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  1. Methadone ameliorates multiple-low-dose streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetes in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amirshahrokhi, K.; Dehpour, A.R.; Hadjati, J.; Sotoudeh, M.; Ghazi-Khansari, M.

    2008-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease characterized by inflammation of pancreatic islets and destruction of β cells by the immune system. Opioids have been shown to modulate a number of immune functions, including T helper 1 (Th1) and T helper 2 (Th2) cytokines. The immunosuppressive effect of long-term administration of opioids has been demonstrated both in animal models and humans. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of methadone, a μ-opioid receptor agonist, on type 1 diabetes. Administration of multiple low doses of streptozotocin (STZ) (MLDS) (40mg/kg intraperitoneally for 5 consecutive days) to mice resulted in autoimmune diabetes. Mice were treated with methadone (10mg/kg/day subcutaneously) for 24days. Blood glucose, insulin and pancreatic cytokine levels were measured. Chronic methadone treatment significantly reduced hyperglycemia and incidence of diabetes, and restored pancreatic insulin secretion in the MLDS model. The protective effect of methadone can be overcome by pretreatment with naltrexone, an opioid receptor antagonist. Also, methadone treatment decreased the proinflammatory Th1 cytokines [interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α and interferon-γ] and increased anti-inflammatory Th2 cytokines (IL-4 and IL-10). Histopathological observations indicated that STZ-mediated destruction of β cells was attenuated by methadone treatment. It seems that methadone as an opioid agonist may have a protective effect against destruction of β cells and insulitis in the MLDS model of type 1 diabetes

  2. Taenia crassiceps Infection Attenuates Multiple Low-Dose Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes

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    Arlett Espinoza-Jiménez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Taenia crassiceps, like other helminths, can exert regulatory effects on the immune system of its host. This study investigates the effect of chronic T. crassiceps infection on the outcome of Multiple Low Dose Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes (MLDS. Healthy or previously T. crassiceps-infected mice received MLDS and type 1 diabetes (T1D symptoms were evaluated for 6 weeks following the induction of MLDS. T. crassiceps-infected mice displayed lower blood glucose levels throughout the study. A significantly lower percentage of T. crassiceps-infected mice (40% developed T1D compared to the uninfected group (100%. Insulitis was remarkably absent in T. crassiceps-infected mice, which had normal pancreatic insulin content, whereas uninfected mice showed a dramatic reduction in pancreatic insulin. Infected mice that received MLDS did not show an increase in their regulatory T cell population, however, they had a greater number of alternatively activated macrophages, higher levels of the cytokine IL-4, and lower levels of TNF-α. Therefore, infection with T. crassiceps causes an immunomodulation that modifies the incidence and development of MLDS-induced autoimmune diabetes.

  3. Bisphenol A (BPA) aggravates multiple low-dose streptozotocin-induced Type 1 diabetes in C57BL/6 mice.

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    Cetkovic-Cvrlje, Marina; Thinamany, Sinduja; Bruner, Kylie A

    2017-12-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a T-cell-mediated autoimmune disorder characterized by destruction of insulin-producing pancreatic β-cells. Whereas epidemiological data implicate environmental factors in the increasing incidence of T1D, their identity remains unknown. Though exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) has been associated with several disorders, no epidemiologic evidence has linked BPA exposure and T1D. The goal of this study was to elucidate diabetogenic potentials of BPA and underlying mechanisms in the context of T-cell immunity, in a multiple low-dose streptozotocin (MLDSTZ)-induced autoimmune mouse T1D model. C57BL/6 mice were orally exposed to 1 or 10 mg BPA/L starting at 4 wk of age; diabetes was induced at 9 wk of age with STZ. T-cell composition, function, and insulitis levels were studied at Days 11 and 50 during diabetes development (i.e. post-first STZ injection). Results showed both BPA doses increased diabetes incidence and affected T-cell immunity. However, mechanisms of diabetogenic action appeared divergent based on dose. Low-dose BPA fits a profile of an agent that exhibits pro-diabetogenic effects via T-cell immunomodulation in the early stages of disease development, i.e. decreases in splenic T-cell subpopulations [especially CD4 + T-cells] along with a trend in elevation of splenic T-cell formation of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-6). In contrast, high-dose BPA did not affect T-cell populations and led to decreased levels of IFN-γ and TNF-α. Both treatments did not affect insulitis levels at the disease early stage, but aggravated it later on. By the study end, besides decreasing T-cell proliferative capacity, low-dose BPA did not affect other T-cell-related parameters, including cytokine secretion, comparable to the effects of high-dose BPA. In conclusion, this study confirmed BPA as a potential diabetogenic compound with immunomodulatory mechanisms of action - in the context of T-cell immunity - that seemed to be dose

  4. ß-cell specific overexpression of suppressor of cytokine signalling-3 does not protect against multiple low dose streptozotocin induced type 1 diabetes in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Börjesson, A; Rønn, S G; Karlsen, A E

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the impact of ß-cell specific overexpression of suppressor of cytokine signalling-3 (SOCS-3) on the development of multiple low dose streptozotocin (MLDSTZ) induced Type 1 diabetes and the possible mechanisms involved. MLDSTZ treatment was administered to RIP-SOCS-3 transgenic......RNA in islet cells and secretion of IL-1Ra into culture medium. MLDSTZ treatment caused gradual hyperglycemia both in the wt mice and in the transgenic mice with the latter tending to be more sensitive. In vitro experiments on wt and transgenic islets did not reveal any differences in sensitivity to damaging...

  5. Levetiracetam ameliorates ovarian function in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

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    Akman, Levent; Erbas, Oytun; Akdemir, Ali; Yavasoglu, Altug; Taskiran, Dilek; Kazandi, Mert

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus can adversely affect gonadal function. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the protective effects and mechanism of action of levetiracetam (LEV) on the ovaries in a streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes model in rats. Twenty-one adult female rats were assigned to three groups as control, diabetes group treated with 1 mL/kg/d saline (STZ + SP) and diabetes group treated with 600 mg/kg/d LEV (STZ + LEV). Following 4 weeks treatment, blood samples were collected for biochemical analysis and ovariectomy was performed for histopathological examination. Plasma anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH), glutathione and total anti-oxidant capacity values were significantly lower whereas lipid peroxides and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) values were significantly higher in STZ + SP group compared to control. LEV treatment successfully decreased lipid peroxidation and TGF-β levels, and also increased anti-oxidant parameters and AMH levels in diabetic rats. Saline-treated rats significantly displayed ovarian degeneration and decreased counts of follicles. However, treatment of diabetic rats with LEV effectively prevented the degenerative changes and follicle loss. Also, LEV suppressed ovarian nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kB) immunoexpression in diabetic rats. Taken together, we propose that LEV can ameliorate the adverse effects of diabetes on ovarian function via decreasing NF-kB expression and oxidative stress and increasing anti-oxidant status in rats.

  6. Naringin ameliorates cognitive deficits in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

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    Xianchu Liu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s:Previous research demonstrated that diabetes is one of the leading causes of learning and memory deficits. Naringin, a bioflavonoid isolated from grapefruits and oranges, has potent protective effects on streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic rats. Recently, the effects of naringin on learning and memory performances were monitored in many animal models of cognitive impairment. However, to date, no studies have investigated the ameliorative effects of naringin on diabetes-associated cognitive decline (DACD. In this study, we investigated the effects of naringin, using a STZ-injected rat model and explored its potential mechanism. Materials and Methods:Diabetic rats were treated with naringin (100 mg/kg/d for 7 days. The learning and memory function were assessed by Morris water maze test. The oxidative stress indicators [superoxide dismutase (SOD and malondialdehyde (MDA] and inflammatory cytokines (TNF-a, IL-1β, and IL-6 were measured in hippocampus using corresponding commercial kits. The mRNA and protein levels of PPARγ were evaluated by real time (RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. Results:The results showed that supplementation of naringin improved learning and memory performances compared with the STZ group. Moreover, naringin supplement dramatically increased SOD levels, reduced MDA levels, and alleviated TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 compared with the STZ group in the hippocampus. The pretreatment with naringin also significantly increased PPARγ expression. Conclusion: Our results showed that naringin may be a promising therapeutic agent for improving cognitive decline in DACD.

  7. Extract of Moringa oleifera leaves ameliorates streptozotocin-induced Diabetes mellitus in adult rats.

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    Yassa, Hanan Dawood; Tohamy, Adel Fathy

    2014-06-01

    Medicinal plants attract growing interest in the therapeutic management of Diabetes mellitus. Moringa oleifera is a remarkably nutritious vegetable with several antioxidant properties. The present study assessed the possible antioxidant and antidiabetic effects of an aqueous extract of M. oleifera leaves in treating streptozotocin-induced diabetic albino rats. The antidiabetic effects of aqueous extract of M. oleifera leaves were assessed histomorphometrically, ultrastructurally and biochemically. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) was monitored and morphometric measurements of β-cells of islets of Langerhans (modified Gomori's stain) and collagen fibers (Mallory's trichrome stain) were performed. The antioxidant effects of M. oleifera leaves were determined by measuring the reduced glutathione and lipid peroxidation product, malondialdehyde, in pancreatic tissue. M. oleifera treatment significantly ameliorated the altered FPG (from 380% to 145%), reduced glutathione (from 22% to 73%) and malondialdehyde (from 385% to 186%) compared to control levels. The histopathological damage of islet cells was also markedly reversed. Morphometrically, M. oleifera significantly increased the areas of positive purple modified Gomori stained β-cells (from 60% to 91%) and decreased the area percentage of collagen fibers (from 199% to 120%) compared to control values. Experimental findings clearly indicate the potential benefits of using the aqueous extract of M. oleifera leaves as a potent antidiabetic treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Total saponin of Dioscoreae hypoglaucae rhizoma ameliorates streptozotocin-induced diabetic nephropathy

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    Guo C

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Changrun Guo,1 Gang Ding,2 Wenzhe Huang,2 Zhenzhong Wang,2 Zhaoqing Meng,1,2 Wei Xiao2 1State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China; 2Jiangsu Kanion Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd, Lianyungang City, People’s Republic of China Background: Diabetic nephropathy has become the most common cause of morbidity and mortality in diabetic patients. Therefore, there is an urgent need for more effective and safer drugs for use in this condition.Purpose: The aims of this study were to investigate the ameliorative effects of total saponin of Dioscoreae hypoglaucae rhizoma (TSD on diabetic nephropathy and to explore the potential underlying mechanism(s.Methods: Rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes were orally treated with TSD at 40, 80, and 160 mg/kg/d for 12 weeks. At the end of the treatment, blood, urine, and kidneys were collected for biochemical and histological examination.Results: The results demonstrated that TSD significantly decreased the fasting blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, urinary protein, serum creatinine, and blood urea nitrogen levels in diabetic rats. The results of histological examinations showed that TSD ameliorated glomerular and tubular pathological changes in diabetic rats. Furthermore, TSD significantly prevented oxidative stress and reduced the renal levels of advanced glycation end products, transforming growth factor-β1, connective tissue growth factor, and tumor necrosis factor-α.Conclusion: This study demonstrated the renoprotective effects of TSD in experimental diabetic nephropathy via a number of different mechanisms. Keywords: total saponin of Dioscoreae hypoglaucae rhizoma, diabetic nephropathy, oxidative stress, AGEs, TGF-β1

  9. Phoenix dactylifera seeds ameliorate early diabetic complications in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

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    Abdelaziz, Dalia H A; Ali, Sahar A; Mostafa, Mahmoud M A

    2015-06-01

    In Arabic folk medicine, the seeds of Phoenix dactylifera L. (Arecaceae) have been used to manage diabetes for many years. Few studies have reported the antidiabetic effect of P. dactylifera seeds; however, their effect on diabetic complications is still unexplored. The present study investigates the protective effect of P. dactylifera seeds against diabetic complications in rats. The aqueous suspension of P. dactylifera seeds (aqPDS) (1 g/kg/d) was orally administered to streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats for 4 weeks. The serum biochemical parameters were assessed spectrophotometrically. Furthermore, oxidative stress was examined in both liver and kidney tissues by assessment of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), nitric oxide (NO), reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione S-transferase, and catalase. Oral administration of aqPDS significantly ameliorated the elevated levels of glucose (248 ± 42 versus 508 ± 60 mg/dl), urea (32 ± 3.3 versus 48.3 ± 5.6 mg/dl), creatinine (2.2 ± 0.35 versus 3.8 ± 0.37 mg/dl), ALT (29.6 ± 3.9 versus 46.4 ± 5.9 IU/l), and AST (73.3 ± 13 versus 127.8 ± 18.7 IU/l) compared with the untreated diabetic rats. In addition to significant augmentation in the activities of antioxidant enzymes, there was reduction in TBARS and NO levels and improvement of histopathological architecture of the liver and kidney of diabetic rats. The aqPDS showed potential protective effects against early diabetic complications of both liver and kidney. This effect may be explained by the antioxidant and free radical scavenging capabilities of P. dactylifera seeds.

  10. Flos Puerariae Extract Ameliorates Cognitive Impairment in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Mice

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    Zhong-he Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The effects of Flos Puerariae extract (FPE on cognitive impairment associated with diabetes were assessed in C57BL/6J mice. Methods. Experimental diabetic mice model was induced by one injection of 50 mg/kg streptozotocin (STZ for 5 days consecutively. FPE was orally administrated at the dosages of 50, 100, or 200 mg/kg/day, respectively. The learning and memory ability was assessed by Morris water maze test. Body weight, blood glucose, free fatty acid (FFA and total cholesterol (TCH in serum, malondialdehyde (MDA, superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px, and acetylcholinesterase (AChE activities in cerebral cortex and hippocampus were also measured. Results. Oral administration of FPE significantly improved cognitive deficits in STZ-induced diabetic mice. FPE treatment also maintained body weight and ameliorated hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia in diabetic mice. Additionally, decreased MDA level, enhanced CAT, and GSH-Px activities in cerebral cortex or hippocampus, as well as alleviated AChE activity in cerebral cortex, were found in diabetic mice supplemented with FPE. Conclusion. This study suggests that FPE ameliorates memory deficits in experimental diabetic mice, at least partly through the normalization of metabolic abnormalities, ameliorated oxidative stress, and AChE activity in brain.

  11. Zanthoxylum alkylamides activate phosphorylated AMPK and ameliorate glycolipid metabolism in the streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

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    Ren, Tingyuan; Zhu, Yuping; Kan, Jianquan

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of Zanthoxylum alkylamides on the glycolipid metabolism of rats with streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes. Diabetic rats were given daily oral treatments of 2, 4, or 8 mg/kg bw alkylamides for 28 days. Alkylamides significantly decreased fasting blood glucose and fructosamine content, as well as relieved organ enlargement caused by diabetes. The serum and liver triglyceride, malondialdehyde, and free fatty-acid contents of rats with STZ-induced diabetes were significantly reduced. Total cholesterol in the liver also significantly decreased. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR) and Western blot detected insignificantly increased (P > 0.05) mRNA expression levels of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in the skeletal muscle of diabetic rats. However, AMPK and p-AMPK (Thr172) protein expression levels significantly increased. The mRNA and protein expression levels of silencing information regulator 1 significantly increased. The mRNA expression levels of acetyl-CoA-carboxylase (ACC) and protein p-ACC (Ser79) also increased. The mRNA and protein expression levels of glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) were significantly upregulated in the skeletal muscle cell membranes of diabetic rats. Results indicated that alkylamides activated the AMPK-signaling pathway. Thus, inhibiting ACC activity reduced fatty-acid synthesis. The rapid translocation of GLUT4 mediated increased glucose transport rate and reduced blood glucose. Therefore, alkylamides can ameliorate glucose and lipid metabolism disorders in diabetic rats by activating the AMPK pathway.

  12. Ameliorative effect of astaxanthin on endothelial dysfunction in streptozotocin-induced diabetes in male rats.

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    Zhao, Zi-Wen; Cai, Wei; Lin, Yun-Ling; Lin, Qing-Fei; Jiang, Qiong; Lin, Zhang; Chen, Liang-Long

    2011-01-01

    The present study was designed to examine whether astaxanthin (ASX, 3,3-dihydroxybeta, beta-carotene-4,4-dione, CAS 472-61-7), a dietary antioxidant carotenoid that is naturally present in algae, crustaceans, and fish, has a protective effect on endothelial dysfunction of aortas in diabetic rats and the possible molecular mechanism involved. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: control rats, diabetic rats, diabetic rats treated with ASX (10 mg/kg/d), and control rats treated with ASX. Type 1 diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ; 60 mg/ kg). STZ-induced diabetes in rats was complicated with excessive oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction, increased serum oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) and aortic malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, inhibited endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation to acetylcholine (ACh) and unaffected endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation to sodium nitroprusside (SNP). Simultaneously, lectin-like oxLDL receptor-i (LOX-1) expression was enhanced and endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase (eNOS) expression was reduced in the aortas of diabetic rats. ASX treatment could significantly decrease serum oxLDL and aortic MDA levels, attenuate blunted endothelium-dependent vasodilator responses to ACh, upregulate eNOS expression, and decrease LOX-1 expression. These results indicated that ASX could ameliorate diabetic endothelial dysfunction by inhibiting the ox-LDLLOX-1-eNOS pathway. Treatment with ASX might be clinically useful for diabetic complications associated with endothelial dysfunction.

  13. Huperzine A Ameliorates Cognitive Deficits in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

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    Xiao-Yuan Mao

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to probe the effects of Huperzine A (HupA on diabetes-associated cognitive decline (DACD using a streptozotocin (STZ-injected rat model. Diabetic rats were treated with HupA (0.05 and 0.1 mg/kg for seven weeks. Memory functions were evaluated by the water maze test. Nissl staining was selected for detecting neuronal loss. Protein and mRNA levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF were analyzed by ELISA and real-time PCR, respectively. The activities of choline acetylase (ChAT, Acetylcholinesterase (AChE, malondialdehyde (MDA, superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px, catalase (CAT, NF-κB p65 unit, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and caspase-3 were measured using corresponding kits. After seven weeks, diabetic rats exhibited remarkable reductions in: body weight, percentage of time spent in target quadrant, number of times crossing the platform, ChAT and BDNF levels, SOD, GSH-Px and CAT accompanied with increases in neuronal damage, plasma glucose levels, escape latency, mean path length, AChE, MDA level as well as CAT, NF-κB p65 unit, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and caspase-3 in cerebral cortex and hippocampus. Supplementation with HupA significantly and dose-dependently reversed the corresponding values in diabetes. It is concluded that HupA ameliorates DACD via modulating BDNF, oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis.

  14. Ipomoea batatas and Agarics blazei ameliorate diabetic disorders with therapeutic antioxidant potential in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

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    Niwa, Atsuko; Tajiri, Takashi; Higashino, Hideaki

    2011-01-01

    Ipomoea batatas, Agaricus blazei and Smallanthus sonchifolius are known to favorably influence diabetes mellitus. To clarify their antidiabetic efficacy and hypoglycemic mechanisms, we treated streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats with daily oral feeding of powdered Ipomoea batatas (5 g kg−1 d−1), Agaricus blazei (1 g kg−1 d−1) or Smallanthus sonchifolius (4 g kg−1 d−1) for 2 months. Treatments with Ipomoea batatas or Agaricus blazei, but not Smallanthus sonchifolius, significantly suppressed ...

  15. Ipomoea batatas and Agarics blazei ameliorate diabetic disorders with therapeutic antioxidant potential in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niwa, Atsuko; Tajiri, Takashi; Higashino, Hideaki

    2011-05-01

    Ipomoea batatas, Agaricus blazei and Smallanthus sonchifolius are known to favorably influence diabetes mellitus. To clarify their antidiabetic efficacy and hypoglycemic mechanisms, we treated streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats with daily oral feeding of powdered Ipomoea batatas (5 g kg(-1) d(-1)), Agaricus blazei (1 g kg(-1) d(-1)) or Smallanthus sonchifolius (4 g kg(-1) d(-1)) for 2 months. Treatments with Ipomoea batatas or Agaricus blazei, but not Smallanthus sonchifolius, significantly suppressed the increases of fasting plasma glucose and hemoglobin A1c levels, and restored body weight loss during diabetes. Serum insulin levels after oral glucose administration tests increased along the treatments of Ipomoea batatas or Agaricus blazei. Moreover, Ipomoea batatas and Agaricus blazei reduced superoxide production from leukocytes and vascular homogenates, serum 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine, and vascular nitrotyrosine formation of diabetic rats to comparable levels of normal control animals. Stress- and inflammation-related p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase activity and tumor necrosis factor-α production of diabetic rats were significantly depressed by Ipomoea batatas administration. Histological examination also exhibited improvement of pancreatic β-cells mass after treatments with Ipomoea batatas or Agaricus blazei. These results suggest that hypoglycemic effects of Ipomoea batatas or Agaricus blazei result from their suppression of oxidative stress and proinflammatory cytokine production followed by improvement of pancreatic β-cells mass.

  16. Ipomoea batatas and Agarics blazei ameliorate diabetic disorders with therapeutic antioxidant potential in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niwa, Atsuko; Tajiri, Takashi; Higashino, Hideaki

    2011-01-01

    Ipomoea batatas, Agaricus blazei and Smallanthus sonchifolius are known to favorably influence diabetes mellitus. To clarify their antidiabetic efficacy and hypoglycemic mechanisms, we treated streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats with daily oral feeding of powdered Ipomoea batatas (5 g kg−1 d−1), Agaricus blazei (1 g kg−1 d−1) or Smallanthus sonchifolius (4 g kg−1 d−1) for 2 months. Treatments with Ipomoea batatas or Agaricus blazei, but not Smallanthus sonchifolius, significantly suppressed the increases of fasting plasma glucose and hemoglobin A1c levels, and restored body weight loss during diabetes. Serum insulin levels after oral glucose administration tests increased along the treatments of Ipomoea batatas or Agaricus blazei. Moreover, Ipomoea batatas and Agaricus blazei reduced superoxide production from leukocytes and vascular homogenates, serum 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine, and vascular nitrotyrosine formation of diabetic rats to comparable levels of normal control animals. Stress- and inflammation-related p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase activity and tumor necrosis factor-α production of diabetic rats were significantly depressed by Ipomoea batatas administration. Histological examination also exhibited improvement of pancreatic β-cells mass after treatments with Ipomoea batatas or Agaricus blazei. These results suggest that hypoglycemic effects of Ipomoea batatas or Agaricus blazei result from their suppression of oxidative stress and proinflammatory cytokine production followed by improvement of pancreatic β-cells mass. PMID:21562638

  17. Protective potential of Averrhoa bilimbi fruits in ameliorating the hepatic key enzymes in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

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    Kurup, Surya B; S, Mini

    2017-01-01

    Diabetes is a mutifactorial disease which leads to several complications. Currently available drug regimens for management of diabetes have certain drawbacks. Need for safer and effective medicines from natural sources having potent antidiabetic activity. Averrhoa bilimbi Linn. (Oxalidaceae) is a medicinal plant and is reported to possess hypoglycemic activity. To investigate the antidiabetic potential of Averrhoa bilimbi fruit extract in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced in male Sprague Dawley rats by single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ) (40mg/kg body weight). The diabetic rats were treated orally with ethyl acetate fraction of A. bilimbi fruits (ABE) (25mg/kg body weight) and metformin (100mg/kg body weight) by intragastric intubation for 60days. After 60days, the rats were sacrificed; blood, liver and pancreas were collected. Several indices such as blood glucose, plasma insulin, toxicity markers and the activities of carbohydrate-metabolizing enzymes were assayed. The phytochemicals present in the ABE was identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. ABE significantly (pdiabetic rats. ABE modulated the activities of carbohydrate-metabolizing enzymes, significantly increased the activities of hexokinase (59%) and pyruvate kinase (68%) and reduced the activities of glucose-6-phosphatase (32%) and fructose-1, 6-bisphosphatase (20%). The histological studies of the pancreas also supported our findings. The results were compared with metformin, a standard oral hypoglycemic drug. GC-MS analysis of ABE revealed the presence of 11 chemical constituents in the extract. ABE exerts its antidiabetic effect by promoting glucose metabolism via glycolysis and inhibiting hepatic endogenous glucose production via gluconeogenesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Gum Acacia Improves Renal Function and Ameliorates Systemic Inflammation, Oxidative and Nitrosative Stress in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes in Rats with Adenine-Induced Chronic Kidney Disease

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    Mohammed Al Za’abi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The effect of treatment with gum acacia (GA, a prebiotic shown previously to ameliorate chronic kidney disease (CKD, in diabetic and non – diabetic rats with adenine – induced CKD has been investigated using several conventional and novel physiological, biochemical, and histopathological parameters. Methods: Diabetes mellitus was induced in rats by a single injection of streptozotocin (STZ. Diabetic and non – diabetic rats were randomly divided into several groups, and given either normal food or food mixed with adenine (0.25% w/w, for five weeks to induce CKD. Some of these groups were also concomitantly treated orally with GA in the drinking water (15% w/w. Results: Rats fed adenine alone exhibited physiological (decreased body weight, increased food and water intake and urine output, biochemical (increase in urinary albumin/creatinine ratio, plasma urea and, creatinine, indoxyl sulfate and phosphorus, inflammatory biomarkers (increased in neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, transforming growth factor beta -1, tumor necrosis factor alpha, adiponectin, cystatin C and interleukin-1β, oxidative biomarkers (8-isoprostane, 8 -hydroxy -2-deoxy guanosine, nitrosative stress biomarkers (nitrite and nitrate and histopathological (increase in tubular necrosis and fibrosis signs of CKD. STZ - induced diabetes alone worsened most of the renal function tests measured. Administration of adenine in STZ – diabetic rats further worsened the renal damage induced by adenine alone. GA significantly ameliorated the renal actions of adenine and STZ, given either singly or in combination, especially with regards to the histopathological damage. Conclusion: GA is a useful dietary agent in attenuating the progression of CKD in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes.

  19. Klotho gene delivery ameliorates renal hypertrophy and fibrosis in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats by suppressing the Rho-associated coiled-coil kinase signaling pathway.

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    Deng, Minghong; Luo, Yumei; Li, Yunkui; Yang, Qiuchen; Deng, Xiaoqin; Wu, Ping; Ma, Houxun

    2015-07-01

    The present study aimed to investigate whether klotho gene delivery attenuated renal hypertrophy and fibrosis in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. A recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) carrying mouse klotho full-length cDNA (rAAV.mKL), was constructed for in vivo investigation of klotho expression. Diabetes was induced in rats by a single tail vein injection of 60 mg/kg streptozotocin. Subsequently, the diabetic rats received an intravenous injection of rAAV.mKL, rAAV.green fluorescent protein (GFP) or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). The Sprague-Dawley rat group received PBS and served as the control group. After 12 weeks, all the rats were sacrificed and ELISA, immunohistochemical and histological analyses, fluorescence microscopy, semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blottin were performed. A single dose of rAAV.mKL was found to prevent the progression of renal hypertrophy and fibrosis for at least 12 weeks (duration of study). Klotho expression was suppressed in the diabetic rats, but was increased by rAAV.mKL delivery. rAAV.mKL significantly suppressed diabetes-induced renal hypertrophy and histopathological changes, reduced renal collagen fiber generation and decreased kidney hypertrophy index. In addition, rAAV.mKL decreased the protein expression levels of fibronectin and vimentin, while it downregulated the mRNA expression and activity of Rho-associated coiled-coil kinase (ROCK)I in the kidneys of the diabetic rats. These results indicated that klotho gene delivery ameliorated renal hypertrophy and fibrosis in diabetic rats, possibly by suppressing the ROCK signaling pathway. This may offer a novel approach for the long-term control and renoprotection of diabetes.

  20. Insulin-Producing Cells Differentiated from Human Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells In Vitro Ameliorate Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Hyperglycemia.

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    Ying Xin

    Full Text Available The two major obstacles in the successful transplantation of islets for diabetes treatment are inadequate supply of insulin-producing tissue and immune rejection. Induction of the differentiation of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs into insulin-producing cells (IPCs for autologous transplantation may alleviate those limitations.hMSCs were isolated and induced to differentiate into IPCs through a three-stage differentiation protocol in a defined media with high glucose, nicotinamide, and exendin-4. The physiological characteristics and functions of IPCs were then evaluated. Next, about 3 × 10(6 differentiated cells were transplanted into the renal sub-capsular space of streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic nude mice. Graft survival and function were assessed by immunohistochemistry, TUNEL staining and measurements of blood glucose levels in the mice.The differentiated IPCs were characterized by Dithizone (DTZ positive staining, expression of pancreatic β-cell markers, and human insulin secretion in response to glucose stimulation. Moreover, 43% of the IPCs showed L-type Ca2+ channel activity and similar changes in intracellular Ca2+ in response to glucose stimulation as that seen in pancreatic β-cells in the process of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Transplantation of functional IPCs into the renal subcapsular space of STZ-induced diabetic nude mice ameliorated the hyperglycemia. Immunofluorescence staining revealed that transplanted IPCs sustainably expressed insulin, c-peptide, and PDX-1 without apparent apoptosis in vivo.IPCs derived from hMSCs in vitro can ameliorate STZ-induced diabetic hyperglycemia, which indicates that these hMSCs may be a promising approach to overcome the limitations of islet transplantation.

  1. Hypoglycemic effects of Zanthoxylum alkylamides by enhancing glucose metabolism and ameliorating pancreatic dysfunction in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Yuming; Ren, Ting; Zhang, Shiqi; Shirima, Gerald Gasper; Cheng, YaJiao; Liu, Xiong

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the hypoglycemic effect of Zanthoxylum alkylamides and explore the potential mechanism in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Diabetic rats were orally treated with 3, 6, and 9 mg per kg bw alkylamides daily for 28 days. As the alkylamide dose increased, the relative weights of the liver and kidney, fasting blood glucose, and fructosamine levels were significantly decreased. The alkylamides also significantly increased the body weight and improved the oral glucose tolerance of the rats. Likewise, the alkylamides significantly increased the levels of liver and muscle glycogen and plasma insulin. These substances further alleviated the histopathological changes in the pancreas of the diabetic rats. The beneficial effects of high-dose alkylamides showed a comparable activity to the anti-diabetic drug glibenclamide. Western blot and real-time PCR results revealed that the alkylamide treatment significantly decreased the expression levels of the key enzymes (phosphoenolpyruvate caboxykinase and glucose-6-phosphatase) involved in gluconeogenesis and increased the glycolysis enzyme (glucokinase) in the liver, and enhanced the expression levels of pancreatic duodenal homeobox-1, glucokinase, and glucose transporter 2 in the pancreas. In addition, it was also observed that the alkylamides, unlike glibenclamide, increased the transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 and decreased cannabinoid receptor 1 expressions in the liver and pancreas. Therefore, alkylamides can prevent STZ-induced hyperglycemia by altering the expression levels of the genes related to glucose metabolism and by ameliorating pancreatic dysfunction.

  2. Curcumin ameliorates macrophage infiltration by inhibiting NF-κB activation and proinflammatory cytokines in streptozotocin induced-diabetic nephropathy

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    Suzuki Kenji

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic inflammation plays an important role in the progression of diabetic nephropathy (DN and that the infiltration of macrophages in glomerulus has been implicated in the development of glomerular injury. We hypothesized that the plant polyphenolic compound curcumin, which is known to exert potent anti-inflammatory effect, would ameliorate macrophage infiltration in streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic rats. Methods Diabetes was induced with STZ (55 mg/kg by intraperitoneal injection in rats. Three weeks after STZ injection, rats were divided into three groups, namely, control, diabetic, and diabetic treated with curcumin at 100 mg/kg/day, p.o., for 8 weeks. The rats were sacrificed 11 weeks after induction of diabetes. The excised kidney was used to assess macrophage infiltration and expression of various inflammatory markers. Results At 11 weeks after STZ injection, diabetic rats exhibited renal dysfunction, as evidenced by reduced creatinine clearance, increased blood glucose, blood urea nitrogen and proteinuria, along with marked reduction in the body weight. All of these abnormalities were significantly reversed by curcumin. Hyperglycemia induced the degradation of IκBα and NF-κB activation and as a result increased infiltration of macrophages (52% as well as increased proinflammatory cytokines: TNF-α and IL-1β. Curcumin treatment significantly reduced macrophage infiltration in the kidneys of diabetic rats, suppressed the expression of above proinflammatory cytokines and degradation of IκBα. In addition, curcumin treatment also markedly decreased ICAM-1, MCP-1 and TGF-β1 protein expression. Moreover, at nuclear level curcumin inhibited the NF-κB activity. Conclusion Our results suggested that curcumin treatment protect against the development of DN in rats by reducing macrophage infiltration through the inhibition of NF-κB activation in STZ-induced diabetic rats.

  3. Glycemic control with ipragliflozin, a novel selective SGLT2 inhibitor, ameliorated endothelial dysfunction in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mouse

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    Hotimah Masdan Salim

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Endothelial dysfunction caused by increased oxidative stress is a critical initiator of macro- and micro-vascular disease development in diabetic patients. Ipragliflozin, a selective sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2 inhibitor, offers a novel approach for the treatment of diabetes by enhancing urinary glucose excretion. The aim of the present study was to examine whether ipragliflozin attenuates endothelial dysfunction in diabetic mice.Methods: Eight-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were treated with streptozotocin (150 mg/kg by a single intraperitoneal injection to induce diabetes mellitus. At three days of injection, ipragliflozin (3 mg/kg/day was administered via gavage for 3 weeks. Vascular function was assessed by isometric tension recording. Human umbilical endothelial cells (HUVEC were used for in vitro experiments. RNA and protein expression were examined by quantitative RT-PCR (qPCR and western blot, respectively. Oxidative stress was determined by measuring urine 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG level.Results: Ipragliflozin administration significantly reduced blood glucose level (P<0.01 and attenuated the impairment of endothelial function in diabetic mice, as determined by acetylcholine-dependent vasodilation (P<0.001. Ipragliflozin did not alter metabolic parameters such as body weight and food intake. Ipragliflozin administration ameliorated impaired phosphorylation of Akt and eNOSSer1177 in the abdominal aorta and reduced reactive oxygen species generation as determined by urinary excretion of 8-OHdG in diabetic mice. Furthermore, qPCR analyses demonstrated that ipragliflozin decreased the expression of inflammatory molecules (e.g.; MCP-1, VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 in the abdominal aorta (P<0.05, respectively. In in vitro studies, incubation with methylglyoxal, one of the advanced glycation end products, significantly impaired phosphorylation of Akt and eNOSSer1177 (P<0.01, respectively and increased the expression of MCP-1

  4. Diabetes induced testicular dysfunction amelioration by ethyl acetate fraction of hydromethanolic extract of root of Musa paradisiaca L. in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat

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    Kausik Chatterjee

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the diabetic therapeutic potentiality and antioxidative efficacy of ethyl acetate fraction of hydro-methanol (40:60 extract of root of Musa paradisiaca Lam. (Musaceae in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat. Methods: Streptozotocin-induced diabetic state was confirmed by decreased serum insulin level and carbohydrate metabolomics i.e. increased fasting blood glucose level, glycated hemoglobin level and diminished glycogen contents in liver and skeletal muscle. Reproductive homeostasis alteration in diabetes was evaluated by reproductive organo-somatic indices, sperm count, motility and histological analysis of testicular seminiferous tubule along with levels of serum testosterone, testicular cholesterol and seminal vesicular fructose assessment. Oxidative stress in primary and accessory sex organs, and in sperm pellet was assessed by measuring antioxidant enzyme activities along with quantification of free radicals products. Testicular pro-apoptotic Bax-毩 mRNA expression pattern was studied semi-quantitatively by PCR technique. Reverse phase HPLC fingerprinting was performed using methanol and acetonitrile as mobile phase. Results: Oral administration of ethyl acetate fraction at a dose of 20 mg/0.5 mL of distilled water/100 gm body weight twice daily to the diabetic rats for 28 days significantly recovered organo-somatic indices, protected reproductive activities, corrected oxidative stress markers and pro-apoptotic mRNA expression pattern, which were deviated in diabetes mellitus from control level without any type of toxicity. HPLC fingerprinting shows five completely resolved peaks at 毸 max 254 nm and 342 nm. Conclusions: It has a promising antihyperglycaemic and antioxidative activity for curing diabetes induced reproductive disorders in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat.

  5. Extract of Ginkgo Biloba Ameliorates Streptozotocin-Induced Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus and High-Fat Diet-Induced Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Ki-Jong; Lee, Chang Gun; Kim, Sung Woo; Gim, Dong-Hyeon; Kim, Hyun-Cheol; Jung, Bae Dong

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is caused by either destruction of pancreatic β-cells (type 1 DM) or unresponsiveness to insulin (type 2 DM). Conventional therapies for diabetes mellitus have been developed but still needs improvement. Many diabetic patients have complemented conventional therapy with alternative methods including oral supplementation of natural products. In this study, we assessed whether Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb) 761 could provide beneficial effects in the streptozotocin-induced type 1 DM and high-fat diet-induced type 2 DM murine model system. For the type 1 DM model, streptozotocin-induced mice were orally administered EGb 761 for 10 days prior to streptozotocin injection and then again administered EGb 761 for an additional 10 days. Streptozotocin-treated mice administered EGb 761 exhibited lower blood triglyceride levels, lower blood glucose levels and higher blood insulin levels compared to streptozotocin-treated mice. Furthermore, liver LPL and liver PPAR-α were increased whereas IL-1β and TNF-α were decreased in streptozotocin-injected mice treated with EGb 761 compared to mice injected with streptozotocin alone. For the type 2 DM model, mice were given high-fat diet for 60 days and then orally administered EGb 761 every other day for 80 days. We found that mice given a high-fat diet and EGb 761 showed decreased blood triglyceride levels, increased liver LPL, increased liver PPAR-α and decreased body weight compared to mice given high-fat diet alone. These results suggest that EGb 761 can exert protective effects in both type 1 and type 2 DM murine models.

  6. Ameliorative Effect of Hexane Extract of Phalaris canariensis on High Fat Diet-Induced Obese and Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Mice

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    Rosa Martha Perez Gutierrez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is one of the major factors to increase various disorders like diabetes. The present paper emphasizes study related to the antiobesity effect of Phalaris canariensis seeds hexane extract (Al-H in high-fat diet- (HFD- induced obese CD1 mice and in streptozotocin-induced mild diabetic (MD and severely diabetic (SD mice.AL-H was orally administered to MD and SD mice at a dose of 400 mg/kg once a day for 30 days, and a set of biochemical parameters were studied: glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, lipid peroxidation, liver and muscle glycogen, ALP, SGOT, SGPT, glucose-6-phosphatase, glucokinase, hexokinase, SOD, CAT, GSH, GPX activities, and the effect on insulin level. HS-H significantly reduced the intake of food and water and body weight loss as well as levels of blood glucose, serum cholesterol, triglyceride, lipoprotein, oxidative stress, showed a protective hepatic effect, and increased HDL-cholesterol, serum insulin in diabetic mice. The mice fed on the high-fat diet and treated with AL-H showed inhibitory activity on the lipid metabolism decreasing body weight and weight of the liver and visceral adipose tissues and cholesterol and triglycerides in the liver. We conclude that AL-H can efficiently reduce serum glucose and inhibit insulin resistance, lipid abnormalities, and oxidative stress in MD and SD mice. Our results demonstrate an antiobesity effect reducing lipid droplet accumulation in the liver, indicating that its therapeutic properties may be due to the interaction plant components soluble in the hexane extract, with any of the multiple targets involved in obesity and diabetes pathogenesis.

  7. Ameliorative properties of Iranian Trigonella foenum-graecum L. seeds and Punica granatum L. peel extracts in streptozotocin-induced experimental diabetic guinea pigs

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    Nabil Abdel Salam Ahmed Hasona

    2017-03-01

    Conclusions: The Iranian T. foenum-graecum seeds and P. granatum peel extracts are significantly potent in ameliorating diabetic condition induced by streptozotocin and improving various biochemical parameters in serum and liver of guinea pigs.

