Patrick


    Many studies and reports in recent years have argued that there's an important "expectations gap" between the skills students are typically bringing to college and what college teachers think students should be bringing with them to college. This article, presented in the form of an open letter to first-year high school students, is an attempt…

  7. Stratigraphie et sédimentologie des « calcaires à Productus » du Carbonifère inférieur de la Montagne noire (Massif central, France)Stratigraphy and sedimentology of the Lower Carboniferous 'Calcaires à Productus' of the Montagne Noire (Massif Central, France) (United States)

    Poty, Édouard; Aretz, Markus; Barchy, Laurent

    The 'Calcaires à Productus' of the Montagne Noire are microbial build-ups. Two formations are defined and dated respectively as Uppermost Visean (Upper Warnantian-Brigantian) and Serpukhovian on the basis on corals. That makes these limestones out to be younger than previously stated (Lower and base of Upper Warnantian-Asbian and base of Brigantian) and indicates that the development of the olistoliths and thrusts including them, due to the Variscan orogeny, was at least as young as the Upper Serpukhovian. The Serpukhovian limestones of the Montagne Noire are correlated with the Lanet Limestone (Mouthoumet Massif, Corbières) and Ardengost Limestone (central Pyrenees). To cite this article: É. Poty et al., C. R. Geoscience 334 (2002) 843-848.

  8. Letter to President [Laguna Atascosa National Wildlife Refuge (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a letter from the Secretary of the Interior to the President regarding the establishment of the Laguna Atascosa Wilderness area. The letter...

  9. 50 CFR 216.257 - Letters of Authorization. (United States)


    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE... Mexico § 216.257 Letters of Authorization. (a) A Letter of Authorization, unless suspended or...

  10. Letter to President [Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a letter from the Assistant Secretary of the Interior to the President regarding the establishment of the Back Bay Wilderness area. The letter...

  11. Letter to President [Cedar Island National Wildlife Refuge (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a letter from the Assistant Secretary of the Interior to the President regarding the establishment of the Cedar Island Wilderness area. The letter...

  12. Can words be read without abstract letter identities?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Fischer-Baum


    CH’s acquired dyslexia and dysgraphia left him with a profound impairment in processing abstract letter identities. This impairment affected his ability to process strings of letters in a variety of tasks; for example nonword reading, spelling, recognizing orally spelled words. However, while impaired, his single word reading was surprisingly good given his single letter impairment, suggesting an additional route to word meaning from visually-presented familiar words that does not require abstract letter identities.

  13. Le continent noir du désir masculin : Colet et Flaubert, encore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Vinken


    aimer est formulée par Flaubert d’un côté comme pratique hygiénique ultra-machiste de la « baisade » ou de la « foutrerie » et de l’autre côté dans un discours ascétique, voire monacal, d’une « vie pour l’Art » ou, mieux, d’un Art qui exige une mort à la vie. Ces discours ne sont pourtant qu’écran devant un drame déchirant, qu’il ne veut revivre à aucun prix. Car cela voudrait dire d’être tiraillé encore entre la castration et la perte de l’objet amoureux, conflit qu’il croit avoir résolu une fois pour toute dans ce que l’on appelle traditionnellement sa crise : Flaubert est déjà châtré et mort.C’est dans l’Art qu’il peut à la fois rejouer – et abandonner – ce qu’il ne pouvait préserver dans la vie qu’au prix de l’amour : sa virilité. Flaubert déplace le drame de la castration de l’amour dans l’écriture. Il produit une œuvre, un corpus phallique, dont tout ce qui est féminin – mou, flasque, ruisselant – doit être rigoureusement éliminé. Mais ce corpus informé dans son travail stylistique par le modèle physiologique du sexe masculin, phallique, met en scène une identification désespérée avec celles et ceux mortellement blessés d’amour. Cette blessure d’amour porte souvent des connotations religieuses. Le texte flaubertien n’est donc pas, comme on l’a souvent soutenu, qu’une assertion de sa virilité. Il serait plutôt à la fois mise en scène et triomphe sur le drame de la castration.Few correspondences are as distressingly surprising to the reader as the letters between Louise Colet and Gustave Flaubert.  The hope entertained by every reader of a happy love story has rarely been so disappointed.  The studies on sexuality by Freud, one of the greatest skeptics on the subject of love, shed light on the vicissitudes of masculine desire.  Flaubert’s letters to Colet are the dramatization of a desire conforming to kinks of a fetishist scenario.  The fetish is

  14. 33 CFR 62.43 - Numbers and letters. (United States)


    ... letters. (a) All solid red and solid green aids are numbered, with red aids bearing even numbers and green... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Numbers and letters. 62.43... to assist in their identification, or to indicate their purpose. Sidemarks may carry letters...

  15. Transposed-Letter and Laterality Effects in Lexical Decision (United States)

    Perea, Manuel; Fraga, Isabel


    Two divided visual field lexical decision experiments were conducted to examine the role of the cerebral hemispheres in transposed-letter similarity effects. In Experiment 1, we created two types of nonwords: nonadjacent transposed-letter nonwords ("TRADEGIA"; the base word was "TRAGEDIA," the Spanish for "TRAGEDY") and two-letter different…

  16. Letter representations in writing: An fMRI adaptation approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier eDufor


    Full Text Available Abstract:Behavioral and neuropsychological research in reading and spelling has provided evidence for the role of the following types of orthographic representations in letter writing: letter forms, letter case, and abstract letter identities. We report on the results of an fMRI investigation designed to identify the neural substrates of these different representational types. Using a neural adaptation paradigm we examined the neural distribution of inhibition and release from inhibition in a letter-writing task in which, on every trial, participants produced three repetitions of the same letter and a fourth letter that was either identical to (no-change trial or different from the previous three (change trial. Change trials involved a change in the shape, case and/or identity of the letter. After delineating the general letter writing network by identifying areas that exhibited significant neural adaptation effects on no-change trials, we used deconvolution analysis to examine this network for effects of release from inhibition on change trials. In this way we identified regions specifically associated with the representation of letter shape (left SFS and SFG/pre-CG and letter identity (left fusiform gyrus or both (cerebellum, post-central gyrus and middle frontal gyrus. No regions were associated with the representation of letter case. This study showcases an investigational approach that allows for the differentiation of the neurotopography of the representational types that are key to our ability to produce written language.

  17. Return to sender: Constantijn Huygens as a man of letters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gosseye, L.; Blom, F.; Leerintveld, A.


    Return to Sender takes as its starting point Constantijn Huygens’ letters and shows us the author in his different guises: intimus of René Descartes, translator of John Donne, collector of art, writer of flirtatious love letters and the author of a long consolatory letter-poem for an ailing friend w

  18. Michael Maier--nine newly discovered letters. (United States)

    Lenke, Nils; Roudet, Nicolas; Tilton, Hereward


    The authors provide a transcription, translation, and evaluation of nine newly discovered letters from the alchemist Michael Maier (1568-1622) to Gebhardt Johann von Alvensleben (1576-1631), a noble landholder in the vicinity of Magdeburg. Stemming from the final year of his life, this correspondence casts new light on Maier's biography, detailing his efforts to secure patronage amid the financial crisis of the early Thirty Years' War. While his ill-fated quest to perfect potable gold continued to form the central focus of his patronage suits, Maier also offered his services in several arts that he had condemned in his printed works, namely astrology and "supernatural" magic. Remarks concerning his previously unknown acquaintance with Heinrich Khunrath call for a re-evaluation of Maier's negotiation of the discursive boundaries between Lutheran orthodoxy and Paracelsianism. The letters also reveal Maier's substantial contribution to a work previously ascribed solely to the English alchemist Francis Anthony.

  19. Morphology and ultrastructure of epilithic versus cryptic, microbial growth in lower Cambrian phosphorites from the Montagne Noire, France. (United States)

    Alvaro, J J; Clausen, S


    The lower Cambrian grainy phosphorites of the northern Montagne Noire occur interbedded with grey to black, laminated to massive shales and limestones deposited along the edge of a continental shelf, associated with slope-related facies and unstable substrates. The concentration of phosphate took place by repeated alternations of low sedimentation rates and condensation (hardgrounds), in situ early-diagenetic precipitation of fluorapatite, winnowing and polyphase reworking of previously phosphatized skeletons and hardground-derived clasts. The succession of repeated cycles of sedimentation, phosphate concentration, and reworking led to multi-event phosphate deposits rich in allochthonous particles. Phosphogenesis was primarily mediated by microbial activity, which is evidenced by the abundance of phosphatized putative microbial remains. These occur as smooth and segmented filaments, sheaths, and ovoid-shaped coccoids. These simple morphologies commonly form composite frameworks as a result of their aggregation and entanglement, leading to the record of biofilms, microbial mats, and complex networks. These infested the calcitic skeletonized microfossils that littered the substrate. Microbial activity evidences epilithic (anisotropic coatings on skeletons), euendolithic (perforating skeletal walls), and cryptoendolithic (lining inter- and intraparticulate pores) strategies, the latter dominated by bundles of filaments and globular clusters that grew along the cavities of helcionellids and hyoliths. According to their epilithic versus cryptic strategies, microbial populations that penetrated and dwelled inside hard skeletal substrates show different network and colonial morphologies. These early Cambrian shell concentrations were the loci of a stepwise colonization made by saprophytic to mutualistic, cyanobacterial-fungal consortia. Their euendolithic and cryptoendolithic ecological niches provided microbial refugia to manage the grazing impact mainly led by metazoans.

  20. Review and palaeoecological analysis of the late Tremadocian – early Floian (Early Ordovician cephalopod fauna of the Montagne Noire, France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Kröger


    Full Text Available The Early Ordovician successions of the southern Montagne Noire consist of a thick sequence of predominantly siliciclastic sediments of which the late Tremadocian St. Chinian Formation and the earliest Floian La Maurerie Formation contain a comparatively rich and abundant cephalopod association. The cephalopods of the St. Chinian and La Maurerie Formation are interpreted as generally authochthonous, representing a fauna which originally lived in the open water above the sediments or related to the sea bottom. The cephalopod associations of the St. Chinian and La Maurerie formations are similar to other contemporaneous assemblages known from higher palaeolatitudes and associated with deeper depositional settings. They are composed almost exclusively of longiconic orthocones, in this case predominantly of eothinoceratids and baltocerids. The occurrences of Annbactrocera, and Bactroceras in the St. Chinian Formation are at present the earliest unambiguous reports of the Orthocerida. The available data suggest an initial expansion of orthoceroid cephalopod faunas from open water habitats of high paleo-latitudes, and a subsequent expansion on the carbonate platforms during the Floian. The presence of the eothinoceratid Saloceras in abundance demonstrates the Gondwanan affinity of the assemblage whilst adding further support for the presence of a "Saloceras realm" that may have extended along the margins of East and West Gondwana at least into intermediate latitudes. The following new taxa are proposed: Annbactroceras n. gen., Annbactroceras felinense n. sp., Cyclostomiceras thorali n. sp., Felinoceras n. gen., Felinoceras constrictum n. sp., Lobendoceras undulatum n. sp., Rioceratidae n. fam., Saloceras murvielense n. sp., Thoraloceras n. gen., Thoraloceras bactroceroides n. sp. doi:10.1002/mmng.201000013

  1. Culture and subculture in transactional letter writing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaw, Philip; Okamura, Akiko


    with efforts to write such letters by 21 NSE and 23 NNSE non-professionals (British undergraduates and overseas English teachers). The results showed that the non-native professionals by and large perceived the rhetorical demands of the situation similarly to native professionals but were a little less likely...... and language. Thus the teaching approach for writing depends crucially on the status of the learners, and to teach lexical phrases is particularly important for non-natives....

  2. Essay: reflections on Physical Review Letters. (United States)

    Lazarus, David


    During my tenure as APS Editor-in-Chief Physical Review Letters changed from a journal whose authors were mostly from the U.S. to one whose authors were mostly from abroad. I encouraged authors to publicize their work even before their papers were accepted for publication. And I sought to raise the quality of the papers that were published even higher than before.

  3. Your Letters Could Change My Life

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nancy; Snow


    "Your letters could change my life."These words were sent to me by a Chinese student whose lifelong dream is to study in America.I met her in September 2007, just a week after arriving as a visiting pro- fessor at Tsinghua University’s School of Journalism and Communication.She attended a lunch where I was speaking. We exchanged some pleasantries.She e- mailed a follow-up greeting and

  4. Resource Letter QI-1: Quantum Information (United States)

    Strauch, Frederick W.


    This Resource Letter surveys the history and modern developments in the field of quantum information. It is written to guide advanced undergraduates, beginning graduate students, and other new researchers to the theoretical and experimental aspects of this field. The topics covered include quantum states and processes, quantum coding and cryptography, quantum computation, the experimental implementation of quantum information processing, and the role of quantum information in the fundamental properties and foundations of physical theories.

  5. Resource Letter: TE-1: Teaching electronics (United States)

    Henry, Dennis C.


    This Resource Letter examines the evolution, roles, and content of courses in electronics in the undergraduate physics curriculum, and provides a guide to resources for faculty teaching such courses. It concludes with a brief section addressing problems of electromagnetic interference in electronic systems, and provides an introduction to the literature and practice of electromagnetic compatibility. I have included textbooks, reference books, articles, collections of laboratory experiments and projects, sources of equipment and parts, software packages, videos, and websites.

  6. A Retrospective Analysis Comparing the New Standardized Letter of Recommendation in Dermatology with the Classic Narrative Letter of Recommendation. (United States)

    Kaffenberger, Jessica A; Mosser, Joy; Lee, Grace; Pootrakul, Llana; Harfmann, Katya; Fabbro, Stephanie; Faith, Esteban Fernandez; Carr, David; Plotner, Alisha; Zirwas, Matthew; Kaffenberger, Benjamin H


    Background: In an effort to avoid numerous problems associated with narrative letters of recommendation, a dermatology standardized letter of recommendation was utilized in the 2014-2015 resident application cycle. Objective: A comparison of the standardized letter of recommendation and narrative letters of recommendation from a single institution and application cycle to determine if the standardized letter of recommendation met its original goals of efficiency, applicant stratification, and validity. Methods: Eight dermatologists assessed all standardized letters of recommendation/narrative letters of recommendation pairs received during the 2014-2015 application cycle. Five readers repeated the analysis two months later. Each letter of recommendation was evaluated based on a seven question survey. Letter analysis and survey completion for each letter was timed. Results: Compared to the narrative letters of recommendation, the standardized letter of recommendation is easier to interpret (precommendation are also faster to interpret (precommendation (precommendation appears to be meeting its initial goals of 1) efficiency, 2) applicant stratification, and 3) validity. (J Clin Aesthet Dermatol. 2016;9(9):36-2.).


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krivoruchko I. S.


    Full Text Available The development of international cooperation has promoted the updating of problems connected with business communication effectiveness. These problems are very crucial, because their solution may predetermine the collaboration success of business partners. The integral part of this success is the efficiency of the exchange of textual information. Nowadays the main information exchange method in modern business relations is business correspondence in English; therefore, its research makes an important contribution to the solution of the pressing problem connected with the achievement of some goals in business. In the article, we analyze both general and specific linguistic features of English business letters, which differ them from texts of other fields of human activity. A special attention is paid to the question of the content and presence degree of lexicological and phraseological units in English business letters. In the end the author comes to the conclusion that business communication is considered effective if it contributes to the mutual understanding of partners with the help of the most optimal means. The analysis of practical material showed that these means could be lexicological and phraseological units. The correct choice of these units helps with the formation of those features of a business letter, which would make it effective

  8. Gender differences in recommendation letters for postdoctoral fellowships in geoscience (United States)

    Dutt, Kuheli; Pfaff, Danielle L.; Bernstein, Ariel F.; Dillard, Joseph S.; Block, Caryn J.


    Gender disparities in the fields of science, technology, engineering and mathematics, including the geosciences, are well documented and widely discussed. In the geosciences, despite receiving 40% of doctoral degrees, women hold less than 10% of full professorial positions. A significant leak in the pipeline occurs during postdoctoral years, so biases embedded in postdoctoral processes, such as biases in recommendation letters, may be deterrents to careers in geoscience for women. Here we present an analysis of an international data set of 1,224 recommendation letters, submitted by recommenders from 54 countries, for postdoctoral fellowships in the geosciences over the period 2007-2012. We examine the relationship between applicant gender and two outcomes of interest: letter length and letter tone. Our results reveal that female applicants are only half as likely to receive excellent letters versus good letters compared to male applicants. We also find no evidence that male and female recommenders differ in their likelihood to write stronger letters for male applicants over female applicants. Our analysis also reveals significant regional differences in letter length, with letters from the Americas being significantly longer than any other region, whereas letter tone appears to be distributed equivalently across all world regions. These results suggest that women are significantly less likely to receive excellent recommendation letters than their male counterparts at a critical juncture in their career.

  9. Neural correlates of letter reversal in children and adults. (United States)

    Blackburne, Liwei King; Eddy, Marianna D; Kalra, Priya; Yee, Debbie; Sinha, Pawan; Gabrieli, John D E


    Children often make letter reversal errors when first learning to read and write, even for letters whose reversed forms do not appear in normal print. However, the brain basis of such letter reversal in children learning to read is unknown. The present study compared the neuroanatomical correlates (via functional magnetic resonance imaging) and the electrophysiological correlates (via event-related potentials or ERPs) of this phenomenon in children, ages 5-12, relative to young adults. When viewing reversed letters relative to typically oriented letters, adults exhibited widespread occipital, parietal, and temporal lobe activations, including activation in the functionally localized visual word form area (VWFA) in left occipito-temporal cortex. Adults exhibited significantly greater activation than children in all of these regions; children only exhibited such activation in a limited frontal region. Similarly, on the P1 and N170 ERP components, adults exhibited significantly greater differences between typical and reversed letters than children, who failed to exhibit significant differences between typical and reversed letters. These findings indicate that adults distinguish typical and reversed letters in the early stages of specialized brain processing of print, but that children do not recognize this distinction during the early stages of processing. Specialized brain processes responsible for early stages of letter perception that distinguish between typical and reversed letters may develop slowly and remain immature even in older children who no longer produce letter reversals in their writing.

  10. Amending Contracts for Choreographies

    CERN Document Server

    Bocchi, Laura; Tuosto, Emilio; 10.4204/EPTCS.59.10


    Distributed interactions can be suitably designed in terms of choreographies. Such abstractions can be thought of as global descriptions of the coordination of several distributed parties. Global assertions define contracts for choreographies by annotating multiparty session types with logical formulae to validate the content of the exchanged messages. The introduction of such constraints is a critical design issue as it may be hard to specify contracts that allow each party to be able to progress without violating the contract. In this paper, we propose three methods that automatically correct inconsistent global assertions. The methods are compared by discussing their applicability and the relationships between the amended global assertions and the original (inconsistent) ones.

  11. Les premiers romans noirs français : simples exercices de style ou trahisons littéraires complexes ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Cadin


    Full Text Available Les premiers romans noirs français, imités des hard-boiled novels, ont été écrits sous pseudonyme : Malet devient Harding ; Vian, Sullivan ; Queneau, Mara et Arcouët, Stewart. Quelle part de trahison anime ces auteurs ? Sert-elle à faire vendre ou à dénoncer l’invasion de la culture américaine et le goût du scandale ? Si stratégie publicitaire et séduction du lecteur entrent en jeu, le processus de trahison est néanmoins volontairement miné par ces romanciers : il devient source de réflexion sur la lecture et l’écriture.The first French romans noirs, modeled on the so-called “hard-boiled” novels, were written under pseudonyms : Malet becomes Harding ; Vian, Sullivan ; Queneau, Mara, and Arcouët, Stewart. To what degree are these authors motivated by betrayal ? Is it employed merely for marketing purposes, or to denounce the invasion of American culture and a certain taste for scandal ? If advertising tactics and the seduction of the reader are undeniable elements of such novels, these writers nevertheless consciously sabotage the process of betrayal, transforming it into a source of reflection about reading and writing.

  12. Sociabilité, solidarité : culture, identité et vie urbaine dans les quartiers noirs du cap (Afrique du Sud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam Houssay-Holzschuch


    Full Text Available La présence des Noirs dans les villes sud-africaines a longtemps été sévèrement limitée et contrôlée par les régimes de ségrégation et d´apartheid. Les espaces qui leur étaient assignés avaient été conçus dans ce but. Pourtant, ils abritent aujourd´hui des formes sociales nouvelles comme une culture urbaine originale et dynamique. Cet article montre comment les structures familiales, l´agencement intérieur des habitations ou le réseau associatif ont transformé ces espaces. Enfin, l´analyse de cartes mentales dessinées par les résidents confirme que l´espace des quartiers noirs existe avant tout comme projection des relations et des réseaux sociaux.

  13. Letter-by-letter processing in the phonological conversion of multiletter graphemes: searching for sounds in printed pseudowords. (United States)

    Peereman, Ronald; Brand, Muriele; Rey, Arnaud


    Current models of word reading differ in their descriptions of how print-to-sound conversion is performed. Whereas a parallel procedure is generally assumed, the dual-route cascaded model developed by Coltheart and colleagues (Coltheart, Rastle, Perry, Langdon, and Ziegler, 2001) holds that the nonlexical conversion operates letter by letter, serially from left to right. An interesting aspect of the hypothesized serial procedure is that only the first letter of two-letter graphemes is thought to cause activation of its corresponding phonological code, the second letter of multiletter graphemes being directly merged with the preceding letter to form a complex grapheme. This hypothesis was examined in a task in which participants had to detect target phonemes in visually presented pseudowords. The data suggest that phonological codes associated with all the letters of the multiletter graphemes are activated.

  14. 78 FR 18233 - Medical Devices; Technical Amendment (United States)


    ...). These amendments are merely correcting nonsubstantive errors. FDA therefore, for good cause, finds under... heartbeats in patients following cardiac surgery or a myocardial infarction. * * * * * * * * 0 4. Amend...

  15. Draft Mission Plan Amendment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The Department of Energy`s Office Civilian Radioactive Waste Management has prepared this document to report plans for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program, whose mission is to manage and dispose of the nation`s spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste in a manner that protects the health and safety of the public and of workers and the quality of the environment. The Congress established this program through the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. Specifically, the Congress directed us to isolate these wastes in geologic repositories constructed in suitable rock formations deep beneath the surface of the earth. In the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987, the Congress mandated that only one repository was to be developed at present and that only the Yucca Mountain candidate site in Nevada was to be characterized at this time. The Amendments Act also authorized the construction of a facility for monitored retrievable storage (MRS) and established the Office of the Nuclear Waste Negotiator and the Nuclear Waste Technical Review Board. After a reassessment in 1989, the Secretary of Energy restructured the program, focusing the repository effort scientific evaluations of the Yucca Mountain candidate site, deciding to proceed with the development of an MRS facility, and strengthening the management of the program. 48 refs., 32 figs.

  16. Concentration spatiale des accidents de la route : méthode d'identification des zones noires basée sur l'autocorrélation spatiale application et étude de sensibilité

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoît Flahaut


    Full Text Available L'objectif de cette contribution est d'identifier les lieux de concentration spatiale d'accidents de la route sous la forme de zones noires plutôt que de points noirs. L'application d'une méthode géographique d'analyse basée sur des mesures locales d'autocorrélation spatiale permet de localiser ces zones noires.La pertinence de la méthode est considérée, et une étude de la sensibilité des résultats à différents niveaux de contiguïté et à plusieurs fonctions des pondérations est proposée. Les résultats sont également comparés à ceux obtenus par une méthode statistique de lissage par noyau.L'application de la méthode à quelques routes montre concrètement son adéquation et son applicabilité au problème de la localisation des zones noires.

  17. Algoritmi matematici nelle lettere di Gerbert (United States)

    Rossi, P.

    The content of Gerbert's "scientific" letters is analyzed in detail, with special emphasis on arithmetical and geometrical issues, such as multiplication and division rules related to the use of abacus, superparticular numbers and evaluation of the area of an equilateral triangle. It is shown that Gerbert's area formula, albeit based on rational fractions, could hardly be conceived without knowledge of Pythagoras' theorem. This fact casts a light also on the astronomical tools created by Gerbert, where the didactical aspect cannot be separated from the accuracy of the demonstrations and of the measurements.

  18. Letters to Solovine 1906-1955

    CERN Document Server

    Einstein, Albert


    A provocative collection of letters to his longtime friend and translator that spans Einstein's career and reveals the inner thoughts and daily life of a transformative genius From their early days as tutor and scholar, discussing philosophy over Spartan dinners, to their work together to publish Einstein's books in Europe, in Maurice Solovine Einstein found both an engaged mind and a loyal friend. While Einstein frequently shared his observations on science, politics, philosophy, and religion in his correspondence with Solovine, he was just as likely to express his feelings about everyday l

  19. Timing and duration of partial melting and magmatism in the Variscan Montagne Noire gneiss dome (French Massif Central) (United States)

    Trap, Pierre; Roger, Françoise; Cenki-Tok, Bénédicte; Paquette, Jean-Louis


    Unravelling the detailed pressure-temperature-time-deformation (P-T-t-D) evolution of magmatic and metamorphic rocks provides essential insights into the timing and duration of partial melting and related plutonism during crustal flow and migmatitic dome formation. The Montagne Noire Axial Zone (MNAZ) is a migmatitic dome located within the Variscan orogen in the southern French Massif Central. The timing of the main thermal event that was responsible for intense partial melting is still highly debated. In this study we present new laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) age data on micaschists, migmatites and granites that clarify the P-T-t-D evolution of the MNAZ. Structurally controlled samples were collected in order to constrain the timing of metamorphism, migmatization and plutonism regarding the main structural pattern D1, D2 and D3. D1 and D2 correspond to nappe stacking and dextral transpression, respectively. D3 is related to vertical shortening and coaxial thinning with a preferential NE-SW- to E-W-directed stretching. LA-ICP-MS analyses on the syntectonic Anglès, Soulié and Martys granites yielded U-Th/Pb monazite ages of 305 ± 1.5, 306 ± 1.9 and 314 ± 2 Ma, respectively. Five migmatitic rocks sampled in the eastern and central Espinouse area yielded in situ ages ranging between 312 ± 2 and 301 ± 2 Ma. Along the dome envelope, two garnet-staurolite-bearing micaschists near Saint-Pons-de-Thomières village gave in situ U-Th-Pb ages of 312.1 ± 2.1 and 309.0 ± 3.1 Ma. A fine-grained gneiss with a D3 fabrics in the eastern dome envelope yield a 208Pb/232Th mean age at 305.7 ± 3.9 Ma. All ages obtained in this study for the micaschists, migmatites and granites range between 315 and 301 Ma. We interpret this time span as the record of the high thermal event responsible for intense crustal partial melting within the lower and middle crust. The onset of partial melting occurred at ca. 315 Ma that marked the beginning of

  20. ERP correlates of letter identity and letter position are modulated by lexical frequency (United States)

    Vergara-Martínez, Marta; Perea, Manuel; Gómez, Pablo; Swaab, Tamara Y.


