WorldWideScience

Sample records for amended noir letter

  1. 44 CFR 70.5 - Letter of Map Amendment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Letter of Map Amendment. 70.5 Section 70.5 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... Amendment. Upon determining from available scientific or technical information that a FHBM or a...

  2. 44 CFR 70.7 - Notice of Letter of Map Amendment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Notice of Letter of Map Amendment. 70.7 Section 70.7 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY... Notice of Letter of Map Amendment. (a) The Federal Insurance Administrator, shall not publish a notice...

  3. Film Noir Style Genealogy

    OpenAIRE

    Dita Rietuma

    2012-01-01

    Annotation for the Doctoral Work Film Noir Style Genealogy (The Genealogy of the Film Noir Style) The doctoral work topic Film Noir Style Genealogy encompasses traditionally approved world film theory views on the concept of film noir and its related cinematographic heritage, and an exploration of its evolution and distinctive style, including – the development of film noir in the USA, Europe, and also in Latvia, within the context of both socio-political progression and the paradigm of m...

  4. Musique noire

    OpenAIRE

    Raibaud, Yves

    2013-01-01

    Le jazz, le reggae, le rap, le samba mais aussi le maloya réunionnais, la rumba congolaise ou l’aléké guyanais sont-ils des musiques noires ? Quelle est donc cette musique qui serait liée à la couleur de la peau ? Est-ce la façon de désigner la musique des Africains, des Afro-Américains, est-ce une musique mondiale ? Une musique de diaspora, résultat d’un métissage dont on pourrait retrouver la part des origines africaines ? Est-ce un récit légendaire lié à l’histoire de l’esclavage, de l’ass...

  5. Revue noire, une histoire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Loup Pivin

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Fig. 1 : Couverture du premier numéro de la Revue noire, 1991 Photographe anonyme. Titre: Ousmane Sow : Couple de lutteurs corps à corps, Nouba, 1987. Dimensions de l'image : 27,9 x 40 cm. Fonds : Revue noire. © Photo Revue noire Préambule Le premier numéro de cette revue de grand format, somptueusement illustrée, date de l’année 1991 et s’intitule « Ousmane Sow / African London ». Entièrement bilingue, Revue noire se donne pour objet de faire découvrir l’« African Contemporary Art / art co...

  6. Les trous noirs

    CERN Document Server

    Ioli, Elena

    2016-01-01

    L'univers est peuplé par des étoiles, des planètes, des galaxies, des astéroïdes, des comètes, mais les trous noirs en sont certainement les habitants les plus mystérieux et les plus fascinants ! Grâce à cette merveilleuse histoire racontée par papy Gino, professeur d'astronomie, les trous noirs n auront plus de secrets pour vous ! C est l'été, le soleil illumine le ciel, la plage est en feu : une journée à la plage pleine de jeux et de plongée qui va se transformer pour Bernardo, Gregorio et leurs deux amis en une aventure inattendue. Ils découvriront les secrets des trous noirs, d étranges objets célestes que personne n'a jamais vus mais qui existent bel et bien ! Grand-père Gino, un professeur d astronomie à la retraite, emmènera les enfants à l'intérieur d'un trou noir, leur expliquera pourquoi ils sont noirs, comment ils sont nés et comment les scientifiques pensent qu'ils vont mourir. Et Gino leur racontera même ce qui se trouve de l'autre côté d'un trou noir...

  7. LETTERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    At the request of you, our readers, this year we are introducing a "Letters to the Editor" column. We value your comments, positive and negative, on our layout, content and pictures and will make continuous efforts to improve our magazine. We welcome your comments and views on all aspects of China. [We reserve the right to edit for content, clarity or length.]If your letter or e-mail is published, you receive a gift!

  8. Nordic Noir Production Values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waade, Anne Marit; Jensen, Pia Majbritt

    2013-01-01

    In this article the authors argue that Nordic noir constitutes a set of production values utilised and conceptualised to make Danish television series attractive in the international market. The idea of production values is embedded into a media industrial context where market principles of target...... groups, sales, funding and marketing/branding are as important as aesthetic principles. The Killing and The Bridge are used to illustrate how features such as setting, climate, light and language serve strategic as well as aesthetic purposes in the production process. Finally, the authors conclude...... by relating the specific Nordic noir production values present in the two series to changing conditions in Danish television drama production, in particular the internationalisation of DR’s Drama Division....

  9. Chat noir chat blanc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Querien

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Je suis chat noir, chat blanc,Choix gris.Toujours à cran, toujours épris,Jamais aigri, même amaigri mon âme écrit,Décrit mon temps.Je suis chat noir, chat blanc,Un chat sans thune, mais mis à prix.J’apprécie l'eau-de-vie,Hasta la victoria,J'ai combattu de Varsovie à Pretoria.J'ai fait des portées de chats partout dans le globe,Des chats de gouttières et des panthères aux belles robes.Je dérobe les valeurs de ceux qui veulent savoir l'avenir,T'as cru que j'étais qui pour t'en avertir ?Je danse...

  10. LETTERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Dear Editor, I am a loyal reader of your magazine. I read Issue No.9 (March 2, 2006) and was deeply impressed by the articles on tobacco. Tobacco is indeed a big problem in China. Well, I would like to introduce, through your letters page, an association closely related to tobacco control. It is called Green Breathing Association, a student organization in Xiamen University (probably the first one of its kind in China). The mission of Green Breathing is to promote the public awareness of tobac-

  11. THE IMPACT OF A LETTER OF MAP AMENDMENT ON FLOODPLAIN PROPERTY VALUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James E. Larsen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Substantial empirical evidence indicates properties across the United States that are located within a Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA sell at a discount compared to similar properties otherwise located. This result is also true in our sample. Researchers have suggested the price discount equals a combination of the present value of the required flood insurance premiums and the value of uninsurable costs. To identify the portion of the discount applicable to each component, analysts have been required to estimate applicable insurance premiums and to assume a discount rate. The present paper presents a methodology that does not require these prerequisites, but still enables separation of the discount into the two components. in the united states, the federal emergency management agency sometimes issues a Letter of Map Amendment (LOMA, which exempts a property from the requirement that it be insured against flood damage as a prerequisite to the owner obtaining a federally-related mortgage loan. Therefore, any price difference between non-LOMA SFHA properties and similar properties outside the SFHA should continue to equal the sum of the two components and any significant price difference between SFHA properties with a LOMA and similar properties located outside the SFHA should equal the present value of the uninsurable costs only. Hedonic regression is used to test this proposal by comparing the selling prices of single-family house transactions for properties located within and outside the SFHA in Kettering, Ohio. In our sample, no significant uninsurable costs were detected.

  12. Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-07-01

    The Editor welcomes letters, by e-mail to ped@iop.org or by post to Dirac House, Temple Back, Bristol BS1 6BE, UK. Contents: Alternative view of education in Zambia Pedantry or compromise Alternative view of education in Zambia I have just read the 'On the Map' report of the International School of Lusaka with very mixed feelings (Physics Education, March 2001). I have recently spent some time in Zambia, in Lusaka, and share Sue Pears' love for the country and the Zambians. The ISL is indeed a good, prestigious school, similar to International Schools in many other countries. But, as in most other developing countries, there is enormous variation between the different types of schooling, and the ISL is at one end of the spectrum. Most schools in Zambia are less favoured. Zambia is a wonderful, beautiful country full of the most friendly and resourceful people I know. It is also a very poor country. It is a country of enormous contrasts and its schools reflect that variation. It has a tiny, affluent 'middle' class of professionals, politicians, businessmen, employees of international businesses and NGOs—nearly all paid from overseas budgets. It has an enormous majority of poor folk, cheerfully living in very basic conditions but sharing their lives in extended families without complaint. The government is virtually bankrupt, and consequently those paid by the government—teachers, police, nurses etc—get a pittance. The wage for a teacher in a typical school is #20 per month (compared to a typical teacher in the UK who gets 100 times more, about #2000 per month). The GNP in Zambia is about 1 per day per person, and this has to pay for all the schools, hospitals, police, and the civic infrastructure that we take so much for granted (the GNP in UK is about 60 per day per person). Consequently most state schools do not have resources; they have a classroom and a teacher but little else. What resources the school has will be paid for by the school fees that every

  13. Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-03-01

    The Editor welcomes letters, by e-mail to ped@iop.org or by post to Dirac House, Temple Back, Bristol BS1 6BE Contents: Force on a pendulum Sound slows down Bond is back Force on a pendulum The simple pendulum has been used by several educationalists for investigating the patterns of thinking among students and their observations that Aristotelian thinking persists among students at college level. I had also considered the simple pendulum in my 1985 letter in Physics Today [1], so I was interested to read the test given by Lenka Czudková and Jana Musilová [2]. When students were asked to draw net forces acting on the particle at various positions, 31.9% of students believed that the net force was tangential to the particle's path the whole time. To me this is no surprise because in our derivation of the equation for the period of a simple pendulum we assume that the unbalanced sine component provides the restoring force for the harmonic motion of the bob. Of course, Czudková and Musilová's question asked students for the net force on the particle, not the component. The student's answer fits well with the logic of the equilibrium of forces and the parallelogram law. Lastly, let me bring out the similarity between the student's answer and the thinking of George Gamow. He used to call positrons 'donkey' electrons because of their displacement against the applied force, before Paul Dirac termed them positrons. Victor Weisskeptf told me this anecdote in a letter in May 1982. References [1] Sathe D 1985 Phys. Today 38 144 [2] Czudková L and Musilová J 2000 Phys. Educ. 35 428 Dileep V Sathe Dadawala Jr College, Pune, India Sound slows down Without wanting to stir up more trouble amongst the already muddy waters of Physics teaching, consider how many times you have heard (or, more worryingly, read) this: 'Sound waves travel faster in a denser material' But...The velocity of simple longitudinal waves in a bulk medium is given by v = (K/ρ)1/2 where K is

  14. Censoring and Selling Film Noir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheri Chinen Biesen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Film noir is known for its duplicity. Industry censors considered 1940s noir cinema provocative, salacious and ‘sordid.’ Hollywood studios walked a fine line between appearing to comply with Hays office Production Code censorship while simultaneously pushing the envelope of its moral constraints, then hyping and sensationalizing censorable sex, violence and hard-hitting themes to sell noir films to the public. In fact, studios capitalized on the racy explicit nature of noir pictures in publicity contradicting assurances of censorial compliance. For instance, censor Joseph Breen was “shocked” when MGM purchased James Cain’s The Postman Always Rings Twice. It was banned for a decade. Yet, ten years later as filmmakers adapted hardboiled fiction, Breen assured religious groups it would “not be offensive.” Yet, it was promoted as “torrid,” “too hot to handle” with Lana Turner in a bathing suit finding “Love at Laguna Beach” with hunky John Garfield who clamored, “You must be a she-devil,” suggesting far more sex, skin and “savage boldness” than is shown in the film. Film noir responded to Production Code censorship and other regulatory factors, including Office of War Information Bureau of Motion Pictures restrictions on Hollywood screen depictions of the domestic American home front (or overseas combat front, and Office of Censorship strictures such as a wartime ban on screen gangsters as ‘un-American’ for propaganda purposes in World War II-era noir films centering on criminals. These multiple censorship entities often collided. This regulatory climate catalyzed the development of film noir, a dark cycle of shadowy 1940s-50s crime films that boomed by World War II and evolved over the postwar era. I will investigate extensive primary archival research—including scripts, memos from industry censors, writers, directors, producers, and publicity records—to compare how film noir was censored and sold.

  15. Nordic noir and lifted localities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim Toft

    What I do here is to draw attention to a particular visual quality of recent Nordic noir and to relate the visuality of TV-drama to what I – with a term borrowed from Roland Robertson – dub lifted localites.......What I do here is to draw attention to a particular visual quality of recent Nordic noir and to relate the visuality of TV-drama to what I – with a term borrowed from Roland Robertson – dub lifted localites....

  16. Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    The Editor welcomes letters, by e-mail to ped@iop.org or by post to Dirac House, Temple Back, Bristol BS1 6BE, UK. Contents: Maths for physics? Help! Fire! Energy and mass Maths for physics? As a maths graduate working as a university research associate I should be well qualified to support my daughter, who has just started AS-level physics, with the maths she needs for the course. There seems to be little integration between the maths and physics departments, so that maths needed for physics has not yet been covered in maths lessons. This is a problem I remember from my own school days, but the shorter timescale and modular nature of the AS and A2 levels means that it is essential that this mismatch of knowledge is resolved now. I would like to know whether physics teachers in the UK have encountered this problem and whether there is a deficiency in the maths syllabus in relation to the requirements of the AS and A2 levels in Physics or whether this is a problem peculiar to my daughter's school. Eleanor Parent of A-level student, Sheffield, UK Help! Fire! Is there a crisis in physics education? Is physics didactics coming to an end? Yes and no. Being a delegate from Norway at the on-going conference Physics on Stage (6-10 November 2000) at CERN in Geneva, I have had the opportunity to discuss this with people from all over Europe. Yes, there is a crisis. (Look at the proceedings for details on this.) I'd like to take a broader look at this situation. Like Hari Seldon in Isaac Asimov's Foundation Trilogy, I believe that there is nothing like a real crisis to get things going... Famous is the quote from the American Patent Office around 1890: 'Everything has been invented that could be invented'. Fortunately, this spurred action. The Michelson and Morley experiment heralded a most exciting period for physics. Just a cosmic blink later we put a person on the Moon. Coming back to the crisis - I am certain that in the near future we will see an interesting development

  17. Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-09-01

    The Editor welcomes letters, by e-mail to ped@iop.org or by post to Dirac House, Temple Back, Bristol BS1 6BE, UK. Contents: M-set as metaphor The abuse of algebra M-set as metaphor 'To see a World in a Grain of Sand And a Heaven in a Wild Flower Hold Infinity in the palm of your hand And Eternity in an hour' William Blake's implied relativity of spatial and temporal scales is intriguing and, given the durability of this worlds-within-worlds concept (he wrote in 1803) in art, literature and science, the blurring of distinctions between the very large and the very small must strike some kind of harmonious chord in the human mind. Could this concept apply to the physical world? To be honest, we cannot be absolutely sure. Most cosmological thinking still retains the usual notions of a finite universe and an absolute size scale extending from smallest to largest objects. In the boundless realm of mathematics, however, the story is quite different. The M-set was discovered by the French mathematician Benoit Mandelbrot in 1980, created by just a few simple lines of computer code that are repeated recursively. As in Blake's poem, this 'world' has no bottom we have an almost palpable archetype for the concept of infinity. I would use the word 'tangible', but one of the defining features of the M-set is that nowhere in the labyrinth can one find a surface smooth enough for a tangent. Upon magnification even surfaces that appeared to be smooth explode with quills and scrolls and lightning bolts and spiral staircases. And there is something more, something truly sublime. Observe a small patch with unlimited magnifying power and, as you observe the M-set on ever-smaller scales, down through literally endless layers of ornate structure, you occasionally come upon a rapidly expanding cortex of dazzling colour with a small black structure at its centre. The black spot appears to be the M-set itself! There is no end to the hierarchy, no bottom-most level, just endless recursive

  18. Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-05-01

    The Editor welcomes letters, by e-mail to ped@iop.org or by post to Dirac House, Temple Back, Bristol BS1 6BE, UK. Contents: Quantum uncertainties Reflections in a plastic box A brief history of quantum physics Correction Grammar and gender Quantum uncertainties Whilst I enjoyed Gesche Pospiech's article ('Uncertainty and complementarity: the heart of quantum physics' 2000 Phys. Educ. 35 393 9) I would like to expand on two comments he makes. Firstly the author claims that QM is linear, and a consequence of this is that any two superimposed states form an admissible third state. This is rather too sweeping, as it is true only for degenerate states. Otherwise quantum mechanics would allow a continuum of energies between states by a simple admixture of levels. The proof of this statement is trivial. For a Hamiltonian H and two orthogonal wavefunctions, ψ1 and ψ2 with energies E1 and E2 then (ψ1 + ψ2) is not an eigenfunction of that Hamiltonian as H(ψ1 + ψ2) = E1ψ1 + E2ψ2 ≠ E(ψ1 + ψ2) for any value of E, unless E1 = E2. Secondly Pospiech states that quantum objects show wave- or particle-like behaviour, depending on the measuring apparatus, and that occasionally experiments (such as Taylor's) reveal both. I would contest the validity of this type of thinking. All experiments on quantum objects reveal both types of behaviour—even ones which simply show straight line motion of photons. What is important, in addition, is our interpretation of the results. It takes an understanding of QED, for example, to see that an experiment which otherwise shows particle behaviour is, in fact, showing quantum behaviour. More contentiously though I would suggest that detection apparatus is incapable of detecting anything other than particles. Wave-like behaviour is revealed only by an analysis of the paths the particle could have taken. In other words, the interference of continuous fields sometimes predicts the same results when the detection is averaged over many events

  19. Detectives with pimples: how teen noir is crossing the frontiers of the traditional noir films

    OpenAIRE

    Mancelos, João de

    2012-01-01

    In the last ten years, teen noir movies and series — such as Donnie Darko (2001), Brick (2005), or Veronica Mars (2004-2007) — have become increasingly popular among audiences, both in the USA and in Europe, and aroused the curiosity of critics. These teen noir adventures present darker themes and technical features that distinguish them from numerous productions aiming at young adults. Their narrative and aesthetic characteristics reinvent and subvert the tradition of classic noir movies of ...

  20. Responses to lost letters about a 2000 General Election amendment to abolish prohibition of interracial marriages in Alabama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, F Stephen; Keeton, Kato B; Clark, L Nicholle

    2002-12-01

    A field study using 621 "lost" letters was conducted in the city of Mobile and in small towns in mostly rural Baldwin County, Alabama. Milgram's lost letter technique was validated against the actual votes cast during the November 7, 2000 General Election. The technique was successful as an unobtrusive measure useful for predicting patterns of voting behavior. Rates of return of lost letters "in favor of and opposed to legalizing interracial marriage" agreed with the actual election returns (chi-square "goodness of fit"). Community size seemed associated with return of lost letters.

  1. Nordic Noir - Location, Identity and Emotion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Gunhild

    2016-01-01

    Understanding and discussing the impact of the Nordic element in ‘Nordic Noir’ is the main purpose of this article. This is pursued by tracing the concepts of location, identity and emotion in selected episodes of TV series and serials representative of Nordic Noir – Wallander (2005-) Forbrydelsen...... (The Killing, 2007, 2009, 2012), and the Swedish-Danish co-production Bron |Broen (The Bridge, 2011-). Considering the roots of Nordic Noir is important in order to understand the implications of the concept, including its melancholic and dark features. The common roots and the different ways in which...... and emotion (Sharma & Dahl 2013, Tygstrup 2013, Pribram 2011, Laine 2011). Their concepts are applied in the analyses. The article concludes with a perspective considering the role of Nordic Noir vis-à-vis international TV drama productions....

  2. Femme nue, femme noire de Calixte Beyala frente a "Femme noire" de Leopold Sedar Senghor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Nomo Ngamba

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available La intención de este estudio consiste en resaltar algunos elementos semiótico-discursos de Femme nue, femme noire de Calixte Beyala frente a Femme noire de Léopold Sédar Senghor. Se trata de demostrar, a través de las nociones de intertextualidad, dialogismo, polifonía, transtextualidad, paratextualidad, etc…, desarrollados por algunos críticos como Genette, Bajtin, Barthes, Kristeva, Maingueneau, que todo texto es un intertexto, que el texto de Calixte Beyala se inspira en el de Sédar Senghor y que ambos autores, no obstante sus diferentes perspectivas y épocas, pertenecen a una misma red discursiva, es decir, a la corriente literario-ideológica de la Negritud.

  3. Local noir and the regionalization of Danish TV drama production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim Toft

    In the paper I employ the concept 'local noir' as a location oriented concept for analyses of ‘localisation’ of crime fiction. Even 'port noir' (crime fiction in port cities) would be an interesting way to shift attention away from a very diffuse idea of 'the Nordic' onto an attention towards the...... actual process of placement in TV drama production. While Danish TV drama is often mentioned as internationally succesful, the opposite process of local TV drama is rarely mentioned, although the two processes are centripetal and cetrifugal parts of the same phenomenon....

  4. Agreement Between New Zealand and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. An Agreement by Exchange of Letters with New Zealand to Amend the Protocol to the Safeguards Agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The text of the Exchange of Letters, constituting an agreement to amend the Protocol to the Agreement between New Zealand and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Prolilferation of Nuclear Weapons, is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members of the Agency. The amendments agreed upon in the Exchange of Letters entered into force on 24 February 2014, the date on which the Agency received New Zealand's affirmative reply

  5. The Lethal "Femme Fatale" in the Noir Tradition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boozer, Jack

    2000-01-01

    Traces the lethal seductress through Hollywood's "noir" history from "Double Indemnity" (1944) to "The Last Seduction" (1996). Examines how this figure largely abjures traditional romance and passive domesticity, choosing instead to apply her sexuality to homicidal plots toward greed. Argues that her narrative positioning serves as a barometer of…

  6. The Code Noir: Construction of Slavery in French Colonial Louisiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlyck, Kevin

    2003-01-01

    Presents a lesson focusing on the history of slavery. Compares two systems of slavery in North America to teach students about slavery within and outside of the United States. States that the lesson uses the "Code Noir" to help students understand the similarities and differences between the systems. (CMK)

  7. The Text of the Agreement between the Lesotho and the Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. An Agreement by Exchange of Letters with the Kingdom of Lesotho to amend the Protocol to the Safeguards Agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The text of the Exchange of Letters, constituting an agreement to amend the Protocol to the Agreement between the Kingdom of Lesotho and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, is reproduced in this document for the information of all Member States of the Agency

  8. Agreement between the Holy See and the Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. An agreement by Exchange of Letters with the Holy See to amend the Protocol to the Safeguards Agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The text of the Exchange of Letters, constituting an agreement to amend the Protocol to the Agreement between the Holy See and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, is reproduced in this document for the information of all Member States of the Agency

  9. The Text of the Agreement of 14 January 1980 between Senegal and the Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. An Agreement by Exchange of Letters with Senegal to amend the Protocol to the Safeguards Agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The text of the Exchange of Letters, constituting an agreement to amend the Protocol to the Agreement between Senegal and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, is reproduced in this document for the information of all Member States of the Agency

  10. D'Eichthal and Urbain's "Lettres sur la race noire et la race blanche": race, gender, and reconciliation after slave emancipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Naomi J

    2011-01-01

    This article is a close reading of Gustave D'Eichthal and Ishmayl Urbain's Lettres sur la race noire et la race blanche (1839), written during the decade prior to the "second" French emancipation in 1848. The article argues that the hierarchical gendering of race described in the letters is reflective of metropolitan concerns about potential for social disorder accompanying slave emancipation in the French colonies. In arguing for social reconciliation through interracial marriage and its offspring, the symbolically charged figure of the mulatto, the authors deployed gendered and familial language to describe a stable post-emancipation society.

  11. Trous noirs ces objets théoriques deviennent enfin réalité!

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Les trous noirs font partie du bestiaire des astrophysiciens, mais ceux-ci doivent encore se contenter, en termes d'observations, des seuls effets indirects de leur présence. Peut-être plus pour longtemps : ce numéro montre que les premières images de trous noirs devraient prochainement voir le jour !

  12. Agreement of 2 October 1974 between Ecuador and the Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. An agreement by Exchange of Letters with Ecuador to amend the Protocol to the Safeguards Agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The text of the Exchange of Letters, constituting an agreement to amend the Protocol to the Agreement of 2 October 1974 between the Republic of Ecuador and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, is reproduced in this document for the information of all Member States of the Agency

  13. Agreement between the Dominican Republic and the Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. An agreement by Exchange of Letters with the Dominican Republic to amend the Protocol to the Safeguards Agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The text of the Exchange of Letters, constituting an agreement to amend the Protocol to the Agreement between the Dominican Government and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, is reproduced in this document for the information of all Member States of the Agency

  14. Agreement of 9 September 1996 between Antigua and Barbuda and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. An Agreement by Exchange of Letters with Antigua and Barbuda to amend the Protocol to the Safeguards Agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The text of the Exchange of Letters, constituting an agreement to amend the Protocol to the Agreement between the Antigua and Barbuda and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, is reproduced in this document for the information of all Member States of the Agency

  15. Agreement between the Republic of Panama and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America. An Agreement by Exchange of Letters with the Republic of Panama to amend the Protocol to the Safeguards Agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The text of the Exchange of Letters, constituting an agreement to amend the Protocol to the Agreement of 23 March 1984 between the Republic of Panama and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, is reproduced in this document for the information of all Member States of the Agency

  16. Où se cache la matière noire ?

    CERN Document Server

    Bouquet, Alain

    2010-01-01

    Pour calculer la masse totale de l’Univers, deux méthodes existent. On peut, à partir de la quantité de lumière reçue dans l’Univers, estimer la masse requise pour l'émettre : c’est ce que l’on appelle la masse « lumineuse ». On peut aussi estimer la masse nécessaire pour communiquer aux étoiles les vitesses observées : c’est ce que l’on appelle la masse « dynamique ». Problème : la masse dynamique est cinq à dix fois supérieure à la masse lumineuse ! Ce désaccord se résout simplement si l'on suppose que la plus grande partie de la matière – 80 à 90% – n'émet aucun rayonnement électromagnétique, qu'elle est donc « noire »… De nombreux indices, dans des domaines très variés de l’astrophysique, laissent même supposer que cette matière est de nature distincte de la matière lumineuse… La découverte d’une particule de matière noire constituerait un évènement considérable : plusieurs expériences la traquent en continu…

  17. Investigating Veronica Mars : the noir and teen clash in Neptune, California

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    What happens when you combine the long tradition of film noir and the contemporary television teen drama? Through genre analysis, this thesis explores how the television show Veronica Mars (2004-2007) mixes noir and teen drama and how this creates a dark vision of society and teen life. Through four chapters I investigate key points of the show, such as the narration and aesthetics, the representation of the noir universe through the show’s depiction of social class inequalities and an incapa...

  18. NOIR Lasershileds系列激光防护镜

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    NOIR Lasershileds系列激光防护镜采用窄带吸收材料而非宽带吸收染料,提供的滤光片种类超过了75种,其中得到CE认证的超过40种,可见光透光率VLT〉50%的有12种,另有12种VLT〉35%。NOIR还提供L分级的树脂镜片,包括防护可见和红外纳秒脉冲激光的IRL7以及针对紫外、可见光、红外飞秒脉冲的ML6。

  19. Musique noire, la musique des Afriques dans le monde

    OpenAIRE

    Raibaud, Yves

    2011-01-01

    International audience Le jazz, le reggae, le rap, le samba mais aussi le maloya réunionnais, la rumba congolaise ou l'aléké guyanais sont-ils des musiques noires ? Quelle est donc cette musique qui serait liée à la couleur de la peau ? Est-ce la façon de désigner la musique des Africains, des Afro-Américains, est-ce une musique mondiale ? Une musique de diaspora, résultat d'un métissage dont on pourrait retrouver la part des origines africaines ? Est-ce un récit légendaire lié à l'histoir...

  20. Eighties' Film Noir: An Analysis of the Use of the "Double" in "Miami Vice's" Second and Third Seasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matviko, John W.

    A comparison of the current television series "Miami Vice" with the "film noir" genre of American movies from the forties and fifties reveals many similar elements, such as visual style, mood, theme, and sensibility. "Miami Vice" is set in a large city whose art deco architecture provides an ironic contrast to noir's pessimistic themes. Film…

  1. (In)Edible Algeria: Transmitting Pied-Noir Nostalgia Through Food

    OpenAIRE

    Hubbell, Amy L.

    2013-01-01

    For those exiled from Algeria during and after the Algerian War for Independence (1954-1962), sustaining memories of the homeland has been a consuming pastime. Food has especially played a large part in reconnecting Algeria’s former French citizens, the Pieds-Noirs, to their past. Annual gatherings feature typical dishes such as couscous, merguez, méchoui, mouna, which like the Proustian madeleine, transport the Pieds-Noirs to a preceding time of wholeness and comfort, allowing them to experi...

  2. Poliomyelitis outbreak, Pointe-Noire, Republic of the Congo, September 2010-February 2011.

    OpenAIRE

    Le Menach, Arnaud; Llosa, Augusto E; Mouniaman-Nara, Isabelle; Kouassi, Felix; Ngala, Joseph; Boxall, Naomi; Porten, Klaudia; Grais, Rebecca F

    2011-01-01

    On November 4, 2010, the Republic of the Congo declared a poliomyelitis outbreak. A cross-sectional survey in Pointe-Noire showed poor sanitary conditions and low vaccination coverage (55.5%), particularly among young adults. Supplementary vaccination should focus on older age groups in countries with evidence of immunity gaps.

  3. Large Drought-Induced Variations in Oak Leaf Volatile Organic Compound Emissions during PINOT NOIR 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaf-level isoprene and monoterpene emissions were collected and analyzed from five of the most abundant oak (Quercus) species in Central Missouri’s Ozarks Region in 2012 during PINOT NOIR (Particle Investigations at a Northern Ozarks Tower ‐ NOx, Oxidants, Isoprene Research). Ju...

  4. Early Carboniferous ammonoid faunas and stratigraphy of the Montagne Noire (France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Korn

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The early Carboniferous (Mississippian sedimentary succession of the Montagne Noire is subdivided into three major lithostratigraphic units, in ascending order the Montagne Noire Griotte Group (Devonian to Early Tournaisian, the Tournaisian to Viséan Saint-Nazaire Group (with the Lydiennes, Faugères, Colonnes, and Puech Capel Formations, the latter new, and the Laurens Flysch Group (late Viséan. The ammonoid assemblages in these rock units are reviewed. A total of 29 Early Carboniferous ammonoid taxa at species level are determined. The new genus Nigrocyclus n. gen., and the new species Gattendorfia nazairensis n. sp., Globimitoceras albaillei n. sp., and Neogoniatites canovasi n. sp. are described. Die unterkarbonische Abfolge von Sedimentgesteinen in der Montagne Noire wird in drei lithostratigraphische Einheiten untergliedert, von unten nach oben die Montagne Noire Griotte Gruppe (Oberdevon bis Untertournai, die Saint-Nazaire Gruppe des Tournaisium und Viséum (mit den Lydiennes Faugères, Colonnes und Puech Capel Formationen, von denen die letzte neu ist, und der Laurens Flysch Gruppe (Oberviséum. Die Ammonoideen-Vergesellschaftungen in diesen Gesteinen werden revidiert. Insgesamt werden 29 unterkarbonische Ammonoideen-Taxa auf Artebene aufgeführt; neu beschrieben werden die Gattung Nigrocyclus n. gen. sowie die Arten Gattendorfia nazairensis n. sp., Globimitoceras albaillei n. sp. und Neogoniatites canovasi n. sp. doi:10.1002/mmng.200700002

  5. Letter to jane addams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, M

    1995-06-01

    This letter, written to one of the founding figures in social work, draws parallels between primary prevention at the beginning and the end of the twentieth century. As expected, the letter remains unanswered.

  6. Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant. License application, amendment 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amendment No. 10 provides the applicant's responses to questions raised by the AEC in letters dated November 6 and December 5, 1974. Amendment No. 3, dated February 1975, to the BNFP Separations Facility Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) is included. The amendment consists of revision pages for volumes 1 through 5 of the FSAR along with a deletion and insertion guide. (U.S.)

  7. Agreement between Mauritius and the Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. An agreement by exchange of letters with the Republic of Mauritius in connection with the amendment of Article 15 of the Safeguards Agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Through the attached Exchange of Letters, Article 15 of the Agreement between Mauritius and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons has been amended to read as follows: 'The Government of Mauritius and the Agency will bear the expenses incurred by them in implementing their respective responsibilities under this Agreement. However, if the Government of Mauritius or persons under its jurisdiction incur extraordinary expenses as a result of a specific request by the Agency, the Agency shall reimburse such expenses provided that it has agreed in advance to do so. In any case the Agency shall bear the cost of any additional measuring or sampling which inspectors may request.'

  8. Chemosensory characterization of Chardonnay and Pinot Noir base wines of Champagne. Two very different varieties for a common product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, Paula; Sáenz-Navajas, Pilar; Culleré, Laura; Ferreira, Vicente; Chatin, Amelie; Chaperon, Vincent; Litoux-Desrues, François; Escudero, Ana

    2016-09-15

    Five different methodologies were applied for the quantitative analysis of 86 volatile molecules in 32 Chardonnay and 30 Pinot Noir Champagne white base wines. Sensory characterization was carried out by descriptive analysis. Pinot Noir wines had more constitutive compounds while Chardonnay wines had more discriminant compounds. Only four compounds predominated in Chardonnay wines: 4-vinylphenol, guaiacol, sotolon and 4-methyl-4-mercapto-2-pentanone. Correlation studies and PLSR models were calculated with sensory and chemical variables. For Pinot Noir wines, they were not as revealing as for Chardonnay base wines. Sulfur-related compounds were suggested to be involved in tropical fruit, dried fruit and citric sensory notes. This family of compounds seemed to be responsible for discriminant sensory terms in Champagne base wines. Fermentative compounds (aromatic buffer) were found at significantly higher levels in Pinot Noir wines, which would explain the fact that these wines were more difficult to describe in comparison with Chardonnay base wines. PMID:27080902

  9. Belleville rouge, Belleville noir, Belleville rose: The Complex Identity of a Parisian quartier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn Stott

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Parisian quartier of Belleville has long been the subject of scholarly literature and popular culture due to its colourful history and diverse population. Its symbolic boundaries extend beyond the geographical limits imposed by its administrative demarcation. Myths abound as to the extent of its rebellious past, its contemporary image as a melting pot and its prevalence as a décor for the noir genre. In this article a three-tiered categorisation of Belleville is adopted which corresponds to various representations of the suburb in literature, popular culture and from the perspective of its inhabitants. Belleville rouge reflects the quartier’s revolutionary past and the late 20th century struggle associated with its physical metamorphosis. Belleville noir focusses on the quartier’s criminal face, as it is depicted in Parisian film and roman noir and as it exists in reality. Belleville rose highlights the pleasures of the quartier: its cosmopolitan character whose representation verges at times on utopian.    In his Malaussène series (1985-1995, writer and former resident Daniel Pennac portrays Belleville as a unique blend of rouge, noir and rose. This fusion of fairy tale, detective fiction, myth and reality establishes a complex Bellevillois identity distinct from other contemporary representations. The article concludes that it is impossible to associate a single identity with Belleville. The quartier’s contemporary face is inextricably linked to its past, the memory of which is preserved by its inhabitants and by social and literary commentators such as Pennac. In keeping with historian Pierre Nora’s concept of cultural memory, Pennac thus assumes the role of guardian of Belleville’s cultural memory in the face of the quartier’s perpetual evolution.

  10. (InEdible Algeria: Transmitting Pied-Noir Nostalgia Through Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy L. Hubbell

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available For those exiled from Algeria during and after the Algerian War for Independence (1954-1962, sustaining memories of the homeland has been a consuming pastime. Food has especially played a large part in reconnecting Algeria’s former French citizens, the Pieds-Noirs, to their past. Annual gatherings feature typical dishes such as couscous, merguez, méchoui, mouna, which like the Proustian madeleine, transport the Pieds-Noirs to a preceding time of wholeness and comfort, allowing them to experience, if only fleetingly, a sense of immortality. While food has a reparative quality for the community’s memory, it is also the site of rejection and pain for some. Marie Cardinal writes about food as a site of unity with the indigenous Algerian community and rejection from her colonial French family. Similarly, in the collective autobiography Quatre soeurs: Hier, en Algérie, aujourd’hui en France, Frédérique Boblin, Eve Calo, Nelly Collet and Fabienne Rozotte explain their shared eating disorders as tied to their expulsion from Algeria. This essay demonstrates that the Pieds-Noirs can eat to remember Algeria, but the Algeria they knew can also prove to be inedible.

  11. Which Children Benefit from Letter Names in Learning Letter Sounds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treiman, Rebecca; Pennington, Bruce F.; Shriberg, Lawrence D.; Boada, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Typical U.S. children use their knowledge of letters' names to help learn the letters' sounds. They perform better on letter sound tests with letters that have their sounds at the beginnings of their names, such as v, than with letters that have their sounds at the ends of their names, such as m, and letters that do not have their sounds in their…

  12. 75 FR 9073 - Amendments to Rules Requiring Internet Availability of Proxy Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-26

    ... FR 33293]. We received 25 comment letters in response to the proposed amendments.\\7\\ These letters.... (``Ameriprise''), Association of Corporate Counsel (``ACC''), The Altman Group (``Altman''), BNY Mellon... Transfer Association, Inc. (``STA''). \\8\\ See, e.g., letters from ABA, ABC, ACC, Altman, BNY,...

  13. Letter of Map Revision

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL) data incorporates all Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map(DFIRM) databases published by FEMA, and any Letters Of Map Revision...

  14. The genetic diversity of three peculiar populations descending from the slave trade: Gm study of Noir Marron from French Guiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brucato, Nicolas; Tortevoye, Patricia; Plancoulaine, Sabine; Guitard, Evelyne; Sanchez-Mazas, Alicia; Larrouy, Georges; Gessain, Antoine; Dugoujon, Jean-Michel

    2009-10-01

    The Noir Marron communities are the direct descendants of African slaves brought to the Guianas during the four centuries (16th to 19th) of the Atlantic slave trade. Among them, three major ethnic groups have been studied: the Aluku, the Ndjuka and the Saramaka. Their history led them to share close relationships with Europeans and Amerindians, as largely documented in their cultural records. The study of Gm polymorphisms of immunoglobulins may help to estimate the amount of gene flow linked to these cultural exchanges. Surprisingly, very low levels of European contribution (2.6%) and Amerindian contribution (1.7%) are detected in the Noir Marron gene pool. On the other hand, an African contribution of 95.7% redraws their origin to West Africa (F(ST) < or = 0.15). This highly preserved African gene pool of the Noir Marron is unique in comparison to other African American populations of Latin America, who are notably more admixed.

  15. 21 CFR 170.6 - Opinion letters on food additive status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 170.6 Opinion letters... contact with, food. Prior to the enactment of the Food Additives Amendment of 1958 (Pub. L. 85-929; Sept... Additives Amendment, the Food and Drug Administration has advised such inquirers that an article: (1) Is...

  16. Temporal processing deficits in letter-by-letter reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingles, Janet L; Eskes, Gail A

    2007-01-01

    Theories of the cognitive impairment underlying letter-by-letter reading vary widely, including prelexical and lexical level deficits. One prominent prelexical account proposes that the disorder results from difficulty in processing multiple letters simultaneously. We investigated whether this deficit extends to letters presented in rapid temporal succession. A letter-by-letter reader, G.M., was administered a rapid serial visual presentation task that has been used widely to study the temporal processing characteristics of the normal visual system. Comparisons were made to a control group of 6 brain-damaged individuals without reading deficits. Two target letters were embedded at varying temporal positions in a stream of rapidly presented single digits. After each stream, the identities of the two letters were reported. G.M. required an extended period of time after he had processed one letter before he was able to reliably identify a second letter, relative to the controls. In addition, G.M.'s report of the second letter was most impaired when it immediately followed the first letter, a pattern not seen in the controls, indicating that G.M. had difficulty processing the two items together. These data suggest that a letter-by-letter reading strategy may be adopted to help compensate for a deficit in the temporal processing of letters.

  17. Chandler no Cinema Noir: algumas reflexões sobre "A simples arte de matar"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Misse

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available O artigo trata da adaptação de novelas de Raymond Chandler para o cinema e de suas incursões como roteirista de filmes; na última parte, tendo por referência o ensaio de Chandler intitulado "A simples arte de matar", o autor reconsidera o apelo do crime e do mistério nas representações sociais presentes na estética "noir", que influencia ainda hoje o romance policial e de mistério.

  18. New Landscapes of the Noir: The Urban Jungle in 'The Wire' and 'The Shield'

    OpenAIRE

    García-Martínez, A.N. (Alberto Nahum)

    2015-01-01

    "The Shield (FX 2002-08) and The Wire (HBO 2002-08) are two of the most critically acclaimed TV-shows ever produced and both share a kinship with certain film noir products. The Wire transcends the cop-show genre by offering a multilayered portrait of the city of Baltimore: from police work to drug dealing, from union corruption to problems of the school system and to unethical journalism practices. On the other hand, The Shield takes the form of a fast-moving cop-show that displays much of t...

  19. Il giallo-noir nella scrittura a quattro mani. Il caso di Acqua in bocca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Medaglia

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Crime Fiction in Co-Authored Writing Practice. The Case Study of Acqua in bocca This article focuses on the issue of literary genres in relation to co-authored literature. In particular it analyzes the ways in which co-authored writing practice affects the authors’ choice of genre. In order to effectively investigate this issue, it surveys a set of literary works published by two or more authors in Western context from 1700 to 2013. This quantitative research leads to highlight some significant recurrent characteristics. In fact, it identifies crime novel and noir fiction as the most exploited ‘sub-genres’. To underline and exemplify this finding it analyzes Acqua in bocca by Andrea Camilleri and Carlo Lucarelli. This novel superbly underlines the main features of contemporary Italian crime-noir fiction: it is consumer-oriented, the authors’ style is creolized, and no more than two writers are involved. In addition, this work has other interesting features: the epistolary structure used in the text has the aim of charming the reader and well-known characters are used without altering their peculiarities beloved by their audience.  

  20. Un lieu à l’oeuvre : « La chambre noire » de Marguerite Duras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Denes

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Partant du constat que chez Duras la poétique de l’espace oscille entre l’« outside » du « monde extérieur » et l’inside de « la vie matérielle » et domestique - autant de formules dont elle a fait des titres - comme elle-même se partage physiquement entre ses trois lieux de l’écrit, nous nous demanderons comment et jusqu’où ses lieux informent ses livres, et à l’inverse, comment l’écriture investit le lieu et se l’approprie. Emblématique est à cet égard la chambre des Roches noires érigée en concept de « chambre noire » de la création, cette chambre-livre avec vue se prêtant à la réflexion poétique comme à la projection dans l’imaginaire.

