Kugadas, Abirami; Christiansen, Stig Hill; Sankaranarayanan, Saiprasad
The existence of the ocular microbiota has been reported but functional analyses to evaluate its significance in regulating ocular immunity are currently lacking. We compared the relative contribution of eye and gut commensals in regulating the ocular susceptibility to Pseudomonas aeruginosa...
Kugadas, Abirami; Christiansen, Stig Hill; Sankaranarayanan, Saiprasad
–induced keratitis. We find that in health, the presence of microbiota strengthened the ocular innate immune barrier by significantly increasing the concentrations of immune effectors in the tear film, including secretory IgA and complement proteins. Consistent with this view, Swiss Webster (SW) mice...... that are typically resistant to P. aeruginosa–induced keratitis become susceptible due to the lack of microbiota. This was exemplified by increased corneal bacterial burden and elevated pathology of the germ free (GF) mice when compared to the conventionally maintained SW mice. The protective immunity was found...... for microbiota in regulating susceptibility to ocular keratitis. We predict that these results will have significant implications for contact lens wearers, where alterations in the ocular commensal communities may render the ocular surface vulnerable to infections....
Ru, Yusha; Huang, Yue; Liu, Huijuan; Du, Juan; Meng, Zhu; Dou, Zexia; Liu, Xun; Wei, Rui Hua; Zhang, Yan; Zhao, Shaozhen
Dry eye is a highly prevalent, chronic, and multifactorial disease that compromises quality of life and generates socioeconomic burdens. The pathogenic factors of dry eye disease (DED) include tear secretion abnormalities, tear film instability, and ocular surface inflammation. An effective intervention targeting the pathogenic factors is needed to control this disease. Here we applied α-Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) twice a day to the ocular surface of a scopolamine-induced dry eye rat model. The results showed that α-MSH at different doses ameliorated tear secretion, tear film stability, and corneal integrity, and corrected overexpression of proinflammatory factors, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IFN-γ, in ocular surface of the dry eye rats. Moreover, α-MSH, at 10(-4) μg/μl, maintained corneal morphology, inhibited apoptosis, and restored the number and size of conjunctival goblet cells in the dry eye rats. Mechanistically, α-MSH activated both PKA-CREB and MEK-Erk pathways in the dry eye corneas and conjunctivas; pharmacological blockade of either pathway abolished α-MSH's protective effects, suggesting that both pathways are necessary for α-MSH's protection under dry eye condition. The peliotropic protective functions and explicit signaling mechanism of α-MSH warrant translation of the α-MSH-containing eye drop into a novel and effective intervention to DED.
Aderência in vitro do Staphylococcus epidermidis e da Pseudomonas alcaligenes em lentes intra-oculares In vitro adherence of Staphylococcus epidermidis and Pseudomonas alcaligenes to intraocular lenses
Patrícia Ioschpe Gus
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Quantificar e comparar a aderência in vitro das bactérias Staphylococcus epidermidis e Pseudomonas alcaligenes em diferentes tipos de lentes intra-oculares (LIOs. MÉTODOS: Quatorze lentes intra-oculares foram usadas no experimento. Quatro de polimetilmetacrilato (PMMA, quatro de silicone, quatro de hidrogel e duas de acrílico. Oito lentes intra-oculares foram colocadas em oito tubos de ensaio contendo 4 ml de suspensão de Pseudomonas alcaligenes, e seis lentes intra-oculares foram colocadas em seis tubos de ensaio contendo 4 ml de suspensão de Staphylococcus epidermidis. A concentração do caldo utilizada para o teste de aderência foi de 10(8 unidades formadoras de colônias por mililitro (CFU/mL que corresponde a 0,5 na escala de McFarland. As lentes foram incubadas a 37° por duas horas. Após, foram removidas dos caldos e enxaguadas em água destilada estéril por duas vezes. As lentes foram cultivadas em placas de ágar-sangue a 35-37° e evaliadas a cada 24h por um período de 72h. Nas amostras que tiveram crescimento bacteriano, foram contadas as colônias utilizando os métodos convencionais de laboratório. Todos os ensaios foram executados em duplicata. RESULTADOS: A aderência do Staphylococcus epidermidis nas lentes de PMMA foi menor se comparada com as de silicone e de hidrogel. A aderência daPseudomonas alcaligenes nas lentes de hidrogel foi menor se comparada com as de silicone, PMMA e acrílico. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados sugerem que a aderência do Staphylococcus epidermidis e da Pseudomonas alcaligenes nas lentes intra-oculares é influenciada pelo tipo de material da lente e pela espécie do microorganismo. A aderência bacteriana pode ter papel importante na patogenicidade da endoftalmite pós-cirurgia de catarata.PURPOSE: To quantify and compare the in vitro adherence of Staphylococcus epidermidis and Pseudomonas alcaligenes to different intraocular lenses (IOLs. METHODS: Fourteen intraocular lenses were
Tewari, Sakshi; Arora, Naveen Kumar
Isolate PF23 selected from among 110 fluorescent pseudomonads, identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, displayed salinity tolerance and exopolysaccharides (EPS) production up to 2,000 mM NaCl concentration. EPS-defective mutant PF23(EPS-) of the isolate showed 86 % reduction in EPS production in comparison with wild strain. Defect in EPS production brought loss in salt tolerance capability. Purified EPS obtained from PF23 displayed multiple roles. At low concentration EPS functioned as biocontrol agent, at high concentration EPS behaved as osmoprotective or stress ameliorating metabolite and when introduced in saline soil, served as a plant growth promotor along with seed biopriming agent. Both in planta and in vivo studies were performed taking sunflower as a test crop and it was observed that PF23 showed plant growth promotion and significant biocontrol potential against dreadful phytopathogen Macrophomina phaseolina (under saline conditions). The mutant PF23(EPS-) was ineffective under saline conditions both in growth enhancement as well as in disease suppression. The study reports a potent strain, Pseudomonas aeruginosa PF23, capable of enhancing production of sunflower crop in semiarid regions and minimizing the incidence of charcoal rot disease in sunflower.
... Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Ocular Hypertension Sections What Is Ocular Hypertension? Ocular Hypertension Causes ... Hypertension Diagnosis Ocular Hypertension Treatment What Is Ocular Hypertension? Leer en Español: ¿Qué es la hipertensión ocular? ...
Bacterial mediated amelioration of drought stress in drought tolerant and susceptible cultivars of rice (Oryza sativa L.) YS Gusain, US Singh, AK Sharma. Abstract. In the present study, plant growth promoting rhizobacterial (PGPR) strains Pseudomonas fluorescence strain P2, Pseudomonas jessenii R62, Pseudomonas ...
Yusimik Toledo González
Full Text Available La toxoplasmosis ocular es una enfermedad producida por el parásito toxoplasma gondii. Es la causa más frecuente de uveítis posterior, es una enfermedad de distribución universal, al menos 500 millones de personas están infectadas en todo el mundo, ocasionando disminución de la visión y ceguera en muchas de ellas. Por tal motivo, realizamos una revisión actualizada sobre, la situación actual a nivel mundial, la historia de la enfermedad, la prevención, formas clínicas y el control de la toxoplasmosis. Se tratan otros aspectos de interés como el modo de transmisión, los hospederos (definitivos e intermediarios y las manifestaciones clínicas más notables.The ocular toxoplasmosis is an illness caused by Toxoplasma gondii parasite. It is the most frequent cause in posterior uveitis, and it spreads worldwide since at least 500 million people are infected in the entire world, causing decrease of vision and blindness in many of them. This is the reason why we made a literature review, the current situation worldwide, the history, the prevention, the clinical forms and the control of toxoplasmosis. Other interesting aspects were the channel of transmission, the hosts (intermediary and final and the most remarkable clinical manifestations.
Hou, Yuanyuan; Nie, Yan; Cheng, Binfeng; Tao, Jin; Ma, Xiaoyao; Jiang, Min; Gao, Jie; Bai, Gang
Gram-negative pathogen–induced nosocomial infections and resistance are a most serious menace to global public health. Qingfei Xiaoyan Wan (QF), a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula, has been used clinically in China for the treatment of upper respiratory tract infections, acute or chronic bronchitis and pulmonary infection. In this study, the effects of QF on Pseudomonas aeruginosa–induced acute pneumonia in mice were evaluated. The mechanisms by which four typical anti-inflammatory ingredients from QF, arctigenin (ATG), cholic acid (CLA), chlorogenic acid (CGA) and sinapic acid (SPA), regulate anti-inflammatory signaling pathways and related targets were investigated using molecular biology and molecular docking techniques. The results showed that pretreatment with QF significantly inhibits the release of cytokines (TNF-α and IL-6) and chemokines (IL-8 and RANTES), reduces leukocytes recruitment into inflamed tissues and ameliorates pulmonary edema and necrosis. In addition, ATG was identified as the primary anti-inflammatory agent with action on the PI3K/AKT and Ras/MAPK pathways. CLA and CGA enhanced the actions of ATG and exhibited synergistic NF-κB inactivation effects possibly via the Ras/MAPK signaling pathway. Moreover, CLA is speculated to target FGFR and MEK firstly. Overall, QF regulated the PI3K/AKT and Ras/MAPK pathways to inhibit pathogenic bacterial infections effectively. PMID:27175332
Full Text Available Gram-negative pathogen–induced nosocomial infections and resistance are a most serious menace to global public health. Qingfei Xiaoyan Wan (QF, a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM formula, has been used clinically in China for the treatment of upper respiratory tract infections, acute or chronic bronchitis and pulmonary infection. In this study, the effects of QF on Pseudomonas aeruginosa–induced acute pneumonia in mice were evaluated. The mechanisms by which four typical anti-inflammatory ingredients from QF, arctigenin (ATG, cholic acid (CLA, chlorogenic acid (CGA and sinapic acid (SPA, regulate anti-inflammatory signaling pathways and related targets were investigated using molecular biology and molecular docking techniques. The results showed that pretreatment with QF significantly inhibits the release of cytokines (TNF-α and IL-6 and chemokines (IL-8 and RANTES, reduces leukocytes recruitment into inflamed tissues and ameliorates pulmonary edema and necrosis. In addition, ATG was identified as the primary anti-inflammatory agent with action on the PI3K/AKT and Ras/MAPK pathways. CLA and CGA enhanced the actions of ATG and exhibited synergistic NF-κB inactivation effects possibly via the Ras/MAPK signaling pathway. Moreover, CLA is speculated to target FGFR and MEK firstly. Overall, QF regulated the PI3K/AKT and Ras/MAPK pathways to inhibit pathogenic bacterial infections effectively.
Ophthalmologist (NOG) that protective polycarbonate glasses be worn while lighting and watching of fire-works is also advocated (7). Banger-related ocular injuries result in significant ocular morbidity and unilateral visual loss. Public education regarding proper use of bangers along with strict legislation regulating their use ...
Gelen Welch Ruiz
Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de tipo retrospectivo longitudinal cuyo universo estuvo constituido por 72 ojos de 72 pacientes con traumatismos oculares mecánicos que fueron hospitalizados en el Hospital Militar Central “Dr. Carlos J. Finlay” desde enero de 1999 hasta enero de 2005. Para el análisis estadístico de la información se utilizó el programa automatizado SPSS versión 11.5 en el cual también se conformó la base de datos y se realizaron los cálculos de acuerdo con el tipo de variable analizada. Se utilizaron medidas de resumen, tendencia central y asociación estadística con un nivel de significación de p A retrospective longitudinal and descriptive study was carried out in 72 eyes from 72 patients with mechanical occular traumas, who had been hospitalized in “Dr. Carlos J. Finlay” Military Hospital from December 1999 to January 2005. For the statistical data analysis, an automated program (SPSS 11.5 version was used to create the database and estimations were made according to the variable types. Summary measures, central tendency measures and statistical association with significance level equal to p < 0.05 were employed. Males prevailed (95.8%, the average age was 30.26 years with a minimum rate of 17 years and maximum rate of 82 years. The most frequent mechanisms of trauma were aggressions (23. 6% and injures from secondary projectiles (13.9%. The anterior segment traumas were more frequent (61, 1% than posterior segment traumas (6.94%. Both segments of the eyeball were affected in 39, 1% of eyes which evinced the worst visual acuity. The most common associated injures were hyphema (54, 2% and vitreous hemorrhage (16.6%. Closed trauma (contusions were more common and most of the eyes had better final visual acuity (45, 2% with vision range of 0.6-1.0 and 26.2% with vision range of 0.59-0.1. On the other hand, eyes affected by open trauma (simple wound, contusion-wound, wound with intraocular foreign body and
Full Text Available Five cases of ocular rosacea (one male and four females are reported in this paper. Two of the patients were with keratoconjunctivitis sicca, one with conjunctivitis chronica and blepharitis, one with conjunctivitis chronica and meibomitis, and one with reccurent corneal erosions with meibomitis and chordeloum. In four patients ocular symptoms preceded the occurence of skin lesions. The treatment with oral tetracyclines significantly improved the state of ocular rosacea in four patients, while in one case the changes of the anterior eye segment progressed in more severe state of ulcerative keratitis. It is considered that in almost 20% of the patients with rosacea ocular lesions may precede the skin changes, representing a diagnostic problem. Thus, in those cases multidisciplinary approach is suggested. Such approach is particularly important because of the decrease of morbidity and the prevention of the onset of the eye complications such as drastic worsening of visual acuity, i.e., the blindness.
Ameliorative effect of Lentinus squarrosulus mycomeat against Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection using albino rat as animal model. ... The increasing awareness of inherent therapeutic and prophylactic benefits of some higher fungi and their products has been the recent trend for improving a healthy vigour. Mycomeat is a ...
Full Text Available Background. Ocular toxoplasmosis is one of the important causes of severe visual loss in young otherwise healthy people. Diagnosis is clinical, supported by laboratory tests. Current evidence about the timing of toxoplasma infection leading to ocular disease suggests, that recurrent toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis is the result of prenatal (congenital or remote, postnatal (acquired infection. The timing of infection is rarely exactly known, and retinitis is not only a late manifestation of congenital disease as previously believed. The purpose is to review recent observations regarding ocular toxoplasmosis, and to review our experiences in the treatment of our patients with this illness.Methods. A review of the medical literature about ocular toxoplasmosis, especially regarding pathogenesis, therapy and prevention of the disease.Results. Epidemiological data for toxoplasmosis are various in different parts of the world. The highest rate is in Brasil. In Slovenia the rate is similar like in France or in the Netherlands (at age 40 there is 60% population seropositive. Toxoplasmosis screening in pregnant women is partly performed since 1991 and systematically since 1995 in Slovenia. No retinochorioditis was found in newborns so far. In the pathogenesis there are some several potential sources and routes of infections, that were previously unrecognized. Ocular involvement in cases of acquired infection appears to be more common than believed before. Classical therapy for ocular toxoplasmosis is still most commonly used. In prevention the education of pregnant women, and correct treatment of infected patients is recommended.Conclusions. The time of infection with Toxoplasma gondii and consequential retinochoroiditis is rarely confirmed. Patients with acquired infection after birth are probably more numerous than with congenital disease. As potentially treatable and preventable cause of visual loss these facts must be considered in primary and secondary
Sigrid Mueller-Schotte OD, MSc
Full Text Available Intra-ocular straylight can cause decreased visual functioning, and it may cause diminished vision-related quality of life (VRQOL. This cross-sectional population-based study investigates the association between straylight and VRQOL in middle-aged and elderly individuals. Multivariable linear regression analyses were used to assess the association between straylight modeled continuously and cutoff at the recommended fitness-to-drive value, straylight ≥ 1.4 log(s, and VRQOL. The study showed that participants with normal straylight values, straylight ≤ 1.4 log(s, rated their VRQOL slightly better than those with high straylight values (straylight ≥ 1.4 log(s. Furthermore, multivariable regression analysis revealed a borderline statistical significant association ( p = .06 between intra-ocular straylight and self-reported VRQOL in middle-aged and elderly individuals. The association between straylight and self-reported VRQOL was not influenced by the status of the intra-ocular lens (natural vs. artificial intra-ocular lens after cataract extraction or the number of (instrumental activities of daily living that were reported as difficult for the elderly individuals.
Francisco Infante Barrera
Full Text Available La evolución etiológica de la medicina la podemos dividir en dos grandes períodos: período de la sífilis y período de la tuberculosis. El período de la sífilis, gracias a las armas de combate de que hoy disponemos, ocupa un lugar secundario. El período de la tuberculosis y que no es sino el paralelo de la vida moderna, ocupa en vigencia el primer lugar. Es el período presente. Hasta hace poco tiempo el médico en general, iniciaba la exploración de su paciente con un interrogatorio, una inspección, un tacto y una serología con una obsesión sifilítica. En la época actual el médico y en especial el oftalmólogo debe tener una obsesión tuberculosa en la investigación etiológica. Cuántas veces en una afección ocular que de una manera lenta pero progresiva produce profundas alteraciones oculares, lleva el sello soterrado de una tuberculosis? Cuántos enfermos de una constitución en apariencia envidiable hacen precisamente por un exceso de sus defensas una alergia tuberculosa? Tan traicionera como la sífilis es la tuberculosis. La sífilis quema sus etapas y estalla con una hemorragia cerebral, una locura, una parálisis general, una ataxia locomotriz progresiva, una goma o una meningitis sifilítica. La tuberculosis hace su presentación con una afección ocular, una goma, una granulia, una artritis, una osteítis, o una meningitis óptico-quiasmática. Siendo esto así, es necesario, en la mayoría de las afecciones oculares, tratar de identificarla por los medios de diagnóstico de que hoy disponemos.
Public Health Agency
Fact sheet on Pseudomonas, including:What is Pseudomonas?What infections does it cause?Who is susceptible to pseudomonas infection?How will I know if I have pseudomonas infection?How can Pseudomonas be prevented from spreading?How can I protect myself from Pseudomonas?How is Pseudomonas infection treated?
... targeted in other autoimmune conditions, such as autoimmune thyroid disease. How is ocular myasthenia gravis treated? People with ocular MG and their caregivers should balance the severity of the symptoms with the risks and benefits of treatment. People ...
Oude Lashof, A.M.L.; Rothova, A.; Sobel, J.D.; Ruhnke, M.; Pappas, P.G.; Viscoli, C.; Schlamm, H.T.; Oborska, I.T.; Rex, J.H.; Kullberg, B.J.
BACKGROUND: Ocular candidiasis is a major complication of candidemia. The incidence, risk factors, and outcome of eye involvement during candidemia are largely unknown. We prospectively studied the ocular manifestations of candidemia in a large, worldwide, randomized multicenter trial that compared
M K Shrestha
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The study assesses the spectrum of ocular morbidity and predictors of morbidity in children living in orphanages in the Kathmandu Valley. METHODS: A descriptive, cross-sectional survey was performed at 12 orphanages over a period of three months. The survey included a questionnaire and a complete eye examination, which included measurement of refraction, ocular deviation, and a fundus exam. Prevalence of ocular morbidity was calculated. Factors associated with ocular morbidity were examined using logistic regression. RESULTS: A total of 660 children were included in the study (median age nine years [range 0.25-15]; 53% male. The prevalence of ocular morbiditywas 17.9% (118. Of those with ocular morbidity, 88.1% (104 had similar ocular problems bilaterally. The most common type of morbidity was refractive error, found in 70.3% (83 of those with ocular morbidity (12.6% overall. CONCLUSIONS: Refractive errors, which are largely correctable, are the greatest source of morbidity. In order to reduce childhood blindness, children living in orphanages are an appropriate group to target for future ocular screening in Nepal. Keywords: children, Nepal, ocular morbidity, ocular screening, orphanage
Egoz, Inbal; Nili, Uri; Grauer, Ettie; Gore, Ariel
Eye exposure to organophosphate (OP) irreversible acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, results in long-term miosis and impaired visual function. The aim of this study was to find an anticholinergic antidote, which would counteract miosis and visual impairment induced by the nerve agents sarin and VX with minimal untoward side-effects. Rat pupil width and light reflex were evaluated from 15 min up to 2 weeks following topical OP exposure with or without topical ocular treatment of atropine or homatropine or with a combined intramuscular treatment of trimedoxime (TMB-4) and atropine (TA). Visual function following insult and treatment was assessed using a cued Morris water maze task. Topical VX exposure showed a dose-dependent miosis with a significant reduction in visual function similar to the effect seen following sarin exposure. Homatropine (2%; w/v) and atropine (0.1%; w/v) treatment ameliorated both sarin and VX-induced miosis and the resulting visual impairment. TA treatment was sufficient in ameliorating the sarin-induced ocular impairment while an additional ocular treatment with either 0.1% atropine or 2% homatropine was necessary following VX exposure. To conclude the use of 0.1% atropine or 2% homatropine was beneficial in ameliorating the ocular insult following VX or sarin ocular exposure and thus should be considered as universal treatments against this intoxication. The findings also emphasize the necessity of additional ocular treatment to the systemic treatment in visually impaired casualties following VX exposure. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Vijay K Jain
Full Text Available Ninety psoriasis patients without arthropathy were subjected to complete ocular e tion, to determine, the incidence of eye symptoms. Various ocular lesions observed included,trachoma 32.(35.5%, squamous blephritis 18 (20% and cataract 7 (7.7%.
Petersen, E.; Kijlstra, A.; Stanford, M.
Retinal infection with Toxoplasma gondii is the most important cause of posterior uveitis, whereby prevalence and incidence of ocular symptoms after infection depend on socio-economic factors and the circulating parasite genotypes. Ocular toxoplasmosis is more common in South America, Central
Full Text Available Dry eye is a common disorder caused by inadequate hydration of the ocular surface that results in disruption of barrier function. The homeostatic protein clusterin (CLU is prominent at fluid-tissue interfaces throughout the body. CLU levels are reduced at the ocular surface in human inflammatory disorders that manifest as severe dry eye, as well as in a preclinical mouse model for desiccating stress that mimics dry eye. Using this mouse model, we show here that CLU prevents and ameliorates ocular surface barrier disruption by a remarkable sealing mechanism dependent on attainment of a critical all-or-none concentration. When the CLU level drops below the critical all-or-none threshold, the barrier becomes vulnerable to desiccating stress. CLU binds selectively to the ocular surface subjected to desiccating stress in vivo, and in vitro to the galectin LGALS3, a key barrier component. Positioned in this way, CLU not only physically seals the ocular surface barrier, but it also protects the barrier cells and prevents further damage to barrier structure. These findings define a fundamentally new mechanism for ocular surface protection and suggest CLU as a biotherapeutic for dry eye.
Bauskar, Aditi; Mack, Wendy J; Mauris, Jerome; Argüeso, Pablo; Heur, Martin; Nagel, Barbara A; Kolar, Grant R; Gleave, Martin E; Nakamura, Takahiro; Kinoshita, Shigeru; Moradian-Oldak, Janet; Panjwani, Noorjahan; Pflugfelder, Stephen C; Wilson, Mark R; Fini, M Elizabeth; Jeong, Shinwu
Dry eye is a common disorder caused by inadequate hydration of the ocular surface that results in disruption of barrier function. The homeostatic protein clusterin (CLU) is prominent at fluid-tissue interfaces throughout the body. CLU levels are reduced at the ocular surface in human inflammatory disorders that manifest as severe dry eye, as well as in a preclinical mouse model for desiccating stress that mimics dry eye. Using this mouse model, we show here that CLU prevents and ameliorates ocular surface barrier disruption by a remarkable sealing mechanism dependent on attainment of a critical all-or-none concentration. When the CLU level drops below the critical all-or-none threshold, the barrier becomes vulnerable to desiccating stress. CLU binds selectively to the ocular surface subjected to desiccating stress in vivo, and in vitro to the galectin LGALS3, a key barrier component. Positioned in this way, CLU not only physically seals the ocular surface barrier, but it also protects the barrier cells and prevents further damage to barrier structure. These findings define a fundamentally new mechanism for ocular surface protection and suggest CLU as a biotherapeutic for dry eye.
Bauskar, Aditi; Mack, Wendy J.; Mauris, Jerome; Argüeso, Pablo; Heur, Martin; Nagel, Barbara A.; Kolar, Grant R.; Gleave, Martin E.; Nakamura, Takahiro; Kinoshita, Shigeru; Moradian-Oldak, Janet; Panjwani, Noorjahan; Pflugfelder, Stephen C.; Wilson, Mark R.; Fini, M. Elizabeth; Jeong, Shinwu
Dry eye is a common disorder caused by inadequate hydration of the ocular surface that results in disruption of barrier function. The homeostatic protein clusterin (CLU) is prominent at fluid-tissue interfaces throughout the body. CLU levels are reduced at the ocular surface in human inflammatory disorders that manifest as severe dry eye, as well as in a preclinical mouse model for desiccating stress that mimics dry eye. Using this mouse model, we show here that CLU prevents and ameliorates ocular surface barrier disruption by a remarkable sealing mechanism dependent on attainment of a critical all-or-none concentration. When the CLU level drops below the critical all-or-none threshold, the barrier becomes vulnerable to desiccating stress. CLU binds selectively to the ocular surface subjected to desiccating stress in vivo, and in vitro to the galectin LGALS3, a key barrier component. Positioned in this way, CLU not only physically seals the ocular surface barrier, but it also protects the barrier cells and prevents further damage to barrier structure. These findings define a fundamentally new mechanism for ocular surface protection and suggest CLU as a biotherapeutic for dry eye. PMID:26402857
J Gordon Millichap
Full Text Available The clinical and neuroradiological findings, and long-term intellectual prognosis in 10 patients (4 boys and 6 girls with congenital ocular motor apraxia (COMA are reviewed by researchers at Tottori University, Yonago, Japan.
Pauca, V. Paúl; Forkin, Michael; Xu, Xiao; Plemmons, Robert; Ross, Arun A.
Ocular recognition is a new area of biometric investigation targeted at overcoming the limitations of iris recognition performance in the presence of non-ideal data. There are several advantages for increasing the area beyond the iris, yet there are also key issues that must be addressed such as size of the ocular region, factors affecting performance, and appropriate corpora to study these factors in isolation. In this paper, we explore and identify some of these issues with the goal of better defining parameters for ocular recognition. An empirical study is performed where iris recognition methods are contrasted with texture and point operators on existing iris and face datasets. The experimental results show a dramatic recognition performance gain when additional features are considered in the presence of poor quality iris data, offering strong evidence for extending interest beyond the iris. The experiments also highlight the need for the direct collection of additional ocular imagery.
Aug 26, 2016 ... Keywords. ocular angiogenesis; corneal neovascularization; retinal neovascularization; diabetic retinopathy; age-related macular degeneration; retinopathy of prematurity; VEGF; PEDF; Flt-1; Flk-1; endostatin; angiopoietin; erythropoietin; Tie2; inflammation; complement; gene therapy; TLR-3; Robo4.
Rothova, A.; Meenken, C.; Buitenhuis, H. J.; Brinkman, C. J.; Baarsma, G. S.; Boen-Tan, T. N.; de Jong, P. T.; Klaassen-Broekema, N.; Schweitzer, C. M.; Timmerman, Z.
We conducted a prospective multicenter study of the efficacy of current therapeutic strategies for ocular toxoplasmosis in 149 patients. Treatment consisted of the following three triple-drug combinations: group 1, pyrimethamine, sulfadiazine, and corticosteroids; group 2, clindamycin, sulfadiazine,
ROTHOVA, A; MEENKEN, C; BRINKMAN, CJ; BAARSMA, GS; BOENTAN, TN; DEJONG, PTVM; KLAASSENBROEKEMA, N; SCHWEITZER, CMC; TIMMERMAN, Z; DEVRIES, J; ZAAL, MJW; KIJLSTRA, A
We conducted a prospective multicenter study of the efficacy of current therapeutic strategies for ocular toxoplasmosis in 149 patients. Treatment consisted of the following three triple-drug combinations: group 1, pyrimethamine, sulfadiazine, and corticosteroids; group 2, clindamycin, sulfadiazine,
Ana Carolina Cabreira Vieira
Full Text Available Rosacea is a prevalent chronic cutaneous disorder with variable presentation and severity. Although considered a skin disease, rosacea may evolve the eyes in 58-72% of the patients, causing eyelid and ocular surface inflammation. About one third of the patients develop potentially sight-threatening corneal involvement. Untreated rosacea may cause varying degrees of ocular morbidity. The importance of early diagnosis and adequate treatment cannot be overemphasized. There is not yet a diagnostic test for rosacea. The diagnosis of ocular rosacea relies on observation of clinical features, which can be challenging in up to 90% of patients in whom accompanying roseatic skin changes may be subtle or inexistent. In this review, we describe the pathophysiologic mechanisms proposed in the literature, clinical features, diagnosis and management of ocular rosacea, as well as discuss the need for a diagnostic test for the disease.
Pepper, Amber N; Ledford, Dennis K
Nasal and ocular challenges facilitate the evaluation of subjective and objective responses to defined allergen or irritant exposure. Nasal and ocular allergen challenges are the gold standard to diagnose allergic rhinitis and conjunctivitis, respectively, and aid in the evaluation of novel therapies in clinical trials. Additionally, nasal and ocular allergen challenges might help identify medically relevant allergens in clinical practice. Nonspecific or irritant challenges evaluate mucosal hyperreactivity. Direct mucosal challenges, which can be performed in an office or research setting, expose the participant to higher allergen doses than common in the natural environment. Park studies and environmental chambers, which are most practical in clinical trials, more closely simulate natural allergen exposure. International consensus guidelines for nasal and ocular challenges do not exist. Therefore the positivity criteria, methodologies, and extract or allergen preparations used in challenges vary in the literature. Regardless of these limitations, nasal and ocular challenges are helpful clinical and research tools for nasal and ocular diseases. Copyright © 2018 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Sports related ocular injury is one of the most important reasons of morbidity, blindness and labor loss. Especially children and those who play paintball, basketball and ice hockey are at high risk. Sports can be classified as high risk group, moderate risk group and low risk group according to the risk of these injuries. The extent of the trauma to the eye depends on the shape, velocity and rigidity of the trauma object. Physician can have an opinion about the severity of the trauma by having a carefully taken anamnesis and physical examination. In this manner, sports physicians should do the first aid procedures to the injury and should know in which cases decide not to continue the game. The most important feature of sports-related ocular injury is 90% of these injuries can be preventable in nature. Protective eyeglasses usage and taking simple precautions substantially protects player from serious ocular injuries.
Gupta, Vishali; Shoughy, Samir S; Mahajan, Sarakshi; Khairallah, Moncef; Rosenbaum, James T; Curi, Andre; Tabbara, Khalid F
Ocular tuberculosis is an extrapulmonary tuberculous condition and has variable manifestations. The purpose of this review is to describe the clinical manifestations of ocular tuberculosis affecting the anterior and posterior segments of the eye in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients. Review of literature using Pubmed database. Mycobacterium tuberculosis may lead to formation of conjunctival granuloma, nodular scleritis, and interstitial keratitis. Lacrimal gland and orbital caseating granulomas are rare but may occur. The intraocular structures are also a target of insult by M. tuberculosis and may cause anterior granulomatous uveitis, anterior and posterior synechiae, secondary glaucoma, and cataract. The bacillus may involve the ciliary body, resulting in the formation of a localized caseating granuloma. Posterior segment manifestations include vitritis, retinal vasculitis, optic neuritis, serpiginous-like choroiditis, choroidal tubercules, subretinal neovascularization, and, rarely, endophthalmitis. The recognition of clinical signs of ocular tuberculosis is of utmost importance as it can provide clinical pathway toward tailored investigations and decision making for initiating anti-tuberculosis therapy.
Mariana Mayorquín Ruiz
Full Text Available El ultrasonido ocular es un estudio dependiente del operador. Un buen estudio ecográfico debe tener como base el conocimiento de la anatomía y fisiología normales y de los cambios producidos en diferentes enfermedades, así como los cambios tras una cirugía ocular o trauma. El conocimiento de los fenómenos físicos producidos por el ultrasonido es la base para entender y reconocer la presencia de artefactos en el ultrasonido ocular. Esta revisión tiene como objetivo hacer un recuento de los artefactos que pueden ocasionar confusión al interpretar una imagen ecográfica, así como explicar la base física en la que se basan, reduciendo de esta manera los errores de interpretación y diagnósticos.
Kruijt, Bastiaan; Franssen, Luuk; Prick, Liesbeth J. J. M.; van Vliet, Johannes M. J.; van den Berg, Thomas J. T. P.
Albinism is an inherited disorder that affects the melanin biosynthesis pathway, which results in reduced or absent pigment formation. This may lead to increased light transmission through the iris and more reflected light from the fundus. Both these effects contribute to the occurrence of ocular
Rasmussen, Peter K; Coupland, Sarah E; Finger, Paul T
IMPORTANCE The clinical features of the follicular subtype of ocular adnexal lymphoma (OAL) have not been previously evaluated in a large cohort. OBJECTIVE To characterize the clinical features of follicular OAL. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS We performed a retrospective multicenter study tha...
Full Text Available Purpose: To study the ocular manifestations in multiple transfused beta-thalassemia major patients and assess the ocular side-effects of iron chelating agents. Materials and Methods: In this prospective observational study, 45 multiple transfused beta-thalassemia major children between six months and 21 years of age were enrolled and assigned groups according to the treatment regimens suggested. Group A received only blood transfusions, Group B blood transfusions with subcutaneous desferrioxamine, Group C blood transfusions with desferrioxamine and oral deferriprone and Group D blood transfusions with deferriprone. Ocular status at the time of enrolment was documented. Subjects were observed quarterly for one year for changes in ocular status arising due to the disease process and due to iron chelation therapy. Children with hemoglobinopathies other than beta-thalassemia major, congenital ocular anomalies and anemia due to other causes were excluded. Results: Ocular involvement was observed in 58% of patients. Lenticular opacities were the most common ocular finding (44%, followed by decreased visual acuity (33%. An increased occurrence of ocular changes was observed with increase of serum ferritin and serum iron levels as well as with higher number of blood transfusions received. Desferrioxamine seemed to have a protective influence on retinal pigment epithelium (RPE mottling. Occurrence of lenticular opacities and RPE degeneration correlated positively with use of desferrioxamine and deferriprone respectively. Follow-up of patients for one year did not reveal any change in ocular status. Conclusion: Regular ocular examinations can aid in preventing, delaying or ameliorating the ocular complications of thalassemia.
Pedroza-Seres, M; Serna-Ojeda, J C; Flores-Suárez, L F
Sclerodermatomyositis is an overlap syndrome of myositis and scleroderma, with dermatological, muscular and joint involvement, but may also present with ocular manifestations. A 57 year-old woman presented with ophthalmological manifestations, including scleral thinning 360°, and the presence of cells in the anterior and posterior chamber. Oriented physical examination and laboratory studies led to the diagnosis, with the need for systemic treatment. Sclerodermatomyositis is a rare disease. Its diagnosis needs thorough clinical and laboratory studies, and its management should be multidisciplinary when inflammatory ocular manifestations may be present. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Keratoconus is the most common corneal ectatic disorder, the cause of which is largely unknown. Many factors have been implicated, and the ocular allergy is being one of them. The commonly proposed pathogenesis includes the release of inflammatory mediators due to eye rubbing which may alter the corneal collagen and lead to corneal ectasias. The onset of keratoconus is often early in cases associated with allergy and routine corneal topography may detect subtle forms of keratoconus. These cases may require early keratoplasty and are at an increased risk of having acute corneal hydrops. Surgical outcomes are similar to primary keratoconus cases. However, post-operative epithelial breakdown may be a problem in these cases. Control of allergy and eye rubbing is the best measure to prevent corneal ectasias in cases of ocular allergy.
Kalirai, H; Müller, P L; Jaehne, D; Coupland, S E
Melanoma is the most common type of primary cancer to affect the adult eye. Approximately 95% of ocular melanomas are intraocular and arise from the uvea (i. e. iris, ciliary body, and choroid), while the remaining 5% are located in the conjunctiva. Although both uveal and conjunctival melanomas are thought to derive from malignantly transformed melanocytes, uveal melanoma is clinically and biologically distinct from conjunctival melanoma, and indeed from its more common cutaneous counterpart. Intense efforts have been recently made to understand the molecular biology involved in the development of ocular melanomas, and in their progression. Molecular advances, particularly for uveal melanoma, have enhanced prognostication and the identification of rational therapeutic targets for disseminated disease. In this review, recent advances in the molecular characterisation of both uveal and conjunctival melanomas are discussed, and how these may be used to develop personalised therapeutic strategies.
Aragona, Emanuela; Rania, Laura; Postorino, Elisa Imelde; Interdonato, Alberto; Giuffrida, Roberta; Cannavò, Serafinella Patrizia; Puzzolo, Domenico; Aragona, Pasquale
Psoriasis is a skin disease with also systemic involvement: its impact on the eye is not well established and often clinically underestimated. Aim of this study was to investigate the presence of ocular discomfort symptoms and of ocular surface changes in a population of patients with psoriasis. For this cross-sectional, comparative study, 66 patients with psoriasis were subdivided according to the presence of arthritis and to the use of biological therapy. All patients underwent clinical evaluation with the following tests: Ocular Surface Disease Index Questionnaire, Tearscope examination, meibometry, tear film breakup time, corneal and conjunctival fluorescein staining, Schirmer I test, corneal aesthesiometry, meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) assessment and conjunctival impression cytology. 28 healthy subjects were also enrolled and treated with the same clinical tests. A statistical analysis of the results was performed. Patients with psoriasis showed a significant deterioration of the ocular surface tests, if compared with healthy subjects, demonstrated by tear film lipid layer alteration, tear film instability, corneal and conjunctival epithelial suffering and mild squamous metaplasia at impression cytology. No differences were found in ocular surface test results of the psoriatic group when patients were divided according to the presence of arthritis, whereas the anti-inflammatory treatment with biological drugs demonstrated a significant improvement of corneal stain and MGD. Our findings suggest that the ocular surface involvement in patients with psoriasis indicates the need of periodic ophthalmological examinations to diagnose the condition and allow a proper treatment, so contributing to the amelioration of patients' quality of life. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Flynn, T H
OBJECTIVES: To describe the clinical characteristics of ocular injuries sustained in hurling in the south of Ireland and to investigate reasons for non-use of protective headgear and eye wear. METHODS: Retrospective review of the case notes of 310 patients who attended Cork University Hospital or Waterford Regional Hospital between 1 January 1994 and 31 December 2002 with ocular injuries sustained during a hurling match. A confidential questionnaire on reasons for non-use of protective headgear and eye wear was completed by 130 players. RESULTS: Hurling related eye injuries occurred most commonly in young men. Fifty two patients (17%) required hospital admission, with hyphaema accounting for 71% of admissions. Ten injuries required intraocular surgical INTERVENTION: retinal detachment repair (5); macular hole surgery (1); repair of partial thickness corneal laceration (1); repair of globe perforation (1); enucleation (1); trabeculectomy for post-traumatic glaucoma (1). Fourteen eyes (4.5%) had a final best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) of <6\\/12 and six (2%) had BCVA <3\\/60. In the survey, 63 players (48.5%) reported wearing no protective facemask while playing hurling. Impairment of vision was the most common reason cited for non-use. CONCLUSIONS: Hurling related injury is a significant, and preventable, cause of ocular morbidity in young men in Ireland. The routine use of appropriate protective headgear and faceguards would result in a dramatic reduction in the incidence and severity of these injuries, and should be mandatory.
Dinn, Robert B; Harris, Alon; Marcus, Peter S
Visual changes in pregnancy are common, and many are specifically associated with the pregnancy itself. Serous retinal detachments and blindness occur more frequently during preeclampsia and often subside postpartum. Pregnant women are at increased risk for the progression of preexisting proliferative diabetic retinopathy, and diabetic women should see an ophthalmologist before pregnancy or early in the first trimester. The results of refractive eye surgery before, during, or immediately after pregnancy are unpredictable, and refractive surgery should be postponed until there is a stable postpartum refraction. A decreased tolerance to contact lenses also is common during pregnancy; therefore, it is advisable to fit contact lenses postpartum. Furthermore, pregnancy is associated with a decreased intraocular pressure in healthy eyes, and the effects of glaucoma medications on the fetus and breast-fed infant are largely unknown. Obstetricians & Gynecologists, Family Physicians. After completion of this article, the reader will be able to list the various ocular changes that occur during pregnancy, summarize the ocular disturbances that occur with preeclampsia and diabetes, and describe the management of some ocular problems during pregnancy.
... Sepsis Sharps Safety - CDC Transplant Safety Vaccine Safety Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Healthcare Settings Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... and/or help treat infections? What is a Pseudomonas infection? Pseudomonas infection is caused by strains of ...
Kubasch, A S; Meurer, M
Albinism can be divided into oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) and ocular albinism (OA). In the differential diagnostics these can be distinguished from rarer syndromes with partial albinism, which are frequently associated with susceptibility to infections and neurological symptoms. The OCA is an autosomal recessive inherited disease of melanin biosynthesis, which leads to complete or partial loss of melanin in the skin, hair follicles and eyes. Of the seven currently known subtypes (OCA 1-7), four are well-characterized (OCA 1-4). These are based on gene mutations, which code for tyrosinase, a key enzyme in melanin synthesis and for further proteins. These play an important role in the catalytic activity of tyrosinase and the structure and function of melanosomes. In the presence of these subtypes, the clinical symptoms and the course of the disease show a pronounced variability, especially in the type and extent of pigmentation of the skin and hair as well as the severity of eye involvement, which makes the phenotypic classification difficult. Treatment priorities are a consistent protection from UV light for prophylaxis against skin cancer and regular preventive investigations. The ocular alterations typical for albinism necessitate timely diagnostics and care by institutions specialized in ophthalmology. Novel strategies for systemic treatment of subtypes of albinism are in preclinical testing. The OA without skin involvement shows X‑linked inheritance, is much rarer and is characterized by reduced pigmentation of the retina and iris, nystagmus and macular hypoplasia, sometimes with substantial loss of visual acuity. The typical ocular symptoms of OA can be manifested to a varying extent in all forms of OCA.
Babar, T.F.; Khan, M.T.; Marwat, M.; Shah, A.; Murad, Y.; Khan, M.D.
To describe the patterns of ocular trauma, cause of injury and its effects on eye. A retrospective case series. Medical records of 1105 patients admitted with ocular trauma were reviewed. The details of patients regarding age, gender, literacy, cause of injury and its effects on eye were entered into specially-designed performa. Sample selection consisted of all patients with history of ocular trauma and who were admitted to hospital. Population details consisted patients who were referred to the hospital from all parts of N.W.F.P. Thus, the frequency of trauma in the hospital admissions was analysed. Ophthalmic trauma comprised 6.78% of the hospital admission. One thousand one hundred and five patients presented with eye injuries. Out of them, 21 patients suffered from trauma to both eyes. Almost 80% patients were male and 69% patients were below 30 years of age. Delayed presentation was more common and 63.61% patients presented after one week. Open globe injuries were more common (520 eyes (46.18%)) than closed globe injuries (484 eyes (42.98%)). 23.26% of open globe injuries were associated with intraocular and intra-orbital foreign bodies. Superficial non-perforating, eyelid and adnexal and burns were seen in 122 eyes (10.83%). Among the complications, lens damage and hyphema was seen in more than 50% of the patients, 16.60% eyes were infected at the time of admission and 4.88% of eyes needed enucleation or evisceration. The common causes of injury were violence in 37.37%, occupational in 24.43% and domestic accidents in 19.18%. Ophthalmic trauma is a major public health problem. Majority of the involved are male and under 30 years of age. Delayed presentation is more common. Open globe injuries are more frequent. Violence and occupational injuries are the major causes. (author)
Flores Ojeda, Desireé
En el presente trabajo se lleva a cabo una revisión bibliográfica de la diabetes en relación con las diferentes patologías oculares a las que está asociada. La diabetes, es una enfermedad crónica que comporta un importante problema sanitario y social, que afecta a muchos órganos. De entre todos ellos, el ojo parece afectarse especialmente por los cambios de glucosa en sangre. Una vez entendida la estructura del ojo humano, el trabajo estudia las partes especialmente afectadas en pacientes ...
Hamel, Christian P
Genetic ocular diseases are inherited Mendelian conditions (prevalence 1/1000) in which any tissue of the eye could be involved (cornea, lens, iridocomeal angle, vitrous, retina, choroid, sclera). More than 200 genes are responsible for inherited retinal dystrophies and even more genes remain to be identified. These genes belong to many metabolisms essential to the photoreceptor function. Gene therapy and retinal prosthesis are the two most promising therapeutic strategies currently in clinical trials which are expected to provide visual improvement in short term.
Leonard, T J; Kerr Muir, M G; Kirkby, G R; Hitchings, R A
Thirty-seven patients with ocular hypertension (OH) and 29 age matched controls were studied. Intraocular pressure (IOP) measurements were made in the sitting position and, immediately after changing posture, in the lying position. Sixty-three (85%) of the OH eyes and all the control eyes showed either stable IOP readings on changing posture of small elevations up to 3 mmHg. Eleven (15%) of the OH eyes showed larger elevations of IOP, between 5 and 9 mmHg when the patients changed to the lyin...
Margalit, Ruth (Inventor)
A method for the detection of Pseudomonas bacteria is described where an Azurin-specific antibody is employed for detecting the presence of Azurin in a test sample. The detection of the presence of Azurin in the sample is a conclusive indicator of the presence of the Pseudomonas bacteria since the Azurin protein is a specific marker for this bacterial strain.
Costache, Mariana; Pătraşcu, Oana Maria; Dumitru, Adrian; Costache, Diana; Voinea, Liliana Mary; Simionescu, Olga; Sajin, Maria
Ocular melanoma is rare in clinical practice. In this study, we present three cases of ocular melanoma surgically removed in the Department of Ophthalmology of the Emergency University Hospital of Bucharest, Romania, and diagnosed in the Department of Pathology of the same hospital using conventional histopathological techniques and immunohistochemical tests.
Full Text Available There is a high prevalence of ocular defects in children with developmental disabilities. This study evaluated visual disability in a group of 200 cerebral palsy (CP patients and found that 68% of the children had significant visual morbidity. These findings emphasize the need for an early ocular examination in patients with CP.
Full Text Available Yueh-Chang Lee, Cheng-Jen Chiu Department of Ophthalmology, Buddhist Tzu-Chi General Hospital, Hualien, Taiwan, ROC Abstract: This case report describes a female toddler with manifestations of ocular leech infestation. A 2-year-old girl was brought to our outpatient clinic with a complaint of irritable crying after being taken to a stream in Hualien 1 day previous, where she played in the water. The parents noticed that she rubbed her right eye a lot. Upon examination, the girl had good fix and follow in either eye. Slit-lamp examination showed conjunctival injection with a moving dark black–brown foreign body partly attached in the lower conjunctiva. After applying topical anesthetics, the leech, measuring 1 cm in length, was extracted under a microscope. The patient began using topical antibiotic and corticosteroid agents. By 1 week after extraction, the patient had no obvious symptoms or signs, except for a limited subconjunctival hemorrhage, and no corneal/scleral involvement was observed. Keywords: leech, ocular foreign body, conjunctival reaction, pediatric ophthalmology
abnormal retinal pericyte vasospasms after ocular trauma in mice, and their relationship to: retinal macrophage activity, and oral administration of L...the effects of oral administration of L-Arginine—a nitric oxide (NO) precursor—on ameliorating these vascular contributions. Blood flow control has...Officer whenever there are significant changes in the project or its direction. If not previously reported in writing , provide the following
Ebere C. Anyanwu
Full Text Available Patients with photosensitive epilepsy are susceptible to seizures due to photoparoxysmal response (PPR. This response adversely precipitates factors that modify the functional status of the visual system. Such factors may or may not be evident superficially, but may lead to ocular defects due to trauma, hormonal imbalance, abnormal intraocular pressure (IOP, or any other reflex-inducing stimuli. The extent to which photosensitive epileptic patients suffer from PPR-related ocular defects has not been documented fully. In this investigation, ocular defects in patients with photosensitive epilepsy are studied using visual-evoked response (VER. A total of 212 photosensitive epileptic patients were studied to ascertain the magnitude and distribution of ocular defects using the changes in EEG and visual-evoked potential (VEP; 51% of the patients were female, the age range was 146 years. The major ocular defects and complications found were visual field defects, optic nerve abnormalities, nystagmus, cataracts, amblyopia, and migraine. These findings were analyzed according to age and sex. The relationship between the ocular abnormalities and the interpretations of the changes in the characteristics of the VEP indicated that optic-related atrophies, visual defects, optic neuritis, chiasmal compression, nystagmus, migraine headache, cataracts, and amblyopia were prevalent in photosensitive epileptic patients at varying degrees. The results showed that although ocular defects in photosensitive epilepsy may not be obvious differentially, VEP can be used in their diagnosis, contrary to earlier studies reporting that VEP is not of much value in epilepsy diagnosis.
Nair, Akshay Gopinathan; Patil-Chhablani, Preeti; Venkatramani, Devendra V; Gandhi, Rashmin Anilkumar
Myasthenia gravis (MG) is a disease that affects the neuro-muscular junction resulting in classical symptoms of variable muscle weakness and fatigability. It is called the great masquerader owing to its varied clinical presentations. Very often, a patient of MG may present to the ophthalmologist given that a large proportion of patients with systemic myasthenia have ocular involvement either at presentation or during the later course of the disease. The treatment of ocular MG involves both the neurologist and ophthalmologist. Thus, the aim of this review was to highlight the current diagnosis, investigations, and treatment of ocular MG. PMID:25449931
Pseudomonas lipopetide biosurfactants are amphiphilic molecules with a broad range of natural functions. Due to their surface active properties, it has been suggested that Pseudomonas lipopetides potentially play a role in biodegradation of hydrophobic compounds and have essential functions...... lipopetide biosurfactants in pollutant biodegradation and natural roles in biofilm formation. The work presented is a combination of environmental microbiology and exploiting genetic manipulation of pure cultures to achieve insightinto the effects and mechanisms of lipopeptides on microbial processes...
Jones, D. R.; Scobie, I. N.; Sarkies, N. J.
A blind painful eye may harbour an unsuspected malignant melanoma. We report a case of ocular melanoma that presented with confusion owing to direct extension via the optic nerve into the anterior cranial fossa.
Belser, Jessica A; Rota, Paul A; Tumpey, Terrence M
Respiratory viruses (including adenovirus, influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus, coronavirus, and rhinovirus) cause a broad spectrum of disease in humans, ranging from mild influenza-like symptoms to acute respiratory failure. While species D adenoviruses and subtype H7 influenza viruses are known to possess an ocular tropism, documented human ocular disease has been reported following infection with all principal respiratory viruses. In this review, we describe the anatomical proximity and cellular receptor distribution between ocular and respiratory tissues. All major respiratory viruses and their association with human ocular disease are discussed. Research utilizing in vitro and in vivo models to study the ability of respiratory viruses to use the eye as a portal of entry as well as a primary site of virus replication is highlighted. Identification of shared receptor-binding preferences, host responses, and laboratory modeling protocols among these viruses provides a needed bridge between clinical and laboratory studies of virus tropism.
Dunia Cruz Izquierdo
Full Text Available Se realizó una revisión sobre el trauma ocular y su manejo en pacientes politraumatizados. Entre las causas más frecuentes de trauma ocular se encuentran los accidentes domésticos, laborales, juegos, actividades recreativas y deportivas. Involucran en un alto por ciento a niños y jóvenes, y predomina el sexo masculino en casi todos los trabajos revisados. No solo en Cuba sino en el mundo, el trauma ocular es fuente importante de ceguera unilateral o bilateral. Se presenta un breve compendio de los términos y definiciones actuales que son utilizados para el manejo del trauma ocular, su clasificación y la ventaja que ofrece aplicar el Puntaje del Trauma Ocular, OTS (Ocular Trauma Score, para el pronóstico de la agudeza visual final de acuerdo a los hallazgos clínicos encontrados en la evaluación inicial. Se hace referencia a los pacientes con politrauma y los aspectos a tener en cuenta por el oftalmólogo para tomar conducta cuando estos presentan heridas penetrantes o perforantes y tienen compromiso vital. En estos casos se hace necesaria la colaboración urgente de múltiples especialistas para primero mantener al paciente con vida y luego disminuir las complicaciones que repercuten en su pronóstico visual.A review was made on the ocular trauma and its management in multitrauma patients. The most common causes comprise domestic and occupational accidents, games, recreational and sport activities. It involves more frequently a high percentage of young people, with male prevalence in almost all the reviewed papers. Ocular trauma is an important source of unilateral or bilateral blindness not only in Cuba but worldwide as well. A brief summary of the current terms and definitions used to manage ocular trauma, their classification and the advantage of the Ocular Trauma Score (OTS to know the possible final visual acuity, according to the clinical findings at the emergency room, were presented. Reference was also made to the multitrauma
Myrna Serapião dos Santos
Full Text Available PURPOSE: To establish current definition, classification and staging, and to develop diagnosis and treatment recommendations for ocular allergy, by using Delphi approach. METHODS: Ten Latin American experts on ocular allergy participated in a 4-round Delphi panel approach. Four surveys were constructed and answered by panelists. A two-thirds majority was defined as consensus. Definition, classification, staging and diagnosis and treatment recommendations were the main outcomes. RESULTS: "Ocular allergy" was proposed as the general term to describe ocular allergic diseases. Consensus regarding classification was not reached. Signs and symptoms were considered extremely important for the diagnosis. It was consensus that a staging system should be proposed based on the disease severity. Environmental control, avoidance of allergens and the use of artificial tears were recommended as first line treatment. The secondary treatment should include topical anti-histamines, mast cell stabilizers and multi actions drugs. Topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory and vasoconstrictors were not recommended. Topical corticosteroids were recommended as third line of treatment for the most severe keratoconjunctivitis. Consensus was not reached regarding the use of systemic corticosteroids or immunosuppressant. Surgical approach and unconventional treatments were not recommended as routine. CONCLUSION: The task of creating guidelines for ocular allergies showed to be very complex. Many controversial topics remain unsolved. A larger consensus including experts from different groups around the world may be needed to further improve the current recommendations for several aspects of ocular allergy.
Full Text Available Purpose: To review current knowledge about ocular effects of sulfur mustard (SM and the associated histopathologic findings and clinical manifestationsMethods: Literature review of medical articles (human and animal studies was accomplished using PubMed, Scopus and ISI databases. A total of 274 relevant articles in English were retrieved and reviewed thoroughly.Results: Eyes are the most sensitive organs to local toxic effects of mustard gas. Ocular injuries are mediated through different toxic mechanisms including: biochemical damages, biomolecular and gene expression modification, induction of immunologic and inflammatory reactions, disturbing ultrastructural architecture of the cornea, and long-lasting corneal denervation. The resulting ocular injuries can roughly be categorized into acute or chronic complications. Most of the patients recover from acute injuries, but a minority of victims will suffer from chronic ocular complications. Mustard gas keratopathy (MGK is a devastating late complication of SM intoxication that proceeds from limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD.Conclusion: SM induces several different damaging changes in case of ocular exposure; hence leading to a broad spectrum of ocular manifestations in terms of severity, timing and form. Unfortunately, no effective strategy has been introduced yet to inhibit or restore these damaging changes.