    The encoding of letter position is a key aspect in all recently proposed models of visual-word recognition. We analyzed the impact of lexical frequency on letter position assignment by examining the temporal dynamics of lexical activation induced by pseudowords extracted from words of different frequencies. For each word (e.g., BRIDGE), we created two pseudowords: A transposed-letter (TL: BRIGDE) and a replaced-letter pseudoword (RL: BRITGE). ERPs were recorded while participants read words and pseudowords in two tasks: Semantic categorization (Experiment 1) and lexical decision (Experiment 2). For high-frequency stimuli, similar ERPs were obtained for words and TL-pseudowords, but the N400 component to words was reduced relative to RL-pseudowords, indicating less lexical/semantic activation. In contrast, TL- and RL-pseudowords created from low-frequency stimuli elicited similar ERPs. Behavioral responses in the lexical decision task paralleled this asymmetry. The present findings impose constraints on computational and neural models of visual-word recognition. PMID:23454070

  1. 50 CFR 216.256 - Applications for Letters of Authorization. (United States)


    ... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND... in the Gulf of Mexico § 216.256 Applications for Letters of Authorization. To incidentally...

  2. Writing effective consultation letters: 12 tips for teachers. (United States)

    Keely, Erin; Dojeiji, Suzan; Myers, Kathryn


    Written correspondence is the standard mode of communication between healthcare providers. Despite the importance of this skill and increased emphasis on ambulatory care, communication skills and professionalism in training programs, there has been very little written on the teaching and evaluation of consultation letter writing. Consultation letter writing is an essential skill that cannot be learned simply by reading others' letters and should be taught in a formal manner. This article describes the authors' experience in teaching the skill of writing effective consultation letters to residents and describes strategies for evaluating this skill.

  3. Open Letter to the European Commission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savin, Andrej; Schwemer, Sebastian Felix


    The recent developments, starting with the Communication on Online Platforms and the Digital Single Market Opportunities and Challenges for Europe released on 25/05/2016, followed by a series of proposals (Proposal for a Directive amending the Audiovisual Media Services Directive, Proposal...... for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on copyright in the Digital Single Market) and soft law initiatives (the EU Internet Forum against Terrorism and the Code of Conduct on Countering Illegal Hate Speech Online) seriously put at risk the consistency and integrity of the EU acquis related...

  4. Original Sin in the Scarlet Letter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The Scarlet Letter,a representative work of Nathaniel Hawthorne,is a classical novel in American literature of 19th century.It vividly portrays people's life which was greatly influenced by Puritanism and Calvinism.And the author Nathaniel Hawthorne,who lived in that er-a,is also inevitably influenced by these mainstream thoughts.He ex-pressed his black romanticism,black view of human nature and original sin theory in almost each of his work.In his masterpiece,the Scarlet Let-ter,one important theme is original sin.This essay will first analyze where the original sin theory stems from and how it's developed by Hawthorne,and secondly will study how this theory influences the plot and major characters.

  5. NEESPI focus issues in Environmental Research Letters (United States)

    Norman, Julian; Groisman, Pavel; Soja, Amber J.


    In 2007 and 2009 Environmental Research Letters published focus issues (edited by Pavel Groisman and Amber J Soja) made up of work carried out by NEESPI participants. Here, we present the content of those focus issues as an invaluable resource for researchers working in the NEESPI study area. The first of the two issues, published in 2007 with title 'Northern Hemisphere High Latitude Climate and Environmental Change', presents a diverse collection of articles that are assembled into five groups devoted to studies of climate and hydrology, land cover and land use, the biogeochemical cycle and its feedbacks, the cryosphere, and human dimensions. The second issue, published in 2009, with title 'Climatic and Environmental Change in Northern Eurasia' presents diverse, assorted studies of different aspects of contemporary change, representing the diversity of climates and ecosystems across Northern Eurasia.

  6. Boscovich: scientist and man of letters (United States)

    Proverbio, E.

    Ruggiero Giuseppe Boscovich (1711-1781) is known as one of the most important scientists of the second half of XVIII century, but he was active also as a man of letters, especially through an abundant production of poems in Latin verse. We try to interpret these two, apparently antinomic, aspects of his character in the framework of the culture of his epoch, in which science and literary productions were not considered as two separate or opposite fields, but only two different aspects of human knowledge. In particular we review the field of his poetic production in which this fundamental unity of knowledge is most evident, namely his poems with didactic-scientific subjects, which are examples of high-level popularization of the latest progresses in science (in particular astronomy and Newtonian physics) by means of elegant Latin verse.

  7. Resource Letter BH-2: Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Gallo, Elena


    This resource letter is designed to guide students, educators, and researchers through (some of) the literature on black holes. Both the physics and astrophysics of black holes are discussed. Breadth has been emphasized over depth, and review articles over primary sources. We include resources ranging from non-technical discussions appropriate for broad audiences to technical reviews of current research. Topics addressed include classification of stationary solutions, perturbations and stability of black holes, numerical simulations, collisions, the production of gravity waves, black hole thermodynamics and Hawking radiation, quantum treatments of black holes, black holes in both higher and lower dimensions, and connections to nuclear and condensed matter physics. On the astronomical end, we also cover the physics of gas accretion onto black holes, relativistic jets, gravitationally red-shifted emission lines, evidence for stellar-mass black holes in binary systems and super-massive black holes at the centers...

  8. A Key to the Art of Letters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen-Rix, Robert William


    The article examines A. Lane's grammar A Key to the Art of Letters and its contexts. Symbolically published at the threshold to the eighteenth century, Lane presents an unusually bold plan to make English a world language. Although Lane's book holds a key position in the development of English...... grammatical theory, there has been no comprehensive study of its innovative methods and radical proposals for a new national curriculum. Its challenge to Latin and French is analyzed in a historical perspective, and the impact of Lane's ideas during the eighteenth century is traced. The article shows...... that Lane is the first to use English as the basis for writing universal grammar, as part of his strategy to promote English as a universal code for learning and science...

  9. PROUST EN DERVICHE SOUFI : métamorphoses de l’intertexte proustien dans Le Livre noir d’Orhan Pamuk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Élise Duclos


    Full Text Available L’étude de l’intertextualité proustienne dans Le Livre noir d’Orhan Pamuk appelle la prise en compte de l’ensemble des références intertextuelles du roman, d’une multiplicité foisonnante, ainsi que l’étude de la place de l’intertexte proustien dans ce qu’il faut bien considérer comme le système intertextuel rhizomatique du roman. Cette investigation conduit à mettre en rapport les différents intertextes orientaux et occidentaux qui informent la narration et transforment le texte proustien en un voyage spirituel ou en une quête mystique : la Conférence des oiseaux d’Attâr, le Mesnevi de Mevlâna, et surtout Hüsn-ü Aşk de Cheik Galip.

  10. The imprint of the Slave Trade in an African American population: mitochondrial DNA, Y chromosome and HTLV-1 analysis in the Noir Marron of French Guiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larrouy Georges


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Retracing the genetic histories of the descendant populations of the Slave Trade (16th-19th centuries is particularly challenging due to the diversity of African ethnic groups involved and the different hybridisation processes with Europeans and Amerindians, which have blurred their original genetic inheritances. The Noir Marron in French Guiana are the direct descendants of maroons who escaped from Dutch plantations in the current day Surinam. They represent an original ethnic group with a highly blended culture. Uniparental markers (mtDNA and NRY coupled with HTLV-1 sequences (env and LTR were studied to establish the genetic relationships linking them to African American and African populations. Results All genetic systems presented a high conservation of the African gene pool (African ancestry: mtDNA = 99.3%; NRY = 97.6%; HTLV-1 env = 20/23; HTLV-1 LTR = 6/8. Neither founder effect nor genetic drift was detected and the genetic diversity is within a range commonly observed in Africa. Higher genetic similarities were observed with the populations inhabiting the Bight of Benin (from Ivory Coast to Benin. Other ancestries were identified but they presented an interesting sex-bias. Whilst male origins spread throughout the north of the bight (from Benin to Senegal, female origins were spread throughout the south (from the Ivory Coast to Angola. Conclusions The Noir Marron are unique in having conserved their African genetic ancestry, despite major cultural exchanges with Amerindians and Europeans through inhabiting the same region for four centuries. Their maroon identity and the important number of slaves deported in this region have maintained the original African diversity. All these characteristics permit to identify a major origin located in the former region of the Gold Coast and the Bight of Benin; regions highly impacted by slavery, from which goes a sex-biased longitudinal gradient of ancestry.

  11. „Un caractère qui a l'air si impossible“: Innerer Konflikt als Rollendialektik in Le Rouge et le Noir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Klimpe


    Full Text Available Le Rouge et le Noir traite de l'ascension sociale du prolétaire Julien Sorel sous la Restauration. Julien est séminariste et méprise de fait les valeurs de la Restauration. En secret, il rêve de mener une existence héroïque sur le modèle de Napoléon. Le rôle idéal de Napoléon et le rôle social de prêtre sont conçus comme contraires, mais peuvent, néanmoins, difficilement être séparés dans les actions concrètes de Julien. La présente étude porte sur la dialectique entre l'idéal de Napoléon et la réalité de prêtre, et s'inscrit tant dans les sciences littéraires que dans la théorie des rôles sociaux, avec le but d'intégrer la perspective de la sociologie ainsi que celle de l'anthropologie.In Le Rouge et le Noir erzählt Stendhal den sozialen Aufstieg des Kleinbürgersohns Julien Sorel in der Restaurationsgesellschaft. Julien ist ein Priesterschüler, der die Restaurationsgesellschaft und ihre Werte verachtet und heimlich eine napoleonische Heldenexistenz ersehnt. „Napoleon“ und „Priester“ werden in der literaturwissenschaftlichen Rezeption des Werkes dabei immer wieder als Rollen interpretiert. Diese beiden Rollen sind zwar konträr konzipiert, in Juliens Handlungen aber kaum voneinander zu trennen. Die Dialektik von Napoleon-Ideal und Priester-Realität wird hier mit Hilfe literaturwissenschaftlicher Rezeptionsansätze, sowie unter den soziologischen und  anthropologischen Perspektiven der Rollentheorie untersucht.

  12. Synsedimentary tectonics, mud-mounds and sea-level changes on a Palaeozoic carbonate platform margin: a Devonian Montagne Noire example (France) (United States)

    Bourrouilh, Robert; Bourque, Pierre-André; Dansereau, Pauline; Bourrouilh-Le Jan, Françoise; Weyant, Pierre


    The Devonian sedimentary succession of the southern flank of the Montagne Noire (France) was deposited along a divergent margin. This paper is a contribution to describe and evaluate biogenic, sedimentary, geochemical and micropalaeontological features as indicators of sea-level changes and global history of the Devonian in this area. Following transgression and shallow-water environments during Early Devonian time (Lochkovian to early Emsian), biogenic mud-rich mounds with stromatactis developed during latest Emsian at the platform margin. The depth of the Devonian sea was increasing and the seafloor passed below the photic zone and the lower limit of storm wave base during the Emsian. Growth and seismic faults affected the mounds and created Neptunian cracks and crevices, quickly filled with sedimentary material (pisoids) and cements (Neptunian dykes and veins). Light and CL-microscopy, and stable isotope geochemistry show that stromatactis, cements of Neptunian dykes, veins and pisoid cortices are early marine, whereas the red finely crystalline material that forms the bulk of the mound has been cemented in the near-surface diagenetic environment, after the early marine cementation of stromatactis and Neptunian dykes and veins, by meteoric or hydrothermal fluids. The sedimentary rocks overlying the stromatactis mounds exhibit regularly condensed iron and manganese-rich layers, interrupted by the Kellwasser hypoxic horizon. These condensed deposits developed up to the Famennian in a context of carbonate gravity sedimentation and became more and more rhythmic and frequent up section. The occurrence and irregular distribution of large-scale submarine mass flows during Frasnian and Famennian times can be related to block faulting on which Lower Devonian stromatactis mounds could have been uplifted by this block faulting to form seamounts. The sea-level fluctuations detected in the southern flank of Montagne Noire are compared to the Devonian eustatic sea-level curve

  13. Selectivity mapping of the binding sites of (E)-resveratrol imprinted polymers using structurally diverse polyphenolic compounds present in Pinot noir grape skins. (United States)

    Hashim, Shima N N S; Schwarz, Lachlan J; Danylec, Basil; Potdar, Mahesh K; Boysen, Reinhard I; Hearn, Milton T W


    This investigation describes a general procedure for the selectivity mapping of molecularly imprinted polymers, using (E)-resveratrol-imprinted polymers as the exemplar, and polyphenolic compounds present in Pinot noir grape skin extracts as the test compounds. The procedure is based on the analysis of samples generated before and after solid-phase extraction of (E)-resveratrol and other polyphenols contained within the Pinot noir grape skins using (E)-resveratrol-imprinted polymers. Capillary reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) and electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry (ESI MS/MS) was then employed for compound analysis and identification. Under optimised solid-phase extraction conditions, the (E)-resveratrol-imprinted polymer showed high binding affinity and selectivity towards (E)-resveratrol, whilst no resveratrol was bound by the corresponding non-imprinted polymer. In addition, quercetin-3-O-glucuronide and a dimer of catechin-methyl-5-furfuraldehyde, which share some structural features with (E)-resveratrol, were also bound by the (E)-resveratrol-imprinted polymer. Polyphenols that were non-specifically retained by both the imprinted and non-imprinted polymer were (+)-catechin, a B-type procyanidin and (-)-epicatechin. The compounds that did not bind to the (E)-resveratrol molecularly imprinted polymer had at least one of the following molecular characteristics in comparison to the (E)-resveratrol template: (i) different spatial arrangements of their phenolic hydroxyl groups, (ii) less than three or more than four phenolic hydroxyl groups, or (iii) contained a bulky substituent moiety. The results show that capillary RP-HPLC in conjunction with ESI MS/MS represent very useful techniques for mapping the selectivity of the binding sites of imprinted polymer. Moreover, this procedure permits performance monitoring of the characteristics of molecularly imprinted polymers intended for solid-phase extraction of bioactive and

  14. Open Letter to Religious Leaders about Sex Education (United States)

    American Journal of Sexuality Education, 2011


    The "Open Letter to Religious Leaders about Sex Education" reinforces scriptural and theological commitments to truth-telling in calling for "full and honest education about sexual and reproductive health." This "Open Letter" was published in 2002, at about the midpoint of a decade-long federal government commitment to…

  15. Sidebearings analysis of alphabet letters with complex shape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojan Banjanin


    Full Text Available Defining inter-letter space is important part of typeface designing process. The purpose of defining the letter space is to make them visually equally distant from each other within words, sentences and paragraphs creating an even value of grey, without darker or lighter areas. Different approaches for determining letter space were developed in order to facilitate this demanding process. Miguel Sousa (2006 and Walter Tracy (2003 proposes their spacing methods and in paper of De Melo Vargas (2007 and our previous work (Banjanin & Nedeljković, 2014 these methods were tested. The problems occur when defining space around letters a, f, g, s, t, z, and S, for which neither Sousa nor Tracy propose any kind of guidelines (except visual. The aim of this paper is to measure and analyse spacing values for these letters and to see if there is some kind of “formula” or some kind of guidelines which will broaden existing methods in more accurate way. We measured left and right sidebearings of these 7 problematic letters and established additional guidelines for defining letter space of those letters more accurately.

  16. Patient information letters on nutrition: development and implementation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Binsbergen, J.J. van; Drenthen, A.J.


    BACKGROUND: In 1998 the Dutch College of General Practitioners (NHG) began developing patient information letters (PILs), based on the practice guidelines for family physicians (FPs) (NHG standards). Five nutritional guidance letters have since been developed with the Dutch Nutrition Center. METHODS

  17. Character Invention in the Letters of Maimie Pinzer. (United States)

    Carlson, A. Cheree


    Presents a case study of autobiographical letters written by a turn-of-the-century prostitute to a Boston matron. Shows how, in creating a narrative of her life, the author of the letters uses several rhetorical strategies to recreate her character to persuade her audience (and herself) that she is worthy of respect. (SR)

  18. Teaching Braille Letters, Numerals, Punctuation, and Contractions to Sighted Individuals (United States)

    Putnam, Brittany C.; Tiger, Jeffrey H.


    Braille-character recognition is one of the foundational skills required for teachers of braille. Prior research has evaluated computer programming for teaching braille-to-print letter relations (e.g., Scheithauer & Tiger, 2012). In the current study, we developed a program (the Visual Braille Trainer) to teach not only letters but also…

  19. Editorial: acceptance criteria and editorial procedures for Optics Letters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xi-Cheng; Andersen, Peter E.; Justus, Brian L.


    Optics Letters Editors strive to provide timely reviews and decisions for authors while bringing top quality papers to the optics community. The purpose of this editorial is to explain Optics Letters' acceptance criteria and editorial procedures. Our hope is that greater transparency concerning...

  20. Editorial: acceptance criteria and editorial procedures for Optics Letters. (United States)

    Zhang, Xi-Cheng; Andersen, Peter E; Justus, Brian L; Galtarossa, Andrea


    Optics Letters Editors strive to provide timely reviews and decisions for authors while bringing top quality papers to the optics community. The purpose of this editorial is to explain Optics Letters' acceptance criteria and editorial procedures. Our hope is that greater transparency concerning the decision-making process will increase understanding as well as acceptance of our criteria and procedures.

  1. Editorial: acceptance criteria and editorial procedures for Optics Letters.


    Zhang, Xi-Cheng; Andersen, Peter E.; Justus, Brian L.; Galtarossa, Andrea


    Optics Letters Editors strive to provide timely reviews and decisions for authors while bringing top quality papers to the optics community. The purpose of this editorial is to explain Optics Letters' acceptance criteria and editorial procedures. Our hope is that greater transparency concerning the decision-making process will increase understanding as well as acceptance of our criteria and procedures.

  2. Motion Detection, Letter Position Encoding, and Single Word Reading. (United States)

    Cornelissen, P. L.; Hansen, P. C.


    A study involving 48 undergraduates found a link between motion detection and letter-position encoding and a positive relationship, albeit a nonlinear one, between motion detection threshold and the likelihood of making letter errors. This result held when age, IQ, reading age, and phonological awareness were taken into account. (CR)

  3. [The letters of Hermann Rorschach to his brother]. (United States)

    Signer, Rita; Müller, Christian


    Hermann Rorschach, brilliant creator of the projective test called after him, worked from the beginning to the middle of 1914 in a sanatorium near Moscow. Recently discovered letters to his brother Paul reveal his motives for abandoning his initial plan to settle in Russia. Apparently the impossibility of scientific work was of great importance. Additional letters complement our knowledge of Rorschach's personality.

  4. Letters to Our Forebears: Reconnecting Generations through Writing. (United States)

    Okawa, Gail Y.


    Proposes that students writing public letters to their forebears might provide a reminder of how individuals and communities can learn from the experience of their foremothers and forefathers. Includes the author's letter to her grandfather, who was imprisoned in internment camps for Japanese Americans during World War II. (PM)

  5. An Approach to the Humanity of the Scarlet Letter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Du Feng; Wang qingping


    "The Scarlet Letter"is Hawthorne's realist representative.In his masterpiece the Scarlet letter.Hawthorne tells us that all human beings are combination of goodness and evil.As human nature changes between goodness and evil,the science mastered by human beings may bring happiness or pains.

  6. 14 CFR 136.3 - Letters of Authorization. (United States)


    ...) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS COMMERCIAL AIR TOURS AND NATIONAL PARKS AIR TOUR MANAGEMENT National Air Tour Safety Standards § 136.3 Letters of Authorization. Operators subject to this subpart who have Letters of Authorization may use the...

  7. Letter Position Coding Across Modalities: The Case of Braille Readers (United States)

    Perea, Manuel; García-Chamorro, Cristina; Martín-Suesta, Miguel; Gómez, Pablo


    Background The question of how the brain encodes letter position in written words has attracted increasing attention in recent years. A number of models have recently been proposed to accommodate the fact that transposed-letter stimuli like jugde or caniso are perceptually very close to their base words. Methodology Here we examined how letter position coding is attained in the tactile modality via Braille reading. The idea is that Braille word recognition may provide more serial processing than the visual modality, and this may produce differences in the input coding schemes employed to encode letters in written words. To that end, we conducted a lexical decision experiment with adult Braille readers in which the pseudowords were created by transposing/replacing two letters. Principal Findings We found a word-frequency effect for words. In addition, unlike parallel experiments in the visual modality, we failed to find any clear signs of transposed-letter confusability effects. This dissociation highlights the differences between modalities. Conclusions The present data argue against models of letter position coding that assume that transposed-letter effects (in the visual modality) occur at a relatively late, abstract locus. PMID:23071522

  8. Letter position coding across modalities: the case of Braille readers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Perea

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The question of how the brain encodes letter position in written words has attracted increasing attention in recent years. A number of models have recently been proposed to accommodate the fact that transposed-letter stimuli like jugde or caniso are perceptually very close to their base words. METHODOLOGY: Here we examined how letter position coding is attained in the tactile modality via Braille reading. The idea is that Braille word recognition may provide more serial processing than the visual modality, and this may produce differences in the input coding schemes employed to encode letters in written words. To that end, we conducted a lexical decision experiment with adult Braille readers in which the pseudowords were created by transposing/replacing two letters. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We found a word-frequency effect for words. In addition, unlike parallel experiments in the visual modality, we failed to find any clear signs of transposed-letter confusability effects. This dissociation highlights the differences between modalities. CONCLUSIONS: The present data argue against models of letter position coding that assume that transposed-letter effects (in the visual modality occur at a relatively late, abstract locus.

  9. Overt use of a tactile-kinesthetic strategy shifts to covert processing in rehabilitation of letter-by-letter reading. (United States)

    Lott, Susan Nitzberg; Carney, Aimee Syms; Glezer, Laurie S; Friedman, Rhonda B


    BACKGROUND: Letter-by-letter readers identify each letter of the word they are reading serially in left to right order before recognizing the word. When their letter naming is also impaired, letter-by-letter reading is inaccurate and can render even single word reading very poor. Tactile and/or kinesthetic strategies have been reported to improve reading in these patients, but only under certain conditions or for a limited set of stimuli. AIMS: The primary aim of the current study was to determine whether a tactile/kinesthetic treatment could significantly improve reading specifically under normal reading conditions, i.e. reading untrained words presented in free vision and read without overt use of the strategy. METHODS #ENTITYSTARTX00026; PROCEDURES: Three chronic letter-by-letter readers participated in a tactile/kinesthetic treatment aimed at first improving letter naming accuracy (phase 1) and then letter-by-letter reading speed (phase 2). In a multiple case series design, accuracy and speed of reading untrained words without overt use of the trained tactile/kinesthetic strategy was assessed before phase 1, after phase 1 and again after phase 2. OUTCOMES #ENTITYSTARTX00026; RESULTS: All three patients significantly improved both their speed and accuracy reading untrained words without overt use of the trained tactile/kinesthetic strategy. All three patients required the additional practice in phase 2 to achieve significant improvement. Treatment did not target sentence level reading, yet two of the three patients became so adept that they could read entire sentences. CONCLUSIONS: This study replicates previous findings on the efficacy of tactile/kinesthetic treatment for letter-by-letter readers with poor letter naming. It further demonstrates that this treatment can alter cognitive processing such that words never specifically trained can be read in free vision without overtly using the trained strategy. The data suggest that an important element in achieving

  10. Digit and letter alexia in carbon monoxide poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qingyu Shen; Xiaoming Rong; Rui Pan; Ying Peng; Wei Peng; Yamei Tang


    This study examined a 24-year-old patient with delayed encephalopathy, who was admitted to hospital with complaints of headache and visual impairment 1 week after acute carbon monoxide poisoning. The results of a visual field assessment, electroencephalography and head magnetic resonance imaging indicated damage to the cerebral cortex. After a 2-week treatment period, the patient had recovered from the visual impairment, but exhibited digit- and letter-reading difficulty. The Chinese aphasia battery and the number and letter battery supplement were conducted. The results revealed that the patient exhibited digit and letter alexia, while the ability to read Chinese characters was preserved. In contrast, the patient exhibited a deficit in Chinese character writing, while number and letter writing remained intact. Following treatment, reading and writing ability was improved and electroencephalographic abnormalities were ameliorated. Overall, our experimental findings demonstrated that delayed encephalopathy following acute carbon monoxide poisoning was characterized by digit and letter alexia.

  11. Automatic adverse drug events detection using letters to the editor. (United States)

    Yang, Chao; Srinivasan, Padmini; Polgreen, Philip M


    We present and test the intuition that letters to the editor in journals carry early signals of adverse drug events (ADEs). Surprisingly these letters have not yet been exploited for automatic ADE detection unlike for example, clinical records and PubMed. Part of the challenge is that it is not easy to access the full-text of letters (for the most part these do not appear in PubMed). Also letters are likely underrated in comparison with full articles. Besides demonstrating that this intuition holds we contribute techniques for post market drug surveillance. Specifically, we test an automatic approach for ADE detection from letters using off-the-shelf machine learning tools. We also involve natural language processing for feature definitions. Overall we achieve high accuracy in our experiments and our method also works well on a second new test set. Our results encourage us to further pursue this line of research.

  12. Peer assessment of outpatient consultation letters – feasibility and satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dojeiji Suzan


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Written correspondence is one of the most important forms of communication between health care providers, yet there is little feedback provided to specialists. The objective of this study was to determine the feasibility and satisfaction of a peer assessment program on consultation letters and to determine inter-rater reliability between family physicians and specialists. Methods A rating scale of nine 5-point Likert scale items including specific content, style items, education value of the letter and an overall rating was developed from a previous validated tool. Nine Internal Medicine specialists/subspecialists from two tertiary care centres submitted 10 letters with patient and physician identifiers removed. Two Internal Medicine specialists, and 2 family physicians from the other centre rated each letter (to protect writer anonymity. A satisfaction survey was sent to each writer and rater after collation of the results. A follow-up survey was sent 6–8 months later. Results There was a high degree of satisfaction with the process and feedback. The rating scale information was felt to be useful and appropriate for evaluating the quality of consultation letters by 6/7 writers. 5/7 seven writers felt that the feedback they received resulted in immediate changes to their letters. Six months later, 6/9 writers indicated they had maintained changes in their letters. Raters rank ordered letters similarly (Cronbach's alpha 0.57–0.84 but mean scores were highly variant. At site 1 there were significant differences in scoring brevity (p Conclusion Most participants found peer assessment of letters feasible and beneficial and longstanding changes occurred in some individuals. Family physicians and specialists appear to have different expectations on some items. Further studies on reliability and validity, with a larger sample, are required before high stakes professional assessments include consultation letters.