  1. Il giallo-noir nella scrittura a quattro mani. Il caso di Acqua in bocca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Medaglia

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Crime Fiction in Co-Authored Writing Practice. The Case Study of Acqua in bocca This article focuses on the issue of literary genres in relation to co-authored literature. In particular it analyzes the ways in which co-authored writing practice affects the authors’ choice of genre. In order to effectively investigate this issue, it surveys a set of literary works published by two or more authors in Western context from 1700 to 2013. This quantitative research leads to highlight some significant recurrent characteristics. In fact, it identifies crime novel and noir fiction as the most exploited ‘sub-genres’. To underline and exemplify this finding it analyzes Acqua in bocca by Andrea Camilleri and Carlo Lucarelli. This novel superbly underlines the main features of contemporary Italian crime-noir fiction: it is consumer-oriented, the authors’ style is creolized, and no more than two writers are involved. In addition, this work has other interesting features: the epistolary structure used in the text has the aim of charming the reader and well-known characters are used without altering their peculiarities beloved by their audience.

  2. On The Scarlet Letter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐丹

    2016-01-01

    Reading The Scarlet Letter, one is mostly impressed by the spirit of The Bible the story depicted. The book chiefly discusses sin and how to atone for it. Hester Prynne is the heroine of the fiction. This paper researches her fate to illustrate the influence of The Bible to Hawthorne.

  3. The Scarlet Letter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hawthorne, Nathaniel

    2005-01-01

    The Scarlet Letter is the story of three New England settlers at odds with the Puritan society in which they live. Roger Chillingworth, an ageing scholar, arrives in New England after two years' separation from his wife Hester to find her on trial for adultery. She refuses to reveal her lover's iden

  4. The Fuzzy Scarlet Letter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallas, Aaron M.

    2012-01-01

    Critics of the public release of teacher evaluation scores sometimes liken these ratings to the scarlet letter worn by Hester Prynne in Nathaniel Hawthorne's classic novel. The comparison is apt. But public school teachers who are subjected to public shaming because of their students' test scores can rarely expect the opportunities for redemption…

  5. BUSINESS LETTERS GENRE PECULIARITIES

    OpenAIRE

    Derbishewa Khadizat Askhabalievna

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Authentic business letters are classified according to lexico-phraseological collocations used in them. Methodology Semiotic method, descriptive method, method of continuous sampling. Practical implications The paper is of interest for specialists in the fields of Text linguistics, English for Specific Purposes and Business English.

  6. Letters in this Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Reforming the General Chemistry Textbook individual letters by Edward T. Samulski; Stephen J. Hawkes; Stephen J. Fisher; J. Stephen Hartman; A. R. H. Cole; Stanley Pine, Ronald Archer, and Herbert Kaesz; Jimmy Reeves; Robert Hill; and Brock Spencer, C. Bradley Moore and Nedah Rose. Re: article by R. J. Gillespie The author replies

  7. Symbolism in The Scarlet Letter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王忠杰

    2007-01-01

    Nathaniel Hawthorne is the greatest American romantic novelist during the nineteenth century. This paper researches the symbolism in his masterpiece The Scarlet Letter from the aspect of the symbolic meaning of the scarlet letter.

  8. President Nixon's Letter of Resignation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Mary; Childress, Marilyn

    1982-01-01

    Contains a primary source document--President Nixon's resignation letter--and suggests teaching strategies for its use with secondary level students. To refresh students' memories of the events surrounding the letter, a selective chronology is also presented. (RM)

  9. Letters to a Young Writer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, C. D.; Schulman, Grace

    2001-01-01

    Presents two letters to a young writer, modeled on the influential "Letters to a Young Poet" by Rainer Maria Rilke. Notes the first letter situates itself when a young writer first turns toward poetry; and the second addresses the relationship between mentorship and the imagination, questioning the right of any writer to presume to guide the…

  10. Turbidity, SOLAR RADIATION - ATMOSPHERIC and other data from WHARF POINTE NOIRE from 1969-03-26 to 1982-08-22 (NCEI Accession 9000108)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains Shallow Station data collected from Wharf Pointe Noire in Guadalupe from April 1969 to August 1982. The primary productivity data were...

  11. Role of glycosidic aroma precursors on the odorant profiles of Grenache noir and Syrah wines from the Rhone valley. Part 2: characterisation of derived compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Segurel, Marie; Baumes, Raymond; Langlois, Dominique; Riou, C; Razungles, Jean

    2009-01-01

    Aims: Grenache noir and Syrah are the predominant grape varieties in the French Rhone valley vineyard. This study aimed at identifying the odorants generated from glycoconjugates extracted from wines made with Grenache noir and Syrah.Methods and results: Synthetic model wines enriched with glycoconjugates. treated or not with enzymes. were stored at 45 degrees C for 3 weeks. or at 13 degrees C for 18 months. Aromas generated were extracted and analyzed by GC-Olfactometry (only samples from ac...

  12. Particles and Nuclei, Letters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present collection of letters from JINR, Dubna, contains eight separate letters on analysis of experimental data on relativistic nuclear collisions in the Lobachevski space, relativistic contribution of the final-state interaction to deuteron photodisintegration, on the charge asymmetry of the like-sign lepton pairs induced by B - B bar - production asymmetry, limits on the νe → νe neutrino oscillation parameters from an experiment at the IHEP-JINR neutrino detector, excitation of high spin isomers in photonuclear reactions, study of product formation in proton-nuclear reactions on the 129I target induced by 660-MeV protons, application of jet pumps in the cryogenic system of the Nuclotron - superconducting accelerator of relativistic particles and study of the silicon drift detector performance with inclined tracks

  13. A Letter to Alien

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱政榜

    2012-01-01

    Dear Alien, 1 am sorry to hear that you have some problems. I hear you argued with your best friend. 1 think you could call him up or go to his home. You could write him a letter. And you could tell him you are sony. Or maybe you could give him a ticket to a ball game. I am sure you will get on well with him again.

  14. The Danish letters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beier, Sofie; Ejlers, Steen

    2011-01-01

    The talk will focus on Danish type designers and their work on Æ (AE), Ø (Oslash) and Å (Aring). These 'anomalies' found in the Danish written language, often causes difficulties for type designers. The counters of Ø/ø sometimes appear overcrowded, the uppercase Æ can result in an uncomfortably o......' attempt to create the optimal variation of these letters, we will give a brief introduction to the Danish typography tradition ranging from the early 20th Century and up until today....

  15. Letters to the Editor

    OpenAIRE

    Kuipers, Benjamin J

    1990-01-01

    Varol Akman, in his letter (AI Magazine, Spring 1990) criticizing QSIM, quotes both me and Janowski, accurately I believe, describing various limitations of QSIM. At the risk of being scolded again for "employing universal truths and unarguable facts" in support of my position, I must point out that it is the responsibility of a scientist or engineer to document clearly the known limitations of any method he develops and publishes. In addition to truth in packaging, a clear and unblinking exa...

  16. Letters to the Editor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-11-01

    All the Letters to the Editor in this issue are in the same PostScript or PDF file. Contents The equivalence of mass and energy Peter Stansbury Head of Physics, Christ Church Grammar School, Claremont, Western Australia 6010 Comment on `A simple experiment to study parabolic surfaces' N Gauthier Department of Physics, The Royal Military College of Canada, Kingston, Ontario K7K 7B4, Canada

  17. Pinot noir wine volatile and anthocyanin composition under different levels of vine fruit zone leaf removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Hui; Skinkis, Patricia A; Qian, Michael C

    2017-01-01

    The impacts of fruit zone leaf removal on volatile and anthocyanin compositions of Pinot noir wine were investigated over two growing seasons. Wine volatiles were analyzed by multiple techniques, including headspace solid phase microextraction-GC-MS (HS-SPME-GC-MS), headspace-GC-FID (HS-GC-FID) and stir bar sorptive extraction-GC-MS (SBSE-GC-MS). Fruit zone leaf removal affected the concentration of many grape-derived volatile compounds such as terpene alcohols and C13-norisoprenoids in wine, although the degree of impact depended on the vintage year and severity of leaf removal. Fruit zone leaf removal resulted in greater concentrations of linalool, α-terpineol and β-damascenone but had no impact on other terpene alcohols or β-ionone. Fruit zone leaf removal had no consistent impact on C6 alcohols, volatile phenols, lactones, fermentation-derived alcohols, acids, or most esters. Fruit zone leaf removal increased anthocyanins in final wine.

  18. Evaluation of organic and inorganic compounds levels of red wines processed from Pinot Noir grapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heli Sirén

    2015-03-01

    The wine products showed different profiles of carbohydrates, organic acids, phenolic compounds, and minerals. Especially, saccharose (max. 0.21 g/L, rhamnose (max. 0.45 g/L, fructose (max. 1.9 g/L, and phosphate (max 1.4 g/L quantities were extremely high in some wines. The results also showed that yeast fermentation in winemaking agitated high production of lactic (max 5.7 g/L and tartaric (max 1.7 g/L acids. The red wines processed by cold maceration and natural fermentation gave similar profiles. Only one of the Pinot Noir wines entirely differentiated from the others with comparison of carbohydrates and organic acids.

  19. L’art du cameo onirique dans Les minutes noires de Martín Solares

    OpenAIRE

    Benmiloud, Karim

    2015-01-01

    Comme auteur de romans policiers, l'écrivain mexicain Martín Solares s'inscrit à la fois dans le désir de restituer une image de la vie mexicaine contemporaine et dans la continuité de ce sous-genre littéraire. Son roman Les minutes noires se donne un cadre imaginaire mais le lecteur a beau jeu d'y retrouver des données propres à la biographie de l'auteur. Le crime qui constitue le nœud de l'intrigue, assassinats en série de petites filles dans une région du Mexique, est lui-même dérivé d'un ...

  20. A comparison of letter and digit processing in letter-by-letter reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingles, Janet L; Eskes, Gail A

    2008-01-01

    The extent to which letter-by-letter reading results from a specific orthographic deficit, as compared with a nonspecific disturbance in basic visuoperceptual mechanisms, is unclear. The current study directly compared processing of letters and digits in a letter-by-letter reader, G.M., using a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) task and a speeded matching task. Comparisons were made to a group of six brain-damaged individuals without reading deficits. In the RSVP task, G.M. had increased difficulty reporting the target identities when they were letters, as compared with digits. Although this general pattern was also evident in the control group, the magnitude of the letter-digit accuracy difference was greater in G.M. Similarly, in the matching task, G.M. was slower to match letters than digits, relative to the control group, although his response times to both item types were increased. These data suggest that letter-by-letter reading, at least in this case, results from a visuoperceptual encoding deficit that particularly affects letters, but also extends to processing of digits to a lesser extent. Results are consistent with the notion that a left occipitotemporal area is specialized for letter processing with greater bilaterality in the visual processing of digits.

  1. Paris Noir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickers, Robert J.

    2003-01-01

    Describes a six-credit study abroad program open to undergraduate and graduate students through Syracuse University that explores historical, cultural, and intellectual connections between African Americans and Paris. (EV)

  2. Delphine Letort, Du film noir au néo-noir : mythes et stéréotypes de l’Amérique, 1941-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georges Fournier

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Face à la diversité des productions cinématographiques venues d’outre-Atlantique, cet ouvrage se propose de faire le point sur le film noir et les diverses sous-catégories qu’il a suscitées comme le polar ou bien le néo-noir. Revenant sur les nombreuses appellations, leurs usages et leurs contextes d’emploi, Delphine Letort s’attache à mettre en évidence la très grande porosité qui caractérise les innombrables sous-genres. Elle en dresse la généalogie en prenant soin de revenir sur les condit...

  3. Aroma Potential in Early- and Late-Maturity Pinot noir Grapes Evaluated by Aroma Extract Dilution Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Fang; Qian, Michael C

    2016-01-20

    Aroma potentials in early and late maturity Pinot noir grapes were investigated in two consecutive vintages. The grape samples were hydrolyzed under acidic conditions, and the released odorants were studied by aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). Forty-nine main odor-active compounds were detected in the AEDA. The odorants released with high flavor dilution values were 1-hexanal, β-damascenone, guaiacol, and vanillin, together with C6-aldehydes and -alcohols, 4-vinylguaiacol, 4-vinylphenol, and 1-octen-3-one. The concentrations of aroma-active compounds were further quantitated. Compared with early harvest grapes, late harvest grapes released more β-damascenone, vanillin, 4-vinylguaiacol, and 4-vinylphenol in both years according to both AEDA and quantitation results, suggesting they were important aroma compounds that contribute to the characteristic of matured Pinot noir grapes. PMID:26698292

  4. Particles and nuclei, letters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present collection of letters from JINR, Dubna, contains ten separate records on results from the AMANDA high-energy neutrino detector, the Lake Baikal neutrino experiment: present and future, direct CP and T violation in kaon decays, lepton number violating processes and Majorana neutrinos, measurement of the 187Re beta spectrum, the double β decay experiment NEMO-3, double beta decay of 100Mo, the directional rate and the modulation effect for direct supersymmetric matter detection, status of the EDELWEISS experiment and the CAMEO project: high sensitivity quest for Majorana neutrino mass with the BOREXINO counting test facility

  5. Particles and nuclei, letters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present collection of letters from JINR, Dubna, contains seven separate records on kinematic separation and mass analysis of heavy recoiling nuclei, dynamical effects prior to heavy ion fusion, VACTIV-DELPHI graphical dialog based program for the analysis of gamma-ray spectra, irradiation of nuclear emulsions in relativistic beams of 6He and3H nuclei, optical and structural investigations of PLZT x/65/35 (x = 4, 8 %) ferroelectric ceramics irradiated by a high-current pulsed electron beam, the oscillating charge and first evidence for neutrinoless double beta decay

  6. Letters to the Editor

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-03-01

    All the Letters to the Editor in this issue are in the same PostScript or PDF file. Contents Comment on `Magnetic and electric field strengths of high voltage power lines and household appliances' José Luis Giordano Dept. de Ciencia y Tecnología de Materiales y Fluidos, CPSI, Universidad de Zaragoza, Spain Twins paradox S R Carson Norton College, Malton, North Yorkshire, UK On alternative ways of finding the ratio of specific heats of gases Tomas Ficker Physics Department, Technical University of Brno, Czech Republic

  7. Particles and nuclei, letters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present collection of letters from JINR, Dubna, contains seven separate records on physics from extra dimensions, new physics in the new millennium with GENIUS: double beta decay, dark matter, solar neutrinos, the (μ-, e+) conversion in nuclei mediated by light Majorana neutrinos, exotic muon-to-positron conversion in nuclei: partial transition sum evaluation by using shell model, solar neutrino problem accounting for self consistent magnetohydrodynamics solution for solar magnetic fields, first neutrino observations from the Sudbury neutrino observatory and status report on BOREXINO and results of the muon-background measurements at CERN

  8. First Letter from America

    OpenAIRE

    Kopelow, Murray

    2014-01-01

    I thought this first “Letter from America” should be on independence—the independence of continuing medical education from industry. In the United States, accredited continuing medical education is free of the control of entities that produce, market, re-sell, or distribute health care products or services used by or on patients. This independence is very important to us. It has become part of the brand identity of accredited CME in the United States. Independence is one of the tactics put in...

  9. Dynamic information about letter production influences visual letter perception: Evidence from an acquired letter recognition deficit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Reilhac

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Letter recognition is traditionally assumed to involve matching a perceptual representation of a stimulus letter with a stored representation of a static letter shape. However, people learn not only to recognize letters, but also to write them, and several researchers have suggested that knowledge concerning the dynamics of letter production (e.g., knowledge about the direction and sequencing of writing strokes may play a role in letter recognition (James & Atwood, 2009; Longcamp, Lagarrigue, & Velay, 2010; Parkinson & Khurana, 2007. We report results from NGN, a 77-year-old man who suffered a large left ventro-medial lesion as a consequence of stroke. NGN is severely impaired in visual letter identification. His perception of letter shapes is intact, but his ability to map these shapes onto abstract letter representations is severely disrupted. We investigated whether dynamic presentation of letters might improve NGN’s letter identification. Upper-case letters were presented individually in dynamic or static conditions (see Figure 1. In the Dynamic-Forward condition a moving dot drew a path from the beginning to the end of the letter as it is typically written, until the entire letter was displayed. In the Static condition the whole letter was displayed for the full duration required to “write” the letter in the dynamic condition. NGN’s letter identification accuracy was significantly higher in the Dynamic-Forward condition (90% than in the Static condition (73%, p < .001. Two additional dynamic conditions established that the advantage of the Dynamic-Forward condition was not due to the mere presence of motion in this condition (a possibility suggested by the findings of Rauschecker et al., 2011, or to the fact that the stimulus shape evolved over time. In the Dynamic-Backward condition a moving dot “wrote” the letter from end to beginning; and in the Dynamic-Random condition the dots making up the letter shape appeared in random

  10. The letter height superiority illusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New, Boris; Doré-Mazars, Karine; Cavézian, Céline; Pallier, Christophe; Barra, Julien

    2016-02-01

    Letters are identified better when they are embedded within words rather than within pseudowords, a phenomenon known as the word superiority effect (Reicher in Journal of Experimental Psychology, 81, 275-280, 1969). This effect is, inter alia, accounted for by the interactive-activation model (McClelland & Rumelhart in Psychological Review, 88, 375-407, 1981) through feedback from word to letter nodes. In this study, we investigated whether overactivation of features could lead to perceptual bias, wherein letters would be perceived as being taller than pseudoletters, or words would be perceived as being taller than pseudowords. In two experiments, we investigated the effects of letter and lexical status on the perception of size. Participants who had to compare the heights of letters and pseudoletters, or of words and pseudowords, indeed perceived the former stimuli as being taller than the latter. Possible alternative interpretations of this height superiority effect for letters and words are discussed. PMID:26370216

  11. Letters of intent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thursday 5 November was another major milestone en route to the establishment of the experimental programme for CERN's LHC protonproton collider to be built in the 27- kilometre LEP tunnel. After initial discussions of 'Expressions of Interest' at the specially arranged meeting at Evian-les-Bains, France, earlier this year (May, page 1), three Letters of Intent have emerged, together involving nearly 2000 physicists from research institutes all over the world. As well as these researchers listed on the documents, the plans in fact involve many additional technical specialists who work behind the scenes. It was a historic moment as these three detector proposals were aired at the first open meeting of the new LHC Experiments Committee. CERN's main auditorium and a large overflow room receiving relayed video pictures were both packed. From these three schemes - ATLAS, CMS and L3P - and the first reactions to their letters of intent, eventually two projects will emerge, for which full technical proposals will be prepared, including construction plans and credible costings

  12. Large drought-induced variations in oak leaf volatile organic compound emissions during PINOT NOIR 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geron, Chris; Daly, Ryan; Harley, Peter; Rasmussen, Rei; Seco, Roger; Guenther, Alex; Karl, Thomas; Gu, Lianhong

    2016-03-01

    Leaf-level isoprene and monoterpene emissions were collected and analyzed from five of the most abundant oak (Quercus) species in Central Missouri's Ozarks Region in 2012 during PINOT NOIR (Particle Investigations at a Northern Ozarks Tower - NOx, Oxidants, Isoprene Research). June measurements, prior to the onset of severe drought, showed isoprene emission rates and leaf temperature responses similar to those previously reported in the literature and used in Biogenic Volatile Organic Compound (BVOC) emission models. During the peak of the drought in August, isoprene emission rates were substantially reduced, and response to temperature was dramatically altered, especially for the species in the red oak subgenus (Erythrobalanus). Quercus stellata (in the white oak subgenus Leucobalanus), on the other hand, increased its isoprene emission rate during August, and showed no decline at high temperatures during June or August, consistent with its high tolerance to drought and adaptation to xeric sites at the prairie-deciduous forest interface. Mid-late October measurements were conducted after soil moisture recharge, but were affected by senescence and cooler temperatures. Isoprene emission rates were considerably lower from all species compared to June and August data. The large differences between the oaks in response to drought emphasizes the need to consider BVOC emissions at the species level instead of just the whole canopy. Monoterpene emissions from Quercus rubra in limited data were highest among the oaks studied, while monoterpene emissions from the other oak species were 80-95% lower and less than assumed in current BVOC emission models. Major monoterpenes from Q. rubra (and in ambient air) were p-cymene, α-pinene, β-pinene, d-limonene, γ-terpinene, β-ocimene (predominantly1,3,7-trans-β-ocimene, but also 1,3,6-trans-β-ocimene), tricyclene, α-terpinene, sabinene, terpinolene, and myrcene. Results are discussed in the context of canopy flux studies

  13. Large drought-induced variations in oak leaf volatile organic compound emissions during PINOT NOIR 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geron, Chris; Daly, Ryan; Harley, Peter; Rasmussen, Rei; Seco, Roger; Guenther, Alex; Karl, Thomas; Gu, Lianhong

    2016-03-01

    Leaf-level isoprene and monoterpene emissions were collected and analyzed from five of the most abundant oak (Quercus) species in Central Missouri's Ozarks Region in 2012 during PINOT NOIR (Particle Investigations at a Northern Ozarks Tower - NOx, Oxidants, Isoprene Research). June measurements, prior to the onset of severe drought, showed isoprene emission rates and leaf temperature responses similar to those previously reported in the literature and used in Biogenic Volatile Organic Compound (BVOC) emission models. During the peak of the drought in August, isoprene emission rates were substantially reduced, and response to temperature was dramatically altered, especially for the species in the red oak subgenus (Erythrobalanus). Quercus stellata (in the white oak subgenus Leucobalanus), on the other hand, increased its isoprene emission rate during August, and showed no decline at high temperatures during June or August, consistent with its high tolerance to drought and adaptation to xeric sites at the prairie-deciduous forest interface. Mid-late October measurements were conducted after soil moisture recharge, but were affected by senescence and cooler temperatures. Isoprene emission rates were considerably lower from all species compared to June and August data. The large differences between the oaks in response to drought emphasizes the need to consider BVOC emissions at the species level instead of just the whole canopy. Monoterpene emissions from Quercus rubra in limited data were highest among the oaks studied, while monoterpene emissions from the other oak species were 80-95% lower and less than assumed in current BVOC emission models. Major monoterpenes from Q. rubra (and in ambient air) were p-cymene, α-pinene, β-pinene, d-limonene, γ-terpinene, β-ocimene (predominantly1,3,7-trans-β-ocimene, but also 1,3,6-trans-β-ocimene), tricyclene, α-terpinene, sabinene, terpinolene, and myrcene. Results are discussed in the context of canopy flux studies

  14. Particles and nuclei, letters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present collection of letters from JINR, Dubna, contains nine separate records on the mass spectra of the pseudoscalar mesons in the relativistic independent quark model, CDF silicon vertex tracker: tevatron run II preliminary results, the ''miniskirt' counter array at CDF II, efficiency profile method to study the hit efficiency of drift chambers, resonances in the system of π+π- mesons from np → npπ+π- reaction at Pn = 5.20 GeV/c: search, results of direct observations, interpretation, activity on improving performance of time-of-flight detector at CDF, on very high multiplicity distributions, automatization of the monitoring and control of the muon scintillation counters at CDF II and study of fast neutron radiation effects in cold moderator materials

  15. Particles and nuclei, letters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present collection of letters from JINR, Dubna, contains eight separate records on independent yields of Xe isotopes at photofission of 232Th and 238U, importance of dark matter for LHC physics, the search and study of the resonances in the system of π+π- - mesons from the reaction np → npπ+π- at Pn = 5.20 GeV/c, 'γ + jet' events rate estimation for gluon distribution determination at LHC, extraction of protons with the energy of 35 MeV from the upgraded AIC-144 cyclotron, charge exchange injection for Nuclotron and Nuclotron booster, the effect of electromagnetic interactions on the proton spectrum in free neutron β-decay and accelerator and reactor

  16. Particles and nuclei, letters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present collection of letters from JINR, Dubna, contains nine separate records on the transport of the evanescent electron beam in the vacuum section with plasma disks, determination of ΔΓs from analysis of untagged decays Bs0→J/ψφ by using the method of angular moments, investigation of light nucleus clustering in relativistic multifragmentation processes, secondary fragments of relativistic 22Ne at 4.1 A · GeV/c nuclei in nuclear emulsion, extrapolation of experimental data of accelerated radiation aging to the operation condition of dipole magnet electrical insulation at low dose rates, automatic quality control system of the installed straws into TRT wheels, a new method of fast simulation for a hadron calorimeter response, empirical evidence for relation between threshold effects and neutron strength function as well as on what information can be derived when no events are registered

  17. Letter: Blueprint for Improvements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Jeffery

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Ambily Banerjee's letter was very thought-provoking and expressed the frustration that I think many of us academic mothers feel, in being expected to participate in the academic equivalent of running a marathon with a concrete breeze block strapped to one leg. It's hardly surprising that even the most academically athletic mothers do not make it to the finish line, or, if they do, they find themselves pulling up at the rear. It's also not surprising that many ambitious women with a dislike of failure choose to avoid altogether a competition that is so stacked against them. Indeed, it is a testament to the power of human curiosity (and optimism that so many even decide to try.

  18. Letters from Our American Readers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Thanks very much for your recent letter,in which was enclosed a copy of the Brief Introduction of Women of China. You can’t imagine how excited I felt when I got that letter! I am a businessman. I bought some copies of Women of China from our local dealer and found them quite fine. Since China became a socialist country, Chinese

  19. Pinot noir wine volatile and anthocyanin composition under different levels of vine fruit zone leaf removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Hui; Skinkis, Patricia A; Qian, Michael C

    2017-01-01

    The impacts of fruit zone leaf removal on volatile and anthocyanin compositions of Pinot noir wine were investigated over two growing seasons. Wine volatiles were analyzed by multiple techniques, including headspace solid phase microextraction-GC-MS (HS-SPME-GC-MS), headspace-GC-FID (HS-GC-FID) and stir bar sorptive extraction-GC-MS (SBSE-GC-MS). Fruit zone leaf removal affected the concentration of many grape-derived volatile compounds such as terpene alcohols and C13-norisoprenoids in wine, although the degree of impact depended on the vintage year and severity of leaf removal. Fruit zone leaf removal resulted in greater concentrations of linalool, α-terpineol and β-damascenone but had no impact on other terpene alcohols or β-ionone. Fruit zone leaf removal had no consistent impact on C6 alcohols, volatile phenols, lactones, fermentation-derived alcohols, acids, or most esters. Fruit zone leaf removal increased anthocyanins in final wine. PMID:27507532

  20. Le cygne noir la puissance de l'imprévisible

    CERN Document Server

    Taleb, Nassim Nicholas

    2010-01-01

    Quel est le point commun entre l'invention de la roue, Pompéi, le krach boursier de 1987, Harry Potter et Internet? Pourquoi ne devrait-on jamais lire un journal ni courir pour attraper un train? Que peuvent nous apprendre les amants de Catherine de Russie sur les probabilités? Pourquoi les prévisionnistes sont-ils pratiquement tous des arnaqueurs? Ce livre révèle tout des Cygnes Noirs, ces événements aléatoires, hautement improbables, qui jalonnent notre vie: ils ont un impact énorme, sont presque impossibles à prévoir, et pourtant, a posteriori, nous essayons toujours de leur trouver une explication rationnelle. Dans cet ouvrage éclairant, plein d'esprit d'impertinence et bien souvent prophétique, Taleb nous exhorte à ne pas tenir compte des propos de certains « experts », et nous montre comment cesser de tout prévoir ou comment tirer parti de l'incertitude.

  1. Influence of vine vigor on grape (Vitis vinifera L. Cv. Pinot Noir) and wine proanthocyanidins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortell, Jessica M; Halbleib, Michael; Gallagher, Andrew V; Righetti, Timothy L; Kennedy, James A

    2005-07-13

    The relationships between variations in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Pinot noir) growth and resulting fruit and wine phenolic composition were investigated. The study was conducted in a commercial vineyard consisting of the same clone, rootstock, age, and vineyard management practices. The experimental design involved monitoring soil, vine growth, yield components, and fruit composition (soluble solids, flavan-3-ol monomers, proanthocyanidins, and pigmented polymers) on a georeferenced grid pattern to assess patterns in growth and development. Vine vigor parameters (trunk cross-sectional area, average shoot length, and leaf chlorophyll) were used to delineate zones within both blocks to produce research wines to investigate the vine-fruit-wine continuum. There was no significant influence of vine vigor on the amount of proanthocyanidin per seed and only minimal differences in seed proanthocyanidin composition. However, significant increases were found in skin proanthocyanidin (mg/berry), proportion of (-)-epigallocatechin, average molecular mass of proanthocyanidins, and pigmented polymer content in fruit from zones with a reduction in vine vigor. In the wines produced from low-vigor zones, there was a large increase in the proportion of skin tannin extracted into the wine, whereas little change occurred in seed proanthocyanidin extraction. The level of pigmented polymers and proanthocyanidin molecular mass were higher in wines made from low-vigor fruit compared to wines made from high-vigor fruit, whereas the flavan-3-ol monomer concentration was lower.

  2. Functional Characterization of Individual- and Mixed-Burgundian Saccharomyces cerevisiae Isolates for Fermentation of Pinot Noir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Terrell

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Pinot noir has traditionally been fermented by native flora of multiple yeasts producing a complex combination of aromas and flavors. With the use of industrial dry yeasts, winemakers gained enological reliability and consistency in their wines, but lost diversity and complexity. This research evaluated the use of co-culturing yeasts to fulfill this dual role. Fermentations of Burgundian Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolates and their mixtures were evaluated for their enological characteristics and production of volatile compounds, at 22 °C and 27 °C. The novel isolates were genetically unique and enologically equivalent to the industrial strains. Analysis of variance and principal component analysis of 25 headspace volatiles revealed differences among the yeasts and between the fermentation temperatures. Wines from the mixed-Burgundian isolates were most similar to one another and could be differentiated from the industrial strains at both 22 °C and 27 °C. Mixed-Burgundian wines at both temperatures had higher concentrations of ethyl esters and acetate esters, compared to the industrial strains which had higher concentrations of higher alcohols at 27 °C and higher concentration of other ethyl esters at 22 °C. Given the unique profiles of the co-cultured wines, this research offers winemakers a strategy for producing wines with unique and more complex characters without the risk of spontaneous fermentations.

  3. 78 FR 16302 - Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear Generating Plant, Application for Amendment to Facility Operating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-14

    ... Consideration of Issuance of Amendment published in the Federal Register on January 11, 2012 (77 FR 1743), and a... published in the Federal Register on January 16, 2013 (78 FR 3458). However, by letter dated February 7... COMMISSION Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear Generating Plant, Application for Amendment to Facility...

  4. Letter to editor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reichmann JP

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available James P ReichmannSales & Marketing, American HomePatient, Brentwood, TN, USA, I would like to congratulate the authors of the article entitled, "Optimal management of nausea and vomiting of pregnancy" for the comprehensive review of treatments for a frequent complication of pregnancy.1 Although this letter arrives well after publication I think it is important for researchers in the future to have clarification on one seemingly minor but important point. In order to avoid confusion it must be pointed out that in the metoclopramide section the statement "subcutaneous metoclopramide is effective in many women with NVP and HG" is supported by one observational trial on continuous subcutaneous metoclopramide.2 This distinction is very important because that study reported patients were receiving the drug for 26.7 days on average at a cost of $4432 per patient. Unfavorable cost comparisons have been previously published.3 The recommendation that more studied and less expensive alternatives are explored prior to subjecting the patient to this extreme measure seems prudent.4 Perhaps the use of the reference to continuous subcutaneous metoclopramide may have been accidental but the suggestion that "these findings are reassuring, especially for women who experience excessive sleepiness…" implies that women on Diclectin® who report being tired are advanced to continuous subcutaneous metoclopramide seems like a waste of health care resources and a little reckless.1View original paper by Ebrahimi and colleagues.

  5. Letters From Beirut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura U. Marks

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In summer 2006 I returned to Lebanon for a third time. I had lived in Beirut for almost a year in 2002–2003, during which time I fell in love with the city, as so many people do—the generosity, resilience and joie de vivre of so many Lebanese people, the lively artistic scene, the intensity with which so many historical and international forces cross this small country. I built strong friendships then. I returned in 2004, and again in June 2006, this time to study Arabic at the American University of Beirut. On 14 July, in response to Hizballah’s action of taking two Israeli soldiers hostage and shooting across the Lebanese–Israeli border, Israel began an intense bombardment of Lebanese infrastructure, starting with the airport, as well as places where Hizballah supporters lived. A privileged outsider waiting to be evacuated, I was also helpless, afraid, and furious at the pro-Israeli tone of the international media. So I wrote daily letters to family, friends, and a growing email list of interested people. This is an edited version.

  6. Michelangelo, a Tireless Letter Writer

    OpenAIRE

    Adelin Charles Fiorato

    2014-01-01

    A titan of artistic creation, the sculptor-painter-architect Michelangelo was also a tireless letter writer. Five hundred and eighteen of his letters have reached us, stretching from his youth to the eve of his death, but we know that many others have been lost. Written in a kind of familiar Florentine and in a style of minimalist ‘realism’ – which does not prevent the presence of either impetuous polemical flights or pages of literary indulgence – these letters deal mainly with everyday subj...

  7. Letters and Letter Writing in Early Modern Culture: An Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella Del Lungo Camiciotti

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The recently renewed scholarly interest in historical letters and letter writing has given rise to several studies which explore the culture of epistolarity from different perspectives. The article offers an introduction to recent scholarship on epistolary discourse and practices in early modern culture. Given the importance of letters as data for several types of diachronic investigation, the article focuses on three points that are crucial for an understanding of the relevance of epistolary discourse itself in early modern European culture. Firstly, letters are invaluable data for historical linguistics, to which they provide information for the history of languages, and sociohistorical and sociolinguistic research. A second recent field of investigation considers letters as documents and material items; the results of research in this area have contributed to the reconstruction of official relationships and information exchanges in past cultures and shed light on social interaction. A third, more traditional area of study, deals with the letter as a form that has given rise to many different genres across the centuries, both practical and literary.

  8. 78 FR 14271 - Manual for Courts-Martial; Proposed Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-05

    ... Military Justice (JSC), Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice of response to public comments on proposed... Committee on Military Justice (JSC) is publishing final proposed amendments to the Manual for Courts-Martial... and Coordinating Legislation, Executive Orders, Proclamations, Views Letters and Testimony,'' June...

  9. Late Ordovician (post-Sardic) rifting branches in the North Gondwanan Montagne Noire and Mouthoumet massifs of southern France

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Javier Álvaro, J.; Colmenar Lallena, Jorge; Monceret, Eric;

    2016-01-01

    Upper Ordovician-Lower Devonian rocks of the Cabrières klippes (southern Montagne Noire) and the Mouthoumet massif in southern France rest paraconformably or with angular discordance on Cambrian-Lower Ordovician strata. Neither Middle-Ordovician volcanism nor associated metamorphism is recorded...... fossil association representative of the pandemic Hirnantia Fauna. The sealing of the subaerial palaeorelief generated during the Sardic phase is related to Silurian and Early Devonian transgressions leading to onlapping patterns and the record of high-angle discordances....

  10. Éducation et marchés du travail à Brazzaville et Pointe Noire (Congo-Brazzaville)

    OpenAIRE

    Mathias Kuepie; Christophe Nordman

    2011-01-01

    (english) The aim of this study is to analyze the impact of education on labor market entry, particularly on earnings in the two largest cities of the Republic of Congo. We examine firsthand data from the 2009 Congo's Employment and Informal Sector Survey (Enquête sur l’emploi et le secteur informel au Congo - EESIC) from a representative sample of about 3000 households in the cities of Brazzaville and Pointe-Noire. Results indicate that education is relatively widespread in both cities, with...

  11. Letter from the Friends Chairman

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues Letter from the Friends Chairman Past Issues / Fall 2006 Table of Contents ... FNLM Chairman Paul Rogers converse at a recent Friends function at the National Library of Medicine. Photo ...

  12. The Style of Business Letters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Kai

    2008-01-01

    This study explores the application of Systemic Functional Granunar (SFG) to the analysis of English Business Letters (EBL). With China's opening up to the outside, especially its entrance into WTO, international business is becoming more and more popular. Most of the transactions in international business are discussed in detail through airmail letters, telegrams, telexes, faxes or E-mails.As a world language, English is used widely in the negotiation of international businesses. Writing a piece of effective English Business Letter is of great importance. As a medium between the business partners, EBL affects the interaction and negotiation between them. This article is intended to seek the linguistic characteristics of business letters and prove that the theories of SFG can be used to analyze EBL discourse and they are actually effective.

  13. Regard noir sur la Cité des Anges : James Ellroy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric SOUNAC

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Le mythe de Los Angeles, largement associé à l’immensité de la ville et à la présence en son sein d’Hollywood, est en grande partie une création du roman noir : cité sismique, Sodome moderne, la « Cité des anges » est souvent décrite comme un lieu violent, pulsionnel, où toute tentative de rachat individuel est rendue impossible par l’omniprésence de la corruption. La décadence de la ville-monde, telle qu’elle est analysée de manière résolument pessimiste par le géographe Mike Davis dans Au-delà de Blade Runner, trouve dans les romans de Michael Connelly et de James Ellroy une puissante représentation fictionnelle. Le premier, à travers les errances de son détective Harry Bosch, tient un discours de type élégiaque, tandis que le deuxième, en élaborant une sorte de « réalisme tragique », élève la ville au rang d’allégorie de la Faute et du Mal. L’œuvre d’Ellroy, en particulier, repose sur un arpentage minutieux et obsessionnel des quartiers de Los Angeles, une observation cruelle de sa sociologie et de son histoire, un rapport de haine-amour avec son architecture : le schéma d’enquête, chez lui, relève d’une quête souvent fatale de la mémoire dans une cité que sa rage autodestructrice et ses mutations incessantes vouent à l’amnésie.The myth of Los Angeles, tightly linked to the city’s hugeness and its heart of hearts Hollywood, is to a great extent a creation of the « dark » novel, or « noir ». A sismic territory and modern Sodoma, the so-called « City of Angels » is often depicted as a violent and all impulse driven place, in which the individual yearning for redemption is always destroyed by endemic corruption. The decadent city analyzed in a rather pessimistic way by Mike Davis in his essay Beyond Blade Runner finds in Michael Connelly’s and James Ellroy’s crime fiction a powerful representation. Connelly’s world, with its whimsical main character detective

  14. A Jubilee Letter In Acrobatics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG YUANKAI

    2010-01-01

    @@ October 20 this year marked the 60th anniversary of the China National Acrobatic Troupe (CNAT).The grand performance,A Family Letter,was held at the Great Hall of the People on October 19 and 20 to celebrate the occasion.The performance,a spectacular award-winning show,depicted the letter of a young acrobatic student to his mother,telling the story of how the nameless acrobatic trainee grew up to be an outstanding artist.

  15. [Exploratory study of road safety in Brazzaville and Pointe-Noire in Republic of the Congo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batala Mpondo, Georges; Bouanga, Marianne; Saya, Yvette Marie Clarisse; Maurice, Pierre; Burigusa, Guillaume

    2014-01-01

    Although road accidents in the Congo are reaching alarming levels (2,720 accidents in 2010 and 3,126 accidents in 2011), especially with the massive arrival of "Jakarta" mopeds, no evaluation has been conducted to identify and understand the factors responsible for this problem. This article reports the results of an exploratory study conducted in Brazzaville and Pointe-Noire based on information collected from existing documents and by semidirective questionnaire of people from various sectors able to elucidate the problem of road safety. Using William Haddon's matrix, the parameters investigated were : road user behaviour ; environmental and technological factors ; characteristics of road accident victims ; quality of care ; intervention times and organization of prevention. This study demonstrated the absence of a road safety policy in Congo. It also showed that the main factors responsible for road accidents are behavioural (failure to wear safety belts, failure to comply with road signs, fatigue, use of a telephone while driving, etc.), followed by environmental and technological factors (insufficient traffic lights, absence of sidewalks, disorganized occupation of roads, general state of vehicles). This study shows that, in order to improve road safety in the Congo, it is essential to promote the development of national road safety policies and an action plan, intervention on the determinants of road accidents, and a change of road user behaviours (compulsory use of safety belts, ban on the use of a telephone and smoking while driving, etc.). Effective organization of the management of road accident victims and allocation of a budget to implement a road safety policy are also necessary.

  16. Symbolism in the Scarlet Letter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苑文良

    2005-01-01

    A famous writer in American Renaissance, Nathaniel Hawthorne was deeply influenced by three thoughts, Puritanism consciousness, transcendental philosophy and transcendentalism .Novel The Scarlet Letter is Hawthorne's most remarkable masterpiece. It thoroughly response to people's spirit wreck of Puritanism and unbridled pursuit for happy life. Meanwhile, The Scarlet Letter also makes Nathanael Hawthorne known all around the world. Hawthorne uses the symbolism so skilfful that it enhances the artistic effects of his work greatly. This paper researches the symbolism in this novel from the following aspects: the changing symbolic meaning of the scarlet letter, the names of the major characters and many objects that are described in the novel to make the symbolism clear to the readers.

  17. Symbolism in the Scarlet Letter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苑文良

    2005-01-01

    A famous writer in American Renaissance, Nathaniel Hawthorne was deeply influenced by three thoughts, Puritanism consciousness, transcendental philosophy and transcendentalism .Novel The Scarlet Letter is Hawthorne's most remarkable masterpiece. It thoroughly response to people's spirit wreck of Puritanism and unbridled pursuit for happy life. Meanwhile, The Scarlet Letter also makes Nathaniel Hawthorne known all around the world. Hawthorne uses the symbolism so skillful that it enhances the artistic effects of his work greatly. This paper researches the symbolism in this novel from the following aspects: the changing symbolic meaning of the scarlet letter, the names of the major characters and many objects that are described in the novel to make the symbolism clear to the readers.