Full Text Available Los traumatismos oculares durante la práctica deportiva son relativamente frecuentes, pueden acontecer en el contexto de cualquier deporte y son muy variados, tanto en su origen, gravedad y forma de presentación clínica (traumatismos incisos, contusos o inciso-contusos. A pesar de que el diagnóstico precoz y un tratamiento adecuado a cargo de un oftalmólogo especialista suele ayudar a mejorar el pronóstico de estos casos, es cierto que en algunas situaciones las lesiones oculares secundarias al traumatismo son clínicamente irreversibles. El autor revisa la repercusión clínica ocular de los accidentes deportivos con compromiso de la órbita, de los párpados, del segmento anterior y/o posterior del globo ocular, y de las vías ópticas. La mayoría de estas lesiones se pueden evitar optimizando el estado físico (y ocular antes de la práctica deportiva, y utilizando la técnica y el material adecuado para cada situación. Asimismo una buena educación deportiva desde la infancia y la utilización de gafas de protección ocular adaptadas a cada deporte juegan un papel esencial en la prevención de estos accidentes.
... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pseudomonas fluorescens A506, Pseudomonas fluorescens 1629RS, and Pseudomonas syringae 742RS; exemptions from the requirement of a tolerance... Tolerances § 180.1114 Pseudomonas fluorescens A506, Pseudomonas fluorescens 1629RS, and Pseudomonas syringae...
Rowe, Fiona; Wright, David; Brand, Darren; Jackson, Carole; Price, Alison; Walker, Linda; Harrison, Shirley; Eccleston, Carla; Maan, Tallat; Scott, Claire; Vogwell, Linda; Peel, Sarah; Robson, Leonie; Akerman, Nicola; Dodridge, Caroline; Howard, Claire; Shipman, Tracey; Sperring, Una; Yarde, Sue; Rowe, Fiona; Macdiarmid, Sonia; Freeman, Cicely
Ocular causes of reading impairment following stroke include visual field loss, eye movement impairment and poor central vision. Non ocular causes may include cognitive errors or language impairment. The purpose of this study was to identify all patients referred with suspected visual impairment who had reported reading difficulty to establish the prevalence of ocular and non ocular causes. Prospective, multicentre, observation study with standardised referral and assessment forms across 21 sites. Visual assessment included visual acuity measurement, visual field assessment, ocular alignment, and movement and visual inattention assessment. Multicentre ethical approval and informed patient consent were obtained. A total of 915 patients were recruited, with a mean age of 69·18 years (standard deviation 14·19). Reading difficulties were reported by 177 patients (19·3%), with reading difficulty as the only symptom in 39 patients. Fifteen patients had normal visual assessment but with a diagnosis of expressive or receptive aphasia. Eight patients had alexia. One hundred and nine patients had visual field loss, 85 with eye movement abnormality, 27 with low vision and 39 patients with visual perceptual impairment. Eighty-seven patients had multiple ocular diagnoses with combined visual field, eye movement, low vision or inattention problems. All patients with visual impairment were given targeted treatment and/or advice including prisms, occlusion, refraction, low vision aids and scanning exercises. Patients complaining of reading difficulty were mostly found to have visual impairment relating to low vision, eye movement or visual field loss. A small number were found to have non ocular causes of reading difficulty. Treatment or advice was possible for all patients with visual impairment. © 2011 The Authors. International Journal of Stroke © 2011 World Stroke Organization.
Ocular tumours at the Tata Memorial Hospital, Bombay, form about 0.14% of all the proved cancer cases. In case of unilateral retinoblastoma with the other eye being not non-seeing for any reason, enucleation is advised, as the diagnosis may sometimes be in doubt. If after enucleation, optic nerve and/or peribulbar tissues are found to be involved, post-operative irradiation is given to the whole orbit. In bilateral retinoblastoma the more affected eye is enucleated and an attempt is made to preserve vision in the other eye. A tumour dose of 3500 to 4000 rad in about 4 weeks is given with a cobalt beam using a direct anterior field. A cataract that may develop has to be taken care of. Lateral and/or medial fields are used with deep X-rays. In certain cases, an implant of cobalt-60 or gold-198 grain is done. For carcinoma of conjuctiva, small lesions or early lesions are excised and a beta radiation dose of 2000 rad weekly for about 4 to 5 weeks is given; larger lesions require enucleation or exenteration followed by irradiation with super-voltage radiation. Post-irradiation sarcomas may develop many years later. Irradiation is repeated for recurrences.
Ocular tumours at the Tata Memorial Hospital, Bombay, form about 0.14% of all the proved cancer cases. In case of unilateral retinoblastoma with the other eye being not non-seeing for any reason, enucleation is advised, as the diagnosis may sometimes be in doubt. If after enucleation, optic nerve and/or peribulbar tissues are found to be involved, post-operative irradiation is given to the whole orbit. In bilateral retinoblastoma the more affected eye is enucleated and an attempt is made to preserve vision in the other eye. A tumour dose of 3500 to 4000 rad in about 4 weeks is given with a cobalt beam using a direct anterior field. A cataract that may develop has to be taken care of. Lateral and/or medial fields are used with deep X-rays. In certain cases, an implant of cobalt-60 or gold-198 grain is done. For carcinoma of conjuctiva, small lesions or early lesions are excised and a beta radiation dose of 2000 rad weekly for about 4 to 5 weeks is given; larger lesions require enucleation or exenteration followed by irradiation with super-voltage radiation. Post-irradiation sarcomas may develop many years later. Irradiation is repeated for recurrences. (M.G.B.)
Hamade, Issam H; Tabbara, Khalid F
To determine the effect of steroid treatment on visual outcome and ocular complications in patients with presumed ocular tuberculosis. Retrospective review of patients with presumptive ocular tuberculosis. The clinical diagnosis was made based on ocular findings, positive purified protein derivative (PPD) testing of more than 15 mm induration, exclusion of other causes of uveitis and positive ocular response to anti-tuberculous therapy (ATT) within 4 weeks. Group 1 included patients who had received oral prednisone or subtenon injection of triamcinolone acetonide prior to ATT. Group 2 included patients who did not receive corticosteroid therapy prior to administration of ATT. Among 500 consecutive new cases of uveitis encountered in 1997-2007 there were 49 (10%) patients with presumed ocular tuberculosis. These comprised 28 (57%) male and 21 (43%) female patients with a mean age of 45 years (range 12-76 years). Four (20%) patients in group 1 had initial visual acuity of 20/40 or better, in comparison to eight (28%) patients in group 2. At 1-year follow-up, six (30%) patients in group 1 had a visual acuity of 20/40 or better compared with 20 (69%) patients in group 2 (p = 0.007). Of 20 eyes (26%) in group 1 that had visual acuity of < 20/50 at 1-year follow up, 14 (70%) eyes developed severe chorioretinal lesion (p = 0.019). Early administration of corticosteroids without anti-tuberculous therapy in presumed ocular tuberculosis may lead to poor visual outcome compared with patients who did not receive corticosteroids prior to presentation. Furthermore, the severity of chorioretinitis lesion in the group of patients given corticosteroid prior to ATT may account for the poor visual outcome. © 2009 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2009 Acta Ophthalmol.
Full Text Available Inflammation is a complex process that implies the interaction between cells and molecular mediators, which, when not properly “tuned,” can lead to disease. When inflammation affects the eye, it can produce severe disorders affecting the superficial and internal parts of the visual organ. The nucleoside adenosine and nucleotides including adenine mononucleotides like ADP and ATP and dinucleotides such as P1,P4-diadenosine tetraphosphate (Ap4A, and P1,P5-diadenosine pentaphosphate (Ap5A are present in different ocular locations and therefore they may contribute/modulate inflammatory processes. Adenosine receptors, in particular A2A adenosine receptors, present anti-inflammatory action in acute and chronic retinal inflammation. Regarding the A3 receptor, selective agonists like N6-(3-iodobenzyl-5′-N-methylcarboxamidoadenosine (CF101 have been used for the treatment of inflammatory ophthalmic diseases such as dry eye and uveoretinitis. Sideways, diverse stimuli (sensory stimulation, large intraocular pressure increases can produce a release of ATP from ocular sensory innervation or after injury to ocular tissues. Then, ATP will activate purinergic P2 receptors present in sensory nerve endings, the iris, the ciliary body, or other tissues surrounding the anterior chamber of the eye to produce uveitis/endophthalmitis. In summary, adenosine and nucleotides can activate receptors in ocular structures susceptible to suffer from inflammatory processes. This involvement suggests the possible use of purinergic agonists and antagonists as therapeutic targets for ocular inflammation.
Full Text Available Ocular chemical burns are common and serious ocular emergencies that require immediate and intensive evaluation and care. The victims of such incidents are usually young, and therefore loss of vision and disfigurement could dramatically affect their lives. The clinical course can be divided into immediate, acute, early, and late reparative phases. The degree of limbal, corneal, and conjunctival involvement at the time of injury is critically associated with prognosis. The treatment starts with simple but vision saving steps and is continued with complicated surgical procedures later in the course of the disease. The goal of treatment is to restore the normal ocular surface anatomy and function. Limbal stem cell transplantation, amniotic membrane transplantation, and ultimately keratoprosthesis may be indicated depending on the patients’ needs.
Full Text Available Rho kinases (ROCKs have a crucial role in actin-cytoskeletal reorganization and thus are involved in broad aspects of cell motility, from smooth muscle contraction to neurite outgrowth. The first marketed ROCK inhibitor, called fasudil, has been used safely for treatment of cerebral vasospasm since 1995 in Japan. During the succeeding decades ROCK inhibitors have been applied in many pathological conditions from central nervous system disorders to cardiovascular disease as potential therapeutic agents or experimental tools to help understand the underlying (pathomechanisms. In 2014, a fasudil derivate named ripasudil was accepted for clinical use in glaucoma and ocular hypertension. Since ROCK kinases are widely expressed in ocular tissues, they have been implicated in the pathology of many ocular conditions such as corneal dysfunction, glaucoma, cataract, diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration, and retinal detachment. This paper aims to provide an overview of the most recent status/application of ROCK inhibitors in the field of eye disease.
Ness, T; Hengel, H
Vaccinations are very effective measures for prevention of infections but are also associated with a long list of possible side effects. Adverse ocular effects following vaccination have been rarely reported or considered to be related to vaccinations. Conjunctivitis is a frequent sequel of various vaccinations. Oculorespiratory syndrome and serum sickness syndrome are considered to be related to influenza vaccinations. The risk of reactivation or initiation of autoimmune diseases (e. g. uveitis) cannot be excluded but has not yet been proven. Overall the benefit of vaccination outweighs the possible but very low risk of ocular side effects.
Martha G Domínguez Expósito
Full Text Available El carcinoma metastásico del ojo es considerado la neoplasia maligna que más frecuente se encuentra de forma intraocular. Solo cerca del 10 % de las personas que tienen una o más lesiones metastásicas intraoculares son detectadas clínicamente antes de la muerte. A menudo, el carcinoma metastásico ocular es diagnosticado por el oftalmólogo ante la presencia de síntomas oculares. Las lesiones están localizadas con preferencia en coroides. Nos motivo a realizar la presentación de este caso la presencia de lesiones intraoculares múltiples tumorales metastásicos en un paciente cuyo síntoma de presentación fue la disminución de la agudeza visualThe eye metastatic carcinoma is considered the most frequently found intraocular malignant neoplasia. Only 10 % of the persons with one or more metastatic intraocular injuries are clinically detected before death. The metastatic ocular carcinoma is often diagnosed by the ophthalmologist in the presence of ocular symptoms. The injuries are preferably located in the choroid. The appearance of multiple metastatic intraaocular tumoral injuries in a patient whose chief complaint was the reduction of visual acuity motivated us to presente this case
infections by Ps. aeruginosa is contra-indicated. In our study only 2,3 % of the Ps. aeruginosa strains were resistant to gentamicin (MIC 25 Ilg/ml). In view of the synergy reported for combined gentamicin and carbeni- cillin therapy," a combination of these two drugs may be recommended in the treatment of all Pseudomonas.
Alhede, Maria; Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Givskov, Michael
The opportunistic gram-negative bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa is implicated in many chronic infections and is readily isolated from chronic wounds, medical devices, and the lungs of cystic fibrosis patients. P. aeruginosa is believed to persist in the host organism due to its capacity to form...
the use of conventional antimicrobial compounds in many cases cannot eradicate biofilms, there is an urgent need to develop alternative measures to combat biofilm infections. The present review is focussed on the important opportunistic pathogen and biofilm model organism Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Initially...
Asbell, Penny A; Sanfilippo, Christine M; Pillar, Christopher M; DeCory, Heleen H; Sahm, Daniel F; Morris, Timothy W
The Antibiotic Resistance Monitoring in Ocular Microorganisms (ARMOR) study is the only ongoing nationwide antibiotic resistance surveillance program specific to ocular pathogens. To report resistance rates and trends among common ocular isolates collected during the first 5 years of the ARMOR study. This antibiotic resistance surveillance study was performed at an independent central laboratory. Clinical centers across the United States were invited to submit ocular isolates of Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS), Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Isolates were collected from January 1, 2009, through December 31, 2013, and analyzed from January 16 to May 15, 2015. Minimum inhibitory concentrations for various antibiotic classes were determined by broth microdilution according to the guidelines of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Minimum inhibitory concentrations were interpreted as susceptible, intermediate, or resistant based on established break points. A total of 3237 ocular isolates (1169 S aureus, 992 CoNS, 330 S pneumoniae, 357 H influenzae, and 389 P aeruginosa) were collected from 72 centers. Methicillin resistance was found among 493 S aureus isolates (42.2%; 95% CI, 39.3%-45.1%) and 493 CoNS isolates (49.7%; 95% CI, 46.5%-52.9%), and methicillin-resistant (MR) isolates had a high probability of concurrent resistance to fluoroquinolones, aminoglycosides, or macrolides (P < .001). Multidrug resistance to at least 3 additional antibiotic classes was found in 428 MR S aureus isolates (86.8%) and 381 MRCoNS isolates (77.3%). All staphylococcal isolates were susceptible to vancomycin. Resistance among S pneumoniae isolates was highest for azithromycin (113 isolates [34.2%]) whereas resistance among P aeruginosa and H influenzae was low against the antibiotics tested. Staphylococcal isolates from elderly patients were more likely to be MR, as were S aureus isolates
The patient was recalled regularly for follow‑up at 3 month intervals for ophthalmic examinations and she was rehabilitated cosmetically with customised ocular prosthesis during the various stages of her developmental growth. Keywords: Custom ocular prosthesis, enucleation, impression technique, ocular defect, ...
oral chloramphenicol provided the basis for comparison. 20 adult male rabbits were randomly but equally divided into two main groups based on the route of administration of the drug (i.e ocular or oral). In each group of ten rabbits equal number of rabbits were randomly divided into test (n=5) and control (n=5) subgroups.
• A new attention to post-natally acquired infections. Previously, most attention was focused on infection during pregnancy, and the risk of congenital disease, with the feeling that infection in older individuals was benign, without a substantial risk of disease morbidity, such as ocular involvemen...
Reddy, Sagili Chandrasekhara
To report various ocular injuries caused by durian fruit. Three cases of ocular injuries were described in young patients, due to accidental fall of durian fruit on the forehead and face, while they were taking rest/sleeping /playing under the durian tree. The ocular injuries observed were lacerating injury of cornea with iris incarceration, hyphema, superficial penetrating injury of sclera and angle recession glaucoma in the right eye of first patient; lacerating injury of cornea with iris prolapse in the left eye of second patient; subconjunctival haemorrhage, traumatic mydriasis and superficial penetrating injury of sclera, commotion retinopathy and macular edema in the left eye of third patient. Vision improved to normal in all the eyes following surgical/ medical/optical treatment. Evidence of penetrating injury (because of thorns) and blunt injury (because of weight) can be seen in the eyes when durian fruit falls on the face. Vision can be recovered fully with immediate and appropriate treatment in these cases. The ocular injuries can be prevented by educating the public to wear protective metal frame wide goggles and not to sleep/take rest under the durian tree.
Yam, Jason C S; Kwok, Alvin K H
The objective of this study is to review the association between ultraviolet (UV) light and ocular diseases. The data are sourced from the literature search of Medline up to Nov 2012, and the extracted data from original articles, review papers, and book chapters were reviewed. There is a strong evidence that ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure is associated with the formation of eyelid malignancies [basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC)], photokeratitis, climatic droplet keratopathy (CDK), pterygium, and cortical cataract. However, the evidence of the association between UV exposure and development of pinguecula, nuclear and posterior subcapsular cataract, ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN), and ocular melanoma remained limited. There is insufficient evidence to determine whether age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is related to UV exposure. It is now suggested that AMD is probably related to visible radiation especially blue light, rather than UV exposure. From the results, it was concluded that eyelid malignancies (BCC and SCC), photokeratitis, CDK, pterygium, and cortical cataract are strongly associated with UVR exposure. Evidence of the association between UV exposure and development of pinguecula, nuclear and posterior subcapsular cataract, OSSN, and ocular melanoma remained limited. There is insufficient evidence to determine whether AMD is related to UV exposure. Simple behaviural changes, appropriate clothing, wearing hats, and UV blocking spectacles, sunglasses or contact lens are effective measures for UV protection.
Ferreira, T.; Verbist, B.M.; Buchem, M. van; Osch, T. van; Webb, A.
The ocular motor nerves (OMNs) comprise the oculomotor, trochlear and the abducens nerves. According to their course, they are divided into four or five anatomic segments: intra-axial, cisternal, cavernous and intra-orbital and, for the abducens nerve, an additional interdural segment. Magnetic
Galor, Anat; Small, Leslie; Feuer, William; Levitt, Roy C; Sarantopoulos, Konstantinos D; Yosipovitch, Gil
To evaluate associations between sensations of ocular itch and dry eye (DE) symptoms, including ocular pain, and DE signs. A cross-sectional study of 324 patients seen in the Miami Veterans Affairs eye clinic was performed. The evaluation consisted of questionnaires regarding ocular itch, DE symptoms, descriptors of neuropathic-like ocular pain (NOP), and evoked pain sensitivity testing on the forehead and forearm, followed by a comprehensive ocular surface examination including corneal mechanical sensitivity testing. Analyses were performed to examine for differences between those with and without subjective complaints of ocular itch. The mean age was 62 years with 92% being male. Symptoms of DE and NOP were more frequent in patients with moderate-severe ocular itch compared to those with no or mild ocular itch symptoms. With the exception of ocular surface inflammation (abnormal matrix metalloproteinase 9 testing) which was less common in those with moderate-severe ocular itch symptoms, DE signs were not related to ocular itch. Individuals with moderate-severe ocular itch also demonstrated greater sensitivity to evoked pain on the forearm and had higher non-ocular pain, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorders scores, compared to those with no or mild itch symptoms. Subjects with moderate-severe ocular itch symptoms have more severe symptoms of DE, NOP, non-ocular pain and demonstrate abnormal somatosensory testing in the form of increased sensitivity to evoked pain at a site remote from the eye, consistent with generalized hypersensitivity.
Kanukollu Venkata Madusudana Rao
Full Text Available BACKGROUND This prospective study aimed to evaluate the incidence of ocular manifestations in head injury and their correlation with the intracranial lesions. MATERIALS AND METHODS A total of 108 consecutive cases of closed head injury admitted in the neurosurgical ward of a tertiary teaching hospital underwent a thorough ophthalmic assessment. Clinical examination, radiological imaging and Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS were applied to grade the severity of injury. RESULTS Total number of 108 patients of head injury were examined of which 38 patients had ocular manifestations (35.18%. Of these, 85.18% were males, 84% of injuries were due to road traffic accidents and 16% were due to fall from a height. The ocular manifestations were as follows- Orbital complications were seen in 6 patients (15.8%. Anterior segment manifestations included black eyes seen in 10 patients (26.3%, subconjunctival haemorrhage in 10.5% of patients (4 patients, corneal involvement in 21% of patients (8 patients and pupillary involvement in 50% of patients (19 patients. Posterior segment manifestations were seen in 26.3% of patients (10 patients and were as follows- Purtscher’s retinopathy in 2 patients and optic atrophy in 5 patients. Cranial nerve palsies were seen in 15 patients (39.47% and supranuclear movement disorders were seen in 3 patients (8%. CONCLUSION Even though, neurosurgeons perform comprehensive clinical examination including eye examination, the main purpose is limited to aid topical diagnosis of neurological lesions. This study emphasises the importance of a detailed eye examination by an ophthalmologist to prevent irreversible visual loss in addition to aiding in the neurological diagnosis. Pupillary involvement, papilloedema and ocular motor paresis pointed to a more severe head injury. This observational prospective study helped us to correlate the severity of head injuries in association with ocular findings in patients admitted in neurosurgical ward
Full Text Available Purpose : To assess the changing trends in the antibiotic susceptibility of Pseudomonas spp . isolated from bacterial keratitis over a nine year period with special emphasis on fluoroquinolone susceptibilities. Methods : All corneal scraping cultures positive for Pseudomonas spp. (n=585 isolated from patients with bacterial keratitis at the Aravind Eye Hospital, Madurai from1995-2003 were evaluated. Cultures were performed in liquid and solid media and susceptibility testing was done against amikacin, gentamicin, tobramycin, ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. Results: The susceptibility of Pseudomonas spp. was over 90% from 1995-1998 to ciprofloxacin which decreased to 83% from 1999-2003. The total number of isolates resistant to ciprofloxacin was 51(9.4%. No statistically significant increase in the number of isolates resistant to ciprofloxacin was noted. Ofloxacin showed 54% susceptibility from 1995-1998 but increased to 64% from 1999-2003. Analysis of in vitro activity of amikacin reveals that there was 43% sensitivity from 1995-1998 but later it increased to 76% from 1999-2003. In case of gentamicin, the sensitivity decreased marginally from 80% to 70% through the years. Tobramycin showed 45% sensitivity from 1995-1998 but increased to 75% from 1999-2003. Conclusions : The fluoroquinolones remain a good choice in the treatment of ocular infections, with high susceptibility of Pseudomonas spp. Among the aminoglycosides, gentamicin was found to be highly effective against Pseudomonas corneal ulcers when compared to amikacin and tobramycin. The results show a need for continuous monitoring of bacterial resistance trends.
Maudgil, A; Wagner, B E; Rundle, P; Rennie, I G; Mudhar, H S
Malignant melanoma of the eye is an uncommon condition that is important to recognise. We describe three cases in which ocular foreign bodies have masqueraded as ocular malignant melanoma. Interventional case reports. Case 1 describes diathermy-induced carbon particle implantation, during plaque therapy for the treatment of uveal melanoma, mimicking recurrence with extra-scleral invasion. Case 2 shows a foreign body called 'mullite' mimicking conjunctival melanoma. Case 3 demonstrates a conjunctival foreign body called 'illite' that mimicked a limbal melanocytic lesion, clinically thought to be either melanocytoma or melanoma. This report highlights the importance of careful history taking, examination, and appropriate biopsy in cases of suspected malignant melanoma, to prevent unnecessary and potentially radical treatment.
Moraru, Andreea; Panfil, Madălina; Totolici, Geanina; Brănişteanu, Daniel; Costin, Dănut; Schmitzer, Speranţa
Ocular Toxocariasis is a parasitosis caused by Toxocara catis/canis larvae localized in the eye. The most frequent clinical manifestations are the central retinal granuloma, peripheral retinal granuloma and chronic endophthalmitis. Secondary complications due to the presence of parasite in the posterior segment of the eye may have significant consequences on visual function. We present the case of a 23 years old patient, admitted for progressive decrease of the right eye BCVA during the last 6 months. After performing clinical examination and serological tests we established the diagnosis of ocular Toxocariasis. The patient presented a particular form of the disease consisting in the presence of both a central retinal granuloma and a peripheral one. We performed 23G pars plana vitrectomy and membrane peeling. VA improved as soon as the first month after surgery.
Joshi, Rajesh Subhash; Somani, Abhishek Arun Kumar
Ocular problems are common in mentally retarded children. Due to population growth these problems are increasing. Prevalence rate is variable from region to region. Data on ocular problems in mentally retarded school children is lacking in this region. The aim of the present study was to identify the ocular disorders in children with mental retardation attending special schools in a district and to study their relationship with the degree of retardation. A total of 241 mentally retarded school children in the age group of 6-16 years attending special schools for the mentally retarded children in a district in central India were examined by a team of ophthalmologist, psychiatrist, and a resident in ophthalmology department of a medical college. Complete ocular examination was done. Ocular problems were identified and categorized according to the intelligent quotient. One hundred and twenty four children (51.45%) had ocular problems. Strabismus (10.37%) and refractive error (20.75%) were the common ocular problems seen in this study. An association was found between the severity of mental retardation and ocular problems (P<0.005). However, no association was seen between the severity of mental retardation and strabismus and refractive error. A high prevalence of ocular problems was seen in mentally retarded school children. Children with mental retardation should undergo annual ophthalmological check up. Early detection and correction of ocular problems will prevent visual impairment in future.
Full Text Available We report the case of a 52-year-old woman with advanced colorectal cancer who was treated with oxaliplatin on a FOLFOX schedule. After 3 cycles of chemotherapy, she started to complain of visual loss, altered color vision and neurological symptoms. Due to the suspicion of ocular and neurological toxicity, antineoplastic treatment was stopped. Her visual field showed a concentric bilateral scotoma and the electrooculogram test revealed severe impairment of the retinal pigment epithelium. Visual acuity, color vision and visual field recovered completely 8 months later, although electrooculogram remained abnormal. Ocular toxicity has been reported as an infrequent adverse event of oxaliplatin. Findings in this case indicate toxicity of this chemotherapeutic agent on the retinal pigment epithelium, which has not been reported before. This damage could be permanent, and it thus differs from previously described oxaliplatin-induced ocular toxicities, which are usually transient and reversible. With increasing use of oxaliplatin as first-line treatment in advanced colorectal cancer, we have to be aware of this possible toxicity.
Prof. Adipala Ekwamu
This study focused on the antagonistic potential of fluorescent Pseudomonas in vitro, and its inoculation effect on growth performance of Lycopersicon esculentum in Fusarium oxysporum and Rhizoctonia solani infested soil. Biochemical characteristics of fluorescent Pseudomonas showed that all ten isolates were positive ...
Full Text Available Ocular myasthenia gravis is an autoimmune disorder of the neuromuscular junction. Diplopia and ptosis are common symptoms at the onset of ocular myasthenia gravis. It may occur due to the antibodies developed against various drugs. We are reporting a case of ocular myasthenia gravis which was developed in a patient post angiography which may be due to antibody developed against the dye used in angiography.
Samir S. Shoughy
Full Text Available Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE is a chronic multisystem autoimmune disease. Ocular complications occur in up to one-third of patients with SLE. The ocular findings may represent the initial manifestation of the disease and may lead to severe ocular morbidity and loss of vision. Early diagnosis and prompt management of patients with SLE are mandatory and require collaboration between the ophthalmologist and the rheumatologist.
Shoughy, Samir S; Tabbara, Khalid F
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic multisystem autoimmune disease. Ocular complications occur in up to one-third of patients with SLE. The ocular findings may represent the initial manifestation of the disease and may lead to severe ocular morbidity and loss of vision. Early diagnosis and prompt management of patients with SLE are mandatory and require collaboration between the ophthalmologist and the rheumatologist.
Nerrant, Elodie; Tilikete, Caroline
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease of the central nervous system leading to disability, especially in young patients. Acute or chronic lesions of MS within the brainstem and the cerebellum frequently result in ocular motor disorders. This review encompasses the spectrum of ocular motor disorders in patients with MS emphasizing prevalence, examination findings, diagnostic features, functional consequences, classification of MS course, and management of these disturbances of ocular motility. Ocular motor manifestations of MS can occur acutely in relapse or chronically, the latter as a consequence of previous relapses or as a chronic course of the disease. The most frequent and specific acute ocular motor manifestation is uni- or bilateral internuclear ophthalmoplegia (INO). The most frequent chronic manifestations include INO and cerebellar ocular motor disorders such as gaze-evoked nystagmus, saccadic hypermetria, and lack of vestibulo-ocular reflex inhibition. The most disabling syndrome is pendular nystagmus. The high prevalence of ocular motor manifestations emphasizes the importance of neuro-ophthalmological examination among patients with MS. Because chronic manifestations may cause minimal or no symptoms, a systematic investigation of the most common manifestations should be performed in daily practice. Appropriate treatment may improve visual outcome in some of these ocular motor disorders.
Rasmussen, Peter Kristian; Ralfkiaer, E.; Prause, J.U.
Purpose To characterize the clinicopathological features of follicular lymphoma of the ocular adnexal region. Methods Retrospective nation-based study of Danish patients with ocular adnexal follicular lymphoma from January 1st 1980 through December 31st 2009. Results Twenty-four patients with ocu......Purpose To characterize the clinicopathological features of follicular lymphoma of the ocular adnexal region. Methods Retrospective nation-based study of Danish patients with ocular adnexal follicular lymphoma from January 1st 1980 through December 31st 2009. Results Twenty-four patients...
%) patients. Conclusion: There is still a great need for the definitive diagnoses of ocular lesions, and retinal lesions in particular as well as appropriate treatment of ocular HIV/AIDS. Keywords: ocular HIV/AIDS, Guinness Ophthalmic Kaduna
Haas, Wolfgang; Pillar, Chris M; Torres, Mohana; Morris, Timothy W; Sahm, Daniel F
To determine the antibacterial susceptibility profile of bacterial pathogens from ocular infections against relevant aminoglycoside, β-lactam, cephalosporin, chloramphenicol, fluoroquinolone, glycopeptide, lincosamide, and macrolide antibacterial agents. Laboratory investigation. Isolates from patients with bacterial eye infections were collected prospectively by 34 institutions across the United States and were submitted to a central laboratory for inclusion in the Antibiotic Resistance Monitoring in Ocular micRorganisms (ARMOR) study. Minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined by microbroth dilution for 200 Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), 144 coagulase-negative staphylococci, 75 Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae), 73 Haemophilus influenzae (H. influenzae), and 100 Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) isolates. A large proportion of S. aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci isolates were resistant to oxacillin/methicillin, azithromycin, or fluoroquinolones; 46.5% of S. aureus, 58.3% of coagulase-negative staphylococci, 9.0% of P. aeruginosa, and 9.3% of pneumococcal isolates were nonsusceptible to 2 or more antibacterial drug classes. Only 2.7% of H. influenzae isolates were nonsusceptible to 1 of the agents tested. Methicillin-resistant staphylococci were statistically more likely (all P < .0038) also to be resistant to fluoroquinolones, aminoglycosides, and macrolides. Resistance to 1 or more antibiotics is prevalent among ocular bacterial pathogens. Current resistance trends should be considered before initiating empiric treatment of common eye infections. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available A rare occurrence of ocular subconjunctival dirofilariasis in a 53-year-old healthy Indian male working in Dubai, UAE presenting with an acute red eye is reported. Surgical excision under topical anesthesia was carried out uneventfully in the outpatient clinic. The live worm removed from the subconjunctival space was identified as Dirofilaria repens on the basis of microscopic examination and histopathology. Surgical excision of subconjunctival dirofilariasis is safe in an outpatient setting and curative precluding the need for further systemic antihelminthics.
Voinea, L; Palamariu, M
Ocular pathology at the patients with chronic hemodialysis improves important alterations of the anterior and posterior pole less studied up to the present time. We examined a group of ninety-six follow-up patients at Nephrology Clinical of "Carol Davila" Hospital between twenty one-seventy years old. The pathological aspects were related with: the value of biochemical constants (urea, calcium, phosphate), length of hemodialysis treat and arterial pressure. The most alterations of posterior pole were at the papilla (papillar edema, papillar uncolored and vascular alterations as a result of advanced atherosclerogenic processes and optical ischemic neuropathy, characteristics of these patients.
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ocular esthesiometer. 886.1040 Section 886.1040 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED.... An ocular esthesiometer is a device, such as a single-hair brush, intended to touch the cornea to...
This study was aimed at conducting ophthalmic sonographic examination of Nigerian indigenous dogs to provide baseline information on some major ocular parameters. Healthy eyes of eighty (80) indigenous dogs were used for the study. The dogs were adequately restrained physically and the structure of the ocular ...
Gnyawali, Subodh; Shrestha, Gauri Shankar; Khanal, Safal; Dennis, Talisa; Spencer, John C
High altitude, often characterized by settings over 2400m, can be detrimental to the human body and pose a significant risk to ocular health. Reports concerning various ocular morbidities occurring as a consequence of high altitude are limited in the current literature. This study was aimed at evaluating the ocular health of porters working at high altitudesof Himalayas in Nepal. A mobile eye clinic was set up in Ghat and patient data were collected from its out- patient unit by a team of seven optometrists which was run for five days. Ghat is a small village in north-eastern Nepal, located at 2860 m altitude. Travellers walking through the trekking route were invited to get their eyes checked at the clinic. Comprehensive ocular examinations were performed, including visual acuities, objective and subjective refraction, anterior and posterior segment evaluations, and intraocular pressure measurements; blood pressure and blood glucose levels were also measured as required. Ocular therapeutics, prescription glasses, sunglasses and ocular health referrals were provided free of cost as necessary. A total of 1890 people visited the eye clinic, among which 57.4% (n=1084) were porters. Almost half of the porters had an ocular morbidity. Correctable refractive error was most prevalent, with other ocular health-related complications, including dry eye disease, infectious disorders, glaucoma and cataract. Proper provision of regular and effective eye care services should be made more available for those residing at these high altitudes in Nepal. © NEPjOPH.
Full Text Available Introduction: This article aimed to review the literatures on visual impairments and ocular changes in premature infants with low birth weight and gestational age.Methods: Five electronic databases including: PubMed, Web of Science, Science direct, Ovid, and Scopus were searched. Original articles published until 2015 describing preterm infants were reviewed. Repetitive and derivative articles were excluded.Results: Out of 100 unique, potentially relevant articles, 42 studies that addressed and met the inclusion criteria were evaluated.Conclusion: Prematurity affects ocular structures (from anterior to posterior segment and functions. Premature infants are at risk of myopization. Concerning the changes in premature infants, a significant increase is found in axial length, intraocular pressure, and central corneal thickness; moreover, high incidence of retinal changes is reported as a result of prematurity. On the other hand, visual acuity, tear, electroretinogram, and visual evoked potential responses decrease with prematurity. The most common ophthalmic disorders in preterm infants are myopia and retinopathy of prematurity, which could affect life quality due to reduced visual acuity.
Karlsson, Ulf; Kirby, Thomas; Orrison, William; Lionberger, Margaret
Purpose: Ocular lens, retina, and olfactory bulb exposure are common concerns in contemporary radiotherapy practice. Methods to clinically localize soft tissue structures (i.e., lens and retina) are varied and often imprecise. We hypothesized that eyelid markers constituted a better reference point than the commonly used lateral canthus marker for lateral beam simulations, unless diagnostic computed tomography or ultrasound examinations were available and/or used. Methods and Materials: Sixty-six pre-Magnetic Resonance Image, normal, orbital computed tomography scans from adult patients were used to measure (a) sagittal distances from eyelid to posterior lens surface, from lateral canthus to posterior lens surface and to the globe's posterior pole, (b) supero-inferior distances in the lateral projection from the lens to the cribriform plate, and (c) common dimensions to establish internal validity of the measurements. Results: The eyelid to lens and retina topography is individually more constant than that from the canthus. There is little if any supero-inferior separation between the lens and the cribriform plate lateral projections. Conclusions: The lateral canthus does not specify lens or retina locations. Eyelid markers of known size provide more accurate anatomical information. Lateral beam ocular globe shielding has to be individualized. Lens shielding is questionable if the olfactory bulb needs to be irradiated by a lateral beam
Full Text Available The ocular surface is exceptionally rich in complexity and functionality. Severe ocular surface disorders/conditions, such as chemical or thermal injuries, Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS, ocular cicatricial pemphigoid, neurotrophic keratopathy, chronic limbitis, and severe microbial keratitis cause significant morbidities and even corneal blindness. Hypofunction may be caused by Aniridia, Neurotrophy, Endocrine, Pterygium and Chronic limbitis Approximately 6000 patients are seen in Ocular Surface Clinic every year; almost 80% have some form of dry eyes. About 125 new patients of Stevens Johnson Syndrome are seen in a year of which approximately 25% may benefit from Cultured Epithelial Transplant and 75 new patients of thermal/chemical injury in a year of which almost 80% will benefit from Stem Cell Transplantation. Of the 128 severe vernal keratoconjunctivitis which were seen in the ocular surface clinic, 10% require stem cell transplantation. Nearly 30 new cases of Ocular cicatrical pemphigoid every year are seen and they may need stem cell transplantation. In addition, several patients with persistent epithelial defects may benefit from limbal stem cell transplantation to alleviate, maintain conjunctivalization regression and corneal avascularity limbal deficiency, and restore vision. Even if granted that this statistics is for a single large ophthalmic hospital, for a large country as India with 1.1 billion populations, the number of patients requiring corneal stem cell transplantation is enormous. Stem cells in the palisades of Vogt participate in regeneration and preservation of corneal transparency and avascularity. The diminished regenerative capacity seen in LSCD is characterized by persistent epithelial defects, erosion and ulceration, conjunctivalization and neovascularization, and chronic inflammation. Standard corneal transplantation for restoration of corneal clarity and avascularity is a contraindication in the surgical management
Full Text Available H Mohammed J Hassan,1–3 Georgios Mariatos,1,2 Theocharis Papanikolaou,4 Akshatha Ranganath,1,2 Hala Hassan51Barnsley Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Barnsley, UK; 2The Rotherham NHS Foundation Trust, Rotherham, UK; 3University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK; 4North Middlesex University Hospital, London, UK; 5Corneal and External Disease Service, Moorefield's Eye Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, London, UKAim: In this paper, we will try to highlight the importance of various investigations and their crucial role in identifying whether the defect is structural or functional.Case history: A 24-year-old woman presented with ocular complications after bungee jumping. Subsequently, although all ophthalmic signs resolved, she complained of decreased vision in her left eye.Conclusion: Initial ophthalmic injury was detected by optical coherence tomography scan showing a neurosensory detachment of the fovea. This was not initially detected on slit-lamp examination or fluorescein angiography. On later examination, although the optical coherence tomography scan showed no structural damage, electrodiagnostic tests showed a functional defect at the fovea.Keywords: bungee jumping, optical coherence tomography, OCT, pattern electroretinogram, PERG, ocular complications
Ferreira, Teresa [Department of Radiology, Leiden University Medical Center (Netherlands)], E-mail: T.A.Ferreira@lumc.nl; Verbist, Berit [Department of Radiology, Leiden University Medical Center (Netherlands)], E-mail: B.M.Verbist@lumc.nl; Buchem, Mark van [Department of Radiology, Leiden University Medical Center (Netherlands)], E-mail: M.A.van_Buchem@lumc.nl; Osch, Thijs van [C.J. Gorter for High-Field MRI, Department of Radiology, Leiden University Medical Center (Netherlands)], E-mail: M.J.P.van_Osch@lumc.nl; Webb, Andrew [C.J. Gorter for High-Field MRI, Department of Radiology, Leiden University Medical Center (Netherlands)], E-mail: A.Webb@lumc.nl
The ocular motor nerves (OMNs) comprise the oculomotor, trochlear and the abducens nerves. According to their course, they are divided into four or five anatomic segments: intra-axial, cisternal, cavernous and intra-orbital and, for the abducens nerve, an additional interdural segment. Magnetic resonance imaging is the imaging method of choice in the evaluation of the normal and pathologic ocular motor nerves. CT still plays a limited but important role in the evaluation of the intraosseous portions at the skull base and bony foramina. We describe for each segment of these cranial nerves, the normal anatomy, the most appropriate image sequences and planes, their imaging appearance and pathologic conditions. Magnetic resonance imaging with high magnetic fields is a developing and promising technique. We describe our initial experience with a Phillips 7.0 T MRI scanner in the evaluation of the brainstem segments of the OMNs. As imaging becomes more refined, an understanding of the detailed anatomy is increasingly necessary, as the demand on radiology to diagnose smaller lesions also increases.
Ahmad M. Mansour
Full Text Available Purpose. To discuss an unusual presentation of ocular toxocariasis. Methods. Case report. Results. A 40-year-old woman presented with decreased vision in the left eye with a long history of recurrent red eye from uveitis. Eosinophilia and positive ELISA titers for Toxocara canis favored the diagnosis of ocular toxocariasis. Over 3 months, an anterior scleral mass had a rapid growth raising the possibility of medulloepithelioma, which rarely can mimic uveitic syndromes. Surgical plan changed from local excision to enucleation. Histopathology demonstrated a large homogeneous mass of chronic inflammatory cells with inflammation of the overlying thinned out sclera, medial rectus insertion, and limbal cornea. The triad of peripheral granuloma, eosinophilia, and positive blood serology established the diagnosis of ocular toxocariasis. Conclusions. Ocular toxocariasis can mimic ocular malignancy such as medulloepithelioma in adults and rarely presents as an anterior scleral mass.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Low temperature plasmas have been proposed in medicine as agents for tissue disinfection and have received increasing attention due to the frequency of bacterial resistance to antibiotics. This study explored whether atmospheric-pressure cold plasma (APCP generated by a new portable device that ionizes a flow of helium gas can inactivate ocular pathogens without causing significant tissue damage. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We tested the APCP effects on cultured Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans, Aspergillus fumigatus and Herpes simplex virus-1, ocular cells (conjunctival fibroblasts and keratocytes and ex-vivo corneas. Exposure to APCP for 0.5 to 5 minutes significantly reduced microbial viability (colony-forming units but not human cell viability (MTT assay, FACS and Tunel analysis or the number of HSV-1 plaque-forming units. Increased levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS in exposed microorganisms and cells were found using a FACS-activated 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate probe. Immunoassays demonstrated no induction of thymine dimers in cell cultures and corneal tissues. A transient increased expression of 8-OHdG, genes and proteins related to oxidative stress (OGG1, GPX, NFE2L2, was determined in ocular cells and corneas by HPLC, qRT-PCR and Western blot analysis. CONCLUSIONS: A short application of APCP appears to be an efficient and rapid ocular disinfectant for bacteria and fungi without significant damage on ocular cells and tissues, although the treatment of conjunctival fibroblasts and keratocytes caused a time-restricted generation of intracellular ROS and oxidative stress-related responses.
Branoner, Francisco; Chagnaud, Boris P; Straka, Hans
Vestibulo-ocular reflexes (VOR) ensure gaze stability during locomotion and passively induced head/body movements. In precocial vertebrates such as amphibians, vestibular reflexes are required very early at the onset of locomotor activity. While the formation of inner ears and the assembly of sensory-motor pathways is largely completed soon after hatching, angular and translational/tilt VOR display differential functional onsets and mature with different time courses. Otolith-derived eye movements appear immediately after hatching, whereas the appearance and progressive amelioration of semicircular canal-evoked eye movements is delayed and dependent on the acquisition of sufficiently large semicircular canal diameters. Moreover, semicircular canal functionality is also required to tune the initially omnidirectional otolith-derived VOR. The tuning is due to a reinforcement of those vestibulo-ocular connections that are co-activated by semicircular canal and otolith inputs during natural head/body motion. This suggests that molecular mechanisms initially guide the basic ontogenetic wiring, whereas semicircular canal-dependent activity is required to establish the spatio-temporal specificity of the reflex. While a robust VOR is activated during passive head/body movements, locomotor efference copies provide the major source for compensatory eye movements during tail- and limb-based swimming of larval and adult frogs. The integration of active/passive motion-related signals for gaze stabilization occurs in central vestibular neurons that are arranged as segmentally iterated functional groups along rhombomere 1-8. However, at variance with the topographic maps of most other sensory systems, the sensory-motor transformation of motion-related signals occurs in segmentally specific neuronal groups defined by the extraocular motor output targets.
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar as correlações dos componentes oculares (comprimento axial, comprimento do segmento anterior, poder médio da córnea, profundidade da câmara vítrea e poder refrativo equivalente com o erro refrativo total do olho portador da menor e da maior ametropia em anisométropes. MÉTODOS: Foi realizado um "survey" analítico conduzido em população de 68 anisométropes de duas ou mais dioptrias atendida no Ambulatório da Clinica Oftalmológica do Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo Os anisométropes foram submetidos à refração estática objetiva e subjetiva, ceratometria e biometria ultra-sônica. RESULTADOS: Não houve diferença significativa entre os valores dos componentes oculares medidos dos olhos portadores da menor e da maior ametropia. Os olhos portadores da menor ametropia apresentaram as mesmas correlações significantes observadas em olhos emétropes, ou seja, correlação da refração com comprimento do segmento anterior e comprimento axial, e correlação do comprimento axial com poder corneano e profundidade da câmara vítrea. Os olhos portadores da maior ametropia apresentaram correlação significante da refração com o comprimento axial e do comprimento axial com a profundidade da câmara vítrea. Ainda em ambos os olhos observou-se correlação significante do poder do cristalino com a profundidade da câmara anterior. CONCLUSÃO: Os olhos portadores da menor ametropia desenvolveram as correlações mais freqüentemente observadas nos olhos emétropes. Os olhos portadores da maior ametropia não desenvolveram as mesmas correlações dos emétropes.PURPOSE: To asses the correlation between ocular components (axial length, anterior segment length, corneal power, vitreous length and equivalent power of the eye and refractive error in eyes with higher and lower ametropia of subjects with anisometropia. METHODS: An analytical survey was carried out in 68 patients
Sujeet Kumar Meher
Full Text Available Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a rare cause of osteomyelitis of the cervical spine and is usually seen in the background of intravenous drug use and immunocompromised state. Very few cases of osteomyelitis of the cervical spine caused by pseudomonas aeruginosa have been reported in otherwise healthy patients. This is a case presentation of a young female, who in the absence of known risk factors for cervical osteomyelitis presented with progressively worsening neurological signs and symptoms.
Prabhakar S Krishnachary
Full Text Available Thelaziasis is an Arthropod-born disease of the eye and adnexa caused by Thelazia callipaeda, a nematode parasite transmitted by drosophilid flies to carnivores and humans. Because of its distribution mainly confined to South Asian countries and Russia, it is commonly known as Oriental Eye worm. It is often under-reported and not been given its due clinical importance. We report first case of human Thelaziasis from Hassan District, Karnataka. Five creamy-white, translucent worms were removed from the conjunctival sac of a 74-year-old male patient. Based on morphological characters, the worms were identified as nematodes belonging to the genus Thelazia and speciation was confirmed by CDC, Atlanta as callipaeda. Rarity of the disease and its ability to cause both extra and intraocular manifestations leading to ocular morbidity is the reason for presenting this case. From the available data, this is the first case report from Karnataka, India.
Terelak-Borys, Barbara; Skonieczna, Katarzyna; Grabska-Liberek, Iwona
Ocular ischemic syndrome is a rare condition, which is caused by ocular hypoperfusion due to stenosis or occlusion of the common or internal carotid arteries. Atherosclerosis is the major cause of changes in the carotid arteries. Ocular ischemic syndrome is manifested as visual loss, orbital pain and, frequently, changes of the visual field, and various anterior and posterior segment signs. Anterior segment signs include iris neovascularization and secondary neovascular glaucoma, iridocyclitis, asymmetric cataract, iris atrophy and sluggish reaction to light. Posterior eye segment changes are the most characteristic, such as narrowed retinal arteries, perifoveal telangiectasias, dilated retinal veins, mid-peripheral retinal hemorrhages, microaneurysms, neovascularization at the optic disk and in the retina, a cherry-red spot, cotton-wool spots, vitreous hemorrhage and normal-tension glaucoma. Differential diagnosis of ocular ischemic syndrome includes diabetic retinopathy and moderate central retinal vein occlusion. Carotid artery imaging and fundus fluorescein angiography help to establish the diagnosis of ocular ischemic syndrome. The treatment can be local, for example, ocular (conservative, laser and surgical) or systemic (conservative and surgical treatment of the carotid artery). Since the condition does not affect the eyes alone, patients with ocular ischemic syndrome should be referred for consultation to the neurologist, vascular surgeon and cardiologist.
Chang, Nam Sik; Kim, Jin Hwan; Kim, Jong Chul; Park, Cheong Hee; Cho, Jun Sik; Rhee, Byung Chull; Kim, Yong Baek
Ultrasound B-scan examination of traumatized eve is safe, cheap and easy diagnostic method for visualization of the posterior pole of the eye. Ophthalmoscopic visualization of the fundus of traumatized eye can be obscured by corneal opacity, anterior chamber hyphema, cataractous change of the lens, or hemorrhage of the citreous. Ultrasound B-scan examination of the posterior pole is imperative in such cases to detect any intraocular damage and the presence of a foreign body. So we performed ultrasound B-scan examination of traumatized eye seventy eight patients and analyzed those findings. All cases were confirmed by follow up examination of ophthalmoscopy and ultrasound, or surgery. The results were as follows; 1. The most common cause of the ocular injury was traffic accidents (19 patients, 24.4%),male was more commonly injured (63 patients, 80.8). and the most common age group was their 4th decade. 2. Summary of sonographically detected intraocular lesions were as follows; 1) Corneal opacity (44 patients)-hyphema 15, traumatic cataract 24, vitreous hemorrhage 31, retinal detachment 20, intraocular foreign body 4, etc. 2) Hyphemal (16 patients)-hyphema 16, vitreous hemorrhage 11, tretinal detachment 5, etc. 3) Traumatic cataract with no corneal or lens opacity (6 patients)-vitreous hemorrhage with or without retinal detachment 3, normal vitreous and retina 3. 4) Vitreous opacity(12 patients)-vitreous hemorrhage 12, retinal detachment 4, intraocular foreign body 3, etc. In all seventy eight patients with ocular trauma , we could demonstrate characteristic findings for each intraocular lesion. So we recognized the important role and high diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound B-scan examination for the evaluation of the posterior pole of traumatized eye
Chang, Nam Sik; Kim, Jin Hwan; Kim, Jong Chul; Park, Cheong Hee; Cho, Jun Sik; Rhee, Byung Chull; Kim, Yong Baek [Chungnam National University Hospital, Deajeon (Korea, Republic of)
Ultrasound B-scan examination of traumatized eve is safe, cheap and easy diagnostic method for visualization of the posterior pole of the eye. Ophthalmoscopic visualization of the fundus of traumatized eye can be obscured by corneal opacity, anterior chamber hyphema, cataractous change of the lens, or hemorrhage of the citreous. Ultrasound B-scan examination of the posterior pole is imperative in such cases to detect any intraocular damage and the presence of a foreign body. So we performed ultrasound B-scan examination of traumatized eye seventy eight patients and analyzed those findings. All cases were confirmed by follow up examination of ophthalmoscopy and ultrasound, or surgery. The results were as follows; 1. The most common cause of the ocular injury was traffic accidents (19 patients, 24.4%),male was more commonly injured (63 patients, 80.8). and the most common age group was their 4th decade. 2. Summary of sonographically detected intraocular lesions were as follows; 1) Corneal opacity (44 patients)-hyphema 15, traumatic cataract 24, vitreous hemorrhage 31, retinal detachment 20, intraocular foreign body 4, etc. 2) Hyphemal (16 patients)-hyphema 16, vitreous hemorrhage 11, tretinal detachment 5, etc. 3) Traumatic cataract with no corneal or lens opacity (6 patients)-vitreous hemorrhage with or without retinal detachment 3, normal vitreous and retina 3. 4) Vitreous opacity(12 patients)-vitreous hemorrhage 12, retinal detachment 4, intraocular foreign body 3, etc. In all seventy eight patients with ocular trauma , we could demonstrate characteristic findings for each intraocular lesion. So we recognized the important role and high diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound B-scan examination for the evaluation of the posterior pole of traumatized eye.
Barsotti, Giovanni; Sgorbini, Micaela; Marmorini, Paola; Corazza, Michele
To determine the prevalence and describe ocular abnormalities in healthy Standardbred foals within 48 h of birth. One hundred and two neonatal foals. All foals had an unassisted delivery. On the basis of physical examination and the results of hematological and biochemical parameters, all foals were unaffected by systemic diseases. A complete ophthalmic examination was performed within 48 h of birth. Foals with ocular hemorrhages were re-examined weekly until the abnormalities were resolved. 65/102 (63.7%) foals did not show ocular abnormalities, while in 37/102 (36.3%) cases, ocular abnormalities were present. Retinal and subconjunctival hemorrhages were recorded in 19/102 (18.6%), and in 13/102 (12.7%), respectively. In 4/102 (3.9%) animals, an entropion of the lower eyelid was present. Only one foal (1%) showed a congenital nuclear unilateral cataract. No other ocular abnormalities were detected. However, all foals showed various degrees of remnants of hyaloid system. One week after the first ocular examination, retinal hemorrhages had resolved in 100% of the eyes, whereas subconjunctival hemorrhages had disappeared in all eyes by the second week following the first examination. The acquired ocular lesions observed with relatively high frequency in the examined healthy Standardbred foals were ocular hemorrhages, which always showed a good outcome. Although these abnormalities were present at birth, they were not considered strictly congenital but likely acquired during parturition. Instead, congenital ocular abnormalities were rarely diagnosed, and the entropion of the lower eyelid was the most common disease in the breed. © 2012 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.
Peragallo, Jason; Biousse, Valérie; Newman, Nancy J
The purpose of this study is to review commonly encountered adverse ocular effects of illicit drug use. Drug and alcohol abuse can produce a variety of ocular and neuro-ophthalmic side effects. Novel, so-called 'designer', drugs of abuse can lead to unusual ocular disorders. Legal substances, when used in manners for which they have not been prescribed, can also have devastating ophthalmic consequences. In this review, we will systematically evaluate each part of the visual pathways and discuss how individual drugs may affect them.
Full Text Available La toxocariosis es una geohelmintiosis producida por la ingestión de
huevos de Toxocara canis y T. catis, cuyos hospederos definitivos son el perro y el gato. En el humano las larvas producen el Síndrome de Migración Larvaria Visceral y Ocular; en este último produce una enfermedad grave que puede semejar un retinoblastoma (1,2. Los niños son más susceptibles a adquirir esta infección (3. Nuestro objetivo es determinar la frecuencia de toxocariosis ocular en menores de edad con sintomatología ocular.
Conclusion: Administration of BG extracts to Sprague Dawley rats fed with high-cholesterol diet ameliorated hypercholesterolemia, which was mediated via modulation of cholesterol-metabolizing marker genes. This data throw a light on BG's cardioprotective effects.
Kato, T; Hamanaka, T
Ocular signs and symptoms that occurred in people exposed to sarin gas in a subway sarin gas attack were studied. Among victims of sarin gas exposure, 96 were treated by us. Ocular signs and symptoms caused by sarin gas exposure included miosis, conjunctival injection, and ocular pain. Ocular signs and symptoms spontaneously resolved between three and 21 days after exposure in most cases. Treatment with 0.5% tropicamide ophthalmic solution was effective in decreasing ocular pain.
Victoria J. Vieira-Potter
Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus (DM is a metabolic disease defined by elevated blood glucose (BG. DM is a global epidemic and the prevalence is anticipated to continue to increase. The ocular complications of DM negatively impact the quality of life and carry an extremely high economic burden. While systemic control of BG can slow the ocular complications they cannot stop them, especially if clinical symptoms are already present. With the advances in biodegradable polymers, implantable ocular devices can slowly release medication to stop, and in some cases reverse, diabetic complications in the eye. In this review we discuss the ocular complications associated with DM, the treatments available with a focus on localized treatments, and what promising treatments are on the horizon.
the usual intestinal manifestations, leading to an earlier diagnosis. Thus, it is important to understand the clinical presentation of possible ocular manifestations in order to initiate appropriate treatment and to help prevent significant visual morbidity.
