WorldWideScience

Sample records for ameliorations apportees aux

  1. The treatment of effluents; Ameliorations apportees aux traitements des residus radioactifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wormser, G; Rodier, J; Robien, E de; Fernandez, N [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    resins are used in the sodium form; the regeneration is carried out using a sodium salt solution which, after decontamination by coprecipitation is used again. With this process it is possible to use a smaller volume of sludge. 2 - The use of a natural evaporator. This process uses atmospheric air which is not saturated with water vapour and which is at a normal temperature, in order to extract water from the aqueous effluents. (authors) [French] Depuis plusieurs annees, le Commissariat a l'Eneregie Atomique Francais s'est penche avec interet sur les problemes poses par les effluents radioactifs. Les hautes activites n'ayant pas encore recu de solution definitive, nous nous bornerons a traiter, dans cette communication, que des realisations et des recherches relatives aux effluents faiblement et moyennement actifs. Dans le domaine des realisations, diverses stations de traitement ont ete construites en France; nous en ferons une breve enumeration, tout en faisant ressortir les nouveautes les plus importantes. C'est ainsi que nous presenterons plus specialement les dernieres stations de traitement mises en oeuvre (Grenoble, Fontenay-aux-Roses, Cadarache). De I'ensemble de ces realisations nouvelles, nous traiterons d'une maniere un peu plus approfondie, les trois sujets suivants: 1 - Atelier de conditionnement par bitumage des boues provenant de la concentration des radio-nucleides. 2 - Atelier de traitement des dechets solides radioactifs et combustibles par incineration. 3 - Ensemble de concentration effluents liquides radioactifs par evaporation. Dans le domaine de la recherche, de nombreuses voies ont ete abordees; nous en ferons I'inventaire. Il s'agit, dans la plupart des cas, de la concentration des radio-nucleides en vue d'un stockage pratique et peu onereux, concentration associee a une decontamination efficace, et Ie meilleur marche possible, des liquides aqueux, en vue de leur rejet. Pour l'amelioration des traitements aboutissant a la concentration des radio

  2. Improvements made in the methods of purifying uranium compounds and in the production of uranium metal at the Bouchet plant; Ameliorations apportees aux procedes de purification des composes d'uranium et a la fabrication de l'uranium metal a l'usine du Bouchet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decrop, J; Delange, M; Holder, J; Huet, H; Sauteron, J; Vertes, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    en plus pauvres et il s'est avere plus rentable de proceder sur place au traitement chimique de ces minerais pauvres, apres triage et eventuellement preconcentration plus ou moins pousses. Il en resulte que l'Usine du Bouchet ne recoit plus guere de minerais d'uranium, par contre, les Exploitations minieres lui envoient tous leurs concentres chimiques: phosphate uraneux puis uranate de soude de l'Usine de Gueugnon, en Saone-et-Loire, depuis 1955, uranate de magnesie de l'Usine de l'Ecarpiere, en Vendee, depuis le debut de 1957 et, bientot, produits de l'Usine en cours d'achevement a Bessines, pres des mines de la Crouzille. A l'Usine meme du Bouchet, un appoint non negligeable en uranate de soude provient du traitement des tres riches minerais d'uranothorianite pour lequel un atelier moderne a ete specialement monte et qui fait l'objet d'une communication separee. 3- Necessite d'adapter constamment les methodes de traitement aux diverses categories de concentres, dont la variete, qui vient d'etre soulignee, a entraine de nombreuses mises au point. (auteur)

  3. Solutions to criticality problems in a plutonium extraction plant; Solutions apportees aux problemes de criticite d'une usine d'extraction du plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jouannaud, C.; Rodier, J.; Fruchard, Y.; Peyresblanques, H.; Papault, C.; Tabardel-Brian, R. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Chusclan (France). Centre de Production de Plutonium de Marcoule, service d' extraction du plutonium, service de protection contre les radiations et d' assainissement radioactif

    1968-08-01

    There are two aspects to nuclear criticality safety: prevention of criticality and protection against the consequences of a possible accident: this report considers these two aspects in the case of the Marcoule Plutonium Extraction Plant. After briefly recalling the various techniques used for avoiding criticality (mass, geometry, concentration, poisoning), the authors describe their application in the plant and show in particular that, a rational use of a favorable geometry is a factor both for security and from an economic point of view. The authors then describe the inside organisation which makes it possible to obtain the necessary intrinsic safety standard right from the advance project stage, and to control the workshop safety during the operation of the plant. The second part of the report deals with the system of protection against the consequences of a possible accident: definition of a typical accident, fixing of the boundaries of a critical zone, safety alarm device, individual and collective dosimetry, evacuation plan and safety instructions. (authors) [French] La securite vis-a-vis des risques de criticite revet deux aspects: la prevention de la criticite et la protection contre les consequences d'un accident eventuel: le present rapport developpe ces deux aspects dans le cas de l'Usine d'Extraction du Plutonium de Marcoule. Apres avoir rappele les differentes techniques de prevention de la criticite (masse, geometrie, concentration, empoisonnement), les auteurs decrivent leur application a l'Usine et montrent notamment que l'utilisation rationnelle de la geometrie favorable est un double facteur de securite et d'economie. Les auteurs decrivent ensuite l'organisation interieure qui permet de realiser la securite intrinseque des le stade d'un avant projet et de controler la securite des ateliers au cours de la vie de l'Usine. La deuxieme partie du rapport est consacree au systeme de protection contre les consequences d'un accident eventuel: definition d'un accident-type, delimitation, des zones a risque critique, dispositif d'alarme, dosimetrie individuelle et collective, plan d'evacuation et consignes. (auteurs)

  4. Solutions to criticality problems in a plutonium extraction plant; Solutions apportees aux problemes de criticite d'une usine d'extraction du plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jouannaud, C; Rodier, J; Fruchard, Y; Peyresblanques, H; Papault, C; Tabardel-Brian, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Chusclan (France). Centre de Production de Plutonium de Marcoule, service d' extraction du plutonium, service de protection contre les radiations et d' assainissement radioactif

    1968-08-01

    There are two aspects to nuclear criticality safety: prevention of criticality and protection against the consequences of a possible accident: this report considers these two aspects in the case of the Marcoule Plutonium Extraction Plant. After briefly recalling the various techniques used for avoiding criticality (mass, geometry, concentration, poisoning), the authors describe their application in the plant and show in particular that, a rational use of a favorable geometry is a factor both for security and from an economic point of view. The authors then describe the inside organisation which makes it possible to obtain the necessary intrinsic safety standard right from the advance project stage, and to control the workshop safety during the operation of the plant. The second part of the report deals with the system of protection against the consequences of a possible accident: definition of a typical accident, fixing of the boundaries of a critical zone, safety alarm device, individual and collective dosimetry, evacuation plan and safety instructions. (authors) [French] La securite vis-a-vis des risques de criticite revet deux aspects: la prevention de la criticite et la protection contre les consequences d'un accident eventuel: le present rapport developpe ces deux aspects dans le cas de l'Usine d'Extraction du Plutonium de Marcoule. Apres avoir rappele les differentes techniques de prevention de la criticite (masse, geometrie, concentration, empoisonnement), les auteurs decrivent leur application a l'Usine et montrent notamment que l'utilisation rationnelle de la geometrie favorable est un double facteur de securite et d'economie. Les auteurs decrivent ensuite l'organisation interieure qui permet de realiser la securite intrinseque des le stade d'un avant projet et de controler la securite des ateliers au cours de la vie de l'Usine. La deuxieme partie du rapport est consacree au systeme de protection contre les consequences d'un accident eventuel: definition d'un accident-type, delimitation, des zones a risque critique, dispositif d'alarme, dosimetrie individuelle et collective, plan d'evacuation et consignes. (auteurs)

  5. Improvements to the properties of uranium by addition of small quantities of other metals; Ameliorations apportees a l'uranium par de faibles additions metalliques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Englander, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    The most economical nuclear fuel used in power reaction which produce energy for industrial purposes is metallic uranium, either in natural form or slightly enriched in the {sup 235}U isotope. Under optimum working conditions any fuel should produce a minimum of 3,000 MW days/tonne, i.e. 72 x 10{sup 6} kWh per tonne of natural uranium, while at the same lime being maintained at a temperature sufficiently high for it to fulfil its role of heat-source (at a minimum of between 350 and 550 deg. C). Now it is rather surprising to note that polycrystalline aggregates in uranium billets, obtained either by casting under vacuum or by extrusion at high temperature, are made up of course grains having broken-up, irregular contours and exhibit numerous signs of intergranular deformation (twin crystals, slip-lines) as well as a pronounced sub-structure. As well as this, the range of grain diameters extends from a few microns up to a few millimeters, according to the micrographic zones examined. Under the influence of irradiation at these temperatures, pure cylindrical metallic uranium bars of about 1 inch diameter are deformed: cracks appear in the metal and changes in the length and diameter occur (these produce an 'orange-peel' texture on the surface). These changes are caused either by growths which are more or less oriented, or else by surface distortions which can cause faults in the material and in the canning and can produce bending which may be sufficiently pronounced to interfere with the cooling circuits. It has since been realised that this instability under the effects of thermal stresses of nuclear origin is due to the heterogeneous morphology of uranium and to its anisotropic crystalline structure (U{sub {alpha}} or U{sub {beta}}). (author) [French] Les reacteurs de puissance destines a fournir l'energie industriellement recuperable utilisent comme materiau combustible nucleaire le plus economique, l'uranium metallique naturel ou legerement enrichi en isotope U{sup 235}. Dans les conditions optimales de fonctionnement, un meme materiau combustible doit alors fournir un minimum de 3000 MWj/t, soit 72.10{sup 6} kWh par tonne d'uranium naturel, tout en etant porte a une temperature suffisante pour jouer efficacement son role de source de chaleur (entre 350 et 550 deg. C minimum). Or d'une facon assez surprenante, les agregats polycristallins des billettes d'uranium obtenues par coulee sous vide, ou apres filage a haute temperature, se presentent comme un ensemble de grains tres grossiers, a contours dechiquetes et irreguliers, et comportent de nombreuses marques de deformation intragranulaire (macles, lignes de glissement), accompagnees de fortes sous-structures. En plus, le spectre de la dimension des grains s'etend de quelques microns a quelques millimetres, selon les plages micrographiques examinees. Sous irradiation a ces temperatures, l'uranium metallique pur en barreaux cylindriques de diametre de l'ordre du pouce, se deforme: il se produit des fissures dans la masse, des variations de dimensions longitudinales et transversales (qui se traduisent par des peaux d'orange), soit par croissances plus ou moins directionnelles, soit par deformations superficielles qui peuvent provoquer des ruptures du materiau, de sa gaine ou des fleches suffisamment importantes pour obstruer les canaux de refroidissement. Il a ete reconnu par la suite que cette instabilite, sous l'effet des contraintes thermiques d'origine nucleaire, est due a la morphologie heterogene de l'uranium et a sa structure cristalline anisotrope (U{sub {alpha}} ou U{sub {beta}}). (auteur)

  6. Aux origines du monde

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    "C'est l'histoire d'une aventure humaine, scientifique, international qui a vu le jour il y a cinquante ans, aux confins de la Suisse et du département de l'Ain. Le plus grand laboratoire de physique des particules du monde, le Cern, a été fondé en 1954. Les festivités organisées à l occasion de cet anniversaire connaîtront leur point d'orgue le 16 octobre prochain, avec portes-ouvertes, accueil de personallités et inauguration d'un monumnet spécifique, le Globe de l'innovation" (2 pages)

  7. Aux marges du monde arabe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène Thiollet

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available L’étude des migrations contemporaines des Érythréens vers le Yémen au tournant des années quatre-vingt-dix permet d’observer les transformations des dynamiques régionales à l’œuvre dans le monde arabe. Les migrations sont un phénomène sensible aux différents aspects (politiques, économiques, culturels, géographiques de l’intégration régionale. Celle si est envisagée dans cet article à travers une approche doublement marginale : -la marginalité géographique de l’Érythrée arabo-africaine et du Yémen, économi­quement isolé dans la péninsule Arabique, -l’étude des migrations formelles et informelles, élément souvent marginal dans l’étude des institutions et des échanges qui constituent un système régional intégré. Cette étude est fondée sur une série d’entretiens menés au Yémen entre février et avril 2002 auprès des administrations yéménites et de la population érythréenne.

  8. L'adaptation aux changements climatiques

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Cathy Egan

    plus équitables et plus prospères. Centre de recherches pour le développement international, CP 8500, Ottawa (Ontario) Canada K1G 3H9. Tél. : 613-236-6163 • Télécopieur : 613-238-7230 • Courriel : info@crdi.ca. L'ADAPTATION AUX. CHANGEMENTS CLIMATIQUES. LE RECOURS AUX. ONDES. Les petits exploitants ...

  9. Bourse du CRDI aux chercheurs candidats au doctorat 2017 | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Cet appel à propositions s'adresse aux citoyens canadiens, aux résidents permanents du Canada et aux citoyens de pays en développement inscrits au doctorat dans une université canadienne. Qui peut présenter une demande. Pour être admissible, vous devez remplir les conditions suivantes : Être citoyen canadien ou ...

  10. Ameliorative percutaneous lumbar discectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Chengjiang; Su Huanbin; He Xiaofeng; Li Yanhao

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To ameliorate the percutaneous lumbar discectomy (APLD) for improving the effectiveness and amplifying the indicative range of PLD. Methods: To ameliorate percutaneous punctured route based on classic PLD and discectomy of extracting pulp out of the herniated disc with special pulpforceps. The statistical analysis of the therapeutic results on 750 disc protrusions of 655 cases undergone APLD following up from 6 to 54 months retrospectively. Results: The effective ratios were excellent in 40.2%, good for 46.6% and bad of 13.3%. No occurrance of intervertebral inflammation and paradiscal hematoma, there were only 1 case complicated with injuried cauda equina, and 4 cases with broken appliance within disc. Conclusions: APLD is effective and safe, not only indicative for inclusion disc herniation, but also for noninclusion herniation. (authors)

  11. Aux origines de la science moderne

    CERN Document Server

    Rossi, Paolo

    1999-01-01

    Aux origines de la science moderne. " Lorsque l'on aborde l'étude d'une pensée qui n'est plus la nôtre, il est important de chercher à oublier ce que nous savons ou croyons savoir. " Pour appréhender cette période fondatrice que fut la Révolution scientifique du XVIIe siècle en Europe, Paolo Rossi nous replonge dans des atmosphères intellectuelles et des modes de pensée depuis longtemps disparus. Des secrets hermétiques aux calculs mathématiques, de la magie au magnétisme et des cabinets de curiosité aux premières académies des sciences défilent ainsi des notions et des individus qui, remis en toute simplicité dans le contexte de leur époque, retrouvent une épaisseur et un sens nouveaux. Ainsi racontée sous la forme d'une histoire des idées, l'histoire des sciences devient accessible à tous.

  12. L'Anse Aux Meadows, Newfoundland

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    L'Anse aux Meadows is a site on the northernmost tip of the island of Newfoundland, located in the Province of Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada, where the remains of a Viking village were discovered in 1960 by the Norwegians Helge and Anne Ingstad. The only authenticated Viking settlement in North America outside Greenland, it was the site of a multi-year archaeological dig that found dwellings, tools and implements that verified its time frame. The settlement, dating more than five hundred years before Christopher Columbus, contains the earliest European structures in North America. Named a World Heritage site by UNESCO, it is thought by many to be the semi-legendary 'Vinland' settlement of explorer Leif Ericson around AD 1000. The settlement at L'Anse aux Meadows consisted of at least eight buildings, including a forge and smelter, and a lumber yard that supported a shipyard. The largest house measured 28.8 by 15.6 m and consisted of several rooms. Sewing and knitting tools found at the site indicate women were present at L'Anse aux Meadows The image was acquired on September 14, 2007, covers an area of 14.2 x 14.6 km, and is located at 51.5 degrees north latitude, 55.6 degrees west longitude. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  13. Administration des subventions aux institutions Dépenses de projet ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC CRDI

    Consultants. Cette catégorie comprend toutes les dépenses engagées pour retenir les services d'un consultant aux ... déplacement, d'hébergement et de subsistance, ainsi qu'aux services de soutien retenus directement ... le transport aérien et les autres dépenses afférentes aux déplacements du personnel du projet à.

  14. The Tokomak of Fontenay-aux-Roses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginot, P.; Torossian, A.

    1975-01-01

    The Tokomak of Fontenay-aux-Roses (TFR) has been built in order to increase the performances got with the same type of machine by the Soviet physicists. The current induced into the plasma has reached 0.4MA, the main magnetic field being 60kG. A plasma with a mean electron density of 4.5 10 13 cm -3 , a maximum electron temperature of 2.5keV and a maximum ion temperature of 1keV has been obtained in hydrogen and deuterium. The discharge duration has attained 0.5sec. These results agree with those obtained before [fr

  15. Les agriculteurs s'adaptent aux changements climatiques en Tunisie ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    23 août 2011 ... Les eaux grises et la culture en serre augmentent la production alimentaire en Tunisie ... Des chercheurs insistent sur l'importance de favoriser la résilience aux ... Vulnérabilité et adaptation aux changements climatiques des ...

  16. Thermodynamique des moteurs thermiques aux structures dissipatives

    CERN Document Server

    Prigogine, Ilya

    1999-01-01

    Ce livre constitue à la fois une présentation complète de la thermodynamique et une introduction scientifique à l'œuvre de Prigogine. Les auteurs innovent en montrant comment la thermodynamique du non-équilibre est un prolongement naturel de la thermodynamique de l'équilibre. Elle constitue ainsi la science des processus irréversibles - " la flèche du temps " - dont les structures dissipatives sont les témoignages les plus éclatants. Les développements historiques en font, non seulement un texte de référence, mais aussi un livre de culture. Les nombreux exemples et exercices, comme les programmes informatiques et les références aux sites Internet en font un outil de travail irremplaçable.

  17. Donner aux travailleurs du sexe les moyens de consigner les ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Dans la plupart des sociétés, le travail du sexe est fortement stigmatisé, et ceux qui le pratiquent sont en butte aux reproches, à la désapprobation et à la discrimination. Par conséquent, la violence faite aux travailleurs du sexe se voit peu, et dans certains contextes, elle est même tolérée. On dispose donc de très peu de ...

  18. Communications en cas de catastrophe faisant appel aux TIC pour ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Communications en cas de catastrophe faisant appel aux TIC pour les collectivités vulnérables des Caraïbes. De récents événements survenus dans les Caraïbes ont mis en relief les insuffisances des mesures régionales et nationales de préparation aux catastrophes. On manque particulièrement de systèmes d'alerte ...

  19. Ameliorating effect of hawthorn ( Crataegus oxyacantha ) and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ameliorating effect of hawthorn ( Crataegus oxyacantha ) and physical exercise on ... Conclusion: Crataegus oxyacantha extract has shown positive affect to ameliorate on ... Key words: Crataegus oxyacantha, physical activity, epilepsy, gerbil, ...

  20. Communication des risques reliés aux changements climatiques en ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    1 janv. 2012 ... Il incombe bien sûr aux gouvernements locaux et nationaux de prendre les décisions relatives à l'adaptation aux changements climatiques; ils doivent toutefois les communiquer aux ménages, aux groupes communautaires et aux entreprises privées afin que ceux-ci prennent les décisions qui s'imposent ...

  1. Appui aux transitions dans le monde arabe | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    étudieront l'évolution du rôle de l'État face aux enjeux économiques et sociaux; - appuieront les ... ARI Centre pour une initiative arabe de réforme. Institution Country. France ... New funding opportunity for gender equality and climate change.

  2. Adaptation aux changements climatiques dans le bassin versant de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... hydrologiques et agronomiques, les chercheurs étudieront l'évolution de la ... de coopération scientifique et technologique en appui aux projets de recherche ... de l'Institut d'étude du développement international de l'Université McGill.

  3. Recherche sur l'adaptation aux changements climatiques

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Corey Piccioni

    consortiums travaillent dans des zones vulnérables aux changements climatiques en Afrique et en Asie, notamment dans les bassins hydrographiques alimentés .... Le projet de recherche Pathways to Resilience in Semi-Arid Economies (PRISE) vise à réduire les risques et à opti- miser les possibilités de développement ...

  4. Inobservance therapeutique aux anti-retroviraux chez les personnes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Buts : Rechercher les facteurs psychologiques ou psychosociaux responsables de l'inobservance thérapeutique (IBT) aux antiretroviraux (ARV) Méthodologie : Il s'agit d'une étude transversale sur 06 mois (mai - octobre 2008) menée au centre de promotion sociale à Lomé chez les personnes vivant avec le VIH (PVVIH) ...

  5. AUX: a scripting language for auditory signal processing and software packages for psychoacoustic experiments and education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Bomjun J

    2012-06-01

    This article introduces AUX (AUditory syntaX), a scripting syntax specifically designed to describe auditory signals and processing, to the members of the behavioral research community. The syntax is based on descriptive function names and intuitive operators suitable for researchers and students without substantial training in programming, who wish to generate and examine sound signals using a written script. In this article, the essence of AUX is discussed and practical examples of AUX scripts specifying various signals are illustrated. Additionally, two accompanying Windows-based programs and development libraries are described. AUX Viewer is a program that generates, visualizes, and plays sounds specified in AUX. AUX Viewer can also be used for class demonstrations or presentations. Another program, Psycon, allows a wide range of sound signals to be used as stimuli in common psychophysical testing paradigms, such as the adaptive procedure, the method of constant stimuli, and the method of adjustment. AUX Library is also provided, so that researchers can develop their own programs utilizing AUX. The philosophical basis of AUX is to separate signal generation from the user interface needed for experiments. AUX scripts are portable and reusable; they can be shared by other researchers, regardless of differences in actual AUX-based programs, and reused for future experiments. In short, the use of AUX can be potentially beneficial to all members of the research community-both those with programming backgrounds and those without.

  6. Specific immunotherapy ameliorates ulcerative colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Min; Zeng, Lu; Li, Lin-Jing; Mo, Li-Hua; Xie, Rui-Di; Feng, Bai-Sui; Zheng, Peng-Yuan; Liu, Zhi-Gang; Liu, Zhan-Ju; Yang, Ping-Chang

    2016-01-01

    Hypersensitivity reaction to certain allergens plays a role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). This study aims to observe the effect of specific immunotherapy in a group of IBD patients. Patients with both ulcerative colitis (UC) and food allergy were recruited into this study. Food allergy was diagnosed by skin prick test and serum specific IgE. The patients were treated with specific immunotherapy (SIT) and Clostridium butyricum (CB) capsules. After treating with SIT and CB, the clinical symptoms of UC were markedly suppressed as shown by reduced truncated Mayo scores and medication scores. The serum levels of specific IgE, interleukin (IL)-4 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were also suppressed. Treating with SIT alone or CB alone did not show appreciable improvement of the clinical symptoms of UC. UC with food allergy can be ameliorated by administration with SIT and butyrate-production probiotics.

  7. Sensibilisation aux gestes et postures de travail - French version only

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Nous vous proposons un nouveau cours de sécurité lié aux manutentions manuelles (durée 1 jour) : Sensibilisation aux gestes et postures de travail. Si vous êtes amené à manipuler régulièrement des charges lourdes ou volumineuses, cette formation peut vous aider à prévenir les lésions musculaires ou dorsales. A l'issue de cette formation, vous serez capable d'adopter et d'appliquer les principes de base de sécurité physique et d'économie d'efforts dans les manipulations d'objets. Les cours sont pris en charge par la Commission de Sécurité. L'inscription EDH est obligatoire. Pour plus d'information, veuillez consulter les pages Formation & Développement (Groupe Sécurité)

  8. La recherche-action participative facilite l'adaptation aux ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Ces travaux comprenaient un riche portefeuille de recherches sur l'adaptation aux changements climatiques dans le secteur de l'agriculture. La méthodologie privilégiée dans le cadre du programme, la recherche-action participative, s'est avérée fructueuse et a permis de mettre au point et de déployer des solutions ...

  9. Accroissement du recours aux politiques fiscales dans la lutte ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Incidence de la hausse des taxes sur le tabac et du prix des produits du tabac en Ukraine, en Russie et au Bélarus. La recherche destinée aux responsables des politiques de l'Ukraine, de la Russie et du Bélarus mettra en évidence la façon dont les mesures de taxation des produits du tabac peuvent contribuer.

  10. Foire aux questions: Bourse de recherche 2018 du CRDI | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Vous remarquerez que d'importantes modifications ont été apportées aux critères d'admissibilité dans les deux dernières années. 2) Je suis étudiant à la maîtrise. Suis-je admissible à une bourse de recherche ? En principe oui. Toutefois, il est important de lire les spécifications du programme qui vous intéresse, car les ...

  11. Aspects Phenotypiques De La Resistance Aux Β- Lactamines Des ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: L'identification des phénotypes de résistance de P.aeruginosa par la technique d'antibiogramme en milieu gélosé constitue une alternative pour les laboratoires de bactériologie médicale dans les pays aux ressources limitées comme le Togo, où les techniques de biologie moléculaire ne sont pas disponibles ...

  12. Adaptation aux changements climatiques des bassins versants en ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Les résultats de recherche seront diffusés dans des publications scientifiques à comité de lecture, dans le cadre d'une interaction critique avec la sphère des politiques, ainsi qu'à l'occasion d'un institut d'été destiné aux chercheurs et ... The Trustees of Ashoka Trust for Research in Ecology and the Environment (ATREE).

  13. CRDI foire aux questions | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    1. Quels sont les éléments importants à mentionner dans ma demande d'emploi ? Il importe de démontrer, au moyen d'exemples concrets, de quelle façon vos qualifications correspondent aux exigences du poste en ce qui concerne les études, l'expérience et la langue. 2. Comment saurai-je si ma demande d'emploi a bel ...

  14. Aquaculture intérieure et adaptation aux changements climatiques ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Ce projet porte sur l'élevage du tilapia dans de petits étangs fermiers ou des cages flottantes dans les rivières et les réservoirs du nord de la Thaïlande. Les chercheurs exploreront des façons d'adapter les pratiques aquacoles aux changements climatiques et analyseront la valeur de l'aquaculture comme stratégie ...

  15. Adapter l'information climatique aux besoins des utilisateurs | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    29 mars 2011 ... Cet exposé politique résume les leçons tirées du forum d'apprentissage du programme ACCA entitulé " Faciliter l'accès aux prévisions météorologiques saisonnières et savoir mieux les exploiter" qui a pris lieux à Nairobi, Kenya en mars 1010.

  16. Ameliorative Effect of Different Concentration of Mushroom ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Ogunji

    ameliorative effect of mushroom in the post-experimental stage. Samples of liver and ... except in the liver which showed mild periportal chronic inflammatory cell. However, the .... alcohol for 12 hours and through absolute alcohol to remove ...

  17. Portulaca oleracea Linn seed extract ameliorates hydrogen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Portulaca oleracea Linn seed extract ameliorates hydrogen ... induced cell death by inhibiting oxidative stress and ROS generation. Keywords: ... culture medium; therefore the stock solutions of ... acetic acid (1 %) and ethanol (50 %) to extract.

  18. Ameliorative effects of selenium and zinc

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methidathion-induced hematological, biochemical and hepatohistological alterations in rat: Ameliorative effects of selenium and zinc. L Barkat, A Boumendjel, C Abdennour, MS Boulakoud, A El Feki, M Messarah ...

  19. Black ginseng extract ameliorates hypercholesterolemia in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn Saba

    2016-04-01

    Conclusion: Administration of BG extracts to Sprague Dawley rats fed with high-cholesterol diet ameliorated hypercholesterolemia, which was mediated via modulation of cholesterol-metabolizing marker genes. This data throw a light on BG's cardioprotective effects.

  20. Dietary Amelioration of Helicobacter Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahey, Jed W.; Stephenson, Katherine K.; Wallace, Alison J.

    2015-01-01

    We review herein the basis for using dietary components to treat and/or prevent Helicobacter pylori infection, with emphasis on: (a) work reported in the last decade, (b) dietary components for which there is mechanism-based plausibility, and (c) components for which clinical results on H. pylori amelioration are available. There is evidence that a diet-based treatment may reduce the levels and/or the virulence of H. pylori colonization without completely eradicating the organism in treated individuals. This concept was endorsed a decade ago by the participants in a small international consensus conference held in Honolulu, Hawaii, USA, and interest in such a diet-based approach has increased dramatically since then. This approach is attractive in terms of cost, treatment, tolerability and cultural acceptability. This review therefore highlights specific foods, food components, and food products, grouped as follows: bee products (e.g. honey and propolis), probiotics, dairy products, vegetables, fruits, oils, essential oils, and herbs, spices and other plants. A discussion of the small number of clinical studies that are available is supplemented by supportive in vitro and animal studies. This very large body of in vitro and pre-clinical evidence must now be followed up with rationally designed, unambiguous human trials. PMID:25799054

  1. Foire aux questions: Bourse de recherche 2017 du CRDI | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    1) Si l'on décide de m'attribuer une bourse de recherche, aurai-je besoin d'un permis de travail ? Veuillez lire les détails sur ce sujet sous la rubrique Admissibilité à la page Web de l'appel. Vous remarquerez que d'importantes modifications ont été apportées aux critères d'admissibilité cette année. 2) Je suis étudiant à la ...

  2. Safety Training: Sensibilisation aux gestes et postures de travail

    CERN Multimedia

    Laetitia Laddada

    2004-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an 'application for training' form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt.Nous vous proposons un nouveau cours de sécurité lié aux manutentions manuelles (durée 1 jour) : Sensibilisation aux gestes et postures de travail. Si vous êtes amené à manipuler régulièrement des charges lourdes ou volumineuses, cette formation peut vous aider à prévenir les lésions musculaires ou dorsales. A l'issue de cette formation, vous serez capable d'adopter et d'appliquer les principes de base de sécurité physique et d'&e...

  3. Safety Training: Sensibilisation aux gestes et postures de travail

    CERN Multimedia

    Laetitia Laddada

    2004-01-01

    Nous vous proposons un nouveau cours de sécurité lié aux manutentions manuelles (durée 1 jour) : Sensibilisation aux gestes et postures de travail. Si vous êtes amené à manipuler régulièrement des charges lourdes ou volumineuses, cette formation peut vous aider à prévenir les lésions musculaires ou dorsales. A l'issue de cette formation, vous serez capable d'adopter et d'appliquer les principes de base de sécurité physique et d'économie d'efforts dans les manipulations d'objets. Les cours sont pris en charge par la Commission de Sécurité. L'inscription EDH est obligatoire. Pour plus d'information, veuillez consulter les pages Formation & Développement (Groupe Sécurité). FORMATION EN SECURITE SAFETY TRAINING Laetitia Laddada 73811 - 79236 safety.training@cern.ch

  4. The reprocessing of irradiated fuels improvement and extension of the solvent extraction process; Le traitement des combustibles irradies amelioration et extension du procede utilisant les solvants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faugeras, P; Chesne, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    Improvements made in the conventional tri-butylphosphate process are described, in particular. the concentration and the purification of plutonium by one extraction cycle using tri-butyl-phosphate with reflux; and the use of an apparatus working continuously for precipitating plutonium oxalate, for calcining the oxalate, and for fluorinating the oxide. The modifications proposed for the treatment of irradiated uranium - molybdenum alloys are described, in particular, the dissolution of the fuel, and the concentration of the fission product solutions. The solvent extraction treatment is used also for the plutonium fuels utilized for the fast breeder reactor (Rapsodie) An outline of the process is presented and discussed, as well as the first experimental results and the plans for a pilot plant having a capacity of 1 kg/day. The possible use of tn-lauryl-amine in the plutonium purification cycle is now under consideration for the processing plant at La Hague. The flowsheet for this process and its performance are presented. The possibility of vitrification is considered for the final treatment of the concentrated radioactive wastes from the Marcoule (irradiated uranium) and La Hague (irradiated uranium-molybdenum) Centers. Three possible processes are described and discussed, as well as the results obtained from the operation of the corresponding experimental units using tracers. (authors) [French] On decrit les ameliorations apportees au procede classique utilisant le phosphate tributylique, et notamment la concentration et la purification du plutonium par un cycle d'extraction au tributylphosphate avec reflux, l'utilisation d'un appareillage continu de precipitation d'oxalate de plutonium, de calcination de l'oxalate, et de fluoration de l'oxyde. On presente les modifications envisagees pour le traitement des alliages uranium-molybdene irradies, principalement en ce qui concerne la dissolution du combustible et la concentration des solutions de produits de fission

  5. Maladies reliées aux loisirs aquatiques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanborn, Margaret; Takaro, Tim

    2013-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Passer en revue les facteurs de risque, la prise en charge et la prévention des maladies reliées aux loisirs aquatiques en pratique familiale. Sources des données Des articles originaux et de synthèse entre janvier 1998 et février 2012 ont été identifiés à l’aide de PubMed et des expressions de recherche en anglais water-related illness, recreational water illness et swimmer illness. Message principal Il y a un risque de 3 % à 8 % de maladies gastrointestinales (MGI) après la baignade. Les groupes à risque élevé de MGI sont les enfants de moins de 5 ans, surtout s’ils n’ont pas été vaccinés contre le rotavirus, les personnes âgées et les patients immunodéficients. Les enfants sont à plus grand risque parce qu’ils avalent plus d’eau quand ils nagent, restent dans l’eau plus longtemps et jouent dans l’eau peu profonde et le sable qui sont plus contaminés. Les adeptes des sports dans lesquels le contact avec l’eau est abondant comme le triathlon et le surf cerf-volant sont aussi à risque élevé et même ceux qui s’adonnent à des activités impliquant un contact partiel avec l’eau comme la navigation de plaisance et la pêche ont un risque de 40 % à 50 % fois plus grand de MGI par rapport à ceux qui ne pratiquent pas de sports aquatiques. Il y a lieu de faire une culture des selles quand on soupçonne une maladie reliée aux loisirs aquatiques et l’échelle clinique de la déshydratation est utile pour l’évaluation des besoins de traitement chez les enfants affectés. Conclusion Les maladies reliées aux loisirs aquatiques est la principale cause de MGI durant la saison des baignades. La reconnaissance que la baignade est une source importante de maladies peut aider à prévenir les cas récurrents et secondaires. On recommande fortement le vaccin contre le rotavirus chez les enfants qui se baignent souvent.

  6. L’ethnologue aux prises avec les archives - Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Dominique Mouton

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Les textes présentés ici invitent à une réflexion sur les matériaux de terrain et plus largement sur la relation qui unit l’ethnologue aux archives, qu’il s’agisse des siennes, données vivantes, inspiratrices de sa recherche, de celles de ses aînés, devenues objets d’étude après leur dépôt dans une institution, ou de toutes les autres archives, constituées et rassemblées, à différentes époques, dans des perspectives administratives, juridiques, historiques ou religieuses, envisagées ici au tr...

  7. Results from the Tokamak Fontenay-aux-Roses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginot, P.

    1975-01-01

    It became clear in 1969 that confinement and heating in Tokomaks offered great possibilities and the Fontenay-aux-Roses Tokamak (TFR) was built for research on their improved efficiency. A plasma of mean density 4.5.10 13 cm -3 and of maximum electron and ion temperatures 2.5 and 1 keV respectively was obtained. The current induced in the gas reached 0.4MA and discharges were maintained for more than 0.5s. The ion assembly seems to behave according to the mechanism predicted by theory, that of electrons suffers an abnormal energy loss. These results confirm and add to those obtained earlier. The machine is now being used for the detailed study of an energy balance and of the most plausible loss mechanisms (turbulence, impurities) and for the development of new heating methods [fr

  8. Ameliorative effect of Lentinus squarrosulus mycomeat against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ameliorative effect of Lentinus squarrosulus mycomeat against Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection using albino rat as animal model. ... Morphological appearance and behavior of the rats were used as the assessment method for adverse reactions. After a period of 26 days, the rats were sacrificed with the liver, spleen and ...

  9. The Importance of Dosimetry to the Medical Management of Persons Accidentally Exposed to High Levels of Radiation; Le Role de la Dosimetrie Dans les Soins Medicaux a Donner aux Personnes Accidentellement Exposees a de Fortes Doses de Rayonnement; 0417 041d 0410 0427 0414 ; Importancia de la Dosimetria para el Tratamiento Medico de las Personas Accidentalmente Expuestas a Dosis Elevadas de Radiaciones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, G. A.; Lushbaugh, C. C. [Medical Division, Oak Ridge Institute of Nuclear Studies (United States); Auxier, J. A. [Health Physics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1965-06-15

    Radiation accidents continue to occur sporadically and it appears that there is no hope of eliminating them entirely. The management of patients exposed to large doses of radiation is constantly improving because of increasing ability to prevent and treat infection and to control haemorrhage. The possible effectiveness of temporary bone marrow grafts offers promise of a further reduction in mortality. The use of this growing biological information is closely related to, and to a large extent dependent upon, improvements in physical dosimetry for radiation accidents. (author) [French] Des accidents provoques par les rayonnements continuent a se produire de temps a autre et il ne semble guere que l'on puisse esperer les eliminer entierement. Toutefois, le traitement des sujets exposes a de fortes doses de rayonnement ne cesse de s'ameliorer; on parvient, en effet, dans une mesure croissante a empecher et a traiter l*infection ainsi qu'a arreter l'hemorragie. Comme la greffe temporaire de la moelle des os semble devoir donner des resultats, on peut s*attendre a une nouvelle reduction du taux de mortalite. L'application de ces connaissances biologiques sans cesse accrues est fonction, dans une large mesure, des ameliorations apportees a la dosimetrie physique des accidents nucleaires. (author) [Spanish] De vez en cuando se siguen produciendo accidentes de irradiacion y las perspectivas de evitarlos por completo parecen ser bastante remotas. El tratamiento de las victimas expuestas a dosis elevadas de radiaciones mejora constantemente debido a la creciente posibilidad de prevenir y tratar las infecciones, y de controlar las hemorragias. Tambien es posible que la eficacia de ios injertos temporales de medula osea se traduzca en una disminucion de la mortalidad. El aprovechamiento de estos conocimientos biologicos cada vez mas amplios guarda una estrecha relacion con los perfeccionamientos en materia de dosimetria fisica en caso de accidentes de irradiacion. (author

  10. Monsieur Etienne Blanc Premier vice-président de la Région Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes Délégué aux finances, à l'administration générale, aux économies budgétaires et aux politiques transfrontalières

    CERN Multimedia

    Bennett, Sophia Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    Monsieur Etienne Blanc Premier vice-président de la Région Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes Délégué aux finances, à l'administration générale, aux économies budgétaires et aux politiques transfrontalières

  11. Apports et limites des programmes de recherche aux sciences de gestion

    OpenAIRE

    Jeanjean, Thomas; Tixier, Julie

    2001-01-01

    Dans cet article, nous étudions la méthodologie des programmes de recherche de Lakatos (1978) et ses apports aux sciences sociales et en particulier à la recherche en gestion. Notre objectif est triple. Il s'agit d’abord de préciser la nature des programmes de recherche, de les critiquer et de les situer par rapport aux thèses défendues par Popper, Feyerabend et Kuhn. Par ailleurs, nous étudions la transférabilité de la méthodologie de Lakatos aux sciences sociales. Enfin, nous analysons l’in...

  12. DREAM IT, un programme de recherche aux fins d'autonomisation ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    DREAM IT, un programme de recherche aux fins d'autonomisation de tous les Mongols grâce aux TIC ... Plus précisément, la recherche visera l'amélioration de la prestation des services d'éducation dans les régions éloignées grâce aux téléphones mobiles, à la télévision et à Internet; la conception d'un système ...

  13. Organisation of biological research carried out in the United States by the A.E.C. or under her contract (1960); Organisation des recherches biologiques menees aux Etats-Unis par l'A.E.C. ou sous son egide. Compte-rendu sommaire d'une mission d'etude (1960)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pellerin, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    This report is based on information gathered in the course of a trip to the United States, in November and December 1958 which consisted chiefly of visits to the main biological and medical research laboratories and discussions with the heads of these establishments. A description is given of the general organisation of the Atomic Energy Commission's Division of Biology and Medicine, and of the distribution of responsibility for radiation protection work and for biological, medical and agricultural research amongst the various Services attached to it; this is followed by a more detailed account of the activities carried on in this field at the great national laboratories. Finally, the systems of collaboration set up with external research organisations in the form of research contracts are examined, together with the substantial help provided by the A.E.C. for biological, medical and agricultural research in general, owing to a systematic policy of subsidising the distribution of radioisotopes for this purpose. (author) [French] Le present rapport a ete etabli sur la base des renseignements recueillis au cours d'un voyage d'etude aux Etats-Unis, en novembre et decembre 1958, comportant notamment la visite des principaux laboratoires de recherche biologique et medicale et des entretiens avec les principaux responsables de ces laboratoires. Apres une description de l'organisation generale de la 'Division of Biology and Medicine' de l'Atomic Energy Commission et de la repartition entre les divers Services qui lui sont rattaches des responsabilites concernant la protection contre les radiations et la Recherche biologique, medicale et agronomique, des indications plus detaillees sont donnees au sujet des activites poursuivies dans ce domaine au sein des grands laboratoires nationaux. Sont examinees enfin, l'importance et les modalites de la collaboration instituee avec les Organismes de Recherche exterieurs sous la forme de contrats de recherche ainsi que l

  14. Organisation of biological research carried out in the United States by the A.E.C. or under her contract (1960); Organisation des recherches biologiques menees aux Etats-Unis par l'A.E.C. ou sous son egide. Compte-rendu sommaire d'une mission d'etude (1960)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pellerin, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    This report is based on information gathered in the course of a trip to the United States, in November and December 1958 which consisted chiefly of visits to the main biological and medical research laboratories and discussions with the heads of these establishments. A description is given of the general organisation of the Atomic Energy Commission's Division of Biology and Medicine, and of the distribution of responsibility for radiation protection work and for biological, medical and agricultural research amongst the various Services attached to it; this is followed by a more detailed account of the activities carried on in this field at the great national laboratories. Finally, the systems of collaboration set up with external research organisations in the form of research contracts are examined, together with the substantial help provided by the A.E.C. for biological, medical and agricultural research in general, owing to a systematic policy of subsidising the distribution of radioisotopes for this purpose. (author) [French] Le present rapport a ete etabli sur la base des renseignements recueillis au cours d'un voyage d'etude aux Etats-Unis, en novembre et decembre 1958, comportant notamment la visite des principaux laboratoires de recherche biologique et medicale et des entretiens avec les principaux responsables de ces laboratoires. Apres une description de l'organisation generale de la 'Division of Biology and Medicine' de l'Atomic Energy Commission et de la repartition entre les divers Services qui lui sont rattaches des responsabilites concernant la protection contre les radiations et la Recherche biologique, medicale et agronomique, des indications plus detaillees sont donnees au sujet des activites poursuivies dans ce domaine au sein des grands laboratoires nationaux. Sont examinees enfin, l'importance et les modalites de la collaboration instituee avec les Organismes de Recherche exterieurs sous la forme de

  15. La fabrique des sciences des institutions aux pratiques

    CERN Document Server

    Benninghoff, Martin; Crettaz von Roten, Fabienne; Merz, Martina

    2006-01-01

    Aujourd'hui, les façons de produire, d'organiser, d'évaluer et d'utiliser les savoirs sont en profond débat. De plus en plus, l'Etat, la société civile et l'économie tentent d'influencer les activités des universités et des laboratoires de recherche. Ces développements mettent à l'épreuve tout à la fois les fondements des systèmes d'enseignement supérieur et de recherche, l'autonomie des institutions scientifiques, la définition des frontières des savoirs et l'acceptation des sciences. Dans des contextes suisses et européens, cet ouvrage s'intéresse aux manières dont les sciences et les technologies sont fabriquées, en analysant leurs institutions et les pratiques. A partir d'une approche relationnelle, les sciences et les technologies sont conçues comme des phénomènes profondément sociaux, culturels et politiques. Une telle démarche déstabilise les visions parfois idéalisées et stéréotypées de la construction des savoirs. Des études de cas détaillées décrivent des phénomè...

  16. Aux limites de la physique les paradoxes quantiques

    CERN Document Server

    Rothen, François

    2012-01-01

    Dans l’esprit des pères fondateurs de la science moderne, les phénomènes matériels se déroulent selon un schéma unique. La cause précède nécessairement l’effet, et la connaissance de l’effet permet de remonter à la cause. Sur la scène de la nature, le hasard n’occupe qu’une place congrue. On ne fait appel à lui que pour pallier notre ignorance. Dans les années 1920, la révolution quantique bouleverse ce cadre rigide. Elle accorde une place de choix au hasard, si malmené jusqu’alors, puis elle met en scène une constellation de phénomènes inexplicables aux yeux de la science dite classique. Après une courte introduction historique, l’auteur met ses lecteurs au contact de certains de ces phénomènes si contraires à l’intuition. Refusant l’aide du langage mathématique, il les convie à pénétrer dans un monde quantique qui déconcerte le novice avant de l’éblouir par sa nouveauté et sa cohérence. Un accent particulier est mis sur une application nouvelle de la physiqu...

  17. Introduction aux études sur le genre. - 2e éd. revue et augm.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bereni, L.; Chauvin, S.; Jaunait, A.; Revillard, A.

    2012-01-01

    Pourquoi offre-t-on des poupées aux filles et des voitures aux garçons ? Pourquoi les femmes gagnent-elles moins que les hommes ? Comment expliquer qu’elles effectuent les deux tiers du travail domestique ? Pourquoi est-ce si mal vu pour un homme d’être efféminé ? Le pouvoir est-il intrinsèquement

  18. Aux/IAA Gene Family in Plants: Molecular Structure, Regulation, and Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Luo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Auxin plays a crucial role in the diverse cellular and developmental responses of plants across their lifespan. Plants can quickly sense and respond to changes in auxin levels, and these responses involve several major classes of auxin-responsive genes, including the Auxin/Indole-3-Acetic Acid (Aux/IAA family, the auxin response factor (ARF family, small auxin upregulated RNA (SAUR, and the auxin-responsive Gretchen Hagen3 (GH3 family. Aux/IAA proteins are short-lived nuclear proteins comprising several highly conserved domains that are encoded by the auxin early response gene family. These proteins have specific domains that interact with ARFs and inhibit the transcription of genes activated by ARFs. Molecular studies have revealed that Aux/IAA family members can form diverse dimers with ARFs to regulate genes in various ways. Functional analyses of Aux/IAA family members have indicated that they have various roles in plant development, such as root development, shoot growth, and fruit ripening. In this review, recently discovered details regarding the molecular characteristics, regulation, and protein–protein interactions of the Aux/IAA proteins are discussed. These details provide new insights into the molecular basis of the Aux/IAA protein functions in plant developmental processes.

  19. Des tables pascales aux tables astronomiques et retour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Lejbowicz

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available L’article étudie la naissance et le développement du calendrier ecclésiastique chrétien, i. e. le comput, depuis les premiers témoignages de la célébration annuelle de la résurrection de Jésus jusqu’aux traductions des tables astronomiques arabes au xiie siècle. Il privilégie les procédures qui aboutissent à la détermination des dates pascales et à leur mise en forme tabulaire. Les analyses sont conduites à partir d’un double point de vue. L’un est scientifique. Il s’appuie sur les données astronomiques retenues par Ptolémée et sur l’apport de la tradition mathématique grecque au calcul par approximations. Les cycles soli-lunaires sont posés à partir des fractions continues et le cycle soli-hebdomadaire à partir du plus petit commun multiple. Le second point de vue est social : l’unification du comput participe à celle de la chrétienté comprise comme une configuration politico-religieuse. Deux conclusions s’imposent. Quelle que soit l’importance que la civilisation médiévale a attribuée au comput, il reste que : 1 / les Pâques sont porteuses de significations irréductibles aux techniques chronométriques qui inscrivent cette fête dans le déroulement de l’année ; 2 / ces techniques ont toutefois marqué profondément les curiosités intellectuelles des Latins et les ont préparé à accueillir avec ferveur les zīj et la numération de position.The article studies the birth and development of the Christian ecclesiastical calendar, i.e. the computus, from the first witnesses to the yearly celebration of the resurrection of Jesus to the translations of arabic astronomical tables in the 12th century. It focuses on the procedures which resulted in determinig the dates of Easter and their being put into tabular form. These analyses were undertaken from two perspectives. One was scientific, relying on the astronomical data preserved by Ptolemy and on the contribution of the Greek mathematical

  20. Occasions et difficultés associées aux activités commerciales dans ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    intégreront des reportages photo aux observations sur le terrain; - examineront les résultats à la lumière des Principes directeurs relatifs aux entreprises et aux droits de l'homme de l'ONU, de la théorie du droit, de la théorie du développement et des codes de conduite en matière de responsabilité sociale de l'entreprise.

  1. Acetylcholinesterase inhibition ameliorates deficits in motivational drive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinowich Keri

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Apathy is frequently observed in numerous neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's, as well as neuropsychiatric disorders including schizophrenia. Apathy is defined as a lack of motivation characterized by diminished goal-oriented behavior and self-initiated activity. This study evaluated a chronic restraint stress (CRS protocol in modeling apathetic behavior, and determined whether administration of an anticholinesterase had utility in attenuating CRS-induced phenotypes. Methods We assessed behavior as well as regional neuronal activity patterns using FosB immunohistochemistry after exposure to CRS for 6 h/d for a minimum of 21 d. Based on our FosB findings and recent clinical trials, we administered an anticholinesterase to evaluate attenuation of CRS-induced phenotypes. Results CRS resulted in behaviors that reflect motivational loss and diminished emotional responsiveness. CRS-exposed mice showed differences in FosB accumulation, including changes in the cholinergic basal forebrain system. Facilitating cholinergic signaling ameliorated CRS-induced deficits in initiation and motivational drive and rescued immediate early gene activation in the medial septum and nucleus accumbens. Conclusions Some CRS protocols may be useful for studying deficits in motivation and apathetic behavior. Amelioration of CRS-induced behaviors with an anticholinesterase supports a role for the cholinergic system in remediation of deficits in motivational drive.

  2. The performance of maize crop during acid amelioration with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tanzania Journal of Science ... This study evaluated acid ameliorative potential and their effects on maize growth of four organic residues namely wild spikenard, cordia, cowpea and pigeon peas ... The finding suggests different acid ameliorating potential of residues, pigeon peas and cordia being the most effective.

  3. Use of Coffee Pulp and Minerals for Natural Soil Ameliorant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pujiyanto Pujiyanto

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available In coffee plantation, solid waste of coffee pulp is usually collected as heap nearby processing facilities for several months prior being used as compost. The practice is leading to the formation of odor and liquid which contaminate the environment. Experiments to evaluate the effect of natural soil ameliorant derived from coffee pulp and minerals were conducted at The Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute in Jember, East Java. The experiments were intended to optimize the use of coffee pulp to support farming sustainability and minimize negative impacts of solid waste disposal originated from coffee cherry processing. Prior to applications, coffee pulp was hulled to organic paste. The paste was then mixed with 10% minerals (b/b. Composition of the minerals was 50% zeolite and 50% rock phosphate powder. The ameliorant was characterized for their physical and chemical properties. Agronomic tests were conducted on coffee and cocoa seedling. The experiments were arranged according to Randomized Completely Design with 2 factors, consisted of natural ameliorant and inorganic fertilizer respectively. Natural ameliorant derived from coffee pulp was applied at 6 levels: 0, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 g dry ameliorant/seedling of 3 kg soil, equivalent to 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5% (b/b of ameliorant respectively. Inorganic fertilizer was applied at 2 levels: 0 and 2 g fertilizer/application of N-P-K compound fertilizer of 15-15-15 respectively. The inorganic fertilizer was applied 4 times during nursery of coffee and cocoa. The result of the experiment indicated that coffee pulp may be used as natural soil ameliorant. Composition of ameliorant of 90% coffee pulp and 10% of minerals has good physical and chemical characteristics for soil amelioration. The composition has high water holding capacity; cations exchange capacity, organic carbon and phosphorus contents which are favorable to increase soil capacity to support plant growth. Application of

  4. Formation en TIC destinée aux personnes handicapées en ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Formation en TIC destinée aux personnes handicapées en Amérique latine. En Amérique latine et dans les Caraïbes, les personnes handicapées représentent environ 10 % de la population. La population de cette région affiche des taux de pauvreté et de chômage élevés; assurer des moyens de subsistance décents aux ...

  5. Pourquoi la philosophie indienne ne doit pas être laissée aux seuls philosophes

    OpenAIRE

    Bronkhorst, Johannes

    2017-01-01

    Des historiens de l’astronomie, de la linguistique ou de la médecine indiennes anciennes, on attend généralement qu’ils soient familiers des contreparties occidentales modernes de ces disciplines. Mais qu’en est-il de la philosophie ? Et tout d’abord, existe-t-il en Inde ancienne quelque chose comme une philosophie dont on pourrait faire l’histoire ? Et si oui, qui en sera le meilleur exégète ? Le philosophe attentif aux enjeux systématiques, ou l’historien sensible aux contextes de productio...

  6. Report of transparency and nuclear safety 2007 CEA Fontenay aux Roses; Rapport transparence et securite nucleaire 2007 CEA Fontenay aux Roses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This report presents the activities of the CEA Center of Fontenay aux roses for the year 2007. After many years of decommissioning and dismantling of nuclear installations, the Center is now devoted (since 2005) to the development of research programmes on biology and biomedical technologies. The actions concerning the safety, the radiation protection, the significant events, the release control and the environmental impacts and the wastes stored on the center are discussed. (A.L.B.)

  7. Adaptation aux répercussions de l'élévation du niveau de la mer ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    , la pollution, l'utilisation intensive des terres, la croissance démographique et la dégradation des écosystèmes. Elles sont par ailleurs exposées aux répercussions de la hausse du niveau de la mer et notamment aux inondations. Réduire la ...

  8. Identification and gene expression analysis of AUX1 influencing adventitious root induction in olive cuttings (Olea europaea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mehdi Hosseini Mazinani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Olive is one of the most important fruit crops throughout the Mediterranean Basin, mainly propagated by cuttings. The adventitious root development is a key stage in vegetative propagation however the low rooting capacity of some cultivars severely affects the efficiency of olive clonal propagation. Auxin Influx Carrier gene (AUX1, plays a key role in lateral root formation in many plant species promoting the export of IAA from newly developing leaves to lateral root primordia. Putative olive homologues were amplified by using degenerate primers designed on the conserved regions of AUX1 transcripts identified in other plants. Transcript and amino acid sequences in root (OeAUX1R and base of cutting (OeAUX1B were different causes of polymorphisms relating to possible distinct roles in these tissues. In order to investigate the gene expression patterns, Real-time PCR was performed on cuttings during the rooting stage collected from genotypes characterized by high and low rooting ability. Moreover, the gene expression was investigated on different olive tissues. Preliminary results showed that the expression of OeAUX1B and OeAUX1R in base of cuttings and roots of the high-rooting genotype were higher which suggests the hypothesis of the involvement of OeAUX1 in olive rooting. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that AUX1 gene had 8 exons in olive and the sequence of this gene in plant was conserved during evolution.

  9. Evolution Analysis of the Aux/IAA Gene Family in Plants Shows Dual Origins and Variable Nuclear Localization Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wentao Wu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The plant hormone auxin plays pivotal roles in many aspects of plant growth and development. The auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (Aux/IAA gene family encodes short-lived nuclear proteins acting on auxin perception and signaling, but the evolutionary history of this gene family remains to be elucidated. In this study, the Aux/IAA gene family in 17 plant species covering all major lineages of plants is identified and analyzed by using multiple bioinformatics methods. A total of 434 Aux/IAA genes was found among these plant species, and the gene copy number ranges from three (Physcomitrella patens to 63 (Glycine max. The phylogenetic analysis shows that the canonical Aux/IAA proteins can be generally divided into five major clades, and the origin of Aux/IAA proteins could be traced back to the common ancestor of land plants and green algae. Many truncated Aux/IAA proteins were found, and some of these truncated Aux/IAA proteins may be generated from the C-terminal truncation of auxin response factor (ARF proteins. Our results indicate that tandem and segmental duplications play dominant roles for the expansion of the Aux/IAA gene family mainly under purifying selection. The putative nuclear localization signals (NLSs in Aux/IAA proteins are conservative, and two kinds of new primordial bipartite NLSs in P. patens and Selaginella moellendorffii were discovered. Our findings not only give insights into the origin and expansion of the Aux/IAA gene family, but also provide a basis for understanding their functions during the course of evolution.

  10. Evolution Analysis of the Aux/IAA Gene Family in Plants Shows Dual Origins and Variable Nuclear Localization Signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wentao; Liu, Yaxue; Wang, Yuqian; Li, Huimin; Liu, Jiaxi; Tan, Jiaxin; He, Jiadai; Bai, Jingwen; Ma, Haoli

    2017-10-08

    The plant hormone auxin plays pivotal roles in many aspects of plant growth and development. The auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (Aux/IAA) gene family encodes short-lived nuclear proteins acting on auxin perception and signaling, but the evolutionary history of this gene family remains to be elucidated. In this study, the Aux/IAA gene family in 17 plant species covering all major lineages of plants is identified and analyzed by using multiple bioinformatics methods. A total of 434 Aux/IAA genes was found among these plant species, and the gene copy number ranges from three ( Physcomitrella patens ) to 63 ( Glycine max ). The phylogenetic analysis shows that the canonical Aux/IAA proteins can be generally divided into five major clades, and the origin of Aux/IAA proteins could be traced back to the common ancestor of land plants and green algae. Many truncated Aux/IAA proteins were found, and some of these truncated Aux/IAA proteins may be generated from the C-terminal truncation of auxin response factor (ARF) proteins. Our results indicate that tandem and segmental duplications play dominant roles for the expansion of the Aux/IAA gene family mainly under purifying selection. The putative nuclear localization signals (NLSs) in Aux/IAA proteins are conservative, and two kinds of new primordial bipartite NLSs in P. patens and Selaginella moellendorffii were discovered. Our findings not only give insights into the origin and expansion of the Aux/IAA gene family, but also provide a basis for understanding their functions during the course of evolution.

  11. La largeur de bande pourrait permettre aux universités africaines de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2 févr. 2011 ... La meilleure politique une recherche en télécommunication dans une ... Toutefois, l'utilisation de HINARI exige un accès Internet fiable et assez .... à la conférence d'Internet2, qui a eu lieu aux États-Unis en septembre, et à ...

  12. Le marche aux fetiches (lantassime) d'Akodessewa a Lome (Togo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ) est célèbre par les marchandises qui y sont vendues. Une démarche méthodologique basée sur la recherche documentaire, l'observation et les enquêtes par questionnaires a permis de montrer que le marché aux fétiches occupe des ...

  13. Monitoring the performance of Aux. Feedwater Pump using Smart Sensing Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    No, Young Gyu; Seong, Poong Hyun [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Many artificial intelligence (AI) techniques equipped with learning systems have recently been proposed to monitor sensors and components in NPPs. Therefore, the objective of this study is the development of an integrity evaluation method for safety critical components such as Aux. feedwater pump, high pressure safety injection (HPSI) pump, etc. using smart sensing models based on AI techniques. In this work, the smart sensing model is developed at first to predict the performance of Aux. feedwater pump by estimating flowrate using group method of data handing (GMDH) method. If the performance prediction is achieved by this feasibility study, the smart sensing model will be applied to development of the integrity evaluation method for safety critical components. Also, the proposed algorithm for the performance prediction is verified by comparison with the simulation data of the MARS code for station blackout (SBO) events. In this study, the smart sensing model for the prediction performance of Aux. feedwater pump has been developed. In order to develop the smart sensing model, the GMDH algorithm is employed. The GMDH algorithm is the way to find a function that can well express a dependent variable from independent variables. This method uses a data structure similar to that of multiple regression models. The proposed GMDH model can accurately predict the performance of Aux.

  14. Monitoring the performance of Aux. Feedwater Pump using Smart Sensing Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    No, Young Gyu; Seong, Poong Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Many artificial intelligence (AI) techniques equipped with learning systems have recently been proposed to monitor sensors and components in NPPs. Therefore, the objective of this study is the development of an integrity evaluation method for safety critical components such as Aux. feedwater pump, high pressure safety injection (HPSI) pump, etc. using smart sensing models based on AI techniques. In this work, the smart sensing model is developed at first to predict the performance of Aux. feedwater pump by estimating flowrate using group method of data handing (GMDH) method. If the performance prediction is achieved by this feasibility study, the smart sensing model will be applied to development of the integrity evaluation method for safety critical components. Also, the proposed algorithm for the performance prediction is verified by comparison with the simulation data of the MARS code for station blackout (SBO) events. In this study, the smart sensing model for the prediction performance of Aux. feedwater pump has been developed. In order to develop the smart sensing model, the GMDH algorithm is employed. The GMDH algorithm is the way to find a function that can well express a dependent variable from independent variables. This method uses a data structure similar to that of multiple regression models. The proposed GMDH model can accurately predict the performance of Aux

  15. Élaboration de politiques nationales sur l'accès aux ressources ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Ce projet amènera des équipes de recherche expérimentées en provenance de ... des articles scientifiques, un livre et des documents de formation en anglais et ... Centre international de recherche agricole dans les zones arides ... de coopération scientifique et technologique en appui aux projets de recherche conjoints.

  16. Prévention du crime grâce aux pratiques communautaires au ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Selon les chiffres compilés par la police et l'ombudsman des droits de la personne, ... L'Association internationale de ressources en eau (IWRA), en étroite ... un accord de coopération scientifique et technologique en appui aux projets de ...

  17. Partenariat Canada-Caraïbes sur l'adaptation des collectivités aux ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Mettre en place des réseaux scientifiques et professionnels qui font progresser la ... climatiques en consolidant les structures institutionnelles et de gouvernance. ... ont conclu un accord de coopération scientifique et technologique en appui aux ... de l'Institut d'étude du développement international de l'Université McGill.

  18. De la recherche aux politiques - Établissement de liens entre l ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    La recherche sur les changements climatiques et leurs effets sur les populations vulnérables est assez avancée en Afrique australe. Toutefois, il y a peu de transfert des connaissances des scientifiques aux responsables des politiques. Ce projet vise à faciliter la traduction des résultats de la recherche en politiques de ...

  19. Mettre un terme à la violence faite aux femmes | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    13 nov. 2012 ... Asia Justice and Rights (AJAR) ... La violence contre les femmes ne se résume pas aux gestes posés. ... Dans une culture admettant la violence à l'endroit des femmes, ce fait est important; ... Indian Institute of Management

  20. Saine diversification des repas servis dans les écoles grâce aux ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Saine diversification des repas servis dans les écoles grâce aux innovations en agriculture. 03 janvier 2018. Wendy-Ann Isaac, Gaius Eudoxie, Patrick Cortbaoui, Wayne Ganpat et Sylvia Borucki. Des élèves qui mangent un repas à l'école. Photo : Arne Hoel / Banque mondiale ...

  1. Vulnérabilité des troupeaux transhumants aux mutations climatiques ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vulnérabilité des troupeaux transhumants aux mutations climatiques : analyse des perceptions et adaptations locales dans le bassin de la Sota à Malanville. S Zakari, BAH Tente, I Yabi, IT Imorou, T Tabou, F Afouda, B n'Bessa ...

  2. Prévalence et susceptibilité aux antibiotiques des souches de ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cette étude a pour but de déterminer la prévalence et la susceptibilité des souches de Salmonella ... Les résultats des tests de sensibilité aux antibiotiques ont montré que : 92,68% des Salmonella ...... Kariuki S, Holt KE, Gordon MA, Harris.

  3. Le coût du crédit aux entreprises.

    OpenAIRE

    PARMENTIER, P.; THOMAS, J.

    2006-01-01

    La remontée des taux moyens des crédits aux entreprises amorcée au quatrième trimestre 2005 s’est poursuivie entre janvier et avril 2006 pour toutes les catégories de concours autres que l’escompte.

  4. Offrir un choix aux agriculteurs pauvres: Harsha de Silva (Sri Lanka ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ans de nombreux pays en développement, les téléphones mobiles permettent aux pauvres de profiter des avantages des technologies de l'information et de la communication (TIC). Des travaux de recherche appuyés par le CRDI et dirigés par Learning Initiatives on Reforms for Network Economies (LIRNEasia), ...

  5. Tirer des connaissances de la recherche locale et les utiliser aux ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    gs

    La Carnegie Corporation of New York (CCNY) et le Centre de recherches pour le développement international (CRDI) annoncent le lancement d'une initiative de recherche concertée intitulée Tirer des connaissances de la recherche locale et les utiliser aux fins de la consolidation de la paix et du renforcement de l'État.

  6. Mise en place d'un réseau d'adaptation aux changements ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Ce projet a pour objectif de concevoir un mécanisme de gestion des risques accrus liés aux changements climatiques en appliquant le principe reconnu des ... Adaptation to Climate Change: Stakeholder engagement and understanding impacts - International Council for Local Environment Initiatives (ICLEI) (Section 21).

  7. Etude comparative de la flore aux abords des cours d'eau dans les ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Etude comparative de la flore aux abords des cours d'eau dans les zones hypo et hyper endémiques d'ulcère de Buruli en Côte d'Ivoire. C. Cisse Boni, E. Ehouman, D. Soro, M.W. Kone, A. Bakayoko, F. Dembele, K. Bauthire, M Dosso ...

  8. Penser aux/les limites de nos limites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Lévy

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Le mot « frontière » a beaucoup de succès, dans son sens propre mais plus encore comme métaphore d’une multitude de réalités qui ont à voir avec les limites, c’est-à-dire avec notre propension à découper le monde en objets séparables. Mais on constate une grande indétermination entre concept et métaphore et un usage trop facile de mélanges entre ceux-ci. Il faut donc d’abord admettre que la matérialité n’est qu’une des composantes de notre monde, mais que l’immatériel n’est pas l’irréel, le simulé ou le métaphorique. Après un détour par une théorie des limites et ses limites et une distinction entre le topographique (continu et le topologique (discontinu appliquée à l’intérieur et aux limites d’une aire, deux exemples sont développés qui visent à montrer que, si l’on trouve des frontières, ce n’est pas forcément là où on les attend et que l’appréciation juste de la place des frontières suppose la prise en compte de bien d’autres considérations que la seule limitation volontaire et brutale du franchissement d’une ligne imaginaire tracée au sol.Think about limits and the limits of our limitsThe word “boundary” has been very successful in its literal sense but even more so as a metaphor of a multitude of realities involving limits, that is, with regards to our tendency to divide the world into separable objects. However, one can observe a considerable uncertainty between the concept and the metaphor and an utilisation too easy of various mixtures of them. It becomes necessary therefore to first admit that materiality is only one of the components of our world whilst the immaterial is not unreal, simulated or metaphoric. After a detour consisting of examining a theory of limits and its limits and making the distinction between the topographic (continuous and the topologic (discontinuous applied to the interior and the limits of an area, two examples are developed which aim to

  9. Bacterial mediated amelioration of drought stress in drought tolerant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacterial mediated amelioration of drought stress in drought tolerant and susceptible cultivars of rice ( Oryza sativa L.) ... and IR-64 (drought sensitive) cultivars of rice (Oryza sativa L.) under different level of drought stress. ... from 32 Countries:.