  18. Jacob Lawrence’s Migration series: a pictorial memory of black America Les Migrations de Jacob Lawrence : souvenir pictural de l’Amérique noire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Elmaleh

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Jacob Lawrence, artiste afro-américain décédé en juin 2000, a étudié la condition humaine et plus spécifiquement la condition des Afro-américains durant plus de six décennies. Ses mises en scène visuelles, sous forme de séries de peintures aux thématiques variées vont d’événements historiques comme la Grande Migration des Noirs dans les années 1920-1930 à l’étude de personnages héroïques, symboles mythiques de la lutte pour l’émancipation et l’égalité. Cet article tente de mettre en lumière l’importance d’une période pour les Noirs américains qui, pour se libérer des lourdes conséquences de l’esclavage essayèrent de construire une nouvelle identité noire en affirmant l’existence d’une culture noire. Je tenterai de déterminer la façon dont Lawrence s’est positionné dans cette perspective et sa représentation de l’histoire afro-américaine au travers principalement de The Migration of the Negro, série de tableaux peints sous un mode narratif qui raconte la fuite de centaines de milliers de noirs américains du Sud rural vers le Nord urbain industrialisé après la Première Guerre mondiale. J’explorerai les multiples facettes de sa vision de la Grande Migration en tant qu’historien et artiste.

  19. THE POWER OF LOWERCASE LETTERS IN READING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firdevs GÜNEŞ

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Today, the most superior way of obtaining knowledge is reading. Reading gives direction to the individual's language, cognitive, social skills and future. For this reason, great importance is given to the teaching of reading. The teaching of reading is carried out based on two basic skills including word recognition and comprehension. In the word recognition process, appearance of the letters the shapes of the wordswritten in uppercase or lowercase letters are effective. Brain research reveal that the words written in small letters more quickly recognized and understood. Based on the recognition of words written in capital letters, small letters become stronger and they are recognised easier than the capital letters. For this reason, a text written in small letter is read more quickly than in capital letters. In addition, text in lowercase letters makes to examine all the details of the text, in-depth awareness and understanding. Small letters are in the process of visual recognition, attention, and remember the rule affects reading, seeing, understanding, and accelerates the configuration tasks in mind. This situation makes the use of lowercase letters in advertising. The advertising in small letters and logos were more easily recognized and remembered. Therefore, in order to increase strength of association big companies and brands, are used lowercase letters. In reading activities taking these results into well known and necessary precautions should be taken about lowercase letters.

  20. Electronic Discharge Letter Mobile App

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lezcano, Leonardo; Triana, Michel; Ternier, Stefaan; Hartkopf, Kathleen; Stieger, Lina; Schroeder, Hanna; Sopka, Sasa; Drachsler, Hendrik; Maher, Bridget; Henn, Patrick; Orrego, Carola; Marcus, Specht

    2014-01-01

    The electronic discharge letter mobile app takes advantage of Near Field Communication (NFC) within the PATIENT project and a related post-doc study. NFC enabled phones to read passive RFID tags, but can also use this short-range wireless technology to exchange (small) messages. NFC in that sense co

  1. Curriculum Vitae and Related Letters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Sharyl Bender

    This booklet, which was developed by a college career center, explains the purpose of and procedures for writing curriculum vitae (CV) and related letters. The following topics are covered: when a CV is appropriate, points to consider when writing a CV, items usually included, possible sections to include in a CV, and steps in writing cover…

  2. Effects of stimulus duration and inter-letter spacing on letter-in-string identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzouki, Yousri; Grainger, Jonathan

    2014-05-01

    Effects of stimulus duration and inter-letter spacing were studied in a letter-in-string identification paradigm. Participants were shown strings of 5 random consonants (e.g., PGKDM) centered on fixation and were asked to identify the letter that had appeared at a post-cued location. Stimulus duration was manipulated in Experiment 1 (13 ms-91 ms), and inter-letter spacing manipulated in Experiment 2 (for a fixed stimulus duration of 26 ms). We contrasted performance to outer-letters (positions 1 and 5) with non-central inner letters (positions 2 and 4), the first-letter (position 1) with the final letter (position 5), and the central-letter (position 3) with the other inner letters (positions 2 and 4). The outer-letter advantage and the first-letter advantage were present throughout the entire range of exposure durations, whereas the central-letter advantage increased with longer exposures. On the other hand, increased spacing reduced both the outer-letter advantage and the first-letter advantage, whereas it led to a greater central-letter advantage. Changes in acuity and crowding as a function of stimulus exposure and inter-letter spacing, can account for this pattern of results.

  3. Amendment 80 Permit Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Amendment 80 Program was adopted by the North Pacific Fishery Management Council (Council) in June 2006. The final rule implementing Amendment 80 published in...

  4. How to write an editorial letter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Süer, Evren; Yaman, Önder

    2013-09-01

    In most journals, there are letters or answers sections. Letters to the editor are usually a type of short communication that can be written on any topic that attracts the attention of the readers. Although articles are stringently vetted before publication in a journal, some issues can still go unnoticed. In this situation, readers can offer their interpretations by writing a letter to the editor. Thus, letters are also a control mechanism that facilitates progress after an article has been published. One of the most important aspects of a letter to the editor is that it must be short. It is known that a letter is more easily accessible to readers when the message is short and brief. The letter to the editor or author must make reference to objectives or discussions on medical, scientific or general topics that may attract attention. A letter must have a purpose, and it should convey its message in a short and definitive fashion. PMID:26328135

  5. Una red transmedia para el hombre araña: a propósito de Spider-Man Noir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago García Sanz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available An almost one-century old genre, comic books have tried to find their space as a means of artistic expression since the very beginning. Emerging from Stan Lee’s creative genius in 1962 in a complete break with the hero archetype that prevailed for over two decades, and based on a pulp-literature vigilante, the Spider-Man is an atypical teenage hero that became an icon, not only of its publishing house, but of 20th-century Western popular culture. Throughout its history, the myth of the Spider-Man has undergone several revisions that fall within the American uchronic tradition in different media. Spider-Man Noir re-interprets the character as a crime detective and has eventually swung from paper to screens in order to thrive in the new century.

  6. The Presentation of Courtesy in Business Letter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘文君

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays the tendency of economic globalization in the world brings about increasingly closer international trade cooperation. The business letter has been an important communicative tool in the international trade. A polite business letter could promote the trade and help achieve the business cooperation. Therefore the presentation of courtesy in the business letter is of great significance. This paper presents a study of the courtesy in the business letter from the lexical aspect.

  7. Exhumation of high-pressure rocks in a Variscan migmatite dome (Montagne Noire, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, Donna; Roger, Francoise; Rey, Patrice; Teyssier, Christian

    2015-04-01

    The Variscan orogen contains numerous domal structures composed mostly of migmatitic gneiss and granite, with lesser amounts of mafic rock. In the Montagne Noire (MN) migmatite dome of the southern Massif Central (France), some mafic rocks record eclogite facies metamorphism that contrasts with the low-pressure/high-temperature (LP/HT) conditions recorded by host gneiss. To understand the relationship of eclogite to migmatite/gneiss evolution, we determined P-T-time conditions of eclogite and gneiss and evaluated the location of HP rocks within the dome in the context of dome dynamics. Migmatite and granite in the dome commonly contain sillimanite and/or cordierite, and the schist carapace also contains index minerals of LP/HT metamorphism (andalusite, cordierite, sillimanite). There is sparse evidence, however, for earlier HP conditions: relict kyanite in schist and gneiss. The age of this metamorphism is not known but the LP/HT metamorphism and migmatite/granite crystallization was ~315-300 Ma (monazite, zircon U-Pb). Most MN eclogites have been significantly retrogressed. We focused our study on a relatively fresh eclogite (Terme de Fourcaric locality) containing omphacite (Jd36) + zoned pyrope-rich garnet (up to prp50 at the rim) + rutile + zircon. P-T conditions determined from a pseudosection and from Zr-in-rutile and grt-cpx thermometry indicates T = 700-800 C at P ~ 1.5 GPa. U-Pb dating of zircon by LA-ICP-MS reveals core ages of ~360 Ma and rim ages of ~315 Ma. The zircon core age is similar to results obtained by Faure et al. (2014) for eclogite from the same general locality using a Sm-Nd grt-cpx-whole rock isochron (interpreted as age of eclogite metamorphism). The rim age is similar to their U-Pb zircon and rutile results that they interpreted as the age of "hydrothermal" metamorphism. The interpretation of Faure is consistent with regional geologic age information, although the lack of retrogression in the Fourcaric eclogite and the high prp content

  8. VAGUE LANGUAGE AND BUSINESS ENGLISH LETTER WRITING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiuYongqiang

    2004-01-01

    It is general practice for business executives to use preciseand accurate language when writing business letters in order toavoid misunderstanding. However, proper use of vague languagein writing letters also enhances the successful conclusion of transactions. This article shows how vague language is exploitedin writing business letters, which ineludes proper expression ofcourtesy, realization of self-protection and embodiment of the“you-attitude”.

  9. Spatio-temporal properties of letter crowding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Susana T. L.

    2016-01-01

    Crowding between adjacent letters has been investigated primarily as a spatial effect. The purpose of this study was to investigate the spatio-temporal properties of letter crowding. Specifically, we examined the systematic changes in the degradation effects in letter identification performance when adjacent letters were presented with a temporal asynchrony, as a function of letter separation and between the fovea and the periphery. We measured proportion-correct performance for identifying the middle target letter in strings of three lowercase letters at the fovea and 10° in the inferior visual field, for a range of center-to-center letter separations and a range of stimulus onset asynchronies (SOA) between the target and flanking letters (positive SOAs: target preceded flankers). As expected, the accuracy for identifying the target letters reduces with decreases in letter separation. This crowding effect shows a strong dependency on SOAs, such that crowding is maximal between 0 and ∼100 ms (depending on conditions) and diminishes for larger SOAs (positive or negative). Maximal crowding does not require the target and flanking letters to physically coexist for the entire presentation duration. Most importantly, crowding can be minimized even for closely spaced letters if there is a large temporal asynchrony between the target and flankers. The reliance of letter identification performance on SOAs and how it changes with letter separations imply that the crowding effect can be traded between space and time. Our findings are consistent with the notion that crowding should be considered as a spatio-temporal, and not simply a spatial, effect. PMID:27088895

  10. Spatio-temporal properties of letter crowding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Susana T L

    2016-01-01

    Crowding between adjacent letters has been investigated primarily as a spatial effect. The purpose of this study was to investigate the spatio-temporal properties of letter crowding. Specifically, we examined the systematic changes in the degradation effects in letter identification performance when adjacent letters were presented with a temporal asynchrony, as a function of letter separation and between the fovea and the periphery. We measured proportion-correct performance for identifying the middle target letter in strings of three lowercase letters at the fovea and 10° in the inferior visual field, for a range of center-to-center letter separations and a range of stimulus onset asynchronies (SOA) between the target and flanking letters (positive SOAs: target preceded flankers). As expected, the accuracy for identifying the target letters reduces with decreases in letter separation. This crowding effect shows a strong dependency on SOAs, such that crowding is maximal between 0 and ∼100 ms (depending on conditions) and diminishes for larger SOAs (positive or negative). Maximal crowding does not require the target and flanking letters to physically coexist for the entire presentation duration. Most importantly, crowding can be minimized even for closely spaced letters if there is a large temporal asynchrony between the target and flankers. The reliance of letter identification performance on SOAs and how it changes with letter separations imply that the crowding effect can be traded between space and time. Our findings are consistent with the notion that crowding should be considered as a spatio-temporal, and not simply a spatial, effect.

  11. Spatio-temporal properties of letter crowding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Susana T L

    2016-04-01

    Crowding between adjacent letters has been investigated primarily as a spatial effect. The purpose of this study was to investigate the spatio-temporal properties of letter crowding. Specifically, we examined the systematic changes in the degradation effects in letter identification performance when adjacent letters were presented with a temporal asynchrony, as a function of letter separation and between the fovea and the periphery. We measured proportion-correct performance for identifying the middle target letter in strings of three lowercase letters at the fovea and 10° in the inferior visual field, for a range of center-to-center letter separations and a range of stimulus onset asynchronies (SOA) between the target and flanking letters (positive SOAs: target preceded flankers). As expected, the accuracy for identifying the target letters reduces with decreases in letter separation. This crowding effect shows a strong dependency on SOAs, such that crowding is maximal between 0 and ∼100 ms (depending on conditions) and diminishes for larger SOAs (positive or negative). Maximal crowding does not require the target and flanking letters to physically coexist for the entire presentation duration. Most importantly, crowding can be minimized even for closely spaced letters if there is a large temporal asynchrony between the target and flankers. The reliance of letter identification performance on SOAs and how it changes with letter separations imply that the crowding effect can be traded between space and time. Our findings are consistent with the notion that crowding should be considered as a spatio-temporal, and not simply a spatial, effect. PMID:27088895

  12. 50 years of JETP Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastukhov, V. P.

    2015-04-01

    This paper briefly traces the 50-year history of the journal Pis'ma v Zhurnal Eksperimental'noi i Teoreticheskoi Fiziki (JETP Letters), whose first issue was published on 1 April 1965. The journal is intended for a wide circle of physicists-readers as a fast publication channel for short communications on new results from research of the highest significance and highest priority in all areas of experimental and theoretical physics. Today, the journal celebrates numerous important contributions to the development of physics both in Russia and worldwide. Over a historically short period, JETP Letters developed into a highly authoritative and influential source for physicists engaged in a wide range of fields. Due to the wise and well-timed editorial policy, the journal continues to retain its leadership position, despite the difficulties the entire science periodical literature - and indeed the whole of science - is currently experiencing in Russia.

  13. Michelangelo, a Tireless Letter Writer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelin Charles Fiorato

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A titan of artistic creation, the sculptor-painter-architect Michelangelo was also a tireless letter writer. Five hundred and eighteen of his letters have reached us, stretching from his youth to the eve of his death, but we know that many others have been lost. Written in a kind of familiar Florentine and in a style of minimalist ‘realism’ – which does not prevent the presence of either impetuous polemical flights or pages of literary indulgence – these letters deal mainly with everyday subjects: day-by-day relationships, either endearing or resentful, with his relatives, financial or property matters and, above all, the marriage problems which concerned his nephew Leonardo, the sole heir of the family. But one also discovers in them the artist’s warm feelings of friendship and love, his poetic and aesthetic exchanges, his relationships, often conflictual, with his fellow-artists and patrons as well as his reflections on old age and death. All in all, these letters represent a documentary chronicle of a Florentine bourgeois family and the technical hassle of an entrepreneur’s activity. If, on the one hand, the Carteggio does not shed light either on Michelangelo’s conception of art or the way in which he realized his works, on the other it illustrates certain latent aspects of his projects, as well as of his personality, which was at the same time melancholy and aggressive, surprisingly whole and manifold. This luxuriant correspondence presents, so to speak, a ‘genetic’ interest, since it reveals the hidden face of the brilliant conceiver and creator, of the artist and entrepreneur struggling with the obstacles whose overcoming makes creation possible. 

  14. Resource Letter Exo-1: Exoplanets

    OpenAIRE

    Perryman, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This Resource Letter gives an introduction to the main topics in exoplanet research. It is intended to serve as a guide to the field for upper-division undergraduate and graduate students, both theoretical and experimental, and for workers in other fields of physics and astronomy who wish learn about this new discipline. Topics include historical background, detection methods, host star properties, theories of planet formation and evolution, their interiors and atmospheres, their relationship...

  15. The Jung-White Letters

    OpenAIRE

    Frank, Kirsten; Nielsen, Sine Birkedal

    2012-01-01

    This report is based on the correspondence The Jung-White Letters, between psychotherapist C. G. Jung and theologian Victor White. Their correspondence deals mainly with the relationship between religion and science. The report analyses Jung and White's conflict on the subject of evil as understood in the Christian doctrine privatio boni, investigating the underlying epistemological reasoning behind their disagreement. Theologian White is influenced by the Catholic Dominican order, whose phil...

  16. A bread-and-butter letter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王道庚

    2007-01-01

    @@ letter作"信"讲是很常用的词,私人信件是personal letter,业务信件叫做business letter,祝贺信是letter of congratulation,邀请信是letter of invitation 等等.还有一种信是a bread-and-butter letter,你知道是什么信吗?我们知道bread and butter是涂有黄油的面包,那么,a bread-and-butter letter就是"黄油面包信"吧?非也.

  17. Letters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Votes Mean Little Thanks for your magazine, which I got a copy from my friend at the embassy. We are all becoming fed up with the constant image of Africa resorting to volience after each election or regime change. Cote d’Ivoire, Libya, now Nigeria. We are so steeped in tribalism that it is almost impossible for any election to end peacefully with one side accepting defeat.

  18. Letters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Waste Not,Want Not I enjoy reading your magazine and was moved by your story about the massive famine in the Horn of Africa in your September issue.Last week I attended a banquet for an outgoing official at a popular restaurant in Beijing.We had many different dishes and after we had finished I noticed how much food remained uneaten on the table.After having read your story I thought about how so much is wasted in one place and so much needed in another.How does that happen? I felt guilty and wanted to do something to help at that moment. I think as people sharing the same planet we must be aware of what goes on

  19. LETTER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    I read the February 2005 issue of China Today, and found it really informative. I'd rate it as one of the best magazines about China. I am interested in tourism, so most of the articles were very useful to me, particularly ""Ancient Town on the Loess Plateau""(Qikou Town) and ""Beijing: Architectural Showcase."" I am very glad that I'd found your magazine.

  20. Letters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Nobel Heroines We are so proud of women and our clean sweep of the Nobel Peace Prize this year.President Ellen Johnson Sirleaf,Leymah Gbowee and Tawakkul Karman have been recognized for their outstanding efforts made all the more remarkable in that they function in societies that traditionally repress women.The award also recognizes the peace and security activism and strategic advocacy of the global women’s movement,and of national and local women’s groups,in Africa and the Middle East since the late 1990s.It is this kind of activism that has succeeded in placing issues of gender equal-

  1. Letters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Peace Bringers I was interested to read about the Kofi Annan Institute for Conflict Transformation playing a positive role in Liberia.This concept of teaching peace and then practically applying that knowledge is an excellent example of how to get to the root issue of conflict.Many people who get into a conflict situation have little or no idea of how to mediate or settle disputes. The idea of someone trained to resolve conflict and keep the peace through working in tribal areas to prevent conflict is far reaching.

  2. LETTERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Tobacco Problem Your recent cover story 'Tobacco Dilemma" (Issue No.9, March 2, 2006) should not be a dilemma at all. The Chinese Government should just come down very hard on cigarette smoking. It does not make sense to let tobacco smoking proliferate because it enriches government coffers through heftv taxes. Tobacco smokine is an

  3. Letters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    EkooniBaje It brings me much joy to write about your article on Lagos(February issue).I felt obliged to use this opportunity to show to China and the rest of the world that there is a home for them in Lagos."Eko o ni Baje" is a popular local slogan in Lagos,Nigeria which simply means "Lagos will not spoil." Recently,the Nigerian community in Beijing and across China together with the Chinese Government celebrated 40 years of bilateral trade relations with China.This is to

  4. Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-04-01

    Coulombic Models in Chemical Bonding by Lawrence J. Sacks and by Derek W. Smith Re: articles by R. J. Gillespie and by D. W. Smith D. W. Smith replies Capsaicin Hazard by Paul E. Vorndam Re: article by J. D. Batchelor and B. T. Jones B. T. Jones reply Editor's Note: Hazards Re: JCE 1999, 76, 240 and JCE 2000, 77, 266.

  5. Letters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Female Farmers Zambian female farming groups are very happy to hear the news that the government has launched a $500,000 Sustainable Livelihood and Women Empowerment Project. Poor women farmer groups will now at least have some opportunity of getting financial help as well as help with new technology.We women farmers will also get help with training and livestock resources.The project is said to support 1,900 households and is in part of the process toward meeting the millennium goals.

  6. Letters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Despicable Acts Images of children starving to death are always disturbing.After reading a report about how food aid is being stolen and then sold on the market in Somalia I was saddened,sickened and outraged at the same time.A news report from Associated Press said that the food reaches the hungry people in the refugee camps and is then being removed from them with threats of violence and sold for profit.What kind of people are these that we share the planet with.What would make someone

  7. Letters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    My name is Tom R. Chambers. I have been teaching English in Sheng Da College (near Zhengzhou) for two years,and faithfully reading your publication for over a year. I am also a documentary photographer, and I wonder if you'd be interested in publishing my experiences in China. I've created a Sheng Da College/China Travels website, which I feel is aninteresting approach to a travelogue,

  8. LETTERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Dear Editor, Ref.To our tele talk to day,I have the honour to write you as you claimed that"Rarely do journalist challenge the Dalai Lama". Dalai Lama is an hypocrite who used to systematically fool people and his principle of peace are too bogus,he must be stopped in the frame work of peace as his fol-lowers are sluggish and kept themself burried under ignorance.

  9. Letters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Stop the Violence I was interested to read your story[Breaking the Code of Silence]in November issue on domestic violence.For some reason I was not aware this issue was a problem in China(my own ignorance) but it seems to be a universal problem. The case for most women is that they are heavily dependent on their abus-

  10. Letters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Veggie Dream I was interested to read your articles about vegetarianism(January issue) and how it is catching on in China.I always imagined China to be a meat eating country before. Being vegetarian is very misunderstood by many people.I am a vegetarian and it has taught me to be very tolerant.If I go to any banquet,dinner,buffet,cocktail party,or any other event where food is served,I have learned to always try and eat beforehand or at least carry some of my own snacks.Vegetarians are rarely,if ever,catered for at social events,apart from the odd carrot or celery stick,tucked away in between the moun-

  11. LETTERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Interesting ArticlesThere are many interesting articles in the Aprilissue of China Today, among which I would particu-larly like to mention of "The Unequal Law of FeudalTimes", and "Honest and Upright Official Respectedby the People".

  12. LETTERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deqyi

    2008-01-01

    Dear degyi, Number two arrived-it looks good-it looks normal Tibet again after all that NEWS NEWS NEWS we had last week about Lhasa.I haven't read it yet-just turning the pages to get first impression. I like the clear printing pictures of mountains Tibetan areas,Tibetan horse,Tibetan sheep grazing at foot of mountains,Tibetan girls in out of this world Tibetan dresses,Tibetan town under Heaven, Kyirong men,rope bridge with streamers.Tibetan history engraved in rock; I like beer-but I don't like beer tac...

  13. Letters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Stop Abusing Us The recent case of the arrest of Dominique Strauss Kahn,the once powerful managing director of the International Monetary Fund(IMF) and France’s presidential hopeful,being charged as an alleged sex offender - he is waiting for trial for allegedly sexually assaulting and attempting to rape a chambermaid in Sofitel Hotel in Manhattan on May 14,2011-once again brings into public focus the issue of abuse agaisnt women.

  14. GC-MS Metabolite Profiling of Extreme Southern Pinot noir Wines: Effects of Vintage, Barrel Maturation, and Fermentation Dominate over Vineyard Site and Clone Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schueuermann, Claudia; Khakimov, Bekzod; Engelsen, Søren Balling; Bremer, Phil; Silcock, Patrick

    2016-03-23

    Wine is an extremely complex beverage that contains a multitude of volatile and nonvolatile compounds. This study investiged the effect of vineyard site and grapevine clone on the volatile profiles of commercially produced Pinot noir wines from central Otago, New Zealand. Volatile metabolites in Pinot noir wines produced from five grapevine clones grown on six vineyard sites in close proximity, over two consecutive vintages, were surveyed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The raw GC-MS data were processed using parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC2), and final metabolite data were analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA). Winemaking conditions, vintage, and barrel maturation were found to be the most dominant factors. The effects of vineyard site and clone were mostly vintage dependent. Although four compounds including β-citronellol, homovanillyl alcohol, N-(3-methylbutyl)acetamide, and N-(2-phenylethyl)acetamide discriminated the vineyard sites independent of vintage, Pinot noir wines from different clones were only partially discriminated by PCA, and marker compound selection remained challenging.

  15. Electronic Discharge Letter Mobile App

    OpenAIRE

    Lezcano, Leonardo; Triana, Michel; Ternier, Stefaan; Hartkopf, Kathleen; Stieger, Lina; Schroeder, Hanna; Sopka, Sasa; Drachsler, Hendrik; Maher, Bridget; Henn, Patrick; Orrego, Carola; Marcus, Specht

    2014-01-01

    The electronic discharge letter mobile app takes advantage of Near Field Communication (NFC) within the PATIENT project and a related post-doc study. NFC enabled phones to read passive RFID tags, but can also use this short-range wireless technology to exchange (small) messages. NFC in that sense competes with bluetooth. Compared to bluetooth, NFC: ● Requires the devices to be really close (less than 4cm) ● Does not require the devices to pair before communicating We applied the Android Beam ...

  16. On Becoming a Doctor of Humane Letters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribble Md, Curt

    2016-01-01

    In an era of rapid, cheap, and efficient electronic communication, the practice-and art-of letter writing has faded. There are many reasons for us as physicians and surgeons to resist this evolution. And, there are many opportunities to employ letter writing to the benefit of ourselves, our patients, and our colleagues. A true Doctor of Humane Letters is an honorary degree, generally awarded for significant contributions to society.  However, given that humane can be defined as showing compassion, understanding, mercy, and tolerance, we can all strive to be worthy of such a distinction. There are many mundane letters familiar to us all, such as letters of recommendation, letters of thanks, and letters of commendation. However, I would like to offer some suggestions about other less common, but useful, types of letters that might prove valuable to physicians both in training and in practice. These include letters of inquiry, condolence, reflection, and explanation, as well as some notes about missives that are often best written but not sent. PMID:27585190

  17. Resource Letter: GW-1: Global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firor, John W.

    1994-06-01

    This Resource Letter provides a guide to the literature on the possibility of a human-induced climate change—a global warming. Journal articles and books are cited for the following topics: the Greenhouse Effect, sources of infrared-trapping gases, climate models and their uncertainties, verification of climate models, past climate changes, and economics, ethics, and politics of policy responses to climate change. [The letter E after an item indicates elementary level or material of general interest to persons becoming informed in the field. The letter I, for intermediate level, indicates material of somewhat more specialized nature, and the letter A indicates rather specialized or advanced material.

  18. Effect of orthographic processes on letter-identity and letter-position encoding in dyslexic children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline eReilhac

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The ability to identify letters and encode their position is a crucial step of the word recognition process. However and despite their word identification problem, the ability of dyslexic children to encode letter-identity and letter-position within strings was not systematically investigated. This study aimed at filling this gap and further explored how letter identity and letter position encoding is modulated by letter context in developmental dyslexia. For this purpose, a letter-string comparison task was administered to French dyslexic children and two chronological-age (CA and reading-age (RA-matched control groups. Children had to judge whether two successively and briefly presented 4-letter-strings were identical or different. Letter-position and letter-identity were manipulated through the transposition (e.g., RTGM vs. RMGT or substitution of two letters (e.g., TSHF vs. TGHD. Non-words, pseudo-words and words were used as stimuli to investigate sub-lexical and lexical effects on letter encoding. Dyslexic children showed both substitution and transposition detection problems relative to CA controls. A substitution advantage over transpositions was only found for words in dyslexic children whereas it extended to pseudo-words in RA controls and to all type of items in CA controls. Letters were better identified in the dyslexic group when belonging to orthographically familiar strings. Letter position encoding was very impaired in dyslexic children who did not show any word context effect in contrast to CA controls. Overall, the current findings point to a strong letter identity and letter position encoding disorder in developmental dyslexia.

  19. Late Ordovician (post-Sardic) rifting branches in the North Gondwanan Montagne Noire and Mouthoumet massifs of southern France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javier Álvaro, J.; Colmenar, Jorge; Monceret, Eric; Pouclet, André; Vizcaïno, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    Upper Ordovician-Lower Devonian rocks of the Cabrières klippes (southern Montagne Noire) and the Mouthoumet massif in southern France rest paraconformably or with angular discordance on Cambrian-Lower Ordovician strata. Neither Middle-Ordovician volcanism nor associated metamorphism is recorded, and the subsequent Middle-Ordovician stratigraphic gap is related to the Sardic phase. Upper Ordovician sedimentation started in the rifting branches of Cabrières and Mouthoumet with deposition of basaltic lava flows and lahar deposits (Roque de Bandies and Villerouge formations) of continental tholeiite signature (CT), indicative of continental fracturing. The infill of both rifting branches followed with the onset of (1) Katian (Ka1-Ka2) conglomerates and sandstones (Glauzy and Gascagne formations), which have yielded a new brachiopod assemblage representative of the Svobodaina havliceki Community; (2) Katian (Ka2-Ka4) limestones, marlstones, and shales with carbonate nodules, reflecting development of bryozoan-echinoderm meadows with elements of the Nicolella Community (Gabian and Montjoi formations); and (3) the Hirnantian Marmairane Formation in the Mouthoumet massif that has yielded a rich and diverse fossil association representative of the pandemic Hirnantia Fauna. The sealing of the subaerial palaeorelief generated during the Sardic phase is related to Silurian and Early Devonian transgressions leading to onlapping patterns and the record of high-angle discordances.

  20. Characterization of Bois noir isolates by restriction fragment length polymorphism of a Stolbur-specific putative membrane protein gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacifico, D; Alma, A; Bagnoli, B; Foissac, X; Pasquini, G; Tessitori, M; Marzachì, C

    2009-06-01

    Bois noir phytoplasma (BNp), widespread in wine-producing areas of Europe and endemic in France and Italy, is classified in the 16SrXII-A subgroup, whose members are referred to as Stolbur phytoplasmas. The 16S rDNA gene of Stolbur phytoplasma shows low variability, and few non-ribosomal genes are available as markers to assess variation among isolates. We used the Stolbur-specific stol-1H10 gene, encoding a putative membrane-exposed protein, to investigate genetic diversity of French and Italian BNp isolates from plants and insects. Amplification of stol-1H10 from infected grapevines, weeds, and Hyalesthes obsoletus produced fragments of three sizes, and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis divided these amplicons further into 12 profiles (V1 to V12). French BNp isolates were more variable than Italian ones, and different profiles were present in infected grapevines from France and Italy. Isolate V3, most abundant among Italian affected grapes but present among French ones, was found in one Urtica dioica sample and in all H. obsoletus collected on this species. Four Italian-specific profiles were represented among infected Convolvulus arvensis, the most frequent of which (V12) was also detected in H. obsoletus collected on this species. Most of the variability in the stol-1H10 sequence was associated with type II on the tuf gene. PMID:19453230

  1. Letters from the Future: Suggestions for Using Letter Writing as a School Counselling Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kress, Victoria E.; Hinkle, Michelle Gimenez; Protivnak, Jake J.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a school counselling intervention that utilises letters written from the future. Few peer-reviewed articles have addressed the use of letter writing in a school counselling context, and none have focused on the use of letters from the future as a means of school counsellor intervention. The authors present a theoretical…

  2. From Numbers to Letters: Feedback Regularization in Visual Word Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinaro, Nicola; Dunabeitia, Jon Andoni; Marin-Gutierrez, Alejandro; Carreiras, Manuel

    2010-01-01

    Word reading in alphabetic languages involves letter identification, independently of the format in which these letters are written. This process of letter "regularization" is sensitive to word context, leading to the recognition of a word even when numbers that resemble letters are inserted among other real letters (e.g., M4TERI4L). The present…

  3. A Stimulus Sampling Theory of Letter Identity and Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Dennis; Kinoshita, Sachiko; van Casteren, Maarten

    2010-01-01

    Early on during word recognition, letter positions are not accurately coded. Evidence for this comes from transposed-letter (TL) priming effects, in which letter strings generated by transposing two adjacent letters (e.g., "jugde") produce large priming effects, more than primes with the letters replaced in the corresponding position (e.g.,…

  4. Feminist Criticism in The Scarlet Letter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏福林; 何志燕

    2007-01-01

    The Scarlet Letter written by Nathaniel Hawthorne is a great book. Through feminist criticism we can get how The Scarlet Letter may be read as dramatizing Hester Prynne's spiritual and physical struggle to survive as an individual in a society whose values authorize the privileged power of men.

  5. 24 CFR 241.1010 - Feasibility letter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Feasibility letter. 241.1010 Section 241.1010 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development...-Eligibility Requirements § 241.1010 Feasibility letter. (a) Request for study. The owner may request...

  6. Linguistic Prescriptivism in Letters to the Editor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukac, Morana

    2016-01-01

    The public's concern with the fate of the standard language has been well documented in the history of the complaint tradition. The print media have for centuries featured letters to the editor on questions of language use. This study examines a corpus of 258 language-related letters to the editor published in the English-speaking print media. By…

  7. Writing Back and Forth: Class Letters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulwiler, Toby

    1997-01-01

    Recommends that college teachers and their students exchange weekly letters, in either paper or electronic form, as a familiar and friendly means of communication. The method increases dialog, suggests rethinking, and encourages rewriting while keeping the stakes low. Students respond well to the assignment. Samples of student letters and comments…

  8. Design Improvements for Frequently Misrecognized Letters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beier, Sofie; Larson, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    To enhance typeface legibility we studied how to improve the design of individual letters. Three diff erent fonts were created, each containing several variations of the most frequently misrecognized letters. These variations were tested both with distance and short exposure methodologies. Creati...

  9. Reflection on Letter from Birmingham Jail

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张远艳; 罗瑞

    2015-01-01

    Letter from Birmingham Jail” is written by Martin Luther King,Jr.,who is a famous American civil rights leader.This essay attempts to analyze three major arguments in this letter to arouse people’s consciousness to cherish and protect our freedom.

  10. Reflection on Letter from Birmingham Jail

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张远艳; 罗瑞

    2015-01-01

    "Letter from Birmingham Jail" is written by Martin Luther King,Jr.,who is a famous American civil rights leader.This essay attempts to analyze three major arguments in this letter to arouse people’s consciousness to cherish and protect our freedom.

  11. Critical contrastive rhetoric: The influence of L2 letter writing instruction on L1letter writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrnoosh Fakharzadeh

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study employed critical contrastive rhetoric to investigate the L2 to L1 transfer of organizational pattern and directness level of speech acts in business complaint letters. By examining the L1 complaint letters of 30 tourism university students in two phases of study, pre and post instruction of English complaint letter, the study revealed that the rhetorical organization of Persian letters are in a state of hybridity. The post instruction comparison of letters, however, showed a tendency towards applying English conventions both in organization and directness level of complaint speech act in the L1 complaint letters. The results also revealed that after instruction the expert in the field of tourism viewed some letters as inappropriate in terms of politeness which is reflected through some lexical items.

  12. Study of the age of uranium-containing mineral deposits in the Limouzat, the bois-noir mountains (12963); Etude des ages des mineralisations uraniferes du gisement du Limouzat, Massif des bois-noirs (1963)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durand, G. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-07-01

    The present work is concerned with 7 different samples taken at various levels in the Limouzat mine in the Bois-Noirs mountains. It has been possible to show that the uranium dates from 265 M.Y. and that a rearrangement occurred 65 M.Y. ago. A {gamma}-spectrometer study which was originally intended to show the existence of the lack of balance in the radon circulation, has made it possible to show that the {gamma} spectra recorded on various samples could be erroneous. We observed in effect that the presence of lead, iron, etc., had a strong influence on the {gamma} spectrum of the radium family, whereas all research workers have considered that concentrations in the uranium ore were negligible and had no significant effect on the study of the {gamma} spectra of the samples. It is obvious that an interesting study has to be undertaken on the screen effects of the different cations existing in the ores. We believe that it is possible to show the presence of certain elements directly by {gamma}-spectrometry. The ages measured with the mass spectrometer present two types of disagreement but these have been explained by considering that there occurred a first arrival of lead followed by a rearrangement and, at certain points, a second arrival at this date. Finally, the deposit studied undergoes a circulation of uranium and of radon. (author) [French] La presente etude a porte sur 7 prelevements differents effectues a divers niveaux de la mine du Limouzat, massif des Bois-Noirs. Elle a permis de mettre en evidence une premiere venue d'uranium il y a 265 M.A., suivie d'un remaniements il y a 65 M.A. Une etude au spectrometre {gamma} destinee, a l'origine, a prouver les desequilibres dus aux circulations de radon a permis de montrer que les spectres {gamma} enregistres sur divers echantillons pouvaient etre entaches d'erreurs. Nous nous sommes apercus en effet que la presence de plomb, de fer..., avait une forte influence sur le spectre {gamma} de la

  13. Influência da altitude na qualidade das uvas 'Chardonnay' e 'Pinot Noir' em Minas Gerais Altitude influence on the quality of 'Chardonnay' and 'Pinot Noir' grapes in the state of Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murillo de Albuquerque Regina

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available No Sul e Sudeste brasileiros, o excesso de chuvas durante o período de maturação afeta negativamente a qualidade dos vinhos tintos. Por outro lado, estas regiões possuem potencial para a elaboração de espumantes, uma vez que, para a elaboração desta bebida, a uva é colhida antes de completar o amadurecimento. No Estado de Minas Gerais, as condições de verão chuvoso estão presentes em todas as regiões de potencial vitícola, e a variação de altitude entre elas pode exercer influência na composição das uvas. Desta forma, este estudo buscou avaliar o potencial de maturação de uvas 'Chardonnay' e 'Pinot Noir' destinadas à elaboração de espumantes em dois locais de Minas Gerais: Cordislândia (873m e Caldas (1.150m. As plantas foram enxertadas sobre 1.103 Paulsen e conduzidas em espaldeira. Foram avaliados os teores de sólidos solúveis totais, acidez total, ácidos málico e tartárico, e pH do mosto, tamanho e massa das bagas, compostos fenólicos nas cascas e sementes, antocianinas na casca e açúcares solúveis nas bagas, em duas safras consecutivas. As bagas apresentaram maior tamanho e massa quando cultivadas em Caldas. As uvas colhidas em Cordislândia apresentaram maior grau de maturação, sendo observados maior pH, maiores teores de glicose e frutose, e quantidade inferior de acidez e fenólicos totais nas sementes. Os maiores teores de ácido málico presentes nas uvas provenientes de Caldas sugerem que esta região pode ser mais indicada à produção de uvas para elaboração de vinhos espumantes.In the southern and southeastern of Brazil, the excessive rainfall during the maturation period negatively affects the quality of red wines. On the other hand, these regions have great potential for the development of sparklings since that for the elaboration of this drink, the grape is harvested before complete its maturation. In the state of Minas Gerais, the conditions of rainy summer season are present in all

  14. Differences between English and Chinese Sales Promotion Letters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PANG Yu-yan

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to figure out the differences in English and Chinese sales promotion letters by analyzing ten selected letters from business writing books and websites, which might provide more valuable information for businessmen in their sales promotion letter writing.

  15. Amending Death Rules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    China’s Criminal Law is being revised to cut down on death sentences and tighten up punishment for surging crimes The eighth amendment to the Criminal Law, demanding moreprudent use of capital punishment

  16. Statistical mechanics of letters in words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Greg J.; Bialek, William

    2010-06-01

    We consider words as a network of interacting letters, and approximate the probability distribution of states taken on by this network. Despite the intuition that the rules of English spelling are highly combinatorial and arbitrary, we find that maximum entropy models consistent with pairwise correlations among letters provide a surprisingly good approximation to the full statistics of words, capturing ˜92% of the multi-information in four-letter words and even “discovering” words that were not represented in the data. These maximum entropy models incorporate letter interactions through a set of pairwise potentials and thus define an energy landscape on the space of possible words. Guided by the large letter redundancy we seek a lower-dimensional encoding of the letter distribution and show that distinctions between local minima in the landscape account for ˜68% of the four-letter entropy. We suggest that these states provide an effective vocabulary which is matched to the frequency of word use and much smaller than the full lexicon.

  17. Le continent noir du désir masculin : Colet et Flaubert, encore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Vinken

    2010-09-01

    aimer est formulée par Flaubert d’un côté comme pratique hygiénique ultra-machiste de la « baisade » ou de la « foutrerie » et de l’autre côté dans un discours ascétique, voire monacal, d’une « vie pour l’Art » ou, mieux, d’un Art qui exige une mort à la vie. Ces discours ne sont pourtant qu’écran devant un drame déchirant, qu’il ne veut revivre à aucun prix. Car cela voudrait dire d’être tiraillé encore entre la castration et la perte de l’objet amoureux, conflit qu’il croit avoir résolu une fois pour toute dans ce que l’on appelle traditionnellement sa crise : Flaubert est déjà châtré et mort.C’est dans l’Art qu’il peut à la fois rejouer – et abandonner – ce qu’il ne pouvait préserver dans la vie qu’au prix de l’amour : sa virilité. Flaubert déplace le drame de la castration de l’amour dans l’écriture. Il produit une œuvre, un corpus phallique, dont tout ce qui est féminin – mou, flasque, ruisselant – doit être rigoureusement éliminé. Mais ce corpus informé dans son travail stylistique par le modèle physiologique du sexe masculin, phallique, met en scène une identification désespérée avec celles et ceux mortellement blessés d’amour. Cette blessure d’amour porte souvent des connotations religieuses. Le texte flaubertien n’est donc pas, comme on l’a souvent soutenu, qu’une assertion de sa virilité. Il serait plutôt à la fois mise en scène et triomphe sur le drame de la castration.Few correspondences are as distressingly surprising to the reader as the letters between Louise Colet and Gustave Flaubert.  The hope entertained by every reader of a happy love story has rarely been so disappointed.  The studies on sexuality by Freud, one of the greatest skeptics on the subject of love, shed light on the vicissitudes of masculine desire.  Flaubert’s letters to Colet are the dramatization of a desire conforming to kinks of a fetishist scenario.  The fetish is

  18. Review and palaeoecological analysis of the late Tremadocian – early Floian (Early Ordovician cephalopod fauna of the Montagne Noire, France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Kröger

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The Early Ordovician successions of the southern Montagne Noire consist of a thick sequence of predominantly siliciclastic sediments of which the late Tremadocian St. Chinian Formation and the earliest Floian La Maurerie Formation contain a comparatively rich and abundant cephalopod association. The cephalopods of the St. Chinian and La Maurerie Formation are interpreted as generally authochthonous, representing a fauna which originally lived in the open water above the sediments or related to the sea bottom. The cephalopod associations of the St. Chinian and La Maurerie formations are similar to other contemporaneous assemblages known from higher palaeolatitudes and associated with deeper depositional settings. They are composed almost exclusively of longiconic orthocones, in this case predominantly of eothinoceratids and baltocerids. The occurrences of Annbactrocera, and Bactroceras in the St. Chinian Formation are at present the earliest unambiguous reports of the Orthocerida. The available data suggest an initial expansion of orthoceroid cephalopod faunas from open water habitats of high paleo-latitudes, and a subsequent expansion on the carbonate platforms during the Floian. The presence of the eothinoceratid Saloceras in abundance demonstrates the Gondwanan affinity of the assemblage whilst adding further support for the presence of a "Saloceras realm" that may have extended along the margins of East and West Gondwana at least into intermediate latitudes. The following new taxa are proposed: Annbactroceras n. gen., Annbactroceras felinense n. sp., Cyclostomiceras thorali n. sp., Felinoceras n. gen., Felinoceras constrictum n. sp., Lobendoceras undulatum n. sp., Rioceratidae n. fam., Saloceras murvielense n. sp., Thoraloceras n. gen., Thoraloceras bactroceroides n. sp. doi:10.1002/mmng.201000013

  19. A red-letter day !

    CERN Document Server

    2008-01-01

    Today is a red-letter day for the LHC and CERN as a beam of protons has travelled around the LHC ring for the very first time! The start of LHC operation marks the end of a long period in which you have given your all, and this first particle beam circulating in the accelerator now paves the way for discoveries that will open up a whole new field of knowledge. The history of the LHC began in 1984 with a debate on the possible objectives of a future accelerator, based on the state of our knowledge at that time. The CERN Council then approved the single-stage construction of the LHC in 1996, giving the go-ahead for the work that has now reached completion. For the past twelve years, physicists, engineers and technicians from CERN and its associated institutes have been engaged in constructing the three pillars of the LHC: the accelerator (including the upgrade of the existing accelerator chain), the four experiments, and the computing ...