Mady, Rana; Grover, Will; Butrus, Salim
Though inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has a specific predilection for the intestinal tract, it is a systemic inflammatory disorder affecting multiple organs, including the eye. Ocular complications directly related to IBD are categorized as primary and secondary. Primary complications are usually temporally associated with IBD exacerbations and tend to resolve with systemic treatment of the intestinal inflammation. These include keratopathy, episcleritis, and scleritis. Secondary complications arise from primary complications. Examples include cataract formation due to treatment with corticosteroids, scleromalacia due to scleritis, and dry eye due to hypovitaminosis A following gut resection. Some ocular manifestations of IBD can lead to significant visual morbidity and temporally associated complications can also be a herald of disease control. Furthermore, ocular manifestations of IBD can occasionally manifest before the usual intestinal manifestations, leading to an earlier diagnosis. Thus, it is important to understand the clinical presentation of possible ocular manifestations in order to initiate appropriate treatment and to help prevent significant visual morbidity. PMID:25879056
Alemayehu, W; Shamebo, M; Bedri, A; Mengistu, Z
A prospective ophthalmic evaluation of 74 newly diagnosed and 34 old (on follow-up) leukaemic patients, carried out from March 1990 to December 1995 is described. Primary ocular involvement, that is leukaemic retinal infiltrates, were detected in 32% of the newly diagnosed. In contrast, none of the old leukaemic patients had this lesion. In 69% of the new and 21% of the old cases, secondary ocular manifestations of leukaemia were observed. The major secondary ocular manifestation of leukaemia in both groups was intra-retinal haemorrhage. A variety of miscellaneous ocular findings, such as cataract, pterygium, pingeculae, etc. were detected in 36% of all leukemics. These findings indicate the importance of a complete ophthalmologic evaluation in the diagnosis, follow-up and management of leukaemic patients.
Santoro, Colleen M; Duchsherer, Nicole L; Grainger, David W
Silver in various forms has long been recognized for antimicrobial properties, both in biomedical devices and in eyes. However, soluble drugs used on the ocular surface are rapidly cleared through tear ducts and eventually ingested, resulting in decreased efficacy of the drug on its target tissue and potential concern for systemic side effects. Silver nanoparticles were studied as a source of anti-microbial silver for possible controlled-release contact lens controlled delivery formulations. Silver ion release over a period of several weeks from nanoparticle sources of various sizes and doses in vitro was evaluated in vitro against Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PA01. Mammalian cell viability and cytokine expression in response to silver nanoparticle exposure is evaluated using corneal epithelial cells and eye-associated macrophages cultured in vitro in serum-free media. Minimal microcidal and cell toxic effects were observed for several silver nanoparticle suspensions and aqueous extraction times for bulk total silver concentrations commensurate with comparative silver ion (e.g., Ag(+) ((aq))) toxicity. This indicates that (1) silver particles themselves are not microcidal under conditions tested, and (2) insufficient silver ion is generated from these particles at these loadings to produce observable biological effects in these in vitro assays. If dosing allows substantially increased silver particle loading in the lens, the bactericidal efficacy of silver nanoparticles in vitro is one possible approach to limiting bacterial colonization problems associated with extended-wear contact lenses.
Full Text Available
Se presenta el caso de un paciente con un cisticerco retiniano, tratado sin éxito con praziquantel, quien a los cinco meses del tratamiento presentó fibrosis y desprendimiento de la retina. Se realizó intervención quirúrgica y se encontró el cisticerco vivo. Desde antes de la operación el paciente había perdido la visión por el ojo afectado. Se hace una revisión sobre oftalmocisticercosis y se recomienda tratamiento quirúrgico oportuno y no usar los antihelmínticos con efecto sobre los cisticercos, como son praziquantel y albendazol.
One case of ocular cysticercosis with retinal involvement, in which praziquantel treatment was ineffective, is presented. Five months after the medical treatment the patient presented with retinal detachment and fibrosis, loss of vision through the affected eye and at that time the parasite was observed alive. Surgical intervention was performed and the recovered cysticercus showed viability. A review on ophtalmocysticercosis is presented and recommendations are made to treat these cases by early surgery without prior administration of anticysticercus drugs such as praziquantel or albendazole.
... page] Español [PDF – 1 page] “Hot Tub Rash” ( Pseudomonas Dermatitis / Folliculitis) If contaminated water comes in contact ... is often caused by infection with the germ Pseudomonas aeruginosa . This germ is common in the environment ( ...
Koch, K R; Trester, W; Müller-Uri, N; Trester, M; Cursiefen, C; Heindl, L M
Ocular prosthetics make a decisive contribution to the functional, esthetic and psychosomatic rehabilitation of patients after ocular extirpation. This article provides an overview of the fitting, daily care and complications of ocular prosthetics. The study comprised a PubMed literature review and own clinical results. Ocular prosthetics made from cryolite glass or perspex can be manufactured and fitted 5-8 weeks after removal of the eye. During this period a conformer is placed within the conjunctival sac in order to prevent scar formation and shrinking of the socket. Artificial eyes can be worn continuously, only interrupted by a short but regular cleaning procedure. Artificial tears and lid hygiene improve the comfort of wearing. Glass prostheses have to be renewed every 1-2 years, while perspex prostheses need to be polished once a year. Complications, such as giant papillary conjunctivitis or blepharoconjunctivitis sicca are facilitated by poor fit, increased age and inappropriate care of the prosthetic device. In the case of socket shrinkage or anophthalmic socket syndrome, surgical interventions are needed to re-enable the use of an artificial eye. Adequate fitting, daily care of ocular prosthetics and therapeutic management of associated complications are mandatory for a durable functional, esthetic and psychosomatic rehabilitation after ocular extirpation.
Ying, Li; Liu, Zhen-Guo; Chen, Wei; Gan, Jing; Wang, Wen-An
To investigate the changes of predictive ocular motor function in the patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), and to discuss its clinical value. Videonystagmography (VNG) was used to examine 24 patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease, 15 males and 9 females, aged 61 +/- 6 (50-69), and 24 sex and age-matched healthy control subjects on random ocular saccade (with the target moving at random intervals to random positions) and predictive ocular saccade (with the 1.25-second light target moving 10 degrees right or left from the center). In the random ocular saccade program, the latency of saccade of the PD patients was 284 ms +/- 58 ms, significantly longer than that of the healthy controls (236 ms +/- 37 ms, P = 0.003). In the predictive ocular saccade pattern, the latency of saccades the PD patients was 150 ms +/- 138 ms, significantly longer than that of the healthy controls (59 ms +/- 102 ms, P = 0.002). The appearance rate of predictive saccades (with the latency of saccade <80 ms) in the PD group was 21%, significantly lower than that in the control group (31%, P = 0.003). There is dysfunction of predictive ocular motor control in the PD patients, and the cognitive function may be impaired at the early stage of PD.
Scherrer, Nicole M; Lassaline, Mary; Engiles, Julie
To determine the characteristics of and prognosis for ocular and periocular hemangiosarcoma in horses. Six horses treated for ocular or periocular hemangiosarcoma. A retrospective review of medical records from 2007 to 2015 was performed to identify horses with a histologic diagnosis of ocular or periocular hemangiosarcoma. Signalment (age, sex, breed), duration of clinical signs, prior treatment, tumor size and location, medical and surgical treatment including postoperative chemotherapy, follow-up time, and outcome were obtained from medical records. Histopathology was reviewed by a board-certified pathologist. In six horses diagnosed with ocular or periocular hemangiosarcoma, no breed, age, or sex was overrepresented. Sites included the temporal limbus (3), third eyelid (2), and uvea (1). With the exception of one horse with uveal hemangiosarcoma, 5/6 horses had lightly pigmented periocular haircoat. Histologic features of ocular hemangiosarcoma in 6/6 cases included high cellularity, nuclear pleomorphism, and inflammation with a mitotic index ranging from 0 to 8 mitoses per 10 consecutive 400× fields. Five of six tumors displayed solar elastosis, indicating ultraviolet light-induced damage to sub-epithelial collagen. Treatment included surgical excision in all cases and was not associated with recurrence in 4/6. Three cases that received ancillary treatment with topical mitomycin C had no postoperative recurrence. Two cases with postexcisional recurrence had histologic evidence of incomplete excision. Complete surgical excision may be associated with resolution of periocular and ocular hemangiosarcoma in horses. Etiopathogenesis may include exposure to ultraviolet light. © 2017 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.
Kim, Young Shin; Sun, Hae Jung; Kim, Tae Hyong; Kang, Kui Dong; Lee, Sung Jin
To investigate the patterns and risk factors of the ocular manifestations of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and their correlation with CD4+ count in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). This retrospective study examined 127 AIDS patients who presented to Soonchunhyang University Hospital. Data were collected from patient interviews, clinical examinations, and laboratory investigations. Ophthalmologic examinations included the best-corrected visual acuity, intraocular pressure, anterior segment and adnexal examination, and dilated fundus examination. Of the 127 patients with AIDS, 118 were on HAART and 9 were not. The mean CD4+ count was 266.7 ± 209.1 cells/µL. There were ocular manifestations in 61 patients (48.0%). The incidence of anterior segment manifestations was higher than posterior segment manifestations at 28.3% and 19.7%, respectively. The mean CD4+ count was significantly (p AIDS. In this study, anterior segment and external ocular manifestations occurred more frequently than posterior segment manifestations. Also, the mean CD4+ count was significantly lower in patients with posterior segment ocular manifestations versus anterior segment ocular manifestations. We found that CD4+ count and age >35 years were independent risk factors for developing ocular manifestations.
Qi Ying Lean
Full Text Available Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD, such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, are an important cause of morbidity and impact significantly on quality of life. Overall, current treatments do not sustain a long-term clinical remission and are associated with adverse effects, which highlight the need for new treatment options. Fucoidans are complex sulphated, fucose-rich polysaccharides, found in edible brown algae and are described as having multiple bioactivities including potent anti-inflammatory effects. Therefore, the therapeutic potential of two different fucoidan preparations, fucoidan-polyphenol complex (Maritech Synergy and depyrogenated fucoidan (DPF was evaluated in the dextran sulphate sodium (DSS mouse model of acute colitis. Mice were treated once daily over 7 days with fucoidans via oral (Synergy or DPF or intraperitoneal administration (DPF. Signs and severity of colitis were monitored daily before colons and spleens were collected for macroscopic evaluation, cytokine measurements and histology. Orally administered Synergy and DPF, but not intraperitoneal DPF treatment, significantly ameliorated symptoms of colitis based on retention of body weight, as well as reduced diarrhoea and faecal blood loss, compared to the untreated colitis group. Colon and spleen weight in mice treated with oral fucoidan was also significantly lower, indicating reduced inflammation and oedema. Histological examination of untreated colitis mice confirmed a massive loss of crypt architecture and goblet cells, infiltration of immune cells and oedema, while all aspects of this pathology were alleviated by oral fucoidan. Importantly, in this model, the macroscopic changes induced by oral fucoidan correlated significantly with substantially decreased production of at least 15 pro-inflammatory cytokines by the colon tissue. Overall, oral fucoidan preparations significantly reduce the inflammatory pathology associated with DSS-induced colitis and could
Cecília Tobias de Aguiar Moeller
Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate and compare the "in vitro" susceptibility of ocular bacterial isolates to aminoglycoside antibiotics (gentamicin and tobramycin and to analyze the alteration in susceptibility after 14 years of introduction of tobramycin in Brazilian ophthalmic practice. Methods: The results of antibiotic susceptibility tests in a period of three years with 887 bacterial strains (Study "A" were retrospectively analyzed and then compared with the results obtained fourteen years ago with 124 microorganisms (Study "B", when tobramycin was first tested in Brazil for isolated eye strains. In both studies, the data analyzed were from the files of the Ocular Microbiology Laboratory of the Federal University of São Paulo. Results: The "in vitro" effectiveness of both antibiotics regarding the total number of positive isolates was significantly higher for tobramycin in both studies. An increase in the Staphylococcus aureus strains resistant to tobramycin and only a decreasing trend in the number of microorganisms resistant to gentamicin was observed. With Pseudomonas sp, a strong tendency to the increase of susceptibility to gentamicin and to the appearance of strains resistant to tobramycin occurred. Conclusions: The introduction of tobramycin in the treatment of ocular infections and the possible decrease in number of gentamicin prescriptions during the last fourteen years might be the cause of modifications in the susceptibility observed in the total of positive isolates mainly Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas sp. For the isolated microorganisms from the conjunctiva, the sensitivity to both antibiotics was equivalent.Objetivos: Avaliar e comparar a sensibilidade "in vitro" de bactérias isoladas do olho humano aos aminoglicosídeos gentamicina e tobramicina, e analisar a mudança de sensibilidade ocorrida após quatorze anos de uso. Métodos: Os resultados dos antibiogramas realizados no período de três anos com 887 bactérias (Estudo "A
Robert M Q Shanks
Full Text Available Ocular infections are a leading cause of vision loss. It has been previously suggested that predatory prokaryotes might be used as live antibiotics to control infections. In this study, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Serratia marcescens ocular isolates were exposed to the predatory bacteria Micavibrio aeruginosavorus and Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus. All tested S. marcescens isolates were susceptible to predation by B. bacteriovorus strains 109J and HD100. Seven of the 10 P. aeruginosa isolates were susceptible to predation by B. bacteriovorus 109J with 80% being attacked by M. aeruginosavorus. All of the 19 tested isolates were found to be sensitive to at least one predator. To further investigate the effect of the predators on eukaryotic cells, human corneal-limbal epithelial (HCLE cells were exposed to high concentrations of the predators. Cytotoxicity assays demonstrated that predatory bacteria do not damage ocular surface cells in vitro whereas the P. aeruginosa used as a positive control was highly toxic. Furthermore, no increase in the production of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-8 and TNF-alpha was measured in HCLE cells after exposure to the predators. Finally, injection of high concentration of predatory bacteria into the hemocoel of Galleria mellonella, an established model system used to study microbial pathogenesis, did not result in any measurable negative effect to the host. Our results suggest that predatory bacteria could be considered in the near future as a safe topical bio-control agent to treat ocular infections.
Razeghinejad, Mohammad Reza; Banifatemi, Mohammad
To compare ocular biometric parameters in primary angle closure suspects (PACS), primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG) and acute primary angle closure (APAC). This cross-sectional study was performed on 113 patients including 33 cases of PACS, 45 patients with PACG and 35 subjects with APAC. Central corneal thickness (CCT), axial length (AL), anterior chamber depth (ACD) and lens thickness (LT) were measured with an ultrasonic biometer. Lens-axial length factor (LAF), relative lens position, corrected ACD (CACD) and corrected lens position were calculated. The parameters were measured bilaterally but only data from the right eyes were compared. In the APAC group, biometric parameters were also compared between affected and unaffected fellow eyes. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify risk factors. No statistically significant difference was observed in biometric parameters between PACS and PACG eyes, or between affected and fellow eyes in the APAC group (P>0.05 for all comparisons). However, eyes with APAC had thicker cornea (P=0.001), thicker lens (PAPAC. In the APAC group, LAF (PAPAC.
Facts About “Hot Tub Rash” and “Swimmer’s Ear” (Pseudomonas) What is Pseudomonas and how can it affect me? Pseudomonas (sue-doh- ... a major cause of infections commonly known as “hot tub rash” and “swimmer’s ear.” This germ is ...
Full Text Available In order to evaluate whether ophthalmic preparations can be safely used within 12 hours after first opening, four different sterile ocular medications,were opened and tested for spontaneous bacterial contamination after exposure to air. Samples (10ml were collected from 5 containers of each ophthalmic preparation after 0, 2, 4, 8 and 24 hours. No viable microorganisms were found during and at the end of the evaluation time. In order to assess if the ocular bacterial population might contaminate the medications, about 105 microbial cells of different species (Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, S. haemolyticus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, S. pyogenes, Corynebacterium spp., Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumanii, and Candida albicans were added to the containers and incubated at 35°C or at room temperature. Samples were collected and the number of viable microrganisms was estimated.The medicaments showed a bacteriostatic or bactericidal activity (<100 survivors after 24 h of exposure against the majority of all relevant species, with the exception of E. coli, P. aeruginosa, and A. baumanii, which demonstrated to be able to grow in some of these ocular preparations.These data indicate that the risk of spontaneous contamination of the containers after first opening is low, and that all solutions do not offer a favourable substrate for the growth of the microrganisms showing in the great majority of the cases an antimicrobial activity. These results suggest that a safe usage of these ocular medications can be extended from the recommended 12 hours at least 24 hours after first opening.
Ileana Miguel Pérez
Full Text Available Se realizó estudio retrospectivo longitudinal de pacientes con traumatismos oculares mecánicos hospitalizados en el Instituto Superior de Medicina Militar "Dr. Luis Díaz Soto", desde 1988 hasta el 2002, con una casuística de 508 ojos de 479 pacientes. El procesamiento estadístico fue realizado con el mismo programa automatizado con el que se conformó la base de datos (Acces y se utilizaron de acuerdo con las características de las variables ß analizadas métodos estadísticos paramétricos y no paramétricos con una confiabilidad de un 95 % (a =0,05. Se obtiene una relación de 4:1 de predominio del sexo masculino, con una edad promedio de 27,4 años con valor mínimo de 2 años y máximo de 78 años. Los mecanismos más frecuentes de producción del accidente resultaron ser: las armas de fuego (22,7 % y la acción de martillar (21,4 %, teniendo en cuenta que el 38,2 % de los pacientes fueron militares. Las lesiones asociadas a los traumatismos más frecuentes resultaron ser el hipema y el hemovítreo, y se demostró que a medida que eran mayores disminuía considerablemente la agudeza visual final. Los traumatismos cerrados (41,3 % fueron más frecuentes y tuvieron mejores resultados visuales finales (66,7 % con visión mayor de 0.1 que el resto de los grupos de traumatismos abiertos (herida simple, contusión-herida, herida con CEIO y contusión-herida con CEIO. Las contusiones-heridas con CEIO fueron provocados en su mayoría por las armas de fuego y tuvieron los peores resultados visuales (60,5 % con visión menor de 0.1. La afectación del segmento posterior resultó ser un elemento que influyó de forma importante en los resultados visuales. Las complicaciones más frecuentes para los traumatismos cerrados fueron la hipertensión secundaria la catarata y el desprendimiento de retina. Para las heridas simples la catarata y para el resto de los traumatismos el desprendimiento de retina y la ptisis bulbi. Aproximadamente el 15 % de
Sams, Thomas; Baker, Ysobel; Hodgkinson, James
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistichuman pathogen that routinely appears near the top ofpublic health threat lists worldwide. P. aeruginosa causes in-fections by secreting a wealth of exceptionally active exo-products, leading to tissue damage. The synthesis of manyof these virulence factors...... is now known to be under the con-trol of the quorum sensing (QS) system. Over the last15 years, the Pseudomonas quinolone signal (PQS) has beenfound to play a crucial role in QS by linking the two seg-ments (las and rhl) of the P. aeruginosa N-acylhomoserinelactone-dependent QS signaling pathways. Herein...
Gifford, Paul; Li, Melanie; Lu, Helen; Miu, Jonathan; Panjaya, Monica; Swarbrick, Helen A
To investigate relationships between changes to corneal and ocular aberrations induced by orthokeratology (OK) and their influence on visual function. Eighteen subjects (aged 20 to 23 years) were fitted with OK lenses (BE Enterprises Pty Ltd, Australia), manufactured in Boston XO material (Bausch & Lomb Boston, Wilmington, MA), and worn overnight for seven nights. Corneal and ocular aberrations were simultaneously captured (Discovery, Innovative Visual Systems, Elmhurst, IL), and contrast sensitivity function was measured on days 1 and 7, within 2 and 8 hours after lens removal on waking. Data from the eye achieving the higher myopic correction were analyzed for changes over time. There was a significant refractive effect at all visits. Orthokeratology induced an increase in corneal and ocular root mean square higher order aberrations (HOAs) and a positive shift in spherical aberration (SA) on day 1, with further increases by day 7. Increases in root mean square coma became significant by day 7. Changes to corneal and ocular SA were similar on day 1; however, by day 7, there was a greater increase in corneal than ocular SA, indicating a change in internal SA. Orthokeratology led to an overall decrease in contrast sensitivity function, which was isolated to spatial frequency changes on day 1 at 1 cycle per degree and on day 7 at 1 and 8 cycles per degree. A greater positive shift in corneal compared with ocular SA on day 7 suggests a negative shift in internal SA, which would be consistent with an increased accommodative response. Lack of any difference on day 1 indicates that this may be an ocular adaptation response toward neutralizing induced positive SA, rather than a direct effect of SA changes on the accommodation mechanism.
Mohammad Reza Razeghinejad
Full Text Available Purpose: To compare ocular biometric parameters in primary angle closure suspects (PACS, primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG and acute primary angle closure (APAC. Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed on 113 patients including 33 cases of PACS, 45 patients with PACG and 35 subjects with APAC. Central corneal thickness (CCT, axial length (AL, anterior chamber depth (ACD and lens thickness (LT were measured with an ultrasonic biometer. Lens-axial length factor (LAF, relative lens position, corrected ACD (CACD and corrected lens position were calculated. The parameters were measured bilaterally but only data from the right eyes were compared. In the APAC group, biometric parameters were also compared between affected and unaffected fellow eyes. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify risk factors. Results: No statistically significant difference was observed in biometric parameters between PACS and PACG eyes, or between affected and fellow eyes in the APAC group (P>0.05 for all comparisons. However, eyes with APAC had thicker cornea (P=0.001, thicker lens (P<0.0001, shallower ACD (P=0.009, shallower CACD (P=0.003 and larger LAF (P<0.0001. Based on ROC curve analysis, lower ACD, and larger LT, LAF and CCT values were associated with APAC. In the APAC group, LAF (P<0.0001 and CCT (P=0.001 were significant risk factors. Conclusion: This study revealed no significant difference in biometric characteristics in eyes with PACS and PACG. However, larger LAF and CCT were predictive of APAC.
Georgina P. Ossani
Full Text Available Previous studies have shown ocular haemorrhages in choline-deficient rats. The aim of this paper is to study further the relationship between ocular and renal lesions and biochemical alterations in rats fed a choline-deficient diet. Fifty one weanling male Wistar rats, were divided into two groups. Thirty one of them were fed a choline-deficient diet and the rest was fed a choline-supplemented diet ad libitum. Animals from both groups were killed between the fifth and the eighth day. Urea, creatinine and homocysteine concentrations in blood were determined. Eyes were used for light microscopy study; high resolution light microscopy and the study of the retina as "rétine a plat". Kidneys were studied by light microscopy. Choline-supplemented rats did not show ocular or renal lesion. Choline-deficient rats that showed renal lesions, tubular or cortical necrosis, did not always have ocular changes. There were no ocular changes in the only choline-deficient rat without renal lesion. The ocular changes consisted mainly in haemorrhage in both cameras and ciliary and vitreous bodies. Correlations between ocular and renal lesion (r=0.72, pEstudios previos han demostrado hemorragia ocular en ratas deficientes en colina. El objetivo de este trabajo es profundizar en la relación entre las alteraciones oculares, renales y bioquímicas en ratas deficientes en colina. Cincuenta y una ratas Wistar macho recién destetadas fueron divididas en dos grupos: treinta y una fueron alimentadas con una dieta colino deficiente y el resto con colina suplementada ad-libitum. Los animales de ambos grupos fueron sacrificados entre el quinto y el octavo día. Se midió la concentración de urea, creatinina y homocisteína en sangre. Los ojos fueron estudiados por microscopía de luz, microscopía óptica de alta resolución y para el estudio de la retina como retina plana. Los riñones fueron estudiados por microscopía de luz. Las ratas suplementadas con colina no
Chorley, Adrian C; Baczynska, Katarzyna A; Benwell, Martin J; Evans, Bruce J W; Higlett, Michael P; Khazova, Marina; O'Hagan, John B
Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) increases with altitude; however, there are a number of other factors which may influence ocular exposure during flight. The aim of this study was to assess ocular UVR exposure of pilots in airline and off-shore helicopter operations on different aircraft types and to compare with exposure in a typical office environment. In-flight data were captured on equipment including a CCD array spectroradiometer on five return sector European airline flights and one transatlantic flight from London Gatwick in addition to four helicopter flights from Aberdeen Dyce airport. Further data were collected in an office environment from three workstations during summer and winter months. A wide variation in ocular UVA dose was found during flights. The main factor influencing exposure was the UVR transmission of the windshield, which fell into two distinct profile types. In an aircraft with good UVA blocking properties, ocular exposure was found to be equivalent to office exposure and did not exceed international guideline limits regardless of external conditions or flight time. Most aircraft assessed had poor UVA blocking windshields which resulted in an ocular exposure to the unprotected eye in excess of international guideline limits (up to between 4.5 to 6.5 times greater during one flight). No significant UVB dose was found. Pilots should be warned of the potential high UVA exposure during flight and advised on the use of sunglasses. A windshield labeling system would allow the pilot to tailor their eye protection practices to that particular aircraft.
Zemba, M; Avram, Corina Ioana; Ochinciuc, Uliana; Stamate, Alina Cristina; Camburu, Raluca Lăcrămioara
Ocular ischemic syndrome, also known as hypoperfusion/ hypotensive retinopathy or as ischemic oculopathy is a rare ocular disease determined by chronic arterial hypoperfusion through central retinal artery, posterior and anterior ciliary arteries. It is bilateral in 20% of the cases. Most often it appears due to severe occlusion of the carotid arteries (ICA, MCA>ECA), described in 1963 by Kearns and Hollenhorst. Occasionally it can be determined by the obstruction of ophtalmic artery or some arterities (Takayasu, giant cell arteritis). The risk factors are: age between 50-80 years, males (M:F = 2:1), arterial hypertension, diabetes, coronary diseases (5% of the cases develop ocular ischemic syndrome), vascular stroke, hemodialysis. The case we present is of an 63 years old man known with primary arterial hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes type 2 non insulin dependent and diagnosticated with ischemic cerebral stroke and bilateral obstruction of internal carotid arteries in march 2010, who is presenting for visual impairment in both eyes. The imaging investigations show important carotid occlusion and at the ophthalmologic evaluation there are ocular hypertension and rubeosis iridis at the right eye, optic atrophy at both eyes (complete in the right eye and partial in the left eye), with superior altitudinal visual field defect in left eye. The following diagnosis was established: Chronic ocular ischemic syndrome in both eyes with Neovascular glaucoma at the right eye, Anterior ischemic optic neuropathy at the left eye and laser panphotocoagulation at the right eye was started.
Gokulgandhi, Mitan R; Vadlapudi, Aswani Dutt; Mitra, Ashim K
Introduction The eye is considered as the most privileged organ because of the blood–ocular barrier that acts as a barrier to systemically administered xenobiotics. However, there has been a significant increase in the number of reports on systemic drug-induced ocular complications. If such complications are left untreated, then it may cause permanent damage to vision. Hence, knowledge of most recent updates on ever-increasing reports of such toxicities has become imperative to develop better therapy while minimizing toxicities. Areas covered The article is mainly divided into anterior and posterior segment manifestations caused by systemically administered drugs. The anterior segment is further elaborated on corneal complications where as the posterior segment is focused on optic nerve, retinal and vitreous complications. Furthermore, this article includes recent updates on acute and chronic ocular predicaments, in addition to discussing various associated symptoms caused by drugs. Expert opinion Direct correlation of ocular toxicities due to systemic drug therapy is evident from current literature. Therefore, it is necessary to have detailed documentation of these complications to improve understanding and predict toxicities. We made an attempt to ensure that the reader is aware of the characteristic ocular complications, the potential for irreversible drug toxicity and indications for cessation. PMID:22803583
Raiza Vega Montalvo
Full Text Available El ojo puede ser dañado accidentalmente por el uso de muchos productos de uso rutinario. Para facilitar la seguridad de los consumidores es necesario estimar el potencial de irritación ocular de estas sustancias químicas. Esta estimación está basada en los resultados obtenidos en el ensayo de Draize llevado a cabo en conejos. Sin embargo, avances en el desarrollo de la toxicología in vitro han permitido el uso de algunas alternativas para la evaluación del riesgo ocular; por lo que se presenta una revisión acerca de los diferentes métodos alternativos disponibles hasta el momento que permiten evaluar de una forma u otra los efectos tóxicos a nivel ocular.The eye may be accidentally damaged by many products of daily use. To guarantee the consumers’ safety it is necessary to estimate the eye irritation potential of these chemical substances. This estimation is based on the results obtained in the Draize rabbit eye irritation test. However, the advances attained in the development of in vitro toxicology have allowed the use of some alternatives to evaluate the ocular risk. Therefore, a review is made on the different alternative methods available up to now that make possible the evaluation in one way or another of the toxic effects at the ocular level.
Mackay, Devin D; Garza, Philip S
The proficiency of nonophthalmologists with direct ophthalmoscopy is poor, which has prompted a search for alternative technologies to examine the ocular fundus. Although ocular fundus photography has existed for decades, its use has been traditionally restricted to ophthalmology clinical care settings and textbooks. Recent research has shown a role for nonmydriatic fundus photography in nonophthalmic settings, encouraging more widespread adoption of fundus photography technology. Recent studies have also affirmed the role of fundus photography as an adjunct or alternative to direct ophthalmoscopy in undergraduate medical education. In this review, the authors examine the use of ocular fundus photography as an educational tool and suggest future applications for this important technology. Novel applications of fundus photography as an educational tool have the potential to resurrect the dying art of funduscopy. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.
Mukhopadhyay, Somnath; Shome, Subrata; Bar, Prasenjit Kumar; Chakrabarti, Amit; Mazumdar, Swati; De, Avisek; Sadhukhan, Kaushik; Bala, Bivas
Rhinosporidiosis, a granulomatous disease caused by Rhinosporidium seeberi, is widely prevalent in Sri Lanka and southern parts of India. Besides the eye, the lacrimal passage and nasal cavity are affected. The most common ocular involvement is a subconjunctival bleeding mass. Our case, a 9-year-old girl from a rural background with a history of pond water bathing, presented with a marginal chalazion involving the left lower lid. She had a history of chalazion involving the same site three months earlier which was managed by incision and curettage. A decision of surgical exploration was made and the evacuated mass was examined histologically showing evidence of rhinosporidiosis. This type of clinical presentation for ocular rhinosporidiosis (as recurrent chalazion) has not been reported earlier in the literature. This case emphasises that the clinicians from this part of the world must consider ocular rhinosporidiosis as differential diagnosis in cases with recurrent chalazion especially in a rural background with a habit of pond water bathing.
Full Text Available A year long study of ocular injuries in children below the age of 15 years was conducted in the Ophthalmology Department of a general hospital. Fortyfour cases were studied. Of these 45.45% were in the age group of 6-10 years. The male to female ratio was 5.28 : 1. Pointed objects viz. sticks, wires etc. were found to be the common causative agents; the recent trend being of bow and arrow injuries. Ocular perforation was observed in 28 cases. On follow up of all the cases with ocular trauma, only 12 patients were found to have a visual acuity better than 6/18; perception of light was absent in 7 patients. A need for increased parental awareness and supervision of children is stressed upon.
Victoria Mary Lendrum Cohen
Full Text Available Victoria Mary Lendrum CohenSt. Bartholomew’s and Moorfields Eye Hospital, London UKAbstract: Most lymphomas that involve the ocular adnexal structure are low grade, B cell, non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas. The treatment depends upon the grade and stage of the disease. High grade lymhoma requires treatment with systemic chemotherapy whereas the localized low grade (extranodal marginal zone lymphoma can be successfully managed with local radiotherapy. Chlamydia psittaci infection is associated with low grade ocular lymphoma; however there is wide geographic variation in the strength of this association. Blanket antibiotic therapy is not advised unless there is proof of an infective agent. The monoclonal antibody, rituximab, may be successful for CD20 positive lymphoma, although it is likely that rituximab will have better long-term results when used in combination with systemic chemotherapy.Keywords: ocular adnexal lymphoma, mucosa associated lymphoid tissue, extranodal marginal zone lymphoma, Chlamydia psittaci, rituximab, radiotherapy, chemotherapy
Ng, Alison; Evans, Katharine; North, Rachel; Purslow, Christine
Eye cosmetics usage is commonplace and whilst some products such as eyeliner are applied with close proximity to the ocular surface, there is little knowledge of the short- and long-term ocular effects of eye cosmetic formulations. This study aimed to investigate the use of eye cosmetics and identify any relationships between ocular comfort and cosmetic usage. Results were collated from an online survey comprising 23 questions that recorded demographics, Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) score, extent and range of eye cosmetic use and perceived comfort differences with and without eye cosmetics. The 1360 female respondents (median age 25, interquartile range 20-34 years) completed the survey; 83% reported using eye cosmetics regularly (≥ 3 times per week) with mascara being most commonly used. Fifty three per cent used at least three different eye cosmetics products regularly. OSDI scores of cosmetics users were similar to non-users (p = 0.083), but perceived comfort was greater when cosmetics were not used (p cosmetics users (use of products cosmetics were used. Median OSDI scores suggested a trend towards reduced comfort amongst eyeliner users (p = 0.07) although frequency and type of cosmetic products used did not appear to influence OSDI scores. This study shows the use of multiple eye cosmetics is extensive and associated with the perception of ocular discomfort. With such widespread use of these products, more research is required to assess the effect on the ocular surface and tear film, which may be underestimated. Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2012 The College of Optometrists.
Full Text Available Ocular diseases include various anterior and posterior segment diseases. Due to the unique anatomy and physiology of the eye, efficient ocular drug delivery is a great challenge to researchers and pharmacologists. Although there are conventional noninvasive and invasive treatments, such as eye drops, injections and implants, the current treatments either suffer from low bioavailability or severe adverse ocular effects. Alternatively, the emerging nanoscience and nanotechnology are playing an important role in the development of novel strategies for ocular disease therapy. Various active molecules have been designed to associate with nanocarriers to overcome ocular barriers and intimately interact with specific ocular tissues. In this review, we highlight the recent attempts of nanotechnology-based systems for imaging and treating ocular diseases, such as corneal d iseases, glaucoma, retina diseases, and choroid diseases. Although additional work remains, the progress described herein may pave the way to new, highly effective and important ocular nanomedicines.
Antioxidant amelioration of arsenical-induced effects in vivo. ES Hunter and EH Rogers. Reproductive Toxicology Division, NHEERL, US EPA, RTP, NC. Antioxidants have been reported to ameliorate the effects of many developmental toxicants. We tested the hypothesis that oxi...
Full Text Available Ocular surface squamous neoplasia originates from conjunctiva epithelium and covers a broad spectrum of disease ranging from dysplasia to squamous cell carcinoma. Clinical features may vary from case to case. Traditional treatment of excision with no-touch technique combined with adjuvant therapies because of high recurrence rate. Main adjuvant treatments are cryotherapy and chemotherapy. In this review, clinical forms, differential diagnosis, American Joint Committee on Cancer classification and recent approaches to the management of ocular surface squamous dysplasia were described. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2014; 44: Supplement 8-14
Gabal, M S; Raslan, O A
Mercury vapor exposed workers may show ocular changes, as well as other systems affection. A sample of 84 workers in preparing mercury fulminate were examined for conjunctival corneal and lenticular manifestation of long duration exposure, together with mercury urinary output. Lens changes were found in 50% of the involved workers while keratopathy as recorded in 34.5% of them. No statistically significant association was found between the occurrence of eye lesions and levels of urinary elimination of mercury. These results suggest local absorption of this element is most probably the underlying cause of ocular affection.
Reichl, Lars; Löwel, Siegrid; Wolf, Fred
We present an analytical approach for studying the coupled development of ocular dominance and orientation preference columns. Using this approach we demonstrate that ocular dominance segregation can induce the stabilization and even the production of pinwheels by their crystallization in two types of periodic lattices. Pinwheel crystallization depends on the overall dominance of one eye over the other, a condition that is fulfilled during early cortical development. Increasing the strength of intermap coupling induces a transition from pinwheel-free stripe solutions to intermediate and high pinwheel density states.
Jen, Melinda; Nallasamy, Sudha
Genetic skin diseases, or genodermatoses, often have extracutaneous manifestations. Ocular manifestations in particular can have significant clinical implications, like blindness. Other manifestations, such as the corneal opacities that occur in X-linked ichthyosis, are asymptomatic but characteristic of a particular genodermatosis. Ophthalmologic examination can aid in diagnosis when characteristic findings are seen. The genodermatoses with ocular manifestations will be reviewed, but neurocutaneous, syndromes, genetic pigmentary disorders, and genetic metabolic diseases are not included because they are covered elsewhere in this issue. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Aggarwal, Himanshi; Kumar, Pradeep; Singh, Raghuwar Dayal
When an enucleation or exenteration procedure removes the entire orbital contents but not the eyelids, an abnormally large orbital socket is created that would require an equally sized volume enhancing, flush fitting ocular prosthesis. The solid acrylic prosthesis would rest on or in the lower fornix and owing to its weight, causes distortion of the lower eyelid and/or asymmetrical alignment of the entire palpebral fissure. The aim of this article was to describe a method of fabricating a pneumatic light weight custom ocular prosthesis using lost wax technique to overcome the deteriorating effects of conventional solid ocular prosthesis.
Simone Ribeiro Araújo de Almeida
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar os achados clínicos da tuberculose ocular e seus aspectos epidemiológicos. MÉTODOS: Foram revisados prontuários médicos de pacientes que foram atendidos no Departamento de Oftalmologia - setor de Uveíte e AIDS da Unifesp-EPM, São Paulo, Brasil, entre janeiro de 1999 e julho de 2002 e que tiveram diagnóstico de tuberculose ocular. Foram inclusos os pacientes que apresentaram PPD forte reator, epidemiologia positiva para tuberculose e lesão ocular que melhorou com tratamento específico. RESULTADOS: Foram analisados prontuários médicos de 17 pacientes, sendo 12 (70,6% do sexo feminino. A idade média foi de 54 (24-84 anos. O tempo médio entre o início dos sintomas e a primeira consulta foi de 100 dias. Os achados oculares foram inespecíficos nesta ocasião mas prevaleceram as alterações de segmento anterior e 41% dos pacientes apresentavam sinais de tuberculose sistêmica. Alterações como glaucoma, descolamento de retina e hemorragia vítrea foram responsáveis pela redução da acuidade visual. CONCLUSÃO: Embora pouco prevalente, a tuberculose ocular apresenta morbidade elevada. A inespecificidade da apresentação clínica da doença ocular pode atrasar o seu diagnóstico.PURPOSE: To analyze clinical findings of ocular tuberculosis and its epidemiological features. METHODS: Were reviewed clinical files of patients who attended the Ophthalmology - Uveitis and AIDS sector of UNIFESP-EPM, São Paulo, Brazil between January 1999 and July 2002 and had a diagnosis of ocular tuberculosis. Patients who had Mantoux test higher than 10 mm, epidemiological history of tuberculosis and ocular findings that improved after specific treatment were included. RESULTS: Seventeen medical files were analyzed, of those, 12 (70,6% were females. The mean age was 54 (24-84 years. The average time between symptoms and diagnosis was 100 days. Ocular findings at the first interview were multiple but most were at the anterior segment of
Tan, Chai Lee; Fhun, Lai Chan; Tai, Evelyn Li Min; Abdul Gani, Nor Hasnida; Muhammed, Julieana; Tuan Jaafar, Tengku Norina; Ahmad Tajudin, Liza Sharmini; Wan Hitam, Wan-Hazabbah
Background. Ocular bartonellosis can present in various ways, with variable visual outcome. There is limited data on ocular bartonellosis in Malaysia. Objective. We aim to describe the clinical presentation and visual outcome of ocular bartonellosis in Malaysia. Materials and Methods. This was a retrospective review of patients treated for ocular bartonellosis in two ophthalmology centers in Malaysia between January 2013 and December 2015. The diagnosis was based on clinical features, support...
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Amelioration. 24.178 Section 24.178 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT..., during and after fermentation. The fixed acid level of the juice is determined prior to fermentation and...
Methidathion-induced hematological, biochemical and hepatohistological alterations in rat: Ameliorative effects of selenium and zinc. ... In contrast, reduced glutathione level (GSH), and the activities of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and the glutathione peroxidase (GPx) content of hepatic tissue decreased ...
Verheij, M.; Stewart, F. A.; Oussoren, Y.; Weening, J. J.; Dewit, L.
This investigation was carried out to assess the amelioration by two antithrombotic drugs of radiation nephropathy in mice. Mouse kidneys were given split-dose irradiation to total doses between 17 and 22 Gy. A first group of animals was given acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) in drinking water, a second
Oliver, Sara; Sahi, Sharon K; Tantalo, Lauren C; Godornes, Charmie; Neblett Fanfair, Robyn; Markowitz, Lauri E; Lukehart, Sheila A; Marra, Christina M
Syphilis can have many clinical manifestations, including eye involvement, or "ocular syphilis." In 2015, an increase in reported cases of ocular syphilis and potential case clusters raised concern for an oculotropic strain of Treponema pallidum, the infectious agent of syphilis. Molecular typing was used to examine strains found in cases of ocular syphilis in the United States. In 2015, after a clinical advisory issued by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, pretreatment clinical specimens from US patients with ocular syphilis were sent to a research laboratory for molecular analysis of T. pallidum DNA. Molecular typing was conducted on these specimens, and results were compared with samples collected from Seattle patients diagnosed with syphilis, but without ocular symptoms. Samples were typed from 18 patients with ocular syphilis and from 45 patients with syphilis, but without ocular symptoms. Clinical data were available for 14 ocular syphilis patients: most were men, human immunodeficiency virus-infected, and had early syphilis. At least 5 distinct strain types of Treponema pallidum were identified in these patients, and 9 types were identified in the Seattle nonocular patients. 14d/g was the most common type in both groups. An unusual strain type was detected in a small cluster of ocular syphilis patients in Seattle. Ocular syphilis is a serious sequela of syphilis. In this preliminary study, clear evidence of a predominant oculotropic strain causing ocular syphilis was not detected. Identification of cases and prompt treatment is critical in the management of ocular syphilis.
About one-third of people over age 65 fall each year, and the frequency ... extra ocular muscles (resul ng in sluggish eye movement), etc. are situa ons which predisposes the elderly to accidental falls. Falls is very significant as a cause of ocular trauma in .... The predisposing factors to ocular injury among paediatrics and ...
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ocular surgery irrigation device. 886.4360 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4360 Ocular surgery irrigation device. (a) Identification. An ocular surgery irrigation device is a device intended to be suspended over the...
7 subjects (1.3%) had monocular blindness with VA<3/60. 37 (3.3%) subjects had low vision with VA < 6/18-3/60. Conclusion: Most of the subjects were young people. Ocular disorders were encountered in computer users. Ocular health status of computer users can be improved through periodic ocular examination and ...
and retroperitoneal regions of the body.1. Teratomas arising from the head and neck region are uncommon.4 We report a case of orbito-ocular teratoma in an infant. Case Report. A seventeen day-old baby ... intestinal glands and neural tissue with retinoblasts showing severe anaplasia. There was local infiltration and foci ...
Strabismus was found in thirteen subjects (35.1%). This was esotropia in 7(54%) and exotropia in 6 (46%) subjects. Refractive error was found in 32(86.5%) subjects and Cortical Visual Impairment (CVI) in 28(75.7%) subjects CVI, refractive errors and strabismus are the most common ocular findings in children with ...
May 6, 2011 ... progesterone, and androgen) actions, various physiological conditions such as age, menstrual cycle, pregnancy, and menopause, where the hormone milieu changes, affect vision.. Pregnancy results in a lot of hormonal changes in the body and the eyes are no exception. These ocular changes could.
Malaria is endemic in Nigeria. With the emergence of chloroquine resistance various modes of treatment including parenteral quinine are employed with consequent untoward effects. This article reports two cases of severe ocular toxicity, including mimicry of intracranial space‑occupying lesion, from treatment of malaria ...
Conclusion: OSSN occurs in younger individuals, and is strongly associated with HIV infection in our environment. Early diagnosis and intervention can prevent severe ocular morbidity. Wide surgical excision with intra-operative cryotherapy and adjuvant treatment with topical MMC post-operatively seem to give good outcome in our patients.
Background: Ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN)are aspectrum of lesions that arise from the squamous epithelium of the conjunctiva and cornea. They form the most frequent indication for orbital exenteration in Korle-bu Teaching Hospital, Accra. Poor management of early lesions leads to high rates of tumour ...
Peter, Neena M; Pearson, Andrew R
Orbital apex syndrome (OAS) is a rare condition due to a range of pathological processes around the optic nerve foramen and the superior orbital fissure causing characteristic functional loss. It is a rare complication of trauma and results from penetrating injuries as well as those involving bony fractures. We present a case of OAS from non-penetrating ocular trauma without bony involvement.
Objective: To determine the prevalence of ocular disorders in adult (>15 years ) AIDS patients at PEPFAR clinic in Lagos, Nigeria. ... Conjunctival microvasculopathy 166 patients (41.5%), pingueculum in 114 (28.5%), pterygium in 76 (19.0%), refractive error in 93 (23.3%), cataract in 12 (3.0%), and 22 (5.5%) Glaucoma ...
Sharma, Namrata; Kaur, Manpreet; Agarwal, Tushar; Sangwan, Virender S; Vajpayee, Rasik B
Ocular chemical burns are an ophthalmic emergency and are responsible for 11.5%-22.1% of ocular injuries. Immediate copious irrigation is universally recommended in acute ocular burns to remove the offending agent and minimize damage. Conventional medical therapy consists of the use of agents that promote epithelialization, minimize inflammation, and prevent cicatricial complications. Biological fluids such as autologous serum, umbilical cord blood serum, platelet-rich plasma, and amniotic membrane suspension are a rich source of growth factors and promote healing when used as adjuncts to conventional therapy. Surgical treatment of acute ocular burns includes the debridement of the necrotic tissue, application of tissue adhesives, tenoplasty, and tectonic keratoplasty. Amniotic membrane transplantation is a novel surgical treatment that is increasingly being used as an adjunct to conventional treatment to promote epithelial healing, minimize pain, and restore visual acuity. Various experimental treatments that aim to promote wound healing and minimize inflammation are being evaluated such as human mesenchymal and adipose stem cells, beta-1,3 glucan, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, cultivated fibroblasts, zinc desferrioxamine, antifibrinolytic agents, antioxidants, collagen cross-linking, and inhibitors of corneal neovascularization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
eye of human patients. Keywords. Bio-ceramics; hydroxyapatite; porous implant; ocular implant; in vivo study. 1. Introduction. Hydroxyapatite (HAp) is the principal inorganic consti- tuent of bone and teeth. The chemical similarity of this material with bone and teeth as well as its excellent bio- compatibility and bioactivity has ...
Jul 10, 2012 ... A snakebite constitutes a common acute medical emergency and has several systemic and even ocular consequences. According to Patil et al,1 the importance of this public health problem has largely been ignored by medical science. There are approximately 3 000 snake species worldwide, of which ...
Full Text Available Eleven histologically proved cases of ocular malignant lymphoma diagnosed and managed during the year 1974-81 are reported. The follow-up period ranges from 2-7 years. The difficulties in diagnosis, treatment and prognosis are discussed.
Saboo, Ujwala S; Amparo, Francisco; Shikari, Hasanain; Dana, Reza
To evaluate the prevalence of ocular hypertension (OHT) and glaucoma in patients with chronic ocular graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). We performed a retrospective chart review of 218 patients diagnosed with chronic ocular GVHD. Ocular hypertension was defined as intraocular pressure (IOP) ≥ 24 mmHg in either eye without any glaucomatous optic disc changes. Glaucoma suspect was defined as optic disc changes with a cup-to-disc ratio ≥ 0.7 in either eye or asymmetry of ≥ 0.3 between the two eyes. Glaucoma was defined by glaucomatous optic disc changes plus glaucomatous visual field defects in two consecutive reliable visual field tests. The number of cases of ocular hypertension, glaucoma, and glaucoma suspects was evaluated. Thirty-three patients (15 %) were diagnosed with OHT, eight patients (3.6 %) with suspicion of glaucoma, and one patient (0.4 %) with glaucoma. OHT occurred within 6 months of developing ocular GVHD in 60 % of the cases and within the first year in 76 %. High IOP normalized in 67 % of patients when the dosage of topical or systemic corticosteroids was lowered, and 27 % of patients required anti-glaucoma therapy. Ocular hypertension is a common complication in patients with ocular GVHD, with a prevalence of 15 %. The rise in intraocular pressure is often transient and resolves with management of corticosteroids in most cases. However, clinicians should be aware that nearly one-third of the patients with OHT might require anti-glaucoma treatment. The prevalences of glaucoma and suspicion of glaucoma were not higher than in the general population.
Tabatabaei, Seyed Ali; Modanloo, Shokoufeh; Ghiyasvand, Arezoo Mohammadkhani; Pouryani, Abolghasem; Soleimani, Mohammad; Tabatabaei, Seyed Mehdi; Pakrah, Ahmad Reza; Masarat, Hamideh
To report the frequency, associated risk factors and characteristics of cases referred to Farabi Eye Hospital with ocular superglue injuries. In a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted between December 2012 and February 2013, patients with ocular superglue injuries were evaluated. Age, sex, educational level, location, time, mechanism, type, site and time of eye injury were gathered through interview using a customized questionnaire. All participants had given consent to undergo thorough eye examination. Over the course of three months, 105 patients with ocular superglue injuries enrolled in the study, including 56(53.3%) men and 49(46.7%) women with the mean age of 24.7±11.6 (range, 2 to 53)y. The right eye, left eye and both eyes were involved in 52%, 42% and 6% of the patients, respectively. Most of injuries had occurred at home (72.4%) and at night (55%). More than half of patients (52.4%) did not take any primary aids following the ocular injury. Patient carelessness (78.1%), childhood curiosity and lack of parental supervision (11.4%), storing superglue in inappropriate places and inadvertently using superglue as eye drops due to poor vision (2.9%), inadequate awareness of superglue applications [used to stick on artificial nails (3.8%), artificial eyelashes (1.9%) and broken tooth (1%)] and being assaulted with glue (1%) were common risk factors. The frequency of ocular superglue injuries in patients referred to Farabi Eye Hospital is relatively high. This finding underlines the importance of public education and awareness about superglue injuries to the eye and taking protective measures and safety strategies in order to prevent these injures.
Olubayo Umar Kolawole
Full Text Available AIM: To describe the epidemiology and outcome of ocular injuries requiring hospital admission in Ladoke Akintola University of Technology Teaching Hospital(LTH, Osogbo, Nigeria.METHODS: Retrospective chart review of all patients hospitalized for ocular injuries at LTH, Osogbo between April 2002 and March 2014 was undertaken. Information extracted from patients records were entered into a pre-designed form. Data were analyzed with Statistical Package for Social Sciences(SPSSversion 20. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess effects of different variables on the visual outcome of ocular injuries after treatment among the subjects. PRESULTS: One hundred and twenty-seven patients were hospitalized at LTH within the study period. The median age was 22.0y(range: 0.5-70.0and male: female ratio 2.6:1. Majority of the injuries(35.2%occurred within the home setting. Of the 127 patients, 74(58.3%had open globe Injuries(OGI, 34(26.8%had closed globe injuries(CGI, 7(5.5%had adnexal injuries, 6(4.7%had ruptured globes, 4(3.1%had chemical injuries, 1(0.8%patient each had retained intraocular foreign body and thermal eye injury. Two-thirds of patients managed for ocular injuries in this series had poor visual outcome. There were statistically significant associations between poor initial visual acuity(OR=13.24and OGI with poor visual outcome(OR=9.16.CONCLUSION: There is an urgent need for health education and, to put in place preventive strategies for ocular injuries. Developing countries need to build up capacity to offer complex anterior and posterior segment surgeries for those with severely injured eyes so as to improve the visual outcomes.
Background Dust exposure is a well-known occupational hazard for terrestrial workers and astronauts alike and will continue to be a concern as humankind pursues exploration and habitation of objects beyond Earth. Humankind’s limited exploration experience with the Apollo Program indicates that exposure to dust will be unavoidable. Therefore, NASA must assess potential toxicity and recommend appropriate mitigation measures to ensure that explorers are adequately protected. Visual acuity is critical during exploration activities and operations aboard spacecraft. Therefore, the present research was performed to ascertain the ocular toxicity of authentic lunar dust. Methods Small (mean particle diameter = 2.9 ± 1.0 μm), reactive lunar dust particles were produced by grinding bulk dust under ultrapure nitrogen conditions. Chemical reactivity and cytotoxicity testing were performed using the commercially available EpiOcularTM assay. Subsequent in vivo Draize testing utilized a larger size fraction of unground lunar dust that is more relevant to ocular exposures (particles testing indicated minimal irritancy potential based on the time required to reduce cell viability by 50% (ET50). Follow-up testing using the Draize standard protocol confirmed that the lunar dust was minimally irritating. Minor irritation of the upper eyelids was noted at the 1-hour observation point, but these effects resolved within 24 hours. In addition, no corneal scratching was observed using fluorescein stain. Conclusions Low-titanium mare lunar dust is minimally irritating to the eyes and is considered a nuisance dust for ocular exposure. No special precautions are recommended to protect against ocular exposures, but fully shielded goggles may be used if dust becomes a nuisance. PMID:22817808
Seyed Ali Tabatabaei
Full Text Available AIM: To report the frequency, associated risk factors and characteristics of cases referred to Farabi Eye Hospital with ocular superglue injuries. METHODS: In a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted between December 2012 and February 2013, patients with ocular superglue injuries were evaluated. Age, sex, educational level, location, time, mechanism, type, site and time of eye injury were gathered through interview using a customized questionnaire. All participants had given consent to undergo thorough eye examination. RESULTS: Over the course of three months, 105 patients with ocular superglue injuries enrolled in the study, including 56(53.3% men and 49(46.7% women with the mean age of 24.7±11.6 (range, 2 to 53y. The right eye, left eye and both eyes were involved in 52%, 42% and 6% of the patients, respectively. Most of injuries had occurred at home (72.4% and at night (55%. More than half of patients (52.4% did not take any primary aids following the ocular injury. Patient carelessness (78.1%, childhood curiosity and lack of parental supervision (11.4%, storing superglue in inappropriate places and inadvertently using superglue as eye drops due to poor vision (2.9%, inadequate awareness of superglue applications [used to stick on artificial nails (3.8%, artificial eyelashes (1.9% and broken tooth (1%] and being assaulted with glue (1% were common risk factors. CONCLUSION: The frequency of ocular superglue injuries in patients referred to Farabi Eye Hospital is relatively high. This finding underlines the importance of public education and awareness about superglue injuries to the eye and taking protective measures and safety strategies in order to prevent these injures.
Full Text Available Purpose: We report a rare case of ocular injury due to potassium permanganate (KMnO4 granules in a child. Methods: This is a retrospective case report. Results: A 2-year-old boy was transferred to our emergency room with severe pain in his right eye, inflamed eyelids, and brownish stains on his fingers. Chemical injury was suspected. Copious eye irrigation was immediately performed. Diffuse brownish splotches were then observed at the inferior bulbar conjunctiva. Otherwise, systemic organs were intact. Complete eye exam under general anesthesia revealed a 5-mm epithelial defect at the central cornea, along with generalized conjunctival injection and limbal ischemia, inferiorly. Multiple semi-dissolved granules of KMnO4 trapped in the inferior fornix were identified. The chemical particles were gradually washed out and removed; however, the brownish stains remained. The patient received preservative-free steroid, antibiotic eye drops, and lubricants as regular management for mild to moderate degree of ocular burn. Pseudomembrane developed early and transformed into symblepharon within a few days after the injury. Membrane adhesion was lysed, and more aggressive medications were then substituted. Commercial amniotic membrane (PROKERA® was also applied to promote wound healing and to prevent recurrence of symblepharon. The ocular surface was eventually restored, and corneal transparency was preserved. Conclusion: Ocular injury with the granular form of KMnO4 is rare. Its toxicity is comparable to concentrated KMnO4 solution. However, the dissolved particles that had been absorbed in the stained conjunctiva were continuously released and damaged the ocular surface more than we primarily anticipated. Awareness of this condition and prompt management yield a good treatment outcome.