  10. Improvement for Amelioration Inventory Model with Weibull Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han-Wen Tuan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Most inventory models dealt with deteriorated items. On the contrary, just a few papers considered inventory systems under amelioration environment. We study an amelioration inventory model with Weibull distribution. However, there are some questionable results in the amelioration paper. We will first point out those questionable results in the previous paper that did not derive the optimal solution and then provide some improvements. We will provide a rigorous analytical work for different cases dependent on the size of the shape parameter. We present a detailed numerical example for different ranges of the sharp parameter to illustrate that our solution method attains the optimal solution. We developed a new amelioration model and then provided a detailed analyzed procedure to find the optimal solution. Our findings will help researchers develop their new inventory models.

  11. Riboflavin ameliorates cisplatin induced toxicities under photoillumination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iftekhar Hassan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cisplatin is an effective anticancer drug that elicits many side effects mainly due to induction of oxidative and nitrosative stresses during prolonged chemotherapy. The severity of these side effects consequently restricts its clinical use under long term treatment. Riboflavin is an essential vitamin used in various metabolic redox reactions in the form of flavin adenine dinucleotide and flavin mononucleotide. Besides, it has excellent photosensitizing property that can be used to ameliorate these toxicities in mice under photodynamic therapy. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Riboflavin, cisplatin and their combinations were given to the separate groups of mice under photoilluminated condition under specific treatment regime. Their kidney and liver were excised for comet assay and histopathological studies. Furthermore, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy of riboflavin-cisplatin combination in vitro was also conducted to investigate any possible interaction between the two compounds. Their comet assay and histopathological examination revealed that riboflavin in combination with cisplatin was able to protect the tissues from cisplatin induced toxicities and damages. Moreover, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy analysis of the combination indicated a strong molecular interaction among their constituent groups that may be assigned for the protective effect of the combination in the treated animals. CONCLUSION: Inclusion of riboflavin diminishes cisplatin induced toxicities which may possibly make the cisplatin-riboflavin combination, an effective treatment strategy under chemoradiotherapy in pronouncing its antineoplastic activity and sensitivity towards the cancer cells as compared to cisplatin alone.

  12. Black ginseng extract ameliorates hypercholesterolemia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saba, Evelyn; Jeon, Bo Ra; Jeong, Da-Hye; Lee, Kija; Goo, Youn-Kyoung; Kim, Seung-Hyung; Sung, Chang-Keun; Roh, Seong-Soo; Kim, Sung Dae; Kim, Hyun-Kyoung; Rhee, Man-Hee

    2016-04-01

    Ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer) is a well-characterized medicinal herb listed in the classic oriental herbal dictionary as "Shin-nong-bon-cho-kyung." Ginseng has diverse pharmacologic and therapeutic properties. Black ginseng (BG, Ginseng Radix nigra) is produced by repeatedly steaming fresh ginseng nine times. Studies of BG have shown that prolonged heat treatment enhances the antioxidant activity with increased radical scavenging activity. Several recent studies have showed the effects of BG on increased lipid profiles in mice. In this study report the effects of water and ethanol extracts of BG on hypercholesterolemia in rats. To our knowledge, this is the first time such an effect has been reported. Experiments were conducted on male Sprague Dawley rats fed with a high-cholesterol diet supplemented with the water and ethanol extracts of BG (200 mg/kg). Their blood cholesterol levels, serum white blood cell levels, and cholesterol-metabolizing marker genes messenger RNA (mRNA) expression were determined. Liver and adipose tissues were histologically analyzed. We found that BG extracts efficiently reduced the total serum cholesterol levels, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels with increased food efficiency ratio and increased number of neutrophil cells. It also attenuated the key genes responsible for lipogenesis, that is, acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA) acetyltransferase 2, 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase, and sterol regulatory element-binding protein 2, at the mRNA level inside liver cells. Furthermore, the BG extract also reduced the accumulation of fat in adipose tissues, and inhibited the neutral fat content in liver cells stained with hematoxylin and eosin and oil red O. Administration of BG extracts to Sprague Dawley rats fed with high-cholesterol diet ameliorated hypercholesterolemia, which was mediated via modulation of cholesterol-metabolizing marker genes. This data throw a light on BG's cardioprotective effects.

  13. First-principles study of the structural and elastic properties of AuxV1-x and AuxNb1-x alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Zoubi, N.

    2018-04-01

    Ab initio total energy calculations, based on the Exact Muffin-Tin Orbitals (EMTO) method in combination with the coherent potential approximation (CPA), are used to calculate the total energy of AuxV1-x and AuxNb1-x random alloys along the Bain path that connects the body-centred cubic (bcc) and face-centred cubic (fcc) structures as a function of composition x (0 ≤ x ≤ 1). The equilibrium Wigner-Seitz radius and the elastic properties of both systems are determined as a function of composition. Our theoretical prediction in case of pure elements (x = 0 or x = 1) are in good agreement with the available experimental data. For the Au-V system, the equilibrium Wigner-Seitz radius increase as x increases, while for the Au-Nb system, the equilibrium Wigner-Seitz radius is almost constant. The bulk modulus B and C44 for both alloys exhibit nearly parabolic trend. On the other hand, the tetragonal shear elastic constant C‧ decreases as x increases and correlates reasonably well with the structural energy difference between fcc and bcc structures. Our results offer a consistent starting point for further theoretical and experimental studies of the elastic and micromechanical properties of Au-V and Au-Nb systems.

  14. La dévotion aux âmes du purgatoire à Rio de Janeiro

    OpenAIRE

    Augras, Monique

    2009-01-01

    La dévotion aux âmes du purgatoire est particulièrement vive à Rio de Janeiro. A peu près tolérée par l’Église catholique, elle réunit, chaque lundi, un nombre assez considérable de personnes qui viennent prier, allumer un cierge et déposer diverses offrandes afin de se ménager l’appui des « âmes » pour résoudre les problèmes les plus pressants. A la différence des saints du paradis, dont les vertus les éloignent peut-être du commun des gens, la dévotion aux âmes semble s’appuyer sur une nett...

  15. Le Carnaval de Schignano : un dernier salut aux émigrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Del Biaggio

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Pour arriver à Schignano, il faut passer par una cürva al giazz e una cürva al suu [Un virage dans la glace et un virage au soleil], comme disent les mots en dialecte d’une récente chanson écrite par Davide Van De Sfroos, compositeur-interprète de la région. C’est dans ce petit hameau de la Vallée d’Intelvi, au-dessus du Lac de Côme, que, tous les ans, le carnaval anime le village. Une fête populaire spontanée, sans règles écrites, ni lois, qui survit grâce aux habitants qui l’animent, aux ar...

  16. L’évaluation de la police de proximité aux Pays-Bas

    OpenAIRE

    van der Vijver, Kees; Zoomer, Olga

    2003-01-01

    Cet article se propose de rendre compte des recherches effectuées en matière de police de proximité aux Pays-Bas. Avant d’aborder le problème de l’impact d’une stratégie de police de proximité, il décrit l’organisation du système policier hollandais sans la compréhension duquel il est difficile de suivre les évolutions qui se sont déroulées durant les dernières décennies jusqu’aux réformes en cours aujourd’hui. À partir des recherches déjà effectuées, il examine les résultats des différentes ...

  17. L’orthographe : des systèmes aux usages

    OpenAIRE

    Fayol, Michel; Jaffré, Jean-Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Ce texte propose un éclairage à la fois linguistique et psycholinguistique sur l’orthographe. Au-delà de la spécificité inhérente, par définition, aux deux domaines, il illustre la complémentarité épistémologique qui s’est développée entre eux au cours des dernières décennies. La psycholinguistique a très souvent fait appel aux descriptions linguistiques pour élaborer ses hypothèses de travail et, de son côté, la linguistique s’est inspirée à maintes reprises des observations psycholinguistiq...

  18. L'accès aux collections physiques de la Bpi

    OpenAIRE

    Etesse, Cécile

    2014-01-01

    L'objectif de l’étude est d'analyser l’accès des usagers aux collections physiques de la Bpi. La méthodologierepose sur des entretiens semi-directifs - une quarantaine réalisés auprès d’usagers en situation de recherche dans la bibliothèque, dans les rayons ou aux bureaux d’information et sur un benchmarking auprès d’une dizaine de bibliothèques - portant sur leurs pratiques en matière de supports d’information, signalétique, mise en espace des collections et choix de classification.Les princ...

  19. Systèmes locaux d'alerte précoce et de réponse aux urgences ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    30 janv. 2015 ... initiative which contributes in improving the performance of the early warning system and response to .... types de structures locales demeurent une action qui va ... un appui accru aux organisations non gouvernementales.

  20. Solutions de remplacement à la culture du tabac et aux activités ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Solutions de remplacement à la culture du tabac et aux activités connexes (Inde) ... L'Inde fait toutefois partie du groupe de travail sur les activités de remplacement de la culture du tabac économiquement viables de l'Organisation mondiale de la santé (OMS) et dispose de ... India, Central Asia, Far East Asia, South Asia ...

  1. Gestion de la biodiversité agricole aux fins de la nutrition, de la ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Gestion de la biodiversité agricole aux fins de la nutrition, de la santé, des moyens de subsistance et des systèmes de production durable (Afrique). Les qualités nutritionnelles des aliments provenant des systèmes de production alimentaire de l'Afrique se dégradent, comme l'indiquent la prévalence accrue de carences en ...

  2. Decommissioning of the Nuclear Licensed Facilities at the Fontenay aux Roses CEA Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeanjacques, Michel; Piketty, Laurence; Mandard, Lionel; Pedron, Guy; Boissonneau, Jean Francois; Fouquereau, Alain; Pichereau, Eric; Lethuaire, Nathalie; Estivie, David; Binet, Cedric; Meden, Igor

    2008-01-01

    This is a summary of the program for the decommissioning of all the CEA's facilities in Fontenay aux Roses. The particularity of this center is that it is located in a built-up area. Taking into account the particularities of the various buildings and the levels of radioactivity in them, it was possible to devise a coherent, optimized program for the CEA-FAR licensed nuclear facility decommissioning operations

  3. Adaptation aux changements climatiques au Malawi grâce à l ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    28 avr. 2016 ... Depuis 2001, le programme Écosystèmes et santé humaine du CRDI finance au Malawi des recherches centrées sur les liens entre la fertilité des sols, ... L'équipe examine la façon dont la recherche participative peut guider l'élaboration de stratégies d'adaptation aux changements climatiques, dans un ...

  4. Accès aux TIC et leur utilisation en enseignement supérieur en ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Les politiques dans le domaine de l'enseignement supérieur en matière de technologies de l'information et de la communication (TIC) présument qu'un accès accru aux TIC encourage leur utilisation. Une première collecte de données effectuée en 2004 et 2007 fournit une base des plus nécessaires sur laquelle fonder la ...

  5. Renforcement de la capacité d'adaptation aux changements ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Ce projet vise à améliorer les mesures incitatives et les possibilités qui s'offrent aux ménages du sud de la Zambie et du sud-ouest du Zimbabwe pour composer avec les changements climatiques. Pour ce faire, les responsables investiront dans des technologies de production améliorées d'une grande valeur pratique ...

  6. TIC pour un accès équitable aux ressources humaines en sante en ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Ce projet vise à mieux comprendre comment les TIC peuvent faciliter la distribution équitable des ressources humaines en santé en renforçant et consolidant des activités ... Technologies de l'Information et de la Communication (TIC) pour un Accès équitable aux Ressources Humaines en santé qualifiées, motivées et bien ...

  7. Moyens que prennent les collectivités pour faire face aux souvenirs ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Moyens que prennent les collectivités pour faire face aux souvenirs traumatiques - enseignements tirés d'Aceh et du Timor-Leste. La province d'Aceh et l'État maintenant indépendant du Timor-Leste (auparavant le Timor oriental) ont vécu des décennies de conflit et des violations massives des droits de la personne sous la ...

  8. Réduire les risques et les pertes attribuables aux changements ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    22 août 2014 ... Entre-temps, dans les pays plus riches, comme le Japon et les États‑Unis, les bâtiments et l'infrastructure font l'objet de nouvelles conceptions visant à prévenir les conséquences des tremblements de terre. Quelle comparaison feriez‑vous entre les plans d'adaptation aux tremblements de terre et les ...

  9. Communiquer les risques associés au climat aux collectivités ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    13 mai 2015 ... Le Vietnam est particulièrement vulnérable aux changements climatiques et à la hausse du niveau des océans qui en découle, puisqu'une partie importante de sa population vit dans les basses terres des deltas et le long de la côte, des zones à haut risque. En 2011, d'importantes inondations ont ...

  10. Un partenariat pour lutter contre la résistance aux antimicrobiens ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    11 avr. 2018 ... Le CRDI et le Global AMR Innovation Fund du Royaume-Uni, qui sera géré par le Department of Health and Social Care (DHSC) du Royaume-Uni, rentre dans un nouveau partenariat pour une nouvelle initiative dont l'objectif est de réduire les risques émergents que pose la résistance aux antimicrobiens ...

  11. L’évaluation de la police de proximité aux Pays-Bas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Vijver, Kees; Zoomer, Olga

    2003-01-01

    Cet article se propose de rendre compte des recherches effectuées en matière de police de proximité aux Pays-Bas. Avant d’aborder le problème de l’impact d’une stratégie de police de proximité, il décrit l’organisation du système policier hollandais sans la compréhension duquel il est difficile de

  12. Original Paper Les risques sanitaires liés aux sources d'eau de ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L'eau est une ressource naturelle precieuse et essentielle pour de multiples usages, mais sa qualité est confrontée à plusieurs problèmes dont la pollution liées aux actvités anthropiques, d'où la nécessité de contribuer à l'amélioration de la qualité de l'eau de consommation. Ainsi, une étude transversale, descriptive et.

  13. Amélioration de la sécurité alimentaire et nutritionnelle aux ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Les écoles offrent des voies stratégiques et ciblées pour fournir une alimentation nutritive aux enfants et, indirectement, à leurs familles et leurs collectivités. Un projet de recherche d'une durée de trois ans (de 2012 à 2015) a mis au point et à l'essai un modèle de nutrition intégrée en milieu scolaire comprenant du ...

  14. Renforcement des droits fonciers communautaires et réactions aux ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    De telles menaces qui planent sur les droits fonciers et environnementaux des collectivités sont un indice de tensions plus grandes au sein de l'appareil d'État et du système de justice. Dans ce ... Des droits internationaux aux pratiques locales : la réforme constitutionnelle et la participation en Amérique latine. Ce projet ...

  15. La vulnérabilité aux changements climatiques, une expérience ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    21 avr. 2011 ... Madagascar, la quatrième plus grande île au monde, héberge une multitude de formes de vie qu'on ne trouve nulle part ailleurs sur la planète. Dans la plupart des cas, cette biodiversité est extrêmement vulnérable aux changements climatiques, tout comme l'agriculture pluviale, la pêche et la foresterie, ...

  16. Decommissioning of the nuclear licensed facilities at the Fontenay aux Roses CEA center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeanjacques, Michel; Piketty, Laurence; Letuhaire, Nathalie; Mandard, Lionel; Meden, Igor; Estivie, David; Boissonneau, Jean Francois; Fouquereau, Alain; Pichereau, Eric; Binet, Cedric

    2007-01-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: The French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) center at Fontenay aux Roses (CEN-FAR) is the Commission's oldest center is located in the southern suburbs of Paris. It was opened on 26 March 1946 to host the first French nuclear reactor ZOE that went critical on 12 December 1946. The first laboratories were installed in existing buildings on the site. (authors)

  17. Report of transparency and nuclear safety 2007 CEA Fontenay aux Roses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This report presents the activities of the CEA Center of Fontenay aux roses for the year 2007. After many years of decommissioning and dismantling of nuclear installations, the Center is now devoted (since 2005) to the development of research programmes on biology and biomedical technologies. The actions concerning the safety, the radiation protection, the significant events, the release control and the environmental impacts and the wastes stored on the center are discussed. (A.L.B.)

  18. Des bananes plus nutritives et qui résistent aux maladies | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    28 oct. 2010 ... Les petits agriculteurs jouissent de meilleurs revenus et d'une sécurité alimentaire accrue grâce à des variétés de bananes à haut rendement qui résistent aux maladies. Au cours des années 1980 et 1990, avec le soutien du CRDI, la Fundación Hondureña de Investigación Agricola (FHIA) a mis au point ...

  19. 10 Détermination des radionucléides dans le repas. Application aux ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ASIMANANA

    On réalise du tic au tac à l'Agriculture et un système expert des aides aux culinaires. Le Malgache a un art culinaire. Les étrangers, certes, connaissent seulement quelques plats. Malgaches à commencer par le Romazava et le Ravitoto. Or, on constatera que cette cuisine compte de nombreux plats. 2. Matériel et méthodes.

  20. Impact de la restructuration de la taxe d'accise sur le tabac aux ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Aux Philippines, le taux de tabagisme est élevé et les taxes sur les produits du tabac, peu élevées. La meilleure façon de redresser la situation consiste à adopter des lois qui aug- mentent considérablement les taxes. Une loi restructurant les taxes sur les produits du tabac, qui comporte une forte hausse de la taxe d'accise ...

  1. À la suite de la parution d'un rapport sur les subventions aux ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    7 juin 2016 ... A Senegalese boy standing behind a car tire. Scott Wallace / The World Bank. John Cockburn. La protection sociale par le truchement de transferts en espèces peut-elle aider le Ghana à réduire l'écart grandissant que ses subventions aux carburants ont contribué à créer entre les riches et les pauvres ?

  2. Étude sur l'escalade de la violence faite aux femmes en Amérique ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Étude sur l'escalade de la violence faite aux femmes en Amérique centrale. 21 juin 2016. Ana Carcedo. En Amérique centrale, on assiste à une escalade de la violence faite aux femmes et du nombre de meurtres de femmes (ou femicides). Or, il y a des lacunes sur le plan du signalement. Primo, malgré les efforts déployés ...

  3. Amélioration de l'accès à la justice et aux services essentiels dans ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Plus de la moitié des résidents de Nairobi, au Kenya, occupent des établissements spontanés, ou bidonvilles, dans des conditions difficiles. Leurs logements sont inadéquats et ils ont un accès insuffisant à l'eau potable, aux services d'assainissement, aux services de santé, à l'école et à d'autres services publics essentiels ...

  4. Ne réduisez pas les programmes destinés aux femmes. Intégrez-les ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    27 juil. 2017 ... Au cours des derniers mois, nous avons entendu dire que l'administration Trump a prévu de réduire le financement de plusieurs programmes s'adressant aux femmes, comme le Bureau des affaires mondiales relatives aux femmes du département d'État. Ce n'est pas le seul programme. Une évaluation ...

  5. Zinc Deficiency in Humans and its Amelioration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yashbir Singh Shivay

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Zinc (Zn deficiency in humans has recently received considerable attention. Global mortality in children under 5 years of age in 2004 due to Zn deficiency was estimated at 4,53,207 as against 6,66,771 for vitamin A deficiency; 20,854 for iron deficiency and 3,619 for iodine deficiency. In humans 2800-3000 proteins contain Zn prosthetic group and Zn is an integral component of zinc finger prints that regulate DNA transcription. Zinc is a Type-2 nutrient, which means that its concentration in blood does not decrease in proportion of the Zn deficiency. Adverse effects of Zn deficiency vary with age: low weight gain, diarrhoea, aneroxia and neurobehavioral disturbances are observed in infants, while skin changes and dwarfism are frequent in toddlers and adolescents. Common manifestations of Zn deficiency among elderly include hypogeusia, chronic non-healing ulcers and recurrent infections.Ameliorative measures of Zn deficiency in humans can be classified in two groups, namely, nutraceutical and biofortification of food grains. Nutraceutical interventions include pharmaceutical supplements, dietary supplements and dietary diversification, while biofortification of food grains can be achieved by genetic modification (GM of crops or by agronomic techniques that include soil or/and foliar fertilization of crops.The major disadvantage of nutraceutical approaches is that the major beneficiaries are urban people and the poor rural masses that need adequate Zn nutrition most are left out. Genetic biofortification of food grains requires large amounts of funds and a fairly long-period of time. Further, a large number of countries have not yet accepted genetically modified (GM foods. On the other hand agronomic biofortification of food grains yields immediate effects and rural and urban people are equally benefitted. Our studies have shown that Zn concentration in cereals (rice, wheat etc and pulses can be considerably increased by soil or/and foliar

  6. Zinc Deficiency in Humans and its Amelioration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yashbir Singh Shivay

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Zinc (Zn deficiency in humans has recently received considerable attention. Global mortality in children under 5 years of age in 2004 due to Zn deficiency was estimated at 4,53,207 as against 6,66,771 for vitamin A deficiency; 20,854 for iron deficiency and 3,619 for iodine deficiency. In humans 2800-3000 proteins contain Zn prosthetic group and Zn is an integral component of zinc finger prints that regulate DNA transcription. Zinc is a Type-2 nutrient, which means that its concentration in blood does not decrease in proportion of the Zn deficiency. Adverse effects of Zn deficiency vary with age: low weight gain, diarrhoea, aneroxia and neurobehavioral disturbances are observed in infants, while skin changes and dwarfism are frequent in toddlers and adolescents. Common manifestations of Zn deficiency among elderly include hypogeusia, chronic non-healing ulcers and recurrent infections. Ameliorative measures of Zn deficiency in humans can be classified in two groups, namely, nutraceutical and biofortification of food grains. Nutraceutical interventions include pharmaceutical supplements, dietary supplements and dietary diversification, while biofortification of food grains can be achieved by genetic modification (GM of crops or by agronomic techniques that include soil or/and foliar fertilization of crops. The major disadvantage of nutraceutical approaches is that the major beneficiaries are urban people and the poor rural masses that need adequate Zn nutrition most are left out. Genetic biofortification of food grains requires large amounts of funds and a fairly long-period of time. Further, a large number of countries have not yet accepted genetically modified (GM foods. On the other hand agronomic biofortification of food grains yields immediate effects and rural and urban people are equally benefitted. Our studies have shown that Zn concentration in cereals (rice, wheat etc and pulses can be considerably increased by soil or/and foliar

  7. The aux1 gene of the Ri plasmid is sufficient to confer auxin autotrophy in tobacco BY-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemoto, Keiichirou; Hara, Masamitsu; Goto, Shingo; Kasai, Kouji; Seki, Hikaru; Suzuki, Masashi; Oka, Atsuhiro; Muranaka, Toshiya; Mano, Yoshihiro

    2009-05-01

    Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) Bright Yellow-2 (BY-2) cells are rapidly proliferating meristematic cells that require auxin for culture in vitro. We have established several transgenic BY-2 cell lines that carry the T-DNA of Agrobacterium rhizogenes 15834, which harbors an agropine-type root-inducing (Ri) plasmid. Two of these lines, BYHR-3 and BYHR-7, were used to test the role of auxin in the proliferation of plant cells. The lines grew rapidly in Linsmaier-Skoog (LS) medium lacking auxin and other phytohormones. The TR-DNA, containing the aux1 (tryptophan monooxygenase) and aux2 (indoleacetamide hydrolase) genes, was present in the genomes of both transgenic lines, whereas the TL-DNA, containing the rolA, B, C and D genes, was present in the genome of BYHR-7 but not BYHR-3. Since the introduction of the rolABCD genes alone did not affect the auxin requirement of BY-2 cells, the aux1 and aux2 genes, but not the rolABCD genes, appear to be relevant to the auxin autotrophy of these transgenic lines. Furthermore, the overexpression of aux1 allowed BY-2 cells to grow rapidly in the absence of auxin, suggesting the existence in plant cells of an unidentified gene whose product is functionally equivalent or similar to that of aux2 of the Ri plasmid.

  8. Développement d'immunoessais associés aux électrodes sérigraphiées: des particules superparamagnétiques aux nanobodies

    OpenAIRE

    Patris, Stéphanie

    2014-01-01

    Cette thèse a pour vocation de contribuer au développement de différents immunocapteurs ampérométriques associés aux électrodes sérigraphiées (SPE). Les immunocapteurs sont des dispositifs simples associant un anticorps ou un antigène qui assurent la sélectivité à un transducteur (ici une SPE) ;ce dernier transforme la liaison anticorps/antigène en un signal mesurable (ici ampérométrique).Le travail est divisé en deux volets principaux.Le premier est consacré à la mise en œuvre de différents ...

  9. Développement d'immunoessais associés aux électrodes sérigraphies: des particules superparamagnétiques aux nanobodies

    OpenAIRE

    Patris, Stéphanie

    2014-01-01

    Cette thèse a pour vocation de contribuer au développement de différents immunocapteurs ampérométriques associés aux électrodes sérigraphiées (SPE). Les immunocapteurs sont des dispositifs simples associant un anticorps ou un antigène qui assurent la sélectivité à un transducteur (ici une SPE) ;ce dernier transforme la liaison anticorps/antigène en un signal mesurable (ici ampérométrique). Le travail est divisé en deux volets principaux. Le premier est consacré à la mise en œuvre de dif...

  10. The Effect of Vitamin E on Ameliorating Primary Dysmenorrhea: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dysmenorrhea or painful menstruation is one of the most common problems of women. Using systematic review and meta‑analysis, this study aimed to determine the effect of vitamin E on ameliorating the intensity of pain of primary dysmenorrhea. Available databases comprising PubMed, Google Scholar, ISI, Science ...

  11. Designing urban parks that ameliorate the effects of climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, R.D.; Vanos, J.; Kenny, N.; Lenzholzer, S.

    2015-01-01

    Many inhabitants of cities throughout the world suffer from health problems and discomfort that are caused by overheating of urban areas, and there is compelling evidence that these problems will be exacerbated by global climate change. Most cities are not designed to ameliorate these effects

  12. Oral Metformin-Ascorbic Acid Co-Administration Ameliorates Alcohol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oral Metformin-Ascorbic Acid Co-Administration Ameliorates Alcohol-Induced Hepatotoxicity In Rats. ... Nigerian Quarterly Journal of Hospital Medicine ... the present in vivo animal study was to determine whether metformin-ascorbic acid co-administration also prevents alcoholic hepatotoxicity in chronic alcohol exposure.

  13. Antibiotics can ameliorate circulatory complications of liver cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Bjørn Stæhr; Schaffalitzky de Muckadell, Ove B

    2011-01-01

    . This review focuses on how broad spectrum antibiotics can ameliorate the haemodynamic consequences of bacterial translocation. It is possible that the use of broad spectrum antibiotics in the future may be used to prevent other complications of liver cirrhosis than spontaneous bacterial peritonitis...

  14. Ameliorative effect of the hydroethanolic whole plant extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    At the end of the study, biochemical markers of nitrosative and oxidative stress status were determined. Results: DH (12.5, 50 and 100 mg/kg) significantly ameliorated haloperidol-induced catalepsy (bar test), spontaneous motor and working memory deficits (open field and elevated plus maze tests, respectively), ...

  15. Ameliorative effects of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius on anaemia and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-06-03

    Jun 3, 2008 ... This study was designed to evaluate the ameliorative effect of ... The group fed with 20% C. aconitifolius in place of 20% soya protein also ... to cholesterol enrichment of the erythrocytes membrane, ... rabbit and horse erythrocytes membrane with 1,2- .... various substances such as iron, vitamins and protein.

  16. Ameliorative effects of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius on anaemia and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to evaluate the ameliorative effect of dietary supplementation of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius leaf on anaemia and changes in erythrocyte osmotic fragility in protein energy malnourished rats. Protein energy malnutrition has been associated with anaemia and changes in osmotic fragility, deformability ...

  17. Methodes spectrales paralleles et applications aux simulations de couches de melange compressibles

    OpenAIRE

    Male , Jean-Michel; Fezoui , Loula ,

    1993-01-01

    La resolution des equations de Navier-Stokes en methodes spectrales pour des ecoulements compressibles peut etre assez gourmande en temps de calcul. On etudie donc ici la parallelisation d'un tel algorithme et son implantation sur une machine massivement parallele, la connection-machine CM-2. La methode spectrale s'adapte bien aux exigences du parallelisme massif, mais l'un des outils de base de cette methode, la transformee de Fourier rapide (lorsqu'elle doit etre appliquee sur les deux dime...

  18. Mortalite liee au VIH chez les enfants aux Chu campus et tokoin de ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction. Le but de ce travail était d'étudier la mortalité liée au VIH chez les enfants séropositifs aux CHU-Campus et Tokoin de Lomé. Patients et méthode. Il s'est agi d'une étude prospective qui s'est déroulée dans les services de pédiatrie des CHU-Campus et Tokoin de Lomé et qui a couvert une période de 6 mois ...

  19. Evaluation of the radiology state at the CEA/Fontenay-aux-Roses and its environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-10-01

    Since 1946 the nuclear installations followed one other at the CEA of Fontenay-aux-Roses still their gradual stop the last ten years, except two installations INB34 and INB73, necessary for the wastes management. Today these installations form the subject of a drainage program. The public opinion is regularly informed on this program since 1999. This document presents the stock of the actions realized since this date: the track keeping of the sites activities impacts on the environment and the actions realized since 1999. (A.L.B.)

  20. Conference - Découvrez notre région - Aux bornes de Genève

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

      Les premières bornes-frontière sont posées en 1816 aux confins du royaume de Sardaigne, d’autres feront leur apparition dès 1818 du côté du royaume de France. Deux cents ans plus tard, on retrouve toujours ces pierres, témoins de la naissance du canton et patrimoine partagé des communes genevoises, gessiennes et savoisiennes qui font notre région.  

  1. Perception des risques liés aux changements climatiques dans les ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    4 sept. 2014 ... L'équipe du projet Perception du risque et vulnérabilité des milieux humides sur la côte atlantique de l'Amérique du Sud, qui a commencé en 2012, privilégie une démarche de gestion intégrée des zones côtières et s'appuie sur les perceptions que les parties prenantes ont des risques liés aux ...

  2. Fertilisation et sensibilité des cultures de laitue et de tomate aux bioagresseurs

    OpenAIRE

    Julhia, L.; Nicot, Philippe C.

    2014-01-01

    Les producteurs de légumes sont confrontés à de nouveaux défis avec la réduction de l’usage des produits phytosanitaires. Limiter le recours aux moyens de lutte chimique conduit à revisiter les pratiques et à mettre en oeuvre des stratégies globales à moindre risque phytosanitaire. La fertilisation est examinée dans son action sur la santé des plantes et comme levier dans la gestion des bioagresseurs. L’étude porte sur deux cultures légumières majeures en France, en termes de surfaces, la lai...

  3. Safety Training: Sensibilisation aux gestes et postures de travail

    CERN Multimedia

    Laetitia Laddada

    2004-01-01

    Nous vous proposons un nouveau cours de sécurité lié aux manutentions manuelles (durée 1 jour) : Sensibilisation aux gestes et postures de travail. Si vous êtes amené à manipuler régulièrement des charges lourdes ou volumineuses, cette formation peut vous aider à prévenir les lésions musculaires ou dorsales. A l'issue de cette formation, vous serez capable d'adopter et d'appliquer les principes de base de sécurité physique et d'économie d'efforts dans les manipulations d'objets. Les cours sont pris en charge par la Commission de Sécurité. L'inscription EDH est obligatoire. Pour plus d'information, veuillez consulter les pages Formation & Développement (Groupe Sécurité). Formation & Développement (Groupe Sécurité) FORMATION EN SECURITE SAFETY TRAINING Laetitia Laddada 73811 - 79236 safety.training@cern.ch

  4. Safety Training: Sensibilisation aux gestes et postures de travail

    CERN Multimedia

    Laetitia Laddada

    2004-01-01

    Nous vous proposons un nouveau cours de sécurité lié aux manutentions manuelles (durée 1 jour) : Sensibilisation aux gestes et postures de travail. Si vous êtes amené à manipuler régulièrement des charges lourdes ou volumineuses, cette formation peut vous aider à prévenir les lésions musculaires ou dorsales. A l'issue de cette formation, vous serez capable d'adopter et d'appliquer les principes de base de sécurité physique et d'économie d'efforts dans les manipulations d'objets. Les cours sont pris en charge par la Commission de Sécurité. L'inscription EDH est obligatoire. Pour plus d'information, veuillez consulter les pages Formation & Développement (Groupe Sécurité). Formation & Développement (Groupe Sécurité) FORMATION EN SECURITE SAFETY TRAINING Laetitia Laddada 73811 - 79236 sa...

  5. Safety Training: Sensibilisation aux gestes et postures de travail

    CERN Multimedia

    Laetitia Laddada

    2004-01-01

    >Nous vous proposons un nouveau cours de sécurité lié aux manutentions manuelles (durée 1 jour) : Sensibilisation aux gestes et postures de travail. Si vous êtes amené à manipuler régulièrement des charges lourdes ou volumineuses, cette formation peut vous aider à prévenir les lésions musculaires ou dorsales. A l'issue de cette formation, vous serez capable d'adopter et d'appliquer les principes de base de sécurité physique et d'économie d'efforts dans les manipulations d'objets. Les cours sont pris en charge par la Commission de Sécurité. L'inscription EDH est obligatoire. Pour plus d'information, veuillez consulter les pages Formation & Développement (Groupe Sécurité). Formation & Développement (Groupe Sécurité) FORMATION EN SECURITE SAFETY TRAINING Laetitia Laddada 73811 - 79236 s...

  6. Safety Training: Sensibilisation aux gestes et postures de travail

    CERN Multimedia

    Laetitia Laddada

    2004-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an 'application for training' form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. Nous vous proposons un nouveau cours de sécurité lié aux manutentions manuelles (durée 1 jour) : Sensibilisation aux gestes et postures de travail. Si vous êtes amené à manipuler régulièrement des charges lourdes ou volumineuses, cette formation peut vous aider à prévenir les lésions musculaires ou dorsales. A l'issue de cette formation, vous serez capable d'adopter et d'appliquer les principes de base de sécurité physique et d'économie d'efforts dans les manipulations...

  7. Systèmes locaux d'alerte précoce et de réponse aux urgences ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Le régime démocratique laisse souffler le vent qui fait apparaitre aux élus locaux et aux services déconcentrés de l'État un nouvel élan et d'état d'esprit soumis désormais entre les injonctions du DNPGCCA, les attentes des populations vulnérables, à l'empilement des missions d'évaluations sans suite concrètes en termes ...

  8. Biochar from commercially cultivated seaweed for soil amelioration

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, David A.; Paul, Nicholas A.; Dworjanyn, Symon A.; Bird, Michael I.; de Nys, Rocky

    2015-01-01

    Seaweed cultivation is a high growth industry that is primarily targeted at human food and hydrocolloid markets. However, seaweed biomass also offers a feedstock for the production of nutrient-rich biochar for soil amelioration. We provide the first data of biochar yield and characteristics from intensively cultivated seaweeds (Saccharina, Undaria and Sargassum ? brown seaweeds, and Gracilaria, Kappaphycus and Eucheuma ? red seaweeds). While there is some variability in biochar properties as ...

  9. Pyrolysis temperature influences ameliorating effects of biochars on acidic soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Qing; Yuan, Jin-Hua; Xu, Ren-Kou; Li, Xing-Hui

    2014-02-01

    The biochars were prepared from straws of canola, corn, soybean, and peanut at different temperatures of 300, 500, and 700 °C by means of oxygen-limited pyrolysis.Amelioration effects of these biochars on an acidic Ultisol were investigated with incubation experiments, and application rate of biochars was 10 g/kg. The incorporation of these biochars induced the increase in soil pH, soil exchangeable base cations, base saturation, and cation exchange capacity and the decrease in soil exchangeable acidity and exchangeable Al. The ameliorating effects of biochars on acidic soil increased with increase in their pyrolysis temperature. The contribution of oxygen-containing functional groups on the biochars to their ameliorating effects on the acidic soil decreased with the rise in pyrolysis temperature, while the contribution from carbonates in the biochars changed oppositely. The incorporation of the biochars led to the decrease in soil reactive Al extracted by 0.5mol/L CuCl2, and the content of reactive Al was decreased with the increase in pyrolysis temperature of incorporated biochars. The biochars generated at 300 °C increased soil organically complexed Al due to ample quantity of oxygen-containing functional groups such as carboxylic and phenolic groups on the biochars, while the biochars generated at 500 and 700 °C accelerated the transformation of soil exchangeable Al to hydroxyl-Al polymers due to hydrolysis of Al at higher pH. Therefore, the crop straw-derived biochars can be used as amendments for acidic soils and the biochars generated at relatively high temperature have great ameliorating effects on the soils.

  10. Infiltration in reclaimed mined land ameliorated with deep tillage treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chong, S.K.; Cowsert, P.T.

    1997-01-01

    Reclamation of mined land with heavy machinery can result in soil compaction, which increases soil bulk density and reduces porosity, water infiltrability, root elongation and crop productivity. This paper examines the effect on infiltration in reclaimed surface mined land of a deep tillage treatment, and the subsequent changes in infiltration after the amelioration. The experiment was conducted at the Horse Creek Mine near Conant, Ferry County, IL, USA

  11. Biochar from commercially cultivated seaweed for soil amelioration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, David A.; Paul, Nicholas A.; Dworjanyn, Symon A.; Bird, Michael I.; de Nys, Rocky

    2015-01-01

    Seaweed cultivation is a high growth industry that is primarily targeted at human food and hydrocolloid markets. However, seaweed biomass also offers a feedstock for the production of nutrient-rich biochar for soil amelioration. We provide the first data of biochar yield and characteristics from intensively cultivated seaweeds (Saccharina, Undaria and Sargassum – brown seaweeds, and Gracilaria, Kappaphycus and Eucheuma – red seaweeds). While there is some variability in biochar properties as a function of the origin of seaweed, there are several defining and consistent characteristics of seaweed biochar, in particular a relatively low C content and surface area but high yield, essential trace elements (N, P and K) and exchangeable cations (particularly K). The pH of seaweed biochar ranges from neutral (7) to alkaline (11), allowing for broad-spectrum applications in diverse soil types. We find that seaweed biochar is a unique material for soil amelioration that is consistently different to biochar derived from ligno-cellulosic feedstock. Blending of seaweed and ligno-cellulosic biochar could provide a soil ameliorant that combines a high fixed C content with a mineral-rich substrate to enhance crop productivity. PMID:25856799

  12. Biochar from commercially cultivated seaweed for soil amelioration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, David A.; Paul, Nicholas A.; Dworjanyn, Symon A.; Bird, Michael I.; de Nys, Rocky

    2015-04-01

    Seaweed cultivation is a high growth industry that is primarily targeted at human food and hydrocolloid markets. However, seaweed biomass also offers a feedstock for the production of nutrient-rich biochar for soil amelioration. We provide the first data of biochar yield and characteristics from intensively cultivated seaweeds (Saccharina, Undaria and Sargassum - brown seaweeds, and Gracilaria, Kappaphycus and Eucheuma - red seaweeds). While there is some variability in biochar properties as a function of the origin of seaweed, there are several defining and consistent characteristics of seaweed biochar, in particular a relatively low C content and surface area but high yield, essential trace elements (N, P and K) and exchangeable cations (particularly K). The pH of seaweed biochar ranges from neutral (7) to alkaline (11), allowing for broad-spectrum applications in diverse soil types. We find that seaweed biochar is a unique material for soil amelioration that is consistently different to biochar derived from ligno-cellulosic feedstock. Blending of seaweed and ligno-cellulosic biochar could provide a soil ameliorant that combines a high fixed C content with a mineral-rich substrate to enhance crop productivity.

  13. Ghrelin Ameliorates Asthma by Inhibiting Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Tian; Wang, Lei; Zeng, Qingdi; Zhang, Yan; Sheng, Baowei; Han, Liping

    2017-12-01

    This study aimed to confirm the ameliorative effect of ghrelin on asthma and investigate its mechanism. The murine model of asthma was induced by ovalbumin (OVA) treatment and assessed by histological pathology and airway responsiveness to methacholine. The total and differential leukocytes were counted. Tumor necrosis factor α, interferon γ, interleukin-5 and interleukin-13 levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were quantified by commercial kits. The protein levels in pulmonary tissues were measured by Western blot analysis. Ghrelin ameliorated the histological pathology and airway hyperresponsiveness in the OVA-induced asthmatic mouse model. Consistently, OVA-increased total and differential leukocytes and levels of tumor necrosis factor α, interferon γ, interleukin-5 and interleukin-13 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were significantly attenuated by ghrelin. Ghrelin prevented the increased protein levels of the endoplasmic reticulum stress markers glucose regulated protein 78 and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein homologous protein and reversed the reduced levels of p-Akt in asthmatic mice. Ghrelin might prevent endoplasmic reticulum stress activation by stimulating the Akt signaling pathway, which attenuated inflammation and ameliorated asthma in mice. Ghrelin might be a new target for asthma therapy. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Administration of red ginseng ameliorates memory decline in aged mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yeonju; Oh, Seikwan

    2015-07-01

    It has been known that ginseng can be applied as a potential nutraceutical for memory impairment; however, experiments with animals of old age are few. To determine the memory enhancing effect of red ginseng, C57BL/6 mice (21 mo old) were given experimental diet pellets containing 0.12% red ginseng extract (approximately 200 mg/kg/d) for 3 mo. Young and old mice (4 mo and 21 mo old, respectively) were used as the control group. The effect of red ginseng, which ameliorated memory impairment in aged mice, was quantified using Y-maze test, novel objective test, and Morris water maze. Red ginseng ameliorated age-related declines in learning and memory in older mice. In addition, red ginseng's effect on the induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase and proinflammatory cytokines was investigated in the hippocampus of aged mice. Red ginseng treatment suppressed the production of age-processed inducible nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-1β expressions. Moreover, it was observed that red ginseng had an antioxidative effect on aged mice. The suppressed glutathione level in aged mice was restored with red ginseng treatment. The antioxidative-related enzymes Nrf2 and HO-1 were increased with red ginseng treatment. The results revealed that when red ginseng is administered over long periods, age-related decline of learning and memory is ameliorated through anti-inflammatory activity.

  15. Amélioration de la capacité d'adaptation sociale et écologique aux ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... en plus intenses se multiplient en raison des phénomènes météorologiques extrêmes. ... d'établir des cartes de vulnérabilité aux changements climatiques et de ... intermédiaire et fonctionnaires des administrations locales et régionales.

  16. Localized iron supply triggers lateral root elongation in Arabidopsis by altering the AUX1-mediated auxin distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giehl, Ricardo F H; Lima, Joni E; von Wirén, Nicolaus

    2012-01-01

    Root system architecture depends on nutrient availability, which shapes primary and lateral root development in a nutrient-specific manner. To better understand how nutrient signals are integrated into root developmental programs, we investigated the morphological response of Arabidopsis thaliana roots to iron (Fe). Relative to a homogeneous supply, localized Fe supply in horizontally separated agar plates doubled lateral root length without having a differential effect on lateral root number. In the Fe uptake-defective mutant iron-regulated transporter1 (irt1), lateral root development was severely repressed, but a requirement for IRT1 could be circumvented by Fe application to shoots, indicating that symplastic Fe triggered the local elongation of lateral roots. The Fe-stimulated emergence of lateral root primordia and root cell elongation depended on the rootward auxin stream and was accompanied by a higher activity of the auxin reporter DR5-β-glucuronidase in lateral root apices. A crucial role of the auxin transporter AUXIN RESISTANT1 (AUX1) in Fe-triggered lateral root elongation was indicated by Fe-responsive AUX1 promoter activities in lateral root apices and by the failure of the aux1-T mutant to elongate lateral roots into Fe-enriched agar patches. We conclude that a local symplastic Fe gradient in lateral roots upregulates AUX1 to accumulate auxin in lateral root apices as a prerequisite for lateral root elongation.

  17. Diplomatie de Léopold II face aux puissances coloniales en Afrique. Contribution à l'histoire diplomatique du Congo

    OpenAIRE

    Baenda Fimbo, Zacharie

    2011-01-01

    Cet article essaie d'analyser les stratégies diplomatiques du roi Léopold II face aux grandes puissances de l'époque lors du partage du continent africains. Ces stratégies lui ont permis de gagner la Congo au centre de l'Afrique. Peer reviewed

  18. Mise en place des préalables aux essais randomisés d'interventions ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Mise en place des préalables aux essais randomisés d'interventions ... fund is to support applied research in areas vital to achieving long-term food security. ... The Science Granting Councils Initiative in sub-Saharan Africa wins Science ...

  19. Dynamiques de résistance aux normes révolutionnaires à Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Geoffray, Marie-Laure

    2013-01-01

    Les normes du régime révolutionnaire sont, à Cuba, inscrites dans l’espace. Elles fonctionnent comme des signes performatifs qui à la fois rappellent constamment la présence du pouvoir et catégorisent les individus selon leur conformité aux normes. Mais, depuis la crise économique des années 1990, des logiques centrifuges à l’œuvre au sein de la société cubaine viennent remettre en question la capacité du régime à générer une socialisation révolutionnaire homogène. On observe des dynamiques s...

  20. A. Lacassagne : de l’archive mineure aux Archives d’anthropologie criminelle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Artières

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available En 1921, le médecin Alexandre Lacassagne offre à la ville de Lyon ses archives et son importante bibliothèque. Depuis son installation au début des années 1880, Lacassagne qui y détient la chaire de médecine légale et de toxicologie, est devenu l’une des figures les plus célèbre de la ville. Il est intervenu à plusieurs reprises dans les affaires municipales et notamment en matière d’hygiène urbaine, il a surtout pris part comme expert aux grandes affaires criminelles ; il a ainsi fait de Lyo...

  1. Safety Training: Ergonomie - Sensibilisation aux gestes et postures de travail

    CERN Multimedia

    Laetitia Laddada

    2004-01-01

    Nous vous proposons un nouveau cours d'ergonomie (durée : 1 jour) Sensibilisation aux gestes et postures de travail. A l'issue de cette formation, vous serez capable d'adopter et d'appliquer les principes de base de sécurité physique et d'économie d'efforts dans les manipulations d'objets. Les cours sont pris en charge par la Commission de Sécurité. L'inscription EDH est obligatoire. Pour plus d'information, veuillez consulter les pages Formation & Développement (Groupe Sécurité). FORMATION EN SECURITE SAFETY TRAINING Laetitia Laddada 73811 - 79236 safety.training@cern.ch

  2. La Relativité restreinte expliquée aux enfants (de 7 à 107 ans)

    OpenAIRE

    Marle , Charles-Michel

    2014-01-01

    Ce texte est la version française de l'article "Relativity, the Special Theory, explained to Children (from 7 to 107 years old)". Il est un peu plus détaillé que la version anglaise: il comporte deux figures de plus et la démonstration détaillée du point le plus délicat.; L'auteur pense qu'il est possible d'expliquer aux enfants de 15 a 16 ans les idées essentielles de la théorie de la Relativité, sans aucun calcul compliqué, en n'utilisant que quelques notions très simples de géométrie affin...

  3. Report on nuclear safety and transparency 2011 - Fontenay-aux-Roses CEA centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-06-01

    After a brief presentation of the Fontenay-aux-Roses CEA centre, this report indicates the different safety measures in the different nuclear base installations (INB) of this site (measures related to different risks, to emergency situations, to inspections and audits). It describes measures related to radiation protection: organisation, dosimetry results. It presents the different significant events which occurred in 2011 and were declared to the ASN. It discusses the results of measurements of liquid, gaseous and chemical releases from the installations and their impact on the environment. It addresses the radioactive waste management (measures to limit their volume and to limit their impact on health and on the environment, notably on water and soils, type and quantities of wastes stored in INBs). It presents the different measures and actions related to information transparency

  4. EMC: a new equipment for repackaging the ancient waste from Fontenay-aux-Roses CEA site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ithurbide, A.; Masy, J.C.; Serrano, R.; Blanc, S.

    2017-01-01

    A new equipment called EMC (Equipment for measuring and packaging) is being built on the Fontenay-aux Roses site in the framework of the cleaning-up of this CEA site. Studies on irradiated fuels and on radio-chemical processes were performed till 1995 and a large quantity of radioactive waste were generated and have stayed on the site so far in storage pits. EMC purpose is to prepare high level radioactive waste for their removal towards the Diadem storing facility that is being built on the Marcoule CEA site. EMC will deal with α-emitter contaminated waste and will be able to recover ancient 50 l waste drums from storage pits, to characterize their radioactive content, to open them, to package them in CDD1 drum (each CDD1 drum can contain up to 5 ancient drums), and to load CDD1 drums in transport packing. EMC is expected to operate for 4 years. (A.C.)

  5. Decommissioning works are going on at Fontenay-aux-roses CEA center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2003-01-01

    The CEA center of Fontenay-aux-roses is pursuing the dismantling operations of its nuclear installations. In 2003 120 glove boxes of the plutonium chemistry laboratory were disassembled and moved to the Cadarache CEA center. Hot cells from the Castor, Cyrano and Petrus lines are currently undergoing decontamination operations before being dismantled. As for the processing station of liquid effluents, the cutting works of the incinerator of low-level radioactive wastes and of the tanks began in 2003 and are expected to be over by end 2004. The Triton research reactor was decommissioned in 1982 and dismantling works on its hot cell and on its pool began at the end of 2003. (A.C.)

  6. Soins primaires aux adultes ayant une déficience développementale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, William F.; Berg, Joseph M.; Bradley, Elspeth; Cheetham, Tom; Denton, Richard; Heng, John; Hennen, Brian; Joyce, David; Kelly, Maureen; Korossy, Marika; Lunsky, Yona; McMillan, Shirley

    2011-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Mettre à jour les lignes directrices canadiennes de 2006 sur les soins primaires aux adultes ayant une déficience développementale (DD) et présenter des recommandations pratiques fondées sur les connaissances actuelles pour traiter des problèmes de santé particuliers chez des adultes ayant une DD. Qualité des preuves Des professionnels de la santé expérimentés participant à un colloque et un groupe de travail subséquent ont discuté et convenu des révisions aux lignes directrices de 2006 en se fondant sur une recherche documentaire exhaustive, la rétroaction obtenue des utilisateurs du guide de pratique et les expériences cliniques personnelles. La plupart des preuves disponibles dans ce domaine viennent de l’opinion d’experts ou de déclarations consensuelles publiées (niveau III). Message principal Les adultes ayant une DD ont des problèmes de santé complexes, dont plusieurs diffèrent de ceux de la population en général. De bons soins primaires permettent d’identifier les problèmes de santé particuliers dont souffrent les adultes ayant une DD pour améliorer leur qualité de vie et leur accès aux soins de santé et prévenir la morbidité et le décès prématuré. Ces lignes directrices résument les problèmes de santé générale, physique, comportementale et mentale des adultes ayant une DD que devraient connaître les professionnels des soins primaires et présentent des recommandations pour le dépistage et la prise en charge en se basant sur les connaissances actuelles que les cliniciens peuvent mettre en pratique. En raison de l’interaction des facteurs biologiques, psychoaffectifs et sociaux qui contribuent à la santé et au bien-être des adultes ayant une DD, ces lignes directrices insistent sur la participation des aidants, l’adaptation des interventions, au besoin, et la consultation auprès de divers professionnels de la santé quand ils sont accessibles. Elles mettent aussi en évidence la

  7. Dreamlands : des parcs d’attractions aux cités du futur

    OpenAIRE

    Didelon, Valéry

    2012-01-01

    Comme l’exposition éponyme qui s’est tenue au Centre Pompidou au printemps et à l’été 2010, le catalogue Dreamlands entend nous éclairer sur ce qu’ont en commun les premières expositions universelles, Disneyland, Las Vegas et Dubaï. L’hypothèse est ainsi posée : depuis la fin du XIXe siècle, le parc d’attractions serait devenu aux yeux des artistes, des architectes et des urbanistes un modèle pour imaginer et construire la ville de demain. Comme le champ de foire avant lui, il est de facto un...

  8. Des furoncles résistants aux antibiotiques: penser à la myiase !!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajili, Faida; Abid, Rim; Bousseta, Najeh; Mrabet, Ali; Karoui, Ghazi; Louzir, Bassem; Battikh, Riadh; Othmani, Salah

    2013-01-01

    Les myiases sont des infections parasitaires par des larves de mouches. La localisation cutanée doit être évoquée de retour d'un pays tropical devant une évolution inhabituelle de lésions cutanées. Nous rapportons une observation d'un militaire tunisien, ayant séjourné en République Démocratique du Congo. Il était atteint de myiase cutanée simulatrice d'une furonculose résistante aux antibiotiques. L'intérêt de cette observation est de souligner l'importance d’évoquer la myiase dont le traitement est simple et rapide chez un patient de retour de zone d'endémie. PMID:24106569

  9. Observation spatiale et SIG: des outils pour cartographier les zones sensibles aux mouvements de terrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Yves SCANVIC

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Les niveaux de sensibilité des sols aux mouvements de terrain ont été cartographiés dans différents bassins de risques en Bolivie, en Colombie et à Taïwan, selon une méthodologie développée au BRGM et fondée en partie sur l’extraction visuelle et numérique d’informations contenues dans les données de télédétection spatiale stéréoscopiques et leur gestion-valorisation dans un SIG. Ces cartes font apparaître l’intérêt de l’imagerie Spot pour la gestion du risque naturel.

  10. Marjane Satrapi’s Poulet aux Prunes: fetish, desire, and illusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Rimini

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Il saggio si propone di individuare e descrivere le sfumature erotiche e sentimentali del film Poulet aux prunes di Marjane Satrapi, felice adattamento dell’omonima graphic novel. Il racconto procede per scarti, ellissi, anticipazioni e flasback, dando luogo a una narrazione labirintica dalla singolare trama arabescante. Le sottili dinamiche seduttive messe in campo dal complesso stile di regia di Satrapi-Paronnaud vengono analizzate alla luce delle categorie feticistiche individuate da Massimo Fusillo, che offrono interessanti modelli di interazione fra desiderio e creatività. L’esito di tale indagine consente di ampliare il dibattito relativo al rapporto di scambio e interferenza fra oggetti, pulsioni e sguardi nel cinema contemporaneo.

  11. Elaboration d'un plan de transition et de mise en oeuvre pour ameliorer la gestion de l'obsolescence dans une entreprise du secteur aeronautique =

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Heloise

    L'evolution technologique des composants electroniques entraine des problemes de gestion de l'obsolescence dans le secteur aeronautique. Les systemes aeronautiques ont en effet des durees de vie nettement superieures aux composants qu'ils contiennent. Cette difference de duree de vie et les normes strictes propres a l'aeronautique obligent les constructeurs a mettre en place une gestion efficace de l'obsolescence pour eviter les couts supplementaires de maintenance et de retards. De plus, a cause des faibles volumes de production qu'ils representent, les constructeurs aeronautiques n'ont que peu de controle sur leur chaine d'approvisionnement. La litterature offre beaucoup d'etudes sur l'obsolescence, appliquees a l'aeronautique. Les auteurs recommandent de mettre en place des processus de gestion et de prevision de l'obsolescence, et de construire des relations de collaboration avec leurs fournisseurs, qui ont plus de visibilite sur la chaine d'approvisionnement. Cette recherche presente d'abord l'elaboration d'une liste de criteres de bonne gestion de l'obsolescence, ainsi que la creation d'une methode de generation de plan de transition et de mise en oeuvre de l'amelioration de la gestion et de la prevision de l'obsolescence pour un cas concret. La methode est creee pour un manufacturier aeronautique ne possedant pas de systemes de gestion proactive ou de prevision de l'obsolescence. La creation de la methode s'est faite en suivant la methodologie de la science de la conception, en impliquant les employes concernes par la gestion de l'obsolescence. La methode comporte douze (12) etapes, amenant au developpement du plan de transition et de mise en oeuvre. Pour applique la methode, divers entretiens individuels et de groupe ont ete realises. Ces entretiens ont aussi permis de lister les criteres de gestion et de prevision efficaces de l'obsolescence. Cette liste a ete comparee avec les criteres issus de la litterature. En respect des besoins enonces par les

  12. Nasal Colivelin treatment ameliorates memory impairment related to Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Marina; Chiba, Tomohiro; Sasabe, Jumpei; Terashita, Kenzo; Aiso, Sadakazu; Matsuoka, Masaaki

    2008-07-01

    Humanin (HN) and its derivatives, such as Colivelin (CLN), suppress neuronal death induced by insults related to Alzheimer's disease (AD) by activating STAT3 in vitro. They also ameliorate functional memory impairment of mice induced by anticholinergic drugs or soluble toxic amyloid-beta (Abeta) in vivo when either is directly administered into the cerebral ventricle or intraperitoneally injected. However, the mechanism underlying the in vivo effect remains uncharacterized. In addition, from the standpoint of clinical application, drug delivery methods that are less invasive and specific to the central nervous system (CNS) should be developed. In this study, we show that intranasally (i.n.) administered CLN can be successfully transferred to CNS via the olfactory bulb. Using several behavioral tests, we have demonstrated that i.n. administered CLN ameliorates memory impairment of AD models in a dose-responsive manner. Attenuation of AD-related memory impairment by HN derivatives such as CLN appears to be correlated with an increase in STAT3 phosphorylation levels in the septohippocampal region, suggesting that anti-AD activities of HN derivatives may be mediated by activation of STAT3 in vivo as they are in vitro. We further demonstrate that CLN treatment inhibits an Abeta induced decrease in the number of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)-positive neurons in the medial septum. Combined with the finding that HN derivatives upregulate mRNA expression of neuronal ChAT and vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) in vitro, it is assumed that CLN may ameliorate memory impairment of AD models by supporting cholinergic neurotransmission, which is at least partly mediated by STAT3-mediated transcriptional upregulation of ChAT and VAChT.

  13. A note on inventory model for ameliorating items with time dependent second order demand rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gobinda Chandra Panda

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: This paper is concerned with the development of ameliorating inventory models. The ameliorating inventory is the inventory of goods whose utility increases over the time by ameliorating activation. Material and Methods: This study is performed according to two areas: one is an economic order quantity (EOQ model for the items whose utility is ameliorating in accordance with Weibull distribution, and the other is a partial selling quantity (PSQ model developed for selling the surplus inventory accumulated by ameliorating activation with linear demand. The aim of this paper was to develop a mathematical model for inventory type concerned in the paper. Numerical examples were presented show the effect of ameliorating rate on inventory polices.  Results and Conclusions:  The inventory model for items with Weibull ameliorating is developed. For the case of small ameliorating rate (less than linear demand rate, EOQ model is developed, and for the case where ameliorating rate is greater than linear demand rate, PSQ model is developed.  .  

  14. ELM pace making and amelioration at ASDEX upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lang, P.T.; Gruber, O.; Haas, G.; Horton, L.D.; Kaufmann, M.; Mertens, V.; Neu, R.; Neuhauser, J.; Puetterich, T.; Schneider, W.; Sihler, C.; Sips, A.C.C.; Suttrop, W.; Treutterer, W. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Euratom Association, Garching (Germany); Bucalossi, J. [Association Euratom-Confederation Suisse, CRPP-EPFL, Lausanne (Switzerland); Kalvin, S.; Kocsis, G. [Association Euratom, KFKI-RMKI, Budapest (Hungary); Mc Carthy, P.J. [University College Cork, Physics Dept., Association Euratom-DCu, Cork (Ireland)

    2004-07-01

    Different techniques were tried to trigger ELMs (edge localized mode): injection of cryogenic solid pellets or a super-sonic molecular gas jet composed of deuterium or magnetic triggering, relying on a fast motion of the plasma column in a spatially asymmetric flux configuration. Our investigations prove externally imposed control techniques can change the ELM frequency. Frequency enhancement can result in amelioration of the single ELMs. Moreover, the approach can maintain plasma operation at a high performance level. Both pellet injection and magnetic triggering have been shown their potential to act as useful control tools. This yields the option to choose eventually the most appropriate technique for a given scenario.

  15. Modelisation de la diffusion sur les surfaces metalliques: De l'adatome aux processus de croissance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisvert, Ghyslain

    Cette these est consacree a l'etude des processus de diffusion en surface dans le but ultime de comprendre, et de modeliser, la croissance d'une couche mince. L'importance de bien mai triser la croissance est primordiale compte tenu de son role dans la miniaturisation des circuits electroniques. Nous etudions ici les surface des metaux nobles et de ceux de la fin de la serie de transition. Dans un premier temps, nous nous interessons a la diffusion d'un simple adatome sur une surface metallique. Nous avons, entre autres, mis en evidence l'apparition d'une correlation entre evenements successifs lorsque la temperature est comparable a la barriere de diffusion, i.e., la diffusion ne peut pas etre associee a une marche aleatoire. Nous proposons un modele phenomenologique simple qui reproduit bien les resultats des simulations. Ces calculs nous ont aussi permis de montrer que la diffusion obeit a la loi de Meyer-Neldel. Cette loi stipule que, pour un processus active, le prefacteur augmente exponentiellement avec la barriere. En plus, ce travail permet de clarifier l'origine physique de cette loi. En comparant les resultats dynamiques aux resultats statiques, on se rend compte que la barriere extraite des calculs dynamiques est essentiellement la meme que celle obtenue par une approche statique, beaucoup plus simple. On peut donc obtenir cette barriere a l'aide de methodes plus precises, i.e., ab initio, comme la theorie de la fonctionnelle de la densite, qui sont aussi malheureusement beaucoup plus lourdes. C'est ce que nous avons fait pour plusieurs systemes metalliques. Nos resultats avec cette derniere approche se comparent tres bien aux resultats experimentaux. Nous nous sommes attardes plus longuement a la surface (111) du platine. Cette surface regorge de particularites interessantes, comme la forme d'equilibre non-hexagonale des i lots et deux sites d'adsorption differents pour l'adatome. De plus, des calculs ab initio precedents n'ont pas reussi a confirmer la

  16. Neutron moderation at very low temperatures (1691); Moderation des neutrons aux tres basses temperatures (1961)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacaze, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-04-15

    Starting from Harwell experiment carried out inside a low-power reactor, we intended to maintain a liquid hydrogen cell in a channel of the EL3 reactor (at Saclay) whose thermal neutrons flux is 10{sup 14} neutrons/cm{sup 2}/s. We tried to work out a device giving off an important beam of cold neutrons and able to operate in a way as automatic as possible during many consecutive day without a stop. Several circuits have already been achieved at very low temperatures but they brought out volumes and fluxes much lower than those we used this time. The difficulties we have met in carrying out such a device arose on the one hand from the very high energy release to which any kind of experiment is inevitably submitted when placed near the core of the reactor, on the other, hand from the very little room which is available in experimental channels of reactors. In such condition, it is necessary to use a moderator as effective as possible. This study is divided into three parts ; in the first part, we try to determine: a) conditions in which moderation takes place, hence the volume of the cell; b) materials likely to be used at low temperature and in pile; c) cooling system; hence we had to study fluid flow conditions at very low temperatures in very long ducts. The second part is devoted to the description of the device. The third part ventilates the results we have obtained. (author) [French] Partant de l'experience de Harwell faite dans une pile de faible puissance, nous nous sommes propose de maintenir une cellule d'hydrogene liquide dans un canal de la pile EL3 de Saclay dont le flux de neutrons thermiques est de 10{sup 14} neutrons par seconde et par cm{sup 2}. Nous avons cherche a realiser une installation donnant un faisceau de neutrons froids important, et pouvant fonctionner d'une maniere aussi automatique que possible, pendant des periodes de plusieurs jours sans arret. Plusieurs circuits aux tres basses temperatures ont deja ete realises, mais ils ne mettaient

  17. Arginase Inhibition Ameliorates Hepatic Metabolic Abnormalities in Obese Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Jiyoung; Do, Hyun Ju; Cho, Yoonsu; Shin, Min-Jeong

    2014-01-01

    Objectives We examined whether arginase inhibition influences hepatic metabolic pathways and whole body adiposity in diet-induced obesity. Methods and Results After obesity induction by a high fat diet (HFD), mice were fed either the HFD or the HFD with an arginase inhibitor, Nω-hydroxy-nor-L-arginine (nor-NOHA). Nor-NOHA significantly prevented HFD-induced increases in body, liver, and visceral fat tissue weight, and ameliorated abnormal lipid profiles. Furthermore, nor-NOHA treatment reduced lipid accumulation in oleic acid-induced hepatic steatosis in vitro. Arginase inhibition increased hepatic nitric oxide (NO) in HFD-fed mice and HepG2 cells, and reversed the elevated mRNA expression of hepatic genes in lipid metabolism. Expression of phosphorylated 5′ AMPK-activated protein kinase α was increased by arginase inhibition in the mouse livers and HepG2 cells. Conclusions Arginase inhibition ameliorated obesity-induced hepatic lipid abnormalities and whole body adiposity, possibly as a result of increased hepatic NO production and subsequent activation of metabolic pathways involved in hepatic triglyceride metabolism and mitochondrial function. PMID:25057910

  18. Phytoceramide Shows Neuroprotection and Ameliorates Scopolamine-Induced Memory Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seikwan Oh

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The function and the role phytoceramide (PCER and phytosphingosine (PSO in the central nervous system has not been well studied. This study was aimed at investigating the possible roles of PCER and PSO in glutamate-induced neurotoxicity in cultured neuronal cells and memory function in mice. Phytoceramide showed neuro-protective activity in the glutamate-induced toxicity in cultured cortical neuronal cells. Neither phytosphingosine nor tetraacetylphytosphingosine (TAPS showed neuroproective effects in neuronal cells. PCER (50 mg/kg, p.o. recovered the scopolamine-induced reduction in step-through latency in the passive avoidance test; however, PSO did not modulate memory function on this task. The ameliorating effects of PCER on spatial memory were confirmed by the Morris water maze test. In conclusion, through behavioral and neurochemical experimental results, it was demonstrated that central administration of PCER produces amelioration of memory impairment. These results suggest that PCER plays an important role in neuroprotection and memory enhancement and PCER could be a potential new therapeutic agent for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease.

  19. IL-12p35 Inhibits Neuroinflammation and Ameliorates Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Kyeong Choi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is an inflammatory demyelinating disease in which cytokines produced by immune cells that infiltrate the brain and spinal cord play a central role. We show here that the IL-12p35, the alpha subunit of IL-12 or IL-35 cytokine, might be an effective biologic for suppressing neuroinflammatory responses and ameliorating the pathology of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE, the mouse model of human MS. We further show that IL-12p35 conferred protection from neuropathy by inhibiting the expansion of pathogenic Th17 and Th1 cells and inhibiting trafficking of inflammatory cells into the brain and spinal cord. In addition, in vitro exposure of encephalitogenic cells to IL-12p35 suppressed their capacity to induce EAE by adoptive transfer. Importantly, the IL-12p35-mediated expansion of Treg and Breg cells and its amelioration of EAE correlated with inhibition of cytokine-induced activation of STAT1/STAT3 pathways. Moreover, IL-12p35 inhibited lymphocyte proliferation by suppressing the expressions of cell-cycle regulatory proteins. Taken together, these results suggest that IL-12p35 can be exploited as a novel biologic for treating central nervous system autoimmune diseases and offers the promise of ex vivo production of large amounts of Tregs and Bregs for immunotherapy.