  20. A letter to Georg Kneer: replik

    OpenAIRE

    Mol, A.

    2010-01-01

    In answer to the text written by Dr. Georg Kneer, below you find a letter that I address to him. It is a polite letter, as the genre requires. But it is not a nice letter. Because Kneer is so blandly judgemental, no, worse, scathing in his text, he left me with few options. I had to fight back. And so I do. Thus, I point out that in his contribution Kneer does not discuss my text, nor, for that matter, any other version of Actor Network Theory, as he was asked to do, but, instead, dismisses t...

  1. A fuzzy logical model of letter identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oden, G C

    1979-05-01

    Stimuli were generated by factorially varying two sets of features that distinguish between two letter patterns. Subjects rated the degree to which each stimulus was an instance of one letter rather than the alternative. The obtained ratings were relatively continuous and systematic functions of the feature manipulations. The results were well accounted for by a model in which (a) each feature has an associated fuzzy predicate that is used to independently evaluate the degree to which it is true that the feature is present in the stimulus; (b) the featural truth values are integrated according to fuzzy logical expressions that correspond directly to propositional descriptions of each letter pattern; and (c) the resulting goodness of match to the stimulus for each letter is compared to that of the alternatives to determine the final identification. PMID:528944

  2. Stochastic Flips on Two-letter Words

    CERN Document Server

    Bodini, Olivier; Regnault, Damien

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces a simple Markov process inspired by the problem of quasicrystal growth. It acts over two-letter words by randomly performing \\emph{flips}, a local transformation which exchanges two consecutive different letters. More precisely, only the flips which do not increase the number of pairs of consecutive identical letters are allowed. Fixed-points of such a process thus perfectly alternate different letters. We show that the expected number of flips to converge towards a fixed-point is bounded by $O(n^3)$ in the worst-case and by $O(n^{5/2}\\ln{n})$ in the average-case, where $n$ denotes the length of the initial word.

  3. Attentional Processing of Letter Strings by Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclercq, Virginie; Siéroff, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Reading a letter string requires attentional orienting toward the beginning of the string (left-dominant orientation), followed by orienting along the string. These attentional-orienting processes differ according to the lexicality of the letter string: Sequential processes apply when reading nonwords or pseudowords, while words can be processed more globally. The aim of this study was to evaluate the development of these attentional processes involved in reading. We conducted two experiments in 6- (first grade), 7- (second grade), and 9-year-old (fourth grade) children, using a procedure that required the detection of a letter (Experiment 1) or a nonletter (Experiment 2) target in a string of five characters. The target character could occur in the second (left) or fourth (right) position in the string. Results showed an advantage for left nonletter targets as early as age 6 and of left letter targets as early as age 7. In 6-year-olds, only good readers detected a left letter target faster than a right letter target; others detected a right letter target faster. Thus, dominant orienting toward the beginning of the letter string is not fully developed in children before the second year of reading. A possibility is that beginning readers have difficulties inhibiting an attention-orienting bias toward the right visual field in linguistic tasks. The results also showed that the lexicality effect on these attentional processes develops gradually until the fourth year of reading. We believe that the procedure used in this study will be very valuable for evaluating attentional difficulties during reading acquisition. PMID:25386702

  4. On the Commercial Features of Business Letters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邬娜

    2008-01-01

    Effective business communication is the"lifeblood"of every organization and a key to success in your business career. Generally,each trade or each business achieves an agreement and then draws up a contract after buyer and seller exchange business letter. Thus,a successful business letter is one of the most personal method to promote a business career. The paper informs how to write suc-cessful correspondence.

  5. Letter to the Editor: Robert W. Evans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, A.

    2000-12-01

    I read the Letters page of the latest issue of the JBAA (2000 October) with some amusement. My very good friend Bob Evans had, according to the letter header, not only been elevated to the clergy, but had also transferred his nationality from Kiwi to Aussie. While he'll probably overlook the religious error he may not be so sanguine about being mistaken for an Australian.

  6. How to Write a Letter of Recommendation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felton, George

    2005-01-01

    Letters of recommendation for students are never easy to write. All faculty feel charged with telling the truth, but they also feel compelled to go over the top far enough that the student won't seem damned with faint praise. And, as with grade point averages, the top gets higher every year. Is it possible to write too positive a letter anymore?…

  7. Resource Letter SW1: Space Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Daniel N.; Lanzerotti, Louis J.

    2016-03-01

    This Resource Letter describes the phenomena and effects on technological systems that are known collectively as space weather. A brief history of the topic is provided, and the scientific understandings of drivers for such phenomena are discussed. The impacts of space disturbances are summarized, and the strategies for dealing with space weather threats are examined. The Resource Letter concludes with description of approaches that have been proposed to deal with threats to our increasingly technological society.

  8. Culture and subculture in transactional letter writing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaw, Philip; Okamura, Akiko

    2000-01-01

    This study examines the relative contributions of subculture membership and mother-tongue status/target culture membership in writing transactional letters. We examined the letters accompanying articles initially submitted for publication by 26 NSE and 23 NNSE academics, and compared them...... and language. Thus the teaching approach for writing depends crucially on the status of the learners, and to teach lexical phrases is particularly important for non-natives....

  9. Assessing Factors Controlling the Hydrochemistry and Suitability for Irrigation Purposes of Aquifer AQ-2 in Pointe-Noire, South-West Congo-Brazzaville

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Tathy

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The groundwater of AQ-2 in Pointe-Noire (south-west town of Congo-Brazzaville was assessed for factors controlling the hydrochemistry and its irrigation suitability. Thirty three groundwater samples collected from 11 piezometers were analyzed for physical parameters such as: pH, temperature (T, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS; major cations: Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+ and anions Cl- , SO42- , HCO3-. Factor analysis revealed four factors associated with the mineralization, alkalinity, temperature and pH of the groundwater. Some indexes which can influence the groundwater quality for irrigation were determined: Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR, percent of sodium (%Na, Residual Sodium Carbonate (RSC, Permeability Index (PI and Potential Salinity (PS. These indexes for water irrigation were compared with standard limits. They have been found within the safe limit suitable for irrigation. The total dissolved solids in the groundwater were lower than 1500 mg/L, this denotes that irrigation using groundwater of aquifer AQ-2 in Pointe-Noire would not cause salinity hazards.

  10. Sociabilité, solidarité : culture, identité et vie urbaine dans les quartiers noirs du cap (Afrique du Sud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam Houssay-Holzschuch

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available La présence des Noirs dans les villes sud-africaines a longtemps été sévèrement limitée et contrôlée par les régimes de ségrégation et d´apartheid. Les espaces qui leur étaient assignés avaient été conçus dans ce but. Pourtant, ils abritent aujourd´hui des formes sociales nouvelles comme une culture urbaine originale et dynamique. Cet article montre comment les structures familiales, l´agencement intérieur des habitations ou le réseau associatif ont transformé ces espaces. Enfin, l´analyse de cartes mentales dessinées par les résidents confirme que l´espace des quartiers noirs existe avant tout comme projection des relations et des réseaux sociaux.

  11. Les premiers romans noirs français : simples exercices de style ou trahisons littéraires complexes ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Cadin

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Les premiers romans noirs français, imités des hard-boiled novels, ont été écrits sous pseudonyme : Malet devient Harding ; Vian, Sullivan ; Queneau, Mara et Arcouët, Stewart. Quelle part de trahison anime ces auteurs ? Sert-elle à faire vendre ou à dénoncer l’invasion de la culture américaine et le goût du scandale ? Si stratégie publicitaire et séduction du lecteur entrent en jeu, le processus de trahison est néanmoins volontairement miné par ces romanciers : il devient source de réflexion sur la lecture et l’écriture.The first French romans noirs, modeled on the so-called “hard-boiled” novels, were written under pseudonyms : Malet becomes Harding ; Vian, Sullivan ; Queneau, Mara, and Arcouët, Stewart. To what degree are these authors motivated by betrayal ? Is it employed merely for marketing purposes, or to denounce the invasion of American culture and a certain taste for scandal ? If advertising tactics and the seduction of the reader are undeniable elements of such novels, these writers nevertheless consciously sabotage the process of betrayal, transforming it into a source of reflection about reading and writing.

  12. On Coding Non-Contiguous Letter Combinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric eDandurand

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the hypothesis that printed word identification initially involves the parallel mapping of visual features onto location-specific letter identities, we analyze the type of information that would be involved in optimally mapping this location-specific orthographic code onto a location-invariant lexical code. We assume that some intermediate level of coding exists between individual letters and whole words, and that this involves the representation of letter combinations. We then investigate the nature of this intermediate level of coding given the constraints of optimality. This intermediate level of coding is expected to compress data while retaining as much information as possible about word identity. Information conveyed by letters is a function of how much they constrain word identity and how visible they are. Optimization of this coding is a combination of minimizing resources (using the most compact representations and maximizing information. We show that in a large proportion of cases, non-contiguous letter sequences contain more information than contiguous sequences, while at the same time requiring less precise coding. Moreover, we found that the best predictor of human performance in orthographic priming experiments was within-word ranking of conditional probabilities, rather than average conditional probabilities. We conclude that from an optimality perspective, readers learn to select certain contiguous and non-contiguous letter combinations as information that provides the best cue to word identity.

  13. Concentration spatiale des accidents de la route : méthode d'identification des zones noires basée sur l'autocorrélation spatiale application et étude de sensibilité

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoît Flahaut

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available L'objectif de cette contribution est d'identifier les lieux de concentration spatiale d'accidents de la route sous la forme de zones noires plutôt que de points noirs. L'application d'une méthode géographique d'analyse basée sur des mesures locales d'autocorrélation spatiale permet de localiser ces zones noires.La pertinence de la méthode est considérée, et une étude de la sensibilité des résultats à différents niveaux de contiguïté et à plusieurs fonctions des pondérations est proposée. Les résultats sont également comparés à ceux obtenus par une méthode statistique de lissage par noyau.L'application de la méthode à quelques routes montre concrètement son adéquation et son applicabilité au problème de la localisation des zones noires.

  14. Representation of Letter Position in Spelling: Evidence from Acquired Dysgraphia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer-Baum, Simon; McCloskey, Michael; Rapp, Brenda

    2010-01-01

    The graphemic representations that underlie spelling performance must encode not only the identities of the letters in a word, but also the positions of the letters. This study investigates how letter position information is represented. We present evidence from two dysgraphic individuals, CM and LSS, who perseverate letters when spelling: that…

  15. 12 CFR 337.2 - Standby letters of credit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Standby letters of credit. 337.2 Section 337.2... UNSAFE AND UNSOUND BANKING PRACTICES § 337.2 Standby letters of credit. (a) Definition. As used in this section, the term standby letter of credit means any letter of credit, or similar arrangement...

  16. Making Electoral Amends

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Lin

    2010-01-01

    @@ An amendment to the Electoral Law of the National People's Congress and Local People's Congresses of the People's Republic of China providing equal legislative representation to rural and urban people was ratifled at the closing meeting of the Third Session of the 11th National People's Congress(NPC),China's top legislature,on March 14.Li Lin,Director of the Law Institute of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences.elaborated on the amendment and outlined its effect on the Chinese people during an interview with Beijing Review reporter Yin Pumin.Some excerpts follow:

  17. Alphabetic skills in preschool: a preliminary study of letter naming and letter writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molfese, Victoria J; Beswick, Jennifer; Molnar, Andrew; Jacobi-Vessels, Jill

    2006-01-01

    Development of letter naming and writing (skills in writing first name, dictated and copied letters, and dictated and copied numbers) was examined in 79 preschool children (M age = 56 months). Skills were assessed in the fall to determine the status of these procedural skills that are components of alphabetic knowledge at the start of the school year. Children with high letter-naming scores also had high scores on letter writing, including dictated or copied letters and writing some or all of the letters of their names. Letter-naming skills were related to number-writing skills whether the numbers were dictated or copied. The highest writing scores were found for first name writing compared to writing or copying letters and numbers. A focus on the development of procedural knowledge in the preschool period may yield the hopep for impacts on later reading skills that has not been found in curricula emphasizing conceptual knowledge (e.g., knowledge of print concepts, book conventions).

  18. Letter-Transposition Effects Are Not Universal: The Impact of Transposing Letters in Hebrew

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velan, Hadas; Frost, Ram

    2009-01-01

    We examined the effects of letter-transposition in Hebrew in three masked-priming experiments. Hebrew, like English has an alphabetic orthography where sequential and contiguous letter strings represent phonemes. However, being a Semitic language it has a non-concatenated morphology that is based on root derivations. Experiment 1 showed that…

  19. ERP Correlates of Letter Identity and Letter Position Are Modulated by Lexical Frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara-Martinez, Marta; Perea, Manuel; Gomez, Pablo; Swaab, Tamara Y.

    2013-01-01

    The encoding of letter position is a key aspect in all recently proposed models of visual-word recognition. We analyzed the impact of lexical frequency on letter position assignment by examining the temporal dynamics of lexical activation induced by pseudowords extracted from words of different frequencies. For each word (e.g., BRIDGE), we created…

  20. 78 FR 54321 - Joint Industry Plan; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of the Fourth Amendment to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-03

    ...), 75 FR 34183 (June 16, 2010) (SR-FINRA-2010-025); 62883 (September 10, 2010), 75 FR 56608 (September... be amended, is attached as Exhibit A hereto. Pursuant to Rule 608(b)(3)(iii) under Regulation NMS,\\4... (``Transmittal Letter''). \\4\\ 17 CFR 242.608(b)(3)(iii). I. Rule 608(a) of Regulation NMS A. Purpose of the...

  1. 76 FR 70362 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Amendment 13 to the Coastal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-14

    ... 16, 2009; 74 FR 3178) in response to these changes in the MSA. The revised guidelines explain NOAA's... soliciting public comments (76 FR 124). NMFS received two letters regarding the proposed rule to implement... States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Amendment 13 to the Coastal Pelagic Species Fishery...

  2. Amending Death Rules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI LI

    2010-01-01

    @@ The eighth amendment to the Criminal Law, demanding more prudent use of capital punishment, has triggered hot debates in China after it was presented to the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress (NPC), China's top legislature, for the first reading at the end of August.

  3. First Amendment Glossary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Update on Law-Related Education, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Provides a list of terms and the corresponding definitions pertaining to the First Amendment. Focuses on concepts such as, but not limited to, freedom, ratification, separation of church and state, and Constitution that are used in the articles and teaching strategies throughout this issue of "Update on Law-Related Education." (CMK)

  4. The Symbolic Significance of The Scarlet Letter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张力

    2007-01-01

    As a great romantic novelist in America in 19th century, Hawthorne was outstanding in handling the application of symbolism. The Scarlet Letter is Hawthorne's most important symbolic novel, which stands as the best work of Hawthorne and one of the indubitable masterpieces of American literature. This thesis aims at the exploration of the usage of the symbolism in the novel. It mainly discusses the deep symbolic significance of the scarlet letter "A" and the little pearl. The scarlet letter is the central symbol of the novel. Its symbolic meaning changes from 'adultery' to 'able', even 'angelic' in the novel. It also examines the symbolic meanings of little Pearl and some typical natural surroundings such as the jail, the forest, the rosebush and so on.

  5. A bread-and-butter letter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王道庚

    2007-01-01

    letter作“信”讲是很常用的词,私人信件是personal letter。业务信件叫做business letter,祝贺信是letter of congratulation,邀请信是letter of invitation等等。还有一种信是a bread—and—butter letter,你知道是什么信吗?我们知道bread and butter是涂有黄油的面包,那么,a bread—and—butter leuer就是“黄油面包信”吧?非也。

  6. Traditions of martyrdom in the Ignatian Letters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Fuhrmann

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The letters of Ignatius represent one of the key texts for the emergence of martyrdom during the second century AD in Christianity. This article is concerned with the question whether Ignatius contributed to a “theology of martyrdom” or whether he rather relied on previous traditions. The author argues, by undertaking an analysis of certain pragmatics and semantics, that the motif of martyrdom is solely used to buttress Ignatius’ claim for authority among his intended addressees by referring to an understanding of martyrdom that has its roots in the New Testament. An identification of the author of the letters with a historical martyr is regarded as unlikely.

  7. Lexically guided retuning of letter perception

    OpenAIRE

    D. Norris; Butterfield, S.; McQueen, J; Cutler, A.

    2006-01-01

    Participants made visual lexical decisions to upper-case words and nonwords, and then categorized an ambiguous N–H letter continuum. The lexical decision phase included different exposure conditions: Some participants saw an ambiguous letter “?”, midway between N and H, in N-biased lexical contexts (e.g., REIG?), plus words with unambiguousH(e.g., WEIGH); others saw the reverse (e.g., WEIG?, REIGN). The first group categorized more of the test continuum as N than did the second group. Control...

  8. Letters in the Forest: Global precedence effect disappears for letters but not for non-letters under reading-like conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eLachmann

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Normally-skilled reading involves special processing strategies for letters, which are habitually funneled into an abstract letter code. On the basis of previous studies we argue that this habit leads to the preferred usage of an analytic strategy for the processing of letters, while non-letters are preferably processed via a holistic strategy. The well-known Global Precedence Effect (GPE seems to contradict to this assumption, since, with compound, hierarchical figures, including letter items, faster responses are observed to the global than to the local level of the figure, as well as an asymmetric interference effect from global to local level. We argue that with letters these effects depend on presentation conditions; only when they elicit the processing strategies automatized for reading, an analytic strategy for letters in contrast to non-letters is to be expected. We compared the GPE for letters and non-letters in central viewing, with the global stimulus size close to the functional visual field in whole word reading (6.5o of visual angle and local stimuli close to the critical size for fluent reading of individual letters (.5o of visual angle. Under these conditions, the GPE remained robust for non-letters. For letters, however, it disappeared: letters showed no overall response time advantage for the global level and symmetric congruence effects (local-to-global as well as global-to local interference. We interpret these results as according to the view that reading is based on resident analytic visual processing strategies for letters.

  9. PROUST EN DERVICHE SOUFI : métamorphoses de l’intertexte proustien dans Le Livre noir d’Orhan Pamuk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Élise Duclos

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available L’étude de l’intertextualité proustienne dans Le Livre noir d’Orhan Pamuk appelle la prise en compte de l’ensemble des références intertextuelles du roman, d’une multiplicité foisonnante, ainsi que l’étude de la place de l’intertexte proustien dans ce qu’il faut bien considérer comme le système intertextuel rhizomatique du roman. Cette investigation conduit à mettre en rapport les différents intertextes orientaux et occidentaux qui informent la narration et transforment le texte proustien en un voyage spirituel ou en une quête mystique : la Conférence des oiseaux d’Attâr, le Mesnevi de Mevlâna, et surtout Hüsn-ü Aşk de Cheik Galip.

  10. L'érosion mécanique des Terres Noires dans la région du Buech . ( Hautes Alpes, France)

    OpenAIRE

    Bufalo, M.; Oliveros, Carlos; Quelennec, R.E.

    1990-01-01

    En 1986 débutait une étude des processus d'érosion des Terres Noires ( marnes du Jurassique) dans la région du Buëch, sur le bassin versant représentatif expérimental de St Genis. Dans cette région, le climat méditerranéen à influence montagnarde et la lithologie trés érodible permet le développement de Badlands. Les simulations de pluies effectuées in situ et en laboratoire ont permis de souligner la faible perméabilité de ces marnes qui est de l'ordre de 5 mm/h pour un sol initialement sec....

  11. „Un caractère qui a l'air si impossible“: Innerer Konflikt als Rollendialektik in Le Rouge et le Noir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Klimpe

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Le Rouge et le Noir traite de l'ascension sociale du prolétaire Julien Sorel sous la Restauration. Julien est séminariste et méprise de fait les valeurs de la Restauration. En secret, il rêve de mener une existence héroïque sur le modèle de Napoléon. Le rôle idéal de Napoléon et le rôle social de prêtre sont conçus comme contraires, mais peuvent, néanmoins, difficilement être séparés dans les actions concrètes de Julien. La présente étude porte sur la dialectique entre l'idéal de Napoléon et la réalité de prêtre, et s'inscrit tant dans les sciences littéraires que dans la théorie des rôles sociaux, avec le but d'intégrer la perspective de la sociologie ainsi que celle de l'anthropologie.In Le Rouge et le Noir erzählt Stendhal den sozialen Aufstieg des Kleinbürgersohns Julien Sorel in der Restaurationsgesellschaft. Julien ist ein Priesterschüler, der die Restaurationsgesellschaft und ihre Werte verachtet und heimlich eine napoleonische Heldenexistenz ersehnt. „Napoleon“ und „Priester“ werden in der literaturwissenschaftlichen Rezeption des Werkes dabei immer wieder als Rollen interpretiert. Diese beiden Rollen sind zwar konträr konzipiert, in Juliens Handlungen aber kaum voneinander zu trennen. Die Dialektik von Napoleon-Ideal und Priester-Realität wird hier mit Hilfe literaturwissenschaftlicher Rezeptionsansätze, sowie unter den soziologischen und  anthropologischen Perspektiven der Rollentheorie untersucht.

  12. The imprint of the Slave Trade in an African American population: mitochondrial DNA, Y chromosome and HTLV-1 analysis in the Noir Marron of French Guiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larrouy Georges

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Retracing the genetic histories of the descendant populations of the Slave Trade (16th-19th centuries is particularly challenging due to the diversity of African ethnic groups involved and the different hybridisation processes with Europeans and Amerindians, which have blurred their original genetic inheritances. The Noir Marron in French Guiana are the direct descendants of maroons who escaped from Dutch plantations in the current day Surinam. They represent an original ethnic group with a highly blended culture. Uniparental markers (mtDNA and NRY coupled with HTLV-1 sequences (env and LTR were studied to establish the genetic relationships linking them to African American and African populations. Results All genetic systems presented a high conservation of the African gene pool (African ancestry: mtDNA = 99.3%; NRY = 97.6%; HTLV-1 env = 20/23; HTLV-1 LTR = 6/8. Neither founder effect nor genetic drift was detected and the genetic diversity is within a range commonly observed in Africa. Higher genetic similarities were observed with the populations inhabiting the Bight of Benin (from Ivory Coast to Benin. Other ancestries were identified but they presented an interesting sex-bias. Whilst male origins spread throughout the north of the bight (from Benin to Senegal, female origins were spread throughout the south (from the Ivory Coast to Angola. Conclusions The Noir Marron are unique in having conserved their African genetic ancestry, despite major cultural exchanges with Amerindians and Europeans through inhabiting the same region for four centuries. Their maroon identity and the important number of slaves deported in this region have maintained the original African diversity. All these characteristics permit to identify a major origin located in the former region of the Gold Coast and the Bight of Benin; regions highly impacted by slavery, from which goes a sex-biased longitudinal gradient of ancestry.

  13. The Best Use of a Cover Letter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    So when should you use a cover letter? Only as part of a limited, targeted campaign to reach potential employers. Take the time to research and understand a company before committing yourself on paper as a potential employee, if you have no idea what the company does,

  14. Hester Prynne in The Scarlet Letter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵丽

    2011-01-01

    The Scarlet Letter is the masterpiece of Nathaniel Hawthorne, one of the great writers in the nineteenth century America. Since it was published in the year of 1850, it has been reread in the circle of literary criticism..In the book, Hawthorne Portrays H

  15. SiD Letter of Intent

    CERN Document Server

    Aihara, H; Oreglia, M.; Berger, E.L.; Guarino, V.; Repond, J.; Weerts, H.; Xia, L.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, Q.; Srivastava, A.; Butler, J.M.; Goldstein, Joel; Velthuis, J.; Radeka, V.; Zhu, R.-Y.; Lutz, P.; de Roeck, A.; Elsener, K.; Gaddi, A.; Gerwig, H.; Grefe, C.; Klempt, W.; Linssen, L.; Schlatter, D.; Speckmayer, P.; Thom, J.; Yang, J.; Christian, D.C.; Cihangir, S.; Cooper, W.E.; Demarteau, M.; Fisk, H.E.; Garren, L.A.; Krempetz, K.; Kutschke, R.K.; Lipton, R.; Para, A.; Tschirhart, R.; Wenzel, H.; Yarema, R.; Grunewald, M.; Pankov, A.; U., Gomel State Tech.; Dutta, T.; Dauncey, P.D.; Balbuena, J.P.; Fleta, C.; Lozano, M.; Ullan, M.; Christian, G.B.; Faus-Golfe, A.; Fuster, J.; Lacasta, C.; Marinnas, C.; Vos, M.; Duarte, J.; Fernandez, M.; Gonzalez, J.; Jaramillo, R.; Lopez, Virto, A.; Martinez-Eivero, C.; Moya, D.; Ruiz-Mimeno, A.; Vila, I.; Colledani, C.; Dorokhov, A.; Hu-Guo, C.; Winter, M.; Moortgat-Pick, G.; Onoprienko, D.V.; Kim, G.N.; Park, H.; Adloff, C.; Blaha, J.; Blaising, J.-J.; Cap, S.; Chefdeville, M.; Drancourt, C.; Espargiliare, A.; Gaglione, R.; Geffroy, N.; Jacquemier, J.; Karyotakis, Y.; Prast, J.; Vouters, G.; Gronberg, J.; Walston, S.; Wright, D.; Sawyer, L.; Laloum, M.; Ciobanu, C.; Chauveau, J.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Andricek, L.; Moser, H.-G.; Cowan, R.f.; Fisher, P.; Yamamoto, R.K.; Kenney, ClMl; Boos, E.E.; Merkin, M.; Chen, S.; Chakraborty, D.; Dyshkant, A.; Hedin, D.; Zutshi, V.; Galkin, V.; D'Ascenzo, N.; Ossetski, D.; Saveliev, V.; Kapusta, F.; De Masi, R.; Vrba, V.; Lu, C.; McDonald, K.T.; Smith, A.J.S.; Bortoletto, D.; Coath, R.; Crooks, J.; Damerell, C.; Gibson, M.; Nichols, A.; Stanitzki, M.; Strube, J.; Turchetta, R.; Tyndel, M.; Weber, M.; Worm, S.; Zhang, Z.; Barklow, T.L.; Belymam, A.; Breidenbach, M.; Cassell, R.; Craddock, W.; Deaconu, C.; Dragone, A.; Graf, N.A.; Haller, G.; Herbst, R.; Hewett, J.L.; Jaros, J.A.; Johnson, A.S.; Kim, P.C.; MacFarlane, D.B.; Markiewicz, T.; Maruyama, T.; McCormick, J.; Moffeit, K.; Neal, H.A.; Nelson, T.K.; Oriunno, M.; Partridge, R.; Peskin, M.E.; Rizzo, T.G.; Rowson, P.; Su, D.; Woods, M.; Chakrabarti, S.; Dieguez, A.; Garrido, Ll.; Kaminski, J.; Conway, J.S.; Chertok, M.; Gunion, J.; Holbrook, B.; Lander, R.L.; Tripathi, S.M.; Fadeyev, V.; Schumm, B.A.; Oreglia, M.; Gill, J.; Nauenberg, U.; Oleinik, G.; Wagner, S.R.; Ranjan, K.; Shivpuri, R.; Varner, G.S.; Orava, R.; Van Kooten, R.; Bilki, B.; Charles, M.; Kim, T.J.; Mallik, U.; Norbeck, E.; Onel, Y.; Brau, B.P.; Willocq, S.; Taylor, G.N.; Riles, Keith; Yang, H.-J.; Kriske, R.; Cremaldi, L.; Rahmat, R.; Lastovicka-Medin, G.; Seidel, S.; Hildreth, M.D.; Wayne, M.; Brau, J.E.; Frey, R.; Sinev, N.; Strom, D.M.; Torrence, E.; Banda, Y.; Burrows, P.N.; Devetak, E.; Foster, B.; Lastovicka, T.; Li, Y.-M.; Nomerotski, A.; Riera-Babures, J.; Vilasis-Cardona, X.; Manly, S.; Adeva, B.; Iglesias Escudero, C.; Vazquez Regueiro, P.; Saborido Silva, J.J.; Gallas Torreira, A.; Gao, D.; Jie, W.; Jungfeng, Y.; Li, C.; Liu, S.; Liu, Y.; Sun, Y.; Wang, Q.; Yi, J.; Yonggang, W.; Zhao, Z.; De, K.; Farbin, A.; Park, S.; Smith, J.; White, A.P.; Yu, J.; Lou, X.C.; Abe, T.; Aihara, H.; Iwasaki, M.; Lubatti, H.J.; Band, H.R.; Feyzi, F.; Prepost, R.; Karchin, P.E.; Milstene, C.; Baltay, C.; Dhawan, S.; Kwon, Y.-J.

    2009-01-01

    Letter of intent describing SiD (Silicon Detector) for consideration by the International Linear Collider IDAG panel. This detector concept is founded on the use of silicon detectors for vertexing, tracking, and electromagnetic calorimetry. The detector has been cost-optimized as a general-purpose detector for a 500 GeV electron-positron linear collider.

  16. Researches Made on The Scarlet Letter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王舫

    2011-01-01

    Being the first American native novel,a great number of researches have been made on The Scarlet Letter.This paper collects some popular researches that have been made on this novel and classifies them into five perspectives --- romance,symbolism,Puritanism,feminism and psychoanalysis.

  17. Introduction to Literary Criticism: "The Scarlet Letter."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Lisa

    This course seeks to provide high school students the opportunity to sharpen their critical thinking skills and use of language through acquaintance with some ideas of literary criticism. The course features Nathaniel Hawthorne's "The Scarlet Letter," assuming that the students have just finished reading that American classic novel. The course…

  18. Reply to letter to the editor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woelders, H.

    2006-01-01

    In response to the letter by Dr. Amir Arav I would like to mention the following. The application of the principle of directional solidification to cryopreservation of living cells was, as far as I am aware, not the invention of Dr. Arav. It was first published and patented by Rubinsky (Berkeley, CA

  19. Crowding Affects Letters and Symbols Differently

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grainger, Jonathan; Tydgat, Ilse; Issele, Joanna

    2010-01-01

    Five experiments examined crowding effects with letter and symbol stimuli. Experiments 1 through 3 compared 2-alternative forced-choice (2AFC) identification accuracy for isolated targets presented left and right of fixation with targets flanked either by 2 other items of the same category or a single item situated to the right or left of targets.…

  20. The Electronic Discharge Letter Mobile App

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lezcano, Leonardo; Ternier, Stefaan; Drachsler, Hendrik; Kalz, Marco; Specht, Marcus

    2013-01-01

    Lezcano, L., Ternier, S., Drachsler, H., Kalz, M., & Specht, M. (2013, September). The Electronic Discharge Letter Mobile App. In iProceedings of MEDICINE 2.0: 6th World Congress on Social Media, Mobile Apps, Internet/Web 2.0 (pp. 221-222). London, England. Retrieved from http://www.medicine20congre

  1. Text legibility and the letter superiority effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheedy, James E; Subbaram, Manoj V; Zimmerman, Aaron B; Hayes, John R

    2005-01-01

    Effects of font design and electronic display parameters upon text legibility were determined using a threshold size method. Participants' visual acuity (inverse of the minimum detection size, representing the threshold legibility for each condition) was measured using upper- and lowercase letters and lowercase words in combinations of 6 fonts, 3 font-smoothing modes, 4 font sizes, 10 pixel heights, and 4 stroke widths. Individual lowercase letters were 10% to 20% more legible than lowercase words (i.e., lowercase words must be 10%-20% larger to have the same threshold legibility). This letter superiority effect suggests that individual letters play a large role and word shape plays a smaller role, if any, in word identification at threshold. Pixel height, font, stroke width, and font smoothing had significant main effects on threshold legibility. Optimal legibility was attained at 9 pixels (10 points). Verdana and Arial were the most legible fonts; Times New Roman and Franklin were least legible. Subpixel rendering (ClearType) improved threshold legibility for some fonts and, in combination with Verdana, was the most legible condition. Increased stroke width (bold) improved threshold legibility but only at the thinnest width tested. Potential applications of this research include optimization of font design for legibility and readability. PMID:16553067

  2. Varsity letters documenting modern colleges and universities

    CERN Document Server

    Samuels, Helen Willa

    1998-01-01

    A study of the functions of colleges and universities, Varsity Letters is intended to aid those responsible for the documentation of these institutions. Samuels offers specific advice about the records of modern colleges and universities and proposes a method to ensure their adequate documentation. She also offers a method to analyze and plan the preservation of records for any type of institution.

  3. An Open Letter to Ninth Graders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    Many studies and reports in recent years have argued that there's an important "expectations gap" between the skills students are typically bringing to college and what college teachers think students should be bringing with them to college. This article, presented in the form of an open letter to first-year high school students, is an attempt…

  4. Application of Politeness Strategies in Business Letters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨雅婷

    2015-01-01

    As is known to all,businesses are very image - conscious. Most of the companies try to conduct themselves decently and politely in their business transactions,among which business letters are major manifestations of politeness. Application of Politeness Strategies is of great significance.

  5. Event related potentials reveal early phonological and orthographic processing of single letters in letter-detection and letter-rhyme paradigms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sewon Adrian Bann

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: When and where phonological processing occurs in the brain is still under some debate. Most paired-rhyme and phonological priming studies used word stimuli, which involve complex neural networks for word recognition and semantics. This study investigates early (300ms orthographic and phonological processing of letters.Methods: Eighteen participants aged 20-35 engaged in three two-forced choice experiments, one letter-detection (LetterID and two letter-rhyme (Paired-Rhyme and Letter-Rhyme tasks. From the EEG recordings, ERP differences within and across task stimuli were found. We also calculated the global field power (GFP for each participant. Accuracies and reaction times were also measured from their button presses for each task. Results: Behavioural: Reaction times were 18ms faster to letter than pseudoletter stimuli, and 27ms faster to rhyme than nonrhyme stimuli. ERP/GFP: In the LetterID task, grand-mean EPs showed typical P1, N1, P2, and P3 waveform morphologies to letter and pseudoletter stimuli, with GFPs to pseudoletters being greater than letters from 160-600ms. Across both rhyme tasks, there were greater negativities for nonrhyme than for rhyme stimuli at 145ms and 426ms. The P2 effect for rhyme stimuli was smaller than letter stimuli when compared across tasks.Conclusion: Differences in early processing of letters versus pseudoletters between 130-190ms suggest that letters are processed earlier and perhaps faster in the brain than pseudoletters. The P2 effect between letter and rhyme stimuli likely reflect sublexical phonological processing. Together, findings from our study fill in evidence for the temporal dynamics of orthographic and phonological processing of single letters.

  6. Event Related Potentials Reveal Early Phonological and Orthographic Processing of Single Letters in Letter-Detection and Letter-Rhyme Paradigms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bann, Sewon A.; Herdman, Anthony T.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: When and where phonological processing occurs in the brain is still under some debate. Most paired-rhyme and phonological priming studies used word stimuli, which involve complex neural networks for word recognition and semantics. This study investigates early (300 ms) orthographic and phonological processing of letters. Methods: Fifteen participants aged 20–35 engaged in three two-forced choice experiments, one letter-detection (LetterID) and two letter-rhyme (Paired-Rhyme and Letter-Rhyme) tasks. From the EEG recordings, event related potential (ERP) differences within and across task stimuli were found. We also calculated the global field power (GFP) for each participant. Accuracies and reaction times were also measured from their button presses for each task. Results: Behavioral: Reaction times were 18 ms faster to letter than pseudoletter stimuli, and 27 ms faster to rhyme than nonrhyme stimuli. ERP/GFP: In the LetterID task, grand-mean evoked potentials (EPs) showed typical P1, N1, P2, and P3 waveform morphologies to letter and pseudoletter stimuli, with GFPs to pseudoletters being greater than letters from 160–600 ms. Across both rhyme tasks, there were greater negativities for nonrhyme than for rhyme stimuli at 145 ms and 426 ms. The P2 effect for rhyme stimuli was smaller than letter stimuli when compared across tasks. Conclusion: Differences in early processing of letters vs. pseudoletters between 130–190 ms suggest that letters are processed earlier and perhaps faster in the brain than pseudoletters. The P2 effect between letter and rhyme stimuli likely reflect sublexical phonological processing. Together, findings from our study fill in evidence for the temporal dynamics of orthographic and phonological processing of single letters. PMID:27148023

  7. Letter to President [Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a letter from the Assistant Secretary of the Interior to the President regarding the establishment of the Back Bay Wilderness area. The letter...

  8. 50 CFR 216.257 - Letters of Authorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE... Mexico § 216.257 Letters of Authorization. (a) A Letter of Authorization, unless suspended or...

  9. 78 FR 7784 - Health Information Technology Policy Committee Nomination Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-04

    ... OFFICE Health Information Technology Policy Committee Nomination Letters AGENCY: Government Accountability Office (GAO). ACTION: Notice on letters of nomination of candidates. SUMMARY: The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) established the Health Information Technology Policy...

  10. Can words be read without abstract letter identities?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Fischer-Baum

    2014-04-01

    CH’s acquired dyslexia and dysgraphia left him with a profound impairment in processing abstract letter identities. This impairment affected his ability to process strings of letters in a variety of tasks; for example nonword reading, spelling, recognizing orally spelled words. However, while impaired, his single word reading was surprisingly good given his single letter impairment, suggesting an additional route to word meaning from visually-presented familiar words that does not require abstract letter identities.

  11. Comparison of the Commercial and Standby Letter of Credits

    OpenAIRE

    Homayoun Mafi; Ahmad Ali Mohsenzadeh

    2015-01-01

    The Letter of credit as a method of smoothing international payment is a conditional security and obligation to pay the customer bank (issuing bank) to seller (applicant). For this purpose, the letters of credit may be considered as the most usual method of payment of goods price in international trade. The classic form of letters of credit is the commercial letters of credit whose financial obligation is rooted in the documents that demonstrates the making of transaction by the beneficiary a...

  12. Une histoire oubliée : la genèse française du terme « film noir » dans les années 1930 et ses implications transnationales

    OpenAIRE

    Pillard, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Selon l’historiographie du genre, l’appellation « film noir » a été forgée en France en 1946 pour caractériser des produits filmiques américains. Depuis cette date, il est de coutume de réserver ce terme générique aux seuls films hollywoodiens et de considérer ce genre comme une spécificité américaine. Dans les années 1990, des chercheurs anglo-saxons ont certes entrepris de dissocier le genre du seul cinéma américain : Charles O’Brien a ainsi montré que l’étiquette « film noir » a initialeme...

  13. 48 CFR 871.201-4 - Letter contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Letter contracts. 871.201... Rehabilitation and Employment Service 871.201-4 Letter contracts. Letter contracts are authorized for use in... formal contract with an approved educational institution before the enrollment of eligible veterans...

  14. 78 FR 26573 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Irrevocable Letters of Credit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-07

    ... of Federal Procurement Policy Letters, 65 FR 36014) removed the FAR references to OFPP Policy Letter... (see 65 FR 16968). However, the reference to OFPP Pamphlet No. 7 remained in FAR Part 28 because the... letter of credit (ILC) in an amount equal to the penal sum required to be secured (see 28.204)....

  15. Letter representations in writing: An fMRI adaptation approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier eDufor

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:Behavioral and neuropsychological research in reading and spelling has provided evidence for the role of the following types of orthographic representations in letter writing: letter forms, letter case, and abstract letter identities. We report on the results of an fMRI investigation designed to identify the neural substrates of these different representational types. Using a neural adaptation paradigm we examined the neural distribution of inhibition and release from inhibition in a letter-writing task in which, on every trial, participants produced three repetitions of the same letter and a fourth letter that was either identical to (no-change trial or different from the previous three (change trial. Change trials involved a change in the shape, case and/or identity of the letter. After delineating the general letter writing network by identifying areas that exhibited significant neural adaptation effects on no-change trials, we used deconvolution analysis to examine this network for effects of release from inhibition on change trials. In this way we identified regions specifically associated with the representation of letter shape (left SFS and SFG/pre-CG and letter identity (left fusiform gyrus or both (cerebellum, post-central gyrus and middle frontal gyrus. No regions were associated with the representation of letter case. This study showcases an investigational approach that allows for the differentiation of the neurotopography of the representational types that are key to our ability to produce written language.