  8. Immune cell-derived c3 is required for autoimmune diabetes induced by multiple low doses of streptozotocin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Marvin; Yin, Na; Murphy, Barbara; Medof, M Edward; Segerer, Stephan; Heeger, Peter S; Schröppel, Bernd

    2010-09-01

    The complement system contributes to autoimmune injury, but its involvement in promoting the development of autoimmune diabetes is unknown. In this study, our goal was to ascertain the role of complement C3 in autoimmune diabetes. Susceptibility to diabetes development after multiple low-dose streptozotocin treatment in wild-type (WT) and C3-deficient mice was analyzed. Bone marrow chimeras, luminex, and quantitative reverse transcription PCR assays were performed to evaluate the phenotypic and immunologic impact of C3 in the development of this diabetes model. Coincident with the induced elevations in blood glucose levels, we documented alternative pathway complement component gene expression within the islets of the diabetic WT mice. When we repeated the experiments with C3-deficient mice, we observed complete resistance to disease, as assessed by the absence of histologic insulitis and the absence of T-cell reactivity to islet antigens. Studies of WT chimeras bearing C3-deficient bone marrow cells showed that bone marrow cell-derived C3, and not serum C3, is involved in the induction of diabetes in this model. The data reveal a key role for immune cell-derived C3 in the pathogenesis of murine multiple low-dose streptozotocin-induced diabetes and support the concept that immune cell mediated diabetes is in part complement-dependent.

  9. Ameliorative potentials of cocoyam (Colocasia esculenta L.) and unripe plantain (Musa paradisiaca L.) on the relative tissue weights of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eleazu, C O; Iroaganachi, M; Eleazu, K C

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the ameliorating potentials of cocoyam (Colocasia esculenta L.) and unripe plantain (Musa paradisiaca L.) incorporated feeds on the renal and liver growths of diabetic rats, induced with 55 and 65 mg/kg body weight of Streptozotocin. The blood glucose level of the rats was measured with a glucometer, the protein and glucose and specific gravity (SPGR) in the urine samples of the rats were measured using urine assay strips and urinometer respectively. The chemical composition and antioxidant screening of the test feeds were carried out using standard techniques. Administration of the test feeds for 21 days to the diabetic rats of groups 4 and 5, resulted in 58.75% and 38.13% decreases in hyperglycemia and amelioration of their elevated urinary protein, glucose, SPGR, and relative kidney weights. The diabetic rats administered cocoyam incorporated feeds, had 2.71% and 19.52% increases in weight and growth rates, the diabetic rats administered unripe plantain incorporated feeds had 5.12% and 29.52% decreases in weight and growth rates while the diabetic control rats had 28.69%, 29.46%, 248.9% and 250.14% decreases in weights and growth rates. The cocoyam incorporated feeds contained higher antioxidants, minerals and phytochemicals except alkaloids than unripe plantain feed. Cocoyam and unripe plantain could be useful in the management of diabetic nephropathy.

  10. Ameliorative Potentials of Cocoyam (Colocasia esculenta L. and Unripe Plantain (Musa paradisiaca L. on the Relative Tissue Weights of Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

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    C. O. Eleazu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To investigate the ameliorating potentials of cocoyam (Colocasia esculenta L. and unripe plantain (Musa paradisiaca L. incorporated feeds on the renal and liver growths of diabetic rats, induced with 55 and 65 mg/kg body weight of Streptozotocin. Method. The blood glucose level of the rats was measured with a glucometer, the protein and glucose and specific gravity (SPGR in the urine samples of the rats were measured using urine assay strips and urinometer respectively. The chemical composition and antioxidant screening of the test feeds were carried out using standard techniques. Results. Administration of the test feeds for 21 days to the diabetic rats of groups 4 and 5, resulted in 58.75% and 38.13% decreases in hyperglycemia and amelioration of their elevated urinary protein, glucose, SPGR, and relative kidney weights. The diabetic rats administered cocoyam incorporated feeds, had 2.71% and 19.52% increases in weight and growth rates, the diabetic rats administered unripe plantain incorporated feeds had 5.12% and 29.52% decreases in weight and growth rates while the diabetic control rats had 28.69%, 29.46%, 248.9% and 250.14% decreases in weights and growth rates. The cocoyam incorporated feeds contained higher antioxidants, minerals and phytochemicals except alkaloids than unripe plantain feed. Conclusion. Cocoyam and unripe plantain could be useful in the management of diabetic nephropathy.

  11. Taurine Supplementation Improves Erectile Function in Rats with Streptozotocin-induced Type 1 Diabetes via Amelioration of Penile Fibrosis and Endothelial Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Yajun; Li, Mingchao; Wang, Tao; Yang, Jun; Rao, Ke; Wang, Shaogang; Yang, Weiming; Liu, Jihong; Ye, Zhangqun

    2016-05-01

    For patients with diabetes, erectile dysfunction (ED) is common and greatly affects quality of life. However, these patients often exhibit a poor response to first-line oral phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors. To investigate whether taurine, a sulfur-containing amino acid, affects diabetic ED (DED). Type 1 diabetes mellitus was induced in male rats by using streptozotocin. After 12 weeks, an apomorphine test was conducted to confirm DED. Only rats with DED were administered taurine or vehicle for 4 weeks. Age-matched nondiabetic rats were administered saline intraperitoneally for 4 weeks. Erectile function was evaluated by electrical stimulation of the cavernous nerve. Histologic and molecular alterations of the corpus cavernosum also were analyzed. Erectile function was significantly reduced in the diabetic rats compared with in the nondiabetic rats, and was improved in the diabetic rats treated with taurine. The corpus cavernosum of the rats with DED exhibited severe fibrosis and decreased smooth muscle content. Deposition of extracellular matrix proteins was increased in the diabetic rats, while expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase/cyclic guanosine monophosphate/nitric oxide pathway-related proteins was reduced. Taurine supplementation ameliorated erectile response as well as histologic and molecular alterations. Taurine supplementation improves erectile function in rats with DED probably by potential antifibrotic activity. This finding provides evidence for a potential new therapy for DED. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Treadmill exercise ameliorates Alzheimer disease-associated memory loss through the Wnt signaling pathway in the streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae-Young; Jung, Sun-Young; Kim, Kijeong; Kim, Chang-Ju

    2016-08-01

    Diabetes mellitus is considered as a risk factor for Alzheimer disease. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the possibility whether treadmill exercise ameliorates Alzheimer disease-associated memory loss in the diabetes mellitus. For this study, the effects of treadmill exercise on short-term memory and spatial learning ability in relation with Wnt signaling pathway were evaluated using the streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of STZ. Step-down avoidance task and 8-arm radial maze test were performed for the memory function. Immunohistochemistry for 5-bro-mo-2'-deoxyridine (BrdU) and doublecortin (DCX) and Western blot for Wnt3 and glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) were conducted. The rats in the exercise groups were made to run on the treadmill for 30 min per one day, 5 times a week, during 12 weeks. In the present results, short-term memory and spatial learning ability were deteriorated by induction of diabetes. Treadmill exercise improved short-term memory and spatial learning ability in the diabetic rats. The numbers of BrdU-positive and DCX-positive cells in the hippocampal dentate gyrus were decreased by induction of diabetes. Treadmill exercise increased these numbers in the diabetic rats. Wnt3 expression in the hippocampus was decreased and GSK-3β expression in the hippocampus was increased by induction of diabetes. Treadmill exercise increased Wnt3 expression and suppressed GSK-3β expression in the diabetic rats. The present study suggests that treadmill exercise alleviates Alzheimer disease-associated memory loss by increasing neurogenesis through activating Wnt signaling pathway in the diabetic rats.

  13. Suppressor of cytokine signaling 2 (SOCS2) deletion protects against multiple low dose streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetes in adult male mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alkharusi, Amira; Mirecki-Garrido, Mercedes; Ma, Zuheng

    2016-01-01

    Background: Diabetes type 1 is characterized by the failure of beta cells to produce insulin. Suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) proteins are important regulators of the Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK-STAT) pathway. Previous studies have shown that GH can ...

  14. Bis(quercetinato)oxovanadium IV Reverses Metabolic Changes in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Shukla, Ruchi; Padhye, Subhash; Modak, Manisha; Ghaskadbi, Saroj S.; Bhonde, Ramesh R.

    2007-01-01

    Organic vanadium compounds offer several advantages in the treatment of diabetes, yet they are impractical to use because of known side effects. In order to ameliorate the side effects of vanadium, we conjugated it with quercetin to form bis(quercetinato)oxovanadium IV (BQOV). This study evaluates the effect of BQOV treatment on carbohydrate metabolism and overall oxidative stress in streptozotocin-induced (STZ) diabetic mice. Administration of BQOV orally to diabetic mice for 3 weeks led to ...

  15. Sodium fusidate ameliorates the course of diabetes induced in mice by multiple low doses of streptozotocin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicoletti, F; Di Marco, R; Conget, I

    2000-01-01

    other day. The drug was administered as an early or late prophylactic regime starting either 1 day prior to the first or after the fifth and last injection of SZ. In both situations the largest dose of fusidin successfully reduced the clinical, chemical and histological signs of DM, the treated mice...... induced in vivo by ConA, reducing the levels of IFN-gamma, IL-2 and TNF-alpha and augmenting the level of IL-6. However, only the inhibitory effect of the drug on the synthesis/release of IFN-gamma seemed to be causally related to its capacity to counteract the SZ-induced DM. In fact, the disease...... was prevented by a neutralizing monoclonal antibody (mAb) against IFN-gamma, but not by anti-IL-2 receptor mAb, a soluble form of TNF-receptor type 1 or recombinant human IL-6. The prevention of disease by fusidin was also partly reversed by exogenously administered recombinant mouse IFN-gamma. The data provide...

  16. Ameliorative effect of apelin on streptozotocin-induced diabetes and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Islam Ibrahim Hegab

    Aim: Apelin, an adipocyte-derived factor, exhibited a number of cardioprotective properties; however, its effect in diabetes which is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) needs to be further studied. So this work was designed to evaluate the effect of apelin on diabetes and its associated cardiac hyper-.

  17. Ameliorative Potential of Morin in Streptozotocin-Induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Morin treatment of diabetic rats at both doses significantly decreased the levels of cytokines (p < 0.01), glucose (p < 0.01) and TBARS (p < 0.001), but ... Inhibited activities (U/mg protein) of SOD (1.08 ± 0.16) and CAT (2.77 ± 0.36) in sciatic nerve of diabetic rats also found corrections (2.09 ± 0.11, p < 0.01) and (4.53 ± 0.57, ...

  18. Deletion of the Men1 Gene Prevents Streptozotocin-Induced Hyperglycemia in Mice

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    Yuqing Yang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes ultimately results from an inadequate number of functional beta cells in the islets of Langerhans. Enhancing proliferation of functional endogenous beta cells to treat diabetes remains underexplored. Here, we report that excision of the Men1 gene, whose loss-of-function mutation leads to inherited multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1, rendered resistant to streptozotocin-induced hyperglycemia in a tamoxifen-inducible and temporally controlled Men1 excision mouse model as well as in a tissue-specific Men1 excision mouse model. Men1 excision prevented mice from streptozotocin-induced hyperglycemia mainly through increasing the number of functional beta cells. BrdU incorporation by beta cells, islet size, and circulating insulin levels were significantly increased in Men1-excised mice. Membrane localization of glucose transporter 2 was largely preserved in Men1-excised beta cells, but not in Men1-expressing beta cells. Our findings suggest that repression of menin, a protein encoded by the Men1 gene, might be a valuable means to maintain or increase the number of functional endogenous beta cells to prevent or ameliorate diabetes.

  19. The effect of pre-germinated brown rice intake on blood glucose and PAI-1 levels in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagiwara, Hiromi; Seki, Taiichiro; Ariga, Toyohiko

    2004-02-01

    Effects of pre-germinated brown rice (PGBR) on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were studied. The feeding of a PGBR diet to diabetic rats ameliorated the elevation of blood glucose and PAI-1 concentrations significantly, and tended to decrease the plasma lipid peroxide concentrations in comparison with rats fed a white rice diet. These results suggest that intake of PGBR instead of white rice is effective for the prevention of diabetic vascular complications.

  20. Effect of bitter gourd and spent turmeric on glycoconjugate metabolism in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayalakshmi, B; Kumar, G Suresh; Salimath, P V

    2009-01-01

    Changes in glycoconjugate metabolism during the development of diabetic complications and their modulation by feeding bitter gourd and spent turmeric as fiber-rich source. This was studied by measuring the contents of total sugar, uronic acid, amino sugar, and sulfate in the streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Total sugar content decreased in liver, spleen, and brain, while an increase was observed in heart and lungs. Uronic acid content in liver, spleen, and brain decreased, and marginal increase was observed in testis. Amino sugar content decreased in liver, spleen, lungs and heart during diabetes, and augmentation was observed to different extents. Decrease in sulfation of glycoconjugates was observed in liver, spleen, lungs and heart during diabetes and was significantly ameliorated by bitter gourd and spent turmeric, except brain. Protein content decreased in liver, while an increase was observed in brain. The studies clearly showed alteration in glycoconjugate metabolism during diabetes and amelioration to different extents by feeding bitter gourd and spent turmeric. Improvement is due to slow release of glucose by fiber in the gastrointestinal track and short-chain fatty acid production from fiber by colon microbes.

  1. Toxicological and safety evaluation of Nigella sativa lipid and volatile fractions in streptozotocin induced diabetes mellitus

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    Muhammad Tauseef Sultan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the toxicological aspects of Nigella sativa (N. sativa lipid and volatile fractions in streptozotocin induced diabetes mellitus. Methods: National Institute of Health (NIH, Islamabad provided us thirty Sprague Dawley rats that were further divided into three groups, i.e. control, N. sativa lipid fraction (4% and N. sativa volatile fraction (0.3%, respectively. The serological and haematological indices were evaluated at 4-week intervals during 56 d study. Results: The results indicated that the diabetes mellitus imparted negative effects on various serological and haematological attributes. However, supplementation of the N. sativa lipid fraction and N. sativa volatile fraction ameliorated the adverse consequences of diabetes mellitus. The diabetes induced renal toxicity and imbalanced serum chemistry were slightly modulated by experimental diets. However, the impact of essential oil was more significant as compared to the fixed oil. Conclusions: In a nutshell, experimental diets containing N. sativa lipid fraction and N. sativa volatile fraction are effective without having any toxicological effects, and experimental diets reduced toxicological and adverse consequences of diabetes mellitus.

  2. Effect of bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) on glycaemic status in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, A K; Kumar, G Suresh; Sambaiah, K; Salimath, P V

    2005-09-01

    Bitter gourd (Momordica charantia), a commonly consumed vegetable is used as an adjunct in the management of diabetes mellitus. A study was carried out to examine the effect of edible portion of bitter gourd at 10% level in the diet in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. To evaluate the glycaemic control of bitter gourd during diabetes, diet intake, gain in body weight, water intake, urine sugar, urine volume, glomerular filtration rate and fasting blood glucose profiles were monitored. Water consumption, urine volume and urine sugar were significantly higher in diabetic controls compared to normal rats and bitter gourd feeding alleviated this rise during diabetes by about 30%. Renal hypertrophy was higher in diabetic controls and bitter gourd supplementation, partially, but effectively prevented it (38%) during diabetes. Increased glomerular filtration rate in diabetes was significantly reduced (27%) by bitter gourd. An amelioration of about 30% in fasting blood glucose was observed with bitter gourd feeding in diabetic rats. These results clearly provided experimental evidence that dried bitter gourd powder in the diet at 10% level improved diabetic status signifying its beneficial effect during diabetes.

  3. Modulatory effect of fenugreek seed mucilage and spent turmeric on intestinal and renal disaccharidases in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, G Suresh; Shetty, A K; Salimath, P V

    2005-06-01

    To elucidate the effect of feeding fenugreek seed mucilage and spent turmeric (10%) on disaccharidases activities, the specific activities of intestinal and renal disaccharidases viz., sucrase, maltase and lactase were measured in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Specific activities of intestinal disaccharidases were increased significantly during diabetes and amelioration of these activities during diabetes was clearly visible by supplementing fenugreek seed mucilage and spent turmeric in the diet. However during diabetes renal disaccharidases activities were significantly lower than those in the control rats. Fenugreek seed mucilage and spent turmeric supplementations were beneficial in alleviating the reduction in maltase activity during diabetes, however not much change in the activities of sucrase and lactase was observed upon feeding. This positive influence of feeding fenugreek seed mucilage and spent turmeric on intestinal and renal disaccharidases clearly indicates their beneficial role in the management of diabetes.

  4. Downstream modulation of extrinsic apoptotic pathway in streptozotocin-induced Alzheimer's dementia in rats: Erythropoietin versus curcumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samy, Doaa M; Ismail, Cherine A; Nassra, Rasha A; Zeitoun, Teshreen M; Nomair, Azhar M

    2016-01-05

    Erythropoietin and curcumin showed promising neuroprotective effects in various models of Alzheimer's dementia. This study was designed to compare the beneficial effects of erythropoietin and/or curcumin in intracerebro-ventricular (ICV) streptozotocin-induced Alzheimer's like disease in rats. Rats received ICV injection of either saline (control, n=8 rats), or streptozotocin. Three weeks following surgery, streptozotocin-injected rats were assigned into 4 groups (8 rats each); vehicle, curcumin (80mg/kg/day, orally), erythropoietin (500 IU/kg every other day, intraperitoneally) and combined (curcumin and erythropoietin)-treated groups. After 3 months of treatment, rats were subjected to neurobehavioral testing, and then killed for biochemical and histological assessment of hippocampus. Fas ligand protein and caspase-8 activity as mediators of extrinsic apoptotic pathway, oxidative stress markers (malondialdehyde and reduced glutathione) and β-amyloid (1-40 and 1-42) peptides were measured. The results showed that administration of erythropoietin suppressed extrinsic apoptosis better than curcumin, while curcumin was more effective in combating oxidative stress in ICV-streptozotocin injected rats. Both erythropoietin and curcumin treatments (individually or combined) equally reduced the hippocampal β-amyloid accumulation and improved cognitive impairment in Morris water maze and passive avoidance tasks. The combined treatment was the most effective in ameliorating apoptosis and oxidative stress rather than behavioral responses or β-amyloid burden. In conclusion, ICV-streptozotocin-induced Alzheimer's dementia activates hippocampal Fas ligand-mediated apoptosis, which could be reduced by erythropoietin and/or curcumin treatment. Curcumin supplementation alone could ameliorate cognitive deficits and reverse biochemical alterations in ICV-streptozotocin Alzheimer's rat model without the hazardous polycythemic effect of long-term erythropoietin injection. Copyright

  5. Effects of multiple low dose radiation on the apoptosis of splenocytes and immune factor in male diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yanbo; Guo Caixia; Dong Lihua; Wang Jianfeng; Liu Shuchun; Lu Zhe; Gong Shouliang

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To explore the effect of multiple low dose radiation (LDR) on the apoptosis of splenocytes and immune factors in diabetes mellitus (DM) rats. Methods: The rats were randomly divided into control, DM and DM + LDR groups. The irradiation doses were 25, 50 and 75 mGy, and the irradiated times were 15. At the fourth weekend after the DM rats irradiated, the apoptotic rate and TCRαβ percentage of splenocytes were detected by flow cytometry, and the content of IL-2 in both serum and supernatant of cultured splenocytes were detected by ELISA. Results: Compared with that in the control, the body weight (BW) decreased in the DM and DM + LDR groups,particularly in DM group. The blood glucose (BG) level in the DM + LDR groups was higher than that in the control, but decreased significantly as compared with that in the DM group (P < 0.01). As compared with those in the control, the apoptotic rate in DM + 50 mGy (P < 0.05) and the content of serum IL-2 in DM + 75 mGy group (P < 0.01) all increased significantly, while the content of IL-2 in supernatant of cultured splenocytes decreased significantly in the DM + LDR groups. Compared with those in the DM group, the apoptotic rate and the percentage of TCRαβ in splenocytes in the DM + LDR groups (P < 0.01-P < 0.001) and the content of IL-2 in serum in DM + 50 mGy group (P < 0.01) decreased significantly. Conclusions: The multiple LDR could weaken the loss of BW and increase of BG caused by DM, decrease the splenocyte apoptosis induced by DM, and regulate the immune factors. (authors)

  6. Propolis effect on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

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    DRS Sartori

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Propolis is one of the hive products that has been used extensively in folk medicine, due to its several biological and pharmacological properties. Besides, propolis-containing products have been intensely marketed by the pharmaceutical industry and health-food stores. This work was carried out in order to investigate whether propolis treatment could revert the metabolic alterations of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Animals were kept in metabolic cages and diabetes was induced by a single dose of streptozotocin (35 mg/kg, IV. After a week, rats with glycemia higher than 230 mg/dL were divided into two groups and treated with ethanolic extract of propolis (10 and 90 mg/kg, PO for seven days. Glycemia and free fatty acids were determined, as well as food and water intake, body weight and urine volume were registered weekly. Data showed no significant differences in the analyzed variables. Based on these results, one may conclude that propolis had no effects after diabetes establishment, in our conditions assays. Further assays with different concentrations of propolis and periods of administration should be carried out in order to evaluate its therapeutic potential in this disease.

  7. Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes Models: Pathophysiological Mechanisms and Fetal Outcomes

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    D. C. Damasceno

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Glucose homeostasis is controlled by endocrine pancreatic cells, and any pancreatic disturbance can result in diabetes. Because 8% to 12% of diabetic pregnant women present with malformed fetuses, there is great interest in understanding the etiology, pathophysiological mechanisms, and treatment of gestational diabetes. Hyperglycemia enhances the production of reactive oxygen species, leading to oxidative stress, which is involved in diabetic teratogenesis. It has also been suggested that maternal diabetes alters embryonic gene expression, which might cause malformations. Due to ethical issues involving human studies that sometimes have invasive aspects and the multiplicity of uncontrolled variables that can alter the uterine environment during clinical studies, it is necessary to use animal models to better understand diabetic pathophysiology. This review aimed to gather information about pathophysiological mechanisms and fetal outcomes in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. To understand the pathophysiological mechanisms and factors involved in diabetes, the use of pancreatic regeneration studies is increasing in an attempt to understand the behavior of pancreatic beta cells. In addition, these studies suggest a new preventive concept as a treatment basis for diabetes, introducing therapeutic efforts to minimize or prevent diabetes-induced oxidative stress, DNA damage, and teratogenesis.

  8. Bis(quercetinato)oxovanadium IV Reverses Metabolic Changes in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Ruchi; Padhye, Subhash; Modak, Manisha; Ghaskadbi, Saroj S; Bhonde, Ramesh R

    2007-01-01

    Organic vanadium compounds offer several advantages in the treatment of diabetes, yet they are impractical to use because of known side effects. In order to ameliorate the side effects of vanadium, we conjugated it with quercetin to form bis(quercetinato)oxovanadium IV (BQOV). This study evaluates the effect of BQOV treatment on carbohydrate metabolism and overall oxidative stress in streptozotocin-induced (STZ) diabetic mice. Administration of BQOV orally to diabetic mice for 3 weeks led to a reduction of blood glucose levels and the animals exhibited normal glucose tolerance at the end of the study period. The increase in glucose uptake by skeletal muscle and liver as well as the normalization of mRNA levels of G-6-Pase and glucokinase in the liver after BQOV treatment pointed to improvements in carbohydrate metabolism. The analysis of the antioxidant status of serum, liver and pancreas revealed reduced oxidative stress in BQOV-treated animals compared to untreated diabetic controls. Serum analyses for kidney and liver function showed that BQOV treatment provoked total protection of the kidney and partial protection of the liver from diabetogenic insults. The number of insulin-positive cells and the amount of pancreatic insulin in treated mice (1.2038 +/- 0.34 ng/mg tissue) did not account for pancreatic regeneration but suggested an insulin-mimetic action on the part of BQOV. Moreover, administration of BQOV for 3 weeks did not show any visible side-effects. This data indicate that BQOV is a safe and potent agent for diabetes treatment, because it is able to improve carbohydrate metabolism and to reduce overall oxidative stress.

  9. Attenuation of diabetic nephropathy in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats by Punica granatum Linn. leaves extract

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    Snehal Nitin Mestry

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available With an objective to develop Complementary and Alternative Medicine for the treatment of diabetic nephropathy, the present study investigated the protective effects of methanolic extract of Punica granatum leaves (MPGL in streptozotocin-induced diabetic nephropathy. Diabetic nephropathy has become a leading cause of end stage renal failure worldwide. P. granatum, due to its anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities may retard the progression of diabetic nephropathy. In this study, diabetes was induced by a single injection of streptozotocin (STZ, 45 mg/kg, i.p. in rats. STZ-diabetic rats were treated with oral doses of MPGL (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg for 8 weeks. At the end of the experimental period, body and kidney weight and blood glucose levels were determined. Serum and urine parameters were investigated. Antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxide levels were determined in the kidney along with histopathological examination of the same. MPGL significantly increased body weight, lowered blood glucose levels and ameliorated kidney hypertrophy index in the STZ-diabetic rats. The extract also decreased the levels of creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, total cholesterol, triglycerides, advanced glycation end products and albumin in serum and urine, respectively. MPGL significantly increased the antioxidant parameters in the kidney. Histological evaluation revealed that MPGL treated STZ-diabetic rats demonstrated reduced vacuolar degeneration of tubules; periodic acid Schiff base (PAS positivity staining intensity in glomeruli and basement membrane thickening. Present findings provide experimental evidence that MPGL has potential antioxidant, antihyperglycemic and anti-glycation activities which might be helpful in slowing the progression of diabetic nephropathy.

  10. Attenuation of diabetic nephropathy in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats by Punica granatum Linn. leaves extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestry, Snehal Nitin; Dhodi, Jayesh Bachu; Kumbhar, Sangita Balbhim; Juvekar, Archana Ramesh

    2017-07-01

    With an objective to develop Complementary and Alternative Medicine for the treatment of diabetic nephropathy, the present study investigated the protective effects of methanolic extract of Punica granatum leaves (MPGL) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic nephropathy. Diabetic nephropathy has become a leading cause of end stage renal failure worldwide. P. granatum , due to its anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities may retard the progression of diabetic nephropathy. In this study, diabetes was induced by a single injection of streptozotocin (STZ, 45 mg/kg, i.p.) in rats. STZ-diabetic rats were treated with oral doses of MPGL (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) for 8 weeks. At the end of the experimental period, body and kidney weight and blood glucose levels were determined. Serum and urine parameters were investigated. Antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxide levels were determined in the kidney along with histopathological examination of the same. MPGL significantly increased body weight, lowered blood glucose levels and ameliorated kidney hypertrophy index in the STZ-diabetic rats. The extract also decreased the levels of creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, total cholesterol, triglycerides, advanced glycation end products and albumin in serum and urine, respectively. MPGL significantly increased the antioxidant parameters in the kidney. Histological evaluation revealed that MPGL treated STZ-diabetic rats demonstrated reduced vacuolar degeneration of tubules; periodic acid Schiff base (PAS) positivity staining intensity in glomeruli and basement membrane thickening. Present findings provide experimental evidence that MPGL has potential antioxidant, antihyperglycemic and anti-glycation activities which might be helpful in slowing the progression of diabetic nephropathy.

  11. The mechanism of hypercalciuria in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guruprakash, G H; Krothapalli, R K; Rouse, D; Babino, H; Suki, W N

    1988-04-01

    Metabolic studies were performed in streptozotocin-induced diabetic (D) rats and normal control (C) rats to assess the role of hyperphagia in the hypercalciuria of diabetes. Urinary calcium excretion (UCaV) was significantly higher in D v C rats fed ad libitum. When D rats were pair-fed (calorie and mineral restriction) with C rats, UCaV declined but remained significantly higher than in C rats. When D rats were allowed their usual increased calorie intake but restricted to C rat mineral consumption, UCaV remained elevated. These findings suggested a tubular reabsorptive defect. In vivo microinjection studies were then performed to identify the site(s) of the tubular reabsorptive defect. Using 1.0 mmol/L Ca in the injectate, 45Ca recovery in the urine (CaR%) was significantly higher in D rats after intratubular injections into early and late proximal tubules and late distal but not early distal tubules. An additional load-dependent defect was revealed in the terminal nephron when the Ca concentration of the injectate was increased to 1.8 mmol/L. After early distal injection, CaR% was significantly increased in D v C rats. Infusion of PTH into thyroparathyroidectomized C and D rats enhanced Ca absorption to a similar degree but did not correct the reabsorptive defect in D rats. These results argue against a lack of end-organ responsiveness to PTH in diabetes or a low serum PTH level as the cause of the hypercalciuria. We conclude that hyperphagia contributes to the hypercalciuria of diabetes in the absence of increased Ca intake. Also, two tubular reabsorptive defects exist: one in the loop of Henle; the other, load-dependent in the terminal nephron.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Effect of Livingstone potato (Plectranthus esculentus N.E.Br) on hepatic glucose-6-phosphophate dehydrogenase activity of streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogbonnaya, Eleazu Chinedum

    2014-07-28

    To determine the effect of Livingstone potato (Plectranthus esculentus N.E.Br) on hepatic G6PD in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. The G6PD activities in the liver homogenates of the rats and chemical analysis of the test feeds were determined using standard techniques. The diabetic control rats had significant elevation (P < 0.05) of their hepatic G6PD activities compared with the non-diabetic rats. Intake of the test feed by the diabetic rats of group 3, resulted in significant (P<0.05) amelioration of their hepatic G6PD activities in comparison with the diabetic control rats. Chemical analysis of the test feed revealed that it contained considerable amounts of tannins, saponins, alkaloids, antioxidants and their cyanide contents were below the toxic level for humans. The study shows ameliorative potentials of Livingstone potato on the hepatic G6PD activity of diabetic rats which is attributed to its antioxidant/polyphenolic constituents.

  13. Hypoglycemic of Cajanus scarabaeoides in glucose overloaded and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

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    Suman Pattanayak, Siva Shankar Nayak, Durgaprasad Panda and Vikas Shende

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In light of traditional claim of Cajanus scarabaeoides (L in the treatment of diabetes, we studied the effects of different solvent extracts in normal, glucose over loaded normal rats and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. The methanolic extract (500 mg/kg orally was produce significantly reduce blood glucose level at normal, glucose over loaded normal rats, and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats after 15 days treatment; whereas petroleum ether and chloroform extract (500 mg/kg orally did not exhibit any significant effect on three groups of rats. Histopathology studies on pancreas of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats shows inflammatory changes in pancreatic islets, results from selective destroy of insulin producing β-cells. These changes are inhibited by C. scarabaeoides methanolic extract and gliclazide. The antidiabetic activity of methanolic extract may be due to the presence of flavonoids.

  14. Anti-diabetic effect of methanolic leaf extract of Pongamia pinnata on streptozotocin induced diabetic rats

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    Selvaraju Kavipriya

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the anti-diabetic effect of methanolic leaf extract of Pongamia pinnata (P. pinnata on streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Methods: Anti-diabetic activity of P. pinnata leaf extract at dosage of 500 mg/kg and 1 g/kg body weight was evaluated. Results: The levels of glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol and serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase were significantly increased in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats when compared to that of the normal rats. After supplemented with plant extract, significant lower blood glucose level was recorded. Conclusions: The methanolic leaf extract of P. pinnata has been potent anti-diabetic effect in male albino rats.

  15. Effect of opium on glucose metabolism and lipid profiles in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sadeghian, Saeed; Boroumand, Mohammad Ali; Sotoudeh-Anvari, Maryam; Rahbani, Shahram; Sheikhfathollahi, Mahmood; Abbasi, Ali

    2009-01-01

    Background: This experimental study was performed to determine the impact of opium use on serum lipid profile and glucose metabolism in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. Material and methods: To determine the effect of opium, 20 male rats were divided into control (n = 10) and opium-treated

  16. Antidiabetic Activity of Different Extracts of Myrtus Communis in Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Rats

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    Panjeshahin Mohammad Reza

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and aim: Hydroalcoholic (70° extract of leaves of Myrtus communis has been shown to have antidiabetic effect in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats in our previous study. In this study, we intended to determine the components of the mentioned extract and identify the mechanism for its action.

  17. Evaluation of antihyperglycaemic activity of Calotropis procera leaves extract on streptozotocin-induced diabetes in Wistar rats

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    Mário C. L. Neto

    Full Text Available Calotropis procera (Aiton W.T.Aiton,Apocynaceae, popularly known as "algodão-de-seda", is a wild African bush, rich in bioactive substances that determine the medicinal potential of this species. Diabetes mellitus is a disease that affects about 10% of the population. This study aimed to evaluate the antihyperglycaemic activity of the hydroalcoholic extract of the leaves of C. procera of occurrence in coast of Pernambuco, Brazil. The hydroalcholic extract of the leaves of C. procera (300 and 600 mg/kg/day, vehicle, insulin (6U, s.c. or metformin (500 mg/ kg/day were administered orally to streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (n = 7/group for four weeks. Changes in body weight, food and water intake, biochemical markers, fasting glucose levels and oral glucose tolerance test were evaluated. The results showed that the C. procera dried extract (300 and 600 mg/kg reduced significantly the level of blood glucose throughout the evaluation period and improved metabolic status of the animals and ameliorate the oral tolerance glucose test. The phytochemical screening revealed and quantified the presence of phenolic compounds and flavonoids in a percentage of 29.1 and 2.9%, respectively. Thus, we conclude that the extract of the leaves of C. procera has antihyperglycemic activity.

  18. Brugia malayi soluble and excretory-secretory proteins attenuate development of streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetes in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amdare, N; Khatri, V; Yadav, R S P; Tarnekar, A; Goswami, K; Reddy, M V R

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the modulation of the host-immune system by pathogens-like filarial parasites offers an alternate approach to prevent autoimmune diseases. In this study, we have shown that treatment with filarial proteins prior to or after the clinical onset of streptozotocin-induced type-1 diabetes (T1D) can ameliorate the severity of disease in BALB/c mice. Pre-treatment with Brugia malayi adult soluble (Bm A S) or microfilarial excretory-secretory (Bm mf ES) or microfilarial soluble (Bm mf S) antigens followed by induction of diabetes led to lowering of fasting blood glucose levels with as many as 57.5-62.5% of mice remaining nondiabetic. These proteins were more effective when they were used to treat the mice with established T1D as 62.5-71.5% of the mice turned to be nondiabetic. Histopathological examination of pancreas of treated mice showed minor inflammatory changes in pancreatic islet cell architecture. The therapeutic effect was found to be associated with the decreased production of cytokines TNF-α & IFN-γ and increased production of IL-10 in the culture supernatants of splenocytes of treated mice. A switch in the production of anti-insulin antibodies from IgG2a to IgG1 isotype was also seen. Together these results provide a proof towards utilizing the filarial derived proteins as novel anti-diabetic therapeutics. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Modulatory effect of bitter gourd (Momordica charantia LINN.) on alterations in kidney heparan sulfate in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, G Suresh; Shetty, A K; Salimath, P V

    2008-01-17

    Glycoconjugates in the kidney play an important role in the maintenance of glomerular filtration barrier. Thickening of the glomerular basement membrane (GBM) is well characterized in diabetic nephropathy. Changes in GBM mainly include reduction and undersulfation of heparan sulfate, and laminin with accumulation of type IV collagen leading to kidney dysfunction and there is a need to identify therapies that arrest disease progression to end-stage renal failure. In the present investigation, effect of bitter gourd on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats with particular emphasis on kidney heparan sulfate (HS) was studied. Earlier, our study showed partial reversal of all the diabetes-induced effects by bitter gourd. Increase in the components of glycoconjugates during diabetes was significantly decreased by bitter gourd feeding. Diabetes associated elevation in the activities of enzymes involved in the synthesis and degradation of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) were significantly lowered by bitter gourd supplementation. GAGs composition revealed decrease in amino sugar, and uronic acid contents during diabetes and bitter gourd feeding was effective in countering this reduction. Decrease in sulfate content in the GAGs during diabetes was ameliorated by bitter gourd feeding. HS decreased by 43% in diabetic rats while bitter gourd feeding to diabetic rats showed 28% reduction. These results clearly indicate beneficial role of bitter gourd in controlling glycoconjugate and heparan sulfate related kidney complications during diabetes thus prolonging late complications of diabetes.

  20. Chronic administration of atorvastatin could partially ameliorate erectile function in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Juhyun; Kwon, Oh Seong; Cho, Sung Yong; Paick, Jae-Seung; Kim, Soo Woong

    2017-01-01

    The efficacy of statins is related to the 'common soil' hypothesis, which proposes oxidative stress and inflammation as main pathophysiologic processes in the disease group of diabetes and endothelial dysfunction. This study evaluated the recovery of erectile function after administration of chronic statin alone in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes mellitus (DM) rats, focusing on the anti-oxidative effects and consequentially recuperated endothelial function. A total of 45 male Sprague-Dawley rats (8 weeks old) were divided into three groups (n = 15 each): an age-matched normal control group (Control group), an uncontrolled DM group (DM group), and a statin-treated group (Statin group). The rats in the DM and Statin group received an injection of STZ (60 mg/kg). Beginning 10 weeks after the establishment of DM, the Statin group received daily treatment with atorvastatin (10 mg/kg) via oral gavage for four weeks. After 14 weeks, the results of the experiment were evaluated. The ratios of intracavernosal pressure (ICP) to mean arterial pressure (MAP) were recorded with cavernosometry (20 Hz, 3 V, 0.2 msec for 30 seconds) before and after the intravenous administration of udenafil (1 mg/kg). Expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) was evaluated using cavernosal tissue. In addition, changes in RhoA translocation ratio and myosin phosphatase target subunit 1 (MYPT1) phosphorylation were evaluated with western blot. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were also analyzed as measurements of oxidative stress levels. The ICP/MAP and area under the curve (AUC)/MAP ratios of the Statin group were obviously superior to the DM group, but were not comparable to the Control group (P217). The RhoA translocation ratio was not significantly different among the groups (P = 0.668), whereas MYPT1 phosphorylation in the Statin group was significantly lower than in the DM group (P = 0.030), and similar to the Control group. Expression of α-SMA in the Statin group was higher than in the DM group (P<0.001), and comparable to the Control group. Chronic statin treatment alone showed anti-oxidative effects and helped to restore the erectile mechanism, but did not lead to the full recovery of erectile function in STZ-induced DM rats. Therefore, combination therapy rather than a single agent should be the preferred treatment strategy for DM-associated erectile dysfunction, especially in the setting of severe diabetes.

  1. Ameliorative effect of kaempferol, a flavonoid, on oxidative stress in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Numair, Khalid S; Chandramohan, Govindasamy; Veeramani, Chinnadurai; Alsaif, Mohammed A

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the protective effect of kaempferol against oxidative stress in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced in male, adult albino rats of the Wistar strain, by intraperitoneal administration of STZ (40 mg/kg body weight (BW)). Kaempferol (100 mg/kg BW) or glibenclamide (600 µg/kg BW) was administered orally once daily for 45 days to normal and STZ-induced diabetic rats. The STZ-induced diabetic rats showed significantly increased levels of plasma glucose, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, lipid hydroperoxides, and conjugated dienes in plasma, liver, kidney, and heart whereas they showed significantly decreased level of plasma insulin. The levels of non-enzymic antioxidants (vitamin C, vitamin E, reduced glutathione) in plasma, liver, kidney, and heart and the activities of enzymatic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione-S-transferase) in liver, kidney, and heart were significantly decreased in diabetic rats. Administration of kaempferol to diabetic rats was showed brought back in plasma glucose, insulin, lipid peroxidation products, enzymatic, and non-enzymatic antioxidants to near normal. The present study indicates that kaempferol has a good antioxidant property, as evidenced by its increase of antioxidant status and decrease of lipid peroxidation markers, thus providing protection from the risks of diabetic complications.