Harris, Alon; Guidoboni, Giovanna; Arciero, Julia C; Amireskandari, Annahita; Tobe, Leslie A; Siesky, Brent A
To discuss the role of mathematical modeling in studying ocular hemodynamics, with a focus on glaucoma. We reviewed recent literature on glaucoma, ocular blood flow, autoregulation, the optic nerve head, and the use of mathematical modeling in ocular circulation. Many studies suggest that alterations in ocular hemodynamics play a significant role in the development, progression, and incidence of glaucoma. Although there is currently a limited number of studies involving mathematical modeling of ocular blood flow, regulation, and diseases (such as glaucoma), preliminary modeling work shows the potential of mathematical models to elucidate the mechanisms that contribute most significantly to glaucoma progression. Mathematical modeling is a useful tool when used synergistically with clinical and laboratory data in the study of ocular blood flow and glaucoma. The development of models to investigate the relationship between ocular hemodynamic alterations and glaucoma progression will provide a unique and useful method for studying the pathophysiology of glaucoma.
Ricardo Cardona Villa
Full Text Available El ojo es uno de los órganos más sensibles y está permanentemente expuesto a diversos agentes ambientales. Dado que la conjuntiva es un tejido inmunológicamente activo, no es sorprendente que sea un sitio común de respuestas alérgicas. Las alergias oculares son un grupo de enfermedades que afectan la superficie conjuntival y están asociadas usualmente a reacciones de hipersensibilidad tipo 1. Pueden ser divididas en varias categorías: conjuntivitis alérgica estacional, conjuntivitis alérgica perenne, queratoconjuntivitis vernal y queratoconjuntivitis atópica. La inflamación de la superficie ocular produce prurito, lagrimeo, edema conjuntival y fotofobia. Como en otras enfermedades alérgicas, se puede desarrollar una condición crónica, acompañada de remodelación de los tejidos oculares. Las estrategias para el tratamiento de la alergia ocular han aumentado exponencialmente y los clínicos disponen de un inventario cada vez mayor de agentes dirigidos a la protección del ojo contra la inflamación. En este trabajo presentamos una revisión sobre las principales formas de alergia ocular, haciendo énfasis en el cuadro clínico, el diagnóstico y las nuevas opciones terapéuticas disponibles en la actualidad. The eye, one of the most sensitive organs, is permanently exposed to different environmental agents. Since the conjunctiva is an immunologically active tissue, it is not surprising for it to be a common site for allergic responses. Ocular allergies constitute a group of diseases affecting the conjunctival surface; they are usually associated with type 1 hypersensitivity reactions. This disorder can be divided into several categories: seasonal allergic conjunctivitis, perennial allergic conjunctivitis, vernal keratoconjunctivitis and atopic keratoconjunctivitis. Ocular surface inflammation results in itching, tearing, conjunctival edema, and photophobia. As is the case with other allergic diseases, a chronic situation can also
Zubkov, V. S.
We present a mathematical model describing the spatial distribution of tear film osmolarity across the ocular surface of a human eye during one blink cycle, incorporating detailed fluid and solute dynamics. Based on the lubrication approximation, our model comprises three coupled equations tracking the depth of the aqueous layer of the tear film, the concentration of the polar lipid, and the concentration of physiological salts contained in the aqueous layer. Diffusive boundary layers in the salt concentration occur at the thinnest regions of the tear film, the black lines. Thus, despite large Peclet numbers, diffusion ameliorates osmolarity around the black lines, but nonetheless is insufficient to eliminate the build-up of solute in these regions. More generally, a heterogeneous distribution of solute concentration is predicted across the ocular surface, indicating that measurements of lower meniscus osmolarity are not globally representative, especially in the presence of dry eye. Vertical saccadic eyelid motion can reduce osmolarity at the lower black line, raising the prospect that select eyeball motions more generally can assist in alleviating tear film hyperosmolarity. Finally, our results indicate that measured evaporative rates will induce excessive hyperosmolarity at the black lines, even for the healthy eye. This suggests that further evaporative retardation at the black lines, for instance due to the cellular glycocalyx at the ocular surface or increasing concentrations of mucus, will be important for controlling hyperosmolarity as the black line thins. © 2012 Society for Mathematical Biology.
Meera Suresh Joshi
Full Text Available BACKGROUND In India, an estimated 1.5-2.5% children below 2 years of age are developmentally delayed. A higher incidence of ocular disability is seen in these children, refractive errors and strabismus being most common. These can add to the overall burden of health as most of them have developmental comorbidities. The aim of the study is to study the ocular disorders in children with developmental delay. MATERIALS AND METHODS We studied 112 children between the 2-12 years of age diagnosed to have developmental delay. All the subjects underwent a detailed ophthalmic evaluation including visual acuity testing using Snellen’s charts (3m and 6m and Log MAR charts (recorded as per Snellen’s vision testing to maintain uniformity, cycloplegic refraction, torchlight and slit-lamp evaluation and dilated fundus examination. The data was tabulated and represented using bar diagrams, Pie charts and graphs. The results were expressed as percentages. Design-Cross-sectional, observational study. RESULTS 66 boys and 46 girls (total 112 were evaluated. The mean age of the study population was 7.8 years ± 2.4 SD. The aetiology of developmental delay was cerebral palsy (64%, Down syndrome (22%, autism (7%, intellectual disability (4.5% and 1 case each of congenital hypothyroidism and ataxia telangiectasia. The prevalence of ocular disorders was found to be 84.8%, which was slightly higher in girls (87% as compared to boys (83%. Refractive error (79.5% was the commonest ocular disorder followed by strabismus (46.4%. Astigmatism (44.6% was the commonest refractive error, which was divided into myopic astigmatism (19.6%, hyperopic astigmatism (13.8% and mixed astigmatism (11.2%. Simple hyperopia was seen in 21.9% subjects and simple myopia in 12.1%. Exotropia (52% was commoner than esotropia (48%. Other ocular abnormalities included optic atrophy, nystagmus, epicanthal folds, cataract, mongoloid slant, ptosis, telecanthus, conjunctival telangiectasia and
Uldall Pallesen, Kristine Appel; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Mørtz, Charlotte Gotthard
. We describe a 23-year-old healthy woman who developed a pustular rash and general malaise after using a spa bath contaminated with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Bacterial culture from a pustule confirmed Pseudomonas folliculitis and the patient was treated with ciprofloxacin with rapid good effect....
Many indigenous microorganisms in water and soil are capable of degrading hydrocarbon contaminants. In this study, two bacterial strains were isolated from a contaminated soil of a refinery of Arzew (Oran). The isolated strains were identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P3) and Pseudomonas fluoresens (P4).
BACKGROUND: Septic arthritis due to pseudomonas species is unusual and when it occurs, there is often an underlying cause like immune depression, intravenous drug abuse or a penetrating injury. PATIENT AND METHOD: We report a case of pseudomonas septic arthritis complicating cannulation of a leg vein following ...
Bolaños-Jiménez, Rodrigo; Navas, Alejandro; López-Lizárraga, Erika Paulina; de Ribot, Francesc March; Peña, Alexandra; Graue-Hernández, Enrique O; Garfias, Yonathan
Sight is one of the most important senses that human beings possess. The ocular system is a complex structure equipped with mechanisms that prevent or limit damage caused by physical, chemical, infectious and environmental factors. These mechanisms include a series of anatomical, cellular and humoral factors that have been a matter of study. The cornea is not only the most powerful and important lens of the optical system, but also, it has been involved in many other physiological and pathological processes apart from its refractive nature; the morphological and histological properties of the cornea have been thoroughly studied for the last fifty years; drawing attention in its molecular characteristics of immune response. This paper will review the anatomical and physiological aspects of the cornea, conjunctiva and lacrimal apparatus, as well as the innate immunity at the ocular surface. PMID:26161163
Meyers, Valerie E.
This slide presentation reviews the use of ocular testing to determine the toxicity of lunar dust. The OECD recommendations are reviewed. With these recommendations in mind the test methodology was to use EpiOcular, tissues derived from normal human epidermal keratinocytes, the cells of which have been differentiated on cell culture inserts to form a multi-layered structure, which closely parallels the corneal epithelium and to dose the tissue with 100 mg dust from various sources. The in-vitro study provides evidence that lunar dust is not severely corrosive or irritating, however, in vitro tests have limitations, and in vivo tests provides a more complete scenario, and information, it is recommended that in vivo tests be performed.
Burcea, M; Avram, Corina-Ioana; Stamate, Alina-Cristina; Malciolu, R; Oprea, S; Zemba, M
The herpes simplex virus is one of the most common pathogens in humans, who are seropositive for the virus in 90% of the cases at the adult age. It determines reccurent infections in more than a third of the population and these infections depend on the immune response of the host. Ocular infections of newborns are due to the herpes simplex virus type 2, meanwhile type 1 is found predominantly at adults; almost all ocular structures can be affected. HSV-1 in the most frequent etiologic agent in infectious anterior uveitis (with the varicelo-zosterian virus) and it is responsible for 6-10% of all cases of anterior uveitis. More than half of the keratouveitides due to HSV will develop intraocular hypertension and open-angle secondary glaucoma, during reccurences and most of them will resolve after proper control of inflammation.
Saffari, Mahmood; Karami, Shabnam; Firoozeh, Farzaneh; Sehat, Mojtaba
Biofilm produced from Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the cause of infection induced by contact lenses, trauma and post-surgery infection. The aim of this study was to evaluate biofilm formation and the presence of the genes ndvB and tssC1 in ocular infection isolates of P. aeruginosa. A total of 92 P. aeruginosa strains were collected from patients with ocular infection referred to Farabi Hospital between March 2014 and July 2015. Antibiotic susceptibility patterns were evaluated by the agar disc-diffusion method according to CLSI guidelines. PCR assays were used to detect ndvB and tssC1, genes associated with resistance in biofilm-producing P. aeruginosa isolates. Biofilm formation ability was examined by crystal violet microtitre plate assay. During the period of study, 92 P. aeruginosa were isolated from ocular infections including keratitis (n=84) and endophthalmitis (n=8). The highest resistance rates were seen against colistin (57.6 %) and gentamicin (50 %) and the lowest resistance rates were seen against imipenem (3.3 %), aztreonam (4.3 %), piperacillin-tazobactam (4.3 %), ceftazidime (4.3 %) and ciprofloxacin (5.4 %). Biofilm production ability was found in 100 % of the isolates. PCR assays showed that of the 92 P. aeruginosa isolates, 96.7 and 90.2 % harboured the genes ndvB and tssC1, respectively. Our results showed a considerable ability of biofilm production, as well as the occurrence of biofilm-specific antimicrobial resistance genes (ndvB and tssC1), in P. aeruginosa isolates from ocular infections in Farabi Hospital.
Pinna, Antonio; Usai, Donatella; Zanetti, Stefania
To assess Pseudomonas aeruginosa growth in Refresh Plus(®), a unit-dose preservative-free ophthalmic solution indicated for the treatment of dry eye and after laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) surgery, which contains carboxymethylcellulose 0.5% as its active ingredient. Multiple test tubes of Refresh Plus were inoculated with 3 clinical ocular isolates of P. aeruginosa to achieve a target concentration of ∼100 colony-forming units (CFU)/mL. The tubes were incubated at 25°C and samples were aseptically removed at 6, 12, and 24 h. The samples were cultured to enumerate the population at each time point. After 6 h incubation, the number of CFU/mL was 3,200 for isolate 1, 2,000 for isolate 2, and 6,480 CFU/mL for isolate 3. For all 3 organisms tested, the number of CFU/mL after 12 and 24 h incubation was >10(6) CFU/mL. Under the conditions of this experiment, Refresh Plus appears to support P. aeruginosa growth, suggesting that if the solution in a unit-dose vial of Refresh Plus were contaminated with P. aeruginosa during use, the organism would survive and replicate in the solution over time. Noncompliance with the manufacturer's recommendations (i.e., reuse of an open vial) may result in contamination of the solution with P. aeruginosa, which may cause severe keratitis.
Shen, Yan; Tu, Jiasheng
Ophthalmic liposomes of ganciclovir (GCV) were prepared by the reverse phase evaporation method, and their ocular pharmacokinetics in albino rabbits were compared with those obtained after dosing with GCV solution. The in vitro transcorneal permeability of GCV liposomes was found to be 3.9-fold higher than that of the solution. After in vivo instillation in albino rabbits, no difference was found in the precorneal elimination rate of GCV from liposome vs solution dosing. The aqueous humor con...
Iragavarapu, Saradha; Gorin, Michael B
This review is intended to summarize the current knowledge from basic science and clinical medical literature cited within PubMed that pertain to gender-related factors and affect those individuals with hereditary ocular disorders. We consider gender-related biological factors that (a) affect disease onset and progression, (b) gender differences for major X-linked ocular disorders, (c) gender-specific conditions, (d) medications that may influence genetic eye disorders, and finally, (e) gender-related issues that influence the management and quality of life of these patients. Several studies have demonstrated the manner in which sex-related hormones in animal models are capable of influencing cell pathway and survival that are likely to affect hereditary eye disorders. There are very few clinical studies that provide compelling evidence for gender differences in human ocular conditions, other than for a number of X-linked disorders. Disease expression for X-linked disorders may be impacted by genetic mechanisms such as lyonization or uniparental disomy. Clinical evidence regarding the impact of gender-related medical conditions and therapies on eye conditions is extremely limited and primarily based on anecdotal evidence. Gender-specific factors may play a major role in the underlying biological pathways that influence the onset, rate of progression, and clinical findings associated with ocular genetic conditions. Clinicians need to be aware of the variable phenotypes observed in female carriers of X-linked disorders of gender specific issues, many of which are inadequately addressed in the current literature. Clinicians need to be sensitive to gender differences in social, cultural, and religious systems and they should also be aware of how their own gender biases may influence how they counsel patients. Finally, it is clear that the lack of effective clinical studies in this area creates an opportunity for future research that will have real benefits for these
Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan parasite that infects up to a third of the world′s population. Infection is mainly acquired by ingestion of food that is contaminated with oocysts. We report an outbreak of ocular toxoplasmosis, which is an acute acquired type rather than reactivation of congenital toxoplasmosis. Our preliminary investigation points to municipal water contamination. This outbreak only proves the need of an effective public health system and health education in curtailing any outbreak.
Moon, Sunghyuk; Lim, Su-Ho
Background Blank cartridge guns are generally regarded as being harmless and relative safe. However recent published articles demonstrated that the gas pressure from the exploding propellant of blank cartridge is powerful enough to penetrate the thoracic wall, abdominal muscle, small intestine and the skull. And there has been a limited number of case reports of ocular trauma associated with blank cartridge injury. In addition, no report on case with split extraocular muscle injury with traum...
Shen, Yan; Tu, Jiasheng
Ophthalmic liposomes of ganciclovir (GCV) were prepared by the reverse phase evaporation method, and their ocular pharmacokinetics in albino rabbits were compared with those obtained after dosing with GCV solution. The in vitro transcorneal permeability of GCV liposomes was found to be 3.9-fold higher than that of the solution. After in vivo instillation in albino rabbits, no difference was found in the precorneal elimination rate of GCV from liposome vs solution dosing. The aqueous humor concentration-time profiles of both liposomes and solution were well described by 2-compartmental pharmacokinetics with first-order absorption. The area under the curve of the aqueous humor concentration-time profiles of GCV liposomes was found to be 1.7-fold higher than that of GCV solution. Ocular tissue distribution of GCV from liposomes was 2 to 10 times higher in the sclera, cornea, iris, lens, and vitreous humor when compared with those observed after solution dosing. These results suggested that liposomes may hold some promise in ocular GCV delivery.
Ishikawa, H; Liebmann, J M; Uji, Y; Ritch, R
To develop a uniform file format of ocular imaging data, including, but not limited to, ultrasound biomicroscopy, optical coherence tomography, and nerve fiber analyzer, capable of being transmitted via Internet or intranet for collaborative research and telemedicine use. File filters were developed as dynamic link libraries (DLLs). These can read the original raw data format of each ocular imaging device. A data file format was also designed to describe these raw data uniformly in three different types of compression: noncompressed, run length compression, and differential pulse code modulation (DPCM). These three file formats were then tested in the following aspects: file size, speed of reading, and speed of writing. Run length compression failed to compress raw data, while DPCM compressed raw data successfully (DPCM. However, the actual time of reading and writing was fast enough (<0.6 s) for daily work regardless of file compression methods. The format designed has robust potential to be the standard file format for transmission of any ocular imaging raw data.
Rua Martinez, Raul; Perez Garcia, Diley; Alemanny Rubio, Ernesto
The choroidal osteoma is a benign bony tumor described for the first time in 1978 by Gass and collaborators. It is generally unilateral, with juxtapapillary localization and more frequent in young adult females. It presents unknown etiology, but it is associated to different factors as inflammatory processes, congenital malformations, hormonal alterations and ocular traumas among others. The patient was a 54 year-old woman with a personal history of rheumatic fibromyalgia (osteoarthrosis and osteoporosis) and hypertension. Her ophthalmological antecedent showed myopia and arteriolosclerotic retinopathy. At the beginning of the year, she suffered a traffic accident and was injured in her limbs and periocular region. After this, she began feeling blurred vision of the right eye and she went to our service 6 months later. She was performed an ophthalmologic exam. It was found that the right eye had visual acuity of 0.4, and after correction it reached 1.0. Funduscopy revealed vascular thinness, incomplete posterior vitreous detachment, and a white-orange lesion of 3 papillary diameters that involved inferior temporary arcade with well-defined borders. An angiography was performed, which showed sustained hyperfluorescence and non neovascularization; and the optic coherence tomography revealed a halo of serous retinal detachment. Additionally, the ocular ultrasound yielded a high reflectivity echogenic image that involves choroids with posterior acoustic shadow. It is for this reason that we affirm the traumatic etiology of the lesion. This is a rare pathology that should be diagnosed by imaging techniques. Notably, it is secondary to an ocular trauma
Full Text Available Normal tension glaucoma (NTG is known as a multifactorial optic neuropathy characterized by progressive retinal ganglion cell death and glaucomatous visual field loss, even though the intraocular pressure (IOP does not exceed the normal range. The pathophysiology of NTG remains largely undetermined. It is hypothesized that the abnormal ocular blood flow is involved in the pathogenesis of this disease. A number of evidences suggested that the vascular factors played a significant role in the development of NTG. In recent years, the new imaging techniques, fluorescein angiography, color Doppler imaging (CDI, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, and laser speckle flowgraphy (LSFG, have been used to evaluate the ocular blood flow and blood vessels, and the impaired vascular autoregulation was found in patients with NTG. Previous studies showed that NTG was associated with a variety of systemic diseases, including migraine, Alzheimer’s disease, primary vascular dysregulation, and Flammer syndrome. The vascular factors were involved in these diseases. The mechanisms underlying the abnormal ocular blood flow in NTG are still not clear, but the risk factors for glaucomatous optic neuropathy likely included oxidative stress, vasospasm, and endothelial dysfunction.
Rosa María Naranjo Fernández
Full Text Available La miastenia grave es una enfermedad caracterizada por debilidad y fatiga de los músculos voluntarios debido a una trasmisión anómala a nivel de la unión neuromuscular. La prevalencia es aproximadamente de 5 casos/100 000 personas. La miastenia grave puede ser bulbar, ocular o generalizada.Existen formas clínicas en la infancia como son la miastenia neonatal transitoria, la miastenia congénita y la miastenia juvenil. Los músculos oculares, faciales y bulbares son los más frecuentes afectados por la enfermedad. Cuando los síntomas se limitan a la musculatura cercana al ojo se denomina miastenia grave ocular. Una vez el oftalmólogo diagnostica o sospecha la miastenia grave, un neurólogo generalmente dirige la comprobación y tratamiento. El papel del oftalmólogo continúa siendo importante, además de chequear la motilidad y disfunción palpebral y proporcionar el alivio sintomático para estos desórdenes, debe estar alerta a la posibilidad de ambliopía.
Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the demography, aetiology, type and outcome of paediatric ocular trauma in tertiary centre in Malaysia. Method: We retrospectively studied 118 eyes from 117 patients over a period of 36 months (January 2006 to December 2008. All ocular injuries in patients aged 12 and below seen in the Ophthalmology Department for the first time were included in thisstudy. Results: Mean age of patients was 6.1±3.0 years. 68 cases (58.2% occurred in pre-school children, whereas 49 (41.9% in school-aged children. Boys accounted for 65.8% of cases. There was no predilection for either right or the left eye. 47% of cases (56 patients occurred in Malay. Most of the injuries took place at home when the children were alone (p<0.05. Sharp objects were the commonest cause (45 cases, 38.1%. The majority of cases (103, 87.3% were considered preventable. The frequency of open and closed globe injury was similar. Hyphema was more common in closed globe injury compared to open globe injury (p<0.05. Other associated injuries such as cataract, vitreous hemorrhage and retinal hemorrhage are similar between the two groups. Visual outcome is generally poor with only 34 eyes (28.8% had no visual impairment. Conclusion: Ocular trauma in children is an important cause of visual loss. Most cases occurred at home and were preventable. Prevention through education is the best approach.
Morita, Shinroku; Nakano, Takashi; Gomi, Hiromichi
Seventy MeV Proton beam irradiation (beam range:38 mm in the water) was applied for the treatment of 6 patients of ocular melanoma between October 1985 and July 1986 at National Institute of Radiological Sciences(NIRS). The Proton beam has more localized and uniform dose distributions than the electron beams, leading to increased delivery of the dose to tumors with out excess exposure to adjacent normal tissues. Since the accurate treatment planning was necessary for the Proton beam therapy, various studies concerned with the diagnosis of tumor localization using X-CT, MRI or ultrasonography and with the methods for fixation of the body or target using holder or plastic shell were performed. The diagnosis of ocular melanoma was established in the all cases through clinical examinations, such as indirect ophthalmoscopy, fundus photography, fluorescein angiography, ultrasonography and so on. The narrow horizontal Proton beam(10 ∼ 24 mm diameter) was straightly irradiated to the tumor, through the several thicked bolus, avoiding an exposure to the lens. The dose of 30 ∼ 60 Gy/3 ∼ 5 fractions/3 ∼ 5 weeks (TDF 90 ∼ 150) was prescribed. Although the follow up studies in order to estimate the tumor response and the complications are not enough to long to evaluate the results, we believe that Proton beam irradiation is considered to be an excellent therapy for the management of ocular melanomas, alternative to enucleation of affected eye. (author)
Bosch, Jacobus J; Heindl, Ludwig M
Background Malignant melanoma is the most common cancer of the eye in adults that originates either in the intra-ocular uveal tract or extra-ocular conjunctiva. Although the primary tumor can be treated successfully, no effective therapy for both metastatic conjunctival and uveal melanoma currently exits. Tumor-associated lymphangiogenesis and immune cell infiltration play a pivotal role in the development and therapeutic targeting of metastases. Project description Here, we provide an overview of current translational research on lymphangiogenesis and its therapeutic inhibition as well as modulation of immune cell infiltration by passive and active immunotherapy in melanoma of the eye. Specifically, our previous and ongoing work on lymphangiogenesis and immune cells in ocular melanoma within the clinical research unit FOR 2240 "(Lymph)Angiogenesis and Cellular Immunity in Inflammatory Diseases of the Eye" is summarized. Conclusions Translational research on the modulation of tumor-associated lymphangiogenesis and immune cell infiltration could provide novel targets for adjuvant therapy in melanoma of the eye. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Full Text Available Ocular inflammation is one of the leading causes of blindness and loss of vision. Human uveitis is a complex and heterogeneous group of diseases characterized by inflammation of intraocular tissues. The eye may be the only organ involved, or uveitis may be part of a systemic disease. A significant number of cases are of unknown etiology and are labeled idiopathic. Animal models have been developed to the study of the physiopathogenesis of autoimmune uveitis due to the difﬁculty in obtaining human eye inflamed tissues for experiments. Most of those models are induced by injection of speciﬁc photoreceptors proteins (e.g., S-antigen, interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein, rhodopsin, recoverin, phosducin. Non-retinal antigens, including melanin-associated proteins and myelin basic protein, are also good inducers of uveitis in animals. Understanding the basic mechanisms and pathogenesis of autoimmune ocular diseases are essential for the development of new treatment approaches and therapeutic agents. The present review describes the main experimental models of autoimmune ocular inflammatory diseases.
Weber, Konrad P; Bockisch, Christopher J; Olasagasti, Itsaso; Straumann, Dominik
On close inspection, it can be seen that most saccadic trajectories are not straight but curve slightly; in other words, they are not single-axis ocular rotations. The authors asked whether saccade curvatures are systematically influenced by static ocular counterroll (OCR). OCR was elicited by static whole-body roll position. Eight healthy human subjects performed horizontal and vertical saccades (10 degrees amplitude; 0 degrees and 10 degrees eccentricity; head-fixed coordinate system) in upright and ear-down whole-body roll positions (45 degrees right, 45 degrees left). Three-dimensional eye movements were recorded with modified dual-search coils at 1000 Hz. Saccade curvature was systematically modulated by OCR depending on saccade direction. In the horizontal-vertical plane, primarily vertical saccades were modulated with downward saccades curving toward the upper ear and upward saccades curving toward the lower ear. Modulation of saccade curvature in the torsional direction correlated significantly with OCR only in abducting saccades. No universal mechanism, such as visual-motor coordinate transformation or kinematic characteristics of the saccadic burst generator, alone could explain the complex modulation pattern of saccade curvature. OCR-induced changes of the ocular motor plant, including transient force imbalances between agonist eye muscles (vertical rectus and oblique muscles) and shifting eye muscle pulleys, are suitable to explain the found direction-dependent modulation pattern.
Mansour, A M; Bitar, F F; Traboulsi, E I; Kassak, K M; Obeid, M Y; Megarbane, A; Salti, H I
To describe the ocular findings in subjects with congenital heart disease (CHD). In a prospective study, the same observer examined 240 consecutive patients with CHD admitted to the medical centre. Two independent geneticists performed identification of syndromes. The commonest anatomic cardiac anomalies were ventricular or atrial septal defects (62), tetralogy of Fallot (39), pulmonary stenosis (25), and transposition of the great arteries (24). The heart lesions were divided physiologically into volume overload (90), cyanotic (87), and obstructive (63). In all, 105 syndromic subjects included the velocardiofacial syndrome (18), Down's syndrome (17), CHARGE association (6), DiGeorge syndrome (5), Williams syndrome (3), Edwards syndrome (3), Noonan syndrome (3), VACTERL association (2), and Patau syndrome (trisomy 13) (2). The paediatric team recognized 51 patients as syndromic. Two independent geneticists recognized additional 54 patients as syndromic. Positive eye findings were present in 55% (132) and included retinal vascular tortuosity (46), optic disc hypoplasia (30), trichomegaly (15), congenital ptosis (12), strabismus (11), retinal haemorrhages (8), prominent eyes (7), and congenital cataract (6). There was a strong correlation between the retinal vascular tortuosity and both a low haematocrit (P=0.000) and a low arterial oxygen saturation (P=0.002). Patients with CHD are at a high risk for ocular pathology and need screening for various ocular abnormalities.
Riestra, A C; Alonso-Herreros, J M; Merayo-Lloves, J
The use of platelet-rich preparations has experienced a significant increase in recent years due to its role in tissue-repair and regeneration. The aim of this study is to examine the available evidence regarding the application of plasma rich in growth factors, and its variations, on the ocular surface. A review is also presented on the effects of platelet-derived growth factors, the implications of the preparation methods, and the existing literature on the safety and efficacy of these therapies in ocular surface diseases. Despite the widespread use of platelet preparations there is no consensus on the most appropriate preparation method, and growth factors concentration vary with different systems. These preparations have been used in the treatment of ocular surface diseases, such as dry eye or persistent epithelial defects, among others, with good safety and efficacy profiles, but further studies are needed to compare to the currently available alternatives. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Systemic Lupus Erythematosus is one of the common autoimmune diseases seen in young patients, predominantly affecting females. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this prospective study is to determine ocular presentations in SLE METHODS: In this descriptive, prospective, observational, cross sectional study, all patients who presented to the department of dermatology during this study period of 12 months from January 2010 - December 2010 in Belgaum Institute of Medical Sciences were included . RESULTS: Total number of females in the present study was 19(74%, males in the study was 6 (26%. Mean age of the patients was 26.2 ± 2.8 (SD years, maximum age being 36 years and minimum age being 20 years, number of patients in the age group 20 - 25 years was 14 (56%, 26 - 30 years was 6 (24%, 30 - 35 years was 3 (12%, number of patients in 36 - 40 years was 2 (8% Maximum number of patients was in their middle age between 20 - 25 years. Ocular symptoms in present study scelritis was seen in 8(32% patients, episcelritis was seen i n 10(40% patients, conjunctivitis was seen in 5(20% patients, ANA - positive was seen in 20 (80% patients, episcelritis was seen in maximum number of patients i.e. 10 (40%. Distribution of ocular symptoms in present study between two eyes, scelritis was seen in 6(75% in right eye, was seen in 2(25% in left eye, scelritis was seen in 7(70% in right eye, was seen in 3(30% in left eye, conjunctivitis was seen in scelritis was seen in 2 (40% in right eye, was seen in 3(60% in left eye. Ocular symptoms a nd sex distribution, scelritis was seen in 6 (31.57% patients in females, Episcelritis was seen in 8(42.10% females, Conjunctivitis was seen in 5(26.31% males, and ANA positivity was seen in 18 (72% females. Scelritis was seen in 2 (33.33% patients in males, Episcelritis was seen in 2 (33.33% males, Conjunctivitis was not seen in males, and ANA positivity was seen in 2 (8% males. P value of all ocular symptoms is insignificant. P
Athaide, Helaine Vinche Zampar; Campos, Mauro; Costa, Charles
Aging has various effects on visual system. Vision deteriorate, contrast sensitivity decreases and ocular aberrations apparently make the optical quality worse across the years. To prospective evaluate ocular aberrations along the ages. Three hundred and fifteen patients were examined, 155 were male (39.36%) and 160 were female (60.63%). Ages ranged from 5 to 64 year-old, the study was performed from February to November, 2004. Patients were divided into 4 age-groups according to IBGE (Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística) classification: 68 patients from 5 to 14 year-old, 55 patients from 15 to 24 year-old, 116 from 25 to 44 year-old and 76 from 45 to 67 year-old. All patients had the following characteristics: best corrected visual acuity > 20/25, emmetropia or spherical equivalent < 3.50 SD, refractive astigmatism < 1.75 CD on cycloplegic refraction, normal ophthalmologic exam and no previous ocular surgeries. This protocol was approved by Federal University of São Paulo Institutional Review Board. Total optical aberrations were measured by H-S sensor LadarWave Custom Cornea Wavefront System (Alcon Laboratories Inc, Orlando, FLA, USA) and were statistically analysed. Corneal aberrations were calculated using CT-View software Version 6.89 (Sarver and Associates, Celebration, FL, USA). Lens aberrations were calculated by subtraction. High-order (0.32 e 0.48 microm) and ocular spherical aberrations (0.02 e 0.26 microm) increased respectively in child and middle age groups. High order (0.27 microm) and corneal spherical aberrations (0.05 microm) did not show changes with age. Lens showed a statistically significant spherical aberration increase (from -0.02 to 0.22 microm). Vertical (from 0.10 to -0.07 microm) and horizontal coma (from 0.01 to -0.12 microm) presented progressively negative values with aging. High-order and spherical aberrations increased with age due to lens contribution. The cornea did not affect significantly changes observed on ocular
Zhang, Xiaobo; M, Vimalin Jeyalatha; Qu, Yangluowa; He, Xin; Ou, Shangkun; Bu, Jinghua; Jia, Changkai; Wang, Junqi; Wu, Han; Liu, Zuguo; Li, Wei
Dry eye can damage the ocular surface and result in mild corneal epithelial defect to blinding corneal pannus formation and squamous metaplasia. Significant progress in the treatment of dry eye has been made in the last two decades; progressing from lubricating and hydrating the ocular surface with artificial tear to stimulating tear secretion; anti-inflammation and immune regulation. With the increase in knowledge regarding the pathophysiology of dry eye, we propose in this review the concept of ocular surface microenvironment. Various components of the microenvironment contribute to the homeostasis of ocular surface. Compromise in one or more components can result in homeostasis disruption of ocular surface leading to dry eye disease. Complete evaluation of the microenvironment component changes in dry eye patients will not only lead to appropriate diagnosis, but also guide in timely and effective clinical management. Successful treatment of dry eye should be aimed to restore the homeostasis of the ocular surface microenvironment.
Kim, Joowon; Hwang, Yunji; Kang, Seungheon; Kim, Minhye; Kim, Tae-Shin; Kim, Jay; Seo, Jeongmin; Ahn, Hyojeong; Yoon, Sungjoon; Yun, Jun Pil; Lee, Yae Lim; Ham, Hyunsoo; Yu, Hyeong Gon; Park, Sue K
Smartphone use has dramatically increased in recent years. Smartphones may have adverse health effects, particularly on the eyes, because users stare at the screen for a much longer time than they do with ordinary mobile phones. The objective of this study was to elucidate the relationship between smartphone use and ocular symptoms among adolescents. Information on smartphone use and ocular symptoms (blurring, redness, visual disturbance, secretion, inflammation, lacrimation and dryness) related to eye fatigue and strain from 715 adolescent subjects from three cities in Korea was obtained using a structured questionnaire. Ocular health was scored using number of ocular symptoms. Odds ratios (ORs), 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) and p-values for ocular symptoms were calculated with binomial and multinomial logistic regression models. Higher prevalence rates for ocular symptoms were observed in groups with greater exposure to smartphones (p smartphone use was associated with a higher likelihood of having multiple ocular symptoms (5-7 symptoms out of 7 symptoms; p = 0.005). Excessive/intermittent use (>2 hours daily and ≤2 hours continuously) and excessive/persistent use (>2 hours daily and >2 hours continuously) compared to shorter use (smartphones was associated with a higher likelihood of having multiple ocular symptoms (OR 3.05, 95% CI 1.51-6.19; p = 0.001). Increasing exposure to smartphones can have a negative impact on ocular health in adolescents.
Hertle, Richard W
The purpose of this report is to summarize an understanding of the ocular motor system in patients with albinism. Other than the association of vertical eccentric gaze null positions and asymmetric, (a) periodic alternating nystagmus in a large percentage of patients, the ocular motor system in human albinism does not contain unique pathology, rather has "typical" types of infantile ocular oscillations and binocular disorders. Both the ocular motor and afferent visual system are affected to varying degrees in patients with albinism, thus, combined treatment of both systems will maximize visual function.
Østergaard, Nina Bjerre; Dalgaard, Paw
of spoilage microorganisms in cottage cheese can cause undesirable alterations in flavour, odour, appearance and texture. Contamination and growth of psychrotolerant pseudomonads including Pseudomonas fragi and Pseudomonas putida has been reported for cottage cheese but the influence of these bacteria...... (pH 7.0) showed interesting results. Despite a lower pH value in the cottage cheese, compared to the dressing, more rapid growth was observed. This may be caused by insufficient amounts of oxygen in the cream dressing having a negative effect on growth of Pseudomonas spp. At 15˚C growth...
This is the first published case report en Colombia about pseudomona pseudomallei community acquired pneumonia. This uncommon pathogen is from the epidemiological standpoint a very important one and medical community should be aware to look after it in those patients where no other etiological pathogen is recovered. A brief summary about epidemiology is showed, emphasizing those regions where it can be found. Likewise, comments about the differential diagnosis are important since it should be considered in those patients where tuberculosis is suspected. This is particularly representative for countries with high tuberculosis rates. Furthermore, a microbiological review is shown, emphasizing on isolation techniques, descriptions about therapeutics and other regarding treatment issues according international standards. Finally; a description about the clinical picture, laboratory findings, treatment and evolution of the case reported are shown for discussion
Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Kirketerp-Møller, K.; Kristiansen, S.
Silver has been recognized for its antimicrobial properties for centuries. Most studies on the antibacterial efficacy of silver, with particular emphasis on wound healing, have been performed on planktonic bacteria. Our recent studies, however, strongly suggest that colonization of wounds involves...... bacteria in both the planktonic and biofilm modes of growth. The action of silver on mature in vitro biofilms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a primary pathogen of chronic infected wounds, was investigated. The results show that silver is very effective against mature biofilms of P. aeruginosa......, but that the silver concentration is important. A concentration of 5-10 ig/mL silver sulfadiazine eradicated the biofilm whereas a lower concentration (1 ig/mL) had no effect. The bactericidal concentration of silver required to eradicate the bacterial biofilm was 10-100 times higher than that used to eradicate...
Kofoed, Peter Kristian; Munch, Inger Christine; Larsen, Michael
Abstract. Purpose: To report the result of ranibizumab administration in an eye with ocular ischaemic syndrome. Methods: Fluorescein angiography, ocular pneumoplethysmography and retinal vessel calibre measurement. Results: An 85-year-old man with ocular ischaemic syndrome demonstrated vision los...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Apathy is frequently observed in numerous neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's, as well as neuropsychiatric disorders including schizophrenia. Apathy is defined as a lack of motivation characterized by diminished goal-oriented behavior and self-initiated activity. This study evaluated a chronic restraint stress (CRS protocol in modeling apathetic behavior, and determined whether administration of an anticholinesterase had utility in attenuating CRS-induced phenotypes. Methods We assessed behavior as well as regional neuronal activity patterns using FosB immunohistochemistry after exposure to CRS for 6 h/d for a minimum of 21 d. Based on our FosB findings and recent clinical trials, we administered an anticholinesterase to evaluate attenuation of CRS-induced phenotypes. Results CRS resulted in behaviors that reflect motivational loss and diminished emotional responsiveness. CRS-exposed mice showed differences in FosB accumulation, including changes in the cholinergic basal forebrain system. Facilitating cholinergic signaling ameliorated CRS-induced deficits in initiation and motivational drive and rescued immediate early gene activation in the medial septum and nucleus accumbens. Conclusions Some CRS protocols may be useful for studying deficits in motivation and apathetic behavior. Amelioration of CRS-induced behaviors with an anticholinesterase supports a role for the cholinergic system in remediation of deficits in motivational drive.
Zempo, Hirofumi; Suzuki, Jun-ichi; Watanabe, Ryo; Wakayama, Kouji; Kumagai, Hidetoshi; Ikeda, Yuichi; Akazawa, Hiroshi; Komuro, Issei; Isobe, Mitsuaki
Myocarditis is a clinically severe disease; however, no effective treatment has been established. The aim of this study was to determine whether cacao bean (Theobroma cacao) polyphenols ameliorate autoimmune myocarditis. We used an experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM) model in Balb/c mice. Mice with induced EAM were treated with a cacao polyphenol extract (CPE, n=12) or vehicle (n=12). On day 21, hearts were harvested and analyzed. Elevated heart weight to body weight and fibrotic area ratios as well as high cardiac cell infiltration were observed in the vehicle-treated EAM mice. However, these increases were significantly suppressed in the CPE-treated mice. Reverse transcriptase-PCR revealed that mRNA expressions of interleukin (Il)-1β, Il-6, E-selectin, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and collagen type 1 were lower in the CPE group compared with the vehicle group. The mRNA expressions of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-oxidase (Nox)2 and Nox4 were increased in the vehicle-treated EAM hearts, although CPE treatment did not significantly suppress the transcription levels. However, compared with vehicle treatment of EAM hearts, CPE treatment significantly suppressed hydrogen peroxide concentrations. Cardiac myeloperoxidase activity, the intensity of dihydroethidium staining and the phosphorylation of nuclear factor-κB p65 were also lower in the CPE group compared with the vehicle group. Our data suggest that CPE ameliorates EAM in mice. CPE is a promising dietary supplement to suppress cardiovascular inflammation and oxidative stress.
Marilita M. Moschos
Full Text Available The aim of this manuscript is to review the action and adverse effects of combined oral contraceptives (COCs on ocular tissues. The percentage of unwanted pregnancies and the subsequent abortions make contraception crucial worldwide. Over 100 million women around the world use common contraceptive methods, including intrauterine devices, combined estrogen and progestin oral contraceptives, as well as progestin only preparations (oral contraceptives, implants or injections. COCs are widely used for contraception, but they are also indicated in menorrhagia, endometriosis, acne and hirsutism, fibroid uterus and premenstrual syndrome. However, they have been associated with high rates of cardiovascular events, venous thromboembolic disease, ischemic strokes and breast cancer. The incidence of COCs-related ocular complications is estimated to be 1 in 230 000, including dry eye symptoms, corneal edema, lens opacities and retinal neuro-ophthalmologic or vascular complications. We may infer that the serious ocular complications of COCs can be prevented by eliminating the estrogen dosage and choosing third-generation progestins. In any case, doctors should take into consideration the systemic and ocular history of the patients before selecting any method of contraception.
Enéias Bezerra Gouveia
Full Text Available A gestação pode causar várias alterações no funcionamento do olho humano, tanto nas condições sistêmicas quanto em doenças oculares, sendo seus efeitos divididos em três categorias: alterações fisiológicas, mudanças em doenças oculares pré-existentes e alterações patológicas. O presente texto propõe uma revisão bibliográfica sobre o tema. Os autores pesquisaram os bancos de dados do PubMed (MEDLINE e LILACS.Pregnancy can cause several alterations in human eye function in healthy condition as well in ocular disease; these effects on the eyes are divided into three categories: physiologic alterations, ocular diseases changes already existing before the pregnancy, and pathological alterations. The present text proposes a bibliographical revision on the theme. The authors researched PubMed (MEDLINE and LILACS databases.
Marta Lucía Muñoz Cardona; Dionis Magnary Vallejo Mesa; José David Paulo Trujillo; Rodrigo Alberto Isaza Bermúdez
The most frequent primary headaches, including migraine variants, and intrinsic optic nerve disorders that produce headache, are reviewed. The latter are often accompanied by autonomic nervous system alterations which lead to vasomotor changes, frequently present in neuralgic processes known as headaches with disautonomic involvement. Epidemiological, semiological, clinical, and therapeutical aspects of different cranial, facial and ocular diseases that produce headache are included. Some phy...
Eduardo Ariel Ramos Gómez
Full Text Available La rehabilitación en oftalmología tiene como función fundamental lograr el máximo aprovechamiento posible del resto visual. El traumatismo ocular es considerado una de las entidades nosológicas frecuentes que conllevan a una rehabilitación visual. Las causas que provocan este tipo de trauma son variadas y dentro de estas, las agresiones con intención de provocar daños con secuelas son muy frecuentes. Es objetivo de esta revisión puntualizar la importancia de la rehabilitación en pacientes con traumatismo ocular e incentivar el buen accionar de todos los oftalmólogos en cuanto a su atención.The main goal of rehabilitation in ophthalmology is to use as much as possible the residual vision. Ocular trauma is considered one of the common diseases that imply visual rehabilitation. The causes of eye injuries are varied; among them assaults with intent to cause damage are the most common. The objective of this article was to point out the importance of rehabilitation in patients with ocular trauma and to encourage all the ophthalmologists to act accordingly.
Laties, A M; Fraunfelder, F T
To date, sildenafil citrate (Viagra) gives every evidence of being a safe drug for the eye despite a series of expressed concerns. A review of how its ocular safety profile has been identified offers insights into the strengths and weaknesses of present systems and resources for judging the ocular safety of Viagra or, for that matter, of any new drug. Such insights include: The great value of careful, informed assessment of preclinical information gleaned from laboratory experiments. By and large, such assessments point the way toward appropriate clinical evaluation. For Viagra, early in its development it was noted that besides exerting a major inhibitory effect on the intended target, the vascular-associated enzyme phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5), the drug also exerts a lesser but definite inhibitory effect on the closely related PDE6, located in the retina. For this reason, preclinical evaluation of the drug included electroretinography plus postmortem histology. In addition, an extended eye examination was incorporated into clinical protocols. The often chaotic but invaluable information stream that becomes available once marketing approval has been gained and large populations begin to use a drug. False alarms, misattribution, and erroneous information are the order of the day. Nevertheless, as information accumulates, patterns of response clarify and the true nature of special susceptibility for subpopulations, if any, becomes apparent. A role for the astute clinician remains: Subtle changes or unusual risks for subpopulations can be missed entirely for long periods of time. A manifest need for improvement in evaluation of postmarketing side-effects. This need has led to the establishment of a new discipline: pharmacoepidemiology. In ophthalmology, the National Registry of Drug Induced Ocular Side-Effects maintains a constant and invaluable surveillance. Examples are supplied to illustrate each of these major points: Our presentation will include data gleaned from
Full Text Available Background - Ocular surface disorders due to limbal stem cell deficiency are an important cause of ocular morbidity and visual loss. Although autologous limbal stem cell transplants have helped in the management of unilateral disease, allografts in those with bilateral disease often fail due to immunological reasons. The use of autologous buccal epithelium cultivated on amniotic membrane has been described as a useful approach in the management of this condition. It is the purpose of this study to explore the feasibility of using a novel thermo-gelatin polymer (TGP as a substrate to culture these cells, and to characterize them using RNA extraction and RT-PCR. Methods - Oral cheek mucosal biopsies were obtained from 5 adult patients undergoing Modified Osteo-Odonto Keratoprosthesis surgery. The specimens were transported to the laboratory in transport medium. The cells were released using enzymatic digestion and seeded in both convention culture medium and TGP. The resulting cellular growth was characterized using RNA extraction and RT-PCR. Results - Cells could be cultured from 4 of the 5 specimens. In one specimen, contamination occurred and this was discarded. In the other specimens, the cheek epithelial cells could be cultured in both the conventional culture medium and TGP, with equal ease. RT-PCR revealed the presence of K3, a marker for epithelial cells, and GAPDH indicating the presence of some adipose tissue as well. Conclusions - It is possible to culture autologous cheek mucosal epithelial cells using TGP, a synthetic scaffold, without the need for other biological substrates. Since the specimens are obtained from the oral cavity, stringent asepsis is required. Further studies are required for histopathological characterization of the cultured cells and to create a model for delivery onto the ocular surface of eyes with bilateral surface disease due to limbal stem cell deficiency.
Ravi Kumar Diddigam
Full Text Available BACKGROUND Worldwide, ocular trauma is an important cause of eye morbidity and a leading cause of non-congenital monocular blindness among children. In general, children are more susceptible to eye injuries because of their immature motor skills, limited common sense, tendency to imitate adult behaviour without evaluating risks, lessened emotional control, relative ignorance, and natural curiosity. Adult supervision is extremely important in preventing accidents. 1 PATIENTS AND METHODS The material for this study consisted of paediatric patients below 15 years of age who presented with history of different types of ocular injuries during the period from March 2007 to February 2010. In all cases, a thorough history was obtained from patients and their parents regarding the circumstances leading to the injury, the exact nature of the event and the object causing the injury. All the patients were also subjected to complete ophthalmic examination and followed up for 6 months. RESULTS 34 (68% were males and 16 (32% were females. The average age was 10.9 years (range 1-15 years. The highest incidence of blunt injuries was seen in age group of 11-15 years (58%. 20 (40% injuries occurred during domestic and leisure activities, 7(14% injuries occurred at work, 13 (26% during sports, 6 (12% were due to assault and 4 (8% from RTAs. CONCLUSION Blunt trauma to the eye causes a wide variety of damage to ocular tissues. Anterior or posterior segments are preferentially involved. Males were observed to be at increased risk for an eye injury necessitating admission to hospital.
Babar, Tariq Farooq; Khan, Mohammad Naeem; Hussain, Mahfooz; Shah, Shafaqat Ali; Khan, Mohammad Younas; Khan, Mohammad Daud
To describe the pattern of ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN), clinical presentations, the risk factors and treatment options. An observational case series. Khyber Institute of Ophthalmic Medical Sciences, Hayatabad Medical Complex, Peshawar, from April 2003 till August 2006. The study included 36 eyes of 35 patients with biopsy-proven ocular surface neoplasia. The details of patients regarding age, gender, laterality and risk factors were entered into a specially-designed proforma. Each patient was also assessed biomicroscopically for type and complications of ocular surface neoplasia. The frequency of OSSN was 0.37 among admitted hospital patients. Among 36 cases of OSSN, squamous cell carcinoma of the conjunctiva was the most common type of OSSN seen in 63.9%, followed by carcinoma in situ of conjunctiva in 25% and carcinoma in situ of cornea in 11.1%. Male patients outnumbered female (65.7% vs 34.3%) with 71.42% of patients above 60 years of age. The risk factors identified were: old age, ultraviolet B exposure and xeroderma pigmentosa. Treatment consisted of local resection with or without adjuvant therapy in 61.1%, exenteration in 30.5%, enucleation in 5.5% and chemo/radiotherapy in 2.7%. Intraocular invasion was seen in 5.5% and orbital spread in 30.5%. The frequency of OSSN was 0.37% among admitted patients. Identification of exact etiological factors will enable to formulate strategies that are likely to decrease the incidence of this disease and the associated morbidity and mortality.
Nagra, Manbir; Gilmartin, Bernard; Logan, Nicola S
To determine which biometric parameters provide optimum predictive power for ocular volume. Sixty-seven adult subjects were scanned with a Siemens 3-T MRI scanner. Mean spherical error (MSE) (D) was measured with a Shin-Nippon autorefractor and a Zeiss IOLMaster used to measure (mm) axial length (AL), anterior chamber depth (ACD) and corneal radius (CR). Total ocular volume (TOV) was calculated from T2-weighted MRIs (voxel size 1.0 mm(3)) using an automatic voxel counting and shading algorithm. Each MR slice was subsequently edited manually in the axial, sagittal and coronal plane, the latter enabling location of the posterior pole of the crystalline lens and partitioning of TOV into anterior (AV) and posterior volume (PV) regions. Mean values (±SD) for MSE (D), AL (mm), ACD (mm) and CR (mm) were -2.62±3.83, 24.51±1.47, 3.55±0.34 and 7.75±0.28, respectively. Mean values (±SD) for TOV, AV and PV (mm(3)) were 8168.21±1141.86, 1099.40±139.24 and 7068.82±1134.05, respectively. TOV showed significant correlation with MSE, AL, PV (all p<0.001), CR (p=0.043) and ACD (p=0.024). Bar CR, the correlations were shown to be wholly attributable to variation in PV. Multiple linear regression indicated that the combination of AL and CR provided optimum R(2) values of 79.4% for TOV. Clinically useful estimations of ocular volume can be obtained from measurement of AL and CR. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Leal Fernando Antônio de Macedo
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estudar a ocorrência de trauma ocular provocado por corpos estranhos superficiais durante a realização de atividades ocupacionais. MÉTODOS: Estudo prospectivo de pacientes portadores de trauma ocular ocupacional atendidos no serviço de urgência do Hospital Getúlio Vargas (HGV / Universidade Federal do Piauí (UFPI, no período de outubro de 1997 a março de 1999. Os seguintes dados foram coletados: idade, sexo, profissão, olho afetado, atividade realizada durante o trauma, natureza do corpo estranho, localização do mesmo e doença ocorrida. RESULTADOS: Foram estudados 713 pacientes, sendo 686 (96,21% do sexo masculino e 27 (3,79% do sexo feminino. Os pacientes foram acometidos principalmente na terceira década de vida, correspondendo a um total de 312 pacientes (43,75%. Com relação à atividade desenvolvida durante o trauma, 158 pacientes (22,16% eram metalúrgicos, 153 (21,46% serralheiros e 126 (17,67% mecânicos. No tocante ao corpo estranho, 489 (68,58% eram ferro e 47 (6,59% outros metais. Referente a localização, 587 corpos estranhos (81,64% estavam localizados na córnea, 75 (10,43% na conjuntiva tarsal e 49 (6,81% na conjuntiva bulbar. Além dos corpos estranhos 361 (48,39% dos pacientes apresentaram abrasão córneo-conjuntival. CONCLUSÃO: O corpo estranho superficial é importante causa de trauma ocular ocupacional. A atividade desenvolvida principalmente por indivíduos do sexo masculino na metalurgia, serralheria e mecânica foi a principal causa do trauma, sendo o ferro e outros metais os mais freqüentes corpos estranhos encontrados.
Shahid, Khadija; Kolomeyer, Anton M; Nayak, Natasha V; Salameh, Nura; Pelaez, Gina; Khouri, Albert S; Eck, Thomas T; Szirth, Ben
The current U.S. economic recession has resulted in a loss of income, housing, and healthcare coverage. Our major goal in this socioeconomic setting was to provide ophthalmic remote health screenings for urban soup kitchen and homeless populations in order to identify and refer undetected vision-threatening disease (VTD). We assessed visual acuity, blood pressure, pulse/oxygen saturation, body mass index, and intraocular pressure for 341 participants at soup kitchens as part of the homeless outreach program in Newark, NJ. History of diabetes, hypertension, and smoking, last ocular examination, and ocular history were noted. Imaging was performed with an 8.2 megapixel non-mydriatic retinal camera with high-speed Internet ready for off-site second opinion image evaluation. Positive VTD findings were identified in 105 participants (31%) (mean age, 53.6 years), of whom 78% were African American, 73% males, and 62% smokers. We detected glaucoma in 34 participants (32%), significant cataract in 22 (21%), diabetic retinopathy in 5 (5%), optic atrophy in 1 (1%), age-related macular degeneration in 1 (1%), and other retinal findings in 43 (41%). The incidence of VTDs was higher among this cohort than among study groups in previous screenings (31% vs. 12%). This finding shows an increase in ocular morbidity in a younger, at-risk population with elevated rates of hypertension, diabetes, and smoking. Functional visual impairment was 2.5 times higher than the national average (16% vs. 6.4%). Comprehensive, community-based screenings can provide more sensitive detection of VTDs in high-risk groups with low access to ophthalmic care and can be an integral part of recession solutions for improving healthcare.
Liu, Bing; Ding, Li; Xu, Xiaowen; Lin, Hongda; Sun, Chenglong; You, Linjun
Lidocaine hydrochloride ophthalmic gel is a novel ophthalmic preparation for topical ocular anesthesia. The study is aimed at evaluating the ocular and systemic pharmacokinetics of lidocaine hydrochloride 3.5 % ophthalmic gel in rabbits after ocular topical administration. Thirty-six rabbits were randomly placed in 12 groups (3 rabbits per group). The rabbits were quickly killed according to their groups at 0 (predose), 0.0833, 0.167, 0.333, 0.667, 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 8 h postdose and then the ocular tissue and plasma samples were collected. All the samples were analyzed by a validated LC-MS/MS method. The test result showed that the maximum concentration (C max) of lidocaine in different ocular tissues and plasma were all achieved within 20 min after drug administration, and the data of C max were (2,987 ± 1814) μg/g, (44.67 ± 12.91) μg/g, (26.26 ± 7.19) μg/g, (11,046 ± 2,734) ng/mL, and (160.3 ± 61.0) ng/mL for tear fluid, cornea, conjunctiva, aqueous humor, and plasma, respectively. The data of the elimination half-life in these tissues were 1.5, 3.2, 3.5, 1.9, and 1.7 h for tear fluid, cornea, conjunctiva, aqueous humor, and plasma, respectively. The intraocular lidocaine levels were significantly higher than that in plasma, and the elimination half-life of lidocaine in cornea, conjunctiva, and aqueous humor was relatively longer than that in tear fluid and plasma. The high intraocular penetration, low systemic exposure, and long duration in the ocular tissues suggested lidocaine hydrochloride 3.5 % ophthalmic gel as an effective local anesthetic for ocular anesthesia during ophthalmic procedures.