  16. Return to sender: Constantijn Huygens as a man of letters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Gosseye; F. Blom; A. Leerintveld

    2013-01-01

    Return to Sender takes as its starting point Constantijn Huygens’ letters and shows us the author in his different guises: intimus of René Descartes, translator of John Donne, collector of art, writer of flirtatious love letters and the author of a long consolatory letter-poem for an ailing friend w

  17. 31 CFR 535.416 - Letters of credit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Letters of credit. 535.416 Section... § 535.416 Letters of credit. (a) Question. Prior to the effective date, a bank subject to the jurisdiction of the United States has issued or confirmed a documentary letter of credit for a...

  18. 48 CFR 52.228-14 - Irrevocable Letter of Credit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Credit. 52.228-14 Section 52.228-14 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION....228-14 Irrevocable Letter of Credit. As prescribed in 28.204-4, insert the following clause: Irrevocable Letter of Credit (DEC 1999) (a) “Irrevocable letter of credit” (ILC), as used in this...

  19. Letter-Naming Knowledge in Kindergartners: What's Happening?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Jay; Logan, John

    1988-01-01

    Tests the statement in "Becoming a Nation of Readers" that kindergartners can name an average of 14 letters. Finds that a more realistic distribution is bi-modal in that most kindergartners know 8 or fewer letters, and only a few can name more than 20 letters. (RS)

  20. Amending Contracts for Choreographies

    CERN Document Server

    Bocchi, Laura; Tuosto, Emilio; 10.4204/EPTCS.59.10

    2011-01-01

    Distributed interactions can be suitably designed in terms of choreographies. Such abstractions can be thought of as global descriptions of the coordination of several distributed parties. Global assertions define contracts for choreographies by annotating multiparty session types with logical formulae to validate the content of the exchanged messages. The introduction of such constraints is a critical design issue as it may be hard to specify contracts that allow each party to be able to progress without violating the contract. In this paper, we propose three methods that automatically correct inconsistent global assertions. The methods are compared by discussing their applicability and the relationships between the amended global assertions and the original (inconsistent) ones.

  1. Michael Maier--nine newly discovered letters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenke, Nils; Roudet, Nicolas; Tilton, Hereward

    2014-02-01

    The authors provide a transcription, translation, and evaluation of nine newly discovered letters from the alchemist Michael Maier (1568-1622) to Gebhardt Johann von Alvensleben (1576-1631), a noble landholder in the vicinity of Magdeburg. Stemming from the final year of his life, this correspondence casts new light on Maier's biography, detailing his efforts to secure patronage amid the financial crisis of the early Thirty Years' War. While his ill-fated quest to perfect potable gold continued to form the central focus of his patronage suits, Maier also offered his services in several arts that he had condemned in his printed works, namely astrology and "supernatural" magic. Remarks concerning his previously unknown acquaintance with Heinrich Khunrath call for a re-evaluation of Maier's negotiation of the discursive boundaries between Lutheran orthodoxy and Paracelsianism. The letters also reveal Maier's substantial contribution to a work previously ascribed solely to the English alchemist Francis Anthony. PMID:25241502

  2. A Key to the Art of Letters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen-Rix, Robert William

    2008-01-01

    The article examines A. Lane's grammar A Key to the Art of Letters and its contexts. Symbolically published at the threshold to the eighteenth century, Lane presents an unusually bold plan to make English a world language. Although Lane's book holds a key position in the development of English gr...... that Lane is the first to use English as the basis for writing universal grammar, as part of his strategy to promote English as a universal code for learning and science......The article examines A. Lane's grammar A Key to the Art of Letters and its contexts. Symbolically published at the threshold to the eighteenth century, Lane presents an unusually bold plan to make English a world language. Although Lane's book holds a key position in the development of English...

  3. Michael Maier--nine newly discovered letters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenke, Nils; Roudet, Nicolas; Tilton, Hereward

    2014-02-01

    The authors provide a transcription, translation, and evaluation of nine newly discovered letters from the alchemist Michael Maier (1568-1622) to Gebhardt Johann von Alvensleben (1576-1631), a noble landholder in the vicinity of Magdeburg. Stemming from the final year of his life, this correspondence casts new light on Maier's biography, detailing his efforts to secure patronage amid the financial crisis of the early Thirty Years' War. While his ill-fated quest to perfect potable gold continued to form the central focus of his patronage suits, Maier also offered his services in several arts that he had condemned in his printed works, namely astrology and "supernatural" magic. Remarks concerning his previously unknown acquaintance with Heinrich Khunrath call for a re-evaluation of Maier's negotiation of the discursive boundaries between Lutheran orthodoxy and Paracelsianism. The letters also reveal Maier's substantial contribution to a work previously ascribed solely to the English alchemist Francis Anthony.

  4. Parent and Child References to Letters during Alphabet Book Reading: Relations to Child Age and Letter Name Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachner, William; Zevenbergen, Andrea; Zevenbergen, Jason

    2008-01-01

    Research Findings: The purpose of this study was to examine the frequency of extratextual references to letters made by parents and preschoolers during shared reading of an alphabet book. The frequency of letter references was also examined in relation to child age and knowledge of letter names. Participants consisted of 44 preschoolers and their…

  5. Your Letters Could Change My Life

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nancy; Snow

    2007-01-01

    "Your letters could change my life."These words were sent to me by a Chinese student whose lifelong dream is to study in America.I met her in September 2007, just a week after arriving as a visiting pro- fessor at Tsinghua University’s School of Journalism and Communication.She attended a lunch where I was speaking. We exchanged some pleasantries.She e- mailed a follow-up greeting and

  6. Osterc's letters to Milojević

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milin Melita B.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The correspondence between two of the most important composers in Yugoslavia during the period between the two world wars: Miloje Milojević (1884-1946, a Serb living in Belgrade, and Slavko Osterc (1895-1946, Slovene living in Ljubljana, gives us valuable insight into their musical aspirations ambitions, relations to other colleagues, the functioning of musical institutions and the cultural and even political climate of the times. The stylistic features of their works are basically different, Milojević being a modernist with late romantic roots, while Osterc was inclined to objectivity of the neoclassical and "constructive expressionist type. The main topics of their correspondence include: the activities of the Yugoslav section of the International Society for Contemporary Music, in which they were very much involved, and the efforts they made to have their works performed both in the country and abroad. Milojević and Osterc maintained very good relations throughout the period covered by this exchange of letters, that is from 1933-1941 (Osterc's last letter was sent three months before his death in May 1941 and their correspondence provides evidence of several instances of the mutual generosity, as they helped each other in their careers. The portion of this correspondence that is kept in Ljubljana - Milojević's letters to Osterc - has already been published and analyzed by Dragotin Cvetko. As such, the edition of the remaining correspondence, Osterc's letters to Milojević, that is kept in the private archive of Milojević's grandson Vlastimir Trajković in Belgrade, completes the picture. The language Osterc used was his mother tongue, Slovenian, with "borrowings" from the Serbian, the result being an often amusing mixture of the two.

  7. Resource Letter: TE-1: Teaching electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Dennis C.

    2002-01-01

    This Resource Letter examines the evolution, roles, and content of courses in electronics in the undergraduate physics curriculum, and provides a guide to resources for faculty teaching such courses. It concludes with a brief section addressing problems of electromagnetic interference in electronic systems, and provides an introduction to the literature and practice of electromagnetic compatibility. I have included textbooks, reference books, articles, collections of laboratory experiments and projects, sources of equipment and parts, software packages, videos, and websites.

  8. The Washakie Letters of Willie Ottogary

    OpenAIRE

    Kreitzer, Matthew E.

    2000-01-01

    Writings by American Indians from the early twentieth century or earlier are rare. Willie Ottogary's letters have the distinction of being firsthand reports of an Indian community's ongoing social life by a community member and leader. The Northwestern Shoshone residing at the Washakie colony in northern Utah descended from survivors of the Bear River Massacre. Most had converted to the Mormon Church and remained in northern Utah rather than moving to a federal Indian reservation. For over tw...

  9. Resource Letter QI-1: Quantum Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauch, Frederick W.

    2016-07-01

    This Resource Letter surveys the history and modern developments in the field of quantum information. It is written to guide advanced undergraduates, beginning graduate students, and other new researchers to the theoretical and experimental aspects of this field. The topics covered include quantum states and processes, quantum coding and cryptography, quantum computation, the experimental implementation of quantum information processing, and the role of quantum information in the fundamental properties and foundations of physical theories.

  10. LEXICAL PHRASEOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF ENGLISH BUSINESS LETTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krivoruchko I. S.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The development of international cooperation has promoted the updating of problems connected with business communication effectiveness. These problems are very crucial, because their solution may predetermine the collaboration success of business partners. The integral part of this success is the efficiency of the exchange of textual information. Nowadays the main information exchange method in modern business relations is business correspondence in English; therefore, its research makes an important contribution to the solution of the pressing problem connected with the achievement of some goals in business. In the article, we analyze both general and specific linguistic features of English business letters, which differ them from texts of other fields of human activity. A special attention is paid to the question of the content and presence degree of lexicological and phraseological units in English business letters. In the end the author comes to the conclusion that business communication is considered effective if it contributes to the mutual understanding of partners with the help of the most optimal means. The analysis of practical material showed that these means could be lexicological and phraseological units. The correct choice of these units helps with the formation of those features of a business letter, which would make it effective

  11. 75 FR 16351 - Medical Devices; Technical Amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., and 1050 Medical Devices; Technical Amendment AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final rule; technical amendment. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending certain medical device regulations to correct statutory and regulatory references to ensure accuracy, consistency,...

  12. Draft Mission Plan Amendment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-09-01

    The Department of Energy`s Office Civilian Radioactive Waste Management has prepared this document to report plans for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program, whose mission is to manage and dispose of the nation`s spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste in a manner that protects the health and safety of the public and of workers and the quality of the environment. The Congress established this program through the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. Specifically, the Congress directed us to isolate these wastes in geologic repositories constructed in suitable rock formations deep beneath the surface of the earth. In the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987, the Congress mandated that only one repository was to be developed at present and that only the Yucca Mountain candidate site in Nevada was to be characterized at this time. The Amendments Act also authorized the construction of a facility for monitored retrievable storage (MRS) and established the Office of the Nuclear Waste Negotiator and the Nuclear Waste Technical Review Board. After a reassessment in 1989, the Secretary of Energy restructured the program, focusing the repository effort scientific evaluations of the Yucca Mountain candidate site, deciding to proceed with the development of an MRS facility, and strengthening the management of the program. 48 refs., 32 figs.

  13. Draft Mission Plan Amendment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy's Office Civilian Radioactive Waste Management has prepared this document to report plans for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program, whose mission is to manage and dispose of the nation's spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste in a manner that protects the health and safety of the public and of workers and the quality of the environment. The Congress established this program through the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. Specifically, the Congress directed us to isolate these wastes in geologic repositories constructed in suitable rock formations deep beneath the surface of the earth. In the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987, the Congress mandated that only one repository was to be developed at present and that only the Yucca Mountain candidate site in Nevada was to be characterized at this time. The Amendments Act also authorized the construction of a facility for monitored retrievable storage (MRS) and established the Office of the Nuclear Waste Negotiator and the Nuclear Waste Technical Review Board. After a reassessment in 1989, the Secretary of Energy restructured the program, focusing the repository effort scientific evaluations of the Yucca Mountain candidate site, deciding to proceed with the development of an MRS facility, and strengthening the management of the program. 48 refs., 32 figs

  14. The time course of visual influences in letter recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madec, Sylvain; Le Goff, Kévin; Riès, Stéphanie K; Legou, Thierry; Rousselet, Guillaume; Courrieu, Pierre; Alario, F-Xavier; Grainger, Jonathan; Rey, Arnaud

    2016-06-01

    This study builds on a specific characteristic of letters of the Roman alphabet-namely, that each letter name is associated with two visual formats, corresponding to their uppercase and lowercase versions. Participants had to read aloud the names of single letters, and event-related potentials (ERPs) for six pairs of visually dissimilar upper- and lowercase letters were recorded. Assuming that the end product of processing is the same for upper- and lowercase letters sharing the same vocal response, ERPs were compared backward, starting from the onset of articulatory responses, and the first significant divergence was observed 120 ms before response onset. Given that naming responses were produced at around 414 ms, on average, these results suggest that letter processing is influenced by visual information until 294 ms after stimulus onset. This therefore provides new empirical evidence regarding the time course and interactive nature of visual letter perception processes. PMID:26742753

  15. 78 FR 18233 - Medical Devices; Technical Amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-26

    ...). These amendments are merely correcting nonsubstantive errors. FDA therefore, for good cause, finds under... heartbeats in patients following cardiac surgery or a myocardial infarction. * * * * * * * * 0 4. Amend...

  16. Amending Contracts for Choreographies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Bocchi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Distributed interactions can be suitably designed in terms of choreographies. Such abstractions can be thought of as global descriptions of the coordination of several distributed parties. Global assertions define contracts for choreographies by annotating multiparty session types with logical formulae to validate the content of the exchanged messages. The introduction of such constraints is a critical design issue as it may be hard to specify contracts that allow each party to be able to progress without violating the contract. In this paper, we propose three methods that automatically correct inconsistent global assertions. The methods are compared by discussing their applicability and the relationships between the amended global assertions and the original (inconsistent ones.

  17. Algoritmi matematici nelle lettere di Gerbert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, P.

    The content of Gerbert's "scientific" letters is analyzed in detail, with special emphasis on arithmetical and geometrical issues, such as multiplication and division rules related to the use of abacus, superparticular numbers and evaluation of the area of an equilateral triangle. It is shown that Gerbert's area formula, albeit based on rational fractions, could hardly be conceived without knowledge of Pythagoras' theorem. This fact casts a light also on the astronomical tools created by Gerbert, where the didactical aspect cannot be separated from the accuracy of the demonstrations and of the measurements.

  18. Letters to Solovine 1906-1955

    CERN Document Server

    Einstein, Albert

    2011-01-01

    A provocative collection of letters to his longtime friend and translator that spans Einstein's career and reveals the inner thoughts and daily life of a transformative genius From their early days as tutor and scholar, discussing philosophy over Spartan dinners, to their work together to publish Einstein's books in Europe, in Maurice Solovine Einstein found both an engaged mind and a loyal friend. While Einstein frequently shared his observations on science, politics, philosophy, and religion in his correspondence with Solovine, he was just as likely to express his feelings about everyday l

  19. Impact of HIV/Aids on Child Mortality before the Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy Era: A Study in Pointe-Noire, Republic of Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille Lallemant

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have documented the contribution of HIV/AIDS to mortality among children under 15 years. From June 30 to October 19, 2001, all child deaths (n=588 registered to the morgue and/or hospitals of the city of Pointe-Noire, Congo, were investigated using a combined approach including an interview of relatives and postmortem clinical and biological HIV diagnosis. Twenty-one percent of children were HIV positive, while 10.5% of deaths were attributed to AIDS. The most common causes of death in HIV-infected children were pneumonia (30%, pyrexia (22%, diarrhoea (16% and wasting syndrome (16%. Infant mortality rate was estimated 6.3 times higher in children born to HIV-infected mothers compared to HIV-uninfected mothers. This study provides a direct measure of HIV/AIDS as impact on child mortality using a rapid and reliable method. A significant number of deaths could be prevented if HIV infection was diagnosed earlier and infants were provided with antiretroviral treatments.

  20. Retention of aqueous 226Ra fluxes from a sub-aqueous mill tailings disposal at the Bois Noirs site (Loire, France)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study focuses on a sub-aqueous mill tailings disposal site located in France (Bois Noirs) where 1.3 million tons of uranium mill sludge (fine tailings fraction < 50 μm) have been disposed since the 60's in a man-made pond below 4 meters of water maintained artificially by a rock-fill dam. A significant attenuation of aqueous 226Ra activity is observed in ground waters. This paper presents the preliminary modeling work performed for evaluating the role of water-rock interactions on aqueous 226Ra attenuation through the dam. This modeling attempt, assuming thermodynamic equilibrium, aims at checking the hydrochemical conceptual model developed in a previous study, in which Ra retention through the dam was assumed to most likely result from sorption onto metallic oxide-hydroxides. A 2D coupled reactive transport model was conceived to test this hypothesis over time and identify the measurements required to verify its consistency over the long term. (authors)

  1. Retention of aqueous {sup 226}Ra fluxes from a sub-aqueous mill tailings disposal at the Bois Noirs site (Loire, France)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courbet, Christelle; Simonucci, Caroline; Dauzeres, Alexandre; Matray, Jean-Michel [French Institute for Radiation protection and Nuclear Safety - IRSN, Radiation Protection Division - PRP, Nuclear Waste and Geosphere Department - DGE, SRTG/LETIS, B.P. 17, 92262 Fontenay-Aux-Roses (France); Bassot, Sylvain [French Institute for Radiation protection and Nuclear Safety - IRSN, Radiation Protection Division - PRP, Nuclear Waste and Geosphere Department - DGE, SRTG/LAME, B.P. 17, 92262 Fontenay-Aux-Roses (France); Mangeret, Arnaud [French Institute for Radiation protection and Nuclear Safety - IRSN, Radiation Protection Division - PRP, Nuclear Waste and Geosphere Department - DGE, SEDRAN/BRN, B.P. 17, 92262 Fontenay-Aux-Roses (France)

    2013-07-01

    This study focuses on a sub-aqueous mill tailings disposal site located in France (Bois Noirs) where 1.3 million tons of uranium mill sludge (fine tailings fraction < 50 μm) have been disposed since the 60's in a man-made pond below 4 meters of water maintained artificially by a rock-fill dam. A significant attenuation of aqueous {sup 226}Ra activity is observed in ground waters. This paper presents the preliminary modeling work performed for evaluating the role of water-rock interactions on aqueous {sup 226}Ra attenuation through the dam. This modeling attempt, assuming thermodynamic equilibrium, aims at checking the hydrochemical conceptual model developed in a previous study, in which Ra retention through the dam was assumed to most likely result from sorption onto metallic oxide-hydroxides. A 2D coupled reactive transport model was conceived to test this hypothesis over time and identify the measurements required to verify its consistency over the long term. (authors)

  2. ERP correlates of letter identity and letter position are modulated by lexical frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara-Martínez, Marta; Perea, Manuel; Gómez, Pablo; Swaab, Tamara Y.

    2013-01-01

    The encoding of letter position is a key aspect in all recently proposed models of visual-word recognition. We analyzed the impact of lexical frequency on letter position assignment by examining the temporal dynamics of lexical activation induced by pseudowords extracted from words of different frequencies. For each word (e.g., BRIDGE), we created two pseudowords: A transposed-letter (TL: BRIGDE) and a replaced-letter pseudoword (RL: BRITGE). ERPs were recorded while participants read words and pseudowords in two tasks: Semantic categorization (Experiment 1) and lexical decision (Experiment 2). For high-frequency stimuli, similar ERPs were obtained for words and TL-pseudowords, but the N400 component to words was reduced relative to RL-pseudowords, indicating less lexical/semantic activation. In contrast, TL- and RL-pseudowords created from low-frequency stimuli elicited similar ERPs. Behavioral responses in the lexical decision task paralleled this asymmetry. The present findings impose constraints on computational and neural models of visual-word recognition. PMID:23454070

  3. Vocational Power Letters. Step-by-Step Procedures in Writing a Letter to a Legislator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palladino, Dolores

    This packet for vocational educators contains information and materials on writing a letter to a state legislator. A step-by-step procedure is outlined and informative materials that expand upon the various steps are then provided. These materials include a sample Mailgram, a flowchart on how an idea becomes a state law, common sense rules for…

  4. Letter report: Cold crucible melter assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, M.L.

    1996-03-01

    One of the activities of the PNL Vitrification Technology Development (PVTD) Project is to assist the Tank Waste Remediation Systems (TWRS) Program in determining which melter systems should be performance tested for potential implementation in the high-level waste (HLW) vitrification plant. The Richland Operations Office (RL) has recommended that the Cold Crucible Melter (CCM) be evaluated as a candidate ``next generation`` melter. As a result, the CCM System Evaluation cost account was established under the PVTD Project so that the CCM could be initially assessed on a high-priority basis. This letter report summarizes a brief initial review and assessment of the CCM. Using the recommendations made in this document, Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and RL will make a decision regarding the urgency of performance testing the CCM. If the decision is favorable, a subcontract will be negotiated for performance testing of a CCM using Hanford HLW simulants in a pilot-scale facility. Because of the aggressive nature of the schedule, the CCM evaluation was not rigorous. The evaluation consisted of a literature review and interviews with proponents of the technology during a recent trip to France. This letter report summarizes the evaluation and makes recommendations regarding further work in this area.

  5. Writing effective consultation letters: 12 tips for teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keely, Erin; Dojeiji, Suzan; Myers, Kathryn

    2002-11-01

    Written correspondence is the standard mode of communication between healthcare providers. Despite the importance of this skill and increased emphasis on ambulatory care, communication skills and professionalism in training programs, there has been very little written on the teaching and evaluation of consultation letter writing. Consultation letter writing is an essential skill that cannot be learned simply by reading others' letters and should be taught in a formal manner. This article describes the authors' experience in teaching the skill of writing effective consultation letters to residents and describes strategies for evaluating this skill. PMID:12623449

  6. Writing effective consultation letters: 12 tips for teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keely, Erin; Dojeiji, Suzan; Myers, Kathryn

    2002-11-01

    Written correspondence is the standard mode of communication between healthcare providers. Despite the importance of this skill and increased emphasis on ambulatory care, communication skills and professionalism in training programs, there has been very little written on the teaching and evaluation of consultation letter writing. Consultation letter writing is an essential skill that cannot be learned simply by reading others' letters and should be taught in a formal manner. This article describes the authors' experience in teaching the skill of writing effective consultation letters to residents and describes strategies for evaluating this skill.

  7. Insights from letter position dyslexia on morphological decomposition in reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedmann, Naama; Gvion, Aviah; Nisim, Roni

    2015-01-01

    We explored morphological decomposition in reading, the locus in the reading process in which it takes place and its nature, comparing different types of morphemes. We assessed these questions through the analysis of letter position errors in readers with letter position dyslexia (LPD). LPD is a selective impairment to letter position encoding in the early stage of word reading, which results in letter migrations (such as reading "cloud" for "could"). We used the fact that migrations in LPD occur mainly in word-interior letters, whereas exterior letters rarely migrate. The rationale was that if morphological decomposition occurs prior to letter position encoding and strips off affixes, word-interior letters adjacent to an affix (e.g., signs-signs) would become exterior following affix-stripping and hence exhibit fewer migrations. We tested 11 Hebrew readers with developmental LPD and 1 with acquired LPD in 6 experiments of reading aloud, lexical decision, and comprehension, at the single word and sentence levels (compared with 25 age-matched control participants). The LPD participants read a total of 12,496 migratable words. We examined migrations next to inflectional, derivational, or bound function morphemes compared with migrations of exterior letters. The results were that root letters adjacent to inflectional and derivational morphemes were treated like middle letters, and migrated frequently, whereas root letters adjacent to bound function morphemes patterned with exterior letters, and almost never migrated. Given that LPD is a pre-lexical deficit, these results indicate that morphological decomposition takes place in an early, pre-lexical stage. The finding that morphologically complex nonwords showed the same patterns indicates that this decomposition is structurally, rather than lexically, driven. We suggest that letter position encoding takes place before morphological analysis, but in some cases, as with bound function morphemes, the complex word is re

  8. Noise masking reveals channels for second-order letters

    OpenAIRE

    Oruç, İpek; Landy, Michael S.; Pelli, Denis G.

    2005-01-01

    We investigate the channels underlying identification of second-order letters using a critical-band masking paradigm. We find that observers use a single 1–1.5 octave-wide channel for this task. This channel’s best spatial frequency (c/letter) did not change across different noise conditions (indicating the inability of observers to switch channels to improve signal-to-noise ratio) or across different letter sizes (indicating scale invariance), for a fixed carrier frequency (c/letter). Howeve...

  9. 50 CFR 216.256 - Applications for Letters of Authorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND... in the Gulf of Mexico § 216.256 Applications for Letters of Authorization. To incidentally...

  10. Resource Letter The Standard Model and Beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Rosner, Jonathan L

    2003-01-01

    This Resource Letter provides a guide to literature on the Standard Model of elementary particles and possible extensions. In the successful theory of quarks and leptons and their interactions, important questions remain, such as the mechanism of electroweak symmetry breaking, the origin of quark and lepton masses, the source of the baryon asymmetry of the Universe, and the makeup of its matter and energy density. References are cited for quarks and leptons, gauge theories, color and chromodynamics, weak interactions, electroweak unification, CP violation, Higgs bosons, supersymmetry, dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking, composite quarks and leptons, grand unification and extended gauge groups, string theories, large extra dimensions, neutrino masses, cosmic microwave background radiation, dark matter, dark energy, accelerator facilities, and non-accelerator experiments.

  11. Boscovich: scientist and man of letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proverbio, E.

    Ruggiero Giuseppe Boscovich (1711-1781) is known as one of the most important scientists of the second half of XVIII century, but he was active also as a man of letters, especially through an abundant production of poems in Latin verse. We try to interpret these two, apparently antinomic, aspects of his character in the framework of the culture of his epoch, in which science and literary productions were not considered as two separate or opposite fields, but only two different aspects of human knowledge. In particular we review the field of his poetic production in which this fundamental unity of knowledge is most evident, namely his poems with didactic-scientific subjects, which are examples of high-level popularization of the latest progresses in science (in particular astronomy and Newtonian physics) by means of elegant Latin verse.

  12. Resource Letter BH-2: Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Gallo, Elena

    2008-01-01

    This resource letter is designed to guide students, educators, and researchers through (some of) the literature on black holes. Both the physics and astrophysics of black holes are discussed. Breadth has been emphasized over depth, and review articles over primary sources. We include resources ranging from non-technical discussions appropriate for broad audiences to technical reviews of current research. Topics addressed include classification of stationary solutions, perturbations and stability of black holes, numerical simulations, collisions, the production of gravity waves, black hole thermodynamics and Hawking radiation, quantum treatments of black holes, black holes in both higher and lower dimensions, and connections to nuclear and condensed matter physics. On the astronomical end, we also cover the physics of gas accretion onto black holes, relativistic jets, gravitationally red-shifted emission lines, evidence for stellar-mass black holes in binary systems and super-massive black holes at the centers...

  13. NEESPI focus issues in Environmental Research Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Julian; Groisman, Pavel; Soja, Amber J.

    2010-05-01

    In 2007 and 2009 Environmental Research Letters published focus issues (edited by Pavel Groisman and Amber J Soja) made up of work carried out by NEESPI participants. Here, we present the content of those focus issues as an invaluable resource for researchers working in the NEESPI study area. The first of the two issues, published in 2007 with title 'Northern Hemisphere High Latitude Climate and Environmental Change', presents a diverse collection of articles that are assembled into five groups devoted to studies of climate and hydrology, land cover and land use, the biogeochemical cycle and its feedbacks, the cryosphere, and human dimensions. The second issue, published in 2009, with title 'Climatic and Environmental Change in Northern Eurasia' presents diverse, assorted studies of different aspects of contemporary change, representing the diversity of climates and ecosystems across Northern Eurasia.

  14. Original Sin in the Scarlet Letter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙婷

    2012-01-01

    The Scarlet Letter,a representative work of Nathaniel Hawthorne,is a classical novel in American literature of 19th century.It vividly portrays people's life which was greatly influenced by Puritanism and Calvinism.And the author Nathaniel Hawthorne,who lived in that er-a,is also inevitably influenced by these mainstream thoughts.He ex-pressed his black romanticism,black view of human nature and original sin theory in almost each of his work.In his masterpiece,the Scarlet Let-ter,one important theme is original sin.This essay will first analyze where the original sin theory stems from and how it's developed by Hawthorne,and secondly will study how this theory influences the plot and major characters.

  15. 40 CFR 280.99 - Letter of credit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the requirements of 40 CFR 280.93. This letter of credit is effective as of and shall expire on , but... credit is identical to the wording specified in 40 CFR 280.99(b) as such regulations were constituted on... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Letter of credit. 280.99 Section...

  16. Pseudo-synesthesia through reading books with colored letters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O. Colizoli; J.M.J. Murre; R. Rouw

    2012-01-01

    Background Synesthesia is a phenomenon where a stimulus produces consistent extraordinary subjective experiences. A relatively common type of synesthesia involves perception of color when viewing letters (e.g. the letter ‘a’ always appears as light blue). In this study, we examine whether traits typ

  17. An Approach to the Humanity of the Scarlet Letter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Du Feng; Wang qingping

    2009-01-01

    "The Scarlet Letter"is Hawthorne's realist representative.In his masterpiece the Scarlet letter.Hawthorne tells us that all human beings are combination of goodness and evil.As human nature changes between goodness and evil,the science mastered by human beings may bring happiness or pains.

  18. Letter Position Coding Across Modalities: The Case of Braille Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perea, Manuel; García-Chamorro, Cristina; Martín-Suesta, Miguel; Gómez, Pablo

    2012-01-01

    Background The question of how the brain encodes letter position in written words has attracted increasing attention in recent years. A number of models have recently been proposed to accommodate the fact that transposed-letter stimuli like jugde or caniso are perceptually very close to their base words. Methodology Here we examined how letter position coding is attained in the tactile modality via Braille reading. The idea is that Braille word recognition may provide more serial processing than the visual modality, and this may produce differences in the input coding schemes employed to encode letters in written words. To that end, we conducted a lexical decision experiment with adult Braille readers in which the pseudowords were created by transposing/replacing two letters. Principal Findings We found a word-frequency effect for words. In addition, unlike parallel experiments in the visual modality, we failed to find any clear signs of transposed-letter confusability effects. This dissociation highlights the differences between modalities. Conclusions The present data argue against models of letter position coding that assume that transposed-letter effects (in the visual modality) occur at a relatively late, abstract locus. PMID:23071522

  19. 19 CFR 177.9 - Effect of ruling letters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effect of ruling letters. 177.9 Section 177.9... TREASURY (CONTINUED) ADMINISTRATIVE RULINGS General Ruling Procedure § 177.9 Effect of ruling letters. (a... that date. See, however, § 177.10(e) (changes of practice published in the Federal Register) and §...

  20. Letter position coding across modalities: the case of Braille readers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Perea

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The question of how the brain encodes letter position in written words has attracted increasing attention in recent years. A number of models have recently been proposed to accommodate the fact that transposed-letter stimuli like jugde or caniso are perceptually very close to their base words. METHODOLOGY: Here we examined how letter position coding is attained in the tactile modality via Braille reading. The idea is that Braille word recognition may provide more serial processing than the visual modality, and this may produce differences in the input coding schemes employed to encode letters in written words. To that end, we conducted a lexical decision experiment with adult Braille readers in which the pseudowords were created by transposing/replacing two letters. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We found a word-frequency effect for words. In addition, unlike parallel experiments in the visual modality, we failed to find any clear signs of transposed-letter confusability effects. This dissociation highlights the differences between modalities. CONCLUSIONS: The present data argue against models of letter position coding that assume that transposed-letter effects (in the visual modality occur at a relatively late, abstract locus.

  1. Teaching Braille Letters, Numerals, Punctuation, and Contractions to Sighted Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Brittany C.; Tiger, Jeffrey H.

    2015-01-01

    Braille-character recognition is one of the foundational skills required for teachers of braille. Prior research has evaluated computer programming for teaching braille-to-print letter relations (e.g., Scheithauer & Tiger, 2012). In the current study, we developed a program (the Visual Braille Trainer) to teach not only letters but also…

  2. Vamos a Jugar con Letras (Let's Play with Letters).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadilla de Ruibal, Carmen Alicia

    This Spanish language workbook is intended to help elementary school children learn the Spanish alphabet. Each page presents a letter of the alphabet, a number of Spanish words beginning with that letter, and pen and ink drawings illustrating some of the words. The drawings are suitable for coloring. (AMH)

  3. 48 CFR 432.406 - Letters of credit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Letters of credit. 432.406... REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING Advance Payments for Non-Commercial Items 432.406 Letters of credit. The HCA is... of credit....

  4. Open Letter to Religious Leaders about Sex Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Journal of Sexuality Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The "Open Letter to Religious Leaders about Sex Education" reinforces scriptural and theological commitments to truth-telling in calling for "full and honest education about sexual and reproductive health." This "Open Letter" was published in 2002, at about the midpoint of a decade-long federal government commitment to…

  5. Writing a Letter to a Legislator: The Vocational Students' Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palladino, Dolores

    This booklet contains steps that will help the vocational student to acquire some letter writing skills quickly, the result of which will be the student's own personal letter to a legislator. Background information discusses the need for State or Federal financial support for vocational education and students' role in informing legislators about…

  6. Troubles du sommeil, symptômes anxio-dépressifs et risque cardio-vasculaire chez les hypertendus noirs africains: étude transversale de 414 hypertendus suivis en ambulatoire au CHU de Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso)

    OpenAIRE

    Yaméogo, Nobila Valentin; Samadoulougou, André; Kagambèga, Larissa Justine; Yaméogo, Aimé Arsène; Ilboudo, Eric; Millogo, Georges; Kologo, Jonas; Toguyeni, Jean Yves; Simporé, Jacques; Zabsonré, Patrice

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Dans le but de déterminer la fréquence des troubles du sommeil, de l'anxiété et de la dépression, et de rechercher l'existence d'une relation entre ces troubles et le risque cardio-vasculaire global chez les hypertendus noirs africains, nous avons réalisé une étude transversale de mai 2010 à mars 2011 à l'unité de consultation externe du service de cardiologie du CHU-Yalgado Ouédraogo de Ouagadougou qui a inclut 414 hypertendus adultes suivis en ambulatoire. Après un examen clini...

  7. Overt use of a tactile-kinesthetic strategy shifts to covert processing in rehabilitation of letter-by-letter reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lott, Susan Nitzberg; Carney, Aimee Syms; Glezer, Laurie S; Friedman, Rhonda B

    2010-11-01

    BACKGROUND: Letter-by-letter readers identify each letter of the word they are reading serially in left to right order before recognizing the word. When their letter naming is also impaired, letter-by-letter reading is inaccurate and can render even single word reading very poor. Tactile and/or kinesthetic strategies have been reported to improve reading in these patients, but only under certain conditions or for a limited set of stimuli. AIMS: The primary aim of the current study was to determine whether a tactile/kinesthetic treatment could significantly improve reading specifically under normal reading conditions, i.e. reading untrained words presented in free vision and read without overt use of the strategy. METHODS #ENTITYSTARTX00026; PROCEDURES: Three chronic letter-by-letter readers participated in a tactile/kinesthetic treatment aimed at first improving letter naming accuracy (phase 1) and then letter-by-letter reading speed (phase 2). In a multiple case series design, accuracy and speed of reading untrained words without overt use of the trained tactile/kinesthetic strategy was assessed before phase 1, after phase 1 and again after phase 2. OUTCOMES #ENTITYSTARTX00026; RESULTS: All three patients significantly improved both their speed and accuracy reading untrained words without overt use of the trained tactile/kinesthetic strategy. All three patients required the additional practice in phase 2 to achieve significant improvement. Treatment did not target sentence level reading, yet two of the three patients became so adept that they could read entire sentences. CONCLUSIONS: This study replicates previous findings on the efficacy of tactile/kinesthetic treatment for letter-by-letter readers with poor letter naming. It further demonstrates that this treatment can alter cognitive processing such that words never specifically trained can be read in free vision without overtly using the trained strategy. The data suggest that an important element in achieving

  8. Digit and letter alexia in carbon monoxide poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qingyu Shen; Xiaoming Rong; Rui Pan; Ying Peng; Wei Peng; Yamei Tang

    2012-01-01

    This study examined a 24-year-old patient with delayed encephalopathy, who was admitted to hospital with complaints of headache and visual impairment 1 week after acute carbon monoxide poisoning. The results of a visual field assessment, electroencephalography and head magnetic resonance imaging indicated damage to the cerebral cortex. After a 2-week treatment period, the patient had recovered from the visual impairment, but exhibited digit- and letter-reading difficulty. The Chinese aphasia battery and the number and letter battery supplement were conducted. The results revealed that the patient exhibited digit and letter alexia, while the ability to read Chinese characters was preserved. In contrast, the patient exhibited a deficit in Chinese character writing, while number and letter writing remained intact. Following treatment, reading and writing ability was improved and electroencephalographic abnormalities were ameliorated. Overall, our experimental findings demonstrated that delayed encephalopathy following acute carbon monoxide poisoning was characterized by digit and letter alexia.

  9. Latest Amendment to Criminal Law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU ZONGJIE

    2011-01-01

    @@ On Feb.25, 2011,the 19th Session of the Standine Commlttee or the 11th National Peonle's Congress, the country's highest legislative body, approved the eighth amendment to the Criminal Law of the People's Republic of China.This brought about the broadest changes ever made to the law-to be precise, to 50 items that involve 49 legal matters.While reducing the number of crimes punishable by death, the amended Criminal Law provides for additional instances of leniency for senior citizens and minors who are convicted of a crime.

  10. Novel Moment Features Extraction for Recognizing Handwritten Arabic Letters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheith Abandah

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Offline recognition of handwritten Arabic text awaits accurate recognition solutions. Most of the Arabic letters have secondary components that are important in recognizing these letters. However these components have large writing variations. We targeted enhancing the feature extraction stage in recognizing handwritten Arabic text. Approach: In this study, we proposed a novel feature extraction approach of handwritten Arabic letters. Pre-segmented letters were first partitioned into main body and secondary components. Then moment features were extracted from the whole letter as well as from the main body and the secondary components. Using multi-objective genetic algorithm, efficient feature subsets were selected. Finally, various feature subsets were evaluated according to their classification error using an SVM classifier. Results: The proposed approach improved the classification error in all cases studied. For example, the improvements of 20-feature subsets of normalized central moments and Zernike moments were 15 and 10%, respectively. Conclusion/Recommendations: Extracting and selecting statistical features from handwritten Arabic letters, their main bodies and their secondary components provided feature subsets that give higher recognition accuracies compared to the subsets of the whole letters alone.

  11. Les noirs a l’heure de l’indépendance jamaïcaine : histoire d’une majorité marginale Blacks at a time of Jamaican independence : the story of a marginal majority

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antony Ceyrat

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available L’article s’intéresse à la construction de l’identité noire en Jamaïque lors de l’indépendance obtenue du Royaume-Uni en 1962. Dominée par les Euro-créoles, paupérisée et confrontée à une offre politique nationale inadaptée, la population africaine souffre de l’absence d’une identité noire institutionnalisée, diluée dans le « nationalisme multiracial créole ». Ce travail met en lumière l’importance de l’histoire et des problématiques de la mémoire dans le processus de construction des identités sociales et souligne le rôle central de la culture dans les luttes de pouvoir.The article deals with the status of a Black identity in Jamaica when it became independent from the United Kingdom in 1962. Dominated by the Euro-Creoles, pauperized and facing an inadequate political offer, the African population suffers from the lack of an institutionalized blackness, melted into “Creole multiracialism”. This study highlights the importance of history and memory issues in the process of building up social identities, and underlines the central role of culture in conflicts of power.

  12. Le vieillissement de la flotte pétrolière et les marées noires dans les années 80 Aging of the Oil Tanker Fleet and Major Oil Spills in the 1980s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smets H.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Le vieillissement de la flotte pétrolière au cours des années à venir pourrait entraîner un accroissement du nombre et du volume des marées noires. L'examen de divers scénarios de contraction de la flotte pétrolière et de mise hors service des navires âgés permet cependant de conclure que la fréquence et le volume des marées noires en 1990 ne devraient pas excéder de façon très sensible les valeurs observées actuellement et pourraient même être inférieurs. The aging of the oil tanker fleet in the years to come could result in an increase in the number and volume of major oil spills. However, an examination of different scenarios for reducing the tanker fleet and for deactivating the older ships leads to the conclusion that the frequency and volume of major oil spills in 1990 should not be appreciably greater than the levels now observed and even that they could be somewhat less.

  13. [Darwin in the Republic of Letters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertani, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    For those accustomed to thinking that the modern cultural dimension arose under the banner of a clash between the so-called "two cultures," the figure of Darwin the "humanist" could reserve numerous surprises. It was above all the well-known paleontologist S.J. Gould who pointed them out. He went so far as to track down, in the Italian cultural roots from Saint Francis to Galileo, an element of continuity between his own Darwinism and our literary tradition that passes through the writing of the masterpieces of the nineteenth-century natural sciences. On the basis of a similar, and also audacious, rereading of the cultural history, the essay proposes to indicate some possible developments of the new dialogue undertaken, beginning with the insertion of the scientist Darwin in the European horizon of the Republic of Letters. There are then indicated some historical-cultural categories that would merit reconsideration: the new figure of intellectual of the twenty-first century, the idea of a science immersed in the historical contingency and in the concrete pleasure of the subject that knows, the role of "sweetness" and of "wonder" also in the most rigorous study, and lastly the need of an in-depth knowledge of the Darwinian writing, not as a curiosity for the educational trend of the era of positivism, but as an indispensable epistemological requisite for a correct understanding of its science. PMID:26915234

  14. The Social Name-Letter Effect on Online Social Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Kooti, Farshad; Magno, Gabriel; Weber, Ingmar

    2014-01-01

    The Name-Letter Effect states that people have a preference for brands, places, and even jobs that start with the same letter as their own first name. So Sam might like Snickers and live in Seattle. We use social network data from Twitter and Google+ to replicate this effect in a new environment. We find limited to no support for the Name-Letter Effect on social networks. We do, however, find a very robust Same-Name Effect where, say, Michaels would be more likely to link to other Michaels th...