  2. d-limonene ameliorates diabetes and its complications in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacanlı, Merve; Anlar, Hatice Gül; Aydın, Sevtap; Çal, Tuğbagül; Arı, Nuray; Ündeğer Bucurgat, Ülkü; Başaran, A Ahmet; Başaran, Nurşen

    2017-12-01

    It is known that diabetes causes some complications including alterations in lipid profile, hepatic enzyme levels but also it causes oxidative stress. Limonene, a major component of Citrus oils, has important health beneficial effects in lowering the level of oxidative stress due to its antioxidant activity. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of D-limonene on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes in Wistar albino rats. For this purpose, DNA damage was evaluated by alkaline comet assay. Changes in the activities of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx) and the levels of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), total glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA), insulin, total bilirubin and BCA protein, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), high density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), total cholesterol and triglyceride were also evaluated. D-limonene treatment was found to significantly decrease DNA damage, GR enzyme activities and MDA levels and significantly increase GSH levels and CAT, SOD and GSH-Px enzyme activities and altered lipid and liver enzyme parameters in diabetic rats. According to our results, it seems that D-limonene might have a role in the prevention of the complication of diabetes in rats. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Germinated Waxy Black Rice Ameliorates Hyperglycemia and Dyslipidemia in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hye Won; Lim, Won-Chul; Lee, Jin-Kyu; Ho, Jin-Nyoung; Lim, Eun-Jeong; Cho, Hong-Yon

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the anti-diabetic effect of germinated waxy black rice (GWBR) using streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. In the diabetic rats, GWBR supplementation for 8 weeks reduced plasma blood glucose concentrations, improved glucose clearance and prevented diabetes-induced weight loss. Rats with STZ-induced diabetes who received GWBR supplementation exhibited decreased expression of sodium-dependent glucose transporter 1 (SGLT1) and glucose transporter (GLUT) 2 genes and proteins in the small intestine via decreases in hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF)-1α, HNF-1β, and HNF-4α, transcriptional factors that are involved in the regulation of SGLT1 and GLUT2, compared with the rats with STZ-induced diabetes that did not receive GWBR supplements. GWBR supplementation also enhanced the expression of GLUT4 and the genes and proteins involved in GLUT4 translocation, such as insulin receptor (IR) and insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1), and increased the phosphorylation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and protein kinase B (PKB, Akt) proteins in skeletal muscle. GWBR further increased glycogen synthase (GS) 1 by decreasing glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3β in skeletal muscle. Interestingly, GWBR recovered STZ-impaired pancreatic β-cells, resulting in increased insulin synthesis and secretion. In addition, GWBR reduced serum triglyceride, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, aspartate transferase and alanine transferase concentrations and increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations. Taken together, these findings suggest that GWBR could be a candidate for improving the diabetic condition by regulating glucose uptake in the intestine and muscle and regulating the secretion of insulin from the pancreas.

  4. Effect of Livingstone Potato ( N.E.Br on Diabetes and Its Complications in Streptozotocin Induced Diabetes in Rats

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    Chinedum Ogbonnaya Eleazu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe effect of livingstone potato (Plectranthus esculenthus N.E.Br on diabetes and its complications in Streptozotocin induced diabetic rats was investigated. The duration of the experiment was 4 weeks.MethodsThe blood glucose level of the rats was measured with a glucometer, the protein and glucose and specific gravity in the urine samples of the rats were measured using urine assay strips and urinometer respectively. The liver and kidney function parameters in the serum of the rats were determined using Biosystem Kits.ResultsThe diabetic rats given livingstonepotato incorporated feeds, had 129.7% decrease in their hyperglycemia with corresponding amelioration of their elevated urinary protein, sugars, specific gravity, renal growth, liver growth as well as 15.64% decrease in body weights compared with the nondiabetic rats that had 5.54% decrease in blood glucose and 20.39% increase in body weight unlike the diabetic control rats that had 18.34% decrease in blood glucose and 52.68% decrease in body weight. There were significant differences (P0.05 in the relative heart weights of all the rats in the three different groups. In terms of liver and kidney function parameters, values obtained for the diabetic rats given livingstone potato incorporated feeds were not significantly different from that of the nondiabetic rats except for total bilurubin, aspartate transaminase, and creatinine (P>0.05 while they were significantly different from the values obtained for the diabetic control rats (P<0.05. In addition, the serum amylase of the diabetic control rats were significantly higher (P<0.05 than that of the nondiabetic and diabetic rats treated with livingstone potato incorporated feeds.ConclusionResults show the antidiabetic actions of livingstone potato and its ability to ameliorate glomerular complication and liver hypertrophy in diabetics.

  5. Extract of Adenanthera pavonina L. seed reduces development of diabetic nephropathy in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

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    Ramdas Pandhare

    2012-09-01

    Conclusion: These results suggested that APSAE has reduced development of diabetic nephropathy in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats and could have beneficial effect in reducing the progression of diabetic nephropathy.

  6. Effect of Bauhinia holophylla treatment in Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    OpenAIRE

    PINHEIRO, MARCELO S.; RODRIGUES, LUHARA S.; S. NETO, LEILA; MORAES-SOUZA, RAFAIANNE Q.; SOARES, THAIGRA S.; AMÉRICO, MADILEINE F.; CAMPOS, KLEBER E.; DAMASCENO, DÉBORA C.; VOLPATO, GUSTAVO T.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bauhinia holophylla, commonly known as “cow’s hoof”, is widely used in Brazilian folk medicine for the diabetes treatment. Therefore, the aim of this study was at evaluating the aqueous extract effect of Bauhinia holophylla leaves treatment on the streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by Streptozotocin (40 mg/Kg) in female Wistar rats. Oral administration of aqueous extract of Bauhinia holophylla leaves was given to non-diabetic and diabetic rats at a dose of 400...

  7. Renal Protection of in vivo administration of Tempol in streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Luan, Jiajie; Li, Weiping; Han, Jia; Zhang, Wen; Gong, Huiling; Ma, Rong

    2012-01-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the protective effects of tempol on renal function and the underlying mechanism in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. The diabetic rats were randomly divided into Model group (without tempol) and Tempol group. Nondiabetic rats were served as Control group. The mRNA expression of canonical transient receptor potential 6 (TRPC6), transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 and type IV collagen (Col IV) were examined. The malondialdehyde (MDA) level, a...

  8. A murine model of type 2 diabetes mellitus developed using a combination of high fat diet and multiple low doses of streptozotocin treatment mimics the metabolic characteristics of type 2 diabetes mellitus in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, Sayantan; Ghosh, Sankar Kumar; Choudhury, Yashmin

    A murine model of type 2 diabetes mellitus was used to compare the antidiabetic effects of the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4) inhibitor vildagliptin and biguanide, metformin. Swiss albino mice (n=20 males; n=25 females) were given high fat diet (HFD) ad libitum for 3weeks followed by low dose (40mgkg -1 body weight, bw daily) of streptozotocin (STZ) intraperitoneally five times from the 22nd day of treatment onwards, with HFD continued up to 26th day. Controls (n=15 males; n=15 females) were fed normal balanced diet without administration of STZ. Successful induction of diabetes mellitus was confirmed by testing for fasting blood glucose, intraperitoneal glucose tolerance and intraperitoneal insulin sensitivity. Diabetic mice were administered vildagliptin (10mgkg -1 bw daily) and metformin (50mgkg -1 bw daily) orally for 4weeks. Control, diabetic, vildagliptin and metformin-treated diabetic mice were evaluated for alterations in lipid profile using blood serum and histopathology and oxidative stress using tissues including liver, kidney and heart. Diabetic mice showed significant alterations in lipid profile, tissue histopathology, impaired glucose tolerance, lower insulin sensitivity and elevated lipid peroxidation and protein carbonylation, with depressed catalase activity, when compared to age and gender-matched controls. Metformin and vildagliptin ameliorated the abovementioned diabetic conditions, with vildagliptin found to be more effective. A murine model developed by the combination of HFD and multiple low dose of STZ mimics the metabolic characteristics of type 2 diabetes mellitus in humans, and may be useful for antidiabetic drug screening. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Multiple Low-Dose Challenges in a Rhesus Macaque AIDS Vaccine Trial Result in an Evolving Host Response That Affects Protective Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selinger, Christian; Strbo, Natasa; Gonzalez, Louis; Aicher, Lauri; Weiss, Jeffrey M.; Law, G. Lynn; Palermo, Robert E.; Vaccari, Monica; Franchini, Genoveffa; Podack, Eckhard R.

    2014-01-01

    Using whole-blood transcriptional profiling, we investigated differences in the host response to vaccination and challenge in a rhesus macaque AIDS vaccine trial. Samples were collected from animals prior to and after vaccination with live, irradiated vaccine cells secreting the modified endoplasmic reticulum chaperone gp96-Ig loaded with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) peptides, either alone or in combination with a SIV-gp120 protein boost. Additional samples were collected following multiple low-dose rectal challenges with SIVmac251. Animals in the boosted group had a 73% reduced risk of infection. Surprisingly, few changes in gene expression were observed during the vaccination phase. Focusing on postchallenge comparisons, in particular for protected animals, we identified a host response signature of protection comprised of strong interferon signaling after the first challenge, which then largely abated after further challenges. We also identified a host response signature, comprised of early macrophage-mediated inflammatory responses, in animals with undetectable viral loads 5 days after the first challenge but with unusually high viral titers after subsequent challenges. Statistical analysis showed that prime-boost vaccination significantly lowered the probability of infection in a time-consistent manner throughout several challenges. Given that humoral responses in the prime-boost group were highly significant prechallenge correlates of protection, the strong innate signaling after the first challenge suggests that interferon signaling may enhance vaccine-induced antibody responses and is an important contributor to protection from infection during repeated low-dose exposure to SIV. PMID:25274805

  10. Preventative effects of the flowers of Inula britannica on autoimmune diabetes in C57BL/KsJ mice induced by multiple low doses of streptozotocin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Takao; Song, Qing-Hua; Hong, Tie; Kitamura, Hajime; Cyong, Jong-Chol

    2002-06-01

    We have reported that an aqueous extract from the flowers of Inula britannica L. subsp. japonica Kitam. (IB) prevented immunologically induced experimental hepatitis in mice and suggested that the antihepatitic effect of IB is due to inhibition of IFN-gamma production. We then investigated the effects of IB on diabetes in mice induced by multiple low doses of streptozotocin (MLDSTZ), which is a mouse model for IFN-gamma-dependent autoimmune diabetes. C57BL/KsJ mice (male, 7 weeks) were provided with IB extract (500 mg/ kg/ day) in drinking water ad libitum, starting 7 days before the first STZ injection. Autoimmune diabetes was induced by MLDSTZ (40 mg/kg/day for 5 daily doses, i.p.). The IB treatment significantly suppressed the increase of blood glucose levels. Histological analysis of the pancreas showed that the degree of insulitis and destruction of beta-cells were reduced by IB treatment. The IFN-gamma production from stimulated splenic T lymphocytes was inhibited by the IB treatment. Moreover, the proportion of IFN-gamma-producing cells in the CD4(+) population, which was increased by MLDSTZ, was significantly decreased by the IB treatment. These results suggest that IB has a preventative effect on autoimmune diabetes by regulating cytokine production. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Antidiabetic and antioxidant effects of Annona muricata (Annonaceae), aqueous extract on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florence, Ngueguim Tsofack; Benoit, Massa Zibi; Jonas, Kouamouo; Alexandra, Tchuidjang; Désiré, Dzeufiet Djomeni Paul; Pierre, Kamtchouing; Théophile, Dimo

    2014-02-03

    The leaves of Annona muricata are used in Cameroon to manage diabetes and its complications. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antidiabetic, antioxidant activities and the potential toxicity of aqueous extract of Annona muricata in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Oral administration of Annona muricata aqueous extract (100mg/kg or 200mg/kg) was studied in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. In long term treatment, 2 weeks after streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, animals received plant extract during 28 consecutive days. For a protective effect, extract was administered 3 days prior to streptozotocin exposure and animals were observed 2 weeks without treatment. The plant extract was not effective in normal rats. In diabetic rats, single administration of the extract significantly reduced blood glucose levels by 75% and 58.22% respectively at the dose of 100mg/kg and 200mg/kg as compared to the initial value. Treatment of normal rats 3 days prior to diabetes induction showed that, Annona muricata extract has no effect within 72h following STZ injection. However, after 14 days post-treatment, the extract at the dose of 100mg/kg significantly reduced blood glucose levels as compared with initial value and diabetic control rats. Immunohistochemical staining of pancreatic β-cells of diabetic rats treated with the dose of 100mg/kg expressed strong staining for β-cell compared to diabetic control. In a long-term study daily administration of Annona muricata aqueous extract for 28 days to diabetic rats, reduced blood glucose levels, serum creatinine, MDA, AST, ALT activity, and nitrite levels LDL-cholesterol. Total cholesterol, triglycerides, SOD, and CAT activity contents were restored. These different results show that the antidiabetic activity of Annona muricata aqueous extract can be explained by its hypolipidaemic effect, its antioxidant and protective action on pancreatic β-cells, which in turn improve glucose metabolism. © 2013

  12. Metabolic effects of various antidiabetic and hypolipidaemic agents on a high-fat diet and multiple low-dose streptozocin (MLDS) mouse model of diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arulmozhi, Dakshinamoorty Kandasamy; Kurian, Rubin; Bodhankar, Subodh L; Veeranjaneyulu, Addepalli

    2008-09-01

    Insulin resistance and subsequent insulin secretory defect are two main features of type 2 diabetes and associated metabolic disorders. The animal models of type 2 diabetes are very complex and are as heterogeneous as the disease. We have evaluated the effect of various antidiabetic and lipid lowering agents (fenofibrate, rosiglitazone, glimepiride, metformin and simvastatin) on the metabolic abnormalities induced by combining a high-fat diet and multiple low-dose streptozocin (MLDS) in mice. Male Swiss albino mice were orally treated with the above agents and fed with a diet containing high fat for 28 days. On day 15 the animals were injected intraperitoneally with low-dose streptozocin (40 mg kg(-1)), which was administered for five consecutive days. At the end of the 28-day treatment plasma metabolic parameters (glucose, triglyceride and immunoreactive insulin) were estimated. The antidiabetic and hypolipidaemic agents exhibited differential effects on these metabolic parameters. With the exception of fenofibrate all these agents reduced the plasma glucose levels, and the effects of metformin and rosiglitazone on glucose were found to be statistically significant. Although the effect of the test drugs on cholesterol was modest, a significant decrease in triglyceride levels was observed with sub-chronic treatment with these agents. Interestingly, glimepiride mildly elevated the insulin levels while the other antidiabetics and hypolipidaemics reduced the insulin levels, with metformin and rosiglitazone exhibiting statistically significant effects on insulin. To our knowledge this is the first report on the effect of various peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor modulators and newer antidiabetics on the metabolic effects induced by the combined high-fat diet and MLDS model of type 2 diabetes in Swiss albino mice. The results suggested the complexity of the hyperglycaemia, hyperinsulinaemia and hypertriglyceridaemia induced by the high-fat diet and MLDS mouse

  13. Antihyperglycemic Activity of Houttuynia cordata Thunb. in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Present study is an attempt to investigate plausible mechanism involved behind antidiabetic activity of standardized Houttuynia cordata Thunb. extract in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. The plant is used as a medicinal salad for lowering blood sugar level in North-Eastern parts of India. Oral administration of extract at 200 and 400 mg/kg dose level daily for 21 days showed a significant (P<0.05 decrease in fasting plasma glucose and also elevated insulin level in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. It also significantly reversed all the alterations in biochemical parameters, that is, total lipid profile, blood urea, creatinine, protein, and antioxidant enzymes in liver, pancreas, and adipose tissue of diabetic rats. Furthermore, we have demonstrated that the extract significantly reversed the expression patterns of various glucose homeostatic enzyme genes like GLUT-2, GLUT-4, and caspase-3 levels but did not show any significant effect on PPAR-γ protein expressions. Additionally, the extract positively regulated mitochondrial membrane potential and succinate dehydrogenase (SDH activity in diabetic rats. The findings justified the antidiabetic effect of H. cordata which is attributed to an upregulation of GLUT-4 and potential antioxidant activity, which may play beneficial role in resolving complication associated with diabetes.

  14. Portulaca oleracea L. alleviates liver injury in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hao; Gu, Wei; Li, Min; Chen, Zhe

    2018-01-01

    Purslane is a widespread succulent herb that exhibits various pharmacological effects. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of Portulaca oleracea L. (purslane) on streptozotocin-induced diabetes in mice. Oral glucose-tolerance tests were carried out to assess blood glucose levels and body weight and food intake were recorded. The biochemical parameters anti-aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, insulin, triglycerides, total cholesterol, IL-6, IL-1β, and TNFα were also measured. The pathological condition of liver tissues were examined by hematoxylin–eosin staining. Rho, ROCK1, ROCK2, NFκBp65, p-NFκBp65, IκBα, and p-IκBα expression in liver tissue were analyzed by Western blot. Purslane increased body weight and decreased food intake. Purslane also significantly reduced concentrations of glucose, anti-aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, triglycerides, total cholesterol, IL-6, IL-1β, and TNFα in serum. Serum insulin was elevated with purslane treatment. In addition, pathologic liver changes in diabetic mice were also alleviated by purslane. Obtained data revealed that purslane restored the levels of Rho–NFκB signaling-related proteins in comparison with those of diabetic mice. Above all, it can be assumed that purslane might play a positive role in regulating streptozotocin-induced liver injury through suppressing the Rho–NFκB pathway. PMID:29343942

  15. Anti-hyperglycemic activity of selenium nanoparticles in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Quraishy S

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Saleh Al-Quraishy,1 Mohamed A Dkhil,1,2 Ahmed Esmat Abdel Moneim2 1Department of Zoology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Zoology and Entomology, Faculty of Science, Helwan University, Cairo, Egypt Abstract: The study was designed to investigate the anti-hyperglycemic activity of selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Fifty-five mg/kg of streptozotocin was injected in rats to induce diabetes. Animals either treated with SeNPs alone or with insulin (6 U/kg showed significantly decreased fasting blood glucose levels after 28 days of treatment. The serum insulin concentration in untreated diabetic animals was also enhanced by SeNPs. The results demonstrated that SeNPs could significantly decrease hepatic and renal function markers, total lipid, total cholesterol, triglyceride and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, and glucose-6-phosphatase activity. At the same time, SeNPs increased malic enzyme, hexokinase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity, liver and kidney glycogen contents, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. In addition, SeNPs were able to prevent the histological injury in the hepatic and renal tissues of rats. However, insulin injection also exhibited a significant improvement in diabetic animals after 28 days of treatment. This study suggests that SeNPs can alleviate hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, possibly by eliciting insulin-mimetic activity. Keywords: diabetes, selenium, liver, kidney, toxicity

  16. ß-Cell Specific Overexpression of GPR39 Protects against Streptozotocin-Induced Hyperglycemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egerod, Kristoffer Lihme; Jin, Chunyu; Petersen, Pia Steen

    2011-01-01

    promoter to selectively overexpress GPR39 in the ß cells in a double transgenic mouse strain and challenge them with multiple low doses of streptozotocin, which in the wild-type littermates leads to a gradual increase in nonfasting glucose levels and glucose intolerance observed during both food intake...... and OGTT. Although the overexpression of the constitutively active GPR39 receptor in animals not treated with streptozotocin appeared by itself to impair the glucose tolerance slightly and to decrease the ß-cell mass, it nevertheless totally protected against the gradual hyperglycemia in the steptozotocin...

  17. DNA protective effects of melatonin on oxidative stress in streptozotocin - induced diabetic rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selim Sekkin

    2015-05-01

    the antioxidant system, MEL regulates the expression of several genes such as those of superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (2-4. The aim of this study was to research the effects of MEL on oxidative stress and DNA protective effects in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. A total of 32 rats were equally divided into 4 experimental groups as Control, Melatonin, Diabetic, and Diabetic + Melatonin. A pancreatic beta-cell cytotoxic agent, single dose streptozotocin (60 mg/kg was given by intraperitoneal route to induce experimental diabetes in rats. Rats with ≥200mg/dL blood glucose level were established as Diabetic and Diabetic + Melatonin groups. MEL (10 mg/kg per day and sodium citrate solution were administrated to rats by intraperitoneal route for 6 weeks. With the termination of the experiment, tissue and blood samples were obtained for further analysis. SOD, catalase (CAT, reduced glutathione (GSH and malondialdehyde (MDA were evaluated in rat liver, renal, brain and pancreas tissues. Body weight, plasma glucose, and %HbA1c levels were studied. DNA damage was analyzed with the comet assay in rat lymphocytes; %Tail DNA and Mean Tail Moment parameters were evaluated (5. Antioxidant and oxidant enzyme levels were similar in the Control and Melatonin groups, although there were significant differences between the Diabetic and Diabetic + Melatonin groups. SOD levels in brain and liver tissues were higher (P<0,001, and CAT activities in renal tissue (P<0,001, GSH levels in pancreas tissue (P<0,01 as well as MDA levels in liver (P<0,001, renal (P<0,001 and brain (P<0,01 tissues were higher in the Diabetic + Melatonin group compared with the Diabetic group. Body weight changes and blood glucose levels of the rats were evaluated during the 6 weeks. The effect of MEL on the body weights of Control and Melatonin as well as Diabetic and Diabetic + Melatonin group rats were similar. MEL had no effect on body weight and the diabetic rats were lighter (P<0

  18. Streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus in spontaneously hypertensive rats: a pathophysiological model for the combined effects of hypertension and diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijl, A. J.; van der Wal, A. C.; Mathy, M. J.; Kam, K. L.; Hendriks, M. G.; Pfaffendorf, M.; van Zwieten, P. A.

    1994-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the combined effects of hypertension and streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus in the rat. Accordingly, four groups of rats were studied: Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY), diabetic WKY, spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and diabetic SHR, respectively.

  19. Hypoglycemic and hypocholesterolemic activities of the aqueous preparation of Kalanchoe pinnata leaves in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhil Menon

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: The observed decrease in body weight, blood glucose and cholesterol level suggests that the aqueous K. pinnata preparation consumption may be beneficial in the management of diabetes mellitus. The observed adverse effect on alkaline phosphatase activity may be due to the combined effect of streptozotocin-induced diabetes and K. pinnata preparation administration.

  20. Protective role of Hibiscus sabdariffa calyx extract against streptozotocin induced sperm damage in diabetic rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idris, Muhd Hanis Md; Budin, Siti Balkis; Osman, Mohamad; Mohamed, Jamaludin

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus contributes to male sexual dysfunction and infertility by modulating oxidative damage. To date, a number of studies have demonstrated antioxidant properties of Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn. This study was designed to investigate the effects of H. sabdariffa UKMR-2 variety on sperm functioning of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were allotted into four groups, namely control group (C), H. sabdariffa extract (HSE) group, diabetes group (D) and diabetes plus HSE group (D+HSE). HSE (100 mg/ kg/body weight) was administered orally for 28 consecutive days. After 28-days of supplementation, the rats were sacrificed to obtain epididymal sperm. Administration of HSE significantly lowered the level of fasting blood glucose and increased plasma insulin level in D+HSE group as compared to D group (psabdariffa UKMR-2 variety has a potential protective role against diabetes-induced sperm damage. PMID:27847454

  1. Capparis spinosa L. aqueous extract evokes antidiabetic effect in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Eddouks

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: As the aqueous extract of Capparis spinosa (CS possess antidiabetic effect, he present study aims to reveal the possible  mechanism of action of CS in diabetic mice.Materials and Methods: Both single and repeated oral administrations of aqueous extract of CS were performed in multi-low dose streptozotocin-induced (MLDS diabetic mice. Euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp was used in association with the endogenous glucose production (perfusion rate of 3-3H glucose to evaluate the effect of CS aqueous extract on insulin sensitivity.Results: Our study showed that aqueous extract of CS possess a potent hypoglycaemic activity in MLDS diabetic mice. Furthermore, the analysis perfusion of 3-3H glucose demonstrated  the parallel decrease of basal endogenous glucose production (EGP with the hypoglycaemic activity. EGP was lower in CS-Treated group when compared to the control group (p

  2. Portulaca oleracea L. alleviates liver injury in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng G

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Guoyin Zheng,1,* Fengfeng Mo,2,* Chen Ling,3,* Hao Peng,1 Wei Gu,1 Min Li,2 Zhe Chen1 1Department of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Changhai Hospital, 2Department of Military Hygiene, Second Military Medical University, 3Department of Biology, School of Life Science, Fudan University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Purslane is a widespread succulent herb that exhibits various pharmacological effects. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of Portulaca oleracea L. (purslane on streptozotocin-induced diabetes in mice. Oral glucose-tolerance tests were carried out to assess blood glucose levels and body weight and food intake were recorded. The biochemical parameters anti-aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, insulin, triglycerides, total cholesterol, IL-6, IL-1β, and TNFα were also measured. The pathological condition of liver tissues were examined by hematoxylin–eosin staining. Rho, ROCK1, ROCK2, NFκBp65, p-NFκBp65, IκBα, and p-IκBα expression in liver tissue were analyzed by Western blot. Purslane increased body weight and decreased food intake. Purslane also significantly reduced concentrations of glucose, anti-aspartate aminotransferase, alanine ­aminotransferase, triglycerides, total cholesterol, IL-6, IL-1β, and TNFα in serum. Serum insulin was elevated with purslane treatment. In addition, pathologic liver changes in diabetic mice were also alleviated by purslane. Obtained data revealed that purslane restored the levels of Rho–NFκB signaling-related proteins in comparison with those of diabetic mice. Above all, it can be assumed that purslane might play a positive role in regulating streptozotocin-induced liver injury through suppressing the Rho–NFκB pathway. Keywords: Portulaca oleracea L., diabetes, liver injury, Rho–NFκB

  3. Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor Protects Mice Against Streptozotocin-induced Type 1 Diabetes through SOCS3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezende, Luiz F.; Santos, Gustavo J.; Carneiro, Everardo M.; Boschero, Antonio C.

    2012-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes is characterized by a loss of islet β-cells. Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) protects pancreatic islets against cytokine-induced apoptosis. For this reason, we assessed whether CNTF protects mice against streptozotocin-induced diabetes (a model of type 1 diabetes) and the mechanism for this protection. WT and SOCS3 knockdown C57BL6 mice were treated for 5 days with citrate buffer or 0.1 mg/kg CNTF before receiving 80 mg/kg streptozotocin. Glycemia in non-fasted mice was measured weekly from days 0–28 after streptozotocin administration. Diabetes was defined as a blood glucose > 11.2 mmol/liter. Wild-type (WT) and SOCS3 knockdown MIN6 cells were cultured with CNTF, IL1β, or both. CNTF reduced diabetes incidence and islet apoptosis in WT but not in SOCS3kd mice. Likewise, CNTF inhibited apoptosis in WT but not in SOCS3kd MIN6 cells. CNTF increased STAT3 phosphorylation in WT and SOCS3kd mice and MIN6 cells but reduced STAT1 phosphorylation only in WT mice, in contrast to streptozotocin and IL1β. Moreover, CNTF reduced NFκB activation and required down-regulation of inducible NO synthase expression to exert its protective effects. In conclusion, CNTF protects mice against streptozotocin-induced diabetes by increasing pancreatic islet survival, and this protection depends on SOCS3. In addition, SOCS3 expression and β-cell fate are dependent on STAT1/STAT3 ratio. PMID:23038263

  4. Beneficial effects of banana (Musa sp. var. elakki bale) flower and pseudostem on hyperglycemia and advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaskar, Jamuna J; Shobha, Mysore S; Sambaiah, Kari; Salimath, Paramahans V

    2011-09-01

    Diabetes is a chronic health problem and major cause of death in most of the countries. Diet management plays an important role in controlling diabetes and its complications along with insulin and drugs. We have examined the effect of banana (Musa sp. var. elakki bale) flower and pseudostem on hyperglycemia and advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Our results indicated that banana flower and pseudostem have low glycemic index and have a high content of dietary fiber and antioxidants. Diabetic symptoms like hyperglycemia, polyuria, polyphagia, polydipsia, urine sugar, and body weight were ameliorated in banana flower- and pseudostem-treated rats. Increased glomerular filtration rate in the diabetic group (5.1 ± 0.22 ml/min) was decreased in banana flower-fed (2.5 ± 0.37 ml/min) and pseudostem-fed (3.0 ± 0.45 ml/min) groups and were significant at P banana flower- and pseudostem-fed groups, it was reduced to 9.21 ± 0.32 and 9.29 ± 0.24 μg/mg protein, respectively, and were significant at P banana flower and pseudostem have anti-diabetic and anti-AGEs properties and are beneficial as food supplements for diabetics.

  5. Centaurium erythraea methanol extract protects red blood cells from oxidative damage in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Đorđević, Miloš; Mihailović, Mirjana; Arambašić Jovanović, Jelena; Grdović, Nevena; Uskoković, Aleksandra; Tolić, Anja; Sinadinović, Marija; Rajić, Jovana; Mišić, Danijela; Šiler, Branislav; Poznanović, Goran; Vidaković, Melita; Dinić, Svetlana

    2017-04-18

    Centaurium erythraea Rafn (CE) is a traditional medicinal herb in Serbia with antidiabetic, digestive, antipyretic and antiflatulent effects AIM OF THE STUDY: To investigate the potential protective effects of the methanol extract of the aerial parts of CE against glyco-oxidative stress in red blood cells (RBCs) in rats with experimentally induced diabetes. Diabetes was induced in Wistar rats by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of multiple low-dose streptozotocin (STZ) (40mg/kg, for five consecutive days), with the 1st day after the last STZ injection taken as the day of diabetes onset. The methanol extract of CE (100mg/kg) was administered orally and daily, two weeks before the first STZ injection, during the 5-day treatment with STZ, and for four weeks after the STZ injections (pre-treated group) or for four weeks after diabetes onset (post-treated group). The effect of CE extract administration on the redox status of RBCs was evaluated by assessing lipid peroxidation, the ratio of reduced/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG), the level of S-glutathionylated proteins (GSSP) and the enzymatic activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR) in RBCs four weeks after diabetes onset. The major biochemical parameters of diabetes, protein glycation/glycosylation of erythrocytes and parameters which correlate with their aggregation and deformability were also evaluated. Daily application of CE extract to STZ-induced diabetic rats provided important antidiabetic effects, observed in both pre-treated and post-treated groups of diabetic rats as elevated serum insulin concentration, reduction of blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin concentrations and an improved lipid profile. Antioxidant effects of CE extract were detected in RBCs of diabetic rats and observed as decreased lipid peroxidation and ameliorated oxidative damage as a result of increased SOD, CAT and GR activities, an improved GSH/GSSG ratio and

  6. Effect of Livingstone Potato (Plectranthus esculenthus N.E.Br) on Diabetes and Its Complications in Streptozotocin Induced Diabetes in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eleazu, Chinedum Ogbonnaya; Eleazu, Kate Chinedum; Ironkwe, Adanma; Iroaganachi, Mercy Amarachi

    2014-10-01

    The effect of livingstone potato (Plectranthus esculenthus N.E.Br) on diabetes and its complications in Streptozotocin induced diabetic rats was investigated. The duration of the experiment was 4 weeks. The blood glucose level of the rats was measured with a glucometer, the protein and glucose and specific gravity in the urine samples of the rats were measured using urine assay strips and urinometer respectively. The liver and kidney function parameters in the serum of the rats were determined using Biosystem Kits. The diabetic rats given livingstonepotato incorporated feeds, had 129.7% decrease in their hyperglycemia with corresponding amelioration of their elevated urinary protein, sugars, specific gravity, renal growth, liver growth as well as 15.64% decrease in body weights compared with the nondiabetic rats that had 5.54% decrease in blood glucose and 20.39% increase in body weight unlike the diabetic control rats that had 18.34% decrease in blood glucose and 52.68% decrease in body weight. There were significant differences (P0.05) in the relative heart weights of all the rats in the three different groups. In terms of liver and kidney function parameters, values obtained for the diabetic rats given livingstone potato incorporated feeds were not significantly different from that of the nondiabetic rats except for total bilurubin, aspartate transaminase, and creatinine (P>0.05) while they were significantly different from the values obtained for the diabetic control rats (P<0.05). In addition, the serum amylase of the diabetic control rats were significantly higher (P<0.05) than that of the nondiabetic and diabetic rats treated with livingstone potato incorporated feeds. Results show the antidiabetic actions of livingstone potato and its ability to ameliorate glomerular complication and liver hypertrophy in diabetics.

  7. Antihyperglycemic activity of Woodfordia fruticosa (Kurz) flowers extracts in glucose metabolism and lipid peroxidation in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Neeraj; Amresh, G; Sahu, P K; Rao, Ch V; Singh, Anil Pratap

    2012-05-01

    The ethanolic extract of W. fruticosa flowers (250 and 500 mg/kg) significantly reduced fasting blood glucose level and increased insulin level after 21 days treatment in streptozotocin diabetic rats. The extract also increased catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase activities significantly and reduced lipid peroxidation. Glycolytic enzymes showed a significant increase in their levels while a significant decrease was observed in the levels of the gluconeogenic enzymes in ethanolic extract treated diabetic rats. The extract has a favourable effect on the histopathological changes of the pancreatic beta-cells in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. The results suggest that W. fruticosa possess potential antihyperglycemic effect by regulating glucose homeostasis and antioxidant efficacy in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

  8. Curcumin and turmeric delay streptozotocin-induced diabetic cataract in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryanarayana, Palla; Saraswat, Megha; Mrudula, Tiruvalluru; Krishna, T Prasanna; Krishnaswamy, Kamala; Reddy, G Bhanuprakash

    2005-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of curcumin and its source, turmeric, on streptozotocin-induced diabetic cataract in rats. Wistar-NIN rats were selected and diabetes was induced by streptozotocin (35 mg/kg body weight, intraperitoneally) and divided into four groups (group II-V). The control (group I) rats received only vehicle. Group I and II animals received an unsupplemented AIN-93 diet, and those in groups III, IV, and V received 0.002% and 0.01% curcumin and 0.5% turmeric, respectively, in an AIN-93 diet for a period of 8 weeks. Cataract progression due to hyperglycemia was monitored by slit lamp biomicroscope and classified into four stages. At the end of 8 weeks, the animals were killed and the biochemical pathways involved in the pathogenesis of cataract such as oxidative stress, polyol pathway, alterations in protein content and crystallin profile in the lens were investigated, to understand the possible mechanism of action of curcumin and turmeric. Blood glucose and insulin levels were also determined. Although, both curcumin and turmeric did not prevent streptozotocin-induced hyperglycemia, as assessed by blood glucose and insulin levels, slit lamp microscope observations indicated that these supplements delayed the progression and maturation of cataract. The present studies suggest that curcumin and turmeric treatment appear to have countered the hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress, because there was a reversal of changes with respect to lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione, protein carbonyl content and activities of antioxidant enzymes in a significant manner. Also, treatment with turmeric or curcumin appears to have minimized osmotic stress, as assessed by polyol pathway enzymes. Most important, aggregation and insolubilization of lens proteins due to hyperglycemia was prevented by turmeric and curcumin. Turmeric was more effective than its corresponding levels of curcumin. The results indicate that turmeric and curcumin

  9. Biological Activities of Chinese Propolis and Brazilian Propolis on Streptozotocin-Induced Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Wei; Chen, Minli; Shou, Qiyang; Li, Yinghua; Hu, Fuliang

    2011-01-01

    Propolis is a bee-collected natural product and has been proven to have various bioactivities. This study tested the effects of Chinese propolis and Brazilian propolis on streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetes mellitus in Sprague-Dawley rats. The results showed that Chinese propolis and Brazilian propolis significantly inhibited body weight loss and blood glucose increase in diabetic rats. In addition, Chinese propolis-treated rats showed an 8.4% reduction of glycated hemoglobin levels compar...

  10. Streptozotocin-induced diabetes reduces the density of [125I]-endothelin-binding sites in rat cardiac membranes.

    OpenAIRE

    Nayler, W. G.; Liu, J. J.; Panagiotopoulos, S.; Casley, D. J.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of acute, streptozotocin-induced diabetes on the affinity (KD), density (Bmax) and selectivity of specific, high affinity binding sites for [125I]-endothelin [( 125I]-ET) in rat cardiac membrane fragments was determined. Three days after a single i.v. bolus dose of streptozotocin (60 mg kg-1), the density of [125I]ET binding sites was reduced (P less than 0.01) without changes in affinity or selectivity.

  11. Effect of irradiation on the dental pulp tissues in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Ho Duk; Hwang, Eui Hwan; Lee, Sang Rae

    2005-01-01

    To observe the histological changes in the pulp tissues of mandibular molars in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats after irradiation. The male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing approximately 250 gm were divided into four groups : control, diabetes, irradiation, and diabetes-irradiation groups. Diabetes mellitus was induced in the rats by injecting streptozotocin. Rats in control and irradiation groups were injected with citrate buffer only. After 5 days, the head and neck region of the rats in irradiation and diabetes-irradiation groups were irradiated with a single absorbed dose of 10 Gy. All the rats were sacrificed at 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days after irradiation. The specimen including the mandibular molars were sectioned and observed using a histopathological method. In the diabetes group, capillary dilatation was observed. However, there was no obvious morphologic alteration of the odontoblasts. In the irradiation group, generalized necrosis of the dental pulp tissues was observed. Vacuolation of the odontoblasts and dilatation of the capillaries were noted in the early experimental phases. In the diabetes-irradiation group, generalized degeneration of the dental pulp tissues was observed. Vacuolation of the dental pulp cells and the odontoblasts was noted in the late experimental phases. This experiment suggest that dilatation of the capillaries in the dental pulp tissue is induced by diabetic state, and generalized degeneration of the dental pulp tissues is induced by irradiation of the diabetic group.

  12. Effect of irradiation on the acinar cells of submandibular gland in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Hyun; Hwang, Eui Hwan; Lee, Sang Rae

    2003-01-01

    To observe the histologic changes and clusterin expression in the acinar cells of the submandibular gland in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat following irradiation. Mature Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups: control, diabetic, and diabetic-irradiated groups. Diabetes mellitus was induced in the Sprague-Dawley rats by injecting streptozotocin, while the control rats were injected with citrate buffer only. After 5 days, rats in diabetic-irradiated group were irradiated with single absorbed dose of 10 Gy to the head and neck region. The rats were killed at 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days after irradiation. The specimen including the submandibular gland were sectioned and observed using histologic and immunohistochemical methods. Morphologic change of acinar cells was remarkable in the diabetic group, but was not observed in the diabetic-irradiated group. Necrotic tissues were observed in the diabetic-irradiated group. Coloring of toluidine blue stain was most increased at 14 days in the diabetic group, however there were no significant change throughout the period of the experiment in the diabetic-irradiated group. Expression of clusterin was most significant at 14 days in the diabetic group, but gradually decreased with time after 7 days in the diabetic-irradiated group. Degeneration of clusterin was observed in the diabetic-irradiated group. This experiment suggests that the acinar cells of submandibular gland in rats are physiologically apoptosis by the induction of diabetes, but that the apoptosis is inhibited and the acinar cells necrotized after irradiation.

  13. Effect of melatonin on serum glucose and body weights in streptozotocin induced diabetes in albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hidayat, M.

    2015-01-01

    It has been demonstrated in experimental animal models that oxidative stress causes persistent and chronic hyperglycaemia, causing reduction in antioxidant defence system, ultimately leading to accumulation of free radicals.This study was performed to observe the effect of melatonin on serum glucose and body weights in streptozotocin induced diabetes in albino rats. Methods: Forty healthy adult male albino rats were included in the study and divided equally into 4 groups for 6 weeks. Group-A was taken as control. Group-B received streptozotocin I/P in a dose of 37 mg/kg body weight. Group-C received 10 mg/100 ml melatonin in drinking water and Group-D received only melatonin. Results: Streptozotocin significantly increased serum glucose and decreased weight in group B animals, whereas in group C, melatonin significantly restored serum glucose but could not restore the body weights reduced by streptozotocin. There was a significant reduction in body weight in melatonin treated group D animals. Conclusion: Melatonin decreases oxidative stress and hyperglycemia, but cannot restore the body weight reduced by streptozotocin. In fact, it further reduces body weight both in diabetic and normal state. (author)

  14. Antihyperglycaemic and antioxidant effects of Adenia lobata Engl. (Passifloraceae) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Sarkodie Adusei; Theophilus, Fleischer Christian; Dominic, Edoh Adotei; Rita, Dickson Akosua; Kwaw, Mensah Lincoln; Kofi, Annan; Eric, Woode; George, Koffour Asumeng; Alfred, Appiah Ampomah; Henry, Brew-Daniels

    2013-01-01

    The antihyperglycaemic and antioxidant activities of a Ghanaian medicinal plant namely Adenia lobata Engl (Passifloraceae), used to treat diabetes mellitus in traditional medicine, was investigated. The dried stem powder of A. lobata was successively extracted by Soxhlet with petroleum ether and 70% ethanol to obtain the crude petroleum ether (PEAL: yield =1.1 w/w %) and ethanol (EEAL: yield = 5.4 w/w %) extracts. The extracts were assessed for their antihyperglycaemic and antioxidant activities. The antihyperglycaemic activity of PEAL and EEAL were determined in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (70 mg/kg body weight). Five groups of diabetic rats were given 150, 300 and 600 mg/kg body weight of PEAL and EEAL orally once daily for 20 days. Glibenclamide (5 mg/kg body weight) was used as positive control while distilled water (5 ml) acted as the normal diabetic control. The blood glucose levels were monitored initially for 6 hours and subsequently over 24 days. Both extracts exhibited statistically significant (p< 0.001) antihyperglycaemic activity throughout the study period, with EEAL showing the greatest activity. The antioxidant properties of the petroleum ether and ethanol extracts of A. lobata (PEAL and EEAL) were evaluated using five assays; total phenolic content, total antioxidant capacity, reducing power, DPPH scavenging effect and lipid peroxidation activity. In all these assays, the antioxidant properties increased with increasing concentration of the extracts.