Full Text Available Subramaniam Suresh1, Saidin Nor-Masniwati1, Muhd Nor Nor-Idahriani1, Wan-Hitam Wan-Hazabbah1, Mohamed Zeehaida2, Embong Zunaina11Department of Ophthalmology, 2Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kelantan, MalaysiaBackground: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the immunoglobulin (Ig G avidity of serological toxoplasmosis testing in patients with ocular inflammation and to determine the clinical manifestations of ocular toxoplasmosis.Methods: A retrospective review of all patients presenting with ocular inflammation to the Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kelantan, Malaysia between 2005 and 2009 was undertaken. Visual acuity, clinical manifestations at presentation, toxoplasmosis antibody testing, and treatment records were analyzed.Results: A total of 130 patients with ocular inflammation were reviewed retrospectively. The patients had a mean age of 38.41 (standard deviation 19.24, range 6–83 years. Seventy-one patients (54.6% were found to be seropositive, of whom five (3.8% were both IgG and IgM positive (suggestive of recently acquired ocular toxoplasmosis while one (0.8% showed IgG avidity ≤40% (suggestive of recently acquired ocular toxoplasmosis and 65 patients (50.0% showed IgG avidity >40% (suggestive of reactivation of toxoplasmosis infection. Chorioretinal scarring as an ocular manifestation was significantly more common in patients with seropositive toxoplasmosis (P = 0.036. Eighteen patients (13.8% were diagnosed as having recent and/or active ocular toxoplasmosis based on clinical manifestations and serological testing.Conclusion: Ocular toxoplasmosis is a clinical diagnosis, but specific toxoplasmosis antibody testing helps to support the diagnosis and to differentiate between reactivation of infection and recently acquired ocular toxoplasmosis.Keywords: ocular toxoplasmosis, chorioretinal scar, toxoplasmosis antibody, IgG avidity test
Eda, I.; Takashima, S.; Kitahara, T.; Ohno, K.; Takeshita, K.
Unusual computed tomographic findings were observed in four patients with congenital ocular motor apraxia (COMA). These (CT) findings were characteristic in the posterior cranial fossa, with a dilated or deformed shape and size of the fourth ventricle, particularly its upper portion. One case revealed partial agenesis of the cerebellar vermis. It was suggested that the four patients subjected to CT showed abnormal topography of the cerebellar vermis or the brain stem. We postulate that these CT findings in COMA may have an important role in its pathogenesis.
Jasper, Smitha; Vedula, Satyanarayana S; John, Sheeja S; Horo, Saban; Sepah, Yasir J; Nguyen, Quan Dong
Ocular infection caused by Toxoplasma gondii, a parasite, may result in inflammation in the retina, choroid, and uvea, and consequently lead to complications such as glaucoma, cataract, and posterior synechiae. The objective of this systematic review was to assess the effects of adjunctive use of corticosteroids to anti-parasitic therapy versus anti-parasitic therapy alone for ocular toxoplasmosis. We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Trials Register (2016; Issue 11)), MEDLINE Ovid, Epub Ahead of Print, In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, MEDLINE Ovid Daily (January 1946 to December 2016), Embase (January 1980 to December 2016), Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences (LILACS (January 1982 to December 2016)), the ISRCTN registry (www.isrctn.com/editAdvancedSearch), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov), and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP; www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We used no date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 7 December 2016. We had planned to include randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials. Eligible trials would have enrolled participants of any age who were immunocompetent and were diagnosed with acute ocular toxoplasmosis. Included trials would have compared anti-parasitic therapy plus corticosteroids versus anti-parasitic therapy alone, different doses or times of initiation of corticosteroids. Two authors independently screened titles and abstracts retrieved through the electronic searches. We retrieved full-text reports of studies categorized as 'unsure' or 'include' after we reviewed the abstracts. Two authors independently reviewed each full-text report for eligibility. Discrepancies were resolved through discussion. We identified no completed or ongoing trial that was eligible for this Cochrane review. Although research has identified a wide
Full Text Available Objective To evaluate the predictive value of ocular trauma score(OTS in mechanical ocular injuries occurring in military forces,and compare the difference of OTS application between ocular injury caused by military training and non-military training.Methods The data of 633 inpatients from armed forces suffering from injury of 665 eyes were retrospectively reviewed.Of the 665 injured eyes,326 were injured during military training and 339 during non-military training.The likelihood of final visual acuity(VA calculated with the OTS score was compared with that by the present OTS study,and the correlation between the score and final VA was then analyzed.Results Compared with the distribution of final VA in standard OTS score,the ratio in category 1 was statistically different in present study(P 0.05.There were significant differences in ratio of category 3 between eyes injured by military and non-military training(P < 0.05,and both ratios in category 1 were significantly different compared with those in standard OTS(P < 0.01,e.g.the ratio of NLP was lower(50% vs 73%,P < 0.01;43% vs 73%,P < 0.01;and the ratio in category 2 was significantly different between the eyes injured by non-military training and standard OTS(P < 0.05.However,the OTS showed positive correlation with final VA in present study(P < 0.0001.Conclusion OTS calculated at initial examination may primarily provide a piece of prognostic information of mechanical ocular injuries,and is of special benefit for deciding a prompt management or for evacuation decision for severe ocular injuries caused by military training.
Benathen, Isaiah A.; Cazeau, Barbara; Joseph, Njeri
A simple method to study the consequences of bacterial antibiosis after interspecific competition between microorganisms is presented. Common microorganisms are used as the test organisms and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are used as the source of the inhibitor agents.
Further characterization of biosurfactant using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) revealed it as a rhamnolipid. Keywords: Mangrove ecosystems, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, biosurfactant, critical micelle concentration (CMC), FT-IR fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). African Journal of Biotechnology, ...
Webb, J.S.; Thompson, L.S.; James, S.
Bacteria growing in biofilms often develop multicellular, three-dimensional structures known as microcolonies. Complex differentiation within biofilms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa occurs, leading to the creation of voids inside microcolonies and to the dispersal of cells from within these voids...
Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Family Pseudomonadaceae) is an obligate aerobic, motile, gram negative bacillus.which is able to grow and survive in almost any environment and resistant to temperature extremes. It is involved in the etiology of several diseases i.
Werner, E.; Roe, F.; Bugnicourt, A.
In this study, stratified patterns of protein synthesis and growth were demonstrated in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms. Spatial patterns of protein synthetic activity inside biofilms were characterized by the use of two green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter gene constructs. One construct...
Background: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an important nosocomial pathogen that exhibits multiple drug resistance with increasing frequency, especially to carbapenems making patient treatment difficult. Carbapenem-resistance may be caused by porin gene mutations, active drug efflux, and carbapenemase production.
Tanzania Journal of Science ... This study evaluated acid ameliorative potential and their effects on maize growth of four organic residues namely wild spikenard, cordia, cowpea and pigeon peas ... The finding suggests different acid ameliorating potential of residues, pigeon peas and cordia being the most effective.
Bakker, P.A.H.M.; Pieterse, C.M.J.; Loon, L.C. van
Fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. have been studied for decades for their plant growth-promoting effects through effective suppression of soilborne plant diseases. The modes of action that play a role in disease suppression by these bacteria include siderophore-mediated competition for iron, antibiosis, production of lytic enzymes, and induced systemic resistance (ISR). The involvement of ISR is typically studied in systems in which the Pseudomonas bacteria and the pathogen are inoculated and rema...
Ten researches that may represent the progress in Chinese ocular trauma related studies were selected through voting by specialists from Chinese Ocular Trauma Society. These researches focused on the following fields: new strategies for the treatment of ocular trauma, study of vitreoretinal surgery and new technique application for severe ocular trauma, establishment of animal modal for basic research of ocular trauma, prevention of infectious endophthalmitis, clinical and basic study of ocular chemical burn, establishment of the public service and research platform of ocular trauma. These studies represented the level and influence of Chinese ocular trauma specialists in the international academic community and they were the landmark studies of our areas of expertise.
Full Text Available In coffee plantation, solid waste of coffee pulp is usually collected as heap nearby processing facilities for several months prior being used as compost. The practice is leading to the formation of odor and liquid which contaminate the environment. Experiments to evaluate the effect of natural soil ameliorant derived from coffee pulp and minerals were conducted at The Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute in Jember, East Java. The experiments were intended to optimize the use of coffee pulp to support farming sustainability and minimize negative impacts of solid waste disposal originated from coffee cherry processing. Prior to applications, coffee pulp was hulled to organic paste. The paste was then mixed with 10% minerals (b/b. Composition of the minerals was 50% zeolite and 50% rock phosphate powder. The ameliorant was characterized for their physical and chemical properties. Agronomic tests were conducted on coffee and cocoa seedling. The experiments were arranged according to Randomized Completely Design with 2 factors, consisted of natural ameliorant and inorganic fertilizer respectively. Natural ameliorant derived from coffee pulp was applied at 6 levels: 0, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 g dry ameliorant/seedling of 3 kg soil, equivalent to 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5% (b/b of ameliorant respectively. Inorganic fertilizer was applied at 2 levels: 0 and 2 g fertilizer/application of N-P-K compound fertilizer of 15-15-15 respectively. The inorganic fertilizer was applied 4 times during nursery of coffee and cocoa. The result of the experiment indicated that coffee pulp may be used as natural soil ameliorant. Composition of ameliorant of 90% coffee pulp and 10% of minerals has good physical and chemical characteristics for soil amelioration. The composition has high water holding capacity; cations exchange capacity, organic carbon and phosphorus contents which are favorable to increase soil capacity to support plant growth. Application of
can occurs in low‑speed (10–30 mph) collisions.[5,6] They may affect any ocular structure. Blunt ocular trauma may result from the mechanical force of a rapidly deployed airbag directly. Intermediary hard objects such as eyeglasses and pipes may cause penetrating eye injuries.[8‑11] Chemical burns may result from the.
Department of Ophthalmology, Pravara Institute of Medical Sciences and Rural Medical College, Loni, Maharashtra, India .... Inclusion criteria. (1) The patients with suspected posterior segment pathology having an opaque ocular media. (2) The patients with clear ocular media in whom .... Financial support and sponsorship.
Desirée C Murray
Full Text Available Ocular trauma is a significant cause of unilateral blindness in the Caribbean in both adults and children. In Trinidad and Tobago, blunt ocular injury will typically account for around a third of all referrals from the Accident and Emergency department to the ophthalmology unit.
Vernal disease was the commonest ocular morbidity seen constituting 349 cases (40.3%), ocular trauma 152 (17.6%), infective conjunctivitis 106 (12.3%) and refractive errors 89 (10.2%). The location of industries (rice mills, sawmills, cement factory) away from residential areas, availability of antiallergic drugs must be ...
Ocular health is one of the most important but most neglected and underestimated Public Health unit. Visual impairment as a result of ocular health problems play very complex roles in the life of affected persons, its effects include reduced productivity, anxiety and depression, poor learning and development abilities, higher ...
Objective: To report a case of an unusual ocular injury following a road traffic accident. Materials and Methods: A case report of a sixty – year – old female patient seen by the authors. The literature on ocular injures following facial trauma is reviewed. Results: An eye globe initially confirmed missing from its socket on clinical ...
We describe a rare case of noninvasive OSSN involving the entire cornea in a human immunodeficiency virus‑negative patient. The patient was successfully treated with no recurrence, after intact surgical removal, mitomycin C treatment, and cryotherapy. Keywords: Noninvasive ocular surface squamous neoplasia, ocular ...
Kijlstra, A.; Pedersen, E.
Despite large advances in the field of ocular toxoplasmosis, large gaps still exist in our knowledge concerning the epidemiology and pathophysiology of this potentially blinding infectious disease. Although ocular toxoplasmosis is considered to have a high health burden, still little is known about
Objective: To determine the optimal time and mode of administration of postoperative analgesics following ocular surgery. Background: Most elective ocular surgery are said to be accompanied by onlymild pain. This knowledge, however, is not available to the prospective patientand this usually results in undue fear of eye ...
This is a prospective study of all cases of motorcycle related accidents with involvement of the eyes seen at the Irrua Specialist Teaching Hospital from January 2005 to December 2005. The study was conducted to assess the severity of ocular trauma, ocular structures mostly affected and initial effect on visual acuity in such ...
Meenken, C.; Assies, J.; van Nieuwenhuizen, O.; Holwerda-van der Maat, W. G.; van Schooneveld, M. J.; Delleman, W. J.; Kinds, G.; Rothova, A.
This study was set up to determine the long term ocular and systemic sequelae in patients with severe congenital toxoplasmosis. Cross sectional and retrospective study of 17 patients with severe congenital toxoplasmosis. In addition to chorioretinitis (100%), the most common abnormal ocular features
Background. A positive Hutchinsonfs sign indicates an increased risk of ocular involvement in herpes zoster ophthalmicus (HZO). We examined the sensitivity of Hutchinsonfs sign as an indicator of ocular involvement in a consecutive series of patients presenting with HZO. Methods. We conducted a descriptive ...
The prevalence of ocular hazards in ophthalmic dispensing industry in south east Nigeria was carried out using 70 subjects drawn from different towns in the region. Tables were used to analyze the data obtained from his study. Results showed that ocular hazards are involved in ophthalmic dispensing depending on the ...
in the elderly. Both hospital and population-based studies indicate a large preponderance of injuries affecting males. (3, 6-8). Various studies show that there is .... and causes of ocular injuries, Grarbet Hospital, Nov. 2009-Oct. 2010. Types of ocular injuries. Sources/ Causes. Tools/ metal. Sharp object. Blunt object. Fall.
Results: Only 103 (26.4%) patients knew the type of diabetes mellitus they were suffering from. Knowledge on ocular effects of diabetes mellitus was low and only 15 (3.8%) knew that it could affect the ocular refraction with no patient mentioning that diabetes mellitus could cause cataract or diabetic retinopathy. Attitude to ...
Background: The work environment of cocoa farmers exposes them to several ocular hazards that predispose them to eye diseases and injuries. However, the extent of ocular injuries and health seeking patterns following these injuries are unknown among cocoa farmers in Ghana. Objectives: To determine the prevalence ...
Abstract. Background: The work environment of cocoa farmers exposes them to several ocular hazards that predispose them to eye diseases and injuries. However, the extent of ocular injuries and health seeking patterns following these injuries are unknown among cocoa farmers in Ghana. Objectives: To determine the ...
Background: Head injuries with ocular involvement are of great importance due to the visual morbidity and mortality which may result. Objective: To determine the pattern of ocular complications among cases of head injury seen in Memphys Hospital for Neurosurgery, Enugu, in south-eastern Nigeria. Patients and Methods: ...
Dr Chijioke Onyeknowu
SUMMARY. Objective: To ascertain the number, types and frequencies of ocular surgeries done at Ebonyi State University Teaching. Hospital (EBSUTH), Abakaliki, with a view to improving the overall surgical uptake. Methods: A retrospective review of ocular surgeries done at. EBSUTH between January 2003 and April ...
Jul 26, 2017 ... Background/Introduction: Macrophthalmia and microphthalmia are cardinal signs of many orbito-ocular and systemic diseases which are seen in northern Nigeria. Some cases of refractive error may also be directly related to the ocular axial length (AL). The need for an imaging parameter that will aid their ...
HIV/AIDS seen at the Sexually Transmitted. Infections/ Human Immunodeficiency Virus. (STI/HIV) clinic during this period was done. Of this number, 125 patients had ocular complications of. HIV/AIDS. The type of ocular manifestation was recorded and investigations/treatment offered noted. Most of these patients were seen ...
Injuries to the face and ocular structures could occur at the war front not only to the enemies, but also to unsuspecting friends of the security agents. We report here a case of ocular injury involving an air force personnel (lance corporal) who was mistakenly hit on the face by the back blast of a rocket‑propelled grenade shot ...
Results: The respondents' reported refraining from interacting with persons afflicted with ocular cancers along these lines: eating together 261/669 (39%), hugging 149/668 (22%), shaking hands 106/561 (19%), laying on the same bed 328/560 (59%), and contracting marriage 462/558 (83%) with ocular cancer patients.
Secchi, Antonio; Deligianni, Velika
Superficial ocular tissues are frequently exposed to damage produced by chemical compounds applied on or around the ocular surface for cosmetic, therapeutic or accidental reasons. An experimental test measuring objectively and in a reproducible way any potential damaging effect would certainly help in prospectively minimizing unwanted effects. The Draize eye test, although commonly employed to date, does not seem to be quite satisfactory in this respect. The limits of the Draize eye test and the results of some modified versions of the test are analysed. In particular, the good predictivity of the so-called low-volume Draize eye test and the recent findings of studies on the in-vitro and ex-vivo alternatives to the Draize eye test are presented. The Draize eye test, despite criticisms, has been used in the clinical setting for a long time and still remains the reference protocol. To date, only a combination of alternative methods, none of which is devoid of serious criticisms, seems to be able to exhaustively recognize potential irritants and avoiding for that purpose, in some cases, the use of living animals.
Sabermoghaddam, Ali A; Zarei-Ghanavati, Siamak; Abrishami, Mojtaba
The goal of this study was to compare higher-order aberrations before and after upper lid chalazion excision. Fourteen eyes from 12 patients (8 females, mean age: 28.7 ± 2.7 years) with upper lid chalazion were enrolled in this prospective interventional case series. Chalazia were excised by standard transconjunctival vertical incision. Ocular aberrations were evaluated by aberrometry (ZyWave) before and 2 months after chalazion excision. Root mean square of total higher-order aberrations decreased from 0.67 ± 0.12 to 0.43 ± 0.15 μm (P = 0.012) after excision. The root mean square of Zernike orders in the vertical and horizontal trefoil and horizontal coma were decreased after excision. Orbscan IIz tomography showed a statistically significant decrease in 5 mm zone irregularity (P = 0.027) and an increase in minimum simulated keratometry after surgery (P = 0.046). Chalazion increases higher-order aberrations, as measured by the Hartmann-Shack aberrometer, which could affect the preoperative evaluation and results of refractive surgery, especially wavefront-guided approaches. Chalazion excision could reduce ocular aberrations and is recommended before refractive surgeries.
Full Text Available AIM: To investigatethe relation between axial length(AL, age and ocular parameters.METHODS: A total of 360 subjects(360 eyeswith emmetropia or myopia were recruited. Refraction, center corneal thickness(CCT, AL, intraocular pressure(IOPwere measured by automatic-refractor, Pachymeter, A-mode ultrasound and non-contact tonometer, respectively. Corneal curvature(CC, anterior chamber depth(ACDand white-to-white distance(WWDwere measured by Orbscan II. Three dimensional frequency domain coherent optical tomography(3D-OCTwas used to examine the retinal nerve fiber layer thickness(RNFLT. The Pearson correlation coefficient(rand multiple regression analysis were performed to evaluate the relationship between AL, age and ocular parameters.RESULTS: The average AL was 24.15±1.26mm. With elongation of the AL, spherical equivalent(SE(r=-0.742,Pr=-0.395, Pr=-0.374, Pr=0.411, Pr=0.099, P=0.060and WWD(r=0.061, P=0.252. There was also a significant correlation between AL and age(P=0.001, SE(PPPCONCLUSION: In longer eyes, there is a tendency toward myopia, a flatter cornea, a deeper ACD and a thinner RNFLT. Age is an influencing factor for the AL as well.
Holland, G.N.; O' Connor, G.R.; Diaz, R.F.; Minasi, P.; Wara, W.M.
To investigate the role of cellular immunodeficiency in recurrent toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis, six Cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) with healed toxoplasmic lesions of the retina were immunosuppressed by total lymphoid irradiation. Three months prior to irradiation 30,000 Toxoplasma gondii organisms of the Beverley strain had been inoculated onto the macula of eye in each monkey via a pars plana approach. Toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis developed in each animal, and lesions were allowed to heal without treatment. During total lymphoid irradiation animals received 2000 centigrays (cGy) over a 7-week period. Irradiation resulted in an immediate drop in total lymphocyte counts and decreased ability to stimulate lymphocytes by phytohemagglutinin. Weekly ophthalmoscopic examinations following irradiation failed to show evidence of recurrent ocular disease despite persistent immunodeficiency. Four months after irradiation live organisms were reinoculated onto the nasal retina of the same eye in each animal. Retinochoroidal lesions identical to those seen in primary disease developed in five of six animals. Toxoplasma organisms therefore were able to proliferate in ocular tissue following the administration of immunosuppressive therapy. This study fails to support the hypothesis that cellular immunodeficiency alone will initiate recurrent toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis. Results suggest that reactivation of disease from encysted organisms involves factors other than suppression of Toxoplasma proliferation. If reactivation occurs by other mechanisms, however, cellular immunodeficiency then may allow development of extensive disease.
Holland, G.N.; O'Connor, G.R.; Diaz, R.F.; Minasi, P.; Wara, W.M.
To investigate the role of cellular immunodeficiency in recurrent toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis, six Cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) with healed toxoplasmic lesions of the retina were immunosuppressed by total lymphoid irradiation. Three months prior to irradiation 30,000 Toxoplasma gondii organisms of the Beverley strain had been inoculated onto the macula of eye in each monkey via a pars plana approach. Toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis developed in each animal, and lesions were allowed to heal without treatment. During total lymphoid irradiation animals received 2000 centigrays (cGy) over a 7-week period. Irradiation resulted in an immediate drop in total lymphocyte counts and decreased ability to stimulate lymphocytes by phytohemagglutinin. Weekly ophthalmoscopic examinations following irradiation failed to show evidence of recurrent ocular disease despite persistent immunodeficiency. Four months after irradiation live organisms were reinoculated onto the nasal retina of the same eye in each animal. Retinochoroidal lesions identical to those seen in primary disease developed in five of six animals. Toxoplasma organisms therefore were able to proliferate in ocular tissue following the administration of immunosuppressive therapy. This study fails to support the hypothesis that cellular immunodeficiency alone will initiate recurrent toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis. Results suggest that reactivation of disease from encysted organisms involves factors other than suppression of Toxoplasma proliferation. If reactivation occurs by other mechanisms, however, cellular immunodeficiency then may allow development of extensive disease
Varsha Madanlal Rathi
Full Text Available Context: Boston ocular surface prosthesis (BOSP is a scleral contact lens used in the management of patients who are rigid gas permeable (RGP failures as with corneal ectasias such as keratoconus and in those patients who have ocular surface disease such as Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS. Aim: To report utilization of BOSP in a tertiary eye care center in India. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed charts of 32 patients who received BOSP from July 2008 to May 2009. Indications for fitting these lenses, improvement in visual acuity (VA before and after lens fitting and relief of symptoms of pain and photophobia were noted. Paired t-test was used for statistical analysis using SPSS version 16.0 for Windows. Results: Thirty-two patients (43 eyes received these lenses. These consisted of 23 eyes of 17 patients who failed RGP trials for irregular astigmatism and corneal ectasia such as keratoconus and post radial keratotomy and scar and 20 eyes of 15 patients with SJS. Mean age of RGP failures was 27.94 years. Pre- and post-BOSP wear mean LogMAR VA was 1.13 and 0.29, respectively, in RGP failures. The P value was statistically significant (P 2 lines in 7/20 eyes (35% with SJS, with improvement in symptoms. Conclusion: BOSP improves VA in patients who have irregular astigmatism as in ectasias and RGP failures and improves vision and symptoms in patients with SJS.
Rathi, Varsha Madanlal; Mandathara, Preeji Sudharman; Dumpati, Srikanth; Vaddavalli, Pravin K; Sangwan, Virender S
Context: Boston ocular surface prosthesis (BOSP) is a scleral contact lens used in the management of patients who are rigid gas permeable (RGP) failures as with corneal ectasias such as keratoconus and in those patients who have ocular surface disease such as Stevens–Johnson syndrome (SJS). Aim: To report utilization of BOSP in a tertiary eye care center in India. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed charts of 32 patients who received BOSP from July 2008 to May 2009. Indications for fitting these lenses, improvement in visual acuity (VA) before and after lens fitting and relief of symptoms of pain and photophobia were noted. Paired t-test was used for statistical analysis using SPSS version 16.0 for Windows. Results: Thirty-two patients (43 eyes) received these lenses. These consisted of 23 eyes of 17 patients who failed RGP trials for irregular astigmatism and corneal ectasia such as keratoconus and post radial keratotomy and scar and 20 eyes of 15 patients with SJS. Mean age of RGP failures was 27.94 years. Pre- and post-BOSP wear mean LogMAR VA was 1.13 and 0.29, respectively, in RGP failures. The P value was statistically significant (P 2 lines in 7/20 eyes (35%) with SJS, with improvement in symptoms. Conclusion: BOSP improves VA in patients who have irregular astigmatism as in ectasias and RGP failures and improves vision and symptoms in patients with SJS. PMID:21666311
Candia, Oscar A; Alvarez, Lawrence J
This article discusses three largely unrecognized aspects related to fluid movement in ocular tissues; namely, (a) the dynamic changes in water permeability observed in corneal and conjunctival epithelia under anisotonic conditions, (b) the indications that the fluid transport rate exhibited by the ciliary epithelium is insufficient to explain aqueous humor production, and (c) the evidence for fluid movement into and out of the lens during accommodation. We have studied each of these subjects in recent years and present an evaluation of our data within the context of the results of others who have also worked on electrolyte and fluid transport in ocular tissues. We propose that (1) the corneal and conjunctival epithelia, with apical aspects naturally exposed to variable tonicities, are capable of regulating their water permeabilities as part of the cell-volume regulatory process, (2) fluid may directly enter the anterior chamber of the eye across the anterior surface of the iris, thereby representing an additional entry pathway for aqueous humor production, and (3) changes in lens volume occur during accommodation, and such changes are best explained by a net influx and efflux of fluid.
Justus G Garweg
Full Text Available Although parasite-mediated host cell lysis is deemed to be an important cause of tissue destruction in ocular toxoplasmosis (OT, the severity of the disease is probably correlated with hypersensitivity and inflammation. Notwithstanding, the mechanisms that regulate the inflammatory process in recurrent OT are poorly understood. Recent evidence has identified interleukin (IL 17 as a marker for disease severity. The ocular and cerebral presence of this cytokine is generally associated with the induction of autoimmune responses in the brain and the eye. Indeed, there are indications that autoimmunity may contribute to clinical variability in the activity of OT. IL-23, which induces the proliferation of IL-17-producing cells and IL-27, which is a counterplayer to IL-17, may regulate T(H-1-cell-mediated responses in OT. The importance of these cytokines in experimental models of uveitis and encephalitis has been recently reported. CD25(+ regulatory T-cells may control the local inflammatory response and protect the host against collateral inflammatory tissue damage. The responses of these cells to OT may be suitably tailored to cope with either an acquired or a congenital aetiology. Knowledge relating to immunoreactivity in OT has grown impressively during the past few years. Its characteristic and variable features have been identified and the potential relevance of autoimmunity has been assessed. In light of this knowledge, potential future treatment options have been considered.
Frane, S L; Sholtz, R I; Lin, W K; Mutti, D O
Acquired nonaccommodative esotropia describes the sudden onset of a constant, comitant strabismus of idiopathic origin in children >6 months of age. We present a case of acquired nonaccommodative esotropia at 20 months of age in a subject participating in the Berkeley Infant Biometry Study, a longitudinal study of emmetropization and ocular component development in infants between 3 months and 3 years of age. Ocular components for this child were normal before the onset of strabismus (within 2 SD's of the mean for orthotropic study participants) for refractive error, corneal power, lens radii, lens power, and ocular axial dimensions. Refractive error postsurgically was significantly more hyperopic and crystalline lens power lower than average at +2.38 D and 37.2 D, respectively. The lack of abnormal ocular parameters is consistent with the idiopathic etiology of acute onset esotropia. This case suggests that ocular component values may not be useful for assessing the risk of acquired nonaccommodative esotropia.
Full Text Available Purpose: Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs mediated resistance is more prevalent worldwide, especially among Gram-negative bacterial isolates, conferring resistance to the expanded spectrum cephalosporins. As limited data were available on the prevalence of ESBLs in this area, the current study was undertaken to determine the prevalence, antibacterial resistance patterns, and molecular detection and characterization of ESBL encoding resistance genes among ocular Gram-negative bacterial isolates from ocular infections. Materials and Methods: A prospective study was done on 252 ocular Gram-negative bacterial isolates recovered from ocular infections during a study period from February 2011 to January 2014. All isolates were subjected to detection of ESBLs by cephalosporin/clavulanate combination disc test and their antibacterial resistance pattern was studied. Molecular detection and characterization of ESBL encoding blaTEM -, blaSHV , blaOXA -, and blaCTX-M (phylogenetic groups 1, 2, 9, and 8/25 resistance genes by multiplex polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequence analysis. Results: Of all Gram-negative bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (44% was the most common strain, followed by Enterobacter agglomerans and Klebsiella pneumoniae each (10%. Among the 252, 42 (17% were ESBL producers. The major source of ESBL producers were corneal scraping specimens, highest ESBL production was observed in P. aeruginosa 16 (38% and Escherichia coli 7 (16.6%. Among ESBL-producing genes, the prevalence of blaTEM -gene was the highest (83% followed by blaOXA -gene (35%, blaSHV -gene (18.5%, and blaCTX-M-1 -gene (18.5% alone or together. Conclusion: The higher rate of prevalence of ESBLs-encoding genes among ocular Gram-negative bacteria is of great concern, as it causes limitation to therapeutic options. This regional knowledge will help in guiding appropriate antibiotic use which is highly warranted.
Full Text Available Background: Although ocular trauma is preventable public health problem throughout the world it is still one of the common causes of ophthalmic morbidity and monocular blindness. There are no published studies on pattern and severity of ocular trauma in Uttarakhand. The present study analyzes the pattern and visual outcome of ocular trauma in this region. Methods: Study design: Prospective hospital-based study. Settings: Patients of ocular trauma presenting to Ophthalmology OPD and emergency department of Himalayan Institute of Medical Sciences, Dehradun. Participants: All ocular injury patients seen for the first time during the period January to December 2008. Results: A total of 88 patients, and 103 eyes, were studied. Men had two fold higher rate of ocular injury than women. The mean age of presentation was 31.2 + 13.6 years (range: 6 - 80 years. The predominant age group of patients was 21-40 years, 55.29 % (n = 47. Eye injuries related to road traffic accident were seen in 37.86% of eyes. Industrial workers were more frequently involved in ocular trauma (23.86%. Closed globe injuries were noted in 55 eyes (53.39% and open globe injuries were noted in 40 eyes (38.83%. Eight eyes (7.76% suffered from chemical injuries. The initial presenting visual acuity of patients with blunt ocular trauma was better than penetrating injury. Eye with better visual acuity at presentation had better visual prognosis at 6 months. Conclusion: Ocular injuries were common in young males. Road traffic accidents related eye injuries were noted in significant number of cases. Strict implementation of traffic rules, health education and preventive strategies may help to decrease the occurrence of ocular injuries.
Hammond, John H; Dolben, Emily F; Smith, T Jarrod; Bhuju, Sabin; Hogan, Deborah A
In Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the transcription factor Anr controls the cellular response to low oxygen or anoxia. Anr activity is high in oxygen-limited environments, including biofilms and populations associated with chronic infections, and Anr is necessary for persistence in a model of pulmonary infection. In this study, we characterized the Anr regulon in biofilm-grown cells at 1% oxygen in the laboratory strain PAO1 and in a quorum sensing (QS)-deficient clinical isolate, J215. As expected, transcripts related to denitrification, arginine fermentation, high-affinity cytochrome oxidases, and CupA fimbriae were lower in the Δanr derivatives. In addition, we observed that transcripts associated with quorum sensing regulation, iron acquisition and storage, type VI secretion, and the catabolism of aromatic compounds were also differentially expressed in the Δanr strains. Prior reports have shown that quorum sensing-defective mutants have higher levels of denitrification, and we found that multiple Anr-regulated processes, including denitrification, were strongly inversely proportional to quorum sensing in both transcriptional and protein-based assays. We also found that in LasR-defective strains but not their LasR-intact counterparts, Anr regulated the production of the 4-hydroxy-2-alkylquinolines, which play roles in quorum sensing and interspecies interactions. These data show that Anr was required for the expression of important metabolic pathways in low-oxygen biofilms, and they reveal an expanded and compensatory role for Anr in the regulation of virulence-related genes in quorum sensing mutants, such as those commonly isolated from infections. Pseudomonas aeruginosa causes acute ocular, soft tissue, and pulmonary infections, as well as chronic infections in the airways of cystic fibrosis patients. P. aeruginosa uses quorum sensing (QS) to regulate virulence, but mutations in the gene encoding the master regulator of QS, lasR, are frequently observed in
Tzelikis Patrick Frensel de Moraes
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar e comparar com a literatura o perfil dos pacientes portadores de colobomas oculares, bem como verificar a acuidade visual, alterações oculares associadas e alterações sistêmicas apresentadas pelos mesmos. MÉTODOS: Foram estudados retrospectivamente 18 pacientes com diagnóstico de coloboma ocular matriculados no serviço de Visão Subnormal do Hospital São Geraldo da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (HSG - HCUFMG. Foram avaliados: sexo, idade, raça, história familiar de anomalias oculares, história gestacional, tipo de coloboma, localização, bilateralidade, presença de microftalmia ou anoftalmia, alterações oculares concomitantes, e associação com doenças sistêmicas e acuidade visual. RESULTADO: Dez (55,6% pacientes eram do sexo feminino, 15 (83,3% eram leucodérmicos. A idade variou de 4 a 57 anos, com média de 9,5 anos. Apenas 3 (16,7% apresentavam história familiar para coloboma. Todos apresentavam história gestacional negativa para qualquer intercorrência. Houve acometimento bilateral em 100% dos casos, com microftalmia presente em 6 (33,3% casos. O coloboma foi típico em 14 (77,8% pacientes, sendo o coloboma mais comum o retinocoroidal ocorrendo em 16 (88,9% pacientes. 50% dos pacientes apresentavam o coloboma como achado isolado, e a outra metade associado a alguma doença sistêmica. Em 14 (77,8% pacientes foi encontrado algum tipo de alteração ocular além do coloboma. CONCLUSÃO: O exame oftalmológico completo é muito importante tanto no diagnóstico quanto no prognóstico de pacientes com coloboma, visto que este pode estar associado a uma baixa visual importante, além de poder estar relacionados a diferentes anomalias ou síndromes.
Biphenyl-grown cells and cell extracts prepared from biphenyl-grown cells of Pseudomonas sp. strain LB400 oxidize a much wider range of chlorinated biphenyls than do analogous preparations from Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes KF707. These results are attributed to differences in th...
Pennington, James E.; Hickey, William F.; Blackwood, Linda L.; Arnaut, M. Amin
Chronic respiratory infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a leading clinical problem among patients with cystic fibrosis. Because antimicrobial agents are usually ineffective in eradicating these infections, additional therapeutic or prophylactic measures should be considered. In this study, an experimental guinea pig model of chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa bronchopneumonia was utilized to determine whether active immunization with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) P. aeruginosa antigen may favorab...
Zhao, Hui; Atkinson, John; Gulesserian, Sara; Zeng, Zhilan; Nater, Jenny; Ou, Jimmy W; Yang, Peng; Morrison, Karen; Coleman, Jeffrey; Malik, Faisal; Challita-Eid, Pia M; Karki, Sher; Aviña, Hector; Hubert, René S; Capo, Linnette; Snyder, Josh; Moon, Sung-Ju; Luethy, Roland; Mendelsohn, Brian A; Stover, David R; Doñate, Fernando
AGS-16C3F is an antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) against ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 3 (ENPP3) containing the mcMMAF linker-payload currently in development for treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma. AGS-16C3F and other ADC have been reported to cause ocular toxicity in patients by unknown mechanisms. To investigate this toxicity, we developed an in vitro assay using human corneal epithelial cells (HCEC) and show that HCEC internalized AGS-16C3F and other ADCs by macropinocytosis, causing inhibition of cell proliferation. We observed the same mechanism for target-independent internalization of AGS-16C3F in fibroblasts and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). Macropinocytosis-mediated intake of macromolecules is facilitated by the presence of positive charges or hydrophobic residues on the surface of the macromolecule. Modification of AGS-16C3F, either by attachment of poly-glutamate peptides, mutation of residue K16 to D on AGS-16C3F (AGS-16C3F(K16D)), or decreasing the overall hydrophobicity via attachment of polyethylene glycol moieties, significantly reduced cytotoxicity against HCEC and other primary cells. Rabbits treated with AGS-16C3F showed significant ocular toxicity, whereas those treated with AGS-16C3F(K16D) presented with less severe and delayed toxicities. Both molecules displayed similar anti-tumor activity in a mouse xenograft model. These findings establish a mechanism of action for target-independent toxicities of AGS-16C3F and ADCs in general, and provide methods to ameliorate these toxicities. Copyright ©2018, American Association for Cancer Research.
Full Text Available The aim of this work is to investigate changes in the ocular surface (OS and tear film (TF by means of questionnaire-based subjective symptoms, TF break-up time, Schirmer test, and TF analysis in women working with computers and to analyze the effects of the oral supplementation with antioxidants/omega 3 fatty acids (A/ω3 in the OS outcomes. Women aged 40–65 years (n=148 were recruited at the Administrative Offices of Valencia (Spain and distributed into two age groups, 40–52 years (AGE1; n=87 and 53–65 years (AGE2; n=61, and then subdivided according to being (or not computer users (CUG; NCUG during the workday. Homogeneous subgroups were randomly assigned (or not to the daily intake of three pills of A/ω3 for three months. At baseline and at the end of follow-up, personalized interviews and ocular examination were done. Reflex tear samples were collected from the inferior meniscus and processed for a multiplexed particle-based flow cytometry assay to measure proinflammatory molecules. Statistics were performed using the SPSS 15.0 program. The OS pathology was clinically evident in the AGE1-CUG (33% versus the AGE2-CUG (64% of women. Significantly higher interleukins-1β and -6 tear levels were found in the AGE1 versus the AGE2 women employees (P=0.006 and P=0.001, resp., as well as in the CUG versus the NCUG (P=0.001 and P=0.000, resp.. Supplementation with A/ω3 positively influenced the OS pathology as manifested by the amelioration of the clinical signs/symptoms related to computer uses. Strategies involving a safe environment and oral micronutrient supplements may be managed within eye-care standards in older women.
Ribelles, Alfredo; Galbis-Estrada, Carmen; Parras, Maria A; Vivar-Llopis, Bárbara; Marco-Ramírez, Carla; Diaz-Llopis, Manuel
The aim of this work is to investigate changes in the ocular surface (OS) and tear film (TF) by means of questionnaire-based subjective symptoms, TF break-up time, Schirmer test, and TF analysis in women working with computers and to analyze the effects of the oral supplementation with antioxidants/omega 3 fatty acids (A/ω3) in the OS outcomes. Women aged 40-65 years (n = 148) were recruited at the Administrative Offices of Valencia (Spain) and distributed into two age groups, 40-52 years (AGE1; n = 87) and 53-65 years (AGE2; n = 61), and then subdivided according to being (or not) computer users (CUG; NCUG) during the workday. Homogeneous subgroups were randomly assigned (or not) to the daily intake of three pills of A/ω3 for three months. At baseline and at the end of follow-up, personalized interviews and ocular examination were done. Reflex tear samples were collected from the inferior meniscus and processed for a multiplexed particle-based flow cytometry assay to measure proinflammatory molecules. Statistics were performed using the SPSS 15.0 program. The OS pathology was clinically evident in the AGE1-CUG (33%) versus the AGE2-CUG (64%) of women. Significantly higher interleukins-1β and -6 tear levels were found in the AGE1 versus the AGE2 women employees (P = 0.006 and P = 0.001, resp.), as well as in the CUG versus the NCUG (P = 0.001 and P = 0.000, resp.). Supplementation with A/ω3 positively influenced the OS pathology as manifested by the amelioration of the clinical signs/symptoms related to computer uses. Strategies involving a safe environment and oral micronutrient supplements may be managed within eye-care standards in older women.
Callegan, M C; Booth, M C; Gilmore, M S
Time-kill curve methodology was used to assess the pharmacodynamics of two fluoroquinolones, ofloxacin and ciprofloxacin, against six strains representing the most common ocular pathogens: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Serratia marcescens, and Haemophilus influenzae. For time-kill studies, ofloxacin and ciprofloxacin solutions were prepared at concentrations of 0.5 x, 1.0 x, 2.0 x, and 3.0 x the MIC (minimal inhibitory concentration) for each respective strain. Inocula were prepared by diluting overnight cultures to final concentrations of 10(2), 10(3), 10(4), and 10(5) cfu (colony-forming units)/mL in each antibiotic solution. Growth controls were included. Viability counts of antibiotic-containing and control bacterial suspensions were performed at 0, 10, 20, 30, 60, 90, 120, and 180 minutes. In general, the kill rates of ofloxacin at 1.0 x, 2.0 x, and 3.0 x the MIC were significantly faster than the kill rates of ciprofloxacin by approximately 30 minutes, regardless of the bacterial concentration tested. At 0.5 x MIC, the kill kinetics of ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin were similar, regardless of the strain tested. At 1.0 x MIC, ofloxacin achieved 99.9% killing of P. aeruginosa and S. aureus within 30 minutes, and S. epidermidis and S. marcescens within 90 minutes. Overall, the kill kinetics of both quinolones for H. influenzae were similar, while neither quinolone achieved 99.9% killing of S. pneumoniae, regardless of the antibiotic concentration tested. Time-kill curve analyses in the present study demonstrate that ofloxacin achieved killing of the majority of ocular pathogens tested at rates equivalent to or faster than that of ciprofloxacin. Both fluoroquinolones were more effective against nonencapsulated bacteria than against encapsulated bacteria.
Romanowski, Eric G.; Yates, Kathleen A.; Mah, Francis S.
Abstract Purpose: Brilacidin (BRI), a novel defensin mimetic, was evaluated as an ocular anti-infective. Methods: In vitro: Potency based on MIC90s was compared for 50 Staphylococcus aureus (SA), 50 Staphylococcus epidermidis (SE), and 25 each of Streptococcus pneumonia (SP), Streptococcus viridans (SV), Moraxella (MS), Haemophilus influenzae (HI), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA), and Serratia marcescens (SM). In vivo: Using established methods, ocular toxicity was graded with Draize testing. For efficacy testing, both corneas of 24 rabbits were infected with methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), whereas the corneal epithelium was removed in the left eye. After 4 h, 21 topical drops over 5 h were administered to 4 groups: BRI 0.5%, vancomycin (VAN) 5%, saline, and no treatment. The eyes were clinically graded and the corneas were harvested for colony counts. Results: In vitro: Both SA and SE had the lowest minimum inhibitory concentrations among the bacterial groups. The MIC90s to BRI for SP, SV, MS, HI, PA, and SM were 4, 32, 256, 32, 16, and 128-fold higher, respectively, than SA and SE. In vivo: Draize testing determined BRI 0.5% to be minimally irritating. For abraded corneas, BRI was not statistically different from VAN for reducing MRSA. BRI was bactericidal. For intact corneas, VAN reduced more CFU than BRI. BRI reduced CFU in abraded corneas more than intact corneas suggesting poor corneal penetration. Conclusions: BRI has Gram-positive in vitro activity; topical BRI 0.5% was minimally irritating; and BRI 0.5% was equally efficacious as VAN in a MRSA keratitis model when the corneal epithelium was removed. PMID:26501484
Cox, C D
Cell-free extracts of Pseudomonas aeruginosa contain enzyme activities which reduce Fe(III) to Fe(II) when iron is provided in certain chelates, but not when the iron is uncomplexed. Iron reductase activities for two substrates, ferripyochelin and ferric citrate, appear to be separate enzymes because of differences in heat stabilities, in locations in fractions of cell-free extracts, in reductant specificity, and in apparent sizes during gel filtration chromatography. Ferric citrate iron reductase is an extremely labile activity found in the cytoplasmic fraction, and ferripyochelin iron reductase is a more stable activity found in the periplasmic as well as cytoplasmic fraction of extracts. A small amount of activity detectable in the membrane fraction seemed to be loosely associated with the membranes. Although both enzymes have highest activity reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, reduced glutathione also worked with ferripyochelin iron reductase. In addition, oxygen caused an irreversible loss of a percentage of the ferripyochelin iron reductase following sparge of reaction mixtures, whereas the reductase for ferric citrate was not appreciably affected by oxygen. PMID:6766439
Mucoid strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, associated almost exclusively with chronic respiratory infections in patients with cystic fibrosis, possess a capsule composed of alginic acid similar to one produced by Azotobacter vinelandii. Recent reports have provided evidence that the biosynthetic pathway for alginate in P. aeruginosa may differ from the pathway proposed for A. vinelandii in that synthesis in P. aeruginosa may occur by way of the Entner-Doudoroff pathway. Incorporation of isotope from (6-/sup 14/C)glucose into alginate by both P. aueroginosa and A. vinelandii was 10-fold greater than that from either (1-/sup 14/C)/sup -/ or (2-/sup 14/C)glucose, indicating preferential utilization of the bottom half of the glucose molecule for alginate biosynthesis. These data strongly suggest that the Entner-Doudoroff pathway plays a major role in alginate synthesis in both P. aeruginosa and A. vinelandii. The enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism in mucoid strains of P. aeruginosa appear to be unchanged whether alignate is actively produced or not and activities do not differ significantly from nonmucoid strain PAO.
Alejandro Arias Díaz
Full Text Available Se realizó una descripción de los aspectos clínicos y el manejo terapéutico del trauma ocular en edades pediátricas. Se identifican las particularidades a abordar en estos pacientes con presencia de cataratas traumáticas y/o heridas penetrantes corneales, por las diferencias en el manejo de las mismas en estas edades y en la adultez. Se hace énfasis en el hifema traumático.The clinical aspects and the treatment management of the ocular trauma at pediatric ages were described. Those particularities to be taken into account when approaching these patients who suffer traumatic cataracts and/or penetrating corneal injuries were indentified, on the account of the differences in the management of this disease between children and adults. Emphasis was made on the description of traumatic hyphema.
Sílvia Ligório Fialho
Full Text Available O método mais comum de administração de drogas no olho é por meio de colírios. Entretanto, por este método, não é possível atingir a concentração terapêutica nos fluidos e tecidos posteriores do olho. A administração sistêmica apresenta reduzido acesso ao segmento posterior do olho devido à presença das barreiras oculares. Injeções subconjuntivais e retrobulbares não são capazes de proporcionar níveis adequados da droga, e a injeção intravítrea é método invasivo, inconveniente e que apre-senta riscos de perfuração do bulbo ocular ou descolamento da retina. A iontoforese, no entanto, apresenta-se como alternativa para o transporte de doses terapêuticas de drogas para o segmento posterior do olho. A iontoforese é uma técnica que consiste na administração de drogas para o organismo através dos tecidos, utilizando um campo elétrico. O eletrodo ativo, que se encontra em contato com a droga, é colocado no local a ser tratado, e um segundo eletrodo, com a finalidade de fechar o circuito elétrico, é colocado em outro local do organismo. O campo elétrico facilita o transporte da droga, que deve se encontrar, preferencialmente, na forma ionizada. A iontoforese pode ser considerada como um método seguro e não invasivo de transporte de drogas para locais específicos do olho. Aplicada experimentalmente para o tratamento de doenças oculares, esta técnica tem evoluído muito nos últimos anos e, atualmente, testes clínicos de fase III encontram-se em andamento.The most traditional method of ocular drug delivery is through the use of eyedrops. However, by this method, the therapeutic concentration in deep ocular fluids and tissues can not be efficiently reached. Systemic administration presents poor access to the posterior segment of the eye due to ocular barriers. Subconjuntival and retrobulbar injections are not able to produce adequate levels of the drug, and intravitreal injection is an invasive and problematic
Marta Lucía Muñoz Cardona
Full Text Available The most frequent primary headaches, including migraine variants, and intrinsic optic nerve disorders that produce headache, are reviewed. The latter are often accompanied by autonomic nervous system alterations which lead to vasomotor changes, frequently present in neuralgic processes known as headaches with disautonomic involvement. Epidemiological, semiological, clinical, and therapeutical aspects of different cranial, facial and ocular diseases that produce headache are included. Some physiopathological elements that may help to analyze painful craniofacial processes are discussed. Secondary headaches and common facial neuralgias, on the other hand, are also considered because they may confuse the differential diagnosis. Se revisan las cefaleas primarias más frecuentes que comprometen las estructuras oculares y vecinas al globo ocular, las variantes de la migraña y las alteraciones propias del nervio óptico que alteran la función visual y que se acompañan no solamente de síntomas dolorosos sino también de trastornos vasomotores debidos a alteraciones del sistema nervioso autónomo que suelen ser comunes en algunos procesos neurálgicos llamados ahora cefaleas con compromiso disautonómico. En este artículo se comentan los elementos epidemiológicos de las diferentes enfermedades craneales, faciales y oculares que cursan con cefalea; las diferencias clínicas entre las mismas y su presentación semiológica, al igual que algunos elementos terapéuticos. Se discuten además algunos elementos fisiopatológicos de gran utilidad en el análisis de los procesos dolorosos craneofaciales y el perfil temporal de los mismos; también se comentan algunas cefaleas secundarias que comparten con las primarias elementos que se prestan a confusión en la clínica. Finalmente, se hace un análisis de las neuralgias faciales comunes.
Aggarwal, Himanshi; Kumar, Pradeep; Singh, Raghuwar Dayal
When an enucleation or exenteration procedure removes the entire orbital contents but not the eyelids, an abnormally large orbital socket is created that would require an equally sized volume enhancing, flush fitting ocular prosthesis. The solid acrylic prosthesis would rest on or in the lower fornix and owing to its weight, causes distortion of the lower eyelid and/or asymmetrical alignment of the entire palpebral fissure. The aim of this article was to describe a method of fabricating a pne...
Violeta Rodríguez Rodríguez
Full Text Available Se describe el caso de un paciente varón de 22 años, miope, sometido a vitrectomía pars plana 23 G en ojo único (valioso, por desprendimiento de retina regmatógeno. A las 24 horas presentó pérdida de visión, dolor, signos inflamatorios en globo y anejos oculares. Acudió al Servicio de Emergencias, donde se decidió su ingreso hospitalario para la toma de muestra y la aplicación de inyección intravítrea de vancomicina (1 mg/0,1 mL y ceftazidima (2 mg/0,1 mL, con lo que mostró mejoría clínica. El estudio microbiológico reportó Pseudomona aeruginosa sensible a la ceftazidima y a la ciprofloxacina. La mejor visualización fundoscópica al quinto día posintravítrea permitió observar depósitos blanquecinos en la interfaz aceite de silicona-retina, y se decidió la extracción de aceite por incisiones mixtas 23 g y 20 g (infusión, endoiluminación y extracción respectivamente, lavado de cámara anterior, cámara vítrea, reposición de aceite de silicón y segunda dosis de ceftazidima, con evolución posoperatoria favorable. Se dio el alta una semana después, con la retina aplicada y una mejor visión corregida de 0,1.
Full Text Available We investigated the effects of a visual picking system on ocular comfort, the ocular surface and tear function compared to those of a voice guided picking solution.Prospective, observational, cohort study.Institutional.A total of 25 young asymptomatic volunteers performed commissioning over 10 hours on two consecutive days.The operators were guided in the picking process by two different picking solutions, either visually or by voice while their subjective symptoms and ocular surface and tear function parameters were recorded.The visual analogue scale (VAS values, according to subjective dry eye symptoms, in the visual condition were significantly higher at the end of the commissioning than the baseline measurements. In the voice condition, the VAS values remained stable during the commissioning. The tear break-up time (BUT values declined significantly in the visual condition (pre-task: 16.6 sec and post-task: 9.6 sec in the right eyes, that were exposed to the displays, the left eyes in the visual condition showed only a minor decline, whereas the BUT values in the voice condition remained constant (right eyes or even increased (left eyes over the time. No significant differences in the tear meniscus height values before and after the commissioning were observed in either condition.In our study, the use of visually guided picking solutions was correlated with post-task subjective symptoms and tear film instability.
Klein-Theyer, Angelika; Horwath-Winter, Jutta; Rabensteiner, Dieter Franz; Schwantzer, Gerold; Wultsch, Georg; Aminfar, Haleh; Heidinger, Andrea; Boldin, Ingrid
We investigated the effects of a visual picking system on ocular comfort, the ocular surface and tear function compared to those of a voice guided picking solution. Prospective, observational, cohort study. Institutional. A total of 25 young asymptomatic volunteers performed commissioning over 10 hours on two consecutive days. The operators were guided in the picking process by two different picking solutions, either visually or by voice while their subjective symptoms and ocular surface and tear function parameters were recorded. The visual analogue scale (VAS) values, according to subjective dry eye symptoms, in the visual condition were significantly higher at the end of the commissioning than the baseline measurements. In the voice condition, the VAS values remained stable during the commissioning. The tear break-up time (BUT) values declined significantly in the visual condition (pre-task: 16.6 sec and post-task: 9.6 sec) in the right eyes, that were exposed to the displays, the left eyes in the visual condition showed only a minor decline, whereas the BUT values in the voice condition remained constant (right eyes) or even increased (left eyes) over the time. No significant differences in the tear meniscus height values before and after the commissioning were observed in either condition. In our study, the use of visually guided picking solutions was correlated with post-task subjective symptoms and tear film instability.
Li, Mengshuang; Xin, Meng; Guo, Chuanlong; Lin, Guiming; Wu, Xianggen
A stable topical ophthalmic curcumin formulation with high solubility, stability, and efficacy is needed for pharmaceutical use in clinics. The objective of this article was to describe a novel curcumin containing a nanomicelle formulation using a polyvinyl caprolactam-polyvinyl acetate-polyethylene glycol (PVCL-PVA-PEG) graft copolymer. Nanomicelle curcumin was formulated and optimized and then further evaluated for in vitro cytotoxicity/in vivo ocular irritation, in vitro cellular uptake/in vivo corneal permeation, and in vitro antioxidant activity/in vivo anti-inflammatory efficacy. The solubility, chemical stability, and antioxidant activity were greatly improved after the encapsulation of the PVCL-PVA-PEG nanomicelles. The nanomicelle curcumin ophthalmic solution was simple to prepare and the nanomicelles are stable to the storage conditions, and it had good cellular tolerance. Nanomicelle curcumin also had excellent ocular tolerance in rabbits. The use of nanomicelles significantly improved in vitro cellular uptake and in vivo corneal permeation as well as improved anti-inflammatory efficacy when compared with a free curcumin solution. These findings indicate that nanomicelles could be promising topical delivery systems for the ocular administration of curcumin.