  15. 32 CFR 10.8 - Amendment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amendment. 10.8 Section 10.8 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE MILITARY COMMISSIONS MILITARY COMMISSION INSTRUCTIONS § 10.8 Amendment. The General Counsel may issue, supplement, amend, or revoke any...

  16. 7 CFR 1.165 - Amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Amendments. 1.165 Section 1.165 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Rules of Practice Governing Cease and Desist Proceedings Under Section 2 of the Capper-Volstead Act § 1.165 Amendments. Amendments to the complaint may...

  17. 76 FR 80226 - Technical Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION 12 CFR Part 701 Technical Amendments AGENCY: National Credit Union Administration (NCUA). ACTION... to the Office of Consumer Protection. This authority previously sat with the regional directors....

  18. Automated Clustering of Similar Amendments

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    The Italian Senate is clogged by computer-generated amendments. This talk will describe a simple strategy to cluster them in an automated fashion, so that the appropriate Senate procedures can be used to get rid of them in one sweep.

  19. Amended Silicated for Mercury Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James Butz; Thomas Broderick; Craig Turchi

    2006-12-31

    Amended Silicates{trademark}, a powdered, noncarbon mercury-control sorbent, was tested at Duke Energy's Miami Fort Station, Unit 6 during the first quarter of 2006. Unit 6 is a 175-MW boiler with a cold-side electrostatic precipitator (ESP). The plant burns run-of-the-river eastern bituminous coal with typical ash contents ranging from 8-15% and sulfur contents from 1.6-2.6% on an as-received basis. The performance of the Amended Silicates sorbent was compared with that for powdered activated carbon (PAC). The trial began with a period of baseline monitoring during which no sorbent was injected. Sampling during this and subsequent periods indicated mercury capture by the native fly ash was less than 10%. After the baseline period, Amended Silicates sorbent was injected at several different ratios, followed by a 30-day trial at a fixed injection ratio of 5-6 lb/MMACF. After this period, PAC was injected to provide a comparison. Approximately 40% mercury control was achieved for both the Amended Silicates sorbent and PAC at injection ratios of 5-6 lbs/MMACF. Higher injection ratios did not achieve significantly increased removal. Similar removal efficiencies have been reported for PAC injection trials at other plants with cold-side ESPs, most notably for plants using medium to high sulfur coal. Sorbent injection did not detrimentally impact plant operations and testing confirmed that the use of Amended Silicates sorbent does not degrade fly ash quality (unlike PAC). The cost for mercury control using either PAC or Amended Silicates sorbent was estimated to be equivalent if fly ash sales are not a consideration. However, if the plant did sell fly ash, the effective cost for mercury control could more than double if those sales were no longer possible, due to lost by-product sales and additional cost for waste disposal. Accordingly, the use of Amended Silicates sorbent could reduce the overall cost of mercury control by 50% or more versus PAC for locations where

  20. Name-letter branding under scrutiny: real products, new algorithms, and the probability of buying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stieger, Stefan

    2010-06-01

    People like letters matching their own first and last name initials more than nonname letters. This name-letter effect has also been found for brands, i.e., people like brands resembling their own name letters (initial or first three). This has been termed name-letter branding effect. In the present study of 199 participants, ages 12 to 79 years, this name-letter branding effect was found for a modified design (1) using real products, (2) concentrating on product names rather than brand names, (3) using five different products for each letter of the Roman alphabet, (4) asking for the buying probability, and (5) using recently introduced algorithms, controlling for individual response tendencies (i.e., liking all letters more or less) and general normative popularity of particular letters (i.e., some letters are generally preferred more than other letters).

  1. International Large Detector. Letter of intent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the summer of 2007, the GLD concept study group, whose membership was largely based in Asia, and the LDC concept study group, which was mostly based in Europe with a strong north american membership, joined forces to produce a single Letter of Intent for a detector at the International Linear Collider, and formed the ILD concept group. Both the GLD and LDC concepts used the particle flow algorithm for jet reconstruction and a TPC for the central tracker. The basic parameters of the two concepts such as the size of the detector and the strength of the solenoid field, however, were quite different and had to be unified in order to write this letter of intent for ILD. Also, other critical details such as the interaction region design had to be unified. This was a non-trivial task, neither politically nor sociologically. The newly-formed concept study group, the ILD group, created a management team and engaged in intense studies to define the ILD detector concept by scientifically optimising the detector designs. The process has worked remarkably well, and we present here the outcome of this study as well as the large amount of studies that preceded separately by the two older concept groups. The ILD detector concept is now well defined, even though some technology choices are still open. One of the merits of unifying the detector concepts was that it revitalised the studies on physics performance and detector designs. We believe that the level of sophistication of the simulation and physics analyses has reached a high degree of sophistication for a detector group at this stage. This was achieved through collaboration and competition, and is the result of a productive learning process. The unification had also positive effects on the subdetector R and D efforts. Most R and D on detector technologies relevant to the GLD and LDC groups is being performed within the framework of detector R and D collaborations such as LCTPC, SiLC, CALICE, and FCAL which pursue their

  2. International Large Detector. Letter of intent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoeck, Holger [Sydney Univ., NSW (Australia). Falkiner High Energy Physics Group; Bergauer, Thomas; Dragicevic, Marko [Oesterreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Vienna (AT). Inst. fuer Hochenergiephysik] (and others)

    2010-07-01

    In the summer of 2007, the GLD concept study group, whose membership was largely based in Asia, and the LDC concept study group, which was mostly based in Europe with a strong north american membership, joined forces to produce a single Letter of Intent for a detector at the International Linear Collider, and formed the ILD concept group. Both the GLD and LDC concepts used the particle flow algorithm for jet reconstruction and a TPC for the central tracker. The basic parameters of the two concepts such as the size of the detector and the strength of the solenoid field, however, were quite different and had to be unified in order to write this letter of intent for ILD. Also, other critical details such as the interaction region design had to be unified. This was a non-trivial task, neither politically nor sociologically. The newly-formed concept study group, the ILD group, created a management team and engaged in intense studies to define the ILD detector concept by scientifically optimising the detector designs. The process has worked remarkably well, and we present here the outcome of this study as well as the large amount of studies that preceded separately by the two older concept groups. The ILD detector concept is now well defined, even though some technology choices are still open. One of the merits of unifying the detector concepts was that it revitalised the studies on physics performance and detector designs. We believe that the level of sophistication of the simulation and physics analyses has reached a high degree of sophistication for a detector group at this stage. This was achieved through collaboration and competition, and is the result of a productive learning process. The unification had also positive effects on the subdetector R and D efforts. Most R and D on detector technologies relevant to the GLD and LDC groups is being performed within the framework of detector R and D collaborations such as LCTPC, SiLC, CALICE, and FCAL which pursue their

  3. Politeness Strategies in Good-news Business Letters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕争; 李纳

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyzes the presentation of politeness in good-news business letters at the lexical,syntactic,and discourse levels based on Leech's Politeness Principle and Brown and Levinson's Face-saving Theory.

  4. Consultation letters for medically unexplained physical symptoms in primary care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoedeman, Rob; Blankenstein, Annette H.; van der Feltz-Cornelis, Christina M.; Krol, Boudien; Stewart, Roy; Groothoff, Johan W.; van der Feltz-Cornelis, CM

    2010-01-01

    Background In primary care between 10% and 35% of all visits concern patients with medically unexplained physical symptoms (MUPS). MUPS are associated with high medical consumption, significant disabilities and psychiatricmorbidity. Objectives To assess the effectiveness of consultation letters (CLs

  5. Love letters to the dead: resurrecting an epistolary art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lander, Dorothy A; Graham-Pole, John R

    This article explores the art of letter-writing, specifically to our beloved dead, as a form of autoethnographic research, pedagogy, and care work. As university teachers and qualitative researchers in palliative and end-of-life care, we review the literature and history of epistolary communications with the deceased, as a prelude to writing our own letters. John writes to his long-dead mother and Dorothy to her recently deceased spouse Patrick, each letter followed by a reflective dialogue between us. Through this dialogue, we highlight the potential application of this art, or handcraft, to formal and informal palliative care, and the implications for practice, pedagogy, policy, and research. We propose that such direct, non-mediated, communications can offer a valuable form of healing for bereaved people. The therapeutic potential of letter writing and the abundance of literary and popular culture exemplars of responses from the dead are also largely unexplored in death education and research.

  6. 33 CFR 157.142 - Letter of acceptance: Inspections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) POLLUTION RULES FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Inspections § 157.142 Letter of...

  7. 78 FR 2407 - Medicare Payment Advisory Commission Nomination Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE Medicare Payment Advisory Commission Nomination Letters AGENCY: Government Accountability Office... the Medicare Payment Advisory Commission (MedPAC) and gave the Comptroller General responsibility...

  8. 76 FR 5591 - Medicare Payment Advisory Commission Nomination Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE Medicare Payment Advisory Commission Nomination Letters AGENCY: Government Accountability Office... the Medicare Payment Advisory Commission (MedPAC) and gave the Comptroller General responsibility...

  9. 50 CFR 216.259 - Modifications to Letters of Authorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND... in the Gulf of Mexico § 216.259 Modifications to Letters of Authorization. (a) Except as provided...

  10. [Letter of Concurrence : Meredosia National Wildlife Refuge Sport Fishing Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This letter states that the Illinois Department of Conservation concurs with Meredosia NWR's efforts to establish a public use program on the Refuge.

  11. Toward a statistical mechanics of four letter words

    CERN Document Server

    Stephens, Greg J

    2008-01-01

    We consider words as a network of interacting letters, and approximate the probability distribution of states taken on by this network. Despite the intuition that the rules of English spelling are highly combinatorial (and arbitrary), we find that maximum entropy models consistent with pairwise correlations among letters provide a surprisingly good approximation to the full statistics of four letter words, capturing ~92% of the multi-information among letters and even "discovering" real words that were not represented in the data from which the pairwise correlations were estimated. The maximum entropy model defines an energy landscape on the space of possible words, and local minima in this landscape account for nearly two-thirds of words used in written English.

  12. Sept 2013 NFHL Letter of Map Revision (LOMR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL) data incorporates all Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map(DFIRM) databases published by FEMA, and any Letters Of Map Revision...

  13. Letter from Army Corps of Engineers [Havasu National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a letter from the Army Corps of Engineers to the Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife. It confirms that the proposed wilderness designation does not...

  14. Letter from Federal Power Commission [Havasu National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a letter from the Federal Power Commission to the Secretary of the Interior. It confirms that the Federal Power Commission has no plans that...

  15. Letter Report for Characterization of Biochar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amonette, James E.

    2013-04-09

    On 27 November 2012, a bulk biochar sample was received for characterization of selected physical and chemical properties. The main purpose of the characterization was to help determine the degree to which biochar would be suitable as a soil amendment to aid in growth of plants. Towards this end, analyses to determine specific surface, pH, cation-exchange capacity, water retention, and wettability (i.e. surface tension) were conducted. A second objective was to determine how uniform these properties were in the sample. Towards this end, the sample was separated into fractions based on initial particle size and on whether the material was from the external surface or the internal portion of the particle. Based on the results, the biochar has significant liming potentials, significant cation-retention capacities, and highly variable plant-available moisture retention properties that, under the most favorable circumstances, could be helpful to plants. As a consequence, it would be quite suitable for addition to acidic soils and should enhance the fertility of those soils.

  16. Secret letters cast light on Copenhagen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letters by Niels Bohr that have been kept secret since his death could explain the mystery of why Werner Heisenberg visited him in Copenhagen in 1941. When the author Michael Frayn spent two years writing Copenhagen, he had no idea how successful the play would become. He doubted that audiences would sit through a historical drama about a war-time meeting between Werner Heisenberg - head of Germany's nuclear programme - and his old mentor Niels Bohr in the Nazi-occupied Danish capital in 1941. But Frayn's efforts paid off. Audiences and critics alike have thrilled at the way the award-winning play probes the historical uncertainty that surrounds the encounter. Was Heisenberg fishing for information about the Allies' atomic plans - or was he trying to recruit Bohr for Germany's bomb programme? Did Heisenberg want to suggest that the Germans were close to finishing a bomb so that the Allies would make peace with Hitler? Maybe he was simply seeking approval from Bohr for his own atomic work. There is also a moral debate: did Heisenberg know how to build a bomb, but decided not to - or did he want to build one, but got his calculations wrong? Unfortunately, no-one was there to record or observe the encounter and we cannot know for sure what was said or implied between the two men. All we do know is that the pair dined together and took a short walk - and that the incident damaged Bohr and Heisenberg's friendship forever. To piece together what happened, historians of science have had to rely on Heisenberg's post-war recollections - which have been ambiguous and contradictory - along with scraps of evidence from secondary sources. (U.K.)

  17. Code-switching in letter writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.S. Sobahle

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The study sets out to investigate code switching in letter writing among a small group ofXhosa speaking people. Code switching is found in informal speech and informal writing. It was established from the data that the closer people are, the more code switching there is. Code switching seems to follow a pattern in that it was observed to occur: (a only with certain people (b when talking about certain topics (c when wanting to exclude another person (d when emphasising a point. Code switching also appears to have a 'grammar' of its own. It is not in any way a pidgin. It is clear from the data that code switching does not reflect denial of one's identity. English, being the medium of education for Blacks in South Africa, is therefore bound to be reflected not only in their speech but also in their writing. Die studie het ten doe/ om registeroorskakeling in die skryf van briewe deur 'n klein groepie Xhosasprekendes te ondersoek. Registeroorskakeling word gevind in informele spraak en informele skryfwerk. Daar is uit die data vasgestel dat hoe intiemer mense is hoe meer vind registeroorskakeling plaas. Volgens waarneming blyk dit dat registeroorskakeling 'n patroon volg, want dit het voorgekom: (a net by sekere mense (b wanneer oor sekere onderwerpe gepraat is (c wanneer 'n ander per soon uitgeskakel is (d wanneer 'n mening beklemtoon is. Registeroorskakeling blyk 'n eie grammatika te he. Dit is geensins "pidgin" nie. Dit blyk uit data dat die skrywer se identiteit nie verlore raak tydens registeroorskakeling nie. Omdat Engels die medium van onderrig vir Swartes in Suid-Afrika is, sal dit noodwendig nie net in hulle spraak nie, maar ook in hul skryfwerk gereflekteer word.

  18. Secret letters cast light on Copenhagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durrani, Matin

    2001-11-01

    Letters by Niels Bohr that have been kept secret since his death could explain the mystery of why Werner Heisenberg visited him in Copenhagen in 1941. When the author Michael Frayn spent two years writing Copenhagen, he had no idea how successful the play would become. He doubted that audiences would sit through a historical drama about a war-time meeting between Werner Heisenberg - head of Germany's nuclear programme - and his old mentor Niels Bohr in the Nazi-occupied Danish capital in 1941. But Frayn's efforts paid off. Audiences and critics alike have thrilled at the way the award-winning play probes the historical uncertainty that surrounds the encounter. Was Heisenberg fishing for information about the Allies' atomic plans - or was he trying to recruit Bohr for Germany's bomb programme? Did Heisenberg want to suggest that the Germans were close to finishing a bomb so that the Allies would make peace with Hitler? Maybe he was simply seeking approval from Bohr for his own atomic work. There is also a moral debate: did Heisenberg know how to build a bomb, but decided not to - or did he want to build one, but got his calculations wrong? Unfortunately, no-one was there to record or observe the encounter and we cannot know for sure what was said or implied between the two men. All we do know is that the pair dined together and took a short walk - and that the incident damaged Bohr and Heisenberg's friendship forever. To piece together what happened, historians of science have had to rely on Heisenberg's post-war recollections - which have been ambiguous and contradictory - along with scraps of evidence from secondary sources. (U.K.)

  19. La negritudine come antidoto antropo-poetico all’alienazione linguistica dell’Occidente: riflessioni sull’Orphée noir di J.-P. Sartre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo A. Augeri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract – This chapter is intended as a critical re-reading of Orphée noir by Jean-Paul Sartre, which is an introduction, written by the French philosopher, to the anthology of French-speaking poets of the Third World, edited by L. Sedar Senghor, entitled: Anthologie de la nouvelle poésie nègre et malgache de langue française (1948. Analysing Sartre’s text again today has a dual theoretical importance regarding the alternative semantics needed to make sense of the diversity of the African culture, of ‘negritude’ which, in its ‘western’ meaning, has always stemmed from a vocabulary of white domination justifying the reduction of blacks to slaves, and which is also an inherent aesthetic energy of the poetic word, whose symbolic nature guarantees an understanding of the logical language of the ‘other’ who is defined as ‘wild’ by the restricted rationality of the functional western culture – and yet s/he is ‘deeply human’ insofar as s/he makes use of the imaginative and emotional language of the universal consciousness. The writings of Sartre seem to have no time limit when considering the topical relevance of his thought, which is open to the overcoming of every closed identity, including that of ‘negritude’ – which must be a liberating symbolic tradition to be abandoned, however, in the name of humanistic identity that is open to the recognition of the dignified condition of a human being from any culture, from any geo-historical area in the world. The objective of every culture, in fact, must be to liberalize the ‘human’ dimension of a human being tout-court, beyond every border and every tradition – History will decide which populations emancipate others in a particular period. Then, this task moves onto other nations, a pattern which repeats itself over time, which crosses the historical events of every human and humanistic process towards the goal of a conscious and democratically civil existence.

  20. Letter-By-Letter Reading: Natural Recovery and Response to Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pélagie M. Beeson

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation provides a longitudinal study of an individual (RB with acquired alexia following left posterior cerebral artery stroke. At initial testing, RB exhibited acquired alexia characterized by letter-by-letter (LBL reading, mild anomic aphasia, and acquired agraphia. Repeated measures of reading accuracy and rate were collected for single words and text over the course of one year, along with probes of naming and spelling abilities. Improvements associated with natural recovery (i.e., without treatment were documented up to the fourth month post onset, when text reading appeared to be relatively stable. Multiple oral reading (MOR treatment was initiated at 22 weeks post-stroke, and additional improvements in reading rate and accuracy for text were documented that were greater than those expected on the basis of spontaneous recovery alone. Over the course of one year, reading reaction times for single words improved, and the word-length effect that is the hallmark of LBL reading diminished. RB's response to treatment supports the therapeutic value of MOR treatment to in LBL readers. His residual impairment of reading and spelling one-year post stroke raised the question as to whether further progress was impeded by degraded orthographic knowledge.

  1. Pseudo-synesthesia through reading books with colored letters

    OpenAIRE

    Olympia Colizoli; Jaap M J Murre; Romke Rouw

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Synesthesia is a phenomenon where a stimulus produces consistent extraordinary subjective experiences. A relatively common type of synesthesia involves perception of color when viewing letters (e.g. the letter 'a' always appears as light blue). In this study, we examine whether traits typically regarded as markers of synesthesia can be acquired by simply reading in color. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Non-synesthetes were given specially prepared colored books to read. A modifie...

  2. Politeness Strategies in English and Chinese Business Letters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    查琳琳

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores similarities and differences in the application of positive and negative politeness strategies to Eng-lish and Chinese business letters and illuminates underlying causes of such similarities and differences. The results indicate that English and Chinese business letters have some common features and great discrepancies in categories and the distribution of posi-tive and negative politeness strategies. It is argued that common situational factors, different cultural backgrounds and different syntactic features result in their similarities and differences.

  3. Can words be read without abstract letter identities?

    OpenAIRE

    Simon Fischer-Baum

    2014-01-01

    Most theories of reading and writing posit a level of representation that codes abstract letter identities (ALIs) independent of the font, case, and even modality in which the letter was presented or produced (e.g., Caramazza & Hillis, 1990). Most cognitive theories assume that ALIs are critical for mediating between peripheral (e.g., processing visual shapes, executing motor plans) and central (e.g., accessing semantic or lexical information) written language processes. We present a case stu...

  4. Relations among early object recognition skills: Objects and letters

    OpenAIRE

    Augustine, Elaine; Jones, Susan S.; Smith, Linda B.; Longfield, Erica

    2013-01-01

    Human visual object recognition is multifaceted, with several domains of expertise. Developmental relations between young children's letter recognition and their 3-dimensional object recognition abilities are implicated on several grounds but have received little research attention. Here, we ask how preschoolers’ success in recognizing letters relates to their ability to recognize 3-dimensional objects from sparse shape information alone. A relation is predicted because perception of the spat...

  5. CEO letters in CSR reports: oil companies in focus

    OpenAIRE

    von Berg, Marhaba

    2013-01-01

    Objectives of the study: A main challenge in planning CSR communication strategy is how to communicate positive motives of a corporation in its CSR activities and how to decrease stakeholder uncertainty. This study provides an analysis of the CEO letters issued by eight oil companies in their CSR reports. The thesis is an investigation of target stakeholder group and move-structure carried out to determine the communicative purpose of CEO letters in CSR reports of eight oil companies. The...

  6. On a Field, Sable, the Letter A, Gules——Comments on The Scarlet Letter%On a Field, Sable, the Letter A, Gules--Comments on The Scarlet Letter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王瑾

    2007-01-01

    Nathaniel Hawthorne's The Scarlet Letter is a moral and psychological novel which focuses on human nature and the effects of sin. This paper is divided into two parts. The first part focuses on the analysis ofa sable field and the second part is about gules letter A. Actually the two parts are the answers to where the sin is and how to achieve redemption. Hawthorne's thoughts,good wishes and artistic characters are fully expressed in it.

  7. Uniformly balanced words with linear complexity and prescribed letter frequencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valérie Berthé

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available We consider the following problem. Let us fix a finite alphabet A; for any given d-uple of letter frequencies, how to construct an infinite word u over the alphabet A satisfying the following conditions: u has linear complexity function, u is uniformly balanced, the letter frequencies in u are given by the given d-uple. This paper investigates a construction method for such words based on the use of mixed multidimensional continued fraction algorithms.

  8. The effects of alphabet and expertise on letter perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Robert W; Wilson, Colin; Rapp, Brenda

    2016-08-01

    Long-standing questions in human perception concern the nature of the visual features that underlie letter recognition and the extent to which the visual processing of letters is affected by differences in alphabets and levels of viewer expertise. We examined these issues in a novel approach using a same-different judgment task on pairs of letters from the Arabic alphabet with 2 participant groups: 1 with no prior exposure to Arabic and 1 with reading proficiency. Hierarchical clustering and linear mixed-effects modeling of reaction times and accuracy provide evidence that both the specific characteristics of the alphabet and observers' previous experience with it affect how letters are perceived and visually processed. The findings of this research further our understanding of the multiple factors that affect letter perception and support the view of a visual system that dynamically adjusts its weighting of visual features as expert readers come to more efficiently and effectively discriminate the letters of the specific alphabet they are viewing. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26913778

  9. A linguistic kaleidoscope of the Malay letter; The case of the eighteenth century official letters from the Sultanate of Buton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Suryadi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Malay letters make up the largest category of documents among the Malay manuscripts preserved at Leiden University Library, the Netherlands. The corpus represents the scope of the territories under Dutch East Indies authority during the colonial era. In fact, they are authentic documents which denote not only political contact between the local kingdoms in the Archipelago (Nusantara with the Dutch East Indies government in Batavia during colonial times but also constitute an important source for the study of the historical development of the Malay language. This essay looks at the language characters of such letters which came from the court of Buton in Southeast Sulawesi. It aims to sketch the linguistic variety of the classical Malay language represented in its eighteenth century letter-writing tradition. Having specific diction and features that confirm local influences, the language of the letters shows distinctiveness in terms of phonology, morphology and syntax.

  10. Effect of kapalabhati on performance of six-letter cancellation and digit letter substitution task in adults

    OpenAIRE

    Balaram Pradhan

    2013-01-01

    Background : Attention and concentration are valuable skills for all fields of human activity. Training to improve these skills is described in ancient hatha yoga texts. Aims: To study the effect of 1-min Kapalabhati (KB1) and 5-min Kapalabhati (KB5) practice of the Yoga rapid breathing exercise, Kapalabhati (KB), on psychomotor performance, as measured by the six-letter cancellation task (SLCT) and digit-letter substitution task (DLST). Materials and Methods: Thirty-six subjects, 21 ma...

  11. Using Incremental Rehearsal to Teach Letter Sounds to English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahn, Naomi L.; Wilson, Jennifer; Egan, Andrea; Brandes, Dana; Kunkel, Amy; Peterson, Meredith; McComas, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effects of incremental rehearsal (IR) on letter sound expression for one kindergarten and one first grade English learner who were below district benchmark for letter sound fluency. A single-subject multiple-baseline design across sets of unknown letter sounds was used to evaluate the effect of IR on letter-sound expression…

  12. Pseudo-synesthesia through reading books with colored letters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olympia Colizoli

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Synesthesia is a phenomenon where a stimulus produces consistent extraordinary subjective experiences. A relatively common type of synesthesia involves perception of color when viewing letters (e.g. the letter 'a' always appears as light blue. In this study, we examine whether traits typically regarded as markers of synesthesia can be acquired by simply reading in color. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Non-synesthetes were given specially prepared colored books to read. A modified Stroop task was administered before and after reading. A perceptual crowding task was administered after reading. Reading one book (>49,000 words was sufficient to induce effects regarded as behavioral markers for synesthesia. The results of the Stroop tasks indicate that it is possible to learn letter-color associations through reading in color (F(1, 14 = 5.85, p = .030. Furthermore, Stroop effects correlated with subjective reports about experiencing letters in color (r(13 = 0.51, p = .05. The frequency of viewing letters is related to the level of association as seen by the difference in the Stroop effect size between upper- and lower-case letters (t(14 = 2.79, p = .014 and in a subgroup of participants whose Stroop effects increased as they continued to read in color. Readers did not show significant performance advantages on the crowding task compared to controls. Acknowledging the many differences between trainees and synesthetes, results suggest that it may be possible to acquire a subset of synesthetic behavioral traits in adulthood through training. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: To our knowledge, this is the first evidence of acquiring letter-color associations through reading in color. Reading in color appears to be a promising avenue in which we may explore the differences and similarities between synesthetes and non-synesthetes. Additionally, reading in color is a plausible method for a long-term 'synesthetic' training program.

  13. Neural Correlates of Visual versus Abstract Letter Processing in Roman and Arabic Scripts

    OpenAIRE

    Carreiras, Manuel; Perea, Manuel; Gil-López, Cristina; Abu Mallouh, Reem; Salillas, Elena

    2013-01-01

    In alphabetic orthographies, letter identification is a critical process during the recognition of visually presented words. In the present experiment, we examined whether and when visual form influences letter processing in two very distinct alphabets (Roman and Arabic). Disentangling visual versus abstract letter representations was possible because letters in the Roman alphabet may look visually similar/dissimilar in lowercase and uppercase forms (e.g., c-C vs. r-R) and letters in the Arab...

  14. Extra-large letter spacing improves reading in dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorzi, Marco; Barbiero, Chiara; Facoetti, Andrea; Lonciari, Isabella; Carrozzi, Marco; Montico, Marcella; Bravar, Laura; George, Florence; Pech-Georgel, Catherine; Ziegler, Johannes C

    2012-07-10

    Although the causes of dyslexia are still debated, all researchers agree that the main challenge is to find ways that allow a child with dyslexia to read more words in less time, because reading more is undisputedly the most efficient intervention for dyslexia. Sophisticated training programs exist, but they typically target the component skills of reading, such as phonological awareness. After the component skills have improved, the main challenge remains (that is, reading deficits must be treated by reading more--a vicious circle for a dyslexic child). Here, we show that a simple manipulation of letter spacing substantially improved text reading performance on the fly (without any training) in a large, unselected sample of Italian and French dyslexic children. Extra-large letter spacing helps reading, because dyslexics are abnormally affected by crowding, a perceptual phenomenon with detrimental effects on letter recognition that is modulated by the spacing between letters. Extra-large letter spacing may help to break the vicious circle by rendering the reading material more easily accessible.

  15. Melanie Klein's letters addressed to Marcelle Spira (1955-1960).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinodoz, Jean-Michel

    2009-12-01

    Between 1955 and 1960, Melanie Klein wrote some 45 hitherto unpublished letters to Marcelle Spira, the Swiss psychoanalyst living at that time in Geneva. In 2006, after Spira's death, these letters were deposited with the Raymond de Saussure Psychoanalysis Centre in Geneva. They are the only known letters that Klein addressed to her psychoanalyst colleagues. Several topics are mentioned in them: (1) the meetings between the two women in Geneva and London; (2) Spira's contribution to Boulanger's translation into French of The Psychoanalysis of Children, which Klein herself carefully revised; (3) the papers that Klein was at that time working on, including Envy and Gratitude; (4) Spira's own work; (5) the difficulties that Spira, a Kleinian psychoanalyst who trained in Buenos Aires, was encountering in her attempt to be admitted to the Swiss Psychoanalytical Society; and (6) a few items of personal and family news. In addition to the invaluable historical information that these letters provide, they offer us a very moving epistolary self-portrait of Melanie Klein, enabling us to discover her personality in the final years of her life - she died in September 1960, just two months after writing her last letter to Spira.

  16. Written work: the social functions of Research Ethics Committee letters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon-Woods, Mary; Angell, Emma; Ashcroft, Richard E; Bryman, Alan

    2007-08-01

    Research Ethics Committees (RECs) are increasingly institutionalised as a feature of research practice, but have remained strangely neglected by social scientists. In this paper, we argue that analysis of letters from RECs to researchers offers important insights into how RECs operate. We report a traditional content analysis and an ethnographic content analysis of 141 letters to researchers, together with an analysis of the organisational and institutional arrangements for RECs in the UK. We show that REC letters perform three important social functions. First, they define what is deemed by a REC to be ethical practice for any particular application, and confer authority on that definition. They do this actively, through comments on particular aspects of proposals, and passively, through silences about other aspects. Second, they provide an account of the work of the REC, and function as a form of institutional display. Third, they specify the nature of the relationship between the REC and the applicant, casting the applicant in a supplicant role and requiring forms of docility. Writing and reading REC letters require highly specific competences, and engage both parties in a Bourdieusian "game" that discourages challenges from researchers. The authority of RECs' decisions derives not from their appeal to the moral superiority of any ethical position, but through their place in the organisational structure and the social positioning of the parties to the process thus implied. Letters are the critical point at which RECs act on researchers and their projects.

  17. « Être-noir » (Blackness) : une pratique collective à Salvador de Bahia. Faire de la sociologie urbaine après le « cultural turn »

    OpenAIRE

    Löw, Martina

    2012-01-01

    Chacune des villes du Brésil portent en elles des contributions singulières à la production d’une identité nationale, bien qu’elles n’échappent pas aux influences homogénéisantes de la globalisation. Cette co-construction d’une identité partagée n’empêche toutefois pas que se structurent distinctement les actes et les sensations des habitants des métropoles concernées, générant des pratiques collectives – mais spécifiques – d’interprétation de la réalité. À Salvador de Bahia, l’« être-noir » ...

  18. La barge à queue noire (Limosa limosa) dans le delta du Sénégal : régime alimentaire, données biométriques, importance économique

    OpenAIRE

    Tréca, Bernard

    1984-01-01

    Le nombre des barges à queue noire hivernant dans le delta du Sénégal semble avoir diminué au cours des 30 dernières années. Le riz, particulièrement le riz cultivé (#Oriza sativa$), était la principale nourriture des oiseaux rencontrés sur ou autour des rizières. L'analyse de 186 contenus stomacaux donne 74% de riz cultivé, 12% de riz sauvage (#O. brevigulata$ et # O. barthii$), 10% de tubercules et 4% d'autres graines, aucun reste animal ayant été trouvé. Les barges consomment de 15 à 16 gr...

  19. Detection and identification of crowded mirror-image letters in normal peripheral vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Susana T L

    2010-02-01

    Performance for discriminating single mirror-image letters in peripheral vision can be as good as that in central vision, provided that letter size is scaled appropriately [Higgins, K. E., Arditi, A., & Knoblauch, K. (1996). Detection and identification of mirror-image letter pairs in central and peripheral vision. Vision Research, 36, 331-337]. In this study, we asked whether or not there is a reduction in performance for discriminating mirror-image letters when the letters are flanked closely by other letters, compared with unflanked (single) letters; and if so, whether or not this effect is greater in peripheral than in central vision. We compared contrast thresholds for detecting and identifying mirror-image letters "b" and "d" for a range of letter separations, at the fovea and 10 degrees eccentricity, for letters that were scaled in size. For comparison, thresholds were also determined for a pair of non-mirror-image letters "o" and "x". Our principal finding is that there is an additional loss in sensitivity for identifying mirror-image letters ("bd"), compared with non-mirror-image letters ("ox"), when the letters are flanked closely by other letters. The effect is greater in peripheral than central vision. An auxiliary experiment comparing thresholds for letters "d" and "q" vs. "b" and "d" shows that the additional loss in sensitivity for identifying crowded mirror-image letters cannot be attributed to the similarity in letter features between the two letters, but instead, is specific to the axis of symmetry. Our results suggest that in the presence of proximal objects, there is a specific loss in sensitivity for processing broad-band left-right mirror images in peripheral vision.

  20. Detrital zircon age distribution from Devonian and Carboniferous sandstone in the Southern Variscan Fold-and-Thrust belt (Montagne Noire, French Massif Central), and their bearings on the Variscan belt evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wei; Faure, Michel; Li, Xian-hua; Chu, Yang; Ji, Wenbin; Xue, Zhenhua

    2016-05-01

    In the Southern French Massif Central, the Late Paleozoic sedimentary sequences of the Montagne Noire area provide clues to decipher the successive tectonic events that occurred during the evolution of the Variscan belt. Previous sedimentological studies already demonstrated that the siliciclastic deposits were supplied from the northern part of the Massif Central. In this study, detrital zircon provenance analysis has been investigated in Early Devonian (Lochkovian) conglomerate and sandstone, and in Carboniferous (Visean to Early Serpukhovian) sandstone from the recumbent folds and the foreland basin of the Variscan Southern Massif Central in Montagne Noire. The zircon grains from all of the samples yielded U-Pb age spectra ranging from Neoarchean to Late Paleozoic with several age population peaks at 2700 Ma, 2000 Ma, 980 Ma, 750 Ma, 620 Ma, 590 Ma, 560 Ma, 480 Ma, 450 Ma, and 350 Ma. The dominant age populations concentrate on the Neoproterozoic and Paleozoic. The dominant concordant detrital zircon age populations in the Lochkovian samples, the 480-445 Ma with a statistical peak around 450 Ma, are interpreted as reflecting the rifting event that separated several continental stripes, such as Armorica, Mid-German Crystalline Rise, and Avalonia from the northern part of Gondwana. However, Ediacaran and Cambrian secondary peaks are also observed. The detrital zircons with ages at 352 - 340 Ma, with a statistical peak around 350 Ma, came from the Early Carboniferous volcanic and plutonic rocks similar to those exposed in the NE part of the French Massif Central. Moreover, some Precambrian grains recorded a more complex itinerary and may have experienced a multi-recycling history: the Archean and Proterozoic grains have been firstly deposited in Cambrian or Ordovician terrigenous rocks, and secondly re-sedimented in Devonian and/or Carboniferous formations. Another possibility is that ancient grains would be inherited grains, scavenged from an underlying but not

  1. The Archetypes of the Characters in The Scarlet Letter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    成程

    2015-01-01

    Nathaniel Hawthorne and his works are deeply influenced by the religion and the Holy Bible.It has many corresponding relationships between the Biblical allusions and the characters,plot and theme in the Scarlet Letter.Hawthorne gave the novel symbolic characters in order to give this symbolism novel a deeper connotation,by borrowing quite a lot of the Biblical allusions.The Scarlet Letter established Hawthorne as the most important 19th century romantic novelist in the United States.This paper attempts to analyze the characteristics and the life experience of the figures in the novel,such as Hester Prynne,Chillingworth,Dimmesdale and Pearl by using the archetypal criticism.The paper also will compare the novel to the Holy Bible so that we canfind the archetypes of the Holy Bible hidden in the Scarlet Letter.

  2. Letter from the Board of Directors of Astronomy & Astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meynet, Georges

    2005-07-01

    1. New A&A memberships and scientific editorial structure for the Letters section At its meeting in Tartu, Estonia on 8 May 2004, the A&A Board of Directors decided to grant observer status on the Board to Brazil, Chile, and Portugal (Sandqvist 2004, A&A, 426, E15). Then on 6-7 May 2005, at its meeting in La Laguna, Spain, the Board of Directors admitted these three countries to full membership in A&A, starting 1 January 2006. The Letters Editor, Dr. P. Schneider, will complete his terms of service on 31 January 2006. A&A is indebted to him for his thoughtful and competent editing over the past several years. As a consequence of his departure, the Board has decided to restructure the manner in which the Letters will be handled as of 1 January 2006. The Associate Editor-in-Chief, Dr. M. Walmsley, will also become Editor-in-Chief for the Letters, and he will forward the Letters to the appropriate topical Associate Editor to organize the reviewing process. Likewise, the Editor-in-Chief, Dr. C. Bertout, will become the Associate Letters-Editor-in-Chief. This change will permit a more specialized treatment of Letters in the future and also allow Letters to benefit from language editing. Hence, after 1 January 2006, manuscripts for Letters should be submitted via the A&A Manuscript Management System (MMS) that is already in place for Main Journal submissions. Letters submitted before that will be handled by the current Letters Editor even after 1 January 2006. 2. New Associate Editor positions Considering both the increased workload on the Associate Editors due to the above change and the continuing specialization of sub-fields in astronomy, the Board decided to open two new positions for Associate Editors, one specialized in Cosmology with a particular interest in theoretical aspects and the other in Observational Stellar Physics. Applications are invited for these two new positions. The Associate Editors are expected to have a broad knowledge of astronomy and

  3. The Archetypes of the Characters in The Scarlet Letter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    成程

    2015-01-01

    Nathaniel Hawthorne and his works are deeply influenced by the religion and the Holy Bible.It has many corresponding relationships between the Biblical allusions and the characters,plot and theme in the Scarlet Letter.Hawthorne gave the novel symbolic characters in order to give this symbolism novel a deeper connotation,by borrowing quite a lot of the Biblical allusions.The Scarlet Letter established Hawthorne as the most important 19 th century romantic novelist in the United States.This paper attempts to analyze the characteristics and the life experience of the figures in the novel,such as Hester Prynne,Chillingworth,Dimmesdale and Pearl by using the archetypal criticism.The paper also will compare the novel to the Holy Bible so that we can find the archetypes of the Holy Bible hidden in the Scarlet Letter.

  4. Letters from ainsworth: contesting the 'organization' of attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landa, Sophie; Duschinsky, Robbie

    2013-05-01

    As Main (1999) noted in her obituary for Mary Ainsworth, 'she was interacting weekly by letter and manuscript with her mentor and friend, John Bowlby, and their academic correspondence formed an important part of her, and implicitly our, life.' These letters of Ainsworth to John Bowlby during the 1980s, available in the Wellcome Trust Library in London, contain valuable reflections on the work of her pupils to extend her system of classifying infant behaviour in the Strange Situation Procedure. Mary Main proposed a D classification and interpreted such behaviour as a breakdown in an ABC strategy caused by a conflict between a disposition to approach and flee from the caregiver. Patricia Crittenden extended the subtypes of A and C, using a developmental model of information processing, and observed that they could be used together in A/C combinations. These letters offer insight into Ainsworth's intellectual rationale for encouraging both Main and Crittenden in their conflicting endeavours. PMID:23667365

  5. Spatial representations of numbers and letters in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan eLonnemann

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Different lines of evidence suggest that children’s mental representations of numbers are spatially organized in form of a mental number line. It is, however, still unclear whether a spatial organization is specific for the numerical domain or also applies to other ordinal sequences in children. In the present study, children (n = 129 aged 8-9 years were asked to indicate the midpoint of lines flanked by task-irrelevant digits or letters. We found that the localization of the midpoint was systematically biased towards the larger digit. A similar, but less pronounced, effect was detected for letters with spatial biases towards the letter succeeding in the alphabet. Instead of assuming domain-specific forms of spatial representations, we suggest that ordinal information expressing relations between different items of a sequence might be spatially coded in children, whereby numbers seem to convey this kind of information in the most salient way.

  6. Musical expertise affects neural bases of letter recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proverbio, Alice Mado; Manfredi, Mirella; Zani, Alberto; Adorni, Roberta

    2013-02-01

    It is known that early music learning (playing of an instrument) modifies functional brain structure (both white and gray matter) and connectivity, especially callosal transfer, motor control/coordination and auditory processing. We compared visual processing of notes and words in 15 professional musicians and 15 controls by recording their synchronized bioelectrical activity (ERPs) in response to words and notes. We found that musical training in childhood (from age ~8 years) modifies neural mechanisms of word reading, whatever the genetic predisposition, which was unknown. While letter processing was strongly left-lateralized in controls, the fusiform (BA37) and inferior occipital gyri (BA18) were activated in both hemispheres in musicians for both word and music processing. The evidence that the neural mechanism of letter processing differed in musicians and controls (being absolutely bilateral in musicians) suggests that musical expertise modifies the neural mechanisms of letter reading. PMID:23238370

  7. Left cortical specialization for visual letter strings predicts rudimentary knowledge of letter-sound association in preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochy, Aliette; Van Reybroeck, Marie; Rossion, Bruno

    2016-07-26

    Reading, one of the most important cultural inventions of human society, critically depends on posterior brain areas of the left hemisphere in proficient adult readers. In children, this left hemispheric cortical specialization for letter strings is typically detected only after approximately 1 y of formal schooling and reading acquisition. Here, we recorded scalp electrophysiological (EEG) brain responses in 5-y-old (n = 40) prereaders presented with letter strings appearing every five items in rapid streams of pseudofonts (6 items per second). Within 2 min of recording only, letter strings evoked a robust specific response over the left occipito-temporal cortex at the predefined frequency of 1.2 Hz (i.e., 6 Hz/5). Interindividual differences in the amplitude of this electrophysiological response are significantly related to letter knowledge, a preschool predictor of later reading ability. These results point to the high potential of this rapidly collected behavior-free measure to assess reading ability in developmental populations. These findings were replicated in a second experiment (n = 26 preschool children), where familiar symbols and line drawings of objects evoked right-lateralized and bilaterally specific responses, respectively, showing the specificity of the early left hemispheric dominance for letter strings. Collectively, these findings indicate that limited knowledge of print in young children, before formal education, is sufficient to develop specialized left lateralized neuronal circuits, thereby pointing to an early onset and rapid impact of left hemispheric reentrant sound mapping on posterior cortical development. PMID:27402739

  8. A common left occipito-temporal dysfunction in developmental dyslexia and acquired letter-by-letter reading?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Richlan

    Full Text Available We used fMRI to examine functional brain abnormalities of German-speaking dyslexics who suffer from slow effortful reading but not from a reading accuracy problem. Similar to acquired cases of letter-by-letter reading, the developmental cases exhibited an abnormal strong effect of length (i.e., number of letters on response time for words and pseudowords.Corresponding to lesions of left occipito-temporal (OT regions in acquired cases, we found a dysfunction of this region in our developmental cases who failed to exhibit responsiveness of left OT regions to the length of words and pseudowords. This abnormality in the left OT cortex was accompanied by absent responsiveness to increased sublexical reading demands in phonological inferior frontal gyrus (IFG regions. Interestingly, there was no abnormality in the left superior temporal cortex which--corresponding to the onological deficit explanation--is considered to be the prime locus of the reading difficulties of developmental dyslexia cases.The present functional imaging results suggest that developmental dyslexia similar to acquired letter-by-letter reading is due to a primary dysfunction of left OT regions.