  20. Naltrexone ameliorates functional network abnormalities in alcohol‐dependent individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Kwangyeol; Tait, Roger; Elliott, Rebecca; Ersche, Karen D.; Flechais, Remy; McGonigle, John; Murphy, Anna; Nestor, Liam J.; Orban, Csaba; Passetti, Filippo; Paterson, Louise M.; Rabiner, Ilan; Reed, Laurence; Smith, Dana; Suckling, John; Taylor, Eleanor M.; Bullmore, Edward T.; Lingford‐Hughes, Anne R.; Deakin, Bill; Nutt, David J.; Sahakian, Barbara J.; Robbins, Trevor W.; Voon, Valerie

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Naltrexone, an opioid receptor antagonist, is commonly used as a relapse prevention medication in alcohol and opiate addiction, but its efficacy and the mechanisms underpinning its clinical usefulness are not well characterized. In the current study, we examined the effects of 50‐mg naltrexone compared with placebo on neural network changes associated with substance dependence in 21 alcohol and 36 poly‐drug‐dependent individuals compared with 36 healthy volunteers. Graph theoretic and network‐based statistical analysis of resting‐state functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data revealed that alcohol‐dependent subjects had reduced functional connectivity of a dispersed network compared with both poly‐drug‐dependent and healthy subjects. Higher local efficiency was observed in both patient groups, indicating clustered and segregated network topology and information processing. Naltrexone normalized heightened local efficiency of the neural network in alcohol‐dependent individuals, to the same levels as healthy volunteers. Naltrexone failed to have an effect on the local efficiency in abstinent poly‐substance‐dependent individuals. Across groups, local efficiency was associated with substance, but no alcohol exposure implicating local efficiency as a potential premorbid risk factor in alcohol use disorders that can be ameliorated by naltrexone. These findings suggest one possible mechanism for the clinical effects of naltrexone, namely, the amelioration of disrupted network topology. PMID:28247526

  1. Contribution to the study of several chemical hazards in the Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires of Fontenay-aux-Roses; Contribution a l'etude de quelques nuisances chimiques au centre d'etudes nucleaires de Fontenay-aux-Roses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Megemont, C; Grau, C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-10-01

    From the checking of 2750 index cards of hazards, the study relates the distribution of the chemical hazards in the Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires of Fontenay-aux-Roses. Those concerning the greatest number of agents in the Centre are classified according to the categories corresponding to the different conditions of working. Thus, the most important are put forward. Then, the authors rapidly make a review of hazards which may have some special interest because they appear more specific of the nuclear energy or because they are the most frequently noted on the index cards of hazards. The case of the tributylphosphate is studied more precisely. (authors) [French] A partir de l'examen de 2750 fiches de nuisances, l'etude porte sur la repartition des nuisances chimiques au Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Fontenay-aux-Roses. Celles qui concernent le plus grand nombre d'agents du Centre sont classees selon les categories correspondant aux differentes conditions de travail. Les plus importantes d'entre elles sont ainsi mises en evidence. | Les auteurs passent ensuite en revue, rapidement, les nuisances qui peuvent presenter un interet particulier soit parce qu'elles semblent plus specifiques de l'Energie Nucleaire, soit parce qu'on les rencontre le plus frequemment sur les fiches de nuisances. Le cas du tributylphosphate est envisage de facon plus detaillee. (auteurs)

  2. Former aux TICE : entre compétences techniques et modèles pédagogiques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Béziat

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cette contribution discute des enjeux et des limites d’une formation aux compétences techniques attendues des futurs enseignants d’école primaire. Une formation est certainement nécessaire pour espérer voir des pratiques pédagogiques avec les TICE se développer en classe. Mais ce n’est qu’un des leviers pour leur intégration dans les pratiques scolaires. Une formation aux TICE suppose que l’on mette l’accent sur l’analyse de pratiques. Plus que de former « simplement » à l’usage pédagogique d’outils numériques, il est indispensable de former à la complexité de leurs enjeux intellectuels et pratiques.

  3. Order of 30 March 1988 on licensing of gaseous radioactive effluent releases by the Fontenay-aux-Roses Nuclear Research Centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This Decree prescribes the documents and information the Fontenay-aux-Roses Nuclear Research Centre must provide to the Central Service for Protection against Ionizing Radiation (SCPRI) and lays down the permissible effluent release limits for the Centre [fr

  4. 27 CFR 24.304 - Chaptalization (Brix adjustment) and amelioration record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... ameliorates juice or wine, or both, shall maintain a record of the operation and the transaction date. Records...; however, if liquid sugar or invert sugar syrup is used, the quantity of water in such sugar is included as... to be held after that date for completion. When the amelioration of wine included in the record for...

  5. Preliminary dismantling for the decommissioning of nuclear licensed facilities at the CEA Centre in Fontenay aux Roses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estivie, D.; Bohar, M.P.; Jeanjacques, M.; Binet, C.

    2008-01-01

    Under the perimeter modification programme for the Nuclear Licensed Facilities (NLFs) of the French Atomic Energy Commission centre at Fontenay aux Roses (CEN-FAR), preliminary dismantling work proved necessary to decommission the buildings outside the nuclear perimeter and create interim storage areas for waste packages. This summary describes the dismantling of Buildings 07, 53 and 91/54, which are the most representative of the preliminary dismantling work. (author)

  6. Recours aux TIC pour résoudre les problèmes d'eau en Ouganda ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Les technologies de l'information et de la communication (TIC) peuvent grandement aider les collectivités à se préparer et à s'adapter aux effets des changements climatiques. Divers projets rendent compte de l'utilité de recourir à de nouvelles technologies (telles que le téléphone mobile) et à des technologies classiques ...

  7. Second meeting of the Atomic and Molecular Data Centre network. Fontenay aux Roses, 23-24 May 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsonis, K.

    1980-11-01

    Summary report of the Second A+M Data Centre Network (DCN) meeting convened by the IAEA Nuclear Data Section at the CEA Laboratory at Fontenay-aux-Roses, France, 23-24 May 1980. The meeting was attended by 20 representatives from centres and groups from six Member States concerned with the coordinated international management of atomic and molecular data pertinent to controlled fusion research and technology

  8. Recours aux TIC pour résoudre les problèmes d'eau en Ouganda ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    15 janv. 2012 ... Les technologies de l'information et de la communication (TIC) peuvent grandement aider les collectivités à se préparer et à s'adapter aux effets des changements climatiques. Divers projets rendent compte de l'utilité de recourir à de nouvelles technologies (telles que le téléphone mobile) et à des ...

  9. Le résumé graphique fournit des conseils aux décideurs en vue de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Le résumé graphique fournit des conseils aux décideurs en vue de réduire la criminalité et la violence. 04 août 2015. Image. FLACSO. Pourquoi les villes où il existe des conditions d'exclusion sociale similaires présentent-elles des degrés de violence différents ? Des chercheurs soutenus par le CRDI au Costa Rica et au ...

  10. Comparison of VITEK 2 YST Card and API 20C AUX system in identification of non- albicans Candida species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Süleyman Durmaz

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: In the present study, it was aimed to compare results obtained by using VITEK 2 YST Card (bioMérieux, France with those obtained by using API 20C AUX (bioMérieux, France for identification of non- albicans Candida species, which was isolated from various clinical samples, at level of species.Materials and methods: Forty-one non-albicans Candida isolates, which were isolated from 28 urine, 10 blood and 3 vaginal swab specimens, and found to be negative by germ tube test, were identified by using VITEK 2 YST Card (bioMérieux, France. In addition, microscopic morphology was assessed in corn-meal Tween 80 agar, while carbohydrate assimilation was assessed by using commercially available API 20C AUX kit (bioMérieux, France.Results: Thirty-four isolates (82.9% were identified as identical species by these 2 systems, while different results were obtained in 7 isolates (17.1%. 5 isolates, identified as Candida glabrata by API 20C AUX system, were identified as Candida tropicalis (n=2, Candida krusei, Candida lipolitica and Candida kefyr by VITEK 2 YST Card. One other isolate, identified as C.tropicalis, was identified as Candida parapsilosis; and additional one isolate, identified as C.parapsilosis, was identified as C.tropicalis.Conclusion: It was concluded that one should be cautious in the identification of C.glabrata, in particular, C.tropicalis and C.parapsilosis, although between VITEK 2 YST Card and API 20C AUX system results was found largely similarity in identification of non-albicans Candida spp.

  11. Approche concertée en matière de lutte contre la violence faite aux ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Un projet antérieur (no 104346) avait permis au North East Network (NEN), en collaboration avec les services de santé et les forces de l'ordre de l'État du Meghalaya, de consigner les points de vue sur la violence faite aux femmes dans ces deux secteurs. En se fondant sur les constatations ayant émané de la recherche, ...

  12. Droits des femmes et accès à l'eau et aux systèmes d ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    L'ONG Women in Cities International (WICI) tente de trouver des moyens de remédier à cette situation en Inde. Cette subvention lui permettra d'utiliser le ... Le CRDI aide l'Inde à s'adapter aux changements climatiques au moyen de données probantes, et en faisant preuve d'innovation. Le CRDI investit dans des solutions ...

  13. Trousse de suivi et d'évaluation destinée aux initiatives d'adaptation ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    En Afrique, bon nombre de pays, de régions et d'organismes se dotent de programmes d'adaptation aux changements climatiques. Pour que ces programmes portent leurs fruits, ils devront régulièrement faire l'objet d'un suivi et d'une évaluation. Cette subvention servira à financer l'intégration d'un volet suivi et évaluation ...

  14. Neutron distribution in the central cell and a peripheral cell of the Fontenay-aux-Roses pile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roullier, F.

    1958-01-01

    The distribution of the neutron density has been determined in the central cell and a peripheral cell of the pile at Fontenay-aux-Roses. This measurement was carried out by the autoradiographic method with manganese detectors. The neutron density distribution in the uranium rod has already been studied. The measurement was completed by the study of the neutron density in the complete cell by means of detectors placed in the uranium and in the heavy water. (author) [fr

  15. Cours Sécurité : Sensibilisation aux gestes et postures de travail

    CERN Multimedia

    DGS Unit

    2010-01-01

    Prochaine session le 21 octobre 2010. 12 places disponibles. Ce cours concerne toutes les personnes appelées à réaliser des manutentions manuelles dans le cadre de leurs activités. Contenu du cours : Théorie - Présentation des objectifs du programme ; - L'accident du travail (définition, coûts) ; - Statistiques CNAM ; - Notion d'anatomie (mécanique humaine) ; - Les différentes pathologies (lumbago, sciatique, hernie discale) ; - Discussion sur les problèmes particuliers rencontrés dans la vie courante. Pratique - Les efforts mécaniques sur la colonne dus aux mauvaises postures ; - Les principes de base de l'utilisation de la mécanique humaine ; - Exercices pratiques d'application (sur objets divers standards) ; - Prises de vues au caméscope des positions de chacun. Pour vous inscrire : https://edh.cern.ch/Document/Personnel/TRN?new=YES&...

  16. Report on transparency and nuclear safety 2015 - Fontenay-aux-Roses CEA centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-06-01

    This document proposes, first, a presentation of the Fontenay-aux-Roses CEA centre, of its activities and installations. Then it gives a rather detailed overview of measures related to safety and to radiation protection within these activities and installations. Next, it reports significant events related to safety and to radiation protection which occurred in 2015 and which have been declared to the French nuclear safety authority (ASN). It discusses the results of release measurements (liquid and gaseous effluents, radiological assessment, and chemical assessment for various installations) and the control of the chemical and radiological impact of these gaseous and liquid effluents on the environment. Finally, it addresses the issue of radioactive wastes which are stored in the different nuclear base installations of the Centre. It indicates the different measures aimed at limiting the volume of these warehoused wastes and addresses their impact on health and environment. Nature and quantities of warehoused wastes are specified. Remarks and recommendations of the Health, Safety and Working Conditions Committee (CHSCT) are given

  17. Report on transparency and nuclear safety - Fontenay-aux-Roses CEA centre - 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This report presents the different nuclear base installations (INB) of the Fontenay-aux-Roses CEA centre, gives an overview of measures regarding safety within these installations (organisation, general arrangements, arrangements related to different risks, defence in-depth, management of emergency situations, inspections, audits and second-level controls, arrangements and main events specific to the different installations and buildings, issues related to transports, soil radiological assessment) and measures related to radiation protection (organisation and results). It reports the significant events related to safety and radiation protection which occurred in 2012 and were declared to the ASN, and discusses how the return-on-experience has been used. It reports and comments the results of measurements of radiological and chemical gaseous and liquid effluents, of surveys of the environment. It also evokes important events related to these measurement and survey processes, presents the environmental management approach. The next part addresses the management of radioactive wastes: arrangements aimed at limiting the volume of warehoused wastes, and at limiting their impact on health and on the environment, nature and quantities of warehoused wastes. The different arrangements regarding transparency and information are reviewed (TSN report, newsletter, and so on)

  18. Application of solar chargers to prospection instruments; Application des chargeurs solaires aux appareils de prospection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caille, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    The use of conventional batteries has certain disadvantages, and for this reason high-voltage batteries have been gradually replaced in all prospection instruments by transistor supply systems, using less cumbersome sources of energy. All the same low voltages are still necessary, and in hot or damp countries the use of these batteries leads to consumptions out of all proportion to the services rendered. This is why the use of solar energy possesses real advantages. After a brief review of the basic ideas on semiconductors, this article describes a selenium solar battery which was developed by the Westinghouse brakes and signals society. (author) [French] L'utilisation de piles classiques presente certains inconvenients. C'est pourquoi, dans tous les appareils de prospection, les piles fournissant des tensions elevees ont ete remplacees au fur et a mesure par des alimentations a base de transistors, utilisant des sources d'energie moins encombrantes. Toutefois, il faut tout de meme avoir des tensions faibles et l'utilisation de ces piles entraine dans les pays chauds ou humides une consommation disproportionnee par rapport aux services rendus. C'est pourquoi l'emploi de l'energie solaire presente de reels avantages. Cet expose decrit, apres un rappel de notion de base sur les semi-conducteurs, une batterie solaire a base de selenium qui a ete realisee par la Societe des freins et signaux Westinghouse. (auteur)

  19. La formation des enseignants aux TIC : allier pédagogie et innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Lebrun

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Relativement au champ des technologies éducatives, nous souhaitons étayer l’hypothèse suivante : si généralement on attribue le fait d’apprendre aux étudiants, il est aussi vrai que les enseignants apprennent, que les sociétés apprennent. La cohérence et la préoccupation de ces différents niveaux (étudiants, enseignants, institutions autour de la question de l’apprentissage peuvent, selon nous, être considérées comme un guide et comme un signe d’une éducation de qualité. Dans ce cas, les modèles généraux de l’apprentissage et du développement de dispositifs pédagogiques peuvent être interrogés afin d’élaborer de nouveaux usages et de nouvelles méthodes d’enseignement et de formation des enseignants, pour promouvoir l’innovation technologique dans les institutions et pour en valider la qualité.

  20. Activation analysis using {gamma} photons; Analyse par activation aux photons {gamma}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelmann, Ch [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-07-01

    This report summarizes all the data required for using photonuclear reactions in the field of analysis. After a brief review of the elementary properties of nuclear reactions induced by photon irradiation, the main characteristics are given of high energy (E > 20 MeV) Bremsstrahlung sources. The principle of activation analysis based on the use of photons is given. Actual examples of the analytic possibilities are described in detail, in particular in the case of the determination of very small quantities (< 10{sup -6}) of C, N, O and F. The influence of interfering nuclear reactions is discussed. (author) [French] Ce rapport se propose de resumer l'ensemble des connaissances indispensables pour l'utilisation des reactions photonucleaires a des fins analytiques. Apres quelques rappels concernant les proprietes elementaires des reactions nucleaires induites par irradiation dans les photons, les principales caracteristiques des sources de rayonnement de freinage de haute energie (E > 20 MeV)| sont donnees. Le principe de l'analyse par activation aux photons est rappele. Des exemples concrets sur les possibilites analytiques sont developpes, particulierement en ce qui concerne la determination de quantites tres faibles (< 10{sup -6}) de C, N, O et F. L'influence des reactions nucleaires parasites est discutee. (auteur)

  1. Réponse équilibrée aux besoins en eau dans le bassin du Saïss au ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ACCA

    par les changements climatiques. Ce projet du programme ACCA met l'accent sur l'agriculture, à l'origine de plus de 82 % de la consommation d'eau dans le bassin. Réponse équilibrée aux besoins en eaudans le bassin du Saïss au Maroc. De petits exploitants agricoles du bassin du Saïss font face aux pénuries d'eau ...

  2. Shoot-supplied ammonium targets the root auxin influx carrier AUX1 and inhibits lateral root emergence in Arabidopsis

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Baohai

    2011-03-24

    Deposition of ammonium (NH4 +) from the atmosphere is a substantial environmental problem. While toxicity resulting from root exposure to NH4 + is well studied, little is known about how shoot-supplied ammonium (SSA) affects root growth. In this study, we show that SSA significantly affects lateral root (LR) development. We show that SSA inhibits lateral root primordium (LRP) emergence, but not LRP initiation, resulting in significantly impaired LR number. We show that the inhibition is independent of abscisic acid (ABA) signalling and sucrose uptake in shoots but relates to the auxin response in roots. Expression analyses of an auxin-responsive reporter, DR5:GUS, and direct assays of auxin transport demonstrated that SSA inhibits root acropetal (rootward) auxin transport while not affecting basipetal (shootward) transport or auxin sensitivity of root cells. Mutant analyses indicated that the auxin influx carrier AUX1, but not the auxin efflux carriers PIN-FORMED (PIN)1 or PIN2, is required for this inhibition of LRP emergence and the observed auxin response. We found that AUX1 expression was modulated by SSA in vascular tissues rather than LR cap cells in roots. Taken together, our results suggest that SSA inhibits LRP emergence in Arabidopsis by interfering with AUX1-dependent auxin transport from shoot to root. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Amelioration of ongoing experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis with fluoxetine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Roopa; Mahapatra, Sidharth; Axtell, Robert C; Steinman, Lawrence

    2017-12-15

    In patients with multiple sclerosis, the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, fluoxetine, resulted in less acute disease activity. We tested the immune modulating effects of fluoxetine in a mouse model of multiple sclerosis, i.e. experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). We show that fluoxetine delayed the onset of disease and reduced clinical paralysis in mice with established disease. Fluoxetine had abrogating effects on proliferation of immune cells and inflammatory cytokine production by both antigen-presenting cells and T cells. Specifically, in CD 4 T cells, fluoxetine increased Fas-induced apoptosis. We conclude that fluoxetine possesses immune-modulating effects resulting in the amelioration of symptoms in EAE. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Heregulin ameliorates the dystrophic phenotype in mdx mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krag, Thomas O B; Bogdanovich, Sasha; Jensen, Claus J

    2004-01-01

    Duchenne's muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a fatal neuromuscular disease caused by absence of dystrophin. Utrophin is a chromosome 6-encoded dystrophin-related protein (DRP), sharing functional motifs with dystrophin. Utrophin's ability to compensate for dystrophin during development and when....... Therefore, this pathway offers a potential mechanism to modulate utrophin expression in muscle. We tested the ability of heregulin to improve the dystrophic phenotype in the mdx mouse model of DMD. Intraperitoneal injections of a small peptide encoding the epidermal growth factor-like region of heregulin...... ectodomain for 3 months in vivo resulted in up-regulation of utrophin, a marked improvement in the mechanical properties of muscle as evidenced by resistance to eccentric contraction mediated damage, and a reduction of muscle pathology. The amelioration of dystrophic phenotype by heregulin-mediated utrophin...

  5. Flurbiprofen ameliorates glucose deprivation-induced leptin resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toru Hosoi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Leptin resistance is one of the mechanisms involved in the pathophysiology of obesity. The present study showed that glucose deprivation inhibited leptin-induced phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3 and signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5 in neuronal cells. Flurbiprofen reversed glucose deprivation-mediated attenuation of STAT3, but not STAT5 activation, in leptin-treated cells. Glucose deprivation increased C/EBP-homologous protein (CHOP and glucose regulated protein 78 (GRP78 induction, indicating the activation of unfolded protein responses (UPR. Flurbiprofen did not affect the glucose deprivation-induced activation of UPR, but did attenuate the glucose deprivation-mediated induction of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK phosphorylation. Flurbiprofen may ameliorate glucose deprivation-induced leptin resistance in neuronal cells.

  6. Flemingia macrophylla Extract Ameliorates Experimental Osteoporosis in Ovariectomized Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Ya Ho

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Flemingia macrophylla (Leguminosae, a native plant of Taiwan, is used as folk medicine. An in vitro study showed that a 75% ethanolic extract of F. macrophylla (FME inhibited osteoclast differentiation of cultured rat bone marrow cells, and the active component, lespedezaflavanone A (LDF-A, was isolated. It was found that oral administration of FME for 13 weeks suppressed bone loss in ovariectomized rats, an experimental model of osteoporosis. In addition, FME decreased urinary deoxypyridinoline concentrations but did not inhibit serum alkaline phosphatase activities, indicating that it ameliorated bone loss via inhibition of bone resorption. These results suggest that FME may represent a useful remedy for the treatment of bone resorption diseases, such as osteoporosis. In addition, LDF-A could be used as a marker compound to control the quality of FME.

  7. Curcumin ameliorates cardiac dysfunction induced by mechanical trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xintao; Cao, Tingting; Ma, Shuo; Jing, Zehao; Bi, Yue; Zhou, Jicheng; Chen, Chong; Yu, Deqin; Zhu, Liang; Li, Shuzhuang

    2017-11-05

    Curcumin, a phytochemical component derived from turmeric (Carcuma longa), has been extensively investigated because of its anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative properties. Inflammation and oxidative stress play critical roles in posttraumatic cardiomyocyte apoptosis, which contributes to secondary cardiac dysfunction. This research was designed to identify the protective effect of curcumin on posttraumatic cardiac dysfunction and investigate its underlying mechanism. Noble-Collip drum was used to prepare a mechanical trauma (MT) model of rats, and the hemodynamic responses of traumatized rats were observed by ventricular intubation 12h after trauma. Myocardial apoptosis was determined through terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining and caspase-3 activity assay. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by monocytes and myocardial cells were identified through enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and the intracellular alteration of Ca 2+ in cardiomyocytes was examined through confocal microscopy. In vivo, curcumin effectively ameliorated MT-induced secondary cardiac dysfunction and significantly decreased the apoptotic indices of the traumatized myocardial cells. In vitro, curcumin inhibited TNF-α production by monocytes and reduced the circulating TNF-α levels. With curcumin pretreatment, ROS production and Ca 2+ overload in H9c2 cells were attenuated when these cells were incubated with traumatic plasma. Therefore, curcumin can effectively ameliorate MT-induced cardiac dysfunction mainly by inhibiting systemic inflammatory responses and by weakening oxidative stress reaction and Ca 2+ overload in cardiomyocytes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Improvements in fast-neutron spectroscopy methods (1961); Amelioration des methodes de spectrometrie des neutrons rapides (1961)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cambou, F [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-02-15

    This research aimed at improving fast-neutron electronic detectors based on n-p elastic scattering. The first part concerns proportional counters; careful constructional methods have made it possible to plot mono-energetic neutron spectra in the range 700 keV - 3 MeV with a resolution of 7 per cent. The second part concerns scintillation counters: an organic scintillator and an inorganic scintillator covered with a thin layer of a scattering agent. An exact study of the types of scintillation has made it possible to develop efficient discriminator circuits. Different neutron spectra plotted in the presence of a strong gamma background are presented. The last part deals with the development of form discrimination methods for the study, in the actual beam, of the elastic scattering of 14.58 MeV electrons. With hydrogen, the distribution f ({phi}) of the recoil protons is f({phi}) = 1 + 0.034 cos {phi} + 0.042 cos{sup 2} {phi}. With tritium the scattering is strongly anisotropic; the curve representing the variation of the differential cross-section for the elastic scattering in the centre of mass system is obtained with a target containing 1 cm{sup 3} of tritium. (author) [French] Le travail a porte sur l'amelioration des detecteurs electroniques de neutrons rapides bases sur la diffusion elastique n-p. La premiere partie est relative aux compteurs proportionnels; des methodes soignees de fabrication ont permis des traces de spectres de neutrons monoenergetiques dans le domaine 700 keV - 3 MeV avec une resolution de 7 pour cent. La deuxieme partie est relative au compteur a scintillations; scintillateur organique et scintillateur mineral recouvert d'un diffuseur mince. Une etude precise des formes de scintillations a permis la mise au point de circuits discriminateurs efficaces. Differents spectres de neutrons traces en presence d'un fond gamma intense sont presentes. La derniere partie est relative a la mise en oeuvre des methodes de discrimination de forme pour l

  9. Du devenir de la notion de documentaire à l’ONF : des discours aux formes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Zéau

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Résumé La production documentaire fut toujours l’armature du mandat de l’Office national du film du Canada. Pour garantir la légitimité du cinéma auprès des instances publiques, son fondateur John Grierson a pris appui sur l’assise conceptuelle de l’Idée documentaire, une conception programmatique du cinéma qui soumettait celui-ci à la cause publique. Plus que jamais aujourd’hui, l’héritage de John Grierson est invoqué pour caractériser les valeurs associées à la mission de l’ONF, comme en témoignent les documents de communication produits par l’organisme. Plusieurs questions se posent alors : pourquoi la résurgence du lexique griersonien est-elle jugée pertinente aujourd’hui ? Et quelles sont les équivalences présupposées par ce retour aux sources ? Dans cet article, l’auteure se propose d’étudier la place et les valeurs aujourd’hui accordées à la notion de documentaire et aux objets qu’elle recouvre au sein des discours et des formes produits par l’ONF dans le cadre de la mutation technologique qui redéfinit sa mission et ses priorités depuis 2008. Ainsi seront examinées les déclinaisons terminologiques qui s’y rapportent—sur le site ONF.ca et les plans stratégiques 2008-2013 et 2013-2018—parallèlement à l’étude des formes nouvelles de documentaires produites pour les canaux de diffusion numériques qui définissent le champ de l’art interactif. Abstract Documentary production has always been central to the mandate of the National Film Board of Canada (NFB. To ensure the legitimacy of film among public authorities, its founder John Grierson built on the conceptual foundation of the Documentary Idea, a programmatic concept of cinema that places the latter at the service of the public. Today more than ever, the legacy of John Grierson is understood to characterize the values associated with the mission of the NFB, as evidenced by the institution’s communication documents

  10. Application du groupe de renormalisation aux conducteurs organiques quasi-unidimensionnels soumis a un champ magnetique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubert, Laurent

    Des conducteurs organiques fortement anisotropes presentent, sous l'effet d'un champ magnetique, une etonnante variete de proprietes physiques tel que: l'effet Shubnikov-de Haas, l'effet de Haas-van-Alphen, l'existence de cascades d'ondes de densite de spin apparentees a l'effet Hall quantique, reentrance vers la phase metallique pouvant provenir d'un 'breakdown' magnetique, et tout recemment la possibilite d'un confinement charge induit par le champ magnetique. A cela s'ajoute les nombreuses caracteristiques deja apparues en variant la pression hydrostatique ou la substitution chimique: separation spin-charge, localisation de la charge, transition spin-Peierls, antiferromagnetisme itinerant ou non, supraconductivite, et l'existence d'une frontiere commune entre les phases supraconductrice et antiferromagnetique. En vue de completer la description theorique du diagramme de phase generalise des conducteurs organiques, nous adaptons et elargissons la methode du groupe de renormalisation quantique (GRQ) au cas ou le champ magnetique est non nul. On sait deja que cette methode permet de resoudre le dilemme tout particulier des composes Q-1D, soit leur capacite de produire des transitions de phase malgre leur forte anisotropie et consequemment de leur faible dimensionalite. Cette methode est deja utilisee pour decrire le diagramme de phase temperature versus pression des sels de Bechgaard, de leurs analogues souffres et mixtes. Le GRQ permet aussi de comprendre comment des systemes anisotropes comme les conducteurs organiques peuvent se comporter comme des liquides de Luttinger a haute temperature et comme des liquides de Fermi ou condenses a basse temperature. Nous montrons que l'introduction d'un champ magnetique dans un regime de saut coherent interchai ne a deux particules n'apporte que de simples corrections aux lois d'echelles dans le canal zero son, alors qu'il introduit un mecanisme de brisure de paire dans le canal Cooper. Dans le regime de saut coherent a une

  11. Exposition orale aux nanoparticules de dioxyde de titane (TiO2) : du franchissement de l’épithélium buccal et intestinal au devenir et aux effets dans l’organisme

    OpenAIRE

    Bettini, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Face à l’utilisation exponentielle des nanomatériaux dans des produits de consommation courante, dont l’alimentation, les conséquences pour l’homme d’une exposition quotidienne aux faibles doses de nanoparticules posent des questions de santé publique. Parmi les différentes voies d’exposition, la voie orale reste la moins documentée, alors que des nanomatériaux sont couramment utilisés comme additifs alimentaires, ou incorporés `a des emballages au contact des aliments, de l’eau, pour b´en´ef...

  12. Canadian Environmental Assessment Act : A comprehensive study report on the partial diversion of the Sault aux Cochons River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-04-01

    This report presents the results of an environmental assessment of Hydro-Quebec's proposed project to partially divert the waters of the Sault aux Cochons River to the Pipmuacan Reservoir through the Lionnet River. It also includes the results of public consultations conducted by Hydro-Quebec and of those held by the Bureau d'audience publiques sur l'environnement. The main environmental effects were summarized, including the cumulative effects and the effects caused by accidents and malfunctions that may occur. In addition, the terms and conditions of mitigation measures and follow-up programs were described and the significance of any environmental impacts were assessed. This project will increase the inflow of the Pipmuacan Reservoir, the main reservoir of the Bersimis complex on the Betsiamites River. The diverted water will produce more electricity when it is generated in the two power stations at the Bersimis complex than it does it does currently in the three power stations of the Sault aux Cochons River. Following mitigative measures, an average annual discharge of 6.5 m 3 /s will be diverted from the Sault aux Cochons River to the Lionnet River. A minimum flow of 1 m / s is anticipated. The proposal allows for more water to be diverted to the Pipmuacan reservoir to optimize the operation of existing power generating stations. This report outlined the current use of lands and resources for traditional purposes by Aboriginals. It also discussed the effects of natural events such as flooding, waves and climate that may cause damage to the facilities. It was determined that the project is not likely to cause significant effects on the renewable resources of the forest and the fisheries. The Department of Fisheries and Oceans, after having taking into account proposed mitigation measures, has rendered a preliminary conclusion which states that the project is not likely to have significant negative environmental effects. This decision will be reconsidered after

  13. Annual progress report of the Fontenay-aux-Roses Research Group. January 1 to December 31 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977 at Fontenay-aux-Roses was dominated by the assembly and starting up of TFR 600, whereas at Grenoble it coincided with a period of full scientific production on Petula and Wega. On TFR 600 a study was made on discharges in the absence of a conducting shell and on plasma purity. Tokamak physics covered the analysis of the mechanism of disruptions and the dynamics of impurities on TFR 400, and the neutral injection (circular periplasmatron). Simultaneously the heating experiments and the diagnostics for TFR 600 were actively prepared, as well as the Torre II project [fr

  14. Etude de l'auto-adaptivité du filtre actif parallèle aux variations de la ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ﮫـﻋ ﺔﯾﺮﻈﻧ. -ﻚـﻋ. Résumé. Cet article s'intéresse à l'amélioration des performances du filtre actif parallèle pour s'adapter d'une manière automatique aux variations de la charge. Ce filtre est un onduleur de tension à MLI destiné à éliminer les harmoniques de courant générés par un pont redresseur triphasé non commandé ...

  15. Genome-wide analysis of Aux/IAA gene family in Solanaceae species using tomato as a model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jian; Peng, Zhen; Liu, Songyu; He, Yanjun; Cheng, Lin; Kong, Fuling; Wang, Jie; Lu, Gang

    2012-04-01

    Auxin plays key roles in a wide variety of plant activities, including embryo development, leaf formation, phototropism, fruit development and root initiation and development. Auxin/indoleacetic acid (Aux/IAA) genes, encoding short-lived nuclear proteins, are key regulators in the auxin transduction pathway. But how they work is still unknown. In order to conduct a systematic analysis of this gene family in Solanaceae species, a genome-wide search for the homologues of auxin response genes was carried out. Here, 26 and 27 non redundant AUX/IAAs were identified in tomato and potato, respectively. Using tomato as a model, a comprehensive overview of SlIAA gene family is presented, including the gene structures, phylogeny, chromosome locations, conserved motifs and cis-elements in promoter sequences. A phylogenetic tree generated from alignments of the predicted protein sequences of 31 OsIAAs, 29 AtIAAs, 31 ZmIAAs, and 26 SlIAAs revealed that these IAAs were clustered into three major groups and ten subgroups. Among them, seven subgroups were present in both monocot and dicot species, which indicated that the major functional diversification within the IAA family predated the monocot/dicot divergence. In contrast, group C and some other subgroups seemed to be species-specific. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis showed that 19 of the 26 SlIAA genes could be detected in all tomato organs/tissues, however, seven of them were specifically expressed in some of tomato tissues. The transcript abundance of 17 SlIAA genes were increased within a few hours when the seedlings were treated with exogenous IAA. However, those of other six SlIAAs were decreased. The results of stress treatments showed that most SIIAA family genes responded to at least one of the three stress treatments, however, they exhibited diverse expression levels under different abiotic stress conditions in tomato seedlings. SlIAA20, SlIAA21 and SlIAA22 were not significantly influenced by stress

  16. Genome-wide survey of Aux/IAA gene family members in potato (Solanum tuberosum): Identification, expression analysis, and evaluation of their roles in tuber development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Junpeng; Cao, Xiaoli; Shi, Shandang; Ma, Yuling; Wang, Kai; Liu, Shengjie; Chen, Dan; Chen, Qin; Ma, Haoli

    2016-03-04

    The Auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (Aux/IAA) genes encode short-lived nuclear proteins that are known to be involved in the primary cellular responses to auxin. To date, systematic analysis of the Aux/IAA genes in potato (Solanum tuberosum) has not been conducted. In this study, a total of 26 potato Aux/IAA genes were identified (designated from StIAA1 to StIAA26), and the distribution of four conserved domains shared by the StIAAs were analyzed based on multiple sequence alignment and a motif-based sequence analysis. A phylogenetic analysis of the Aux/IAA gene families of potato and Arabidopsis was also conducted. In order to assess the roles of StIAA genes in tuber development, the results of RNA-seq studies were reformatted to analyze the expression patterns of StIAA genes, and then verified by quantitative real-time PCR. A large number of StIAA genes (12 genes) were highly expressed in stolon organs and in during the tuber initiation and expansion developmental stages, and most of these genes were responsive to indoleacetic acid treatment. Our results suggested that StIAA genes were involved in the process of tuber development and provided insights into functional roles of potato Aux/IAA genes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Nitric oxide synthase inhibition ameliorates nicotine-induced sperm function decline in male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibukun P. Oyeyipo

    2015-09-01

    Conclusion: Taken together, the present data indicate the abilities of l-NAME to ameliorate nicotine-induced spermatotoxic effects in male rats via a mechanism dependent on the circulating testosterone level.

  18. Listening to classical music ameliorates unilateral neglect after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Pei-Luen; Chen, Mei-Ching; Huang, Yu-Ting; Lin, Keh-Chung; Chen, Kuan-Lin; Hsu, Yung-Wen

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. We determined whether listening to excerpts of classical music ameliorates unilateral neglect (UN) in stroke patients. METHOD. In this within-subject study, we recruited and separately tested 16 UN patients with a right-hemisphere stroke under three conditions within 1 wk. In each condition, participants were asked to complete three subtests of the Behavioral Inattention Test while listening to classical music, white noise, or nothing. All conditions and the presentation of the tests were counterbalanced across participants. Visual analog scales were used to provide self-reported ratings of arousal and mood. RESULTS. Participants generally had the highest scores under the classical music condition and the lowest scores under the silence condition. In addition, most participants rated their arousal as highest after listening to classical music. CONCLUSION. Listening to classical music may improve visual attention in stroke patients with UN. Future research with larger study populations is necessary to validate these findings. Copyright © 2013 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  19. Exenatide with Metformin Ameliorated Visceral Adiposity and Insulin Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Du

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. To study the effectiveness of exenatide with metformin and sequential treatment with exenatide and glargine added to metformin and their influence on insulin sensitivity and adipose distribution. Methods. 20 newly diagnosed obese type 2 diabetic patients were enrolled, and 2-month washout treatment of metformin, 6-month exenatide treatment, and 6-month glargine treatment were administrated sequentially accompanied with previous metformin. Glucolipid metabolic parameters were compared among groups. Adipose distribution was quantified with computerized tomography according to anatomy, dividing into visceral adipose tissue (VAT and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT, adding up to total adipose tissue (TAT. Results. The 6-month exenatide treatment dramatically ameliorated the glucose and lipid profile, improved insulin sensitivity, and mainly decreased VAT and also the ratio of VAT/SAT (RVS. The following 6-month glargine treatment increased VAT. The whole 12-month sequential treatment with exenatide and glargine added to metformin basically improved the insulin sensitivity and glucolipid control though VAT rebounded at the end, however without deteriorating the other parameters. Conclusion. Exenatide is an ideal treatment for obese type 2 diabetic patients in the aspect of adipose tissue distribution. Sequential treatment of exenatide and glargine could be an alternative for low-income patients who cannot afford GLP-1 agonist for long time. This trial is registered with ChiCTR-OOC-17013679.

  20. Probiotic BIFICO cocktail ameliorates Helicobacter pylori induced gastritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hong-Jing; Liu, Wei; Chang, Zhen; Shen, Hui; He, Li-Juan; Wang, Sha-Sha; Liu, Lu; Jiang, Yuan-Ying; Xu, Guo-Tong; An, Mao-Mao; Zhang, Jun-Dong

    2015-06-07

    To determine the protective effect of triple viable probiotics on gastritis induced by Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) and elucidate the possible mechanisms of protection. Colonization of BIFICO strains in the mouse stomach was determined by counting colony-forming units per gram of stomach tissue. After treatment with or without BIFICO, inflammation and H. pylori colonization in the mouse stomach were analyzed by hematoxylin and eosin and Giemsa staining, respectively. Cytokine levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Milliplex. The activation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB and MAPK signaling in human gastric epithelial cells was evaluated by Western blot analysis. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was used to quantify TLR2, TLR4 and MyD88 mRNA expression in the mouse stomach. We demonstrated that BIFICO, which contains a mixture of Enterococcus faecalis, Bifidobacterium longum and Lactobacillus acidophilus, was tolerant to the mouse stomach environment and was able to survive both the 8-h and 3-d courses of administration. Although BIFICO treatment had no effect on the colonization of H. pylori in the mouse stomach, it ameliorated H. pylori-induced gastritis by significantly inhibiting the expression of cytokines and chemokines such as TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-10, IL-6, G-CSF and MIP-2 (P gastritis by inhibiting the inflammatory response in gastric epithelial cells.

  1. Tofacitinib Ameliorates Murine Lupus and Its Associated Vascular Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furumoto, Yasuko; Smith, Carolyne K; Blanco, Luz; Zhao, Wenpu; Brooks, Stephen R; Thacker, Seth G; Abdalrahman, Zarzour; Sciumè, Giuseppe; Tsai, Wanxia L; Trier, Anna M; Nunez, Leti; Mast, Laurel; Hoffmann, Victoria; Remaley, Alan T; O'Shea, John J; Kaplan, Mariana J; Gadina, Massimo

    2017-01-01

    Dysregulation of innate and adaptive immune responses contributes to the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and its associated premature vascular damage. No drug to date targets both systemic inflammatory disease and the cardiovascular complications of SLE. Tofacitinib is a JAK inhibitor that blocks signaling downstream of multiple cytokines implicated in lupus pathogenesis. While clinical trials have shown that tofacitinib exhibits significant clinical efficacy in various autoimmune diseases, its role in SLE and the associated vascular pathology remains to be characterized. MRL/lpr lupus-prone mice were administered tofacitinib or vehicle by gavage for 6 weeks (therapeutic arm) or 8 weeks (preventive arm). Nephritis, skin inflammation, serum levels of autoantibodies and cytokines, mononuclear cell phenotype and gene expression, neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) release, endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation, and endothelial differentiation were compared in treated and untreated mice. Treatment with tofacitinib led to significant improvement in measures of disease activity, including nephritis, skin inflammation, and autoantibody production. In addition, tofacitinib treatment reduced serum levels of proinflammatory cytokines and interferon responses in splenocytes and kidney tissue. Tofacitinib also modulated the formation of NETs and significantly increased endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation and endothelial differentiation. The drug was effective in both preventive and therapeutic strategies. Tofacitinib modulates the innate and adaptive immune responses, ameliorates murine lupus, and improves vascular function. These results indicate that JAK inhibitors have the potential to be beneficial in SLE and its associated vascular damage. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.

  2. Coenzyme Q10 treatment ameliorates acute cisplatin nephrotoxicity in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fouad, Amr A.; Al-Sultan, Ali Ibrahim; Refaie, Shereen M.; Yacoubi, Mohamed T.

    2010-01-01

    The nephroprotective effect of coenzyme Q10 was investigated in mice with acute renal injury induced by a single i.p. injection of cisplatin (5 mg/kg). Coenzyme Q10 treatment (10 mg/kg/day, i.p.) was applied for 6 consecutive days, starting 1 day before cisplatin administration. Coenzyme Q10 significantly reduced blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine levels which were increased by cisplatin. Coenzyme Q10 significantly compensated deficits in the antioxidant defense mechanisms (reduced glutathione level and superoxide dismutase activity), suppressed lipid peroxidation, decreased the elevations of tumor necrosis factor-α, nitric oxide and platinum ion concentration, and attenuated the reductions of selenium and zinc ions in renal tissue resulted from cisplatin administration. Also, histopathological renal tissue damage mediated by cisplatin was ameliorated by coenzyme Q10 treatment. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that coenzyme Q10 significantly decreased the cisplatin-induced overexpression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, nuclear factor-κB, caspase-3 and p53 in renal tissue. It was concluded that coenzyme Q10 represents a potential therapeutic option to protect against acute cisplatin nephrotoxicity commonly encountered in clinical practice.

  3. Cellulose supplementation early in life ameliorates colitis in adult mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorottya Nagy-Szakal

    Full Text Available Decreased consumption of dietary fibers, such as cellulose, has been proposed to promote the emergence of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD: Crohn disease [CD] and ulcerative colitis [UC] where intestinal microbes are recognized to play an etiologic role. However, it is not known if transient fiber consumption during critical developmental periods may prevent consecutive intestinal inflammation. The incidence of IBD peaks in young adulthood indicating that pediatric environmental exposures may be important in the etiology of this disease group. We studied the effects of transient dietary cellulose supplementation on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS colitis susceptibility during the pediatric period in mice. Cellulose supplementation stimulated substantial shifts in the colonic mucosal microbiome. Several bacterial taxa decreased in relative abundance (e.g., Coriobacteriaceae [p = 0.001], and other taxa increased in abundance (e.g., Peptostreptococcaceae [p = 0.008] and Clostridiaceae [p = 0.048]. Some of these shifts persisted for 10 days following the cessation of cellulose supplementation. The changes in the gut microbiome were associated with transient trophic and anticolitic effects 10 days following the cessation of a cellulose-enriched diet, but these changes diminished by 40 days following reversal to a low cellulose diet. These findings emphasize the transient protective effect of dietary cellulose in the mammalian large bowel and highlight the potential role of dietary fibers in amelioration of intestinal inflammation.

  4. Yangjing Capsule Ameliorates Spermatogenesis in Male Mice Exposed to Cyclophosphamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongle Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Yangjing capsule (YC, a traditional Chinese compound herbal preparation, has been proven as an effective drug to improve spermatogenesis in clinical practice. However, its pharmacological mechanisms were not fully clarified. This study was designed to investigate the protective effects of YC on spermatogenesis in the mouse model of spermatogenesis dysfunction induced by cyclophosphamide (CP. The administration of YC significantly increased the epididymal index, sperm count, and sperm motility of model mice. Histopathological changes demonstrated that CP caused obvious structural damage to testis, which were reversed by the administration of YC. Results from TUNEL assay showed that treatment with YC dramatically decreased the apoptosis of spermatogenic cell induced by CP. Moreover, YC treatment could inhibit the mRNA and protein expression of Bax to Bcl-2 and also raised expression of AR at both mRNA and protein levels. These data suggest that YC might ameliorate spermatogenesis in male mice exposed to CP through inhibiting the apoptosis of spermatogenic cell and enhancing the actions of testosterone in spermatogenesis.

  5. Cellulose Supplementation Early in Life Ameliorates Colitis in Adult Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy-Szakal, Dorottya; Hollister, Emily B.; Luna, Ruth Ann; Szigeti, Reka; Tatevian, Nina; Smith, C. Wayne; Versalovic, James; Kellermayer, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Decreased consumption of dietary fibers, such as cellulose, has been proposed to promote the emergence of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD: Crohn disease [CD] and ulcerative colitis [UC]) where intestinal microbes are recognized to play an etiologic role. However, it is not known if transient fiber consumption during critical developmental periods may prevent consecutive intestinal inflammation. The incidence of IBD peaks in young adulthood indicating that pediatric environmental exposures may be important in the etiology of this disease group. We studied the effects of transient dietary cellulose supplementation on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) colitis susceptibility during the pediatric period in mice. Cellulose supplementation stimulated substantial shifts in the colonic mucosal microbiome. Several bacterial taxa decreased in relative abundance (e.g., Coriobacteriaceae [p = 0.001]), and other taxa increased in abundance (e.g., Peptostreptococcaceae [p = 0.008] and Clostridiaceae [p = 0.048]). Some of these shifts persisted for 10 days following the cessation of cellulose supplementation. The changes in the gut microbiome were associated with transient trophic and anticolitic effects 10 days following the cessation of a cellulose-enriched diet, but these changes diminished by 40 days following reversal to a low cellulose diet. These findings emphasize the transient protective effect of dietary cellulose in the mammalian large bowel and highlight the potential role of dietary fibers in amelioration of intestinal inflammation. PMID:23437211

  6. Osteitis pubis ameliorated after tooth extraction: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushi, Jun-ichi; Nakashima, Yasuharu; Iwamoto, Yukihide

    2013-03-01

    Osteitis pubis is a non-infective inflammation of the symphysis pubis, which is known to be associated with trauma, athletic exertion, urological or gynecological surgery, or with rheumatic conditions such as seronegative spondyloarthropathies. In this report, we describe a case of osteitis pubis whose symptoms were completely ameliorated following tooth extraction attributable to periodontitis. A 57-year-old female patient developed osteitis pubis, presenting with pain in the groin area with an elevated Creactive protein (CRP; 4.4 mg/dl) and radiological erosive changes in symphysis pubis. Prednisolone (5 mg/day) and etodolac were prescribed, but the patient's symptoms improved only partially and remained persistent. One year from the patient's first visit, three teeth were extracted due to severe chronic periodontitis, which she had been suffering from for years. Soon after the above tooth extraction, her symptoms appeared completely resolved, and the patient's CRP was decreased to nearly normal levels in 4 weeks. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-typing analysis revealed a positive result for HLA-A11, A24, and B54. Because HLA-B54 cross-reacts with HLA-B27, the patient's osteitis pubis was considered to be a form of reactive arthritis associated with periodontitis.

  7. Le recours aux archives judiciaires pour étudier les habitudes de sommeil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Garnier

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Les archives judiciaires possèdent de nombreux attraits, et certains sont parfois insoupçonnés. Les faits relatés dans les actes d’accusation par exemple, mais aussi les déclarations de témoins recèlent de petits détails sur les habitudes de sommeil qui passent souvent inaperçus aux yeux des historiens. Dans un corpus très large (du XVIIIe au xixe siècle on peut ainsi tenter de comprendre les logiques de sommeil : heures de coucher et lever, durée du sommeil, l’apparente vulnérabilité du repos nocturne, les déviances nocturnes, le lieu de sommeil. Mais dans une vue plus globale, les archives aident aussi à déterminer les rythmes nocturnes et notamment la place qu’y tient le sommeil. Les contraintes sociales et politiques, la dureté du travail et de la vie, l’importance de la religion transparaissent aussi pour former une culture spécifique du sommeil préindustriel.Judiciary records have many appealing aspects, some of which one would not suspect. What is related in indictment documents for instance, as well as in evidence statements, contains small details about sleeping habits that often go unnoticed by historians. Out of a very large corpus (from the xviiith till the xixth century, one can try and work out the rationale behind sleep: at what time people go to sleep or wake up, for how long, how vulnerable night sleep seems to be, nocturnal deviances, or where people sleep. But to a larger extent, records also help to determine nocturnal rhythms and more specifically the place that sleep holds in them. Social and political constraints, harshness of working and living conditions, the importance of religion, all show through and convey a specific culture of pre-industrial sleep.

  8. Neutron distribution in the central cell and a peripheral cell of the Fontenay-aux-Roses pile; Repartition des neutrons dans la cellule centrale et une cellule peripherique de la pile de Fontenay-aux-Roses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roullier, F [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    The distribution of the neutron density has been determined in the central cell and a peripheral cell of the pile at Fontenay-aux-Roses. This measurement was carried out by the autoradiographic method with manganese detectors. The neutron density distribution in the uranium rod has already been studied. The measurement was completed by the study of the neutron density in the complete cell by means of detectors placed in the uranium and in the heavy water. (author) [French] La repartition de la densite des neutrons a ete determinee dans la cellule centrale et une cellule peripherique de la pile de Fontenay-aux-Roses. Cette mesure a ete effectuee par la methode d'autoradiographie avec des detecteurs de manganese. La repartition de la densite des neutrons dans la barre d'uranium a deja ete etudiee. La mesure a ete completee par l'etude de la densite des neutrons dans la cellule complete a l'aide de detecteurs places dans l'uranium et dans l'eau lourde. (auteur)

  9. Volume arc therapy of gynaecological tumours: target volume coverage improvement without dose increase for critical organs; Arctherapie volumique des tumeurs gynecologiques: amelioration de la couverture du volume cible sans augmentation de la dose aux organes critiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ducteil, A.; Kerr, C.; Idri, K.; Fenoglietto, P.; Vieillot, S.; Ailleres, N.; Dubois, J.B.; Azria, D. [CRLC Val-d' Aurelle, Montpellier (France)

    2011-10-15

    The authors report the assessment of the application of conventional intensity-modulated conformational radiotherapy (IMRT) and volume arc-therapy (RapidArc) for the treatment of cervical cancers, with respect to conventional radiotherapy. Dosimetric plans associated with each of these techniques have been compared. Dose-volume histograms of these three plans have also been compared for the previsional target volume (PTV), organs at risk, and sane tissue. IMCT techniques are equivalent in terms of sparing of organs at risk, and improve target volume coverage with respect to conventional radiotherapy. Arc-therapy reduces significantly treatment duration. Short communication

  10. Amelioration and reforestation of sulfurous mine soils in Lusatia (eastern Germany)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katzur, J.; Haubold-Rosar, M.

    1996-01-01

    In Germany nearly 1.550 km 2 have been claimed by brown coal mining until now. Mine soils formed of carboniferous and sulfurous overburden are classified as sulfurous mine soils. They remain vegetation-free for decades and may be cultivated only after soil amelioration. The objective of amelioration is a sustained improvement of soil reaction. Lime requirement for the achievement of a certain pH-value is calculated from acid-base-balance (SBB). Lime fertilizers and base-rich brown coal ashes are used for amelioration. As ashes have several advantages, their application is recommended. The ameliorative application of lime fertilizer or brown coal ash should be incorporated intensively into the soil to a depth of 60 cm, better 100 cm. Amelioration includes a mineral fertilization with N, P and K. Afforestation with Pinus sylvestris, Pinus nigra, Larix decidua, Larix eurolepis. Tilia cordata, Quercus rubra and Quercus petraea on ameliorated mine soils show surprising good results. Multi-species stands have very positive effects on soil formation. Raw humus is formed under pine and larch, and under deciduous trees moder and mull with higher bioactivity and better development of water and nutrient balance in the topsoil are found. 55 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs

  11. Cloning and characterization of an AUX/IAA gene in Populus davidiana x P. alba var. Pyramidalis and the correlation between its time-course expression and the levels of indole-3-acetic in saplings inoculated with Trichoderma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Z.; Baloch, A.M.; Zhai, T.; Jiang, C.; Liu, Z.; Zhang, R.

    2018-01-01

    Poda AUX/IAA gene, encoding an early-stage responsive protein to auxin in Populus davidiana x P. alba var. pyramidalis (Shanxin poplar), was cloned. The length of mRNA transcript of Poda AUX/IAA was 741bp, encoding a 248-amino-acid protein product, Poda AUX/IAA ORF analysis suggested that Poda AUX/IAA contained one conserved domain (pfam02309). Predicted molecular weight of Poda AUX/IAA was found to be 27kDa and its theoretical isoelectric point was determined as 8.21. Poda AUX/IAA was predicted to be a hydrophilic nucleoprotein and its multi-sequence alignment analysis showed that it shares high identity in four conserved domains with eight AUX/IAA proteins in other Populus species and these sequences of Poda AUX/IAA shared highest similarity with Pt-IAA14.1 in P. trichocarpa. In this study, we found that Poda AUX/IAA was expressed in both leaves and roots of Shanxin poplar. Three strains of Trichoderma asperellum were used to inoculate Shanxin poplar saplings. Inoculated saplings were cultured for 72 h. It was then found that IAA levels in both leaves and roots of inoculated saplings gradually increased and time-course expression patterns of PodaAUX/IAA was changed along with IAA levels. Results of Pearson correlation analysis demonstrated a negative correlation between expression levels of Poda AUX/IAA and IAA levels in both leaves and roots of Shanxin poplar saplings when compared with control. Negative correlation in inoculated saplings were less significant, probably as a result of Trichoderma inducing. (author)

  12. Accessibilité aux emplois en France : le rôle de la distance à la ville

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Hilal

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available L'objet de cet article est de modéliser les niveaux d’accessibilité potentielle aux emplois des communes françaises selon le rôle de la distance à la ville. Pour ce faire, nous présentons, tout d’abord, un modèle d’accessibilité et la méthode mise en œuvre pour calculer de façon systématique, à partir des données du réseau routier, une matrice des plus courts chemins, mesurés en temps, entre les communes françaises. Ensuite, dans la deuxième partie, ces distances sont intégrées dans le modèle d’accessibilité retenu afin de mesurer la disponibilité potentielle aux emplois selon la distance au pôle urbain le plus proche et selon les principales catégories d’espace du zonage en aires urbaines et de son complément rural. Enfin, la mesure d’accessibilité potentielle est comparée à plusieurs mesures d’accessibilité empirique.

  13. Genome-wide survey of Aux/IAA gene family members in potato (Solanum tuberosum): Identification, expression analysis, and evaluation of their roles in tuber development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Junpeng; Cao, Xiaoli; Shi, Shandang; Ma, Yuling; Wang, Kai; Liu, Shengjie; Chen, Dan; Chen, Qin; Ma, Haoli

    2016-01-01

    The Auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (Aux/IAA) genes encode short-lived nuclear proteins that are known to be involved in the primary cellular responses to auxin. To date, systematic analysis of the Aux/IAA genes in potato (Solanum tuberosum) has not been conducted. In this study, a total of 26 potato Aux/IAA genes were identified (designated from StIAA1 to StIAA26), and the distribution of four conserved domains shared by the StIAAs were analyzed based on multiple sequence alignment and a motif-based sequence analysis. A phylogenetic analysis of the Aux/IAA gene families of potato and Arabidopsis was also conducted. In order to assess the roles of StIAA genes in tuber development, the results of RNA-seq studies were reformatted to analyze the expression patterns of StIAA genes, and then verified by quantitative real-time PCR. A large number of StIAA genes (12 genes) were highly expressed in stolon organs and in during the tuber initiation and expansion developmental stages, and most of these genes were responsive to indoleacetic acid treatment. Our results suggested that StIAA genes were involved in the process of tuber development and provided insights into functional roles of potato Aux/IAA genes. - Highlights: • A systematic analysis of the potato AUX/IAA gene family were performed. • StIAA genes were related to auxin perception and signal transduction. • Candidate StIAA genes likely related to tuber initiation and expansion were screened.

  14. Genome-wide survey of Aux/IAA gene family members in potato (Solanum tuberosum): Identification, expression analysis, and evaluation of their roles in tuber development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Junpeng [State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology for Arid Areas, College of Agronomy, Northwest A& F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China); Innovation Experimental College, Northwest A& F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China); Cao, Xiaoli; Shi, Shandang [State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology for Arid Areas, College of Agronomy, Northwest A& F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China); Ma, Yuling [State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology for Arid Areas, College of Agronomy, Northwest A& F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China); Innovation Experimental College, Northwest A& F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China); Wang, Kai; Liu, Shengjie [State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology for Arid Areas, College of Agronomy, Northwest A& F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China); Chen, Dan [School of Life Sciences and Technology, Xidian University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710071 (China); Chen, Qin [State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology for Arid Areas, College of Agronomy, Northwest A& F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China); Ma, Haoli, E-mail: mahaoli@nwsuaf.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology for Arid Areas, College of Agronomy, Northwest A& F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China)

    2016-03-04

    The Auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (Aux/IAA) genes encode short-lived nuclear proteins that are known to be involved in the primary cellular responses to auxin. To date, systematic analysis of the Aux/IAA genes in potato (Solanum tuberosum) has not been conducted. In this study, a total of 26 potato Aux/IAA genes were identified (designated from StIAA1 to StIAA26), and the distribution of four conserved domains shared by the StIAAs were analyzed based on multiple sequence alignment and a motif-based sequence analysis. A phylogenetic analysis of the Aux/IAA gene families of potato and Arabidopsis was also conducted. In order to assess the roles of StIAA genes in tuber development, the results of RNA-seq studies were reformatted to analyze the expression patterns of StIAA genes, and then verified by quantitative real-time PCR. A large number of StIAA genes (12 genes) were highly expressed in stolon organs and in during the tuber initiation and expansion developmental stages, and most of these genes were responsive to indoleacetic acid treatment. Our results suggested that StIAA genes were involved in the process of tuber development and provided insights into functional roles of potato Aux/IAA genes. - Highlights: • A systematic analysis of the potato AUX/IAA gene family were performed. • StIAA genes were related to auxin perception and signal transduction. • Candidate StIAA genes likely related to tuber initiation and expansion were screened.

  15. Application of the New Decommissioning Regulation to the Nuclear Licensed Facilities (NLF) at Fontenay-aux-Roses's Nuclear Center (CEA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauret, Josiane; Piketty, Laurence; Jeanjacques, Michel

    2008-01-01

    This abstract describes the application of the new decommissioning regulation on all Nuclear Licensed Facilities (NLF is to say INB in French) at Fontenay-aux-Roses's Center (CEA/FAR). The decommissioning process has been applied in six buildings which are out of the new nuclear perimeter proposed (buildings no 7, no 40, no 94, no 39, no 52/1 and no 32) and three buildings have been reorganized (no 54, no 91 and no 53 instead of no 40 and no 94) in order to increase the space for temporary nuclear waste disposal and to reduce the internal transports of nuclear waste on the site. The advantages are the safety and radioprotection improvements and a lower operating cost. A global safety file was written in 2002 and 2003 and was sent to the French Nuclear Authority on November 2003. The list of documents required is given in the paragraph I of this paper. The main goals were two ministerial decrees (one decree for each NLF) getting the authorization to modify the NLF perimeter and to carry out cleaning and dismantling activities leading to the whole decommissioning of all NLF. Some specific authorizations were necessary to carry out the dismantling program during the decommissioning procedure. They were delivered by the French Nuclear Safety Authority (FNSA) or with limited delegation by the General Executive Director (GED) on the CEA Fontenay-aux-Roses's Center, called internal authorization. Some partial dismantling or decontamination examples are given below: - evaporator for the radioactive liquid waste treatment station (building no 53): FNSA authorization: phase realised in 2002/2003. - disposal tanks for the radioactive liquid waste treatment station (building no 53) FNSA authorization: phase realised in 2004, - incinerator for the radioactive solid waste treatment station (building no 07): FNSA authorization: operation realised in 2004, - research equipments in the building no. 54 and building no. 91: internal authorization ; realised in 2005, - sample

  16. Therapeutic spaces of care farming: Transformative or ameliorating?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaley, Alexandra; Hatton, Chris; Milligan, Christine

    2018-05-04

    Since Wil Gesler's earliest articulation (Gesler, 1992; Gesler, 1996) key thinkers in the field of therapeutic landscapes have sought to emphasise the embodied, contextual and wholly relational nature of the relationship that exists between people and place. However, the extant research has tended to focus on the relational healing experience as this occurs 'in the moment' and with reference to a specific location or site of healing, with less attention being paid to what happens to people when they return to their ordinary or everyday places. In this paper, we reflect on findings from visual ethnographic work (including photography and film) that explored the therapeutic landscape experiences of people with intellectual disabilities engaged in care farming interventions for health and wellbeing. The study also recruited farm staff and family members or carers to take part, and comprised 20 participants in total. Having identified a gap in our understanding, consideration is given to wider impact that engaging in these sorts of activities had on the everyday lives of the participants in this study. We argue that this study has identified two types of therapeutic journey that broadly fit the experiences of study participants. The first type of journey denotes landscape experiences that are transformative. Here the therapeutic power of the care farm landscape resides in the ability of activities conducted on care farms to influence other aspects of participants' lives in ways that promote wellbeing. By contrast, there is another type of journey where the therapeutic power of the care farm resides in its ability to ameliorate challenging or harmful life situations, thus offering people a temporary site of respite or refuge. We conclude that these findings denote an important development for this sub-field of health geography, not only because they draw attention to the transformative power of the therapeutic encounter, but also the broader socio-spatial environments

  17. Ursodeoxycholic Acid Ameliorates Fructose-Induced Metabolic Syndrome in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MS) is characterized by insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and hypertension. It is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular diseases and type-2 diabetes. Consumption of fructose is linked to increased prevalence of MS. Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) is a steroid bile acid with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory activities and has been shown to improve insulin resistance. The current study aims to investigate the effect of UDCA (150 mg/kg) on MS induced in rats by fructose administration (10%) in drinking water for 12 weeks. The effects of UDCA were compared to fenofibrate (100 mg/kg), an agonist of PPAR-α receptors. Treatment with UDCA or fenofibrate started from the 6th week after fructose administration once daily. Fructose administration resulted in significant increase in body weight, elevations of blood glucose, serum insulin, cholesterol, triglycerides, advanced glycation end products (AGEs), uric acid levels, insulin resistance index and blood pressure compared to control rats. Moreover, fructose increased oxidative stress in aortic tissues indicated by significant increases of malondialdehyde (MDA), expression of iNOS and reduction of reduced glutathione (GSH) content. These disturbances were associated with decreased eNOS expression, increased infiltration of leukocytes and loss of aortic vascular elasticity. Treatment with UDCA successfully ameliorated the deleterious effects of fructose. The protective effect of UDCA could be attributed to its ability to decrease uric acid level, improve insulin resistance and diminish oxidative stress in vascular tissues. These results might support possible clinical application of UDCA in MS patients especially those present with liver diseases, taking into account its tolerability and safety. However, further investigations on human subjects are needed before the clinical application of UDCA for this indication. PMID:25202970

  18. NAD+ Biosynthesis Ameliorates a Zebrafish Model of Muscular Dystrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goody, Michelle F.; Kelly, Meghan W.; Reynolds, Christine J.; Khalil, Andre; Crawford, Bryan D.; Henry, Clarissa A.

    2012-01-01

    Muscular dystrophies are common, currently incurable diseases. A subset of dystrophies result from genetic disruptions in complexes that attach muscle fibers to their surrounding extracellular matrix microenvironment. Cell-matrix adhesions are exquisite sensors of physiological conditions and mediate responses that allow cells to adapt to changing conditions. Thus, one approach towards finding targets for future therapeutic applications is to identify cell adhesion pathways that mediate these dynamic, adaptive responses in vivo. We find that nicotinamide riboside kinase 2b-mediated NAD+ biosynthesis, which functions as a small molecule agonist of muscle fiber-extracellular matrix adhesion, corrects dystrophic phenotypes in zebrafish lacking either a primary component of the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex or integrin alpha7. Exogenous NAD+ or a vitamin precursor to NAD+ reduces muscle fiber degeneration and results in significantly faster escape responses in dystrophic embryos. Overexpression of paxillin, a cell adhesion protein downstream of NAD+ in this novel cell adhesion pathway, reduces muscle degeneration in zebrafish with intact integrin receptors but does not improve motility. Activation of this pathway significantly increases organization of laminin, a major component of the extracellular matrix basement membrane. Our results indicate that the primary protective effects of NAD+ result from changes to the basement membrane, as a wild-type basement membrane is sufficient to increase resilience of dystrophic muscle fibers to damage. The surprising result that NAD+ supplementation ameliorates dystrophy in dystrophin-glycoprotein complex– or integrin alpha7–deficient zebrafish suggests the existence of an additional laminin receptor complex that anchors muscle fibers to the basement membrane. We find that integrin alpha6 participates in this pathway, but either integrin alpha7 or the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex is required in conjunction with integrin

  19. GPNMB ameliorates mutant TDP-43-induced motor neuron cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagahara, Yuki; Shimazawa, Masamitsu; Ohuchi, Kazuki; Ito, Junko; Takahashi, Hitoshi; Tsuruma, Kazuhiro; Kakita, Akiyoshi; Hara, Hideaki

    2017-08-01

    Glycoprotein nonmetastatic melanoma protein B (GPNMB) aggregates are observed in the spinal cord of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients, but the detailed localization is still unclear. Mutations of transactive response DNA binding protein 43kDa (TDP-43) are associated with neurodegenerative diseases including ALS. In this study, we evaluated the localization of GPNMB aggregates in the spinal cord of ALS patients and the effect of GPNMB against mutant TDP-43 induced motor neuron cell death. GPNMB aggregates were not localized in the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-positive astrocyte and ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule-1 (Iba1)-positive microglia. GPNMB aggregates were localized in the microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP-2)-positive neuron and neurofilament H non-phosphorylated (SMI-32)-positive neuron, and these were co-localized with TDP-43 aggregates in the spinal cord of ALS patients. Mock or TDP-43 (WT, M337V, and A315T) plasmids were transfected into mouse motor neuron cells (NSC34). The expression level of GPNMB was increased by transfection of mutant TDP-43 plasmids. Recombinant GPNMB ameliorated motor neuron cell death induced by transfection of mutant TDP-43 plasmids and serum-free stress. Furthermore, the expression of phosphorylated ERK1/2 and phosphorylated Akt were decreased by this stress, and these expressions were increased by recombinant GPNMB. These results indicate that GPNMB has protective effects against mutant TDP-43 stress via activating the ERK1/2 and Akt pathways, and GPNMB may be a therapeutic target for TDP-43 proteinopathy in familial and sporadic ALS. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. NAD+ biosynthesis ameliorates a zebrafish model of muscular dystrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle F Goody

    Full Text Available Muscular dystrophies are common, currently incurable diseases. A subset of dystrophies result from genetic disruptions in complexes that attach muscle fibers to their surrounding extracellular matrix microenvironment. Cell-matrix adhesions are exquisite sensors of physiological conditions and mediate responses that allow cells to adapt to changing conditions. Thus, one approach towards finding targets for future therapeutic applications is to identify cell adhesion pathways that mediate these dynamic, adaptive responses in vivo. We find that nicotinamide riboside kinase 2b-mediated NAD+ biosynthesis, which functions as a small molecule agonist of muscle fiber-extracellular matrix adhesion, corrects dystrophic phenotypes in zebrafish lacking either a primary component of the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex or integrin alpha7. Exogenous NAD+ or a vitamin precursor to NAD+ reduces muscle fiber degeneration and results in significantly faster escape responses in dystrophic embryos. Overexpression of paxillin, a cell adhesion protein downstream of NAD+ in this novel cell adhesion pathway, reduces muscle degeneration in zebrafish with intact integrin receptors but does not improve motility. Activation of this pathway significantly increases organization of laminin, a major component of the extracellular matrix basement membrane. Our results indicate that the primary protective effects of NAD+ result from changes to the basement membrane, as a wild-type basement membrane is sufficient to increase resilience of dystrophic muscle fibers to damage. The surprising result that NAD+ supplementation ameliorates dystrophy in dystrophin-glycoprotein complex- or integrin alpha7-deficient zebrafish suggests the existence of an additional laminin receptor complex that anchors muscle fibers to the basement membrane. We find that integrin alpha6 participates in this pathway, but either integrin alpha7 or the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex is required in conjunction

  1. Glycine and Folate Ameliorate Models of Congenital Sideroblastic Anemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Pedro Fernández-Murray

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sideroblastic anemias are acquired or inherited anemias that result in a decreased ability to synthesize hemoglobin in red blood cells and result in the presence of iron deposits in the mitochondria of red blood cell precursors. A common subtype of congenital sideroblastic anemia is due to autosomal recessive mutations in the SLC25A38 gene. The current treatment for SLC25A38 congenital sideroblastic anemia is chronic blood transfusion coupled with iron chelation. The function of SLC25A38 is not known. Here we report that the SLC25A38 protein, and its yeast homolog Hem25, are mitochondrial glycine transporters required for the initiation of heme synthesis. To do so, we took advantage of the fact that mitochondrial glycine has several roles beyond the synthesis of heme, including the synthesis of folate derivatives through the glycine cleavage system. The data were consistent with Hem25 not being the sole mitochondrial glycine importer, and we identify a second SLC25 family member Ymc1, as a potential secondary mitochondrial glycine importer. Based on these findings, we observed that high levels of exogenous glycine, or 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-Ala a metabolite downstream of Hem25 in heme biosynthetic pathway, were able to restore heme levels to normal in yeast cells lacking Hem25 function. While neither glycine nor 5-Ala could ameliorate SLC25A38 congenital sideroblastic anemia in a zebrafish model, we determined that the addition of folate with glycine was able to restore hemoglobin levels. This difference is likely due to the fact that yeast can synthesize folate, whereas in zebrafish folate is an essential vitamin that must be obtained exogenously. Given the tolerability of glycine and folate in humans, this study points to a potential novel treatment for SLC25A38 congenital sideroblastic anemia.