  13. Detecting letters and words in prose passages: a test of alternative theoretical accounts of the missing letter effect. (United States)

    Healy, Alice F; Cunningham, Thomas F


    College students searched for either h or the in prose passages in which every h occurred in the test word the. In Experiment 1, passage versions differed in that the critical noun phrases were either the alone (i.e., in citation form as a noun referring to itself) or "the definite article." Many more detection errors occurred for letter than word target items, especially with "the definite article." In Experiment 2, passage versions differed in that a given noun phrase containing the test word the occurred as a subject in one version and an object in the other. Again, many more detection errors occurred when the target item was the letter h than when it was the letter sequence the. Also, with letter but not letter sequence targets, more detection errors occurred for object than subject noun phrases. In Experiment 3, passages were presented either in regular format or with all capital letters. Students made more detection errors with the regular than with the capitals format, many more errors occurred when participants searched for letters than for letter sequences, and the effect of target item was larger with regular than with capitals format. These findings suggest that accounts of detection errors in reading must include the influence of unitization and processing time or attentional allocation.

  14. [Darwin in the Republic of Letters]. (United States)

    Bertani, Stefano


    For those accustomed to thinking that the modern cultural dimension arose under the banner of a clash between the so-called "two cultures," the figure of Darwin the "humanist" could reserve numerous surprises. It was above all the well-known paleontologist S.J. Gould who pointed them out. He went so far as to track down, in the Italian cultural roots from Saint Francis to Galileo, an element of continuity between his own Darwinism and our literary tradition that passes through the writing of the masterpieces of the nineteenth-century natural sciences. On the basis of a similar, and also audacious, rereading of the cultural history, the essay proposes to indicate some possible developments of the new dialogue undertaken, beginning with the insertion of the scientist Darwin in the European horizon of the Republic of Letters. There are then indicated some historical-cultural categories that would merit reconsideration: the new figure of intellectual of the twenty-first century, the idea of a science immersed in the historical contingency and in the concrete pleasure of the subject that knows, the role of "sweetness" and of "wonder" also in the most rigorous study, and lastly the need of an in-depth knowledge of the Darwinian writing, not as a curiosity for the educational trend of the era of positivism, but as an indispensable epistemological requisite for a correct understanding of its science.

  15. Concurrent cognitive processing and letter sequence transcription deficits in stutterers. (United States)

    Webster, W G


    Previous research has indicated that men who stutter transcribe rapidly presented sequences of letters more slowly and less accurately than nonstutterer controls. Experiment 1 demonstrated that the transcription deficit is not limited to task conditions that demand concurrent monitoring and responding. This was evidenced by comparable deficits on a successive response condition that required subjects to write letters after the presentation was complete. The results of Experiment 2 indicated that the deficit is not due to a difficulty by stutterers in parsing streams of stimulus information internally. Their performance did not differentially improve when letters were grouped with brief pauses, nor with experience in transcribing preparsed letter sequences. This experiment also demonstrated that the phenomenon is generalizable to women. In related testing, stutterers were slower than controls in writing internally generated sequences of letters, those of the alphabet forwards and backwards, but not in writing the same two letters, A and B, repetitively nor in the cognitively more demanding task of writing numbers backwards by three's. These results parallel those obtained with finger tapping of same versus unique sequences by stutterers and were interpreted as being consistent with the idea that while stutterers are not generally slower motorically than nonstutterers, they experience difficulty when required to organize and carry out tasks with new multiple response transitions. The two experiments have replicated and extended, under different conditions, the earlier findings of a letter sequence transcription deficit in stutterers, but the nature of the interference still remains to be clarified.

  16. Novel Moment Features Extraction for Recognizing Handwritten Arabic Letters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheith Abandah


    Full Text Available Problem statement: Offline recognition of handwritten Arabic text awaits accurate recognition solutions. Most of the Arabic letters have secondary components that are important in recognizing these letters. However these components have large writing variations. We targeted enhancing the feature extraction stage in recognizing handwritten Arabic text. Approach: In this study, we proposed a novel feature extraction approach of handwritten Arabic letters. Pre-segmented letters were first partitioned into main body and secondary components. Then moment features were extracted from the whole letter as well as from the main body and the secondary components. Using multi-objective genetic algorithm, efficient feature subsets were selected. Finally, various feature subsets were evaluated according to their classification error using an SVM classifier. Results: The proposed approach improved the classification error in all cases studied. For example, the improvements of 20-feature subsets of normalized central moments and Zernike moments were 15 and 10%, respectively. Conclusion/Recommendations: Extracting and selecting statistical features from handwritten Arabic letters, their main bodies and their secondary components provided feature subsets that give higher recognition accuracies compared to the subsets of the whole letters alone.

  17. 21 CFR 312.31 - Information amendments. (United States)


    ..., Manufacturing, and Control”, “Information Amendment: Pharmacology-Toxicology”, “Information Amendment: Clinical... organized submission of the data in a format appropriate for scientific review. (3) If the sponsor...

  18. Latest Amendment to Criminal Law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    @@ On Feb.25, 2011,the 19th Session of the Standine Commlttee or the 11th National Peonle's Congress, the country's highest legislative body, approved the eighth amendment to the Criminal Law of the People's Republic of China.This brought about the broadest changes ever made to the law-to be precise, to 50 items that involve 49 legal matters.While reducing the number of crimes punishable by death, the amended Criminal Law provides for additional instances of leniency for senior citizens and minors who are convicted of a crime.

  19. Première datation U_Pb des orthogneiss œillés de la zone axiale de la Montagne noire (Sud du Massif central) : nouveaux témoins du magmatisme ordovicien dans la chaîne VarisqueU_Pb dating of Augen orthogneisses from the Axial Zone of the Montagne Noire (Southern of Massif Central): new witness of Ordovician magmatism into the Variscan Belt (United States)

    Roger, Françoise; Respaut, Jean-Patrick; Brunel, Maurice; Matte, Philippe; Paquette, Jean-Louis


    We present new U-Pb results on felsic Augen orthogneisses from the Axial Zone of the Montagne Noire (French Massif Central). The data indicate Ordovician ages, 456±3 and 450±6 Ma for two samples collected at 'Pont-de-Larn' and 'Gorges d'Héric', respectively. These ages are interpreted as the igneous emplacement age of the granitic protolith. To cite this article: F. Roger et al., C. R. Geoscience 336 (2004).

  20. Letter Report for Characterization of Biochar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amonette, James E.


    On 27 November 2012, a bulk biochar sample was received for characterization of selected physical and chemical properties. The main purpose of the characterization was to help determine the degree to which biochar would be suitable as a soil amendment to aid in growth of plants. Towards this end, analyses to determine specific surface, pH, cation-exchange capacity, water retention, and wettability (i.e. surface tension) were conducted. A second objective was to determine how uniform these properties were in the sample. Towards this end, the sample was separated into fractions based on initial particle size and on whether the material was from the external surface or the internal portion of the particle. Based on the results, the biochar has significant liming potentials, significant cation-retention capacities, and highly variable plant-available moisture retention properties that, under the most favorable circumstances, could be helpful to plants. As a consequence, it would be quite suitable for addition to acidic soils and should enhance the fertility of those soils.

  1. International Large Detector. Letter of intent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoeck, Holger [Sydney Univ., NSW (Australia). Falkiner High Energy Physics Group; Bergauer, Thomas; Dragicevic, Marko [Oesterreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Vienna (AT). Inst. fuer Hochenergiephysik] (and others)


    In the summer of 2007, the GLD concept study group, whose membership was largely based in Asia, and the LDC concept study group, which was mostly based in Europe with a strong north american membership, joined forces to produce a single Letter of Intent for a detector at the International Linear Collider, and formed the ILD concept group. Both the GLD and LDC concepts used the particle flow algorithm for jet reconstruction and a TPC for the central tracker. The basic parameters of the two concepts such as the size of the detector and the strength of the solenoid field, however, were quite different and had to be unified in order to write this letter of intent for ILD. Also, other critical details such as the interaction region design had to be unified. This was a non-trivial task, neither politically nor sociologically. The newly-formed concept study group, the ILD group, created a management team and engaged in intense studies to define the ILD detector concept by scientifically optimising the detector designs. The process has worked remarkably well, and we present here the outcome of this study as well as the large amount of studies that preceded separately by the two older concept groups. The ILD detector concept is now well defined, even though some technology choices are still open. One of the merits of unifying the detector concepts was that it revitalised the studies on physics performance and detector designs. We believe that the level of sophistication of the simulation and physics analyses has reached a high degree of sophistication for a detector group at this stage. This was achieved through collaboration and competition, and is the result of a productive learning process. The unification had also positive effects on the subdetector R and D efforts. Most R and D on detector technologies relevant to the GLD and LDC groups is being performed within the framework of detector R and D collaborations such as LCTPC, SiLC, CALICE, and FCAL which pursue their

  2. Secret letters cast light on Copenhagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durrani, Matin


    Letters by Niels Bohr that have been kept secret since his death could explain the mystery of why Werner Heisenberg visited him in Copenhagen in 1941. When the author Michael Frayn spent two years writing Copenhagen, he had no idea how successful the play would become. He doubted that audiences would sit through a historical drama about a war-time meeting between Werner Heisenberg - head of Germany's nuclear programme - and his old mentor Niels Bohr in the Nazi-occupied Danish capital in 1941. But Frayn's efforts paid off. Audiences and critics alike have thrilled at the way the award-winning play probes the historical uncertainty that surrounds the encounter. Was Heisenberg fishing for information about the Allies' atomic plans - or was he trying to recruit Bohr for Germany's bomb programme? Did Heisenberg want to suggest that the Germans were close to finishing a bomb so that the Allies would make peace with Hitler? Maybe he was simply seeking approval from Bohr for his own atomic work. There is also a moral debate: did Heisenberg know how to build a bomb, but decided not to - or did he want to build one, but got his calculations wrong? Unfortunately, no-one was there to record or observe the encounter and we cannot know for sure what was said or implied between the two men. All we do know is that the pair dined together and took a short walk - and that the incident damaged Bohr and Heisenberg's friendship forever. To piece together what happened, historians of science have had to rely on Heisenberg's post-war recollections - which have been ambiguous and contradictory - along with scraps of evidence from secondary sources. (U.K.)

  3. Code-switching in letter writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.S. Sobahle


    Full Text Available The study sets out to investigate code switching in letter writing among a small group ofXhosa speaking people. Code switching is found in informal speech and informal writing. It was established from the data that the closer people are, the more code switching there is. Code switching seems to follow a pattern in that it was observed to occur: (a only with certain people (b when talking about certain topics (c when wanting to exclude another person (d when emphasising a point. Code switching also appears to have a 'grammar' of its own. It is not in any way a pidgin. It is clear from the data that code switching does not reflect denial of one's identity. English, being the medium of education for Blacks in South Africa, is therefore bound to be reflected not only in their speech but also in their writing. Die studie het ten doe/ om registeroorskakeling in die skryf van briewe deur 'n klein groepie Xhosasprekendes te ondersoek. Registeroorskakeling word gevind in informele spraak en informele skryfwerk. Daar is uit die data vasgestel dat hoe intiemer mense is hoe meer vind registeroorskakeling plaas. Volgens waarneming blyk dit dat registeroorskakeling 'n patroon volg, want dit het voorgekom: (a net by sekere mense (b wanneer oor sekere onderwerpe gepraat is (c wanneer 'n ander per soon uitgeskakel is (d wanneer 'n mening beklemtoon is. Registeroorskakeling blyk 'n eie grammatika te he. Dit is geensins "pidgin" nie. Dit blyk uit data dat die skrywer se identiteit nie verlore raak tydens registeroorskakeling nie. Omdat Engels die medium van onderrig vir Swartes in Suid-Afrika is, sal dit noodwendig nie net in hulle spraak nie, maar ook in hul skryfwerk gereflekteer word.

  4. 78 FR 7784 - Health Information Technology Policy Committee Nomination Letters (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE Health Information Technology Policy Committee Nomination Letters AGENCY: Government... Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) established the Health Information Technology Policy...

  5. Politeness Strategies in Good-news Business Letters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕争; 李纳


    This paper analyzes the presentation of politeness in good-news business letters at the lexical,syntactic,and discourse levels based on Leech's Politeness Principle and Brown and Levinson's Face-saving Theory.

  6. Sept 2013 NFHL Letter of Map Revision (LOMR) (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL) data incorporates all Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map(DFIRM) databases published by FEMA, and any Letters Of Map Revision...

  7. 50 CFR 216.259 - Modifications to Letters of Authorization. (United States)


    ... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND... in the Gulf of Mexico § 216.259 Modifications to Letters of Authorization. (a) Except as provided...

  8. [Letter of Concurrence : Meredosia National Wildlife Refuge Sport Fishing Plan (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This letter states that the Illinois Department of Conservation concurs with Meredosia NWR's efforts to establish a public use program on the Refuge.

  9. Toward a statistical mechanics of four letter words

    CERN Document Server

    Stephens, Greg J


    We consider words as a network of interacting letters, and approximate the probability distribution of states taken on by this network. Despite the intuition that the rules of English spelling are highly combinatorial (and arbitrary), we find that maximum entropy models consistent with pairwise correlations among letters provide a surprisingly good approximation to the full statistics of four letter words, capturing ~92% of the multi-information among letters and even "discovering" real words that were not represented in the data from which the pairwise correlations were estimated. The maximum entropy model defines an energy landscape on the space of possible words, and local minima in this landscape account for nearly two-thirds of words used in written English.

  10. Consultation letters for medically unexplained physical symptoms in primary care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoedeman, Rob; Blankenstein, Annette H.; van der Feltz-Cornelis, Christina M.; Krol, Boudien; Stewart, Roy; Groothoff, Johan W.; van der Feltz-Cornelis, CM


    Background In primary care between 10% and 35% of all visits concern patients with medically unexplained physical symptoms (MUPS). MUPS are associated with high medical consumption, significant disabilities and psychiatricmorbidity. Objectives To assess the effectiveness of consultation letters (CLs

  11. Love letters to the dead: resurrecting an epistolary art. (United States)

    Lander, Dorothy A; Graham-Pole, John R

    This article explores the art of letter-writing, specifically to our beloved dead, as a form of autoethnographic research, pedagogy, and care work. As university teachers and qualitative researchers in palliative and end-of-life care, we review the literature and history of epistolary communications with the deceased, as a prelude to writing our own letters. John writes to his long-dead mother and Dorothy to her recently deceased spouse Patrick, each letter followed by a reflective dialogue between us. Through this dialogue, we highlight the potential application of this art, or handcraft, to formal and informal palliative care, and the implications for practice, pedagogy, policy, and research. We propose that such direct, non-mediated, communications can offer a valuable form of healing for bereaved people. The therapeutic potential of letter writing and the abundance of literary and popular culture exemplars of responses from the dead are also largely unexplored in death education and research.

  12. Resource Letter PE-1: Physics and the Environment (United States)

    Shonle, John I.


    Presents a Resource Letter on air pollution, noise pollution, transportation, and solid waste for the purpose of acquainting college physicists with some of the literature and teaching aids. Included are five bibliographies of which four are annotated. (CC)

  13. Letter from Federal Power Commission [Havasu National Wildlife Refuge (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a letter from the Federal Power Commission to the Secretary of the Interior. It confirms that the Federal Power Commission has no plans that...

  14. Name-letter branding under scrutiny: real products, new algorithms, and the probability of buying. (United States)

    Stieger, Stefan


    People like letters matching their own first and last name initials more than nonname letters. This name-letter effect has also been found for brands, i.e., people like brands resembling their own name letters (initial or first three). This has been termed name-letter branding effect. In the present study of 199 participants, ages 12 to 79 years, this name-letter branding effect was found for a modified design (1) using real products, (2) concentrating on product names rather than brand names, (3) using five different products for each letter of the Roman alphabet, (4) asking for the buying probability, and (5) using recently introduced algorithms, controlling for individual response tendencies (i.e., liking all letters more or less) and general normative popularity of particular letters (i.e., some letters are generally preferred more than other letters).

  15. Politeness Strategies in English and Chinese Business Letters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    This paper explores similarities and differences in the application of positive and negative politeness strategies to Eng-lish and Chinese business letters and illuminates underlying causes of such similarities and differences. The results indicate that English and Chinese business letters have some common features and great discrepancies in categories and the distribution of posi-tive and negative politeness strategies. It is argued that common situational factors, different cultural backgrounds and different syntactic features result in their similarities and differences.

  16. On a Field, Sable, the Letter A, Gules——Comments on The Scarlet Letter%On a Field, Sable, the Letter A, Gules--Comments on The Scarlet Letter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Nathaniel Hawthorne's The Scarlet Letter is a moral and psychological novel which focuses on human nature and the effects of sin. This paper is divided into two parts. The first part focuses on the analysis ofa sable field and the second part is about gules letter A. Actually the two parts are the answers to where the sin is and how to achieve redemption. Hawthorne's thoughts,good wishes and artistic characters are fully expressed in it.

  17. The effects of alphabet and expertise on letter perception. (United States)

    Wiley, Robert W; Wilson, Colin; Rapp, Brenda


    Long-standing questions in human perception concern the nature of the visual features that underlie letter recognition and the extent to which the visual processing of letters is affected by differences in alphabets and levels of viewer expertise. We examined these issues in a novel approach using a same-different judgment task on pairs of letters from the Arabic alphabet with 2 participant groups: 1 with no prior exposure to Arabic and 1 with reading proficiency. Hierarchical clustering and linear mixed-effects modeling of reaction times and accuracy provide evidence that both the specific characteristics of the alphabet and observers' previous experience with it affect how letters are perceived and visually processed. The findings of this research further our understanding of the multiple factors that affect letter perception and support the view of a visual system that dynamically adjusts its weighting of visual features as expert readers come to more efficiently and effectively discriminate the letters of the specific alphabet they are viewing. (PsycINFO Database Record

  18. 78 FR 77563 - Technical Amendments (United States)


    ... eliminates the use of the Corporate Risk Information System (CRIS) for corporate credit unions and replaces... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION 12 CFR Parts 700, 701, and 704 RIN 3133-AE33 Technical Amendments AGENCY: National Credit...

  19. Automated Clustering of Similar Amendments

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva


    The Italian Senate is clogged by computer-generated amendments. This talk will describe a simple strategy to cluster them in an automated fashion, so that the appropriate Senate procedures can be used to get rid of them in one sweep.

  20. Amended Silicated for Mercury Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James Butz; Thomas Broderick; Craig Turchi


    Amended Silicates{trademark}, a powdered, noncarbon mercury-control sorbent, was tested at Duke Energy's Miami Fort Station, Unit 6 during the first quarter of 2006. Unit 6 is a 175-MW boiler with a cold-side electrostatic precipitator (ESP). The plant burns run-of-the-river eastern bituminous coal with typical ash contents ranging from 8-15% and sulfur contents from 1.6-2.6% on an as-received basis. The performance of the Amended Silicates sorbent was compared with that for powdered activated carbon (PAC). The trial began with a period of baseline monitoring during which no sorbent was injected. Sampling during this and subsequent periods indicated mercury capture by the native fly ash was less than 10%. After the baseline period, Amended Silicates sorbent was injected at several different ratios, followed by a 30-day trial at a fixed injection ratio of 5-6 lb/MMACF. After this period, PAC was injected to provide a comparison. Approximately 40% mercury control was achieved for both the Amended Silicates sorbent and PAC at injection ratios of 5-6 lbs/MMACF. Higher injection ratios did not achieve significantly increased removal. Similar removal efficiencies have been reported for PAC injection trials at other plants with cold-side ESPs, most notably for plants using medium to high sulfur coal. Sorbent injection did not detrimentally impact plant operations and testing confirmed that the use of Amended Silicates sorbent does not degrade fly ash quality (unlike PAC). The cost for mercury control using either PAC or Amended Silicates sorbent was estimated to be equivalent if fly ash sales are not a consideration. However, if the plant did sell fly ash, the effective cost for mercury control could more than double if those sales were no longer possible, due to lost by-product sales and additional cost for waste disposal. Accordingly, the use of Amended Silicates sorbent could reduce the overall cost of mercury control by 50% or more versus PAC for locations where

  1. A linguistic kaleidoscope of the Malay letter; The case of the eighteenth century official letters from the Sultanate of Buton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Suryadi


    Full Text Available The Malay letters make up the largest category of documents among the Malay manuscripts preserved at Leiden University Library, the Netherlands. The corpus represents the scope of the territories under Dutch East Indies authority during the colonial era. In fact, they are authentic documents which denote not only political contact between the local kingdoms in the Archipelago (Nusantara with the Dutch East Indies government in Batavia during colonial times but also constitute an important source for the study of the historical development of the Malay language. This essay looks at the language characters of such letters which came from the court of Buton in Southeast Sulawesi. It aims to sketch the linguistic variety of the classical Malay language represented in its eighteenth century letter-writing tradition. Having specific diction and features that confirm local influences, the language of the letters shows distinctiveness in terms of phonology, morphology and syntax.

  2. Letters to those who Dare Feel: Using Reflective Letter-Writing to Explore the Emotionality of Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Pithouse-Morgan


    Full Text Available Using reflective letter-writing as a method of generating data, a group of four researchers embarked on a collaborative autoethnographic inquiry into the emotional dimensions of researching social aspects of HIV & AIDS. In this article, we use the medium of a narrative dialogue to represent and re-examine our reflective letter-writing method. The dialogue draws attention to key features of reflective letter-writing as a collaborative autoethnographic research method and, in so doing, highlights and explores the nature, potential significance, and challenges of this method. Our discussion points to the value of a collaborative process of reflective letter-writing as a way for researchers to access and portray emotional aspects of their research experience, to deepen their engagement with these emotional dimensions, and to gain insight into their own and others' lived research experiences.

  3. Letter - Reply: Meteors in Australian Aboriginal Dreamings (United States)

    Hamacher, Duane W.


    In response to the letter by Gorelli (2010) about Hamacher & Norris (2010), he is quite right about Aboriginal people witnessing impact events in Australia. There are several oral traditions regarding impact sites, some of which were probably witnessed, as Gorelli pointed out. The Henbury craters he mentions, with a young age of only ∼ 4200 years, have oral traditions that seem to describe a cosmic impact, including an aversion to drinking water that collects in the craters in fear that the fire-devil (which came from the sun, according to an Elder) would rain iron in them again. Other impact sites, such as Gosse's Bluff crater (Tnorala in the Arrernte language) and Wolfe Creek crater (Kandimalal in the Djaru language) have associated impact stories, despite their old ages (142 Ma and ∼0.3 Ma, respectively). In addition, many fireball and airburst events are described in Aboriginal oral traditions, a number of which seem to indicate impact events that are unknown to Western science. I have published a full treatise of meteorite falls and impact events in Australian Aboriginal culture that I would like to bring to the attention of Gorelli and WGN readers (Hamacher & Norris, 2009). Although our paper was published in the 2009 volume of Archaeoastronomy, it did not appear in print until just recently, which is probably why it has gone unnoticed. Recent papers describing the association between meteorites and Aboriginal cosmology (Hamacher, 2011) and comets in Aboriginal culture (Hamacher & Norris, 2011) have also been published, and would likely be of interest to WGN readers. I heartily agree with Gorelli that oral traditions are fast disappearing, taking with them a wealth of information about not only that peoples' culture, but also about past geologic and astronomical events, such as meteorite falls and cosmic impacts (a branch of the growing field of Geomythology). There is an old saying that "when a man dies, a library goes with him". This is certainly the

  4. Using Incremental Rehearsal to Teach Letter Sounds to English Language Learners (United States)

    Rahn, Naomi L.; Wilson, Jennifer; Egan, Andrea; Brandes, Dana; Kunkel, Amy; Peterson, Meredith; McComas, Jennifer


    This study examined the effects of incremental rehearsal (IR) on letter sound expression for one kindergarten and one first grade English learner who were below district benchmark for letter sound fluency. A single-subject multiple-baseline design across sets of unknown letter sounds was used to evaluate the effect of IR on letter-sound expression…

  5. Linking the Shapes of Alphabet Letters to Their Sounds: The Case of Hebrew (United States)

    Treiman, Rebecca; Levin, Iris; Kessler, Brett


    Learning the sounds of letters is an important part of learning a writing system. Most previous studies of this process have examined English, focusing on variations in the phonetic iconicity of letter names as a reason why some letter sounds (such as that of b, where the sound is at the beginning of the letter's name) are easier to learn than…

  6. Pseudo-synesthesia through reading books with colored letters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olympia Colizoli

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Synesthesia is a phenomenon where a stimulus produces consistent extraordinary subjective experiences. A relatively common type of synesthesia involves perception of color when viewing letters (e.g. the letter 'a' always appears as light blue. In this study, we examine whether traits typically regarded as markers of synesthesia can be acquired by simply reading in color. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Non-synesthetes were given specially prepared colored books to read. A modified Stroop task was administered before and after reading. A perceptual crowding task was administered after reading. Reading one book (>49,000 words was sufficient to induce effects regarded as behavioral markers for synesthesia. The results of the Stroop tasks indicate that it is possible to learn letter-color associations through reading in color (F(1, 14 = 5.85, p = .030. Furthermore, Stroop effects correlated with subjective reports about experiencing letters in color (r(13 = 0.51, p = .05. The frequency of viewing letters is related to the level of association as seen by the difference in the Stroop effect size between upper- and lower-case letters (t(14 = 2.79, p = .014 and in a subgroup of participants whose Stroop effects increased as they continued to read in color. Readers did not show significant performance advantages on the crowding task compared to controls. Acknowledging the many differences between trainees and synesthetes, results suggest that it may be possible to acquire a subset of synesthetic behavioral traits in adulthood through training. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: To our knowledge, this is the first evidence of acquiring letter-color associations through reading in color. Reading in color appears to be a promising avenue in which we may explore the differences and similarities between synesthetes and non-synesthetes. Additionally, reading in color is a plausible method for a long-term 'synesthetic' training program.