  15. Antidiabetic effect of Chloroxylon swietenia bark extracts on streptozotocin induced diabetic rats

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    B. Jayaprasad

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes has been increasing at an alarming rate around the world, and experts have relied on remedies from the utilization of ancient drugs that are essentially derived from plants. The present study aimed to evaluate the antidiabetic potential of Chloroxylon swietenia bark extracts on streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced in male albino Wistar rats by single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ (50 mg/kg b.w.. The diabetic rats were administered orally with C. swietenia bark (CSB methanolic (CSBMEt and aqueous (CSBAEt (250 mg/kg b.w. extracts and glibenclamide (600 µg/kg b.w. by intragastric intubation for 45 days. The result showed a heavy loss in weight, increase in blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin level, and decline in plasma insulin and total hemoglobin content. Furthermore, glucose-6-phosphatase and fructose-1,6-bis phosphatase were found to be increased whereas hexokinase and glycogen contents were decreased in STZ induced diabetic rats. CSBAEt, CSBMEt and glibenclamide treated diabetic rats showed moderate reduction in blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin levels; in addition, plasma insulin and hemoglobin levels were elevated. The altered activities of carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes and liver glycogen were improved remarkably. CSBMEt results were comparable to the standard drug glibenclamide. The present findings support the usage of the plant extracts for the traditional treatment of diabetes.

  16. Eriodictyol prevents early retinal and plasma abnormalities in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucolo, Claudio; Leggio, Gian Marco; Drago, Filippo; Salomone, Salvatore

    2012-07-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is a complex disease that has potential involvement of inflammatory and oxidative stress-related pathways in its pathogenesis. We hypothesized that eriodictyol, one of the most abundant dietary flavonoids, could be effective against diabetic retinopathy, which involves significant oxidative stress and inflammation. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of eriodictyol in early retinal and plasma changes of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. The effect of eriodictyol treatment (0.1, 1, 10 mg/kg daily for 10 days) was evaluated by TNF-α, ICAM-1, VEGF, and eNOS protein levels measurement in the retina, plasma lipid peroxidation, and blood-retinal barrier (BRB) integrity. Increased amounts of cytokines, adhesion molecule, and nitric oxide synthase were observed in retina from diabetic rats. Eriodictyol treatment significantly lowered retinal TNF-α, ICAM-1, VEGF, and eNOS in a dose-dependent manner. Further, treatment with eriodictyol significantly suppressed diabetes-related lipid peroxidation, as well as the BRB breakdown. These data demonstrated that eriodictyol attenuates the degree of retinal inflammation and plasma lipid peroxidation preserving the BRB in early diabetic rats. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of irradiation on the dental pulp tissues in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Ho Duk; Hwang, Eui Hwan; Lee, Sang Rae [Kyunghee University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-03-15

    To observe the histological changes in the pulp tissues of mandibular molars in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats after irradiation. The male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing approximately 250 gm were divided into four groups : control, diabetes, irradiation, and diabetes-irradiation groups. Diabetes mellitus was induced in the rats by injecting streptozotocin. Rats in control and irradiation groups were injected with citrate buffer only. After 5 days, the head and neck region of the rats in irradiation and diabetes-irradiation groups were irradiated with a single absorbed dose of 10 Gy. All the rats were sacrificed at 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days after irradiation. The specimen including the mandibular molars were sectioned and observed using a histopathological method. In the diabetes group, capillary dilatation was observed. However, there was no obvious morphologic alteration of the odontoblasts. In the irradiation group, generalized necrosis of the dental pulp tissues was observed. Vacuolation of the odontoblasts and dilatation of the capillaries were noted in the early experimental phases. In the diabetes-irradiation group, generalized degeneration of the dental pulp tissues was observed. Vacuolation of the dental pulp cells and the odontoblasts was noted in the late experimental phases. This experiment suggest that dilatation of the capillaries in the dental pulp tissue is induced by diabetic state, and generalized degeneration of the dental pulp tissues is induced by irradiation of the diabetic group.

  18. Renoprotective effect of lansoprazole in streptozotocin-induced diabetic nephropathy in wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Rupinder; Sodhi, Rupinder Kaur; Aggarwal, Neha; Kaur, Jaspreet; Jain, Upendra K

    2016-01-01

    Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) have exhibited glucose lowering action in animal models of diabetes; however, their potential in diabetes-related complications has not yet been evaluated. Hence, the present study has been undertaken to investigate the renoprotective potential of lansoprazole in streptozotocin-induced diabetic nephropathy in wistar rats. Diabetic nephropathy was induced with a single injection of streptozotocin (STZ, 45 mg/kg, i.p.). Lansoprazole (40 mg/kg; 80 mg/kg, p.o.; 4 weeks) was administered to diabetic rats after 4 weeks of STZ treatment. A battery of biochemical tests such as serum glucose, glycated hemoglobin, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine, albumin, and kidney weight/body weight (%) ratio were performed to evaluate the renal functions. Oxidative stress was determined by estimating renal thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels. Lipid profile was assessed by determining serum cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), and high-density lipoprotein (HDL). The STZ-treated rats demonstrated deleterious alterations in kidney functions, enhanced oxidative stress, and disturbed lipid profile. Administration of lansoprazole to diabetic rats significantly reduced serum glucose, glycated hemoglobin, BUN, creatinine, albumin levels, and oxidative stress. Serum lipids like TC and TG were decreased, and HDL was enhanced in lansoprazole-treated STZ rats. The findings of our study indicate that renoprotective effects of lansoprazole may be attributed to its glucose-lowering, lipid-lowering, and antioxidative potential.

  19. Assessment of diabetic peripheral neuropathy in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats with magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Dongye; Zhang, Xiang; Lu, Liejing; Li, Haojiang; Zhang, Fang; Chen, Yueyao; Shen, Jun

    2015-01-01

    To determine the role of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and quantitative T2 value measurements in the assessment of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN). Sequential MR imaging, T2 measurement, and quantitative sensory testing of sciatic nerves were performed in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (n = 6) and normal control rats (n = 6) over a 7-week follow-up period. Histological assessment was obtained from 48 diabetic rats and 48 control rats once weekly for 7 weeks (n = 6 for each group at each time point). Nerve signal abnormalities were observed, and the T2 values, mechanical withdrawal threshold (MWT), and histological changes were measured and compared between diabetic and control animals. Sciatic nerves in the diabetic rats showed a gradual increase in T2 values beginning at 2 weeks after the induction (P = 0.014), while a decrease in MWT started at 3 weeks after the induction (P = 0.001). Nerve T2 values had a similar time course to sensory functional deficit in diabetic rats. Histologically, sciatic nerves of diabetic rats demonstrated obvious endoneural oedema from 2 to 3 weeks after the induction, followed by progressive axonal degeneration, Schwann cell proliferation, and coexistent disarranged nerve regeneration. Nerve T2 measurement is potentially useful in detecting and monitoring diabetic neuropathy. (orig.)

  20. Some positive effects of pine oil on brain tissue in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demir, E.; Keser, S.; Yilmiz, O.

    2016-01-01

    Pine oil has antiseptic, expectorant and antioxidant properties and has been used for treatment of rheumatism, respiratory and urinary system and skin diseases. We aimed to determine protective effects of pine oil (PO) on the lipid-soluble vitamins, cholesterol, GSH, total protein, MDA, fatty acid levels of brain tissue of the streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Rats were randomly divided into three groups: Control (C), streptozotocin (STZ), streptozotocin+pine oil (PO) groups. Streptozotocin was injected intraperitoneally single dose (65 mg/kg) to the STZ and PO groups for inducing of diabetes. To the PO group 1 mg/kg dose pine oil was intraperitoneally injected every next day. While the GSH and total protein were significantly decreased in the Streptozotocin (STZ) group, their levels were protected in PO group. MDA level was significantly increased in STZ group, its level significantly decreased in the PO group. Our results showed that PO has a positive effect on the GSH, total protein, and MDA levels in the brain tissue of diabetic rats. The PO and STZ administrations were affected by levels of some important fatty acids. The decrease in the MDA level and observed protecting effects can be attributed to PO extract, because it contains some important phytochemical constituents. (author)

  1. Assessment of diabetic peripheral neuropathy in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats with magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Dongye; Zhang, Xiang; Lu, Liejing; Li, Haojiang; Zhang, Fang; Chen, Yueyao; Shen, Jun [Sun Yat-Sen University, Department of Radiology, Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hospital, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China)

    2014-09-10

    To determine the role of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and quantitative T2 value measurements in the assessment of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN). Sequential MR imaging, T2 measurement, and quantitative sensory testing of sciatic nerves were performed in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (n = 6) and normal control rats (n = 6) over a 7-week follow-up period. Histological assessment was obtained from 48 diabetic rats and 48 control rats once weekly for 7 weeks (n = 6 for each group at each time point). Nerve signal abnormalities were observed, and the T2 values, mechanical withdrawal threshold (MWT), and histological changes were measured and compared between diabetic and control animals. Sciatic nerves in the diabetic rats showed a gradual increase in T2 values beginning at 2 weeks after the induction (P = 0.014), while a decrease in MWT started at 3 weeks after the induction (P = 0.001). Nerve T2 values had a similar time course to sensory functional deficit in diabetic rats. Histologically, sciatic nerves of diabetic rats demonstrated obvious endoneural oedema from 2 to 3 weeks after the induction, followed by progressive axonal degeneration, Schwann cell proliferation, and coexistent disarranged nerve regeneration. Nerve T2 measurement is potentially useful in detecting and monitoring diabetic neuropathy. (orig.)

  2. Protective Effect of Royal Jelly against Renal Damage in Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Ghanbari

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Royal jelly has been shown to have antioxidant and antidiabetic effects. The objective of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of RJ against kidney damage in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Methods: Thirty two male Wistar rats were divided randomly into four groups (n=8 per group. Normal control and diabetic control groups received 1cc/day distilled water, normal RJ-treated and diabetic RJ-treated groups received 100mg RJ/kg body weight daily. Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. At the end of the experiment, urine and kidney samples were collected for biochemical and histopathological analysis. Results: The results showed that diabetes could increase levels of urine urea, total protein and albumin significantly, and could decrease the levels of creatinine and uric acid in urine. In the kidney tissue homogenates, catalase activity and antioxidant power were significantly lower, whereas malondialdehyde levels were significantly higher in diabetic group when compared with control group. Diabetic rats showed severe histological changes in kidney tissues. Treatment of diabetic rats with RJ improved significantly all of these parameters. Conclusion: The present study revealed that treatment with RJ resulted in significant improvement in histopathological alterations in kidney tissue and urine parameters of diabetic rats. This could be due to its antioxidant activity and the ability of RJ for scavenging the free radicals released in diabetes. These findings suggest that RJ has protective effects on kidneys affected by diabetes mellitus.

  3. Heat stress attenuates skeletal muscle atrophy of extensor digitorum longus in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonaka, K; Une, S; Akiyama, J

    2015-09-01

    To investigate whether heat stress attenuates skeletal muscle atrophy of the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, 12-week-old male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to four groups (n = 6 per group): control (Con), heat stress (HS), diabetes mellitus (DM), and diabetes mellitus/heat stress (DM + HS). Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (50 mg/kg). Heat stress was induced in the HS and DM + HS groups by immersion of the lower half of the body in hot water at 42 °C for 30 min; it was initiated 7 days after injection of streptozotocin, and was performed once a day, five times a week for 3 weeks. The muscle fiber cross-sectional area of EDL muscles from diabetic and non-diabetic rats was determined; heat stress protein (HSP) 72 and HSP25 expression levels were also analyzed by western blotting. Diabetes-induced muscle fiber atrophy was attenuated upon heat stress treatment in diabetic rats. HSP72 and HSP25 expression was upregulated in the DM + HS group compared with the DM group. Our findings suggest that heat stress attenuates atrophy of the EDL muscle by upregulating HSP72 and HSP25 expression.

  4. Sapium ellipticum (Hochst. Pax Ethanol Leaf Extract Maintains Lipid Homeostasis in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osasenaga Mcdonald Ighodaro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Dyslipidemia is a common metabolic disorder especially in diabetes mellitus (DM. In this study, the ability of Sapium ellipticum (SE leaf extract to restore lipid homeostasis in streptozotocin-induced diabetes was examined. DM was induced in experimental rats (Wistar strains using single intraperitoneal dose (55 mg/kg body weight BW of streptozotocin (STZ. Treatment of diabetic rats with SE was oral (p.o, at doses of 400 and 800 mg kg−1 BW, twice daily at 8 h interval for 21 days. Lipid parameters were analyzed in the serum of rats using test kits. SE caused a significant (P≤0.05 reduction in STZ-induced hypercholesterolemia in a dose dependent pattern (13.7 and 17.89%. These effects were comparable to that provided by metformin (15.45%, a standard antidiabetic drug. Similar pattern was noted with serum triglycerides (TG (10.63 and 19.06% and LDL (31.47 and 25.97%. Adipose tissue TG level was improved to near normal. Besides, the cardiovascular risk predictors in terms of atherogenic index of plasma (AIP and LDL/HDL ratio were lowered by 57.85 and 44.12%, respectively. However, the extract failed to significantly reverse the STZ-induced decline in serum HDL. Overall, with AIP value of 0.28 and LDL/HDL ratio of 0.91, SE demonstrated the potential to maintain lipid homeostasis in the diabetics.

  5. Phloretin exerts hypoglycemic effect in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats and improves insulin resistance in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen X

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Xin Shen,1,* Nan Zhou,1,* Le Mi,1 Zishuo Hu,2 Libin Wang,1 Xueying Liu,1 Shengyong Zhang1 1Department of Medicinal Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, 2Student Brigade, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi’an, Shaanxi, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: The present study investigated the possible antiobesity and hypoglycemic effects of phloretin (Ph. In an attempt to discover the hypoglycemic effect and potential mechanism of Ph, we used the streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats and (L6 myotubes. Daily oral treatment with Ph for 4 weeks significantly (P<0.05 reduced postprandial blood glucose and improved islet injury and lipid metabolism. Glucose consumption and glucose tolerance were improved by Ph via GOD–POD method. Western blot results revealed that the expression of Akt, PI3K, IRS-1, and GLUT4 were upregulated in skeletal muscle of T2D rats and in L6 myotubes by Ph. The immunofluorescence studies confirmed that Ph improved the translocation of GLUT4 in L6 myotubes. Ph exerted hypoglycemic effects in vivo and in vitro, hence it may play an important role in the management of diabetes. Keywords: phloretin, diabetes, insulin sensitivity, blood glucose consumption, skeletal muscle

  6. Effect of Bauhinia holophylla treatment in Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Marcelo S; Rodrigues, Luhara S; S, Leila; Moraes-Souza, Rafaianne Q; Soares, Thaigra S; Américo, Madileine F; Campos, Kleber E; Damasceno, Débora C; Volpato, Gustavo T

    2017-01-01

    Bauhinia holophylla, commonly known as "cow's hoof", is widely used in Brazilian folk medicine for the diabetes treatment. Therefore, the aim of this study was at evaluating the aqueous extract effect of Bauhinia holophylla leaves treatment on the streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by Streptozotocin (40 mg/Kg) in female Wistar rats. Oral administration of aqueous extract of Bauhinia holophylla leaves was given to non-diabetic and diabetic rats at a dose of 400 mg/kg during 21 days. On day 17 of treatment, the Oral Glucose Tolerance Test was performed to determine the area under the curve. At the end of the treatment, the animals were anesthetized and blood was collected for serum biochemical parameters analysis. After treatment with Bauhinia holophylla extract, non-diabetic and diabetic rats presented no glycemic changes. On the other hand, the plant treatment decreased body weight and increased ALT and AST activities. In conclusion, the treatment with aqueous extract of B. holophylla leaves given to diabetic rats presented no hypoglycemic effect in nondiabetic animals and no antidiabetic effect in diabetic animals with the doses studied. In addition, the diabetic animals treated with the B. holophylla extract showed inconvenient effects and its indiscriminate consumption requires particular carefulness.

  7. Effect of Bauhinia holophylla treatment in Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARCELO S. PINHEIRO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Bauhinia holophylla, commonly known as “cow’s hoof”, is widely used in Brazilian folk medicine for the diabetes treatment. Therefore, the aim of this study was at evaluating the aqueous extract effect of Bauhinia holophylla leaves treatment on the streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by Streptozotocin (40 mg/Kg in female Wistar rats. Oral administration of aqueous extract of Bauhinia holophylla leaves was given to non-diabetic and diabetic rats at a dose of 400 mg/kg during 21 days. On day 17 of treatment, the Oral Glucose Tolerance Test was performed to determine the area under the curve. At the end of the treatment, the animals were anesthetized and blood was collected for serum biochemical parameters analysis. After treatment with Bauhinia holophylla extract, non-diabetic and diabetic rats presented no glycemic changes. On the other hand, the plant treatment decreased body weight and increased ALT and AST activities. In conclusion, the treatment with aqueous extract of B. holophylla leaves given to diabetic rats presented no hypoglycemic effect in nondiabetic animals and no antidiabetic effect in diabetic animals with the doses studied. In addition, the diabetic animals treated with the B. holophylla extract showed inconvenient effects and its indiscriminate consumption requires particular carefulness.

  8. Effect of opium on glucose metabolism and lipid profiles in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghian, Saeed; Boroumand, Mohammad Ali; Sotoudeh-Anvari, Maryam; Rabbani, Shahram; Sheikhfathollahi, Mahmood; Abbasi, Ali

    2009-01-01

    This experimental study was performed to determine the impact of opium use on serum lipid profile and glucose metabolism in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. To determine the effect of opium, 20 male rats were divided into control (n = 10) and opium-treated (n = 10) groups. After diabetes induction, the animals were investigated for daily glucose measurements for 35 days. Serum lipid profile and haemoglobin A1c (HbA(1c)) were assayed at the baseline (before induction of diabetes) and at 35-day follow-up. The glycaemia levels in the rats treated with opium were similar to the levels measured in the control rats (544.8 +/- 62.2 mg/dl v. 524.6 +/- 50.0 mg/dl, P = 0.434). In addition, there was no difference between the opium-treated rats and control rats in HbA(1c) (6.5 +/- 0.5% v. 6.6 +/- 0.2%, P = 0.714). Compared to the control rats, the serum total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL), triglyceride and lipoprotein (a) in the test animals were similar. Opium use has no significant effect on glucose metabolism and serum lipid profile in rats with induced diabetes.

  9. Effects of Fenofibrate on Adiponectin Expression in Retinas of Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

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    Ying-Jung Hsu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Adiponectin has been associated with increased risks of microvascular complications in diabetes; however, its role in the development of diabetic retinopathy (DR is unknown. Fenofibrate is a lipid-lowering agent that has been shown to be capable of preventing DR progression. We investigated the expression of adiponectin and its receptors in DR and evaluated the effects of fenofibrate on their expression. The mRNA and protein levels of adiponectin and its receptors were elevated in retinas of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats and were suppressed following fenofibrate treatment. Immunofluorescence staining demonstrated that adiponectin and adipoR1 were expressed in cells located within blood vessels, the retinal ganglion, and the inner nuclear layer. AdipoR1 was strongly expressed whereas adipoR2 was only weekly expressed in vascular endothelial cells. The in vitro experiments showed that adiponectin expression was induced by high glucose concentrations in RGC-5 and RAW264.7 cells and was suppressed following fenofibrate treatment. AdipoR1 and adipoR2 levels in RGC-5 cells were elevated in high glucose concentrations and suppressed by fenofibrate. Our results demonstrated that adiponectin may be a proinflammatory mediator in diabetic retinas and fenofibrate appears to modulate the expression of adiponectin and its receptors in diabetic retinas, effectively reducing DR progression.

  10. Morphology of bronchial epithelium in rodent streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus

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    Oksana Anatolyevna Pivovarova

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the morphology of bronchial epithelium in a rodent streptozotocin-induced (STZ diabetes mellitus.Materials and Methods. Diabetes mellitus was introduced in 47 white Wistar rats aged 5–6 months (body weight 234.0±2.64 g. 43 white Wistar rats of the same age were used as control subjects (body weight 242.0±2.13. Diabetes was induced by single intraperitoneal injection of STZ (SIGMA, USA 60 mg/kg in 0.1 M citrate buffer, pH 4.5.Results. A statistically significant decrease in the total epithelial area by 25.9% was observed in the study group, accompanied by a reduction of the supranuclear zone by 22.1% vs. the control group.Conclusion. We found that bronchial mucous membrane in rodents with STZ-induced diabetes mellitus exhibits signs of atrophy and partial loss of mucous production by bronchial secretory cells.

  11. Renal protection of in vivo administration of tempol in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Jiajie; Li, Weiping; Han, Jia; Zhang, Wen; Gong, Huiling; Ma, Rong

    2012-01-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the protective effects of tempol on renal function and the underlying mechanism in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. The diabetic rats were randomly divided into the model group (without tempol) and tempol group (1 mM tempol in drinking water for 6 weeks). Nondiabetic rats were served as the Control group. The mRNA expression of canonical transient receptor potential 6 (TRPC6), transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, and type IV collagen (Col IV) were examined. The malondialdehyde (MDA) level, activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) in renal tissues were measured to assess redox status in kidneys. We found that tempol significantly reduced 24-h urine output and urine albuminuria excretion in the diabetic rats. Compared with the model group, the concentration of MDA was significantly lower in the tempol group. In addition, diabetes decreased activities of SOD and GSH-Px and these responses were prevented by tempol treatment. Moreover, in diabetic rats, the mRNA expression levels of TGF-β1 and Col IV were upregulated. TRPC6 mRNA expression level was down-regulated in diabetic kidneys. However, all of these diabetic effects were significantly suppressed by tempol treatment. These results suggest that chronic treatment of diabetic rats with tempol can protect kidneys, possibly by reducing expression of TGF-β1, Col IV, and upregulating TRPC6 expression level.

  12. Hypolipidemic action of curcumin, the active principle of turmeric (Curcuma longa) in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, P S; Srinivasan, K

    1997-01-01

    Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were maintained on 0.5% curcumin containing diet for 8 weeks. Blood cholesterol was lowered significantly by dietary curcumin in these diabetic animals. Cholesterol decrease was exclusively from LDL-VLDL fraction. Significant decrease in blood triglyceride and phospholipids was also brought about by dietary curcumin in diabetic rats. In a parallel study, wherein diabetic animals were maintained on a high cholesterol diet, the extents of hypercholesterolemia and phospholipidemia were still higher compared to those maintained on control diet. Curcumin exhibited lowering of cholesterol and phospholipid in these animals also. Liver cholesterol, triglyceride and phospholipid contents were elevated under diabetic conditions. Dietary curcumin showed a distinct tendency to counter these changes in lipid fractions of liver. This effect of curcumin was also seen in diabetic animals maintained on high cholesterol diet. Dietary curcumin also showed significant countering of renal cholesterol and triglycerides elevated in diabetic rats. In order to understand the mechanism of hypocholesterolemic action of dietary curcumin, activities of hepatic cholesterol-7a-hydroxylase and HMG CoA reductase were measured. Hepatic cholesterol-7a-hydroxylase activity was markedly higher in curcumin fed diabetic animals suggesting a higher rate of cholesterol catabolism.

  13. Ameliorative Effect of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles on Antioxidants and Sperm Characteristics in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rat Testes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, Mohamed; Almaghrabi, Omar A.; Kadasa, Naif Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the impact of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) on the oxidative status and sperm characteristics in diabetic rat testicular tissue. Forty male albino rats were used in this study; 10 of them served as a control and 30 rats were injected with a single dose (100 mg/kg) of streptozotocin intraperitoneally. They were subdivided into diabetic, diabetic + ZnONPs (10 mg/kg B.W.), and diabetic and cotreated with ZnONPs + insulin groups. The sperm count and motility were assessed. The activity and mRNA expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GRD), and Glutathion-S-Transferase (GST) were determined in the testicular tissue. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels were estimated in the testicular tissue. Sperm count and motility increased in ZnONPs treated diabetic rats. A significant increase in the activity and mRNA expression of SOD, CAT, GPx, GRD, and GST was shown in ZnONPs treated diabetic rats. MDA significantly decreased, while GSH increased in testicular tissue of ZnONPs treated diabetic rats. It was concluded that ZnONPs either alone or in combination with insulin have the ability to increase the sperm count and motility and protect the testicular tissue against the oxidative stress induced by diabetes in rats. PMID:26581756

  14. Nutraceutical potential of Aerva lanata (L.) Juss. ex Schult ameliorates secondary complications in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riya, M P; Antu, K A; Pal, S; Srivastava, A K; Sharma, S; Raghu, K G

    2014-09-01

    Nutraceuticals provide health benefits beyond their basic nutrition by modulating a number of biochemical pathways. They are derived from natural products and have gained recognition worldwide as an adjuvant or therapy in the treatment of metabolic disorders such as diabetes. Although the regulation of blood glucose with drugs and insulin greatly reduces the incidence of secondary complications, the need for long-term treatment raises issues of tolerance and affordability. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to explore the nutraceutical potential of Aerva lanata, a herb widely used for its culinary and therapeutic potential in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Treatment with 70% ethanolic extract (ALE) at 500 mg per kg b.w per day for 21 days significantly improved the fasting blood glucose (120.33 ± 1.99 mg dL(-1)), insulin level (9.81 ± 0.38 mU L(-1)), HbA1c (7.3 ± 0.36%) and glycogen content in the liver (35.33 ± 1.38 mg g(-1) protein) and muscle (7.67 ± 0.11 mg g(-1) protein) compared to diabetic controls. The extract also showed a significant decrease in blood glucose by 47.29% towards the end of 2 h in oral glucose tolerance test on Day 21. Its therapeutic potential could be partly attributable to the presence of flavonoids, tannins and terpenes (alpha amyrin, betulin and beta sitosterol) along with micronutrients such as potassium, magnesium, calcium and zinc. Hence, we suggest the suitability of Aerva lanata as a nutraceutical for diabetic patients.

  15. Myoinositol ameliorates high-fat diet and streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats through promoting insulin receptor signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antony, Poovathumkal James; Gandhi, Gopalsamy Rajiv; Stalin, Antony; Balakrishna, Kedike; Toppo, Erenius; Sivasankaran, Kuppusamy; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah

    2017-04-01

    Mimosa pudica Linn. (Mimosaceae) has been traditionally used for the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in India. The present study evaluates the therapeutic efficacy of myoinositol (25 and 50mg/kg) isolated from M. pudica stem methanol extract in Triton WR-1339 induced hyperlipidemic and high-fat diet (HFD) fed-streptozotocin (STZ)-induced insulin-resistant diabetic rats. Lipid biomarkers, fasting blood glucose (FBG), changes in body weight, food and water intakes, plasma insulin, HOMA-IR, oral glucose tolerance, intraperitoneal insulin tolerance, urea, creatinine, marker enzymes of liver function, β-cell function and the expression levels of insulin receptor-induced signaling molecules were studied. Molecular-docking was also carried out to determine the possible interactions of myoinositol into the active sites of insulin-induced signaling markers. In addition, histology of liver, pancreas, kidney, heart and adipose tissues were also performed. In Triton WR-1339 induced hyperlipidemic rats, myoinositol (25 and 50mg/kg) exhibited significant reductions in total cholesterol: 37.5% and 59.73%, triglycerides: 57.75% and 80.14% and LDL-c: 81.44% and 101.75% respectively. HFD fed-STZ receiving myoinositol (25 and 50mg/kg) showed significant reductions in fasting blood glucose: 55.68% and 56.48%, plasma insulin level: 25.45% and 27.06% when compared with diabetic control. It significantly normalized the hyperglycemia induced biochemical abnormalities in insulin-resistant diabetic rats. Furthermore, it demonstrated cytoprotective effects besides increase in the intensity of positive reaction for insulin in pancreas. Myoinositol enhanced the level of PPARγ expression in the adipose tissue of treated rats when compared with rats that did not receive drug treatment; also, it significantly upregulated GLUT4 and IR signaling molecules. Myoinositol had predicted the interactions within the active sites of PPARγ, GLUT4 and IR. These findings suggested that myoinositol could play an effective role in glucose disposal into adipose tissue by insulin-dependent signaling cascade mechanism; hence it could be used in the treatment of obesity-associated T2DM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Tempol ameliorates cardiac fibrosis in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats: role of oxidative stress in diabetic cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taye, Ashraf; Abouzied, Mekky M; Mohafez, Omar M M

    2013-12-01

    Long-standing diabetes is associated with increased oxidative stress and cardiac fibrosis. This, in turn, contributes to the progression of cardiomyopathy. The present study was sought to investigate whether the free radical scavenger, 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethyl piperidinoxyl (tempol) can protect against diabetic cardiomyopathy and to explore the specific underlying mechanism(s) in this setting. Diabetes was induced in rats by a single intraperitoneal injection dose of streptozotocin (50 mg/kg). These animals were treated with tempol (18 mg kg(-1) day(-1), orally) for 8 weeks. Our results showed significant increases in collagen IV and fibronectin protein levels and a marked decrease in matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) activity measured by gelatin-gel zymography alongside elevated cardiac transforming growth factor (TGF)-β level determined using ELISA or immunohistochemistry in cardiac tissues of diabetic rats compared with control. This was accompanied by an increased in the oxidative stress as evidenced by increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and decreased antioxidant enzyme capacity along with elevated lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine kinase (CK-MB) serum levels as compared with the control. Tempol treatment significantly corrected the changes in the cardiac extracellular matrix, TGF-β, ROS or serum LDH, CK-MB levels, and normalized MMP-2 activity along with preservation of cardiac tissues integrity of diabetic rats against damaging responses. Moreover, tempol normalized the elevated systolic blood pressure and improved some cardiac functions in diabetic rats. Collectively, our data suggest a potential protective role of tempol against diabetes-associated cardiac fibrosis in rats via reducing oxidative stress and extracellular matrix remodeling.

  17. Aire deficiency causes increased susceptibility to streptozotocin-induced murine type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hässler, S; Peltonen, L; Sandler, S; Winqvist, O

    2008-06-01

    Aire-deficient mice are a model of the human monogenic disorder autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type I (APS I) characterized by a progressive autoimmune destruction of multiple endocrine glands such as the adrenal cortex, the parathyroids and the beta-cells of the pancreas. The disease is caused by mutations in the autoimmune regulator (AIRE) gene, a putative transcription factor expressed in thymic medullary epithelial cells and in antigen-presenting cells of the myeloid lineage in peripheral lymphoid organs. As Aire(-/-) mice do not spontaneously develop endocrinopathies, we wanted to evaluate the autoimmune multiple low-dose streptozotocin (MLDSTZ) diabetes model in Aire(-/-) mice. Surprisingly, Aire heterozygote mice were most susceptible to MLDSTZ-induced diabetes, whereas Aire(-/-) mice displayed an intermediate sensitivity to diabetes. Furthermore, Aire(-/-) macrophages produced higher levels of TNF-alpha and lower levels of IL-10 following streptozotocin stimulation, and Aire(-/-) mice developed a higher frequency of islet cells autoantibodies as a sign of increased activation. However, the number of islet infiltrating F4/80(+) Aire(-/-) macrophages was significantly decreased which was attributed to an increased susceptibility to streptozotocin cytotoxicity of Aire(-/-) macrophages. In conclusion, Aire(-/-) macrophages display an increased activation after STZ stimuli, but suffer from increased susceptibility to STZ cytotoxicity. These results support an important function of Aire in the control of peripheral tolerance through myeloid antigen-presenting cells.

  18. A Comparison of Food-grade Folium mori Extract and 1-Deoxynojirimycin for Glycemic Control and Renal Function in Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiang-Suo Huang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Folium mori (桑葉 Sāng Yè, leaf of Morus alba L.; FM is known to possess hypoglycemic effects, and 1-deoxynojirimycin (1-DNJ has been proposed as an important functional compound in FM. However, the hypoglycemic activity of purified 1-DNJ has been rarely studied. It is also not known how FM and 1-DNJ affect the development of DM nephropathy. This study compared the antidiabetic effect of a commercial FM product with that of purified 1-DNJ in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Seven days after induction, the diabetic rats were gavaged with FM (1, 3, 10, and 30 mg/kg/day, 1-DNJ (30 mg/kg/day, or vehicle (distilled deionized water; 2 ml/kg/day for 7 days. All doses of FM ameliorated fasting and post-prandial blood glucose concomitantly with an increase in peripheral and pancreatic levels of insulin and improved homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR in diabetic rats in a dose-dependent manner. Increased thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS and nitrate/nitrite levels in the kidney, liver, and muscle of diabetic rats were reversed by all doses of FM. The renal function of the diabetic rats was normalized by all doses of FM, while blood pressure changes were reversed by FM at doses of 3 mg/kg and above. Moreover, most of the above-mentioned parameters were improved by FM at doses of 3 mg/kg and above to a similar extent as that of 1-DNJ. The results showed superior antidiabetic potential of the commercial FM product for glycemic control and protection against the development of diabetic nephropathy.

  19. Streptozotocin-induced diabetes prolongs twitch duration without affecting the energetics of isolated ventricular trabeculae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, June-Chiew; Tran, Kenneth; Nielsen, Poul M F; Taberner, Andrew J; Loiselle, Denis S

    2014-04-15

    Diabetes induces numerous electrical, ionic and biochemical defects in the heart. A general feature of diabetic myocardium is its low rate of activity, commonly characterised by prolonged twitch duration. This diabetes-induced mechanical change, however, seems to have no effect on contractile performance (i.e., force production) at the tissue level. Hence, we hypothesise that diabetes has no effect on either myocardial work output or heat production and, consequently, the dependence of myocardial efficiency on afterload of diabetic tissue is the same as that of healthy tissue. We used isolated left ventricular trabeculae (streptozotocin-induced diabetes versus control) as our experimental tissue preparations. We measured a number of indices of mechanical (stress production, twitch duration, extent of shortening, shortening velocity, shortening power, stiffness, and work output) and energetic (heat production, change of enthalpy, and efficiency) performance. We calculated efficiency as the ratio of work output to change of enthalpy (the sum of work and heat). Consistent with literature results, we showed that peak twitch stress of diabetic tissue was normal despite suffering prolonged duration. We report, for the first time, the effect of diabetes on mechanoenergetic performance. We found that the indices of performance listed above were unaffected by diabetes. Hence, since neither work output nor change of enthalpy was affected, the efficiency-afterload relation of diabetic tissue was unaffected, as hypothesised. Diabetes prolongs twitch duration without having an effect on work output or heat production, and hence efficiency, of isolated ventricular trabeculae. Collectively, our results, arising from isolated trabeculae, reconcile the discrepancy between the mechanical performance of the whole heart and its tissues.

  20. Studies on the antidiabetic activities of Momordica charantia fruit juice in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Mona F; El Ashry, Fatma El Zahraa Z; El Maraghy, Nabila N; Fahmy, Ahmed

    2017-12-01

    Momordica charantia Linn (Cucurbitaceae) (MC) is used in folk medicine to treat various diseases including diabetes mellitus. This study investigates the antidiabetic activities of Momordica charantia (bitter gourd) on streptozotocin-induced type 2 diabetes mellitus in rats. Male Wister rats were randomly assigned to 4 groups. Group I, Normal control; Group II, STZ diabetic; Group III and IV, Momordica charantia fruit juice was orally administered to diabetic rats (10 mL/kg/day either as prophylaxis for 14 days before induction of diabetes then 21 days treatment, or as treatment given for 21 days after induction of diabetes). The effects of MC juice were studied both in vivo and in vitro by studying the glucose uptake of isolated rat diaphragm muscles in the presence and absence of insulin. Histopathological examination of pancreas was also performed. This study showed that MC caused a significant reduction of serum glucose (135.99 ± 6.27 and 149.79 ± 1.90 vs. 253.40* ± 8.18) for prophylaxis and treatment respectively, fructosamine (0.99 ± 0.01 and 1.01 ± 0.04 vs. 3.04 ± 0.07), total cholesterol, triglycerides levels, insulin resistance index (1.13 ± 0.08 and 1.19 ± 0.05 vs. 1.48 ± 1.47) and pancreatic malondialdehyde content (p Momordica charantia presents excellent antidiabetic and antioxidant activities and thus has great potential as a new source for diabetes treatment whether it is used for prophylaxis or treatment.

  1. Effect of irradiation on the periodontal tissues in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Dong Sin; Hwang, Eui Hwan; Lee, Sang Rae

    2005-01-01

    To observe the histopathological changes in the periodontal tissues of mandibular molars in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats after irradiation. The male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing approximately 250 gm were divided into four groups; control, diabetes, irradiation, and diabetes - irradiation groups. Diabetes mellitus was induced in the rats by injecting streptozotocin. Rats in the control and irradiation groups were injected with citrate buffer only. After 5 days, the head and neck region of the rats in irradiation and diabetes - irradiation groups were irradiated with a single absorbed dose of 10 Gy. All the rats were sacrificed at 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days after irradiation. The specimen including the mandibular molars were sectioned and observed using a histopathological method. In the diabetes group, osteoclastic activity was observed in the alveolar bone and the root throughout the period of experiment. Also, osteoblastic and fibroblastic activities were markedly decreased. In the irradiation group, the osteoclasts were observed in the alveolar bone and the dilated capillaries were increased in the early experimental phases. However, vigorous osteoblastic activity was noted in the late experimental phases. In the diabetes- irradiation group, osteoblastic activity in the alveolar bone and the root was observed in the early experimental phases. However, there were no resorption and osteoblastic activity in the alveolar bone and the root in the late experimental phases, and obvious atrophic change of fibrous tissues was noted. This experiment suggests that osteoblastic activity was caused by irradiation in the late experimental phases, but atrophic change of the periodontal ligament tissues was induced after irradiation in diabetic state.

  2. Effect of irradiation on the temporomandibular joint in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Ki Dong; Hwang, Eui Hwan; Lee, Sang Rae

    2004-01-01

    To investigate the histopathological changes in the temporomandibular joint in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat following irradiation. Sprague-Dawley rats weighing about 250 gm were divided into three groups: control, diabetic, and diabetic-irradiated groups. Diabetes mellitus was induced in the rats by injecting streptozotocin. Rats in the control group were injected with citrate buffer only. After 5 days, the head and neck region of the rats in diabetic-irradiated group were irradiated with single absorbed dose of 10 Gy. The rats were killed at 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days after irradiation. The specimen including the temporomandibular joint were sectioned and observed using a histopathological method. In the diabetic group, severe bone resorption in the mandibular condyle was observed throughout the period of experiment. Necrosis of bone marrow and trabeculae was observed at 28 days after diabetic state. Atrophy and fibrosis in the retrodiscal tissue was gradually progressed during the time of the experiment. In the diabetic-irradiated group, severe bone resorption in the mandibular condyle was observed during the early experimental phases, but regeneration of bone marrow was initiated at 14 days after diabetic state and irradiation. Also, calcification of abnormal trabeculae was observed at 28 days after diabetic state and irradiation. The retrodiscal tissue was degenerated in the early experimental phases, but it had been gradually regenerated during the experimental time. This experiment suggests that bone resorption and degeneration in the mandibular condyle are caused by the induction of diabetes, and abnormal bone formation is induced after irradiation in diabetic state.

  3. Mulberry Leaf Extract Attenuates Oxidative Stress-Mediated Testosterone Depletion in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Hajizadeh

    2014-03-01

    Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats. Iran J Med Sci. 2014;39(2:123-129.