  2. PEG minocycline-liposomes ameliorate CNS autoimmune disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Hu

    Full Text Available Minocycline is an oral tetracycline derivative with good bioavailability in the central nervous system (CNS. Minocycline, a potent inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-9, attenuates disease activity in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE, an animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS. Potential adverse effects associated with long-term daily minocycline therapy in human patients are concerning. Here, we investigated whether less frequent treatment with long-circulating polyethylene glycol (PEG minocycline liposomes are effective in treating EAE.Performing in vitro time kinetic studies of PEG minocycline-liposomes in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs, we determined that PEG minocycline-liposome preparations stabilized with CaCl(2 are effective in diminishing MMP-9 activity. Intravenous injections of PEG minocycline-liposomes every five days were as effective in ameliorating clinical EAE as daily intraperitoneal injections of minocycline. Treatment of animals with PEG minocycline-liposomes significantly reduced the number of CNS-infiltrating leukocytes, and the overall expression of MMP-9 in the CNS. There was also a significant suppression of MMP-9 expression and proteolytic activity in splenocytes of treated animals, but not in CNS-infiltrating leukocytes. Thus, leukocytes gaining access to the brain and spinal cord require the same absolute amount of MMP-9 in all treatment groups, but minocycline decreases the absolute cell number.Our data indicate that less frequent injections of PEG minocycline-liposomes are an effective alternative pharmacotherapy to daily minocycline injections for the treatment of CNS autoimmune diseases. Also, inhibition of MMP-9 remains a promising treatment target in EAE and patients with MS.

  3. Esculetin Ameliorates Carbon Tetrachloride-Mediated Hepatic Apoptosis in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan-Sung Chiu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Esculetin (ESC is a coumarin that is present in several plants such as Fraxinus rhynchophylla and Artemisia capillaris. Our previous study found that FR ethanol extract (FREtOH significantly ameliorated rats’ liver function. This study was intended to investigate the protective mechanism of ESC in hepatic apoptosis in rats induced by carbon tetrachloride. Rat hepatic apoptosis was induced by oral administration of CCl4. All rats were administered orally with CCl4 (20%, 0.5 mL/rat twice a week for 8 weeks. Rats in the ESC groups were treated daily with ESC, and silymarin group were treated daily with silymarin. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST as well as the activities of the anti-oxidative enzymes glutathione peroxidase (GPx, superoxide dismutase (SOD, and catalase in the liver were measured. In addition, expression of liver apoptosis proteins and anti-apoptotic proteins were detected. ESC (100, 500 mg/kg significantly reduced the elevated activities of serum ALT and AST caused by CCl4 and significantly increased the activities of catalase, GPx and SOD. Furthermore, ESC (100, 500 mg/kg significantly decreased the levels of the proapoptotic proteins (t-Bid, Bak and Bad and significantly increased the levels of the anti-apoptotic proteins (Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL. ESC inhibited the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria. In addition, the levels of activated caspase-9 and activated caspase-3 were significantly decreased in rats treated with ESC than those in rats treated with CCl4 alone. ESC significantly reduced CCl4-induced hepatic apoptosis in rats.

  4. Economic recession and suicidal behaviour: Possible mechanisms and ameliorating factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haw, Camilla; Hawton, Keith; Gunnell, David; Platt, Stephen

    2015-02-01

    A growing body of research evidence from countries around the world indicates that economic recession is associated with increases in suicide, particularly in males of working age. To explore contributory and ameliorating factors associated with economic recession and suicide and thereby stimulate further research in this area and encourage policy makers to consider how best to reduce the impact of recession on mental health and suicidal behaviour. We conducted a selective review of the worldwide literature focusing on possible risk factors, mechanisms and preventative strategies for suicidal behaviour linked to economic recession. A model of how recession might affect suicide rates is presented. A major and often prolonged effect of recession is on unemployment and job insecurity. Other important effects include those exerted by financial loss, bankruptcy and home repossession. It is proposed these factors may lead directly or indirectly to mental health problems such as depression, anxiety and binge drinking and then to suicidal behaviour. Countries with active labour market programmes and sustained welfare spending during recessions have less marked increases in suicide rates than those that cut spending on welfare and job-search initiatives for the unemployed. Other measures likely to help include targeted interventions for unemployed people, membership of social organisations and responsible media reporting. Good primary care and mental health services are needed to cope with increased demand in times of economic recession but some governments have in fact reduced healthcare spending as an austerity measure. The research evidence linking recession, unemployment and suicide is substantial, but the evidence for the other mechanisms we have investigated is much more tentative. We describe the limitations of the existing body of research as well as make suggestions for future research into the effects of economic recession on suicidal behaviour. © The Author

  5. The treatment of irradiated uranium fuel. Results obtained while operating the pilot plant at Fontenay-aux-Roses; Le traitement de l'uranium irradie. Resultats d'exploitation de l'usine-pilote de Fontenay-aux-Roses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regnaut, P; Faugeras, P; Brut, A; Helou, R; Redon, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    In this paper the results obtained from four years operation of the pilot plant when using bars of increasing activity, are summarised and compared with the results of parallel studies carried out in the laboratory. As a conclusion to the article, the optimum conditions for the different phases of a process based on solvent extraction are given. (author)Fren. [French] Cette conference resume les resultats obtenus durant quatre annees de fonctionnement de l'Usine-Pilote, avec des barreaux d'activite croissante et les compare aux resultats d'etudes conduites parallelement en laboratoire. En conclusion sont donnees les conditions optima pour les differentes phases d'un procede base sur l'extraction par solvant. (auteur)

  6. La responsabilité comme mode de gouvernement néolibéral : l’exemple des programmes d’aide aux familles aux États-Unis de 1980 à nos jours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Fournier

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Le point de départ de ma proposition est que la responsabilité est un terme plus approprié que la vertu pour désigner les exhortations au devoir civique dans l’ère contemporaine. De même, à défaut de voir l’implication citoyenne comme l’expression de la rationalité individuelle ou de la conscience morale dans la sphère publique, je propose de comprendre la responsabilité comme une matrice discursive et gouvernementale qui perpétue des modèles comportementaux bien spécifiques. J’entends ainsi démontrer que la responsabilité est devenue une modalité indispensable du « gouvernement de la conduite » au sein d’une rationalité néolibérale. En plus de constituer une série de dispositions morales qui remédierait aux failles et aux lacunes de l’individualisme (néolibéral, la responsabilité se matérialise dans les incitations à une citoyenneté active et participe de ce fait à la rationalisation du retranchement de l’État de la sphère sociale. Comme l’illustrent des courants aussi divers que le néoconservatisme, le communautarisme et l’économie sociale, la responsabilité se présente moins comme une solution de rechange aux créneaux du néolibéralisme qu’une série de techniques et de standards comportementaux visant à compléter et renforcer l’application élargie d’une logique micro-économique. Je montrerai que le recours à la notion de responsabilité est particulièrement visible dans les politiques d’aide sociale et au sein des nouveaux partenariats entre l’État, le milieu communautaire et les communautés locales. En effet, l’aide étatique est de plus en plus conditionnelle à la démonstration de certaines dispositions morales et psychologiques comme la volonté, la ténacité et la probité. L’article se divise en quatre parties. La première s’attarde à définir brièvement la « gouvernementalité », concept initialement développé par Michel Foucault. La deuxième se

  7. CREB Overexpression Ameliorates Age-related Behavioral and Biophysical Deficits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiao-Wen

    Age-related cognitive deficits are observed in both humans and animals. Yet, the molecular mechanisms underlying these deficits are not yet fully elucidated. In aged animals, a decrease in intrinsic excitability of pyramidal neurons from the CA1 sub-region of hippocampus is believed to contribute to age-related cognitive impairments, but the molecular mechanism(s) that modulate both these factors has yet to be identified. Increasing activity of the transcription factor cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) in young adult rodents has been shown to facilitate cognition, and increase intrinsic excitability of their neurons. However, how CREB changes with age, and how that impacts cognition in aged animals, is not clear. Therefore, we first systematically characterized age- and training-related changes in CREB levels in dorsal hippocampus. At a remote time point after undergoing behavioral training, levels of total CREB and activated CREB (phosphorylated at S133, pCREB) were measured in both young and aged rats. We found that pCREB, but not total CREB was significantly reduced in dorsal CA1 of aged rats. Importantly, levels of pCREB were found to be positively correlated with short-term spatial memory in both young and aged rats i.e. higher pCREB in dorsal CA1 was associated with better spatial memory. These findings indicate that an age-related deficit in CREB activity may contribute to the development of age-related cognitive deficits. However, it was still unclear if increasing CREB activity would be sufficient to ameliorate age-related cognitive, and biophysical deficits. To address this question, we virally overexpressed CREB in CA1, where we found the age-related deficit. Young and aged rats received control or CREB virus, and underwent water maze training. While control aged animals exhibited deficits in long-term spatial memory, aged animals with CREB overexpression performed at levels comparable to young animals. Concurrently, aged neurons

  8. SIRT2 ameliorates lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in macrophages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ae Sin; Jung, Yu Jin; Kim, Dal; Nguyen-Thanh, Tung; Kang, Kyung Pyo; Lee, Sik; Park, Sung Kwang; Kim, Won

    2014-01-01

    deficiency of SIRT2 ameliorates iNOS, NO expression and reactive oxygen species production with suppressing LPS-induced activation of NFκB in macrophages

  9. SIRT2 ameliorates lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in macrophages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ae Sin; Jung, Yu Jin; Kim, Dal; Nguyen-Thanh, Tung [Department of Internal Medicine, Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Kyung Pyo [Department of Internal Medicine, Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Research Institute of Clinical Medicine of Chonbuk National University, Chonbuk National University Hospital, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sik [Department of Internal Medicine, Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sung Kwang [Department of Internal Medicine, Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Research Institute of Clinical Medicine of Chonbuk National University, Chonbuk National University Hospital, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Won, E-mail: kwon@jbnu.ac.kr [Department of Internal Medicine, Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Research Institute of Clinical Medicine of Chonbuk National University, Chonbuk National University Hospital, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-08

    deficiency of SIRT2 ameliorates iNOS, NO expression and reactive oxygen species production with suppressing LPS-induced activation of NFκB in macrophages.

  10. Macrophage Depletion Ameliorates Peripheral Neuropathy in Aging Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xidi; Klein, Dennis; Kerscher, Susanne; West, Brian L; Weis, Joachim; Katona, Istvan; Martini, Rudolf

    2018-05-09

    Aging is known as a major risk factor for the structure and function of the nervous system. There is urgent need to overcome such deleterious effects of age-related neurodegeneration. Here we show that peripheral nerves of 24-month-old aging C57BL/6 mice of either sex show similar pathological alterations as nerves from aging human individuals, whereas 12-month-old adult mice lack such alterations. Specifically, nerve fibers showed demyelination, remyelination and axonal lesion. Moreover, in the aging mice, neuromuscular junctions showed features typical for dying-back neuropathies, as revealed by a decline of presynaptic markers, associated with α-bungarotoxin-positive postsynapses. In line with these observations were reduced muscle strengths. These alterations were accompanied by elevated numbers of endoneurial macrophages, partially comprising the features of phagocytosing macrophages. Comparable profiles of macrophages could be identified in peripheral nerve biopsies of aging persons. To determine the pathological impact of macrophages in aging mice, we selectively targeted the cells by applying an orally administered CSF-1R specific kinase (c-FMS) inhibitor. The 6-month-lasting treatment started before development of degenerative changes at 18 months and reduced macrophage numbers in mice by ∼70%, without side effects. Strikingly, nerve structure was ameliorated and muscle strength preserved. We show, for the first time, that age-related degenerative changes in peripheral nerves are driven by macrophages. These findings may pave the way for treating degeneration in the aging peripheral nervous system by targeting macrophages, leading to reduced weakness, improved mobility, and eventually increased quality of life in the elderly. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Aging is a major risk factor for the structure and function of the nervous system. Here we show that peripheral nerves of 24-month-old aging mice show similar degenerative alterations as nerves from aging

  11. The Effectiveness of Ameliorant to Increase Carbon Stock of Oilpalm and Rubber Plantation on Peatland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai Dariah

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Application of peatland amelioration can improve soil quality, reduce GHG emissions, and increase carbon sequestration. The research aimed to study the effect of peatland amelioration on oil palm and rubber carbon stock improvement. Research was conducted from August 2013 until June 2014. The researches on oil palm were done in Arang-arang Village, Kumpeh Subdistrict, Muaro Jambi District, and in Lubuk Ogong Village, Bandar Seikijang Sub-district, Pelalawan District. Both sites are in Jambi and Riau Province. The research on rubber was done in Jabiren Village, Jabiren Raya Subdistrict, Pulang Pisau District, Central Kalimantan Province. The study used a Randomized Completely Block Design (RCBD, in four treatments and four replications. The treatments were pugam (peat fertilizer enriched by polyvalent cation, manure; empty fruit bunch compost, and control (no application. The measurement of C stock was performed 10 months after application using nondestructive methods. The results showed that peatland amelioration treatments had no significant effect to improve C stock on oil palm in 6 years old and 7 years old of rubber. After 10 months of amelioration application, the treatments increased C - stock of oil palm and rubber were 2.1-2.4 Mg ha-1 and 5-11 Mg ha-1, respectively. Longer time observation may be needed to study the effect of ameliorant on C-stock of annual crops.

  12. Assessment of changes of some functions of Ukrainian acid soils after chemical amelioration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zapko Yurij

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the article was to determine the effectiveness of lime of different origin for chemical amelioration of soils and examine its impact on soil functions such as productivity, habitat, regulation of water quality, and the protective buffer biogeocenotic screen. Limy ameliorants were applied in small local field experiment on Luvic Chernozem, and experiment with lysimeter columns was carried out on Albic Luvisol. The number of the main groups of microflora and enzymatic activity of soil was determined in soil samples taken for the analysis from the root zone. Research concerning the influence of natural and industrial origin ameliorants on soil as habitat showed the correlation of sugar beets productivity with soil biogenic. The increase of biomultiplicity of soil microbiota after addition of a cement dust and negative influence of red sludge on soil as habitat for living organisms was observed. Research involving the influence of ameliorants on soil by lime as the protective buffer biogeocenotic screen was carried out using lysimeter columns. It was stated that the addition of limy ameliorants reduces mobility of heavy metals.

  13. Resenha de: Recherches sur les effectifs des armées françaises des Guerres d'Italie aux Guerres de Religion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eurípedes Simões de Paula

    1963-12-01

    Full Text Available LOT, Ferdinand. Recherches sur les effectifs des armées fran-çaises des Guerres d'Italie aux Guerres de Religion. Paris. S. E. V. P. E. N. École Pratique des Hautes Études. VIe Sec-tion. Collection Bibliothèque Générale.

  14. Sabine Dullin. La frontière épaisse: Aux origines des politiques soviétiques (1920-1940

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Chandler

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Sabine Dullin. La frontière épaisse: Aux origines des politiques soviétiques (1920-1940. En temps & lieux 55. Paris: Éditions de l'École des hautes études en sciences sociales, 2014. 356 pp. Illustrations. Maps. Tables. Bibliography. Index of places. Index of names. Paper.

  15. Droit et accès des femmes à l'eau et aux systèmes d'assainissement ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2 mai 2012 ... Axe de recherche Le projet vise à améliorer les services d'approvisionnement en eau et d'assainissement fournis aux femmes vivant dans les collectivités à faible revenu de New Delhi, de même qu'à favoriser de meilleurs rapports entre les habitants et les administrations locales.

  16. Localized Iron Supply Triggers Lateral Root Elongation in Arabidopsis by Altering the AUX1-Mediated Auxin Distribution[C][W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giehl, Ricardo F.H.; Lima, Joni E.; von Wirén, Nicolaus

    2012-01-01

    Root system architecture depends on nutrient availability, which shapes primary and lateral root development in a nutrient-specific manner. To better understand how nutrient signals are integrated into root developmental programs, we investigated the morphological response of Arabidopsis thaliana roots to iron (Fe). Relative to a homogeneous supply, localized Fe supply in horizontally separated agar plates doubled lateral root length without having a differential effect on lateral root number. In the Fe uptake-defective mutant iron-regulated transporter1 (irt1), lateral root development was severely repressed, but a requirement for IRT1 could be circumvented by Fe application to shoots, indicating that symplastic Fe triggered the local elongation of lateral roots. The Fe-stimulated emergence of lateral root primordia and root cell elongation depended on the rootward auxin stream and was accompanied by a higher activity of the auxin reporter DR5-β-glucuronidase in lateral root apices. A crucial role of the auxin transporter AUXIN RESISTANT1 (AUX1) in Fe-triggered lateral root elongation was indicated by Fe-responsive AUX1 promoter activities in lateral root apices and by the failure of the aux1-T mutant to elongate lateral roots into Fe-enriched agar patches. We conclude that a local symplastic Fe gradient in lateral roots upregulates AUX1 to accumulate auxin in lateral root apices as a prerequisite for lateral root elongation. PMID:22234997

  17. Self-assembly of bimetallic AuxPd1-x alloy nanoparticles via dewetting of bilayers through the systematic control of temperature, thickness, composition and stacking sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunwar, Sundar; Pandey, Puran; Sui, Mao; Bastola, Sushil; Lee, Jihoon

    2018-03-01

    Bimetallic alloy nanoparticles (NPs) are attractive materials for various applications with their morphology and elemental composition dependent optical, electronic, magnetic and catalytic properties. This work demonstrates the evolution of AuxPd1-x alloy nanostructures by the solid-state dewetting of sequentially deposited bilayers of Au and Pd on sapphire (0001). Various shape, size and configuration of AuxPd1‑x alloy NPs are fabricated by the systematic control of annealing temperature, deposition thickness, composition as well as stacking sequence. The evolution of alloy nanostructures is attributed to the surface diffusion, interface diffusion between bilayers, surface and interface energy minimization, Volmer-Weber growth model and equilibrium configuration. Depending upon the temperature, the surface morphologies evolve with the formation of pits, grains and voids and gradually develop into isolated semi-spherical alloy NPs by the expansion of voids and agglomeration of Au and Pd adatoms. On the other hand, small isolated to enlarged elongated and over-grown layer-like alloy nanostructures are fabricated due to the coalescence, partial diffusion and inter-diffusion with the increased bilayer thickness. In addition, the composition and stacking sequence of bilayers remarkably affect the final geometry of AuxPd1‑x nanostructures due to the variation in the dewetting process. The optical analysis based on the UV–vis-NIR reflectance spectra reveals the surface morphology dependent plasmonic resonance, scattering, reflection and absorption properties of AuxPd1‑x alloy nanostructures.

  18. Le vocabulaire de la maison privée aux xviie et xviiie siècles

    OpenAIRE

    Hanna, Nelly

    2008-01-01

    Depuis déjà un certain temps, les chercheurs qui travaillent sur l'habitat du Caire utilisent des fonds d'archives de différentes époques. Je signale en particulier les travaux de Jean-Claude Garcin, de Mona Zakariya et de Hazem-al-Sayyed. Le travail d'archives pose des problèmes liés au vocabulaire des éléments architecturaux, celui-ci étant sensiblement différent de celui qu'on utilise aujourd'hui. C'est grâce aux travaux de 'Adbul-Latif Ibrahim que ce domaine a commencé d'être exploité et ...

  19. Etude systématique et écologique de la faune associée aux moules ()

    OpenAIRE

    Fezzani, S.; Zghal, F.; Ben Amor, Z.; El Abed, A.

    2001-01-01

    Ce travail s’intéresse non seulement à la connaissance de la faune associée aux moules notamment : Mytilus galloprovincialis, mais aussi à une étude systématique et écologique de la faune récoltée. Cette étude a été réalisée dans le lac de Bizerte, à la station de mytiliculture de Menzel Jemil. Une partie de ce travail est consacrée à un examen systématique de la faune récoltée et qui nous a permis d’inventorier 6 embranchements dont les annélides qui sont représentés par 10 espèces de Po...

  20. Health physics around a controlled fusion research device: the Tokamak at Fontenay-aux-Roses (T.F.R.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The X and neutron dosimetry measurement near the magnetic confinement device for hot plasma, called T.F.R. (Tokamak, Fontenay-aux-Roses) are presented. The biological shielding consists of an ordinary concrete wall 30 cm thick; the dose rate is thus limited at 10 -1 mrem per discharge (corresponding to 10 mrem per day) in the whole area frequented by people during T.F.R. operation. A numerical calculation, taking into account the true geometry and X ray reflexion by the walls and roof, and normalized to the measurements, gives some indications on the electron beam which produces X rays. The photoneutron source (up to 10 10 neutrons per dischage) and the activation of the vacuum vessel result from high energy electrons (>= 10 MeV) supporting a 10 to 1,000 A current [fr

  1. Formation des etats $\\chi_1$ et $\\chi_2$ du charmonium dans l'annihilation $p\\bar{p}$ aux ISR

    OpenAIRE

    Fay , J.

    1986-01-01

    Un des buts de l'expérience R704 est l'étude des états $\\chi_1$ et $\\chi_2$ du charmonium $(c\\bar{c)}$ dans leur annihilation J/$\\psi$ + photon. Ces états sont formés par interaction d'un jet moléculaire d'hydrogène sur un faisceau refroidi d'antiprotons. L'importance du bruit de fond hadronique conduit à ne s'intéresser qu'aux états finaux électromagnétiques. L'appareillage de détection est essentiellement constitué de deux bras symétriques non magnétiques en deux parties. La première s'inté...

  2. Pollution durable des sols par la chlordécone aux Antilles : comment la gérer ?

    OpenAIRE

    Cabidoche, Yves-Marie; Lesueur-Jannoyer, Magali

    2011-01-01

    La chlordécone, insecticide organochloré de synthèse, était utilisée dans les bananeraies antillaises avant 1993. Pourtant, elle contamine encore les ressources en eau, certaines denrées, et des organismes aquatiques. Très tôt, la recherche agronomique s’est mobilisée pour répondre aux questions posées pour la gestion de cette crise : Où sont les sols pollués? Est-ce une pollution durable ? La molécule est peu mobile. Des cartes de risques, fondées sur leur occupation rétrospective en bananer...

  3. Marketers as Innovators: how ethnic marketing revisits ethnicity Marketing ethnique et innovation aux États-Unis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Christine Pauwels

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available L’innovation aux États-Unis est ici vue sous un angle social et culturel. Il ne s’agit plus d’étudier l’innovation technologique, mais l’innovation en matière de produit. L’article aborde la création de valeur à travers la variable ethnique dans le domaine de la vente, du marketing et de la publicité. Les nouvelles tendances en matière d’ethno-marketing sont analysées, en particulier la manière dont les professionnels utilisent la notion d’ethnicité pour vendre des produits de consommation courante à un marché de consommateurs de plus en plus exigeants, soit en ayant recours à une segmentation de ces consommateurs en micro-marchés toujours plus étroits, soit en privilégiant un marketing multi- ou trans-culturel.

  4. The Politics of Religion in the United States Manifestations politiques de la religion aux États-Unis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Braml

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Aux États-Unis, les attitudes religieuses ont plus d’influence sur les choix politiques que dans n’importe quelle autre démocratie occidentale. L’engagement religieux/moral de la droite chrétienne polarise les États-Unis, ce qui a des conséquences sur le plan électoral mais aussi sur les choix politiques réels. L’importance de la droite chrétienne dans la coalition électorale du Parti républicain oblige celui-ci à mettre l’accent sur les questions liées à la sécurité nationale, en particulier la lutte anti-terroriste, afin de mieux souder une coalition électorale hétérogène.

  5. Diversification and expression of the PIN, AUX/LAX and ABCB families of putative auxin transporters in Populus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola eCarraro

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Intercellular transport of the plant hormone auxin is mediated by three families of membrane-bound protein carriers, with the PIN and ABCB families coding primarily for efflux proteins and the AUX/LAX family coding for influx proteins. In the last decade our understanding of gene and protein function for these transporters in Arabidopsis has expanded rapidly but very little is known about their role in woody plant development. Here we present a comprehensive account of all three families in the model woody species Populus, including chromosome distribution, protein structure, quantitative gene expression, and evolutionary relationships. The PIN and AUX/LAX gene families in Populus comprise 16 and 8 members respectively, and show evidence for the retention of paralogs following a relatively recent whole genome duplication. There is also evidence for differential expression across tissues within many gene pairs. The ABCB family is previously undescribed in Populus and includes 20 members, showing a much deeper evolutionary history including both tandem and whole genome duplication as well as probable loss. A striking number of these transporters are expressed in developing Populus stems and we suggest that evolutionary and structural relationships with known auxin transporters in Arabidopsis can point toward candidate genes for further study in Populus. This is especially important for the ABCBs, which is a large family and includes members in Arabidopsis that are able to transport other substrates in addition to auxin. Protein modeling, sequence alignment and expression data all point to ABCB1.1 as a likely auxin transport protein in Populus. Given that basipetal auxin flow through the cambial zone shapes the development of woody stems, it is important that we identify the full complement of proteins involved in this process. This work should lay the foundation for studies targeting specific proteins for functional characterization and in situ

  6. Haematolohical profile of subacute oral toxicity of molybdenum and ameliorative efficacy of copper salt in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusum; Raina, R; Verma, P K; Pankaj, N K; Kant, V; Kumar, J; Srivastava, A K

    2010-07-01

    Molybdenum toxicity produces a state of secondary hypocuprosis, resulting into alterations in normal hematological profile. In the present study, ammonium molybdate alone and with copper sulfate (II) pentahydrate (ameliorative agent) was administered orally for 30 consecutive days in healthy goats of group 1 and 2, respectively, to access the effect on the hematological profile on different predetermined days of dosing. Administration of ammonium molybdate alone produced significant decline in the mean values of hemoglobin (Hb), packed cell volume (PCV), total leukocyte count (TLC), total erythrocyte count (TEC), and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), with a significant increase in neutrophil level and mean corpuscular volume (MCV). However, values of erythrocyte sedimentation rate, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, and differential leukocyte count were not significantly altered. On comparing observations of ameliorative group with the group 1 goats, it is concluded that the ameliorative copper salt has beneficial effects in alleviating the alterations in the values of Hb, PCV, TLC, TEC, MCV, MCHC, and neutrophils.

  7. Ginger and alpha lipoic acid ameliorate age-related ultrastructural changes in rat liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Y I; Hegazy, H G

    2016-01-01

    Because of the important role that oxidative stress is thought to play in the aging process, antioxidants could be candidates for preventing its related pathologies. We investigated the ameliorative effects of two antioxidant supplements, ginger and alpha lipoic acid (ALA), on hepatic ultrastructural alterations in old rats. Livers of young (4 months) and old (24 months) Wistar rats were studied using transmission electron microscopy. Livers of old rats showed sinusoidal collapse and congestion, endothelial thickening and defenestration, and inconsistent perisinusoidal extracellular matrix deposition. Aged hepatocytes were characterized by hypertrophy, cytoplasmic vacuolization and a significant increase in the volume densities of the nuclei, mitochondria and dense bodies. Lipofuscin accumulation and decreased microvilli in bile canaliculi and space of Disse also were observed. The adverse alterations were ameliorated significantly by both ginger and ALA supplementation; ALA was more effective than ginger. Ginger and ALA appear to be promising anti-aging agents based on their amelioration of ultrastructural alterations in livers of old rats.

  8. Recours aux médicaments et aux consultations psychologiques chez les Canadiens atteints d'un trouble de l'humeur et/ou d'anxiété

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siobhan O'Donnell

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : L'étude décrit le recours aux médicaments sur ordonnance et aux consultations psychologiques au cours des 12 derniers mois chez les Canadiens adultes ayant déclaré avoir reçu un diagnostic de trouble de l'humeur et/ou d'anxiété, les caractéristiques sociodémographiques et cliniques associées à ce recours et les raisons invoquées pour ne pas y recourir. Méthodologie : L'Enquête sur les personnes ayant une maladie chronique au Canada - Composante sur les troubles de l'humeur et d'anxiété de 2014 a été utilisée. L'échantillon de l'étude (n = 2 916 a été divisé en quatre sous-groupes de traitement : (1 prend des médicaments seulement; (2 a reçu des consultations psychologiques seulement; (3 prend des médicaments et a reçu des consultations psychologiques; ou (4 n'a eu recours à aucun de ces deux traitements. Nous avons combiné les trois premiers sous-groupes et effectué des analyses descriptives et de régression logistique multivariée pour comparer ceux qui prenaient des médicaments et/ou avaient reçu des consultations psychologiques par rapport à ceux n'ayant pas eu recours à ces deux traitements. Nous avons pondéré toutes les estimations afin que les données soient représentatives de la population canadienne adulte vivant en logement privé dans l'une des 10 provinces et ayant déclaré avoir reçu un diagnostic de troubles de l'humeur et/ou d'anxiété. Résultats : La majorité (81,8 % des Canadiens adultes ayant déclaré avoir reçu un diagnostic de trouble de l'humeur et/ou d'anxiété ont indiqué prendre des médicaments et/ou avoir reçu des consultations psychologiques (47,6 % prenaient des médicaments seulement, 6,9 % avaient reçu des consultations psychologiques seulement et 27,3 % avaient eu recours aux deux modalités de traitement. Après ajustement des caractéristiques individuelles, le recours aux médicaments et/ou aux consultations psychologiques était significativement

  9. Effects of forest road amelioration techniques on soil bulk density, surface runoff, sediment transport, soil moisture and seedling growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randy K. Kolka; Mathew F. Smidt

    2004-01-01

    Although numerous methods have been used to retire roads, new technologies have evolved that can potentially ameliorate soil damage, lessen ,the generation of nonpoint source pollution and increase tree productivity on forest roads. In this study we investigated the effects of three forest road amelioration techniques, subsoiling, recontouring and traditional...

  10. Purification and final concentration of the plutonium obtained by treatment of irradiated uranium at the Fontenay-aux-Roses pilot plant; Purification et concentration finales du plutonium en fin de traitement de l'uranium irradie a l'usine-pilote de Fontenay-aux-Roses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prevot, I; Corpel, J; Regnaut, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    This paper consists of: 1- a recapitulation of the laboratory tests which led to the choice of the method; 2- a description of the latter, with the results obtained at the Fontenay-aux-Roses pilot plant; 3- the analytical methods used for checking and verifying the purity of the plutonium. (author)Fren. [French] Cet expose comprend: 1- le rappel des essais de laboratoire qui ont conduit au choix du procede; 2- la description de ce dernier, avec les resultats obtenus a l'Usine-Pilote de Fontenay-aux-Roses; 3- les methodes analytiques utilisees pour le controle et pour la verification de la purete du plutonium. (auteur)

  11. Arabidopsis SHR and SCR transcription factors and AUX1 auxin influx carrier control the switch between adventitious rooting and xylogenesis in planta and in in vitro cultured thin cell layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Rovere, F; Fattorini, L; D'Angeli, S; Veloccia, A; Del Duca, S; Cai, G; Falasca, G; Altamura, M M

    2015-03-01

    Adventitious roots (ARs) are essential for vegetative propagation. The Arabidopsis thaliana transcription factors SHORT ROOT (SHR) and SCARECROW (SCR) affect primary/lateral root development, but their involvement in AR formation is uncertain. LAX3 and AUX1 auxin influx carriers contribute to primary/lateral root development. LAX3 expression is regulated by SHR, and LAX3 contributes to AR tip auxin maximum. In contrast, AUX1 involvement in AR development is unknown. Xylogenesis is induced by auxin plus cytokinin as is AR formation, but the genes involved are largely unknown. Stem thin cell layers (TCLs) form ARs and undergo xylogenesis under the same auxin plus cytokinin input. The aim of this research was to investigate SHR, SCR, AUX1 and LAX3 involvement in AR formation and xylogenesis in intact hypocotyls and stem TCLs in arabidopsis. Hypocotyls of scr-1, shr-1, lax3, aux1-21 and lax3/aux1-21 Arabidopsis thaliana null mutant seedlings grown with or without auxin plus cytokinin were examined histologically, as were stem TCLs cultured with auxin plus cytokinin. SCR and AUX1 expression was monitored using pSCR::GFP and AUX1::GUS lines, and LAX3 expression and auxin localization during xylogenesis were monitored by using LAX3::GUS and DR5::GUS lines. AR formation was inhibited in all mutants, except lax3. SCR was expressed in pericycle anticlinally derived AR-forming cells of intact hypocotyls, and in cell clumps forming AR meristemoids of TCLs. The apex was anomalous in shr and scr ARs. In all mutant hypocotyls, the pericycle divided periclinally to produce xylogenesis. Xylary element maturation was favoured by auxin plus cytokinin in shr and aux1-21. Xylogenesis was enhanced in TCLs, and in aux1-21 and shr in particular. AUX1 was expressed before LAX3, i.e. in the early derivatives leading to either ARs or xylogenesis. AR formation and xylogenesis are developmental programmes that are inversely related, but they involve fine-tuning by the same proteins, namely SHR

  12. Spironolactone ameliorates transplant vasculopathy in renal chronic transplant dysfunction in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waanders, Femke; Rienstra, Heleen; Boer, Mark Walther; Zandvoort, Andre; Rozing, Jan; Navis, Gerjan; van Goor, Harry; Hillebrands, Jan-Luuk

    Waanders F, Rienstra H, Walther Boer M, Zandvoort A, Rozing J, Navis G, van Goor H, Hillebrands JL. Spironolactone ameliorates transplant vasculopathy in renal chronic transplant dysfunction in rats. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 296: F1072-F1079, 2009. First published February 25, 2009;

  13. Abscisic acid ameliorates experimental IBD by downregulating cellular adhesion molecule expression and suppressing immune cell infiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guri, Amir J; Hontecillas, Raquel; Bassaganya-Riera, Josep

    2010-12-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) has shown effectiveness in ameliorating inflammation in obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease models. The objective of this study was to determine whether ABA prevents or ameliorates experimental inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). C57BL/6J mice were fed diets with or without ABA (100mg/kg) for 35 days prior to challenge with 2.5% dextran sodium sulfate (DSS). The severity of clinical disease was assessed daily. Colonic mucosal lesions were evaluated by histopathology, and cellular adhesion molecular and inflammatory markers were assayed by real-time quantitative PCR. Flow cytometry was used to quantify leukocyte populations in the blood, spleen, and mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN). The effect of ABA on cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) expression in splenocytes was also investigated. ABA significantly ameliorated disease activity, colitis and reduced colonic leukocyte infiltration and inflammation. These improvements were associated with downregulation in vascular cell adhesion marker-1 (VCAM-1), E-selectin, and mucosal addressin adhesion marker-1 (MAdCAM-1) expression. ABA also increased CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-lymphocytes in blood and MLN and regulatory T cells in blood. In vitro, ABA increased CTLA-4 expression through a PPAR γ-dependent mechanism. We conclude that ABA ameliorates gut inflammation by modulating T cell distribution and adhesion molecule expression. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  14. Economic efficiency of the use of the bush vegetation from slopes of the ameliorative canals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titov, V.N.

    2009-01-01

    The results of calculations of the economic efficiency of the use of the bush vegetation from slopes of the ameliorative canals for fuel and energy purposes has been presented. The two variants of disposal of bushes are considered burning and conversion into fuel chips. (authors)

  15. Lipid abnormalities in streptozotocin-diabetes: Amelioration by Morus indica L. cv Suguna leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Andallu, B.; Vinay Kumar, A. V.; Varadacharyulu, N. Ch.

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To observe the influence of mulberry (Morus indica L. cv Suguna) leaves on lipid abnormalities in STZ-diabetic rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Treatment with dried mulberry leaf powder for a period of 8 weeks in hyperglycemic and hyperlipidemic STZ-diabetic rats. RESULTS: Mulberry leaves regulated fasting blood glucose, ameliorated the abnormalities in lipid profile as indicated by significant (P

  16. Fermented ginseng, GBCK25, ameliorates hemodynamic function on experimentally induced myocardial injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adithan Aravinthan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we investigated whether treatment with GBCK25 facilitated the recovery of hemodynamic parameters, left ventricle systolic pressure, left ventricular developed pressure, and electrocardiographic changes. GBCK25 significantly prevented the decrease in hemodynamic parameters and ameliorated the electrocardiographic abnormality. These results indicate that GBCK25 has distinct cardioprotective effects in rat heart.

  17. Progresses on Amelioration of Red Soil Acidity with Crop Straw Biochar: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    XU Ren-kou

    2016-01-01

    The research progresses on amelioration of red soil acidity and immobilization of heavy metals in red soils with the biochars generated from crop straws were summarized in this review paper. The developing trends of the research in these areas in future were also predicted.

  18. Amelioration of Anti-Nutritive Effects of Castor Oil Seed ( Ricinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three hundred and twenty (320) day old male broilers were used to investigate the amelioration of anti-nutritive effects of castor oil seed (Ricinus communis) meal in broilers' ration using natural fermentation and DL-Methionine supplementation. The experimental designed was a 4 × 2 factorial arrangement of dietary ...

  19. Du sport aux activités physiques de loisir : des formes culturelles et sociales bigarrées

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éric Dugas

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available L'espace ludique des formes sociales des pratiques physiques accepte maintes variations. Du jeu informel et libre aux activités physiques institutionnelles (les sports, plusieurs catégories de situations motrices, distinctes des unes des autres, jalonnent l'espace des jeux sportifs. Après avoir défini et délimité, dans un premier temps, les contours et la richesse de l'univers des pratiques physiques ludiques, nous essayons, dans un second temps de mettre au jour le type de pratiques qui coïncident le mieux aux aspirations des pratiquants du xxie siècle. On s'aperçoit actuellement que malgré l'hégémonie du sport au sein de l'espace médiatique et économique, il se dessine néanmoins une tendance forte : la prédominance d’activités physiques ludiques de plus en plus autocontrôlées qui laissent l'initiative aux pratiquants et dans lesquelles les institutions sportives ne sont plus totalement ou pas du tout maître du jeu.From sport to leisure physical activities: mixed cultural and social formsThe game space of physical activities' social forms accepts many variations. From informal and free games to institutional physical activities (sports, several motor situation categories, distinct from each other, punctuate the space of physical games. After having specified and delimited the contours and richness of the world of playful physical activities, we will try to bring to light the kind of practices which coincide best with the 21st century's players or sports (women. Currently, we can see that in spite of sport's hegemony within the media and the economic spheres, a strong tendency is becoming apparent: the predominance of more and more self-controlled playful physical activities, which leave the initiative to players and in which governing bodies are not totally or not at all in command any more.Del deporte a las actividades de ocio: una mezcolanza en las formas culturales y socialesEl espacio lúdico de las formas sociales de

  20. EFFECTS OF AMELIORANT COMPOSITIONS ON NITROGEN MINERALIZATION AND UPTAKE BY SWEET CORN IN DEGRADED PEATLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eni Maftu’ah

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Peat soil is characterized by poor nitrogen (N availability. Ameliorants are expected to rectify this problem. This research  aimed to study the effect of ameliorant on N availability and N uptake by sweet corn plant in degraded peatland. The experiment was conducted in the greenhouse in May-July 2011 and on peatland of Kalampangan Village, Palangkaraya, Central Kalimantan in September-December 2011. Burnt peat soil of Kalampangan was used in the greenhouse experiment and sweet corn was used as an indicator plant. The treatments consisted of two factors, i.e. compositions of ameliorants by weight (A1 = 80% chicken manure + 20% dolomite; A2 = 80% local farm weed + 20% dolomite; A3 = 80% mineral soil + 20% dolomite; A4 = 20% chicken manure + 20% local farm weed + 20% residue of Chinese water chestnut (Eleocharis dulcis + 20% mineral soil + 20% dolomite; and A5 = 19% chicken manure + 71.5% mineral soil + 9.5% dolomite and rates of those ameliorants (5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 t ha-1. The experiment was arranged in a completely randomized block design with three replications. Data were collected every two weeks for five times. Observations were made on soil pH, available N (NH4+, NO3-, plant height, and N uptake in root and shoot. The results showed that  treatment A1 increased soil pH and availability of NH4+ and NO3-  in peat soils at the maximum vegetative stage. Treatment A1 provided the highest N availability and N uptake by the plant. Field experiment showed that N uptake increased  with the plant yield. Optimum yield of fresh corn cob was obtained from treatment A1 at the rate of 20 t ha-1. This research reconfirms the effectiveness of chicken manure and dolomite as peat soil ameliorant.

  1. X-ray topography of uranium alloys; Topographie aux rayons X d'alliages d'uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Naour, L [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-07-01

    A description of the structure of uranium alloys has been made using the data obtained by X-ray diffraction techniques derived from the Berg-Barrette method. In the first.stage the use of a monochromatic beam of X-rays having a very low divergence makes it possible to obtain very reproducible and exact numerical data concerning the grain and sub-grain sizes, and also the distribution of the sizes. It is thereby possible to detect any disorientation greater than 30 seconds of arc.The results obtained have been completed using a variable incidence device which- gives simultaneously an overall picture of a grain and an idea of the importance of internal disorientations; a more rigorous measurement of this latter parameter is then deduced from the Debye-Scherrer diagrams obtained using a fine-focus equipment. Observations are carried out on various one-phase or two phase uranium alloys which are compared successively to technical and to high-purity uranium. It is shown that the use of X-ray topographies, although limited in certain respects, allows a quantitative characterization of the structure. (author) [French] Une description des structures d'alliages d'uranium a ete faite a partir des donnees fournies par des techniques de diffraction de rayons X derivees de la methode de BERG--BARRETT. Dans une premiere etape, l'utilisation d'un faisceau de rayons X monochromatique et de tres faible divergence permet d'obtenir des donnees numeriques precises et tres reproductibles, relatives aux dimensions des grains, des sous-grains et a la distribution de ces grandeurs. Toute desorientation superieure a 30 secondes d'arc peut ainsi etre decelee. Les resultats obtenus ont ete completes en utilisant un montage a incidence variable, qui fournit simultanement l'image globale d'un grain et l'ordre de grandeur des desorientations internes; une mesure plus rigoureuse de ce dernier parametre se deduit ensuite de diagrammes DEBYE SHERRER realises avec un montage a foyer fin. Des

  2. Compatibility problems of canning materials with carbon dioxide at high temperatures; Problemes de comptabilite des materiaux de gainage avec le gaz carbonique aux temperatures elevees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darras, R; Loriers, H [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    stabilisees au niobium, sans addition de molybdene, s'averent les plus recommandables. A partir de 700 C, la nuance 20 Cr - 25 Ni + Nb semble meme s'imposer par rapport a la nuance classique 18 Cr - 10 Ni + Nb, surtout en raison d'une tendance moins accentuee aux penetrations locales d'oxyde. Par ailleurs, l'alliage fer-aluminium a 25 pour cent d'aluminium en poids, presente une resistance a l'oxydation remarquable, tout en permettant une economie appreciable de neutrons, mais sa mise en oeuvre technologique reste delicate. Enfin, des etudes recentes ont permis d'etablir que certains alliages a base de zirconium, renfermant 1 a 4 pour cent de cuivre en poids, pourraient constituer une solution valable jusqu'a des temperatures de l'ordre de 600 C. Ces alliages s'oxydent en effet beaucoup moins rapidement que le zirconium non allie et d'autres alliages classiques, qui avaient ete elimines precedemment pour cette raison. Finalement, parmi les materiaux capables de supporter les conditions physicochimiques auxquelles seraient soumises les gaines d'elements combustibles dans les reacteurs a moyenne temperature, les plus susceptibles d'application immediate seraient les aciers inoxydables austenitiques et les alliages zirconium-cuivre, dont la metallurgie est relativement bien connue. Dans le futur, l'interet pratique des alliages de beryllium et des alliages fer-aluminium devrait croitre, compte tenu des etudes poursuivies en vue de l'amelioration de leurs proprietes mecaniques et de leur mise en oeuvre. (auteurs)

  3. Mécanismes d’activation et interactions fonctionnelles hétérologues des récepteurs aux chimiokines

    OpenAIRE

    de Poorter, Cédric

    2012-01-01

    Mécanismes d’activation et conséquences fonctionnelles de la dimérisation des récepteurs aux chimiokinesLes chimiokines sont de petites protéines qui régulent la migration des cellules immunitaires. Elles exercent leur action en se liant à des récepteurs appartenant à la famille des récepteurs couplés aux protéines G (RCPG) dont la fonction est intimement liée à la régulation des cellules immunitaires. Notre laboratoire étudie depuis plusieurs années les relations reliant la structure et la f...

  4. Étude de délimitation aux fins de l'Initiative régionale pour la lutte ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Étude de délimitation aux fins de l'Initiative régionale pour la lutte contre le tabac en Afrique. Financée par le CRDI et la Fondation Bill et Melinda Gates, l'initiative Analyses situationnelles de la lutte antitabac en Afrique (ASTA) a pour objectif de permettre de comprendre les facteurs déterminants du succès de la lutte ...

  5. ÉTUDE DE CAS – Côte d'Ivoire : De la forêt aux champs en Côte d ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    11 janv. 2011 ... Aujourd'hui, Buyo fait partie de la « nouvelle ceinture du café et du cacao » de la Côte d'Ivoire et est devenu un pôle d'attraction pour les immigrants. La plupart y viennent en quête de terres où s'adonner aux cultures marchandes. Certains trouvent du travail dans lesexploitations forestières ou dans les ...

  6. Flora Tristan: De la nécessité de faire bon accueil aux femmes étrangères

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martine Reid

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Dans son traité De la nécessité de faire bon accueil aux femmes étrangères (1835, Flora Tristan (1803-1844, l’écrivaine française qui adopte l’état psychologique d’une étrangère dans son propre pays, traite de la situation des femmes “étrangères” qui voyagent seules en France et/ou commencent une nouvelle vie dans le pays, en particulier à Paris. Politiquement engagée auprès des plus défavorisés à partir du socialisme, Tristan propose la création d’une association pour ces femmes. En assimilant les deux groupes d'"étrangères” (nationales et non nationales, car elle pense que le même type d’accueil doit être fourni à toutes, Tristan préconise l’aide à la voisine nécessiteuse, voisine qui est à la fois un sujet national ou un sujet en transit, une femme sans-papiers ou une réfugiée.

  7. De Cultura aux MOOCs de communication interculturelle : quelles opportunités pour l’apprentissage interculturel à distance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginie Tremion

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available L’objectif de cet article est d’identifier des dimensions de la formation à distance qui pourraient influencer le développement de rencontres interculturelles ‘renouvelées’, et de discuter des stratégies à soutenir sur un plan éducatif. Les auteurs convoquent les résultats d’une étude centrée sur le rôle de la communication en ligne dans la rencontre de l’autre dans le modèle pédagogique Cultura. En guise de contraste, les tensions inhérentes à la rencontre interculturelle sont examinées dans un MOOC de communication interculturelle. Le MOOC, par ses caractéristiques, permet-il aux participants d’approcher l’interculturel de façon dialogique, critique et réflexive –marques d’un interculturel ‘renouvelé’ en éducation ?

  8. Les ecarts de financement en matiere d'adaptation aux changements climatiques - avec la perspective des CPDN

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olhoff, Anne; Bee, Skylar; Puig, Daniel

    En 2014, le Programme des Nations Unies pour l’Environnement (PNUE) a publié son premier rapport sur les écarts entre besoins et perspectives en matière d’adaptation (AGR 2014) (PNUE, 2014), lequel a permis de poser un cadre préliminaire pour évaluer ces écarts et d’établir une évaluation...... rapport sur les écarts financiers et les options permettant de les combler. Le rapport sera publié au printemps 2016. Cette mise à jour doit contribuer aux débats lors de la 21ème session de la Conférence des Parties (COP 21) à la Convention-Cadre des Nations Unies sur les Changements Climatiques (CCNUCC...... les besoins de financement présentes dans les composantes adaptation des Contributions Prévues Déterminées au niveau National (CPDN) (INDC) – soit les engagements post 2020 que les pays se proposent mettre en oeuvre dans le cadre d’un nouvel accord mondial sur les changements climatiques....

  9. De la théorie des opérateurs aux fondements de la mécanique quantique

    CERN Document Server

    Rinkel, Jean-Marc

    2016-01-01

    Ce livre est destiné aux étudiants en sciences, mathématiques ou physiques, au niveau master. La formalisation de l’infiniment petit de la mécanique quantique est un miracle d’abstraction, d’étonnement et d’émerveillement. Autant le développement de la physique classique (mécaniques newtonienne, lagrangienne, hamiltonienne et relativités) est lié à celui de la géométrie et du calcul tensoriel, autant l’émergence et le développement de la mécanique quantique sont liés à la théorie des espaces de Hilbert et à la théorie de la mesure. Dès lors qu’une observable (ce qui est accessible à une mesure expérimentale) est représentée par un opérateur sur un espace de Hilbert, les mathématiques se chargent de construire des mesures de probabilité sur le spectre de cet opérateur et ces mesures de probabilités deviennent une réalité physique dans les lois de transition de Born. Cet ouvrage décrit de façon précise le passage des mathématiques que l’on vient d’évoquer, �...

  10. Aux origines de la masse particules élémentaires et symétries fondamentales

    CERN Document Server

    Iliopoulos, Jean

    2014-01-01

    Pourquoi les « particules élémentaires » qui forment toute la matière ont-elles une masse ? Étrange question qui semble être en contradiction avec toute notre intuition physique. Dans ce livre, nous montrons d'abord que la réponse à cette question est tout sauf évidente et ensuite que la clé peut se trouver dans la découverte récente d'une nouvelle particule à l'accélérateur géant LHC (Large Hadron Collider) situé au CERN, près de Genève. Nous proposons au lecteur une promenade guidée qui l'emmènera des confins de l'Univers pendant les premières fractions de seconde après le Big Bang, aux plus petits constituants de la matière tels que nous les apercevons dans nos laboratoires. Notre guide sera un principe profond de symétrie qui, de façon surprenante, semble déterminer la structure du monde.

  11. Annual progress report of the Fontenay-aux-Roses Research Group, January 1 to December 31 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The salient events of 1974 were the full-time working of TFR at Fontenay-aux-Roses and the building of Petula and Wega at Grenoble. The remounting of TFR after reinforcement of the vacuum chamber was followed by an increase in the small plasma radius by elimination of the copper shell to prolong the present program. In agreement with the Culham laboratory a common program to develop the injection of neutral particles up to the performance needed for the JET has begun. At Grenoble the mounting of Petula was finished and the technological problems of the vacuum chamber (metallic joints for the alumina-metal joints) have been solved. The mounting of Wega was pursued simultaneously with that of Petula within the European context of a collaboration with Garching and the Royal Military School. In the ''Ionized Gas Theory Section'' work was centered on: M.H.D. equilibrium and stability, plasma development in Tokamaks, waves, transport and convection, spectroscopy, micro-instabilities and turbulence. Fundamental physics covers the subjects: EQUATOR, EOS-POP and ODE experiments, HCN laser and atomic collisions. The activity in open configuration concerned the experiment Bille-en-Tete MB [fr

  12. Ameliorative Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Artocarpus heterophyllus Stem Bark on Alloxan-induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basiru Olaitan Ajiboye

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Diabetes mellitus is one of the major endocrine disorders, characterized by impaired insulin action and deficiency. Traditionally, Artocarpus heterophyllus stem bark has been reputably used in the management of diabetes mellitus and its complications. The present study evaluates the ameliorative activity of ethanol extract of Artocarpus heterophyllus stem bark in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Methods: Diabetes mellitus was induced by single intraperitoneal injection of 150 mg/kg body weight of alloxan and the animals were orally administered with 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg body weight ethanol extract of Artocarpus heterophyllus stem bark once daily for 21 days. Results: At the end of the intervention, diabetic control rats showed significant (p0.05 different with non-diabetic rats. Conclusion: The results suggest that ethanol extract of Artocarpus heterophyllus stem bark may be useful in ameliorating complications associated with diabetes mellitus patients.

  13. Characteristics of biomass ashes from different materials and their ameliorative effects on acid soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Renyong; Li, Jiuyu; Jiang, Jun; Mehmood, Khalid; Liu, Yuan; Xu, Renkou; Qian, Wei

    2017-05-01

    The chemical characteristics, element contents, mineral compositions, and the ameliorative effects on acid soils of five biomass ashes from different materials were analyzed. The chemical properties of the ashes varied depending on the source biomass material. An increase in the concrete shuttering contents in the biomass materials led to higher alkalinity, and higher Ca and Mg levels in biomass ashes, which made them particularly good at ameliorating effects on soil acidity. However, heavy metal contents, such as Cr, Cu, and Zn in the ashes, were relatively high. The incorporation of all ashes increased soil pH, exchangeable base cations, and available phosphorus, but decreased soil exchangeable acidity. The application of the ashes from biomass materials with a high concrete shuttering content increased the soil available heavy metal contents. Therefore, the biomass ashes from wood and crop residues with low concrete contents were the better acid soil amendments. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Evaluation of ameliorative potential of supranutritional selenium on enrofloxacin-induced testicular toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rungsung, Soya; Khan, Adil Mehraj; Sood, Naresh Kumar; Rampal, Satyavan; Singh Saini, Simrat Pal

    2016-05-25

    The study was designed to assess the ameliorative potential of selenium (Se) on enrofloxacin-induced testicular toxicity in rats. There was a significant decrease in body weight and non-significant decrease in mean testicular weight of enrofloxacin treated rats. In enrofloxacin treated rats, total sperm count and viability decreased where as sperm abnormalities increased. Testicular histopathology revealed dose dependent dysregulation of spermatogenesis and presence of necrotic debris in seminiferous tubules which was marginally improved with Se. Enrofloxacin also produced a dose dependent decrease in testosterone level. The activity of testicular antioxidant enzymes decreased where as lipid peroxidation increased in a dose-dependent manner. Se supplementation partially restored oxidative stress and sperm damage and did not affect the plasma concentrations of enrofloxacin or ciprofloxacain. The results indicate that enrofloxacin produces a dose-dependent testicular toxicity in rats that is moderately ameliorated with supranutritional Se. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The HDAC Inhibitor TSA Ameliorates a Zebrafish Model of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Nathan M; Farr, Gist H; Maves, Lisa

    2013-09-17

    Zebrafish are an excellent model for Duchenne muscular dystrophy. In particular, zebrafish provide a system for rapid, easy, and low-cost screening of small molecules that can ameliorate muscle damage in dystrophic larvae. Here we identify an optimal anti-sense morpholino cocktail that robustly knocks down zebrafish Dystrophin (dmd-MO). We use two approaches, muscle birefringence and muscle actin expression, to quantify muscle damage and show that the dmd-MO dystrophic phenotype closely resembles the zebrafish dmd mutant phenotype. We then show that the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor TSA, which has been shown to ameliorate the mdx mouse Duchenne model, can rescue muscle fiber damage in both dmd-MO and dmd mutant larvae. Our study identifies optimal morpholino and phenotypic scoring approaches for dystrophic zebrafish, further enhancing the zebrafish dmd model for rapid and cost-effective small molecule screening.

  16. Amelioration of alkali soil using flue gas desulfurization byproducts: productivity and environmental quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, S.J.; Chen, C.H.; Xu, X.C.; Li, Y.J. [Tsing Hua University, Beijing (China). Ministry of Education

    2008-01-15

    In this study, flue gas desulfurization (FGD) byproducts are used to ameliorate alkali soil. The average application rates for soils with low exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP), mid ESP, and high ESP are 20.9, 30.6, and 59.3 Mg ha{sup -1} respectively. The experimental results obtained for 3 consecutive years reveal that the emergence ratios and yields of the crops were 1.1-7.6 times and 1.1-13.9 times those of the untreated control, respectively. The concentrations of Cr, Pb, Cd, As, and Hg in the treated soils are far below the background values stipulated by the Environmental Quality Standard for Soils (GB 15618-1995). Their concentrations in the seeds of corn and alfalfa grown in the treated soils are far below the tolerance limits regulated by National Food Standards of China. The results of this research demonstrate that the amelioration of alkali soils using FGD byproducts is promising.

  17. Amelioration of soils contaminated with industrial exhalations in the Chvaletice region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozel, J

    1966-01-01

    In the area of the Chvaletice manganese and pyrite works, the pyrite fly dust decomposing into sulfuric acid causes considerable damage to agricultural production. Sulfuric acid is also formed from the escaping sulfur dioxide. The reaction of the affected soils is extremely acid and reaches from 4.5 to 6.5 pH, and in some cases it decreases to 2.5 pH. Soil devastation spreads to distant land in the direction of the predominating winds. Damage is caused to agricultural crops which decreases yields. It was decided to ameliorate the affected soils with high doses of calcareous composts of material obtained from fish-ponds and of marl. The purpose of the experiment, the partial results of which are described, was an operational checking of the suitability of the composts for the amelioration of contaminated soils and an estimation of the doses to be applied.

  18. Ameliorative effect of antioxidants (vitamins C and E against abamectin toxicity in liver, kidney and testis of male albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Wilson Magdy

    2016-10-01

    In conclusion, it appears that vitamins C and E, or in combination (as antioxidants ameliorate the hepato-renal and testicular toxicity of abamectin, but are not completely protective, especially in liver tissue.

  19. Lagenaria siceraria ameliorates atheromatous lesions by modulating HMG–CoA reductase and lipoprotein lipase enzymes activity in hypercholesterolemic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mithun Singh Rajput

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: It can be concluded that ethanolic extract of fruits of L. siceraria contains active components which ameliorates the atheromatous lesions in rat aorta and lowers the risk of atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic rats.

  20. Baicalin ameliorates neuropathic pain by suppressing HDAC1 expression in the spinal cord of spinal nerve ligation rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Hwan Cherng

    2014-08-01

    Conclusion: The present findings suggest that baicalin can ameliorate neuropathic pain by suppressing HDAC1 expression and preventing histone-H3 acetylation in the spinal cord dorsal horn of SNL rats.

  1. Comment ameliorer la selection et le traitement des messages verbaux? (How to Improve the Selection and Processing of Verbal Messages)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rivenez, Marie; Darwin, Chris; Guillaume, Anne

    2005-01-01

    L'objectif de cette recherche est d'ameliorer la selection des messages verbaux. Nous cherchons a determiner les facteurs influencant le traitement d'un message verbal lorsque l'attention est portee sur un autre message...

  2. Amelioration of acidic soil increases the toxicity of the weak base carbendazim to the earthworm Eisenia fetida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kailin; Wang, Shaoyun; Luo, Kun; Liu, Xiangying; Yu, Yunlong

    2013-12-01

    Ameliorating acidic soils is a common practice and may affect the bioavailability of an ionizable organic pollutant to organisms. The toxicity of the weak base carbendazim to the earthworm (Eisenia fetida) was studied in an acidic soil (pH-H₂O, 4.6) and in the ameliorated soil (pH-H₂O, 7.5). The results indicated that the median lethal concentration of carbendazim for E. fetida decreased from 21.8 mg/kg in acidic soil to 7.35 mg/kg in the ameliorated soil. To understand why the amelioration increased carbendazim toxicity to the earthworm, the authors measured the carbendazim concentrations in the soil porewater. The authors found increased carbendazim concentrations in porewater, resulting in increased toxicity of carbendazim to earthworms. The increased pore concentrations result from decreased adsorption because of the effects of pH and calcium ions. © 2013 SETAC.

  3. Hypomethylating agent 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (DAC) ameliorates multiple sclerosis in mouse models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mangano, Katia; Fagone, Paolo; Bendtzen, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    murine models of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE). DAC treatment was associated with a significant amelioration of the clinical and histological hallmarks of EAE in both models. These effects were observed both in prophylactic and therapeutic regimens. The milder course of the disease....... Finally, DAC treatment increased the percentage of circulating regulatory T cells by inducing Foxp3 expression via demethylation of a CpG island in Foxp3....

  4. Effect of sodium fluoride in maternal and offspring rats and its amelioration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sneha Panchal

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available High fluoride content is known to cause dental and skeletal abnormalities. In addition, present review indicates that sodium fluoride consumption caused increased number of r=esorptions and dead foetuses. Various skeletal anomalies such as wavy ribs, presence of 14th ribs, lacking 6th sternebrae and incompete ossification of skull occur. All these changes could be due to oxidative stress caused by fluoride consumption. Fluoride-induced changes could be successfully ameliorated by cotreatment with vitamins and calcium.

  5. Modelling of 137Cs behaviour in the soil-plant system following the application of ameliorants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiridonov, S.; Fesenko, S.; Sanzharova, N.

    2004-01-01

    A set of countermeasures aimed at reducing 137 Cs uptake by plant products includes agrochemical measures based on changes in the soil properties after the application of ameliorants. The dynamic models for studying the effect of the application of potassium fertilizers and dolomite powder on 137 Cs accumulation in plants are presented. Conceptual approaches to the development of models are based on the identification of mechanisms governing a complex of physico-chemical processes in soil after the use of ameliorants. The following assumptions were used in the development of models: - dynamics of 137 Cs distribution in each soil layer depends on the sorption processes characterized by different time to achieve quasi-equilibrium (exchangeable uptake and fixation by clay minerals) as well as on vertical migration process; - change in 137 Cs content in soil solution results from the radionuclide sorption on selective and nonselective exchange sites; - uptake of extra amounts of K + and Ca 2+ in soil solution produces effect on processes of 137 Cs exchangeable sorption and initiate specific processes responsible for 137 Cs fixation in the crystal lattice of clay minerals; - Ca 2+ and K + cations have a competing effect on 137 Cs uptake by plants from soil solution, which along with the fixation processes, causes lower accumulation of this radionuclide by plants during the application of ameliorants. The developed models were parameterized for soils of the coniferous forest located in the Bryansk region in area suffered from the radioactive fallout after the Chernobyl accident. Effects of ameliorants and time of their application on 137 Cs behaviour in the soil-plant system are assessed. The contribution of soil chemical and biological processes to the decrease in the radionuclide uptake by plants is estimated. (author)

  6. Use of vegetation to ameliorate building microclimates: an assessment of energy-conservation potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchison, B.A.; Taylor, F.G.; Wendt, R.L.

    1982-04-01

    The space-conditioning energy conservation potentials of landscapes designed to ameliorate building microclimates are evaluated. The physical bases for vegetative modifications of climate are discussed, and results of past study of the effects of vegetation on space-conditioning energy consumption in buildings are reviewed. The state-of-the-art of energy-conserving landscape designs is assessed and recommendations are presented for further research.

  7. Dietary -carbamylglutamate and rumen-protected -arginine supplementation ameliorate fetal growth restriction in undernourished ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H; Sun, L W; Wang, Z Y; Deng, M T; Zhang, G M; Guo, R H; Ma, T W; Wang, F

    2016-05-01

    This study was conducted with an ovine intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) model to test the hypothesis that dietary -carbamylglutamate (NCG) and rumen-protected -Arg (RP-Arg) supplementation are effective in ameliorating fetal growth restriction in undernourished ewes. Beginning on d 35 of gestation, ewes were fed a diet providing 100% of NRC-recommended nutrient requirements, 50% of NRC recommendations (50% NRC), 50% of NRC recommendations supplemented with 20 g/d RP-Arg (providing 10 g/d of Arg), and 50% of NRC recommendations supplemented with 5 g/d NCG product (providing 2.5 g/d of NCG). On d 110, maternal, fetal, and placental tissues and fluids were collected and weighed. Ewe weights were lower ( ewes compared with adequately fed ewes. Maternal RP-Arg or NCG supplementation did not alter ( = 0.26) maternal BW in nutrient-restricted ewes. Weights of most fetal organs were increased ( ewes compared with 50% NRC-fed ewes. Supplementation of RP-Arg or NCG reduced ( ewes but had no effect on concentrations of lactate and GH. Maternal RP-Arg or NCG supplementation markedly improved ( ewes. These novel results indicate that dietary NCG and RP-Arg supplementation to underfed ewes ameliorated fetal growth restriction, at least in part, by increasing the availability of AA in the conceptus and provide support for its clinical use to ameliorate IUGR in humans and sheep industry production.