  9. Galaxies et trous noirs supermassifs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collin-Zahn, Suzy

    2016-08-01

    A few percents of galaxies are classified as « active ». An active galaxy is a galaxy whose nucleus emits more energy than the whole galaxy in the form of electromagnetic radiation, relativistic particles, or mechanical energy. It is activated by a supermassive black hole fueled by matter falling on it, whose characteristics (Eddington luminosity, spin) are recalled. The class includes quasars and Seyfert galaxies. All massive "non active" galaxies contain a supermassive black hole, but there is not enough matter in its environment so as the nucleus becomes luminous. Different items are considered in the paper : how supermassive black holes are fueled, the accretion disc, the jets and the winds, the unified model of active galaxies, how are determined the masses of supermassive black holes, and what is the relation between the evolution of galaxies and supermassive black holes.

  10. Bel Paese or Spaghetti noir?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Hanne

    2016-01-01

    Translations participate in the construction of the images of foreign cultures, and texts that reinforce the national stereotypes are often those selected for translation. Are there recurrent features in Italian literary texts translated into Danish that reveal what is perceived as ‘typically......’ Italian in the eyes of Danes? I will look at translations of contemporary Italian narrative, relying primarily on the website of the Danish public libraries, bibliotek.dk, that contains keyword categorizations and evaluations produced by the librarians in order to “mediate” between the foreign texts...... and the Danish readership. The paper will draw on the notions of image construction and national stereotypes (cf. Beller & Leerssen 2007) and of the metynomic nature of translation (cf. Tymoczko 1999)....

  11. An Analysis of the Symbolic Colors in The Scarlet Letter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Kai-lin

    2016-01-01

    Nathaniel Hawthorn is the greatest American romantic novelist during the nineteenth century. He is skillful at the using of symbolism in his works, especially in his masterpiece The Scarlet Letter. Hawthorn is a writer with art talent, who uses differ-ent colors to enhance the artistic effects of The scarlet Letter. Colors emerging on the most occasions are used as a mayor form of symbolism to reflect the character’s feelings, personalities and fates. This paper aims to elaborate the usage of colors as a form of symbolism in three parts:the symbolic meaning of red, the symbolic meaning of black, and the symbolic meaning of grey.

  12. On the Elements of Tragedy in The Scarlet Letter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冶静芳

    2014-01-01

    As the masterpiece of Nathaniel Hawthorn’s writing, The Scarlet Letter not only brings him fame forever, but also gives us more about people’s life in Puritan society in 17th. Since this novel is so important and excellent, the thesis mainly focus-es on probing into the theme of elements of tragedy in The Scarlet Letter. According to the whole story, the love tragedy is attrib-uted to four factors: the Puritan beliefs of original sin, the attitude of public on love outside marriage, the personalities of the main characters, and the differences between dream and reality.

  13. Letters from Ainsworth: Contesting the ‘Organization’ of Attachment

    OpenAIRE

    Landa, Sophie; Duschinsky, Robbie

    2013-01-01

    As Main (1999) noted in her obituary for Mary Ainsworth, ‘she was interacting weekly by letter and manuscript with her mentor and friend, John Bowlby, and their academic correspondence formed an important part of her, and implicitly our, life.’ These letters of Ainsworth to John Bowlby during the 1980s, available in the Wellcome Trust Library in London, contain valuable reflections on the work of her pupils to extend her system of classifying infant behaviour in the Strange Situation Procedur...

  14. Resource Letter: Research-based Assessments in Physics and Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Madsen, Adrian; Sayre, Eleanor C

    2016-01-01

    This resource letter provides a guide to research-based assessments (RBAs) of physics and astronomy content. These are standardized assessments that were rigorously developed and revised using student ideas and interviews, expert input, and statistical analyses. RBAs have had a major impact on physics and astronomy education reform by providing a universal and convincing measure of student understanding that instructors can use to assess and improve the effectiveness of their teaching. In this resource letter, we present an overview of all content RBAs in physics and astronomy by topic, research validation, instructional level, format, and themes, to help faculty find the best assessment for their course.

  15. Dear Hacker Letters to the Editor of 2600

    CERN Document Server

    Goldstein, Emmanuel

    2010-01-01

    Actual letters written to the leading hackers' magazine. For 25 years, 2600: The Hacker Quarterly has given voice to the hacker community in all its manifestations. This collection of letters to the magazine reveals the thoughts and viewpoints of hackers, both white and black hat, as well as hacker wannabes, technophiles, and people concerned about computer security. Insightful and entertaining, the exchanges illustrate 2600 's vast readership, from teenage rebels, anarchists, and survivalists to law enforcement, consumer advocates, and worried parents.: 2600: The Hacker Quarterly has been the

  16. Letter as a Writing to Learn Activity and the Addressee

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Yıldız

    2012-01-01

    The main purpose of this research was to study how the instructiveness of the letter, one of the writing to learn activities; changes according to the person to whom it is written (the addressee). The document analysis method was used in this qualitative study. Since documents are very important information sources used effectively in qualitative studies, their authenticity is important. The book named “Letters from Father Inönü to Erdal Inönü” published by Bilgi Publishing in 1988 and prepar...

  17. "Test" is a Four Letter Word

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pope, G M

    2005-05-03

    For a number of years I had the pleasure of teaching Testing Seminars all over the world and meeting and learning from others in our field. Over a twelve year period, I always asked the following questions to Software Developers, Test Engineers, and Managers who took my two or three day seminar on Software Testing: 'When was the first time you heard the word test'? 'Where were you when you first heard the word test'? 'Who said the word test'? 'How did the word test make you feel'? Most of the thousands of responses were similar to 'It was my third grade teacher at school, and I felt nervous and afraid'. Now there were a few exceptions like 'It was my third grade teacher, and I was happy and excited to show how smart I was'. But by and large, my informal survey found that 'testing' is a word to which most people attach negative meanings, based on its historical context. So why is this important to those of us in the software development business? Because I have found that a preponderance of software developers do not get real excited about hearing that the software they just wrote is going to be 'tested' by the Test Group. Typical reactions I have heard over the years run from: 'I'm sure there is nothing wrong with the software, so go ahead and test it, better you find defects than our customers'. to these extremes: 'There is no need to test my software because there is nothing wrong with it'. 'You are not qualified to test my software because you don't know as much as I do about it'. 'If any Test Engineers come into our office again to test our software we will throw them through the third floor window'. So why is there such a strong negative reaction to testing? It is primitive. It goes back to grade school for many of us. It is a negative word that congers up negative emotions. In other words, 'test' is a four letter word

  18. Visual and Artistic Functions of Letters Khaghani’s Poetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. M. Zolfaghari

    Full Text Available The intensity of emotion and vibration of meaning in the poet's mind causes him to go beyond the ordinary language and through metaphors, similes and linguistic preparation he conveys intellectual and emotional meanings. He has a sharp eye and a sensitive spirit and creative temprement and by inventing new images shows the creativity and imagination in various arenas and attempts in the way of literary strength and creating personal style and this point more than anything else must be done by presenting images and newness. Perhaps in the sixth century, and especially in Azerbaijani school, more than other periods, poets have been looking for creating innovative style in eloquence. Their major attempts were mainly in imaging, it was a wide field that they have competed and it is natural that in this illustration the alphabet letters would be very helpful. Khaghani poetry as one of the greatest poets of this school has the perfect poetrical book of painting and meaning, and delicated pattern in new and different scientific, cultural and religious paintings and letters are a broad range of elements that put a new field in front of the poet and he is aware of the potential features of the letters and also the new images and the artistic creativity.This paper shows descriptive - analytical study of various aspects of Khaghani’s poetry and frequency of letters in the alphabet, authentic images based on alphabet, taken at different pseudo relevance of poetry in the context of multiple semantic and literal characters, making figures of speech based on literary characters, images and characters and the sense of connection . . . which has been shown in his poetry.Letter has double and even multiple uses in Khaghani poetic works (divan and more than the construction of words which is the real and common sense that is used as an artistic. There is a world in the heart of every letter, word and morpheme lies in the poet's point of view is the last and

  19. 77 FR 58301 - Technical Amendment; Airworthiness Standards: Aircraft Engines; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-20

    ... Technical Amendment entitled, ``Airworthiness Standards: Aircraft Engine'' (77 FR 39623). In that technical... Administration 14 CFR Part 33 RIN 2120-AF57 Technical Amendment; Airworthiness Standards: Aircraft Engines... technical amendment, the FAA clarified aircraft engine vibration test requirements in the...

  20. Hate Speech and the First Amendment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainey, Susan J.; Kinsler, Waren S.; Kannarr, Tina L.; Reaves, Asa E.

    This document is comprised of California state statutes, federal legislation, and court litigation pertaining to hate speech and the First Amendment. The document provides an overview of California education code sections relating to the regulation of speech; basic principles of the First Amendment; government efforts to regulate hate speech,…

  1. Student Assistance Education Amendments of 1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Student Financial Assistance (ED), Washington, DC.

    Information and guidelines for implementing the various amendments to the federal student financial aid programs are provided. The provisions are effective October 1, 1980 through 1985, except for the Guaranteed Student Loan Program amendments, effective January 1, 1980. General provisions are outlined, concerning the new administrative cost…

  2. 42 CFR 457.60 - Amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Child Health Insurance Programs and Outreach Strategies § 457.60 Amendments. A State may seek to amend....490. (6) Cost-sharing as described in § 457.505. (7) Screen and enroll procedures, and other Medicaid... changes in the type of non-health care related revenues used to generate general revenue....

  3. 14 CFR 17.45 - Conforming amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conforming amendments. 17.45 Section 17.45 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PROCEDURAL RULES PROCEDURES FOR PROTESTS AND CONTRACTS DISPUTES Finality and Review § 17.45 Conforming amendments. The...

  4. 47 CFR 3.27 - Amended application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... AUTHORITIES IN MARITIME AND MARITIME MOBILE-SATELLITE RADIO SERVICES Application Procedures § 3.27 Amended application. Changes in circumstances that cause information previously supplied to the FCC to be incorrect or... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Amended application. 3.27 Section...

  5. When "Slime" Becomes "Smile": Developmental Letter Position Dyslexia in English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohnen, Saskia; Nickels, Lyndsey; Castles, Anne; Friedmann, Naama; McArthur, Genevieve

    2012-01-01

    We report the first three cases of selective developmental letter position dyslexia in English. Although the parents and teachers of the children were concerned about these children's reading, standard tests did not reveal their deficit. It was only when the appropriate target words were presented, in this case, migratable words, that their letter…

  6. The Psychological Reflection of Hawthorn in the Scarlet Letter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Yan-qing

    2015-01-01

    The Scarlet Letter is Nathaniel Hawthorne’s masterpiece, representing the height of Hawthorne’s literary genius. This thesis tries to reveal part of the author’s psychological activities, repressed feelings from his childhood from analyzing the main characters, especially Hester, the mother and Pearl, the daughter.

  7. The Effects of Sin in The Scarlet Letter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴希博; 逯海涛

    2008-01-01

    "Sin" plays a very important role in the understanding of Hawthorne's "psychological romance"- The Scarlet Letter. The paper introduces the major view that influences him--the Puritan doctrine of "original sin" so as to investigate Hawthorne's own attitudes towards the sin and the effects of sin on the two main characters in the novel.

  8. Philosophical Intelligence: Letters, Print, and Experiment during Napoleon's Continental Blockade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Iain P

    2015-12-01

    This essay investigates scientific exchanges between Britain and France from 1806 to 1814, at the height of the Napoleonic Wars. It argues for a picture of scientific communication that sees letters and printed texts not as separate media worlds, but as interconnected bearers of time-critical information within a single system of intelligence gathering and experimental practice. During this period, Napoleon Bonaparte's Continental System blockade severed most links between Britain and continental Europe, yet scientific communications continued--particularly on electrochemistry, a subject of fierce rivalry between Britain and France. The essay traces these exchanges using the archive of a key go-between, the English man of science Sir Charles Blagden. The first two sections look at Blagden's letter-writing operation, reconstructing how he harnessed connections with neutral American diplomats, merchants, and the State to get scientific intelligence between London and Paris. The third section, following Blagden's words from Britain to France to America, looks at how information in letters cross-fertilized with information in print. The final section considers how letters and print were used together to solve the difficult practical problem of replicating experiments across the blockade. PMID:27024935

  9. Grooming the Victim: An Analysis of a Perpetrator's Seduction Letter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Mark I.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature on the sexual victimization of adolescent males, with emphasis on victim selection factors and strategies. A letter written by a middle-aged man to entice a teenage boy into sexual activity is then presented and analyzed. (DB)

  10. Why a Letter of Transmittal Should Accompany Annual Financial Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, Bill W.

    1986-01-01

    Explains the importance of comprehensive annual financial reports, including introductory, financial, and statistical sections. Advises school districts to pay special attention to the letter of transmittal, which should provide information on services, financial highlights, economic forecasting, accounting principles used, and other pertinent…

  11. Research on the Attitude towards Lettered-words in Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘正华

    2014-01-01

    Lettered words have sprouted in all kinds of situations and many kinds of media, which has been a very common phenomenon. This essay focuses on the relationship between the attitudes and the factors such as age, sex, and the educational background, trying to find some correlation between them, which is important also in the language policy.

  12. A letter addressed by Gustav Hertz to James Franck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A letter from Gustav Hertz is published which he sent from Copenhagen on 23 March 1938 to James Franck asking him to help Lise Meitner. The threat to her of the Nazi regime and the relations between the three physicists are described in the introduction. (author)

  13. Documentary Letters of Credit, Legal Nature and Sources of Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alavi Hamed

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available There is no doubt about risky nature of international trade. Such risk can be conceptualized as country risk, transportation risk, customer risk and etc. Documentary Letters of Credit (LC are used as a method of payment in international business for many centuries in order to reduce risk of trade specially when parties are located in different countries and do not have precise information from financial standing of each other. In such occasion LC will reduce the risk of trade by shifting payment obligation from buyer as an individual to a payment guarantee of a bank as a legal entity in return for presentation of complying documents with terms of credit by seller. Familiarity with legal nature and different legal frameworks which govern the international operation of documentary letters of credit can facilitate the process of international trade for businessmen and boost national economies. However, lack of knowledge about them can impose huge losses on international traders. Situation will be more complicated when we understand that there are many internationally recognized legal frameworks which can affect the operation of LC and they get frequently updated in order to address technological and economic developments in global market. In this paper, author tries to answer questions regarding (i what are international legal frameworks governing operation of documentary letters of credit? (ii which areas of LC operation has been covered by them and (iii how do they address the legal questions regarding international operation of documentary letters of credit?

  14. Cold-induced vasodilation : letter to the editor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daanen, H.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Reactie op: Flouris, et al. Effect of body temperature on cold induced vasodilationa. Eur J Applied Phys 2008;104:491-499. De aurteurs hebben daar weer een reply op geschreven; Flouris AD, Cheung SS (2009) Authors’ response to H. Daanen’s ‘cold-induced vasodilation’ letter. Eur J Appl Physiol 106:31

  15. 33 CFR 157.106 - Letter of acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) POLLUTION RULES FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels General § 157.106 Letter of acceptance. The Coast Guard...) The plans submitted show that the COW system meets this subpart; or (b) The plans submitted and...

  16. September 2016 Letter to the Editor-in-Chief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Letter to the Editor-in-Chief of JOSPT as follows: "One More Cause of Failure to Validate a CPR: Overfitting" with Author's Response J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2016;46(9):811-812. doi:10.2519/jospt.2016.0202. PMID:27581182

  17. A Cohesive and Coherent Analysis of The Purloined Letter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜娟娟; 郭鸿雁

    2013-01-01

      The thesis aims to do a research on the cohesion and coherence in The Purloined Letter written by Edgar Allan Poe based on the theories of Halliday and Hasan as well as the Chinese scholars Zhang Delu and Liu Rushan. By the means of them, Poe’s ingenious composition and vivid characters emerge in the mind of the readers.

  18. Color associations for days and letters across different languages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Rouw; L. Case; R. Gosavi; V. Ramachandran

    2014-01-01

    While colors are commonplace in everyday metaphors, relatively little is known about implicit color associations to linguistic or semantic concepts in a general population. In this study, we test color associations for ordered linguistic concepts (letters and days). The culture and language specific

  19. CNPC Signed New Contracts and Letters with ESSO Corp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Rujin; Li Qing

    1995-01-01

    @@ On April 7, 1995 two petroleum contracts, concerning the deep horizons in the northwest of Songliao Basin and Dafenshan-Eboliang Block in Qaidam Basin and two letters of intent for petroleum cooperation were signed in Beijing by Zhuo Yongkang,Vice President , CNPC and Jon L.Thompson, President, Esso Exploration Company.

  20. Resource Letter FNP-1: Frontiers of nuclear physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertsch, G. F.

    2004-08-01

    This Resource Letter provides a bibliography of the current research activities in nuclear physics and also a guide for finding useful nuclear data. The major areas included are nuclear structure and reactions, symmetry tests, nuclear astrophysics, nuclear theory, high-density matter, and nuclear instrumentation.

  1. The letter of submission: avoiding the promotional genre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaw, Philip; Okamura, Akiko

    1998-01-01

    Functionally the letter of submission accompanying an article submitted to a journal is promotional, but it does not have the form one would expect from e.g. Bhatia 1993. Instead it is extremely brief and uninformative. This reflects the so-called Utilitarian Discourse which is a shared feature...

  2. Model business letters, emails and other business documents

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, Shirley

    2012-01-01

    For anyone who wants to communicate effectively in business, this is your complete reference guide for any form of written communication. Packed with over 500 sample documents, over 100 tips for better business writing and useful templates you can apply to your writing immediately, Model Business Letters will help you put the key rules of good business writing into action.

  3. Discourse Strategies of Italian and English Sales Promotion Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergaro, Carla

    2004-01-01

    This article describes a contrastive study on rhetorical differences between Italian and English sales promotion letters. It is assumed that cultural differences affect discourse genres traditionally considered as standardized, ritual or even formulaic, written business communication being a case in point. It was our goal to investigate how…

  4. The Puritan Flavour--Comment on THE SCARLET LETTER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱锦锐

    2002-01-01

    When we analyze literary works, we should comment on whether or not these thoughts contribute to the progress of society. We should comment whether or not it exerts positive influence. We can deeply know about Puritan thoughts and values with the masterpiece --THE SCARLET LETTER

  5. A Letter from a Black Mom to Her Son

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Dyan

    2012-01-01

    An African American mother and teacher educator uses examples from her own childhood to describe how she hopes her child will be treated by teachers, and what she fears. In her letter to her son, the African American mom expresses how she want teachers to know her son's journey to school--metaphorically and physically. She wants them to know that…

  6. Priming of abstract letter representations may be universal: the case of Arabic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreiras, Manuel; Perea, Manuel; Abu Mallouh, Reem

    2012-08-01

    Recent research on the Roman alphabet has demonstrated that the magnitudes of masked repetition priming are equivalent for letter pairs that have similar visual features across cases (e.g., c-C) and for letter pairs with dissimilar features (e.g., g-G). Here, we examined whether priming of abstract letter representations occurs in an orthographic system, Arabic, in which the letters show an intricate number of contextual forms. Arabic does not have a lowercase/uppercase distinction, but the letters exhibit different forms that depend on their position (initial, medial, final, or isolated) and their connectivity. Importantly, some letters look quite different across positions (e.g., (symbol in text) and (symbol in text), which correspond to the letter 'ayn), whereas others look very similar (e.g. (symbol in text), and (symbol in text), which correspond to the letter fā'). We employed a masked priming same-different task, in which native speakers of Arabic decided whether a target letter was the same as or different from a reference letter presented in a different position (middle vs. isolated). The results showed masked repetition priming effects of the same magnitude for letter pairs with similar and with dissimilar visual features across letter positions. These data support the view that priming of abstract letter representations is a universal phenomenon. PMID:22569990

  7. 谈谈字母词%Talk about letter words

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡月

    2013-01-01

    随着现代社会的发展和中外交流的加强,字母词作为一种新型词语为人们广泛使用。本文讨论了字母词的概念及五种分类,字母词由于对外开放、与国际接轨、日常交际和语用心理影响而流行,并且对字母词具有结构简单及形象直观,含蓄委婉和轻松幽默的表达功效进行概括性分析,让人们正视字母词的使用从而引导语言的健康发展。%With the quick development of the modern society and the enhanced communication between China and abroad, letter words as newly developed, has been widely adopted by people. This paper will discuss the definition and five categories of letter words, explaining such factors leading to the popularity of letter words as the characteristics of open quality and daily dialogue, conforming with the international use, and the influence of pragmatic psychological. Also, the paper will summarize the expression efficiency of letter words including the simple construction and visual pattern, implicit, lively and humorous properties, which make people have a better understanding of the letter words and guide the healthy development of the language.

  8. [Protestant clergymen among Hahnemann's clientele. Patient histories in letters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreher, Simone; Schlott, Melanie; Schlott, Thilo

    2016-01-01

    As part of the research project, developments in the history of science and in the regional and ecclesiastic history of the late feudal petty state of Köthen-Anhalt have been assessed and numerous documents of the Nagel and Mühlenbein family histories examined that place the transcribed patient letters of the two Protestant clergymen within the context of the Hahnemann Archives. These findings complement and extend previous insights into Hahnemann's Köthen clientele, especially when it comes to the structure and milieu of the local clerical elite. Inspired by the interpretive methods of sequential textual analysis, form and content of the letters of the two clergymen and their relatives were also investigated as methodically structured lines of communication. The body of sources published here presents--embedded in the body-image (of sickness and health) prevalent at the time--the medical cultures of educated patients as well as the increasingly professionalized medical practices of Samuel Hahnemann in a flourishing urban doctor's surgery. The correspondence between the pastors Albert Wilhelm Gotthilf Nagel (1796-1835) and August Carl Ludwig Georg Mühlenbein (1797-1866), presented here in a standard edition, has been investigated at Fulda University as part of the project 'Homöopathisches Medicinieren zwischen alltäglicher Lebensführung und professioneller Praxis' ('Homeopathic medicine between everyday use and professional practice'). Of the altogether 78 transcribed documents, 53 are letters written by either of the two pastors, 16 are patient journals by Samuel Hahnemann, 9 letters by the pastors' wives and Mühlenbein's mother. The two series of letters, originally composed between 1831 and 1833 in old German cursive script, can now be used as sources for research into the history of homeopathy. PMID:27263219

  9. Letter as a Writing to Learn Activity and the Addressee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Yıldız

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this research was to study how the instructiveness of the letter, one of the writing to learn activities; changes according to the person to whom it is written (the addressee. The document analysis method was used in this qualitative study. Since documents are very important information sources used effectively in qualitative studies, their authenticity is important. The book named “Letters from Father Inönü to Erdal Inönü” published by Bilgi Publishing in 1988 and prepared for printing by Sevgi Özel with the permission of the Inönü Foundation and the letters published under the title “The letters of Erdal Inönü to his father” by Can Dündar in his column in the Milliyet on 17, June, 2007 were analysed using the qualitative analysis method. It was analysed in the study that how the instructiveness of the letters (1947-1951 whose content was only related to physics and written from father to son and from son to father changed according to the addressee. The documents analysed in this study provide the first three stages of document analysis, which has five stages namely; access to the documents, control of their authenticity, understanding the documents, analysis of the data and the use of the data. The findings of the research support the views of the students, who stated that they had written more clearly to students who were younger than they were or studying in the subclasses than they had written to their teachers in the studies conducted previously.

  10. An audit of letters of referral to a prosthodontic department in a dental teaching hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenlon, Michael R; Glick, Shiri; Sherriff, Martyn

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the quality and number of letters of referral for new patients received in the Prosthodontics Department of a Dental Teaching Hospital. Letters received during the month of May 2006 were included. Each letter of referral was tested against five criteria which might be expected in an appropriate letter of referral. These were information on the following: relevant dental history, relevant medical history, teeth present, diagnosis, and treatment plan. The results showed that only 8% of letters met all five criteria and 11% met none of them. Letters requesting better information were sent to referring practitioner as a result of this audit. However a re-audit in May 2007 showed that 9% of letters met all five criteria and 15% met none of them. A need has been identifiedfor better referral letters and ways of achieving this were discussed.

  11. Letter about Ivory-billed Woodpecker on Allan Grey Estate (Dahomey NWR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Letter contains historic information regarding ivory-billed woodpecker occurance on Dahomey NWR prior to World War II. Letter found in museum in PA by Dr. Jerome...

  12. Substituted-Letter and Transposed-Letter Effects in a Masked Priming Paradigm with French Developing Readers and Dyslexics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lete, Bernard; Fayol, Michel

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to undertake a behavioral investigation of the development of automatic orthographic processing during reading acquisition in French. Following Castles and colleagues' 2007 study ("Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 97," 165-182) and their lexical tuning hypothesis framework, substituted-letter and transposed-letter…

  13. Contributions of Emergent Literacy Skills to Name Writing, Letter Writing, and Spelling in Preschool Children

    OpenAIRE

    Puranik, Cynthia S.; Lonigan, Christopher J.; Kim, Young-Suk

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine which emergent literacy skills contribute to preschool children’s emergent writing (name-writing, letter-writing, and spelling) skills. Emergent reading and writing tasks were administered to 296 preschool children aged 4–5 years. Print knowledge and letter-writing skills made positive contributions to name writing; whereas alphabet knowledge, print knowledge, and name writing made positive contributions to letter writing. Both name-writing and letter-...

  14. The Million Dollar Letter: Some Hints on How to Write One

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Marshall

    2004-01-01

    This article suggests ways of writing a truly effective cover letter, an extremely important document in the search for a job. First, features gleaned from 13 model letters in technical writing textbooks yield figures on the number of words, sentences, and paragraphs per letter, plus the average number of words per sentence and paragraph,…

  15. Walking a Fine Line: Writing Negative Letters in an Insurance Company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schryer, Catherine F.

    2000-01-01

    Examines the situated-language practices associated with the production of negative letters in an insurance company. Combines textual analyses of a set of negative letters together with writers' accounts of producing these letters to identify effective strategies for composing this correspondence. Identifies some strategies that characterize…

  16. Mental Rotation of Mirrored Letters: Evidence from Event-Related Brain Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunez-Pena, M. Isabel; Aznar-Casanova, J. Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded while participants (n=13) were presented with mirrored and normal letters at different orientations and were asked to make mirror-normal letter discriminations. As it has been suggested that a mental rotation out of the plane might be necessary to decide on mirrored letters, we wanted to…

  17. 78 FR 28793 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Preparation of Letter of Offer and Acceptance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-16

    ... Regulation Supplement: Preparation of Letter of Offer and Acceptance (DFARS Case 2012-D048) AGENCY: Defense... officer role in assisting the DoD implementing agency in preparation of the letter of offer and acceptance... to assist the DoD implementing activity in preparing the letter of offer and acceptance for a...

  18. 46 CFR 308.522 - Collateral deposit fund, letter of transmittal, Form MA-302.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Collateral deposit fund, letter of transmittal, Form MA-302. 308.522 Section 308.522 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY... Collateral deposit fund, letter of transmittal, Form MA-302. The standard form of letter of transmittal...

  19. Developmental Changes during Childhood in Single-Letter Acuity and Its Crowding by Surrounding Contours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Seong Taek; Hamid, Joshua; Maurer, Daphne; Lewis, Terri L.

    2010-01-01

    Crowding refers to impaired target recognition caused by surrounding contours. We investigated the development of crowding in central vision by comparing single-letter and crowding thresholds in groups of 5-year-olds, 8-year-olds, 11-year-olds, and adults. The task was to discriminate the orientation of a Sloan letter E. Single-letter thresholds,…

  20. Rapid Processing of Letters, Digits and Symbols: What Purely Visual-Attentional Deficit in Developmental Dyslexia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Johannes C.; Pech-Georgel, Catherine; Dufau, Stephane; Grainger, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    Visual-attentional theories of dyslexia predict deficits for dyslexic children not only for the perception of letter strings but also for non-alphanumeric symbol strings. This prediction was tested in a two-alternative forced-choice paradigm with letters, digits, and symbols. Children with dyslexia showed significant deficits for letter and digit…

  1. Measuring Young Children's Alphabet Knowledge: Development and Validation of Brief Letter-Sound Knowledge Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piasta, Shayne B.; Phillips, Beth M.; Williams, Jeffrey M.; Bowles, Ryan P.; Anthony, Jason L.

    2016-01-01

    Early childhood teachers are increasingly encouraged to support children's development of letter-sound abilities. Assessment of letter-sound knowledge is key in planning for effective instruction, yet the letter-sound knowledge assessments currently available and suitable for preschool-age children demonstrate significant limitations. The purpose…

  2. 46 CFR 105.15-20 - Exhibition of letter of compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exhibition of letter of compliance. 105.15-20 Section 105.15-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS... Exhibition of letter of compliance. (a) On every vessel subject to this part, the original letter...

  3. 77 FR 30560 - Proposed Generic Communication; Generic Letter on Seismic Risk Evaluations for Operating Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-23

    ... Operating Reactors'' published on September 1, 2011 (76 FR 54507). The draft Generic Letter, ``Seismic Risk... COMMISSION Proposed Generic Communication; Generic Letter on Seismic Risk Evaluations for Operating Reactors...: On September 1, 2011 (76 FR 54507), the NRC published for public comment Draft Generic Letter...

  4. Modelling Normal and Impaired Letter Recognition: Implications for Understanding Pure Alexic Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ya-Ning; Furber, Steve; Welbourne, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Letter recognition is the foundation of the human reading system. Despite this, it tends to receive little attention in computational modelling of single word reading. Here we present a model that can be trained to recognise letters in various spatial transformations. When presented with degraded stimuli the model makes letter confusion errors…

  5. Teaching Letter-Sound Connections with Picture Mnemonics: "Itchy's Alphabet" and Early Decoding

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiLorenzo, Kim E.; Rody, Carlotta A.; Bucholz, Jessica L.; Brady, Michael P.

    2011-01-01

    The authors explored "Itchy's Alphabet" as an innovative approach to teaching letter-sound connections through multisensory cues. This is the initial demonstration of this instructional method for increasing students' sublexical skills (letter identification, letter-sound knowledge, and phonological awareness). To examine the effectiveness of the…

  6. Stamps of New China: Special Stamps:Liu Yi Delivers a Letter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    On July 17, 2004 the State Postal Bureau issued a setof four stamps whose theme is Liu Yi Delivers a Letter. Thestamps picture the Dragon Princess Asking Liu Yi to Delivera Letter, Liu Yi Delivering a Letter to Dongting Lake, FamilyReunion, and Mutual Love.

  7. Scientific Interaction Within Henry Oldenburg’s Letter Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Gotti

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates various functions fulfilled by letters exchanged by European scholars and experimenters in the period 1660-1676. The correspondence network taken into consideration is the one coordinated by Henry Oldenburg, who was responsible for a large exchange of letters in that period, particularly when he became the first Secretary of the Royal Society. The analysis shows that this correspondence greatly stimulated the growth of a real community of adepts, as it provided an excellent means for the exchange of views, the conducting of controversies, the corroboration of individual observations and the official recognition of one’s own findings. Communal correspondence also fulfilled other important goals linked to socialization purposes, favouring the creation of a new specialized community sharing innovative intellectual interests and professional practices, as well as the adoption of a spirit of solidarity among its members.

  8. Foreword: Advanced Science Letters (ASL), Special Issue on Computational Astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2009-01-01

    Computational astrophysics has undergone unprecedented development over the last decade, becoming a field of its own. The challenge ahead of us will involve increasingly complex multi-scale simulations. These will bridge the gap between areas of astrophysics such as star and planet formation, or star formation and galaxy formation, that have evolved separately until today. A global knowledge of the physics and modeling techniques of astrophysical simulations is thus an important asset for the next generation of modelers. With the aim at fostering such a global approach, we present the Special Issue on Computational Astrophysics for the Advanced Science Letters (http://www.aspbs.com/science.htm). The Advanced Science Letters (ASL) is a new multi-disciplinary scientific journal which will cover extensively computational astrophysics and cosmology, and will act as a forum for the presentation and discussion of novel work attempting to connect different research areas. This Special Issue collects 9 reviews on 9 k...

  9. 33 CFR 106.415 - Amendment and audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Security Plan (FSP) § 106.415 Amendment and audit. (a) Amendments. (1) Amendments to a Facility Security... duties; and (iii) Be independent of any security measures being audited. (5) If the results of an audit... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amendment and audit....

  10. Letter-to-Sound Pronunciation Prediction Using Conditional Random Fields

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Dong; King, Simon; Frankel, Joe

    2011-01-01

    Pronunciation prediction, or letter-to-sound (LTS) conversion, is an essential task for speech synthesis, open vo- cabulary spoken term detection and other applications dealing with novel words. Most current approaches (at least for English) employ data-driven methods to learn and represent pronunciation ``rules'' using statistical models such as decision trees, hidden Markov models (HMMs) or joint-multigram models (JMMs). The LTS task remains challenging, particularly for languages with a co...

  11. The “Sin” Analysis in The Scarlet Letter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓永秀

    2014-01-01

    The Scarlet Letter,one of the immortal representatives of Romanticism literature makes the American writer Nathaniel Hawthorne known around the world.The unique organization of the novel,the skillful use of symbolism and metaphor demonstrate the writer’s profound insight and unique view of the society and the human nature,which make the“sin”rise to a higher level.

  12. The “Sin” Analysis in The Scarlet Letter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓永秀

    2014-01-01

    The Scarlet Letter,one of the immortal representatives of Romanticism literature makes the American writer Nathaniel Hawthorne known around the world.The unique organization of the novel,the skillful use of symbolism and metaphor demonstrate the writer’s profound insight and unique view of the society and the human nature,which make the"sin"rise to a higher level.

  13. UCP & INCOTERMS : Legal study of letter of credit problems

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    In 1933, the International Chamber of Commerce formulated the UCP, which is now a set of universally accepted governing rules for letters of credit and the most successful private rules for commerce ever developed. But rules require interpretation, and courts worldwide have interpreted how the UCP should be applied in daily practice. In this thesis, some of the most important court cases interpreting the UCP have been collected, analyzed and explained. Regarding disputes and available r...

  14. Authority and Persuasion: Self-Presentation in Paul's Letters

    OpenAIRE

    Scull, Kevin Ronald

    2012-01-01

    This study examines Paul's self-presentation in Galatians, Philippians, and 1 Corinthians in order to determine the purpose of each letter and Paul's relationship to each community. A fundamental premise of this study is that Paul did not provide communities with autobiographical information so that they might possess a more robust portrait of Paul. Rather, the information he provided was carefully selected in order to fit the needs of each audience and to increase the chance of success for e...

  15. Open letter to the Italian Ministry of University and Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Grady K

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Open letter to the Minister of Italian University. The government should get advice from the best Italian scientists for the necessary reform of the Italian University, with special concern to crucial processes as the appointment of new professors and academic evaluation. The current government proposal for a random draw of evaluation committees in charge for the appointment of new professors is considered as a wrong solution and harmful tool for dealing with such a crucial process.

  16. Er klart sprog lettere at forstå?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Anne; Jensen, Torben Juel

    2016-01-01

    , eksperimentel undersøgelse af hvor godt faktiske læsere forstår to forskellige versioner af det samme brev fra SKAT – en oprindelig version som sprogmedarbejdere fra SKAT mente, var vanskelig at forstå, og en version der var omskrevet med henblik på at gøre brevet lettere at forstå. Det undersøges om den...

  17. Resource Letter PoD-1: The Physics of Dance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laws, Kenneth; Lott, Melanie

    2013-01-01

    This Resource Letter provides a guide to the literature on the physics of dance. Journal articles and books are cited for the following topics: General references for dance, physics of dance, research methods in physics of human movement and in biomechanics, using dance in the physics classroom; anatomy and injuries; physics applied to specific dance movements or styles of dance; equipment (dance shoes, flooring, the barre); and dance of physics.

  18. Physics Letters B, Volume 716, Issue 1- Cover Page

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN

    2012-01-01

    The cover page of the Physics Letters B Journal, Volume 716, Issue 1, dedicated to the observation of a new particle in the search for the Standard Model Higgs boson. To celebrate this historical discovery, Elsevier reprinted the ATLAS and the CMS articles together with a foreword by Peter Higgs and the other scientists that predicted the existence of the so-called Higgs boson and published this in a separate booklet.

  19. Letter to Freud: on the plight of psychoanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Dinah M

    2011-12-01

    In the form of a letter, the writer communicates to Freud her appreciation for the incomparable richness and complexity of the psychoanalytic enterprise in its century-long evolution from classical, Freudian origins to new developments in theory and technique. At the same time, concern is expressed about the continuity and survival of psychoanalysis in a cultural milieu that has absorbed its once radical ideas about sexuality and unconscious motivation while resisting its viability as a method of treatment.

  20. Nursing empire: travel letters from Africa and the Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    Howell, Jessica

    2012-01-01

    This essay analyses colonial nurses’ travel letters, written from West Africa and the Caribbean between the turn of the century and 1920, in order to better understand the role of nurses in forming satellite versions of home. Though their primary function was to ‘nurse empire’ by helping to repair and maintain the bodies needed for imperial labour, nurses also contributed to written discourses supporting Britain's economic interests and political goals. Through careful consideration of primar...

  1. Beyond Orality and Literacy: Letters and Organizational Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Fayard, Anne-Laure; Metiu, Anca

    2008-01-01

    We draw on communication theories to study organizational communication from a literacy perspective. We suggest that the current debate over the capability of new media to foster the sharing and development of ideas and allow the expression of emotions, which presupposes face-to-face communication as the ideal form of communication, disappears once we switch the focus from the medium to the modality – written versus oral communication. An analysis of personal and organizational letters illust...

  2. Lettere diplomatiche inedite della Russia alla Serenissima (1655-1695)

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa, Santa

    2013-01-01

    The subject of the present study is the transcription, translation and historical and linguistic commentary of selected (thirteen, to be precise) Russian diplomatic missives sent to the doge of the Republic of Venice and now preserved at the State Archives of Venice with the following cataloguing: Collection: “Collegio”, series: “Lettere Principi (1426-1797)”, string 13. The string in question, labelled “Czar of Muscovy”, contains the missives written between 1655 and 1740. The present st...

  3. Analysis of the Sin in The Scarlet Letter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘瑾

    2013-01-01

    Nathaniel Hawthorne's novel, The Scarlet Letter, describes the different sins, their different attitudes to sins and their ends and mainly discusses the problems of sin and redemption, which reflects that to live is to suffer from sins and atone for sins, whereas the death is a way of relief and access to rebirth. This paper mainly discusses the novel's theme, namely, the sin committed by the three characters.

  4. Forensic linguistics: Applications of forensic linguistics methods to anonymous letters

    OpenAIRE

    Nováková, Veronika

    2011-01-01

    The title of my bachelor work is ?Forensic linguistics: Applications of forensic linguistics methods to anonymous letters?. Forensic linguistics is young and not very known branch of applied linguistics. This bachelor work wants to introduce forensic linguistics and its method. The bachelor work has two parts ? theory and practice. The theoretical part informs about forensic linguistics in general. Its two basic aspects utilized in forensic science and respective methods. The practical part t...

  5. Discerning Calvin’s pastoral care from his letters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond Potgieter

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The same acuity that is evident in John Calvin’s theological writings accompanied his correspondence. Calvin’s mission was not to support God, but to honour him. Divine revelation and the glory of God underlie the content of his letters. The audacious confidence with which he writes, reveals his utter reliance upon the veracity of Scripture, which understanding must be conveyed through sound teaching. Yet, his letters are not inundated with scriptural references or quotes in the fashion of a medical prescription. Rather the connection between Scripture and writing for Calvin were twofold: it lies in the foundations of sound theology applied pastorally. This undergirded his pastoral care. To bring that across in his correspondence with Duchess Renata Ferrara, he followed basic doctrinal principles, evident from many of his letters applied pastorally to the recipient(s of the letter.Calvyn se pastorale benadering soos waargeneem in sy briewe. Dieselfde pastorale noukeurigheid wat duidelik in Johannes Calvyn se teologiese geskrifte waarneembaar is, kom ook in sy korrespondensie voor. Calvyn se oogmerk was nie bloot om God te eer nie, maar om Hom te verheerlik. Die inhoud van sy briewe reflekteer sowel die openbaring as die heerlikheid van God. Hy skryf met waagmoed en ’n selfversekerdheid wat sy vertroue in die waarheid van die Skrif weerspieël en wat deur Skrifgetroue onderrig oorgedra moet word. Tog maak hy nie in sy briewe op oordrewe wyse van teksverwysings of aanhalings gebruik om sy teologiete staaf nie. Die verband tussen die Skrif en sy skryfwerk was eerder vir Calvyn ’n tweeledige saak: dit berus naamlik op gesonde teologie wat pastoraal toegepas word. Dit blyk derhalwe uit baie van sy briewe, soos dié aan die Hertogin Renata Ferrara, dat hy die metode volg ombasiese dogmatiese leerstellings in sy korrespondensie uit te lê en met pastorale sorg toe te pas.