  4. Hypoglycemic, Hypolipidemic, and Wound Healing Potential of Quercetin in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Mahrukh; Sultana, Mudasir; Raina, Rajinder; Pankaj, Nrip Kishore; Verma, Pawan Kumar; Prawez, Shahid

    2017-10-01

    Among the dietary polyphenolic, quercetin is the most common compound available in vegetables and fruits. The phytochemicals are used to treat diabetic wounds and diabetes, and specifically dietary polyphenols are being extensively studied for their anti-inflammatory and antioxidant abilities. The objective of the study was to assess the hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, and wound healing potential of quercetin in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic Wistar rats. Induction of diabetes was done by intraperitoneally administration of STZ at the dose of 55 mg/kg in Wistar rats. An excision wound was created in diabetic rats that were treated with quercetin (100 mg/kg) orally and quercetin ointment topically to evaluate the antidiabetic and wound healing potential of quercetin. Repeated oral administration of quercetin along with topical application of quercetin ointment in diabetic rats normalized the altered blood glucose, hydroxyproline, and glucosamine levels. Topical application of quercetin ointment alone on the excised wound was sufficient enough to heal the wound area in diabetic rats. The result of the present study indicates that quercetin produces hypoglycemic effect in STZ-induced diabetic rats and normalized plasma lipids and protein profiles. Besides, this quercetin also has an excellent wound healing property when applied topically on the wound area in diabetic rats. Quercetin has hypoglycaemic and hypolipidemic potential in streptozotocin induced diabetes in wistar ratsDermal application along with oral administrations of quercetin has more effective in wound healing in diabetic animalsHistopathological studies of pancreas, skin and liver shows significant reduction in archaeological alterations on quercetin administrations in diabetic rats. Abbreviation used: STZ: Streptozotocin; CMC: Carboxy methyl cellulose; HDL: High density lipoproteins; LDL: low density lipoproteins.

  5. Effects of Melatonin and Vitamin E on Peripheral Neuropathic Pain in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

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    Reza Heidari

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective(sPrevious studies have indicated that diabetes mellitus might be accompanied by neuropathic pain. Oxidative stress is implicated as a final common pathway in development of diabetic neuropathy. Pharmacological interventions targeted at inhibiting free radical production have shown beneficial effects in diabetic neuropathy. The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the possible analgesic effects of melatonin and vitamin E in diabetic rats.Materials and MethodsThis study was performed on 32 male Wistar rats divided into 4 groups: control, diabetic, melatonin-treated diabetic and vitamin E-treated diabetic. Experimental diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal streptozotocin (50 mg/kg injection. Melatonin (10 mg/kg, i.p. and vitamin E (100 mg/kg, i.p. were injected for 2 weeks after 21st day of diabetes induction. At the end of administration period, pain-related behavior was assessed using 0.5% formalin test according to two spontaneous flinching and licking responses. The levels of lipid peroxidation as well as glutathione-peroxidase and catalase activities were evaluated in lumbosacral dorsal root ganglia.ResultsFormalin-evoked flinching and total time of licking were increased in both acute and chronic phases of pain in diabetic rats as compared to control rats, whereas treatment with melatonin or vitamin E significantly reduced the pain indices. Furthermore, lipid peroxidation levels increased and glutathione-peroxidase and catalase activities decreased in diabetic rats. Both antioxidants reversed the biochemical parameters toward their control values.ConclusionThese results suggest that oxidative stress may contribute to induction of pain in diabetes and further suggest that antioxidants, melatonin and vitamin E, can reduce peripheral neuropathic pain in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

  6. Effect of Simulated Intermittent Altitude on the Metabolic and Hematologic Parameters in Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Rats

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    mehdi Faramoushi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Type II diabetes is a metabolic disorder accompanied with insulin resistance of the whole body cells and is considered be the fifth cause of death in the world. Adaptation to altitude can lead to tolerance to many diseases. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the effect of simulated intermittent altitude on the metabolic and hematologic parameters and liver function in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Methods: In the current experimental study, twenty four male Wistar rats weighing 220±20 gr were randomly divided into three groups; normal control group (NC, n=8, diabetic control group (D, n=8 received fat diet for 2 weeks then were injected with streptozotocin (37 mg/kg and diabetic+hypoxia group (D+H, n=8 including diabetic rat exposed to chronic intermittent hypoxia (PiO2≈106 mm Hg, simulated altitude≈3400 m, 14% oxygen for 8 weeks. Diabetic, hematologic and lipid parameters as well as ALT and AST activities were measured in peripheral blood. Results: Our findings showed that intermittent hypoxia significantly decreased serum total cholesterol, LDL ,VLDL and triglyceride in D+H group compared to D group (p<0.05. Serum levels of fasting blood glucose and homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance HOMA-IR( index and ALT were decreased in D+H group vs. D group p<0.05. Also, hemoglubin and hematocrite level increased in D+H group in comparison to D group p<0.05. No significant difference was detected in red blood cell count in D+H vs. D group. Conclusion: Based on resultant data, it seems that intermittent exposure to hypoxia (simulated to chronic and intermittent lodgement in altitude can be used to control of type 2 diabetes by increasing hemoglobin, decreasing insulin resistance and improving liver function as well as lipid parameters.

  7. Streptozotocin-induced diabetes prolongs twitch duration without affecting the energetics of isolated ventricular trabeculae

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Diabetes induces numerous electrical, ionic and biochemical defects in the heart. A general feature of diabetic myocardium is its low rate of activity, commonly characterised by prolonged twitch duration. This diabetes-induced mechanical change, however, seems to have no effect on contractile performance (i.e., force production) at the tissue level. Hence, we hypothesise that diabetes has no effect on either myocardial work output or heat production and, consequently, the dependence of myocardial efficiency on afterload of diabetic tissue is the same as that of healthy tissue. Methods We used isolated left ventricular trabeculae (streptozotocin-induced diabetes versus control) as our experimental tissue preparations. We measured a number of indices of mechanical (stress production, twitch duration, extent of shortening, shortening velocity, shortening power, stiffness, and work output) and energetic (heat production, change of enthalpy, and efficiency) performance. We calculated efficiency as the ratio of work output to change of enthalpy (the sum of work and heat). Results Consistent with literature results, we showed that peak twitch stress of diabetic tissue was normal despite suffering prolonged duration. We report, for the first time, the effect of diabetes on mechanoenergetic performance. We found that the indices of performance listed above were unaffected by diabetes. Hence, since neither work output nor change of enthalpy was affected, the efficiency-afterload relation of diabetic tissue was unaffected, as hypothesised. Conclusions Diabetes prolongs twitch duration without having an effect on work output or heat production, and hence efficiency, of isolated ventricular trabeculae. Collectively, our results, arising from isolated trabeculae, reconcile the discrepancy between the mechanical performance of the whole heart and its tissues. PMID:24731754

  8. Streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus affects lysosomal enzymes in rat liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peres, G.B. [Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Departamento de Bioquímica, São Paulo, SP, Brasil, Departamento de Bioquímica, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Juliano, M.A. [Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Departamento de Biofísica, São Paulo, SP, Brasil, Departamento de Biofísica, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Aguiar, J.A.K.; Michelacci, Y.M. [Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Departamento de Bioquímica, São Paulo, SP, Brasil, Departamento de Bioquímica, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-05-09

    It has been previously shown that dextran sulfate administered to diabetic rats accumulates in the liver and kidney, and this could be due to a malfunction of the lysosomal digestive pathway. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the expression and activities of lysosomal enzymes that act upon proteins and sulfated polysaccharides in the livers of diabetic rats. Diabetes mellitus was induced by streptozotocin in 26 male Wistar rats (12 weeks old), while 26 age-matched controls received only vehicle. The livers were removed on either the 10{sup th} or the 30{sup th} day of the disease, weighed, and used to evaluate the activity, expression, and localization of lysosomal enzymes. A 50-60% decrease in the specific activities of cysteine proteases, especially cathepsin B, was observed in streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus. Expression (mRNA) of cathepsins B and L was also decreased on the 10{sup th}, but not on the 30{sup th} day. Sulfatase decreased 30% on the 30{sup th} day, while glycosidases did not vary (or presented a transitory and slight decrease). There were no apparent changes in liver morphology, and immunohistochemistry revealed the presence of cathepsin B in hepatocyte granules. The decrease in sulfatase could be responsible for the dextran sulfate build-up in the diabetic liver, since the action of sulfatase precedes glycosidases in the digestive pathway of sulfated polysaccharides. Our findings suggest that the decreased activities of cathepsins resulted from decreased expression of their genes, and not from general lysosomal failure, because the levels of glycosidases were normal in the diabetic liver.

  9. Fish protein improves the total antioxidant status of streptozotocin-induced diabetes in spontaneously hypertensive rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukortt, Farida Ouda; Girard, Aurélie; Prost, Josiane L; Ait-Yahia, Dalila; Bouchenak, Malika; Belleville, Jacques

    2004-11-01

    We measured the effects of fish protein (FP) on blood pressure, glycemia and antioxidant status in spontaneously hypertensive (SH) rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes (STZ). Two groups of 12 rats each were fed 20% casein (C) or FP for 2 months. The total antioxidant status of blood and organs (liver, kidney and heart) was measured by the KRL test. Antioxidant enzyme activities (G-Px, G-Red, and SOD) and antioxidant substances (GSH, NO) were determined in organs, and vitamin C in plasma. FP lowered blood pressure in SH rats, but not in SH-STZ. Blood and plasma antioxidant status increased 35% and 9%, respectively, with FP in SH-STZ compared to SH rats; when compared to C, these values were more enhanced. SOD activity values were elevated with FP in SH-STZ rats, compared to the C diet, regardless of organ. Higher kidney NO and heart GSH values were noted in SH-STZ rats than SH. In SH rats fed FP, the GSH value was 2.26 times higher in liver, and NO was 3 times higher in heart. Higher NO was noted in kidney (1.84 times) and heart (1.91 times), GSH in heart (1.79 times), and vitamin C in plasma (+46%) in SH-STZ rats with FP than with C. Fish protein has a beneficial effect on blood pressure in SH rats but not in SH-STZ, and plays an important role in antioxidative defense. This protein may be useful in future treatments of such diseases as diabetes and hypertension.

  10. [Effect of compound Puerarin on the collage IV in streptozotocin-induced diabetic nephropathy rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiang-xiang; Zhong, Hui-ju; Gong, Han-ren; Zhu, Fei-yue; Wang, Lin-na; Shen, Dao-jun; Li, Guo; Wang, Cai-yun; Qin, Cheng-sheng

    2008-04-01

    To observe the effect of compound Puerarin on collagen IV of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Diabetic nephropathy rats were induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ). Rats were allocated randomly to control group (10), diabetes model group (10), Vitamin C group (10), Puerarin group (10), vitamin C plus Puerarin group (10). The study period lasted for 12 weeks. During and after the treatment, the general state, blood glucose levels, glycosylated hemoglobin, blood urea nitrogen, serum collagen IV, blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, urinary albumin excretion rate of the 24-hour, and clearance rate of creatinine collagen IV protein were determined by immunohistochemistoche analysis as well as type the gene expression of collagen IV alpha 1 mRNA were determined by in situ hybridization analysis in the kidney tissue of different groups. (1) Diabetes mellitus and renal function lesion occurred in the four groups. (2) Vitamin C and Puerarin could improve the general conditions of diabetic Rats, decrease blood urea nitrogen [(8.68 +/- 0.43), (7.98 +/- 0.47) and (5.76 +/- 0.82) micromol/L, serum creatinine [(74.68 +/- 8.20), (75.52 +/- 7.98) and (58.66 +/- 6.65) mmol/L], and urinary albumin excretion rate of the 24-hour [(18.40 +/- 0.37), (17.24 +/- 0.30) and (9.97 +/- 1.27) mg/24 h x 10(-3)]; increase clearance rate of creatinine [(0.59 +/- 0.21), (0.61 +/- 0.14) and (0.69 +/- 0.32) ml/min], the expression of collage IV absorbance [(111.56 +/- 14.61), (110.78 +/- 9.69) and (95.44 +/- 9.97) ] in the diabetic Rats were significantly inhibited at the same time. The compound Puerarin might have some functions on preventing ren by inhibiting expression of type IV collagen.

  11. Streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus affects lysosomal enzymes in rat liver

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    G.B. Peres

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available It has been previously shown that dextran sulfate administered to diabetic rats accumulates in the liver and kidney, and this could be due to a malfunction of the lysosomal digestive pathway. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the expression and activities of lysosomal enzymes that act upon proteins and sulfated polysaccharides in the livers of diabetic rats. Diabetes mellitus was induced by streptozotocin in 26 male Wistar rats (12 weeks old, while 26 age-matched controls received only vehicle. The livers were removed on either the 10th or the 30th day of the disease, weighed, and used to evaluate the activity, expression, and localization of lysosomal enzymes. A 50-60% decrease in the specific activities of cysteine proteases, especially cathepsin B, was observed in streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus. Expression (mRNA of cathepsins B and L was also decreased on the 10th, but not on the 30th day. Sulfatase decreased 30% on the 30th day, while glycosidases did not vary (or presented a transitory and slight decrease. There were no apparent changes in liver morphology, and immunohistochemistry revealed the presence of cathepsin B in hepatocyte granules. The decrease in sulfatase could be responsible for the dextran sulfate build-up in the diabetic liver, since the action of sulfatase precedes glycosidases in the digestive pathway of sulfated polysaccharides. Our findings suggest that the decreased activities of cathepsins resulted from decreased expression of their genes, and not from general lysosomal failure, because the levels of glycosidases were normal in the diabetic liver.

  12. Attenuation of NK cells facilitates mammary tumor growth in streptozotocin-induced diabetes in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajovic, Nevena; Jurisevic, Milena; Pantic, Jelena; Radosavljevic, Gordana; Arsenijevic, Nebojsa; Lukic, Miodrag L; Jovanovic, Ivan

    2018-04-01

    Diabetic patients have higher incidence and mortality of cancer. Recent study revealed that hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress is involved in the acceleration of tumor metastasis. We used model of high-dose streptozotocin-induced diabetes to investigate its effect on tumor growth and modulation of antitumor immune response of 4T1 murine breast cancer in BALB/c mice. Diabetes accelerated tumor appearance, growth and weight, which was associated with decreased NK cells cytotoxicity against 4T1 tumor cells in vitro Diabetes reduced frequencies of systemic NKG2D + , perforin + , granzyme + , IFN-γ + and IL-17 + NK cells, while increased level of PD-1 expression and production of IL-10 in NK cells. Diabetes decreased percentage of NKG2D + NK cells and increased percentage of PD-1 + NK cells also in primary tumor. Diabetes increased accumulation of IL-10 + Tregs and TGF-β + myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) in spleen and tumor. Diabetic sera in vitro significantly increased the percentage of KLRG-1 + and PD-1 + NK cells, decreased the percentage of IFN-γ + NK cells, expression of NKp46 and production of perforin, granzyme, CD107a and IL-17 per NK cell in comparison to glucose-added mouse sera and control sera. Significantly increased percentages of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) producing MDSCs and dendritic cells (DC) were found in the spleens of diabetic mice prior to tumor induction. 1- methyl -DL- tryptophan , specific IDO inhibitor, almost completely restored phenotype of NK cells cultivated in diabetic sera. These findings indicate that diabetes promotes breast cancer growth at least in part through increased accumulation of immunosuppressive cells and IDO-mediated attenuation of NK cells. © 2018 Society for Endocrinology.

  13. In vivo Investigation of Anti-diabetic Properties of Ripe Onion Juice in Normal and Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chul-Won; Lee, Hyung-Seok; Cha, Yong-Jun; Joo, Woo-Hong; Kang, Dae-Ook; Moon, Ja-Young

    2013-01-01

    The acute and subacute hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic effects of drinkable ripe onion juice (Commercial product name is “Black Onion Extract”) were investigated in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. For tests of acute and subacute hypoglycemic effects, ripe onion juice (5 and 15 mL/kg b.w.) was administered by oral gavage to normal Sprague Dawley rats and measurements of fasting glucose levels and oral glucose tolerance tests were performed. Tolbutamide was used as a reference drug at a single oral dose of 250 mg/kg b.w. To test anti-hyper-glycemic activity, the ripe onion juice was administered to streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats by oral gavage at single dose of 15 mL/kg b.w. per day for 7 consecutive days. Oral administration of the ripe onion juice at either dosed level of 5 or 15 mL/kg b.w. showed no remarkable acute hypoglycemic effect in normal rats. The two dosed levels caused a relatively small reduction, only 18% and 12% (5 and 15 mL/kg b.w., respectively) decrease in glucose levels at 2 h after glucose loading in normal rats. However, at 3 h after glucose loading, blood glucose levels in the ripe onion juice-dosed rats were decreased to the corresponding blood glucose level in tolbutamide-dosed rats. Although showing weak hypoglycemic potential compared to that of tolbutamide, oral administration of ripe onion juice (15 mL/kg b.w.) for a short period (8 days) resulted in a slight reduction in the blood glucose levels that had elevated in Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. In conclusion, these results suggest that the commercial product “Black Onion Extract” may possess anti-hyperglycemic potential in diabetes. PMID:24471128

  14. Action of (2-->1)Fructo-oligopolysaccharide fraction of Chlorophytum borivilianum against Streptozotocin-Induced oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasimhan, Sreevidya; Govindarajan, Raghavan; Madhavan, Vijayakumar; Thakur, M; Dixit, V K; Mehrotra, Shanta; Madhusudanan, K P

    2006-12-01

    A fructo-oligosaccharide was isolated from Chlorophytum borivilianum and identified as O-beta-D-fructofuranosyl-(2-->1)-(beta-D-fructofuranosyl) (n)-(2-->1)-alpha-D-glucopyranoside (n = 5 - 30) using high-pressure anion exchange chromatography, MALDI-MS, NMR, GC, HPTLC and chemical analysis. The extract and the fructo-oligosaccharide were found to have significant antidiabetic activity with the blood sugar levels being 118.32 +/- 3.56 and 110.21 +/- 4.22, respectively, as compared to the control value of 231.25 +/- 3.03 along with moderate antioxidant activity in streptozotocin-induced diabetic animals.

  15. The effect of levosimendan on myocardial ischemia–reperfusion injury in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiraz, Hasan Ali; Poyraz, Fatih; Kip, Gülay; Erdem, Özlem; Alkan, Metin; Arslan, Mustafa; Özer, Abdullah; Şivgin, Volkan; Çomu, Faruk Metin

    2015-01-01

    Objective Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is an important cause of myocardial damage by means of oxidative, inflammatory, and apoptotic mechanisms. The aim of the present study was to examine the potential cardio protective effects of levosimendan in a diabetic rat model of myocardial I/R injury. Methods A total of 18 streptozotocin-induced diabetic Wistar Albino rats (55 mg/kg) were randomly divided into three equal groups as follows: the diabetic I/R group (DIR) in which myocardial I/R was induced following left thoracotomy, by ligating the left anterior descending coronary artery for 60 min, followed by 2 h of reperfusion; the diabetic I/R levosimendan group (DIRL), which underwent I/R by the same method while taking levosimendan intraperitoneal 12 µg kg−1; and the diabetic control group (DC) which underwent sham operations without tightening of the coronary sutures. As a control group (C), six healthy age-matched Wistar Albino rats underwent sham operations similar to the DC group. Two hours after the operation, the rats were sacrificed and the myocardial tissue samples were examined by light microscopy for evidence of myonecrosis and inflammatory cell infiltration. Results Myonecrosis findings were significantly different among groups (p=0.008). Myonecrosis was more pronounced in the DIR group compared with the C, DC, and DIRL groups (p=0.001, p=0.007 and p=0.037, respectively). Similarly, the degree of inflammatory cell infiltration showed significant difference among groups (p<0.0001). Compared with C, DC, and DIRL groups, the inflammatory cell infiltration was significantly higher among the DIR group (p<0.0001, p<0.0001, and p=0.020, respectively). Also, myocardial tissue edema was significantly different among groups (p=0.006). The light microscopic myocardial tissue edema levels were significantly higher in the DIR group than the C, DC, and DIRL groups (p=0.001, p=0.037, and p=0.014, respectively). Conclusion Taken together, our data indicate that

  16. The effect of levosimendan on myocardial ischemia–reperfusion injury in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Ali Kiraz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R injury is an important cause of myocardial damage by means of oxidative, inflammatory, and apoptotic mechanisms. The aim of the present study was to examine the potential cardio protective effects of levosimendan in a diabetic rat model of myocardial I/R injury. Methods: A total of 18 streptozotocin-induced diabetic Wistar Albino rats (55 mg/kg were randomly divided into three equal groups as follows: the diabetic I/R group (DIR in which myocardial I/R was induced following left thoracotomy, by ligating the left anterior descending coronary artery for 60 min, followed by 2 h of reperfusion; the diabetic I/R levosimendan group (DIRL, which underwent I/R by the same method while taking levosimendan intraperitoneal 12 µg kg−1; and the diabetic control group (DC which underwent sham operations without tightening of the coronary sutures. As a control group (C, six healthy age-matched Wistar Albino rats underwent sham operations similar to the DC group. Two hours after the operation, the rats were sacrificed and the myocardial tissue samples were examined by light microscopy for evidence of myonecrosis and inflammatory cell infiltration. Results: Myonecrosis findings were significantly different among groups (p=0.008. Myonecrosis was more pronounced in the DIR group compared with the C, DC, and DIRL groups (p=0.001, p=0.007 and p=0.037, respectively. Similarly, the degree of inflammatory cell infiltration showed significant difference among groups (p<0.0001. Compared with C, DC, and DIRL groups, the inflammatory cell infiltration was significantly higher among the DIR group (p<0.0001, p<0.0001, and p=0.020, respectively. Also, myocardial tissue edema was significantly different among groups (p=0.006. The light microscopic myocardial tissue edema levels were significantly higher in the DIR group than the C, DC, and DIRL groups (p=0.001, p=0.037, and p=0.014, respectively. Conclusion: Taken together, our data

  17. Effect of naringerin on biochemical parameters in the streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

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    Ana Angélica Henrique Fernandes

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Amongst the numerous co-adjuvant therapies which could influence the incidence and progression of diabetic complications, antioxidants and flavonoids are currently being tested in clinical trials. We investigated the effect of naringerin on biochemical parameters in streptozotocin-induced (STZ - 60 mg/kg, i.p. diabetic rats. Male rats were divided into four groups: G1: untreated controls; G2: normal rats receiving naringerin; G3: untreated diabetics; G4: diabetics rats receiving naringerin. The naringerin (50mg/kg, i.p, decreased the hyperglycaemia and hyperlipidaemia associated with STZ-diabetes. The concentrations of serum insulin in treated diabetic rats tended to be increased. Naringerin treatment prevents STZ-induced changes in the activities of ALT, AST and LDH in the liver and heart, indicating the protective effect of naringerin against the hepatic and cardiac toxicity caused by STZ. The glycogen level in cardiac and hepatic tissues elevated with naringerin in diabetic rats. The naringerin can improve the glucose and lipid metabolism and is beneficial in preventing diabetic complications.Dentre as numerosas terapias para minimizar as complicações diabéticas, os antioxidantes e flavonoides são testados na clínica médica. Foi analisado o efeito da naringerina sobre os parâmetros bioquímicos em ratos diabéticos induzidos por estreptozotocina (STZ - 60mg/kg, i.p.. Ratos machos foram divididos em 4 grupos: G1: controle não tratado; G2: ratos normais que receberam naringerina; G3: diabéticos não tratados; G4: ratos diabéticos que receberam naringerina. Naringerina (50mg/kg, i.p., decresceu a hiperglicemia e a hiperlipidemia em ratos diabéticos. A concentração sérica de insulina em ratos tratados tendeu aumentar. A naringerina preveniu as alterações, provocadas pela estreptozotocina, na atividade hepática e cardíaca de ALT, AST e LDH, indicando o efeito protetor da naringerina sobre estes tecidos, contra toxicidade

  18. Caffeine at a Moderate Dose Did Not Affect the Skeletal System of Rats with Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Folwarczna

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes may lead to the development of osteoporosis. Coffee drinking, apart from its health benefits, is taken into consideration as an osteoporosis risk factor. Data from human and animal studies on coffee and caffeine bone effects are inconsistent. The aim of the study was to investigate effects of caffeine at a moderate dose on the skeletal system of rats in two models of experimental diabetes induced by streptozotocin. Effects of caffeine administered orally (20 mg/kg aily for four weeks were investigated in three-month-old female Wistar rats, which, two weeks before the start of caffeine administration, received streptozotocin (60 mg/kg, intraperitoneally alone or streptozotocin after nicotinamide (230 mg/kg, intraperitoneally. Bone turnover markers, mass, mineral density, histomorphometric parameters, and mechanical properties were examined. Streptozotocin induced diabetes, with profound changes in the skeletal system due to increased bone resorption and decreased bone formation. Although streptozotocin administered after nicotinamide induced slight increases in glucose levels at the beginning of the experiment only, slight, but significant unfavorable changes in the skeletal system were demonstrated. Administration of caffeine did not affect the investigated skeletal parameters of rats with streptozotocin-induced disorders. In conclusion, caffeine at a moderate dose did not exert a damaging effect on the skeletal system of diabetic rats.

  19. Preventive effects of garlic (Allium sativum) on oxidative stress and histopathology of cardiac tissue in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naderi, R; Mohaddes, G; Mohammadi, M; Alihemmati, A; Badalzadeh, R; Ghaznavi, R; Ghyasi, R; Mohammadi, Sh

    2015-12-01

    Since some complications of diabetes mellitus may be caused or exacerbated by an oxidative stress, the protective effects of garlic (Allium sativum) were investigated in the blood and heart of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Twenty-eight male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: control, garlic, diabetic, and diabetic+garlic. Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of streptozotocin (50 mg/kg) in male rats. Rats were fed with raw fresh garlic homogenate (250 mg/kg) six days a week by gavage for a period of 6 weeks. At the end of the 6th week blood samples and heart tissues were collected and used for determination of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), malondialdehyde (MDA) and histological evaluation. Induction of diabetes increased MDA levels in blood and homogenates of heart. In diabetic rats treated with garlic, MDA levels decreased in blood and heart homogenates. Treatment of diabetic rats with garlic increased SOD, GPX and CAT in blood and heart homogenates. Histopathological finding of the myocardial tissue confirmed a protective role for garlic in diabetic rats. Thus, the present study reveals that garlic may effectively modulate antioxidants status in the blood and heart of streptozotocin induced-diabetic rats.

  20. Antihyperglycaemic activity of the methanol extract from leaves of Eremophila maculata (Scrophulariaceae) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Fadia S; Ashour, Mohamed L; Ebada, Sherif S; Sobeh, Mansour; El-Beshbishy, Hesham A; Singab, Abdel Nasser; Wink, Michael

    2017-06-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the antihyperglycaemic activity of the methanol leaf extract of Eremophila maculata (EMM) both in vitro and in vivo. The antihyperglycaemic activity was assessed in vitro using differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes, whereas in-vivo effect was evaluated in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Chemical profiling of EMM was done using LC-ESI-MS techniques. Molecular modelling experiments of the identified compounds were performed using C-Docker protocol. Eremophila maculata slightly enhanced cellular glucose uptake and utilization in vitro by 3.92% relative to the untreated control. A stronger in-vivo effect was observed for EMM and its dichloromethane fraction. A pronounced elevation in serum insulin by 88.89 and 66.67%, respectively, accompanied by an apparent decline in fasting blood glucose (FBG) level by 65.60 and 70.37% comparable to streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats was observed. This effect was stronger than that of the reference drug glibenclamide (GLB). Chemical profiling of EMM revealed that leucoseptoside A, verbascoside, syringaresinol-4-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, pinoresinol-4-O-β-D-glucopyranoside and pinoresinol-4-O-[6″-O-(E)-feruloyl]-β-D-glucopyranoside are the major compounds. Molecular modelling showed that martynoside, verbascoside and phillygenin exhibited the highest inhibition to human pancreatic α-amylase (HPA), maltase glucoamylase (MGAM) and aldose reductase (AR), respectively. Eremophila maculata offers an interesting relatively safer antihyperglycaemic candidate comparable to synthetic analogues. © 2017 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  1. Caffeine at a Moderate Dose Did Not Affect the Skeletal System of Rats with Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folwarczna, Joanna; Janas, Aleksandra; Cegieła, Urszula; Pytlik, Maria; Śliwiński, Leszek; Matejczyk, Magdalena; Nowacka, Anna; Rudy, Karolina; Krivošíková, Zora; Štefíková, Kornélia; Gajdoš, Martin

    2017-10-30

    Diabetes may lead to the development of osteoporosis. Coffee drinking, apart from its health benefits, is taken into consideration as an osteoporosis risk factor. Data from human and animal studies on coffee and caffeine bone effects are inconsistent. The aim of the study was to investigate effects of caffeine at a moderate dose on the skeletal system of rats in two models of experimental diabetes induced by streptozotocin. Effects of caffeine administered orally (20 mg/kg aily for four weeks) were investigated in three-month-old female Wistar rats, which, two weeks before the start of caffeine administration, received streptozotocin (60 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) alone or streptozotocin after nicotinamide (230 mg/kg, intraperitoneally). Bone turnover markers, mass, mineral density, histomorphometric parameters, and mechanical properties were examined. Streptozotocin induced diabetes, with profound changes in the skeletal system due to increased bone resorption and decreased bone formation. Although streptozotocin administered after nicotinamide induced slight increases in glucose levels at the beginning of the experiment only, slight, but significant unfavorable changes in the skeletal system were demonstrated. Administration of caffeine did not affect the investigated skeletal parameters of rats with streptozotocin-induced disorders. In conclusion, caffeine at a moderate dose did not exert a damaging effect on the skeletal system of diabetic rats.

  2. Antihyperglycemic, antihyperlipidemic and antiglycation effects of Byrsonima crassifolia fruit and seed in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Gutierrez, Rosa Martha; Muñiz-Ramirez, Alethia; Gomez, Yolanda Gomez; Ramírez, Esther Bautista

    2010-12-01

    The hypoglycemic effects of hexane, chloroform and methanol extracts from fruits and seeds of Byrsonima crassifolia were evaluated by oral administration to normoglycemic and streptozotocin-induced severe diabetic rats (SD). The anti-diabetic effect was examined by blood glucose, triglycerides, lipid peroxidation, total cholesterol levels in the serum, glycogen content of liver and skeletal muscles, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione (GSH) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) levels. The most active extracts were obtained with hexane. Hexane and chloroform extracts from fruits and seeds of Byrsonima crassifolia increased the levels of SOD, GSH, GSSG and CAT, hepatic glycogen content, glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) and the plasma insulin levels. They also decreased glucokinase (GK) and TBAR (thiobarbituric acid assay). In conclusion, Byrsonima crassifolia possesses significant antihyperglycemic properties after 4 h of a single oral dose. It can also improve hyperlipidemia and hyperinsulinemia in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Both extracts exhibited significant inhibitory activity against AGEs (advanced glycation end products) formation with IC(50) values ranging from 94.3 to 138.7 μg/ml. Therefore, B. crassifolia can be considered as a potential safe anti-diabetic agent.

  3. Effects of intravitreal injection of netrin-1 in retinal neovascularization of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

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    Yu Y

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Yao Yu,1,2,* Jing Zou,3,* Yun Han,4 Luowa Quyang,4 Hui He,4 Peihong Hu,2 Yi Shao,2 Ping Tu11Nanchang Key Laboratory of Diabetes, Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, The Third Hospital of Nanchang, Jiangxi, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Ophthalmology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Jiangxi Province Clinical Ophthalmology Institute, Jiangxi, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Ophthalmology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Hunan, People’s Republic of China; 4Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Eye Institute of Xiamen University, Fujian, People’s Republic of China*These authors have contributed equally to this workBackground: In a previous study, we confirmed that netrin-1 acts as an antiangiogenic factor by inhibiting alkali burn-induced corneal neovascularization in rats. Here, we continue working on the role of netrin-1 in retinal neovascularization.Methods: Using an in vitro angiogenesis assay, we detected the effects of netrin-1 on human umbilical vein endothelial cell tube formation, viability and proliferation, migration, and invasion at concentrations of 0.1 µg/mL or 5 µg/mL. We intravitreally injected 0.1 µg/mL or 5 µg/mL netrin-1 into streptozotocin-induced rats to assess retinal neovascularization using retinal electrophysiology and electroretinography, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, fundus fluoresce in angiography, measurement of inner blood retinal barrier, retinal hematoxylin-eosin staining, and retinal flat-mount fluorescence assays.Results: Human umbilical vein endothelial cell tube formation, viability and proliferation, migration, and invasion were upregulated by netrin-1 at a concentration of 0.1 µg/mL (P<0.05, while 5 µg/mL netrin-1 had an opposite effect (P<0.05 in our in vitro angiogenesis assay. Retinal electrophysiology testing revealed that intravitreal injection of netrin-1 affected the amplitude of a- and b

  4. Protease-activated receptor-1 deficiency protects against streptozotocin-induced diabetic nephropathy in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waasdorp, Maaike; Duitman, Janwillem; Florquin, Sandrine; Spek, C. Arnold

    2016-01-01

    Endogenously administered activated protein C ameliorates diabetic nephropathy (DN) in a protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR-1)-dependent manner, suggesting that PAR-1 activation limits the progression of DN. Activation of PAR-1 in fibroblast-like cells, however, induces proliferation and

  5. Pancreas Protective Effect of Button Mushroom Agaricus bisporus (JE Lange) Imbach (Agaricomycetidae) Extract on Rats with Streptozotocin-Induced Dia betes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yamac, M.; Kanbak, G.; Zeytinoglu, M.; Senturk, H.; Bayramoglu, G.; Dokumacioglu, A.; Griensven, van L.J.L.D.

    2010-01-01

    In the present study we describe the effects of hot water extract of the culinary-medicinal button mushroom, Agaricus bisporus, on the symptoms of streptozotocin-induced diabetes in Sprague Dawley rats. A. bisporus extract at the doses of 0, 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg body weight (bw) per day were

  6. Evaluation of plasma H2S levels and H2S synthesis in streptozotocin induced Type-2 diabetes-an experimental study based on Swietenia macrophylla seeds

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    Moumita Dutta

    2014-05-01

    Conclusions: Although considering a small sample size, it can conclude that the fasting blood glucose levels are inversely related to plasma H2S levels as well as H2S synthesis activity in plasma and the extract of S. macrophylla is associated with increased plasma H2S levels with effective lowering of blood glucose in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.

  7. Protective effects of methane-rich saline on diabetic retinopathy via anti-inflammation in a streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Jiangchun; Wang, Ruobing; Ye, Zhouheng; Sun, Xuejun; Chen, Zeli; Xia, Fangzhou; Sun, Qinglei; Liu, Lin

    2015-01-01

    As the commonest complication of diabetes mellitus (DM), diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a neuro-vascular disease with chronic inflammatory. Methane could exert potential therapeutic interest in inflammatory pathologies in previous studies. Our study aims to evaluate the protective effects of methane-rich saline on DR and investigate the potential role of related MicroRNA (miRNA) in diabetic rats. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic Sprague–Dawley rats were injected intraperitoneally with methane-rich or normal saline (5 ml/kg) daily for eight weeks. Morphology changes and blood-retinal barrier (BRB) permeability were assessed by hematoxylin eosin staining and Evans blue leakage. Retinal inflammatory cytokines levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL1-β) were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Retinal protein expressions of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were determined by western blotting. Retinal miRNA expressions were examined by miRNA-specific microarray, verified by quantitative RT-PCR and predicted by GO enrichment and KEGG pathway analysis. There was no significant changes in blood glucose level and body weight of diabetic rats with methane-rich or normal saline treatment, but the decreased retinal thickness, retinal ganglial cell loss and BRB breakdown were all significantly suppressed by methane treatment. DM-induced retinal overexpressions of TNF-α, IL-1β, GFAP and VEGF were also significantly ameliorated. Moreover, the methane treatment significantly up-regulated retinal levels of miR-192-5p (related to apoptosis and tyrosine kinase signaling pathway) and miR-335 (related to proliferation, oxidative stress and leukocyte). Methane exerts protective effect on DR via anti-inflammation, which may be related to the regulatory mechanism of miRNAs. - Highlights: • Methane exerts protective effect on diabetic retinopathy via anti-inflammation. • Therapeutic effect of methane is

  8. Protective effects of methane-rich saline on diabetic retinopathy via anti-inflammation in a streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Jiangchun; Wang, Ruobing [Department of Ophthalmology, Renji Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai (China); Ye, Zhouheng; Sun, Xuejun [Department of Navy Aeromedicine, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai (China); Chen, Zeli; Xia, Fangzhou; Sun, Qinglei [Department of Ophthalmology, Renji Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai (China); Liu, Lin, E-mail: linliu@sh163.net [Department of Ophthalmology, Renji Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai (China)

    2015-10-16

    As the commonest complication of diabetes mellitus (DM), diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a neuro-vascular disease with chronic inflammatory. Methane could exert potential therapeutic interest in inflammatory pathologies in previous studies. Our study aims to evaluate the protective effects of methane-rich saline on DR and investigate the potential role of related MicroRNA (miRNA) in diabetic rats. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic Sprague–Dawley rats were injected intraperitoneally with methane-rich or normal saline (5 ml/kg) daily for eight weeks. Morphology changes and blood-retinal barrier (BRB) permeability were assessed by hematoxylin eosin staining and Evans blue leakage. Retinal inflammatory cytokines levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL1-β) were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Retinal protein expressions of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were determined by western blotting. Retinal miRNA expressions were examined by miRNA-specific microarray, verified by quantitative RT-PCR and predicted by GO enrichment and KEGG pathway analysis. There was no significant changes in blood glucose level and body weight of diabetic rats with methane-rich or normal saline treatment, but the decreased retinal thickness, retinal ganglial cell loss and BRB breakdown were all significantly suppressed by methane treatment. DM-induced retinal overexpressions of TNF-α, IL-1β, GFAP and VEGF were also significantly ameliorated. Moreover, the methane treatment significantly up-regulated retinal levels of miR-192-5p (related to apoptosis and tyrosine kinase signaling pathway) and miR-335 (related to proliferation, oxidative stress and leukocyte). Methane exerts protective effect on DR via anti-inflammation, which may be related to the regulatory mechanism of miRNAs. - Highlights: • Methane exerts protective effect on diabetic retinopathy via anti-inflammation. • Therapeutic effect of methane is

  9. Potent hypoglycaemic activity of the aqueous extract of Chamaemelum nobile in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddouks, M; Lemhadri, A; Zeggwagh, N A; Michel, J-B

    2005-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of both a single dose and daily oral administration for 15 days of the aqueous extract of the aerial part of Chamaemelum nobile (C. nobile) at a dose of 20mg/kg body weight on blood glucose concentrations and basal insulin levels in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ). Single oral administration of C. nobile aqueous extract reduced blood glucose levels from 6.0 +/- 0.3 mmol/l to 4.9 +/- 0.09 mmol/l (P nobile exhibits a significant hypoglycaemic effect in normal and STZ diabetic rats without affecting basal plasma insulin concentrations and support, therefore, its traditional use by the Moroccan population.

  10. Hexane extract of the seeds of Byrsonima crassifolia accelerates wound healing in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Gutiérrez, Rosa Martha; Muñiz Ramirez, Alethia

    2013-11-16

    To study the effect of seeds of Byrsonima crassifolia in diabetic wound healing. Wound healing potential of hexane extract in the form of simple ointment for the treatment of dermal wounds was studied in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats on excision wound, incision wound and dead space wound. Various parameters such as epithelization period, scar area, tensile strength, hydroxyproline, total protein, DNA, hexosamine, uronic acid, antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activity (CAT) were used to evaluate the effect of B. crassifolia on wound healing. Hexane extract in form topical accelerates the wound healing process by decreasing the surface area of the wound with a significant increase in the rate of wound contraction and tensile strength; increase granulation tissue dry weight, hydroxyproline, total protein, DNA and SOD and CAT when compared with diabetic control. B. crassifolia was effective in promoting diabetic wound healing in rats through the processes of tissue regeneration.

  11. In Vivo Evaluation of the Visual Pathway in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes by Diffusion Tensor MRI and Contrast Enhanced MRI.