  8. Immunomodulatory Activities of the Benzoxathiole Derivative BOT-4-One Ameliorate Pathogenic Skin Inflammation in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun Gyu; Cho, Nam-Chul; Jeong, Ae Jin; Li, Yu-Chen; Rhie, Sung-Ja; Choi, Jung Sook; Lee, Kwang-Ho; Kim, Youngsoo; Kim, Yong-Nyun; Kim, Myoung-Hwan; Pae, Ae Nim; Ye, Sang-Kyu; Kim, Byung-Hak

    2016-01-01

    T-cell-mediated immune responses play an important role in body protection. However, aberrantly activated immune responses are responsible for inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. The regulation of pathologic immune responses may be a potential therapeutic strategy for the treatment of these diseases. Despite that multiple pharmacologic properties of benzoxathiole derivatives have been defined, the molecular mechanisms underlying these properties remain to be clarified. Here, we demonstrated the benzoxathiole derivative 2-cyclohexylimino-6-methyl-6,7-dihydro-5H-benzo[1,3]oxathiol-4-one (BOT-4-one) regulated immune responses and ameliorated experimentally induced inflammatory skin diseases both in vitro and in vivo. BOT-4-one inhibited the differentiation of CD4(+) T-cell subsets by regulating the expression and production of T-cell lineage-specific master transcription factors and cytokines and activating the signal transducer and activator of transcription proteins. In addition, BOT-4-one inhibited TCR-mediated Akt and NF-κB signaling. Topical application of BOT-4-one ameliorated experimentally induced inflammatory skin diseases in mice models such as 2,4,6-trinitrochlorobenzene-induced contact and atopic dermatitis and IL-23-induced psoriasis-like skin inflammation. Our study demonstrated that BOT-4-one ameliorates inflammatory skin diseases by suppressing the pathogenic CD4(+) T cell differentiation and overall immune responses. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The amelioration effect of tranexamic acid in wrinkles induced by skin dryness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiramoto, Keiichi; Sugiyama, Daijiro; Takahashi, Yumi; Mafune, Eiichi

    2016-05-01

    Tranexamic acid (trans-4-aminomethylcyclohexanecarboxylic acid) is a medical amino acid widely used as an anti-inflammatory and a whitening agent. This study examined the effect of tranexamic acid administration in wrinkle formation following skin dryness. We administered tranexamic acid (750mg/kg/day) orally for 20 consecutive days to Naruto Research Institute Otsuka Atrichia (NOA) mice, which naturally develop skin dryness. In these NOA mice, deterioration of transepidermal water loss (TEWL), generation of wrinkles, decrease of collagen type I, and increases in mast cell proliferation and tryptase and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-1) release were observed. However, these symptoms were improved by tranexamic acid treatment. Moreover, the increase in the β-endorphin level in the blood and the expression of μ-opioid receptor on the surface of fibroblasts increased by tranexamic acid treatment. In addition, when the fibroblasts induced by tranexamic acid treatment were removed, the amelioration effect by tranexamic acid treatment was halved. On the other hand, tranexamic acid treated NOA mice and mast cell removal in tranexamic acid treated NOA mice did not result in changes in the wrinkle amelioration effect. Additionally, the amelioration effect of mast cell deficient NOA mice was half that of tranexamic acid treated NOA mice. These results indicate that tranexamic acid decreased the proliferation of mast cells and increases the proliferation of fibroblasts, subsequently improving wrinkles caused by skin dryness. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Flos Puerariae Extract Ameliorates Cognitive Impairment in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong-he Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The effects of Flos Puerariae extract (FPE on cognitive impairment associated with diabetes were assessed in C57BL/6J mice. Methods. Experimental diabetic mice model was induced by one injection of 50 mg/kg streptozotocin (STZ for 5 days consecutively. FPE was orally administrated at the dosages of 50, 100, or 200 mg/kg/day, respectively. The learning and memory ability was assessed by Morris water maze test. Body weight, blood glucose, free fatty acid (FFA and total cholesterol (TCH in serum, malondialdehyde (MDA, superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px, and acetylcholinesterase (AChE activities in cerebral cortex and hippocampus were also measured. Results. Oral administration of FPE significantly improved cognitive deficits in STZ-induced diabetic mice. FPE treatment also maintained body weight and ameliorated hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia in diabetic mice. Additionally, decreased MDA level, enhanced CAT, and GSH-Px activities in cerebral cortex or hippocampus, as well as alleviated AChE activity in cerebral cortex, were found in diabetic mice supplemented with FPE. Conclusion. This study suggests that FPE ameliorates memory deficits in experimental diabetic mice, at least partly through the normalization of metabolic abnormalities, ameliorated oxidative stress, and AChE activity in brain.

  11. β-glycosphingolipids ameliorated non-alcoholic steatohepatitis in the Psammomys obesus model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zigmond E

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Ehud Zigmond,1,* Oshrat Tayer-Shifman,1,* Gadi Lalazar,1 Ami Ben Ya'acov,1 Sarah Weksler-Zangen,2 David Shasha,1 Miriam Sklair-Levy,3 Lidya Zolotarov,1 Zvi Shalev,1 Rony Kalman,2 Ehud Ziv,2 Itamar Raz,2 Yaron Ilan1 1Liver Unit, 2Diabetes Unit, 3Department of Radiology, Hebrew University-Hadassah Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel *These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Liver steatosis is a common characteristic of obesity and type 2 diabetes, and fatty liver disease is increasingly recognized as a major health burden. Accumulating evidence suggests that β-glycosphingolipids play an important role in insulin sensitivity and thus could affect hepatic steatosis. To determine the effect associated with β-glycosphingolipid-mediated amelioration of liver injury, seven groups of Psammomys obesus on a high-energy diet were studied. Animals were treated with daily injections of β-glucosylceramide, β-lactosylceramide, or a combination of both. β-glycosphingolipids ameliorated the hepatic injury manifested by decreased liver enzymes, liver weight, and hepatic fat, and improved liver histology. Administration of both β-glucosylceramide and β-lactosylceramide also decreased interferon (IFN-γ serum levels. These effects were associated with improved serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels. These data suggest that β-glycosphingolipids ameliorate liver injury in an animal model of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.Keywords: NAFLD, glycolipids, STAT, NASH, insulin resistance, diabetes

  12. The Ameliorative Effects of L-2-Oxothiazolidine-4-Carboxylate on Acetaminophen-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Ho Shin

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the ameliorative effects and the mechanism of action of L-2-oxothiazolidine-4-carboxylate (OTC on acetaminophen (APAP-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. Mice were randomly divided into six groups: normal control group, APAP only treated group, APAP + 25 mg/kg OTC, APAP + 50 mg/kg OTC, APAP + 100 mg/kg OTC, and APAP + 100 mg/kg N-acetylcysteine (NAC as a reference control group. OTC treatment significantly reduced serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase levels in a dose dependent manner. OTC treatment was markedly increased glutathione (GSH production and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-px activity in a dose dependent manner. The contents of malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxynonenal in liver tissues were significantly decreased by administration of OTC and the inhibitory effect of OTC was similar to that of NAC. Moreover, OTC treatment on APAP-induced hepatotoxicity significantly reduced the formation of nitrotyrosin and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling positive areas of liver tissues in a dose dependent manner. Furthermore, the activity of caspase-3 in liver tissues was reduced by administration of OTC in a dose dependent manner. The ameliorative effects of OTC on APAP-induced liver damage in mice was similar to that of NAC. These results suggest that OTC has ameliorative effects on APAP-induced hepatotoxicity in mice through anti-oxidative stress and anti-apoptotic processes.

  13. Effectiveness of Some Ameliorants in Reducing Co2 and N2o Emission in Corn Planting in Peat Land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eni Maftuah

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Amelioration is very important in supporting plant growth in peat land. The use of low emission ameliorant will support the sustainability of agricultural system in peat land. The research is intended to study the effectiveness of some ameliorants in reducing CO2 and N2O emission in corn planting in peat land. The research was conducted in April to October 2013, in Kalampangan Village Palangkaraya Municipality Central Kalimantan. Ameliorant materials used were chicken manure fertilizer, domolite, mineral soil, paddy husk biochar, coconut shell biochar. Ameliorant treatments applied were the type of ameliorant compositions, those were (A1 80% chicken manure fertilizer + 20% dolomite, (A2 20% chicken manure fertilizer + 20% agricultural weeds + 20% spodosol mineral soil + 20% “purun tikus” (eleocharis dulcis compost + 20% dolomite, (A3 19% chicken manure fertilizer + 9% dolomite + 72% mineral soil, (A4 100% coconut shell biochar, (A5 paddy husk biochar, (A6 farmer’s way (20% ash + 40% spodosol mineral soil + 40% chicken manure fertilizer and control. Experiment design used a Randomized Factorial Block Design, with 3 repetitions. Ameliorant dosage used was 7.5 t/ha. The crop used was hybrid corn. Parameters which were observed periodically were emission of CO2 and N2O, ground water level height, soil pH and Eh, once a month for 5 periods. The research result showed that ameliorant was capable of reducing emission of both CO2 and N2O in corn planting in peat land. Coconut shell biochar could reduce emission of CO2 up to 26% as compared with control, whereas paddy husk biochar could reduce emission of N2O up to 52% as compared with control.

  14. Smart Sensing of the Aux. Feed-water Pump Performance in NPP Severe Accidents Using Advanced GMDH Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    No, Young Gyu; Seong, Poong Hyun [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    In order to develop and verify the models, a number of data obtained by simulating station black out (SBO) scenario for the optimized power reactor 1000 (OPR1000) using MARS code were used. Most of monitoring systems for component have been suggested by using the directly measured data. However, it is very difficult to acquire data related to safety-critical component' status. Therefore, it is necessary to develop the new method that combines the data-based equipped with learning system and data miming technique. Many data-based modeling methods have been applied successfully to nuclear engineering area, such as signal validation, plant diagnostics and event identification. Also, the data miming is the process of analyzing data from different perspectives and summarizing it into useful information. In this study, the smart sensing technique was developed using advanced group method of data handing (GMDH) model. The original GMDH is an inductive self organizing algebraic model. The advanced GMDH model is equipped with a fuzzy concept. The proposed advanced GMDH model enhances the original GMDH model by reducing the effect of outliers and noise. The advanced GMDH uses different weightings according to their importance which is specified by the fuzzy membership grade. The developed model was verified using SBO accident simulation data for the OPR1000 nuclear power plant acquired with MARS code. Also, the advanced GMDH model was trained using the simulated development data and verified with simulated test data. The development and test data sets were independent. The simulation results show that the performance of the developed advanced GMDH model was very satisfactory, as shown in Table 1. Therefore, if the developed model can be optimized using diverse and specific data, it will be possible to predict the performance of Aux. feed water pump accurately.

  15. Les stratégies des investisseurs : des bords de ville aux bords de mer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Cueille

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available L’architecture de la villégiature a un prix. Construire des villes nouvelles, qu’elles soient balnéaires, thermales ou périurbaines, induit la mise en place de réseaux ferroviaires et viaires, d’édifices dévolus à la détente, les soins ou les jeux, d’hôtels et de maisons. Quels sont les investisseurs qui engagent d’importants financements en ces lieux ? Personnages de la vie politique, industrielle et bancaire, le plus souvent parisiens, tous se saisissent des besoins de la nouvelle société bourgeoise montante, consommatrice de loisirs dès le milieu du XIXe siècle. Si certains projets peuvent être initialement teintés d’une certaine forme de philanthropie, toutes les opérations deviennent très vite de véritables entreprises lucratives. Sociétés civiles en tous genres, concessions et affermages, les formules d’investissement s’adaptent au produit où souvent se mêlent intérêts publics et privés. La réussite de tels projets suscite également le financement de campagnes publicitaires importantes : journaux, affiches et guides sont publiés pour faire accourir la clientèle visée et ainsi rapporter aux investisseurs les profits escomptés.

  16. ETUDES ANALYTIQUES : Détection des OGM : du libre choix des consommateurs aux études de biovigilance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertheau Yves

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Les récentes affaires de semences conventionnelles de colza et de maïs contaminées par des traces d’OGM ont à nouveau, s’il en était besoin, rappelé à notre bon souvenir les besoins en méthodes de détection et d’identification des OGM fiables et sensibles. Les développements se poursuivent, certes bien plus lentement qu’initialement espéré du fait du nombre important de facteurs à maîtriser et du caractère relativement inédit de ce travail. Concernant des matrices alimentaires variées, cette détection se heurte au manque de recul dans plusieurs domaines tels que celui de l’extraction et la purification d’acides nucléiques en quantité et en qualité. Bien que développées pour satisfaire aux besoins réglementaires européens concernant l’alimentation humaine, ces méthodes devraient être aisément applicables dans d’autres domaines concernés par les OGM (étude des transferts de gènes par flux pollinique, éventuels transferts horizontaux, suivi des acides nucléiques lors de l’ingestion.... Au-delà des OGM, les méthodes mises en œuvre devraient présenter un intérêt dans d’autres domaines comme la microbiologie, l’épidémiologie ou l’authentification des composants biologiques d’un produit.

  17. Aux Débuts de la syntaxe structural: Tesnière et la construction d’une syntaxe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Swiggers

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available “…il est parfaitement possible de constituer une syntaxe sur des données purement syntaxiques et en dehors de toute morphologie. Certes, le système proposé (... est loin d'être parfait. Mais on ne saurait le taxer d'arbitraire, prétendre qu'il dépasse la réalité des données, et n'y voir qu'une vue personnelle et subjective de son auteur (... Pour être plus abstraits et plus difficiles à saisir que Jes faits morphologiques, Jes faits syntaxiques n'en ont pas moins une réalité objective. Et ceux qui voudront Jes étudier pour édifier la syntaxe qui nous manque encore peuvent être en tout cas assurés de construire sur un terrain solide" (Lucien Tesniere, "Comment construire une syntaxe''., p. 229. Le projet tesniérien d'une syntaxe structurale - aboutissant aux Élements de syntaxe structurale (1959, deuxieme ed. 1966, ouvrage posthume - a sa propre histoire. Une histoire qui la rattache d'ailleurs à un courant de pensee international, qui se manifeste dans l'reuvre de Bally,2 Jespersen,3 Sapir,4 Brunot,5 Brøndal 6 et Hjelmslev,7 et qui s'articule autour de la problématique des classes de mots. En fait, ce courant de pensée se présente en premier lieu comme une critique du système des parties du discours: celles-ci ne sont guère des composantes du discours, au sens où elles constitueraient les bases constructives du discours, mais elles sont en fait des parties du système de la langue. Il importe done de franchir le pas, à partir d'elles, vers l'organisation de la phrase.

  18. Le projet Petits Films : du retour aux participants à la valorisation des données

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piccoli Vanessa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available En 2014, au sein du laboratoire ICAR (équipe InSitu / Cellule Corpus Complexe un projet appelé “Petits Films” a été conduit avec une double finalité : confectionner des petits films à partir de trois différents corpus et parallèlement mener une réflexion sur les modalités de réalisation, les finalités et les contraintes de ce type de réalisation. On considère que dans le domaine de l’analyse conversationnelle, dans lequel les chercheurs recourent de plus en plus à des corpus de données vidéo, la réalisation d’un petit film peut représenter non seulement un retour pour les participants, mais aussi un moyen de valorisation du corpus, d’un type d’approche en linguistique et plus largement de l’activité du laboratoire de recherche. Grâce à leur forme agréable et à leur courte durée, les petits films sont conçus pour la diffusion et la valorisation des méthodologies et des recherches, ils sont accessibles pour un large public, même de non-experts. Cependant, il est nécessaire de réfléchir aux questions juridiques et déontologiques que soulève cette opération.

  19. Comprehensive genome-wide analysis of the Aux/IAA gene family in Eucalyptus: evidence for the role of EgrIAA4 in wood formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hong; Soler, Marçal; San Clemente, Hélène; Mila, Isabelle; Paiva, Jorge A P; Myburg, Alexander A; Bouzayen, Mondher; Grima-Pettenati, Jacqueline; Cassan-Wang, Hua

    2015-04-01

    Auxin plays a pivotal role in various plant growth and development processes, including vascular differentiation. The modulation of auxin responsiveness through the auxin perception and signaling machinery is believed to be a major regulatory mechanism controlling cambium activity and wood formation. To gain more insights into the roles of key Aux/IAA gene regulators of the auxin response in these processes, we identified and characterized members of the Aux/IAA family in the genome of Eucalyptus grandis, a tree of worldwide economic importance. We found that the gene family in Eucalyptus is slightly smaller than that in Populus and Arabidopsis, but all phylogenetic groups are represented. High-throughput expression profiling of different organs and tissues highlighted several Aux/IAA genes expressed in vascular cambium and/or developing xylem, some showing differential expression in response to developmental (juvenile vs. mature) and/or to environmental (tension stress) cues. Based on the expression profiles, we selected a promising candidate gene, EgrIAA4, for functional characterization. We showed that EgrIAA4 protein is localized in the nucleus and functions as an auxin-responsive repressor. Overexpressing a stabilized version of EgrIAA4 in Arabidopsis dramatically impeded plant growth and fertility and induced auxin-insensitive phenotypes such as inhibition of primary root elongation, lateral root emergence and agravitropism. Interestingly, the lignified secondary walls of the interfascicular fibers appeared very late, whereas those of the xylary fibers were virtually undetectable, suggesting that EgrIAA4 may play crucial roles in fiber development and secondary cell wall deposition. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Un projet de développement forestier au Niger : problèmes d'adaptation des objectifs initiaux aux contraintes de réalisation

    OpenAIRE

    Clément, Jean

    1986-01-01

    Comme tous les pays du Sahel, le Niger est affronté à de graves problèmes de désertification et de déboisement dont les causes sont diverses : sécheresses successives,intensification du paturage provoquée par l'accroissement des troupeaux, consommation accrue de bois de feu... Sur la base d'une population totale de 6 OOO OOO habitants, la consommation de bois de feu peut être estimée à environ 4 OOO OOO m3 qu'il faut comparer aux 3 OOO OOO m3 d'accroissement en volume annuel des peuplements n...

  1. De la production fruitière intégrée à la gestion écologique des vergers aux Antilles

    OpenAIRE

    Lavigne, Claire; Lesueur-Jannoyer, M.; de Lacroix, S.; Chauvet, G.; Lavigne, A.; Dufeal, D.

    2011-01-01

    La forte anthropisation aux Antilles françaises, la pression des monocultures de banane et de canne à sucre, et l'usage immodéré de pesticides, ont abouti à la pollution persistante d'une partie importante des sols de la SAU ainsi que des eaux de rivière et des nappes phréatiques. Si, dans les dix dernières années, la recherche de moyens de lutte biologique contre les insectes a été prioritaire, la lutte contre les adventices continue d'être un problème central pour les arboriculteurs qui ne ...

  2. Cartographie de la vulnérabilité globale d'une population citadine face aux risques naturels: le cas de Manizales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Catherine CHARDON

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Cette méthode cartographique sert à évaluer la vulnérabilité de la population d’une grande ville andine (Manizales, Colombie, exposée aux séismes et à de fréquents glissements de terrain. Sept facteurs naturels et huit facteurs socio-économiques, mesurés à l’échelle du quartier, sont intégrés, avec d’autre facteurs géographiques, dans une carte de vulnérabilité globale.

  3. La participation des personnes utilisatrices aux exercices de planification et d'organisation des services de santé mentale au Québec

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michèle Clément

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Cet article documente la manière dont s'est renouvelé et s'est transformé au fil du temps le projet de faire participer les usagers aux exercices de planification et d'organisation des services de santé mentale au Québec (Canada. Pour ce faire, les auteurs reviennent sur l'ensemble des documents ministériels qui ont traité de cette question et dégage, pour les principaux moment-clés, les principales modalités de participation des usagers.

  4. Le recours aux modeles dans l'enseignement de la biologie au secondaire : Conceptions d'enseignantes et d'enseignants et modes d'utilisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varlet, Madeleine

    Le recours aux modeles et a la modelisation est mentionne dans la documentation scientifique comme un moyen de favoriser la mise en oeuvre de pratiques d'enseignement-apprentissage constructivistes pour pallier les difficultes d'apprentissage en sciences. L'etude prealable du rapport des enseignantes et des enseignants aux modeles et a la modelisation est alors pertinente pour comprendre leurs pratiques d'enseignement et identifier des elements dont la prise en compte dans les formations initiale et disciplinaire peut contribuer au developpement d'un enseignement constructiviste des sciences. Plusieurs recherches ont porte sur ces conceptions sans faire de distinction selon les matieres enseignees, telles la physique, la chimie ou la biologie, alors que les modeles ne sont pas forcement utilises ou compris de la meme maniere dans ces differentes disciplines. Notre recherche s'est interessee aux conceptions d'enseignantes et d'enseignants de biologie au secondaire au sujet des modeles scientifiques, de quelques formes de representations de ces modeles ainsi que de leurs modes d'utilisation en classe. Les resultats, que nous avons obtenus au moyen d'une serie d'entrevues semi-dirigees, indiquent que globalement leurs conceptions au sujet des modeles sont compatibles avec celle scientifiquement admise, mais varient quant aux formes de representations des modeles. L'examen de ces conceptions temoigne d'une connaissance limitee des modeles et variable selon la matiere enseignee. Le niveau d'etudes, la formation prealable, l'experience en enseignement et un possible cloisonnement des matieres pourraient expliquer les differentes conceptions identifiees. En outre, des difficultes temporelles, conceptuelles et techniques peuvent freiner leurs tentatives de modelisation avec les eleves. Toutefois, nos resultats accreditent l'hypothese que les conceptions des enseignantes et des enseignants eux-memes au sujet des modeles, de leurs formes de representation et de leur approche

  5. La chasse aux axions

    CERN Multimedia

    Robilliard, Cécile

    2009-01-01

    Since three years, physicists double efforts to catch an hypothetical particle that would not interact - or little - with the matter. Its detection would resolve a lot of problems in the filed of particle physics and cosmology. (4 pages)

  6. Des Connaissances Aux Politiques

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Les synergies ont été mises en commun au fur et à mesure des progrès de la recherche. .... Recherche normative (sur le rôle et la performance des institutions .... Système national d'information sur la gestion environnementale connecté à 19 ...... Un fort contrôle centralisé sur l'élaboration des politiques nationales peut ...

  7. Atorvastatin ameliorates arsenic-induced hypertension and enhancement of vascular redox signaling in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarath, Thengumpallil Sasindran; Waghe, Prashantkumar; Gupta, Priyanka; Choudhury, Soumen; Kannan, Kandasamy; Pillai, Ayyappan Harikrishna; Harikumar, Sankaran Kutty; Mishra, Santosh Kumar; Sarkar, Souvendra Nath

    2014-01-01

    Chronic arsenic exposure has been linked to elevated blood pressure and cardiovascular diseases, while statins reduce the incidence of cardiovascular disease predominantly by their low density lipoprotein-lowering effect. Besides, statins have other beneficial effects, including antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. We evaluated whether atorvastatin, a widely used statin, can ameliorate arsenic-induced increase in blood pressure and alteration in lipid profile and also whether the amelioration could relate to altered NO and ROS signaling. Rats were exposed to sodium arsenite (100 ppm) through drinking water for 90 consecutive days. Atorvastatin (10 mg/kg bw, orally) was administered once daily during the last 30 days of arsenic exposure. On the 91st day, blood was collected for lipid profile. Western blot of iNOS and eNOS protein, NO and 3-nitrotyrosine production, Nox-4 and p22Phox mRNA expression, Nox activity, ROS generation, lipid peroxidation and antioxidants were evaluated in thoracic aorta. Arsenic increased systolic, diastolic and mean arterial blood pressure, while it decreased HDL-C and increased LDL-C, total cholesterol and triglycerides in serum. Arsenic down-regulated eNOS and up-regulated iNOS protein expression and increased basal NO and 3-nitrotyrosine level. Arsenic increased aortic Nox-4 and p22Phox mRNA expression, Nox activity, ROS generation and lipid peroxidation. Further, arsenic decreased the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase and depleted aortic GSH content. Atorvastatin regularized blood pressure, improved lipid profile and attenuated arsenic-mediated redox alterations. The results demonstrate that atorvastatin has the potential to ameliorate arsenic-induced hypertension by improving lipid profile, aortic NO signaling and restoring vascular redox homeostasis. - Highlights: • Arsenic increased systolic, diastolic and mean arterial blood pressure and caused dyslipidemia. • Arsenic increased

  8. Atorvastatin ameliorates arsenic-induced hypertension and enhancement of vascular redox signaling in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarath, Thengumpallil Sasindran; Waghe, Prashantkumar; Gupta, Priyanka; Choudhury, Soumen; Kannan, Kandasamy [Division of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, 243122 Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh (India); Pillai, Ayyappan Harikrishna [Division of Animal Biochemistry, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, 243122 Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh (India); Harikumar, Sankaran Kutty; Mishra, Santosh Kumar [Division of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, 243122 Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh (India); Sarkar, Souvendra Nath, E-mail: snsarkar1911@rediffmail.com [Division of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, 243122 Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh (India)

    2014-11-01

    Chronic arsenic exposure has been linked to elevated blood pressure and cardiovascular diseases, while statins reduce the incidence of cardiovascular disease predominantly by their low density lipoprotein-lowering effect. Besides, statins have other beneficial effects, including antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. We evaluated whether atorvastatin, a widely used statin, can ameliorate arsenic-induced increase in blood pressure and alteration in lipid profile and also whether the amelioration could relate to altered NO and ROS signaling. Rats were exposed to sodium arsenite (100 ppm) through drinking water for 90 consecutive days. Atorvastatin (10 mg/kg bw, orally) was administered once daily during the last 30 days of arsenic exposure. On the 91st day, blood was collected for lipid profile. Western blot of iNOS and eNOS protein, NO and 3-nitrotyrosine production, Nox-4 and p22Phox mRNA expression, Nox activity, ROS generation, lipid peroxidation and antioxidants were evaluated in thoracic aorta. Arsenic increased systolic, diastolic and mean arterial blood pressure, while it decreased HDL-C and increased LDL-C, total cholesterol and triglycerides in serum. Arsenic down-regulated eNOS and up-regulated iNOS protein expression and increased basal NO and 3-nitrotyrosine level. Arsenic increased aortic Nox-4 and p22Phox mRNA expression, Nox activity, ROS generation and lipid peroxidation. Further, arsenic decreased the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase and depleted aortic GSH content. Atorvastatin regularized blood pressure, improved lipid profile and attenuated arsenic-mediated redox alterations. The results demonstrate that atorvastatin has the potential to ameliorate arsenic-induced hypertension by improving lipid profile, aortic NO signaling and restoring vascular redox homeostasis. - Highlights: • Arsenic increased systolic, diastolic and mean arterial blood pressure and caused dyslipidemia. • Arsenic increased

  9. Silymarin and Nigella sativa extract ameliorate paracetamol induced oxidative stress and renal dysfunction in male mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reham Zakaria Hamza

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the ameliorative role of silymarin or/and Nigella sativa (N. sativa water extract against N-acetyl-p-aminophenol (APAP-induced renal function deterioration in male mice at the biochemical levels. Methods: The mice were divided into seven groups (10/group. The first group was served as control. The second group was treated with dose of APAP. The third and fourth groups were treated with silymarin alone and N. sativa water extract alone, respectively. The fifth and sixth groups were treated with combination of APAP with silymarin and APAP with N. sativa water extract, respectively. The seventh group was treated with a combination of both ameliorative compounds (silymarin and N. sativa water extract with APAP and all animals were treated for a period of 30 days. Results: Exposure to APAP at the treated dose for mice led to an alteration of kidney function parameters, increase in the level of serum urea and creatinine. Also, paracetamol administration induced oxidative stress in kidney homogenates by increasing malondialdhyde level and decreasing superoxide dismutase and catalase activities and this stress was ameliorated by administration of either silymarin or N. sativa water extract. Conclusions: Administration of silymarin or/and N. sativa water extract to APAP-treated mice alleviate the toxicity of APAP, and this appeared clearly by biochemical improvement of kidney function parameters and antioxidant parameters. But, the alleviation is more pronounced with the both antioxidants. Thus, the pronounce effect of silymarin and N. sativa water extract is most effective in reducing the toxicity induced by APAP and improving the kidney function parameters and antioxidant status of kidney of male mice.

  10. Amelioration of Gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane (Lindane induced renal toxicity by Camellia sinensis in Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. L. N. V. Vara Prasad

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: A study to assess the toxic effects of gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane (γ-HCH (lindane and ameliorative effects of Camellia sinensis on renal system has been carried out in male Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Four groups of rats with 18 each were maintained under standard laboratory hygienic conditions and provided feed and water ad libitum. γ-HCH was gavaged at 20 mg/kg b.wt. using olive oil as vehicle to Groups II. C. sinensis at 100 mg/kg b.wt. was administered orally in distilled water to Group IV in addition to γ-HCH 20 mg/kg b.wt. up to 45 days to study ameliorative effects. Groups I and III were treated with distilled water and C. sinensis (100 mg/kg b.wt., respectively. Six rats from each group were sacrificed at fortnight intervals. Serum was collected for creatinine estimation. The kidney tissues were collected in chilled phosphate buffer saline for antioxidant profile and in also 10% buffered formalin for histopathological studies. Results: γ-HCH treatment significantly increased serum creatinine and significantly reduced the renal antioxidative enzymes catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase. Grossly, severe congestion was noticed in the kidneys. Microscopically, kidney revealed glomerular congestion, atrophy, intertubular hemorrhages, degenerative changes in tubular epithelium with vacuolated cytoplasm, desquamation of epithelium and urinary cast formation. A significant reduction in serum creatinine levels, significant improvement in renal antioxidant enzyme activities and near to normal histological appearance of kidneys in Group IV indicated that the green tea ameliorated the effects of γ-HCH, on renal toxicity. Conclusion: This study suggested that C. sinensis extract combined with γ-HCH could enhance antioxidant/detoxification system which consequently reduced the oxidative stress thus potentially reducing γ-HCH toxicity and tissue damage.

  11. Maslinic acid ameliorates NMDA receptor blockade-induced schizophrenia-like behaviors in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Se Jin; Kim, Eunji; Lee, Jin Su; Oh, Hee Kyong; Zhang, Jiabao; Kwon, Yubeen; Jang, Dae Sik; Ryu, Jong Hoon

    2017-11-01

    Schizophrenia is a chronic psychotic disorder characterized by positive, negative, and cognitive symptoms. Primary treatments for schizophrenia relieve the positive symptoms but are less effective against the negative and cognitive symptoms. In the present study, we investigated whether maslinic acid, isolated from Syzygium aromaticum (clove), can ameliorate schizophrenia-like behaviors in mice induced by MK-801, an N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist. After maslinic acid treatment in the MK-801 model, we examined the behavioral alteration and signaling pathways in the prefrontal cortex. Mice were treated with maslinic acid (30 mg/kg), and their behaviors were evaluated through an array of behavioral tests. The effects of maslinic acid were also examined in the signaling pathways in the prefrontal cortex. A single administration of maslinic acid blocked the MK-801-induced hyperlocomotion and reversed the MK-801-induced sensorimotor gating deficit in the acoustic startle response test. In the social novelty preference test, maslinic acid ameliorated the social behavior deficits induced by MK-801. The MK-801-induced attention and recognition memory impairments were also alleviated by a single administration of maslinic acid. Furthermore, maslinic acid normalized the phosphorylation levels of Akt-GSK-3β and ERK-CREB in the prefrontal cortex. Overall, maslinic acid ameliorated the schizophrenia-like symptoms induced by MK-801, and these effects may be partly mediated through Akt-GSK-3β and ERK-CREB activation. These findings suggest that maslinic acid could be a candidate for the treatment of several symptoms of schizophrenia, including positive symptoms, sensorimotor gating disruption, social interaction deficits, and cognitive impairments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. CD44 antibodies and immune thrombocytopenia in the amelioration of murine inflammatory arthritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick J Mott

    Full Text Available Antibodies to CD44 have been used to successfully ameliorate murine models of autoimmune disease. The most often studied disease model has been murine inflammatory arthritis, where a clear mechanism for the efficacy of CD44 antibodies has not been established. We have recently shown in a murine passive-model of the autoimmune disease immune thrombocytopenia (ITP that some CD44 antibodies themselves can induce thrombocytopenia in mice, and the CD44 antibody causing the most severe thrombocytopenia (IM7, also is known to be highly effective in ameliorating murine models of arthritis. Recent work in the K/BxN serum-induced model of arthritis demonstrated that antibody-induced thrombocytopenia reduced arthritis, causing us to question whether CD44 antibodies might primarily ameliorate arthritis through their thrombocytopenic effect. We evaluated IM7, IRAWB14.4, 5035-41.1D, KM201, KM114, and KM81, and found that while all could induce thrombocytopenia, the degree of protection against serum-induced arthritis was not closely related to the length or severity of the thrombocytopenia. CD44 antibody treatment was also able to reverse established inflammation, while thrombocytopenia induced by an anti-platelet antibody targeting the GPIIbIIIa platelet antigen, could not mediate this effect. While CD44 antibody-induced thrombocytopenia may contribute to some of its therapeutic effect against the initiation of arthritis, for established disease there are likely other mechanisms contributing to its efficacy. Humans are not known to express CD44 on platelets, and are therefore unlikely to develop thrombocytopenia after CD44 antibody treatment. An understanding of the relationship between arthritis, thrombocytopenia, and CD44 antibody treatment remains critical for continued development of CD44 antibody therapeutics.

  13. Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells ameliorate mice trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Lu; Dong, Chunlan; Chen, Xiaojun; Fang, Zhihong; Xu, Jie; Liu, Meng; Zhang, Xiaoguang; Gu, Dong Sheng; Wang, Ding; Du, Weiting; Zhu, Delin; Han, Zhong Chao

    2011-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which are poorly immunogenic and have potent immunosuppressive activities, have emerged as a promising candidate for cellular therapeutics for the treatment of disorders caused by abnormal immune responses. In this study we investigated whether human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUC-MSCs) could ameliorate colitis in a trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis model. TNBS-treated colitic mice were infused with hUC-MSCs or vehicle control. The mice were sacrificed on day 1, 3, and 5 after infusion, and their clinical and pathological conditions were evaluated by body weight, colon length, and histological analysis. The expression levels of proinflammatory cytokine proteins in colon were examined by ELISA. The homing of hUC-MSCs was studied by live in vivo imaging and immunofluorescent microscopy. hUC-MSCs were found to migrate to the inflamed colon and effectively treated the colitic mice with improved clinical and pathological signs. The levels of IL-17 and IL-23 as well as IFN-γ and IL-6 were significantly lower in the colon tissues of the hUC-MSC-treated mice in comparison with the vehicle-treated mice. Coculture experiments showed that hUC-MSCs not only could inhibit IFN-γ expression but also significantly inhibit IL-17 production by lamina propria mononuclear cells (LPMCs) or splenocytes of the colitic mice or by those isolated from normal animals and stimulated with IL-23. Systemically infused hUC-MSCs could home to the inflamed colon and effectively ameliorate colitis. In addition to the known suppressive effects on Th1-type immune responses, hUC-MSC-mediated modulation of IL-23/IL-17 regulated inflammatory reactions also plays an important role in the amelioration of colitis.

  14. Melatonin ameliorates myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury through SIRT3-dependent regulation of oxidative stress and apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Mengen; Li, Buying; Duan, Weixun; Jing, Lin; Zhang, Bin; Zhang, Meng; Yu, Liming; Liu, Zhenhua; Yu, Bo; Ren, Kai; Gao, Erhe; Yang, Yang; Liang, Hongliang; Jin, Zhenxiao; Yu, Shiqiang

    2017-09-01

    Sirtuins are a family of highly evolutionarily conserved nicotinamide adenine nucleotide-dependent histone deacetylases. Sirtuin-3 (SIRT3) is a member of the sirtuin family that is localized primarily to the mitochondria and protects against oxidative stress-related diseases, including myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (MI/R) injury. Melatonin has a favorable effect in ameliorating MI/R injury. We hypothesized that melatonin protects against MI/R injury by activating the SIRT3 signaling pathway. In this study, mice were pretreated with or without a selective SIRT3 inhibitor and then subjected to MI/R operation. Melatonin was administered intraperitoneally (20 mg/kg) 10 minutes before reperfusion. Melatonin treatment improved postischemic cardiac contractile function, decreased infarct size, diminished lactate dehydrogenase release, reduced the apoptotic index, and ameliorated oxidative damage. Notably, MI/R induced a significant decrease in myocardial SIRT3 expression and activity, whereas the melatonin treatment upregulated SIRT3 expression and activity, and thus decreased the acetylation of superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2). In addition, melatonin increased Bcl-2 expression and decreased Bax, Caspase-3, and cleaved Caspase-3 levels in response to MI/R. However, the cardioprotective effects of melatonin were largely abolished by the selective SIRT3 inhibitor 3-(1H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)pyridine (3-TYP), suggesting that SIRT3 plays an essential role in mediating the cardioprotective effects of melatonin. In vitro studies confirmed that melatonin also protected H9c2 cells against simulated ischemia/reperfusion injury (SIR) by attenuating oxidative stress and apoptosis, while SIRT3-targeted siRNA diminished these effects. Taken together, our results demonstrate for the first time that melatonin treatment ameliorates MI/R injury by reducing oxidative stress and apoptosis via activating the SIRT3 signaling pathway. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons

  15. Exercise Ameliorates High Fat Diet Induced Cardiac Dysfunction by Increasing Interleukin 10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varun eKesherwani

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence suggests that a sedentary lifestyle and a high fat diet (HFD leads to cardiomyopathy. Moderate exercise ameliorates cardiac dysfunction, however underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. Increased inflammation due to induction of pro-inflammatory cytokine such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α and attenuation of anti-inflammatory cytokine such as interleukin10 (IL-10 contributes to cardiac dysfunction in obese and diabetics. We hypothesized that exercise training ameliorates HFD- induced cardiac dysfunction by mitigating obesity and inflammation through upregulation of IL-10 and downregulation of TNF-α. To test this hypothesis, eight week old, female C57BL/6J mice were fed with HFD and exercised (swimming 1hr/day for 5 days/week for eight weeks. The four treatment groups: normal diet (ND, HFD, HFD + exercise (HFD + Ex and ND + Ex were analyzed for mean body weight, blood glucose level, TNF-α, IL-10, cardiac fibrosis by Masson Trichrome, and cardiac dysfunction by echocardiography. Mean body weights were increased in HFD but comparatively less in HFD + Ex. The level of TNF-α was elevated and IL-10 was downregulated in HFD but ameliorated in HFD + Ex. Cardiac fibrosis increased in HFD and was attenuated by exercise in the HFD + Ex group. The percentage ejection fraction and fractional shortening were decreased in HFD but comparatively increased in HFD + Ex. There was no difference between ND and ND + Ex for the above parameters except an increase in IL-10 level following exercise. Based on these results, we conclude that exercise mitigates HFD- induced cardiomyopathy by decreasing obesity, inducing IL-10, and reducing TNF-α in mice.

  16. [Amelioration of secondary bare alkali-saline patches in Songnen Plain through inserting cornstalk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Nianpeng; Wu, Ling; Jiang, Shicheng; Zhou, Daowei

    2004-06-01

    Based on the field experiment on Songnen grassland, a new method was established to ameliorate the secondary bare alkali-saline patches (SAP) through inserting cornstalk. The experiment was rested on the assumption that through inserting cornstalk in the secondary bare alkali-saline patches (SAP) to retain seeds moving over its surface, the necessary seed source could be gained; and these seeds should be able to germinate and survive successfully on the cornstalk itself or in its neighborhood, where should be more fit to grow than other sites in SAP, due to the decomposition of cornstalk and its special role, so that, the aim to restore vegetation of SAP could be achieved at a pretty low cost and rapid speed. The results showed that the seed bank in soil was increased significantly, owing to the inserted cornstalk and its operating processes. The seed number in ameliorated soil was 4020.0 +/- 1773.6 seeds x m(-2), while that in the secondary bare alkali-saline patches (SAP) was only 10.0 +/- 31.6 seeds x m(-2). Although the soil chemical and physical characters in ameliorated zone were improved to some extent, the overall situation of soil was still bad for plant growth, as the pH, soluble saline ion and organic matter were concerned. Most of Chloris virgata grew around or on the cornstalk, the plants around each cornstalk being 3.9 +/- 2.2, and the total being 48.64 +/- 38.72 g x m(-2). Therefore, this method demanded a few resources, and needed simple technology and low cost, which is potentially deserved to popularize.

  17. Resveratrol ameliorates mitochondrial dysfunction but increases the risk of hypoglycemia following hemorrhagic shock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Widlund, Anne Lykkegaard; Wang, H.; Guan, Y.

    2014-01-01

    for glucose, insulin, corticosterone, total glucagon-like peptide (GLP-1), glucagon, and serum cytokine levels. The Homeostatic Model AssessmentYInsulin Resistance index was used to quantify insulin resistance. Results: RSV supplementation following HS significantly improved mitochondrial function...... resuscitation would ameliorate HS-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and improve hyperglycemia following acute blood loss. Methods: With the use a decompensated HS model, male Long-Evans rats (n = 6 per group) were resuscitated with lactated Ringer's solution with or without RSV (30 mg/kg) and were killed before.......2 mg/dL vs. 359.0 ± 79.5 mg/dL, p Model...

  18. Curcumin ameliorates skeletal muscle atrophy in type 1 diabetic mice by inhibiting protein ubiquitination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Taisuke; Takada, Shingo; Kinugawa, Shintaro; Tsutsui, Hiroyuki

    2015-09-01

    What is the central question of this study? We sought to examine whether curcumin could ameliorate skeletal muscle atrophy in diabetic mice by inhibiting protein ubiquitination, inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress. What is the main finding and its importance? We found that curcumin ameliorated skeletal muscle atrophy in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice by inhibiting protein ubiquitination without affecting protein synthesis. This favourable effect of curcumin was possibly due to the inhibition of inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress. Curcumin may be beneficial for the treatment of muscle atrophy in type 1 diabetes mellitus. Skeletal muscle atrophy develops in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM), especially in type 1 DM, which is associated with chronic inflammation. Curcumin, the active ingredient of turmeric, has various biological actions, including anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. We hypothesized that curcumin could ameliorate skeletal muscle atrophy in mice with streptozotocin-induced type 1 DM. C57BL/6 J mice were injected with streptozotocin (200 mg kg(-1) i.p.; DM group) or vehicle (control group). Each group of mice was randomly subdivided into two groups of 10 mice each and fed a diet with or without curcumin (1500 mg kg(-1) day(-1)) for 2 weeks. There were significant decreases in body weight, skeletal muscle weight and cellular cross-sectional area of the skeletal muscle in DM mice compared with control mice, and these changes were significantly attenuated in DM+Curcumin mice without affecting plasma glucose and insulin concentrations. Ubiquitination of protein was increased in skeletal muscle from DM mice and decreased in DM+Curcumin mice. Gene expressions of muscle-specific ubiquitin E3 ligase atrogin-1/MAFbx and MuRF1 were increased in DM and inhibited in DM+Curcumin mice. Moreover, nuclear factor-κB activation, concentrations of the inflammatory cytokines tumour necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β and oxidative

  19. Ameliorating Hemorheology by Direct Hemoperfusion with a Polymyxin B-immobilized Adsorbent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yuan; Wang Xiang; Gao Wei; Cai Shaoxi

    2004-01-01

    Direct hemoperfusion (DHP) with an adsorbent column using polymyxin B-immobilized polystyrene beads has been used to investigate the changes of hemorheology in rabbits with endotoxemia. We measured whole blood viscosity and hemotocrit before and after DHP with polymyxin B-immobilized polystyrene beads. Reduction in blood endotoxin concentration by DHP therapy positively correlated with improvement in hemorheological indexs. Our findings indicate that the amelioration in hemorheology was related directly to endotoxin removal by the adsorbent column with polymyxin B-immobilize polystyrene beads. So DHP with polymyxin B-immobilized polystyrene beads seems to be an important therapeutic strategy for endotoxemia.

  20. Amelioration of soil PAH and heavy metals by combined application of fly ash and biochar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masto, Reginald; George, Joshy; Ansari, Md; Ram, Lal

    2016-04-01

    Generation of electricity through coal combustion produces huge quantities of fly ash. Sustainable disposal and utilization of these fly ash is a major challenge. Fly ash along with other amendments like biochar could be used for amelioration of soil. In this study, fly ash and biochar were used together for amelioration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contaminated soil. Field experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of fly ash and biochar on the amelioration of soil PAH, and the yield of Zea mays. The treatments were control, biochar (4 t/ha), fly ash (4 t/ha), ash + biochar ( 2 + 2 t/ha). Soil samples were collected after the harvest of maize crop and analysed for chemical and biological parameters. Thirteen PAHs were analysed in the postharvest soil samples. Soil PAHs were extracted in a microwave oven at 120 °C using hexane : acetone (1:1) mixture. The extracted solutions were concentrated, cleaned and the 13 PAHs [Acenaphthene (Ace), fluorene (Flr), phenanthrene (Phn), anthracene(Ant), pyrene(Pyr), benz(a)anthracene (BaA), chrysene (Chy), benzo(b)fluoranthene (BbF), benzo(k)fluoranthene (BkF), benzo(a)pyrene, benzo(g,h,i)perylene (BghiP), dibenzo(a,h)anthracene, and indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene)(Inp)] were analysed using GC-MS. The mean pH increased from 6.09 in control to 6.64 and 6.58 at biochar and fly ash treated soils, respectively. N content was not affected, whereas addition of biochar alone and in combination with fly ash, has significantly increased the soil organic carbon content. P content was almost double in combined (9.06 mg/kg) treatment as compared to control (4.32 mg/kg). The increase in K due to biochar was 118%, whereas char + ash increased soil K by 64%. Soil heavy metals were decreased: Zn (-48.4%), Ni (-41.4%), Co (-36.9%), Cu (-35.7%), Mn (-34.3%), Cd (-33.2%), and Pb (-30.4%). Soil dehydrogenase activity was significantly increased by ash and biochar treatments and the maximum activity was observed for the combined

  1. Détermination de quelques paramètres hématologiques chez les agriculteurs exposés aux pesticides dans la région de Tlemcen

    OpenAIRE

    SAIDI, Fatima Zohra

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Les pesticides représentent une large gamme de produits utilisés de façon très variable. Les agriculteurs sont aujourd'hui le groupe le plus exposé aux risques de contact avec les pesticides. L'objectif de notre travail consiste à mettre en évidence les altérations hématologiques chez les hommes agriculteurs disposés aux pesticides comparés aux hommes témoins. Un prélèvement sanguin est réalisé afin de déterminer quelques paramètres hématologiques (FNS, numérations cellu...

  2. Ameliorative Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Artocarpus heterophyllus Stem Bark on Alloxan-induced Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajiboye, Basiru Olaitan; Adeleke Ojo, Oluwafemi; Adeyonu, Oluwatosin; Imiere, Oluwatosin; Emmanuel Oyinloye, Babatunji; Ogunmodede, Oluwafemi

    2018-03-01

    Purpose: Diabetes mellitus is one of the major endocrine disorders, characterized by impaired insulin action and deficiency. Traditionally, Artocarpus heterophyllus stem bark has been reputably used in the management of diabetes mellitus and its complications. The present study evaluates the ameliorative activity of ethanol extract of Artocarpus heterophyllus stem bark in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Methods: Diabetes mellitus was induced by single intraperitoneal injection of 150 mg/kg body weight of alloxan and the animals were orally administered with 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg body weight ethanol extract of Artocarpus heterophyllus stem bark once daily for 21 days. Results: At the end of the intervention, diabetic control rats showed significant (pArtocarpus heterophyllus stem bark most especially at 150 mg/kg body weight which exhibited no significant (p>0.05) different with non-diabetic rats. Conclusion: The results suggest that ethanol extract of Artocarpus heterophyllus stem bark may be useful in ameliorating complications associated with diabetes mellitus patients.

  3. Pathological Effects of Aflatoxin and Their Amelioration by Vitamin E in White Leghorn Layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wajid A Khan, M Zargham Khan*, Ahrar Khan and Iftikhar Hussain1

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available White Leghorn layer breeder hens, 30 weeks of age, were divided into 12 groups (A-L. Group A was kept on basal feed and served as control, while group B was offered feed supplemented with vitamin E (100 mg/Kg. Groups C-G were offered feed containing 100, 500, 2,500, 5,000 and 10,000 µg/Kg aflatoxin B1 (AFB1, respectively, whereas groups H-L were offered same dietary levels of AFB1 along with vitamin E (100 mg/Kg. The experimental feeds were offered for three weeks and afterward all the groups were switched over to basal feed for next two weeks. Body weight, absolute and relative weights of liver and kidneys of AF fed birds were significantly higher than control group. Pathological lesions in aflatoxin (AF fed birds included enlarged, pale and friable liver, swollen kidneys and hemorrhages on different organs. Histopathological lesions in liver included fatty change, congestion and hemorrhages, while in kidneys tubular necrosis, cellular infiltration, congestion and hemorrhages were found in groups fed AFB1 at 500 μg/Kg and higher doses. In AF fed hens, no significant ameliorative effects of vitamin E could be observed upon AF induced decrease in feed intake, gross pathology and histopathological alterations and organ weight except body weights. It was concluded that the vitamin E ameliorated the AFB1 induced toxic effects in some of parameters studied.

  4. STAT6 deficiency ameliorates Graves' disease severity by suppressing thyroid epithelial cell hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xuechao; Zha, Bingbing; Liu, Xiaoming; Liu, Ronghua; Liu, Jun; Huang, Enyu; Qian, Tingting; Liu, Jiajing; Wang, Zhiming; Zhang, Dan; Wang, Luman; Chu, Yiwei

    2016-12-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (STAT6) is involved in epithelial cell growth. However, little is known regarding the STAT6 phosphorylation status in Graves' disease (GD) and its role in thyroid epithelial cells (TECs). In this study, we found that STAT6 phosphorylation (p-STAT6) was significantly increased in TECs from both GD patients and experimental autoimmune Graves' disease mice and that STAT6 deficiency ameliorated GD symptoms. Autocrine IL-4 signalling in TECs activated the phosphorylation of STAT6 via IL-4 R engagement, and the downstream targets of STAT6 were Bcl-xL and cyclin D1. Thus, the IL-4-STAT6-Bcl-xL/cyclin D1 pathway is crucial for TEC hyperplasia, which aggravates GD. More importantly, in vitro and in vivo experiments demonstrated that STAT6 phosphorylation inhibited by AS1517499 decreased TEC hyperplasia, thereby reducing serum T3 and T4 and ameliorating GD. Thus, our study reveals that in addition to the traditional pathogenesis of GD, in which autoantibody TRAb stimulates thyroid-stimulating hormone receptors and consequently produces T3, T4, TRAb could also trigger TECs producing IL-4, and IL-4 then acts in an autocrine manner to activate p-STAT6 signalling and stimulate unrestricted cell growth, thus aggravating GD. These findings suggest that STAT6 inhibitors could be potent therapeutics for treating GD.

  5. Ameliorative potential of Ocimum sanctum in chronic constriction injury-induced neuropathic pain in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GURPREET KAUR

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to investigate the ameliorative potential of Ocimumsanctum and its saponin rich fraction in chronic constriction injury-induced neuropathic pain in rats. The chronic constriction injury was induced by placing four loose ligatures around the sciatic nerve, proximal to its trifurcation. The mechanical hyperalgesia, cold allodynia, paw heat hyperalgesia and cold tail hyperalgesia were assessed by performing the pinprick, acetone, hot plate and cold tail immersion tests, respectively. Biochemically, the tissue thio-barbituric acid reactive species, super-oxide anion content (markers of oxidative stress and total calcium levels were measured. Chronic constriction injury was associated with the development of mechanical hyperalgesia, cold allodynia, heat and cold hyperalgesia along with an increase in oxidative stress and calcium levels. However, administration of Ocimumsanctum (100 and 200 mg/kg p.o. and its saponin rich fraction (100 and 200 mg/kg p.o. for 14 days significantly attenuated chronic constriction injury-induced neuropathic pain as well as decrease the oxidative stress and calcium levels. It may be concluded that saponin rich fraction of Ocimum sanctum has ameliorative potential in attenuating painful neuropathic state, which may be attributed to a decrease in oxidative stress and calcium levels.

  6. Mangiferin ameliorates insulin resistance by inhibiting inflammation and regulatiing adipokine expression in adipocytes under hypoxic condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chao-Qiang; Xu, Jing-Hua; Yan, Dan-Dan; Liu, Bao-Lin; Liu, Kang; Huang, Fang

    2017-09-01

    Adipose tissue hypoxia has been recognized as the initiation of insulin resistance syndromes. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of mangiferin on the insulin signaling pathway and explore whether mangiferin could ameliorate insulin resistance caused by hypoxia in adipose tissue. Differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes were incubated under normal and hypoxic conditions, respectively. Protein expressions were analyzed by Western blotting. Inflammatory cytokines and HIF-1-dependent genes were tested by ELISA and q-PCR, respectively. The glucose uptake was detected by fluorescence microscopy. HIF-1α was abundantly expressed during 8 h of hypoxic incubation. Inflammatory reaction was activated by up-regulated NF-κB phosphorylation and released cytokines like IL-6 and TNF-α. Glucose uptake was inhibited and insulin signaling pathway was damaged as well. Mangiferin substantially inhibited the expression of HIF-1α. Lactate acid and lipolysis, products released by glycometabolism and lipolysis, were also inhibited. The expression of inflammatory cytokines was significantly reduced and the damaged insulin signaling pathway was restored to proper functional level. The glucose uptake of hypoxic adipocytes was promoted and the dysfunction of adipocytes was relieved. These results showed that mangiferin could not only improve the damaged insulin signaling pathway in hypoxic adipocytes, but also ameliorate inflammatory reaction and insulin resistance caused by hypoxia. Copyright © 2017 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Plumbagin, a vitamin K3 analogue ameliorate malaria pathogenesis by inhibiting oxidative stress and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Amit Chand; Mohanty, Shilpa; Saxena, Archana; Maurya, Anil Kumar; Bawankule, Dnyaneshwar U

    2018-03-22

    Plumbagin, a vitamin K3 analogue is the major active constituent in several plants including root of Plumbago indica Linn. This compound has been shown to exhibit a wide spectrum of pharmacological activities. The present investigation was to evaluate the ameliorative effects of plumbagin (PL) against severe malaria pathogenesis due to involvement of oxidative stress and inflammatory response in Plasmodium berghei infected malaria in mice. Malaria pathogenesis was induced by intra-peritoneal injection of P. berghei infected red blood cells into the Swiss albino mice. PL was administered orally at doses of 3, 10 and 30 mg/kg/day following Peter's 4 day suppression test. Oral administration of PL showed significant reduction of parasitaemia and increase in mean survival time. PL treatment is also attributed to significant increase in the blood glucose and haemoglobin level when compared with vehicle-treated infected mice. Significant inhibition in level of oxidative stress and pro-inflammation related markers were observed in PL treated group. The trend of inhibition in oxidative stress markers level after oral treatment of PL was MPO > LPO > ROS in organ injury in P. berghei infected mice. This study showed that plumbagin is able to ameliorate malaria pathogenesis by augmenting anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory mechanism apart from its effect on reducing parasitaemia and increasing mean survival time of malaria-induced mice.

  8. Rikkunshito Ameliorates Cancer Cachexia Partly through Elevation of Glucarate in Plasma

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    Katsuya Ohbuchi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer cachexia, which is characterized by decreased food intake, weight loss and systemic inflammation, increases patient’s morbidity and mortality. We previously showed that rikkunshito (RKT, a Japanese traditional herbal medicine (Kampo, ameliorated the symptoms of cancer cachexia through ghrelin signaling-dependent and independent pathways. To investigate other mechanisms of RKT action in cancer cachexia, we performed metabolome analysis of plasma in a rat model bearing the Yoshida AH-130 hepatoma. A total of 110 metabolites were detected in plasma and RKT treatment significantly altered levels of 23 of those metabolites in cachexia model rats. Among them, glucarate, which is known to have anticarcinogenic activity through detoxification of carcinogens via inhibition of β-glucuronidase, was increased in plasma following administration of RKT. In our AH-130 ascites-induced cachexia rat model, administration of glucarate delayed onset of weight loss, improved muscle atrophy, and reduced ascites content. Additionally, glucarate reduced levels of plasma interferon-γ (IFN-γ in tumor-bearing rats and was also found to suppress LPS-induced IFN-γ expression in splenocytes in vitro. These results suggest that glucarate has anti-inflammatory activity via a direct effect on immune host cells and suggest that RKT may also ameliorate inflammation partly through the elevation of glucarate in plasma.

  9. Rasagiline ameliorates olfactory deficits in an alpha-synuclein mouse model of Parkinson's disease.

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    Géraldine H Petit

    Full Text Available Impaired olfaction is an early pre-motor symptom of Parkinson's disease. The neuropathology underlying olfactory dysfunction in Parkinson's disease is unknown, however α-synuclein accumulation/aggregation and altered neurogenesis might play a role. We characterized olfactory deficits in a transgenic mouse model of Parkinson's disease expressing human wild-type α-synuclein under the control of the mouse α-synuclein promoter. Preliminary clinical observations suggest that rasagiline, a monoamine oxidase-B inhibitor, improves olfaction in Parkinson's disease. We therefore examined whether rasagiline ameliorates olfactory deficits in this Parkinson's disease model and investigated the role of olfactory bulb neurogenesis. α-Synuclein mice were progressively impaired in their ability to detect odors, to discriminate between odors, and exhibited alterations in short-term olfactory memory. Rasagiline treatment rescued odor detection and odor discrimination abilities. However, rasagiline did not affect short-term olfactory memory. Finally, olfactory changes were not coupled to alterations in olfactory bulb neurogenesis. We conclude that rasagiline reverses select olfactory deficits in a transgenic mouse model of Parkinson's disease. The findings correlate with preliminary clinical observations suggesting that rasagiline ameliorates olfactory deficits in Parkinson's disease.

  10. Conjugated linoleic acid ameliorates inflammation-induced colorectal cancer in mice through activation of PPARgamma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Nicholas P; Misyak, Sarah A; Schmelz, Eva M; Guri, Amir J; Hontecillas, Raquel; Bassaganya-Riera, Josep

    2010-03-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) exerts a protective effect on experimental inflammatory bowel disease and shows promise as a chemopreventive agent against colorectal cancer (CRC) in mice, although the mechanisms by which it exerts its beneficial effects against malignancies in the gut are not completely understood. Mice lacking PPARgamma in immune and epithelial cells and PPARgamma-expressing littermates were fed either control or CLA-supplemented (1 g CLA/100 g) diets to determine the role of PPARgamma in inflammation-induced CRC. To induce tumor formation and colitis, mice were treated with azoxymethane and then challenged with 2% dextran sodium sulfate, respectively. Dietary CLA ameliorated disease activity, decreased colitis, and prevented adenocarcinoma formation in the PPARgamma-expressing floxed mice but not in the tissue-specific PPARgamma-null mice. Dietary CLA supplementation significantly decreased the percentages of macrophages in the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) regardless of the genotype and increased regulatory T cell numbers in MLN of PPARgamma-expressing, but not in the tissue-specific, PPARgamma-null mice. Colonic tumor necrosis factor-alpha mRNA expression was significantly suppressed in CLA-fed, PPARgamma-expressing mice. This study suggests CLA ameliorates colitis and prevents tumor formation in part through a PPARgamma-dependent mechanism.

  11. Mesenchymal stem cells ameliorate the histopathological changes in a murine model of chronic asthma.

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    Firinci, Fatih; Karaman, Meral; Baran, Yusuf; Bagriyanik, Alper; Ayyildiz, Zeynep Arikan; Kiray, Muge; Kozanoglu, Ilknur; Yilmaz, Osman; Uzuner, Nevin; Karaman, Ozkan

    2011-08-01

    Asthma therapies are effective in reducing inflammation but airway remodeling is poorly responsive to these agents. New therapeutic options that have fewer side effects and reverse chronic changes in the lungs are essential. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are promising for the development of novel therapies in regenerative medicine. This study aimed to examine the efficacy of MSCs on lung histopathology in a murine model of chronic asthma. BALB/c mice were divided into four groups: Group 1 (control group, n=6), Group 2 (ovalbumin induced asthma only, n=10), Group 3 (ovalbumin induced asthma + MSCs, n=10), and Group 4 (MSCs only, n=10). Histological findings (basement membrane, epithelium, subepithelial smooth muscle thickness, numbers of goblet and mast cells) of the airways and MSC migration were evaluated by light, electron, and confocal microscopes. In Group 3, all early histopathological changes except epithelial thickness and all of the chronic changes were significantly ameliorated when compared with Group 2. Evaluation with confocal microscopy showed that no noteworthy amount of MSCs were present in the lung tissues of Group 4 while significant amount of MSCs was detected in Group 3. Serum NO levels in Group 3, were significantly lower than Group 2. The results of this study revealed that MSCs migrated to lung tissue and ameliorated bronchial asthma in murine model. Further studies are needed to evaluate the efficacy of MSCs for the treatment of asthma. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy ameliorates acute brain injury after porcine intracerebral hemorrhage at high altitude.

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    Zhu, Hai-tao; Bian, Chen; Yuan, Ji-chao; Liao, Xiao-jun; Liu, Wei; Zhu, Gang; Feng, Hua; Lin, Jiang-kai

    2015-06-15

    Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) at high altitude is not well understood to date. This study investigates the effects of high altitude on ICH, and examines the acute neuroprotection of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy against high-altitude ICH. Minipigs were placed in a hypobaric chamber for 72 h before the operation. ICH was induced by an infusion of autologous arterial blood (3 ml) into the right basal ganglia. Animals in the high-altitude ICH group received HBO therapy (2.5 ATA for 60 min) 30 min after ICH. Blood gas, blood glucose and brain tissue oxygen partial pressure (PbtO2) were monitored continuously for animals from all groups, as were microdialysis products including glucose, lactate, pyruvate and glutamate in perihematomal tissue from 3 to 12 h post-ICH. High-altitude ICH animals showed significantly lower PbtO2, higher lactate/pyruvate ratio (LPR) and glutamate levels than low-altitude ICH animals. More severe neurological deficits, brain edema and neuronal damage were also observed in high-altitude ICH. After HBO therapy, PbtO2 was significantly increased and LPR and glutamate levels were significantly decreased. Brain edema, neurological deficits and neuronal damage were also ameliorated. The data suggested a more serious disturbance of tissue oxygenation and cerebral metabolism in the acute stage after ICH at high altitude. Early HBO treatment reduced acute brain injury, perhaps through a mechanism involving the amelioration of the derangement of cerebral oxygenation and metabolism following high-altitude ICH.

  13. Oroxylin A, but Not Vasopressin, Ameliorates Cardiac Dysfunction of Endotoxemic Rats

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    Chin-Hung Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The mortality in septic patients with myocardial dysfunction is higher than those without it. Beneficial effects of flavonoid oroxylin A (Oro-A on endotoxemic hearts were evaluated and compared with that of arginine vasopressin (AVP which is used to reverse hypotension in septic patients. Endotoxemia in rats was induced by one-injection of lipopolysaccharides (LPS, 10 mg/kg, i.p., and hearts were isolated 5-hrs or 16-hrs later. Isolated hearts with constant-pressure or constant-flow mode were examined by Langendorff technique. Rate and force of contractions of isolated atrial and ventricular strips were examined by tissue myography. Isolated endotoxemic hearts were characterized by decreased or increased coronary flow (CF in LPS-treated-for-5hr and LPS-treated-for-16-hr groups, respectively, with decreased inotropy in both groups. Oro-A-perfusion ameliorated while AVP-perfusion worsened the decreased CF and inotropy in both preparations. Oro-A and AVP, however, did not affect diminished force or rate of contraction of atrial and ventricular strips of endotoxemic hearts. Oro-A-induced CF increase was not affected following coronary endothelium-denudation with saponin. These results suggest that Oro-A ameliorates LPS-depressed cardiac functions by increasing CF, leading to positive inotropy. In contrast, AVP aggravates cardiac dysfunction by decreasing CF. Oro-A is a potentially useful candidate for treating endotoxemia complicated with myocardial dysfunction.

  14. Milrinone ameliorates cardiac mechanical dysfunction after hypothermia in an intact rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrichs, Erik Sveberg; Kondratiev, Timofei; Tveita, Torkjel

    2014-12-01

    Rewarming from hypothermia is often complicated by cardiac dysfunction, characterized by substantial reduction in stroke volume. Previously we have reported that inotropic agents, working via cardiac β-receptor agonism may exert serious side effects when applied to treat cardiac contractile dysfunction during rewarming. In this study we tested whether Milrinone, a phosphodiesterase III inhibitor, is able to ameliorate such dysfunction when given during rewarming. A rat model designed for circulatory studies during experimental hypothermia with cooling to a core temperature of 15°C, stable hypothermia at this temperature for 3h and subsequent rewarming was used, with a total of 3 groups: (1) a normothermic group receiving Milrinone, (2) a hypothermic group receiving Milrinone the last hour of hypothermia and during rewarming, and (3) a hypothermic saline control group. Hemodynamic function was monitored using a conductance catheter introduced to the left ventricle. After rewarming from 15°C, stroke volume and cardiac output returned to within baseline values in Milrinone treated animals, while these variables were significantly reduced in saline controls. Milrinone ameliorated cardiac dysfunction during rewarming from 15°C. The present results suggest that at low core temperatures and during rewarming from such temperatures, pharmacologic efforts to support cardiovascular function is better achieved by substances preventing cyclic AMP breakdown rather than increasing its formation via β-receptor stimulation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Honey Supplementation in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats Elicits Antihypertensive Effect via Amelioration of Renal Oxidative Stress

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    Omotayo O. Erejuwa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is implicated in the pathogenesis and/or maintenance of elevated blood pressure in hypertension. This study investigated the effect of honey on elevated systolic blood pressure (SBP in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR. It also evaluated the effect of honey on the amelioration of oxidative stress in the kidney of SHR as a possible mechanism of its antihypertensive effect. SHR and Wistar Kyoto (WKY rats were randomly divided into 2 groups and administered distilled water or honey by oral gavage once daily for 12 weeks. The control SHR had significantly higher SBP and renal malondialdehyde (MDA levels than did control WKY. The mRNA expression levels of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2 and glutathione S-transferase (GST were significantly downregulated while total antioxidant status (TAS and activities of GST and catalase (CAT were higher in the kidney of control SHR. Honey supplementation significantly reduced SBP and MDA levels in SHR. Honey significantly reduced the activities of GST and CAT while it moderately but insignificantly upregulated the Nrf2 mRNA expression level in the kidney of SHR. These results indicate that Nrf2 expression is impaired in the kidney of SHR. Honey supplementation considerably reduces elevated SBP via amelioration of oxidative stress in the kidney of SHR.

  16. Evaluation of promising technologies for soil salinity amelioration in Timpaki (Crete): a participatory approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagea, I. S.; Daliakopoulos, I. N.; Tsanis, I. K.; Schwilch, G.

    2016-02-01

    Soil salinity management can be complex, expensive, and time demanding, especially in arid and semi-arid regions. Besides taking no action, possible management strategies include amelioration and adaptation measures. Here we apply the World Overview of Conservation Approaches and Technologies (WOCAT) framework for the systematic analysis and evaluation and selection of soil salinisation amelioration technologies in close collaboration with stakeholders. The participatory approach is applied in the RECARE (Preventing and Remediating degradation of soils in Europe through Land Care) project case study of Timpaki, a semi-arid region in south-central Crete (Greece) where the main land use is horticulture in greenhouses irrigated by groundwater. Excessive groundwater abstractions have resulted in a drop of the groundwater level in the coastal part of the aquifer, thus leading to seawater intrusion and in turn to soil salinisation. The documented technologies are evaluated for their impacts on ecosystem services, cost, and input requirements using a participatory approach and field evaluations. Results show that technologies which promote maintaining existing crop types while enhancing productivity and decreasing soil salinity are preferred by the stakeholders. The evaluation concludes that rainwater harvesting is the optimal solution for direct soil salinity mitigation, as it addresses a wider range of ecosystem and human well-being benefits. Nevertheless, this merit is offset by poor financial motivation making agronomic measures more attractive to users.