  7. Preventive letter: doubling the return rate after gestational diabetes mellitus. (United States)

    Olmos, Pablo R; Borzone, Gisella R; Berkowitz, Loni; Mertens, Nicolás; Busso, Dolores; Santos, José L; Poblete, José A; Vera, Claudio; Belmar, Cristián; Goldenberg, Denisse; Samith, Bárbara; Acosta, Ana M; Escalona, Manuel


    To measure the impact of a "Preventive Letter" designed to encourage the return of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) mothers to follow up visit after delivery, in the context of a worldwide concern about low return rates after delivery of these patients. Mothers with GDM require medical evaluation and an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) 6 weeks after delivery, in order to: [a] confirm remission of GDM and [b] provide advice on the prevention of type 2 diabetes. In the year 2003 we developed a "Preventive Letter", containing three aspects: [a] current treatment, [b] suggested management during labor, and [c] a stapled laboratory order for OGTT to be performed 6 weeks after delivery. The return rate after delivery was assessed in two groups of GDM mothers: [a] "Without Preventive Letter" (n = 253), and "With Preventive Letter" (n = 215). Both groups, similar with respect to age (33.0 ± 5.4 and 32.3 ± 4.9 years respectively, p = 0.166) and education time (14.9 ± 1.8 and 15.0 ± 1.8 years respectively, p = 0.494), showed a significant difference in the 1-year return rate after delivery, as assessed by the Kaplan-Meier test: 32.0 % for the group "Without Preventive Letter", and 76.0 % for the group "With Preventive Letter" (p return rate after delivery of GDM mothers was 2.4 times higher in the group "With Preventive Letter" than in the group without it. We believe that this low-cost approach could be useful in other institutions caring for pregnant women with diabetes.

  8. Impact of HIV/Aids on Child Mortality before the Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy Era: A Study in Pointe-Noire, Republic of Congo

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    Camille Lallemant


    Full Text Available Few studies have documented the contribution of HIV/AIDS to mortality among children under 15 years. From June 30 to October 19, 2001, all child deaths (n=588 registered to the morgue and/or hospitals of the city of Pointe-Noire, Congo, were investigated using a combined approach including an interview of relatives and postmortem clinical and biological HIV diagnosis. Twenty-one percent of children were HIV positive, while 10.5% of deaths were attributed to AIDS. The most common causes of death in HIV-infected children were pneumonia (30%, pyrexia (22%, diarrhoea (16% and wasting syndrome (16%. Infant mortality rate was estimated 6.3 times higher in children born to HIV-infected mothers compared to HIV-uninfected mothers. This study provides a direct measure of HIV/AIDS as impact on child mortality using a rapid and reliable method. A significant number of deaths could be prevented if HIV infection was diagnosed earlier and infants were provided with antiretroviral treatments.

  9. Pilar Miró y el revival del noir en los noventa: Beltenebros y la femme fatale en proceso de de(construcción

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    Eva París-Huesca


    Full Text Available Pilar Miró ha marcado el inicio de unas pautas en el nuevo cine negro de autoría femenina. Su proyecto fílmico Beltenebros desafía algunas de las convenciones visuales y narrativas más representativas que refuerzan el arquetipo de la femme fatale, redefiniendo los roles de(l género y cuestionando la mirada tradicional masculina. A pesar del escaso reconocimiento que la directora ha recibido en el nuevo cine negro español, su trayectoria fílmica la convierte en una de las pioneras de este género multiforme en su vertiente más retro-noir. Asimismo, el film saca a relucir los diferentes modos de violencia que el patriarcado ejerce sobre el cuerpo femenino y facilita el proceso de desmasculinización del cine negro por medio del juego de intertextos y de referencias metafílmicas que privilegian un discurso femenino.

  10. Retention of aqueous {sup 226}Ra fluxes from a sub-aqueous mill tailings disposal at the Bois Noirs site (Loire, France)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courbet, Christelle; Simonucci, Caroline; Dauzeres, Alexandre; Matray, Jean-Michel [French Institute for Radiation protection and Nuclear Safety - IRSN, Radiation Protection Division - PRP, Nuclear Waste and Geosphere Department - DGE, SRTG/LETIS, B.P. 17, 92262 Fontenay-Aux-Roses (France); Bassot, Sylvain [French Institute for Radiation protection and Nuclear Safety - IRSN, Radiation Protection Division - PRP, Nuclear Waste and Geosphere Department - DGE, SRTG/LAME, B.P. 17, 92262 Fontenay-Aux-Roses (France); Mangeret, Arnaud [French Institute for Radiation protection and Nuclear Safety - IRSN, Radiation Protection Division - PRP, Nuclear Waste and Geosphere Department - DGE, SEDRAN/BRN, B.P. 17, 92262 Fontenay-Aux-Roses (France)


    This study focuses on a sub-aqueous mill tailings disposal site located in France (Bois Noirs) where 1.3 million tons of uranium mill sludge (fine tailings fraction < 50 μm) have been disposed since the 60's in a man-made pond below 4 meters of water maintained artificially by a rock-fill dam. A significant attenuation of aqueous {sup 226}Ra activity is observed in ground waters. This paper presents the preliminary modeling work performed for evaluating the role of water-rock interactions on aqueous {sup 226}Ra attenuation through the dam. This modeling attempt, assuming thermodynamic equilibrium, aims at checking the hydrochemical conceptual model developed in a previous study, in which Ra retention through the dam was assumed to most likely result from sorption onto metallic oxide-hydroxides. A 2D coupled reactive transport model was conceived to test this hypothesis over time and identify the measurements required to verify its consistency over the long term. (authors)

  11. Les «Amériques Noires» de Roger Bastide: un modèle pour une analyse anthropologique des styles de vie

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    Michel Daccache


    Full Text Available Le nom de Roger Bastide est généralement associé à la sociologie des religions du Brésil. On peut cependant trouver dans son œuvre un paradigme pertinent pour une analyse anthropologique des styles de vie. Dans Les Amériques Noires, il propose une analyse des luttes ayant pour enjeu la définition et l'appropriation des biens et des pratiques culturels légitimes, ce qu'il nomme la «bataille des races pour l'égalisation», faisant suite à l'abolition de l'esclavage. Il s'intéresse notamment à trois faits sociaux constitutifs de styles de vie différents: la pratique de l'équitation, les pastorales et le carnaval. L'étude de cas proposée par R. Bastide a pour vertu de rendre particulièrement visible la logique de la distinction au principe de l'établissement de différents styles de vie. Elle fonctionne ainsi comme un miroir grossissant permettant d'objectiver de façon brutale les mécanismes à l'œuvre dans toute société, y compris celles dans lesquelles l'égalité formelle entre individus porte à croire que les écarts entre groupes sociaux doivent tout au hasard.

  12. Early Permian extensional shearing of an Ordovician granite: The Saint-Eutrope "C/S-like" orthogneiss (Montagne Noire, French Massif Central) (United States)

    Pitra, Pavel; Poujol, Marc; Van Den Driessche, Jean; Poilvet, Jean-Charles; Paquette, Jean-Louis


    Dating the magmatic events in the Montagne Noire gneiss dome is a key point to arbitrate between the different interpretations of the Late Carboniferous-Early Permian tectonics in this southern part of the Variscan belt. The Saint-Eutrope orthogneiss crops out along the northern flank of the dome. We show that the protolith of this orthogneiss is an Ordovician granite dated at 455 ± 2 Ma (LA-ICP-MS U-Pb dating on zircon). This age is identical to that previously obtained on the augen orthogneiss of the southern flank, strongly suggesting that both orthogneiss occurrences have the same Ordovician protolith. The Saint-Eutrope orthogneiss experienced intense shearing along the Espinouse extensional detachment at ca. 295 Ma (LA-ICP-MS U-Pb-Th on monazite), an age close to that determined previously on mica by the 39Ar-40Ar method and contemporaneous with the emplacement age of the syntectonic Montalet granite farther to the west. This normal sense shearing reworked previous fabrics related to Variscan thrusting that can be still observed in the augen orthogneiss of the southern flank, and is responsible for the spectacular "C/S-like" pattern of the Saint-Eutrope orthogneiss. This work also shows that care is needed when dealing with C/S-type structures, since they can develop not only in syntectonic intrusions, but also in orthogneisses affected by an intense secondary deformation, at decreasing temperature.


    An experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that familiarity of letter structure (as opposed to familiarity of the word ) would facilitate the...perception of the word . The results showed an interaction between letter structure familiarity and work familiarity such that while letter structure...familiarity facilitated correct identification of the letters of the word , letter structure familiarity resulted in inhibiting the perception of

  14. Extra-large letter spacing improves reading in dyslexia. (United States)

    Zorzi, Marco; Barbiero, Chiara; Facoetti, Andrea; Lonciari, Isabella; Carrozzi, Marco; Montico, Marcella; Bravar, Laura; George, Florence; Pech-Georgel, Catherine; Ziegler, Johannes C


    Although the causes of dyslexia are still debated, all researchers agree that the main challenge is to find ways that allow a child with dyslexia to read more words in less time, because reading more is undisputedly the most efficient intervention for dyslexia. Sophisticated training programs exist, but they typically target the component skills of reading, such as phonological awareness. After the component skills have improved, the main challenge remains (that is, reading deficits must be treated by reading more--a vicious circle for a dyslexic child). Here, we show that a simple manipulation of letter spacing substantially improved text reading performance on the fly (without any training) in a large, unselected sample of Italian and French dyslexic children. Extra-large letter spacing helps reading, because dyslexics are abnormally affected by crowding, a perceptual phenomenon with detrimental effects on letter recognition that is modulated by the spacing between letters. Extra-large letter spacing may help to break the vicious circle by rendering the reading material more easily accessible.

  15. Melanie Klein's letters addressed to Marcelle Spira (1955-1960). (United States)

    Quinodoz, Jean-Michel


    Between 1955 and 1960, Melanie Klein wrote some 45 hitherto unpublished letters to Marcelle Spira, the Swiss psychoanalyst living at that time in Geneva. In 2006, after Spira's death, these letters were deposited with the Raymond de Saussure Psychoanalysis Centre in Geneva. They are the only known letters that Klein addressed to her psychoanalyst colleagues. Several topics are mentioned in them: (1) the meetings between the two women in Geneva and London; (2) Spira's contribution to Boulanger's translation into French of The Psychoanalysis of Children, which Klein herself carefully revised; (3) the papers that Klein was at that time working on, including Envy and Gratitude; (4) Spira's own work; (5) the difficulties that Spira, a Kleinian psychoanalyst who trained in Buenos Aires, was encountering in her attempt to be admitted to the Swiss Psychoanalytical Society; and (6) a few items of personal and family news. In addition to the invaluable historical information that these letters provide, they offer us a very moving epistolary self-portrait of Melanie Klein, enabling us to discover her personality in the final years of her life - she died in September 1960, just two months after writing her last letter to Spira.

  16. Written work: the social functions of Research Ethics Committee letters. (United States)

    Dixon-Woods, Mary; Angell, Emma; Ashcroft, Richard E; Bryman, Alan


    Research Ethics Committees (RECs) are increasingly institutionalised as a feature of research practice, but have remained strangely neglected by social scientists. In this paper, we argue that analysis of letters from RECs to researchers offers important insights into how RECs operate. We report a traditional content analysis and an ethnographic content analysis of 141 letters to researchers, together with an analysis of the organisational and institutional arrangements for RECs in the UK. We show that REC letters perform three important social functions. First, they define what is deemed by a REC to be ethical practice for any particular application, and confer authority on that definition. They do this actively, through comments on particular aspects of proposals, and passively, through silences about other aspects. Second, they provide an account of the work of the REC, and function as a form of institutional display. Third, they specify the nature of the relationship between the REC and the applicant, casting the applicant in a supplicant role and requiring forms of docility. Writing and reading REC letters require highly specific competences, and engage both parties in a Bourdieusian "game" that discourages challenges from researchers. The authority of RECs' decisions derives not from their appeal to the moral superiority of any ethical position, but through their place in the organisational structure and the social positioning of the parties to the process thus implied. Letters are the critical point at which RECs act on researchers and their projects.

  17. Detection and identification of crowded mirror-image letters in normal peripheral vision. (United States)

    Chung, Susana T L


    Performance for discriminating single mirror-image letters in peripheral vision can be as good as that in central vision, provided that letter size is scaled appropriately [Higgins, K. E., Arditi, A., & Knoblauch, K. (1996). Detection and identification of mirror-image letter pairs in central and peripheral vision. Vision Research, 36, 331-337]. In this study, we asked whether or not there is a reduction in performance for discriminating mirror-image letters when the letters are flanked closely by other letters, compared with unflanked (single) letters; and if so, whether or not this effect is greater in peripheral than in central vision. We compared contrast thresholds for detecting and identifying mirror-image letters "b" and "d" for a range of letter separations, at the fovea and 10 degrees eccentricity, for letters that were scaled in size. For comparison, thresholds were also determined for a pair of non-mirror-image letters "o" and "x". Our principal finding is that there is an additional loss in sensitivity for identifying mirror-image letters ("bd"), compared with non-mirror-image letters ("ox"), when the letters are flanked closely by other letters. The effect is greater in peripheral than central vision. An auxiliary experiment comparing thresholds for letters "d" and "q" vs. "b" and "d" shows that the additional loss in sensitivity for identifying crowded mirror-image letters cannot be attributed to the similarity in letter features between the two letters, but instead, is specific to the axis of symmetry. Our results suggest that in the presence of proximal objects, there is a specific loss in sensitivity for processing broad-band left-right mirror images in peripheral vision.

  18. A Novel Handwritten Letter Recognizer Using Enhanced Evolutionary Neural Network (United States)

    Mahmoudi, Fariborz; Mirzashaeri, Mohsen; Shahamatnia, Ehsan; Faridnia, Saed

    This paper introduces a novel design for handwritten letter recognition by employing a hybrid back-propagation neural network with an enhanced evolutionary algorithm. Feeding the neural network consists of a new approach which is invariant to translation, rotation, and scaling of input letters. Evolutionary algorithm is used for the global search of the search space and the back-propagation algorithm is used for the local search. The results have been computed by implementing this approach for recognizing 26 English capital letters in the handwritings of different people. The computational results show that the neural network reaches very satisfying results with relatively scarce input data and a promising performance improvement in convergence of the hybrid evolutionary back-propagation algorithms is exhibited.

  19. Letters from ainsworth: contesting the 'organization' of attachment. (United States)

    Landa, Sophie; Duschinsky, Robbie


    As Main (1999) noted in her obituary for Mary Ainsworth, 'she was interacting weekly by letter and manuscript with her mentor and friend, John Bowlby, and their academic correspondence formed an important part of her, and implicitly our, life.' These letters of Ainsworth to John Bowlby during the 1980s, available in the Wellcome Trust Library in London, contain valuable reflections on the work of her pupils to extend her system of classifying infant behaviour in the Strange Situation Procedure. Mary Main proposed a D classification and interpreted such behaviour as a breakdown in an ABC strategy caused by a conflict between a disposition to approach and flee from the caregiver. Patricia Crittenden extended the subtypes of A and C, using a developmental model of information processing, and observed that they could be used together in A/C combinations. These letters offer insight into Ainsworth's intellectual rationale for encouraging both Main and Crittenden in their conflicting endeavours.

  20. Spatial representations of numbers and letters in children

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    Jan eLonnemann


    Full Text Available Different lines of evidence suggest that children’s mental representations of numbers are spatially organized in form of a mental number line. It is, however, still unclear whether a spatial organization is specific for the numerical domain or also applies to other ordinal sequences in children. In the present study, children (n = 129 aged 8-9 years were asked to indicate the midpoint of lines flanked by task-irrelevant digits or letters. We found that the localization of the midpoint was systematically biased towards the larger digit. A similar, but less pronounced, effect was detected for letters with spatial biases towards the letter succeeding in the alphabet. Instead of assuming domain-specific forms of spatial representations, we suggest that ordinal information expressing relations between different items of a sequence might be spatially coded in children, whereby numbers seem to convey this kind of information in the most salient way.

  1. The Archetypes of the Characters in The Scarlet Letter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Nathaniel Hawthorne and his works are deeply influenced by the religion and the Holy Bible.It has many corresponding relationships between the Biblical allusions and the characters,plot and theme in the Scarlet Letter.Hawthorne gave the novel symbolic characters in order to give this symbolism novel a deeper connotation,by borrowing quite a lot of the Biblical allusions.The Scarlet Letter established Hawthorne as the most important 19th century romantic novelist in the United States.This paper attempts to analyze the characteristics and the life experience of the figures in the novel,such as Hester Prynne,Chillingworth,Dimmesdale and Pearl by using the archetypal criticism.The paper also will compare the novel to the Holy Bible so that we canfind the archetypes of the Holy Bible hidden in the Scarlet Letter.

  2. The Archetypes of the Characters in The Scarlet Letter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Nathaniel Hawthorne and his works are deeply influenced by the religion and the Holy Bible.It has many corresponding relationships between the Biblical allusions and the characters,plot and theme in the Scarlet Letter.Hawthorne gave the novel symbolic characters in order to give this symbolism novel a deeper connotation,by borrowing quite a lot of the Biblical allusions.The Scarlet Letter established Hawthorne as the most important 19 th century romantic novelist in the United States.This paper attempts to analyze the characteristics and the life experience of the figures in the novel,such as Hester Prynne,Chillingworth,Dimmesdale and Pearl by using the archetypal criticism.The paper also will compare the novel to the Holy Bible so that we can find the archetypes of the Holy Bible hidden in the Scarlet Letter.

  3. Romanian letter-writing: a cultural-rhetorical perspective (II

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    Gabriela-Iuliana Morcov


    Full Text Available The article aims at revealing the features of Romanian letter-writing during its stages of formation and consolidation. The structural and the stylistic analysis of letters is carried out with regard to the composition of the documents written in Old Romanian according to the requirements imposed by the Slavonic template and with regard to the rhetorical division of the three styles: the simple style, the middle style and the grand style. The description of the Old Romanian epistolary style is based on a taxonomy inspired by Roman Jakobson’s functional communicative model (1964. Following the six factors identified by Jakobson, letters are classified according to the socio-cultural status and the communicative competence of the addresser and of the addressee and in line with the context, the channel and the linguistic code used to write them.

  4. Musical expertise affects neural bases of letter recognition. (United States)

    Proverbio, Alice Mado; Manfredi, Mirella; Zani, Alberto; Adorni, Roberta


    It is known that early music learning (playing of an instrument) modifies functional brain structure (both white and gray matter) and connectivity, especially callosal transfer, motor control/coordination and auditory processing. We compared visual processing of notes and words in 15 professional musicians and 15 controls by recording their synchronized bioelectrical activity (ERPs) in response to words and notes. We found that musical training in childhood (from age ~8 years) modifies neural mechanisms of word reading, whatever the genetic predisposition, which was unknown. While letter processing was strongly left-lateralized in controls, the fusiform (BA37) and inferior occipital gyri (BA18) were activated in both hemispheres in musicians for both word and music processing. The evidence that the neural mechanism of letter processing differed in musicians and controls (being absolutely bilateral in musicians) suggests that musical expertise modifies the neural mechanisms of letter reading.

  5. A common left occipito-temporal dysfunction in developmental dyslexia and acquired letter-by-letter reading?

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    Fabio Richlan

    Full Text Available We used fMRI to examine functional brain abnormalities of German-speaking dyslexics who suffer from slow effortful reading but not from a reading accuracy problem. Similar to acquired cases of letter-by-letter reading, the developmental cases exhibited an abnormal strong effect of length (i.e., number of letters on response time for words and pseudowords.Corresponding to lesions of left occipito-temporal (OT regions in acquired cases, we found a dysfunction of this region in our developmental cases who failed to exhibit responsiveness of left OT regions to the length of words and pseudowords. This abnormality in the left OT cortex was accompanied by absent responsiveness to increased sublexical reading demands in phonological inferior frontal gyrus (IFG regions. Interestingly, there was no abnormality in the left superior temporal cortex which--corresponding to the onological deficit explanation--is considered to be the prime locus of the reading difficulties of developmental dyslexia cases.The present functional imaging results suggest that developmental dyslexia similar to acquired letter-by-letter reading is due to a primary dysfunction of left OT regions.

  6. On the Elements of Tragedy in The Scarlet Letter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    As the masterpiece of Nathaniel Hawthorn’s writing, The Scarlet Letter not only brings him fame forever, but also gives us more about people’s life in Puritan society in 17th. Since this novel is so important and excellent, the thesis mainly focus-es on probing into the theme of elements of tragedy in The Scarlet Letter. According to the whole story, the love tragedy is attrib-uted to four factors: the Puritan beliefs of original sin, the attitude of public on love outside marriage, the personalities of the main characters, and the differences between dream and reality.

  7. An Analysis of the Symbolic Colors in The Scarlet Letter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Kai-lin


    Nathaniel Hawthorn is the greatest American romantic novelist during the nineteenth century. He is skillful at the using of symbolism in his works, especially in his masterpiece The Scarlet Letter. Hawthorn is a writer with art talent, who uses differ-ent colors to enhance the artistic effects of The scarlet Letter. Colors emerging on the most occasions are used as a mayor form of symbolism to reflect the character’s feelings, personalities and fates. This paper aims to elaborate the usage of colors as a form of symbolism in three parts:the symbolic meaning of red, the symbolic meaning of black, and the symbolic meaning of grey.

  8. Resource Letter SOP-1: Self-Organizing Physics (United States)

    Jacobs, Donald T.


    This Resource Letter introduces the reader to an area of physics where systems can self-organize to a particular shape or behavior that, while dynamically changing, is surprisingly robust. The self-organization is due to the complex interactions that typically preclude explanation from just the forces among adjacent molecules or objects. How one recognizes such systems and explains their behavior is the topic of this Resource Letter. Some systems exhibit universal behavior that is well documented and understood, but other systems are just now being investigated.

  9. Letters of Gold: Enabling Primitive Accumulation through Neoliberal Conservation


    Büscher, Bram


    textabstractAbstract: In Capital I, Marx wrote that the history of the separation of the producers from the means of production “is written in the annals of mankind in letters of blood and fire” (Marx, 1976: 875). This ‘so-called primitive accumulation’, or ‘accumulation by dispossession’ in David Harvey’s words, continues unabated. Yet, its framing has changed considerably. Increasingly, capitalists have tried to avoid writing primitive accumulation in ‘letters of blood and fire’. Instead, t...

  10. Resource Letter: Research-based Assessments in Physics and Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Madsen, Adrian; Sayre, Eleanor C


    This resource letter provides a guide to research-based assessments (RBAs) of physics and astronomy content. These are standardized assessments that were rigorously developed and revised using student ideas and interviews, expert input, and statistical analyses. RBAs have had a major impact on physics and astronomy education reform by providing a universal and convincing measure of student understanding that instructors can use to assess and improve the effectiveness of their teaching. In this resource letter, we present an overview of all content RBAs in physics and astronomy by topic, research validation, instructional level, format, and themes, to help faculty find the best assessment for their course.

  11. Dear Hacker Letters to the Editor of 2600

    CERN Document Server

    Goldstein, Emmanuel


    Actual letters written to the leading hackers' magazine. For 25 years, 2600: The Hacker Quarterly has given voice to the hacker community in all its manifestations. This collection of letters to the magazine reveals the thoughts and viewpoints of hackers, both white and black hat, as well as hacker wannabes, technophiles, and people concerned about computer security. Insightful and entertaining, the exchanges illustrate 2600 's vast readership, from teenage rebels, anarchists, and survivalists to law enforcement, consumer advocates, and worried parents.: 2600: The Hacker Quarterly has been the

  12. Effects of ocular transverse chromatic aberration on near foveal letter recognition. (United States)

    Yang, Shun-nan; Tai, Yu-chi; Laukkanen, Hannu; Sheedy, James


    Transverse chromatic aberration (TCA) smears retinal images of peripheral stimuli. In reading, text information is extracted from both foveal and near fovea, where TCA magnitude is relatively small and variable. The present study investigated whether TCA significantly affects near foveal letter identification. Subjects were briefly presented a string of five letters centered one degree of visual angle to the left or right of fixation. They indicated whether the middle letter was the same as a comparison letter subsequently presented. Letter strings were rendered with a reddish fringe on the left edge of each letter and a bluish fringe on the right edge, consistent with expected left periphery TCA, or with the opposite fringe consistent with expected right periphery TCA. Effect of the color fringing on letter recognition was measured by comparing the response accuracy for fringed and non-fringed stimuli. Effects of lateral interference were examined by manipulating inter-letter spacing and similarity of neighboring letters. Results demonstrated significantly improved response accuracy with the color fringe opposite to the expected TCA, but decreased accuracy when consistent with it. Narrower letter spacing exacerbated the effect of the color fringe, whereas letter similarity did not. Our results suggest that TCA significantly reduces the ability to recognize letters in the near fovea by impeding recognition of individual letters and by enhancing lateral interference between letters.

  13. Visual and Artistic Functions of Letters Khaghani’s Poetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. M. Zolfaghari

    Full Text Available The intensity of emotion and vibration of meaning in the poet's mind causes him to go beyond the ordinary language and through metaphors, similes and linguistic preparation he conveys intellectual and emotional meanings. He has a sharp eye and a sensitive spirit and creative temprement and by inventing new images shows the creativity and imagination in various arenas and attempts in the way of literary strength and creating personal style and this point more than anything else must be done by presenting images and newness. Perhaps in the sixth century, and especially in Azerbaijani school, more than other periods, poets have been looking for creating innovative style in eloquence. Their major attempts were mainly in imaging, it was a wide field that they have competed and it is natural that in this illustration the alphabet letters would be very helpful. Khaghani poetry as one of the greatest poets of this school has the perfect poetrical book of painting and meaning, and delicated pattern in new and different scientific, cultural and religious paintings and letters are a broad range of elements that put a new field in front of the poet and he is aware of the potential features of the letters and also the new images and the artistic creativity.This paper shows descriptive - analytical study of various aspects of Khaghani’s poetry and frequency of letters in the alphabet, authentic images based on alphabet, taken at different pseudo relevance of poetry in the context of multiple semantic and literal characters, making figures of speech based on literary characters, images and characters and the sense of connection . . . which has been shown in his poetry.Letter has double and even multiple uses in Khaghani poetic works (divan and more than the construction of words which is the real and common sense that is used as an artistic. There is a world in the heart of every letter, word and morpheme lies in the poet's point of view is the last and

  14. How do we code the letters of a word when we have to write it? Investigating double letter representation in French. (United States)

    Kandel, Sonia; Peereman, Ronald; Ghimenton, Anna


    How do we code the letters of a word when we have to write it? We examined whether the orthographic representations that the writing system activates have a specific coding for letters when these are doubled in a word. French participants wrote words on a digitizer. The word pairs shared the initial letters and differed on the presence of a double letter (e.g., LISSER/LISTER). The results on latencies, letter and inter-letter interval durations revealed that L and I are slower to write when followed by a doublet (SS) than when not (ST). Doublet processing constitutes a supplementary cognitive load that delays word production. This suggests that word representations code letter identity and quantity separately. The data also revealed that the central processes that are involved in spelling representation cascade into the peripheral processes that regulate movement execution.