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    Swarupa Kancherla

    Full Text Available Visual function has been shown to deteriorate prior to the onset of retinopathy in some diabetic patients and experimental animal models. This suggests the involvement of the brain's visual system in the early stages of diabetes. In this study, we tested this hypothesis by examining the integrity of the visual pathway in a diabetic rat model using in vivo multi-modal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Ten-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into an experimental diabetic group by intraperitoneal injection of 65 mg/kg streptozotocin in 0.01 M citric acid, and a sham control group by intraperitoneal injection of citric acid only. One month later, diffusion tensor MRI (DTI was performed to examine the white matter integrity in the brain, followed by chromium-enhanced MRI of retinal integrity and manganese-enhanced MRI of anterograde manganese transport along the visual pathway. Prior to MRI experiments, the streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats showed significantly smaller weight gain and higher blood glucose level than the control rats. DTI revealed significantly lower fractional anisotropy and higher radial diffusivity in the prechiasmatic optic nerve of the diabetic rats compared to the control rats. No apparent difference was observed in the axial diffusivity of the optic nerve, the chromium enhancement in the retina, or the manganese enhancement in the lateral geniculate nucleus and superior colliculus between groups. Our results suggest that streptozotocin-induced diabetes leads to early injury in the optic nerve when no substantial change in retinal integrity or anterograde transport along the visual pathways was observed in MRI using contrast agent enhancement. DTI may be a useful tool for detecting and monitoring early pathophysiological changes in the visual system of experimental diabetes non-invasively.

  12. Effects of Icariside II on Corpus Cavernosum and Major Pelvic Ganglion Neuropathy in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

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    Guang-Yi Bai

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic erectile dysfunction is associated with penile dorsal nerve bundle neuropathy in the corpus cavernosum and the mechanism is not well understood. We investigated the neuropathy changes in the corpus cavernosum of rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes and the effects of Icariside II (ICA II on improving neuropathy. Thirty-six 8-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly distributed into normal control group, diabetic group and ICA-II treated group. Diabetes was induced by a one-time intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (60 mg/kg. Three days later, the diabetic rats were randomly divided into 2 groups including a saline treated placebo group and an ICA II-treated group (5 mg/kg/day, by intragastric administration daily. Twelve weeks later, erectile function was measured by cavernous nerve electrostimulation with real time intracorporal pressure assessment. The penis was harvested for the histological examination (immunofluorescence and immunohistochemical staining and transmission electron microscopy detecting. Diabetic animals exhibited a decreased density of dorsal nerve bundle in penis. The neurofilament of the dorsal nerve bundle was fragmented in the diabetic rats. There was a decreased expression of nNOS and NGF in the diabetic group. The ICA II group had higher density of dorsal nerve bundle, higher expression of NGF and nNOS in the penis. The pathological change of major pelvic nerve ganglion (including the microstructure by transmission electron microscope and the neurite outgrowth length of major pelvic nerve ganglion tissue cultured in vitro was greatly attenuated in the ICA II-treated group (p < 0.01. ICA II treatment attenuates the diabetes-related impairment of corpus cavernosum and major pelvic ganglion neuropathy in rats with Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes.

  13. The Protective Effect of Fucoidan in Rats with Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Nephropathy

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    Jing Wang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic nephropathy (DN has long been recognized as the leading cause of end-stage renal disease, but the efficacy of available strategies for the prevention of DN remains poor. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible beneficial effects of fucoidan (FPS in streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetes in rats. Wistar rats were made diabetic by injection of STZ after removal of the right kidney. FPS was administered to these diabetic rats for 10 weeks. Body weight, physical activity, renal function, and renal morphometry were measured after 10 weeks of treatment. In the FPS-treated group, the levels of blood glucose, BUN, Ccr and Ucr decreased significantly, and microalbumin, serum insulin and the β2-MG content increased significantly. Moreover, the FPS-treated group showed improvements in renal morphometry. In summary, FPS can ameliorate the metabolic abnormalities of diabetic rats and delay the progression of diabetic renal complications.

  14. Attenuation of Oxidative Stress and Inflammation by Portulaca oleracea in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samarghandian, Saeed; Borji, Abasalt; Farkhondeh, Tahereh

    2017-10-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the protective effect of the aqueous extract of Portulaca oleracea against hyperglycemic, oxidative damage and inflammation in the serum of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. In the present study, the rats were divided into the following groups of 8 animals each: control, untreated diabetic, 3 Portulaca oleracea (100, 200, 400 mg/kg/d)-treated diabetic groups. At the end of the 4-week period, glucose, interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), and total antioxidant status (TAS) levels were measured. STZ caused an elevation in the serum levels of glucose, MDA, IL-6, and TNF-α with reduction in the levels of GSH and TAS ( P Portulaca oleracea ameliorated glucose, MDA, IL-6, TNF-α, GSH, and TAS levels in diabetic groups versus to the untreated groups ( P Portulaca oleracea prevented hyperglycemia by preventing the oxidative stress and inflammation.

  15. Differential gene expression in liver tissues of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats in response to resveratrol treatment.

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    Gökhan Sadi

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to elucidate the genome-wide gene expression profile in streptozotocin induced diabetic rat liver tissues in response to resveratrol treatment and to establish differentially expressed transcription regulation networks with microarray technology. In addition to measure the expression levels of several antioxidant and detoxification genes, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR was also used to verify the microarray results. Moreover, gene and protein expressions as well as enzymatic activities of main antioxidant enzymes; superoxide dismutase (SOD-1 and SOD-2 and glutathione S-transferase (GST-Mu were analyzed. Diabetes altered 273 genes significantly and 90 of which were categorized functionally which suggested that genes in cellular catalytic activities, oxidation-reduction reactions, co-enzyme binding and terpenoid biosynthesis were dominated by up-regulated expression in diabetes. Whereas; genes responsible from cellular carbohydrate metabolism, regulation of transcription, cell signal transduction, calcium independent cell-to-cell adhesion and lipid catabolism were down-regulated. Resveratrol increased the expression of 186 and decreased the expression of 494 genes in control groups. While cellular and extracellular components, positive regulation of biological processes, biological response to stress and biotic stimulants, and immune response genes were up-regulated, genes responsible from proteins present in nucleus and nucleolus were mainly down-regulated. The enzyme assays showed a significant decrease in diabetic SOD-1 and GST-Mu activities. The qRT-PCR and Western-blot results demonstrated that decrease in activity is regulated at gene expression level as both mRNA and protein expressions were also suppressed. Resveratrol treatment normalized the GST activities towards the control values reflecting a post-translational effect. As a conclusion, global gene expression in the liver tissues is

  16. Effect of livingstonepotato (Plectranthus esculenthus N.E.Br) on hyperglycemia, antioxidant activity and lipid metabolism of streptozotocin induced diabetic rats

    OpenAIRE

    Eleazu, C.O.; Eleazu, K.C.; Chukwuma, S.C.; Okoronkwo, J.; Emelike, C.U.

    2014-01-01

    The effect of livingstone potato (Plectranthus esculenthus N.E.Br) on serum glucose, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C), serum triglyceride, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), hepatic malic enzyme (ME), isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) and catalase activities of Streptozotocin induced diabetic rats were investigated using standard techniques. The atherogenic index (AI) and coronary risk index (CRI) of the rats were cal...

  17. Studies on the therapeutic effect of propolis in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rifa'I, Muhaimin

    2017-05-01

    Propolis oral administration in diabetic mice can increase the expression of TLR-3 and ameliorate homeostatic imbalance. The TLR-3 expression increased in both B cells and T cells. In this study, we also found that propolis may improve insulin expression in pancreatic beta cells. Administering propolis at a dose of 100-200 mg/mL may significantly increase insulin synthesis. Propolis might protect healthy cells from apoptosis in cisplatin exposure. Cisplatin can induce spleen cells to remain in the G0/G1 phase or to reach the apoptosis stage in the absence of propolis. In contrast, cisplatin, when administered together with propolis to a culture of spleen cells, cannot force the cells to undergo apoptosis. In a culture of spleen cells in the presence of propolis, the cells did not show any responses. This suggests that propolis does not disrupt normal cell physiology and supports cell health when cells are exposed to cisplatin. Furthermore, propolis can suppress the production of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interferon-gamma (IFN-γ).

  18. Urtica dioica leaves modulates muscarinic cholinergic system in the hippocampus of streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Sita Sharan; Parashar, Arun; Udayabanu, Malairaman

    2015-06-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disorder and has been associated with cognitive dysfunction. In our earlier study, chronic Urtica dioica (UD) treatment significantly ameliorated diabetes induced associative and spatial memory deficit in mice. The present study was designed to explore the effect of UD leaves extract on muscarinic cholinergic system, which has long been known to be involved in cognition. Streptozotocin (STZ) (50 mg/kg, i.p., consecutively for 5 days) was used to induce diabetes followed by treatment with UD extract (50 mg/kg, oral) or rosiglitazone (5 mg/kg, oral) for 8 weeks. STZ-induced diabetic mice showed significant reduction in hippocampal muscarinic acetylcholine receptor-1 and choline acetyltransferase expressions. Chronic diabetes significantly up-regulated the protein expression of acetylcholinesterase associated with oxidative stress in hippocampus. Besides, STZ-induced diabetic mice showed hypolocomotion with up-regulation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor-4 expression in striatum. Chronic UD treatment significantly attenuated the cholinergic dysfunction and oxidative stress in the hippocampus of diabetic mice. UD had no effect on locomotor activity and muscarinic acetylcholine receptor-4 expression in striatum. In conclusion, UD leaves extract has potential to reverse diabetes mediated alteration in muscarinic cholinergic system in hippocampus and thereby improve memory functions.

  19. Protective effects of pioglitazone against immunoglobulin deposition on heart of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, M; Qiu, M; Cui, J; Zhang, X; Zhang, P

    2014-04-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) agonists have immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects. The study investigated the autoimmune injuries of diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) and tested the hypothesis that PPAR-γ agonists suppress disordered immune responses in diabetic heart, thereby preventing evolution of DCM. STZ-induced diabetic rats were assigned to five groups: DM group, given no treatment; INS group, given insulin (4 U kg(-1) d(-1)); PIL group, given low dose pioglitazone (4 mg kg(-1) d(-1)); PIL/INS group, given both low dose pioglitazone and insulin; PIH group, given high dose pioglitazone (20 mg kg(-1) d(-1)). Normal rats (CON group) were also monitored as control. The pathologic abnormalities of hearts were observed. The immunoglobulin deposition was examined by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence. At 16 weeks, interstitial fibrosis was shown in diabetic heart which was accompanied by plenty of inflammatory cells infiltrated. Pioglitazone therapy could ameliorate the cardiac injuries. Shown by immunohistochemistry, the difference of integrated optical density (IOD) of immunoglobulin deposition among each group had statistic significance. No obvious immunoglobulins were deposited in the intercellular substance of heart in CON group (IgA 290.8 ± 88.1, IgG 960.4 ± 316.0 and IgM 341.3 ± 67.9). But the deposition of immunoglobulins increased significantly in DM group (IgA 7,047.5 ± 1,328.3, P immunoglobulin deposition on diabetic myocardium.

  20. Effect of potent ethyl acetate fraction of Stereospermum suaveolens extract in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, T; Chatterjee, Tapan Kumar; Senthilkumar, G P; Mani, Tamizh

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the antihyperglycemic effect of ethyl acetate fraction of ethanol extract of Stereospermum suaveolens in streptozotocin-(STZ-) induced diabetic rats by acute and subacute models. In this paper, various fractions of ethanol extract of Stereospermum suaveolens were prepared and their effects on blood glucose levels in STZ-induced diabetic rats were studied after a single oral administration (200 mg/kg). Administration of the ethyl acetate fraction at 200 mg/kg once daily for 14 days to STZ-induced diabetic rats was also carried out. The parameters such as the fasting blood glucose, hepatic glycogen content, and pancreatic antioxidant levels were monitored. In the acute study, the ethyl acetate fraction is the most potent in reducing the fasting serum glucose levels of the STZ-induced diabetic rats. The 14-day repeated oral administration of the ethyl acetate fraction significantly reduced the fasting blood glucose and pancreatic TBARS level and significantly increased the liver glycogen, pancreatic superoxide dismutase, and catalase activities as well as reduced glutathione levels. The histopathological studies during the subacute treatment have been shown to ameliorate the STZ-induced histological damage of pancreas. This paper concludes that the ethyl acetate fraction from ethanol extract of Stereospermum suaveolens possesses potent antihyperglycemic and antioxidant properties, thereby substantiating the use of plant in the indigenous system of medicine.

  1. Effect of Potent Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Stereospermum suaveolens Extract in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

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    T. Balasubramanian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the antihyperglycemic effect of ethyl acetate fraction of ethanol extract of Stereospermum suaveolens in streptozotocin-(STZ- induced diabetic rats by acute and subacute models. In this paper, various fractions of ethanol extract of Stereospermum suaveolens were prepared and their effects on blood glucose levels in STZ-induced diabetic rats were studied after a single oral administration (200?mg/kg. Administration of the ethyl acetate fraction at 200?mg/kg once daily for 14 days to STZ-induced diabetic rats was also carried out. The parameters such as the fasting blood glucose, hepatic glycogen content, and pancreatic antioxidant levels were monitored. In the acute study, the ethyl acetate fraction is the most potent in reducing the fasting serum glucose levels of the STZ-induced diabetic rats. The 14-day repeated oral administration of the ethyl acetate fraction significantly reduced the fasting blood glucose and pancreatic TBARS level and significantly increased the liver glycogen, pancreatic superoxide dismutase, and catalase activities as well as reduced glutathione levels. The histopathological studies during the subacute treatment have been shown to ameliorate the STZ-induced histological damage of pancreas. This paper concludes that the ethyl acetate fraction from ethanol extract of Stereospermum suaveolens possesses potent antihyperglycemic and antioxidant properties, thereby substantiating the use of plant in the indigenous system of medicine.

  2. Effect of spent turmeric on kidney glycoconjugates in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Gurusiddaiah Suresh; Salimath, Paramahans Veerayya

    2014-01-01

    Curcumin known to have number of medicinal use and masked the fiber containing ukonan like active polysaccharide in turmeric and its pharmacological effect will be addressed on diabetic nephropathy particularly the glycoconjugates of extracellular components viz., glycoproteins and glycosaminoglycans - heparan sulfate (HS). Male Wistar rats were maintained on AIN-76 diet containing 10% spent turmeric and were grouped into control and STZ induced diabetes SFC/TFC and SFD/TFD, respectively. Diabetic status was monitored using blood and urine, and at the end, harvested kidneys were used to study the amelioration of glycoprotiens (collagen) and HS by enzymatic digestion, spectrophotometric, hydroxyproline and agarose electrophoretic methods. In the present study spent turmeric (10%) fed diabetic rats showed improved glomerular filtration rate (50%), kidney enlargement (60%) and other glycoconjugate metabolism in kidney. Increased collagen content in diabetic group was observed by hydroxyproline estimation (24%) and periodic acid-Schiff's (PAS) staining. Furthermore, elevated activities of enzymes involved in the synthesis and degradation of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) were significantly lowered in spent turmeric fed diabetic group. Improvement in total GAGs (43%) and sulfate content (18%) followed by fractionation of GAGs using specific enzymes led to HS (28%) in the spent turmeric fed diabetic group, when compared to starch fed diabetic group and was further confirmed by electrophoresis of GAG. These results clearly indicate beneficial role of spent turmeric in controlling glycoconjugates such as glycoproteins and heparan sulfate related kidney complications during diabetes.

  3. Effect of streptozotocin-induced diabetes on motor representations in the motor cortex and corticospinal tract in rats.

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    Muramatsu, Ken; Ikutomo, Masako; Tamaki, Toru; Shimo, Satoshi; Niwa, Masatoshi

    2018-02-01

    Motor disorders in patients with diabetes are associated with diabetic peripheral neuropathy, which can lead to symptoms such as lower extremity weakness. However, it is unclear whether central motor system disorders can disrupt motor function in patients with diabetes. In a streptozotocin-induced rat model of type 1 diabetes, we used intracortical microstimulation to evaluate motor representations in the motor cortex, recorded antidromic motor cortex responses to spinal cord stimulation to evaluate the function of corticospinal tract (CST) axons, and used retrograde labeling to evaluate morphological alterations of CST neurons. The diabetic rats exhibited size reductions in the hindlimb area at 4 weeks and in trunk and forelimb areas after 13 weeks, with the hindlimb and trunk area reductions being the most severe. Other areas were unaffected. Additionally, we observed reduced antidromic responses in CST neurons with axons projecting to lumbar spinal segments (CST-L) but not in those with axons projecting to cervical segments (CST-C). This was consistent with the observation that retrograde-labeled CST-L neurons were decreased in number following tracer injection into the spinal cord in diabetic animals but that CST-C neurons were preserved. These results show that diabetes disrupts the CST system components controlling hindlimb and trunk movement. This disruption may contribute to lower extremity weakness in patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Synergism effects of pioglitazone and Urtica dioica extract in streptozotocin-induced nephropathy via attenuation of oxidative stress

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    Mohammad Shokrzadeh

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Hyperglycemia promotes oxidative stress that plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of Diabetic nephropathy (DN. In this study, we investigated the synergism effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Urtica dioica and pioglitazone (PIO on the prevention of DN in streptozotocin induced-diabetic mice. Materials and Methods: Forty-two mice were divided into six groups as follows: non-diabetic control group, DMSO group (as solvent, diabetic group and four treatment groups which received U. dioica, pioglitazone, U. dioica plus pioglitazone and vitE. Diabetes was induced by a single dose of streptozotocin (STZ (200 mg/kg body wt, IP diluted in citrate buffer (pH= 4.6. After 4 weeks treatment, all animals were anaesthetized and blood was collected for serum urea and creatinine levels assessment in plasma and kidney tissue were excised for evaluation of oxidative stress markers. Results: Treatment with U. dioica significantly inhibited increase in serum urea and creatinine in plasma that were observed in diabetic mice. Furthermore, the elevated level of oxidative stress markers (glutathione oxidation, lipid peroxidation (LPO, protein carbonyl in renal supernatant of diabetic mice was inhibited by U. dioica treatment.  Interestingly, U. dioica promoted beneficial effects of PIO in reducing STZ-induced hyperglycemia, renal damage and oxidative stress markers. Conclusion: Our findings showed that PIO plus U. dioica have synergism protective effects against STZ-induced nephropathy that can be a candidate as a therapeutic approach in order to treatment of DN.

  5. Synergism effects of pioglitazone and Urtica dioica extract in streptozotocin-induced nephropathy via attenuation of oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokrzadeh, Mohammad; Sadat-Hosseini, Sara; Fallah, Marjan; Shaki, Fatemeh

    2017-05-01

    Hyperglycemia promotes oxidative stress that plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of Diabetic nephropathy (DN). In this study, we investigated the synergism effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Urtica dioica and pioglitazone (PIO) on the prevention of DN in streptozotocin induced-diabetic mice. Forty-two mice were divided into six groups as follows: non-diabetic control group, DMSO group (as solvent), diabetic group and four treatment groups which received U. dioica , pioglitazone, U. dioica plus pioglitazone and vitE. Diabetes was induced by a single dose of streptozotocin (STZ) (200 mg/kg body wt, IP) diluted in citrate buffer (pH= 4.6). After 4 weeks treatment, all animals were anaesthetized and blood was collected for serum urea and creatinine levels assessment in plasma and kidney tissue were excised for evaluation of oxidative stress markers. Treatment with U. dioica significantly inhibited increase in serum urea and creatinine in plasma that were observed in diabetic mice. Furthermore, the elevated level of oxidative stress markers (glutathione oxidation, lipid peroxidation (LPO), protein carbonyl) in renal supernatant of diabetic mice was inhibited by U. dioica treatment. Interestingly, U. dioica promoted beneficial effects of PIO in reducing STZ-induced hyperglycemia, renal damage and oxidative stress markers. Our findings showed that PIO plus U. dioica have synergism protective effects against STZ-induced nephropathy that can be a candidate as a therapeutic approach in order to treatment of DN.

  6. Effect of streptozotocin-induced diabetes on myocardial blood flow reserve assessed by myocardial contrast echocardiography in rats

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    Weytjens Caroline

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The role of structural and functional abnormalities of small vessels in diabetes cardiomyopathy remains unclear. Myocardial contrast echocardiography allows the quantification of myocardial blood flow at rest and during dipyridamole infusion. The aim of the study was to determine the myocardial blood flow reserve in normal rats compared with Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats using contrast echocardiography. Methods We prospectively studied 40 Wistar rats. Diabetes was induced by intravenous streptozotocin in 20 rats. All rats underwent baseline and stress (dipyridamole: 20 mg/kg high power intermittent imaging in short axis view under anaesthesia baseline and after six months. Myocardial blood flow was determined and compared at rest and after dipyridamole in both populations. The myocardial blood flow reserve was calculated and compared in the 2 groups. Parameters of left ventricular function were determined from the M-mode tracings and histological examination was performed in all rats at the end of the study. Results At six months, myocardial blood flow reserve was significantly lower in diabetic rats compared to controls (3.09 ± 0.98 vs. 1.28 ± 0.67 ml min-1 g-1; p Conclusion In this animal study, diabetes induced a functional alteration of the coronary microcirculation, as demonstrated by contrast echocardiography, a decrease in capillary density and of the cardiac systolic function. These findings may offer new insights into the underlying mechanisms of diabetes cardiomyopathy.

  7. Antihyperglycemic effect of ethanolic extract and fractions of anacardium occidentale L. Stem bark in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

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    Singh, Ramnik

    2009-12-01

    The numbers of adults with diabetes in the world is estimated to rise 300 millions in the year 2025 and this leads to increasing search for better anti-diabetic drug. The effects of the ethanol extract (1.25 g/kg) and fractions (Ethyl acetate, dichloromethane and butanol in the dose of 1 g/kg) of Anacardium occidentale stem bark on the blood glucose levels in streptozotocin-induced types 1 and 2 diabetic rats at different prandial states were studied. The ethanol extract of A. occidentale had no hypoglycemic effect in type 1 diabetic rats in fasting and postprandial glucose load conditions and, in type 2 diabetic rats in fasting condition. However, the extract, significantly lowered blood glucose levels in type 2 diabetic rats when fed simultaneously with glucose. The ethyl acetate fraction showed a significant opposing effect in serum glucose rise after administration of glucose. Additionally, its dichloromethane extract also exhibited a significant reduction in serum glucose level compared to control after glucose administration while its butanol fraction was devoid of this activity. These findings conclude that the active principles responsible for the antihyperglycaemic effect might be concentrated in the ethyl acetate and dichloromethane fractions of the extract.

  8. Potent antihyperglycemic and hypoglycemic effect of Tamarix articulata Vahl. in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebi, Morad; Farid, Omra; Ajebli, Mohammed; Eddouks, Mohamed

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of a single dose and daily oral administration for seven days of the aerial part aqueous extract (A.P.A.E) of Tamarix articulata Vahl. (T. articulata) (5mg/kg) on blood glucose levels in both normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ). Single oral administration of T. articulata A.P.A.E reduced blood glucose levels 6h after administration in normal rats (pTamarix articulata was evaluated by the method of trapping of free radical 2,2-diphenyl-1 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). Tamarix articulata revealed inhibitory concentrations of 50% of free radicals (IC50) of 203.15μg/ml. In contrast, the synthetic antioxidant butylhydroxytoluene (BHT) has showed an IC50 equal to 13.71μg/ml. In conclusion, this study demonstrates antihyperglycemic, hypoglycemic and antioxidant effects of T. articulata in severe diabetic state thus warrants further investigation on its major compounds as well as mechanistic studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Vitamin B6 Supplementation Improves Oxidative Stress and Enhances Serum Paraoxonase/Arylesterase Activities in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

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    Sibel Taş

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of vitamin B6 (Vit B6 on oxidant and antioxidant status in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Thirty-two Wistar rats were divided into four groups: control (C, control + Vit B6 group (C + Vit B6, diabetes (D, and diabetes + Vit B6 group (D + Vit B6. Vit B6 (4 mg/kg body weight was administered in drinking water for 4 weeks after the induction of diabetes. Vitamin B6 reduced serum total cholesterol level in the C + Vit B6 (P < 0.01 and D + Vit B6 (P < 0.05 groups. Plasma and tissue malondialdehyde levels were reduced in the C + Vit B6 and D + Vit B6 groups. Whole blood glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (SOD activities were higher in the D group (P < 0.05. GSH-Px and SOD activities were increased in C + Vit B6 group while these parameters decreased in the D + Vit B6 group. Paraoxonase and arylesterase activities were decreased in the D group while they were increased in C + Vit B6 and D + Vit B6 groups. The results of present study suggest that vitamin B6 supplementation might be a promising adjunctive agent for improving oxidative stress and metabolic disturbances and for preventing diabetic complications including atherogenesis.

  10. The Effect of Aspalathin on Levels of Sugar and Lipids in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic and Normal Rats

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    Mahmood Najafian

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Flavonoids have been reported as mammalian alpha-amylase inhibitors, a property which could be useful in the management of postprandial hyperglycemia in diabetes and its related disorders. Objectives In the present study the inhibitory effect of aspalathin as a flavonoid on alpha amylase activity and levels of sugar and lipids in rats, has been investigated. Methods In this experimental study, type inhibition of aspalatin on amylase and in the part of in vivo, the effect of aspalathin orally doses 5, 10, 20 and 40 mg/kg body weight on sugar and lipids levels was tested in a streptozotocin-induced model of diabetes and normal rats. The data were analyzed by one-sample Kolmogrov-Smirnov, Levene and ANOVA tests through SPSS version 22. Results The results showed that aspalathin is a competitive inhibitor for alpha amylase with Ki = 37.0 μM. In both diabetic and normal groups in all doses nearly dose dependent manner reduced blood glucose levels and beneficial effect on dyslipidemia were observed in diabetic rats, as well as reduction of disturbing consequences of diabetes such as high urine volume and water intake. Aspalathin was observed to have a weight loss-inductive effect, alongside with a reduction in food intake. Conclusions It seems that, this compound could be proposed as an antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic agent in diabetes and potential therapeutic in obesity.

  11. A rationally designed peptide IA-2-P2 against type 1 diabetes in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Lili; Lu, Shiping; Huang, Dongcheng; Li, Guoliang; Liu, Kunfeng; Cao, Rongyue; Zong, Li; Jin, Liang; Wu, Jie

    2017-05-01

    Recent studies have investigated the potential of type 1 diabetes mellitus-related autoantigens, such as heat shock protein 60, to induce immunological tolerance or to suppress the immune response. A functional 24-residue peptide derived from heat shock protein 60 (P277) has shown anti-type 1 diabetes mellitus potential in experimental animals and in clinical studies, but it also carries a potential atherogenic effect. In this study, we have modified P277 to retain an anti-type 1 diabetes mellitus effect and minimize the atherogenic potential by replacing the P277 B epitope with another diabetes-associated autoantigen, insulinoma antigen-2 (IA-2), to create the fusion peptide IA-2-P2. In streptozotocin-induced diabetic C57BL/6J mice, the IA-2-P2 peptide displayed similar anti-diabetic effects to the control P277 peptide. Also, the IA-2-P2 peptide did not show atherogenic activity in a rabbit model. Our findings indicate the potential of IA-2-P2 as a promising vaccine against type 1 diabetes mellitus.

  12. The Protective Effects of Insulin and Natural Honey against Hippocampal Cell Death in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

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    Iraj Jafari Anarkooli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of insulin and honey as antioxidants to prevent the hippocampal cell death in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. We selected sixty Wister rats (5 groups of 12 animals each, including the control group (C, and four diabetic groups (control (D and 3 groups treated with insulin (I, honey (H, and insulin plus honey (I + H. Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin injection (IP, 60 mg/kg. Six weeks after the induction of diabetes, the group I received insulin (3-4 U/kg/day, SC, group H received honey (5 mg/kg/day, IP, and group I + H received a combination of the above at the same dose. Groups C and D received normal saline. Two weeks after treatment, rats were sacrificed and the hippocampus was extracted. Neuronal cell death in the hippocampal region was examined using trypan blue assay, “H & E” staining, and TUNEL assay. Cell viability assessment showed significantly lower number of living cells in group D than in group C. Besides, the mean number of living cells was significantly higher in group I, H, and I + H compared to group D. Therefore, it can be concluded that the treatment of the diabetic rats with insulin, honey, and a combination of insulin and honey can prevent neuronal cell death in different hippocampal areas of the studied samples.

  13. Antidiabetic and Synergistic Effects of Anthocyanin Fraction from Berberis integerrima Fruit on Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats Model

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    Zahra Sabahi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is a complex endocrine disorder. There is a serious attempt to identify antidiabetic compounds from natural sources to use with other drugs for reduction of diabetes complications. Present study is based on the investigation of antihyperglycemic effect of anthocyanin fraction of Berberis integerrima Bunge (AFBI fruits on some physiological parameters (glucose level, glycogen content, and body weight in normal and streptozotocin-induced (STZ-induced diabetic rats and evaluation of synergic effect of this fraction with metformin and glibenclamide. Male Sprague dawley rats were divided into nine groups: healthy control group, diabetic control group, diabetic groups treated with anthocyanin fraction (200, 400 and 1000 mg/kg, respectively; diabetic groups treated with glibenclamide and metformin separately, diabetic groups treated with glibenclamide + anthocyanin fraction (1000 mg/kg, metformin + anthocyanin fraction (1000 mg/kg. Treatment of diabetic rats with AFBI (400, 1000mg/kg significantly decreased blood glucose as compared with control. Moreover, AFBI (400, 1000mg/kg significantly increased liver glycogen and body weight compared to control. Nevertheless, there were no synergistic effects between anthocyanin fraction and metformin or glibenclamide on blood glucose, liver glycogen, and body weight. The results of this study indicate that AFBI possesses hypoglycemic effects and may be considered for evaluation in future diabetes clinical studies.

  14. Bixin and Norbixin Have Opposite Effects on Glycemia, Lipidemia, and Oxidative Stress in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

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    Miguel Roehrs

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the effects of oral administration of annatto carotenoids (bixin (BIX and norbixin (NBIX on glucose levels, lipid profiles, and oxidative stress parameters in streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic rats. Animals were treated for 30 days in the following groups: nondiabetic control, diabetic vehicle, diabetic 10 mg/kg BIX, diabetic 100 mg/kg BIX, diabetic 10 mg/kg NBIX, diabetic 100 mg/kg NBIX, diabetic metformin, and diabetic insulin. Blood glucose, LDL cholesterol, and triglyceride levels were reduced in the diabetic rats treated with BIX. BIX treatment prevented protein oxidation and nitric oxide production and restored superoxide dismutase activity. NBIX treatment did not change most parameters assessed, and at the highest dose, it increased LDL cholesterol and triglycerides levels and showed prooxidant action (increased protein oxidation and nitric oxide levels. These findings suggested that BIX could have an antihyperglycemic effect, improve lipid profiles, and protect against damage induced by oxidative stress in the diabetic state. Because NBIX is a water-soluble analog of BIX, we propose that lipophilicity is crucial for the protective effect of annatto carotenoids against streptozotocin-induced diabetes.

  15. Bixin and Norbixin Have Opposite Effects on Glycemia, Lipidemia, and Oxidative Stress in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanchi, Mariane Magalhães; Bochi, Guilherme Vargas; Somacal, Sabrina

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of oral administration of annatto carotenoids (bixin (BIX) and norbixin (NBIX)) on glucose levels, lipid profiles, and oxidative stress parameters in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Animals were treated for 30 days in the following groups: nondiabetic control, diabetic vehicle, diabetic 10 mg/kg BIX, diabetic 100 mg/kg BIX, diabetic 10 mg/kg NBIX, diabetic 100 mg/kg NBIX, diabetic metformin, and diabetic insulin. Blood glucose, LDL cholesterol, and triglyceride levels were reduced in the diabetic rats treated with BIX. BIX treatment prevented protein oxidation and nitric oxide production and restored superoxide dismutase activity. NBIX treatment did not change most parameters assessed, and at the highest dose, it increased LDL cholesterol and triglycerides levels and showed prooxidant action (increased protein oxidation and nitric oxide levels). These findings suggested that BIX could have an antihyperglycemic effect, improve lipid profiles, and protect against damage induced by oxidative stress in the diabetic state. Because NBIX is a water-soluble analog of BIX, we propose that lipophilicity is crucial for the protective effect of annatto carotenoids against streptozotocin-induced diabetes. PMID:24624139

  16. Extract of Adenanthera pavonina L. seed reduces development of diabetic nephropathy in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

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    Ramdas Pandhare

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the renal protective effect of Adenanthera pavonina (A. pavonina seed aqueous extract (APSAE, in streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic rats.Materials and Methods: The renal protective effect of A. pavonina seed aqueous extract (APSAE was studied in STZ-induced diabetic rats. APSAE (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg per day was given daily to diabetic rats for 13 weeks. Blood glucose, serum parameters such as albumin, creatinine, total protein, urea, lipid profile, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c, and urine parameters such as urine protein and albumin were examined. Kidney histopathology was also done. Results: After 13 weeks of treatment, in STZ-induced diabetic rats, severe hyperglycemia was developed, with marked increase in proteinuria and albuminuria. However, APSAE treatment significantly reduced proteinuria, albuminuria, lipid levels, and HbA1c deposition in diabetic rats. Conclusion: These results suggested that APSAE has reduced development of diabetic nephropathy in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats and could have beneficial effect in reducing the progression of diabetic nephropathy.

  17. Bixin and norbixin have opposite effects on glycemia, lipidemia, and oxidative stress in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roehrs, Miguel; Figueiredo, Cassieli Gehlen; Zanchi, Mariane Magalhães; Bochi, Guilherme Vargas; Moresco, Rafael Noal; Quatrin, Andréia; Somacal, Sabrina; Conte, Lisiane; Emanuelli, Tatiana

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of oral administration of annatto carotenoids (bixin (BIX) and norbixin (NBIX)) on glucose levels, lipid profiles, and oxidative stress parameters in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Animals were treated for 30 days in the following groups: nondiabetic control, diabetic vehicle, diabetic 10 mg/kg BIX, diabetic 100 mg/kg BIX, diabetic 10 mg/kg NBIX, diabetic 100 mg/kg NBIX, diabetic metformin, and diabetic insulin. Blood glucose, LDL cholesterol, and triglyceride levels were reduced in the diabetic rats treated with BIX. BIX treatment prevented protein oxidation and nitric oxide production and restored superoxide dismutase activity. NBIX treatment did not change most parameters assessed, and at the highest dose, it increased LDL cholesterol and triglycerides levels and showed prooxidant action (increased protein oxidation and nitric oxide levels). These findings suggested that BIX could have an antihyperglycemic effect, improve lipid profiles, and protect against damage induced by oxidative stress in the diabetic state. Because NBIX is a water-soluble analog of BIX, we propose that lipophilicity is crucial for the protective effect of annatto carotenoids against streptozotocin-induced diabetes.

  18. Antidiabetic and antioxidant potentials of Euphorbia hirta leaves extract studied in streptozotocin-induced experimental diabetes in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Sorimuthu P; Bhuvaneshwari, Subramanian; Prasath, Gopalan S

    2011-09-01

    Euphorbia hirta, commonly known as asthma weed, is a popular folk remedy for the treatment of various ailments. Recent studies have indicated that plant has potent antioxidant properties. As part of an ongoing programme to validate the use of some reputed herbs in Indian traditional medicines, the present study was aimed to evaluate the antidiabetic and antioxidant potentials of E. hirta leaves in streptozotocin-induced experimental diabetes in rats. Oral administration of E. hirta leaves extract (300 mg/kg b.w./rat/day) for a period of 30 days indicated the antidiabetic nature of the leaves extract. Determination of the lipid peroxides, hydroperoxides, and both enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants evidenced the antioxidant potential of the leaves extract. Assay of enzymes such as serum aspartate transaminase (AST), serum alanine transaminase (ALT) and serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) revealed the non-toxic nature of E. hirta leaves. The hypoglycemic activity of the leaves extract was comparable with gliclazide, a standard reference drug.

  19. Studies on the Antidiabetic Activities of Cordyceps militaris Extract in Diet-Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Sprague-Dawley Rats

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    Yuan Dong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to substantial morbidity and high complications, diabetes mellitus is considered as the third “killer” in the world. A search for alternative antidiabetic drugs from herbs or fungi is highly demanded. Our present study aims to investigate the antidiabetic activities of Cordyceps militaris on diet-streptozotocin-induced type 2 diabetes mellitus in rats. Diabetic rats were orally administered with water extract or alcohol extract at 0.05 g/kg and 2 g/kg for 3 weeks, and then, the factors levels related to blood glucose, lipid, free radicals, and even nephropathy were determined. Pathological alterations on liver and kidney were examined. Data showed that, similar to metformin, Cordyceps militaris extracts displayed a significant reduction in blood glucose levels by promoting glucose metabolism and strongly suppressed total cholesterol and triglycerides concentration in serum. Cordyceps militaris extracts exhibit antioxidative effects indicated by normalized superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase levels. The inhibitory effects on blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, uric acid, and protein revealed the protection of Cordyceps militaris extracts against diabetic nephropathy, which was confirmed by pathological morphology reversion. Collectively, Cordyceps militaris extract, a safe pharmaceutical agent, presents excellent antidiabetic and antinephropathic activities and thus has great potential as a new source for diabetes treatment.

  20. Studies on the antidiabetic activities of Cordyceps militaris extract in diet-streptozotocin-induced diabetic Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yuan; Jing, Tianjiao; Meng, Qingfan; Liu, Chungang; Hu, Shuang; Ma, Yihang; Liu, Yan; Lu, Jiahui; Cheng, Yingkun; Wang, Di; Teng, Lirong

    2014-01-01

    Due to substantial morbidity and high complications, diabetes mellitus is considered as the third "killer" in the world. A search for alternative antidiabetic drugs from herbs or fungi is highly demanded. Our present study aims to investigate the antidiabetic activities of Cordyceps militaris on diet-streptozotocin-induced type 2 diabetes mellitus in rats. Diabetic rats were orally administered with water extract or alcohol extract at 0.05 g/kg and 2 g/kg for 3 weeks, and then, the factors levels related to blood glucose, lipid, free radicals, and even nephropathy were determined. Pathological alterations on liver and kidney were examined. Data showed that, similar to metformin, Cordyceps militaris extracts displayed a significant reduction in blood glucose levels by promoting glucose metabolism and strongly suppressed total cholesterol and triglycerides concentration in serum. Cordyceps militaris extracts exhibit antioxidative effects indicated by normalized superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase levels. The inhibitory effects on blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, uric acid, and protein revealed the protection of Cordyceps militaris extracts against diabetic nephropathy, which was confirmed by pathological morphology reversion. Collectively, Cordyceps militaris extract, a safe pharmaceutical agent, presents excellent antidiabetic and antinephropathic activities and thus has great potential as a new source for diabetes treatment.

  1. Improved serotonergic neurotransmission by genistein pretreatment regulates symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phadnis, Pradeep; Dey Sarkar, Purnima; Rajput, Mithun Singh

    2018-03-21

    Initial evidences have shown that diabetes mellitus occurs concomitantly with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) symptomatology. Serotonergic psychiatric therapy posits that serotonin is a central character in the management of OCD. Hence, it is worth investigating novel chemical entities affecting the serotonergic system for targeting OCD. An isoflavonoid phytoestrogen, genistein, has been recognized as of great pharmacological value especially for protecting neurodegeneration, depression (serotonin regulation), and diabetes. The effectiveness of genistein pretreatment on the symptoms of OCD in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice is investigated in this study. We also evaluate the probable involvement of the serotonergic system. Groups of diabetic mice were treated with genistein at the dose of 5.0 and 10.0 mg/kg (intraperitoneal, twice daily, 14 days), and symptoms of OCD were assessed by the marble-burying behavior, in comparison with the standard drug fluoxetine. Neurochemical assessment of the serotonergic ratio 5-hydroxyindole-3-methoxyphenylacetic acid/5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HIAA/5-HT) in the cortical region of the brain was performed using HPLC (high-pressure liquid chromatography). Chronic treatment with genistein significantly recovered [F(6, 35)=53.00, pdragged it [F(6, 35)=35.75, p<0.0001, R2=0.8597] toward the respective control. Genistein supplementation might be a potential therapeutic line for the management and/or prevention of diabetes-associated OCD symptomatology.