  17. Nyctanthes arbor-tristis Ameliorated FCA-Induced Experimental Arthritis: A Comparative Study among Different Extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uroos, Maliha; Sattar, Shumaila; Umer, Nigarish; Sharif, Ahsan

    2017-01-01

    Nyctanthes arbor-tristis (NAT) is commonly used traditionally for the treatment of rheumatism and inflammatory diseases. Current study evaluates the antiarthritic potential of NAT using Freund's adjuvant-induced arthritic rat model. Treatments with methanolic, ethyl acetate, and n-hexane extracts were continued for consecutive 20 days. Macroscopic arthritic scoring and water displacement plethysmometry were used to evaluate arthritic development. Hematological and biochemical parameters were investigated and ankle joints were processed for histopathological evaluation. Qualitative phytochemical analysis and GC-MS analysis were conducted for identification of constituents. NAT extracts suppressed arthritic scoring, paw edema, infiltration of inflammatory cells, pannus formation, and bone erosion. The plant extracts ameliorated total leukocytes and platelet counts and nearly normalized red blood cells (RBC) counts and hemoglobin (Hb) content. The extracts were found safe in terms of hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity as determined by aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), creatinine, and urea levels. Comparative analysis showed that ethyl acetate extract produced the highest inhibition of paw edema. The major constituents found in ethyl acetate extract can be classified into three major classes, that is, terpenes, terpenoids, fatty acids, and iridoid glycosides. Current study showed that Nyctanthes arbor-tristis ameliorated experimental rheumatoid arthritis and ethyl acetate extract possessed the highest inhibitory activity. PMID:28676830

  18. Testicular Dysfunction Ameliorative Effect of the Methanolic Roots Extracts of Maytenus procumbens and Ozoroa paniculosa

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    Nkosinathi David Cele

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional use of medicinal plants in the management of sexual dysfunctions has a long history. This study investigated testicular dysfunction ameliorative effect of the methanolic roots extracts of Maytenus procumbens and Ozoroa paniculosa in a butanol-induced testicular dysfunction rat model. The rats in respective experimental groups were orally administered with the extract at 50 and 250 mg/kg bw, daily for 28 days. The cytotoxicity of the extracts was evaluated against HEK293, MCF-7, and HT29 cell lines. The extracts exhibited moderate (LC50 30.3–330.2 μg/mL to weak (LC50 200.8–438.4 μg/mL cytotoxicity level on the cancer and normal cells, respectively. While relatively lower serum testosterone levels and total sperm count along with decreased numbers of spermatogonia were noted in the untreated group, all these parameters were improved in the groups treated with the extracts at 250 mg/kg. Improved histomorphological changes of the testes were also observed when compared to the untreated group. While the extracts (at 250 mg/kg increased serum reduced glutathione content and decreased malondialdehyde content, a relatively higher serum creatinine level was also observed in the treated animals group. The results indicate that the two plant extracts have potential to ameliorate testicular dysfunction.

  19. Cannabis-induced Moto-Cognitive Dysfunction in Wistar Rats: Ameliorative Efficacy of Nigella Sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imam, Aminu; Ajao, Moyosore Saliu; Amin, Abdulbasit; Abdulmajeed, Wahab Imam; Ibrahim, Abdulmumin; Olajide, Olayemi Joseph; Ajibola, Musa Iyiola; Alli-Oluwafuyi, Abdulmusawir; Balogun, Wasiu Gbolahan

    2016-09-01

    Cannabis is a widely used illicit drug with various threats of personality syndrome, and Nigella sativa has been widely implicated as having therapeutic efficacy in many neurological diseases. The present study investigates the ameliorative efficacy of Nigella sativa oil (NSO) on cannabis-induced moto-cognitive defects. Scopolamine (1 mg/kg i.p.) was given to induce dementia as a standard base line for cannabis (20 mg/kg)-induced cognitive impairment, followed by an oral administration of NSO (1 ml/kg) for 14 consecutive days. The Morris water maze (MWM) paradigm was used to assess the memory index, the elevated plus maze was used for anxiety-like behaviour, and the open field test was used for locomotor activities; thereafter, the rats were sacrificed and their brains were removed for histopathologic studies. Cannabis-like Scopolamine caused memory impairment, delayed latency in the MWM, and anxiety-like behaviour, coupled with alterations in the cerebello-hippocampal neurons. The post-treatment of rats with NSO mitigated cannabis-induced cognitive dysfunction as with scopolamine and impaired anxiety-like behaviour by increasing open arm entry, line crossing, and histological changes. The observed ameliorative effects of NSO make it a promising agent against moto-cognitive dysfunction and cerebelo-hippocampal alterations induced by cannabis.

  20. Resveratrol, an Nrf2 activator, ameliorates aging-related progressive renal injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun Nim; Lim, Ji Hee; Kim, Min Young; Ban, Tae Hyun; Jang, In-Ae; Yoon, Hye Eun; Park, Cheol Whee; Chang, Yoon Sik; Choi, Bum Soon

    2018-01-11

    Two important issues in the aging kidney are mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress. An Nrf2 activator, resveratrol, is known to have various effects. Resveratrol may prevent inflammation and oxidative stress by activating Nrf2 and SIRT1 signaling. We examined whether resveratrol could potentially ameliorate the cellular condition, such as renal injury due to cellular oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction caused by aging. Male 18-month-old C57BL/6 mice were used. Resveratrol (40 mg/kg) was administered to aged mice for 6 months. We compared histological changes, oxidative stress, and aging-related protein expression in the kidney between the resveratrol-treated group (RSV) and the control group (cont). We performed experiments using small-interfering RNAs (siRNAs) for Nrf2 and SIRT1 in cultured HK2 cells. Resveratrol improved renal function, proteinuria, histological changes and inflammation in aging mice. Also, expression of Nrf2-HO-1-NOQ-1 signaling and SIRT1-AMPK-PGC-1α signaling was increased in the RSV group. Transfection with Nrf2 and SIRT1 siRNA prevented resveratrol-induced anti-oxidative effect in HK2 cells in media treated with H 2 O 2 . Activation of the Nrf2 and SIRT1 signaling pathways ameliorated oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. Pharmacological targeting of Nrf2 signaling molecules may reduce the pathologic changes of aging in the kidney.

  1. Phenylethanoid glycosides of Pedicularis muscicola Maxim ameliorate high altitude-induced memory impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Baozhu; Li, Maoxing; Cao, Xinyuan; Zhang, Quanlong; Liu, Yantong; Ma, Qiang; Qiu, Yan; Luan, Fei; Wang, Xianmin

    2016-04-01

    Exposure to hypobaric hypoxia causes oxidative stress, neuronal degeneration and apoptosis that leads to memory impairment. Though oxidative stress contributes to neuronal degeneration and apoptosis in hypobaric hypoxia, the ability for phenylethanoid glycosides of Pedicularis muscicola Maxim (PhGs) to reverse high altitude memory impairment has not been studied. Rats were supplemented with PhGs orally for a week. After the fourth day of drug administration, rats were exposed to a 7500 m altitude simulation in a specially designed animal decompression chamber for 3 days. Spatial memory was assessed by the 8-arm radial maze test before and after exposure to hypobaric hypoxia. Histological assessment of neuronal degeneration was performed by hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining. Changes in oxidative stress markers and changes in the expression of the apoptotic marker, caspase-3, were assessed in the hippocampus. Our results demonstrated that after exposure to hypobaric hypoxia, PhGs ameliorated high altitude memory impairment, as shown by the decreased values obtained for reference memory error (RME), working memory error (WME), and total error (TE). Meanwhile, administration of PhGs decreased hippocampal reactive oxygen species levels and consequent lipid peroxidation by elevating reduced glutathione levels and enhancing the free radical scavenging enzyme system. There was also a decrease in the number of pyknotic neurons and a reduction in caspase-3 expression in the hippocampus. These findings suggest that PhGs may be used therapeutically to ameliorate high altitude memory impairment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Pyrroloquinoline quinone ameliorates l-thyroxine-induced hyperthyroidism and associated problems in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Narendra; Kar, Anand; Panda, Sunanda

    2014-08-01

    Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) is believed to be a strong antioxidant. In this study, we have evaluated its hitherto unknown role in l-thyroxin (L-T4 )-induced hyperthyroidism considering laboratory rat as a model. Alterations in the serum concentration of thyroxin (T4 ) and triiodothyronine (T3 ); lipid peroxidation (LPO) of liver, kidney, heart, muscles and brain; in the endogenous antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione and in serum total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotien, triglycerides, serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT) and urea were evaluated. Administration of l-T4 (500-µg kg(-1) body weight) enhanced not only the serum T3 and T4 levels but also the tissue LPO, serum SGOT, SGPT and urea with a parallel decrease in the levels of antioxidants and serum lipids. However, on simultaneous administration of PQQ (5 mg kg(-1) for 6 days), all these adverse effects were ameliorated, indicating the potential of PQQ in the amelioration of hyperthyroidism and associated problems. Possibly, the curative effects were mediated through inhibition of oxidative stress. We suggest that PQQ may be considered for therapeutic use for hyperthyroidism after dose standardization. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Ganoderma atrum polysaccharide ameliorates ROS generation and apoptosis in spleen and thymus of immunosuppressed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen-Juan; Li, Lu; Zhen, Weng-Ya; Wang, Le-Feng; Pan, Meng; Lv, Jia-Qian; Wang, Fan; Yao, Yu-Fei; Nie, Shao-Ping; Xie, Ming-Yong

    2017-01-01

    Ganoderma atrum polysaccharide (PSG-1) is a bioactive compound with antioxidant and immunomodulatory activities. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of PSG-1 on reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and apoptosis in spleen and thymus of cyclophosphamide (CTX)-induced immunosuppressed mice. The results showed that PSG-1 protected mice against CTX-mediated immunosuppression, as evidenced by enhancing the ratios of thymus and spleen weights to body weight, promoting T cell and B cell survival, and increasing levels of TNF-α and IL-2. Apoptosis, ROS generation and lipid peroxidation in the immune organs of the immunosuppressed animals were ameliorated by PSG-1. The immune benefits of PSG-1 were associated with the enhancement of the activities of glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase in the immune organs, implying that antioxidant activities of PSG-1 may play an important role in PSG-1-evoked immune protection. Taken together, these findings have demonstrated that PSG-1 may ameliorate CTX-induced immunosuppression through reducing apoptosis and oxidative damage in immunological system. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Amelioration of behavioral abnormalities in BH(4-deficient mice by dietary supplementation of tyrosine.

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    Sang Su Kwak

    Full Text Available This study reports an amelioration of abnormal motor behaviors in tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4-deficient Spr (-/- mice by the dietary supplementation of tyrosine. Since BH4 is an essential cofactor for the conversion of phenylalanine into tyrosine as well as the synthesis of dopamine neurotransmitter within the central nervous system, the levels of tyrosine and dopamine were severely reduced in brains of BH4-deficient Spr (-/- mice. We found that Spr (-/- mice display variable 'open-field' behaviors, impaired motor functions on the 'rotating rod', and dystonic 'hind-limb clasping'. In this study, we report that these aberrant motor deficits displayed by Spr (-/- mice were ameliorated by the therapeutic tyrosine diet for 10 days. This study also suggests that dopamine deficiency in brains of Spr (-/- mice may not be the biological feature of aberrant motor behaviors associated with BH4 deficiency. Brain levels of dopamine (DA and its metabolites in Spr (-/- mice were not substantially increased by the dietary tyrosine therapy. However, we found that mTORC1 activity severely suppressed in brains of Spr (-/- mice fed a normal diet was restored 10 days after feeding the mice the tyrosine diet. The present study proposes that brain mTORC1 signaling pathway is one of the potential targets in understanding abnormal motor behaviors associated with BH4-deficiency.

  5. Climate change affecting oil palm agronomy, and oil palm cultivation increasing climate change, require amelioration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, R Russell M; Lima, Nelson

    2018-01-01

    Palm oil is used in various valued commodities and is a large global industry worth over US$ 50 billion annually. Oil palms (OP) are grown commercially in Indonesia and Malaysia and other countries within Latin America and Africa. The large-scale land-use change has high ecological, economic, and social impacts. Tropical countries in particular are affected negatively by climate change (CC) which also has a detrimental impact on OP agronomy, whereas the cultivation of OP increases CC. Amelioration of both is required. The reduced ability to grow OP will reduce CC, which may allow more cultivation tending to increase CC, in a decreasing cycle. OP could be increasingly grown in more suitable regions occurring under CC. Enhancing the soil fauna may compensate for the effect of CC on OP agriculture to some extent. The effect of OP cultivation on CC may be reduced by employing reduced emissions from deforestation and forest degradation plans, for example, by avoiding illegal fire land clearing. Other ameliorating methods are reported herein. More research is required involving good management practices that can offset the increases in CC by OP plantations. Overall, OP-growing countries should support the Paris convention on reducing CC as the most feasible scheme for reducing CC.

  6. Oral metformin-ascorbic acid co-administration ameliorates alcohol-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeneye, A A; Benebo, A S

    2007-01-01

    Alcoholic liver disease remains a major cause of liver failure worldwide with no available curative or prophylactic therapy as at present. High dose metformin is reported to ameliorate liver injuries in both human and animal models of acute and chronic alcoholic liver injuries. The aim of the present in vivo animal study was to determine whether metformin-ascorbic acid co-administration also prevents alcoholic hepatotoxicity in chronic alcohol exposure. In the present study, ameliorating effect of 200 mg/ kg/day of ascorbic acid (Asc), 500 mg/kg/day of metformin (Met) and their co-administration (Met-Asc) were investigated in 5 groups of 50% ethanol-treated male Wistar rats for 2 weeks of the experiment. The body weight of each rat was taken on days 1, 7, and 14 of the experiment, respectively. On day 15, fasted blood samples for plasma lipids and liver enzyme markers were collected via cardiac puncture from the rats under diethyl ether anaesthesia. Results showed that administration of graded oral doses of 50% ethanol for 14 days significantly (pcholesterol (PTC), high density lipoprotein (HDL-c), and low density lipoprotein (LDL-c). However, these elevations were significantly (pascorbic acid co-administration protected the liver against the deleterious effects of chronic high dose alcohol and the hepatoprotective effect of Met-Asc appeared to be due mainly to the metformin molecule of the drug combination. However, further studies would be required to evaluate the mechanisms underlying the observed effects.

  7. Electroacupuncture Ameliorates Cognitive Deficit and Improves Hippocampal Synaptic Plasticity in Adult Rat with Neonatal Maternal Separation

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    Lili Guo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to adverse early-life events is thought to be the risk factors for the development of psychiatric and altered cognitive function in adulthood. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether electroacupuncture (EA treatment in young adult rat would improve impaired cognitive function and synaptic plasticity in adult rat with neonatal maternal separation (MS. Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: control group, MS group, MS with EA treatment (MS + EA group, and MS with Sham-EA treatment (MS + Sham-EA group. We evaluated the cognitive function by using Morris water maze and fear conditioning tests. Electrophysiology experiment used in vivo long-term potentiation (LTP at Schaffer Collateral-CA1 synapses was detected to assess extent of synaptic plasticity. Repeated EA stimulation at Baihui (GV 20 and Yintang (GV 29 during postnatal 9 to 11 weeks was identified to significantly ameliorate poor performance in behavior tests and improve the impaired LTP induction detected at Schaffer Collateral-CA1 synapse in hippocampus. Collectively, the findings suggested that early-life stress due to MS may induce adult cognitive deficit associated with hippocampus, and EA in young adult demonstrated that its therapeutic efficacy may be via ameliorating deficit of hippocampal synaptic plasticity.

  8. Sustainable poverty amelioration through early life education in a peri-urban community of Lagos, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olayinka A. Abosede

    2010-06-01

    Objectives: The aim of the study was to examine early life education for under-fives as a means of economic empowerment of mothers and sustainable poverty amelioration. Method: The methodology included a non-randomised selection of 34 disadvantaged mothers by criteria, a prospective intervention utilising community resources to organise early childhood education, an in-depth interview of mothers, and observation of the outcomes over a 5-year period. Results: The result of the study showed that no mother preferred keeping a child older than three years at home. Access to early childhood education gave mothers opportunity to undergo vocational training (1, 2.8% and take up new/additional jobs (12, 35.3%. All mothers and 32 (80% of the participating families more than doubled their income, earning up to twenty thousand Naira (approximately $182 per month from the first year of participation. Finally, selection criteria and periodic assessment of immunisation/growth monitoring records of participants’ children improved compliance with primary health care service utilisation. Conclusion: Organisation of early childhood education had the potential for sustainable poverty amelioration through economic empowerment of mothers.

  9. Inhibition of G0/G1 Switch 2 Ameliorates Renal Inflammation in Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoya Matsunaga

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease (CKD is a global health problem, and novel therapies to treat CKD are urgently needed. Here, we show that inhibition of G0/G1 switch 2 (G0s2 ameliorates renal inflammation in a mouse model of CKD. Renal expression of chemokine (C-C motif ligand 2 (Ccl2 was increased in response to p65 activation in the kidneys of wild-type 5/6 nephrectomy (5/6Nx mice. Moreover, 5/6Nx Clk/Clk mice, which carry homozygous mutations in the gene encoding circadian locomotor output cycles kaput (CLOCK, did not exhibit aggravation of apoptosis or induction of F4/80-positive cells. The renal expression of G0s2 in wild-type 5/6Nx mice was important for the transactivation of Ccl2 by p65. These pathologies were ameliorated by G0s2 knockdown. Furthermore, a novel small-molecule inhibitor of G0s2 expression was identified by high-throughput chemical screening, and the inhibitor suppressed renal inflammation in 5/6Nx mice. These findings indicated that G0s2 inhibitors may have applications in the treatment of CKD.

  10. Planning music-based amelioration and training in infancy and childhood based on neural evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huotilainen, Minna; Tervaniemi, Mari

    2018-05-04

    Music-based amelioration and training of the developing auditory system has a long tradition, and recent neuroscientific evidence supports using music in this manner. Here, we present the available evidence showing that various music-related activities result in positive changes in brain structure and function, becoming helpful for auditory cognitive processes in everyday life situations for individuals with typical neural development and especially for individuals with hearing, learning, attention, or other deficits that may compromise auditory processing. We also compare different types of music-based training and show how their effects have been investigated with neural methods. Finally, we take a critical position on the multitude of error sources found in amelioration and training studies and on publication bias in the field. We discuss some future improvements of these issues in the field of music-based training and their potential results at the neural and behavioral levels in infants and children for the advancement of the field and for a more complete understanding of the possibilities and significance of the training. © 2018 The Authors. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of New York Academy of Sciences.

  11. Du karma aux planètes From the Karma to the Planets: Arakanese Healers and their Heterogeneous Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Céline Coderey

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available En Arakan, les conceptions de la maladie et les pratiques thérapeutiques relevant du bouddhisme theravāda, de l’astrologie, du culte des esprits, de la médecine et de bien d’autres domaines forment un ensemble signifiant et hiérarchisé. Ensemble signifiant parce que malades et thérapeutes considèrent ces conceptions et pratiques comme indissociables les unes des autres et devant donc être combinées afin de mener à bien le processus de guérison. Ensemble hiérarchisé car, à l’intérieur de celui-ci, le bouddhisme occupe une place hégémonique au niveau des valeurs. Néanmoins, dans le domaine thérapeutique, son apport est limité. Ce n’est que combinées aux pratiques astrologiques, médicales, etc. que les pratiques bouddhiques peuvent contribuer à la prévention et au soin des maladies. L’attention est ici portée sur la manière dont laquelle cette totalité signifiante et hiérarchisée s’exprime dans les pratiques des thérapeutes. Sur la base d’une étude de cas, l’article montre que souvent les thérapeutes cumulent plusieurs formations et pratiques plus ou moins hétérogènes afin de pouvoir intervenir sur le plus grand nombre possible de facteurs de la maladie : déséquilibre des éléments corporels, mauvais karma, influences planétaires néfastes, agressions par des puissances maléfiques.In Arakan, sickness-related conceptions and therapeutic practices issuing from Theravada Buddhism, astrology, spirits cult and medicine form a meaningful and hierarchical whole. This whole is meaningful because patients and healers consider that it is the combination of various conceptions and various practices which makes sense and which guarantees the succes of the healing treatement. The whole is hierarchical because conceptions and practices are organised into a hierarchy where Buddhism occupies an hegemonic position. Nevertheless, in the healing field its contribution is limited. Only if combined with

  12. Oral intake of hydrogen-rich water ameliorated chlorpyrifos-induced neurotoxicity in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Tingting; Zhao, Ling; Liu, Mengyu; Xie, Fei; Ma, Xuemei, E-mail: xmma@bjut.edu.cn; Zhao, Pengxiang; Liu, Yunqi; Li, Jiala; Wang, Minglian; Yang, Zhaona; Zhang, Yutong

    2014-10-01

    Chronic exposure to low-levels of organophosphate (OP) compounds, such as chlorpyrifos (CPF), induces oxidative stress and could be related to neurological disorders. Hydrogen has been identified as a novel antioxidant which could selectively scavenge hydroxyl radicals. We explore whether intake of hydrogen-rich water (HRW) can protect Wistar rats from CPF-induced neurotoxicity. Rats were gavaged daily with 6.75 mg/kg body weight (1/20 LD{sub 50}) of CPF and given HRW by oral intake. Nissl staining and electron microscopy results indicated that HRW intake had protective effects on the CPF-induced damage of hippocampal neurons and neuronal mitochondria. Immunostaining results showed that the increased glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression in astrocytes induced by CPF exposure can be ameliorated by HRW intake. Moreover, HRW intake also attenuated CPF-induced oxidative stress as evidenced by enhanced level of MDA, accompanied by an increase in GSH level and SOD and CAT activity. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity tests showed significant decrease in brain AChE activity after CPF exposure, and this effect can be ameliorated by HRW intake. An in vitro study demonstrated that AChE activity was more intense in HRW than in normal water with or without chlorpyrifos-oxon (CPO), the metabolically-activated form of CPF. These observations suggest that HRW intake can protect rats from CPF-induced neurotoxicity, and the protective effects of hydrogen may be mediated by regulating the oxidant and antioxidant status of rats. Furthermore, this work defines a novel mechanism of biological activity of hydrogen by directly increasing the AChE activity. - Highlights: • Hydrogen molecules protect rats from CPF-induced damage of hippocampal neurons. • The increased GFAP expression induced by CPF can also be ameliorated by hydrogen. • Hydrogen molecules attenuated the increase in CPF-induced oxidative stress. • Hydrogen molecules attenuated AChE inhibition in vivo

  13. Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy for Coronary Artery Disease: Relationship of Symptom Amelioration and Ischemia Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youko Takakuwa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: The current management of coronary artery disease (CAD relies on three major therapeutic options, namely medication, percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI, and coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG. However, severe CAD that is not indicated for PCI or CABG still bears a poor prognosis due to the lack of effective treatments. In 2006, extracorporeal cardiac shock wave (SW therapy reported on human for the first time. This treatment resulted in better myocardial perfusion as evaluated by dipyridamole stress thallium scintigraphy, angina symptoms, and exercise tolerance. The aim of the present study was to investigate myocardial perfusion images and evaluate the relationship between the ischemia improvement and symptom amelioration by SW therapy. Methods: We treated ten patients (i.e., nine males and one female with cardiac SW therapy who had CAD but not indicated for PCI or CABG and aged 63–89 years old. After the SW therapy, all patients were followed up for three months to evaluate any amelioration of the myocardial ischemia based on symptoms, adenosine stress thallium scintigraphy, transthoracic echocardiography, and blood biochemical examinations. Results: The changes in various parameters were evaluated before and after cardiac SW therapy. The cardiac SW therapy resulted in a significant improvement in the symptoms as evaluated by the Canadian Cardiovascular Society [CCS] class score (P=0.016 and a tendency to improve in summed stress score (SSS (P=0.068. However, no significant improvement was observed in the summed rest score (SRS, summed difference score (SDS, left ventricular wall motion score index (LVWMSI, N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic, and troponin I. The difference of CCS class score (ΔCCS was significantly correlated with those of SSS (ΔSSS and SDS (ΔSDS (r=0.69, P=0.028 and r=0.70, P=0.025, respectively. There was no significant correlation between ΔCCS and other parameters. Furthermore, no significant

  14. Oral intake of hydrogen-rich water ameliorated chlorpyrifos-induced neurotoxicity in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Tingting; Zhao, Ling; Liu, Mengyu; Xie, Fei; Ma, Xuemei; Zhao, Pengxiang; Liu, Yunqi; Li, Jiala; Wang, Minglian; Yang, Zhaona; Zhang, Yutong

    2014-01-01

    Chronic exposure to low-levels of organophosphate (OP) compounds, such as chlorpyrifos (CPF), induces oxidative stress and could be related to neurological disorders. Hydrogen has been identified as a novel antioxidant which could selectively scavenge hydroxyl radicals. We explore whether intake of hydrogen-rich water (HRW) can protect Wistar rats from CPF-induced neurotoxicity. Rats were gavaged daily with 6.75 mg/kg body weight (1/20 LD 50 ) of CPF and given HRW by oral intake. Nissl staining and electron microscopy results indicated that HRW intake had protective effects on the CPF-induced damage of hippocampal neurons and neuronal mitochondria. Immunostaining results showed that the increased glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression in astrocytes induced by CPF exposure can be ameliorated by HRW intake. Moreover, HRW intake also attenuated CPF-induced oxidative stress as evidenced by enhanced level of MDA, accompanied by an increase in GSH level and SOD and CAT activity. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity tests showed significant decrease in brain AChE activity after CPF exposure, and this effect can be ameliorated by HRW intake. An in vitro study demonstrated that AChE activity was more intense in HRW than in normal water with or without chlorpyrifos-oxon (CPO), the metabolically-activated form of CPF. These observations suggest that HRW intake can protect rats from CPF-induced neurotoxicity, and the protective effects of hydrogen may be mediated by regulating the oxidant and antioxidant status of rats. Furthermore, this work defines a novel mechanism of biological activity of hydrogen by directly increasing the AChE activity. - Highlights: • Hydrogen molecules protect rats from CPF-induced damage of hippocampal neurons. • The increased GFAP expression induced by CPF can also be ameliorated by hydrogen. • Hydrogen molecules attenuated the increase in CPF-induced oxidative stress. • Hydrogen molecules attenuated AChE inhibition in vivo and in

  15. The 6-hydroxychromanol derivative SUL-109 ameliorates renal injury after deep hypothermia and rewarming in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogelaar, Pieter C; Roorda, Maurits; de Vrij, Edwin L; Houwertjes, Martin C; Goris, Maaike; Bouma, Hjalmar; van der Graaf, Adrianus C; Krenning, Guido; Henning, Robert H

    2018-04-11

    Mitochondrial dysfunction plays an important role in kidney damage in various pathologies, including acute and chronic kidney injury and diabetic nephropathy. In addition to the well-studied ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury, hypothermia/rewarming (H/R) also inflicts acute kidney injury. Substituted 6-hydroxychromanols are a novel class of mitochondrial medicines that ameliorate mitochondrial oxidative stress and protect the mitochondrial network. To identify a novel 6-hydroxychromanol that protects mitochondrial structure and function in the kidney during H/R, we screened multiple compounds in vitro and subsequently assessed the efficacy of the 6-hydroxychromanol derivatives SUL-109 and SUL-121 in vivo to protect against kidney injury after H/R in rats. Human proximal tubule cell viability was assessed following exposure to H/R for 48/4 h in the presence of various 6-hydroxychromanols. Selected compounds (SUL-109, SUL-121) or vehicle were administered to ketamine-anaesthetized male Wistar rats (IV 135 µg/kg/h) undergoing H/R at 15°C for 3 h followed by rewarming and normothermia for 1 h. Metabolic parameters and body temperature were measured throughout. In addition, renal function, renal injury, histopathology and mitochondrial fitness were assessed. H/R injury in vitro lowered cell viability by 94 ± 1%, which was counteracted dose-dependently by multiple 6-hydroxychomanols derivatives. In vivo, H/R in rats showed kidney injury molecule 1 expression in the kidney and tubular dilation, accompanied by double-strand DNA breaks and protein nitrosylation. SUL-109 and SUL-121 ameliorated tubular kidney damage, preserved mitochondrial mass and maintained cortical adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) levels, although SUL-121 did not reduce protein nitrosylation. The substituted 6-hydroxychromanols SUL-109 and SUL-121 ameliorate kidney injury during in vivo H/R by preserving mitochondrial mass, function and ATP levels. In addition, both 6-hydroxychromanols

  16. Combining histology, stable isotope analysis and ZooMS collagen fingerprinting to investigate the taphonomic history and dietary behaviour of extinct giant tortoises from the Mare aux Songes deposit on Mauritius

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Sluis, L.G.; Hollund, H.I.; Buckley, M.; de Louw, P.G.B.; Rijsdijk, K.F.; Kars, H.

    2014-01-01

    Taphonomic research of bones can provide additional insight into a site's formation and development, the burial environment and ongoing post-mortem processes. A total of 30 tortoise (Cylindraspis) femur bone samples from the Mare aux Songes site (Mauritius) were studied histologically, assessing

  17. Ameliorating effects of Raphanus sativus leaves on sodium arsenite-induced perturbation of blood indices in Swiss albino mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayada Dilruba

    2017-10-01

    Conclusions: Results of this study suggest the protective or ameliorating effects of RSL on Sa-induced perturbation of blood indices are related to the hepatic, cardiovascular and kidney dysfunction. Therefore, RSL may be useful to reduce arsenic toxicity in human in the future.

  18. How to Cheat and Not Feel Guilty: Cognitive Dissonance and Its Amelioration in the Domain of Academic Dishonesty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Jason M.

    2017-01-01

    The belief that cheating is wrong doesn't prevent its enactment. For example, many students cheat despite believing that is wrong or unjustifiable. The question taken up in this article concerns how the resulting cognitive dissonance is ameliorated; that is, how do students cheat and not feel guilty? This article will describe two "good"…

  19. Intestinal ameliorative effects of traditional Ogi-tutu, Vernonia amygdalina and Psidium guajava in mice infected with Vibrio cholera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shittu, Olufunke B; Ajayi, Olusola L; Bankole, Samuel O; Popoola, Temitope Os

    2016-06-01

    Cholera, a severe acute watery diarrhea caused by Vibrio cholerae is endemic in Nigeria with most cases occurring in the rural areas. In South West Nigeria, some individuals resort to alternative treatments such as Ogi-tutu, Psidium guajava and Vernonia amygdalina during infections. The effectiveness of these alternatives in the prevention and treatment of V. cholerae infection requires experimental investigation. This study was designed to investigate the ameliorative effects of Ogi-tutu, Vernonia amygdalina and Psidium guajava on intestinal histopathology of experimental mice infected with V. cholerae. Preliminary investigation of in vitro vibriocidal activities of these alternatives were carried out using agar cup diffusion assay. For ameliorative effects, adult mice were inoculated with 100 µl (106 cells) of Vibrio cholerae and dosed at 0 h (immediate prevention) and 4 h (treatment of infection) and their intestines were histopathologically evaluated. The histopathological changes were the same irrespective of the treated groups, but the lesions varied in extent and severity. The ameliorative effects in decreasing order were V. amygdalina > P. guajava > Ogi-tutu. V. amygdalina gave the best ameliorative effects in the prevention and treatment of V. cholerae infection.

  20. Ameliorative effect of Morus alba leaves extract against developmental retinopathy in pups of diabetic and aluminum intoxicated pregnant albino rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hassan; El-Sayyed; Gamal; Badawy; Sobhy; Hassab; Elnabi; Ibrahim; El-Elaimy; Eman; Al; Shehari

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the possible ameliorative effect of crude water extract of Morus alba(M. alba) leaves on retinopathy of rat pups maternally subjected to diabetes and/or Al intoxication.Methods: Both control and experimental groups were subjected to certain integrated approaches, namely, biochemical assessments, light microscopic investigation, transmission electron microscopic investigation, single cell gel electrophoresis(comet assay) and determination of DNA fragmentation.Results: The retina of pups of diabetic and/or Al-intoxicated mothers exhibited abnormal alterations in retinal cell layers including retinal pigmented epithelium, photoreceptor inner segment and ganglion cells. Increased incidence of DNA fragmentation and apoptosis were evident in pups of diabetic and/or Al-intoxicated mothers. However, retina of pups maternally received M. alba extract plus diabetes or Al-intoxicated alone or in combination showed marked amelioration. Less degree of ameliorations was seen in retina of pups maternally subjected to combined treatment. Furthermore, application of crude water extract of M.alba resulted in amelioration of the alterations of maternal serum glucose as well as Al concentration.Conclusions: Based on the results of the present study, M. alba extract is effective against experimentally diabetic and Al-induced developmental retinopathy.

  1. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate ameliorates intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy by inhibiting matrix metalloproteinase-2 and matrix metalloproteinase-9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mei; Xu, Meimei

    2017-10-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and matrix metalloproteinase-9 are involved in many illnesses affecting pregnant women, including intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP), a serious liver abnormality during pregnancy. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) has been widely reported to inhibit activities of MMP-2 and MMP-9. We aimed to investigate the role of EGCG in ameliorating ICP symptoms in a rat model. Using 17α-ethinylestradiol to induce ICP in pregnant rats, we investigated the efficacy of EGCG administration on ICP symptoms, including bile flow rate, total bile acids (TBA) and MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities. Correlation study was conducted among levels of the two MMPs with other ICP symptoms. In ICP rats, activities of both MMP-2 and MMP-9 were significantly elevated. EGCG administration could inhibit the upregulation of MMP-2 and MMP-9 post-transcriptionally. Furthermore, EGCG ameliorated ICP symptoms, as evidenced by restored bile flow rate and TBA, showing efficient treatment outcomes. At last, levels of TBA and the two MMPs were found to be strongly correlated. Our study demonstrates that, for the first time, the efficacy of EGCG in ameliorating ICP symptoms by inhibiting both MMP-2 and MMP-9, which supports its potential as a novel drug in ameliorating ICP. © 2017 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  2. Nrg4 promotes fuel oxidation and a healthy adipokine profile to ameliorate diet-induced metabolic disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhimin Chen

    2017-08-01

    Conclusions: Nrg4 exerts pleiotropic beneficial effects on energy balance and glucose and lipid metabolism to ameliorate obesity-associated metabolic disorders. Biologic therapeutics based on Nrg4 may improve both type 2 diabetes and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD in patients.

  3. Amelioration of ionizing radiation induced lipid peroxidation in mouse liver by Moringa oleifera Lam. leaf extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, Mahuya; Das, Dipesh Kr; Dey, Sanjit; Datta, Sanjukta; Ghosh, Santinath

    2012-01-01

    Protective effect of Moringa oleifera leaf extract (MoLE) against radiation-induced lipid peroxidation has been investigated. Swiss albino mice, selected from an inbred colony, were administered with MoLE (300 mg/kg body wt) for 15 days before exposing to a single dose of 5 Gy 60 Co-gamma radiation. After treatments, animals were necropsied at different post irradiation intervals (days 1, 7 and 15) and hepatic lipid peroxidation and reduced glutathione (GSH) contents were estimated to observe the relative changes due to irradiation and its possible amelioration by MoLE. It was observed that, MoLE treatment restored GSH in liver and prevented radiation induced augmentation in hepatic lipid peroxidation. Phytochemical analysis showed that MoLE possess various phytochemicals such as ascorbic acid, phenolics (catechin, epicatechin, ferulic acid, ellagic acid, myricetin) etc., which may play the key role in prevention of hepatic lipid peroxidation by scavenging radiation induced free radicals. (author)

  4. “The Mind Is Its Own Place”: Amelioration of Claustrophobia in Semantic Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla N. Clark

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Phobias are among the few intensely fearful experiences we regularly have in our everyday lives, yet the brain basis of phobic responses remains incompletely understood. Here we describe the case of a 71-year-old patient with a typical clinicoanatomical syndrome of semantic dementia led by selective (predominantly right-sided temporal lobe atrophy, who showed striking amelioration of previously disabling claustrophobia following onset of her cognitive syndrome. We interpret our patient’s newfound fearlessness as an interaction of damaged limbic and autonomic responsivity with loss of the cognitive meaning of previously threatening situations. This case has implications for our understanding of brain network disintegration in semantic dementia and the neurocognitive basis of phobias more generally.

  5. Escitalopram ameliorates hypercortisolemia and insulin resistance in low birth weight men with limbic brain alterations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Christian Selmer; Stødkilde-Jørgensen, Hans; Videbech, Poul

    2018-01-01

    CONTEXT: Low birth weight (LBW, insulin resistance and limbic-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (LHPA)-axis hyperactivity. OBJECTIVE: First aim was to study insulin action, LHPA-axis function and limbic brain structures in young, healthy LBW-men vs. normal birth...... levels and improved Rdsubmax by ∼24% (p=0.04). CONCLUSIONS: LBW vs. NBW displayed alterations in key brain structures modulating LHPA-axis, elevated free cortisol levels and insulin resistance. Escitalopram administration ameliorated these defects, suggesting a potential for LHPA-axis modulation...... weight controls (NBW) (Part 1). Second aim was to investigate the effects of Escitalopram vs. placebo treatment in LBW with regards to LHPA-axis and insulin sensitivity (Part 2). DESIGN SETTING, PARTICIPANTS AND INTERVENTION: Maximal (Rdmax) and sub-maximal (Rdsubmax) rates of insulin-stimulated glucose...

  6. Medicinal plants and natural products in amelioration of arsenic toxicity: a short review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Sanjib

    2017-12-01

    Chronic arsenic toxicity (arsenicosis) is considered a serious public health menace worldwide, as there is no specific, safe, and efficacious therapeutic management of arsenicosis. To collate the studies on medicinal plants and natural products with arsenic toxicity ameliorative effect, active pre-clinically and/or clinically. Literature survey was carried out by using Google, Scholar Google and Pub-Med. Only the scientific journal articles found on the internet for last two decades were considered. Minerals and semi-synthetic or synthetic analogs of natural products were excluded. Literature study revealed that 34 medicinal plants and 14 natural products exhibited significant protection from arsenic toxicity, mostly in preclinical trials and a few in clinical studies. This research could lead to development of a potentially useful agent in clinical management of arsenicosis in humans.

  7. Smart Soup, a traditional Chinese medicine formula, ameliorates amyloid pathology and related cognitive deficits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujun Hou

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that causes substantial public health care burdens. Intensive efforts have been made to find effective and safe disease-modifying treatment and symptomatic intervention alternatives against AD. Smart Soup (SS, a Chinese medicine formula composed of Rhizoma Acori Tatarinowii (AT, Poria cum Radix Pini (PRP and Radix Polygalae (RP, is a typical prescription against memory deficits. Here, we assessed the efficacy of SS against AD. Oral administration of SS ameliorated the cognitive impairment of AD transgenic mice, with reduced Aβ levels, retarded Aβ amyloidosis and reduced Aβ-induced gliosis and neuronal loss in the brains of AD mice. Consistently, SS treatment reduced amyloid-related locomotor dysfunctions and premature death of AD transgenic Drosophila. Mechanistic studies showed that RP reduced Aβ generation, whereas AT and PRP exerted neuroprotective effects against Aβ. Taken together, our study indicates that SS could be effective against AD, providing a practical therapeutic strategy against the disease.

  8. Targeting GPR120 and other fatty acid sensing GPCRs ameliorates insulin resistance and inflammatory diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talukdar, Saswata; Olefsky, Jerrold M; Osborn, Olivia

    2011-01-01

    The last decade has seen great progress in the understanding of the molecular pharmacology, physiological function and therapeutic potential of the G protein-coupled receptors. Free Fatty acids (FFAs) have been demonstrated to act as ligands of several GPCRs including GPR40, GPR43, GPR84, GPR119 and GPR120. We have recently shown that GPR120 acts as a physiological receptor of ω3 fatty acids in macrophages and adipocytes, which mediate potent anti-inflammatory and insulin sensitizing effects. The important role GPR120 plays in the control of inflammation raises the possibility that targeting this receptor could have therapeutic potential in many inflammatory diseases including obesity and type 2 diabetes. In this review, we discuss lipid-sensing GPCRs and highlight potential outcomes of targeting such receptors in ameliorating disease. PMID:21663979

  9. Targeting GPR120 and other fatty acid-sensing GPCRs ameliorates insulin resistance and inflammatory diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talukdar, Saswata; Olefsky, Jerrold M; Osborn, Olivia

    2011-09-01

    The past decade has seen great progress in the understanding of the molecular pharmacology, physiological function and therapeutic potential of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Free fatty acids (FFAs) have been demonstrated to act as ligands of several GPCRs including GPR40, GPR43, GPR84, GPR119 and GPR120. We have recently shown that GPR120 acts as a physiological receptor of ω3 fatty acids in macrophages and adipocytes, which mediate potent anti-inflammatory and insulin sensitizing effects. The important role GPR120 plays in the control of inflammation raises the possibility that targeting this receptor could have therapeutic potential in many inflammatory diseases including obesity and type 2 diabetes. In this review paper, we discuss lipid-sensing GPCRs and highlight potential outcomes of targeting such receptors in ameliorating disease. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Bacterial and Archaeal α-amylases: Diversity and amelioration of the desirable characteristics for industrial applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepika Mehta

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Industrial enzyme market has been projected to reach US$ 6.2 billion by 2020. Major reasons for continuous rise in the global sales of microbial enzymes are because of increase in the demand for consumer goods and biofuels. Among major industrial enzymes that find applications in baking, alcohol, detergent and textile industries are α-amylases. These are produced by a variety of microbes, which randomly cleave α-1,4-glycosidic linkages in starch leading to the formation of limit dextrins. α-Amylases from different microbial sources vary in their properties, thus, suit specific applications. This review focuses on the native and recombinant α-amylases from bacteria and archaea, their production and the advancements in the molecular biology, protein engineering and structural studies, which aid in ameliorating their properties to suit the targeted industrial applications.

  11. Bacterial and Archaeal α-Amylases: Diversity and Amelioration of the Desirable Characteristics for Industrial Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Deepika; Satyanarayana, Tulasi

    2016-01-01

    Industrial enzyme market has been projected to reach US$ 6.2 billion by 2020. Major reasons for continuous rise in the global sales of microbial enzymes are because of increase in the demand for consumer goods and biofuels. Among major industrial enzymes that find applications in baking, alcohol, detergent, and textile industries are α-amylases. These are produced by a variety of microbes, which randomly cleave α-1,4-glycosidic linkages in starch leading to the formation of limit dextrins. α-Amylases from different microbial sources vary in their properties, thus, suit specific applications. This review focuses on the native and recombinant α-amylases from bacteria and archaea, their production and the advancements in the molecular biology, protein engineering and structural studies, which aid in ameliorating their properties to suit the targeted industrial applications.

  12. Arctigenin isolated from the seeds of Arctium lappa ameliorates memory deficits in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, In-Ah; Joh, Eun-Ha; Kim, Dong-Hyun

    2011-09-01

    The seeds of Arctium lappa L. (AL, family Asteraceae), the main constituents of which are arctiin and arctigenin, have been used as an herbal medicine or functional food to treat inflammatory diseases. These main constituents were shown to inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity. Arctigenin more potently inhibited AChE activity than arctiin. Arctigenin at doses of 30 and 60 mg/kg (p. o.) potently reversed scopolamine-induced memory deficits by 62 % and 73 %, respectively, in a passive avoidance test. This finding is comparable with that of tacrine (10 mg/kg p. o.). Arctigenin also significantly reversed scopolamine-induced memory deficits in the Y-maze and Morris water maze tests. On the basis of these findings, arctigenin may ameliorate memory deficits by inhibiting AChE. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Design and synthesis of novel arctigenin analogues for the amelioration of metabolic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Shudong; Huang, Suling; Gong, Jian; Shen, Yu; Zeng, Limin; Feng, Ying; Ren, Wenming; Leng, Ying; Hu, Youhong

    2015-04-09

    Analogues of the natural product (-)-arctigenin, an activator of adenosine monophosphate activated protein kinase, were prepared in order to evaluate their effects on 2-deoxyglucose uptake in L6 myotubes and possible use in ameliorating metabolic disorders. Racemic arctigenin 2a was found to display a similar uptake enhancement as does (-)-arctigenin. As a result, the SAR study was conducted utilizing racemic compounds. The structure-activity relationship study led to the discovery of key substitution patterns on the lactone motif that govern 2-deoxyglucose uptake activities. The results show that replacement of the para-hydroxyl group of the C-2 benzyl moiety of arctigenin by Cl has a pronounced effect on uptake activity. Specifically, analogue 2p, which contains the p-Cl substituent, stimulates glucose uptake and fatty acid oxidation in L6 myotubes.

  14. Amelioration of irradiation injury to Florida grapefruit by pretreatment with vapor heat or fungicides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, W.R.; McDonald, R.E.

    1998-01-01

    Grapefruit shipped to certain markets must be certified free of Caribbean fruit fly (Anastrepha suspensa Loew) (CFF) infestation. Low-dose irradiation is effective for the control of CFF by sterilization. This treatment is expected to be approved for industry usage in the near future. 'Marsh' grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf.) was treated with vapor heat (2 hours at 38 degrees C), and fungicidal treatments of thiabendazole (TBZ) (4 gm.L-1) and TBZ (1 gm.L-1) plus imazalil (1 gm.L-1) prior to irradiation at 0.5 or 1.0 kGy. Vapor heat reduced the severity and incidence of peel injury by approximately 50% without adversely affecting other quality attributes. The fungicide did not reduce peel injury. The use of vapor heat before low-dose irradiation quarantine treatment of grapefruit may ameliorate or eliminate peel injury caused by irradiation

  15. Pycnogenol Ameliorates Depression-Like Behavior in Repeated Corticosterone-Induced Depression Mice Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Mei

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is considered to be a mechanism of major depression. Pycnogenol (PYC is a natural plant extract from the bark of Pinus pinaster Aiton and has potent antioxidant activities. We studied the ameliorative effect of PYC on depression-like behavior in chronic corticosterone- (CORT- treated mice for 20 days. After the end of the CORT treatment period, PYC (0.2 mg/mL was orally administered in normal drinking water. Depression-like behavior was investigated by the forced swimming test. Immobility time was significantly longer by CORT exposure. When the CORT-treated mice were supplemented with PYC, immobility time was significantly shortened. Our results indicate that orally administered PYC may serve to reduce CORT-induced stress by radical scavenging activity.

  16. Prophylactic treatment with a potent corticosteroid cream ameliorates radiodermatitis, independent of radiation schedule

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulff, Eva; Maroti, Marianne; Serup, Jörgen

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The study will test the hypothesis that preventive topical steroid treatment instituted from start of radiotherapy can ameliorate acute radiation dermatitis. Subgroups of increased risk of dermatitis are included. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A double blinded randomized trial...... of acute radiation dermatitis in breast cancer patients treated with adjuvant RT, independent of RT schedule. Preventive application of a potent corticosteroid cream should be used in the routine and instituted at the start of RT....... schedules as well as for anatomical sites, skin type, breast size and BMI. Patients treated the irradiated area during the radiation period and two weeks following cessation of radiation. RESULTS: Patients receiving hypofraction RT developed less skin reactions than those treated with conventional RT...

  17. Dexamethasone palmitate ameliorates macrophages-rich graft-versus-host disease by inhibiting macrophage functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiwaki, Satoshi; Nakayama, Takayuki; Murata, Makoto; Nishida, Tetsuya; Terakura, Seitaro; Saito, Shigeki; Kato, Tomonori; Mizuno, Hiroki; Imahashi, Nobuhiko; Seto, Aika; Ozawa, Yukiyasu; Miyamura, Koichi; Ito, Masafumi; Takeshita, Kyosuke; Kato, Hidefumi; Toyokuni, Shinya; Nagao, Keisuke; Ueda, Ryuzo; Naoe, Tomoki

    2014-01-01

    Macrophage infiltration of skin GVHD lesions correlates directly with disease severity, but the mechanisms underlying this relationship remain unclear and GVHD with many macrophages is a therapeutic challenge. Here, we characterize the macrophages involved in GVHD and report that dexamethasone palmitate (DP), a liposteroid, can ameliorate such GVHD by inhibiting macrophage functions. We found that host-derived macrophages could exacerbate GVHD in a mouse model through expression of higher levels of pro-inflammatory TNF-α and IFN-γ, and lower levels of anti-inflammatory IL-10 than resident macrophages in mice without GVHD. DP significantly decreased the viability and migration capacity of primary mouse macrophages compared to conventional dexamethasone in vitro. DP treatment on day 7 and day 14 decreased macrophage number, and attenuated GVHD score and subsequent mortality in a murine model. This is the first study to provide evidence that therapy for GVHD should be changed on the basis of infiltrating cell type.

  18. Inhibition of interleukin-6 decreases atrogene expression and ameliorates tail suspension-induced skeletal muscle atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakabe, Mitsutaka; Ota, Hidetaka; Iijima, Katsuya; Eto, Masato; Ouchi, Yasuyoshi; Akishita, Masahiro

    2018-01-01

    Background Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is an inflammatory cytokine. Whether systemic IL-6 affects atrogene expression and disuse-induced skeletal muscle atrophy is unclear. Methods Tail-suspended mice were used as a disuse-induced muscle atrophy model. We administered anti-mouse IL-6 receptor antibody, beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) and vitamin D to the mice and examined the effects on atrogene expression and muscle atrophy. Results Serum IL-6 levels were elevated in the mice. Inhibition of IL-6 receptor suppressed muscle RING finger 1 (MuRF1) expression and prevented muscle atrophy. HMB and vitamin D inhibited the serum IL-6 surge, downregulated the expression of MuRF1 and atrogin-1 in the soleus muscle, and ameliorated atrophy in the mice. Conclusion Systemic IL-6 affects MuRF1 expression and disuse-induced muscle atrophy. PMID:29351340

  19. Inhibition of interleukin-6 decreases atrogene expression and ameliorates tail suspension-induced skeletal muscle atrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsutaka Yakabe

    Full Text Available Interleukin-6 (IL-6 is an inflammatory cytokine. Whether systemic IL-6 affects atrogene expression and disuse-induced skeletal muscle atrophy is unclear.Tail-suspended mice were used as a disuse-induced muscle atrophy model. We administered anti-mouse IL-6 receptor antibody, beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB and vitamin D to the mice and examined the effects on atrogene expression and muscle atrophy.Serum IL-6 levels were elevated in the mice. Inhibition of IL-6 receptor suppressed muscle RING finger 1 (MuRF1 expression and prevented muscle atrophy. HMB and vitamin D inhibited the serum IL-6 surge, downregulated the expression of MuRF1 and atrogin-1 in the soleus muscle, and ameliorated atrophy in the mice.Systemic IL-6 affects MuRF1 expression and disuse-induced muscle atrophy.

  20. Novel pathways for ameliorating the fitness cost of gentamicin resistant small colony variants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Martin; Paulander, Wilhelm Erik Axel; Leng, Bingfeng

    2016-01-01

    Small colony variants (SCVs) of the human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus are associated with persistent infections. Phenotypically, SCVs are characterized by slow growth and they can arise upon interruption of the electron transport chain that consequently reduce membrane potential and thereby...... limit uptake of aminoglycosides (e.g., gentamicin). In this study, we have examined the pathways by which the fitness cost of SCVs can be ameliorated. Five gentamicin resistant SCVs derived from S. aureus JE2 were independently selected on agar plates supplemented with gentamicin. The SCVs carried...... mutations in the menaquinone and hemin biosynthesis pathways, which caused a significant reduction in exponential growth rates relative to wild type (WT; 0.59-0.72) and reduced membrane potentials. Fifty independent lineages of the low-fitness, resistant mutants were serially passaged for up to 500...

  1. Dammarane Sapogenins Ameliorates Neurocognitive Functional Impairment Induced by Simulated Long-Duration Spaceflight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaorui Wu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence indicates the occurrence of cognitive impairment in astronauts under spaceflight compound conditions, but the underlying mechanisms and countermeasures need to be explored. In this study, we found that learning and memory abilities were significantly reduced in rats under a simulated long-duration spaceflight environment (SLSE, which includes microgravity, isolation confinement, noises, and altered circadian rhythms. Dammarane sapogenins (DS, alkaline hydrolyzed products of ginsenosides, can enhance cognition function by regulating brain neurotransmitter levels and inhibiting SLSE-induced neuronal injury. Bioinformatics combined with experimental verification identified that the PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway was inhibited and the MAPK pathway was activated during SLSE-induced cognition dysfunction, whereas DS substantially ameliorated the changes in brain. These findings defined the characteristics of SLSE-induced cognitive decline and the mechanisms by which DS improves it. The results provide an effective candidate for improving cognitive function in spaceflight missions.

  2. Using megestrol acetate to ameliorate protein-energy wasting in chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Christine Skouberdis; Logomarsino, John V

    2016-03-01

    Various populations are affected by chronic kidney disease (CKD), and a low dose appetite stimulant megestrol acetate (MA) is sometimes recommended in patients with CKD to ameliorate protein-energy wasting (PEW). Patients with CKD are at greater risk of developing PEW since the progression of their disease can cause decreased nutrient intake, catabolic effects, systemic inflammation and metabolic changes. Providers can detect PEW in CKD by identifying low serum levels ≤3.8 g/dl of albumin, protein and energy intake increases from 27% to 42%. There are potential adverse effects of using MA in CKD. After reviewing the available literature, the benefits of using MA should be evaluated against the potential side effects. For further examination of MA's potential benefits, long-term, prospective, large clinical trials should be carried out. © 2015 European Dialysis and Transplant Nurses Association/European Renal Care Association.

  3. AN AMELIORATED DETECTION STATISTICS FOR ADAPTIVE MASK MEDIAN FILTRATION OF HEAVILY NOISED DIGITAL IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geeta Hanji

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Noise reduction is an important area of research in image processing applications. The performance of the digital image noise filtering method primarily depends upon the accuracy of noise detection scheme. This paper presents an effective detector based, adaptive mask, median filtration of heavily noised digital images affected with fixed value (or salt and pepper impulse noise. The proposed filter presents a novel approach; an ameliorated Rank Ordered Absolute Deviation (ROAD statistics to judge whether the input pixel is noised or noise free. If a pixel is detected as corrupted, it is subjected to adaptive mask median filtration; otherwise, it is kept unchanged. Extensive experimental results and comparative performance evaluations demonstrate that the proposed filter outperforms the existing decision type, median based filters with powerful noise detectors in terms of objective performance measures and visual retrieviation accuracy.

  4. Modelo de auxílio à identificação de trabalho escravo ou degradante utilizando lógica fuzzy

    OpenAIRE

    Silva Filho, Benedito de Lima

    2006-01-01

    Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro Tecnológico. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia de Produção Esta dissertação apresenta um modelo de auxílio de decisão na identificação de trabalho escravo ou degradante utilizando lógica fuzzy. O mesmo aumenta a transparência nas identificações das condições de trabalho escravo ou degradante, capacitando os agentes do Ministério do Trabalho e Emprego e os profissionais que atuam na área para uma melhor compreensã...

  5. Le Machine Learning confronté aux contraintes opérationnelles des systèmes de détection

    OpenAIRE

    Beaugnon , Anaël; Husson , Antoine

    2017-01-01

    International audience; Les systèmes de détection d’intrusion, reposant traditionnellementsur des signatures, n’ont pas échappé à l’attrait récent des techniquesde Machine Learning. Si les résultats présentés dans les articles de rechercheacadémique sont souvent excellents, les experts en sécurité ontcependant encore de nombreuses réticences concernant l’utilisation duMachine Learning dans les systèmes de détection d’intrusion. Ils redoutentgénéralement une inadéquation de ces techniques aux ...

  6. « Women’s Studies » aux Etats-Unis : trente ans de succès et de contestation

    OpenAIRE

    BOXER, Marilyn

    2006-01-01

    Ces trente dernières années, les women’s studies se sont développées aux États-Unis et sont devenues un nouveau domaine du savoir dans l’enseignement supérieur. Entre 1978 et 1995, plus de 10 000 étudiants ont obtenu un diplôme doctoral fondé sur un travail de recherche dans ce domaine. Les women’s studies ont amené de nouvelles questions, de nouveaux concepts, de nouvelles catégories d’analyse et des interprétations révisées de la sagesse conventionnelle à beaucoup – si ce n’est à la plupart...

  7. Des monastères aux funérailles. La construction d’une relation ethnographique avec des chrétiennes de Damas (Syrie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Poujeau

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Des monastères aux funérailles. La construction d’une relation ethnographique avec des chrétiennes de Damas (Syrie. En juillet 2004, j’ai assisté aux funérailles d’un jeune homme de la famille au sein de laquelle je vivais à Damas. À l’époque, l’intense émotion suscitée par cet événement empêcha que je m’y intéresse de plus près. Ce n’est que deux ans plus tard, en juillet 2006, que j’ai décidé d’enquêter sur l’un des aspects majeurs de la cérémonie : les lamentations funèbres féminines. Lors de ce dernier terrain, les femmes de la famille que j’interrogeais, que j’accompagnais aux funérailles et dont j’enregistrais les chants m’assignèrent alors une place tout à fait particulière. Puisque, moi aussi, « je m’habillais en noir et je venais aux funérailles », je ne pouvais plus être considérée comme une étrangère. Dès lors, elles firent de moi la fille d’une de leur sœur émigrée à Paris et mariée avec un Français. Ce statut me fut par ailleurs confirmé lorsqu’elles m’attribuèrent une place dans leurs plaisanteries entre sœurs, tantes et neveux matrilatéraux.Dans cet article, je souhaite engager une double réflexion : sur la position et l’implication de l’ethnologue sur un terrain où l’émotion est au premier plan, ainsi que sur la façon dont être assignée à une place dans la parenté de ses informateurs donne enfin toute liberté d’action à l’ethnologue sur son terrain.From monasteries to funerals. The construction of ethnographical relations with the Christians of Damascus (Syria. In July 2004, I attended the funeral of a young man from the family with whom I was staying in Damascus. At the time, the intense emotion provoked by that event prevented me from immediately examining it more closely. It was only two years later, in July 2006, that I decided to study one of the main features of the ceremony: the women’s lamentations. During this

  8. Paternité des articles et intérêts concurrents : une analyse des recommandations aux auteurs des journaux traitant de pratique pharmaceutique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courbon, Ève; Tanguay, Cynthia; Lebel, Denis; Bussières, Jean-François

    2014-01-01

    RÉSUMÉ Contexte : La présence d’auteurs honorifiques et fantômes ainsi que les intérêts concurrents représentent des difficultés bien documentées, liées à la publication d’articles scientifiques. Il existe des lignes directrices encadrant la rédaction et la publication de manuscrits scientifiques, notamment celles de l’International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE). Objectifs : L’objectif principal de cette étude descriptive et transversale visait à recenser les instructions portant sur la paternité des articles et les intérêts concurrents provenant des recommandations aux auteurs des journaux traitant de pratique pharmaceutique. L’objectif secondaire visait à déterminer des mesures correctrices pour une paternité des articles plus transparente. Méthode : La recherche a débuté par l’identification des journaux traitant de pratique pharmaceutique. La consultation des instructions aux auteurs des journaux a permis ensuite de recenser les recommandations destinées à éviter les problèmes de paternité des articles et d’intérêts concurrents. Finalement, les membres de l’équipe de recherche se sont consultés afin de définir des mesures correctrices possibles à l’intention des chercheurs. Résultats : Des 232 journaux traitant de pharmacie, 33 ont été définis comme traitant de pratique pharmaceutique. Un total de 24 (73 %) journaux mentionnaient suivre la politique de l’ICMJE, 14 (42 %) demandaient aux auteurs de remplir un formulaire de déclaration d’intérêts concurrents au moment de la soumission de l’article, 17 (52 %) présentaient une définition de la qualité d’auteur et 5 (15 %) demandaient de détailler les contributions de chaque auteur. Une grille de 40 critères a été élaborée pour définir l’attribution du statut d’auteur. Conclusion : Moins de la moitié des journaux demandait aux auteurs de transmettre un formulaire de déclaration des intérêts concurrents au moment de la

  9. Rôles et actions des groupes dominants dans la ville : des outils aux processus historicisés. Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Céline Tellier

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Fruit d’une journée d’étude organisée en mars 2008 par le programme de recherche ARC « Les élites dans la ville » de l’Université Libre de Bruxelles, ce numéro spécial regroupe une série d’articles qui s’intéressent aux modes opératoires de la « construction » de l’espace urbain par certains groupes sociaux, appelés ici « dominants ». Par « construction », nous n’entendons pas seulement les aspects matériels mais aussi, si pas davantage, les aspects sociaux et symboliques qui sont mis en œuvr...

  10. Accès aux soins des personnes originaires d&8217;Afrique subsaharienne vivant avec une hépatite B chronique

    OpenAIRE

    Vignier, N.; Spira, R. D.; Lert, F.; Pannetier, J.; Ravalihasy, Andrainolo; Gosselin, A.; Lydie, N.; Bouchaud, O.; Desgrées du Loû, Annabel; Grp, Anrs-Parcours

    2017-01-01

    Objectif : L'objectif de cette étude est d'analyser l'accès aux soins des personnes originaires d'Afrique subsaharienne (ASS) vivant avec une hépatite B chronique (HBC) en France. Méthodes : L'enquête ANRS-Parcours est une étude biographique réalisée en 2012-2013 auprès de personnes originaires d'ASS recrutées dans des services de prise en charge de l'HBC en Ile-de-France. Les données ont été recueillies en face-à-face à l'aide d'une grille biographique et d'un questionnaire standardisé. ...

  11. Fédéralisme et droits des LGBT aux États-Unis et au Canada : analyse comparatives des politiques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Smith

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available L’article examine le militantisme LGBT et les résultats des politiques en matière de droit pénal et du mariage entre personnes de même sexe de 1969 à aujourd’hui, dans le cadre d’une analyse comparée du fédéralisme aux États-Unis et au Canada. Nous soutiendrons que le fédéralisme a grandement façonné les politiques publiques relatives aux droits des LGBT. Dans le régime américain, le potentiel d’expansion du fédéralisme a favorisé les changements graduels de politiques dans les États et, parallèlement, les multiples points de véto créés par le système de séparation des pouvoirs conjugués aux compétences conférés aux États dans d’importants domaines de politiques ont entravé ces changements de politiques. Dans le régime canadien, la centralisation des mécanismes de protection des droits de la personne dans la Charte de même que la dynamique descendante de l’exercice du pouvoir dans le régime parlementaire de type Westminster ont facilité les changements de politiques. Le fédéralisme est souvent perçu comme un obstacle à l’adoption de politiques progressistes. La répartition des pouvoirs entrave l’élaboration de politiques cohérentes et prête le flanc à la prolifération de vétos dont peuvent se prévaloir des groupes influents pour freiner le changement. Les critiques de cette perspective arguent depuis longtemps que, même si le fédéralisme multiplie les points de véto, il présente aussi de nombreuses possibilités d’innovation. Ils font valoir que les groupes ont plus de poids dans les régimes fédéraux puisqu’ils peuvent exercer leur influence à deux paliers de gouvernement plutôt qu’à un. Ainsi, un groupe qui ne réussit pas à se faire entendre à l’un des paliers pourra tenter sa chance au second et pourra même dresser un palier contre l’autre pour atteindre ses objectifs stratégiques.

  12. Decommissioning of the nuclear licensed facilities at the Fontenay aux Roses CEA Center; cleanup of nuclear licensed facility 57 and monitoring of operations and operating feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estivie, D.; Bohar, M.P.; Jeanjacques, M.; Binet, C.; Bremond, M.P.; Poyau, C.; Mandard, L.; Boissonneau, J.F.; Fouquereau, A.; Pichereau, E.