  15. 77 FR 76452 - Amended Geographical Territory for Champaign-Danville Grain Inspection Departments, Inc.; Amended... (United States)


    ... Administration Amended Geographical Territory for Champaign-Danville Grain Inspection Departments, Inc.; Amended.... SUMMARY: Champaign-Danville Grain Inspection Department, Inc.'s (Champaign) geographical territory is... Champaign's amended geographical territory. The designation of Champaign will end on March 31, 2013. We...

  16. Extensive microbial mats and their influences on the erosional and depositional dynamics of a siliciclastic cold water environment (Lower Arenigian, Montagne Noire, France) (United States)

    Noffke, N.


    Lower Arenigian (Ordovician) rocks of the Montagne Noire, France, represent a shallow-marine environment of a high latitude position along the northern margin of Gondwana. Within the weakly metamorphosed siliciclastics six depositional units were recognized: (1) outer shelf; (2) foreshore zone, below wave base; (3) foreshore zone, above wave base; (4) sand bars of shoreface zone; (5) intertidal deposits; and (6) lagoonal zone. Wrinkle structures and various other phenomena were mediated by coherent (cyano-)bacterial mats. The structures can be related to the different facies zones of the paleoenvironment. Whereas the muddy outer shelf, and the high-energetic sand bars were not overgrown by any mat-constructing microbial populations, fine sands of the foreshore zone, the tidal flats and lagoonal areas were widely colonized. Restriction of mats due to competition of space by endobenthic macroorganisms, or by grazers was low. The microbially induced structures are composed of organic material, pyrite, clay minerals (illite, chamsonite, chlorite), and chert. The minerals precipitated in situ during degradation of the organic layers by the activity of heterotrophic bacteria at low temperatures. Because the microorganisms formed a dense organic carpet covering extensive areas of the ancient sea-bottom, they influenced significantly the erosional and depositional dynamics of the sedimentary system of the local Arenigian. Biostabilization counteracted erosion, and baffling, trapping and binding enriched mineral particles. Additionally, the in situ formed minerals contributed to the total amount of sediment. The biotic influence lead to increased accumulation of sediment within the depositional area. The study shows that microbial mats of great extension occur within Phanerozoic siliciclastics of cold paleoclimate zones, and that preservation of the mat fabrics was possible. The significant mats influenced the local sedimentary system, an aspect scarcely taken into account

  17. From word superiority to word inferiority: Visual processing of letters and words in pure alexia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habekost, Thomas; Petersen, Anders; Behrmann, Marlene


    tasks for all patients, and this pattern was more pronounced in the more severely affected patients. The relationship between performance with single letters and words was, however, not straightforward: One patient performed within the normal range on the letter perception task, while being severely...... impaired in letter naming and word processing, and performance with letters and words was dissociated in all four patients, with word reading being more severely impaired than letter recognition. This suggests that the word reading deficit in pure alexia may not be reduced to an impairment in single letter...

  18. A Mentoring Opportunity: A Joint Effort in Writing Letters of Recommendation. (United States)

    Master, Zubin


    Integrity in writing letters of recommendation is important to academic research because it is an influential criterion used pervasively in peer review. While research in the integrity of recommendation letters has concentrated on contents of the letter, bias, and reliability, few have questioned the process of letter writing. Here, I argue that letter writing should be a joint opportunity between mentor/supervisor/advisor and trainee. It results in more compelling letters, may prevent errors and the use of biased language, and serves as an excellent mentoring opportunity promoting self-reflection.

  19. 77 FR 58301 - Technical Amendment; Airworthiness Standards: Aircraft Engines; Correction (United States)


    ... Technical Amendment entitled, ``Airworthiness Standards: Aircraft Engine'' (77 FR 39623). In that technical... Administration 14 CFR Part 33 RIN 2120-AF57 Technical Amendment; Airworthiness Standards: Aircraft Engines... technical amendment, the FAA clarified aircraft engine vibration test requirements in the...

  20. Friday Letters: Connecting Students, Teachers, and Families through Writing (United States)

    Newman, Terry H.; Bizzarri, Sarah A.


    An important part of student success in school is the involvement of families. However, the communication between students and families regarding school is often sparse at best and caregivers can feel left out as to what is happening. Friday letters improve communication between students and families and also provide a myriad of instructional…

  1. Grooming the Victim: An Analysis of a Perpetrator's Seduction Letter. (United States)

    Singer, Mark I.; And Others


    This paper reviews the literature on the sexual victimization of adolescent males, with emphasis on victim selection factors and strategies. A letter written by a middle-aged man to entice a teenage boy into sexual activity is then presented and analyzed. (DB)

  2. Letters from a suicide: Van Gogh and his sister. (United States)

    Lester, David


    An analysis of trends over a 3-yr. period in the letters of Vincent Van Gogh to his sister as the time of his suicide approached identified 8 trends, including an increase in words concerned with anxiety and words concerned with the past.

  3. Letters of Gold: Enabling Primitive Accumulation through Neoliberal Conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.E. Büscher (Bram)


    textabstractAbstract: In Capital I, Marx wrote that the history of the separation of the producers from the means of production “is written in the annals of mankind in letters of blood and fire” (Marx, 1976: 875). This ‘so-called primitive accumulation’, or ‘accumulation by dispossession’ in David H

  4. A Genre-based Analysis of English Refusal Letters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The present study analyzes ten English refusal letters of two subcategories based on Swales ’genre analysis model and finds that difference exists in the generic features of the two subcategorized types. Teachers should reveal the underlying rationale behind linguistic features of a specific genre so that students can not only identify genre but also apply it appropriately.

  5. Resource Letter FNP-1: Frontiers of nuclear physics (United States)

    Bertsch, G. F.


    This Resource Letter provides a bibliography of the current research activities in nuclear physics and also a guide for finding useful nuclear data. The major areas included are nuclear structure and reactions, symmetry tests, nuclear astrophysics, nuclear theory, high-density matter, and nuclear instrumentation.

  6. Model business letters, emails and other business documents

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, Shirley


    For anyone who wants to communicate effectively in business, this is your complete reference guide for any form of written communication. Packed with over 500 sample documents, over 100 tips for better business writing and useful templates you can apply to your writing immediately, Model Business Letters will help you put the key rules of good business writing into action.

  7. Underlying Cause(s) of Letter Perseveration Errors (United States)

    Fischer-Baum, Simon; Rapp, Brenda


    Perseverations, the inappropriate intrusion of elements from a previous response into a current response, are commonly observed in individuals with acquired deficits. This study specifically investigates the contribution of failure-to activate and failure-to-inhibit deficit(s) in the generation of letter perseveration errors in acquired…

  8. 33 CFR 401.68 - Explosives Permission Letter. (United States)


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Explosives Permission Letter. 401.68 Section 401.68 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Dangerous Cargo § 401.68...

  9. A Cohesive and Coherent Analysis of The Purloined Letter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜娟娟; 郭鸿雁


      The thesis aims to do a research on the cohesion and coherence in The Purloined Letter written by Edgar Allan Poe based on the theories of Halliday and Hasan as well as the Chinese scholars Zhang Delu and Liu Rushan. By the means of them, Poe’s ingenious composition and vivid characters emerge in the mind of the readers.

  10. Word-initial letters influence fixation durations during fluent reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Hand


    Full Text Available The present study examined how word-initial letters influence lexical access during reading. Eye movements were monitored as participants read sentences containing target words. Three factors were independently manipulated. First, target words had either high or low constraining word-initial letter sequences (e.g., dwarf or clown, respectively. Second, targets were either high or low in frequency of occurrence (e.g., train or stain, respectively. Third, targets were embedded in either biasing or neutral contexts (i.e., targets were high or low in their predictability. This 2 (constraint × 2 (frequency × 2 (context design allowed us to examine the conditions under which a word’s initial letter sequence could facilitate processing. Analyses of fixation duration data revealed significant main effects of constraint, frequency, and context. Moreover, in measures taken to reflect early lexical processing (i.e., first and single fixation duration, there was a significant interaction between constraint and context. The overall pattern of findings suggests lexical access is facilitated by highly constraining word-initial letters. Results are discussed in comparison to recent studies of lexical features involved in word recognition during reading.

  11. The letter of submission: avoiding the promotional genre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaw, Philip; Okamura, Akiko


    Functionally the letter of submission accompanying an article submitted to a journal is promotional, but it does not have the form one would expect from e.g. Bhatia 1993. Instead it is extremely brief and uninformative. This reflects the so-called Utilitarian Discourse which is a shared feature...

  12. Relations among Early Object Recognition Skills: Objects and Letters (United States)

    Augustine, Elaine; Jones, Susan S.; Smith, Linda B.; Longfield, Erica


    Human visual object recognition is multifaceted and comprised of several domains of expertise. Developmental relations between young children's letter recognition and their 3-dimensional object recognition abilities are implicated on several grounds but have received little research attention. Here, we ask how preschoolers' success in recognizing…

  13. 26 CFR 601.201 - Rulings and determinations letters. (United States)


    ... not merely incorporated by reference, and must be accompanied by an analysis of their bearing on the... requirements for establishing that translations of foreign law are satisfactory as evidence for purposes of... taxpayer believes that a determination letter of this type is in error, he may ask the district director...

  14. The Psychological Reflection of Hawthorn in the Scarlet Letter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Yan-qing


    The Scarlet Letter is Nathaniel Hawthorne’s masterpiece, representing the height of Hawthorne’s literary genius. This thesis tries to reveal part of the author’s psychological activities, repressed feelings from his childhood from analyzing the main characters, especially Hester, the mother and Pearl, the daughter.

  15. 33 CFR 157.204 - Letter of acceptance. (United States)


    ...) POLLUTION RULES FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks on Tank Vessels General § 157.204 Letter of acceptance. The Coast Guard... submitted under § 157.202 show that the dedicated clean ballast tank system meets this subpart....

  16. Just keep it simple : a field experiment on fundraising letters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkers, René; Crutzen, Olaf


    This paper studies how the use of a colour picture in fundraising letters affect response rates and the amount donated in a fundraising campaign. Envelopes, with a full colour picture were tested against envelopes, without a picture in a controlled field experiment at a national religious charity in

  17. CNPC Signed New Contracts and Letters with ESSO Corp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Rujin; Li Qing


    @@ On April 7, 1995 two petroleum contracts, concerning the deep horizons in the northwest of Songliao Basin and Dafenshan-Eboliang Block in Qaidam Basin and two letters of intent for petroleum cooperation were signed in Beijing by Zhuo Yongkang,Vice President , CNPC and Jon L.Thompson, President, Esso Exploration Company.

  18. Cold-induced vasodilation : letter to the editor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daanen, H.A.M.


    Reactie op: Flouris, et al. Effect of body temperature on cold induced vasodilationa. Eur J Applied Phys 2008;104:491-499. De aurteurs hebben daar weer een reply op geschreven; Flouris AD, Cheung SS (2009) Authors’ response to H. Daanen’s ‘cold-induced vasodilation’ letter. Eur J Appl Physiol 106:31

  19. SPS Research into superconductivity highlighted in Physical Review Letters



    Research conducted by Dr Jorge Quintanilla as part of an international collaboration has been chosen as an Editors' Suggestion on the Physical Review Letters website. The full article can be accessed here. Below is a summary from Dr Quintanilla about what the research was and how it is useful.

  20. Functional communication within a perceptual network processing letters and pseudoletters. (United States)

    Herdman, Anthony T


    Many studies have identified regions within human ventral visual stream to be important for object identification and categorization; however, knowledge of how perceptual information is communicated within the visual network is still limited. Current theories posit that if a high correspondence between incoming sensory information and internal representations exists, then the object is rapidly identified, and if there is not, then the object requires extra detailed processing. Event-related responses from the present magnetoencephalography study showed two main effects. The N1m peak latencies were approximately 15 milliseconds earlier to familiar letters than to unfamiliar pseudoletters, and the N2m was more negative to pseudoletters than to letters. Event-related beamforming analyses identified these effects to be within bilateral visual cortices with a right lateralization for the N2m effect. Furthermore, functional connectivity analyses revealed that gamma-band (50-80 Hz) oscillatory phase synchronizations among occipital regions were greater to letters than to pseudoletters (around 85 milliseconds). However, during a later time interval between 245 and 375 milliseconds, pseudoletters elicited greater gamma-band phase synchronizations among a more distributed occipital network than did letters. These findings indicate that familiar object processing begins by at least 85 milliseconds, which could represent an initial match to an internal template. In addition, unfamiliar object processing persisted longer than that for familiar objects, which could reflect greater attention to inexperienced objects to determine their identity and/or to consolidate a new template to aid in future identification.

  1. RL-PER1: Resource Letter on Physics Education Research. (United States)

    McDermott, Lillian C.; Redish, Edward F.

    The purpose of this resource letter is to provide an overview of research on the learning and teaching of physics. The references have been selected to meet the needs of two groups of physicists engaged in physics education. The first is the growing number whose field of scholarly inquiry is (or might become) physics education research. The second…

  2. Resource Letter PhD-1: Physics Demonstrations. (United States)

    Davis, John A.; Eaton, Bruce G.


    This resource letter is an annotated bibliography aimed at individuals who have recently become interested in lecture demonstrations in physics. Listed are 103 printed sources of information on lecture demonstrations. Whenever possible, annotations are followed by reviews so that other opinions can be consulted. (BT)

  3. Letters Home as an Alternative to Lab Reports (United States)

    Lane, W. Brian


    The traditional lab report is known to create several pedagogical shortcomings in the introductory physics course, particularly with regard to promoting student engagement and encouraging quality writing. This paper discusses the use of a "letter home" written to a non-physicist as an alternative to lab reports that creates a more…

  4. Resource Letter TPB-1: Theoretical Physics and Biology (United States)

    MacDonald, N.


    This is one of a series of Resource Letters on different topics, intended to guide college physicists to some of the literature and other teaching aids. This bibliography is designed to help physicists identify literature related to mathematical biology. (Author/RH)

  5. Authors' response to the letter from Kalleian Eserian et al

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riet-Nales, D.A. van; Doeve, M.E.; Nicia, A.E.; Teerenstra, S.; Notenboom, K.; Hekster, Y.A.; Bemt, B.J.F van den


    This letter is a response to the comments of Kalleian Eserian et al. on our study relating to the accuracy, precision and sustainability of six tablet splitters and a kitchen knife as an alternative to breaking paracetamol 500mg tablets by hand. We would like to inform the readers of International J

  6. Research on the Attitude towards Lettered-words in Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Lettered words have sprouted in all kinds of situations and many kinds of media, which has been a very common phenomenon. This essay focuses on the relationship between the attitudes and the factors such as age, sex, and the educational background, trying to find some correlation between them, which is important also in the language policy.

  7. The Effects of Sin in The Scarlet Letter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴希博; 逯海涛


    "Sin" plays a very important role in the understanding of Hawthorne's "psychological romance"- The Scarlet Letter. The paper introduces the major view that influences him--the Puritan doctrine of "original sin" so as to investigate Hawthorne's own attitudes towards the sin and the effects of sin on the two main characters in the novel.

  8. "Letter-Space": Typographic Translations of Urban Place (United States)

    Naismith, Jacqueline; O'Sullivan, Annette


    This article discusses a Bachelor of Design honours year typography project in the medium of letterpress. The "Letter-space" project positioned letterpress as a textual, spatial and structural visual language, through which the experiences and meanings of a local urban place were translated, mapped and given form through typographic design. We…

  9. Documentary Letters of Credit, Legal Nature and Sources of Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alavi Hamed


    Full Text Available There is no doubt about risky nature of international trade. Such risk can be conceptualized as country risk, transportation risk, customer risk and etc. Documentary Letters of Credit (LC are used as a method of payment in international business for many centuries in order to reduce risk of trade specially when parties are located in different countries and do not have precise information from financial standing of each other. In such occasion LC will reduce the risk of trade by shifting payment obligation from buyer as an individual to a payment guarantee of a bank as a legal entity in return for presentation of complying documents with terms of credit by seller. Familiarity with legal nature and different legal frameworks which govern the international operation of documentary letters of credit can facilitate the process of international trade for businessmen and boost national economies. However, lack of knowledge about them can impose huge losses on international traders. Situation will be more complicated when we understand that there are many internationally recognized legal frameworks which can affect the operation of LC and they get frequently updated in order to address technological and economic developments in global market. In this paper, author tries to answer questions regarding (i what are international legal frameworks governing operation of documentary letters of credit? (ii which areas of LC operation has been covered by them and (iii how do they address the legal questions regarding international operation of documentary letters of credit?

  10. Tactile Perception and Braille Letter Recognition: Effects of Developmental Teaching. (United States)

    Mangold, Sally S.


    The extent to which a developmental program of tactile perception and braille letter recognition would affect errors in these abilities and reduce scrubbing and backtracking behaviors of 30 legally blind braille users (5-15 years old) was studied. (Author/BD)

  11. Transposed-Letter Priming across Inflectional Morpheme Boundaries (United States)

    Zargar, Ehsan Shafiee; Witzel, Naoko


    This study reports findings from two experiments testing whether a transposed-letter (TL) priming effect can be obtained when the transposition occurs across morphological boundaries. Previous studies have primarily tested derivationally complex words or compound words, but have not examined a more rule-based and productive morphological…

  12. Discourse Strategies of Italian and English Sales Promotion Letters (United States)

    Vergaro, Carla


    This article describes a contrastive study on rhetorical differences between Italian and English sales promotion letters. It is assumed that cultural differences affect discourse genres traditionally considered as standardized, ritual or even formulaic, written business communication being a case in point. It was our goal to investigate how…

  13. Color associations for days and letters across different languages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rouw, R.; Case, L.; Gosavi, R.; Ramachandran, V.


    While colors are commonplace in everyday metaphors, relatively little is known about implicit color associations to linguistic or semantic concepts in a general population. In this study, we test color associations for ordered linguistic concepts (letters and days). The culture and language specific

  14. 谈谈字母词%Talk about letter words

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    随着现代社会的发展和中外交流的加强,字母词作为一种新型词语为人们广泛使用。本文讨论了字母词的概念及五种分类,字母词由于对外开放、与国际接轨、日常交际和语用心理影响而流行,并且对字母词具有结构简单及形象直观,含蓄委婉和轻松幽默的表达功效进行概括性分析,让人们正视字母词的使用从而引导语言的健康发展。%With the quick development of the modern society and the enhanced communication between China and abroad, letter words as newly developed, has been widely adopted by people. This paper will discuss the definition and five categories of letter words, explaining such factors leading to the popularity of letter words as the characteristics of open quality and daily dialogue, conforming with the international use, and the influence of pragmatic psychological. Also, the paper will summarize the expression efficiency of letter words including the simple construction and visual pattern, implicit, lively and humorous properties, which make people have a better understanding of the letter words and guide the healthy development of the language.

  15. 15 CFR 1160.7 - Amendment of procedures. (United States)


    ...) TECHNOLOGY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE PRODUCTIVITY, TECHNOLOGY AND INNOVATION Promotion of Private Sector Industrial Technology Partnerships § 1160.7 Amendment of procedures. The right to amend...

  16. 77 FR 65256 - IFR Altitudes; Miscellaneous Amendments (United States)


    ... MEA Sec. 95.6001 VICTOR ROUTES--U.S. Sec. 95.6001 VOR FEDERAL AIRWAY V1 Is Amended to Read in Part... FEDERAL AIRWAY V263 Is Amended To Read in Part HUGO, CO VOR/DME *LIMEX, CO FIX **10000 *10000--MRA...

  17. 14 CFR 17.45 - Conforming amendments. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conforming amendments. 17.45 Section 17.45 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PROCEDURAL RULES PROCEDURES FOR PROTESTS AND CONTRACTS DISPUTES Finality and Review § 17.45 Conforming amendments. The...

  18. 42 CFR 457.60 - Amendments. (United States)


    ... Child Health Insurance Programs and Outreach Strategies § 457.60 Amendments. A State may seek to amend....490. (6) Cost-sharing as described in § 457.505. (7) Screen and enroll procedures, and other Medicaid... changes in the type of non-health care related revenues used to generate general revenue....

  19. 75 FR 24790 - IFR Altitudes; Miscellaneous Amendments (United States)


    ... Ascot, TX FIX Solon, TX FIX *4000 *1500-MOCA Cleep, TX FIX *Legge, TX FIX 3100 *3000-MRA Napoleon, MO... Amended to Read in Part Holly Springs, MS VORTAC......... Gilmore, AR VOR/DME..... 2500 Napoleon, MO... Napoleon, MO VORTAC Lamoni, IA VORTAC....... 2900 Sec. 95.6163 VOR Federal Airway V163 is Amended to...

  20. Strategic Implications of Japan Amending Its Constitution (United States)


    quo. Under the 11 leadership of Prime Ministers Junichiro Koizumi (2001-2006) and Shinzo Abe (2006- 2007), the movement to amend Article 9 picked up...amend the Constitution, Prime Minister Abe abruptly resigned in 2007 amidst scandals unrelated to his Article 9 ambitions. His successor, Yasuo Fukuda

  1. Substituted-Letter and Transposed-Letter Effects in a Masked Priming Paradigm with French Developing Readers and Dyslexics (United States)

    Lete, Bernard; Fayol, Michel


    The aim of the study was to undertake a behavioral investigation of the development of automatic orthographic processing during reading acquisition in French. Following Castles and colleagues' 2007 study ("Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 97," 165-182) and their lexical tuning hypothesis framework, substituted-letter and…

  2. An audit of letters of referral to a prosthodontic department in a dental teaching hospital. (United States)

    Fenlon, Michael R; Glick, Shiri; Sherriff, Martyn


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the quality and number of letters of referral for new patients received in the Prosthodontics Department of a Dental Teaching Hospital. Letters received during the month of May 2006 were included. Each letter of referral was tested against five criteria which might be expected in an appropriate letter of referral. These were information on the following: relevant dental history, relevant medical history, teeth present, diagnosis, and treatment plan. The results showed that only 8% of letters met all five criteria and 11% met none of them. Letters requesting better information were sent to referring practitioner as a result of this audit. However a re-audit in May 2007 showed that 9% of letters met all five criteria and 15% met none of them. A need has been identifiedfor better referral letters and ways of achieving this were discussed.

  3. Letter about Ivory-billed Woodpecker on Allan Grey Estate (Dahomey NWR) (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Letter contains historic information regarding ivory-billed woodpecker occurance on Dahomey NWR prior to World War II. Letter found in museum in PA by Dr. Jerome...

  4. Retinal Locus and the Identification of Tachistoscopically Presented Letters by Retarded and Nonretarded Individuals (United States)

    Mosley, James L.


    Two-letter stimulus displays, differing in the magnitude of the horizontal spatial separation between the letters, were presented tachistoscopically to 10 retarded and 1 nonretarded adults. (Author/CL)

  5. Teaching letter sounds to kindergarten English language learners using incremental rehearsal. (United States)

    Peterson, Meredith; Brandes, Dana; Kunkel, Amy; Wilson, Jennifer; Rahn, Naomi L; Egan, Andrea; McComas, Jennifer


    Proficiency in letter-sound correspondence is important for decoding connected text. This study examined the effects of an evidence-based intervention, incremental rehearsal (IR), on the letter-sound expression of three kindergarten English language learners (ELLs) performing below the district benchmark for letter-sound fluency. Participants were native speakers of Hmong, Spanish, and Polish. A multiple-baseline design across sets of unknown letter sounds was used to evaluate the effects of IR on letter-sound expression. Visual analysis of the data showed an increase in level and trend when IR was introduced in each phase. Percentage of all non-overlapping data (PAND) ranged from 95% to 100%. All participants exceeded expected growth and reached the spring district benchmark for letter-sound fluency. Results suggest that IR is a promising intervention for increasing letter-sound expression for ELLs who evidence delays in acquiring letter sounds.

  6. Les noirs a l’heure de l’indépendance jamaïcaine : histoire d’une majorité marginale Blacks at a time of Jamaican independence : the story of a marginal majority

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antony Ceyrat


    Full Text Available L’article s’intéresse à la construction de l’identité noire en Jamaïque lors de l’indépendance obtenue du Royaume-Uni en 1962. Dominée par les Euro-créoles, paupérisée et confrontée à une offre politique nationale inadaptée, la population africaine souffre de l’absence d’une identité noire institutionnalisée, diluée dans le « nationalisme multiracial créole ». Ce travail met en lumière l’importance de l’histoire et des problématiques de la mémoire dans le processus de construction des identités sociales et souligne le rôle central de la culture dans les luttes de pouvoir.The article deals with the status of a Black identity in Jamaica when it became independent from the United Kingdom in 1962. Dominated by the Euro-Creoles, pauperized and facing an inadequate political offer, the African population suffers from the lack of an institutionalized blackness, melted into “Creole multiracialism”. This study highlights the importance of history and memory issues in the process of building up social identities, and underlines the central role of culture in conflicts of power.

  7. Le vieillissement de la flotte pétrolière et les marées noires dans les années 80 Aging of the Oil Tanker Fleet and Major Oil Spills in the 1980s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smets H.


    Full Text Available Le vieillissement de la flotte pétrolière au cours des années à venir pourrait entraîner un accroissement du nombre et du volume des marées noires. L'examen de divers scénarios de contraction de la flotte pétrolière et de mise hors service des navires âgés permet cependant de conclure que la fréquence et le volume des marées noires en 1990 ne devraient pas excéder de façon très sensible les valeurs observées actuellement et pourraient même être inférieurs. The aging of the oil tanker fleet in the years to come could result in an increase in the number and volume of major oil spills. However, an examination of different scenarios for reducing the tanker fleet and for deactivating the older ships leads to the conclusion that the frequency and volume of major oil spills in 1990 should not be appreciably greater than the levels now observed and even that they could be somewhat less.