  2. Resveratrol Improves Cognitive Impairment by Regulating Apoptosis and Synaptic Plasticity in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

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    Zhiyan Tian

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To investigate the effects of resveratrol on cognitive impairment in streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic rats and to explore the mechanisms of that phenomenon. Methods: Sixty healthy male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: normal control group (Con group, n = 15, Res group (normal Sprague Dawley rats treated with resveratrol, n = 15, diabetes mellitus group (DM group, n = 15 and DM + Res group (diabetic rats treat with resveratrol, n = 15. Streptozotocin (STZ was injected intraperitoneally to establish the diabetic model. One week after diabetic model induction, the animals in the Res group and the DM + Res group received resveratrol intraperitoneally once a day for consecutive 4 weeks. The Morris water maze test was applied to assess the effect of resveratrol on learning and memory. To explore the mechanisms of resveratrol on cognition, we detected the protein expression levels of Caspase-3, Bcl-2, Bax, NMDAR1 (N-Methyl-d-Aspartate receptor and BDNF (Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor via western blotting analysis. Results: Resveratrol has no obvious effect on normal SD rats. Compared to Con group, cognitive ability was significantly impaired with increased expression of Caspase-3, Bax and down-regulation of Bcl-2, NMDAR1 and BDNF in diabetic rats. By contrast, resveratrol treatment improved the cognitive decline. Evidently, resveratrol treatment reversed diabetes-induced changes of protein expression. Conclusions: Resveratrol significantly ameliorates cognitive decline in STZ-induced diabetic model rats. The potential mechanism underlying the protective effect could be attributed to the inhibition of hippocampal apoptosis through the Bcl-2, Bax and Caspase-3 signaling pathways and improvement of synaptic dysfunction. BDNF may also play an indispensable role in this mechanism.

  3. Modulation of heme oxygenase-1 expression and activity affects streptozotocin-induced diabetic nephropathy in rats.

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    Ali, Marwa A M; Heeba, Gehan H; El-Sheikh, Azza A K

    2017-10-01

    Heme oxygenase (HO)-1 has exhibited nephro-protective actions in different animal models; however, its full mechanistic potential in diabetic nephropathy (DN) has not yet been elucidated. Hence, the present study has been undertaken by inducing DN in rats using streptozotocin (50 mg/kg i.p.), with or without either HO-1 inducer; hemin (HM; 40 μmol/kg, s.c.), or HO-1 blocker; zinc protoporphyrin-IX (ZnPP; 50 μmol/kg, i.p.), for one month. Compared to control, rats with DN suffered from hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia, with signs of renal damage, as assessed by distortion in renal histopathologic architecture and kidney function. Renal oxidative/nitrosative stress was evident by increased malondialdehyde, nitric oxide, myeloperoxidase, with decreased reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase, and catalase. DN group also exhibited high renal expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokine; tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and the apoptotic marker; caspase 3, assessed by Western blot. Renal HO-1 protein expression and activity were increased in DN rats compared to control. Administration of HM, but not ZnPP, to DN rats improved kidney function, histopathologic features, lipid profile, TNF-α, and caspase 3 expressions, with no effect on blood glucose level. HM increased, while ZnPP decreased renal HO-1 activity in DN rats. It is noteworthy that neither intervention affected HO-1 activity or renal oxidative capacity in non-diabetic rats. Interestingly, the expression of HO-1 was upregulated by both HM and ZnPP in DN rats. In conclusion, activation of HO-1 via HM ameliorated renal damage in STZ-induced DN in rats, probably through antioxidant, anti-nitrosative, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic mechanisms. © 2017 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  4. Effect of Nitric Oxide, Vitamin E and Selenium on Streptozotocin induced diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nader, Manar M.; Eissa, Laila A.; Gamil, Nariman M.; Ammar, El-Sayed M.

    2007-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is characterized by a series of complications that may affect many organs. This study aimed to investigate the role of nitric oxide (NO) as a physiological mediator in the body via the use of L-arginine as NO precursor Ng-nitro-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) as Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) enzyme inhibitor in diabetic rats. The effect of vitamin E as antioxidant and selenium as a potent insulin-mimetic agent in diabetic rats were studied. The possible combination of selenium or vitamin E with L-arginine was studied in the same animal model to show the ability of these treatments to ameliorate some of the biochemical changes that are worsen with the development of diabetes such as lipid profile, plasma glucose, blood malondialdehyde (MDA), plasma nitric oxide and plasma b-2 microglobulin levels. Experimental diabetes was induced in male rats by I.V. injection of Streptozotocin (STZ) (50mg/kg). Diabetic rats showed a significant increase (P<0.05) in the plasma level of glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, b2-micro globulin, blood MDA as a result of increased oxidative stress while there was a significant decrease in plasma HDL-cholesterol, and nitrate/nitrite levels. L-arginine, vitamin E and selenium administration produced a significant decrease in plasma glucose level of diabetic arts (13%, 29.11%, 61.65%) respectively from its initial value, so as they showed a significant reduction in blood MDA level, plasma triglyceride, total cholesterol, LDL-Ch.. levels when compared with the initial diabetic values. Combined therapy of vitamin E and L-arginine showed no significant change of any of the measured parameters (except for nitrate/nitrite level) on comparison either with vitamin E or with L-arginine treated group. The combined therapy of selenium and L-arginine showed a significant decrease nearly to normal level in the plasma glucose concentration and may be of clinical significance. (author)

  5. Cocos nucifera in combination with metformin for modulation of diabetic symptoms in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Ginpreet; Sankrityayan, Himanshu; Dixit, Deepashree; Jadhav, Priyanka

    2017-12-12

    Cocos nucifera, belonging to Arecaceae family, holds quite an importance in the Indian traditional medicinal system. C.nucifera inflorescence (CnI) has been reported in the literature to be useful in the treatment of diarrhoea, dysentery, diabetes, and dyspepsia. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the efficacy of CnI as an adjuvant with metformin in ameliorating Type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2-DM). To evaluate antidiabetic activity of CnI in combination with metformin in Streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced in male Wistar rats using streptozotocin (45 mg/kg; i.p.). Plasma glucose level (PGL) was estimated after 72 h of STZ injection. Ethanolic extract of CnI (250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg) per se and in combination with metformin (22.5 mg/kg) was administered orally once daily to rats for a period of 28 days. PGL level was estimated on 7 th , 14 th and 21 st day followed by Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT) and PGL both on the 28 th day of treatment. DPPH assay was performed to evaluate antioxidant activity of CnI extract. Extract of CnI (250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg alone and the combination of extract (250 mg/kg) along with metformin (22.5 mg/kg) significantly decreased PGL (p < 0.0001) on 7 th , 14 th , 21 st and 28 th days. Histopathological analysis of pancreatic tissue showed that treatment with CnI extract per se and in combination with metformin improved the damaged architecture of pancreas. The combination therapy of CnI and metformin produced a significant antidiabetic effect than that of the extract alone and provides a scientific rationale for their use in antidiabetic therapy as an adjuvant. Copyright © 2017 Transdisciplinary University, Bangalore and World Ayurveda Foundation. All rights reserved.

  6. Aqueous calyxes extract of Roselle or Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn supplementation improves liver morphology in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazratun Nafizah, Akhtar Husin; Budin, Siti Balkis; Zaryantey, Abd Hamid; Mariati, Abd Rahman; Santhana, Raj Louis; Osman, Mohamad; Muhd Hanis, Md Idris; Jamaludin, Mohamed

    2017-03-01

    The complex series of deleterious events among diabetes patients leads to multiple organ failure. Therefore, a holistic approach of treatment is urgently required to prevent worsening of complications. The present investigation was carried out to study the possible protective effects of Roselle or Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn (HSL) calyxes aqueous extract, as an antidiabetic and antioxidant agent against oxidative liver injury in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. A single dose of streptozotocin (45mg/kg body weight, iv) was used to induced diabetes in male Sprague Dawley rats which were then divided into two groups: Diabetic control (DC) and HSL-treated diabetic (DR) group. Normal rats were divided into normal control (NC), HSL-treated control (NR). Aqueous calyxes extract of HSL (100mg/kg/day, orally) was given for 28 consecutive days in the treated group. Weight, biochemical and histopathological (light and electron microscopic) parameters were compared in all groups. Supplementation of HSL significantly lowered the level of fasting blood glucose and increased plasma insulin level in DR group compared to DC group (p<0.05). Alanine aminotransaminases and aspartate aminotransferase enzymes level were found to be significantly reduced in DR compared to DC. Microscopic examination demonstrated destruction of the liver architecture, cytoplasmic vacuolation of the hepatocytes and signs of necrosis in diabetic rats. Moreover, dilatation and congestion of blood vessels with leucocytes adherence were detected. Ultrastructural study using electron microscope showed homogeneous substance accumulation in nuclear chromatin, a decrease of organelles and mitochondrial degeneration in the diabetic rats. Administration of HSL in diabetic rats causes significant decrease in hepatocyte destruction and prevented the changes associated with the diabetic condition. Thus, our findings provide a scientific rationale for the use of HSL as promising agent in preventing liver injury in

  7. Insulin secretagogue, alpha-glucosidase and antioxidant activity of some selected spices in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Swapnil Balasaheb; Ghadyale, Varsha Adhikrao; Taklikar, Shreehari Subhash; Kulkarni, Chaitanya Ramesh; Arvindekar, Akalpita Umesh

    2011-03-01

    Spices are extensively used to enhance the taste and flavor of foods and are known to possess several medicinal properties. Myristica fragrans, Parmelia perlata, Illicium verum, Trachyspermum copticum and Myristica malabarica, the commonly used spices in India were assessed for antidiabetic activity in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. In the in vitro insulin secretion studies on isolated islets of Langerhans, M. fragrans, T. copticum and M. malabarica showed dose dependent insulin secretion. At 1 mg/ml, P. perlata showed significant in vitro alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activity with IC(50) value of 0.14 mg/ml followed by M. malabarica (0.64 mg/ml), I. verum (0.67 mg/ml), M. fragrans (0.85 mg/ml) and T. copticum (0.92 mg/ml). The DPPH free radical scavenging activity of the extracts at a concentration of 1 mg/ml was as M. malabarica (90.45%), M. fragrans (89.89%), I. verum (87.22%), P. perlata (76.70%) and T. copticum (38.14%). P. perlata showed the highest phenolic content (i.e., 118.5 mg gallic acid equivalents/g) followed by M. malabarica (84.13 mg gallic acid equivalents/g). M. malabarica showed the highest flavonoid content (i.e., 38.35 mg quercetin equivalents/g). Regular use of these spices may prevent postprandial rise in glucose levels through inhibition of intestinal alpha-glucosidase and may maintain blood glucose level through insulin secretagogue action.

  8. Protective role of 20-OH ecdysone on lipid profile and tissue fatty acid changes in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naresh Kumar, Rajendran; Sundaram, Ramalingam; Shanthi, Palanivelu; Sachdanandam, Panchanatham

    2013-01-05

    Hyperlipidemia is an associated complication of diabetes mellitus. The association of hyperglycemia with an alteration of lipid parameters presents a major risk for cardiovascular complications in diabetes. The present study was designed to examine the antihyperlipidemic effect of 20-OH ecdysone on lipid profile and tissue fatty acid changes in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. The levels of blood glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, free fatty acids, phospholipids, low density lipoprotein, very low density lipoprotein, high density lipoprotein, lipoprotein lipase, lecithin cholesterol acyl transferase, 3-hydroxy 3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase and fatty acid composition were estimated in plasma, liver and kidneys of control and experimental groups of rats. Oral administration of 20-OH ecdysone at a dose of 5mg/kg bodyweight per day to STZ-induced diabetic rats for a period of 30 days resulted in a significant reduction in fasting blood glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, free fatty acids, phospholipids, low density lipoprotein, very low density lipoprotein, 3-hydroxy 3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase and elevation of high density lipoprotein, lipoprotein lipase and lecithin cholesterol acyl transferasein comparison with diabetic untreated rats. Moreover, administration of 20-OH ecdysone to diabetic rats also decreased the concentrations of fatty acids, viz., palmitic, stearic (16:1) and oleic acid (18:1), whereas linolenic (18:3) and arachidonic acid (20:4) were elevated. The antihyperlipidemic effect of 20-OH ecdysone was compared with glibenclamide a well-known antihyperglycemic drug. The result of the present study indicates that 20-OH ecdysone showed an antihyperlipidemic effect in addition to its antidiabetic effect in experimental diabetes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, captopril, on bone of mice with streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, Teng-Yue; Pan, Hai; Gu, Sa-Sa; Chen, Xi; Zhang, Fang-Yi; Wong, Man-Sau; Zhang, Yan

    2014-05-01

    There are contradictory results about the effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) on bone. This study was performed to address the skeletal renin-angiotensin system (RAS) activity and the effects of the ACEI, captopril, on the bone of streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetic mice. Histochemical assessment on bone paraffin sections was conducted by Safranin O staining and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining. Micro-computed tomography was performed to analyze bone biological parameters. Gene and protein expression were determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunoblotting, respectively. Type 1 diabetic mice displayed osteopenia phenotype and captopril treatment showed no osteoprotective effects in diabetic mice as shown by the reduction of bone mineral density, trabecular thickness and bone volume/total volume. The mRNA expression of ACE and renin receptor, and the protein expression of renin and angiotensin II were markedly up-regulated in the bone of vehicle-treated diabetic mice compared to those of non-diabetic mice, and these molecular changes of skeletal RAS components were effectively inhibited by treatment with captopril. However, treatment with captopril significantly elevated serum tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b levels, reduced the ratio of osteoprotegerin/receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand expression, increased carbonic anhydrase II mRNA expression and the number of matured osteoclasts and decreased transforming growth factor-β and osteocalcin mRNA expression in the tibia compared to those of diabetic mice. The present study demonstrated that the use of the ACEI, captopril, has no beneficial effect on the skeletal biological properties of diabetic mice. However, this could be attributed, at least partially, to its suppression of osteogenesis and stimulation of osteoclastogenesis, even though it could effectively inhibit high activity of local RAS in the bone of diabetic mice.

  10. Pharmacodynamic interaction of fenugreek with insulin and glimepiride in streptozotocin-induced oxidative stress in Sprague Dawley rats

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    Haritha Chiluka

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to assess the effect of fenugreek-insulin-glimepiride interaction on oxidative stress in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. A total of 56 male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 7 groups (n=8; group 1: served as Sham, group 2: Diabetic control, groups 3, 4 and 5: served as individual treatment group, groups 6 and 7: treated with combination of insulin-fenugreek and glimepiride-fenugreek, respectively. Serum creatinine levels of the rats were estimated at 4th and 8th weeks during treatment. Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances (TBARS, Glutathione (GSH and protein carbonyls were estimated in the kidney homogenate, and relative kidney weights were measured at the end of the experiment. Present study indicated that the levels of TBARS and protein carbonyls significantly increased in group 2 and decreased in groups 3 to 7. On the other hand, groups 6 and 7 showed significantly lowered values compared to the individual treatment groups. The concentration of GSH was significantly decreased in group 2 and significantly increased in groups 3 to 7, and group 7 showed significantly higher concentration among all the treated groups. The serum creatinine concentration in group 2 was significantly higher and all treatment groups (3 to 7 showed significantly lowered values at 4th and 8th wks after treatment. The individual treatment groups (3, 4 and 5, antagonised the significant alteration in the antioxidant parameters, and their combination was revealed synergism by improving the oxidative status in diabetic rats. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2015; 2(3.000: 353-356

  11. Streptozotocin-induced hippocampal astrogliosis and insulin signaling malfunction as experimental scales for subclinical sporadic Alzheimer model.

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    Rostami, Farzaneh; Javan, Mohammad; Moghimi, Ali; Haddad-Mashadrizeh, Aliakbar; Fereidoni, Masoud

    2017-11-01

    Insulin signaling malfunction has recently been suggested as a preliminary event involved in the etiology of Sporadic Alzheimer's disease (SAD). In order to develop insulin resistance-related SAD model, rats were treated with streptozotocin, intracerebroventricularly (icv-STZ). Nevertheless, given the lack of knowledge regarding sub-clinical stages of SAD, the current challenging issue is establishing a practical pre-clinical SAD model. Despite some proposed mechanisms, such as insulin malfunction, neuroinflammation, and gliosis, icv-STZ mechanism of action is not fully understood yet and Streptozotocin-induced rat model of Alzheimer has still major shortcomings. Using three STZ doses (0.5, 1, and 3mg/kg) and three testing time (short-term, medium-term and long-term), we sought the best dose of STZ in order to mimic the characteristic feature of sAD in rats. So, we conducted a series of fifteen-week follow-up cognitive and non-cognitive studies. Besides, IR, tau and ChAT mRNA levels were measured, along with histological analysis of astrocyte, dark neuron numbers, and pyramidal layer thickness, in order to compare the effects of different doses of icv-STZ. STZ 3mg/kg caused cognitive and insulin signaling disturbance from the very first testing-time. STZ1-injected animals, however, showed an augmented hippocampal astrocyte numbers in a short time; they, also, were diagnosed with disturbed insulin signaling in medium-term post icv-STZ-injection. Moreover, behavioral, molecular and histological impairments induced by 0.5mg/kg icv-STZ were slowly progressing in comparison to high doses of STZ. STZ1 and 0.5mg/kg-treated animals are, respectively, suggested as a suitable experimental model of MCI, and sub-clinical stage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Beneficial effects of an Andrographis paniculata extract and andrographolide on cognitive functions in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

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    Thakur, Ajit Kumar; Rai, Geeta; Chatterjee, Shyam Sunder; Kumar, Vikas

    2016-09-01

    Context Andrographolide containing Andrographis paniculata (Burm. F.) Wall. Ex Nees (Acanthaceae) extracts is often used for treatments of diabetes and other inflammatory disorders commonly accompanying cognitive and other psychiatric disorders. Objective To compare the efficacies of a standardised A. paniculata extract (AP) and pure andrographolide on cognitive functions, oxidative stress and cholinergic function in diabetic rats. Materials and methods Streptozotocin-induced diabetic Charles Foster albino rats treated orally with a hydro-methanolic A. paniculata leaf extract (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg/day), or with pure andrographolide (15, 30 and 60 mg/kg/day) for 10 consecutive days, were subjected to Morris water maze test. After the test, acetylcholinesterase, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) activities and lipid peroxidation (LPO) in brain tissues were assessed. Results Acetylcholinesterase activity in pre-frontal cortex and hippocampus of diabetic rats was 2.1 and 2.6 times higher compared to nondiabetic rats. LPO was 1.6 times higher and decreased SOD (56.3%) and CAT (44.9%) activities in pre-frontal cortex of diabetic rats compared to nondiabetic rats. AP or andrographolide treatments dose dependently attenuated cognitive deficits, reduced acetylcholinesterase activity, oxidative stress, improved diabetic hyperglycemia and insulin deficiency. All observed effects of AP were quantitatively almost equal to those expected from its analytically quantified andrographolide content. Discussion and conclusion Reported observations are the very first ones suggesting beneficial effects of andrographolide against diabetes associated cognitive deficits, increased acetylcholinesterase activity and deteriorated antioxidative status. Efforts to exploit A. paniculata extracts enriched in andrographolide as preventive measures against such disorders can be warranted.

  13. Red ginseng powder fermented with probiotics exerts antidiabetic effects in the streptozotocin-induced mouse diabetes model.

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    Jang, Sun-Hee; Park, Jisang; Kim, Sae-Hae; Choi, Kyung-Min; Ko, Eun-Sil; Cha, Jeong-Dan; Lee, Young-Ran; Jang, Hyonseok; Jang, Yong-Suk

    2017-12-01

    Red ginseng (heat-processed Panax ginseng) is a well-known alternative medicine with pharmacological antidiabetic activity. It exerts pharmacological effects through the transformation of saponin into metabolites by the intestinal microbiota. Given that intestinal conditions and intestinal microflora vary among individuals, the pharmacological effects of orally administered red ginseng likely may vary among individuals. To overcome this variation and produce homogeneously effective red ginseng, we evaluated the antidiabetic effects of probiotic-fermented red ginseng in a mouse model. The antidiabetic efficacy of orally administered probiotic-fermented red ginseng was assessed in ICR mice after induction of diabetes using streptozotocin (170 mg/kg body weight). Samples were given orally for 8 weeks, and indicators involved in diabetic disorders such as body weight change, water intake, blood glucose, glucose tolerance and various biochemical parameters were determined. Oral administration of probiotic-fermented red ginseng significantly decreased the level of blood glucose of about 62.5% in the fasting state and induced a significant increase in glucose tolerance of about 10.2% compared to the control diabetic mice. Additionally, various indicators of diabetes and biochemical data (e.g., blood glycosylated haemoglobin level, serum concentrations of insulin, and α-amylase activity) showed a significant improvement in the diabetic conditions of the mice treated with probiotic-fermented red ginseng in comparison with those of control diabetic mice. Our results demonstrate the antidiabetic effects of probiotic-fermented red ginseng in the streptozotocin-induced mouse diabetes model and suggest that probiotic-fermented red ginseng may be a uniformly effective red ginseng product.

  14. Hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic and antioxidant effects of peptides from red deer antlers in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice.

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    Jiang, Ning; Zhang, Shuangjian; Zhu, Jing; Shang, Jing; Gao, Xiangdong

    2015-05-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a serious chronic metabolic disorder. To develop novel anti-diabetic drugs from nature sources has always been the focus of research. Red deer (Cervus elaphu Linnaeus) antler is one of the most famous Chinese traditional medicines. We found that the peptides of 5-10 kDa from red deer antlers (PRDA) promoted the growth of cultured rat islet cells. The purpose of this study was to investigate the anti-diabetic actions of PRDA in vivo and purify a pure active peptide. We therefore investigated the hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic and antioxidant effects of PRDA in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice and isolated a pure anti-diabetic peptide. PRDA, given intraperitoneally (75, 150, or 300 μg/kg), significantly decreased the blood glucose levels, significantly increased the insulin concentrations, and remarkably improved the lipid metabolism in the diabetic mice. PRDA significantly increased the superoxide dismutase activity, catalase activity and the total antioxidant capacity in the serum and liver, and simultaneously decreased the malondialdehyde levels. The activities of hexokinase and pyruvate kinase, two important enzymes involved in glucose utilization, were also significantly increased in the liver of the PRDA-treated diabetic mice. Moreover, a novel anti-diabetic peptide isolated from PRDA significantly promoted the viability of cultured rat insulinoma cells. The molecular mass of the purified peptide was 7064.8 Da under mass spectrometry, and its N-terminal amino acid sequence was identified as LSPFTTKTYFPHFDLSHGSA. Thus, PRDA may be useful in managing the hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, and oxidative stress in diabetes, and the anti-diabetic peptide is a promising drug for the treatment of diabetes.

  15. Antidiabetic Properties and Mechanism of Action of Gynura procumbens Water Extract in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

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    Mariam Ahmad

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Gynura procumbens (Lour. Merr (family Compositae is cultivated in Southeast Asia, especially Indonesia, Malaysia and Thailand, for medicinal purposes. This study evaluated the in vivo hypoglycemic properties of the water extract of G. procumbens following 14 days of treatment and in vitro in RIN-5F cells. Glucose absorption from the intestines and its glucose uptake in abdominal skeletal muscle were assessed. The antidiabetic effect of water extract of G. procumbens leaves was investigated in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. The intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT was performed in diabetic rats treated with G. procumbens water extract for 14 days. In the IPGTT, blood was collected for insulin and blood glucose measurement. After the IPGTT, the pancreases were collected for immunohistochemical study of β-cells of the islets of Langerhans. The possible antidiabetic mechanisms of G. procumbens were assessed through in vitro RIN-5F cell study, intestinal glucose absorption and glucose uptake by muscle. The results showed that G. procumbens significantly decreased blood glucose levels after 14 days of treatment and improved outcome of the IPGTT. However, G. procumbens did not show a significant effect on insulin level either in the in vivo test or the in vitro RIN-5F cell culture study. G. procumbens also showed minimal effects on β-cells of the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas. However, G. procumbens only significantly increased glucose uptake by muscle tissues. From the findings we can conclude that G. procumbens water extract exerted its hypoglycemic effect by promoting glucose uptake by muscles.

  16. Effect of acacia nilotica leaves extract on hyperglycaemia, lipid profile and platelet aggregation in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asad, M.; Munir, T.A.; Nadeem, A.

    2011-01-01

    To consider new hypoglycaemic, anti-hyperlipidaemic and anti-platelet aggregation sources, aqueous methanol extract of Acacia Nilotica (AN) leaves was investigated in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Methods: Diabetes mellitus was induced in 90 out of 120 male albino rats by administering 50 mg/Kg body weight (bw) streptozotocin intraperitoneal y, and was confirmed by measuring fasting blood glucose level >200 mg/dL on fourth post-induction day. The rats were equally divided into 4 groups, A (normal control), B (diabetic control), C (diabetics rats treated with plant extract) and group D (diabetics rats treated with glyburide). The rats of group C and D were given single dose of 300 mg/Kg bw, An extract, and 900 micro g/Kg bw glyburide respectively for 3 weeks. Blood glucose levels were measured by gluco meter, platelet aggregation by Dia Med method, beta-thrombo globulin and insulin by ELISA technique, and lipid components were measured by enzymatic calorimetric method. Results: Significant differences (p<0.05) were noticed in blood glucose, serum insulin, platelet aggregation and triglyceride levels in diabetic rats treated with AN extract and glyburide as compared to diabetic controlled rats. A significant difference (p<0.05) in beta-thrombo globulin and LDL levels was also noticed in rats treated with glyburide than the diabetic controlled rats. The levels of fasting blood glucose, beta-thrombo globulin and platelet aggregation were significantly reduced (p<0.05) in diabetic rats treated with glyburide than AN extract treated rats. Conclusions: Administration of AN leaves extract showed hypoglycaemic and anti-platelet aggregation activity in diabetic rats as that of glyburide. (author)

  17. Optimised extraction of β-carotene from Spirulina platensis and hypoglycaemic effect in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qiu-Yue; Fang, Ming; Zheng, Jia-Hui; Ren, Di-Feng; Lu, Jun

    2016-03-30

    Spirulina platensis is rich in β-carotene, which possesses many important biological activities. This study investigated the ultrasound-assisted extraction and purification of β-carotene from Spirulina platensis by using response surface methodology (RSM), determined its antioxidant capacity in vitro and explored its hypoglycaemic effect in diabetic mice. The raw β-carotene extract with a concentration of 1942.14 ± 10.03 µg mL(-1) was obtained at the optimised condition by RSM (0.40 of the solid-liquid ratio, 51% of the extraction power, and 17 min of the extraction time), and the purity of evaporated β-carotene extract reached 816.32 ± 10.57 mg g(-1) after purified by a NKA-9 resin with a sampling and elution rate of 1 mL min(-1) . The β-carotene extract scavenged 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and hydroxyl free radicals with the highest ratios of 44 ± 0.26% and 35 ± 0.45% respectively, and exhibited strong inhibiting capacity on anti-lipid peroxidation. The blood glucose level of streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice was significantly reduced from 15.81 ± 1.71 mmol L(-1) to 8.10 ± 0.88 mmol L(-1) after 10 d administration of the β-carotene extract [100 mg kg(-1) body weight (BW)], and the increased food and water intakes in the diabetic mice were also significantly relieved after β-carotene treatment. Our results suggested that extraction of β-carotene from Spirulina platensis had potential prospects in scaled-up industrialisation and healthcare applications. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Effects of treadmill running on extracellular basal levels of glutamate and GABA at dentate gyrus of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisi, Parham; Alaei, Hojjatallah; Babri, Shirin; Sharifi, Mohammad Reza; Mohaddes, Gisue; Soleimannejad, Elaheh; Rashidi, Bahman

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The present study evaluated the effects of treadmill running on extracellular basal levels of glutamate and GABA at dentate gyrus of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. METHODS: After 12 weeks of diabetes induction and exercise period, extracellular levels of glutamate and GABA were investigated. RESULTS: The results showed that glutamate levels were significantly decreased in diabetes-rest group comparing to the control-rest and the diabetes-exercise groups. CONCLUSIONS: The findings support the possibility that treadmill running is helpful in alleviating neurotransmitter homeostasis and alterations in transmission in diabetes mellitus. PMID:21526077

  19. Mediation of Endogenous β-Endorphin by Tetrandrine to Lower Plasma Glucose in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

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    Jen-Hao Hsu

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of β-endorphin in the plasma glucose-lowering action of tetrandrine in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ-diabetic rats was investigated. The plasma glucose concentration was assessed by the glucose oxidase method. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to determine the plasma level of β-endorphin-like immunoreactivity (BER. The mRNA levels of glucose transporter subtype 4 (GLUT4 in soleus muscle and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK in the liver of STZ-diabetic rats were detected by Northern blotting analysis. The expressed protein of GLUT4 or PEPCK was characterized by Western blotting analysis. Tetrandrine dose-dependently increased plasma BER in a manner parallel to the decrease of plasma glucose in STZ-diabetic rats. Moreover, the plasma glucose-lowering effect of tetrandrine was inhibited by naloxone and naloxonazine at doses sufficient to block opioid μ-receptors. Further, tetrandrine failed to produce plasma glucose-lowering action in opioid μ-receptor knockout diabetic mice. Bilateral adrenalectomy eliminated the plasma glucose-lowering effect and plasma BER-elevating effect of tetrandrine in STZ-diabetic rats. Both effects were abolished by treatment with hexamethonium or pentolinium at doses sufficient to block nicotinic receptors. Tetrandrine enhanced BER release directly from the isolated adrenal medulla of STZ-diabetic rats and this action was abolished by the blockade of nicotinic receptors. Repeated intravenous administration of tetrandrine (1.0 mg/kg to STZ-diabetic rats for 3 days resulted in an increase in the mRNA and protein levels of the GLUT4 in soleus muscle, in addition to the lowering of plasma glucose. Similar treatment with tetrandrine reversed the elevated mRNA and protein levels of PEPCK in the liver of STZ-diabetic rats. The obtained results suggest that tetrandrine may induce the activation of nicotinic receptors in adrenal medulla to enhance the secretion of

  20. Effect of coriander seed (Coriandrum sativum L.) ethanol extract on insulin release from pancreatic beta cells in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eidi, Maryam; Eidi, Akram; Saeidi, Ali; Molanaei, Saadat; Sadeghipour, Alireza; Bahar, Massih; Bahar, Kamal

    2009-03-01

    Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) is grown as a spice crop all over the world. The seeds have been used to treat indigestion, diabetes, rheumatism and pain in the joints. In the present study, an ethanol extract of the seeds was investigated for effects on insulin release from the pancreatic beta cells in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Blood samples were drawn from the retro-orbital sinus before and 1.5, 3 and 5 h after administration of the seed extract. Serum glucose levels were determined by the glucose oxidase method. To determine the insulin releasing activity, after extract treatment the animals were anaesthetized by diethyl ether, the pancreas was excised, fixed in 10% formaldehyde and embedded in paraffin for sectioning. Pancreatic sections of 5 microm were processed for examination of insulin-releasing activity using an immunocytochemistry kit. The results showed that administration of the ethanol extract (200 and 250 mg/kg, i.p.) exhibited a significant reduction in serum glucose. Administration of streptozotocin decreased the number of beta cells with insulin secretory activity in comparison with intact rats, but treatment with the coriander seed extract (200 mg/kg) increased significantly the activity of the beta cells in comparison with the diabetic control rats. The extract decreased serum glucose in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats and increased insulin release from the beta cells of the pancreas. (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Investigating the effects of Citrullus colocynthis pulp on oxidative stress in testes and epididymis in streptozotocin-induced diabetic male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostovan, Fereshteh; Gol, Ali; Javadi, Abdolreza

    2017-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common metabolic diseases in humans, affecting 100 million people around the world. Investigating the effects of Citrullus colocynthis pulp on oxidant and antioxidant factors of testes and epididymis in streptozotocin-induced diabetic male rats. Thirty two male rats were divided into four groups (n=8) 1) N (normal) group, 2) N+C group, 3) D (diabetic) group and 4) D+C group. Groups N and D received normal saline 2 ml orally for two weeks and groups N+C and D+C received 10 mg/kg.bw Citrullus colocynthis pulp orally for two weeks. Diabetes was induced by single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ) at 65 mg/kg. D group had a significant increase in H 2 O 2 (Hydrogen peroxide) and MDA (malondialdehyde) concentrations, and CAT (catalase) activity, and also a significant decrease in Peroxidase (POD) activity compared to N group. D+C group had a significant decrease in H 2 O 2 and MDA concentrations and, CAT activity and significant increase in POD activity compared to D group. Citrullus colocynthis pulp in two weeks had beneficial effects on oxidants and antioxidants changes in reproductive system in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

  2. Investigating the effects of Citrullus colocynthis pulp on oxidative stress in testes and epididymis in streptozotocin-induced diabetic male rats

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    Fereshteh Ostovan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common metabolic diseases in humans, affecting 100 million people around the world. Objective: Investigating the effects of Citrullus colocynthis pulp on oxidant and antioxidant factors of testes and epididymis in streptozotocin-induced diabetic male rats. Materials and Methods: Thirty two male rats were divided into four groups (n=8 1 N (normal group, 2 N+C group, 3 D (diabetic group and 4 D+C group. Groups N and D received normal saline 2 ml orally for two weeks and groups N+C and D+C received 10 mg/kg.bw Citrullus colocynthis pulp orally for two weeks. Diabetes was induced by single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ at 65 mg/kg. Results: D group had a significant increase in H2O2 (Hydrogen peroxide and MDA (malondialdehyde concentrations, and CAT (catalase activity, and also a significant decrease in Peroxidase (POD activity compared to N group. D+C group had a significant decrease in H2O2 and MDA concentrations and, CAT activity and significant increase in POD activity compared to D group. Conclusion: Citrullus colocynthis pulp in two weeks had beneficial effects on oxidants and antioxidants changes in reproductive system in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

  3. Polysaccharides-Rich Extract of Ganoderma lucidum (M.A. Curtis:Fr. P. Karst Accelerates Wound Healing in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

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    Poh-Guat Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ganoderma lucidum (M.A. Curtis:Fr. P. Karst is a popular medicinal mushroom. Scientific reports had shown that the wound healing effects of G. lucidum were partly attributed to its rich polysaccharides. However, little attention has been paid to its potential effects on wounds associated with diabetes mellitus. In this study, we evaluated the wound healing activity of the hot aqueous extract of G. lucidum in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. The extract of G. lucidum was standardised based on chemical contents (w/w of total polysaccharides (25.1%, ganoderic acid A (0.45%, and adenosine (0.069%. Six groups of six rats were experimentally wounded in the posterior neck region. Intrasite gel was used as a positive control and aqueous cream as the placebo. Topical application with 10% (w/w of mushroom extract-incorporated aqueous cream was more effective than that with Intrasite gel in terms of wound closure. The antioxidant activity in serum of rats treated with aqueous extract of G. lucidum was significantly higher; whereas the oxidative protein products and lipid damage were lower when compared to those of the controls. These findings strongly support the beneficial effects of standardised aqueous extract of G. lucidum in accelerating wound healing in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

  4. Effect of chronic administration of hexane extract of Byrsonima crassifolia seed on B-cell and pancreatic oxidative parameters in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Rosa Martha Perez; Flores, Jose Maria Mota

    2014-01-01

    In Mexican traditional medicine, the seeds of Byrsonima crassifolia have been used in the treatment of diabetes, rheumatism and for wound healing. The aim was to evaluate the effect of seeds of B. crassifolia on insulin release from the pancreatic beta cells in streptozotocininduced diabetic rats. In the present study, we evaluated the beneficial effect of seeds B. crassifolia streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetic rats. Insulin level; insulin sensitivity index, insulin content in pancreas, malonaldehyde, nitric oxide contents, oxidative stress parameters were assayed. Serum glucose levels were determined by the glucose oxidase method. To determine the insulin releasing activity, after extract treatment, the pancreas was excised. Pancreatic sections were processed for examination of insulin-releasing activity using an imunocytochemistry kit. Administration of the hexane extract (200 and 400 mg/kg), exhibited a significant reduction in serum glucose. Administration of streptozotocin decreased the number of beta cells with insulin secretory activity in comparison with intact rats; but treatment with the B. crassifolia seed extract increased significantly the activity of the beta cells in comparison with the diabetic control rats. The extract decreased serum glucose in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats and increased insulin release from the beta cells of the pancreas. These finding suggest that B. crassifolia seed has beneficial effect for diabetes through decreasing blood glucose and lipid levels, increasing insulin sensitivity index and insulin content, up-regulating antioxidant enzyme activity and decreasing lipid peroxidation.

  5. Ameliorative Effect of Saffron Aqueous Extract on Hyperglycemia, Hyperlipidemia, and Oxidative Stress on Diabetic Encephalopathy in Streptozotocin Induced Experimental Diabetes Mellitus

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    Saeed Samarghandian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic encephalopathy is one of the severe complications in patients with diabetes mellitus. Findings indicate that saffron extract has antioxidant properties but its underlying beneficial effects on diabetic encephalopathy were unclear. In the present study, the protective activities of saffron were evaluated in diabetic encephalopathy. Saffron at 40 and 80 mg/kg significantly increased body weight and serum TNF-α and decreased blood glucose levels, glycosylated serum proteins, and serum advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs levels. Furthermore, significant increase in HDL and decrease (P<0.05 in cholesterol, triglyceride, and LDL were observed after 28 days of treatment. At the end of experiments, the hippocampus tissue was used for determination of glutathione content (GSH, superoxide dismutase (SOD, and catalase (CAT activities. Furthermore, saffron significantly increased GSH, SOD, and CAT but remarkably decreased cognitive deficit, serum TNF-α, and induced nitric oxide synthase (iNOS activity in hippocampus tissue. Our findings indicated that saffron extract may reduce hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia risk and also reduce the oxidative stress in diabetic encephalopathy rats. This study suggested that saffron extract might be a promising candidate for the improvement of chemically induced diabetes and its complications.

  6. Ameliorative potentials of cocoyam (Colocasia esculenta L. and unripe plantain (Musa paradisiacal L. on renal and liver growth in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats

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    CO Eleazu

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: The use of cocoyam and unripe plantain flours in the dietary management of diabetes mellitus could be a breakthrough in the search for plants that could prevent the development of diabetic nephropathy.

  7. Though active on RINm5F insulinoma cells and cultured pancreatic islets, recombinant IL-22 fails to modulate cytotoxicity and disease in a protocol of streptozotocin-induced experimental diabetes.

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    Anika eBerner

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Interleukin (IL-22 is a cytokine displaying tissue protective and pro-regenerative functions in various preclinical disease models. Anti-bacterial, pro-proliferative, and anti-apoptotic properties mediated by activation of the transcription factor signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT-3 are key to biological functions of this IL-10 family member. Herein, we introduce RINm5F insulinoma cells as rat ß-cell line that, under the influence of IL-22, displays activation of STAT3 with induction of its downstream gene targets Socs3, Bcl3, and Reg3ß. In addition, IL-22 also activates STAT1 in this cell type. To refine those observations, IL-22 biological activity was evaluated using ex vivo cultivated murine pancreatic islets. In accord with data on RINm5F cells, islet exposure to IL-22 activated STAT3 and upregulation of STAT3-inducible Socs3, Bcl3, and STEAP4 was evident under those conditions. As these observations supported the hypothesis that IL-22 may exert protective functions in toxic ß-cell injury, application of IL-22 was investigated in murine multiple-low-dose streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetes. For that purpose, recombinant IL-22 was administered thrice either immediately before and at disease onset (at d4, d6, d8 or closely thereafter (at d8, d10, d12. These two IL-22-treatment periods coincide with two early peaks of ß-cell injury detectable in this model. Notably, none of the two IL-22-treatment strategies affected diabetes incidence or blood glucose levels in STZ-treated mice. Moreover, pathological changes in islet morphology analyzed 28 days after disease induction were not ameliorated by IL-22 administration. Taken together, despite being active on rat RINm5F insulinoma cells and murine pancreatic islets, recombinant IL-22 fails to protect pancreatic ß-cells in the tested protocols from toxic effects of STZ and thus is unable to ameliorate disease in the widely used model of STZ-induced diabetes.