    2008-01-01

    This is a summary of the program for the decommissioning of all the CEA Licensed Nuclear Facilities in Fontenay aux Roses. The particularity of this center is now it is located in a built-up area. It is presented like example the operations to clean up the equipment of the Nuclear Licensed Facility 57 (NLF 57). Due to the diversity of the research and development work carried out on the reprocessing of spent fuel in it, this installation is emblematic of many of the technical and organizational issues liable to be encountered in the final closure of nuclear facilities. It was developed a method applied to establish the multi-annual budget, monitor the progress of operations and integrate, as work continues, the operating feedback. (author)

  13. GARLIC AMELIORATES THE HEPATOTOXIC EFFECT INDUCED BY THIOACETAMIDE IN FEMALE RATS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    OSMAN, H.F.; TAHA, M.S.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the pretreatment effect of garlic on hepatotoxicity and oxidative stress induced by thioacetamide (TAA) in female albino rats.Sixty female adult albino rats were assigned equally into four groups; control group: animals without treatment, group ?: rats given daily oral dose of 250 mg/ kg garlic for 28 days, group ??: rats injected intraperitonealy by thioacetamide 20 mg ? kg for two weeks and group III: rats given 250 mg / kg garlic orally for 28 day followed by intrapertoneal injection of 20 mg / kg thioacetamide for two weeks. Liver enzymes were evaluated by measurements of AST, ALT and alkaline phosphatase and also trace elements (Cu and Zn) were estimated. Superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, malondialdehyde and thyroid hormones (T3 and T4) were assessed. Also, histological studies on liver and stomach were carried out. The results indicated that treatment with garlic significantly decreased liver enzymes (AST, ALT and ALP). Cu showed high significant increase in groups treated with garlic and also garlic + TAA, while Zn was increased significantly in TAA group. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) was increased significantly in group I while TAA decreased it significantly. Glutathione peroxidase was decreased significantly in group II while its level in group IV reached near the control value. Similarly, malondialdehyde was decreased significantly in garlic group and garlic ameliorated the thioacetamide effect in garlic + TAA group. The treatment with TAA led to significant increase in T3 and significant decrease in T4 hormones. Garlic ameliorated T3 level to reach the control level. Histologically, pre-treatment with garlic induced a prophylactic activity against the thioacetamide in liver and stomach tissues.According to the obtained results, it could be conclude that garlic treatment may act as antioxidant or pro-oxidant in TAA treated animals besides decreasing the TAA toxic effects on liver enzymes, liver and

  14. Andrographolide sulfonate ameliorates experimental colitis in mice by inhibiting Th1/Th17 response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wen; Guo, Wenjie; Guo, Lele; Gu, Yanhong; Cai, Peifen; Xie, Ning; Yang, Xiaoling; Shu, Yongqian; Wu, Xuefeng; Sun, Yang; Xu, Qiang

    2014-06-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic, relapsing and remitting condition of inflammation involves overproduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines and excessive functions of inflammatory cells. However, current treatments for IBD may have potential adverse effects including steroid dependence, infections and lymphoma. Therefore new therapies for the treatment of IBD are desperately needed. In the present study, we aimed to examine the effect of andrographolide sulfonate, a water-soluble form of andrographolide (trade name: Xi-Yan-Ping Injection), on murine experimental colitis induced by 2, 4, 6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS). Andrographolide sulfonate was administrated through intraperitoneal injection to mice with TNBS-induced colitis. TNBS-induced body weight loss, myeloperoxidase activity, shortening of the colon and colonic inflammation were significantly ameliorated by andrographolide sulfonate. Both the mRNA and protein levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines were reduced by andrographolide sulfonate administration. Moreover, andrographolide sulfonate markedly suppressed the activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase as well as p65 subunit of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). Furthermore, CD4(+) T cell infiltration as well as the differentiation of Th1 (CD4(+)IFN-γ(+)) and Th17 (CD4(+)IL17A(+)) subset were inhibited by andrographolide sulfonate. In summary, these results suggest that andrographolide sulfonate ameliorated TNBS-induced colitis in mice through inhibiting Th1/Th17 response. Our study shows that water-soluble andrographolide sulfonate may represent a new therapeutic approach for treating gastrointestinal inflammatory disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Jinlida reduces insulin resistance and ameliorates liver oxidative stress in high-fat fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yixuan; Song, An; Zang, Shasha; Wang, Chao; Song, Guangyao; Li, Xiaoling; Zhu, Yajun; Yu, Xian; Li, Ling; Wang, Yun; Duan, Liyuan

    2015-03-13

    Jinlida (JLD) is a compound preparation formulated on the basis of traditional Chinese medicine and is officially approved for the treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) in China. We aimed to elucidate the mechanism of JLD treatment, in comparison to metformin treatment, on ameliorating insulin sensitivity in insulin resistant rats and to reveal its anti-oxidant properties. Rats were fed with standard or high-fat diet for 6 weeks. After 6 weeks, the high-fat fed rats were subdivided into five groups and orally fed with JLD or metformin for 8 weeks. Fasting blood glucose (FBG), fasting blood insulin, blood lipid and antioxidant enzymes were measured. Intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT) and hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp technique were carried out to measure insulin sensitivity. Gene expression of the major signaling pathway molecules that regulate glucose uptake, including insulin receptor (INSR), insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1), phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K), protein kinase beta (AKT), and glucose transporter type 2 (GLUT2), were assessed by quantitative RT-PCR. The totle and phosphorylation expression of IRS-1, AKT, JNK and p38MAPK were determined by Western blot. Treatment with JLD effectively ameliorated the high-fat induced hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia and hyperlipidemia. Similar to metformin, the high insulin resistance in high-fat fed rats was significantly decreased by JLD treatment. JLD displayed anti-oxidant effects, coupled with up-regulation of the insulin signaling pathway. The attenuation of hepatic oxidative stress by JLD treatment was associated with reduced phosphorylation protein levels of JNK and p38MAPK. Treatment with JLD could moderate glucose and lipid metabolism as well as reduce hepatic oxidative stress, most likely through the JNK and p38MAPK pathways. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Cognitive Ameliorating Effect of Acanthopanax koreanum Against Scopolamine-Induced Memory Impairment in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sunhee; Park, Ho Jae; Jeon, Se Jin; Kim, Eunji; Lee, Hyung Eun; Kim, Haneul; Kwon, Yubeen; Zhang, Jiabao; Jung, In Ho; Ryu, Jong Hoon

    2017-03-01

    Acanthopanax koreanum Nakai (Araliaceae) is one of the most widely cultivated medicinal plants in Jeju Island, Korea, and the roots and stem bark of A. koreanum have been traditionally used as a tonic agent for general weakness. However, the use of A. koreanum for general weakness observed in the elderly, including those with declined cognitive function, has not been intensively investigated. This study was performed to investigate the effect of the ethanol extract of A. koreanum (EEAK) on cholinergic blockade-induced memory impairment in mice. To evaluate the ameliorating effects of EEAK against scopolamine-induced memory impairment, mice were orally administered EEAK (25, 50, 100, or 200 mg/kg), and several behavioral tasks, including a passive avoidance task, the Y-maze, and a novel object recognition task, were employed. Besides, western blot analysis was conducted to examine whether EEAK affected memory-associated signaling molecules, such as protein kinase B (Akt), Ca 2+ /calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB). The administration of EEAK (100 or 200 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly ameliorated the scopolamine-induced cognitive impairment in the passive avoidance task, the Y-maze, and the novel object recognition task. The phosphorylation levels of both Akt and CaMKII were significantly increased by approximately two-fold compared with the control group because of the administration of EEAK (100 or 200 mg/kg) (p cognitive dysfunction induced by the cholinergic blockade, in part, via several memory-associated signaling molecules and may hold therapeutic potential against cognitive dysfunction, such as that presented in neurodegenerative diseases, for example, Alzheimer's disease. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Intraperitoneal administration of the globular adiponectin gene ameliorates diabetic nephropathy in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Fang; Liu, Ying-Hong; Liu, Fu-You; Peng, You-Ming; Tian, Jun-Wei

    2014-06-01

    The present study investigated the potential effects of the long-term expression of exogenous adiponectin (ADPN) on normal and diabetic kidneys. Type 2 diabetes mellitus models were induced by high-lipid and high-sucrose feeding plus intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. The recombinant plasmid pIRES2-EGFP-gAd, which is able to co-express globular ADPN (gAd) and enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP), was intraperitoneally injected into rat models mediated by Lipofectamine. In total, 32 Wistar rats were randomly assigned into four groups: the normal control group, the diabetes group, the diabetes group treated with pIRES2-EGFP-gAd and the diabetes group treated with pIRES2-EGFP. After 12 weeks, serum biochemistry and urine albumin levels were measured. The kidneys were collected to assess the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the renal pathological changes were observed by light microcopy. The protein expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and phosphorylated adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (p-AMPK) were determined by an immunohistochemical staining method and western blot analysis. Intraperitoneal injection of the human gAd gene via Lipofectamine resulted in abundant ADPN protein in the kidney. In the diabetic rats, the delivery of the exogenous gAd gene ameliorated the progression of diabetic nephropathy (DN). ADPN attenuated urine albumin excretion in the diabetic rats. ADPN also mitigated glomerular mesangial expansion, reduced the generation of ROS and prevented interstitial fibrosis. In addition, the expression of gAd inhibited the renal expression of TGF-β1, promoted the protein expression of eNOS and activated the opening of the AMPK signaling pathway in the renal tissues of the diabetic rats. Despite the effects of ADPN on DN being controversial, these observations indicate that the supplementation of ADPN is beneficial in ameliorating DN in rats.

  18. Ameliorative effects of arctiin from Arctium lappa on experimental glomerulonephritis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jian-Guo; Wu, Jin-Zhong; Sun, Lian-Na; Han, Ting; Du, Jian; Ye, Qi; Zhang, Hong; Zhang, Yu-Guang

    2009-11-01

    Membranous glomerulonephritis (MGN) remains the most common cause of adult-onset nephrotic syndrome in the world and up to 40% of untreated patients will progress to end-stage renal disease. Although the treatment of MGN with immunosuppressants or steroid hormones can attenuate the deterioration of renal function, numerous treatment-related complications have also been established. In this study, the ameliorative effects of arctiin, a natural compound isolated from the fruits of Arctium lappa, on rat glomerulonephritis induced by cationic bovine serum albumin (cBSA) were determined. After oral administration of arctiin (30, 60, 120 mg/kgd) for three weeks, the levels of serum creatinine (Scr) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and 24-h urine protein content markedly decreased, while endogenous creatinine clearance rate (ECcr) significantly increased. The parameters of renal lesion, hypercellularity, infiltration of polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN), fibrinoid necrosis, focal and segmental proliferation and interstitial infiltration, were reversed. In addition, we observed that arctiin evidently reduced the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and pro-inflammatory cytokines including interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha), suppressed nuclear factor-kappaB p65 (NF-kappaB) DNA binding activity, and enhanced superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. These findings suggest that the ameliorative effects of arctiin on glomerulonephritis is carried out mainly by suppression of NF-kappaB activation and nuclear translocation and the decreases in the levels of these pro-inflammatory cytokines, while SOD is involved in the inhibitory pathway of NF-kappaB activation. Arctiin has favorable potency for the development of an inhibitory agent of NF-kappaB and further application to clinical treatment of glomerulonephritis, though clinical studies are required.

  19. Amelioration of chronic fluoride toxicity by calcium and fluoride-free water in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar, Priyanka; Ghosh, Sudip; Bhaskarachary, K; Venkaiah, K; Khandare, Arjun L

    2013-07-14

    The study was undertaken to explore the amelioration of chronic fluoride (F) toxicity (with low and normal Ca) in rats. The study was conducted in two phases. In phase I (6 months), seventy-six Wistar, weanling male rats were assigned to four treatment groups: normal-Ca (0·5 %) diet (NCD), Ca+F - ; low-Ca (0·25 %) diet (LCD), Ca - F - ; NCD +100 parts per million (ppm) F water, Ca+F+; LCD +100 ppm F water, Ca - F+. In phase II (reversal experiment, 3 months), LCD was replaced with the NCD. Treatment groups Ca+F+ and Ca - F+ were divided into two subgroups to compare the effect of continuation v. discontinuation along with Ca supplementation on reversal of chronic F toxicity. In phase I, significantly reduced food efficiency ratio (FER), body weight gain (BWG), faecal F excretion, serum Ca and increased bone F deposition were observed in the treatment group Ca - F+. Reduced serum 25-hydroxy-vitamin D3, increased 1,25-dihydroxy-vitamin D3 and up-regulation of Ca-sensing receptor, vitamin D receptor and S100 Ca-binding protein G (S100G) were observed in treatment groups Ca - F - and Ca - F+. In phase II (reversal phase), FER, BWG and serum Ca in treatment groups Ca - F+/Ca+F - and Ca - F+/Ca+F+ were still lower, as compared with other groups. However, other variables were comparable. Down-regulation of S100G was observed in F-fed groups (Ca+F+/Ca+F+ and Ca - F+/Ca+F+) in phase II. It is concluded that low Ca aggravates F toxicity, which can be ameliorated after providing adequate Ca and F-free water. However, chronic F toxicity can interfere with Ca absorption by down-regulating S100G expression irrespective of Ca nutrition.

  20. A mixture of honey bee products ameliorates the genotoxic side effects of cyclophosphamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maha Aly Fahmy

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the protective role of a mixture of honey bee products (honey, royal jelly and pollen grains against the genotoxicity induced by the anticancer drug cyclophosphamide (CP. Methods: The study included chromosomal aberration analysis in mice bone marrow cells, induction of morphological sperm abnormalities, DNA fragmentation and histopathological changes induced in liver cells of mice. CP was injected intraperitoneally at the dose of 20 mg/ kg body weight. The mixture of honey bee products was administrated orally for different periods of time 5, 10 and 15 days with a dose exactly equivalent to the daily intake of human beings. Results: The results revealed that honey mixture ameliorated the genotoxic side effects of CP. For chromosomal aberrations the percentage reached 25.20 ± 1.30 for CP treated group, while it reached half of that value 12.30 ± 0.54 in CP-group pretreated with honey mixture for 15 days. Breaks, fragments and multiple aberrations were the most pronounced types of aberrations induced after CP treatment and honey mixture reduced these types of abnormalities. CP induced significant percentage of sperm abnormalities 8.52 ± 0.17 compared to control 3.10 ± 0.10. The percentage of sperm abnormalities reached nearly to the control value in CP- mice treated with honey mixture for 15 days. Honey also reduced the incidence of liver DNA damage induced by CP. The results also indicated that CP had a marked damaging effect on liver tissue including severe dilatation, congestion of main blood vessels and massive infiltration of inflammatory cells with irregular general pattern of the tissue. These effects were greatly ameliorated by using oral administration of honey mixture for different periods of time. Conclusions: The results concluded that honey bee mixture can be used as chemopreventive agent for minimizing the genotoxic side effects of the anticancer drug CP and open the field for its use in many applications.

  1. The free radical scavenger, edaravone, ameliorates delayed neuropsychological sequelae after acute carbon monoxide poisoning in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qingsong, Wang; Yeming, Guan; Xuechun, Liu; Hongjuan, Liu; Jing, Wang

    2013-01-01

    The mechanism underlying delayed neuropsychological sequelae (DNS) after acute carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is unclear. There are no effective treatments for DNS. As part of a new generation of antioxidants, edaravone has been reported to improve clinical outcomes in patients exhibiting ischemic strokes. There has been little data about edaravone in relationship to DNS prevention and treatment. We hypothesized that edaravone could ameliorate DNS: Here we test that hypothesis in rabbits Rabbits were randomly divided into sham control,DNS group, saline group and edaravone group. DNS model was made by intraperitoneal injection of CO. Normal saline or edaravone (1 mg/kg, twice daily, a total of one course for 14 days) was infused through the ear vein from Day 15 since the DNS model was established. Serum superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured in each group. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) was used to examine regions of the brain for various compounds. The apoptotic index and neuronal density in the hippocampal CA1 area were also investigated. SOD activity decreased significantly and MDA content increased substantially in the DNS group and saline group when compared with the sham control (p edaravone group, serum SOD activity significantly increased and MDA levels significantly decreased when compared with DNS and saline group (p edaravone group (p edaravone group was significantly lower than that of the DNS and saline groups (p edaravone group was significantly higher than that of the DNS and saline group in the hippocampal CA1 area (p edaravone could ameliorate DNS after acute carbon monoxide poisoning in rabbits. These results suggest free radicals could be involved in the underlying mechanisms of DNS. Furthermore, brain MRS shows promise as a tool for early diagnosis for DNS.

  2. Uric acid ameliorates indomethacin-induced enteropathy in mice through its antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasutake, Yuichi; Tomita, Kengo; Higashiyama, Masaaki; Furuhashi, Hirotaka; Shirakabe, Kazuhiko; Takajo, Takeshi; Maruta, Koji; Sato, Hirokazu; Narimatsu, Kazuyuki; Yoshikawa, Kenichi; Okada, Yoshikiyo; Kurihara, Chie; Watanabe, Chikako; Komoto, Shunsuke; Nagao, Shigeaki; Matsuo, Hirotaka; Miura, Soichiro; Hokari, Ryota

    2017-11-01

    Uric acid is excreted from blood into the intestinal lumen, yet the roles of uric acid in intestinal diseases remain to be elucidated. The study aimed to determine whether uric acid could reduce end points associated with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-induced enteropathy. A mouse model of NSAID-induced enteropathy was generated by administering indomethacin intraperitoneally to 8-week-old male C57BL/6 mice, and then vehicle or uric acid was administered orally. A group of mice treated with indomethacin was also concurrently administered inosinic acid, a uric acid precursor, and potassium oxonate, an inhibitor of uric acid metabolism, intraperitoneally. For in vitro analysis, Caco-2 cells treated with indomethacin were incubated in the presence or absence of uric acid. Oral administration of uric acid ameliorated NSAID-induced enteropathy in mice even though serum uric acid levels did not increase. Intraperitoneal administration of inosinic acid and potassium oxonate significantly elevated serum uric acid levels and ameliorated NSAID-induced enteropathy in mice. Both oral uric acid treatment and intraperitoneal treatment with inosinic acid and potassium oxonate significantly decreased lipid peroxidation in the ileum of mice with NSAID-induced enteropathy. Treatment with uric acid protected Caco-2 cells from indomethacin-induced oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, and cytotoxicity. Uric acid within the intestinal lumen and in serum had a protective effect against NSAID-induced enteropathy in mice, through its antioxidant activity. Uric acid could be a promising therapeutic target for NSAID-induced enteropathy. © 2017 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  3. GM-CSF ameliorates microvascular barrier integrity via pericyte-derived Ang-1 in wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Min; Hu, Yange; Yao, Min; Bao, Shisan; Fang, Yong

    2017-11-01

    Skin wound healing involves complex coordinated interactions of cells, tissues, and mediators. Maintaining microvascular barrier integrity is one of the key events for endothelial homeostasis during wound healing. Vasodilation is observed after vasoconstriction, which causes blood vessels to become porous, facilitates leukocyte infiltration and aids angiogenesis at the wound-area, postinjury. Eventually, vessel integrity has to be reestablished for vascular maturation. Numerous studies have found that granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) accelerates wound healing by inducing recruitment of repair cells into the injury area and releases of cytokines. However, whether GM-CSF is involving in the maintaining of microvascular barrier integrity and the underlying mechanism remain still unclear. Aim of this study was to investigate the effects of GM-CSF on modulation of microvascular permeability in wound healing and underlying mechanisms. Wound closure and microvascular leakage was investigated using a full-thickness skin wound mouse model after GM-CSF intervention. The endothelial permeability was measured by Evans blue assay in vivo and in vitro endothelium/pericyte co-culture system using a FITC-Dextran permeability assay. To identify the source of angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1), double staining is used in vivo and ELISA and qPCR are used in vitro. To determine the specific effect of Ang-1 on GM-CSF maintaining microvascular stabilization, Ang-1 siRNA was applied to inhibit Ang-1 production in vivo and in vitro. Wound closure was significantly accelerated and microvascular leakage was ameliorated after GM-CSF treatment in mouse wound sites. GM-CSF decreased endothelial permeability through tightening endothelial junctions and increased Ang-1 protein level that was derived by perictye. Furthermore, applications of siRNAAng-1 inhibited GM-CSF mediated protection of microvascular barrier integrity both in vivo and in vitro. Our data indicate that GM

  4. Aqueous Leaf Extract of Heliotropium Indicum Ameliorates Hyperglycaemia-Induced Tissue Complications in Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasheed Bolaji Ibrahim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Heliotropium indicum is used by traditional medical practitioners in North Central Nigeria for the management of ailments including diabetes. However, the folkloric use of H. indicum as antidiabetic has been asserted, but its roles on the hyperglycemia-induced organ-specific complications are not yet scientifically proven. Thus, ameliorative effect of aqueous leaf extract of H. indicum on selected toxicological parameters in hyperglycaemic rats was investigated in this study. Methods: Twenty-five rats were randomized into five groups. The study was carried out at the Animal Holding Unit, Biochemistry Department, University of Ilorin in 2013. Four groups were intraperitoneally administered singly with 150 mg/kg b.wt of alloxan to induce hyperglycemia. The normal control (NC and hyperglycaemic control (HC groups were administered 1 ml distilled water, while the reference group (HR were administered 14.2 mg/kg b.wt of metformin and the test groups, H30 and H75 were administered 30 and 75 mg/kg b.wt, the extract respectively for fourteen days. Results: The significantly increased (P<0.05 serum concentrations of tissue membrane bound enzymes (ALT, AST, ACP and ALP, direct and total bilirubin, urea and creatinine in HC indicating compromised tissue structures and functions in HC were attenuated. The significantly (P<0.05 reduced serum total protein, globulin and albumin in HC were significantly increased by both doses of the extract. The ameliorative role of the extract at the test doses was supported by the histological assessment of liver and kidney of the animals. Conclusion: Aqueous leaf extract of H. indicum can be explored at the ethnobotanical dose of 30 and 75 mg/kg b.wt on the management of some of the tissue-specific disarrays associated with diabetes.

  5. Ghrelin ameliorates the human alveolar epithelial A549 cell apoptosis induced by lipopolysaccharide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Chunrong; Zheng, Haichong; He, Wanmei; Lu, Guifang; Li, Xia; Deng, Yubin; Zeng, Mian

    2016-01-01

    Ghrelin is a gastric acyl-peptide that plays an inhibitory role in cell apoptosis. Herein we investigate the protective effects of ghrelin in LPS-induced apoptosis of human alveolar epithelial A549 cells, along with the possible molecular mechanisms. LPS exposure impaired cell viability and increased apoptosis of A549 cells significantly in concentration- and time-dependent manners embodied in increased Bax and cleaved caspase-3 production, coupled with decreased Bcl-2 levels. Simultaneously, LPS remarkably decreased the expression of phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/Akt) and extracellular signal-regulated kinas (ERK) in A549 cells. However, ghrelin'pretreatment ameliorated LPS-caused alterations in the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 and cleaved caspase-3 expression, whereas activated the PI3K/Akt and ERK signaling. These results demonstrate that ghrelin lightens LPS-induced apoptosis of human alveolar epithelial cells partly through activating the PI3K/Akt and ERK pathway and thereby might benefit alleviating septic ALI. -- Graphical abstract: Ghrelin ameliorates the human alveolar epithelial A549 cells apoptosis induced by lipopolysaccharide partly through activating the PI3K/Akt and ERK pathway. Display Omitted -- Highlights: •It has been observed that LPS insult significantly increased apoptosis in A549 cells. •Both Akt and ERK signaling are critical adapter molecules to mediate the ghrelin-mediated proliferative effect. •Ghrelin may have a therapeutic effect in the prevention of LPS-induced apoptosis.

  6. Ghrelin ameliorates the human alveolar epithelial A549 cell apoptosis induced by lipopolysaccharide

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    Huang, Chunrong; Zheng, Haichong; He, Wanmei; Lu, Guifang; Li, Xia [Department of Medical Intensive Care Unit, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510080 (China); Deng, Yubin, E-mail: dengyub@mail.sysu.edu.cn [Research Center of Translational Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510080 (China); Zeng, Mian, E-mail: zengmian2004@163.com [Department of Medical Intensive Care Unit, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510080 (China)

    2016-05-20

    Ghrelin is a gastric acyl-peptide that plays an inhibitory role in cell apoptosis. Herein we investigate the protective effects of ghrelin in LPS-induced apoptosis of human alveolar epithelial A549 cells, along with the possible molecular mechanisms. LPS exposure impaired cell viability and increased apoptosis of A549 cells significantly in concentration- and time-dependent manners embodied in increased Bax and cleaved caspase-3 production, coupled with decreased Bcl-2 levels. Simultaneously, LPS remarkably decreased the expression of phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/Akt) and extracellular signal-regulated kinas (ERK) in A549 cells. However, ghrelin'pretreatment ameliorated LPS-caused alterations in the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 and cleaved caspase-3 expression, whereas activated the PI3K/Akt and ERK signaling. These results demonstrate that ghrelin lightens LPS-induced apoptosis of human alveolar epithelial cells partly through activating the PI3K/Akt and ERK pathway and thereby might benefit alleviating septic ALI. -- Graphical abstract: Ghrelin ameliorates the human alveolar epithelial A549 cells apoptosis induced by lipopolysaccharide partly through activating the PI3K/Akt and ERK pathway. Display Omitted -- Highlights: •It has been observed that LPS insult significantly increased apoptosis in A549 cells. •Both Akt and ERK signaling are critical adapter molecules to mediate the ghrelin-mediated proliferative effect. •Ghrelin may have a therapeutic effect in the prevention of LPS-induced apoptosis.

  7. Ghrelin ameliorates acute lung injury induced by oleic acid via inhibition of endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xiuli; Liu, Zhijun; Yu, Ting; Yang, Haitao; Feng, Linlin

    2018-03-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) is associated with excessive mortality and lacks appropriate therapy. Ghrelin is a novel peptide that protects the lung against ALI. This study aimed to investigate whether endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) mediates the protective effect of ghrelin on ALI. We used a rat oleic acid (OA)-induced ALI model. Pulmonary impairment was detected by hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining, lung mechanics, wet/dry weight ratio, and arterial blood gas analysis. Plasma and lung content of ghrelin was examined by ELISA, and mRNA expression was measured by quantitative real-time PCR. Protein levels were detected by western blot. Rats with OA treatment showed significant pulmonary injury, edema, inflammatory cellular infiltration, cytokine release, hypoxia and CO 2 retention as compared with controls. Plasma and pulmonary content of ghrelin was reduced in rats with ALI, and mRNA expression was downregulated. Ghrelin (10nmol/kg) treatment ameliorated the above symptoms, but treatment with the ghrelin antagonists D-Lys 3 GHRP-6 (1μmol/kg) and JMV 2959 (6mg/kg) exacerbated the symptoms. ERS induced by OA was prevented by ghrelin and augmented by ghrelin antagonist treatment. The ERS inducer, tunicamycin (Tm) prevented the ameliorative effect of ghrelin on ALI. The decreased ratio of p-Akt and Akt induced by OA was improved by ghrelin treatment, and was further exacerbated by ghrelin antagonists. Ghrelin protects against ALI by inhibiting ERS. These results provide a new target for prevention and therapy of ALI. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Nigella sativa oil Ameliorates ionizing Radiation induced cellular injury in Male Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, E.T.; El-Kady, A.A.

    2013-01-01

    Nigella sativa (NS), commonly known as black seed, is a plant spices in which thymoquinone is the main active ingredient isolated from the black seeds. The seeds of Nigella sativa are used in herbal medicine all over the world for the treatment and prevention of a number of diseases. The aim of this study was focused on investigating the possible protective effect of NS against gamma radiation induced nephrotoxicity and inflammatory changes in male albino rats. Twenty four albino rats were divided into four equal groups as follows: control group, irradiated group (animals subjected to whole body gamma irradiation at a dose of 6 Gy), treated group (rats treated with 0.2 ml/kg, i.p., NS oil for 4 weeks), and treated irradiated group (animals treated with 0.2 mL/kg, i.p., NS oil for 4 weeks then exposed to whole body gamma irradiation at a dose of 6 Gy). The obtained results revealed that the administration of Nigella sativa oil to irradiated rats significantly ameliorated the changes induced in kidney antioxidant system; catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities as well as reduced glutathione concentration. Also, NS oil restored the kidney function indices (urea and creatinine) near normal level when compared with their equivalent values in irradiated rats. In addition, the changes in serum tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and Interleukin-6 (IL-6) activities were markedly improved compared to the corresponding values of irradiated group. The histopathological results showed distinctive pattern of ischemic renal injury in irradiated group, while in treated- irradiated group the renal tissues showed relatively well-preserved architecture with or without focal degeneration. In conclusion, NS acts in the kidney as a potent scavenger of free radicals to prevent or ameliorates the toxic effects of gamma irradiation as shown in the biochemical and histopathological study and also NS oil might provide substantial protection against

  9. Ameliorative Effect of Honey and Propolis Mixture on Rats Exposed to Gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemieda, S.F.; Abd-El Nour, K.N.; Hassan, A.I.; Abdou, M.I.; Khalil, W.A.

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the ameliorative effect of honey and propolis mixture treatment on some biochemical and biophysical parameters in rats exposed to oxidative stress of gamma irradiation. Male rats were exposed to a fractionated dose gamma irradiation of total 5 Gy in five successive days. A mixture of dose 250 mg/kg/day honey and 90 mg/kg/day propolis was administrated to rats, ten days before irradiation, five days during irradiation and 14 days post irradiation. Blood samples were collected at 1 st , 7 th and 14 th day post the 5 th day of irradiation. Biochemical parameters such as serum liver enzymes (ALT and AST), serum renal function as (BUN and Creatinine) and serum total antioxidants were estimated. Also biophysical studies including hemoglobin investigations (Hb absorption spectra and dielectric measurements) were investigated.The results demonstrated that the levels of AST, ALT, BUN and creatinine were significantly elevated, while levels of total antioxidants were significantly reduced post irradiation. Moreover the absolute values of permittivity ε', dielectric loss ε'' and ac - conductivity σ ac increased in addition to a pronounced decrease in the absorbance at Sort band after irradiation compared to control group.Treatment of the irradiated group with honey and propolis mixture showed significant amelioration in the levels of the biochemical parameters. Also, the values of ε', ε'' and σ ac were nearly close to those of control group. Finally, the average value of peak height of Sort band was significantly increased compared to irradiated rat.

  10. Bilirubin nanoparticles ameliorate allergic lung inflammation in a mouse model of asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong Eon; Lee, Yonghyun; Kim, MinGyo; Lee, Soyoung; Jon, Sangyong; Lee, Seung-Hyo

    2017-09-01

    Although asthma, a chronic inflammatory airway disease, is relatively well-managed by inhaled corticosteroids, the side effects associated with the long-term use of these agents precipitate the need for alternative therapeutic options based on differing modes of action. Bilirubin, a potent endogenous antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory molecule have been shown to ameliorate asthmatic symptoms; however, its clinical translation has been limited owing to its water insolubility and associated potential toxicity. Here we report the first application of bilirubin-based nanoparticles (BRNPs) as a nanomedicine for the treatment of allergic lung inflammatory disease. BRNPs were prepared directly from self-assembly of PEGylated bilirubin in aqueous solution and had a hydrodynamic diameter of ∼100 nm. Because allergen-specific type 2 T-helper (Th2) cells play a key role in the pathogenesis and progression of allergic asthma, the effects of BRNPs on Th2 immune responses were investigated both in vivo and in vitro. BRNPs after intravenous injection (i.v.) showed much higher serum concentration and a longer circulation time of bilirubin than the intraperitoneal injection (i.p.) of BRNPs or unconjugated bilirubin (UCB). The anti-asthmatic effects of BRNPs were assessed in a mouse model of allergen-induced asthma. Compared with UCB, treatment with BRNPs suppressed the symptoms of experimental allergic asthma and dramatically ameliorated Th2-related allergic lung inflammation. Consistent with these results, BRNPs caused a reduction of Th2 cell populations and the expression of related cytokines by antibody-stimulated CD4 + T cells in vitro. Therefore, our results establish BRNPs as an important immunomodulatory agent that may be useful as a therapeutic for allergic lung inflammatory disease and other immune-mediated disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Is the use of antioxidants mixture ameliorating the double stress effect of radiation and hyperlipidaemia?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michael, M.I.; Amer, M.M.

    2010-01-01

    Radiation hazards, due to free radical generation, present an enormous challenge for biological and medical safety. In the same time, hyperlipidaemia represents one of the most important and recognized risk factor for atherosclerosis development as an event of accumulation of cells containing excess lipids within the arterial wall. Under normal physiological conditions, there is a critical balance in the generation of oxygen free radicals and antioxidant defense systems. In this study, we assumed that a subject encountered to both radiation and hyperlipidaemia oxidative stress and inquired if a mixture of three well known antioxidants can ameliorate this dramatically disorder. To answer the question, four groups of adult male albino rats were used; the control group (A) fed and drank ad libitum normal laboratory diet, the second group (B) fed normally and exposed to 5 Gy gamma radiation, the third group (C) fed high-fat diet (HFD) for two months then exposed to the same dose of radiation and the fourth group (D) subjected to the same treatment as group (C) and administrated a mixture of tryptophan (100 mg/kg b.w.), hawthorn extract (50 mg/100 g b.w.) and coenzyme Q10 (50 mg/kg b.w.) for one month. Body weight was recorded twice a week during the experimental period then all the animals were decapitated after one month and sera were collected to estimate total lipids, triglycerides, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), T3, T4, testosterone and corticosterone hormones besides glutathione. The results declared that radiation-hyperlipidaemia double stressors inadequately distorted the lipogram, hormonal and antioxidant status and the antioxidants mixture administrated could ameliorate these alterations and successfully brought back all the parameters investigated nearly to the control level.

  12. Propofol ameliorates doxorubicin-induced oxidative stress and cellular apoptosis in rat cardiomyocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, H.C. [Cardiovascular Center and Department of Anesthesiology, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Medicine and Cardiovascular Research Center, National Yang-Ming University School of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Yeh, Y.C. [Graduate Institute of Natural Healing Sciences, Nanhua University, Chiayi, Taiwan (China); Wang, L.C. [Cardiovascular Center and Department of Anesthesiology, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Ting, C.T.; Lee, W.L. [Cardiovascular Center and Department of Anesthesiology, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Medicine and Cardiovascular Research Center, National Yang-Ming University School of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Lee, H.W. [Cardiovascular Center and Department of Anesthesiology, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Wang, K.Y. [Cardiovascular Center and Department of Anesthesiology, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Medicine, Chung-Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Wu, A. [College of Biological Science, University of California, Davis (United States); Su, C.S. [Cardiovascular Center and Department of Anesthesiology, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Medicine and Cardiovascular Research Center, National Yang-Ming University School of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Liu, T.J., E-mail: trliu@vghtc.gov.tw [Cardiovascular Center and Department of Anesthesiology, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Medicine and Cardiovascular Research Center, National Yang-Ming University School of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2011-12-15

    Background: Propofol is an anesthetic with pluripotent cytoprotective properties against various extrinsic insults. This study was designed to examine whether this agent could also ameliorate the infamous toxicity of doxorubicin, a widely-used chemotherapeutic agent against a variety of cancer diseases, on myocardial cells. Methods: Cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes were administrated with vehicle, doxorubicin (1 {mu}M), propofol (1 {mu}M), or propofol plus doxorubicin (given 1 h post propofol). After 24 h, cells were harvested and specific analyses regarding oxidative/nitrative stress and cellular apoptosis were conducted. Results: Trypan blue exclusion and MTT assays disclosed that viability of cardiomyocytes was significantly reduced by doxorubicin. Contents of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species were increased and antioxidant enzymes SOD1, SOD2, and GPx were decreased in these doxorubicin-treated cells. Mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity and membrane potential were also depressed, along with activation of key effectors downstream of mitochondrion-dependent apoptotic signaling. Besides, abundance of p53 was elevated and cleavage of PKC-{delta} was induced in these myocardial cells. In contrast, all of the above oxidative, nitrative and pro-apoptotic events could be suppressed by propofol pretreatment. Conclusions: Propofol could extensively counteract oxidative/nitrative and multiple apoptotic effects of doxorubicin in the heart; hence, this anesthetic may serve as an adjuvant agent to assuage the untoward cardiac effects of doxorubicin in clinical application. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We evaluate how propofol prevents doxorubicin-induced toxicity in cardiomyocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Propofol reduces doxorubicin-imposed nitrative and oxidative stress. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Propofol suppresses mitochondrion-, p53- and PKC-related apoptotic signaling. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Propofol ameliorates apoptosis and

  13. Anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activities of olmesartan medoxomil ameliorate experimental colitis in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagib, Marwa M. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Misr International University, Cairo (Egypt); Tadros, Mariane G., E-mail: mirogeogo@yahoo.com [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt); ELSayed, Moushira I. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Misr International University, Cairo (Egypt); Khalifa, Amani E. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt)

    2013-08-15

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) driven through altered immune responses with production of proinflammatory cytokines. Many therapies are used, but side effects and loss of response limit long-term effectiveness. New therapeutic strategies are thus needed for patients who don't respond to current treatments. Recently, there is suggested involvement of the proinflammatory hormone angiotensin II in inflammatory bowel disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible role of olmesartan medoxomil (OLM-M), an angiotensin II receptor blocker in ameliorating ulcerative colitis. Colitis was induced in male Wistar rats by administration of 5% dextran sodium sulphate (DSS) in drinking water for 5 days. OLM-M (1, 3 and 10 mg/kg) was administered orally during 21 days prior to the induction of colitis, and for 5 days after. Sulfasalazine (500 mg/kg) was used as reference drug. All animals were tested for changes in colon length, disease activity index (DAI) and microscopic damage. Colon tissue concentration/activity of tumor necrosis alpha (TNF-α), myeloperoxidase (MPO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), reduced glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were assessed. Results showed that the OLM-M dose-dependently ameliorated the colonic histopathological and biochemical injuries, an effect that is comparable or even better than that of the standard sulfasalazine. These results suggest that olmesartan medoxomil may be effective in the treatment of UC through its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. - Highlights: • Olmesartan medoximil reduced dextran sodium sulphate- induced colitis. • Mechanism involved anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects dose- dependently. • It suppressed malondialdehyde and restored reduced glutathione levels. • It reduced inflammatory markers levels and histological changes.

  14. Trypanosome lytic factor, an antimicrobial high-density lipoprotein, ameliorates Leishmania infection.

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    Marie Samanovic

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Innate immunity is the first line of defense against invading microorganisms. Trypanosome Lytic Factor (TLF is a minor sub-fraction of human high-density lipoprotein that provides innate immunity by completely protecting humans from infection by most species of African trypanosomes, which belong to the Kinetoplastida order. Herein, we demonstrate the broader protective effects of human TLF, which inhibits intracellular infection by Leishmania, a kinetoplastid that replicates in phagolysosomes of macrophages. We show that TLF accumulates within the parasitophorous vacuole of macrophages in vitro and reduces the number of Leishmania metacyclic promastigotes, but not amastigotes. We do not detect any activation of the macrophages by TLF in the presence or absence of Leishmania, and therefore propose that TLF directly damages the parasite in the acidic parasitophorous vacuole. To investigate the physiological relevance of this observation, we have reconstituted lytic activity in vivo by generating mice that express the two main protein components of TLFs: human apolipoprotein L-I and haptoglobin-related protein. Both proteins are expressed in mice at levels equivalent to those found in humans and circulate within high-density lipoproteins. We find that TLF mice can ameliorate an infection with Leishmania by significantly reducing the pathogen burden. In contrast, TLF mice were not protected against infection by the kinetoplastid Trypanosoma cruzi, which infects many cell types and transiently passes through a phagolysosome. We conclude that TLF not only determines species specificity for African trypanosomes, but can also ameliorate an infection with Leishmania, while having no effect on T. cruzi. We propose that TLFs are a component of the innate immune system that can limit infections by their ability to selectively damage pathogens in phagolysosomes within the reticuloendothelial system.

  15. Curcumin ameliorates dopaminergic neuronal oxidative damage via activation of the Akt/Nrf2 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Qunli; Li, Xin; Zhu, Hongcan

    2016-02-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is an age-related complex neurodegenerative disease that affects ≤ 80% of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc). It has previously been suggested that mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress and oxidative damage underlie the pathogenesis of PD. Curcumin, which is a major active polyphenol component extracted from the rhizomes of Curcuma longa (Zingiberaceae), has been reported to exert neuroprotective effects on an experimental model of PD. The present study conducted a series of in vivo experiments, in order to investigate the effects of curcumin on behavioral deficits, oxidative damage and related mechanisms. The results demonstrated that curcumin was able to significantly alleviate motor dysfunction and increase suppressed tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) activity in the SNpc of rotenone (ROT)-injured rats. Biochemical measurements indicated that rats pretreated with curcumin exhibited increased glutathione (GSH) levels, and reduced reactive oxygen species activity and malondialdehyde content. Mechanistic studies demonstrated that curcumin significantly restored the expression levels of heme oxygenase-1 and quinone oxidoreductase 1, thus ameliorating ROT-induced damage in vivo, via the phosphorylation of Akt and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2). Further studies indicated that the Akt/Nrf2 signaling pathway was associated with the protective role of curcumin in ROT-treated rats. Inhibiting the Akt/Nrf2 pathway using a lentiviral vector containing Nrf2-specific short hairpin RNA, or the phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibitor LY294002, markedly reduced the expression levels of TH and GSH, ultimately attenuating the neuroprotective effects of curcumin against oxidative damage. These results indicated that curcumin was able to significantly ameliorate ROT-induced dopaminergic neuronal oxidative damage in the SNpc of rats via activation of the Akt/Nrf2 signaling pathway.

  16. Ameliorative role of gemfibrozil against partial abdominal aortic constriction-induced cardiac hypertrophy in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Amrit Pal; Singh, Randhir; Krishan, Pawan

    2015-04-01

    Fibrates are peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α agonists and are clinically used for treatment of dyslipidemia and hypertriglyceridemia. Fenofibrate is reported as a cardioprotective agent in various models of cardiac dysfunction; however, limited literature is available regarding the role of gemfibrozil as a possible cardioprotective agent, especially in a non-obese model of cardiac remodelling. The present study investigated the role of gemfibrozil against partial abdominal aortic constriction-induced cardiac hypertrophy in rats. Cardiac hypertrophy was induced by partial abdominal aortic constriction in rats and they survived for 4 weeks. The cardiac hypertrophy was assessed by measuring left ventricular weight to body weight ratio, left ventricular wall thickness, and protein and collagen content. The oxidative stress in the cardiac tissues was assessed by measuring thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, superoxide anion generation, and reduced glutathione level. The haematoxylin-eosin and picrosirius red staining was used to observe cardiomyocyte diameter and collagen deposition, respectively. Moreover, serum levels of cholesterol, high-density lipoproteins, triglycerides, and glucose were also measured. Gemfibrozil (30 mg/kg, p.o.) was administered since the first day of partial abdominal aortic constriction and continued for 4 weeks. The partial abdominal aortic constriction-induced cardiac oxidative stress and hypertrophy are indicated by significant change in various parameters used in the present study that were ameliorated with gemfibrozil treatment in rats. No significant change in serum parameters was observed between various groups used in the present study. It is concluded that gemfibrozil ameliorates partial abdominal aortic constriction-induced cardiac oxidative stress and hypertrophy and in rats.

  17. Total saponin of Dioscoreae hypoglaucae rhizoma ameliorates streptozotocin-induced diabetic nephropathy

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    Guo C

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Changrun Guo,1 Gang Ding,2 Wenzhe Huang,2 Zhenzhong Wang,2 Zhaoqing Meng,1,2 Wei Xiao2 1State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China; 2Jiangsu Kanion Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd, Lianyungang City, People’s Republic of China Background: Diabetic nephropathy has become the most common cause of morbidity and mortality in diabetic patients. Therefore, there is an urgent need for more effective and safer drugs for use in this condition.Purpose: The aims of this study were to investigate the ameliorative effects of total saponin of Dioscoreae hypoglaucae rhizoma (TSD on diabetic nephropathy and to explore the potential underlying mechanism(s.Methods: Rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes were orally treated with TSD at 40, 80, and 160 mg/kg/d for 12 weeks. At the end of the treatment, blood, urine, and kidneys were collected for biochemical and histological examination.Results: The results demonstrated that TSD significantly decreased the fasting blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, urinary protein, serum creatinine, and blood urea nitrogen levels in diabetic rats. The results of histological examinations showed that TSD ameliorated glomerular and tubular pathological changes in diabetic rats. Furthermore, TSD significantly prevented oxidative stress and reduced the renal levels of advanced glycation end products, transforming growth factor-β1, connective tissue growth factor, and tumor necrosis factor-α.Conclusion: This study demonstrated the renoprotective effects of TSD in experimental diabetic nephropathy via a number of different mechanisms. Keywords: total saponin of Dioscoreae hypoglaucae rhizoma, diabetic nephropathy, oxidative stress, AGEs, TGF-β1

  18. Whole cell Deinococcus radiodurans ameliorates salt stress in Indian mustard through pyrroloquinoline quinone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, A.K.; Jadhav, P.; Suprasanna, P.; Rajpurohit, Y.S.; Misra, H.S.

    2015-01-01

    Salinity stress is considered as one of the major abiotic stresses limiting crop productivity. A variety of symbiotic and non-symbiotic bacteria are currently being used worldwide with the aim to boost built-in defense system in plants. Deinococcus radiodurans is a highly desiccation and radiation tolerant bacterium which synthesizes PQQ (pyrroloquinoline quinone) that has been shown to have a versatile role in crop productivity and as a general stress response regulator in bacteria and mammals. PQQ also acts as scavenger of reactive oxygen species and hence, can module redox signaling, one of the major regulator of stress tolerance in plants. In view of this, present research was conducted to evaluate the potential of whole cell D. radiodurans for ameliorating salt stress in plants. The soil colonization with wild-type cells led to partial amelioration of salt stress. The PQQ mutant showed an intermediate phenotype between wild-type seedlings and those grown on non-colonized soils which confirmed that the effects are largely associated with PQQ. The differential phenotype was also correlated with ROS level and ABA accumulation. The flame photometry data showed that there was no significant reduction in water soluble Na + level in control plant and those treated with either wild-type or PQQ mutant. Further, the elevated levels of antioxidant enzymes and reduced ascorbate in the plants treated with bacterial cells indicated its positive role in oxidative stress management. Although, the exact molecular basis to these effects is yet to be understood, present findings support the use of whole cell D. radiodurans for managing the growth and productivity of Indian mustard in salt affected fields. (author)

  19. Placental extract ameliorates non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH by exerting protective effects on endothelial cells

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    Akihiro Yamauchi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH is a severe form of fatty liver disease that is defined by the presence of inflammation and fibrosis, ultimately leading to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Treatment with human placental extract (HPE reportedly ameliorates the hepatic injury. We evaluated the effect of HPE treatment in a mouse model of NASH. In the methione- and choline-deficient (MCD diet-induced liver injury model, fibrosis started from regions adjacent to the sinusoids. We administered the MCD diet with high-salt loading (8% NaCl in the drinking water to mice deficient in the vasoprotective molecule RAMP2 for 5 weeks, with or without HPE. In both the HPE and control groups, fibrosis was seen in regions adjacent to the sinusoids, but the fibrosis was less pronounced in the HPE-treated mice. Levels of TNF-α and MMP9 expression were also significantly reduced in HPE-treated mice, and oxidative stress was suppressed in the perivascular region. In addition, HPE dose-dependently increased survival of cultured endothelial cells exposed to 100 μM H2O2, and it upregulated expression of eNOS and the anti-apoptotic factors bcl-2 and bcl-xL. From these observations, we conclude that HPE ameliorates NASH-associated pathologies by suppressing inflammation, oxidative stress and fibrosis. These beneficially effects of HPE are in part attributable to its protective effects on liver sinusoidal endothelial cells. HPE could thus be an attractive therapeutic candidate with which to suppress progression from simple fatty liver to NASH.

  20. Utilizing Coal Ash and Humic Substances as Soil Ameliorant on Reclaimed Post-Mining Land

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    Ade Mariyam Oklima

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Coal ash and humic substances can be used as soil ameliorant in the reclamation of formerly mined land. Due to its high pH and nutrients content, coal ash can be used to improve the chemical properties of the soil, such as increasing of pH, and increasing the levels of nutrients availability in the soil. Humic substances may also be used to complement, as they can increase the release of nutrients from the coal ash. Thus, the objective of this study was to assess the influence of coal ash and humic substances on soil chemical characteristics, nutrient absorption, and plant growth. This study was conducted in two locations - in a nursery area, involving two treatment factors: coal ash at different dosages (0, 200, and 400 g polybag-1, and humic material also at varying dosages (0, 0.04, and 0.08 g C polybag-1; and in a post-mining field using similar treatments: coal ash dosage (0, 2.5, and 5.0 kg planting-1 hole and humic material dosage (0, 0.56, and 1.12 g C planting hole-1. The results showed that coal ash and humic materials significantly increased the soil pH, available P, and exchangeable K, Ca and Mg. Coal ash also contained a number of heavy metals but in quantities that are far below the limits set by both Indonesian Government Regulation and the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA. The above soil amelioration effects mean that. applicaton of coal ash and humic substances can significantly increase the growth of Jabon trees in the reclaimed post-mining land.

  1. Nano-sized titanium dioxide toxicity in rat prostate and testis: Possible ameliorative effect of morin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahin, Nancy N; Mohamed, Maha M

    2017-11-01

    This study investigated the effect of short-term oral exposure to nano-sized titanium dioxide (nTiO 2 ) on Wistar rat prostate and testis, and the associating reproductive-related alterations. The study also evaluated the potential ameliorative effect of the natural flavonoid, morin, on nTiO 2 -induced aberrations. Intragastric administration of nTiO 2 (50mg/kg/day for 1, 2 and 3weeks) increased testicular gamma-glutamyltransferase (γ-GT) activity and decreased testicular steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and c-kit gene expression, serum testosterone level and sperm count. nTiO 2 -treated rats also exhibited prostatic and testicular altered glutathione levels, elevated TNF-α levels, up-regulated Fas, Bax and caspase-3 gene expression, down-regulated Bcl-2 gene expression and enhanced prostatic lipid peroxidation. Sperm malformation and elevated testicular acid phosphatase (ACP) activity and malondialdehyde level, serum prostatic acid phosphatase activity, prostate specific antigen (PSA), gonadotrophin and estradiol levels occurred after the 2 and 3week regimens. Morin (30mg/kg/day administered intragastrically for 5weeks) mitigated nTiO 2 -induced prostatic and testicular injury as evidenced by lowering serum PSA level, testicular γ-GT and ACP activities and TNF-α level, along with hampering both intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways. Moreover, morin alleviated prostatic lipid peroxidation, raised prostatic glutathione level, and relieved testicular reductive stress. Additionally, morin increased testicular StAR and c-kit mRNA expression, raised the sperm count, reduced sperm deformities and modified the altered hormone profile. Histopathological evaluation supported the biochemical findings. In conclusion, morin could ameliorate nTiO 2 -induced prostatic and testicular injury and the corresponding reproductive-related aberrations via redox regulatory, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic mechanisms, promoting steroidogenesis and

  2. Curcumin loaded solid lipid nanoparticles ameliorate adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, R; Kuhad, A; Kaur, I P; Chopra, K

    2015-08-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA), a chronic and systemic inflammation, results in destruction of joints and cartilages. Effectiveness of curcumin has been established in a wide variety of inflammatory disorders, but its utility as a therapeutic agent is limited by its poor absorption, rapid metabolism and fast systemic elimination. To apprehend these limitations, we propose to use highly bioavailable curcumin loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (C-SLNs) for the treatment of RA. In the present study, the protective effect of curcumin and its SLNs was evaluated in complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)-induced arthritis in rats. Arthritic rats exhibited marked decrease in paw withdrawal threshold in Randall-Selitto and von Frey hair test along with decreased reaction time in hot plate. Arthritic rats also showed significant joint hyperalgesia, joint stiffness and increased paw volume along with marked decrease in mobility score. Arthritic rats showed a significant increase in blood leukocyte count, oxidative-nitrosative stress, tumour necrosis factor-α, C-reactive protein, cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody levels and radiological alterations in tibiotarsal joint. C-SLN administration (10 and 30 mg/kg), when compared with free curcumin (10 and 30 mg/kg), significantly and dose dependently ameliorated various symptoms of arthritis in rats, improved biochemical markers and preserved radiological alterations in joints of arthritic rats. The current findings suggest the protective potential of curcumin-SLNs in ameliorating CFA-induced arthritis in rats through attenuation of oxido-inflammatory and immunomodulatory cascade. Further, the results emphasize that SLNs are a novel approach to deliver curcumin into the inflamed joints and improve its biopharmaceutical performance. © 2014 European Pain Federation - EFIC®

  3. Simvastatin Ameliorates Radiation Enteropathy Development After Localized, Fractionated Irradiation by a Protein C-Independent Mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Junru; Boerma, Marjan; Fu Qiang; Kulkarni, Ashwini; Fink, Louis M.; Hauer-Jensen, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Microvascular injury plays a key role in normal tissue radiation responses. Statins, in addition to their lipid-lowering effects, have vasculoprotective properties that may counteract some effects of radiation on normal tissues. We examined whether administration of simvastatin ameliorates intestinal radiation injury, and whether the effect depends on protein C activation. Methods and Materials: Rats received localized, fractionated small bowel irradiation. The animals were fed either regular chow or chow containing simvastatin from 2 weeks before irradiation until termination of the experiment. Groups of rats were euthanized at 2 weeks and 26 weeks for assessment of early and delayed radiation injury by quantitative histology, morphometry, and quantitative immunohistochemistry. Dependency on protein C activation was examined in thrombomodulin (TM) mutant mice with deficient ability to activate protein C. Results: Simvastatin administration was associated with lower radiation injury scores (p < 0.0001), improved mucosal preservation (p = 0.0009), and reduced thickening of the intestinal wall and subserosa (p = 0.008 and p = 0.004), neutrophil infiltration (p = 0.04), and accumulation of collagen I (p = 0.0003). The effect of simvastatin was consistently more pronounced for delayed than for early injury. Surprisingly, simvastatin reduced intestinal radiation injury in TM mutant mice, indicating that the enteroprotective effect of simvastatin after localized irradiation is unrelated to protein C activation. Conclusions: Simvastatin ameliorates the intestinal radiation response. The radioprotective effect of simvastatin after localized small bowel irradiation does not appear to be related to protein C activation. Statins should undergo clinical testing as a strategy to minimize side effects of radiation on the intestine and other normal tissues

  4. Inhibition of Protease-activated Receptor 1 Ameliorates Intestinal Radiation Mucositis in a Preclinical Rat Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Junru; Kulkarni, Ashwini [Division of Radiation Health, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas (United States); Chintala, Madhu [Schering-Plough Research Institute, Kenilworth, New Jersey (United States); Fink, Louis M. [Nevada Cancer Institute, Las Vegas, Nevada (United States); Hauer-Jensen, Martin, E-mail: mhjensen@life.uams.edu [Division of Radiation Health, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas (United States); Surgery Service, Central Arkansas Veterans Healthcare System, Little Rock, Arkansas (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To determine, using a specific small-molecule inhibitor of protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1) signaling, whether the beneficial effect of thrombin inhibition on radiation enteropathy development is due to inhibition of blood clotting or to cellular (PAR1-mediated) thrombin effects. Methods and Materials: Rats underwent fractionated X-irradiation (5 Gy Multiplication-Sign 9) of a 4-cm small-bowel segment. Early radiation toxicity was evaluated in rats receiving PAR1 inhibitor (SCH602539, 0, 10, or 15 mg/kg/d) from 1 day before to 2 weeks after the end of irradiation. The effect of PAR1 inhibition on development of chronic intestinal radiation fibrosis was evaluated in animals receiving SCH602539 (0, 15, or 30 mg/kg/d) until 2 weeks after irradiation, or continuously until termination of the experiment 26 weeks after irradiation. Results: Blockade of PAR1 ameliorated early intestinal toxicity, with reduced overall intestinal radiation injury (P=.002), number of myeloperoxidase-positive (P=.03) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen-positive (P=.04) cells, and collagen III accumulation (P=.005). In contrast, there was no difference in delayed radiation enteropathy in either the 2- or 26-week administration groups. Conclusion: Pharmacological blockade of PAR1 seems to reduce early radiation mucositis but does not affect the level of delayed intestinal radiation fibrosis. Early radiation enteropathy is related to activation of cellular thrombin receptors, whereas platelet activation or fibrin formation may play a greater role in the development of delayed toxicity. Because of the favorable side-effect profile, PAR1 blockade should be further explored as a method to ameliorate acute intestinal radiation toxicity in patients undergoing radiotherapy for cancer and to protect first responders and rescue personnel in radiologic/nuclear emergencies.

  5. Ameliorative effects of low dose/low dose-rate irradiation on reactive oxygen species-related diseases model mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomura, Takaharu

    2008-01-01

    Living organisms have developed complex biological system which protects themselves against environmental radiation, and irradiation with proper dose, dose-rate and irradiation time can stimulate their biological responses against oxidative stress evoked by the irradiation. Because reactive oxygen species are involved in various human diseases, non-toxic low dose/low dose-rate radiation can be utilized for the amelioration of such diseases. In this study, we used mouse experimental models for fatty liver, nephritis, diabetes, and ageing to elucidate the ameliorative effect of low dose/low dose-rate radiation in relation to endogenous antioxidant activity. Single irradiation at 0.5 Gy ameliorates carbon tetrachloride-induced fatty liver. The irradiation increases hepatic anti-oxidative system involving glutathione and glutathione peroxidase, suggesting that endogenous radical scavenger is essential for the ameliorative effect of low dose radiation on carbon tetrachloride-induced fatty liver. Single irradiation at 0.5 Gy ameliorates ferric nitrilotriacetate-induced nephritis. The irradiation increases catalase and decreases superoxide dismutase in kidney. The result suggests that low dose radiation reduced generation of hydroxide radical generation by reducing cellular hydroperoxide level. Single irradiation at 0.5 Gy at 12 week of age ameliorates incidence of type I diabetes in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice through the suppression of inflammatory activity of splenocytes, and resultant apoptosis of β-cells in pancreas. The irradiation activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase, which coordinately diminish intracellular reactive oxygen species. Continuous irradiation at 0.70 mGy/hr from 10 week of age elongates life span, and suppresses alopecia in type II diabetesmice. The irradiation improved glucose clearance without affecting insulin-resistance, and increased pancreatic catalase activity. The results suggest that continuous low dose-rate irradiation protect

  6. Transcriptome profiling of petal abscission zone and functional analysis of an Aux/IAA family gene RhIAA16 involved in petal shedding in rose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuerong Gao

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Roses are one of the most important cut flowers among ornamental plants. Rose flower longevity is largely dependent on the timing of petal shedding occurrence. To understand the molecular mechanism underlying petal abscission in rose, we performed transcriptome profiling of the petal abscission zone during petal shedding using Illumina technology. We identified a total of 2592 differentially transcribed genes (DTGs during rose petal shedding. Gene ontology term enrichment and pathway analysis revealed that major biochemical pathways the DTGs were involved in included ethylene biosynthesis, starch degradation, superpathway of cytosolic glycolysis, pyruvate dehydrogenase and TCA cycle, photorespiration and the lactose degradation III pathway. This suggests that alterations in carbon metabolism are an important part of rose petal abscission. Among these DTGs, approximately 150 genes putatively encoding transcription factors were identified in rose abscission zone. These included zinc finger, WRKY, ERF, and Aux/IAA gene families, suggesting that petal abscission involves complex transcriptional reprogramming. Approximately 108 DTGs were related to hormone pathways, of which auxin and ethylene related DTGs were the largest groups including 52 and 41 genes, respectively. These also included 12 DTGs related to gibberellin and 6 DTGs in jasmonic acid pathway. Surprisingly, no DTGs involved in the biosynthesis/signaling of abscisic acid, cytokinin, brassinosteroid, and salicylic acid pathways were detected. Moreover, among DTGs related to auxin, we identified an Aux/IAA gene RhIAA16 that was up-regulated in response to petal shedding. Down-regulation of RhIAA16 by virus-induced gene silencing in rose promoted petal abscission, suggesting that RhIAA16 plays an important role in rose petal abscission.

  7. Brittleness and elastic limit of iron-aluminium 40 at high strain rates; Fragilite et limite elastique du fer-aluminium 40 aux grandes vitesses de deformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cottu, J P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-07-01

    Iron-aluminium 40 - a B2 ordered solid solution - was tensile tested to provide information on the brittleness of this alloy and its dependence on strain rate and temperature. For slow strain rates (0.34 per cent s{sup -1}) cleaved fracture prevails when temperature is kept below 400 deg. C, while a ductile rupture is observed, with an almost 100 per cent necking at higher temperatures. In this case, recrystallization occurs during the deformation. For higher strain rates - 335 per cent s{sup -1}), a ductility reduction - owed to intergranular fracture - precedes the brittle-ductile transition. This property may be bound to the peak on the yield stress temperature curve, which is itself connected to the ordered structure of this alloy. (author) [French] Les essais de traction que nous avons effectues sur le fer-aluminium 40, solution solide ordonnee de type B2, ont pour but de preciser l'influence de la vitesse de deformation et de la temperature sur la fragilite de l'alliage. Pour les faibles vitesses (0,34 pour cent s{sup -1}), la rupture est surtout clivee si la temperature est inferieure a 400 deg. C, puis ductile avec une striction voisine de 100 pour cent aux temperatures superieures; la recristallisation intervient alors ou cours meme de la deformation. Aux vitesses elevees (335 pour cent s{sup -1}) la transition fragile-ductile est precedee d'une chute de ductilite liee a une decohesion intergranulaire. Nous avons associe cette derniere propriete a la presence d'un pic de limite elastique apparaissant a chaud, a vitesse elevee et pouvant etre relie au caractere ordonne de l'alliage. (auteur)

  8. Occurrence des traumatismes alvéolo-dentaires aux cliniques universitaires de Kinshasa: deuxième partie, étude préliminaire de 93 cas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foche, Adelin Nzudjom; Bushabu, Fidele Nyimi; Mana, Charles Mfutu; Haruna, Ramazani; Masin, Steve Sekele; Nsudila, Monique; Alifi, Paul Bobe; Muinamiyi, Pierre Muyembi; Burley, Jean Paul Sekele Isourady

    2018-01-01

    Introduction L'objectif de cette étude était d'analyser les caractéristiques épidémiologiques cliniques des fractures alvéolo-dentaires aux cliniques universitaires de Kinshasa/RDC. Méthodes Étude transversale de 7 ans, réalisée dans le département d'odontostomatologie, service de stomatologie et de chirurgie maxillo-faciale/cliniques universitaires de Kinshasa de Janvier 2007 à Décembre 2014. Résultats Sur les 93 dossiers colligés, le sexe masculin était prédominant (66,7%) et l'âge le plus prévalent se situait entre 20 ans et 29 ans. Les causes les plus fréquentes ont été les agressions/rixes (52,7%) et la luxation dentaire a été le type des lésions la plus fréquente avec 52,7%. La RX retro-alvéolaire été réalisée dans 75,7%, et le blocage mono-maxillaire fut le type de traitement le plus réalisé (60,2%). Conclusion L'analyse de profil clinique des traumatismes alvéolo-dentaires aux cliniques universitaires de Kinshasa est celui d'un adulte jeune de sexe masculin, présentant des luxations dentaires des maxillaires dont les causes sont les agressions/rixes. PMID:29875931

  9. Improved Oxidation Resistance of Zirconium Resulting from Addition of Small Amounts of Copper; Amelioration de la Resistance a l'Oxydation du Zirconium par de Faibles Additions de Cuivre; Povyshenie soprotivlyaemosti k okisleniyu tsirkoniya posle dobavlenij nebol'shikh kolichestv medi; Aumento de la Resistencia del Circonio a la Oxidacion por Agregado de Pequenas Cantidades de Cobre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loriers, H.; Darras, R.; Baque, P. [Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay (France)

    1966-02-15

    The authors have tried to explain the process by which the addition of small amounts of copper improves the resistance of zirconium to oxidation by pressurized carbon dioxide between 600 and 700 Degree-Sign C. The resulting alloys, particularly that with 2.5% copper, seem to offer interesting possibilities as cladding or structural materials for the fuel elements of reactors of the heavy water-carbon dioxide type. The corrosion of zirconium by carbon dioxide amounts essentially to oxidation, in which two processes are involved: (1) the building up of a layer of monoclinic zirconia, through which oxygen diffuses by migration of the anionic vacancies: (2) the dissolution and diffusion of oxygen, which penetrates into the metal. The combination of gravimetric data and measurements of the thickness of the oxide layers permits evaluation of the two corresponding diffusion coefficients. This calculation has been extended, by analogy, to the case of binary zirconium-copper alloys with a concentration of copper less than or equal to 4% by weight. Comparison of the results obtained shows that the apparent diffusion coefficient of oxygen in the oxide layer that is formed decreases as the copper content of the alloy in question increases; as regards the apparent diffusion coefficient of the oxygen in the alloy, though this is only slightly modified at 600 Degree-Sign C, at 700 Degree-Sign C it too decreases when the copper content is increased to 2.5%. The improved oxidation resistance associated with slowing down of the diffusion processes results, in particular, in prolongation of parabolic-type kinetics whereas, in the case of non-alloyed zirconium or other alloys, cracking in the oxide layer rapidly leads to linear oxidation kinetics as a result of the phenomenon of peeling. (author) [French] Les auteurs ont cherche a interpreter l'amelioration apportee par de faibles additions de cuivre a la resistance a l'oxydation du zirconium par le gaz carbonique sous pression entre

  10. Les bienfaits pour la santé et la prédominance du sucre dans les céréales pour déjeuner destinées aux enfants au Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Potvin Kent

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Cette étude vise à comparer le contenu nutritionnel et les bienfaits pour la santé des céréales pour déjeuner destinées aux enfants et celles non destinées aux enfants et à évaluer la prédominance du sucre ajouté dans ces produits. Méthodologie : Nous avons recueilli des données sur le contenu nutritionnel de 262 céréales pour déjeuner vendues dans les cinq principales chaînes d’alimentation à Ottawa (Ontario et à Gatineau (Québec. Pour chaque céréale, nous avons pris en note les cinq premiers ingrédients et la quantité de sucres ajoutés indiqués sur la liste des ingrédients. Les diverses marques de céréales ont été ensuite classées en deux catégories, soit « plus saines » ou « moins saines », à l’aide du modèle de profil nutritionnel du Royaume-Uni. Nous avons évalué chaque céréale en fonction de divers critères afin de déterminer si elle était destinée ou non aux enfants. Des comparaisons statistiques ont été établies entre les céréales destinées aux enfants et les autres. Résultats : Sur l'ensemble des céréales pour déjeuner, 19,8 % étaient destinées aux enfants et contenaient beaucoup moins de gras et de gras saturés. Ces céréales avaient une teneur en sodium et en sucre significativement plus élevée et une teneur en fibres et en protéines plus faible, et elles étaient trois fois plus susceptibles d’être classées comme « moins saines » par rapport aux céréales non destinées aux enfants. Aucune des céréales destinées aux enfants n’était sans sucre et, pour 75 % d’entre elles, le sucre occupait le deuxième rang dans la liste des ingrédients. Six entreprises de céréales pour déjeuner possédaient une gamme de produits destinés aux enfants composée entièrement de céréales « moins saines ». Conclusion : Il est nécessaire d’adopter un règlement qui limite le marketing alimentaire ciblant les enfants et les jeunes de moins de 17

  11. Plecanatide and dolcanatide, novel guanylate cyclase-C agonists, ameliorate gastrointestinal inflammation in experimental models of murine colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shailubhai, Kunwar; Palejwala, Vaseem; Arjunan, Krishna Priya; Saykhedkar, Sayali; Nefsky, Bradley; Foss, John A; Comiskey, Stephen; Jacob, Gary S; Plevy, Scott E

    2015-11-06

    To evaluate the effect of orally administered plecanatide or dolcanatide, analogs of uroguanylin, on amelioration of colitis in murine models. The cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) stimulatory potency of plecanatide and dolcanatide was measured using a human colon carcinoma T84 cell-based assay. For animal studies all test agents were formulated in phosphate buffered saline. Sulfasalazine or 5-amino salicylic acid (5-ASA) served as positive controls. Effect of oral treatment with test agents on amelioration of acute colitis induced either by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in drinking water or by rectal instillation of trinitrobenzene sulfonic (TNBS) acid, was examined in BALB/c and/or BDF1 mice. Additionally, the effect of orally administered plecanatide on the spontaneous colitis in T-cell receptor alpha knockout (TCRα(-/-)) mice was also examined. Amelioration of colitis was assessed by monitoring severity of colitis, disease activity index and by histopathology. Frozen colon tissues were used to measure myeloperoxidase activity. Plecanatide and dolcanatide are structurally related analogs of uroguanylin, which is an endogenous ligand of guanylate cyclase-C (GC-C). As expected from the agonists of GC-C, both plecanatide and dolcanatide exhibited potent cGMP-stimulatory activity in T84 cells. Once-daily treatment by oral gavage with either of these analogs (0.05-0.5 mg/kg) ameliorated colitis in both DSS and TNBS-induced models of acute colitis, as assessed by body weight, reduction in colitis severity (P < 0.05) and disease activity index (P < 0.05). Amelioration of colitis by either of the drug candidates was comparable to that achieved by orally administered sulfasalazine or 5-ASA. Plecanatide also effectively ameliorated colitis in TCRα(-/-) mice, a model of spontaneous colitis. As dolcanatide exhibited higher resistance to proteolysis in simulated gastric and intestinal juices, it was selected for further studies. This is the first-ever study reporting

  12. Didier Combeau, Des Américains et des armes à feux. Violence et démocratie aux Etats-Unis. Saul Cornell, A Well-Regulated Militia : The Founding Fathers and the Origins of Gun Control in America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renaud Pacoud

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Deux ouvrages différents dans leur approche mais également passionnants permettent de saisir l’évolution du débat sur les armes à feu aux États-Unis. Des Américains et des armes à feux. Violence et démocratie aux Etats Unis de Didier Combeau rend compte de la relation complexe que les Américains entretiennent avec les armes à feu depuis la fondation de la nation et de la polémique contemporaine sur la question du droit aux armes. A Well-Regulated Militia : The Founding Fathers and the Origins...

  13. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor ameliorates brain stem cardiovascular dysregulation during experimental temporal lobe status epilepticus.