  8. Higher-contrast requirements for recognizing low-pass-filtered letters. (United States)

    Kwon, MiYoung; Legge, Gordon E


    Kwon and Legge (2011) found that high levels of letter recognition accuracy are possible even when letters are severely low-pass filtered (0.9 cycles per letter). How is letter recognition possible with such severe reduction in the spatial resolution of stimulus letters? Clues may come from understanding the possible interaction between contrast and spatial resolution in letter recognition. Here, we asked what the effect is on the contrast threshold for detecting and recognizing letters as the spatial-frequency cutoff of letters is reduced (in cycles per letter). We measured contrast thresholds of seven normally sighted subjects for detecting and recognizing single letters of the English alphabet. The letters were low-pass filtered with several cutoff frequencies (0.9-3.5 cycles per letter, including unfiltered letters). We found that differences in contrast thresholds between detection and recognition increased substantially with decreasing cutoff frequency. We also incorporated the human contrast sensitivity function into an ideal observer model and found qualitatively good agreement between the pattern of performance for the model and our human subjects. Our findings show that the human visual system requires higher contrast for letter recognition when spatial resolution is severely limited. Good agreement between the model and human subjects shows that the greater contrast requirement for recognizing low-pass letters is due to a reduction in the information content of the letters rather than a change in human visual processing. The reduction in stimulus information may be due to increasing stimulus similarity associated with a reduction in spatial-frequency cutoff.

  9. Latin Classics in the Letters of Saint Jerome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julijana Visočnik


    Full Text Available Saint Jerome, one of the most important Latin Fathers of the Church, was born in the 4th century AD in the town of Stridon, located somewhere on the border between Pannonia and Dalmatia. After finishing elementary school in his home town, he continued his education in Rome with the well-known teacher and grammarian Aelius Donatus, becoming acquainted with all the important Latin classics. In Rome, Jerome was baptised and after that he decided to become a monk. He dedicated his life to God and started writing prayers, translating the Bible and correcting its existing translations, and engaging in criticisms and polemics caused by contemporary events and practices. He also wrote over 120 letters, which were addressed to various people, some of them famous in their own right and some known today precisely through his writings. A lot of variety can be found in his letters: some of them are just short answers, while others grew to be independent books including discussions about moral, exegetic, and dogmatic questions. Letter XXII was written in the year 384 AD as an instruction for the virgin life of Julia Eustochium. In chapter 30, the reader is introduced to some facts about Jerome's life, as well as to the statement: "Ciceronianus es, non Christianus." This he heard in his feverish dreams, nightmares even, in which he was told not to read pagan literature any more. He promised not to, but the question inevitably arises if this was possible. He had already read and learnt by heart so many Latin classics that it was impossible for him to ignore them. Therefore it comes as no surprise that his writings are permeated with echoes of, or borrowings from, Horace, Virgil, Terence, Cicero, Plautus, Lucretius, Persius, Ovid, Martial, Quintilian, and Seneca. His letters also preserve a number of passages from their works. The Latin authors most frequently mentioned in the letters are Virgil, Horace, and Cicero - writers whose works were used as examples in

  10. The A.I.D.A. Plan and the Writing of Sales Letters. (United States)

    Jong, Rowena

    A study based on textual analysis of sales letters is reported that evaluates the Attention, Interest, Desire, and Action (AIDA) approach to teaching the writing of sales letters. Thirty business letters written by undergraduate business students and executives were analyzed. The forms of cohesion, voice pattern, and information focus of the…

  11. Developmental Changes during Childhood in Single-Letter Acuity and Its Crowding by Surrounding Contours (United States)

    Jeon, Seong Taek; Hamid, Joshua; Maurer, Daphne; Lewis, Terri L.


    Crowding refers to impaired target recognition caused by surrounding contours. We investigated the development of crowding in central vision by comparing single-letter and crowding thresholds in groups of 5-year-olds, 8-year-olds, 11-year-olds, and adults. The task was to discriminate the orientation of a Sloan letter E. Single-letter thresholds,…

  12. Experience-dependent hemispheric specialization of letters and numbers is revealed in early visual processing. (United States)

    Park, Joonkoo; Chiang, Crystal; Brannon, Elizabeth M; Woldorff, Marty G


    Recent fMRI research has demonstrated that letters and numbers are preferentially processed in distinct regions and hemispheres in the visual cortex. In particular, the left visual cortex preferentially processes letters compared with numbers, whereas the right visual cortex preferentially processes numbers compared with letters. Because letters and numbers are cultural inventions and are otherwise physically arbitrary, such a double dissociation is strong evidence for experiential effects on neural architecture. Here, we use the high temporal resolution of ERPs to investigate the temporal dynamics of the neural dissociation between letters and numbers. We show that the divergence between ERP traces to letters and numbers emerges very early in processing. Letters evoked greater N1 waves (latencies 140-170 msec) than did numbers over left occipital channels, whereas numbers evoked greater N1s than letters over the right, suggesting letters and numbers are preferentially processed in opposite hemispheres early in visual encoding. Moreover, strings of letters, but not single letters, elicited greater P2 ERP waves (starting around 250 msec) than numbers did over the left hemisphere, suggesting that the visual cortex is tuned to selectively process combinations of letters, but not numbers, further along in the visual processing stream. Additionally, the processing of both of these culturally defined stimulus types differentiated from similar but unfamiliar visual stimulus forms (false fonts) even earlier in the processing stream (the P1 at 100 msec). These findings imply major cortical specialization processes within the visual system driven by experience with reading and mathematics.

  13. Epistolary and Emotional Education: The Letters of an Irish Father to His Daughter, 1747-1752 (United States)

    Ruberg, Willemijn


    The letters Bishop Edward Synge (1691-1762) wrote to his daughter Alicia (1733-1807) in 1747-1752 are discussed to show how correspondence from a father to a daughter could be used to teach a teenage girl how to spell and write letters. Moreover, these letters are an excellent source to show how emotional behaviour was taught. Instructions on…

  14. I'm Gonna Sit Right Down and Write Someone a Letter. [Lesson Plan]. (United States)

    National Endowment for the Humanities (NFAH), Washington, DC.

    This lesson plan uses fascinating letters (written by people famous, infamous, and ordinary, some of whom lived through extraordinary times), as a starting point for discussion of and practice in the conventions and purposes of letter-writing. Its 10 lessons seek to make students able to: (1) list at least 5 conventions of letter writing; (2) cite…

  15. Learning of Letter Names Follows Similar Principles across Languages: Evidence from Hebrew (United States)

    Treiman, Rebecca; Levin, Iris; Kessler, Brett


    Letter names play an important role in early literacy. Previous studies of letter name learning have examined the Latin alphabet. The current study tested learners of Hebrew, comparing their patterns of performance and types of errors with those of English learners. We analyzed letter-naming data from 645 Israeli children who had not begun formal…

  16. 78 FR 73450 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Preparation of Letter of Offer and Acceptance... (United States)


    ... Regulation Supplement: Preparation of Letter of Offer and Acceptance (DFARS Case 2012-D048) AGENCY: Defense... of ] the letter of offer and acceptance for a foreign military sales program that will require an... activity in preparing the letter of offer and acceptance for a foreign military sales program that...

  17. 78 FR 28793 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Preparation of Letter of Offer and Acceptance... (United States)


    ... Regulation Supplement: Preparation of Letter of Offer and Acceptance (DFARS Case 2012-D048) AGENCY: Defense... officer role in assisting the DoD implementing agency in preparation of the letter of offer and acceptance... to assist the DoD implementing activity in preparing the letter of offer and acceptance for a...

  18. 46 CFR 308.522 - Collateral deposit fund, letter of transmittal, Form MA-302. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Collateral deposit fund, letter of transmittal, Form MA-302. 308.522 Section 308.522 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY... Collateral deposit fund, letter of transmittal, Form MA-302. The standard form of letter of transmittal...

  19. Biochar as a soil amendment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medyńska-Juraszek Agnieszka


    Full Text Available Biochar is a carbonaceous product of biomass pyrolysis under limited oxygen conditions. Due to the very good sorption properties material is used as a soil amendment. In recent years, much attention has been paid to biochar as a potential tool improving soil properties and fertility. The most important benefits of its use in agriculture is a significant increase of sorption capacity, reduced nutrient leaching, as well as slow release of macro- and microelements essential for plant growth, liming effect, increased water holding capacity, improved biological properties, resulting in an increase in crop yields. The aim of the study is to summarize the knowledge about the impact of biochar on soil environment, as well as identify areas and directions for future research on biochar application in soils impacted by human activities

  20. Letter case and text legibility in normal and low vision. (United States)

    Arditi, Aries; Cho, Jianna


    It is thought by cognitive scientists and typographers alike, that lower-case text is more legible than upper-case. Yet lower-case letters are, on average, smaller in height and width than upper-case characters, which suggests an upper-case advantage. Using a single unaltered font and all upper-, all lower-, and mixed-case text, we assessed size thresholds for words and random strings, and reading speeds for text with normal and visually impaired participants. Lower-case thresholds were roughly 0.1 log unit higher than upper. Reading speeds were higher for upper- than for mixed-case text at sizes twice acuity size; at larger sizes, the upper-case advantage disappeared. Results suggest that upper-case is more legible than the other case styles, especially for visually-impaired readers, because smaller letter sizes can be used than with the other case styles, with no diminution of legibility.

  1. Martyrs' last letters: are they the same as suicide notes? (United States)

    Leenaars, Antoon A; Ben Park, B C; Collins, Peter I; Wenckstern, Susanne; Leenaars, Lindsey


    Of the 800,000 suicides worldwide every year, a small number fall under Emile Durkheim's term of altruistic suicides. Study on martyrdom has been limited. There has to date, for example, been no systematic empirical study of martyr letters. We examined 33 letters of Korean self-immolators, compared with 33 suicide notes of a matched sample of more common suicides. An analysis of intrapsychic factors (suicide as unbearable pain, psychopathology) and interpersonal factors (suicide as murderous impulses and need to escape) revealed that, although one can use the same psychological characteristics or dynamics to understand the deaths, the state of mind of martyrs is more extreme, such that the pain is reported to be even more unbearable. Yet, there are differences, such as there was no ambivalence in the altruistic notes. It is concluded that intrapsychic and interpersonal characteristics are central in understanding martyrs, probably equal to community or societal factors. More forensic study is, however, warranted.

  2. Letter: supplementary pyridoxine given to women using oral contraceptives. (United States)

    Winston, F


    This letter is a response to an article describing the efficacy of administering large doses of tryptophan to depressive patients taking oral contraceptives. This letter-writer argues that the salient action of mood elevation is a result of the supplemental pyridoxine (vitamin B) which ameliorates the deficiency induced by oral contraceptive use that leads to depression resulting from inhibition of synthesis of biogenic amines in the central nervous system. Instead of large doses of tryptophan, which may cause dangerous accumulations of possibly carcinogenic and diabetogenic metabolites when therapy for depression is indicated, pyridoxine should be administered together with the tryptophan; the tryptophan should be discontinued once the deficiency is corrected, although the vitamin therapy should continue throughout oral contraceptive use.

  3. Resource Letter ANP-1: Advances in Neutrino Physics (United States)

    Goodman, Maury C.


    Three of the twelve fundamental fermions in particle physics are neutrinos. It was long thought that neutrinos might be massless, but we now know through the phenomenon of neutrino oscillations that neutrinos have mass. This resource letter will cover the history of the growth in our knowledge about neutrinos since they were first proposed in the 1930s, and also covers some up the upcoming experiments which will further our understanding of neutrino properties. Results from experiments are described that use various sources of neutrinos including nuclear reactors, cosmic rays, accelerators, and supernovae. In this resource letter, the resources that can be used to trace the past, present, and anticipated future advances in neutrino physics are reviewed.

  4. La negritudine come antidoto antropo-poetico all’alienazione linguistica dell’Occidente: riflessioni sull’Orphée noir di J.-P. Sartre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo A. Augeri


    Full Text Available Abstract – This chapter is intended as a critical re-reading of Orphée noir by Jean-Paul Sartre, which is an introduction, written by the French philosopher, to the anthology of French-speaking poets of the Third World, edited by L. Sedar Senghor, entitled: Anthologie de la nouvelle poésie nègre et malgache de langue française (1948. Analysing Sartre’s text again today has a dual theoretical importance regarding the alternative semantics needed to make sense of the diversity of the African culture, of ‘negritude’ which, in its ‘western’ meaning, has always stemmed from a vocabulary of white domination justifying the reduction of blacks to slaves, and which is also an inherent aesthetic energy of the poetic word, whose symbolic nature guarantees an understanding of the logical language of the ‘other’ who is defined as ‘wild’ by the restricted rationality of the functional western culture – and yet s/he is ‘deeply human’ insofar as s/he makes use of the imaginative and emotional language of the universal consciousness. The writings of Sartre seem to have no time limit when considering the topical relevance of his thought, which is open to the overcoming of every closed identity, including that of ‘negritude’ – which must be a liberating symbolic tradition to be abandoned, however, in the name of humanistic identity that is open to the recognition of the dignified condition of a human being from any culture, from any geo-historical area in the world. The objective of every culture, in fact, must be to liberalize the ‘human’ dimension of a human being tout-court, beyond every border and every tradition – History will decide which populations emancipate others in a particular period. Then, this task moves onto other nations, a pattern which repeats itself over time, which crosses the historical events of every human and humanistic process towards the goal of a conscious and democratically civil existence.

  5. Resource Letter HCMP-1: History of Condensed Matter Physics (United States)

    Martin, Joseph D.


    This Resource Letter provides a guide to the literature on the history of condensed matter physics, including discussions of the development of the field and strategies for approaching its complicated historical trajectory. Following the presentation of general resources, journal articles and books are cited for the following topics: conceptual development; institutional and community structure; social, cultural, and political history; and connections between condensed matter physics and technology.

  6. Covert attention enhances letter identification without affecting channel tuning. (United States)

    Talgar, Cigdem P; Pelli, Denis G; Carrasco, Marisa


    Directing covert attention to the target location enhances sensitivity, but it is not clear how this enhancement comes about. Knowing that a single spatial frequency channel mediates letter identification, we use the critical-band-masking paradigm to investigate whether covert attention affects the spatial frequency tuning of that channel. We find that directing attention to the target location halves threshold energy without affecting the channel's spatial frequency tuning.

  7. LETTER TO THE EDITOR: Explicit finite inverse Hilbert transforms (United States)

    You, Jiangsheng; Zeng, Gengsheng L.


    Recently, Noo and coworkers discovered an explicit inversion formula for the finite Hilbert transform, which is very important to accurate reconstruction from truncated projections. This letter presents two formulae for the finite inverse Hilbert transform using some elementary complex variable analysis. The new formulae do not contain the constant C and the singular endpoints that exist in the formula in Noo et al (2004 Phys. Med. Biol. 49 3903-23).

  8. Letter to Freud: on the plight of psychoanalysis. (United States)

    Mendes, Dinah M


    In the form of a letter, the writer communicates to Freud her appreciation for the incomparable richness and complexity of the psychoanalytic enterprise in its century-long evolution from classical, Freudian origins to new developments in theory and technique. At the same time, concern is expressed about the continuity and survival of psychoanalysis in a cultural milieu that has absorbed its once radical ideas about sexuality and unconscious motivation while resisting its viability as a method of treatment.

  9. Forensic linguistics: Applications of forensic linguistics methods to anonymous letters


    NOVÁKOVÁ, Veronika


    The title of my bachelor work is ?Forensic linguistics: Applications of forensic linguistics methods to anonymous letters?. Forensic linguistics is young and not very known branch of applied linguistics. This bachelor work wants to introduce forensic linguistics and its method. The bachelor work has two parts ? theory and practice. The theoretical part informs about forensic linguistics in general. Its two basic aspects utilized in forensic science and respective methods. The practical part t...

  10. Resource Letter PSEn-1: Physics and society: Energy (United States)

    Hobson, Art


    This Resource Letter provides a guide to the physics-related literature about energy-and-society. Journal articles, books, and websites are cited for the following topics: general references, textbooks, other pedagogical resources, population growth, fossil fuels, global warming, nuclear power, side effects of nuclear power, fusion power, renewable resources (including hydroelectric, biofuels, wind, photovoltaics, direct solar, geothermal, hydrogen, and energy storage), energy efficiency, and transportation efficiency.

  11. The “Sin” Analysis in The Scarlet Letter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The Scarlet Letter,one of the immortal representatives of Romanticism literature makes the American writer Nathaniel Hawthorne known around the world.The unique organization of the novel,the skillful use of symbolism and metaphor demonstrate the writer’s profound insight and unique view of the society and the human nature,which make the“sin”rise to a higher level.

  12. The “Sin” Analysis in The Scarlet Letter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The Scarlet Letter,one of the immortal representatives of Romanticism literature makes the American writer Nathaniel Hawthorne known around the world.The unique organization of the novel,the skillful use of symbolism and metaphor demonstrate the writer’s profound insight and unique view of the society and the human nature,which make the"sin"rise to a higher level.

  13. Resource Letter DEAU-1: Dark energy and the accelerating universe (United States)

    Linder, Eric V.


    This Resource Letter provides a guide to the literature on dark energy and the accelerating universe. It is intended to be of use to researchers, teachers, and students at several levels. Journal articles, books, and websites are cited for the following topics: Einstein's cosmological constant, quintessence or dynamical scalar fields, modified cosmic gravity, relations to high-energy physics, cosmological probes and observations, terrestrial probes, calculational tools and parameter estimation, teaching strategies and educational resources, and the fate of the universe.

  14. Physics Letters B, Volume 716, Issue 1- Cover Page

    CERN Multimedia



    The cover page of the Physics Letters B Journal, Volume 716, Issue 1, dedicated to the observation of a new particle in the search for the Standard Model Higgs boson. To celebrate this historical discovery, Elsevier reprinted the ATLAS and the CMS articles together with a foreword by Peter Higgs and the other scientists that predicted the existence of the so-called Higgs boson and published this in a separate booklet.

  15. Analysis of the Sin in The Scarlet Letter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Nathaniel Hawthorne's novel, The Scarlet Letter, describes the different sins, their different attitudes to sins and their ends and mainly discusses the problems of sin and redemption, which reflects that to live is to suffer from sins and atone for sins, whereas the death is a way of relief and access to rebirth. This paper mainly discusses the novel's theme, namely, the sin committed by the three characters.

  16. Open letter to the Italian Ministry of University and Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Grady K


    Full Text Available Open letter to the Minister of Italian University. The government should get advice from the best Italian scientists for the necessary reform of the Italian University, with special concern to crucial processes as the appointment of new professors and academic evaluation. The current government proposal for a random draw of evaluation committees in charge for the appointment of new professors is considered as a wrong solution and harmful tool for dealing with such a crucial process.

  17. Gender Differences in Iranian EFL Students’ Letter Writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somaye Hamdi asl


    Full Text Available Studies regarding gender differences in EFL context have been done for many years. However, it seems that writing, which is a vital skill in academic issues, has gained much less attention in this area. In addition, not having enough knowledge of gender differences for teachers is one of the main barriers of language learning. The current study examines gender differences in Iranian EFL students’ letter writing in terms of 13 linguistic features mentioned in Mulac, Bradac, & Gibbons (2001. The results of this study showed significant differences toward the use of some linguistic features. Female participants tended to use more “I” references, references to quantity, references to emotions, uncertainty verbs, sentence initial adverbials and judgmental adjectives. In addition, the results showed than women tended to be wordier than men in terms of total number of words. Men, on the other hand, exceeded women on a number of linguistic dimensions including locatives, mean length sentence and dependent clauses. Moreover, elliptical sentences were not used by female participants at all and few male participants used them in their letters. Therefore, this study demonstrated gender differences in Iranian EFL students’ letter writing. These dissimilarities between genders in EFL can be contributed to many aspects such as educational instructions, teachers, and cultural differences. It also illustrated teachers’ perspectives of gender regarding students’ writing.Keywords: Gender, Writing, Linguistic Features

  18. Letters from Ainsworth: Contesting the ‘Organization’ of Attachment (United States)

    Landa, Sophie; Duschinsky, Robbie


    As Main (1999) noted in her obituary for Mary Ainsworth, ‘she was interacting weekly by letter and manuscript with her mentor and friend, John Bowlby, and their academic correspondence formed an important part of her, and implicitly our, life.’ These letters of Ainsworth to John Bowlby during the 1980s, available in the Wellcome Trust Library in London, contain valuable reflections on the work of her pupils to extend her system of classifying infant behaviour in the Strange Situation Procedure. Mary Main proposed a D classification and interpreted such behaviour as a breakdown in an ABC strategy caused by a conflict between a disposition to approach and flee from the caregiver. Patricia Crittenden extended the subtypes of A and C, using a developmental model of information processing, and observed that they could be used together in A/C combinations. These letters offer insight into Ainsworth’s intellectual rationale for encouraging both Main and Crittenden in their conflicting endeavours. PMID:23667365

  19. [The letters preserved by Vittorio Benussi 'Fund Sante de Sanctis']. (United States)

    Cicciola, Elisabetta; Lombardo, Giovanni Pietro


    Through the publication of a previously unpublished exchange of letters, this paper examines the relations between the Italian psychologists Sante De Sanctis and Vittorio Benussi. The collaboration between the two scholars, which emerges from the 23 letters presented here, was solid and long-lasting both on the scientific plane and on the personal one. It began in 1905 on the occasion of the Fifth International Congress of Psychology held in Rome, and it terminated more than 20 years later, in 1927, with the death of Benussi, who took his own life. The Benussi-De Sanctis correspondence (1905-1927) is part of a archive, denominated the "Sante De Sanctis (1893-1935) Archive," which has been recently constituted on the basis of commonly shared archival criteria. In order to facilitate a better understanding of the general context of Sante De Sanctis's scientific relations, the Appendix contains an analytical list, divided into 170 files, of all those who sent letters to him between 1893 and 1935.

  20. Accurate reading with sequential presentation of single letters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Seow Chiang Price


    Full Text Available Rapid, accurate reading is possible when isolated, single words from a sentence are sequentially presented at a fixed spatial location. We investigated if reading of words and sentences is possible when single letters are rapidly presented at the fovea under user-controlled or automatically-controlled rates. When tested with complete sentences, trained participants achieved reading rates of over 60 words/minute and accuracies of over 90% with the single letter reading (SLR method and naive participants achieved average reading rates over 30 wpm with >90% accuracy. Accuracy declined as individual letters were presented for shorter periods of time, even when the overall reading rate was maintained by increasing the duration of spaces between words. Words in the lexicon that occur more frequently were identified with higher accuracy and more quickly, demonstrating that trained participants have lexical access. In combination, our data strongly suggest that comprehension is possible and that SLR is a practicable form of reading under conditions in which normal scanning of text is not possible, or for scenarios with limited spatial and temporal resolution such as patients with low vision or prostheses.

  1. ERP Indices of Stimulus Prediction in Letter Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith Kaan


    Full Text Available Given the current focus on anticipation in perception, action and cognition, including language processing, there is a need for a method to tap into predictive processing in situations in which cue and feedback stimuli are not explicitly marked as such. To this aim, event related potentials (ERPs were obtained while participants viewed alphabetic letter sequences (“A”, “B”, “C”, “D”, “E”, …, in which the letters were highly predictable, and random sequences (“S”, “B”, “A”, “I”, “F”, “M”, …, without feedback. Occasionally, the presentation of a letter in a sequence was delayed by 300 ms. During this delay period, an increased negativity was observed for predictive versus random sequences. In addition, the early positivity following the delay was larger for predictive compared with random sequences. These results suggest that expectation-sensitive ERP modulations can be elicited in anticipation of stimuli that are not explicit targets, rewards, feedback or instructions, and that a delay can strengthen the prediction for a particular stimulus. Applications to language processing will be discussed.

  2. Letter Frequency Analysis of Lithuanian and Other Languages Using the Latin Alphabet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gintautas Grigas


    Full Text Available It is important to evaluate specificities of alphabets, particularly the letter frequencies while designing keyboards, analyzing texts, designing games based on alphabets, and doing some text mining. In order to adequately compare lettter frequences of Lithuanian language to other languages in the Internet space, Wikipedia source was selected which content is common to different languages. The method of letter frequency jumps is used. The main attention is paid to the analysis of letter frequencies at the boundary between native letters and foreign letters used in Lithuanian and other languages.

  3. 37 CFR 2.74 - Form and signature of amendment. (United States)


    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Form and signature of... signature of amendment. (a) Form of Amendment. Amendments should be set forth clearly and completely... record. (b) Signature. A request for amendment of an application must be signed by the applicant,...

  4. Verse Letter from Gregory of Nazianzus to Vitalianus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Brodňanská


    Full Text Available The article offers a complex view of the poetic letter of Gregory of Nazianzus II, II, 3 Ad Vitalianum, which has not yet been the subject of modern criticism. The letter is a plea by Vitalianus’ banished sons for their father to take them back. Based on the manuscript tradition, the article’s author concludes that the fictional author of the letter is the son Phocas rather than Peter. The disrupted relationship between father and sons is reflected in both the content of the poem and the forms of salutations used: the seemingly positive epithets φέριστε, μακάρτατε, and φίλε; forms of address which directly express a certain distance and coldness (μέγα φέρτατε, ὦ ἄνα, or even animosity towards the father (ὀλοώτατε δαῖμον, ὦ κακόβουλε. The poetic letter has a concentric structure (A; B; C; D; E; F; G; F´; E´; D´; C´; B´; A´, with individual com­ponents linked for the most part thematically. The letter is written in dactylic hexameter. The most frequently used metre in the verses is the holodactyl, and the most frequent caesura is the caesura post tertium trochaeum. As far as the breach of Hermann’s bridge in verses is concerned, and based on the understanding of the term ‘word’ in metrics, the author of the article concludes that in the majority of cases the breach is only ‘visual’, and cannot be detected when listened to. Gregory did not avoid three true hiatuses; and in two verses, in order to keep the rhythm of dactylic hexameter, it is essential to measure a long syllable as a short one. However, metric errors may be related to prosodic licence.

  5. ABC versus QWERTZ: interference from mismatching sequences of letters in the alphabet and on the keyboard. (United States)

    Kozlik, Julia; Neumann, Roland; Kunde, Wilfried


    Letters have a position in the alphabet and they have a position on standard personal computer keyboards. The present study explored the consequences of compatibility between spatial codes representing letter position in the alphabet and on the keyboard. In Experiment 1, participants responded faster to letter dyads in an alphabetic order judgment task, when the letters' alphabetical order matched their left to right order on the keyboard. In Experiment 2, compatible dyads were typed more quickly than incompatible dyads. Finally, in Experiments 3 and 4, letter dyads with compatible alphabetical and keyboard sequences of letters were more preferred than dyads with incompatible orders. Together, these results suggest that the perception of letters concurrently activates 2 representations of ordinal sequences. Compatibility between these representations enhances performance as well as affective evaluations. Limitations of this alphabet-keyboard compatibility effect as well as implications for the development of formal typing courses and computer keyboard design are discussed.