Little, Julie-Anne; McCullough, Sara J; Breslin, Karen M M; Saunders, Kathryn J
The interaction between higher order ocular aberrations (HOA) and refractive error is not yet fully understood. This study investigated HOA in relation to refractive error and ocular biometric parameters in a population with a high prevalence of ametropia. The HOA were investigated in two cohorts of Caucasian children aged 9 to 10 and 15 to 16 years (n = 313). These aberrations were measured for a 5-mm pupil with the IRX3 aberrometer. Cycloplegic refractive error and ocular biometry measures, including axial length and corneal curvature, also were assessed with the Shin-Nippon SRW-5000 auto-refractor and Zeiss IOLMaster, respectively. Participants were divided into refractive groups for analysis of HOA. The magnitude of total HOA was higher in this population at 0.27 μm (interquartile range [IQR], 0.22-0.32 μm) than other HOA reported in the literature. The profile of HOA was not significantly different across the two age cohorts or across refractive groups, nor did spherical aberration differ significantly with age (Z₄⁰ = 0.07 μm for both cohorts). Multivariate linear regression analysis demonstrated spherical aberration was significantly related to axial length (but not refractive grouping), with longer eyes having less positive values of fourth order and root mean square (RMS) spherical aberration. This study found no significant difference in HOA across refractive groups. The current study also highlights the importance of knowledge of axial length when analyzing HOA. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.
L. K. Moshetova
Full Text Available Structural changes in eyes are present in all patients with chronic kidney disease. A study to detect ocular patho- logy in patients with end-stage chronic renal failure after kidney transplantation in the early and late postopera- tive period compared with patients receiving replacement therapy with hemodialysis. Revealed that in the early post-transplant period in recipients of kidneyas in patients on hemodialysis, continued angioretinopatiya, 40% of patients had «dry eye syndrome». In the delayed post-transplant period, patients showed significant impro- vement in the retina and retinal vessels, the improvement of spatial-temporal parameters of visual perception. However, a decrease of visual acuity on the background of the development of posterior subcapsular cataract caused by prolonged corticosteroid, and an increased incidence of viral and bacterial conjunctivitis.
González, Jully; Atehortúa, Angélica; Moncayo, Ricardo; Romero, Eduardo
Cerebral palsy (CP) is a large group of motion and posture disorders caused during the fetal or infant brain development. Sensorial impairment is commonly found in children with CP, i.e., between 40-75 percent presents some form of vision problems or disabilities. An automatic characterization of the cerebral palsy is herein presented by estimating the ocular motion during a gaze pursuing task. Specifically, After automatically detecting the eye location, an optical flow algorithm tracks the eye motion following a pre-established visual assignment. Subsequently, the optical flow trajectories are characterized in the velocity-acceleration phase plane. Differences are quantified in a small set of patients between four to ten years.
Masket, Samuel; Ceran, Basak Bostanci
We present an interventional case report of an 83-year-old woman who developed ocular hemosiderosis secondary to massive retinal and intravitreal bleeding associated with a choroidal neovascular membrane as a result of age-related macular degeneration. Anterior segment manifestations included low-grade inflammation, posterior synechiae, reversible hyperchromic heterochromia, and a mature cataract with "leopard spots." The longstanding vitreous hemorrhage was thought to be the etiology of these findings. At the request of the vitreoretinal surgeon, cataract surgery was performed to provide visualization of the posterior segment. However, the patient's visual potential was limited by her underlying retinal pathology. Neither author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Additional disclosure is found in the footnotes. Copyright © 2011 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kushner, B J; Kraft, S
We conducted three studies of compensatory ocular torsional movements in normal human subjects, using changes in the axis of astigmatism, afterimages, and direct observation with cinematography. Measurements of changes in the axis of astigmatism and the subjects' subjective perception of afterimages with a superimposed Maddox rod showed a partial compensatory intorsion on head tilt to the ipsilateral side and extorsion on head tilt to the contralateral side. Cinematography demonstrated that the eye lags behind the head in a slow rolling movement as the head is tilted. Periodic rotary movements in the direction of the head tilt partially correct the lag and result in a partial compensatory torsion. A fourth experiment excluded false torsion as an artifact in these studies.
Full Text Available The leishmaniases are parasitic diseases that are transmitted to humans by infected female sandflies. Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL is one of 3 main forms of the disease. CL is the most common form of the disease and is endemic in many urban and rural parts of Iran and usually caused by two species of Leishmania: L. major and L. tropica. We report a case of unusual leishmaniasis with 25 lesions on exposed parts of the body and right eyelid involvement (ocular leishmaniasis. The patient was a 75-year-old male farmer referred to health care center in Aran va Bidgol city. The disease was diagnosed by direct smear, culture, and PCR from the lesions. PCR was positive for Leishmania major.
Full Text Available Ocular trauma is a very common incidence that occurs in up to 67% of patients with maxillofacial trauma. It results in life-long agony of not being like others with two eyes, which can see and admire the nature's beauty. This article reports on a case of a 23-year-old male patient with phthisis bulbi, resulting from ocular trauma. The patient was rehabilitated aesthetically by fabrication of custom-made ocular prosthesis for his traumatically injured right eye. The patient was pleased with the aesthetic outcome, comfort, and mobility offered by the custom ocular prosthesis. There were no complications with regard to health of underlying residual ocular tissues and there was no need of relining of the prosthesis at 6 month recall appointment. Rehabilitation of patients with ocular trauma requires a multidisciplinary approach involving ophthalmologist, psychologist, and skilled maxillofacial prosthodontist. Custom-made ocular prosthesis fitted over the phthisical globe seems to be a highly positive, logical, noninvasive, and beneficial approach to increase mobility to the prosthesis, improve the cosmetic appearance and psychological well-being of the patient.
Full Text Available Crohn’s disease is an inflammatory bowel disease which causes inflammation of the digestive tract. Crohn’s disease most frequently affects the ileum and the colon. In the active stage of the disease signs and symptoms may include diarrhea, abdominal pain and cramping, blood in the stools, reduced appetite and weight loss. In patients with severe Crohn’s disease the following signs and symptoms may be observed: fever, fatigue, arthritis, eye inflammation, oral ulcers, skin disorders, inflammation of the liver or bile ducts or delayed growth. Heredity and dysfunctions of the immune system are considered to cause the development of Crohn’s disease. About 10% of people with inflammatory bowel disease have also ocular problems. The most common ocular manifestations of Crohn’s disease are uveitis, iritis, episcleritis, keratopathy, keratoconjunctivitis and retinal vasculitis. Untreated uveitis may cause glaucoma and vision loss. Uveitis and iritis are four times more common in women than in men. In patients in the active stage of the disease, episcleritis also flares. Symptoms of episcleritis include inflammation, bright red spots on the sclera and localized pain. Keratoconjunctivitis in Crohn’s disease is caused by decreased tear production or increased tear film evaporation. Dry eyes can cause itching, burning or infection. Keratopathy usually causes no pain or vision loss, therefore in most cases no treatment is needed. In retinal vasculitis tortuosity of retinal veins, retinal edema at the posterior pole and intraretinal blood near blood vessels are observed. Intravenous fluorescein angiography shows intraretinal neovascularisation and haemorrhage in the posterior pole.
Flávia Silva Villas-Bôas
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a prevalência e gravidade das complicações oculares em pacientes com mucopolissacaridoses (MPS. MÉTODOS: Vinte e nove pacientes com diagnóstico de mucopolissacaridoses foram estudados. Foram avaliados: idade, sexo, acuidade visual, presença de estrabismo, erros refrativos, exame de fundo de olho, pressão intraocular, espessura corneal central e ultrassonografia ocular. RESULTADOS: Foram avaliados três pacientes com MPS I (12%, 11 pacientes com MPS II (37,9%, um paciente com MPS III (3,4% e 14 pacientes com MPS VI (48,3%. A média de idade foi de 9,5 anos (DP 5,5. Observou-se hipermetropia em 88,5% (23 pacientes e astigmatismo em 51,7% (15 pacientes. A média da acuidade visual corrigida foi de 0,45 logMAR (DP 0,68. A média do equivalente esférico foi +3,57 D (DP 2,46 e da pressão intraocular foi 17 mmHg (DP 3,9. Os achados mais comuns foram: espessamento palpebral 24,1% (7 pacientes; opacidade da córnea, 55,2% dos casos (16 pacientes; atrofia do nervo óptico, 23,1% (6 pacientes; dobras radiais na retina 24% (7 pacientes. O fundo de olho não foi examinado em 3 pacientes devido à opacidade de córnea. A média da espessura do complexo esclera-retina-coroide (ERC medida por ultrassom foi de 1,78 mm (DP 0,51. CONCLUSÃO: Os achados oftalmológicos mais proeminentes foram espessamento palpebral, diminuição da acuidade visual, hipermetropia moderada, opacidade da córnea, dobras radiais na retina perimacular e atrofia do nervo óptico.
Cevik, Pinar; Dilber, Erhan; Eraslan, Oguz
Loss of an eye caused by cancer, trauma, or congenital defect creates a deep psychological impact on an individual's life especially social and professional life. Custom-made prosthesis, compared to stock prosthesis, provides a better fit to the eye socket, better cosmetic results, and less discomfort to the patient in the long term. The main objective of this article was to describe 3 different alternative and practical techniques of fabricating custom-made ocular prosthesis. An impression of anophthalmic socket was made with the addition of cured silicone-based precision impression material in all techniques. A master cast was prepared and duplicated with condensation silicone. A self-cure acrylic resin was polymerized in the silicone model and was fitted into the patient's eye socket. A digital photograph of the patient's iris was made using a digital camera and printed on good-quality photo paper in various shades and sizes in the first and the second techniques. Then the photo paper was coated with PVC so as not to allow any color flowing. The proper iris was then inserted to the acrylic base. The prosthesis was final processed using orthodontic heat polymerizing clear acrylic resin.In the other technique, after the trying-in process with wax pattern, an acrylic base was fabricated using heat polymerizing scleral acrylic resin. The prosthetic iris was fabricated from a transparent contact lens by painting the lens with watercolor paints and attaching it to an acrylic resin with tissue conditioner. The final process was made with heat polymerizing transparent acrylic resin. Custom-made prosthesis allows better esthetic and functional results to the patient in comparison to stock prosthesis. Further follow-up is necessary to check the condition and fit of the ocular prosthesis in such patients.
Dhiman, Rebika; Singh, Archita; Tandon, Radhika; Vanathi, M
To report a case of bandage contact lens induced infectious keratitis caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa following DSAEK. A 56-year-old female who underwent DSAEK at our institute for pseudophakic bullous keratopathy, developed contact lens induced keratitis in the fifth post operative week. Best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) reduced to perception of light in the left eye. Slit lamp examination revealed an epithelial ulcer measuring 4.7mm×6mm with surrounding infiltrates in the anterior stroma with hypopyon. The interface was clear. The corneoscleral rim culture of the donor tissue showed no growth on bacterial and fungal culture ruling out the possibility of donor-to-host transmission of infection. Microbiological evaluation identified the causative agent to be Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Based on culture and sensitivity report patient was started on hourly instillation of topical polymyxin B 20,000IU and fortified ceftazidime 5%. A response to treatment was noted and there was a complete resolution of keratitis with residual scarring. There have been case reports suggesting a host to donor transmission of infection which manifests during the postoperative period. To the best of our knowledge there are no reports of bandage contact lens associated Pseudomonas keratitis in a case that has undergone DSAEK. The prolonged use of bandage contact lens, lens contamination, stagnation of tear film behind the lens, compromised ocular surface and post operative use of topical steroids can contribute to infectious keratitis in DSAEK cases. Copyright © 2015 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Zarra, T; Lambrianidis, T
To investigate amongst Greek endodontists, the incidence of ocular accidents during practice, the circumstances associated with them, the therapeutic measures taken after the accidents, their compliance with the use of eye protection and their eye care behaviour. One hundred and forty-seven endodontists met the inclusion criteria and were invited to participate in the survey. Data were gathered through interviews based on a questionnaire. Participants were asked for personal/professional data, information on ocular accidents in the past 5 years, post-accident actions and the type of eye protection used. Their eyesight status and frequency of ocular examination were also recorded. Data were analysed using chi-square test, independent samples t-test and logistic regression. The level of significance was set at P = 0.05. The response rate was 84%. Ocular accidents were reported by 73% of the participants. Amalgam and NaOCl were the foreign bodies most frequently associated with ocular accidents. Medical assistance was sought in 16% of the most recent accidents. No permanent eye damage was reported. Regular use of magnification (OR:0.305, 95%CI:0.123-0.754) and years of clinical experience (OR:0.191, 95%CI:0.066-0.551) were significant predictors for the incidence of ocular accidents. Adequate eye protection was utilized by 82% of endodontists. Endodontists with eyesight deficiencies attended more frequently for ocular examination (P = 0.018). A high percentage of endodontists experienced ocular accidents. Regular use of magnification and increasing years in practice were associated with a reduced risk of ocular accidents. The majority of endodontists reported using adequate eye protection. © 2013 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Smith, Roger S.; Iglewski, Barbara H.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa has two complete quorum-sensing systems. Both of these systems have been shown to be important for Pseudomonas virulence in multiple models of infection. Thus, these systems provide unique targets for novel antimicrobial drugs. PMID:14617745
Het antibioticum 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (DAPG) speelt een belangrijke rol in biologische bestrijding van verschillende plantenpathogenen door fluorescerende Pseudomonas-soorten. DAPG-producerende Pseudomonas-stammen zijn effectief in biologische bestrijding, maar hun saprofytisch vermogen is
Flavio Mac Cord Medina
Full Text Available Kabuki syndrome is a rare congenital anomaly, characterized by five fundamental features, the "Pentad of Niikawa": dysmorphic facies, skeletal anomalies, dermatoglyphic abnormalities, mild to moderate mental retardation and postnatal growth deficiency. Patients present characteristic external ocular features, nonetheless they may also present significant ocular abnormalities. We report a case of a brazilian child diagnosed with Kabuki syndrome, addressing the clinical features observed, with emphasis on the ocular manifestations. This case highlights the existence of this syndrome and all of its complexity. The identification of preventable causes of loss of vision underlines the value of detailed ophthalmologic examination of Kabuki syndrome patients.
Figueiredo, Luiza Alencar De Andrade; Sampaio, Aline Araújo; Souza, Samilly Evangelista; Ferreira, Fernando José Rigolin; Buzzá, Edmur Pereira; Rizzatti-Barbosa, Celia Marisa
Eye defects can lead to emotional, psychological, and social changes, impacting negatively the quality of life of the patient. When these structures cannot be satisfactorily repaired by reconstructive surgery, the prosthetic rehabilitation is the better treatment option to restore lost ocular anatomy and promote the social integration of the individual. The aim of this clinical report is to report and discuss a case of ocular prosthesis confection eviscerated patient with opening limitation eyelid and shortening of the distance between palpebral commissure, to obtain a more natural and comfortable to the patient ocular rehabilitation.
Lambrecht, R.M.; Packer, S.; North Shore University Hospital, Manhasset, NY; Cornell Univ., New York; Atkins, H.L.
A novel instrument for the noninvasive diagnosis of ocular melanoma was evaluated with 67 Ga in patients with pathologically confirmed tumours. The decision to enucleate was based on the results of standard ophthalmic diagnostic modalities including the 32 P uptake test. The differences in the ocular radioactivity at 48-72 h predicted the presence of ocular abnormality. A positive differential result was found for tumours having a volume of > 600 mm 3 . Smaller tumours indicated lower retention of 67 Ga in the eye with the tumour, whereas control subjects showed < 2% differences in the radioactivity present in either eye. (author)
Bueno, Juan M; Gualda, Emilio J; Artal, Pablo
We develop an adaptive optics (AO) multiphoton microscope by incorporating a deformable mirror and a Hartmann-Shack wavefront sensor. The AO module operating in closed-loop is used to correct for the aberrations of the illumination laser beam. This increases the efficiency of the nonlinear processes in reducing tissue photodamage, improves contrast, and enhances lateral resolution in images of nonstained ocular tissues. In particular, the use of AO in the multiphoton microscope provides a better visualization of ocular structures, which are relevant in ophthalmology. This instrument might be useful to explore the possible connections between changes in ocular structures and the associated pathologies.
Lin, Zhirong; Zhou, Yueping; Wang, Yuqian; Zhou, Tong; Li, Jie; Luo, Pingping; He, Hui; Wu, Huping; Liu, Zuguo
To investigate the effects and possible mechanisms of serine protease inhibitor A3K (SERPINA3K) on the formation of ocular surface squamous metaplasia in a mouse dry eye model induced by topical benzalkonium chloride (BAC). The eye drops containing SERPINA3K were topically administered during the induction of BAC-induced dry eye. The clinical indications of dry eye were evaluated on day (D)16, including tear break-up time (BUT), tear volume, corneal fluorescein staining, and inflammatory index. Global specimens were collected on D16 and the following examinations were performed: histologic investigation, immunostaining of cytokeratin 10 (K10), p63 and Ki67 in the cornea, and Western blot analysis of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). Serine protease inhibitor A3K suppressed the formation of BAC-induced dry eye, presenting with longer BUTs, lower corneal fluorescein staining scores, and inflammatory index, while no significant changes in tear volume. It also reduced the severity of abnormal differentiation and proliferation on ocular surface with lower expressions of K10, p63, and Ki67, and retained the number of goblet cells in the conjunctival fornix. Serine protease inhibitor A3K significantly decreased the levels of TNF-α in the cornea. Topical application of SERPINA3K ameliorated the severity of ocular surface squamous metaplasia and suppressed the formation of BAC-induced dry eye. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.
Gang, R K; Bang, R L; Sanyal, S C; Mokaddas, E; Lari, A R
Out of 1415 patients treated as inpatients at Al-Babtain Center for Burns and Plastic Surgery, Ibn Sina Hospital, Kuwait spanning over a period of 6 years from June 1992 to June 1998, 102 developed clinically and microbiologically proven septicaemia. Only 15 out of them had either single or multiple episodes of septicaemia due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa and were studied during their stay in the hospital. Five of them were males and 10 females, with a mean age of 26 years (range 3-51 years) and mean total body surface area of burns (TBSA) of 66% (range 25-90%). All of them had flame burns and resuscitation was found to be difficult in eight patients either due to delayed hospitalization or accompanied inhalation injury. Seven patients were intubated, four due to inhalation injury and three for septicaemic complications. Among the 15 patients under study, a total of 36 septicaemic episodes were detected of which 21 were due to P. aeruginosa. This organism was found in the first episodes in nine patients, in second episodes in six, in third episodes in three and fourth, fifth and sixth episodes in one patient, each at a variable postburn day. Ten patients had 38 sessions of excision and skin grafting, six of them survived. Nine of the 15 patients under study died due to septicaemia, but only six of them had P. aeruginosa as the last isolate. Except for one, all patients had > 40% TBSA burn, two had difficult resuscitation and four were intubated. The day of death varied between 3 to 52 days postburn (mean 19 days). This study showed that females with flame burns are susceptible to P. aeruginosa septicaemia. Difficult resuscitation and intubation also proved to be important risk factors. Septicaemia could occur quite early in the postburn days and the mortality due to this organism was quite high. Early excision and grafting with other effective management may result in a better outcome.
Johansen, Helle Krogh; Gøtzsche, Peter C
Chronic pulmonary infection in cystic fibrosis results in progressive lung damage. Once colonisation of the lungs with Pseudomonas aeruginosa occurs, it is almost impossible to eradicate. Vaccines, aimed at reducing infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, have been developed.......Chronic pulmonary infection in cystic fibrosis results in progressive lung damage. Once colonisation of the lungs with Pseudomonas aeruginosa occurs, it is almost impossible to eradicate. Vaccines, aimed at reducing infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, have been developed....
Full Text Available Michael S Korenfeld,1,2 David K Dueker3 1Comprehensive Eye Care, Ltd. Washington, MO, USA; 2Washington University Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, St Louis, MO, USA; 3Ophthalmology, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar Purpose: The authors have previously validated an Ocular Pressure Estimator (OPE that can estimate the intraocular pressure (IOP during external ocular compression (EOC. The authors now apply the OPE in clinical states where EOC is clinically important. The original work is described for two periods of risk: during sleep and during the digital ocular massage (DOM maneuver used by surgeons after trabeculectomy to keep the operation functional. Other periods of risk for external ocular compression are then reviewed.Methods: The first protocol estimated the IOP in the dependent eye during simulated sleep. Subjects had their IOPs initially measured in an upright-seated position, immediately upon assuming a right eye dependent side sleeping position (with nothing contacting the eye, and then 5 minutes later while still in this position. While maintaining this position, the fluid filled bladder of the OPE was then placed between the subject’s closed eye and a pillow during simulated sleep. The IOP was continuously estimated in this position for 5 minutes. The subjects then had the IOP measured in both eyes in an upright-seated position. The second protocol determined if a larger vertical cup-to-disc ratio was more common on the side that patients reported they preferred to sleep on. The hypothesis was that chronic asymmetric, compression induced, elevations of IOP during sleep would be associated with otherwise unexplained asymmetry of the vertical cup-to-disc ratio. The third protocol assessed the IOP during DOM. The OPE was used to characterize the IOP produced during the DOM maneuver of five glaucoma surgeons. After this, 90 mmHg was chosen as a target pressure for DOM. The surgeons were then verbally coached
Filip M. Radotić
Full Text Available Aim To evaluate the efficacy of new therapeutic modalities withthe observation period of three years on patients with isolated ocular vasculitis in comparison with ocular vasculitis as a systemicdisease. Methods The effectiveness of the therapy was assessed based on the changes in visual acuity and degree of ocular inflammation (mild, medium, moderate, severe with the following parameters: vitreous body cloudiness, blood vessels layering, macula oedema, blood vessels occlusion and new vascularisation. Results New therapeutic modalities resulted in reduction in the number of patients with severe inflammation in the group of isolated ocular vasculitis from 8(13.5% to 7(12.2% after three years, while the number of patients with mild inflammation increased from 13(20.7% to 18 (29.3% in the same group (p>0.05. The number of patients with severe ocular inflammation in a group of ocular vasculitis as systemic disease increased from 3(16.2% to 4(21.6%, because of the presence of patients with Behçet’s disease. The number of patients with visual acuity less than 0.1 decreased from 11(17% to 8(13.4% in a group of patients with ocular vasculitis as systemic disease, which was associated with the presence of Behçet’s disease too (p>0.05. Conclusion Although the effect of new therapeutic modalities did not result in statistically significant improvement in visual acuity and reducing inflammation, systemic and intravitreal corticosteroids with steroid-sparing immunomodulatory therapy represents effective strategies in forms of isolated ocular vasculitis and ocular vasculitis as systemic disease.
Jensen, Britt Guillaume; Jelsbak, Lars; Søndergaard, Ib
Objectives: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic human pathogen, commonly infecting cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Aspergilli, especially Aspergillus fumigatus, are also frequently isolated from CF patients. Our aim was to examine the possible interaction between P. aeruginosa and different...... in the contact area of A. niger, A. flavus, A. oryzae, but not A. fumigatus. In addition, other metabolites with UV chromophores similar to the phenazines were only found in the contact zone between Aspergillus and Pseudomonas. No change in secondary metabolite profiles were seen for the Aspergilli, when...... comparing with or without the presence of Pseudomonas. Conclusion: All Aspergilli tested, with the exception of A. fumigatus, triggered the upregulation of phenazine-1-carboxamide and phenazine-1-carboxylic acid production by P. aeruginosa. Surprisingly no changes in secondary metabolite profiles were...
Jensen, Britt Guillaume; Jelsbak, Lars; Søndergaard, Ib
Objectives: Cystic fibrosis patients are commonly infected by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, but Aspergilli are also frequently isolated. Our aim was to examine the possible interaction between P. aeruginosa and different Aspergillus. Methods: A suspension of 106 fungal spores/ml was streaked onto WATM......, here among 2-heptyl-3-hydroxy-4-quinolone (PQS). An unidentified green pseudomonas compound was also observed. Interestingly the P. aeruginosa mutant rpoN was unable to suppress A. fumigatus, but suppressed A. flavus, A. oryzae and A. niger. However several other P. aeruginosa mutants suppressed A....... fumigatus including flif, pilA, lasR, PVDA, PQSC and rhlA mutants indicating that phenazines may be involved in the suppressed growth of A. fumigatus. All pseudomonas mutants suppressed A. oryzae, A. niger and A. flavus. Conclusions: An increase in phenazine production by P. aeruginosa may contribute...
Klausen, M.; Gjermansen, Morten; Kreft, J.-U.
Surface-associated microbial communities in many cases display dynamic developmental patterns. Model biofilms formed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Pseudomonas putida in laboratory flow-chamber setups represent examples of such behaviour. Dependent on the experimental conditions the bacteria...
Full Text Available Most inventory models dealt with deteriorated items. On the contrary, just a few papers considered inventory systems under amelioration environment. We study an amelioration inventory model with Weibull distribution. However, there are some questionable results in the amelioration paper. We will first point out those questionable results in the previous paper that did not derive the optimal solution and then provide some improvements. We will provide a rigorous analytical work for different cases dependent on the size of the shape parameter. We present a detailed numerical example for different ranges of the sharp parameter to illustrate that our solution method attains the optimal solution. We developed a new amelioration model and then provided a detailed analyzed procedure to find the optimal solution. Our findings will help researchers develop their new inventory models.
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pseudomonas spp. serological reagents. 866.3415... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3415 Pseudomonas spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification. Pseudomonas spp. serological reagents are devices that...
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cisplatin is an effective anticancer drug that elicits many side effects mainly due to induction of oxidative and nitrosative stresses during prolonged chemotherapy. The severity of these side effects consequently restricts its clinical use under long term treatment. Riboflavin is an essential vitamin used in various metabolic redox reactions in the form of flavin adenine dinucleotide and flavin mononucleotide. Besides, it has excellent photosensitizing property that can be used to ameliorate these toxicities in mice under photodynamic therapy. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Riboflavin, cisplatin and their combinations were given to the separate groups of mice under photoilluminated condition under specific treatment regime. Their kidney and liver were excised for comet assay and histopathological studies. Furthermore, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy of riboflavin-cisplatin combination in vitro was also conducted to investigate any possible interaction between the two compounds. Their comet assay and histopathological examination revealed that riboflavin in combination with cisplatin was able to protect the tissues from cisplatin induced toxicities and damages. Moreover, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy analysis of the combination indicated a strong molecular interaction among their constituent groups that may be assigned for the protective effect of the combination in the treated animals. CONCLUSION: Inclusion of riboflavin diminishes cisplatin induced toxicities which may possibly make the cisplatin-riboflavin combination, an effective treatment strategy under chemoradiotherapy in pronouncing its antineoplastic activity and sensitivity towards the cancer cells as compared to cisplatin alone.
Elaeis guineensis), and is widely consumed among the various ethnic nationalities in Nigeria. The effect of bolus ingestion of 600ml, palm wine was undertaken so as to determine its ocular dynamics in healthy volunteers. Results showed that ...
Palamar, Melis; Egrilmez, Sait; Yilmaz, Suzan Guven; Polat, Suleyha Hilmioglu; Gunduz, Omur Ucakhan
Systemic voriconazole treatment was reported to cause photosensitivity and related cutaneous malignancies. The aim of this report is to demonstrate a graft-related Candida endophthalmitis case that developed ocular surface dysplastic changes after receiving topical 1% voriconazole treatment. Full ocular examination, photography, and in vivo confocal microscopy examination (Rostock Cornea Module/HRT II, Heidelberg, Germany) were performed. A 73-year-old male with graft-related Candida endophthalmitis that was on topical 1% voriconazole for 4 months developed a whitish gelatinous lesion on the cornea originating from the nasal limbus. In vivo confocal microscopy examination revealed mild dysplastic changes in the cornea epithelium. Topical voriconazole might trigger neoplastic changes on the ocular surface as reported with systemic use in other sun-exposed parts of the body. Further studies are needed to relate topical use of voriconazole with ocular surface dysplasia.
T Ashwini Kini
Full Text Available Progressive hemifacial atrophy (PHA is a disease of unknown etiology affecting one-half of the face. Ocular involvement is uncommon. Atrophy of iris is rare, with only a few cases of partial atrophy being reported in the literature. We report a case of total atrophy of iris and ciliary body with associated ocular hypotony in a 16-year-old girl with PHA. We believe this is the first reported case of complete atrophy of iris and ciliary body in PHA. Ocular hypotony in PHA was thought to be due to intra-ocular inflammation. However in our case it appears to be secondary to severe atrophy of the ciliary body.
Conclusion: Any minimal angle of head tilt may cause erroneous measurement of astigmatic axis and should be avoided during refraction. One cannot rely on the compensatory function of ocular counter-torsion during the refraction.
Dodds, Emilio M.; Holland, Gary N.; Stanford, Miles R.; Yu, Fei; Siu, Willie O.; Shah, Kayur H.; Loon, Ninette Ten Dam-Van; Muccioli, Cristina; Hovakimyan, Anna; Barisani-Asenbauer, Talin
PURPOSE: To describe characteristics of intraocular inflammation in eyes with active ocular toxoplasmosis and to identify relationships between signs of inflammation, complications (including elevated intraocular pressure [IOP]), other disease features, and host characteristics. DESIGN: Multicenter,
Full Text Available AIM: To analyze the factors of penetrating ocular injury, and to investigate the prognostic factors and treatment strategies. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of 216 ocular trauma patients(221 eyes, in our hospital from November 2009 to November 2011, was completed. RESULTS: The eyeball atrophy inevitably occurred in 13 eye wounds more than 30mm. Retinal prolapse of the eyes, 78%(35/45completed vitrectomy, 33%(15/45were eyeball atrophy. The 51%(20/39of subchoroidal hemorrhage eyes were eyeball atrophy. Retinal prolapse and subchoroidal hemorrhage increased the risk of ocular atrophy(PPCONCLUSION: Serious ocular trauma prognosis related to many factors. The retina prolapse and the subchoroidal hemorrhage were important prognosis testify. A scleral buckling condensation surgery and vitrectomy have a therapeutic effect, and can improve visual function.
Goiato, Marcelo Coelho; Bannwart, Lisiane Cristina; Haddad, Marcela Filié; dos Santos, Daniela Micheline; Pesqueira, Aldiéris Alves; Miyahara, Glauco Issamu
The goals of treatment with ocular prostheses are to restore facial aesthetics and self-esteem to anophthalmic patients. Fabricated in acrylic resin, artificial eyes should be aesthetically pleasing, scratch-resistant, and adequately polished. Use of a prosthesis without such characteristics can lead to psychological damage, as well as infection and inflammation due to the accumulation of microorganisms and other substances on an irregularly shaped prosthesis. The present literature review describes the different techniques for fabricating ocular prostheses. Reproduction of the iris color and color stability are important factors that promote adequate aesthetics. The fabrication of an individual ocular prosthesis in acrylic resin provides satisfactory aesthetic results because the impression process establishes the defect contour. Additionally, the iris and sclera can be individually characterized. As the techniques, materials, and manufacturing methods for ocular prostheses continue to evolve, the aesthetics and functionality of prostheses will also improve.
Serban, Dragosloveanu; Christiana, Celea; Cristian, Celea
Case report: A young healthy patient, health-care worker in a state hospital, presented in the eye department complaining of pain and blurred vision in the left eye for approx. 2 weeks. Examination revealed a VA of 12/ 20 in the left eye, an interstitial keratitis, some signs of vitreal inflammation and two chorioretinal mass lesions (at echography appearing cystic) in the affected eye. She also mentioned a chronic pain in the right wrist. No systemic association was found. Based on the orthopaedic examination, biopsy, and surgical intervention, a strong suspicion of ocular tuberculosis was made and the patient was advised to start tuberculostatic treatment for 12 months and ocular steroidian treatment for 4 months. The ocular manifestations regressed totally after 3 months of treatment, the VA of the left eye improving at 20/ 20. Conclusion: Tuberculosis can present many manifestations, with multi systemic involvement. Ocular tuberculosis is a difficult diagnosis and thus requires thorough multi-disciplinary investigations. PMID:26978876
Conclusions and importance: The present case of relapsing polychondritis is the first to be reported wherein late ocular complications were alleviated by surgical interventions. Routine use of corticosteroids is necessary for successful anti-glaucoma and phacoemulsification operations.
Shama, Gilbert; Andrew, Peter W.
Currently there are estimated to be approximately 3.7 million contact lens wearers in the United Kingdom and 39.2 million in North America. Contact lens wear is a major risk factor for developing an infection of the cornea known as keratitis due to poor lens hygiene practices. While there is an international standard for testing disinfection methods against bacteria and fungi (ISO 14729), no such guidelines exist for the protozoan Acanthamoeba, which causes a potentially blinding keratitis most commonly seen in contact lens wearers, and as a result, many commercially available disinfecting solutions show incomplete disinfection after 6 and 24 h of exposure. Challenge test assays based on international standard ISO 14729 were used to determine the antimicrobial activity of cold atmospheric gas plasma (CAP) against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans, and trophozoites and cysts of Acanthamoeba polyphaga and Acanthamoeba castellanii. P. aeruginosa and C. albicans were completely inactivated in 0.5 min and 2 min, respectively, and trophozoites of A. polyphaga and A. castellanii were completely inactivated in 1 min and 2 min, respectively. Furthermore, for the highly resistant cyst stage of both species, complete inactivation was achieved after 4 min of exposure to CAP. This study demonstrates that the CAP technology is highly effective against bacterial, fungal, and protozoan pathogens. The further development of this technology has enormous potential, as this approach is able to deliver the complete inactivation of ocular pathogens in minutes, in contrast to commercial multipurpose disinfecting solutions that require a minimum of 6 h. PMID:26994079
Wilson, Samantha L.; Ahearne, Mark; Hopkinson, Andrew
PUBLISHED Abstract Given the hazardous nature of many materials and substances, ocular toxicity testing is required to evaluate the dangers associated with these substances after their exposure to the eye. Historically, animal tests such as the Draize test were exclusively used to determine the level of ocular toxicity by applying a test substance to a live rabbit’s eye and evaluating the biological response. In recent years, legislation in many developed countries has been introduced t...
Hong, Samin; Kang, Sung Yong; Seong, Gong Je; Shin, Joo Youn; Kim, Chan Yun
Ocular features associated with trisomy 4p have rarely been described. The authors have experienced multiple ocular abnormalities (bilateral cataracts, posterior synechiae, and posterior segment changes) associated with this chromosomal abnormality. It was presumed that these intraocular findings might be associated with the previous inflammatory process. In the current case, the patient recovered some useful vision after surgical removal of cataracts and intraocular lens implantations in both eyes. A detailed ophthalmic examination for patients with the autosomal imbalance is recom-mended.
Venkata Madusudanarao Kanukollu
Full Text Available BACKGROUND Ocular trauma is a major cause of preventable ocular blindness in the world. The present available data represents the tip of iceberg. The data pertaining to ocular trauma is just hospital based data which does not accurately represent the population at risk. The ocular morbidity may be disproportionate to the severity of injury. Though eyes represent only 0.21% of body surface area and 4% of facial area, they are the third most common trauma exposed areas after hands and feet. MATERIALS AND METHODS Our study group consisted of 341 patients who attended ophthalmology OPD with history of ocular trauma of whom 221 were males and 121 were females. The study was conducted over a period of one year. A complete anterior and posterior segment evaluation of all the patients was done. Other accessory ocular and systemic investigations wherever essential were done. RESULTS The ocular trauma was more common in males (64.52% predominantly affecting patients of 20-40 years age group (36.07%. Most often the injuries were occupation related (73.90% and the most common work related injury observed was extraocular foreign body in 134 patients (39.29%. Closed globe injuries were more common as compared to open globe injuries. Eyes with better visual acuity at presentation had better visual prognosis. Blinding trauma was observed in 29 patients (8.50%. CONCLUSION Ocular injuries are more commonly occupation related and mostly effect young males who are the main work force of our society. Stringent implementation of preventive norms in industries to all the workers and safety precautions during sports, driving need to be enforced.
T, CT scanner, and Siemens) was calculated. The dimensions were obtained at mid-ocular axial slices with maximum anterior-posterior dimension and maximum size of the eye lens. Result: The mean (mean ± 2 SD) ocular volume for both eyes was 5282.23 mm3±1755.13 mm3 (right eye was 5264.26 mm3 ± 1781.12 mm3; ...
Full Text Available Blunt ocular can cause persistent change of eye structure and function, the method of detection which is closely related to eye injury including B-can ultrasonography, UBM, OCT, FFA, scanning laser polarimetry, fundus autofluorescence, each examination with particular emphasis. This paper aims to review the advantages and disadvantages of different inspection methods in order to provide reference for clinical diagnosis and treatment of blunt ocular trauma.
Behera, Umesh Chandra; Panda, Lapam; Gupta, Sumi; Modi, Rohit Ramesh
To report two cases of retinal vascular occlusion and associated subconjunctival hemorrhage in needle optic nerve injury during local bulbar anesthesia. Surgical records of these two subjects who presented with acute vision loss after cataract extraction were studied, and systemic workup and ocular imaging were carried out to establish the cause. Computerized tomography showed evidence of optic nerve injury. Subconjunctival hemorrhage could be an associated clinical finding in hypodermic needle injury-related retinal vascular occlusion during ocular anesthesia.
Ricardo Luz Leitão Guerra
Full Text Available Objetivo: Descrever os achados do exame de autofluorescência do fundo de olho (AFF em pacientes vítimas de trauma ocular contuso. Métodos: Estudo retrospectivo, não intervencionista, realizado através da revisão de prontuários e exames de imagem. Os dados analisados foram: sexo, idade, lateralidade, etiologia do trauma, tempo decorrente entre o trauma e a realização do exame, acuidade visual, alterações na periferia da retina, diagnóstico fundoscópico e achados ao exame de AFF (realizada no aparelho Topcon TRC-50DX Retinal Camera. Resultados: Oito olhos de 8 pacientes foram estudados. A idade média foi de 27,6 anos (de 19 a 43 anos, o sexo masculino (n=7 foi mais acometido do que o feminino (n=1, agressão física foi a etiologia mais comum do trauma (n=3, seguido de acidente com fogos de artifício (n=2. Outras causas foram acidente automobilístico (n=1, trauma ocupacional com lixadeira (n=1 e pedrada (n=1. A acuidade visual variou de 20/80 a percepção luminosa. Epiteliopatia pigmentar traumática (EPT foi identificada em 5 casos, rotura de coroide em 3, hemorragia subretiniana em 3 e retinopatia de Purtscher em 1 caso. Hipoautofluorescência foi observada nos casos de rotura de coroide, hemorragia subretiniana recente, hemorragia intrarretiniana e em 2 casos de EPT. Hiperautofluorescência foi visualizada nos casos de hemorragia subretiniana em degradação, na borda de 2 casos de roturas de coroide e discretamente no polo posterior na retinopatia de Purtcher. Três casos de EPT apresentaram hipoautofluorescência com pontos hiperautofluorescentes difusos. Conclusão: O exame de AFF permite avaliar as alterações do segmento posterior do olho decorrentes do trauma ocular contuso de forma não invasiva, somando informações valiosas. Foram descritos achados do exame em casos de epiteliopatia pigmentar traumática, rotura de coroide, hemorragia sub-retiniana e retinopatia de Purtscher.
Full Text Available Osmo Kari1, K Matti Saari21Department of Allergology, Skin and Allergy Hospital, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland; 2Department of Ophthalmology, University of Turku, Turku, FinlandAbstract: Allergic diseases have greatly increased in industrialized countries. About 30% of people suffer from allergic symptoms and 40%–80% of them have symptoms in the eyes. Atopic conjunctivitis can be divided into seasonal allergic conjunctivitis (SAC and perennial allergic conjunctivitis (PAC. The treatment of SAC is simple; antihistamines, anti-inflammatory agents, or chromoglycate. In severe cases of SAC, subcutaneous or sublingual immunotherapy is helpful. PAC needs longer therapy, often year round, with mast cell stabilizers, antihistamines, and sometimes local steroids. Atopic keratoconjunctivitis is a more severe disease showing chronic blepharitis often connected with severe keratitis. It needs, in many cases, continuous treatment of the lid eczema and keratoconjunctivitis. Blepharitis is treated with tacrolimus or pimecrolimus ointment. Conjunctivitis additionally needs corticosteroids and, if needed, cyclosporine A (CsA drops are administered for longer periods. Basic conjunctival treatment is with mast cell-stabilizing agents and in addition, antihistamines are administered. Vernal keratoconjunctivitis is another chronic and serious allergic disease that mainly affects children and young people. It is a long-lasting disease which commonly subsides in puberty. It demands intensive therapy often for many years to avoid serious complicating corneal ulcers. Treatment is mast cell-stabilizing drops and additionally antihistamines. In relapses, corticosteroids are needed. When the use of corticosteroids is continuous, CsA drops should be used, and in relapses, corticosteroids should be used additionally. Nonallergic eosinophilic conjunctivitis (NAEC is a less known, but rather common, ocular disease. It affects mostly middle-aged and
Shinar, Zachary; Chan, Linda; Orlinsky, Michael
Retinal detachment is an ocular emergency posing diagnostic difficulty for the emergency practitioner. Direct fundoscopy and visual field testing are difficult to perform and do not completely rule out retinal detachment. Ophthalmologists use ocular ultrasound to enhance their clinical acumen in detecting retinal detachments (RD), and bedside ultrasound capability is readily available to many emergency practitioners (EP). Our study sought to assess whether ocular ultrasound would be a helpful adjunct for the diagnosis of RD for the practicing EP. This was a prospective observational study with a convenience sample of patients. As part of a general course on emergency ultrasonography, practitioners received a 30-min training session on ocular ultrasound before beginning the study. Trained practitioners submitted ultrasound scans with interpretation on patients with signs and symptoms consistent with retinal detachment. Thirty-one of the 72 practitioners trained submitted ocular ultrasound reports on patients presenting to the Emergency Department with concerns for retinal detachments. EPs achieved a 97% sensitivity (95% confidence interval [CI] 82-100%) and 92% specificity (95% CI 82-97%) on 92 examinations (29 retinal detachments). Disc edema and vitreous hemorrhage accounted for false positives, and a subacute retinal detachment accounted for the only false negative. These data show that trained emergency practitioners can use ocular ultrasound as an adjunct to their clinical assessment for retinal detachment. Copyright Â© 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available AIM: To analyze the clinical features of children ocular penetrating trauma, and hope to effectively assist to prevent pediatric ocular traumaMETHODS: The data of 145 cases(145 eyeswith ocular penetrating trauma, hospitalized in Xijing Hospital from January 2012 to December 2016, were collected and retrospectively analyzed. All the data of injury factors and environment, age and gender of patients, lesions, treatment and prognosis were detailed studied.RESULTS: In all the 145 pediatric patients with ocular penetrating trauma, accounted for 8.5% of all the ocular trauma patients, there were 95 cases of male, and 50 of female. Penetrating injuries mainly occurred in age of 3-9. The main injuries of ocular perforating in children were scissors, and sharp objects of wooden and iron. The wound was often located in the cornea or the anterior sclera. Traumatic cataract, vitreous hemorrhage and endophthalmitis were the common complications. The visual acuity was severely damaged, and 90 cases(62.1%of the children recovered better than 0.1 after effective treatment.CONCLUSION: The visual function of pediatric p0atients was seriously threatened after penetrating injuries. However, the damage of vision and the rate of blindness can be reduced effectively after timely and correct diagnosis and treatment. It is the most important that active and effective prevention in keep children away from penetrating injuries.
Stevenson, William; Shikari, Hasanain; Saboo, Ujwala S; Amparo, Francisco; Dana, Reza
To report on corneal ulceration in ocular graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). This was a retrospective, observational case series investigating corneal ulceration and perforation in a cohort of ocular GVHD patients seen between June 2007 and October 2012. Four of 243 ocular GVHD patients developed corneal ulcerations attributable to ocular GVHD, and all four cases involved bilateral corneal ulceration. The median length of time from the diagnosis of ocular GVHD to the diagnosis of the first corneal ulceration was 317 days (range 168-434). The median length of time between the diagnosis of corneal ulceration in each patient's first and second eye was 248 days (range 9-645). Outcomes varied from complete resolution with medical treatment to corneal perforation necessitating penetrating keratoplasty. In cases of corneal perforation, the median length of time from the diagnosis of corneal ulceration to perforation was 10 days (range 0-20). Common clinical features included: centrally or paracentrally located ulcerations and perforations, concomitant dry eye, and the use of topical or systemic corticosteroids. Frequent follow-up and bilateral monitoring are highly recommended in cases of ocular GVHD-associated stromal thinning, as bilateral involvement or rapid progression to corneal perforation can occur.
The low intensity laser therapy (LILT) has been extensively used in medicine and dentistry presenting positive effects. However, the laser radiation can also cause adverse effects. Due to the ocular focalization property, in the wavelength from 400 to 1400 nm, the retina is more susceptible to damage by radiation than any other part of the human body. Then, the ocular protection is frequently emphasized. This protection must attenuate the radiation to a safe level. The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) standard IEC 60825-1 suggests safety requirements for medical laser equipment, including the ocular protection, based on maximum permissible exposure levels. The Brazilian legislation adopts a corresponding IEC standard, the NBR IEC 601.2.22, for safety requirements. The aim of this study was to analyze the adequacy of the ocular protectors furnished by four laser equipment manufacturers, commercially available in Brazil, commonly used for LILT. For this purpose, the laser equipment and the respective ocular protectors were characterized. The adequacy was verified according to the IEC standards. It was found, among other results, ocular protectors attenuating to safe levels the radiation emitted by the respective laser equipment, however, presenting inadequate visual transmission. Inefficient protection and protection indicated in cases where they were not necessary were also observed. (author)
Mehra, Tarun; Guenova, Emmanuella; Dechent, Frieder; Würth, Florian; Zierhut, Manfred; Röcken, Martin; Schaller, Martin; Deuter, Christoph
The objective was to determine the diagnostic value of direct immunofluorescence (DIF) in ocular mucous membrane pemphigoid (ocular MMP), taking into account immunofluorescence patterns and biopsy sites. DIF results and medical records of 54 patients with a suspected diagnosis of ocular MMP were reviewed. There was an overall prevalence of ocular MMP in 70.4 % of cases. Linear deposition of IgA, IgG, or C3 showed a high positive predictive value (84-100 %). Sensitivity and negative predictive value of IgG, IgM, IgG, and C3 in DIF were higher in cutaneous samples than in conjunctival biopsies, thus yielding a higher diagnostic accuracy. The sensitivity of DIF in ocular MMP seems to be lower than in bullous pemphigoid. The diagnostic value of DIF in the workup of ocular MMP was confirmed. However, biopsies taken from non-conjunctival, cutaneous tissue appear to yield more accurate results. © 2015 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
A. M. Kolomeyer
Full Text Available Purpose. To describe integration of fundus autofluorescence (FAF imaging into an ocular screening program. Methods. Fifty consecutive screening participants were included in this prospective pilot imaging study. Color and FAF (530/640 nm exciter/barrier filters images were obtained with a 15.1MP Canon nonmydriatic hybrid camera. A clinician evaluated the images on site to determine need for referral. Visual acuity (VA, intraocular pressure (IOP, and ocular pathology detected by color fundus and FAF imaging modalities were recorded. Results. Mean ± SD age was 47.4 ± 17.3 years. Fifty-two percent were female and 58% African American. Twenty-seven percent had a comprehensive ocular examination within the past year. Mean VA was 20/39 in the right eye and 20/40 in the left eye. Mean IOP was 15 mmHg bilaterally. Positive color and/or FAF findings were identified in nine (18% individuals with diabetic retinopathy or macular edema (n=4, focal RPE defects (n=2, age-related macular degeneration (n=1, central serous retinopathy (n=1, and ocular trauma (n=1. Conclusions. FAF was successfully integrated in our ocular screening program and aided in the identification of ocular pathology. Larger studies examining the utility of this technology in screening programs may be warranted.
Fiona Chew Lee Min
Full Text Available AIM: To survey ophthalmological outcomes of pediatric patients who presented during a five-year period with ocular trauma to a tertiary referral center in West Malaysia.METHODS: All consecutive patients presenting to the Accident and Emergency Department from Jan. 2009 to Dec. 2013 were identified. Patients were recruited as study subjects if they were less than 15y of age and had sustained ocular trauma. Follow-up patients were excluded. Data collected including the subjects' demographic data and past medical and ocular history. Ocular injury, treatment and progress details were also recorded. RESULTS: The prevalence of pediatric ocular trauma was 17.6/100 000 per year. Males represented 69.5% of the 426 subjects recruited. Mean subject age was 6.08 years \\〖standard deviation(SD: 2.24\\〗. Domestic tools(19.7%and falls(19.7%represented the commonest causes of trauma. Most subjects(79.9%had presenting visual acuity(VAof 6/12 or better. The anterior segment of the eye(93.9%was most commonly injured, and 22.8% of subjects required surgery. Relative afferent pupillary defect was associated with closed globe injury(P=0.001and poorer final VA(P=0.001. Final VA in most subjects(92.7%was 6/12 or better. CONCLUSION: Increased awareness is necessary for the prevention and early ophthalmological intervention of pediatric ocular trauma, to ensure optimum visual rehabilitation for these patients.
Couser, Natario L; Masood, Maheer M; Aylsworth, Arthur S; Stevenson, Roger E
Intellectual disability (ID), a common neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by limitations of both intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior, affects an estimated 1-2% of children. Genetic causes of ID are often accompanied by recognizable syndromal patterns. The vision apparatus is a sensory extension of the brain, and individuals with intellectual disabilities frequently have coexisting abnormalities of ocular structures and the visual pathway system. About one-third of the X-linked intellectual disability (XLID) syndromes have significant eye or ocular adnexa abnormalities that provide important diagnostic clues. Some XLID syndromes (e.g. Aicardi, cerebrooculogenital, Graham anophthalmia, Lenz, Lowe, MIDAS) are widely known for their characteristic ocular manifestations. Nystagmus, optic atrophy, and strabismus are among the more common, nonspecific, ocular manifestations that contribute to neuro-ophthalmological morbidity. Common dysmorphic oculofacial findings include anophthalmia, microphthalmia, hypertelorism, and abnormalities in the configuration or orientation of the palpebral fissures. Four XLID syndromes with major ocular manifestations (incontinentia pigmenti, Goltz, MIDAS, and Aicardi syndromes) are notable because of male lethality and expression occurring predominantly in females. The majority of the genes associated with XLID and ocular manifestations have now been identified.
Amparo, Francisco; Wang, Haobing; Emami-Naeini, Parisa; Karimian, Parisa; Dana, Reza
To develop and validate a novel automated system to assess ocular redness (OR) in clinical images. We developed a novel software that quantifies OR in digital images based on a mathematic algorithm using a centesimal continuous scoring scale. Subsequently, we conducted a study to validate the scores obtained with this system by correlating them with those obtained by two physicians using two image-based comparative subjective scales, the Efron and the Validated Bulbar Redness (VBR) grading scales. Additionally, we evaluated the level of clinical agreement between the Ocular Redness Index (ORI) score and the two image-based methods by means of the Bland-Altman analysis. Main outcome measures included correlation and level of agreement between the ORI score, Efron score, and the VBR score. One hundred and two clinical photographs of eyes with OR were evaluated. The ORI scores significantly correlated with the scores obtained by the two clinicians using the Efron (Observer 1, R=0.925, P<0.001; Observer 2, R=0.857, P<0.001), and VBR (Observer 1, R=0.830, P<0.001; Observer 2, R=0.821, P<0.001) scales. The Bland-Altman analysis revealed levels of disagreement of up to 30 and 27 units for the ORI-Efron and ORI-VBR score comparisons, respectively. The ORI provides an objective and continuous scale for evaluating ocular injection in an automated manner, and without need for a trained physician for scoring. The ORI may be used as a new alternative for objective OR evaluation in clinics and in clinical trials.
von Neubeck, M; Huptas, C; Glück, C; Krewinkel, M; Stoeckel, M; Stressler, T; Fischer, L; Hinrichs, J; Scherer, S; Wenning, M
Analysis of the microbiota of raw cow's milk and semi-finished milk products yielded seven isolates assigned to the genus Pseudomonas that formed two individual groups in a phylogenetic analysis based on partial rpoD and 16S rRNA gene sequences. The two groups could be differentiated from each other and also from their closest relatives as well as from the type species Pseudomonas aeruginosa by phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characterization and average nucleotide identity (ANIb) values calculated from draft genome assemblies. ANIb values within the groups were higher than 97.3 %, whereas similarity values to the closest relatives were 85 % or less. The major cellular lipids of strains WS4917T and WS4993T were phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol and diphosphatidylglycerol; the major quinone was Q-9 in both strains, with small amounts of Q-8 in strain WS4917T. The DNA G+C contents of strains WS4917T and WS4993T were 58.08 and 57.30 mol%, respectively. Based on these data, strains WS4917T, WS4995 ( = DSM 29141 = LMG 28434), WS4999, WS5001 and WS5002 should be considered as representatives of a novel species of the genus Pseudomonas, for which the name Pseudomonas helleri sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Pseudomonas helleri is strain WS4917T ( = DSM 29165T = LMG 28433T). Strains WS4993T and WS4994 ( = DSM 29140 = LMG 28438) should be recognized as representing a second novel species of the genus Pseudomonas, for which the name Pseudomonas weihenstephanensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Pseudomonas weihenstephanensis is strain WS4993T ( = DSM 29166T = LMG 28437T).
Alexandre Mattoso Libório
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a presença de microbiota aeróbia da conjuntiva de portadores de alergia ocular e comparar a um grupo controle. MÉTODOS: Foram examinados 133 pacientes no período de abril a junho de 2001 divididos em 2 grupos. O grupo A foi composto de 63 portadores de conjuntivite alérgica (sem uso de medicação e o grupo B de 70 pacientes do ambulatório geral (controle. Foram coletadas amostras do fundo de saco conjuntival do olho direito de todos os pacientes e o material foi semeado em meios sólidos de cultura (ágar sangue, chocolate e Sabouraud. RESULTADOS: No grupo A, 30 culturas (47,7% foram positivas e no grupo B, 6 (8,6%. Sete bactérias foram isoladas no grupo A e 4 no B. A análise estatística revelou associação significante entre a positividade dos cultivos e conjuntivite alérgica. CONCLUSÃO: Microbiota bacteriana foi mais freqüentemente encontrada nos pacientes com alergia ocular.PURPOSE: To evaluate de presence of conjunctival aerobic microbiota in patients with ocular allergy as compared to a control group. METHODS: One hundred and thirty-three patients were evaluated from April to June 2001 and divided into 2 groups. Sixty-three patients with allergic conjunctivitis (without medication were in group A and 70 patients from the general outpatient clinic were in group B (control group. Samples from the conjunctival sac of the right eye were collected and cultured in solid media (blood, chocolate and Sabouraud agar. RESULTS: In group A, 30 cultures (47.7% were positive and 6 (8.6% in group B. Seven bacteria were isolated from group A and 4 from group B. Statistical analysis revealed significant association between positive cultures and allergic conjunctivitis. CONCLUSION: Bacterial microbiota was more frequently found in patients with ocular allergy.