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    Ching-Yi Tsai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Status epilepticus (SE is an acute, prolonged epileptic crisis with a mortality rate of 20-30%; the underlying mechanism is not completely understood. We assessed the hypothesis that brain stem cardiovascular dysregulation occurs during SE because of oxidative stress in rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM, a key nucleus of the baroreflex loop; to be ameliorated by brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF via an antioxidant action. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a clinically relevant experimental model of temporal lobe SE (TLSE using Sprague-Dawley rats, sustained hippocampal seizure activity was accompanied by progressive hypotension that was preceded by a reduction in baroreflex-mediated sympathetic vasomotor tone; heart rate and baroreflex-mediated cardiac responses remained unaltered. Biochemical experiments further showed concurrent augmentation of superoxide anion, phosphorylated p47(phox subunit of NADPH oxidase and mRNA or protein levels of BDNF, tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB, angiotensin AT1 receptor subtype (AT1R, nitric oxide synthase II (NOS II or peroxynitrite in RVLM. Whereas pretreatment by microinjection bilaterally into RVLM of a superoxide dismutase mimetic (tempol, a specific antagonist of NADPH oxidase (apocynin or an AT1R antagonist (losartan blunted significantly the augmented superoxide anion or phosphorylated p47(phox subunit in RVLM, hypotension and the reduced baroreflex-mediated sympathetic vasomotor tone during experimental TLSE, pretreatment with a recombinant human TrkB-Fc fusion protein or an antisense bdnf oligonucleotide significantly potentiated all those events, alongside peroxynitrite. However, none of the pretreatments affected the insignificant changes in heart rate and baroreflex-mediated cardiac responses. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that formation of peroxynitrite by a reaction between superoxide anion generated by NADPH oxidase in RVLM on activation by AT1R and NOS II

  14. Curcuma oil ameliorates insulin resistance & associated thrombotic complications in hamster & rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vishal; Jain, Manish; Misra, Ankita; Khanna, Vivek; Prakash, Prem; Malasoni, Richa; Dwivedi, Anil Kumar; Dikshit, Madhu; Barthwal, Manoj Kumar

    2015-06-01

    Curcuma oil (C. oil) isolated from turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) has been shown to have neuro-protective, anti-cancer, antioxidant and anti-hyperlipidaemic effects in experimental animal models. However, its effect in insulin resistant animals remains unclear. The present study was carried out to investigate the disease modifying potential and underlying mechanisms of the C. oil in animal models of diet induced insulin resistance and associated thrombotic complications. Male Golden Syrian hamsters on high fructose diet (HFr) for 12 wk were treated orally with vehicle, fenofibrate (30 mg/kg) or C. oil (300 mg/kg) in the last four weeks. Wistar rats fed HFr for 12 wk were treated orally with C. oil (300 mg/kg) in the last two weeks. To examine the protective effect of C. oil, blood glucose, serum insulin, platelet aggregation, thrombosis and inflammatory markers were assessed in these animals. Animals fed with HFr diet for 12 wk demonstrated hyperlipidaemia, hyperglycaemia, hyperinsulinaemia, alteration in insulin sensitivity indices, increased lipid peroxidation, inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, platelet free radical generation, tyrosine phosphorylation, aggregation, adhesion and intravascular thrombosis. Curcuma oil treatment for the last four weeks in hamsters ameliorated HFr-induced hyperlipidaemia, hyperglycaemia, insulin resistance, oxidative stress, inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, platelet activation, and thrombosis. In HFr fed hamsters, the effect of C. oil at 300 mg/kg [ ] was comparable with the standard drug fenofibrate. Curcuma oil treatment in the last two weeks in rats ameliorated HFr-induced hyperglycaemia and hyperinsulinaemia by modulating hepatic expression of sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma co-activator 1 (PGC-1)α and PGC-1β genes known to be involved in lipid and glucose metabolism. High fructose feeding to rats and hamsters led to the development of insulin

  15. The Histamine H3 Receptor Antagonist DL77 Ameliorates MK801-Induced Memory Deficits in Rats

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    Nermin Eissa

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The role of Histamine H3 receptors (H3Rs in memory, and the prospective of H3R antagonists in pharmacological control of neurodegenerative disorders, e.g., Alzheimer disease (AD is well-accepted. For that reason, the procognitive effects of the H3R antagonist DL77 on cognitive impairments induced with MK801 were tested in an inhibitory passive avoidance paradigm (PAP and novel object recognition (NOR task in adult male rats, using donepezil (DOZ as a standard drug. Acute systemic pretreatment with DL77 (2.5, 5, and 10 mg/kg, i.p. significantly ameliorated memory deficits induced with MK801 in PAP (all P < 0.05, n = 7. The ameliorative effect of most promising dose of DL77 (5 mg/kg, i.p. was reversed when rats were co-injected with the H3R agonist R-(α-methylhistamine (RAMH, 10 mg/kg, i.p. (p = 0.701 for MK801-amnesic group vs. MK801+DL77+RAMH group, n = 6. In the NOR paradigm, DL77 (5 mg/kg, i.p. counteracted long-term memory (LTM deficits induced with MK801 (P < 0.05, n = 6–8, and the DL77-provided effect was similar to that of DOZ (p = 0.788, n = 6–8, and was reversed when rats were co-injected with RAMH (10 mg/kg, i.p. (p = 0.877, n = 6, as compared to the (MK801-amnesic group. However, DL77 (5 mg/kg, i.p. did not alter short-term memory (STM impairment in NOR test (p = 0.772, n = 6–8, as compared to (MK801-amnesic group. Moreover, DL77 (5 mg/kg failed to modify anxiety and locomotor behaviors of animals innate to elevated-plus maze (EPM (p = 0.67 for percentage of time spent exploring the open arms, p = 0.52 for number of entries into the open arms, p = 0.76 for percentage of entries into the open arms, and p = 0.73 number of closed arm entries as compared to saline-treated groups, all n = 6, demonstrating that the procognitive effects observed in PAP or NOR tests were unconnected to alterations in emotions or in natural locomotion of tested animals. These results signify the potential involvement of H3Rs in modulating

  16. Celastrol ameliorates liver metabolic damage caused by a high-fat diet through Sirt1

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    Yinliang Zhang

    2017-01-01

    . Conclusions: Celastrol ameliorates NAFLD by decreasing lipid synthesis and improving the anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory status. And Sirt1 has an important role in Celastrol-ameliorating liver metabolic damage caused by HFD. Keywords: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, Celastrol, Sirt1, Lipid metabolism, Chronic inflammation, Oxidative stress

  17. Biologically Synthesized Gold Nanoparticles Ameliorate Cold and Heat Stress-Induced Oxidative Stress in Escherichia coli

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    Xi-Feng Zhang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to their unique physical, chemical, and optical properties, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs have recently attracted much interest in the field of nanomedicine, especially in the areas of cancer diagnosis and photothermal therapy. Because of the enormous potential of these nanoparticles, various physical, chemical, and biological methods have been adopted for their synthesis. Synthetic antioxidants are dangerous to human health. Thus, the search for effective, nontoxic natural compounds with effective antioxidative properties is essential. Although AuNPs have been studied for use in various biological applications, exploration of AuNPs as antioxidants capable of inhibiting oxidative stress induced by heat and cold stress is still warranted. Therefore, one goal of our study was to produce biocompatible AuNPs using biological methods that are simple, nontoxic, biocompatible, and environmentally friendly. Next, we aimed to assess the antioxidative effect of AuNPs against oxidative stress induced by cold and heat in Escherichia coli, which is a suitable model for stress responses involving AuNPs. The response of aerobically grown E. coli cells to cold and heat stress was found to be similar to the oxidative stress response. Upon exposure to cold and heat stress, the viability and metabolic activity of E. coli was significantly reduced compared to the control. In addition, levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS and malondialdehyde (MDA and leakage of proteins and sugars were significantly elevated, and the levels of lactate dehydrogenase activity (LDH and adenosine triphosphate (ATP significantly lowered compared to in the control. Concomitantly, AuNPs ameliorated cold and heat-induced oxidative stress responses by increasing the expression of antioxidants, including glutathione (GSH, glutathione S-transferase (GST, super oxide dismutase (SOD, and catalase (CAT. These consistent physiology and biochemical data suggest that AuNPs can ameliorate cold and

  18. Lactobacillus plantarum MYS6 Ameliorates Fumonisin B1-Induced Hepatorenal Damage in Broilers

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    B. V. Deepthi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Fumonisin B1 (FB1, a mycotoxin produced by Fusarium species is a predominant Group 2B carcinogen occurring in maize and maize-based poultry feeds. It is shown to be nephrotoxic, hepatotoxic, neurotoxic, and immunosuppressing in animals. In this study, we report the ameliorating effects of a probiotic strain, Lactobacillus plantarum MYS6 on FB1-induced toxicity and oxidative damage in broilers. A 6-week dietary experiment consisting of 48 broilers was performed in six treatment groups. Probiotic treatment (109 cells/mL involved pre-colonization of broilers with L. plantarum MYS6 while co-administration treatment involved supplementation of probiotic and FB1-contaminated diet (200 mg/Kg feed simultaneously. At the end of the treatment period, growth performance, hematology, serum biochemistry, and markers of oxidative stress in serum and tissue homogenates were evaluated in all the broilers. The histopathological changes in hepatic and renal tissues were further studied. The results demonstrated that administration of L. plantarum MYS6 efficiently improved the feed intake, body weight and feed conversion ratio in broilers. It mitigated the altered levels of hematological indices such as complete blood count, hemoglobin, and hematocrit. Serum parameters such as serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase, creatinine, cholesterol, triglycerides, and albumin were significantly restored after administering the probiotic in FB1-intoxicated broilers. Additionally, L. plantarum MYS6 alleviated the levels of oxidative stress markers in serum and tissue homogenate of liver. The histopathological data of liver and kidney further substantiated the overall protection offered by L. plantarum MYS6 against FB1-induced cellular toxicity and organ damage in broilers. Our results indicated that co-administration of probiotic along with the toxin had better effect in detoxification compared to its pre-colonization in broilers

  19. Paroxetine ameliorates changes in hippocampal energy metabolism in chronic mild stress-exposed rats

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    Khedr LH

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Lobna H Khedr, Noha N Nassar, Ezzeldin S El-Denshary, Ahmed M Abdel-tawab 1Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Misr International University, 2Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, 3Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt Abstract: The molecular mechanisms underlying stress-induced depression have not been fully outlined. Hence, the current study aimed at testing the link between behavioral changes in chronic mild stress (CMS model and changes in hippocampal energy metabolism and the role of paroxetine (PAROX in ameliorating these changes. Male Wistar rats were divided into three groups: vehicle control, CMS-exposed rats, and CMS-exposed rats receiving PAROX (10 mg/kg/day intraperitoneally. Sucrose preference, open-field, and forced swimming tests were carried out. Corticosterone (CORT was measured in serum, while adenosine triphosphate and its metabolites, cytosolic cytochrome-c (Cyt-c, caspase-3 (Casp-3, as well as nitric oxide metabolites (NOx were measured in hippocampal tissue homogenates. CMS-exposed rats showed a decrease in sucrose preference as well as body weight compared to control, which was reversed by PAROX. The latter further ameliorated the CMS-induced elevation of CORT in serum (91.71±1.77 ng/mL vs 124.5±4.44 ng/mL, P<0.001 as well as the changes in adenosine triphosphate/adenosine diphosphate (3.76±0.02 nmol/mg protein vs 1.07±0.01 nmol/mg protein, P<0.001. Furthermore, PAROX reduced the expression of Cyt-c and Casp-3, as well as restoring NOx levels. This study highlights the role of PAROX in reversing depressive behavior associated with stress-induced apoptosis and changes in hippocampal energy metabolism in the CMS model of depression. Keywords: rats, CMS, hippocampus, paroxetine, apoptosis, adenine nucleotides, cytochrome-c, caspase-3

  20. Curcuma oil ameliorates insulin resistance & associated thrombotic complications in hamster & rat

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    Vishal Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Curcuma oil (C. oil isolated from turmeric (Curcuma longa L. has been shown to have neuro-protective, anti-cancer, antioxidant and anti-hyperlipidaemic effects in experimental animal models. However, its effect in insulin resistant animals remains unclear. The present study was carried out to investigate the disease modifying potential and underlying mechanisms of the C. oil in animal models of diet induced insulin resistance and associated thrombotic complications. Methods: Male Golden Syrian hamsters on high fructose diet (HFr for 12 wk were treated orally with vehicle, fenofibrate (30 mg/kg or C. oil (300 mg/kg in the last four weeks. Wistar rats fed HFr for 12 wk were treated orally with C. oil (300 mg/kg in the last two weeks. To examine the protective effect of C. oil, blood glucose, serum insulin, platelet aggregation, thrombosis and inflammatory markers were assessed in these animals. Results: Animals fed with HFr diet for 12 wk demonstrated hyperlipidaemia, hyperglycaemia, hyperinsulinaemia, alteration in insulin sensitivity indices, increased lipid peroxidation, inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, platelet free radical generation, tyrosine phosphorylation, aggregation, adhesion and intravascular thrombosis. Curcuma oil treatment for the last four weeks in hamsters ameliorated HFr-induced hyperlipidaemia, hyperglycaemia, insulin resistance, oxidative stress, inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, platelet activation, and thrombosis. In HFr fed hamsters, the effect of C. oil at 300 mg/kg [ ] was comparable with the standard drug fenofibrate. Curcuma oil treatment in the last two weeks in rats ameliorated HFr-induced hyperglycaemia and hyperinsulinaemia by modulating hepatic expression of sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma co-activator 1 (PGC-1α and PGC-1β genes known to be involved in lipid and glucose metabolism. Interpretation

  1. PGBR extract ameliorates TNF-α induced insulin resistance in hepatocytes

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    Fu-Chih Chen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Pre-germinated brown rice (PGBR could ameliorate metabolic syndrome, however, not much research estimates the effect of PGBR extract on insulin resistance. The aim of this study is to examine the effects of PGBR extract in TNF-α induced insulin resistance. HepG2 cells, hepatocytes, were cultured in DMEM medium and added with 5 μM insulin or with insulin and 30 ng/ml TNF-α or with insulin, TNF-α and PGBR extract (50, 100, 300 μg/ml. The glucose levels of the medium were decreased by insulin, demonstrating insulin promoted glucose uptake into cell. However, TNF-α inhibited glucose uptake into cells treated with insulin. Moreover, insulin increased the protein expressions of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK, insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1, phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase-α (PI3K-α, serine/threonine kinase PI3K-linked protein kinase B (Akt/PKB, glucose transporter-2 (GLUT-2, glucokinase (GCK, peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-α (PPAR-α and PPAR-γ. TNF-α activated p65 and MAPKs (JNK1/2 and ERK1/2 which worsened the expressions of AMPK, IRS-1, PI3K-α, Akt/PKB, GLUT-2, GCK, glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3, PPAR-α and PPAR-γ. Once this relationship was established, we added PGBR extract to cell with insulin and TNF-α. We found glucose levels of medium were lowered and that the protein expressions of AMPK, IRS-1, PI3K-α, Akt/PKB, GLUT-2, GCK, GSK-3, PPAR-α, PPAR-γ and p65, JNK1/2 were also recovered. In conclusion, this study found that TNF-α inhibited insulin stimulated glucose uptake and aggravated related proteins expressions, suggesting that it might cause insulin resistance. PGBR extract was found to ameliorate this TNF-α induced insulin resistance, suggesting that it might be used in the future to help control insulin resistance.

  2. Aspects épidémiologiques des accidents vasculaires cérébraux (AVC) aux urgences de l'institut de cardiologie d'Abidjan (ICA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    N'goran, Yves N'da Kouakou; Traore, Fatou; Tano, Micesse; Kramoh, Kouadio Euloge; Kakou, Jean-Baptiste Anzouan; Konin, Christophe; Kakou, Maurice Guikahue

    2015-01-01

    Introduction L'objectif de notre étude était de décrire les caractéristiques sociodémographiques et les Facteurs de Risque cardio-Vasculaires (FRV) des patients admis pour accidents vasculaires cérébraux (AVC) dans un service autre que celui de la neurologie. Méthodes Étude transversale rétrospective sur une période de 2 ans (janv. 2010 et déc. 2011), réalisée aux urgences de l'institut de cardiologie d'Abidjan. Résultats Il s'agissait de 176 adultes avec un âge moyen de 60 ans, une prédominance féminine. Les facteurs de risque majeurs retrouvés étaient l'hypertension artérielle dans 86,4% des cas, le diabète dans 11,4% des cas, le tabagisme dans 2,2% des cas. Les motifs de consultation étaient la perte de connaissance dans 36,4% des cas, l'hémiplégie dans 31,8% des cas, les céphalées dans 17,4% des cas, les vertiges dans 10,9% et les palpitations dans 2,2% des cas. La tension artérielle systolique moyenne était à 174 mmHg, la tension artérielle diastolique moyenne était à 105 mmHg et la pression pulsée moyenne était à 70 mmHg. Les AVC étaient associés à une arythmie complète par fibrillation auriculaire dans 11,4% des cas. Les AVC ischémiques représentaient 84,1%. L’évolution aux urgences a été marquée par un décès dans 17% (30) des cas. Conclusion Les AVC constituent un problème majeur de santé publique. Malgré sa prédominance féminine, ils (AVC) touchaient 44% des hommes dans notre étude lorsqu'on sait qu'en Afrique l'activité sociale repose sur les hommes. Ils restent une pathologie grave par la forte létalité. PMID:26327997

  3. CO{sub 2} direct cycles suitable for AGR type reactors; Cycles directs de gaz carbonique applicables aux reacteurs du genre AGR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maillet, E [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique. Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    1967-10-01

    The perspectives given by the gas turbines under pressure, to build simple nuclear power plants and acieving significantly high yield, are specified. The CO{sub 2} is characterised by by good efficiency under moderate temperature (500 to 750 Celsius degrees), compactness and the simpleness of machines and the safe exploitation (supply, storage, relief cooling, thermosyphon). The revision of thermal properties of the CO{sub 2} and loss elements show that several direct cycles would fit in particular to the AGR type reactors. Cycles that would diverge a little from classical models and able to lead to power and heat generation can lead by simple means to the best results. Several satisfying solutions present for the starting up, the power regulation and the stopping. The nuclear power plant components and the functioning safety are equally considered in the present report. The conclusions stimulate the studies and realizations of carbon dioxide gas turbines in when approprite. [French] Les perspectives offertes par la turbine a gaz sous pression, pour construire des centrales nucleaires simples et de rendement progressivement eleve, se precisent actuellement. le CO{sub 2} se distingue par sa bonne efficacite a temperature moderee (500 a 750 degres celsius), la compacite et la simplicite des machines, et la surete qu'il apporte a l'exploitation ( approvisionnement, stockage, refroidissement de secours, thermosiphon). La revision des proprietes thermophysiques du CO{sub 2} et des elements de pertes montre que divers cycles directs conviendraient en particulier aux reacteurs agr ou derives. Des cycles s'ecartant peu des modeles classiques, et se pretant ulterieurement a la production simultanee d'electricite et de chaleur, peuvent conduire par des moyens simples aux meilleurs resultats d'ensemble. Plusieurs solutions satisfaisantes se presentent pour le demarrage, le reglage de la puissance et l'arret. Les composants de la centrale et la surete de fonctionnement sont

  4. DET/MPS - THE GSFC ENERGY BALANCE PROGRAM, DIRECT ENERGY TRANSFER/MULTIMISSION SPACECRAFT MODULAR POWER SYSTEM (MACINTOSH A/UX VERSION)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagielski, J. M.

    1994-01-01

    The DET/MPS programs model and simulate the Direct Energy Transfer and Multimission Spacecraft Modular Power System in order to aid both in design and in analysis of orbital energy balance. Typically, the DET power system has the solar array directly to the spacecraft bus, and the central building block of MPS is the Standard Power Regulator Unit. DET/MPS allows a minute-by-minute simulation of the power system's performance as it responds to various orbital parameters, focusing its output on solar array output and battery characteristics. While this package is limited in terms of orbital mechanics, it is sufficient to calculate eclipse and solar array data for circular or non-circular orbits. DET/MPS can be adjusted to run one or sequential orbits up to about one week, simulated time. These programs have been used on a variety of Goddard Space Flight Center spacecraft projects. DET/MPS is written in FORTRAN 77 with some VAX-type extensions. Any FORTRAN 77 compiler that includes VAX extensions should be able to compile and run the program with little or no modifications. The compiler must at least support free-form (or tab-delineated) source format and 'do do-while end-do' control structures. DET/MPS is available for three platforms: GSC-13374, for DEC VAX series computers running VMS, is available in DEC VAX Backup format on a 9-track 1600 BPI tape (standard distribution) or TK50 tape cartridge; GSC-13443, for UNIX-based computers, is available on a .25 inch streaming magnetic tape cartridge in UNIX tar format; and GSC-13444, for Macintosh computers running AU/X with either the NKR FORTRAN or AbSoft MacFORTRAN II compilers, is available on a 3.5 inch 800K Macintosh format diskette. Source code and test data are supplied. The UNIX version of DET requires 90K of main memory for execution. DET/MPS was developed in 1990. A/UX and Macintosh are registered trademarks of Apple Computer, Inc. VMS, DEC VAX and TK50 are trademarks of Digital Equipment Corporation. UNIX is a

  5. Cohabitation sociale et ordre public aux Champs-Élysées :Gestion et appropriation du carré des jeux (1700-1830

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    Véronique Laporte

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Au 18e siècle et au début du 19e siècle, les Champs-Élysées sont ouverts à tous et attirent une clientèle diversifiée. Des joueurs issus d’horizons très différents s’y retrouvent pour pratiquer différentes activités, telles que la longue paume, les boules ou les barres. Afin que les promeneurs ne soient pas importunés par les jeux, ces derniers sont confinés dans une vaste clairière servant également lors des revues militaires et des fêtes publiques. Les autorités ont une volonté réelle d’offrir aux visiteurs des espaces de jeux, mais elles craignent aussi les débordements susceptibles d’être créés par les amusements. En effet, qu’importe si les joueurs sont nobles ou écoliers, la même crainte transparaît. Il s’agit de la peur des attroupements. C’est pourquoi les autorités tentent de diminuer l’affluence aux Champs-Élysées en contrôlant le nombre et la nature des jeux pratiqués dans cet espace public.At the end of the 18th century and the beginning of the 19th century, the Champs-Élysées were open to people of all extractions and attracted indeed a diversified public. Players of different social origins gathered for various collective games such as the longue paume, bowls, or "les barres". In order not to disturb the strollers, the games were confined in a clearing also used for military reviews and public celebrations. Authorities had a will to offer playing spaces to visitors, but were at the same time concerned by the possibility of public overflowings. Whether they be aristocrats or schoolboys, the same apprehension comes out: the fear of gatherings. This is the why the authorities attempted to reduce the crowds on the Champs-Élysées by controlling the number and the nature of the games practiced in that public place.

  6. Ameliorative properties of Iranian Trigonella foenum-graecum L. seeds and Punica granatum L. peel extracts in streptozotocin-induced experimental diabetic guinea pigs

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    Nabil Abdel Salam Ahmed Hasona

    2017-03-01

    Conclusions: The Iranian T. foenum-graecum seeds and P. granatum peel extracts are significantly potent in ameliorating diabetic condition induced by streptozotocin and improving various biochemical parameters in serum and liver of guinea pigs.

  7. Daikenchuto, a traditional Japanese herbal medicine, ameliorates postoperative ileus by anti-inflammatory action through nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

    OpenAIRE

    Endo, Mari; Hori, Masatoshi; Ozaki, Hiroshi; Oikawa, Tetsuro; Hanawa, Toshihiko

    2013-01-01

    Background Daikenchuto (DKT), a gastrointestinal prokinetic Japanese herbal medicine, is prescribed for patients with postoperative ileus (POI) and adhesive bowel obstruction following abdominal surgery. Several mechanisms for the amelioration of POI by DKT have been suggested; however, it has remained unclear whether DKT shows anti-inflammatory effects in POI. In the present study, we investigated the effects of DKT in a mouse POI model and attempted to clarify the detailed mechanisms of act...

  8. Amelioration of radiation damage to haemopoiesis by Ivastimul, given after irradiation to mice protected by peroral cystamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vacek, A.; Rotkovska, D.; Bartonickova, A.; Kautska, J.

    1992-01-01

    Combined radioprotection by preirradiation peroral cystamine and postirradiation Ivastimul administration was examined in sublethally and lethally whole-body gamma-irradiated mice. Enhancement of haemopoietic recovery and increased survival of irradiated mice was demonstrated for a single dose of Ivastimul administered after irradiation. The ameliorative influence of combined radioprotection may be explained by haemopoietic stem cell protection by cystamine and haemopoietic stimulation mediated by Ivastimul. (author) 2 tabs., 3 figs., 20 refs

  9. Modelling of {sup 137}Cs behaviour in the soil-plant system following the application of ameliorants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spiridonov, S.; Fesenko, S.; Sanzharova, N. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, Obninsk (Russian Federation)

    2004-07-01

    A set of countermeasures aimed at reducing {sup 137}Cs uptake by plant products includes agrochemical measures based on changes in the soil properties after the application of ameliorants. The dynamic models for studying the effect of the application of potassium fertilizers and dolomite powder on {sup 137}Cs accumulation in plants are presented. Conceptual approaches to the development of models are based on the identification of mechanisms governing a complex of physico-chemical processes in soil after the use of ameliorants. The following assumptions were used in the development of models: - dynamics of {sup 137}Cs distribution in each soil layer depends on the sorption processes characterized by different time to achieve quasi-equilibrium (exchangeable uptake and fixation by clay minerals) as well as on vertical migration process; - change in {sup 137}Cs content in soil solution results from the radionuclide sorption on selective and nonselective exchange sites; - uptake of extra amounts of K{sup +} and Ca{sup 2+} in soil solution produces effect on processes of {sup 137}Cs exchangeable sorption and initiate specific processes responsible for {sup 137}Cs fixation in the crystal lattice of clay minerals; - Ca{sup 2+} and K{sup +} cations have a competing effect on {sup 137}Cs uptake by plants from soil solution, which along with the fixation processes, causes lower accumulation of this radionuclide by plants during the application of ameliorants. The developed models were parameterized for soils of the coniferous forest located in the Bryansk region in area suffered from the radioactive fallout after the Chernobyl accident. Effects of ameliorants and time of their application on {sup 137}Cs behaviour in the soil-plant system are assessed. The contribution of soil chemical and biological processes to the decrease in the radionuclide uptake by plants is estimated. (author)

  10. Ameliorative Effects of Acacia Honey against Sodium Arsenite-Induced Oxidative Stress in Some Viscera of Male Wistar Albino Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Aliyu; Sani Ibrahim; Hajiya M. Inuwa; Abdullahi B. Sallau; Olagunju Abbas; Idowu A. Aimola; Nathan Habila; Ndidi S. Uche

    2013-01-01

    Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide and its development is frequently associated with oxidative stress-induced by carcinogens such as arsenicals. Most foods are basically health-promoting or disease-preventing and a typical example of such type is honey. This study was undertaken to investigate the ameliorative effects of Acacia honey on sodium arsenite-induced oxidative stress in the heart, lung and kidney tissues of male Wistar rats. Male Wistar albino rats divided into four groups...

  11. MSCs ameliorates DPN induced cellular pathology via [Ca2+ ]i homeostasis and scavenging the pro-inflammatory cytokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandramoorthy, Harish C; Bin-Jaliah, Ismaeel; Karari, Hussian; Rajagopalan, Prasanna; Ahmed Shariff, Mohammed Eajaz; Al-Hakami, Ahmed; Al-Humayad, Suliman M; Baptain, Fawzi A; Ahmed, Humeda Suekit; Yassin, Hanaa Z; Haidara, Mohamed A

    2018-02-01

    The MSCs of various origins are known to ameliorate or modulate cell survival strategies. We investigated, whether UCB MSCs could improve the survival of the human neuronal cells and/or fibroblast assaulted with DPN sera. The results showed, the co-culture of UCB MSCs with human neuronal cells and/or fibroblasts could effectively scavenge the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β, IFN-ɤ and IL - 12 and control the pro-apoptotic expression of p53/Bax. Further co-culture of UCB MSCs have shown to induce anti-inflammatory cytokines like IL-4, IL-10 and TGF-β and anti-apoptotic Bclxl/Bcl2 expression in the DPN sera stressed cells. Amelioration of elevated [Ca 2+ ] i and cROS, the portent behind the NFκB/Caspase-3 mediated inflammation in DPN rescued the cells from apoptosis. The results of systemic administration of BM MSCs improved DPN pathology in rat as extrapolated from human cell model. The BM MSCs ameliorated prolonged distal motor latency (control: 0.70 ± 0.06, DPN: 1.29 ± 0.13 m/s DPN + BM MSCs: 0.89 ± 0.02 m/s, p glucose levels. Together, all these results showed that administration of BM or UCB MSCs improved the DPN via ameliorating pro-inflammatory cytokine signaling and [Ca 2+ ] i homeostasis. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Ameliorating influence of sulfur on germination attributes of canola (brassica napus l.) under chromium stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahan, S.; Iqbal, S.; Jabeen, K.; Sadaf, S.

    2015-01-01

    An experiment was performed to evaluate the role of sulfur to induce tolerance in Brassica napus L. against chromium stress by estimating the changes in germination parameters. Petriplates were assembled in Randomized Complete Block Design. A total 9 sets of treatments viz., control, chromium treated (40 and 160ppm), sulfur treated (50 and 150ppm) and sulfur (50 and 150ppm) combined with chromium (40 and 160ppm) with three replicates was used. Chromium under both concentrations was responsible for significant decline in germination parameters i.e. germination percentage, germination rate, seedling vigor index, shoot and root length, fresh weight and dry weight of seedlings. Sulfur application under chromium stress resulted in improvement of germination parameters such as germination percentage, germination rate, seedling vigor index, shoot and root length, fresh weight and dry weight of seedlings in contrast to chromium treatment. So, it can be concluded that sulfur in appropriate dose can be used to ameliorate the negative effects of chromium by increasing the germination potential of canola. (author)

  13. Amelioration of some biochemical parameters in irradiated male albino rats by garlic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-masry, F.S.H.; El-sayed, N.M.; Hussein, A.H.

    2005-01-01

    Garlic extract has various medical effects on the treatment of many diseases as hypertension, atherosclerosis, inflammation and diabetes. The alteration of the biochemical parameters in blood serum of irradiated rats may play an important role in determining the pathogenesis of radiation exposure. Many of the damaging effects of ionizing radiation are mediated by reactive free radicals. This study was designed to evaluate the protective role of garlic against gamma irradiation (5Gy) induced biochemical disorders in rats. Samples were collected at 1, 7 and 14 days post-irradiation. Lipid peroxide content (malondialdehyde), cholesterol, HDL-C, LDL-C, fatty acids, glucose, insulin, glycogen, haemoglobin, ferritin andiron were estimated.Garlic was orally administered to rats (100 mg/kg body weight) for 14 days before exposure to single dose of gamma irradiation at dose level 5 Gy. The data revealed significant increase in the levels of lipid peroxide, cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, fatty acids, insulin, glucose and iron accompanied with significant decrease in the levels of HDL-cholesterol, glycogen, haemoglobin and ferritin due to radiation exposure. Administration of garlic alone to the rats caused nonsignificant changes in the estimated parameters indicating its safe use, but the treatment with garlic to rats before radiation exposure ameliorated the changes induced by gamma irradiation and tended to normalize their levels.It could be concluded that garlic administration may has a beneficial role in restoring the biochemical disorders induced by 5 Gy gamma irradiation

  14. Fluoxetine treatment ameliorates depression induced by perinatal arsenic exposure via a neurogenic mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Christina R.; Solomon, Benjamin R.; Ulibarri, Adam L.; Allan, Andrea M.

    2014-01-01

    Several epidemiological studies have reported an association between arsenic exposure and increased rates of psychiatric disorders, including depression, in exposed populations. We have previously demonstrated that developmental exposure to low amounts of arsenic induces depression in adulthood along with several morphological and molecular aberrations, particularly associated with the hippocampus and the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis. The extent and potential reversibility of this toxin-induced damage has not been characterized to date. In this study, we assessed the effects of fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressant, on adult animals exposed to arsenic during development. Perinatal arsenic exposure (PAE) induced depressive-like symptoms in a mild learned helplessness task and in the forced swim task after acute exposure to a predator odor (2,4,5-trimethylthiazoline, TMT). Chronic fluoxetine treatment prevented these behaviors in both tasks in arsenic-exposed animals and ameliorated arsenic-induced blunted stress responses, as measured by corticosterone (CORT) levels before and after TMT exposure. Morphologically, chronic fluoxetine treatment reversed deficits in adult hippocampal neurogenesis (AHN) after PAE, specifically differentiation and survival of neural progenitor cells. Protein expression of BDNF, CREB, the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), and HDAC2 was significantly increased in the dentate gyrus of arsenic animals after fluoxetine treatment. This study demonstrates that damage induced by perinatal arsenic exposure is reversible with chronic fluoxetine treatment resulting in restored resiliency to depression via a neurogenic mechanism. PMID:24952232

  15. Resveratrol Ameliorates the Depressive-Like Behaviors and Metabolic Abnormalities Induced by Chronic Corticosterone Injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Cheng Li

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Chronic glucocorticoid exposure is known to cause depression and metabolic disorders. It is critical to improve abnormal metabolic status as well as depressive-like behaviors in patients with long-term glucocorticoid therapy. This study aimed to investigate the effects of resveratrol on the depressive-like behaviors and metabolic abnormalities induced by chronic corticosterone injection. Male ICR mice were administrated corticosterone (40 mg/kg by subcutaneous injection for three weeks. Resveratrol (50 and 100 mg/kg, fluoxetine (20 mg/kg and pioglitazone (10 mg/kg were given by oral gavage 30 min prior to corticosterone administration. The behavioral tests showed that resveratrol significantly reversed the depressive-like behaviors induced by corticosterone, including the reduced sucrose preference and increased immobility time in the forced swimming test. Moreover, resveratrol also increased the secretion of insulin, reduced serum level of glucose and improved blood lipid profiles in corticosterone-treated mice without affecting normal mice. However, fluoxetine only reverse depressive-like behaviors, and pioglitazone only prevent the dyslipidemia induced by corticosterone. Furthermore, resveratrol and pioglitazone decreased serum level of glucagon and corticosterone. The present results indicated that resveratrol can ameliorate depressive-like behaviors and metabolic abnormalities induced by corticosterone, which suggested that the multiple effects of resveratrol could be beneficial for patients with depression and/or metabolic syndrome associated with long-term glucocorticoid therapy.

  16. Fluoxetine ameliorates cartilage degradation in osteoarthritis by inhibiting Wnt/β-catenin signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Kentaro; Ohkawara, Bisei; Ito, Mikako; Masuda, Akio; Hirakawa, Akihiro; Sakai, Tadahiro; Hiraiwa, Hideki; Hamada, Takashi; Ishiguro, Naoki; Ohno, Kinji

    2017-01-01

    Abnormal activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling is implicated in the osteoarthritis (OA) pathology. We searched for a pre-approved drug that suppresses abnormally activated Wnt/β-catenin signaling and has a potency to reduce joint pathology in OA. We introduced the TOPFlash reporter plasmid into HCS-2/8 human chondrosarcoma cells to estimate the Wnt/β-catenin activity in the presence of 10 μM each compound in a panel of pre-approved drugs. We found that fluoxetine, an antidepressant in the class of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI), down-regulated Wnt/β-catenin signaling in human chondrosarcoma cells. Fluoxetine inhibited both Wnt3A- and LiCl-induced loss of proteoglycans in chondrogenically differentiated ATDC5 cells. Fluoxetine increased expression of Sox9 (the chondrogenic master regulator), and decreased expressions of Axin2 (a marker for Wnt/β-catenin signaling) and Mmp13 (matrix metalloproteinase 13). Fluoxetine suppressed a LiCl-induced increase of total β-catenin and a LiCl-induced decrease of phosphorylated β-catenin in a dose-dependent manner. An in vitro protein-binding assay showed that fluoxetine enhanced binding of β-catenin with Axin1, which is a scaffold protein forming the degradation complex for β-catenin. Fluoxetine suppressed LiCl-induced β-catenin accumulation in human OA chondrocytes. Intraarticular injection of fluoxetine in a rat OA model ameliorated OA progression and suppressed β-catenin accumulation.

  17. Zingiber officinale Roscoe ameliorates anticancer antibiotic doxorubicin-induced acute cardiotoxicity in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajith, Thekkuttuparambil Ananthanarayanan; Hema, Unnikrishnan; Aswathi, Sreedharan

    2016-07-01

    Oxidative stress (OS) has been suggested in the cardiotoxicity induced by anticancer antibiotic doxorubicin (DXN). The cardioprotective effects of aqueous ethanol extract of Zingiber officinale was evaluated against DXN-induced acute cardiac damage in rat. The results of the study demonstrated that Z. officinale significantly and dose dependently protected the cardiotoxicity induced by DXN. The activities of serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase and serum lactate dehydrogenase activity in the DXN alone treated group of animals were significantly (pofficinale (200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o) plus DXN treated groups. The cardiac malondialdehyde was elevated in the DXN alone treated group and declined significantly in the Z. officinale (400 mg/kg) plus DXN treated group. The results concluded that aqueous ethanol extract of Z. officinale ameliorated DXN-induced cardiotoxicity. The protection can be ascribed to the free radical scavenging activity of Z. officinale. This protective effect may suggest the adjuvant role of Z. officinale against OS induced by cancer chemotherapeutants, which warrant further research. © 2016 Old City Publishing, Inc.

  18. Sesamin Ameliorates Advanced Glycation End Products-Induced Pancreatic β-Cell Dysfunction and Apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Kong

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Advanced glycation end products (AGEs, the direct modulators of β-cells, have been shown to cause insulin-producing β-cell dysfunction and apoptosis through increase of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS production. Sesamin has been demonstrated to possess antioxidative activity. This study was designed to investigate whether sesamin protects against AGEs-evoked β-cell damage via its antioxidant property. The effects of sesamin were examined in C57BL/6J mice and MIN6 cell line. In in vivo studies, mice were intraperitoneally injected with AGEs (120 mg/kg and orally treated with sesamin (160 mg/kg for four weeks. Intraperitoneal glucose tolerance and insulin releasing tests were performed. Insulin content, ROS generation and β-cell apoptosis in pancreatic islets were also measured. In in vitro studies, MIN6 cells were pretreated with sesamin (50 or 100 μM and then exposed to AGEs (200 mg/L for 24 h. Insulin secretion, β-cell death, ROS production as well as expression and activity of NADPH oxidase were determined. Sesamin treatment obviously ameliorated AGE-induced β-cell dysfunction and apoptosis both in vivo and in vitro. These effects were associated with decreased ROS production, down-regulated expression of p67phox and p22phox, and reduced NADPH oxidase activity. These results suggest that sesamin protects β-cells from damage caused by AGEs through suppressing NADPH oxidase-mediated oxidative stress.

  19. Targeting of the pulmonary capillary vascular niche promotes lung alveolar repair and ameliorates fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zhongwei; Lis, Raphael; Ginsberg, Michael; Chavez, Deebly; Shido, Koji; Rabbany, Sina Y; Fong, Guo-Hua; Sakmar, Thomas P; Rafii, Shahin; Ding, Bi-Sen

    2016-02-01

    Although the lung can undergo self-repair after injury, fibrosis in chronically injured or diseased lungs can occur at the expense of regeneration. Here we study how a hematopoietic-vascular niche regulates alveolar repair and lung fibrosis. Using intratracheal injection of bleomycin or hydrochloric acid in mice, we show that repetitive lung injury activates pulmonary capillary endothelial cells (PCECs) and perivascular macrophages, impeding alveolar repair and promoting fibrosis. Whereas the chemokine receptor CXCR7, expressed on PCECs, acts to prevent epithelial damage and ameliorate fibrosis after a single round of treatment with bleomycin or hydrochloric acid, repeated injury leads to suppression of CXCR7 expression and recruitment of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 (VEGFR1)-expressing perivascular macrophages. This recruitment stimulates Wnt/β-catenin-dependent persistent upregulation of the Notch ligand Jagged1 (encoded by Jag1) in PCECs, which in turn stimulates exuberant Notch signaling in perivascular fibroblasts and enhances fibrosis. Administration of a CXCR7 agonist or PCEC-targeted Jag1 shRNA after lung injury promotes alveolar repair and reduces fibrosis. Thus, targeting of a maladapted hematopoietic-vascular niche, in which macrophages, PCECs and perivascular fibroblasts interact, may help to develop therapy to spur lung regeneration and alleviate fibrosis.

  20. The use of listening devices to ameliorate auditory deficit in children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rance, Gary; Saunders, Kerryn; Carew, Peter; Johansson, Marlin; Tan, Johanna

    2014-02-01

    To evaluate both monaural and binaural processing skills in a group of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and to determine the degree to which personal frequency modulation (radio transmission) (FM) listening systems could ameliorate their listening difficulties. Auditory temporal processing (amplitude modulation detection), spatial listening (integration of binaural difference cues), and functional hearing (speech perception in background noise) were evaluated in 20 children with ASD. Ten of these subsequently underwent a 6-week device trial in which they wore the FM system for up to 7 hours per day. Auditory temporal processing and spatial listening ability were poorer in subjects with ASD than in matched controls (temporal: P = .014 [95% CI -6.4 to -0.8 dB], spatial: P = .003 [1.0 to 4.4 dB]), and performance on both of these basic processing measures was correlated with speech perception ability (temporal: r = -0.44, P = .022; spatial: r = -0.50, P = .015). The provision of FM listening systems resulted in improved discrimination of speech in noise (P listening devices can enhance speech perception in noise, aid social interaction, and improve educational outcomes in children with ASD. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Lycium chinense leaves extract ameliorates diabetic nephropathy by suppressing hyperglycemia mediated renal oxidative stress and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olatunji, Opeyemi Joshua; Chen, Hongxia; Zhou, Yifeng

    2018-06-01

    Diabetic nephropathy is one of the most serious and most frequently encountered diabetic complication, accounting for the highest cause of end-stage renal disease. This present study was aimed at exploring the protective/attenuative effect of Lycium chinense leaf extract (MELC) on streptozotocin induced diabetic nephropathy in experimental Sprague Dawley rats. The oral administration of diabetic rats with MELC markedly ameliorated renal dysfunction as observed in the significant reduction in the serum levels of creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), albumin and TGF-β1 as compared to the untreated diabetic control rats. In addition, the elevated levels of renal oxidative stress markers and pro-inflammatory parameters (GSH, SOD, CAT, MDA, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β) were significantly reduced in MELC treated diabetic rats. The results obtained in this study suggests that L. chinense leaf might have the potential as possible pharmacological agent against diabetic nephropathy by suppressing renal oxidative stress and inflammation. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  2. Diabetic retinopathy pathogenesis and the ameliorating effects of melatonin; involvement of autophagy, inflammation and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehdashtian, Ehsan; Mehrzadi, Saeed; Yousefi, Bahman; Hosseinzadeh, Azam; Reiter, Russel J; Safa, Majid; Ghaznavi, Habib; Naseripour, Masood

    2018-01-15

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR), a microvascular complication of diabetes mellitus (DM), remains as one of the major causes of vision loss worldwide. The release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and the adhesion of leukocytes to retinal capillaries are initial events in DR development. Inflammation, ER stress, oxidative stress and autophagy are major causative factors involved in the pathogenesis of DR. Diabetes associated hyperglycemia leads to mitochondrial electron transport chain dysfunction culminating in a rise in ROS generation. Since mitochondria are the major source of ROS production, oxidative stress induced by mitochondrial dysfunction also contributes to the development of diabetic retinopathy. Autophagy increases in the retina of diabetic patients and is regulated by ER stress, oxidative stress and inflammation-related pathways. Autophagy functions as a double-edged sword in DR. Under mild stress, autophagic activity can lead to cell survival while during severe stress, dysregulated autophagy results in massive cell death and may have a role in initiation and exacerbation of DR. Melatonin and its metabolites play protective roles against inflammation, ER stress and oxidative stress due to their direct free radical scavenger activities and indirect antioxidant activity via the stimulation antioxidant enzymes including glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase. Melatonin also acts as a cell survival agent by modulating autophagy in various cell types and under different conditions through amelioration of oxidative stress, ER stress and inflammation. Herein, we review the possible effects of melatonin on diabetic retinopathy, focusing on its ability to regulate autophagy processes. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Delivery of Placenta-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Ameliorates Ischemia Induced Limb Injury by Immunomodulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Zhang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Peripheral artery disease (PAD is a major health burden in the world. Stem cell-based therapy has emerged as an attractive treatment option in regenerative medicine. In this study, we sought to test the hypothesis that stem cell-based therapy can ameliorate ischemia induced limb injury. Methods: We isolated mesenchymal stem cells derived from human placentas (PMSCs and intramuscularly transplanted them into injured hind limbs. Treatment with PMSCs reduced acute muscle fibers apoptosis induced by ischemia. Results: PMSC treatment significantly enhanced regeneration of the injured hind limb by reducing fibrosis and enhancing running capacity when the animals were subjected to treadmill training. Mechanistically, injected PMSCs can modulate acute inflammatory responses by reducing neutrophil and macrophage infiltration following limb ischemia. ELISA assays further confirmed that PMSC treatment can also reduce pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α and IL-6, and enhance anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-10 at the injury sites. Conclusion: Taken together, our results demonstrated that PMSCs can be a potential effective therapy for treatment of PAD via immunomodulation.

  4. The Green Tea Catechin Epigallocatechin Gallate Ameliorates Graft-versus-Host Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Westphal

    Full Text Available Allogeneic hematopoetic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT is a standard treatment for leukemia and other hematologic malignancies. The major complication of allo-HSCT is graft-versus-host-disease (GVHD, a progressive inflammatory illness characterized by donor immune cells attacking the organs of the recipient. Current GVHD prevention and treatment strategies use immune suppressive drugs and/or anti-T cell reagents these can lead to increased risk of infections and tumor relapse. Recent research demonstrated that epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG, a component found in green tea leaves at a level of 25-35% at dry weight, may be useful in the inhibition of GVHD due to its immune modulatory, anti-oxidative and anti-angiogenic capacities. In murine allo-HSCT recipients treated with EGCG, we found significantly reduced GVHD scores, reduced target organ GVHD and improved survival. EGCG treated allo-HSCT recipients had significantly higher numbers of regulatory T cells in GVHD target organs and in the blood. Furthermore, EGCG treatment resulted in diminished oxidative stress indicated by significant changes of glutathione blood levels as well as glutathione peroxidase in the colon. In summary, our study provides novel evidence demonstrating that EGCG ameliorates lethal GVHD and reduces GVHD-related target organ damage. Possible mechanisms are increased regulatory T cell numbers and reduced oxidative stress.

  5. The Sulu-Sulawesi Sea: environmental and socioeconomic status, future prognosis and ameliorative policy options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVantier, Lyndon; Alcala, Angel; Wilkinson, Clive

    2004-02-01

    The Sulu-Sulawesi Sea, with neighboring Indonesian Seas and South China Sea, lies at the center of the world's tropical marine biodiversity. Encircled by 3 populous, developing nations, the Philippines, Indonesia and Malaysia, the Sea and its adjacent coastal and terrestrial ecosystems, supports ca. 33 million people, most with subsistence livelihoods heavily reliant on its renewable natural resources. These resources are being impacted severely by rapid population growth (> 2% yr-1, with expected doubling by 2035) and widespread poverty, coupled with increasing international market demand and rapid technological changes, compounded by inefficiencies in governance and a lack of awareness and/or acceptance of some laws among local populations, particularly in parts of the Philippines and Indonesia. These key root causes all contribute to illegal practices and corruption, and are resulting in severe resource depletion and degradation of water catchments, river, lacustrine, estuarine, coastal, and marine ecosystems. The Sulu-Sulawesi Sea forms a major geopolitical focus, with porous borders, transmigration, separatist movements, piracy, and illegal fishing all contributing to environmental degradation, human suffering and political instability, and inhibiting strong trilateral support for interventions. This review analyzes these multifarious environmental and socioeconomic impacts and their root causes, provides a future prognosis of status by 2020, and recommends policy options aimed at amelioration through sustainable management and development.

  6. Ameliorative Effect of Gallic Acid on Cyclophosphamide-Induced Oxidative Injury and Hepatic Dysfunction in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olayinka, Ebenezer Tunde; Ore, Ayokanmi; Ola, Olaniyi Solomon; Adeyemo, Oluwatobi Adewumi

    2015-01-01

    Cyclophosphamide (CP), a bifunctional alkylating agent used in chemotherapy has been reported to induce organ toxicity mediated by generation of reactive oxygen species and oxidative stress. Gallic acid (GA), a phenolic substance, is a natural antioxidant with proven free radical scavenging activity and offers protection against oxidative damage. This research study was designed to investigate the ameliorative effect of GA against CP-induced toxicity in rats. Twenty-five male Wistar rats (180–200 g) were randomized into five treatment groups: (A) control, (B) CP, 2 mg/kg body weight (b.w.), (C) pre-treatment with GA (20 mg/kg b.w.) for seven days followed by CP (2 mg/kg b.w.) for seven days, (D) co-treatment with GA (20 mg/kg b.w) and CP (2 mg/kg b.w.) for seven days, and (E) GA (20 mg/kg b.w.) for seven days. CP induced marked renal and hepatic damages as plasma levels of urea, creatinine, bilirubin and activities of AST, ALT, ALP and GGT were significantly elevated (p acid. PMID:29083393

  7. Orally administered conjugated linoleic acid ameliorates allergic dermatitis induced by repeated applications of oxazolone in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Tomonori; Tokunaga, Yuzo; Yamasaki, Masao; Erickson, Laurie; Kawahara, Satoshi

    2016-12-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is one of the constituents of animal products with possible health benefits such as anti-carcinogenic and anti-obesity effects. In this study, we investigated the immunomodulatory effects of CLA using a mouse model of allergic dermatitis. Mice were orally administered either a CLA mixture containing equal amounts of 9c, 11 t-CLA and 10 t, 12c-CLA, or high linoleic acid safflower oil, and allergic dermatitis was induced on the ear by repeated topical applications of oxazolone. Oral administration of the CLA mixture but not the high linoleic safflower oil attenuated the symptoms of allergic dermatitis in both ear weights and clinical scores. This effect was associated with decreased levels of ear interleukin-4 (IL-4) and plasma immunoglobulin E. The immunomodulatory effects of the CLA isomers were compared by an in vitro cytokine production assay. The results showed that 9c, 11 t-CLA, the most predominant isomer in animal products, significantly inhibited IL-4 and interferon-γ production from mouse splenocytes with similar potency to 10 t, 12c-CLA. These findings suggest that CLA, a constituent of animal products, has a potentially beneficial effect for amelioration of allergic dermatitis. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  8. Sida rhomboidea.Roxb leaf extract ameliorates gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity and renal dysfunction in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thounaojam, Menaka C; Jadeja, Ravirajsinh N; Devkar, Ranjitsinh V; Ramachandran, A V

    2010-10-28

    Sida rhomboidea.Roxb (SR) known as "Mahabala" in Ayurveda and marketed as "Shahadeyi" is used in ethnomedicine to treat ailments such as dysuria and urinary disorders. To evaluate nephroprotective potential of SR against gentamicin (GM) induced nephrotoxicity and renal dysfunction. Nephrotoxicity was induced in rats with GM (100 mg/kg bodyweight (i.p.) for 8 days) and were treated with SR extract (200 and 400 mg/kg bodyweight (p.o.) for 8 days) or 0.5% carboxymethyl cellulose (vehicle). Plasma and urine urea and creatinine, renal enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants along with lipid peroxidation were evaluated in various experimental groups. GM treatment induced significant elevation (p<0.05) in plasma and urine urea, creatinine, renal lipid peroxidation along with significant decrement (p<0.05) in renal enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants. SR treatment to GM treated rats (GM+SR) recorded significant decrement (p<0.05) in plasma and urine urea and creatinine, renal lipid peroxidation along with significant increment (p<0.05) in renal enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants. SR leaf extract ameliorates GM induced nephrotoxicity and renal dysfunction and thus validates its ethnomedicinal use. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Celecoxib and octreotide synergistically ameliorate portal hypertension via inhibition of angiogenesis in cirrhotic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jin-Hang; Wen, Shi-Lei; Feng, Shi; Yang, Wen-Juan; Lu, Yao-Yao; Tong, Huan; Liu, Rui; Tang, Shi-Hang; Huang, Zhi-Yin; Tang, Ying-Mei; Yang, Jin-Hui; Xie, Hui-Qi; Tang, Cheng-Wei

    2016-10-01

    Abnormal angiogenesis is critical for portal hypertension in cirrhosis. Except for etiological treatment, no efficient medication or regime has been explored to treat the early stage of cirrhosis when angiogenesis is initiated or overwhelming. In this study, we explored an anti-angiogenesis effort through non-cytotoxic drugs octreotide and celecoxib to treat early stage of cirrhotic portal hypertension in an animal model. Peritoneal injection of thioacetamide (TAA) was employed to induce liver cirrhosis in rats. A combination treatment of celecoxib and octreotide was found to relieve liver fibrosis, portal venous pressure, micro-hepatic arterioportal fistulas, intrahepatic and splanchnic angiogenesis. Celecoxib and octreotide exerted their anti-angiogenesis effect via an axis of cyclooxygenase-2/prostaglandin E2/EP-2/somatostatin receptor-2, which consequently down-regulated phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (p-ERK)-hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α)-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) integrated signaling pathways. In conclusions, combination of celecoxib and octreotide synergistically ameliorated liver fibrosis and portal hypertension of the cirrhotic rats induced by TAA via the inhibition of intrahepatic and extrahepatic angiogenesis. The potential mechanisms behind the regimen may due to the inactivation of p-ERK-HIF-1α-VEGF signaling pathway.

  10. Potassium Bromate-induced Changes in the Adult Mouse Cerebellum Are Ameliorated by Vanillin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Saad, Hajer; Driss, Dorra; Jaballi, Imen; Ghozzi, Hanen; Boudawara, Ons; Droguet, Michael; Magné, Christian; Nasri, Monsef; Zeghal, Khaled Mounir; Hakim, Ahmed; Ben Amara, Ibtissem

    2018-02-01

    The current study aimed to elucidate the effect of vanillin on behavioral changes, oxidative stress, and histopathological changes induced by potassium bromate (KBrO3), an environmental pollutant, in the cerebellum of adult mice. The animals were divided into four groups: group 1 served as a control, group 2 received KBrO3, group 3 received KBrO3 and vanillin, and group 4 received only vanillin. We then measured behavioral changes, oxidative stress, and molecular and histological changes in the cerebellum. We observed significant behavioral changes in KBrO3-exposed mice. When investigating redox homeostasis in the cerebellum, we found that mice treated with KBrO3 had increased lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation in the cerebellum. These effects were accompanied by decreased Na+-K+ and Mg2+ ATPase activity and antioxidant enzyme gene expression when compared to the control group. Additionally, there was a significant increase in cytokine gene expression in KBrO3-treated mice. Microscopy revealed that KBrO3 intoxication resulted in numerous degenerative changes in the cerebellum that were substantially ameliorated by vanillin supplementation. Co-administration of vanillin blocked the biochemical and molecular anomalies induced by KBrO3. Our results demonstrate that vanillin is a potential therapeutic agent for oxidative stress associated with neurodegenerative diseases. Copyright © 2018 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  11. Radiation-Induced Testicular Injury and Its Amelioration by Tinospora cordifolia (An Indian Medicinal Plant Extract

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    Priyanka Sharma

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of this investigation is to determine the deleterious effects of sub lethal gamma radiation on testes and their possible inhibition by Tinospora cordifolia extract (TCE. For this purpose, one group of male Swiss albino mice was exposed to 7.5 Gy gamma radiation to serve as the irradiated control, while the other group received TCE (75 mg/kg b. wt./day orally for 5 consecutive days half an hr before irradiation to serve as experimental. Exposure of animals to 7.5 Gy gamma radiation resulted into significant decrease in body weight, tissue weight, testes- body weight ratio and tubular diameter up to 15 days of irradiation. Cent percent mortality was recorded by day 17th in irradiated control, whereas all animals survived in experimental group. TCE pretreatment rendered significant increase in body weight, tissue weight, testes- body weight ratio and tubular diameter at various intervals as compared to irradiated group. Radiation induced histological lesions in testicular architecture were observed more severe in irradiated control then the experimental. TCE administration before irradiation significantly ameliorated radiation induced elevation in lipid peroxidation and decline in glutathione concentration in testes. These observations indicate the radio- protective potential of Tinospora cordifolia root extract in testicular constituents against gamma irradiation in mice.

  12. Amelioration of NK cell function driven by Vα24+ invariant NKT cell activation in multiple myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyoda, Tomonori; Yamasaki, Satoru; Hidaka, Michihiro; Kawano, Fumio; Abe, Yu; Suzuki, Kenshi; Kadowaki, Norimitsu; Shimizu, Kanako; Fujii, Shin-Ichiro

    2018-02-01

    NK cells represent a first line of immune defense, but are progressively dysregulated in multiple myeloma (MM) patients. To restore and facilitate their antitumor effect, NK cells are required in sufficient quantities and must be stimulated. We initially assessed the proportions of NKT and NK cells in 34 MM patients. The frequencies of both in PBMC populations correlated with those in BMMNCs irrespective of low BMMNC numbers. We then assessed the adjunctive effect of stimulating NKT cells with CD1d and α-GalCer complexes on the NK cells. The expression of NKG2D on CD56 dim CD16 + NK cells and DNAM-1 on CD56 bright CD16 - NK cells increased after NKT cell activation. Apparently, NK cell-mediated anti-tumor effects were dependent on NKG2D and DNAM-1 ligands on myeloma cells. Thus, NK cell function in patients could be ameliorated, beyond the effect of immunosuppression, by NKT cell activation. This NKT-driven NK cell therapy could represent a potential new treatment modality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A glucose-caffeine 'energy drink' ameliorates subjective and performance deficits during prolonged cognitive demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, David O; Scholey, Andrew B

    2004-06-01

    Effects of a combination of caffeine and glucose were assessed in two double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over studies during extended performance of cognitively demanding tasks. In the first study, 30 participants received two drinks containing carbohydrate and caffeine (68 g/38 mg; 68 g/46 mg, respectively) and a placebo drink, in counter-balanced order, on separate days. In the second study 26 participants received a drink containing 60 g of carbohydrate and 33 mg of caffeine and a placebo drink. In both studies, participants completed a 10-min battery of tasks comprising 2-min versions of Serial 3s and Serial 7s subtraction tasks and a 5-min version of the Rapid Visual Information Processing task (RVIP), plus a rating of 'mental fatigue', once before the drink and six times in succession commencing 10 min after its consumption. In comparison to placebo, all three active drinks improved the accuracy of RVIP performance and both the drink with the higher level of caffeine in first study and the active drink in the second study resulted in lower ratings of mental fatigue. These results indicate that a combination of caffeine and glucose can ameliorate deficits in cognitive performance and subjective fatigue during extended periods of cognitive demand.

  14. Luteolin Ameliorates Hypertensive Vascular Remodeling through Inhibiting the Proliferation and Migration of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells

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    Jie Su

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Preliminary researches showed that luteolin was used to treat hypertension. However, it is still unclear whether luteolin has effect on the hypertensive complication such as vascular remodeling. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of luteolin on the hypertensive vascular remodeling and its molecular mechanism. Method and Results. We evaluated the effect of luteolin on aorta thickening of hypertension in spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHRs and found that luteolin could significantly decrease the blood pressure and media thickness of aorta in vivo. Luteolin could inhibit angiotensin II- (Ang II- induced proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs. Dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA staining result showed that luteolin reduced Ang II-stimulated ROS production in VSMCs. Furthermore, western blot and gelatin zymography results showed that luteolin treatment leaded to a decrease in ERK1/2, p-ERK1/2, p-p38, MMP2, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA protein level. Conclusion. These data support that luteolin can ameliorate hypertensive vascular remodeling by inhibiting the proliferation and migration of Ang II-induced VSMCs. Its mechanism is mediated by the regulation of MAPK signaling pathway and the production of ROS.

  15. Evaluation of natural amelioration of acidic deep mine discharges in Western Pennsylvania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, D.C.; Dzombak, D.A.; Aljoe, W.W.

    1999-01-01

    Abandoned mine drainage (AMD) has long been the most serious water quality and watershed degradation problem in the Appalachian region of the U.S. and in some other areas of the nation. In several areas of western Pennsylvania, deep mine discharges that were reliably described as highly acidic in the 1960s and 1970s have shown natural amelioration of CO 2 acidity. A number of different factors, including mine flooding and overburden chemistry, may cause improvement in mine water quality. The authors are studying the hydrologic and geochemical factors responsible for improvements over time in the quality of water discharges from abandoned deep mines. The project is focused on the study of a set of mine water discharges associated with abandoned, interconnected deep mines in the Uniontown Syncline of Western Pennsylvania. This area was studied extensively under Pennsylvania's Operation Scarlift in the early 1970s, and one year of monthly water quality data are available from 1974-75. The mined-out coal basin of the Uniontown Syncline is unique in that different mining methods were employed in the same coal seam over the basin. The resulting discharges are from flooded, unflooded, and partially flooded abandoned underground coal mines. This paper presents an overview of the hydraulic system in the mine network of the Uniontown Syncline along with a summary of selected data from the 1974-75 and 1998-99 studies. Preliminary interpretations of these data in relation to the Scarlift data are also presented

  16. Salvia officinalis l. (sage) Ameliorates Radiation-Induced Oxidative Brain Damage In Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osman, N. N.; Abd El Azime, A.Sh.

    2013-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the oxidative stress and the role of antioxidant system in the management of gamma irradiation induced whole brain damage in rats . Also, to elucidate the potential role of Salvia officinalis (sage) in alleviating such negative effects. Rats were subjected to gamma radiation (6 Gy). Sage extract was daily given to rats during 14 days before starting irradiation and continued after radiation exposure for another 14 days. The results revealed that the levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), protein carbonyl content (PCC) and nitric oxide (NO) content were significantly increased, while the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) as well as the reduced glutathione (GSH) content were significantly decreased in the brain homogenate of irradiated rats. Additionally, brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) as well as alkaline phosphatase (ALP), acid phosphatase (ACP) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities were significantly increased. On the other hand, the results showed that, administration of sage extract to rats was able to ameliorate the mentioned parameters and the values returned close to the normal ones. It could be concluded that sage extract, by its antioxidant constituents, could modulate radiation induced oxidative stress and enzyme activities in the brain.

  17. Use of Some Methods for Amelioration Heat Stress in Friesian Calves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aboulnaga, A.I.; Kamal, T.H.

    2008-01-01

    Twenty Friesian calves of 3-4 months of age and 90 kg average body weight, were used to investigate the effect of hot climate (36 degree C, 65% R.H.) and evaluate two methods of ameliorating heat stress, the first method was feed supplementation with urea and mineral mixture and the second was water sprinkling and supplying the heat stressed animals with cool water. Daily body gain (DBG) was calculated, while serum protein, urea N, cholesterol, creatine, alkaline phosphatase (Alk-P) and acid phosphatase (Ac-P) were determined in this study. The first and second treatments were carried out inside the climatic chamber and the third was undertaken outdoors (36.5± 2.5 degree C, 62.5±4.5% R.H.). Heat stress induced a significant decrease in DBG, serum protein, urea N, cholesterol, creatine and plasma aldosterone (P<0.01) and serum Alk-P (P<0.05), while the serum Ac-P decreased insignificantly. The nutritional treatment caused a significant increase in DBG serum protein And urea N (P<0.01) and serum creatine (P<0.05). Sprinkling and drinking cooled water caused an increase in serum cholesterol, plasma aldosterone (P<0.01), DBG, serum protein and creatine (P<0.05)

  18. Schisandrae Fructus Supplementation Ameliorates Sciatic Neurectomy-Induced Muscle Atrophy in Mice

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    Joo Wan Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the possible beneficial skeletal muscle preserving effects of ethanol extract of Schisandrae Fructus (EESF on sciatic neurectomy- (NTX- induced hindlimb muscle atrophy in mice. Here, calf muscle atrophy was induced by unilateral right sciatic NTX. In order to investigate whether administration of EESF prevents or improves sciatic NTX-induced muscle atrophy, EESF was administered orally. Our results indicated that EESF dose-dependently diminished the decreases in markers of muscle mass and activity levels, and the increases in markers of muscle damage and fibrosis, inflammatory cell infiltration, cytokines, and apoptotic events in the gastrocnemius muscle bundles are induced by NTX. Additionally, destruction of gastrocnemius antioxidant defense systems after NTX was dose-dependently protected by treatment with EESF. EESF also upregulated muscle-specific mRNAs involved in muscle protein synthesis but downregulated those involved in protein degradation. The overall effects of 500 mg/kg EESF were similar to those of 50 mg/kg oxymetholone, but it showed more favorable antioxidant effects. The present results suggested that EESF exerts a favorable ameliorating effect on muscle atrophy induced by NTX, through anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects related to muscle fiber protective effects and via an increase in protein synthesis and a decrease in protein degradation.

  19. Deficiency of the Erc/mesothelin gene ameliorates renal carcinogenesis in Tsc2 knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Danqing; Kobayashi, Toshiyuki; Kojima, Tetsuo; Kanenishi, Kenji; Hagiwara, Yoshiaki; Abe, Masaaki; Okura, Hidehiro; Hamano, Yoshitomo; Sun, Guodong; Maeda, Masahiro; Jishage, Kou-ichi; Noda, Tetsuo; Hino, Okio

    2011-04-01

    Genetic crossing experiments were performed between tuberous sclerosis-2 (Tsc2) KO and expressed in renal carcinoma (Erc) KO mice to analyze the function of the Erc/mesothelin gene in renal carcinogenesis. We found the number and size of renal tumors were significantly less in Tsc2+/-;Erc-/- mice than in Tsc2+/-;Erc+/+ and Tsc2+/-;Erc+/- mice. Tumors from Tsc2+/-;Erc-/- mice exhibited reduced cell proliferation and increased apoptosis, as determined by proliferating cell nuclear antigen (Ki67) and TUNEL analysis, respectively. Adhesion to collagen-coated plates in vitro was enhanced in Erc-restored cells and decreased in Erc-suppressed cells with siRNA. Tumor formation by Tsc2-deficient cells in nude mice was remarkably suppressed by stable knockdown of Erc with shRNA. Western blot analysis showed that the phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase, Akt and signal transducer and activator of transcription protein 3 were weaker in Erc-deficient/suppressed cells compared with Erc-expressed cells. These results indicate that deficiency of the Erc/mesothelin gene ameliorates renal carcinogenesis in Tsc2 KO mice and inhibits the phosphorylation of several kinases of cell adhesion mechanism. This suggests that Erc/mesothelin may have an important role in the promotion and/or maintenance of carcinogenesis by influencing cell-substrate adhesion via the integrin-related signal pathway. © 2011 Japanese Cancer Association.

  20. Preventive Intra Oral Treatment of Sea Cucumber Ameliorate OVA-Induced Allergic Airway Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Da-In; Park, Mi-Kyung; Kang, Shin Ae; Choi, Jun-Ho; Kang, Seok-Jung; Lee, Jeong-Yeol; Yu, Hak Sun

    2016-01-01

    Sea cucumber extracts have potent biological effects, including anti-viral, anti-cancer, antibacterial, anti-oxidant, and anti-inflammation effects. To understand their anti-asthma effects, we induced allergic airway inflammation in mice after 7 oral administrations of the extract. The hyper-responsiveness value in mice with ovalbumin (OVA)-alum-induced asthma after oral injection of sea cucumber extracts was significantly lower than that in the OVA-alum-induced asthma group. In addition, the number of eosinophils in the lungs of asthma-induced mice pre-treated with sea cucumber extract was significantly decreased compared to that of PBS pre-treated mice. Additionally, CD4[Formula: see text]CD25[Formula: see text]Foxp3[Formula: see text]T (regulatory T; Treg) cells significantly increased in mesenteric lymph nodes after 7 administrations of the extract. These results suggest that sea cucumber extract can ameliorate allergic airway inflammation via Treg cell activation and recruitment to the lung.