  6. Letter Frequency Analysis of Lithuanian and Other Languages Using the Latin Alphabet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gintautas Grigas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available It is important to evaluate specificities of alphabets, particularly the letter frequencies while designing keyboards, analyzing texts, designing games based on alphabets, and doing some text mining. In order to adequately compare lettter frequences of Lithuanian language to other languages in the Internet space, Wikipedia source was selected which content is common to different languages. The method of letter frequency jumps is used. The main attention is paid to the analysis of letter frequencies at the boundary between native letters and foreign letters used in Lithuanian and other languages.

  7. Gender Differences in Iranian EFL Students’ Letter Writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somaye Hamdi asl

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Studies regarding gender differences in EFL context have been done for many years. However, it seems that writing, which is a vital skill in academic issues, has gained much less attention in this area. In addition, not having enough knowledge of gender differences for teachers is one of the main barriers of language learning. The current study examines gender differences in Iranian EFL students’ letter writing in terms of 13 linguistic features mentioned in Mulac, Bradac, & Gibbons (2001. The results of this study showed significant differences toward the use of some linguistic features. Female participants tended to use more “I” references, references to quantity, references to emotions, uncertainty verbs, sentence initial adverbials and judgmental adjectives. In addition, the results showed than women tended to be wordier than men in terms of total number of words. Men, on the other hand, exceeded women on a number of linguistic dimensions including locatives, mean length sentence and dependent clauses. Moreover, elliptical sentences were not used by female participants at all and few male participants used them in their letters. Therefore, this study demonstrated gender differences in Iranian EFL students’ letter writing. These dissimilarities between genders in EFL can be contributed to many aspects such as educational instructions, teachers, and cultural differences. It also illustrated teachers’ perspectives of gender regarding students’ writing.Keywords: Gender, Writing, Linguistic Features

  8. Differing Connectivity of Exner's Area for Numbers and Letters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Elise; Willmes, Klaus; Jung, Stefanie; Huber, Stefan; Braga, Lucia W; Moeller, Korbinian

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing body of evidence indicating a crucial role of Exner's area in (hand-) writing symbolic codes such as letters and words. However, a recent study reported a patient with a lesion affecting Broca's and Exner's area, who suffered from severe peripheral agraphia for letters but not for Arabic digits. The authors suggested a speculative account postulating differential connectivity of Exner's area for numbers and letters in order to explain this dissociation. In the present study, we evaluated this account, employing atlas-based tractography for the patient's anatomy, deterministic fiber-tracking as well as an automated toolkit to investigate the connectivity of Exner's area in healthy adults. In particular, fiber pathways connecting Exner's area with areas associated with language processing (e.g., the arcuate fascicle, ventral pathways encompassing the external/extreme capsule system) reached the inferior part of Exner's area, while fronto-parietal fibers (e.g., the superior longitudinal fascicle) connected the upper part of Exner's area with the intraparietal sulcus typically involved in number processing. Our results substantiated the differential connectivity account for Exner's area by identifying the neural connections between fiber tracts and cortex areas of interest. Our data strongly suggest that white matter connectivity should be taken into account when investigating the neural underpinnings of impaired and intact human cognition. PMID:27378882

  9. Accurate reading with sequential presentation of single letters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Seow Chiang Price

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Rapid, accurate reading is possible when isolated, single words from a sentence are sequentially presented at a fixed spatial location. We investigated if reading of words and sentences is possible when single letters are rapidly presented at the fovea under user-controlled or automatically-controlled rates. When tested with complete sentences, trained participants achieved reading rates of over 60 words/minute and accuracies of over 90% with the single letter reading (SLR method and naive participants achieved average reading rates over 30 wpm with >90% accuracy. Accuracy declined as individual letters were presented for shorter periods of time, even when the overall reading rate was maintained by increasing the duration of spaces between words. Words in the lexicon that occur more frequently were identified with higher accuracy and more quickly, demonstrating that trained participants have lexical access. In combination, our data strongly suggest that comprehension is possible and that SLR is a practicable form of reading under conditions in which normal scanning of text is not possible, or for scenarios with limited spatial and temporal resolution such as patients with low vision or prostheses.

  10. 75 FR 40720 - IFR Altitudes; Miscellaneous Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-14

    ... ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does... UNUSABLE. Sec. 95.6424 VOR FEDERAL AIRWAY V424 IS AMENDED TO READ IN PART NAPOLEON, MO VORTAC MACON, MO...

  11. Mass Media and the First Amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanks, William E.

    1975-01-01

    Discusses five Supreme Court decisions that relate to the First Amendment and freedom of the press. Includes small group decision-making exercises and discussion questions focusing on these interpretations for use in a college speech communication class. (MH)

  12. 77 FR 14269 - IFR Altitudes; Miscellaneous Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    ... BILLINGS, MT VORTAC..... W BND 9700 E BND 6400 Sec. 95.681 VOR Federal Airway V81 Is Amended to Read in... Amended to Read in Part REEPO, MT FIX COLUS, MT FIX W BND 9700 ] E BND 7000 COLUS, MT FIX BILLINGS, MT... *BILLINGS, MT VORTAC.... S BND 17000 N BND 6000 *7000--MCA BILLINGS, MT VORTAC, S BND Sec. 95.6320......

  13. Amendment works of the Korean civil code (Property Law)

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Sang Yong

    2001-01-01

    "The Korean Civil Code is currently in the process of amendment. The government expects to submit a proposal for amending the Civil Code to this year's regular session of the National Assembly. However, considering the extent to which the works for amending the Civil Code being in process by the Civil Code amendment committee have thus far advanced, submission of the proposal for Civil Code amendment within this year’s regular session of the National Assembly can be considered ...

  14. From word superiority to word inferiority: Visual processing of letters and words in pure alexia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habekost, Thomas; Petersen, Anders; Behrmann, Marlene;

    2014-01-01

    Visual processing and naming of individual letters and short words were investigated in four patients with pure alexia. To test processing at different levels, the same stimuli were studied across a naming task and a visual perception task. The normal word superiority effect was eliminated in both...... tasks for all patients, and this pattern was more pronounced in the more severely affected patients. The relationship between performance with single letters and words was, however, not straightforward: One patient performed within the normal range on the letter perception task, while being severely...... impaired in letter naming and word processing, and performance with letters and words was dissociated in all four patients, with word reading being more severely impaired than letter recognition. This suggests that the word reading deficit in pure alexia may not be reduced to an impairment in single letter...

  15. From word superiority to word inferiority: visual processing of letters and words in pure alexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habekost, Thomas; Petersen, Anders; Behrmann, Marlene; Starrfelt, Randi

    2014-01-01

    Visual processing and naming of individual letters and short words were investigated in four patients with pure alexia. To test processing at different levels, the same stimuli were studied across a naming task and a visual perception task. The normal word superiority effect was eliminated in both tasks for all patients, and this pattern was more pronounced in the more severely affected patients. The relationship between performance with single letters and words was, however, not straightforward: One patient performed within the normal range on the letter perception task, while being severely impaired in letter naming and word processing, and performance with letters and words was dissociated in all four patients, with word reading being more severely impaired than letter recognition. This suggests that the word reading deficit in pure alexia may not be reduced to an impairment in single letter perception. PMID:24801564

  16. A linguistic kaleidoscope of the Malay letter; The case of the eighteenth century official letters from the Sultanate of Buton

    OpenAIRE

    S. Suryadi

    2015-01-01

    The Malay letters make up the largest category of documents among the Malay manuscripts preserved at Leiden University Library, the Netherlands. The corpus represents the scope of the territories under Dutch East Indies authority during the colonial era. In fact, they are authentic documents which denote not only political contact between the local kingdoms in the Archipelago (Nusantara) with the Dutch East Indies government in Batavia during colonial times but also constitute an important so...

  17. Prevalence of HIV-1 Subtypes and Drug Resistance-Associated Mutations in HIV-1-Positive Treatment-Naive Pregnant Women in Pointe Noire, Republic of the Congo (Kento-Mwana Project).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruzzone, Bianca; Saladini, Francesco; Sticchi, Laura; Mayinda Mboungou, Franc A; Barresi, Renata; Caligiuri, Patrizia; Calzi, Anna; Zazzi, Maurizio; Icardi, Giancarlo; Viscoli, Claudio; Bisio, Francesca

    2015-08-01

    The Kento-Mwana project was carried out in Pointe Noire, Republic of the Congo, to prevent mother-to-child HIV-1 transmission. To determine the prevalence of different subtypes and transmitted drug resistance-associated mutations, 95 plasma samples were collected at baseline from HIV-1-positive naive pregnant women enrolled in the project during the years 2005-2008. Full protease and partial reverse transcriptase sequencing was performed and 68/95 (71.6%) samples were successfully sequenced. Major mutations to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, and protease inhibitors were detected in 4/68 (5.9%), 3/68 (4.4%), and 2/68 (2.9%) samples, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis of HIV-1 isolates showed a high prevalence of unique recombinant forms (24/68, 35%), followed by CRF45_cpx (7/68, 10.3%) and subsubtype A3 and subtype G (6/68 each, 8.8%). Although the prevalence of transmitted drug resistance mutations appears to be currently limited, baseline HIV-1 genotyping is highly advisable in conjunction with antiretroviral therapy scale-up in resource-limited settings to optimize treatment and prevent perinatal transmission. PMID:25970260

  18. Immobilization of pentachlorophenol in soil using carbonaceous material amendments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen Bei [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shuangqing Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100085 (China)], E-mail: bwen@rcees.ac.cn; Li Ruijuan; Zhang Shuzhen [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shuangqing Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100085 (China); Shan Xiaoquan [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shuangqing Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100085 (China)], E-mail: xiaoquan@rcees.ac.cn; Fang Jing; Xiao Ke [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shuangqing Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100085 (China); Khan, Shahamat U. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, MSN 3E2, George Mason University, 4400 University Drive, Fairfax, VA 22030-4444 (United States)

    2009-03-15

    In this study, three pentachlorophenol (PCP) laboratory-spiked and one field-contaminated soil were amended with 2.0% char, humic acid (HA) and peat, respectively. The amended soils were aged for either 7 or 250 days. After amendment, CaCl{sub 2} extractability of PCP was significantly decreased. Desorption kinetics indicated that the proposed amendment could lead to a strong binding and slow desorption of PCP in soils. Amendment with char reduced the bioaccumulation factor (BAF) of PCP most significantly for earthworms (Eisenia fetida) in all soils studied. The results of both physicochemical and biological tests suggested that amendment reduced PCP bioavailability quickly and enduringly, implying that carbonaceous material amendment, especially char amendment, was a potentially attractive in situ remediation method for sequestration of PCP in contaminated soil. - Carbonaceous material amendment was a potential in situ remediation method for pentachlorophenol contaminated soil.

  19. The Letter of Fr. S. Bulgakov to Hieromonk Afanasy (Petrov

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Burmistrov, A. Kozyrev

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The text of the Letter of Fr. S. Bulgakov to Hieromonk Afanasy (Petrov is first published from the original manuscript. It was written at the height of the famous «dispute on Sophia». The Bulgakov’s understanding of the sense of his own way of theology is discussed as well as his attitude to existent events and their main participants. The text is supplied with the substantial introduction which specifies the context and circumstances of its appearance, and gives detailed commentary to personalia and main problems related to it.

  20. WRITING FOR A REAL AUDIENCE: A LETTER-EXCHANGE PROJECT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In an EFL class, writing for a real audience can bring aboutmany inherent educational benefits. However, this is often ne-glected by many language teachers. This paper reports on the re-sults obtained from using a writing for a real audience project inan Intensive Reading course for non-English majors. Students inthis project wrote letters to their partners in the target languageand shared information with each other. The author found thatthe process of writing for a real audience can not only help stu-dents practice using the target language but also can encouragethem to overcome writing apprehension.

  1. Charles Dickens and the Cat Paw Letter Opener

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Pyke

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the sensory expectations around Victorian taxidermy, beginning with Charles Dickens’s letter opener made from the paw of his favourite cat and moving to a discussion of 'Our Mutual Friend'. I suggest that in a mid-Victorian moment in which work and laziness are polarized as the available moral, economic, and social categories, a desire for stillness, a space that is neither work nor laziness, exists in the encounter with taxidermied animals. The taxidermied animal allows energy and stillness to coexist.

  2. Why the DSM? – Letter to the Editors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cozic, Jean-Yves

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The psychological experience is not always in register to pathology. Classification must be as close as possible to the clinical examination, but also respectful of human principles. For a long time classifications have had a Linnaean feel; the concern of psychatrists with little leeway for therapeutic action. Professor PELICIER was accustomed to saying that this classifications could be called “herbarium of the flowers of Evil”, with a capital letter on Flowers, recalling one of our great poets, Charles Baudelaire, who described melancholy so well: “When the low, heavy sky weighs like a lid on the groaning spirit, victim of long ennui”.

  3. 3D Printing the Big Letters in the JDRF Logo

    OpenAIRE

    Aboufadel, Edward F.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this short paper is to describe a project to manufacture a 3D-print of the big letters in the logo for JDRF (formerly known as the Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation). The methods described in this paper involve processing the image of the logo through a Mathematica script, and the methods can be applied to most logos and other images that are sparse in the sense of not having many edges within the image. With the Mathematica script, a STereoLithography (.stl) file is create...

  4. Resource Letter PhD-2: Physics Demonstrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Richard E.

    2012-03-01

    This Resource Letter provides a guide to physics demonstrations, computer simulations of physics demonstrations, and physics education research regarding the use and effectiveness of demonstrations and simulations. Articles, books, and materials on the internet are cited for the following: professional journals dealing with demonstrations, web sites of professional organizations, workshops including use of demonstrations and simulations, books dealing with demonstrations in classroom teaching as well as informal settings, web sites for physics demonstrations, videos of physics demonstrations, demonstration simulations, and physics education research regarding the use of demonstrations in teaching.

  5. Resource Letter PTG-1: Precision Tests of Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Will, Clifford M

    2010-01-01

    This resource letter provides an introduction to some of the main current topics in experimental tests of general relativity as well as to some of the historical literature. It is intended to serve as a guide to the field for upper-division undergraduate and graduate students, both theoretical and experimental, and for workers in other fields of physics who wish learn about experimental gravity. The topics covered include alternative theories of gravity, tests of the principle of equivalence, solar-system and binary-pulsar tests, searches for new physics in gravitational arenas, and tests of gravity in new regimes, involving astrophysics and gravitational radiation.

  6. A Reconsideration of Nathaniel Hawthorne’s The Scarlet Letter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uğur Uçum

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at offering an in-depth analysis of both the 1926 and the 1995 movie adaptations of Nathaniel Hawthorne’s 1850 novel The Scarlet Letter. Caught in a story of love and shame, of sin and salvation, Hester Prynne oscillates between Roger Chillingworth and Arthur Dimmesdale, two men too coward to bear the consequences of their actions. Why is Hester’s story still fascinating today? Will contemporary readers be willing to read the 1850 novel? Which are the main differences between the 2 movie adaptations? These are only a few of the questions this paper focuses upon.

  7. Science Letters: Lattice type transmission line of negative refractive index

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In this letter, we introduce a novel passive transmission line of negative refractive index (i.e., left-handedness) based on identical symmetrical lattice type structures [thus called "lattice type transmission line" (LT-TL)]. The dispersion characteristic and the transmission response of the proposed LT-TL are analyzed. While all the other left-handed passive transmission lines are of high pass, the present passive left-handed transmission line is of low pass. Compared with a conventional transmission line, the LT-TL has a phase shift of 180° in the entire wide pass-band.

  8. Critical band masking reveals the effects of optical distortions on the channel mediating letter identification

    OpenAIRE

    Young, Laura K.; Smithson, Hannah E.

    2014-01-01

    There is evidence that letter identification is mediated by only a narrow band of spatial frequencies and that the center frequency of the neural channel thought to underlie this selectivity is related to the size of the letters. When letters are spatially filtered (at a fixed size) the channel tuning characteristics change according to the properties of the spatial filter (Majaj et al., 2002). Optical aberrations in the eye act to spatially filter the image formed on the retina—their effect ...

  9. Critical band masking reveals the effects of optical distortions on the channel mediating letter identification

    OpenAIRE

    Laura eYoung; Hannah eSmithson

    2014-01-01

    There is evidence that letter identification is mediated by only a narrow band of spatial frequencies and that the centre frequency of the neural channel thought to underlie this selectivity is related to the size of the letters. When letters are spatially filtered (at a fixed size) the channel tuning characteristics change according to the properties of the spatial filter (Majaj et al., 2002). Optical aberrations in the eye act to spatially filter the image formed on the retina - their effec...

  10. Persuasive Discourse Strategies Used in Persian and English Business Letters Biook Behnam

    OpenAIRE

    Jafar Zamanian

    2014-01-01

    Understanding differences in communication styles is becoming much important in intercultural business communication. This study aims to report the result a contrastive study of rhetorical differences between Persian and English "For Your Information" (FYI) letters and investigate how information is presented in business correspondence and what rhetorical strategies are used to illicit compliance by a given readership in a given culture. (FYI letter is a kind of business letter informing the ...

  11. Missive dal limbo. Lettere inedite di Florence MacKnight al barone Bettino Ricasoli (1869)

    OpenAIRE

    Diego Salvadori

    2015-01-01

    This article introduces a series of unpublished letters, held by the Archivio di Stato in Florence, written by Florence MacKnight to Baron Bettino Ricasoli and analyses how letter writing becomes a means of affirming feminine identity, by way of a different conception of maternity. The letters contribute to foregrounding Florence’s personality and biography and, furthermore, her relationship with the Florentine societal cultural context.

  12. The "Letter" and the play of the correspondence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joacy Ghizzi Neto

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The present essays has as it bottom line the short story “The Purloined Letter” by Edgar Alan Poe and the respectives analysis done by Jacques Lacan in “O Seminário A carta roubada” (Escritos, 1998 and by Jacques Derrida in “O carteiro da verdade” (O cartão-postal, 2007, beyond the reading by Nancy and Labarthe in O título da letra and also Rene Major in Lacan com Derrida, with the wager at the potency of the significant letter/lettre that has a double meaning as “carta” and as “letra”, with its potency, as letter, as possible literature. The present work concern aswell with another readings, about epistolography, by Josefina Ludmer, Emile Cioran, Juan José Saer, Liliana Heer, Silviano Santiago. The present work approaches aswell the reading by Michel Foucault in “A escrita de si” (O que é um autor?, 1992 arguing that the correspondence as a way of “escrita de si”, despite it is destinated, in principle to an other. The present essays has as principle objective to think the proceeding of correspondence between artists/poets as a play of ambivalent positions, and not as how a static share between the remitter and the receiver.

  13. BIBLICAL METAPHORS IN LETTERS OF LEV OF OPTINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Olegovna Zakharchenko

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the first analysis of tropes in the letters of the first Elder Lev (Nagolkin of Optina Pustyn Monastery (Opta’s hermitage – i. e. proverbs, allusions, allegories periphrasis and metaphors. Elder Lev most frequently used such tropes as "the storm of temptations", "the heart field", "happy harvest", "rags of the passions", "the marriage of the soul", "verbal sheep", "soldier of Christ", "spiritual milk", "the mind’s wolf", "a log of pride". One special thing about these tropes is that they blend together severalbiblical quotations and the Gospel images. Both simple and extended metaphors are used, and all the metaphors in the letters of St. Lev of Optina have a special function: they actualize biblical events, describe symbolically the inner world of a person and show the way to the salvation of the soul. It is typical of the Elder to use his own unique tropes, which are very diff erent from the traditional poetic images of the Russian literature of the 19th century.

  14. 32 CFR 505.6 - Amendment of records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PUBLIC RELATIONS ARMY PRIVACY ACT PROGRAM § 505.6 Amendment of records. (a) Amended records. (1... Center. (7) Inspector General investigative files and action request/complaint files (records in...

  15. AFSC/REFM: Amendment 80 Economic Data Report Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Annual series of economic data collected for years 2008 and forward for the Amendment 80 Economic Data Report (EDR). Reporting is required of holders of Amendment...

  16. 29 CFR 2200.106 - Amendment to rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., amend or revoke any of the rules contained herein. The Commission invites suggestions from interested parties to amend or revoke rules of procedure. Such suggestions should be addressed to the...

  17. 7 CFR 1726.400 - Final contract amendment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE ELECTRIC SYSTEM CONSTRUCTION POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Contract Closeout § 1726.400 Final contract amendment. As needed, a final contract amendment will be prepared and processed in accordance with § 1726.24... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Final contract amendment. 1726.400 Section...

  18. 75 FR 65641 - Risk Communication Advisory Committee; Amendment of Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Risk Communication Advisory Committee; Amendment of Notice... announcing an amendment to the notice of meeting of the Risk Communication Advisory Committee. This meeting was announced in the Federal Register of September 20, 2010 (75 FR 57279). The amendment is being...

  19. 14 CFR 91.1017 - Amending program manager's management specifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Amending program manager's management... Ownership Operations Program Management § 91.1017 Amending program manager's management specifications. (a... specifications; or (2) The program manager applies for the amendment of any management specifications, and...

  20. 32 CFR 701.108 - Amendment of records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... disclosure accounting record) that the amendment has been made and provide each a copy of the amended record... of amendment even if those activities or agencies are not listed on the disclosure accounting form... statement of disagreement to all individuals listed on the disclosure accounting form (except those...

  1. 33 CFR 105.415 - Amendment and audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: FACILITIES Facility Security Plan (FSP) § 105.415 Amendment and audit. (a... security measures being audited. (5) If the results of an audit require amendment of either the FSA or FSP... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amendment and audit....

  2. 33 CFR 104.415 - Amendment and audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: VESSELS Vessel Security Plan (VSP) § 104.415 Amendment and audit. (a... independent of any security measures being audited. (5) If the results of an audit require amendment of either... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amendment and audit....

  3. 75 FR 35973 - Trademark Technical and Conforming Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-24

    ... Conforming Amendments AGENCY: United States Patent and Trademark Office, Commerce. ACTION: Interim final rule... amending the Rules of Practice in Trademark Cases to implement the Trademark Technical and Conforming... Technical and Conforming Amendment Act of 2010 became effective on March 17, 2010. Public Law 111-146,...

  4. 75 FR 39323 - Amendment to the Biometric Visa Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-08

    ... applicants beginning at age 7 and above under the program for issuance of biometric Border Crossing Cards... Amendment to the Biometric Visa Program AGENCY: Department of State. ACTION: Notice of Amendment to the Biometric Visa Program. This public notice announces an amendment to the Biometric Visa Program. Section...

  5. 16 CFR 1031.3 - Consumer Product Safety Act amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Consumer Product Safety Act amendments. 1031.3 Section 1031.3 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL COMMISSION... Consumer Product Safety Act amendments. The Consumer Product Safety Act, as amended, contains...

  6. 10 CFR 76.45 - Application for amendment of certificate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Application for amendment of certificate. 76.45 Section 76.45 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Application § 76.45 Application for amendment of certificate. (a) Contents of an amendment application....

  7. Amending America: Proposed Amendments to the United States Constitution, 1787 to 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Archives and Records Administration — This dataset provides information about more than 11,000 proposed Constitutional amendments introduced in the United States Congress from 1787 to 2014. This dataset...

  8. Multiple Levels of Letter Representation in Written Spelling: Evidence From a Single Case of Dysgraphia with Multiple Deficits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Pierre de Partz

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we report a detailed analysis of the impaired performance of a dysgraphic individual, AD, who produced similar rates of letter-level errors in written spelling, oral spelling, and typing. We found that the distribution of various letter error types displayed a distinct pattern in written spelling on the one hand and in oral spelling and typing on the other. In particular, noncontextual letter substitution errors (i.e., errors in which the erroneous letter that replaces the target letter does not occur elsewhere within the word were virtually absent in oral spelling and typing and mainly found in written spelling. In contrast, letter deletion errors and multiple-letter errors were typically found in oral spelling and very exceptional in written spelling. Only contextual letter substitution errors (i.e., errors in which the erroneous letter that replaces the target letter is identical to a letter occurring earlier or later in the word were found in similar proportions in the three tasks. We argue that these contrasting patterns of letter error distribution result from damage to two distinct levels of letter representation and processing within the spelling system, namely, the amodal graphemic representation held in the graphemic buffer and the letter form representation computed by subsequent writing-specific processes. Then, we examined the relationship between error and target in the letter substitution errors produced in written and oral spelling and found evidence that distinct types of letter representation are processed at each of the hypothetized levels of damage: symbolic letter representation at the graphemic level and representation of the component graphic strokes at the letter form processing level.

  9. Rapping the 27 Amendments to the Constitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knaresborough, Adam

    2009-01-01

    Early in the year, the students of history and government at Mountain View High School in Stafford, Virginia, began to devise hand motions to help memorize the 27 amendments to the Constitution for government class. Three students in the school who are interested in hip hop music then suggested composing a rap song about the topic. Working with…

  10. 12 CFR 19.20 - Amended pleadings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... administrative law judge orders otherwise for good cause. (b) Amendments to conform to the evidence. When issues... within the issues raised by the notice or answer, the administrative law judge may admit the evidence... fails to satisfy the administrative law judge that the admission of such evidence would...

  11. 75 FR 82228 - IFR Altitudes; Miscellaneous Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-30

    ... ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does... FIX Youngstown, OH VORTAC... 2900 Youngstown, OH VORTAC Mercy, PA FIX *5000 *3000--MOCA *3000--GNSS MEA Mercy, PA FIX Clarion, PA VOR/DME..... 3600 ] Sec. 95.6007 VOR Federal Airway V7 Is Amended...

  12. Employee Rights Versus the First Amendment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Lois; Teaster, Gale; Kelley, Gloria

    1998-01-01

    Illustrates a case of a student art exhibit in the Winthrop University, South Carolina Library, where freedom of expression interfered with employee rights in the workplace. The Dean of Libraries stated that the library could not act as a censor, and that they were obligated to defend the First Amendment; the controversial statue remained, but…

  13. 76 FR 34883 - Pesticide Tolerances; Technical Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-15

    ...; Avocado; Fig; Fruit, citrus; Fruit, pome; Fruit, stone; Olive and Pistachio; and revise paragraph (c) to... registrations'') to 40 CFR 180.1(l). 75 FR 76284 (December 8, 2010) (FRL-8853-8). No amendments were made to the... Orders 12866 (58 FR 51735, October 4, 1993) and Executive Order 13653 (76 FR 3821, January 21, 2011)....

  14. 77 FR 21359 - MARPOL Annex I Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-09

    ... international convention covering prevention of pollution of the marine environment by ships from either... aquatic environments. The Coast Guard believes that the risk of oil pollution from inadvertent discharges... regarding oil pollution and safety of life at sea. The Coast Guard proposes to amend our...

  15. The Nineteenth Amendment: Reform or Revolution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocco, Margaret Smith; Brooks, Della Barr

    1995-01-01

    Maintains that, although many suffrage supporters anticipated a new political age after passage of the 19th Amendment, women have begun to realize their electoral potential only in recent years. Describes the role of women in politics and political opinion from the 1920s to the present. (CFR)

  16. 77 FR 50909 - IFR Altitudes; Miscellaneous Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-23

    ... ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does... Wetzl, KS FIX Napoleon, MO VORTAC.... 3100 Sec. 95.6012 VOR Federal Airway V12 Is Amended To Read in Part Emporia, KS VORTAC Wetzl, KS FIX *5000 *2600--MOCA *3000--GNSS MEA Wetzl, KS FIX Napoleon,...

  17. 75 FR 24790 - IFR Altitudes; Miscellaneous Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-06

    ... ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does... Ascot, TX FIX Solon, TX FIX *4000 *1500-MOCA Cleep, TX FIX *Legge, TX FIX 3100 *3000-MRA Napoleon, MO... Amended to Read in Part Holly Springs, MS VORTAC......... Gilmore, AR VOR/DME..... 2500 Napoleon,...

  18. Religious Law Schools and the First Amendment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noonan, John T., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    It is proposed that the values and environment of a church-related law school differ from those of secular institutions because of the religious orientation of faculty and students, and fostering such an institution is religious freedom, now threatened by accreditation rules and current First Amendment jurisprudence. (Author/MSE)

  19. Vertical Integration, Monopoly, and the First Amendment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Timothy J.

    This paper addresses the relationship between the First Amendment, monopoly of transmission media, and vertical integration of transmission and content provision. A survey of some of the incentives a profit-maximizing transmission monopolist may have with respect to content is followed by a discussion of how vertical integration affects those…

  20. 77 FR 38477 - IFR Altitudes; Miscellaneous Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-28

    ... ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policiesand Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does... KREMMLING, CO VOR/DME * ALLAN, CO FIX......... * * 16000 * 16000--MRA ** 15400--MOCA * MTA V361 SW TO V85 SE 14700 * MTA V361 SW TO V85 NW 16500 Sec. 95.6366 VOR Federal Airway V366 is Amended to Read in Part...

  1. Point Counterpoint: The English Language Amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdock, Deroy; Brown, Willie, Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Presents two views on recognizing English as the official language of the U.S. Proponents say it will help immigrants advance themselves and will bind Americans together. Critics argue that the amendment does not increase English proficiency but punishes those who have not learned; it also heightens racism and xenophobia. (LHW)

  2. 76 FR 46202 - IFR Altitudes; Miscellaneous Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-02

    ..., MT FIX Billings, MT VORTAC. W BND 9000 E BND 6400 Sec. 95.6026 VOR Federal Airway V26 Is Amended To... Part Livingston, MT VOR/DME Reepo, MT FIX 9700 Colus, MT FIX Billings, MT VORTAC. ] W BND 9000 E BND... ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3)...

  3. 21 CFR 514.6 - Amended applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS NEW ANIMAL DRUG APPLICATIONS General Provisions § 514.6 Amended applications... of the drug or the adequacy of the manufacturing methods, facilities, and controls to preserve...

  4. 44 CFR 19.235 - Statutory amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Statutory amendments. 19.235 Section 19.235 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... of factors related to the individual's personal appearance, poise, and talent. The pageant,...

  5. Alternatives to crop residues for soil amendment

    OpenAIRE

    Powell, J.M.; Unger, P.W.

    1997-01-01

    Metadata only record In semiarid agroecosystems, crop residues can provide important benefits of soil and water conservation, nutrient cycling, and improved subsequent crop yields. However, there are frequently multiple competing uses for residues, including animal forage, fuel, and construction material. This chapter discusses the various uses of crop residues and examines alternative soil amendments when crop residues cannot be left on the soil.

  6. Lost and Found, Letters and Methods: Assessing Attitudes toward Chiropractic and Medical Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Kern

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Attitudes toward traditional and chiropractic medicine were compared using Milgram's lost letter technique. A total of 192 letters were placed on the windshields of vehicles in parking lots at six restaurants and department stores in each of four quadrants of a medium-sized, Southeastern city. These letters were addressed to "Admissions" at either a fictitious Institute of Medicine or Institute of Chiropractic Care. Return addresses included either a male or a female name. Thus, those who found a lost letter were faced with the option of returning or not returning a letter from either a male or a female, addressed to an Institute of traditional or non-traditional medicine. After examining previous studies which had used the lost letter technique, numerous methodological improvements were implemented. For example, letters were randomly assigned to potential drop spots for each of 24 study locations (six study locations in each of four city quadrants, and a Latin square design was used to control for possible order effects in the four study conditions that were implemented. Nearly 65% of the letters (124 of 192 were returned. We found: 1 letters addressed to a fictitious Institute of Chiropractic Care were just as likely to be returned as those addressed to a fictitious Institute of Medicine; 2 letters with female return addresses were as likely to be returned as those with male return addresses; 3 there was no interaction between study conditions; 4 based on what was essentially a replication study, a comparison of the pattern of returns using the first and second cycle of lost letters (n = 96 for each cycle revealed an equivalent pattern of no-difference findings. DOI: 10.2458/azu_jmmss.v1i1.78

  7. Alum amendment effects on phosphorus release and distribution in poultry litter-amended sandy soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staats, K.E.; Arai, Y.; Sparks, D.L.

    2004-01-01

    Increased poultry production has contributed to excess nutrient problems in Atlantic Coastal Plain soils due to land application of poultry litter (PL). Aluminum sulfate [alum, Al2(SO4)3?? 14H2O] amendment of PL effectively reduces soluble phosphorus (P) in the PL; however, the effects of these litters when added to acidic, sandy soils are not well understood. The objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy of alum-amended poultry litter in reducing P release from three Delaware Coastal Plain soils: Evesboro loamy sand (Ev; excessively drained, mesic, coated Typic Quartzipsamments), Rumford loamy sand (Ru; well drained, coarse-loamy, siliceous, subactive, thermic Typic Hapludults), and Pocomoke sandy loam (Pm; very poorly drained, coarse-loamy, siliceous, active, thermic Typic Umbraquults). Long-term (25 d) and short-term (24 h) desorption studies were conducted, in addition to chemical extractions and kinetic modeling, to observe the changes that alum-amended versus unamended PL caused in the soils. The Ev, Ru, and Pm soils were incubated with 9 Mg ha-1 of alum-amended or unamended PL. Long-term desorption (25 d) of the incubated material resulted in approximately 13.5% (Ev), 12.7% (Ru), and 13.3% (Pm) reductions in cumulative P desorbed when comparing soil treated with unamended and alum-amended PL. In addition, the P release from the soil treated with alum-amended litter was not significantly different from the control (soil alone). Short-term desorption (24 h) showed 7.3% (Ev), 15.4% (Ru), and 20% (Pm) reductions. The overall implication from this study is that the use of alum as a PL amendment is useful in coarse-textured soils of the Coastal Plain. With increased application of alum-amended PL, more significant decreases may be possible with little or no effect on soil quality.

  8. Science Letters: Efficient page layout analysis on small devices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eun-jung HAN; Chee-onn WONG; Kee-chul JUNG; Kyung-ho LEE; Eun-yi KIM

    2009-01-01

    Previously we have designed and implemented new image browsing facilities to support effective offline image contents on mobile devices with limited capabilities: low bandwidth, small display, and slow processing. In this letter, we fulfill the automatic production of cartoon contents fitting small-screen display, and introduce a clustering method useful for various types of cartoon images as a prerequisite stage for preserving semantic meaning. The usage of neural networks is to properly cut the various forms of pages. Texture information that is useful for grayscale image segmentation gives us a good clue for page layout analysis using the multilayer perceptron (MLP) based x-y recursive algorithm. We also automatically frame the segment MLP using agglomerative segmentation. Our experimental results show that the combined approaches yield good results of segmentation for several cartoons.

  9. MARGINALIA TO BIRCHBARK LETTERS AND SOME OLD RUSSIAN EPIGRAPHIC TEXTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina A. Bobrik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This series of notes deals with several lexical (bebrъkъ ‘young beaver’, ryti rěku ‘to change the course of a river by digging a channel’, na časy ‘in time’, grammatical (object case variation in the name lists to commemorate during the liturgy and phonetic (pronunciation of tense consonants reflected in writing phenomena in birch bark letters (№ 7, 59, 445, 506, 508а, 508б, 522, 541, 542, 551, 559, 560, 561, 595, 765 and in two Old Russian inscriptions — on the Sterzhen Cross (1133 A.D. and in the Church of Sts. Boris and Gleb in Novogrudok (12th c.. Some refinements to prior interpretations are proposed, and, in addition, some novel solutions. 

  10. The signage archive: type and lettering around the world

    OpenAIRE

    Zalazar, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Com a evolução das tecnologias novas técnicas são desenvolvidas, colocando em risco técnicas antigas de comunicação como, por exemplo, letterings pintados à mão nas paredes dos edifícios das cidades, que dia após dia vão sendo retirados. Como consequência, acreditamos que estão a ser perdidas características próprias que representam e caracterizam uma cidade. Durante este projeto, foram investigados vários outros, relacionados com a documentação de imagens de letreiros que p...

  11. DOE Advanced Scientific Advisory Committee (ASCAC): Workforce Subcommittee Letter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, Barbara [University of Houston; Calandra, Henri [Total SA; Crivelli, Silvia [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Davis; Dongarra, Jack [University of Tennessee; Hittinger, Jeffrey [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; Lathrop, Scott A. [NCSA, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign; Sarkar, Vivek [Rice University; Stahlberg, Eric [Advanced Biomedical Computing Center; Vetter, Jeffrey S. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Williams, Dean [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    2014-07-23

    Simulation and computing are essential to much of the research conducted at the DOE national laboratories. Experts in the ASCR ¬relevant Computing Sciences, which encompass a range of disciplines including Computer Science, Applied Mathematics, Statistics and domain Computational Sciences, are an essential element of the workforce in nearly all of the DOE national laboratories. This report seeks to identify the gaps and challenges facing DOE with respect to this workforce. This letter is ASCAC’s response to the charge of February 19, 2014 to identify disciplines in which significantly greater emphasis in workforce training at the graduate or postdoctoral levels is necessary to address workforce gaps in current and future Office of Science mission needs.

  12. Modern physics letters A special issue on hadrontherapy

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    CERN Courier Review (Jul 8, 2016) : The applications of nuclear and particle physics to medicine have seen extraordinary development since the discovery of X-rays by Röntgen at the end of the 19th century. Medical imaging and oncologic therapy with photons and charged particles (specifically hadrons) are currently hot research topics. This special issue of Modern Physics Letters is dedicated to hadron therapy, which is the frontier of cancer radiation therapy, and aims at filling a gap in the current literature on medical physics. Through 10 invited review papers, the volume presents the basics of hadron therapy, along with the most recent scientific and technological developments in the field. The first part covers topics such as the history of hadron therapy, radiation biophysics, particle accelerators, dose-delivery systems and treatment planning. In the second part, more specific topics are treated, including dose and beam monitoring, proton computer tomography, innoacustics and microdosimetry. This vo...

  13. Tank waste source term inventory validation. Volume 1. Letter report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brevick, C.H.; Gaddis, L.A.; Johnson, E.D.

    1995-04-28

    The sample data for selection of 11 radionuclides and 24 chemical analytes were extracted from six separate sample data sets, were arranged in a tabular format and were plotted on scatter plots for all of the 149 single-shell tanks, the 24 double-shell tanks and the four aging waste tanks. The solid and liquid sample data was placed in separate tables and plots. The sample data and plots were compiled from the following data sets: characterization raw sample data, recent core samples, D. Braun data base, Wastren (Van Vleet) data base, TRAC and HTCE inventories. This document is Volume I of the Letter Report entitled Tank Waste Source Term Inventory Validation.

  14. 50 CFR Table 38 to Part 679 - GOA Amendment 80 Sideboard Limit for Halibut PSC for the Amendment 80 Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Halibut PSC for the Amendment 80 Sector 38 Table 38 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY... Sideboard Limit for Halibut PSC for the Amendment 80 Sector In the ... The maximum percentage of the total GOA halibut PSC limit that may be used by all Amendment 80 qualified vessels subject to the...

  15. Contributions of Emergent Literacy Skills to Name Writing, Letter Writing, and Spelling in Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puranik, Cynthia S.; Lonigan, Christopher J.; Kim, Young-Suk

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine which emergent literacy skills contribute to preschool children's emergent writing (name-writing, letter-writing, and spelling) skills. Emergent reading and writing tasks were administered to 296 preschool children aged 4-5 years. Print knowledge and letter-writing skills made positive contributions to name…

  16. 31 CFR 515.406 - Drafts under irrevocable letters of credit; documentary drafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... credit; documentary drafts. 515.406 Section 515.406 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to... CONTROL REGULATIONS Interpretations § 515.406 Drafts under irrevocable letters of credit; documentary... “effective date” had any interest, drawn under any irrevocable letter of credit; and (c) Documentary...

  17. Lettered Resistance at the Genoa Indian School, Genoa, Nebraska (1884-1934).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodburn, Amy

    Little attention has been paid to students' specific literacy practices within Indian boarding schools. This paper examines the letter writing practices of students from the Genoa Industrial Indian School (GIS) in Genoa, Nebraska, from 1884-1934. The paper "reads" the letters as social spaces where cultures meet, clash, and grapple with each…

  18. Resource Letter TTSM-1: Teaching thermodynamics and statistical mechanics in introductory physics, chemistry, and biology

    OpenAIRE

    Dreyfus, Benjamin W.; Geller, Benjamin D.; Meltzer, David E.; Sawtelle, Vashti

    2014-01-01

    This Resource Letter draws on discipline-based education research from physics, chemistry, and biology to collect literature on the teaching of thermodynamics and statistical mechanics in the three disciplines. While the overlap among the disciplinary literatures is limited at present, we hope this Resource Letter will spark more interdisciplinary interaction.

  19. Harvard Education Letter. Volume 24, Number 6, November-December 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauncey, Caroline, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    "Harvard Education Letter" is published bimonthly by the Harvard Graduate School of Education. This issue of "Harvard Education Letter" contains the following articles: (1) When Worlds Collide: Universal PreK Brings New Challenges for Public Elementary Schools (David McKay Wilson); (2) Answers and Questions: Schools Survey Their Students--and…

  20. Harvard Education Letter. Volume 26, Number 5, September-October 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walser, Nancy, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    "Harvard Education Letter" is published bimonthly at the Harvard Graduate School of Education. This issue of "Harvard Education Letter" contains the following articles: (1) Scenes from the School Turnaround Movement: Passion, Frustration, Mid-Course Corrections Mark Rapid Reforms (Laura Pappano); (2) The Media Savvy Educator: How to Work with the…