Mônica Fialho Cronemberger
Full Text Available Objetivo: Estudar as alterações oculares em pacientes com mielomeningocele. Material e Método: Realizado estudo retrospectivo em 72 pacientes com mielomeningocele, descrevendo as alterações oculares presentes nessa população, além de correlacionar com a presença ou não de hidrocefalia. Resultados: Dos 72 pacientes com mielomeningocele, com idade variando de 5 meses a 18 anos, 64 (88,9% pacientes tinham hidrocefalia. Destes 64 pacientes, 36 (56,3% tinham estrabismo, sendo que 21 (58,3% eram endotrópicos, 13 (36,1% exotrópicos, 1 (2,8% exofórico e 1 (2,8% com estrabismo discinético. Do total dos 72 pacientes estudados 38 (52,8% eram estrábicos. A anisotropia foi encontrada em 16 (22,2% pacientes, sendo que em 14 (87,5% em A e em 2 (12,5% em V. Todos os 16 pacientes com anisotropia apresentavam hidrocefalia. O erro refrativo mais freqüente foi a hipermetropia encontrada em 64 (44,4% olhos. Atrofia óptica foi encontrada em 9 (12,5% pacientes. Conclusão: A mielomeningocele, associada a hidrocefalia, apresenta uma porcentagem de estrabismo maior do que o encontrado na população normal.Purpose: To study ocular findings in patients with meningomyelocele. Methods: A retrospective study of 72 patients with myelomeningocele was performed to evaluate ocular motility disorders, refractive errors and indirect ophthalmoscopy findings. Results: In a group of 72 patients with myelomeningocele, aged 5 month -- 18 years, 64 (88.9% had hydrocephalus. Of this group of 64 patients, 36 (56.3% had strabismus, 21 (58.3% of whom were esotropic, and 13 (36.1% exotropic, 1 (2.8% exophoric and 1 (2.8% presented sometimes esotropia and sometimes exotropia. Of the total of 72 studied patients, 38 (52.8% had strabismus. Anisotropia was found in 16 (22.2% patients, 14 (87.5% with an A pattern and 2 (12.5% with a V pattern. The most frequent refractive error was hyperopia, found in 64 (44.4% eyes. All the 16 patients with anisotropia had hydrocephalus
Saba, Evelyn; Jeon, Bo Ra; Jeong, Da-Hye; Lee, Kija; Goo, Youn-Kyoung; Kim, Seung-Hyung; Sung, Chang-Keun; Roh, Seong-Soo; Kim, Sung Dae; Kim, Hyun-Kyoung; Rhee, Man-Hee
Ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer) is a well-characterized medicinal herb listed in the classic oriental herbal dictionary as "Shin-nong-bon-cho-kyung." Ginseng has diverse pharmacologic and therapeutic properties. Black ginseng (BG, Ginseng Radix nigra) is produced by repeatedly steaming fresh ginseng nine times. Studies of BG have shown that prolonged heat treatment enhances the antioxidant activity with increased radical scavenging activity. Several recent studies have showed the effects of BG on increased lipid profiles in mice. In this study report the effects of water and ethanol extracts of BG on hypercholesterolemia in rats. To our knowledge, this is the first time such an effect has been reported. Experiments were conducted on male Sprague Dawley rats fed with a high-cholesterol diet supplemented with the water and ethanol extracts of BG (200 mg/kg). Their blood cholesterol levels, serum white blood cell levels, and cholesterol-metabolizing marker genes messenger RNA (mRNA) expression were determined. Liver and adipose tissues were histologically analyzed. We found that BG extracts efficiently reduced the total serum cholesterol levels, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels with increased food efficiency ratio and increased number of neutrophil cells. It also attenuated the key genes responsible for lipogenesis, that is, acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA) acetyltransferase 2, 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase, and sterol regulatory element-binding protein 2, at the mRNA level inside liver cells. Furthermore, the BG extract also reduced the accumulation of fat in adipose tissues, and inhibited the neutral fat content in liver cells stained with hematoxylin and eosin and oil red O. Administration of BG extracts to Sprague Dawley rats fed with high-cholesterol diet ameliorated hypercholesterolemia, which was mediated via modulation of cholesterol-metabolizing marker genes. This data throw a light on BG's cardioprotective effects.
Curren, R D; Harbell, J W
The necessity of using animals to test whether new chemicals and products are eye irritants has been questioned with increasing frequency and fervor over the last 20 years. During this time many new nonanimal methods have been proposed as reliable alternatives to the traditional rabbit (Draize) test. To date, however, none of these nonanimal (in vitro) tests have become universally accepted as a complete replacement for the Draize test. To understand why a complete replacement has not been found, one has to first understand the reasonably complex structure of the eye, the standard Draize scoring scale--which is based on a qualitative evaluation of three different tissues--the differences between human and rabbit eyes, the intrinsic variability of the animal test, and the details of the different in vitro tests that have been proposed as replacements. The in vitro tests vary from relatively simple assays using single cells to more sophisticated assays that use discarded animal tissue or artificially constructed human tissue. It is clear that appropriately designed in vitro tests will eventually give more useful mechanistic information about ocular injury from which we can more comfortably predict the risk of human eye irritation from new products and ingredients.
Juan C. Leoni
Full Text Available Marfan syndrome is the most common inherited disorder of connective tissue affecting multiple organ systems. Identification of the facial, ocular and skeletal features should prompt referral for aortic imaging since sudden death by aortic dissection and rupture remains a major cause of death in patients with unrecognized Marfan syndrome. Echocardiography is recommended as the initial imaging test, and once a dilated aortic root is identified magnetic resonance or computed tomography should be done to assess the entire aorta. Prophylactic aortic root replacement is safe and has been demonstrated to improve life expectancy in patients with Marfan syndrome. Medical therapy for Marfan syndrome includes the use of beta blockers in older children and adults with an enlarged aorta. Addition of angiotensin receptor antagonists has been shown to slow the progression of aortic root dilation compared to beta blockers alone. Lifelong and regular follow up in a center for specialized care is important for patients with Marfan syndrome. We present a case of a patient with clinical features of Marfan syndrome and discuss possible therapeutic interventions for her dilated aorta.
De Masi, Franco
The delusional experience is the result of a grave disjunction in the psyche whose outcome is not readily predictable. Examination of the specific mode of disjunction may help us understand the nature and radical character of delusion. I will present the therapy of a psychotic patient who after many years of analysis and progresses in his life continues to show delusional episodes although limited and contained. In his case, the two visions, one delusional and the other real, remain distinct and differentiated from each other because they both possess the same perceptual character, that of reality. He has a bi-ocular vision of reality and not a binocular one because his vision lacks integration, as would necessarily be the case if the two visions could be compared with each other. The principle of non-contradiction ceases to apply in delusion. A corollary of the failure of the principle of non-contradiction is that, if a statement and its negation are both true, then any statement is true. Logicians call this consequence the principle of explosion. For this reason, the distinction between truth, reality, improbability, probability, possibility and impossibility is lost in the delusional system, thus triggering an omnipotent, explosive mechanism with a potentially infinite progression. The paper presents some thoughts for a possible analytic transformation of the delusional experience. Copyright © 2015 Institute of Psychoanalysis.
Full Text Available We present our findings in a case of primary neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC of the lacrimal gland and a case of primary Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC of the eyelid. An 86-year-old man noticed a swelling of the left upper eyelid three months earlier. We performed excision biopsy and histopathological examination indicated that he had a primary NEC of the left lacrimal gland. He underwent chemotherapy followed by excision including the clinically visible margins and 50 Gy radiotherapy of the surgical margins. He had neither recurrence nor metastasis for 6 months since the last radiotherapy. An 80-year-old man noticed a nodule in the right upper eyelid and was referred to our hospital because the size was increasing rapidly. A complete surgical excision of the margins of the tumor was performed with histopathological confirmation of negative margins. The final diagnosis was a primary MCC of the right upper eyelid. After surgery, he underwent 50 Gy radiotherapy on the neck to prevent metastasis. No recurrence or metastasis was found for two years. Although primary NEC of the ocular adnexa is extremely rare, the tumor has high malignancy and readily metastasizes. Thus, combined therapy including surgery, radiotherapy, and/or chemotherapy is needed for complete management of NEC.
Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus infection is the first major pandemic of the 20th century. At present, almost 10 million people are known to be infected with this virus, and it is estimated that by the year 2000, approximately 40 million people will be infected. Transmission of this deadly infection is predominantly by sexual contact. Individuals infected with this virus pass through several predictable stages with progressive decrease in circulating CD4+ T cells. During the advanced stage, these patients develop various opportunistic infections or malignancies, or both. It is this advanced stage that was first recognized as AIDS, which has a 100% mortality rate. The opportunistic organisms that can involve the eye in patients with AIDS include cytomegalovirus, herpes zoster, Toxoplasma gondii, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Cryptococcus neoformans, Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare, Pneumocystis carinii, Histoplasma capsulatum, Candida, and others. Intraocular lesions from these agents often represent disseminated infections. Visual morbidity occurs secondary to retinitis due to cytomegalovirus, herpes zoster, or Toxoplasma gondii. Anti-viral agents such as ganciclovir or foscarnet are effective against cytomegalovirus infection. The role of the ophthalmologist in the diagnosis and management of AIDS is becoming increasingly important. Not only does the eye reflect systemic disease, but ocular involvement may often precede systemic manifestations. In the AIDS patient, the ophthalmologist thus has an opportunity to make not only a slight-saving, but also life-saving diagnosis of disseminated opportunistic infections.
Full Text Available Parasites are a group of eukaryotic organisms that may be free-living or form a symbiotic or parasitic relationship with the hosts. Consisting of over 800,000 recognized species, parasites may be unicellular (Protozoa or multicellular (helminths and arthropods. The association of parasites with human population started long before the emergence of civilization. Parasitic zoonotic diseases are prevalent worldwide including India. Appropriate epidemiological data are lacking on existing zoonotic parasitic diseases, and newer diseases are emerging in our scenario. Systemic diseases such as cysticercosis, paragonimiasis, hydatidosis, and toxoplasmosis are fairly common. Acquired Toxoplasma infections are rising in immune-deficient individuals. Amongst the ocular parasitic diseases, various protozoas such as Cystoidea, trematodes, tissue flagellates, sporozoas etc. affect humans in general and eyes in particular, in different parts of the world. These zoonoses seem to be a real health related problem globally. Recent intensification of research throughout the world has led to specialization in biological fields, creating a conducive situation for researchers interested in this subject. The basics of parasitology lie in morphology, pathology, and with recent updates in molecular parasitology, the scope has extended further. The current review is to address the recent update in ophthalmic parasites with special reference to pathology and give a glimpse of further research in this field.
Full Text Available Dirofilarioses are zoonoses caused by filaria of the genus Dirofilaria, the parasites of domestic and wild animals. People are just random carriers of this parasite. In Europe, human dirofilariosis is caused by two species: Dirofilaria repens ( D. repens, also known as a species of The Old World , usually with the superficial localization of infection, and D. immitis, which is present throughout the world, and causes, beside superficial, visceral dirofilariosis. So far, based on the data from reference literature, it can be observed that in Serbia about 34 cases of human dirofilariosis have been diagnosed and published. It is assumed that the prevalence of this parasitosis is significantly higher as our country is an endemic area for dirofilariosis in dogs and the region where species of mosquitoes, which are transitory hosts and vectors of Dirofilaria spp., are present. The clinical picture of dirofilariosis depends on the type and location of the parasite in the human body. In our country, patients diagnosed with dirofilariosis had subcutaneous or subconjunctival infection in the majority of cases. Ocular dirofilariosis may affect the orbit and the periorbital region, the skin of the eyelids, the conjunctiva, the Tenon membrane, a retrobulbar space or has an intrabulbar localization. These patients may have a severe disability, and surgery alone can be complicated due to localization. The aim of this review is to highlight the importance of this unexpected important zoonoses, with special emphasis on the importance within the ophthalmic practice.
Gillis, Richard J.; Iglewski, Barbara H.
Using a flow cell biofilm model, we showed that a sub-MIC of azithromycin (AZM) can delay but not inhibit Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm formation and results in the development of a stable AZM resistance phenotype. Furthermore, mature biofilms were not affected by AZM. PMID:15583321
Høiby, Niels; Ciofu, Oana; Bjarnsholt, Thomas
The persistence of chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infections in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients is due to biofilm-growing mucoid (alginate-producing) strains. A biofilm is a structured consortium of bacteria, embedded in a self-produced polymer matrix consisting of polysaccharide, protein...
The microflora associated with the root-surface of five tomato cultivars commonly cultivated in Edo State Nigeria, was investigated by inoculating serially washed 5 mm tomato root segments on potato dextrose agar (PDA) incubated at room temperature (28-30oC). Fusarium oxysporum and Ralstonia (pseudomonas) ...
Biodegradation of phenol using Pseudomonas pictorum (ATCC 23328) a potential biodegradant of phenol was investigated under different operating conditions. Chitin was chosen as a support material and then partially characterized physically and chemically. The pH of the solution was varied over a range of 7 – 9.
Gilani, Razia Alam; Rafique, Mazhar; Rehman, Abdul; Munis, Muhammad Farooq Hussain; Rehman, Shafiq Ur; Chaudhary, Hassan Javed
Chlorpyrifos is an organophosphorus pesticide commonly used in agriculture. It is noxious to a variety of organisms that include living soil biota along with beneficial arthropods, fish, birds, humans, animals, and plants. Exposure to chlorpyrifos may cause detrimental effects as delayed seedling emergence, fruit deformities, and abnormal cell division. Contamination of chlorpyrifos has been found about 24 km from the site of its application. There are many physico-chemical and biological approaches to remove organophosphorus pesticides from the ecosystem, among them most promising is biodegradation. The 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP) and diethylthiophosphate (DETP) as primary products are made when chlorpyrifos is degraded by soil microorganisms which further break into nontoxic metabolites as CO(2), H(2)O, and NH(3). Pseudomonas is a diversified genus possessing a series of catabolic pathways and enzymes involved in pesticide degradation. Pseudomonas putida MAS-1 is reported to be more efficient in chlorpyrifos degradation by a rate of 90% in 24 h among Pseudomonas genus. The current review analyzed the comparative potential of bacterial species in Pseudomonas genus for degradation of chlorpyrifos thus, expressing an ecofriendly approach for the treatment of environmental contaminants like pesticides. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
DETERMINATION OF THE GENETIC MARKER OF THE MUTAGENIZED. STRAINS OF PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA AND BACILLUS CEREUS. ISOLATED FROM EFFLUENT OF PETROLEUM REFINERY. Idise, O. E.1, Ameh, J.B.2 Yakubu, S.E. 2, Okuofu, C.A. 3 and Ado, S.A.2. 1 Department of Microbiology, Delta ...
Bakker, P.A.H.M.; Pieterse, C.M.J.; Loon, L.C. van
Fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. have been studied for decades for their plant growth-promoting effects through effective suppression of soilborne plant diseases. The modes of action that play a role in disease suppression by these bacteria include siderophore-mediated competition for iron, antibiosis,
Comparative evaluation of organic formulations of Pseudomonas fluorescens based biopesticides and their application in the management of bacterial wilt of brinjal ... Effective management of bacterial wilt of brinjal by P. fluorescens under local conditions signifies its potentiality and scope as a plant growth promoting ...
The potential of local strains of microorganism (Pseudomonas fluorescens) in polyhydroxbutyrate production was investigated in this study. This was with a view to establishing the capabilities of local strains of microorganisms on utilizing renewable and locally available substrates in polyhydroxybutyrate production.
ABSTRACT: This work investigated the prevalence and antibiotics sensitivity of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from wounds of patients attending Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital (ABUTH), Zaria-Nigeria. One hundred Isolates were characterized and identified from the specimens using standard ...
Jensen, E T; Kharazmi, A; Garred, P
In chronic infections, such as the bronchopulmonary Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, bacteria persist despite an intact host immune defense and frequent antibiotic treatment. An important reason for the persistence of the bacteria is their capacity for the biofilm...
Antagonistic effect of Pseudomonas fluorescens and influence of gamma irradiation on the development of Penicillium expansum, the causal agent of postharvest disease on apple fruit was studied. P. fluorescens was originally isolated from rhizosphere of the apple trees. Suspension of P. fluorescens and P. expansum ...
Jakobsen, Tim Holm; Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Jensen, Peter Østrup
alternative antibacterial strategies. Here, we review state of the art research of quorum sensing inhibitors against the opportunistic human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which is found in a number of biofilm-associated infections and identified as the predominant organism infecting the lungs of cystic...
Kiil, Kristoffer; Oguiza, J.A.; Ussery, D.W.
Genome analyses of the plant pathogens Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000, pv. syringae B728a and pv. phaseolicola 1448A reveal fewer extracytoplasmic function (ECF) sigma factors than in related Pseudomonads with different lifestyles. We highlight the presence of a P. syringae-specific ECF...
Crystal violet (CV), a recalcitrant molecule, used commonly as biological stain and commercial dye, was subjected to biodegradation in this study by Pseudomonas fluorescens NCIM 2100 and its biodegraded metabolic products were identified by UV, 1HNMR and IR Spectrophotometry. During degradation process CV dye ...
their dissemination to the public, sometimes through the food chain. Four multidrug resistant Gram negative pathogens including: 2 Pseudomonas aeruginosa and 2 Proteus mirabilis characterized in this study were isolated from lizards captured from some poultry houses in Ibadan Oyo State, Nigeria. The four isolates were ...
Sous traitement, l'évolution a été favorable. Les coinfections morbides sont relativement fréquentes chez les patients vivant avec le VIH. Devant une symptomatologie respiratoire du sujet vivant avec le VIH, il faut savoir rechercher en plus du Bacille de Koch, Pneumocystis jirovecii et Pseudomonas aeruginosa par un ...
... of a constitutive calcium dependent NOS and that of an inducible NOS activated by LPS. Ours results also suggest that P. fluorescens cytotoxicity and invasion are not mutually exclusive events. Key Words: Cytotoxicity, Lipopolysaccharide, Patch-clamp, Invasion, Pseudomonas fluorescens. Afr. J. Clin. Exper. Microbiol.
A protease producing bacteria was isolated from meat waste contaminated soil and identified as Pseudomonas fluorescens. Optimization of the fermentation medium for maximum protease production was carried out. The culture conditions like inoculum concentration, incubation time, pH, temperature, carbon sources, ...
Dec 15, 2009 ... the metal ions tested. Key words: Alkaline protease, casein agar, meat waste contaminated soil, Pseudomonas fluorescens. INTRODUCTION. Proteases are the most important industrial enzymes that execute a wide variety of functions and have various important biotechnological applications (Mohen et al.,.
mild transesterification has become of much current interest for alternative fuel production. In the present study the ability of a commercial immobilized Pseudomonas fluorescens MTCC 103 to catalyze the transesterification of Jatropha oil and methanol was investigated. The cell of P. fluorescens was easily immobilized ...
Ballestra, Patricia; Verret, Catherine; Cruz, Christian; Largeteau, Alain; Demazeau, Gerard; El Moueffak, Abdelhamid
Pseudomonas is one of the most common genera in black Perigord truffle. Its inactivation by high pressure (100-500 MPa/10 min) applied on truffles at sub-zero or low temperatures was studied and compared with those of Pseudomonas fluorescens in tryptone soya broth. Pressurization of truffles at 300 MPa/4 °C reduced the bacterial count of Pseudomonas by 5.3 log cycles. Higher pressures of 400 or 500 MPa, at 4 °C or 20 °C, allowed us to slightly increase the level of destruction to the value of ca. 6.5 log cycles but did not permit us to completely inactivate Pseudomonas. The results showed a residual charge of about 10 CFU/g. Pressure-shift freezing of truffles, which consists in applying a pressure of 200 MPa/-18 °C for 10 min and then quickly releasing this pressure to induce freezing, reduced the population of Pseudomonas by 3.3 log cycles. The level of inactivation was higher than those obtained with conventional freezing. Endogenous Pseudomonas in truffle was shown to be more resistant to high pressure treatments than P. fluorescens used for inoculation of broths.
The low intensity laser therapy (LILT) has been extensively used in medicine and dentistry presenting positive effects. However, the laser radiation can also cause adverse effects. Due to the ocular focalization property, in the wavelength from 400 to 1400 nm, the retina is more susceptible to damage by radiation than any other part of the human body. Then, the ocular protection is frequently emphasized. This protection must attenuate the radiation to a safe level. The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) standard IEC 60825-1 suggests safety requirements for medical laser equipment, including the ocular protection, based on maximum permissible exposure levels. The Brazilian legislation adopts a corresponding IEC standard, the NBR IEC 601.2.22, for safety requirements. The aim of this study was to analyze the adequacy of the ocular protectors furnished by four laser equipment manufacturers, commercially available in Brazil, commonly used for LILT. For this purpose, the laser equipment and the respective ocular protectors were characterized. The adequacy was verified according to the IEC standards. It was found, among other results, ocular protectors attenuating to safe levels the radiation emitted by the respective laser equipment, however, presenting inadequate visual transmission. Inefficient protection and protection indicated in cases where they were not necessary were also observed. (author)
Full Text Available AIM: To study the clinical profile of ocular injuries in children in a tertiary care center in Northern India.METHODS: This was a hospital based descriptive study. All children of ocular injuries up to 16y of age were included. Data regarding the socio-economic status, medical/surgical treatment, and condition at discharge were recorded. Follow-up to 3mo was done in the study. Initial and final visual acuity was recorded. Ocular Trauma Classification Group guidelines and Birmingham Eye Trauma Terminology were used for the definitions and classifications of ocular trauma. Socio-economic status grading is done according to modified B.G. Prasad classification and Kuppuswamy's socio-economic scale.RESULTS: Out of 42 children, male to female ratio was 3.6:1.Maximum number(50%of injuries occurred between 11-16y of age. Most of the children(59.52%belonged to lower socio-economic class and were from arural background. Ocular injuries occurred at home in 20(47.61%children followed by 6(14.28%each in school, playground, and street. Open globe injuries were seen in 19(45.24%children and 23(54.75%children had closed globe injuries. Injuries by wooden stick, stone, firework, fall, toy were 12(28.57%, 5(11.90%, 3(7.14%, 3(7.14%, and 2(4.76%. Seventeen(40.47%children required medical management and 25(59.53%were treated surgically.CONCLUSION:Male children in rural regions and of lower socio-economic background were more prone to ocular injuries. Children were more risk of ocular injuries at home. Wooden sticks and stone were the commonest cause of ocular injuries. Ocular morbidity and poor visual outcome were seen more in open globe injuries. Further population-based studies are required to reinforce findings of present study. Based on this, a long term strategy can be planned to prevent ocular injuries in children in this region.
Jorge Alberto Llerena Rodríguez
Full Text Available Se realizó una revisión de las principales tendencias en el manejo de los traumatismos oculares a globo abierto según la clasificación internacional de Birmingham. Se mencionan los elementos que pueden influir en el pronóstico visual. Se enfatiza en los criterios diagnósticos, cuadro clínico y terapéutica clínico-quirúrgica a instaurar por el médico en el servicio de urgencias. Se presenta un algoritmo al efecto.The main tendencies in the management of the ocular open-globe injuries, according to Birmingham’s international classification, were reviewed. Those aspects that might have an effect on the visual outcomes were stated. Emphasis was made on the diagnostic criteria, the clinical picture and the surgical and therapeutic treatments that a physician may resort to in the emergency room; for this purpose, an algorithm to manage this visual problem was submitted.
Raúl Rúa Martínez
Full Text Available El osteoma coroideo es un tumor benigno, óseo y fue descrito por primera vez en 1978 por Gass y otros. Generalmente es unilateral, de localización juxtapapilar y más frecuente en mujeres adultas jóvenes. Presenta una etiología desconocida pero se asocian diferentes factores como: procesos inflamatorios, malformaciones congénitas, alteraciones hormonales y traumas oculares entre otros. Se presenta una paciente del sexo femenino, de 54 años de edad, con antecedentes patológicos personales de fibromialgia reumática (osteoartritis y osteoporosis e hipertensión arterial. En los antecedentes oftalmológicos presentaba miopía leve y retinopatía arteriolosclerótica. La paciente refiere que sufrió un accidente de tránsito y recibió lesiones contusas en miembros y región periocular. A partir de ese momento comenzó con mala visión del ojo derecho y acude a nuestro servicio seis meses después. Se le realizó examen oftalmológico y los datos positivos en el ojo derecho fueron una agudeza visual de 0,4, con corrección alcanzaba 1,0 y al fondo de ojo se detecta estreches vascular, desprendimiento de vítreo posterior incompleto y una lesión blanquecina naranja de tres diámetros papilares en polo posterior que involucraba arcada temporal inferior con borde bien definidos. Se realizó angiografía que mostró hiperfluorescencia mantenida y no neovascularización; la tomografía de coherencia óptica reveló un halo de desprendimiento de retina seroso a su alrededor. El ultrasonido destaca una imagen ecogénica de alta reflexividad que involucra coroides con silencio acústico posterior. El osteoma constituye una patología no muy frecuente, cuyo diagnóstico es imagenológico, y se destaca el hecho de ser secundario a un trauma ocular.The choroidal osteoma is a benign bony tumor described for the first time in 1978 by Gass and collaborators. It is generally unilateral, with juxtapapillary localization and more frequent in young adult
Full Text Available Objective: To determine the contribution of corporal punishment to ocular morbidity and visual impairment in Nigerian children. Materials and Methods: A prospective study was conducted of all patients aged 0-15 years seen with ocular injuries over a four year period. Those who sustained ocular injuries during the administration of corporal punishment were further studied. Relevant information was documented using a semistructured questionnaire. Data was analyzed by simple descriptive statistics using SPSS statistical package version 10. Results: A total of 186 children were seen within the study period. Eighty-nine (47.8% had ocular injuries and 27 (30.3% had ocular injuries resulting from corporal punishment. Of the latter group, eighteen were males and nine were females. Their ages ranged from 3-15 years (mean = 8.5 ± 2.4 years. Corporal punishment-associated injuries occurred most commonly as seen in 17 (63% of our study population who were aged 7-12 years. These 27 cases of injuries were sustained in the schools: 13 (48.2%, homes: eight (29.6%, market place: three (11.1%, workshop: two (7.4% and worship houses: one (3.7%. A stick was the object mostly implicated in causing ocular injuries in 13 (48.2% followed by a belt in five (18.5% and a whip in four (14.8%. Severe visual impairment occurred in two (7.4% patients while blindness occurred in three (11.1% patients. Conclusion: Corporal punishment is a major cause of ocular morbidity and blindness in Nigerian children.
Full Text Available An important component of the World Health Organization's comprehensive trachoma elimination strategy is the provision of repeated annual mass azithromycin distributions, which are directed at reducing the burden of ocular chlamydia. Knowledge of characteristics associated with infection after mass antibiotic treatments could allow trachoma programs to focus resources to those most likely to be infected with ocular chlamydia.We monitored 12 communities in rural Ethiopia that had received 3 annual mass azithromycin treatments as part of a cluster-randomized trial for trachoma. One year after the third treatment, a random sample of children from each village received conjunctival examination for follicular trachomatous inflammation (TF and intense trachomatous inflammation (TI, conjunctival swabbing for chlamydial RNA and DNA, and a household survey. The primary outcome for this study was RNA evidence of ocular chlamydia, which we detected in 41 of 573 swabbed children (7.2%, 95%CI 2.7-17.8. In multivariate mixed effects logistic regression models, ocular chlamydial RNA was significantly associated with ocular discharge (OR 2.82, 95%CI 1.07-7.42, missing the most recent mass azithromycin treatment (OR 2.49, 95%CI 1.02-6.05, having a sibling with ocular chlamydia (OR 4.44, 95%CI 1.60-12.29, and above-median community population (OR 7.81, 95%CI 1.56-39.09. Ocular chlamydial infection was also independently associated with TF (OR 3.42, 95%CI 1.56-7.49 and TI (OR 5.39, 95%CI 2.43-11.98.In areas with highly prevalent trachoma treated with multiple rounds of mass azithromycin, trachoma programs could consider continuing mass azithromycin treatments in households that have missed prior mass antibiotic treatments, in households with clinically active trachoma, and in larger communities.
Tabbara, Khalid F; Al-Ghamdi, Ahmad; Al-Mohareb, Fahad; Ayas, Mouhab; Chaudhri, Naeem; Al-Sharif, Fahad; Al-Zahrani, Hazzaa; Mohammed, Said Y; Nassar, Amr; Aljurf, Mahmoud
To study the incidence, causes, and outcome of major ocular complications in patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Retrospective, noncomparative, observational clinical study. The study included a total of 620 patients who underwent allogeneic HSCT in the period from 1997 to 2007 at King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Allogeneic HSCT. Patients with ocular complications were referred to the ophthalmology division for complete ophthalmologic examination, including visual acuity, tonometry, Schirmer test, biomicroscopy, and dilated ophthalmoscopy. Laboratory investigations were performed whenever indicated. The incidence and causes of major ocular complications after allogeneic HSCT were determined. Visual acuity at 1 year after allogeneic HSCT was recorded. Major ocular complications occurred in 80 (13%) of 620 patients who underwent allogeneic HSCT. There were 36 male patients (45%) and 44 female patients (55%) with a mean age of 29 years and an age range of 9 to 65 years. Prophylaxis for graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) consisted of cyclosporine and methotrexate in 69 patients, and cyclosporine, methotrexate and corticosteroids, or mycophenolate mofetil in 11 patients. The most frequently encountered ocular complications were chronic GVHD, dry eye syndrome without GVHD, corneal ulcers, cataract, glaucoma, cytomegalovirus retinitis, fungal endophthalmitis, and acquisition of allergic conjunctivitis from atopic donors. There was no correlation between the pattern of ocular complications and the transplanted stem cell source. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) at 1 year after transplantation was less than 20/200 in 13 patients (16%), less than 20/50 in 17 patients (21%), and better than 20/50 in 50 patients (63%). Ocular complications are common in patients undergoing allogeneic HSCT. Early recognition and prompt treatment are important. The author(s) have no proprietary or commercial
Palakkamanil, Mathew M; Fielden, Michael P
Intentional malicious laser strikes on commercial pilots are committed by individuals who target a laser into airplane cockpits during takeoff and landing. Because laser exposure to pilots is a relatively new but growing occurrence, our study investigates the ocular effect of this laser exposure in pilots. Retrospective chart review by a single ophthalmologist. All commercial airline pilots (58 male, 3 female) who experienced a laser strike while flying between April 2012 and November 2014 who presented to our clinic were included. A retrospective chart review was performed in a retinal specialist's practice. Ocular assessment was performed within 3 days of laser exposure. A complete ophthalmic evaluation was conducted, including Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study visual acuity, colour vision, visual fields, intraocular pressure, slit-lamp examination, dilated fundus examination, colour fundus photographs, and ocular coherence tomography. Sixty-four laser strike incidents involving commercial pilots were included. All pilots in the study experienced some degree of immediate ocular irritation or light sensitivity. No definite cases of ocular damage were attributed to laser strikes. No pilot had any functional ocular deficits. Our study revealed that laser strikes on aircraft did not result in permanent visual functional or structural deficits. However, laser strikes cause immediate visual effects, including glare, flash blindness, and ocular irritation that can interfere with a pilot's visual function. Given the widespread accessibility of high-power lasers and the rapid increase in incidents, laser strikes threaten to jeopardize aviation safety unless effective preventative measures are put in place. Copyright © 2015 Canadian Ophthalmological Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Yashbir Singh Shivay
Full Text Available Zinc (Zn deficiency in humans has recently received considerable attention. Global mortality in children under 5 years of age in 2004 due to Zn deficiency was estimated at 4,53,207 as against 6,66,771 for vitamin A deficiency; 20,854 for iron deficiency and 3,619 for iodine deficiency. In humans 2800-3000 proteins contain Zn prosthetic group and Zn is an integral component of zinc finger prints that regulate DNA transcription. Zinc is a Type-2 nutrient, which means that its concentration in blood does not decrease in proportion of the Zn deficiency. Adverse effects of Zn deficiency vary with age: low weight gain, diarrhoea, aneroxia and neurobehavioral disturbances are observed in infants, while skin changes and dwarfism are frequent in toddlers and adolescents. Common manifestations of Zn deficiency among elderly include hypogeusia, chronic non-healing ulcers and recurrent infections.Ameliorative measures of Zn deficiency in humans can be classified in two groups, namely, nutraceutical and biofortification of food grains. Nutraceutical interventions include pharmaceutical supplements, dietary supplements and dietary diversification, while biofortification of food grains can be achieved by genetic modification (GM of crops or by agronomic techniques that include soil or/and foliar fertilization of crops.The major disadvantage of nutraceutical approaches is that the major beneficiaries are urban people and the poor rural masses that need adequate Zn nutrition most are left out. Genetic biofortification of food grains requires large amounts of funds and a fairly long-period of time. Further, a large number of countries have not yet accepted genetically modified (GM foods. On the other hand agronomic biofortification of food grains yields immediate effects and rural and urban people are equally benefitted. Our studies have shown that Zn concentration in cereals (rice, wheat etc and pulses can be considerably increased by soil or/and foliar
Ginis, Harilaos S; Perez, Guillermo M; Bueno, Juan M; Pennos, Alexandros; Artal, Pablo
Ocular straylight is the combined effect of light scattering in the optical media and the diffuse reflectance from the various fundus layers. The aim of this work was to employ an optical technique to measure straylight at different wavelengths and to identify the optimal conditions for visually relevant optical measurements of straylight. The instrument, based on the double-pass (DP) principle, used a series of uniform disks that were projected onto the retina, allowing the recording of the wide-angle point spread function (PSF) from its peak and up to 7.3° of visual angle. A liquid crystal wavelength tunable filter was used to select six different wavelengths ranging from 500 to 650 nm. The measurements were performed in nine healthy Caucasian subjects. The straylight parameter was analyzed for small (0.5°) and large (6°) angles. For small angles, the wavelength dependence of straylight matches the transmittance spectrum of hemoglobin, which suggests that diffuse light from the fundus contributes significantly to the total straylight for wavelengths longer than 600 nm. Eyes with lighter pigmentation exhibited higher straylight at all wavelengths. For larger angles, straylight was less dependent on wavelength and eye pigmentation. Small-angle straylight in the eye is affected by the wavelength-dependent properties of the fundus. At those small angles, measurements using wavelengths near the peak of the spectral sensitivity of the eye might be better correlated with the visual aspects of straylight. However, the impact of fundus reflectance on the values of the straylight parameter at larger angles did not depend on the measuring wavelength.
Nentwich, Martin M; Ulbig, Michael W
In industrialized nations diabetic retinopathy is the most frequent microvascular complication of diabetes mellitus and the most common cause of blindness in the working-age population. In the next 15 years, the number of patients suffering from diabetes mellitus is expected to increase significantly. By the year 2030, about 440 million people in the age-group 20-79 years are estimated to be suffering from diabetes mellitus worldwide (prevalence 7.7%), while in 2010 there were 285 million people with diabetes mellitus (prevalence 6.4%). This accounts for an increase in patients with diabetes in industrialized nations by 20% and in developing countries by 69% until the year 2030. Due to the expected rise in diabetic patients, the need for ophthalmic care of patients (i.e., exams and treatments) will also increase and represents a challenge for eye-care providers. Development of optimized screening programs, which respect available resources of the ophthalmic infrastructure, will become even more important. Main reasons for loss of vision in patients with diabetes mellitus are diabetic macular edema and proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Incidence or progression of these potentially blinding complications can be greatly reduced by adequate control of blood glucose and blood pressure levels. Additionally, regular ophthalmic exams are mandatory for detecting ocular complications and initiating treatments such as laser photocoagulation in case of clinical significant diabetic macular edema or early proliferative diabetic retinopathy. In this way, the risk of blindness can considerably be reduced. In advanced stages of diabetic retinopathy, pars-plana vitrectomy is performed to treat vitreous hemorrhage and tractional retinal detachment. In recent years, the advent of intravitreal medication has improved therapeutic options for patients with advanced diabetic macular edema.
Full Text Available Life expectancy at birth has regularly increased decade after decade, especially since the beginning of the 20th century: 15 years have been gained over the past 50 years. Changes in living and dietary habits during this time period have been associated with the development of various pathologies which represent a growing socioeconomic burden. Among age-related disorders, ocular diseases are the second most prevalent ones after 65 years. Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD is the leading cause of visual impairment after the age of 50 years. Age is the prominent risk factor for AMD and is accompanied with both endogenous (including genetics and environmental factors, such as smoking habits and dietary factors (diet rich in cholesterol and saturated fatty acids. AMD is characterized by the loss of cells at the most central area of the retina, called macula. The neural retina is a highly structured neurosensory tissue that is responsible for the transduction pathway. The transduction pathway is initiated in photoreceptors where the light stimulus is coded into an electrical signal. This signal is transmitted to neighboured neurons and transferred to the brain via the optic nerve. The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE is the cellular and metabolic interface between the neural retina and choriocapillaris through Bruch’s membrane. The close association between RPE and photoreceptors is one of the factors that promote the efficacy of RPE to, in the one hand, provide nutrients and oxygen to photoreceptors and, in the other hand, eliminate the metabolic debris originating from shedding of the outer segments. Epidemiological data suggest that dietary habits privileging the consumption of omega- 3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids participate to prevent from the development of AMD (Sangiovanni et al., 2009. The mechanisms underlying the effects of omega-3 fatty acids remain unclear until now. The purpose of the present paper is to give a review on
von Neubeck, Mario; Huptas, Christopher; Glück, Claudia; Krewinkel, Manuel; Stoeckel, Marina; Stressler, Timo; Fischer, Lutz; Hinrichs, Jörg; Scherer, Siegfried; Wenning, Mareike
Five strains, designated WS 4672T, WS 4998, WS 4992T, WS 4997 and WS 5000, isolated from bovine raw milk formed two individual groups in a phylogenetic analysis. The most similar species on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequences were Pseudomonas azotoformans IAM 1603T, Pseudomonas gessardii CIP 105469T and Pseudomonas libanensis CIP 105460T showing 99.7-99.6 % similarity. Using rpoD gene sequences Pseudomonas veronii LMG 17761T (93.3 %) was most closely related to strain WS 4672T and Pseudomonas libanensis CIP 105460T to strain WS 4992T (93.3 %). The five strains could be differentiated from their closest relatives and from each other by phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characterization and ANIb values calculated from draft genome assemblies. ANIb values of strains WS 4992T and WS4671T to the closest relatives are lower than 90 %. The major cellular polar lipids of both strains are phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, a phospholipid and diphosphatidylglycerol, and their major quinone is Q-9. The DNA G+C content of strains WS 4992T and WS 4672T were 60.0 and 59.7 mol%, respectively. Based on these genotypic and phenotypic traits two novel species of the genus Pseudomonas are proposed: Pseudomonas lactis sp. nov. [with type strain WS 4992T (=DSM 29167T=LMG 28435T) and the additional strains WS 4997 and WS 5000], and Pseudomonasparalactis sp. nov. [with type strain WS 4672T (=DSM 29164T=LMG 28439T) and additional strain WS 4998].
Full Text Available We report a case series of post-operative endophthalmitis due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa. A total of 8 patients operated for cataract, were referred to our facility with acute onset of decreased vision 1-2 days following surgery. All patients had clinical evidence of acute exogenous endophthalmitis with severe anterior chamber exudative reaction. Ocular samples (aqueous aspirate and vitreous tap for microbiology were taken from all eyes. Microbiology from all revealed P. aeruginosa which was resistant to all antibiotics except colistin. With prompt and accurate microbiological support it was possible to control the infection in all the eyes with the use of colistin intravitreally and intravenously which to the best of our knowledge, has been never reported. Intravitreal injection of colistin could be an option effective in the management of multi-drug-resistant endophthalmitis caused by Gram-negative bacteria.
Full Text Available Introdução: Para se verificar a prevalência de anomalias oculares em indivíduos portadores de deficiência auditiva de causa genética definitiva ou suspeita, este trabalho apresenta a avaliação oftalmológica de 97 indivíduos portadores de deficiência auditiva. Pacientes e Métodos: 97 indivíduos com diagnóstico definitivo ou suspeito de causa genética para disacusia foram submetidos a exame clínico oftalmológico completo; destes, 10 foram excluídos. Resultados: 42 (48,28% dos pacientes apresentaram uma ou mais anomalias oculares, 22 (25,29% pacientes apresentaram várias anormalidades oculares e quadro clínico compatíveis com síndromes genéticas estabelecidas. Conclusões: O exame oftalmológico é importante no diagnóstico sindrômico e etiológico de alguns quadros de disacusia, pois as alterações oculares podem ser a única anomalia associada à mesma.Purpose: In order to verify the prevalence of ocular abnormalities in patients who are deaf due to genetic causes, this paper presents the visual assessment of 97 deaf patients. Methods: 97 patients with definite or suspected diagno- sis of congenital and genetic deafness underwent a complete ophthalmologic evaluation; 10 patients were excluded. Results: 42 (48.28% patients presented one or more ocular abnormalities, 22 (25.29% patients presented several abnormalities and clinical manifestations of established genetic diseases. Conclusions: The ocular abnormalities may be the only clinical manifestations associated with deafness. Therefore the ophthalmological examination is a helpful tool for the etiological diagnosis of deafness.
Ana Paula Hvenegaard
Full Text Available A retrospective study was conducted to identify the occurrence and types of ocular disorders in 57 Amazon parrots admitted to the Ophthalmology Service, Veterinary Teaching Hospital, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of São Paulo, Brazil from 1997 to 2006. The most frequent observed disorder was cataracts, present in 24 of the 114 examined eyes (57 parrots. Uveitis, ulcerative keratitis and keratoconjunctivitis were frequently diagnosed as well. The cornea was the most affected ocular structure, with 28 reported disorders. Uveal disorders also were commonly observed. Conjunctiva and eyelid disorders were diagnosed in lower frequency. Results suggest that cataracts are common and that cornea, lens and uvea are the most affected ocular structures in Amazon parrots.Realizou-se estudo retrospectivo para identificar a ocorrência e os tipos de alterações oculares observadas em 57 papagaios atendidos no Serviço de Oftalmologia do Hospital Veterinário da Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia da Universidade de São Paulo (USP, de 1997-2006. Catarata em diferentes estágios de evolução foi a alteração ocular mais frequentemente diagnosticada, sendo observada em 24 dos 114 olhos examinados. Uveíte, ceratite ulcerativa e ceratoconjuntivite foram também diagnosticadas. A córnea foi a estrutura ocular mais acometida (28 registros. Alterações uveais foram frequentemente observadas. Alterações das pálpebras e conjuntiva foram observadas em menor freqüência. Concluí-se que catarata foi a alteração mais frequentemente observada e que a córnea, lente e úvea são as estruturas oculares mais susceptíveis a alterações em papagaios.
Tenkate, Thomas D
I read with interest a recent paper in your journal by Slagor et al on the risk of cataract in relation to metal arc welding (1). The authors highlight that even though welders are exposed to substantial levels of ultraviolet radiation (UVR), "no studies have reported data on how much UVR welders' eyes are exposed to during a working day. Thus, we do not know whether welders are more or less exposed to UVR than outdoor workers" (1, p451). Undertaking accurate exposure assessment of UVR from welding arcs is difficult, however, two studies have reported ocular/facial UVR levels underneath welding helmets (2, 3). In the first paper, UVR levels were measured using polysulphone film dosimeters applied to the cheeks of a patient who suffered from severe facial dermatitis (2). UVR levels of four times the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) maximum permissible exposure (MPE) (4) were measured on the workers left cheek and nine times the MPE on the right cheek. The authors concluded that the workers dermatitis was likely to have been due to the UVR exposure received during welding. In the other paper, a comprehensive exposure assessment of personal UVR exposure of workers in a welding environment was reported (3). The study was conducted at a metal fabrication workshop with participants being welders, boilermakers and non-welders (eg, supervisors, fitters, machinists). Polysulphone film dosimeters were again used to measure UVR exposure of the workers, with badges worn on the clothing of workers (in the chest area), on the exterior of welding helmets, attached to 11 locations on the inside of welding helmets, and on the bridge and side-shields of safety spectacles. Dosimeters were also attached to surfaces throughout the workshop to measure ambient UVR levels. For welding subjects, mean 8-hour UVR doses within the welding helmets ranged from around 9 mJ/cm 2 (3×MPE) on the inside of the helmets to around 15 mJ/cm 2 (5×MPE) on the headband (a
Lee, Jae-Hwan; Pidaparti, Ramana M; Atkinson, Gary M; Moorthy, Ramana S
Ocular diseases, such as, glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration (AMD), diabetic retinopathy, and retinitis pigmentosa require drug management in order to prevent blindness and affecting million of adults in USA and worldwide. There is an increasing need to develop devices for drug delivery to address ocular diseases. This study focuses on the design, simulation, and development of an implantable ocular drug delivery device consisting of micro-/nanochannels embedded between top and bottom covers with a drug reservoir made from polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) which is silicon-based organic and biodegradable polymer. Several simulations were carried out with six different micro-channel configurations in order to see the feasibility for ocular drug delivery applications. Based on the results obtained, channel design of osmotic I and osmotic II satisfied the diffusion rates required for ocular drug delivery. Finally, a prototype illustrating the three components of the drug delivery design is presented. In the future, the device will be tested for its functionality and diffusion characteristics.
Full Text Available Ocular diseases, such as, glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration (AMD, diabetic retinopathy, and retinitis pigmentosa require drug management in order to prevent blindness and affecting million of adults in USA and worldwide. There is an increasing need to develop devices for drug delivery to address ocular diseases. This study focuses on the design, simulation, and development of an implantable ocular drug delivery device consisting of micro-/nanochannels embedded between top and bottom covers with a drug reservoir made from polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS which is silicon-based organic and biodegradable polymer. Several simulations were carried out with six different micro-channel configurations in order to see the feasibility for ocular drug delivery applications. Based on the results obtained, channel design of osmotic I and osmotic II satisfied the diffusion rates required for ocular drug delivery. Finally, a prototype illustrating the three components of the drug delivery design is presented. In the future, the device will be tested for its functionality and diffusion characteristics.
Full Text Available Background. The aim of this study is to investigate the ocular thermographic profiles in age-related macular degeneration (AMD eyes and age-matched controls to detect possible hemodynamic abnormalities, which could be involved in the pathogenesis of the disease. Methods. 32 eyes with early AMD, 37 eyes with atrophic AMD, 30 eyes affected by untreated neovascular AMD, and 43 eyes with fibrotic AMD were included. The control group consisted of 44 healthy eyes. Exclusion criteria were represented by any other ocular diseases other than AMD, tear film abnormalities, systemic cardiovascular abnormalities, diabetes mellitus, and a body temperature higher than 37.5°C. A total of 186 eyes without pupil dilation were investigated by infrared thermography (FLIR A320. The ocular surface temperature (OST of three ocular points was calculated by means of an image processing technique from the infrared images. Two-sample t-test and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA test were used for statistical analyses. Results. ANOVA analyses showed no significant differences among AMD groups (P value >0.272. OST in AMD patients was significantly lower than in controls (P>0.05. Conclusions. Considering the possible relationship between ocular blood flow and OST, these findings might support the central role of ischemia in the pathogenesis of AMD.
Su, Xiao; Vesco, Christina; Fleming, Jacquelyn; Choh, Vivian
Density is essential for acoustic characterization of tissues and provides a basic input for ultrasound backscatter and absorption models. Despite the existence of extensive compilations of acoustic properties, neither unified data on ocular density nor comparisons of the densities between all ocular components can be found. This study was undertaken to determine the mass density of all the ocular components of the bovine eye. Liquid components were measured through mass/volume ratio, whereas solid tissues were measured with two different densitometry techniques based on Archimedes Principle. The first method determines the density by measuring dry and wet weight of the tissues. The second method consists of immersing the tissues in sucrose solutions of varying densities and observing their buoyancy. Although the mean densities for all tissues were found to be within 0.02 g/cm by both methods, only the sucrose solution method offered a consistent relative order for all measured ocular components, as well as a considerably smaller standard deviation (a maximum standard deviation of 0.004 g/cm for cornea). The lens was found to be the densest component, followed by the sclera, cornea, choroid, retina, aqueous, and vitreous humors. The consistent results of the sucrose solution tests suggest that the ocular mass density is a physical property that is more dependent on the compositional and structural characteristics of the tissue and than on population variability.
Nassar, Amr; Tabbara, Khalid F.; Aljurf, Mahmoud
Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) has evolved over the past two decades to become the standard of care for hematologic and lymphoid malignancies. Major ocular complications after allogeneic HSCT have been increasing in number and severity. Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) remains a major cause of ocular morbidity after allogeneic HSCT. The main objective of this review is to elucidate the ocular complications in patients developing GVHD following HSCT. Ocular complications secondary to GVHD are common and include dry eye syndrome, acquisition of ocular allergy from donors with allergic disorders. Eyelid changes may occur in GVHD leading to scleroderma-like changes. Patients may develop poliosis, madarosis, vitiligo, lagophthalmos, and entropion. The cornea may show filamentary keratitis, superficial punctate keratitis, corneal ulcers, and peripheral corneal melting which may lead to perforation in severe cases. Scleritis may also occur which can be anterior or posterior. Keratoconjunctivis sicca appears to be the most common presentation of GVHD. The lacrimal glands may be involved with mononuclear cell infiltration of both the major and accessory lacrimal glands and decrease in tear production. Severe dry eye syndrome in patients with GVHD may develop conjunctival scarring, keratinization, and cicatrization of the conjunctiva. Therapy of GVHD includes systemic immunosuppression and local therapy. Surgical treatment in refractory cases includes surgical intervention to improve the manifestation of GVHD of the eye. This may include tarsorrhapy, prose lenses, punctal occlusions and corneal transplantation. PMID:24227989
Butler, Nicholas J; Furtado, João M; Winthrop, Kevin L; Smith, Justine R
The term, ocular toxoplasmosis, refers to eye disease related to infection with the parasite, Toxoplasma gondii. Recurrent posterior uveitis is the typical form of this disease, characterized by unilateral, necrotizing retinitis with secondary choroiditis, occurring adjacent to a pigmented retinochoroidal scar and associated with retinal vasculitis and vitritis. Multiple atypical presentations are also described, and severe inflammation is observed in immunocompromised patients. Histopathological correlations demonstrate focal coagulative retinal necrosis, and early in the course of the disease, this inflammation is based in the inner retina. For typical ocular toxoplasmosis, a diagnosis is easily made on clinical examination. In atypical cases, ocular fluid testing to detect parasite DNA by polymerase chain reaction or to determine intraocular production of specific antibody may be extremely helpful for establishing aetiology. Given the high seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in most communities, serological testing for T. gondii antibodies is generally not useful. Despite a lack of published evidence for effectiveness of current therapies, most ophthalmologists elect to treat patients with ocular toxoplasmosis that reduces or threatens to impact vision. Classic therapy consists of oral pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine, plus systemic corticosteroid. Substantial toxicity of this drug combination has spurred interest in alternative antimicrobials, as well as local forms of drug delivery. At this time, however, no therapeutic approach is curative of ocular toxoplasmosis. PMID:22712598
Full Text Available Proper availability of drug on to corneal surface is a challenging task. However, due to ocular physiological barriers, conventional eye drops display poor ocular bioavailability of drugs (< 1%. To improve precorneal residence time and ocular penetration, earlier our group developed and evaluated in situ gel and nanoparticles for ocular delivery. In interest to evaluate the combined effect of in situ gel and nanoparticles on ocular retention, we combined them. We are the first to term this combination as "nanoparticle laden in situ gel", that is, poly lactic co glycolic acid nanoparticle incorporated in chitosan in situ gel for sparfloxacin ophthalmic delivery. The formulation was tested for various physicochemical properties. It showed gelation pH near pH 7.2. The observation of acquired gamma camera images showed good retention over the entire precorneal area for sparfloxacin nanoparticle laden in situ gel (SNG as compared to marketed formulation. SNG formulation cleared at a very slow rate and remained at corneal surface for longer duration as no radioactivity was observed in systemic circulation. The developed formulation was found to be better in combination and can go up to the clinical evaluation and application.
Seyyed Amir Hossein Ghazizadeh Hashemi
Full Text Available Introduction: Patients with bilateral weakness (BW have many difficulties in gaze stability that interfere with their normal function. The aim of this study was to evaluate ocular motor functions in patients with BW to better understand the problem of gaze instability in these patients. Materials and Methods: Patients were referred from the Otolaryngology Department for Vestibular Assessment to our clinic between November 2014 and March 2015. We assessed ocular motor function (gaze, saccade, and smooth pursuit in patients over the age of 18 years with BW, as verified by a caloric test. Results: Seventy-eight patients completed all the tests. The mean age of patients was 51.9 (±15.9 years, and 47 (60% were female. Abnormal results were found in five (6.4%, 32 (41%, and seven (9% patients with respect to gaze, smooth pursuit, and saccade, respectively. There were positive but relatively weak relationships between age and ocular motor results. Conclusion: Patients with BW suffer from dizziness and unsteadiness. These patients have abnormal function in ocular motor (especially smooth pursuit tests. The ocular motor dysfunction is responsible for gaze instability in static positions such as standing.
Brand, Cristin; Zitzmann, Michael; Eter, Nicole; Kliesch, Sabine; Wistuba, Joachim; Alnawaiseh, Maged; Heiduschka, Peter
Klinefelter Syndrome (KS), the most common chromosomal disorder in men (47,XXY), is associated with numerous comorbidities. Based on a number of isolated case reports, we performed the first systematic and comprehensive evaluation of eye health in KS patients with a focus on ocular structure and vascularization. Twenty-one KS patients and 26 male and 38 female controls underwent a variety of non-invasive examinations investigating ocular morphology (examination of retinal thickness, optic nerve head, and cornea) and function (visual field testing and quantification of ocular vessel density by optical coherence tomography angiography). In comparison to healthy controls, KS patients exhibited a smaller foveal avascular zone and a decreased retinal thickness due to a drastically thinner outer nuclear layer. The cornea of KS patients showed a decreased peripheral thickness and volume. In perimetry evaluation, KS patients required brighter stimuli and gave more irregular values. KS patients show an ocular phenotype including morphological and functional features, which is very likely caused by the supernumerary X chromosome. Thus, KS should not be limited to infertility, endocrine dysfunction, neurocognitive and psychosocial comorbidities. Defining an aberrant ocular morphology and function, awareness for possible eye problems should be raised.
Full Text Available The study examined the ocular health of agricultural workers in the fisheries sub sector with the aim of establishing a possible correlation between the work place hazards and their ocular health. A multi-stage random sampling (involving 683 subjects, 358 fishmongers and 325 fishers was employed. Ocular hazards encountered at the work place included seawater, sand or dust, heat, sunrays and smoke. Exposure to these hazards were found to be associated with ocular irritation (P<0.001, tearing (P<0.001, red eye (P<0.001, gritty sensation (P<0.001, blurred distant vision (P=0.001 and blurred near vision (P=0.001. The development of pterygium was associated with the exposure to sunrays (P=0.042 and heat (P=0.001 among fishmongers. Further analysis using multivariate logistic regression indicated exposure to heat as the most important predictive factor for pterygium (OR=1.951, P=0.003. Exposure to seawater was found to be associated with the development of cataract (P=0.022 among fishermen/fishers. Cataract among fishmongers was rather associated with exposure to heat (P=0.005, sunrays (P=0.035 and sand/dust (P=0.002. Exposure to work place hazards is associated with ocular disorders in the fishing industry of Ghana.