  6. Nitrous Oxide flux measurements under various amendments (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The dataset consists of measurements of soil nitrous oxide emissions from soils under three different amendments: glucose, cellulose, and manure. Data includes the...

  7. Mass Media and the First Amendment (United States)

    Hanks, William E.


    Discusses five Supreme Court decisions that relate to the First Amendment and freedom of the press. Includes small group decision-making exercises and discussion questions focusing on these interpretations for use in a college speech communication class. (MH)

  8. 75 FR 67210 - IFR Altitudes; Miscellaneous Amendments (United States)


    ... 14 CFR Part 95 Airspace, Navigation (air). Issued in Washington, DC, on October 22, 2010. John M... Amended To Read in Part GLADE SPRING, VA VOR/DME......... *TELOC, VA FIX 6900 *13000--MRA *TELOC, VA...


    The amendments apatite, organoclay, acetate, chitin, and geotextile reactive mats containing apatite and apatite + organoclay are currently under examination for remediation of contaminated sediments. The objective of this research is to evaluate toxicity to several estuarine an...

  10. 75 FR 40720 - IFR Altitudes; Miscellaneous Amendments (United States)


    ... ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does... UNUSABLE. Sec. 95.6424 VOR FEDERAL AIRWAY V424 IS AMENDED TO READ IN PART NAPOLEON, MO VORTAC MACON, MO...

  11. 77 FR 50909 - IFR Altitudes; Miscellaneous Amendments (United States)


    ... Wetzl, KS FIX Napoleon, MO VORTAC.... 3100 Sec. 95.6012 VOR Federal Airway V12 Is Amended To Read in Part Emporia, KS VORTAC Wetzl, KS FIX *5000 *2600--MOCA *3000--GNSS MEA Wetzl, KS FIX Napoleon,...

  12. Trapping Plan Amendment: Sherburne National Wildlife Refuge (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Sherburne National Wildlife Refuge proposes to amend the present trapping plan in order to improve the quality of this program by providing more explicit direction...

  13. Syn-collapse eclogite metamorphism and exhumation of deep crust in a migmatite dome: The P-T-t record of the youngest Variscan eclogite (Montagne Noire, French Massif Central) (United States)

    Whitney, Donna L.; Roger, Françoise; Teyssier, Christian; Rey, Patrice F.; Respaut, J.-P.


    In many orogens, high-pressure (HP) metamorphic rocks such as eclogite occur as lenses in quartzofeldspathic gneiss that equilibrated at much lower pressures. The pressure-temperature-time (P-T-t) history of eclogite relative to host gneiss provides information about mechanisms and timescales of exhumation of orogenic crust. The Montagne Noire of the southern Massif Central, France, is an eclogite-bearing gneiss (migmatite) dome located at the orogen-foreland transition of the Variscan belt. Results of our study show that it contains the youngest eclogite in the orogen, similar in age to migmatite and granite that crystallized under low-pressure conditions. P-T conditions for an exceptionally unaltered eclogite from the central Montagne Noire were estimated using a pseudosection supplemented by garnet-clinopyroxene and Zr-in-rutile thermometry. Results indicate peak P ∼ 1.4 GPa and T ∼ 725°C for Mg-rich garnet rim (50 mol% pyrope) + omphacite (36 mol% jadeite) + rutile + quartz. U-Pb geochronology (LA-ICP-MS) of 16 zoned zircon grains yielded ∼360 Ma (4 cores) and ∼315 Ma (12 rims and cores). Rare earth element abundances determined by LA-ICP-MS for dated zircon are consistent with crystallization of ∼315 Ma zircon under garnet-stable, plagioclase-unstable conditions that we interpret to indicate high pressure; in contrast, the ∼360 Ma zircon core corresponds to crystallization under lower pressure plagioclase-stable conditions. Based on garnet zoning and inclusion suites, rutile textures and Zr zoning, P-T results, and zircon petrochronology, we interpret the ∼315 Ma date as the age of eclogite-facies metamorphism that only slightly preceded dome formation and crystallization at 315-300 Ma. This age relation indicates that eclogite formation at high pressure and migmatite dome emplacement at low pressure were closely spaced in time. We propose that collapse-driven material transfer from the hot orogen to the cool foreland resulted in thickening of

  14. 77 FR 14269 - IFR Altitudes; Miscellaneous Amendments (United States)


    ... BILLINGS, MT VORTAC..... W BND 9700 E BND 6400 Sec. 95.681 VOR Federal Airway V81 Is Amended to Read in... Amended to Read in Part REEPO, MT FIX COLUS, MT FIX W BND 9700 ] E BND 7000 COLUS, MT FIX BILLINGS, MT... *BILLINGS, MT VORTAC.... S BND 17000 N BND 6000 *7000--MCA BILLINGS, MT VORTAC, S BND Sec. 95.6320......

  15. Resource Letter BSSMF-1: Biological Sensing of Static Magnetic Fields (United States)

    Finegold, Leonard


    This Resource Letter provides a guide to the literature on the effects of static (time-invariant) magnetic fields B on life, concentrating on how selected creatures sense/detect B. Journal articles, books, and previous and future electronically accessible media are cited for the following topics: history, the magnetic sensing/detection of B by creatures from bacteria to bugworms to butterflies to bees to birds to bats to bovines to beings (human), some of the mechanisms of effects at the developmental and cellular levels, experimental pitfalls, claimed healing effects of B, some medical uses of magnets, and cosmetics. The field presents a fascinating, evolving saga.

  16. Why the DSM? – Letter to the Editors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cozic, Jean-Yves


    Full Text Available The psychological experience is not always in register to pathology. Classification must be as close as possible to the clinical examination, but also respectful of human principles. For a long time classifications have had a Linnaean feel; the concern of psychatrists with little leeway for therapeutic action. Professor PELICIER was accustomed to saying that this classifications could be called “herbarium of the flowers of Evil”, with a capital letter on Flowers, recalling one of our great poets, Charles Baudelaire, who described melancholy so well: “When the low, heavy sky weighs like a lid on the groaning spirit, victim of long ennui”.

  17. Charles Dickens and the Cat Paw Letter Opener

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Pyke


    Full Text Available This article explores the sensory expectations around Victorian taxidermy, beginning with Charles Dickens’s letter opener made from the paw of his favourite cat and moving to a discussion of 'Our Mutual Friend'. I suggest that in a mid-Victorian moment in which work and laziness are polarized as the available moral, economic, and social categories, a desire for stillness, a space that is neither work nor laziness, exists in the encounter with taxidermied animals. The taxidermied animal allows energy and stillness to coexist.

  18. Science Letters: Lattice type transmission line of negative refractive index

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    In this letter, we introduce a novel passive transmission line of negative refractive index (i.e., left-handedness) based on identical symmetrical lattice type structures [thus called "lattice type transmission line" (LT-TL)]. The dispersion characteristic and the transmission response of the proposed LT-TL are analyzed. While all the other left-handed passive transmission lines are of high pass, the present passive left-handed transmission line is of low pass. Compared with a conventional transmission line, the LT-TL has a phase shift of 180° in the entire wide pass-band.

  19. The "Letter" and the play of the correspondence


    Joacy Ghizzi Neto


    The present essays has as it bottom line the short story “The Purloined Letter” by Edgar Alan Poe and the respectives analysis done by Jacques Lacan in “O Seminário A carta roubada” (Escritos, 1998) and by Jacques Derrida in “O carteiro da verdade” (O cartão-postal, 2007), beyond the reading by Nancy and Labarthe in O título da letra and also Rene Major in Lacan com Derrida, with the wager at the potency of the significant letter/lettre that has a double meaning as “carta” and as “letra”, wit...

  20. A Finite Abelian Group of Two-Letter Inversions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherwin E. Balbuena


    Full Text Available In abstract algebra, the study of concrete groups is fundamentally important to beginners. Most commonly used groups as examples are integer addition modulo n, real number addition and multiplication, permutation groups, and groups of symmetry. The last two examples are finite non-abelian groups and can be investigated with the aid of concrete representations. This study presents a finite abelian group of inversions of two letter symbols with vertical and horizontal axes of symmetry and whose binary operation is established through motions like alternation, rotation, reflection, and a combination of two or all motions.

  1. The Description Of Characters In The Novel The Scarlet Letter


    Sirait, Wahyu Alamsyah


    Literature is a kind of imaginative writing. It reflects a problem of life done by human being. Novel is one of literary works that has intrinsic elements. Studying intrinsic elements in a novel, it means to study life experience of group human being through a novel. The writer analyzes the theme in novel The shining by Stephen King 's. therefore, this paper is entitled become : THE DESCRIPTION OF CHARACTERS IN THE NOVEL THE SCARLET LETTER. This writing is a description on the characters used...

  2. Resource Letter PTG-1: Precision Tests of Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Will, Clifford M


    This resource letter provides an introduction to some of the main current topics in experimental tests of general relativity as well as to some of the historical literature. It is intended to serve as a guide to the field for upper-division undergraduate and graduate students, both theoretical and experimental, and for workers in other fields of physics who wish learn about experimental gravity. The topics covered include alternative theories of gravity, tests of the principle of equivalence, solar-system and binary-pulsar tests, searches for new physics in gravitational arenas, and tests of gravity in new regimes, involving astrophysics and gravitational radiation.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    In an EFL class, writing for a real audience can bring aboutmany inherent educational benefits. However, this is often ne-glected by many language teachers. This paper reports on the re-sults obtained from using a writing for a real audience project inan Intensive Reading course for non-English majors. Students inthis project wrote letters to their partners in the target languageand shared information with each other. The author found thatthe process of writing for a real audience can not only help stu-dents practice using the target language but also can encouragethem to overcome writing apprehension.

  4. Detrital zircon age distribution from Devonian and Carboniferous sandstone in the Southern Variscan Fold-and-Thrust belt (Montagne Noire, French Massif Central), and their bearings on the Variscan belt evolution (United States)

    Lin, Wei; Faure, Michel; Li, Xian-hua; Chu, Yang; Ji, Wenbin; Xue, Zhenhua


    In the Southern French Massif Central, the Late Paleozoic sedimentary sequences of the Montagne Noire area provide clues to decipher the successive tectonic events that occurred during the evolution of the Variscan belt. Previous sedimentological studies already demonstrated that the siliciclastic deposits were supplied from the northern part of the Massif Central. In this study, detrital zircon provenance analysis has been investigated in Early Devonian (Lochkovian) conglomerate and sandstone, and in Carboniferous (Visean to Early Serpukhovian) sandstone from the recumbent folds and the foreland basin of the Variscan Southern Massif Central in Montagne Noire. The zircon grains from all of the samples yielded U-Pb age spectra ranging from Neoarchean to Late Paleozoic with several age population peaks at 2700 Ma, 2000 Ma, 980 Ma, 750 Ma, 620 Ma, 590 Ma, 560 Ma, 480 Ma, 450 Ma, and 350 Ma. The dominant age populations concentrate on the Neoproterozoic and Paleozoic. The dominant concordant detrital zircon age populations in the Lochkovian samples, the 480-445 Ma with a statistical peak around 450 Ma, are interpreted as reflecting the rifting event that separated several continental stripes, such as Armorica, Mid-German Crystalline Rise, and Avalonia from the northern part of Gondwana. However, Ediacaran and Cambrian secondary peaks are also observed. The detrital zircons with ages at 352 - 340 Ma, with a statistical peak around 350 Ma, came from the Early Carboniferous volcanic and plutonic rocks similar to those exposed in the NE part of the French Massif Central. Moreover, some Precambrian grains recorded a more complex itinerary and may have experienced a multi-recycling history: the Archean and Proterozoic grains have been firstly deposited in Cambrian or Ordovician terrigenous rocks, and secondly re-sedimented in Devonian and/or Carboniferous formations. Another possibility is that ancient grains would be inherited grains, scavenged from an underlying but not

  5. Bel Paese or Spaghetti noir?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Hanne


    Translations participate in the construction of the images of foreign cultures, and texts that reinforce the national stereotypes are often those selected for translation. Are there recurrent features in Italian literary texts translated into Danish that reveal what is perceived as ‘typically...... and the Danish readership. The paper will draw on the notions of image construction and national stereotypes (cf. Beller & Leerssen 2007) and of the metynomic nature of translation (cf. Tymoczko 1999)....

  6. Trous noirs non asymptotiquement plats


    Leygnac, Cédric


    Jury: Gérard Clément, Dmitri Gal'tsov, Marc Henneaux, Richard Kerner, Maurice Kibler, David Langlois et Paul Sorba.; In the framework of string-inspired dilatonic gravity theories (from 4 to D space-time dimensions), we construct new non-asymptotically flat black hole or black brane solutions. For particular values of the dilatonic coupling constant, we generalize static solutions to rotating ones, using the target space isometry group. We compute their masses and their angular momentum using...

  7. Galaxies et trous noirs supermassifs (United States)

    Collin-Zahn, Suzy


    A few percents of galaxies are classified as « active ». An active galaxy is a galaxy whose nucleus emits more energy than the whole galaxy in the form of electromagnetic radiation, relativistic particles, or mechanical energy. It is activated by a supermassive black hole fueled by matter falling on it, whose characteristics (Eddington luminosity, spin) are recalled. The class includes quasars and Seyfert galaxies. All massive "non active" galaxies contain a supermassive black hole, but there is not enough matter in its environment so as the nucleus becomes luminous. Different items are considered in the paper : how supermassive black holes are fueled, the accretion disc, the jets and the winds, the unified model of active galaxies, how are determined the masses of supermassive black holes, and what is the relation between the evolution of galaxies and supermassive black holes.

  8. Examination and Comparison of Phrases of Some Old Letters of Ascension (to Heaven and It's Comparison with Shafiee Kadkani's Letter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    کهدویی کهدویی


    Full Text Available Human voyage to the world of ultra sense is a matter of discourses which was widely discussed between nations and the various schools of philosophy, language and many people including leaders of religions and thoughts branches confessed doing such voyages and left some literary reports of their mystical and dreamy travel. The oldest and newest of these reports are shown in this paper and them between the voyages that traditional people have reported and the letter of ascension of M.R.SH.KK as ample of a modern man which is available we make some comparisons in different dimensions , dealing with unconscious and interfering of super human in forming their phrases . This survey shows that most of these voyages could have certain occurrences, and could explain them in scientific view and particularly based on Yung's ideas. In evaluating a part of phrases of these voyages it has been shown that the similarities and common points of these ascensions is related to the beliefs, mortification and deliberations that cause these voyages in one side and in the other side is related to the influence of the most formers and the letter voyages; also by comparing the two traditional and modern groups of passengers of the invisible world. Through submitting and explaining their documentary reports, the ideology role of these two groups is described in creating the elements of these phrases and mean while the commitment and mission of human is described based on considering the traditional definition of human as a speaking animal and the definition of moderns as a searching animal in human general ascension , and at the end it is reminded that the modern human is trying to encourage and prepare the collective conscience of human to clear and improve the society through conscious movement and describing manners of painful souls in world of spirits and using the fear strategy. The reason of fear less critic of poets in the last part of the letter of ascension of

  9. A Study on the Application in Business Letters of Cooperative Principle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    With the rapid development of science and technology, English business letters have become one of the most crucial parts in foreign trade. English business letters play an important role in foreign trade, which aims to acquire information, make effective communication, deal with related matters, maintain friendly business relations and proceed regular business contacts. As an effective bridge and cooperative bond, English business letters receive its popularity in joint ventures. The leaders focus on the application of the English business letters.The paper focus on the study of English business letters through cooperative principle, letting users of English business letters have a more profound and comprehensive understanding. Therefore, it is better to guide and get desired outcome.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Olegovna Zakharchenko


    Full Text Available This article presents the first analysis of tropes in the letters of the first Elder Lev (Nagolkin of Optina Pustyn Monastery (Opta’s hermitage – i. e. proverbs, allusions, allegories periphrasis and metaphors. Elder Lev most frequently used such tropes as "the storm of temptations", "the heart field", "happy harvest", "rags of the passions", "the marriage of the soul", "verbal sheep", "soldier of Christ", "spiritual milk", "the mind’s wolf", "a log of pride". One special thing about these tropes is that they blend together severalbiblical quotations and the Gospel images. Both simple and extended metaphors are used, and all the metaphors in the letters of St. Lev of Optina have a special function: they actualize biblical events, describe symbolically the inner world of a person and show the way to the salvation of the soul. It is typical of the Elder to use his own unique tropes, which are very diff erent from the traditional poetic images of the Russian literature of the 19th century.

  11. The Letter of Jude and Graeco-Roman Invective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia J. Batten


    Full Text Available Many have attempted to identify the opponents in Jude and have addressed the manner in which the author characterises this group. Moreover, scholars have expended considerable energy on the analysis and explication of Jude’s rhetorical structure and style, and there is wide consensus that as a text, Jude is a sophisticated letter. However, less work has attended to the evaluation of Jude within the tradition of Graeco-Roman invective. In comparing verses from Jude to some examples from such literature, we find similar themes. In particular, the letter of Jude and some Graeco-Roman moralists engage in a particular tactic to undermine, even destroy, the character of their opponents. They both present them as effeminates, which, although a stereotype, is one of the worst insults a writer or orator could wage against an adversary. This article argues that Jude engages in such character assassination, invoking effeminacy in the manner that he describes his opponents’ behaviour, and placing them in a long line of debauched and condemned figures from ages past.

  12. The "Letter" and the play of the correspondence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joacy Ghizzi Neto


    Full Text Available The present essays has as it bottom line the short story “The Purloined Letter” by Edgar Alan Poe and the respectives analysis done by Jacques Lacan in “O Seminário A carta roubada” (Escritos, 1998 and by Jacques Derrida in “O carteiro da verdade” (O cartão-postal, 2007, beyond the reading by Nancy and Labarthe in O título da letra and also Rene Major in Lacan com Derrida, with the wager at the potency of the significant letter/lettre that has a double meaning as “carta” and as “letra”, with its potency, as letter, as possible literature. The present work concern aswell with another readings, about epistolography, by Josefina Ludmer, Emile Cioran, Juan José Saer, Liliana Heer, Silviano Santiago. The present work approaches aswell the reading by Michel Foucault in “A escrita de si” (O que é um autor?, 1992 arguing that the correspondence as a way of “escrita de si”, despite it is destinated, in principle to an other. The present essays has as principle objective to think the proceeding of correspondence between artists/poets as a play of ambivalent positions, and not as how a static share between the remitter and the receiver.

  13. Letter-case information and the identification of brand names. (United States)

    Perea, Manuel; Jiménez, María; Talero, Fernanda; López-Cañada, Soraya


    A central tenet of most current models of visual-word recognition is that lexical units are activated on the basis of case-invariant abstract letter representations. Here, we examined this assumption by using a unique type of words: brand names. The rationale of the experiments is that brand names are archetypically printed either in lowercase (e.g., adidas) or uppercase (e.g., IKEA). This allows us to present the brand names in their standard or non-standard case configuration (e.g., adidas, IKEA vs. ADIDAS, ikea, respectively). We conducted two experiments with a brand-decision task ('is it a brand name?'): a single-presentation experiment and a masked priming experiment. Results in the single-presentation experiment revealed faster identification times of brand names in their standard case configuration than in their non-standard case configuration (i.e., adidas faster than ADIDAS; IKEA faster than ikea). In the masked priming experiment, we found faster identification times of brand names when they were preceded by an identity prime that matched its standard case configuration than when it did not (i.e., faster response times to adidas-adidas than to ADIDAS-adidas). Taken together, the present findings strongly suggest that letter-case information forms part of a brand name's graphemic information, thus posing some limits to current models of visual-word recognition.

  14. Initial and noninitial name-letter preferences as obtained through repeated letter rating tasks continue to reflect (different aspects of) self-esteem. (United States)

    Hoorens, Vera; Takano, Keisuke; Franck, Erik; Roberts, John E; Raes, Filip


    We tested the usefulness of name-letter preference scores as indirect indicators of self-esteem by exploring whether multiple unsupervised self-administrations of letter rating tasks within a short period of time yield useful data. We also examined whether preferences for initials and noninitial name-letters tap different aspects of self-esteem. Participants from a community sample (N = 164; 58 men and 106 women, 17-67 years, Mage = 34.57, SD = 13.28) completed daily letter rating tasks and state self-esteem questionnaires for 7 consecutive days. They also completed a trait self-esteem questionnaire on the first measurement day as well as 6 months later. Preference scores for first-name initials were stronger but more unstable than preference scores for other name-letters. Preferences for first-name initials were primarily associated with directly measured state self-esteem whereas preferences for noninitials were primarily associated with directly measured trait self-esteem even if the latter was measured 6 months later. Thus, we showed that preferences for initials and noninitials are not simply interchangeable. Previous letter rating studies, which almost exclusively used initial preferences, should be interpreted in terms of state rather than trait self-esteem. In future studies, researchers should focus on the name-letter preference that reflects the aspect of self-esteem they wish to address.

  15. The Long and Short of Genetic Counseling Summary Letters: A Case-control Study. (United States)

    Roggenbuck, J; Temme, R; Pond, D; Baker, J; Jarvis, K; Liu, M; Dugan, S; Mendelsohn, N J


    Genetic counseling summary letters are intended to reinforce information received during genetic counseling, but little information is available on patient/family responses to these letters. We conducted a case-control study to assess the effectiveness of two different letter formats. Parents of children receiving a new diagnosis were enrolled. The control group (n = 85) received a genetic counseling summary letter in a narrative format, 4-5 pages in length. After the control enrollment period, genetic counselors were trained by a professional medical writer to develop a concise letter format. The case group (n = 64) received a concise letter, approximately 1.5 pages in length, utilizing simple sentences, lay terms, and lists/bullet points. Parents completed a survey 4 weeks after the visit to rate the letter's format, usefulness, and their emotional reaction. Results show that parents in the case group rated the letter more highly (p = 0.023), particularly in the emotional response dimension (rating changes in anxiety, depression, fear, ability to cope, and confidence in response to the letter). Parents in the case group also rated the genetic counseling session more highly (p = 0.039). In the control group, parents without a college degree were more likely to rate the letter as too long and the level of medical detail as too high. In the case group, no significant differences were seen between parents with or without a college degree. These data suggest that a short genetic counseling summary letter is rated higher by parents, and is particularly associated with a more positive emotional reaction. A short letter format highlighting the basic facts related to the genetic condition may be more useful to parents of diverse educational backgrounds, and may support a positive emotional adaptation at the time of a new diagnosis. Genetic counselors may benefit from specific instruction in medical and educational writing.

  16. Parallel public spheres: distance and discourse in letters to the editor. (United States)

    Perrin, Andrew J; Vaisey, Stephen


    This article examines letters to the editor as one of the ways citizens seek to enact a public sphere using technological mediation. Using a sample of all letters received by a metropolitan newspaper during a three-month period (N = 1,113), the authors demonstrate that the tone and argumentative styles of letters differ with the scope of the issues the letters address. Local issues evoke more reasoned, conciliatory tones, while issues beyond the local context evoke more emotional, confrontational tones, even after controlling for individual writers' characteristics and anger as a motivation to write.

  17. Impaired letter-string processing in developmental dyslexia: what visual-to-phonology code mapping disorder? (United States)

    Valdois, Sylviane; Lassus-Sangosse, Delphine; Lobier, Muriel


    Poor parallel letter-string processing in developmental dyslexia was taken as evidence of poor visual attention (VA) span, that is, a limitation of visual attentional resources that affects multi-character processing. However, the use of letter stimuli in oral report tasks was challenged on its capacity to highlight a VA span disorder. In particular, report of poor letter/digit-string processing but preserved symbol-string processing was viewed as evidence of poor visual-to-phonology code mapping, in line with the phonological theory of developmental dyslexia. We assessed here the visual-to-phonological-code mapping disorder hypothesis. In Experiment 1, letter-string, digit-string and colour-string processing was assessed to disentangle a phonological versus visual familiarity account of the letter/digit versus symbol dissociation. Against a visual-to-phonological-code mapping disorder but in support of a familiarity account, results showed poor letter/digit-string processing but preserved colour-string processing in dyslexic children. In Experiment 2, two tasks of letter-string report were used, one of which was performed simultaneously to a high-taxing phonological task. Results show that dyslexic children are similarly impaired in letter-string report whether a concurrent phonological task is simultaneously performed or not. Taken together, these results provide strong evidence against a phonological account of poor letter-string processing in developmental dyslexia.

  18. AFSC/REFM: Amendment 80 Economic Data Report Dataset (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Annual series of economic data collected for years 2008 and forward for the Amendment 80 Economic Data Report (EDR). Reporting is required of holders of Amendment 80...

  19. 77 FR 59386 - Privacy Act of 1974, as Amended (United States)


    ...] Privacy Act of 1974, as Amended AGENCY: Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection. ACTION: Notice of a Revised Privacy Act System of Records. SUMMARY: In accordance with the Privacy Act of 1974, as amended, the Bureau of Consumer Financial [[Page 59387

  20. Lost and Found, Letters and Methods: Assessing Attitudes toward Chiropractic and Medical Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Kern


    Full Text Available Attitudes toward traditional and chiropractic medicine were compared using Milgram's lost letter technique. A total of 192 letters were placed on the windshields of vehicles in parking lots at six restaurants and department stores in each of four quadrants of a medium-sized, Southeastern city. These letters were addressed to "Admissions" at either a fictitious Institute of Medicine or Institute of Chiropractic Care. Return addresses included either a male or a female name. Thus, those who found a lost letter were faced with the option of returning or not returning a letter from either a male or a female, addressed to an Institute of traditional or non-traditional medicine. After examining previous studies which had used the lost letter technique, numerous methodological improvements were implemented. For example, letters were randomly assigned to potential drop spots for each of 24 study locations (six study locations in each of four city quadrants, and a Latin square design was used to control for possible order effects in the four study conditions that were implemented. Nearly 65% of the letters (124 of 192 were returned. We found: 1 letters addressed to a fictitious Institute of Chiropractic Care were just as likely to be returned as those addressed to a fictitious Institute of Medicine; 2 letters with female return addresses were as likely to be returned as those with male return addresses; 3 there was no interaction between study conditions; 4 based on what was essentially a replication study, a comparison of the pattern of returns using the first and second cycle of lost letters (n = 96 for each cycle revealed an equivalent pattern of no-difference findings. DOI: 10.2458/azu_jmmss.v1i1.78

  1. DOE Advanced Scientific Advisory Committee (ASCAC): Workforce Subcommittee Letter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, Barbara [University of Houston; Calandra, Henri [Total SA; Crivelli, Silvia [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Davis; Dongarra, Jack [University of Tennessee; Hittinger, Jeffrey [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; Lathrop, Scott A. [NCSA, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign; Sarkar, Vivek [Rice University; Stahlberg, Eric [Advanced Biomedical Computing Center; Vetter, Jeffrey S. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Williams, Dean [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory


    Simulation and computing are essential to much of the research conducted at the DOE national laboratories. Experts in the ASCR ¬relevant Computing Sciences, which encompass a range of disciplines including Computer Science, Applied Mathematics, Statistics and domain Computational Sciences, are an essential element of the workforce in nearly all of the DOE national laboratories. This report seeks to identify the gaps and challenges facing DOE with respect to this workforce. This letter is ASCAC’s response to the charge of February 19, 2014 to identify disciplines in which significantly greater emphasis in workforce training at the graduate or postdoctoral levels is necessary to address workforce gaps in current and future Office of Science mission needs.