Chai Lee Tan
Full Text Available Background. Ocular bartonellosis can present in various ways, with variable visual outcome. There is limited data on ocular bartonellosis in Malaysia. Objective. We aim to describe the clinical presentation and visual outcome of ocular bartonellosis in Malaysia. Materials and Methods. This was a retrospective review of patients treated for ocular bartonellosis in two ophthalmology centers in Malaysia between January 2013 and December 2015. The diagnosis was based on clinical features, supported by a positive Bartonella spp. serology. Results. Of the 19 patients in our series, females were predominant (63.2%. The mean age was 29.3 years. The majority (63.2% had unilateral involvement. Five patients (26.3% had a history of contact with cats. Neuroretinitis was the most common presentation (62.5%. Azithromycin was the antibiotic of choice (42.1%. Concurrent systemic corticosteroids were used in approximately 60% of cases. The presenting visual acuity was worse than 6/18 in approximately 60% of eyes; on final review, 76.9% of eyes had a visual acuity better than 6/18. Conclusion. Ocular bartonellosis tends to present with neuroretinitis. Azithromycin is a viable option for treatment. Systemic corticosteroids may be considered in those with poor visual acuity on presentation.
Tan, Chai Lee; Fhun, Lai Chan; Tai, Evelyn Li Min; Abdul Gani, Nor Hasnida; Muhammed, Julieana; Tuan Jaafar, Tengku Norina; Ahmad Tajudin, Liza Sharmini; Wan Hitam, Wan-Hazabbah
Background. Ocular bartonellosis can present in various ways, with variable visual outcome. There is limited data on ocular bartonellosis in Malaysia. Objective. We aim to describe the clinical presentation and visual outcome of ocular bartonellosis in Malaysia. Materials and Methods. This was a retrospective review of patients treated for ocular bartonellosis in two ophthalmology centers in Malaysia between January 2013 and December 2015. The diagnosis was based on clinical features, supported by a positive Bartonella spp. serology. Results. Of the 19 patients in our series, females were predominant (63.2%). The mean age was 29.3 years. The majority (63.2%) had unilateral involvement. Five patients (26.3%) had a history of contact with cats. Neuroretinitis was the most common presentation (62.5%). Azithromycin was the antibiotic of choice (42.1%). Concurrent systemic corticosteroids were used in approximately 60% of cases. The presenting visual acuity was worse than 6/18 in approximately 60% of eyes; on final review, 76.9% of eyes had a visual acuity better than 6/18. Conclusion. Ocular bartonellosis tends to present with neuroretinitis. Azithromycin is a viable option for treatment. Systemic corticosteroids may be considered in those with poor visual acuity on presentation.
Winsor, Geoffrey L; Griffiths, Emma J; Lo, Raymond; Dhillon, Bhavjinder K; Shay, Julie A; Brinkman, Fiona S L
The Pseudomonas Genome Database (http://www.pseudomonas.com) is well known for the application of community-based annotation approaches for producing a high-quality Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 genome annotation, and facilitating whole-genome comparative analyses with other Pseudomonas strains. To aid analysis of potentially thousands of complete and draft genome assemblies, this database and analysis platform was upgraded to integrate curated genome annotations and isolate metadata with enhanced tools for larger scale comparative analysis and visualization. Manually curated gene annotations are supplemented with improved computational analyses that help identify putative drug targets and vaccine candidates or assist with evolutionary studies by identifying orthologs, pathogen-associated genes and genomic islands. The database schema has been updated to integrate isolate metadata that will facilitate more powerful analysis of genomes across datasets in the future. We continue to place an emphasis on providing high-quality updates to gene annotations through regular review of the scientific literature and using community-based approaches including a major new Pseudomonas community initiative for the assignment of high-quality gene ontology terms to genes. As we further expand from thousands of genomes, we plan to provide enhancements that will aid data visualization and analysis arising from whole-genome comparative studies including more pan-genome and population-based approaches. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.
Adhikari, Srijana; Shrestha, Mohan Krishna; Adhikari, Kamala; Maharjan, Nhukesh; Shrestha, Ujjowala Devi
Nepal Pediatric Ocular Diseases Study is a three year longitudinal population based study. Here we present the baseline survey report which aims to investigate various risk factors associated with childhood ocular morbidity and blindness in three ecological regions of Nepal. This baseline survey is a population based cross sectional study. The investigation was conducted in a district from each of the following regions: Terai, Hill and Mountain. The Village Development Committees (VDCs) from each district were selected by random sampling. Three Community health workers were given training on vision screening and identification of abnormal ocular signs in children. They conducted a house to house survey in their respected districts examining the children and gathering a standardized set of data variables. Children with abnormal vision or ocular signs were then further examined by pediatric ophthalmologists. A total of 10950 children aged 0-10 years (5403 from Terai, 3204 from the hills, 2343 from the mountains) were enrolled in the study. However 681 (6.2%) were non responders. The male to female ratio was 1.03. The overall prevalence of ocular morbidity was 3.7% (95% CI of 3.4%-4%) and blindness was 0.07% (95% CI of 0.02%-0.12%). Ocular morbidity was more prevalent in the mountain region whereas blindness was more prevalent in the Terai region.Children from the Terai region were more likely to suffer from congenital ocular anomalies compared to the other regions. Children whose mother smoked, drank alcohol, or was illiterate were significantly afflicted with ocular diseases (p children with past medical history of systemic illnesses, abnormal postnatal period or missing childhood vaccinations. Blindness was more prevalent in children who suffered from a systemic illness. Females and under-nourished children were more likely to have ocular morbidity and blindness. It was found that childhood blindness was more prevalent in the Terai region, the undernourished
Motoyama, Michiyo; Kobayashi, Miho; Sasaki, Keisuke; Nomura, Masaru; Mitsumoto, Mitsuru
Meat 'reddening' by bacteria was observed in chilled beef. To identify the reddening bacteria, isolates were inoculated onto beef and the changes in CIE L*a*b* values monitored. As a result, two Pseudomonas spp., including Pseudomonas fragi which is commonly observed in raw meat, were selected and identified as reddening bacteria. The reddening was coincidentally occurred with the appearance of slime, and the increase in thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) was simultaneously suppressed. In myoglobin-containing nutrient broth, it is shown spectroscopically that P. fragi converted metmyoglobin into deoxymyoglobin. It was concluded that the meat reddening was due to the formation of deoxymyoglobin, induced by the very-low-oxygen tension brought about by Pseudomonad's oxygen consumption: This oxygen depletion simultaneously suppressed TBARS increase.
Dhanjal Noorpreet Inder Kaur
Full Text Available The stabilization and disposal of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs from soil environment and wetland areas is of great concern for health and safety. Wetland remediation with microorganisms is an approach for treating PCBs. A bacterial strain was isolated from hydrocarbon contaminated soil of Ropar, Punjab, able to degrade PCBs under aerobic conditions. The percentage of degradation with 100 mM/ml of 4-chlorobiphenyl was up to 90%. Degradation was monitored by mass spectrometry, high performance liquid chromatography and spectrophotometrically, showing that 4-chlorobiphenyl was degraded almost completely. The bacterial strain was identified as Pseudomonas synxantha by 16sRNA sequencing method. This is the first report of 4-chlorobiphenyl degradation by Pseudomonas synxantha.
Shiramizu, Kevin M; Kreiger, Allan E; McCannel, Colin A
To report two cases of ocular perforation during chalazion removal procedures leading to severe vision loss. Observational case series. Two patients presented with unilateral decreased vision after chalazion removal procedures. Complete ophthalmologic examinations were performed. Examination revealed a cherry red spot and perforation site in the first patient. In the second patient, there was an intraocular gas bubble and ischemic retina. Local anesthetic injections for procedures such as chalazia removal can result in ocular perforation. We postulate that the intraocular injections led to extremely high pressures, compromising the blood supply to the retina and optic nerve. Anesthetic injections for all procedures, even chalazia removal, should be done with great caution. It is imperative to avoid injection if ocular perforation is suspected, as the high pressure may cause the majority of the visual morbidity.
Wilson, Samantha L; Ahearne, Mark; Hopkinson, Andrew
Given the hazardous nature of many materials and substances, ocular toxicity testing is required to evaluate the dangers associated with these substances after their exposure to the eye. Historically, animal tests such as the Draize test were exclusively used to determine the level of ocular toxicity by applying a test substance to a live rabbit's eye and evaluating the biological response. In recent years, legislation in many developed countries has been introduced to try to reduce animal testing and promote alternative techniques. These techniques include ex vivo tests on deceased animal tissue, computational models that use algorithms to apply existing data to new chemicals and in vitro assays based on two dimensional (2D) and three dimensional (3D) cell culture models. Here we provide a comprehensive overview of the latest advances in ocular toxicity testing techniques, and discuss the regulatory framework used to evaluate their suitability. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Rabelo, L. A.; Campos, T.P.R.
The proton therapy has been used for ocular tumors providing tumor control in most cases and vision preservations. The protons show high doses in depth depict lower scattering from beam than other particles, electrons and photons. The cyclotron is a type of accelerator that increases the kinetic energy of the charged particle, recirculating it on a magnetic field and crossing an accelerating electrical field. It can be used to produce radioisotopes to hospitals. The goal of this study is to investigate a unit of circular accelerator to be coupled in existing national cyclotrons to generate a proton beams suitable to ocular therapy. Herein, physical parameters are evaluable, including relativistic corrections. That result shows the viability of developing an accelerator unit to ocular proton therapy. (author)
Shima, Hiroshi; Hasegawa, Mitsuhiro; Tachibana, Osamu; Nomura, Motohiro; Yamashita, Junkoh; Ozaki, Yuzo; Kawai, Jun; Higuchi, Masanori; Kado, Hisashi
To investigate whether the ocular dominance affects laterality in the activity of the primary visual cortex, we examined the relationship between the ocular dominance and latency or dipole moment measured by checkerboard-pattern and magnetoencephalography in 11 right-handed healthy male participants. Participants with left-eye dominance showed a dipole moment of 21.5+/-6.1 nAm with left-eye stimulation and 16.1+/-3.6 nAm with right, whereas those with right-eye dominance showed a dipole moment of 18.0+/-5.2 and 21.5+/-2.7 nAm with left-eye and right-eye stimulation of the infero-medial quadrant visual field, respectively. Thus, the dipole moment was higher when the dominant eye was stimulated, which implies that ocular dominance is regulated by the ipsilateral occipital lobe.
The endogenous production of taurine and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in rat ocular tissues was investigated. The activities of taurine-producing enzyme, cysteine sulfinic acid decarboxylase (CSAD), and GABA-synthesizing enzyme, glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), were observed in the retina, lens, iris-ciliary body and cornea. The highest specific activity of CSAD was in the cornea and that of GAD in the retina. The discrepancy between CSAD activity and taurine content within the ocular tissues indicates that intra- or extraocular transport processes may regulate the concentration of taurine on the rat eye. The GAD activity and the content of GABA were distributed in parallel within the rat ocular tissues. The quantitative results suggest that the GAD/GABA system has functional significance only in the retina of the rat eye. (author)
Puglia, Carmelo; Offerta, Alessia; Carbone, Claudia; Bonina, Francesco; Pignatello, Rosario; Puglisi, Giovanni
The peculiar physio-anatomical structure of the eye and the poor physico-chemical properties of many drug molecules are often responsible for the inefficient treatment of ocular diseases by conventional dosage forms, and justify the development of innovative ocular drug delivery systems. Lipid-based nanocarriers (LNC) are among the newer and interesting colloidal drug delivery systems; they show the capability to improve the local bioavailability of drugs administered by various ocular routes and, therefore, their therapeutic efficacy. Furthermore, their extreme biodegradability and biocompatible chemical nature have secured them the title of 'nanosafe carriers.' This review treats the main features of LNC [namely, solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN), nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) and lipid-drug conjugates (LDC)]; examples and advantages of the application of these colloidal carrier systems for the ophthalmic administration of drugs are presented.
Aroch, I.; Ofri, R.; Aizenberg, I.
Haematological, ocular and skeletal abnormalities were documented in a samoyed male and its five offspring. Haematological abnormalities, found in repeated tests in all the dogs, included marked eosinophilia, eosinophilic bands and absence of Barr bodies. Two of the dogs had bilateral buphthalmia, retinal detachments and other ocular abnormalities. Three of the dogs had skeletal abnormalities including chondrodysplasia (dwarfism) and brachygnathia (undershot jaw). A similar combination of inherited skeletal and ocular disorders, without the haematological abnormalities, has been described in samoyeds. Acquired causes for the haematological findings, which are similar to the inherited Pelger-Huët anomaly described in several species, have been eliminated. Eosinophilic bands and scarcity of Barr bodies could be a marker, or a previously unreported manifestation, of an inherited disorder in samoyeds
Lee, Andrew G; Mader, Thomas H; Gibson, C Robert; Tarver, William
New and unique physiologic and pathologic systemic and neuro-ocular responses have been documented in astronauts during and after long-duration space flight. Although the precise cause remains unknown, space flight-associated neuro-ocular syndrome (SANS) has been adopted as an appropriate descriptive term. The Space Medicine Operations Division of the US National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has documented the variable occurrence of SANS in astronauts returning from long-duration space flight on the International Space Station. These clinical findings have included unilateral and bilateral optic disc edema, globe flattening, choroidal and retinal folds, hyperopic refractive error shifts, and nerve fiber layer infarcts. The clinical findings of SANS have been correlated with structural changes on intraorbital and intracranial magnetic resonance imaging and in-flight and terrestrial ultrasonographic studies and ocular optical coherence tomography. Further study of SANS is ongoing for consideration of future manned missions to space, including a return trip to the moon or Mars.
Boĭko, E V; Pozniak, A L; Aliab'ev, M V; Ageev, V S; Prokhvatilov, G I; Tipikin, V P; Kharitonova, N N
Thirty-four patients with foci of chronic rhino- or odontogenic infection were examined. All the patients underwent physical examination, biochemical blood analysis, immunological test for immunoglobulins A, G, and M, circulating immune complexes, leukocyte migration inhibition test with phytohemagglutinin, Con A, with antigens of the retina, vitreous body, iris, and lens, scrapes from the dentogingival pocket, conjunctival and nasal cavities for Chlamydia, followed by direct immunofluorescence, polymerase chain reaction, and culture. Chronic rhino- or odontogenic infection foci impair local ocular immunity in ophthalmologically healthy patients. The foci of chronic rhinogenic infection cause more pronounced changes in systemic and local ocular immunity than those of chronic odontogenic infection. In half the patients with chronic rhino- or odontogenic infection foci, Chlamydia are detectable in the oral, nasal, and ocular mucosae, which suggests that there is generalized infection and there is a need for complex sanitation of the body. Isolated local treatment for Chlamydia infection is not promising.
Shivcharan L Chandravanshi
Full Text Available The Hutchinson-Gilford progeria (HGP syndrome is an extremely rare genetic condition characterized by an appearance of accelerated aging in children. The word progeria is derived from the Greek word progeros meaning ′prematurely old′. It is caused by de novo dominant mutation in the LMNA gene (gene map locus 1q21.2 and characterized by growth retardation and accelerated degenerative changes of the skin, musculoskeletal and cardiovascular systems. The most common ocular manifestations are prominent eyes, loss of eyebrows and eyelashes, and lagophthalmos. In the present case some additional ocular features such as horizontal narrowing of palpebral fissure, superior sulcus deformity, upper lid retraction, upper lid lag in down gaze, poor pupillary dilatation, were noted. In this case report, a 15-year-old Indian boy with some additional ocular manifestations of the HGP syndrome is described.
Masák, J.; Čejková, A.; Schreiberová, O.; Řezanka, Tomáš
Roč. 89, č. 2 (2014), s. 1-14 ISSN 0168-6496 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-23597S; GA ČR GA14-00227S Grant - others:Ministry of Industry and Trade(CZ) FR-TI1/456; Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports(CZ) LF11016 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : biofilm * pseudomonas * review Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.568, year: 2014
A bacterium, Pseudomonas lubricans, isolated from heavy metal laden industrial wastewater, has been shown to tolerate multiple heavy metals suggesting its importance in bioremediation of industrial effluents. P. lubricans tolerated As(III) up to 3 mg ml-1, Cu2+ up to 0.7 mg ml-1, Hg2+ up to 0.4 mg ml-1, Ni2+ up to 0.4 mg ...
Jensen, Peter Østrup; Givskov, Michael; Bjarnsholt, Thomas
Ilya Metchnikoff and Paul Ehrlich were awarded the Nobel price in 1908. Since then, numerous studies have unraveled a multitude of mechanistically different immune responses to intruding microorganisms. However, in the vast majority of these studies, the underlying infectious agents have appeared...... the present review on the immune system vs. biofilm bacteria is focused on Pseudomonas aeruginosa (mainly because this is the most thoroughly studied), many of the same mechanisms are also seen with biofilm infections generated by other microorganisms....
Carevic, M.; Öz, H.; Fuchs, K.; Laval, J.; Schroth, C.; Frey, N.; Hector, A.; Bilich, T.; Haug, M.; Schmidt, A.; Autenrieth, S. E.; Bucher, K.; Beer-Hammer, S.; Gaggar, A.; Kneilling, M.; Benarafa, C.; Gao, J.; Murphy, P.; Schwarz, S.; Moepps, B.; Hartl, D.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a key opportunistic pathogen causing disease in cystic fibrosis (CF) and other lung diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, the pulmonary host defense mechanisms regulating anti-Pseudomonas aeruginosa immunity remain incompletely understood. Here we demonstrate, by studying an airway Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection model, in vivo bioluminescence imaging, neutrophil effector responses and human airway samples, that the chemokine receptor CXCR1 regulates pulmonary host defense against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Mechanistically, CXCR1 regulated anti-Pseudomonas neutrophil responses through modulation of reactive oxygen species and interference with toll-like receptor 5 expression. These studies define CXCR1 as a novel non-canonical chemokine receptor that regulates pulmonary anti-Pseudomonas host defense with broad implications for CF, COPD and other infectious lung diseases. PMID:26950764
De Smet, Jeroen; Hendrix, Hanne; Blasdel, Bob G; Danis-Wlodarczyk, Katarzyna; Lavigne, Rob
Species in the genus Pseudomonas thrive in a diverse set of ecological niches and include crucial pathogens, such as the human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae. The bacteriophages that infect Pseudomonas spp. mirror the widespread and diverse nature of their hosts. Therefore, Pseudomonas spp. and their phages are an ideal system to study the molecular mechanisms that govern virus-host interactions. Furthermore, phages are principal catalysts of host evolution and diversity, which directly affects the ecological roles of environmental and pathogenic Pseudomonas spp. Understanding these interactions not only provides novel insights into phage biology but also advances the development of phage therapy, phage-derived antimicrobial strategies and innovative biotechnological tools that may be derived from phage-bacteria interactions.
Eliane Terumi Inada
Full Text Available O objetivo desse trabalho é relatar um caso de toxicidade ocular pelo tamoxifeno. Para isso, aferiu-se a melhor acuidade visual corrigida de ambos os olhos em tabela de Snellen. Foram realizados biomicroscopia do segmento anterior, refração, oftalmoscopia, angiofluoresceinografia e retinografia numa paciente de 63 anos, sexo feminino, cor branca, em uso de tamoxifeno 20 mg/dia há 4 anos, com acuidade visual corrigida de 20/70 e 20/40. A biomicroscopia do segmento anterior apresentava ceratopatia verticilata e catarata nuclear e cortical posterior de 1+/4 em ambos os olhos. À oftalmoscopia, foi verificado alteração do brilho macular de ambos os olhos. E a angiofluoresceinografia mostrou hiperfluorescência na área macular em fase precoce (defeito em janela. Relata-se um caso de ceratopatia e maculopatia causadas pelo tamoxifeno.To report tamoxifen ocular toxicity. The best visual acuity was measured in both eyes with Snellen chart, slit-lamp examination of anterior segment, refraction, dilated fundus examination, fluorescein angiography and retinography in a 63-year-old patient, female, white, using tamoxifen 20 mg/day for 4 years, with 20/70 and 20/40 corrected visual acuity. The anterior segment examination showed corneal linear subepithelial opacity inferior to the visual axis and nuclear and posterior cortical cataract (1+/4 in both eyes. Fundus examination showed alteration of macular color in both eyes. Fluorescein angiography presented hyperfluorescence in the macular area at an early phase (window defect. Report of keratopathy and maculopathy caused by tamoxifen.
Jafari, Alireza Keshtkar; Anvari, Faramarz; Ameri, Ahmad; Bozorgui, Shima; Shahverdi, Nooshin
Although the incidence of ocular trauma has been clearly described in developed countries, few published data are available on the epidemiology and the effects of parameters that can influence the incidence and severity of ocular injuries in Iran. The present study tried to determine epidemiological aspects of ocular traumatic injuries and evaluate their effects on different types of ocular injury. The case series included 1950 consecutive patients with acute ophthalmic trauma presented to the emergency ward of Farabi Hospital in Tehran. Information was collected by interviewing patients and having them fill in a questionnaire. The final diagnosis was made by a medical resident. If there was a difficulty or doubt in diagnosis or classification, confirmation of diagnosis was made by senior faculty. Ocular injuries were classified into globe and non-globe injuries according to the site of injury. Mechanical globe injuries were classified according to Birmingham Eye Trauma Terminology (BETT) into closed and open injuries. The mean age of patients was 28.8 ± 12.8 years; 87.6% were male. The most common causes of injury were work-related (49.0%) and chance events (42.0%). The most frequent ocular injury was globe injury (95.6%), including mechanical (77.6% closed and 5.9% open), chemical (7.6%), photic (2.3%) and thermal (2.2%) injuries. Non-globe injury also occurred in 10.8% of patients; both globe and non-globe injuries occurred in 6.5% of patients. The hospitalization rate in all patients was 8.8%. Previous history of eye trauma was significantly more common in the group with isolated globe injuries (P < 0.001). History of eye trauma is a risk factor for globe injuries and female gender is a risk factor only for non-globe injuries. These two factors may predict future eye injury and increase its risk by 5.2 and 1.6 times, respectively.
Alex, Anastasia; Edwards, Austin; Hays, J. Daniel; Kerkstra, Michelle; Shih, Amanda; de Paiva, Cintia S.; Pflugfelder, Stephen C.
Purpose. To identify factors predicting the ocular surface response to experimental desiccating stress. Methods. The ocular surfaces of both eyes of 15 normal and 10 dry eye subjects wearing goggles were exposed to a controlled desiccating environment (15%–25% relative humidity and 2–5 L/min airflow) for 90 minutes. Eye irritation symptoms, blink rate, tear meniscus dimensions, noninvasive (RBUT) and invasive tear break-up time, and corneal fluorescein and conjunctival lissamine green-dye staining were recorded before and after desiccating stress. Pre- and postexposure measurements were compared, and Pearson correlations between clinical parameters before and after desiccating stress were calculated. Results. Corneal and conjunctival dye staining significantly increased in all subjects following 90-minute exposure to desiccating environment, and the magnitude of change was similar in normal and dry eye subjects; except superior cornea staining was greater in dry eye. Irritation severity in the desiccating environment was associated with baseline dye staining, baseline tear meniscus height, and blink rate after 45 minutes. Desiccation-induced change in corneal fluorescein staining was inversely correlated to baseline tear meniscus width, whereas change in total ocular surface dye staining was inversely correlated to baseline dye staining, RBUT, and tear meniscus height and width. Blink rate from 30 to 90 minutes in desiccating environment was higher in the dry eye than normal group. Blink rate significantly correlated to baseline corneal fluorescein staining and environmental-induced change in corneal fluorescein staining. Conclusions. Ocular surface dye staining increases in response to desiccating stress. Baseline ocular surface dye staining, tear meniscus height, and blink rate predict severity of ocular surface dye staining following exposure to a desiccating environment. PMID:23572103
Fukuhara, Daisuke; Takiura, Toshihiko; Keino, Hiroshi; Okada, Annabelle A; Yan, Kunimasa
Iatrogenic Cushing's syndrome (CS) is a severe adverse effect of systemic glucocorticoid (GC) therapy in children, but is extremely rare in the setting of topical ocular GC therapy. In this article, we report the case of a 9-year-old girl suffering from idiopathic uveitis who developed CS due to topical ocular GC treatment. She was referred to the ophthalmology department with a complaint of painful eyes, at which time she was diagnosed with bilateral iridocyclitis and started on a treatment of betamethasone sodium phosphate eye drops. Six months after the initiation of topical ocular GC treatment, she was referred to our pediatric department with stunted growth, truncal obesity, purple skin striate, buffalo hump, and moon face. Because her serum cortisol and plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone levels were undetectable, she was diagnosed with iatrogenic CS. After the doses of topical ocular GC were reduced, the clinical symptoms of CS were improved. The fact that the amount of topical ocular GC with our patient was apparently less than that of similar previous cases tempted us to perform genetic analysis of her NR3C1 gene. We found that our patient had a single heterozygous nucleotide substitution in the 3' untranslated region of the NR3C1 gene, which may explain why she developed CS. However, additional investigations are required to determine if our findings can be extrapolated to other patients. In conclusion, clinicians should be aware that even extremely low doses of topical ocular steroid therapy can cause iatrogenic CS. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Mann, Ethan E.; Wozniak, Daniel J.
Biofilms are a predominant form of growth for bacteria in the environment and in the clinic. Critical for biofilm development are adherence, proliferation, and dispersion phases. Each of these stages includes reinforcement by, or modulation of, the extracellular matrix. Pseudomonas aeruginosa has been a model organism for the study of biofilm formation. Additionally, other Pseudomonas species utilize biofilm formation during plant colonization and environmental persistence. Pseudomonads produce several biofilm matrix molecules, including polysaccharides, nucleic acids, and proteins. Accessory matrix components shown to aid biofilm formation and adaptability under varying conditions are also produced by pseudomonads. Adaptation facilitated by biofilm formation allows for selection of genetic variants with unique and distinguishable colony morphology. Examples include rugose small-colony variants and wrinkly spreaders (WS), which over produce Psl/Pel or cellulose, respectively, and mucoid bacteria that over produce alginate. The well-documented emergence of these variants suggests that pseudomonads take advantage of matrix-building subpopulations conferring specific benefits for the entire population. This review will focus on various polysaccharides as well as additional Pseudomonas biofilm matrix components. Discussions will center on structure–function relationships, regulation, and the role of individual matrix molecules in niche biology. PMID:22212072
del Pozo, Jose L.; van de Beek, Diederik; Daly, Richard C.; Pulido, Jose S.; McGregor, Christopher G. A.; Patel, Robin
BACKGROUND: Ocular infections associated with organ transplantation are well documented following renal and liver transplantation; however, few studies have reported ocular infections following heart transplant. METHODS: We retrospectively studied patients who underwent heart transplantation in the
AIDS were the major causes of ocular morbidity and visual impairment. Ocular assessment is of paramount importance for early detection and management of vision threatening complication of HIV/AIDS in children. Key words: HIV, AIDS, ...
Conclusions: This review shows the diverse entity of ocular TB spectrum in an endemic area. Good clinical response to anti-tuberculous therapy supported the presumed diagnosis of ocular TB in majority of the cases.
Bruijn, de, I.
Cyclic lipopeptides (CLPs) are surfactant and antibiotic metabolites produced by a variety of bacterial genera. For the genus Pseudomonas, many structurally different CLPs have been identified. CLPs play an important role in surface motility of Pseudomonas strains, but also in virulence and attachment/detachment to and from surfaces. In this Ph.D. thesis project, two new CLP biosynthesis clusters were identified in Pseudomonas fluorescens and fully sequenced. In P. fluorescens strain SBW2...
Khine Zar Wynn Myint; Khin Mya Lwin; Myo Myint
The microbial gibberellic acid (GA3) production of Pseudomonas spp., was studied and qualitatively indentified by UV spectrophotometer. 20 strains of Pseudomonas spp., were isolated and screened the gibberellic acid productivily in King's B medium. Among them, only four strains can produce microbial gibberellic acid. The Rf values and colour appearance under UV were the same as authentic gibberellic acid. Moreover, the gibberellic acid producer strains were identified as Pseudomonas spp., by cultural, biochemical and drug sensitivity pattern.
Voinea, L; Samson, M; Glejaru, M; Popa, R
The anatomical primitive strabismus is prenatal and its characteristic is the loose in the elasticity of the muscles of the surrounding tissues. The cause is the deficit of embryogenesis, originating in the first two months of pregnancy. They are presented the clinical cases of anatomical strabismus, investigated and treated in the Ophthalmological Clinic during 10 years, the surgical techniques used and the postoperative functional and obstetrical results the ocular disturbances are intense and the debut is early. The surgery involves both eyes and the results depend on the clinical form, the restant ocular motility and the degree of fibrosis of the affected muscle.
Full Text Available The health of ocular surface is maintained by the ocular surface(cornea and conjunctiva, accessory lacrimal gland and meibomian gland, the main lacrimal gland and the lachrymal function units between them, any damage in which can lead to the failure of integrity and normal function of tear film. With the development of medical science, more and more eye surgeries are operated to treat eye diseases. However, preoperative anesthetic applications, operation process, preservatives in the eye drops may lead to tear film instability and/or abnormal manifestation on eye surface which may cause dry eyes.
Packer, S.; Lambrecht, R.; Atkins, H.L.; Wolf, A.P.
An experimental procedure has been established to evaluate radiopharmaceuticals for the specific purpose of melanoma detection by scintiscanning. By using the Greene melanoma in the hamster several labeled compounds were compared. Specifically the tumor uptake along with detailed analyses of uptake by various parts of the eye and body were determined in a hamster model. Of those short-lived radionuclides investigated 203 Pb-tris was the most promising as a non-invasive localizing agent for ocular melanoma and it should prove effective for ocular scintigraphy. (U.S.)
Shima, Hiroshi; Hasegawa, Mitsuhiro; Tachibana, Osamu; Nomura, Motohiro; Yamashita, Junkoh; Ozaki, Yuzo; Kawai, Jun; Higuchi, Masanori; Kado, Hisashi
To investigate whether the ocular dominance affects laterality in the activity of the primary visual cortex, we examined the relationship between the ocular dominance and latency or dipole moment measured by checkerboard-pattern and magnetoencephalography in 11 right-handed healthy male participants. Participants with left-eye dominance showed a dipole moment of 21.5±6.1 nAm with left-eye stimulation and 16.1±3.6 nAm with right, whereas those with right-eye dominance showed a dipole moment of...
Yannuzzi, Lawrence A; Shakin, Jeffrey L
The theoretical rationale, the histopathologic evidence, and the preliminary clinical studies related to krypton red laser (KRL) photocoagulation of the ocular fundus are reviewed. The authors report on their experience with currently available laser systems using this wavelength (647.1 nm) for photocoagulation of retinal vascular proliferative diseases and chorioretinal diseases associated with exudative manifestations. A histopathologic and clinical comparison of argon blue-green laser (ABGL), the pure argon green laser (AGL), and the krypton yellow laser (KYL), with reference to photocoagulation treatment of the ocular fundus is also discussed.
Yannuzzi, L A; Shakin, J L
The theoretical rationale, the histopathologic evidence, and the preliminary clinical studies related to krypton red laser (KRL) photocoagulation of the ocular fundus are reviewed. The authors report on their experience with currently available laser systems using this wavelength (647.1 nm) for photocoagulation of retinal vascular proliferative diseases and chorioretinal diseases associated with exudative manifestations. A histopathologic and clinical comparison of argon blue-green laser (ABGL), the pure argon green laser (AGL), and the krypton yellow laser (KYL), with reference to photocoagulation treatment of the ocular fundus is also discussed.
Tappeiner, C; Sarra, G-M; Abegg, M
To describe conjunctival histopathologic alterations induced by excessive chronic astringent use. Report of a case with clinical picture, epicutane test results, histologic workup of conjunctival biopsy using conventional staining, and immunohistochemical markers. A 45-year-old man using a phenylephrine preparation hourly for years presented with grotesque eye redness, fornix shortening, and scarring of puncta lacrimalia. Direct and indirect immunofluorescence were negative for ocular pemphigoid. Histology revealed signs of chronic inflammation and neovascularization in the conjunctiva. Symptoms resolved after cessation of therapy. Chronic abuse of decongestant eyedrops can produce a clinical picture resembling an ocular pemphigoid. Histology suggests that late onset immunoreaction and chronic vasoconstriction cause chronic inflammation and neovascularization, respectively.
Üstyol, A; Kökali, F; Duru, N; Duman, M A; Elevli, M
Cases of Cushing's syndrome (CS) following ocular steroid use have been reported in recent years, albeit rarely. We report a case of iatrogenic CS in a child induced by fluorometholone-containing eyedrops. Our patient was referred to our endocrinology clinic due to rapid weight gain. His history revealed that 1.5 months previously he had been started on fluorometholone eyedrops. To the best of our knowledge, no cases of CS have been reported following ocular fluorometholone use. Although eyedrops containing potent glucocorticoids may lead to CS, fluorometholone, a relatively less potent steroid, may also cause the syndrome, as in our case. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Tsuda, Hiromasa; Tanaka, Kozue
A 78-year-old man with essential hypertension abruptly developed complete ocular tilt reaction (OTR) which consisted of concomitant skew deviation with left hypertropia, extorsion of the right eye and intorsion of the left, and rightward head tilt. Cranial computed tomography demonstrated a localized cerebellar hemorrhage involving the left nodulus. The patient became asymptomatic within two weeks. This is a first reported case of complete OTR due to a cerebellar hemorrhage. Concomitant skew deviation is a common symptom of cerebellar lesions. Moreover, unilateral damage to the utricular pathway due to involvement of the left nodulus might cause rightward conjugate ocular torsion and rightward head tilt.
Full Text Available Various ocular surface disorders like alkali burns and corneal ulcers can all cause damage to the cornea and conjunctiva, and often induce corneal neovascularization(CNVthat affects the visual function. However, amniotic membranes(AMcan promote the rapid epithelization of acute injured corneas and conjunctiva defects, diminish scarring, and perform anti-inflammatory effect. Therefore, AM has been widely used in ocular surface reconstructions and treatment of CNV. But the key problem is how to fix the AM. Only ensuring the adhesive time and cover area with convenient operation and little stimulation can achieve the best curative effect. This article reviews the methods of AM fixation in AM patch technique.
... thuringiensis variety kurstaki encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas fluorescens; exemption from the requirement... killed Pseudomonas fluorescens; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. The delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis variety kurstaki encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas fluorescens is exempt from the...
Djonović, Slavica; Urbach, Jonathan M.; Drenkard, Eliana; Bush, Jenifer; Feinbaum, Rhonda; Ausubel, Jonathan L.; Traficante, David; Risech, Martina; Kocks, Christine; Fischbach, Michael A.; Priebe, Gregory P.; Ausubel, Frederick M.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PA14 is a multi-host pathogen that infects plants, nematodes, insects, and vertebrates. Many PA14 factors are required for virulence in more than one of these hosts. Noting that plants have a fundamentally different cellular architecture from animals, we sought to identify PA14 factors that are specifically required for plant pathogenesis. We show that synthesis by PA14 of the disaccharide trehalose is required for pathogenesis in Arabidopsis, but not in nematodes, insects, or mice. In-frame deletion of two closely-linked predicted trehalose biosynthetic operons, treYZ and treS, decreased growth in Arabidopsis leaves about 50 fold. Exogenously co-inoculated trehalose, ammonium, or nitrate, but not glucose, sulfate, or phosphate suppressed the phenotype of the double ΔtreYZΔtreS mutant. Exogenous trehalose or ammonium nitrate does not suppress the growth defect of the double ΔtreYZΔtreS mutant by suppressing the plant defense response. Trehalose also does not function intracellularly in P. aeruginosa to ameliorate a variety of stresses, but most likely functions extracellularly, because wild-type PA14 rescued the in vivo growth defect of the ΔtreYZΔtreS in trans. Surprisingly, the growth defect of the double ΔtreYZΔtreS double mutant was suppressed by various Arabidopsis cell wall mutants that affect xyloglucan synthesis, including an xxt1xxt2 double mutant that completely lacks xyloglucan, even though xyloglucan mutants are not more susceptible to pathogens and respond like wild-type plants to immune elicitors. An explanation of our data is that trehalose functions to promote the acquisition of nitrogen-containing nutrients in a process that involves the xyloglucan component of the plant cell wall, thereby allowing P. aeruginosa to replicate in the intercellular spaces in a leaf. This work shows how P. aeruginosa, a multi-host opportunistic pathogen, has repurposed a highly conserved “house-keeping” anabolic pathway
Djonović, Slavica; Urbach, Jonathan M; Drenkard, Eliana; Bush, Jenifer; Feinbaum, Rhonda; Ausubel, Jonathan L; Traficante, David; Risech, Martina; Kocks, Christine; Fischbach, Michael A; Priebe, Gregory P; Ausubel, Frederick M
Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PA14 is a multi-host pathogen that infects plants, nematodes, insects, and vertebrates. Many PA14 factors are required for virulence in more than one of these hosts. Noting that plants have a fundamentally different cellular architecture from animals, we sought to identify PA14 factors that are specifically required for plant pathogenesis. We show that synthesis by PA14 of the disaccharide trehalose is required for pathogenesis in Arabidopsis, but not in nematodes, insects, or mice. In-frame deletion of two closely-linked predicted trehalose biosynthetic operons, treYZ and treS, decreased growth in Arabidopsis leaves about 50 fold. Exogenously co-inoculated trehalose, ammonium, or nitrate, but not glucose, sulfate, or phosphate suppressed the phenotype of the double ΔtreYZΔtreS mutant. Exogenous trehalose or ammonium nitrate does not suppress the growth defect of the double ΔtreYZΔtreS mutant by suppressing the plant defense response. Trehalose also does not function intracellularly in P. aeruginosa to ameliorate a variety of stresses, but most likely functions extracellularly, because wild-type PA14 rescued the in vivo growth defect of the ΔtreYZΔtreS in trans. Surprisingly, the growth defect of the double ΔtreYZΔtreS double mutant was suppressed by various Arabidopsis cell wall mutants that affect xyloglucan synthesis, including an xxt1xxt2 double mutant that completely lacks xyloglucan, even though xyloglucan mutants are not more susceptible to pathogens and respond like wild-type plants to immune elicitors. An explanation of our data is that trehalose functions to promote the acquisition of nitrogen-containing nutrients in a process that involves the xyloglucan component of the plant cell wall, thereby allowing P. aeruginosa to replicate in the intercellular spaces in a leaf. This work shows how P. aeruginosa, a multi-host opportunistic pathogen, has repurposed a highly conserved "house-keeping" anabolic pathway (trehalose
Full Text Available Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PA14 is a multi-host pathogen that infects plants, nematodes, insects, and vertebrates. Many PA14 factors are required for virulence in more than one of these hosts. Noting that plants have a fundamentally different cellular architecture from animals, we sought to identify PA14 factors that are specifically required for plant pathogenesis. We show that synthesis by PA14 of the disaccharide trehalose is required for pathogenesis in Arabidopsis, but not in nematodes, insects, or mice. In-frame deletion of two closely-linked predicted trehalose biosynthetic operons, treYZ and treS, decreased growth in Arabidopsis leaves about 50 fold. Exogenously co-inoculated trehalose, ammonium, or nitrate, but not glucose, sulfate, or phosphate suppressed the phenotype of the double ΔtreYZΔtreS mutant. Exogenous trehalose or ammonium nitrate does not suppress the growth defect of the double ΔtreYZΔtreS mutant by suppressing the plant defense response. Trehalose also does not function intracellularly in P. aeruginosa to ameliorate a variety of stresses, but most likely functions extracellularly, because wild-type PA14 rescued the in vivo growth defect of the ΔtreYZΔtreS in trans. Surprisingly, the growth defect of the double ΔtreYZΔtreS double mutant was suppressed by various Arabidopsis cell wall mutants that affect xyloglucan synthesis, including an xxt1xxt2 double mutant that completely lacks xyloglucan, even though xyloglucan mutants are not more susceptible to pathogens and respond like wild-type plants to immune elicitors. An explanation of our data is that trehalose functions to promote the acquisition of nitrogen-containing nutrients in a process that involves the xyloglucan component of the plant cell wall, thereby allowing P. aeruginosa to replicate in the intercellular spaces in a leaf. This work shows how P. aeruginosa, a multi-host opportunistic pathogen, has repurposed a highly conserved "house-keeping" anabolic
Li, Sheng-An; Liu, Jie; Xiang, Yang; Wang, Yan-Jie
The therapeutic potential of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) has been evaluated in many infectious diseases. However, the topical application of AMPs for ocular bacterial infection has not been well investigated. The AMP OH-CATH30, which was identified in the king cobra, exhibits potent antimicrobial activity. In this study, we investigated the therapeutic potential of OH-CATH30 for Pseudomonas aeruginosa keratitis. Ten isolates of P. aeruginosa from individuals with keratitis were susceptible to OH-CATH30 but not to cefoperazone, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, and levofloxacin. The microdilution checkerboard assay showed that OH-CATH30 exhibited synergistic activity with ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin against antibiotic-resistant P. aeruginosa. Meanwhile, P. aeruginosa did not develop resistance to OH-CATH30, even after exposure at 0.5× the MIC for up to 25 subcultures. Furthermore, treatment with OH-CATH30, alone or in combination with levofloxacin, significantly improved the clinical outcomes of rabbit keratitis induced by antibiotic-resistant P. aeruginosa. Taken together, our data indicate that the topical application of OH-CATH30 is efficacious against drug-resistant P. aeruginosa keratitis. In addition, our study highlights the potential application of AMPs in treating ocular bacterial infections. PMID:24637683
Song, Fu; Shi, Yifei; Jia, Shiru; Tan, Zhilei; Zhao, Huabing
Naphthalene is one of the most common and simple polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Degradation of naphthalene has been greatly concerned due to its economic, free-pollution and its fine effect in Pseudomonas putida ND6. This review summarizes the development history of naphthalene degradation, the research progress of naphthalene degrading gene and naphthalene degradation pathway of Pseudomonas putida ND6, and the researching path of this strain. Although the study of naphthalene degradation is not consummate in Pseudomonas putida ND6, there is a potential capability for Pseudomonas putida ND6 to degrade the naphthalene in the further research.
Aagot, N.; Nybroe, O.; Nielsen, P.
of organic carbon per liter, consistently gave significantly higher Pseudomonas CFU counts than Gould's S1 when tested on four Danish soils. NAA 1:100 may, therefore, be a better medium than Gould's S1 for enumeration and isolation of Pseudomonas from the low-nutrient soil environment.......We designed five Pseudomonas-selective soil extract NAA media containing the selective properties of trimethoprim and sodium lauroyl sarcosine and 0 to 100% of the amount of Casamino Acids used in the classical Pseudomonas-selective Gould's S1 medium. All of the isolates were confirmed....... Several of these analyses showed that the amount of Casamino Acids significantly influenced the diversity of the recovered Pseudomonas isolates. Furthermore, the data suggested that specific Pseudomonas subpopulations were represented on the nutrient-poor media. The NAA 1:100 medium, containing ca. 15 mg...
Atallah, Marwan; Joag, Madhura; Galor, Anat; Amescua, Guillermo; Nanji, Afshan; Wang, Jianhua; Perez, Victor L; Dubovy, Sander; Karp, Carol L
Coexistence of an ocular surface disease can mask the typical features of ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN). The purpose of this study was to evaluate high resolution optical coherence tomography (HR-OCT) as an adjunct in the detection and differentiation of OSSN within coexisting ocular surface pathologies. Retrospective study of 16 patients with ocular surface disease and lesions suspicious for OSSN that were evaluated with HR-OCT. HR-OCT images of the lesions were taken to look for evidence of OSSN. Biopsies were performed in all cases, and the HR-OCT findings were compared to the histological results. Of the 16 patients with OSSN and a coexisting ocular surface disease, 12 were found to have OSSN by HR-OCT and all were subsequently confirmed by biopsy. Two patients had OSSN with rosacea, one with pingueculum, two within pterygia, one with Salzmann' nodular degeneration, six with limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD)/scarring. In all 12 cases HR-OCT images revealed classical findings of hyper-reflective, thickened epithelium and an abrupt transition from normal to abnormal epithelium. OSSN was ruled out by HR-OCT in four cases (2 Salzmann's, 1 mucous membrane pemphigoid, and 1 LSCD). Negative findings were confirmed by biopsy. HR-OCT was used to follow resolution of the OSSN in positive cases, and it detected recurrence in 1 case. While histopathology is the gold standard in the diagnosis of OSSN, HR-OCT can be used to noninvasively detect the presence of OSSN in patients with coexisting ocular conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Aims and Objectives: To describe the pattern of paediatric ocular trauma seen at the national Eye Centre, Kaduna, between January 1995 and December 1997; and the factors that affect the visual and ocular outcome. Materials and Methods: The medical records of all the children 15 years or younger, with ocular injuries ...
W.P.A. Kelders (Willem)
textabstractThe cervico-ocular reflex (COR) is an ocular stabilization reflex that is elicited by rotation of the neck. It works in conjunction with the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) and the optokinetic reflex (OKR) in order to prevent visual slip over the retina due to self motion. The VOR
Goumans, J.; Houben, M.M.J.; Dits, J.; Steen, J. van der
The three-dimensional vestibulo-ocular reflex (3D VOR) ideally generates compensatory ocular rotations not only with a magnitude equal and opposite to the head rotation but also about an axis that is collinear with the head rotation axis. Vestibulo-ocular responses only partially fulfill this ideal
W.P.A. Kelders (Willem); G.J. Kleinrensink (Gert Jan); J.N. van der Geest (Jos); L. Feenstra (Louw); C.I. de Zeeuw (Chris); M.A. Frens (Maarten)
textabstractThe cervico-ocular reflex (COR) is an ocular stabilization reflex that is elicited by rotation of the neck. It works in conjunction with the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) and the optokinetic reflex (OKR) in order to prevent visual slip over the retina due to
Verhille, S; Baida, N; Dabboussi, F; Izard, D; Leclerc, H
The taxonomic position of 23 strains isolated from mineral waters and previously grouped in the authentic pseudomonads on the basis of a phenotypic analysis (cluster IX, subclusters XIIIa and XIIIc of VERHILLE, S., ELOMARI, M., COROLER, L., IZARD, D., LECLERC, H. (Syst. Appl. Microbiol, 20, 137-149, 1997) has been genotypically further studied in the present work. On the basis of hybridization results, these strains were gathered into two new genomic groups for which we propose the names of Pseudomonas jessenii sp. nov. (Type strain CIP 105274) and Pseudomonas mandelii sp. nov. (Type strain CIP 105273). Deoxyribonucleic acid relatedness levels showed homologies ranging from 78 to 100% for Pseudomonas jessenii and from 77 to 100% for Pseudomonas mandelii. Furthermore, hybrization rates with 66 representative well characterized species or only partially characterized species of the genus Pseudomonas were below 53%, with delta Tm values of 7 degrees C and more. The mol% G + C content ranged from 57 to 58. The two new species presented basic morphological characteristics common to all pseudomonads. Various phenotypic features, such as denitrification, growth at 4 degrees C or 41 degrees C, trigonelline assimilation, alpha-L-glutamyl-L-histidine arylarmidase activity, growth on benzoate and meso-tartrate were found to differentiate Pseudomonas jessenii from Pseudomonas mandelii and from other Pseudomonas species. Pseudomonas jessenii encompassed a total of 9 strains from both phenotypic groups IX and XIIIa. Pseudomonas mandelii clustered a total of 13 strains from both phenotypic groups IX and XIIIc. Their clinical significance is unknown. The 16S rDNA of each type strain was sequenced and compared with the known sequences of the representative strains of the genus Pseudomonas. A phylogenetic tree was constructed to determine the intrageneric relationships within the genus Pseudomonas.
Mar 13, 2017 ... *Correspondence: Tel.: +2348033858362; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. Abstract. The present study was aimed at evaluating the ameliorating effects of Moringa oleifera extract compared to ... At the end of the exposure, 0.2ml of blood samples obtained from individual rat in each group were suspended in ...
Mormodica charantia has been shown to possess antioxidant, hepatoprotective and anticancer effects while the kidneys have been shown to be the second largest repository of lead in lead poisoining. This study assessed the ameliorative effect of ethanolic leaf extract of Momordica charantia on lead nitrate induced kidney ...
Madsen, Bjørn Stæhr; Schaffalitzky de Muckadell, Ove B
. This review focuses on how broad spectrum antibiotics can ameliorate the haemodynamic consequences of bacterial translocation. It is possible that the use of broad spectrum antibiotics in the future may be used to prevent other complications of liver cirrhosis than spontaneous bacterial peritonitis...
Brown, R.D.; Vanos, J.; Kenny, N.; Lenzholzer, S.
Many inhabitants of cities throughout the world suffer from health problems and discomfort that are caused by overheating of urban areas, and there is compelling evidence that these problems will be exacerbated by global climate change. Most cities are not designed to ameliorate these effects
Md. Sultan Ahmad
Jun 10, 2015 ... ORIGINAL ARTICLE. Cancer ameliorating potential of Phyllanthus amarus: In vivo and in vitro studies against. Aflatoxin B1 toxicity. Md. Sultan Ahmad *, Sultana Bano, Shafaat Anwar. Department of Zoology, Shibli National (P.G) College, Azamgarh, U.P. 276001, India. Received 17 April 2015; accepted 14 ...
Oral Metformin-Ascorbic Acid Co-Administration Ameliorates Alcohol-Induced Hepatotoxicity In Rats. ... Nigerian Quarterly Journal of Hospital Medicine ... the present in vivo animal study was to determine whether metformin-ascorbic acid co-administration also prevents alcoholic hepatotoxicity in chronic alcohol exposure.
Salvianolic Acid B Ameliorates Motor Dysfuntion in Spinal. Cord Injury Rats. Chong Xun, Shouyu Wang, Guang Chen, Yang Hu, Jiaqi Xie and Decheng Lv*. Department of ... Purpose: To evaluate the effect of salvianolic acid B (Sal B) treatment on the motor function of spinal ... China. All the animals were housed at 25 °C in.
increase in serum urea and creatine while 3ml/kg of the same drug completely prevented the increase in serum urea and creatine in this model. Conclusion: Vitamin B-complex dose-dependently ameliorated gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in adult Swiss albino rats when given intramuscularly. This finding may have ...
Dysmenorrhea or painful menstruation is one of the most common problems of women. Using systematic review and meta‑analysis, this study aimed to determine the effect of vitamin E on ameliorating the intensity of pain of primary dysmenorrhea. Available databases comprising PubMed, Google Scholar, ISI, Science ...
This study was designed to evaluate the ameliorative effect of dietary supplementation of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius leaf on anaemia and changes in erythrocyte osmotic fragility in protein energy malnourished rats. Protein energy malnutrition has been associated with anaemia and changes in osmotic fragility, deformability ...
Ameliorative effects of salt resistance on physiological parameters in the halophyte Salicornia bigelovii torr. with plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria. Edgar Omar Rueda-Puente, R Prabhaharan, B Murillo-Amador, F Ruiz-Espinoza, M Puente, RD Valdez-Cepeda ...
At the end of the study, biochemical markers of nitrosative and oxidative stress status were determined. Results: DH (12.5, 50 and 100 mg/kg) significantly ameliorated haloperidol-induced catalepsy (bar test), spontaneous motor and working memory deficits (open field and elevated plus maze tests, respectively), ...
In the article “Unripe Musa paradisiaca Fruit Diet Ameliorates Impaired Glucose Regulation Caused by Iron-Induced Oxidative Stress” by Ige A.O, Oyekunle A.O, Olaoye M. O and Adewoye E.O which appeared on pages 301-308 of the September 2017 issue, it has been observed that the name of the second author was ...
Jan 10, 2012 ... ameliorating technologies in Dedza district in central. Malawi. V. H. Kabambe1* ... end of the project support in 2008, the participating farmers were willing to invest in the technology and raised funds for purchase ..... Engineering Commodity Group Project Meeting held at Mzuzu Hotel,. 10-15 August 1996.
Jun 3, 2008 ... Accepted 28 April, 2008. This study was designed to evaluate the ameliorative effect of dietary supplementation of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius leaf on anaemia and changes in erythrocyte osmotic fragility in protein energy malnourished rats. Protein energy malnutrition has been associated with anaemia and ...
The present study was aimed at evaluating the ameliorating effects of Moringa oleifera extract compared to captopril and candesartan cilexetil on cardiovascular functions and osmotic fragility of rats exposed to petrol vapour. Twenty five adult male Wistar rats (130g-200g) were randomly grouped to five with five rats in a ...
Full Text Available BACKGROUND Headache or cephalgia is one of the commonest symptoms causing pain in head above eyes or the ears, behind the head in the occipital region or in the back of the upper neck causing pain as well as disability to an individual. WHO reports around 47% of adults worldwide will have experienced headache in the last year. Headache maybe primary or secondary. Tension headache is more common type of primary headache. Almost, 90% of adults have tension headache and it is more common in females than males. Migraine headache is third most prevalent disorder worldwide and ranked as seventh highest cause of disability. Migraine headaches are the second most common type of primary headaches, whereas cluster headache, a relatively uncommon type of primary headache affecting less than 1 in every 1000 adults. 1 Many people suffer from mixed headache disorder in which tension headache or secondary headache may trigger migraine. Headache on 15 or more days in every month affects 1.7-4% of the world adult population. Hospital-based studies of migraine shows India is home over 16% of world inhabitants suffering from migraine. MATERIALS AND METHODS In our study, total screening of 1200 cases was done with headache symptomatology reported to Eye OPD directly as well as referred from ENT, Medical, NeuroMedical, Surgical, Neurosurgical, Psychiatry, Orthopaedics and Trauma Ward. A detailed clinical examination and ophthalmological examination was done in 1200 cases. RESULTS Sexual prevalence in our study indicated female with increased prevalence of 46.67% compared to male of 36%. Among 30 cases of migrainous headache with or without aura, the sexual prevalence in our study has female-to-male ratio as 2:1 (female - 20 cases and male - 10 cases. No cluster headache disorder was reported in our study. Among the tension headache presented with ocular manifestations like association of the refractive error, redness, burning sensation, the female prevalence among
Full Text Available BACKGROUND HIV/AIDS is a multi system disorder with ocular involvement is about 70-80% of HIV patient occupational exposure to HIV is a significant health hazard for the treating clinicians including Eye Surgeons. AIM To study and evaluation of ocular manifestation in HIV patients attending out patient. MATERIALS AND METHODS It is observational study of 104 HIV+ve cases for a period of 1 year those patients who attended ophthalmic out patient department. RESULTS 73 were males (70.19% and 31 were females (29.80%. Majority of the patients belongs to age group of 15-50 years. Out of 104 patients 83(79.80% were married and 21(20.20% were unmarried. HIV was predominantly seen in labourers 41(32.42%. The predominant mode of transmission of sexual (Hetero Sexual transmission. HIV infection was predominantly seen in uneducated patients 64(61.53%. Total No. of ocular findings in 51 cases out of 75 with anterior Uveitis, Conjunctival microvasculopathy, Herpes Simplex Keratitis and Conjunctivitis are the most common anterior segment manifestation. CMV retinitis, HIV Microvasculopathy are the most common posterior segment manifestation. CONCLUSIONS Ophthalmologists should be familiar with common and uncommon ocular manifestations of AIDS+ve cases and their diagnosis and treatment, as early and proper treatment can Salvage their vision and improve the quality of life.
Dec 31, 2008 ... Snellen's chart), pen light, slit lamp examination and direct ophthalmoscopy, where it is possible. Ethical approval was obtained from the Ethics and Research Committee of the .... the proximity of the health facilities. CONCLUSION. Most of the ocular trauma occurred among the male subjects who are in the ...
CONCLUSION: Ocular features were among the most common presentation of CVT in every three phases of CVT and could be the sole finding of CVT. Patients who do not have vision loss and proptosis might have a better outcome in CVT.