  2. Concepts of a quantum information theory of many letters

    CERN Document Server

    Boström, K J


    A theoretical framework is presented allowing the treatment of quantum messages with components of variable length. To this aim a many-letter space is constructed which turns out to be a natural space for quantum messages of this type, generalizing the usual fixed-length quantum information theory which is fully contained within this framework. An observable is defined measuring the amount of quantum information carried by a particular message, with the "qbit" obtaining a second meaning as its unit. A general characterization of quantum codes is given where compression codes are defined by their property of decreasing the average information content of a given a priori message ensemble. A lossless quantum coding scheme - analog to the classical Huffman scheme but different from the Braunstein scheme - is implemented, which not only ensures perfect fidelity in retrieving the original messages but also provides optimal compression.

  3. Lossless quantum coding in many-letter spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Boström, K J


    Based on the concept of many-letter theory a general characterization of quantum codes using the Kraus representation is given. Compression codes are defined by their property of decreasing the average information content of a given a priori message ensemble. Lossless quantum codes, in contrast to lossy codes, provide the retrieval of the original input states with perfect fidelity. A general lossless coding scheme is given that translates between two quantum alphabets. It is shown that this scheme is never compressive. Furthermore, a lossless quantum coding scheme, analog to the classical Huffman scheme but different from the Braunstein scheme, is implemented, which provides optimal compression. Motivated by the concept of lossless quantum compression, an observable is defined that measures the amount of compressible quantum information contained in a particular message with respect to a given \\emph{a priori} message ensemble. The average of this observable yields the von Neumann entropy, which is finally es...

  4. A Thematic Analysis of Hawthorne's The Scarlet Letter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pyeaam Abbasi


    Full Text Available The Scarlet Letter is yet another story of the never-ending conflict of individuals versus society in which the recurrent theme of appearance versus reality is central and woven into different elements of the novel. The significance of this theme lies in the fact that it is adopted by both the Puritan Culture to subjugate its members and hide the truth, and by a protagonist who claims a new identity and violates the Puritanical codes. This is traceable in two major binary oppositions elaborated in this paper as: Society / Individual; and Religion / Love with a look at the two characters of Dimmesdale / Hester and the two colours of Sable / Gules. This paper is an attempt to show how these binary oppositions work, throughout the novel, to stress appearance as a tool for fixing Puritanical codes, and reality as a tool for constructing new ones.

  5. Reply to the Letter by Gary C. Vezzoli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shnoll S. E.


    Full Text Available In a letter published by Dr. Vezzoli in the current issue of your journal, he claims priority back to 2001 for an explanation to certain gravitational phenomena, which were first recorded by me and my co-workers at my laboratory. He claims priority to me on the basis of the fact that he shared his results and plans with me in 2001 in private communication. However, I and my co-workers understood the phenomena in the same terms as much as 20 years before that, in the 1980's, and discussed by us in numerous publications during the 1980's, in the Soviet (now Russian scientific journals. I provide a list of my early publications, refuting Dr. Vezzoli's claim to priority.

  6. Reply to the Letter by Gary C. Vezzoli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shnoll S. E.


    Full Text Available In a letter published by Dr. Vezzoli in the current issue of your journal, he claims priority back to 2001 for an explanation to certain gravitational phenomena, which were first recorded by me and my co-workers at my laboratory. He claims priority to me on the basis of the fact that he shared his results and plans with me in 2001 in private communication. However, I and my co-workers understood the phenomena in the same terms as much as 20 years before that, in the 1980’s, and discussed by us in numerous publications during the 1980’s, in the Soviet (now Russian scientific journals. I provide a list of my early publications, refuting Dr. Vezzoli’s claim to priority.

  7. Why are digits easier to identify than letters? (United States)

    Schubert, Teresa M


    Beginning with Dejerine's report of pure alexia in 1892, numerous researchers have noted that individuals with acquired impairments of reading may show spared digit identification performance. This digit advantage has also been found in unimpaired adult readers across a number of tasks, and five main hypotheses have been proposed to explain how it arises. In this paper I consider these hypotheses in the context of recent theories of a unified alphanumeric character identification system, and evaluate them according to relevant empirical evidence. Despite some promising findings, none of the hypotheses currently provide a sufficient explanation of the digit advantage. Rather than developing new hypotheses to explain a categorical difference between digit and letter performance, I argue that future work should consider factors that affect identification performance specific to individual characters.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina A. Bobrik


    Full Text Available This series of notes deals with several lexical (bebrъkъ ‘young beaver’, ryti rěku ‘to change the course of a river by digging a channel’, na časy ‘in time’, grammatical (object case variation in the name lists to commemorate during the liturgy and phonetic (pronunciation of tense consonants reflected in writing phenomena in birch bark letters (№ 7, 59, 445, 506, 508а, 508б, 522, 541, 542, 551, 559, 560, 561, 595, 765 and in two Old Russian inscriptions — on the Sterzhen Cross (1133 A.D. and in the Church of Sts. Boris and Gleb in Novogrudok (12th c.. Some refinements to prior interpretations are proposed, and, in addition, some novel solutions. 

  9. Science Letters: Efficient page layout analysis on small devices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eun-jung HAN; Chee-onn WONG; Kee-chul JUNG; Kyung-ho LEE; Eun-yi KIM


    Previously we have designed and implemented new image browsing facilities to support effective offline image contents on mobile devices with limited capabilities: low bandwidth, small display, and slow processing. In this letter, we fulfill the automatic production of cartoon contents fitting small-screen display, and introduce a clustering method useful for various types of cartoon images as a prerequisite stage for preserving semantic meaning. The usage of neural networks is to properly cut the various forms of pages. Texture information that is useful for grayscale image segmentation gives us a good clue for page layout analysis using the multilayer perceptron (MLP) based x-y recursive algorithm. We also automatically frame the segment MLP using agglomerative segmentation. Our experimental results show that the combined approaches yield good results of segmentation for several cartoons.

  10. Tank waste source term inventory validation. Volume 1. Letter report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brevick, C.H.; Gaddis, L.A.; Johnson, E.D.


    The sample data for selection of 11 radionuclides and 24 chemical analytes were extracted from six separate sample data sets, were arranged in a tabular format and were plotted on scatter plots for all of the 149 single-shell tanks, the 24 double-shell tanks and the four aging waste tanks. The solid and liquid sample data was placed in separate tables and plots. The sample data and plots were compiled from the following data sets: characterization raw sample data, recent core samples, D. Braun data base, Wastren (Van Vleet) data base, TRAC and HTCE inventories. This document is Volume I of the Letter Report entitled Tank Waste Source Term Inventory Validation.

  11. Modern physics letters A special issue on hadrontherapy

    CERN Document Server


    CERN Courier Review (Jul 8, 2016) : The applications of nuclear and particle physics to medicine have seen extraordinary development since the discovery of X-rays by Röntgen at the end of the 19th century. Medical imaging and oncologic therapy with photons and charged particles (specifically hadrons) are currently hot research topics. This special issue of Modern Physics Letters is dedicated to hadron therapy, which is the frontier of cancer radiation therapy, and aims at filling a gap in the current literature on medical physics. Through 10 invited review papers, the volume presents the basics of hadron therapy, along with the most recent scientific and technological developments in the field. The first part covers topics such as the history of hadron therapy, radiation biophysics, particle accelerators, dose-delivery systems and treatment planning. In the second part, more specific topics are treated, including dose and beam monitoring, proton computer tomography, innoacustics and microdosimetry. This vo...

  12. Authors' response to the letter from Kalleian Eserian et al. (United States)

    van Riet-Nales, Diana A; Doeve, Myrthe E; Nicia, Agnes E; Teerenstra, Steven; Notenboom, Kim; Hekster, Yechiel A; van den Bemt, Bart J F


    This letter is a response to the comments of Kalleian Eserian et al. on our study relating to the accuracy, precision and sustainability of six tablet splitters and a kitchen knife as an alternative to breaking paracetamol 500mg tablets by hand. We would like to inform the readers of International Journal of Pharmaceutics that our study focused on splitting tablets with a mechanical tool rather than breaking tablets by hand. Although publications on hand breaking tablets were not cited for this reason, we are familiar with the conclusions of these publications. This is especially true for the publications that were written by direct colleagues from the department of the corresponding author e.g., Van Santen et al. and Van der Steen et al.

  13. Multiple Levels of Letter Representation in Written Spelling: Evidence From a Single Case of Dysgraphia with Multiple Deficits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Pierre de Partz


    Full Text Available In this paper, we report a detailed analysis of the impaired performance of a dysgraphic individual, AD, who produced similar rates of letter-level errors in written spelling, oral spelling, and typing. We found that the distribution of various letter error types displayed a distinct pattern in written spelling on the one hand and in oral spelling and typing on the other. In particular, noncontextual letter substitution errors (i.e., errors in which the erroneous letter that replaces the target letter does not occur elsewhere within the word were virtually absent in oral spelling and typing and mainly found in written spelling. In contrast, letter deletion errors and multiple-letter errors were typically found in oral spelling and very exceptional in written spelling. Only contextual letter substitution errors (i.e., errors in which the erroneous letter that replaces the target letter is identical to a letter occurring earlier or later in the word were found in similar proportions in the three tasks. We argue that these contrasting patterns of letter error distribution result from damage to two distinct levels of letter representation and processing within the spelling system, namely, the amodal graphemic representation held in the graphemic buffer and the letter form representation computed by subsequent writing-specific processes. Then, we examined the relationship between error and target in the letter substitution errors produced in written and oral spelling and found evidence that distinct types of letter representation are processed at each of the hypothetized levels of damage: symbolic letter representation at the graphemic level and representation of the component graphic strokes at the letter form processing level.

  14. Perceptual learning: tactile letter recognition transfers across body surfaces. (United States)

    Arnold, Gabriel; Auvray, Malika


    Visual-to-tactile sensory substitution devices are designed to assist visually impaired people by converting visual stimuli into tactile stimuli. The important claim has been made that, after training with these devices, the tactile stimuli can be moved from one body surface to another without any decrease in performance. This claim, although recurrent, has never been empirically investigated. Moreover, studies in the field of tactile perceptual learning suggest that performance improvement transfers only to body surfaces that are closely represented in the somatosensory cortex, i.e. adjacent or homologous contralateral body surfaces. These studies have however mainly used discrimination tasks of stimuli varying along only one feature (e.g., orientation of gratings) whereas, in sensory substitution, tactile information consists of more complex stimuli. The present study investigated the extent to which there is a transfer of tactile letter learning. Participants first underwent a baseline session in which the letters were presented on their belly, thigh, and shin. They were subsequently trained on only one of these body surfaces, and then re-tested on all of them, as a post-training session. The results revealed that performance improvement was the same for both the trained and the untrained surfaces. Moreover, this transfer of perceptual learning was equivalent for adjacent and non-adjacent body surfaces, suggesting that tactile learning transfer occurs independently of the distance on the body. A control study consisting of the same baseline and post-training sessions, without training in between, revealed weaker improvement between the two sessions. The obtained results support the claim that training with sensory substitution devices results in a relative independence from the stimulated body surface.

  15. The locus of impairment in English developmental letter position dyslexia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvette eKezilas


    Full Text Available Many children with reading difficulties display phonological deficits and struggle to acquire nonlexical reading skills. However, not all children with reading difficulties have these problems, such as children with selective Letter Position Dyslexia (LPD, who make excessive migration errors (such as reading slime as ‘smile’. Previous research has explored three possible loci for the deficit – the phonological output buffer, the orthographic input lexicon, and the orthographic-visual analysis stage of reading. While there is compelling evidence against a phonological output buffer and orthographic input lexicon deficit account of English LPD, the evidence in support of an orthographic-visual analysis deficit is currently limited. In this multiple single-case study with three English speaking children with developmental LPD we aimed to both replicate and extend previous findings regarding the locus of impairment in English LPD. First, we ruled out a phonological output buffer and an orthographic input lexicon deficit by administering tasks that directly assess phonological processing and lexical guessing. We then went on to directly assess whether or not children with LPD have an orthographic-visual analysis deficit by modifying two tasks that have previously been used to localize processing at this level: a same-different decision task and a nonword reading task. The results from these tasks indicate that LPD is most likely caused by a deficit specific to the coding of letter positions at the orthographic-visual analysis stage of reading. These findings provide further evidence for the heterogeneity of dyslexia and its underlying causes.

  16. The locus of impairment in English developmental letter position dyslexia. (United States)

    Kezilas, Yvette; Kohnen, Saskia; McKague, Meredith; Castles, Anne


    Many children with reading difficulties display phonological deficits and struggle to acquire non-lexical reading skills. However, not all children with reading difficulties have these problems, such as children with selective letter position dyslexia (LPD), who make excessive migration errors (such as reading slime as "smile"). Previous research has explored three possible loci for the deficit - the phonological output buffer, the orthographic input lexicon, and the orthographic-visual analysis stage of reading. While there is compelling evidence against a phonological output buffer and orthographic input lexicon deficit account of English LPD, the evidence in support of an orthographic-visual analysis deficit is currently limited. In this multiple single-case study with three English-speaking children with developmental LPD, we aimed to both replicate and extend previous findings regarding the locus of impairment in English LPD. First, we ruled out a phonological output buffer and an orthographic input lexicon deficit by administering tasks that directly assess phonological processing and lexical guessing. We then went on to directly assess whether or not children with LPD have an orthographic-visual analysis deficit by modifying two tasks that have previously been used to localize processing at this level: a same-different decision task and a non-word reading task. The results from these tasks indicate that LPD is most likely caused by a deficit specific to the coding of letter positions at the orthographic-visual analysis stage of reading. These findings provide further evidence for the heterogeneity of dyslexia and its underlying causes.

  17. A very large soul: selected letters from Margaret Laurence to Canadian writers A very large soul: selected letters from Margaret Laurence to Canadian writers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John J. O'Connor


    Full Text Available “This will be a brief letter, as I have a horrifying stack of business letters to catch up on,” wrote Margaret Laurence to her friend and fellow novelist Gabrielle Roy in 1978, echoing an earlier lament to her epistolary friend Ernest Buckler about the need to “keep pace with the ghastly flow of business correspondence.” Although she was always to face some tension between her personal and professional selves as correspondent, her priority was never in question: “Must go. I have 70 letters to reply to, having got far behind in correspondence ... am trying now to communicate once again with dear friends first, and then to answer all the others, which will no doubt be my winter project” (4 Sept. 1974 letter to Silver Donald Cameron. “This will be a brief letter, as I have a horrifying stack of business letters to catch up on,” wrote Margaret Laurence to her friend and fellow novelist Gabrielle Roy in 1978, echoing an earlier lament to her epistolary friend Ernest Buckler about the need to “keep pace with the ghastly flow of business correspondence.” Although she was always to face some tension between her personal and professional selves as correspondent, her priority was never in question: “Must go. I have 70 letters to reply to, having got far behind in correspondence ... am trying now to communicate once again with dear friends first, and then to answer all the others, which will no doubt be my winter project” (4 Sept. 1974 letter to Silver Donald Cameron.

  18. 76 FR 2799 - Amendment of Jet Route J-93; CA (United States)


    ... Administration 14 CFR Part 71 RIN 2120-AA66 Amendment of Jet Route J-93; CA AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action amends Jet Route J-93 in California between...) to amend J-93, (75 FR 66344). Interested parties were invited to participate in this...

  19. 78 FR 14271 - Manual for Courts-Martial; Proposed Amendments (United States)


    ... of the Secretary Manual for Courts-Martial; Proposed Amendments AGENCY: Joint Service Committee on... amendments to the Manual for Courts-Martial, United States (2012 ed.)(MCM). SUMMARY: The Joint Service Committee on Military Justice (JSC) is publishing final proposed amendments to the Manual for...

  20. 75 FR 39323 - Amendment to the Biometric Visa Program (United States)


    ... applicants beginning at age 7 and above under the program for issuance of biometric Border Crossing Cards... Amendment to the Biometric Visa Program AGENCY: Department of State. ACTION: Notice of Amendment to the Biometric Visa Program. This public notice announces an amendment to the Biometric Visa Program. Section...

  1. The Barthel index-dyspnea a tool for respiratory rehabilitation: reply to the letter by Chuang [Letter of clarification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carone M


    Full Text Available Mauro Carone,1 Michele Vitacca,2 Mara Paneroni,2 Paola Baiardi,3 Antonio Spanevello,4,5 Giorgio Bertolotti6 1Respiratory Division, ICS MAUGERI SPA SB, Institute of Cassano Murge (BA IRCCS, Italy; 2Respiratory Rehabilitation Division, ICS MAUGERI SPA SB, Institute of Lumezzane (BS IRCCS, Italy; 3Scientific Direction, ICS MAUGERI SPA SB, Institute of Pavia, IRCCS, Italy; 4Respiratory Rehabilitation Division, ICS MAUGERI SPA SB, Institute of Tradate (VA IRCCS, Italy; 5Respiratory Diseases Unit, University of Insubria, Varese; 6Psychology Unit, ICS MAUGERI SPA SB, Institute of Tradate (VA IRCCS, Italy We read the remarkable letter by Chuang.1 We thank him for his valid suggestions on our paper. Interestingly, he focused on the two dimensions of the Barthel index-dyspnea (BI-d, which was exactly our goal. As rehabilitators, our goal is to provide patients with physical therapy depending on their health status and to improve their respiratory function. We need to verify and demonstrate the efficacy and the outcomes of respiratory rehabilitation, supported by physical therapy. For these reasons, we need an assessment device that measures respiratory improvement during daily motor activities that should be monitored.The modified Barthel index2 is a well-consolidated and widely used instrument to assess the performance of a person in a predetermined and fixed set of activities of daily living (ADLs. By proposing BI-d,3 we aimed to develop a scale to measure how dyspnea precludes or reduces the same ADLs, with the ultimate goal of globally assessing the effectiveness of rehabilitation. Hence, an assessment method that measures the impact of dyspnea on activities monitored by a rehabilitation program is of utmost importance for rehabilitators. Large part of Chuang’s letter is based on the Chronic Respiratory Questionnaire-dyspnea (CRQ-d. The CRQ-d is a health-related quality of life (health status questionnaire, with a dyspnea “domain”.4 However

  2. Amending America: Proposed Amendments to the United States Constitution, 1787 to 2014 (United States)

    National Archives and Records Administration — This dataset provides information about more than 11,000 proposed Constitutional amendments introduced in the United States Congress from 1787 to 2014. This dataset...

  3. 76 FR 60357 - Federal Regulations; OMB Circulars, OFPP Policy Letters, and CASB Cost Accounting Standards... (United States)


    ... derived from 41 U.S.C. 1501. Cost Accounting Standards are rules governing the measurement, assignment... and 48 CFR Ch. 1 Federal Regulations; OMB Circulars, OFPP Policy Letters, and CASB Cost Accounting... Procurement Policy (OFPP) Policy Letters, and Cost Accounting Standards Board (CASB) Cost Accounting...

  4. 76 FR 14407 - Exchange of Letters Between Dr. Murray M. Lumpkin, Deputy Commissioner, International Programs... (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Exchange of Letters Between Dr. Murray M. Lumpkin, Deputy... providing notice of exchange of letters between Dr. Murray M. Lumpkin, Deputy Commissioner,...

  5. Neural Dissociation of Number from Letter Recognition and Its Relationship to Parietal Numerical Processing (United States)

    Park, Joonkoo; Hebrank, Andrew; Polk, Thad A.; Park, Denise C.


    The visual recognition of letters dissociates from the recognition of numbers at both the behavioral and neural level. In this article, using fMRI, we investigate whether the visual recognition of numbers dissociates from letters, thereby establishing a double dissociation. In Experiment 1, participants viewed strings of consonants and Arabic…

  6. 32 CFR Appendix B to Part 216 - ROTC Sample Letter of Inquiry (United States)


    ... INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION Pt. 216, App. B Appendix B to Part 216—ROTC Sample Letter of Inquiry (Tailor letter to situation presented) Dr. Jane Smith, President, ABC University, Anywhere, USA 12345-9876. Dear... institution of higher education, or to an individual, to be available solely for student financial...

  7. Letters From the Public: A Portrait of Popular Astronomy in Mexico (1918-1947) (United States)

    Biro, S.


    The letters that Joaquín Gallo received while he was director of the National Astronomical Observatory (OAN) allow us glimpses of astronomy in Mexican popular culture in the first half of the 20th century. An examination of the interests and motivations of the authors of these letters produces a portrait of the Mexicans interested in astronomy.

  8. Electrical Connections: Letters to Thomas Edison in Response to His Claim of Solving Incandescent Lighting, 1878. (United States)

    Bazerman, Charles


    Discusses the way in which letters sent to Thomas Edison following the report that he had solved the problem of incandescent lighting reveal the many discursive worlds that Edison's work touched. Claims these letters indicate how a technological accomplishment is also a multiple, complex social, and communicative accomplishment, creating place and…

  9. Writing Cover Letters That Address Instructor Feedback Improves Final Papers in a Research Methods Course (United States)

    Daniel, Frances; Gaze, Catherine M.; Braasch, Jason L. G.


    We examined how writing cover letters to the instructor influenced final papers in research methods courses. After receiving instructor feedback on drafts of each section of an American Psychological Association style research paper throughout the semester, students in two classes wrote cover letters to the instructor explaining how the instructor…

  10. Resource Letter TTSM-1: Teaching thermodynamics and statistical mechanics in introductory physics, chemistry, and biology

    CERN Document Server

    Dreyfus, Benjamin W; Meltzer, David E; Sawtelle, Vashti


    This Resource Letter draws on discipline-based education research from physics, chemistry, and biology to collect literature on the teaching of thermodynamics and statistical mechanics in the three disciplines. While the overlap among the disciplinary literatures is limited at present, we hope this Resource Letter will spark more interdisciplinary interaction.

  11. The New Scarlet Letter: Student Perceptions of the Accounting Profession after Enron (United States)

    Coleman, Mimi; Kreuze, Jerry; Langsam, Sheldon


    Recent scandals have tarnished the integrity of the accounting profession, marking it with a modern version of the scarlet letter "A," which represented disgrace in Nathaniel Hawthorne's "The Scarlet Letter." In this study, the authors surveyed college business students on their perceptions of the accounting profession and examined how it can…

  12. 19 CFR 181.100 - Effect of NAFTA advance ruling letters; modification and revocation. (United States)


    ... ruling letter, either directly, by reference, or by implication, is accurate and complete in every... to which it is purported to relate is subject to the verification of the facts incorporated in the...) Regional value content rulings. Each advance ruling letter concerning the application of a regional...

  13. Effect on Mail Survey Return Rates of Including Questionnaires With Follow-Up Letters. (United States)

    Futrell, Charles M.; Lamb, Charles W., Jr.


    Two thousand questionnaires were mailed to respondents allocated among seven treatments. Controls received an initial mailing (questionnaire and cover letter) only. The remaining six treatments varied by number of follow-up mailings and whether another questionnaire copy was included. Results suggest more than one follow-up letter with a…

  14. A drift towards direct structures in Dutch direct mail sales letters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Frank; Stukker, Ninne


    Dutch direct mail sales letters have traditionally had an indirect structure. In such a format, the transactional proposition is presented late in the letter in order to maximize the possibility that the readers will pay attention to, be interested in, and feel motivated to consider the proposition

  15. Managing Dissent in the Catholic Church: A Reinterpretation of the Pastoral Letter on War and Peace. (United States)

    Hogan, J. Michael


    Reexamines the American National Conference of Catholic Bishops' 1983 Pastoral Letter on War and Peace. Finds that the pastoral letter functioned rhetorically not to foster but to manage dissent, diffusing a radical Catholic challenge to American defense policy and reclaiming the bishops' authority to define Church teachings on war and peace. (SR)

  16. The Letter Position as Facilitative or Debilitative in Word Retention of EFL Learners (United States)

    Marefat, Hamideh; Shirazi, Masoumeh Ahmadi


    This study concerns the effect of letter position on the retention of words by EFL learners. Given the fact that everyone has a mental lexicon, we would suggest that words are possibly organized in alphabetical order, then it would be likely for the learners to retain the words easily when exposed to the first letters of given words. The study…

  17. An Analysis of English Business Letters from the Perspective of Interpersonal Function (United States)

    Xu, Bo


    The purpose of the present study is to find out the features of English business letters. Halliday's systemic functional linguistics is used as the theoretical framework, mainly, interpersonal fucntion. The English business letter (EBL) is an important written text used for international business communication and it has its own features of text.…

  18. Adolescent Sexual Initiation through the Lens of Letters to the Editor Published in Polish Teenage Magazines (United States)

    Kopacz, Marek S.; Bajka-Kopacz, Aleksandra


    Almost all teenage magazines invite readers to submit questions concerning relationships, published as letters to the editor, popularly called "advice columns," often containing explicit questions about sexuality. This study aims to examine, firstly, how themes related to sexual initiation are presented in letters to the editor published…

  19. Exploiting a Corpus of Business Letters from a Phraseological, Functional Perspective (United States)

    Flowerdew, Lynne


    This paper illustrates how a freely available online corpus has been exploited in a module on teaching business letters covering the following four speech acts (functions) commonly found in business letters: invitations, requests, complaints and refusals. It is proposed that different strategies are required for teaching potentially…

  20. The Presentation of Self in Letters of Application: A Mixed-Method Approach (United States)

    Soroko, Emilia


    The application letter, as the first phase of employment-seeking, is an opportunity for a job applicant to make a favorable impression on a potential employer. In the current study, the author used a mixed-method approach to empirically explore strategies for self-presentation in job application letters and determine the methods used in the…