  8. Anti-diabetic effect of dietary mango (Mangifera indica L.) peel in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondi, Mahendranath; Basha, Shaik Akbar; Bhaskar, Jamuna J; Salimath, Paramahans V; Rao, Ummiti J S Prasada

    2015-03-30

    In the present study, the composition of mango peel powder (MPP) collected from the mango pulp industry was determined and the effect of MPP on ameliorating diabetes and its associated complications was studied. Mango peel was rich in polyphenols, carotenoids and dietary fibre. Peel extract contained various bioactive compounds and was found to be rich in soluble dietary fibre. Peel extract exhibited antioxidant properties and protected against DNA damage. Therefore, the effect of peel on ameliorating diabetes was investigated in a rat model of diabetes. A significant increase in urine sugar, urine volume, fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides and low density lipoprotein, and decrease in high density lipoprotein were observed in the rats; however, these parameters were ameliorated in diabetic rats fed with diet supplemented with mango peel at 5% and 10% levels in basal diet. Treatment of diabetic rats with MPP increased antioxidant enzyme activities and decreased lipid peroxidation in plasma, kidney and liver compared to untreated diabetic rats. Glomerular filtration rate and microalbuminuria levels were ameliorated in MPP treated diabetic group. Mango peel, a by-product, can be used as an ingredient in functional and therapeutic foods. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Effects of Hydro-alcoholic Extract from Arctium lappa L. (Burdock) Root on Gonadotropins, Testosterone, and Sperm Count and Viability in Male Mice with Nicotinamide/ Streptozotocin-Induced Type 2 Diabetes

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    AHANGARPOUR, Akram; OROOJAN, Ali Akbar; HEIDARI, Hamid; GHAEDI, Ehsan; TAHERKHANI, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Reproductive dysfunction is a complication of diabetes. Arctium lappa (burdock) root has hypoglycemic and antioxidative properties, which are traditionally used for treatment of impotence and sterility. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate the effects of its hydro alcoholic extract on gonadotropin, testosterone, and sperm parameters in nicotinamide/ streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice.

  10. Pathological prolongation of action potential duration as a cause of the reduced alpha-adrenoceptor-mediated negative inotropy in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice myocardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanae, Haruna; Hamaguchi, Shogo; Wakasugi, Yumi; Kusakabe, Taichi; Kato, Keisuke; Namekata, Iyuki; Tanaka, Hikaru

    2017-11-01

    Effect of pathological prolongation of action potential duration on the α-adrenoceptor-mediated negative inotropy was studied in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice myocardium. In streptozotocin-treated mouse ventricular myocardium, which had longer duration of action potential than that in control mice, the negative inotropic response induced by phenylephrine was smaller than that in control mice. 4-Aminopyridine prolonged the action potential duration and decreased the negative inotropy in control mice. Cromakalim shortened the action potential duration and increased the negative inotropy in streptozotocin-treated mice. These results suggest that the reduced α-adrenoceptor-mediated inotropy in the diabetic mouse myocardium is partly due to its prolonged action potential. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The effects of Yucca schidigera and Quillaja saponaria on DNA damage, protein oxidation, lipid peroxidation, and some biochemical parameters in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidan, A Fatih; Dündar, Yilmaz

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of Yucca schidigera, Quillaja saponaria, and a mixture of both plants on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Animals were allocated into five groups with 10 rats each. The control (C) and diabetic control group (D) were fed with standard rat feed (SRF). The other diabetic groups, the Y. schidigera group (DY), the Q. saponaria group (DQ), and the mix group (DQY), were fed ad libitum using SRF+100 ppm Y. schidigera powder (Sarsaponin 30), SRF+100 ppm Q. saponaria powder (Nutrafito), and SRF+100 ppm Y. schidigera-Q. saponaria powder (Nutrafito Plus), respectively, for 3 weeks. The blood glucose level was found to be significantly lower in the DY and DQ groups than in the D and DQY groups (Psaponaria and Y. schidigera powders could help in the treatment of the disease owing to their hypoglycemic, hypocholesterolemic, and antioxidant effects.

  12. Anti-diabetic analysis and insulin expression study of a wild leafy vegetable Acalypha alnifolia Klein ex wild. on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

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    Ponnusamy Revathi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Assessing the antidiabetic potential of Acalypha alnifolia is the main objective of the present study. Two doses of leaf extracts were treated with streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats for 21 days. The glucose level, insulin level, plasma lipids, total protein, electrolytes and plasma enzymes were monitored. The acetone extract of 400 mg/kg had potentiated to diminish the glucose and lipid level as well as other diabetic complications. Internal structures of pancreas were studied by histopathological sections and insulin expression was also observed by immunohistochemical study. Though the extracts having good antioxidant capability it might have to reduce the beta cell destruction or helps to repair it. The result of the toxicity analysis, histopathology and insulin expression supports the acetone extract. The present study attesting the antidiabetic properties of A. alnifolia hence this plant would be focused and taken for cultivation leads to add in human diet for getting therapeutic benefit.

  13. The protective effect of aqueous extracts of roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L. UKMR-2) against red blood cell membrane oxidative stress in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Jamaludin; Shing, Saw Wuan; Md Idris, Muhd Hanis; Budin, Siti Balkis; Zainalabidin, Satirah

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of aqueous extracts of roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L. UKMR-2) against red blood cell (RBC) membrane oxidative stress in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. METHODS: Forty male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 230-250 g were randomly divided into four groups (n = 10 rats each): control group (N), roselle-treated control group, diabetic group, and roselle-treated diabetic group. Roselle was administered by force-feeding with aqueous extracts of roselle (100 mg/kg body weight) for 28 days. RESULTS: The results demonstrated that the malondialdehyde levels of the red blood cell membranes in the diabetic group were significantly higher than the levels in the roselle-treated control and roselle-treated diabetic groups. The protein carbonyl level was significantly higher in the roselle-treated diabetic group than in the roselle-treated control group but lower than that in the diabetic group. A significant increase in the red blood cell membrane superoxide dismutase enzyme was found in roselle-treated diabetic rats compared with roselle-treated control rats and diabetic rats. The total protein level of the red blood cell membrane, osmotic fragility, and red blood cell morphology were maintained. CONCLUSION: The present study demonstrates that aqueous extracts of roselle possess a protective effect against red blood cell membrane oxidative stress in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. These data suggest that roselle can be used as a natural antioxidative supplement in the prevention of oxidative damage in diabetic patients. PMID:24212844

  14. The protective effect of aqueous extracts of roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L. UKMR-2) against red blood cell membrane oxidative stress in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Jamaludin; Shing, Saw Wuan; Idris, Muhd Hanis Md; Budin, Siti Balkis; Zainalabidin, Satirah

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of aqueous extracts of roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L. UKMR-2) against red blood cell (RBC) membrane oxidative stress in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. Forty male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 230-250 g were randomly divided into four groups (n = 10 rats each): control group (N), roselle-treated control group, diabetic group, and roselle-treated diabetic group. Roselle was administered by force-feeding with aqueous extracts of roselle (100 mg/kg body weight) for 28 days. The results demonstrated that the malondialdehyde levels of the red blood cell membranes in the diabetic group were significantly higher than the levels in the roselle-treated control and roselle-treated diabetic groups. The protein carbonyl level was significantly higher in the roselle-treated diabetic group than in the roselle-treated control group but lower than that in the diabetic group. A significant increase in the red blood cell membrane superoxide dismutase enzyme was found in roselle-treated diabetic rats compared with roselle-treated control rats and diabetic rats. The total protein level of the red blood cell membrane, osmotic fragility, and red blood cell morphology were maintained. The present study demonstrates that aqueous extracts of roselle possess a protective effect against red blood cell membrane oxidative stress in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. These data suggest that roselle can be used as a natural antioxidative supplement in the prevention of oxidative damage in diabetic patients.

  15. The protective effect of aqueous extracts of roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L. UKMR-2 against red blood cell membrane oxidative stress in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamaludin Mohamed

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of aqueous extracts of roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L. UKMR-2 against red blood cell (RBC membrane oxidative stress in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. METHODS: Forty male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 230-250 g were randomly divided into four groups (n = 10 rats each: control group (N, roselle-treated control group, diabetic group, and roselle-treated diabetic group. Roselle was administered by force-feeding with aqueous extracts of roselle (100 mg/kg body weight for 28 days. RESULTS: The results demonstrated that the malondialdehyde levels of the red blood cell membranes in the diabetic group were significantly higher than the levels in the roselle-treated control and roselle-treated diabetic groups. The protein carbonyl level was significantly higher in the roselle-treated diabetic group than in the roselle-treated control group but lower than that in the diabetic group. A significant increase in the red blood cell membrane superoxide dismutase enzyme was found in roselle-treated diabetic rats compared with roselle-treated control rats and diabetic rats. The total protein level of the red blood cell membrane, osmotic fragility, and red blood cell morphology were maintained. CONCLUSION: The present study demonstrates that aqueous extracts of roselle possess a protective effect against red blood cell membrane oxidative stress in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. These data suggest that roselle can be used as a natural antioxidative supplement in the prevention of oxidative damage in diabetic patients.

  16. Ciliary neurotrophic factor protects mice against streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetes through SOCS3: the role of STAT1/STAT3 ratio in β-cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezende, Luiz F; Santos, Gustavo J; Carneiro, Everardo M; Boschero, Antonio C

    2012-12-07

    Type 1 diabetes is characterized by a loss of islet β-cells. Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) protects pancreatic islets against cytokine-induced apoptosis. For this reason, we assessed whether CNTF protects mice against streptozotocin-induced diabetes (a model of type 1 diabetes) and the mechanism for this protection. WT and SOCS3 knockdown C57BL6 mice were treated for 5 days with citrate buffer or 0.1 mg/kg CNTF before receiving 80 mg/kg streptozotocin. Glycemia in non-fasted mice was measured weekly from days 0-28 after streptozotocin administration. Diabetes was defined as a blood glucose > 11.2 mmol/liter. Wild-type (WT) and SOCS3 knockdown MIN6 cells were cultured with CNTF, IL1β, or both. CNTF reduced diabetes incidence and islet apoptosis in WT but not in SOCS3kd mice. Likewise, CNTF inhibited apoptosis in WT but not in SOCS3kd MIN6 cells. CNTF increased STAT3 phosphorylation in WT and SOCS3kd mice and MIN6 cells but reduced STAT1 phosphorylation only in WT mice, in contrast to streptozotocin and IL1β. Moreover, CNTF reduced NFκB activation and required down-regulation of inducible NO synthase expression to exert its protective effects. In conclusion, CNTF protects mice against streptozotocin-induced diabetes by increasing pancreatic islet survival, and this protection depends on SOCS3. In addition, SOCS3 expression and β-cell fate are dependent on STAT1/STAT3 ratio.

  17. Antidiabetic, renal/hepatic/pancreas/cardiac protective and antioxidant potential of methanol/dichloromethane extract of Albizzia Lebbeck Benth. stem bark (ALEx) on streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Danish; Kumar, Vikas; Verma, Amita; Gupta, Pushpraj S; Kumar, Hemant; Dhingra, Vishal; Mishra, Vatsala; Sharma, Manju

    2014-07-16

    Hypoglycemic and/or anti-hyperglycemic activities have been recorded with numerous plants, many of which are used as traditional herbal treatments of diabetes. Albizzia Lebbeck Benth. stem bark have been used in traditional medicine along with some preliminary reports on its hypoglycemic action. The aim of present investigation was to evaluate the antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of methanolic extract of stem bark of Albizzia Lebbeck Benth. in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. The powdered stem bark of Albizzia Lebbeck Benth.. was extracted with methanol (MeOH) using soxhlation method and subjected to phytochemical analysis. The methanol/dichloromethane extract of Albizzia Lebbeck Benth. (ALEx) was concentrated to dryness using Rotary Evaporator. Diabetes was experimentally induced in the rats by single intraperitoneal administration of Streptozotocin (60 mg/kg). They glycemic control was measured by the blood glucose, glycated heamoglobin and plasma insulin. The oxidative stress was evaluated in the liver and kidney by level of antioxidant markers and various biochemical parameters were assessed in diabetic control and extract treated rats. Streptozotocin induced diabetic rats depicted the increased blood glucose levels, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), diminished level of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) level and perturb level of antioxidant markers. Oral administration of MeAL at a concentration of 100, 200, 300 and 400 mg/kg b.w daily for 30 days results a momentous decrease in fasting blood glucose, glycated heamoglobin and enhancement of plasma insulin level as compared with STZ induced diabetic rats. Furthermore, it significantly (p ALEx.

  18. The Role of Yeast Beta Glucan on Blood Coagulation in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes and Irradiated Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Kashoury, M.M.A.; Abdel Fattah, S.M.; Ramadan, L.A.; El-Denshary, E.S.

    2016-01-01

    Clotting abnormalities are observed after exposure to ionizing radiation as well as in diabetes melittus. The objective of this study is to elucidate the role of yeast beta glucan (YBG) in the modulation of some biochemical variations observed in γ-irradiated, diabetic and diabeticγγ-irradiated rats. Gamma-irradiation was performed through the whole body exposure of rats to 6 Gy administered in four fractions of 1.5 Gy two times per week for two weeks. Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (55 mg/kg body weight). YBG was given orally to male albino rats (1 g/kg body weight) for two weeks post irradiation and/or induction of diabetes. Animals were divided into 4 main groups: 1- control, 2- γ-irradiated, 3- diabetic and 4- diabetic-γ-irradiated rats. Each group was subdivided into 2 subgroups (a) untreated and (b) treated. The 3rd and 14th day, after the last dose of radiation in the irradiated groups and after the induction of diabetes in diabetic groups, were chosen to evaluate the effect of oral YBG in irradiated and/or diabetic rats. The results revealed that the body weight decreased significantly in irradiated, diabetic and diabetic–irradiated rats. The loss of weight was accompanied by a reduction in the pancreas weight. Glucose concentration was significantly increased in diabetic group at the two time intervals. It is worth noting that, radiation ameliorated blood glucose level in diabetic-γ-irradiated group. Radiation exposure and/or diabetes caused an oxidative stress manifested by a significant increase of malondialdhyde (MDA) accompanied by a significant decrease in glutathione (GSH) level. This oxidative stress caused disturbances in the measured clotting parameters by enhancing platelet aggregation (PA) induced by arachidonic acid and increased thrombin level as concluded from the significant shortening of prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT). Also, exposure to radiation

  19. Optical redox ratio using endogenous fluorescence to assess the metabolic changes associated with treatment response of bioconjugated gold nanoparticles in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adavallan, K.; Gurushankar, K.; Nazeer, Shaiju S.; Gohulkumar, M.; Jayasree, Ramapurath S.; Krishnakumar, N.

    2017-06-01

    Fluorescence spectroscopic techniques have the potential to assess the metabolic changes during disease development and evaluation of treatment response in a non-invasive and label-free manner. The present study aims to evaluate the effect of mulberry-mediated gold nanoparticles (MAuNPs) in comparison with mulberry leaf extract alone (MLE) for monitoring endogenous fluorophores and to quantify the metabolic changes associated with mitochondrial redox states during streptozotocin-induced diabetic liver tissues using fluorescence spectroscopy. Two mitochondrial metabolic coenzymes, reduced nicotinamide dinucleotide (NADH) and oxidized flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) are autofluorescent and are important optical biomarkers to estimate the redox state of a cell. Significant differences in the autofluorescence spectral signatures between the control and the experimental diabetic animals have been noticed under the excitation wavelength at 320 nm with emission ranging from 350-550 nm. A direct correlation between the progression of diabetes and the levels of collagen and optical redox ratio was observed. The results revealed that a significant increase in the emission of collagen in diabetic liver tissues as compared with the control liver tissues. Moreover, there was a significant decrease in the optical redox ratio (FAD/(FAD  +  NADH)) observed in diabetic control liver tissues, which indicates an increased oxidative stress compared to the liver tissues of control rats. Further, the extent of increased oxidative stress was confirmed by the reduced levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) in diabetic liver tissues. On a comparative basis, treatment with MAuNPs was found to be more effective than MLE for reducing the progression of diabetes and improving the optical redox ratio to a near normal range in streptozotocin-induced diabetic liver tissues. Furthermore, principal component analysis followed by linear discriminant analysis (PC-LDA) has been used to

  20. Treadmill exercise alleviates impairment of spatial learning ability through enhancing cell proliferation in the streptozotocin-induced Alzheimer's disease rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Young-Je

    2014-04-01

    Alzheimer's disease is the most common cause of dementia. This disease is a progressive and irreversible brain disorder accompanied with severe learning and memory impairment. Exercise increases cognitive ability, attenuates motor deficits, increases new neuron formation, and ameliorates neurological impairments in several neurodegenerative diseases. This study investigated the effects of treadmill exercise on spatial learning ability in relation with cell proliferation in the hippocampus. The rat model of Alzheimer's disease was induced by intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of streptozotocin (STZ) using a stereotaxic instrument. The rats in the exercise groups were forced to run on a treadmill for once 30 min daily for 28 consecutive days starting at 3 days after the ICV injection of STZ. Radial 8-arm maze test was conducted for the spatial learning ability. New neuron formation in the hippocampus was detected by 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) immunohistochemistry. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and tyrosine kinase B (TrkB) expressions were examined by western blot analysis. The present results show that ICV injection of STZ impaired spatial learning ability. Decreased cell proliferation with decrement of BDNF and TrkB expressions in the hippocampus were observed in the STZ-induced Alzheimer's disease rats. However, treadmill exercise alleviated deficits of spatial learning ability. Treadmill exercise enhanced cell proliferation and increased BDNF and TrkB expressions in the rats with ICV injection of STZ. The present study suggests that treadmill exercise can be a useful strategy for treating memory impairment induced by several neurodegenerative diseases.

  1. Low Protein Diet Inhibits Uric Acid Synthesis and Attenuates Renal Damage in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

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    Jianmin Ran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Several studies indicated that hyperuricemia may link to the worsening of diabetic nephropathy (DN. Meanwhile, low protein diet (LPD retards exacerbation of renal damage in chronic kidney disease. We then assessed whether LPD influences uric acid metabolism and benefits the progression of DN in streptozotocin- (STZ- induced diabetic rats. Methods. STZ-induced and control rats were both fed with LPD (5% and normal protein diet (18%, respectively, for 12 weeks. Vital signs, blood and urinary samples for UA metabolism were taken and analyzed every 3 weeks. Kidneys were removed at the end of the experiment. Results. Diabetic rats developed into constantly high levels of serum UA (SUA, creatinine (SCr and 24 h amounts of urinary albumin excretion (UAE, creatintine (UCr, urea nitrogen (UUN, and uric acid (UUA. LPD significantly decreased SUA, UAE, and blood glucose, yet left SCr, UCr, and UUN unchanged. A stepwise regression showed that high UUA is an independent risk factor for DN. LPD remarkably ameliorated degrees of enlarged glomeruli, proliferated mesangial cells, and hyaline-degenerated tubular epithelial cells in diabetic rats. Expression of TNF-α in tubulointerstitium significantly decreased in LPD-fed diabetic rats. Conclusion. LPD inhibits endogenous uric acid synthesis and might accordingly attenuate renal damage in STZ-induced diabetic rats.

  2. Potent effects of the total saponins from Dioscorea nipponica Makino against streptozotocin-induced type 2 diabetes mellitus in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hao; Zheng, Lingli; Xu, Lina; Yin, Lianhong; Lin, Yuan; Li, Hua; Liu, Kexin; Peng, Jinyong

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the present paper was to investigate the effects and possible mechanisms of the total saponins from Dioscorea nipponica Makino (TSDN) against type 2 diabetes mellitus. Streptozotocin (STZ) with high-fat diet induced type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) rats were treated with TSDN. Some biochemical parameters, target proteins and genes were investigated. The results showed that TSDN decreased the levels of food/water intake, fasting blood glucose and serum lipid parameters, ameliorated oral glucose and insulin tolerance test levels, markedly increased body weight and serum insulin, reduced excess free radicals and affected ossification and renal protection. Histopathological examination indicated that TSDN increased liver glycogen, decreased the production of lipid vacuoles and lightened liver damage. Further investigation showed that TSDN down-regulated the protein expressions of NF-κB, GRP78, ATF6, eIF2 and the levels of MAPK phosphorylation and up-regulated the protein expressions of IRS-1, GLUT-4, p-Akt and p-AMPK. In addition, TSDN obviously decreased the gene expressions of TNF-a, IL-6, PEPCK, G6Pase, GSK-3β and GSK-3β activity, and increased the gene expressions of PFK, PK and GK activity. These findings show the anti-diabetic activity of total saponins from D. nipponica Makino, which should be developed as a new potent drug for treatment of diabetes mellitus in future. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Effect of Nigella sativa fixed and essential oils on antioxidant status, hepatic enzymes, and immunity in streptozotocin induced diabetes mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Nigella sativa fixed (NSFO) and essential (NSEO) oils have been used to treat diabetes mellitus and its complications. Present study was undertaken to explore and validate these folkloric uses. Methods Sprague dawley rats having streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetes mellitus were used to assess the role of NSFO and NSEO in the management of diabetes complications. Parameters investigated were antioxidant potential, oxidative stress, and the immunity by in vivo experiments. Results The results indicated that STZ decreased the glutathione contents (25.72%), while NSFO and NSEO increased the trait significantly (P < 0.05). Experimental diets increased the tocopherol contents (P < 0.01) and enhanced the expression of hepatic enzymes (P < 0.01). Correlation matrix further indicated that antioxidant potential is positively associated (P < 0.05) responsible for the modulation of hepatic enzymes and the decrease of the nitric oxide production thus controlling the diabetes complications. Conclusions Overall, results of present study supported the traditional use of N. sativa and its derived products as a treatment for hyperglycemia and allied abnormalities. Moreover, N. sativa fixed and essential oils significantly ameliorate free radicals and improve antioxidant capacity thus reducing the risk of diabetic complications. PMID:24939518

  4. Black Seed Thymoquinone Improved Insulin Secretion, Hepatic Glycogen Storage, and Oxidative Stress in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Male Wistar Rats

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    Heba M. A. Abdelrazek

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is one of the metabolic diseases having several complications. Nigella sativa oil (NSO might have beneficial effects in the treatment of diabetic complications. Thirty-two mature male Wistar rats were equally divided into four experimental groups: control, control NSO 2 mL/kg, streptozotocin- (STZ- induced diabetic, and diabetic (STZ-induced treated with oral NSO 2 mg/kg for 30 days. Fasting blood glucose (FBG, insulin, and lipid profile levels were determined. Pancreatic and hepatic tissues were used for catalase and GSH. Histopathology, hepatic glycogen contents, insulin immunohistochemistry, and pancreatic islet morphometry were performed. NSO 2 mL/kg was noticed to decrease (P<0.05 FBG and increase (P<0.05 insulin levels in diabetic rats than in diabetic nontreated animals. Lipid profile showed significant (P<0.5 improvement in diabetic rats that received NSO 2 mL/kg than in the diabetic group. Both pancreatic and hepatic catalase and GSH activities revealed a significant (P<0.05 increment in the diabetic group treated with NSO than in the diabetic animals. NSO improved the histopathological picture and hepatic glycogen contents of the diabetic group as well as increased (P<0.05 insulin immunoreactive parts % and mean pancreatic islet diameter. NSO exerts ameliorative and therapeutic effects on the STZ-induced diabetic male Wistar rats.

  5. Deciphering the role of ferulic acid against streptozotocin-induced cellular stress in the cardiac tissue of diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Sayantani; Ghosh, Sumit; Rashid, Kahkashan; Sil, Parames C

    2016-11-01

    The cardiomyocytes are one of the major sources of hyperglycemia induced ROS generation. The present study focuses on the ameliorative role of ferulic acid in combating cardiac complications in diabetic rats. Induction of diabetes by STZ in male Wistar rats (at a dose of 50 mg kg -1  body wt, i.p.) reduced body weight and plasma insulin level, enhanced blood glucose, disturbed the intra-cellular antioxidant machineries and disintegrated the normal radiation pattern of cardiac muscle fibers. Induction of ER stress (up-regulation in the levels of CHOP, GRP78, eIF2α signaling, increased calpain-1 expression), caspase-3 activation, PARP cleavage and DNA fragmentation were evidenced from immunoblot analyses and DNA fragmentation assay. However, ferulic acid administration, (at a dose of 50 mg kg -1  body wt, orally for eight weeks) in post-hyperglycemia could reverse such adverse effects. Also, the molecule increased GLUT-4 translocation to the cardiac membrane by enhanced phosphorylation of PI3Kinase, AKT and inactivation of GSK-3β thereby altering the hyperglycemic condition in the cardiac tissue of diabetic rats. Therefore, as a potential therapeutic, ferulic acid, exhibiting antioxidant and hypoglycemic effects, may hold promise in circumventing stress mediated diabetic cardiomyopathy in rats. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. In vivo correlation of olive leaves extract on some oxidative stress markers in streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus in rats

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    A. M.R. Afify

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus type two (T2DM is one of the most extensive diseases in the world. Herbal therapy remains a possible adjunct therapy to sustain better glycemic control and reduce complications arising from diabetes. In order to evaluate the curative impacts of olive leaf extract (OLE on streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic rats, twenty-four Wistar male adult rats were divided into four equal groups; control, diabetic control (45 mg/kg STZ, normal rats treated with OLE (17.8 mg/kg b.wt., and diabetic rats treated with OLE (45 mg/kg STZ + 17.8 mg/kg b.wt.. The OLE extract was investigated for in vitro antioxidant activity using the DPPH• assay. The phenolic, tannin, and flavonoid contents were determined. The activity of GPX, SOD, and GSH in RBC lysate, CAT in plasma and MDA in serum were measured. The OLE prevented the decrease in GSH and kept MDA around the normal range in the treated diabetic rats. The current study suggests that OLE might be used safely to ameliorate T2DM and its accompanying oxidative stress.

  7. Antihypertriglyceridemia and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Monascus-Fermented Dioscorea in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

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    Yeu-Ching Shi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The rice fermented by Monascus, called red mold rice (RMR, and has a long tradition in East Asia as a dietary staple. Monascus-fermented dioscorea called red mold dioscorea (RMD contains various metabolites to perform the ability of reducing oxidative stress and anti-inflammatory response. We used Wistar rats and induced diabetes by injecting streptozotocin (STZ, 65 mg/kg i.p.. RMD was administered daily starting six weeks after disease onset. Throughout the experimental period, significantly (<.05 lowered plasma glucose, triglyceride, cholesterol, free fatty acid and low density lipoprotein levels were observed in the RMD-treated groups. The RMD-treated diabetic rats showed higher activities of glutathione disulfide reductase, glutathione reductase, catalase and superoxide dismutase (<.05 in the pancreas compared with the diabetic control rats. RMD also inhibited diabetes-induced elevation in the levels of interleukin (IL-1β, IL-6, interferon-γ and tumor necrosis factor-α. Pancreatic β-cells damaged by STZ in the RMD supplemented groups were ameliorated. The results of this study clearly demonstrated that RMD possesses several treatment-oriented properties, including the control of hyperglycemia, antioxidant effects, pancreatic β-cell protection and anti-inflammatory effects. Considering these observations, it appears that RMD may be a useful supplement to delay the development of diabetes and its complications.

  8. Antihypertriglyceridemia and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Monascus-Fermented Dioscorea in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yeu-Ching; Liao, Jiunn-Wang; Pan, Tzu-Ming

    2011-01-01

    The rice fermented by Monascus, called red mold rice (RMR), and has a long tradition in East Asia as a dietary staple. Monascus-fermented dioscorea called red mold dioscorea (RMD) contains various metabolites to perform the ability of reducing oxidative stress and anti-inflammatory response. We used Wistar rats and induced diabetes by injecting streptozotocin (STZ, 65 mg/kg i.p.). RMD was administered daily starting six weeks after disease onset. Throughout the experimental period, significantly (P < .05) lowered plasma glucose, triglyceride, cholesterol, free fatty acid and low density lipoprotein levels were observed in the RMD-treated groups. The RMD-treated diabetic rats showed higher activities of glutathione disulfide reductase, glutathione reductase, catalase and superoxide dismutase (P < .05) in the pancreas compared with the diabetic control rats. RMD also inhibited diabetes-induced elevation in the levels of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, interferon-γ and tumor necrosis factor-α. Pancreatic β-cells damaged by STZ in the RMD supplemented groups were ameliorated. The results of this study clearly demonstrated that RMD possesses several treatment-oriented properties, including the control of hyperglycemia, antioxidant effects, pancreatic β-cell protection and anti-inflammatory effects. Considering these observations, it appears that RMD may be a useful supplement to delay the development of diabetes and its complications. PMID:21716679

  9. Differential Responses to Blood Pressure and Oxidative Stress in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Wistar-Kyoto Rats and Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats: Effects of Antioxidant (Honey) Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erejuwa, Omotayo O.; Sulaiman, Siti A.; Wahab, Mohd Suhaimi Ab; Sirajudeen, Kuttulebbai N. S.; Salleh, Md Salzihan Md; Gurtu, Sunil

    2011-01-01

    Oxidative stress is implicated in the pathogenesis and/or complications of hypertension and/or diabetes mellitus. A combination of these disorders increases the risk of developing cardiovascular events. This study investigated the effects of streptozotocin (60 mg/kg; ip)-induced diabetes on blood pressure, oxidative stress and effects of honey on these parameters in the kidneys of streptozotocin-induced diabetic Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Diabetic WKY and SHR were randomized into four groups and received distilled water (0.5 mL) and honey (1.0 g/kg) orally once daily for three weeks. Control SHR had reduced malondialdehyde (MDA) and increased systolic blood pressure (SBP), catalase (CAT) activity, and total antioxidant status (TAS). SBP, activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR) were elevated while TAS was reduced in diabetic WKY. In contrast, SBP, TAS, activities of GPx and GR were reduced in diabetic SHR. Antioxidant (honey) treatment further reduced SBP in diabetic SHR but not in diabetic WKY. It also increased TAS, GSH, reduced glutathione (GSH)/oxidized glutathione (GSSG) ratio, activities of GPx and GR in diabetic SHR. These data suggest that differences in types, severity, and complications of diseases as well as strains may influence responses to blood pressure and oxidative stress. PMID:21673929

  10. A study of the effect of mother tincture of Syzygium jambolanum on metabolic disorders of Streptozotocin induced diabetic male albino rat

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    Soumyajit Maiti

    2014-01-01

    Results: The study indicated that the treatment of mother tincture of Syzygium jambolanum in diabetic albino rats restored the body weight and significantly controlled the elevated blood glucose level as compared with the untreated group. Levels of glycogen in liver and skeletal muscle tissues were recovered by treatment with Syzygium jambolanum in diabetic rats as compared with the untreated diabetic rats. Levels of serum urea, uric acid and creatinine were increased in diabetic rats significantly as compared with the control group, which were resettled in the control group after treatment with mother tincture of Syzygium jambolanum in diabetic animals. Alongside, significant recovery in the activities of antioxidant enzymes like catalyse, peroxidase and super oxide dismutase, the levels of free radicals generated as bye products in hepatic and renal tissues were also observed in the treatment with mother tincture of Syzygium jambolanum treated diabetic animals with respect to the untreated in diabetic animals. Conclusion: The homoeopathic mother tincture of Syzygium jambolanum has therapeutic effect on metabolic disorders and oxidative injuries in Streptozotocin induced diabetic male albino rats.

  11. Oxidative Damage to the Salivary Glands of Rats with Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes-Temporal Study: Oxidative Stress and Diabetic Salivary Glands

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    M. Knaś

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study evaluated oxidative damage caused to the salivary glands in streptozotocin-induced diabetes (DM. Materials and Methods. Rats were divided into 4 groups: groups 1 and 2, control rats, and groups 3 and 4, DM rats. 8-Hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG, protein carbonyl (PC, 4-hydroxynonenal protein adduct (4-HNE, oxidized and/or MDA-modified LDL-cholesterol (oxy-LDL/MDA, 8-isoprostanes (8-isoP, and oxidative stress index (OSI were measured at 7 (groups 1 and 3 and 14 (groups 2 and 4 days of experiment. Results. The unstimulated salivary flow in DM rats was reduced in the 2nd week, while the stimulated flow was decreased throughout the duration of the experiment versus control. OSI was elevated in both diabetic glands in the 1st and 2nd week, whereas 8-isoP and 8-OHdG were higher only in the parotid gland in the second week. PC and 4-HNE were increased in the 1st and 2nd week, whereas oxy-LDL/MDA was increased in the 2nd week in the diabetic parotid glands. Conclusions. Diabetes induces oxidative damage of the salivary glands, which seems to be caused by processes taking place in the salivary glands, independently of general oxidative stress. The parotid glands are more vulnerable to oxidative damage in these conditions.

  12. Gastro-Resistant Insulin Receptor-Binding Peptide from Momordica charantia Improved the Glucose Tolerance in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Mice via Insulin Receptor Signaling Pathway.

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    Lo, Hsin-Yi; Li, Chia-Cheng; Chen, Feng-Yuan; Chen, Jaw-Chyun; Hsiang, Chien-Yun; Ho, Tin-Yun

    2017-10-25

    Momordica charantia is a commonly used food and has been used for the management of diabetes. Our previous study has identified an insulin receptor (IR)-binding protein (mcIRBP) from Momordica charantia. Here we identified the gastro-resistant hypoglycemic bioactive peptides from protease-digested mcIRBP. By in vitro digestion and IR kinase activity assay, we found that a 9-amino-acid-residue peptide, mcIRBP-9, was a gastro-resistant peptide that enhanced IR kinase activities. mcIRBP-9 activated IR signaling transduction pathway, which resulted in the phosphorylation of IR, the translocation of glucose transporter 4, and the uptake of glucose in cells. Intraperitoneal and oral administration of mcIRBP-9 stimulated the glucose clearance by 30.91 ± 0.39% and 32.09 ± 0.38%, respectively, in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. Moreover, a pilot study showed that daily ingestion of mcIRBP-9 for 30 days decreased the fasting blood glucose levels and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels by 23.62 ± 6.14% and 24.06 ± 1.53%, respectively. In conclusion, mcIRBP-9 is a unique gastro-resistant bioactive peptide generated after the digestion of mcIRBP. Furthermore, oral administration of mcIRBP-9 improves both the glucose tolerance and the HbA1c levels in diabetic mice via targeting IR signaling transduction pathway.

  13. Attenuation of Streptozotocin-Induced Lipid Profile Anomalies in the Heart, Brain, and mRNA Expression of HMG-CoA Reductase by Diosgenin in Rats.

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    Hao, Shuang; Xu, Rihao; Li, Dan; Zhu, Zhicheng; Wang, Tiance; Liu, Kexiang

    2015-07-01

    Diabetes mellitus is associated with significant morbidity and mortality that contributes to pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. Diosgenin, a naturally occurring aglycone, is present abundantly in fenugreek. The steroidal saponin is being used as a traditional medicine for diabetes. The present study has investigated the effects of diosgenin on lipid profile in the heart and brain, mRNA expression, and hepatic HMG-CoA reductase (HMGR) activity of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. In our study, diosgenin was administered (40 mg/kg b.w.) orally for 45 days to control animals and experimentally induced diabetic rats. The effects of diosgenin on glucose, plasma insulin, cholesterol, triglycerides, free fatty acids, and phospholipids (PLs) in the heart and brain were studied. The levels of glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, free fatty acids, PLs, and HMGR activity were increased significantly (P rats. Administration of diosgenin to diabetic rats significantly reduced blood glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, free fatty acids, PLs levels, and also HMGR activity. In addition, the plasma insulin level was increased in diosgenin-treated diabetic rats. The above findings were correlated with histological observations of the heart and brain. The results showed that administration of diosgenin remarkably increased plasma insulin level with absolute reduction of blood glucose, lipid profile, and HMGR level when compared to diabetic control rats. The results have suggested that diosgenin prevents hypercholesterolemia and hepatosteatosis by modulation of enzymatic expression that is associated with cholesterol metabolism.

  14. Antihyperglycemic effect of Sesbania grandiflora seed decoction on streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice: Inflammatory status and the role of interleukin-10

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    Zamroni, Ahmad; Widjanarko, Simon B.; Rifa'i, Muhaimin; Zubaidah, Elok

    2017-05-01

    Diabetes is one of the fastest growing diseases in the world: its prevalence is estimated to reach 642 million people, or one-tenth of adults will have diabetes by 2040. Traditional herbal exploration and investigation are needed in order to discover medicines that have potential anti-diabetic activity, with no or lower side effects than the medicines clinically used today. In this research, we investigated the anti-hyperglycemic activity of an aqueous decoction of Sesbania grandiflora seeds in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice, and analyzed the immune responses that occurred during the counter balance process to reach blood glucose homeostasis. Our results revealed that administration of the aqueous decoction (2.5 g/kg BW) could lower the blood glucose levels of diabetic mice from an initial blood glucose level of 435 mg/dl to 213 mg/dl within 18 days of treatment. Analysis of inflammatory markers showed that there was no significant difference in the relative amounts of CD4+CD62L-, CD8+CD62L-, TNF-α or IFN-γ between the experimental groups, which revealed that there were no pro-inflammatory responses involved either in hyperglycemia or in the blood glucose lowering process. On the other hand, an increased amount of interleukin-10 in diabetic mice treated with an S. grandiflora seed decoction indicated a role for IL-10 in maintaining blood glucose homeostasis.

  15. Protein and lipid oxidative damage in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats submitted to forced swimming test: the insulin and clonazepam effect.

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    Wayhs, Carlos Alberto Yasin; Manfredini, Vanusa; Sitta, Angela; Deon, Marion; Ribas, Graziela; Vanzin, Camila; Biancini, Giovana; Ferri, Marcelo; Nin, Maurício; Barros, Helena Maria Tannhauser; Vargas, Carmen Regla

    2010-09-01

    Diabetes may modify central nervous system functions and is associated with moderate cognitive deficits and changes in the brain, a condition that may be referred to as diabetic encephalopathy. The prevalence of depression in diabetic patients is higher than in the general population, and clonazepam is being used to treat this complication. Oxidative stress may play a role in the development of diabetes complications. We investigated oxidative stress parameters in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats submitted to forced swimming test (STZ) and evaluated the effect of insulin (STZ-INS) and/or clonazepam (STZ-CNZ and STZ-INS-CNZ) acute treatment on these animal model. Oxidative damage to proteins measured as carbonyl content in plasma was significantly increased in STZ group compared to STZ treated groups. Malondialdehyde plasma levels were significantly reduced in STZ-INS and STZ-INS-CNZ groups when compared to STZ rats, being significantly reduced in STZ-INS-CNZ than STZ-INS rats. The activities of the antioxidant enzymes catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase showed no significant differences among all groups of animals. These findings showed that protein and lipid damage occurs in this diabetes/depression animal model and that the associated treatment of insulin and clonazepam is capable to protect against oxidative damage in this experimental model.

  16. The effects of the sulfonylurea glyburide on glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase activities in the heart tissue of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat.

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    Bukan, N; Sancak, B; Bilgihan, A; Kosova, F; Buğdayci, G; Altan, N

    2004-09-01

    Oxygen free radicals have been suggested to be a contributory factor in diabetes complications. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of glyburide on the antioxidant enzyme activities in the heart tissue of diabetic rats. We investigated the activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase) in the hearts of both control and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. In the heart of diabetic rats, the activity of total superoxide dismutase decreased significantly (p < 0.005), whereas the activity of catalase and glutathione peroxidase increased to a large extent (p < 0.0001 and p = 0.05, respectively) at the end of the fourth week compared with the control group. Glyburide treatment of diabetic rats for 4 weeks corrected the changes observed in diabetic heart. In addition, blood glucose levels of untreated diabetic rats decreased following the glyburide treatment. These results demonstrate that the sulfonylurea glyburide is capable of exerting direct insulin-like effect on heart superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities of diabetic rats in vivo.

  17. A mixture of extracts from Peruvian plants (black maca and yacon) improves sperm count and reduced glycemia in mice with streptozotocin-induced diabetes.

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    Gonzales, Gustavo F; Gonzales-Castañeda, Cynthia; Gasco, Manuel

    2013-09-01

    We investigated the effect of two extracts from Peruvian plants given alone or in a mixture on sperm count and glycemia in streptozotocin-diabetic mice. Normal or diabetic mice were divided in groups receiving vehicle, black maca (Lepidium meyenii), yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius) or three mixtures of extracts black maca/yacon (90/10, 50/50 and 10/90%). Normal or diabetic mice were treated for 7 d with each extract, mixture or vehicle. Glycemia, daily sperm production (DSP), epididymal and vas deferens sperm counts in mice and polyphenol content, and antioxidant activity in each extract were assessed. Black maca (BM), yacon and the mixture of extracts reduced glucose levels in diabetic mice. Non-diabetic mice treated with BM and yacon showed higher DSP than those treated with vehicle (p maca/yacon increased DSP, and sperm count in vas deferens and epididymis with respect to non-diabetic and diabetic mice treated with vehicle (p maca, and this was associated with higher antioxidant activity. The combination of two extracts improved glycemic levels and male reproductive function in diabetic mice. Streptozotocin increased 1.43 times the liver weight that was reversed with the assessed plants extracts. In summary, streptozotocin-induced diabetes resulted in reduction in sperm counts and liver damage. These effects could be reduced with BM, yacon and the BM+yacon mixture.

  18. The impact of a novel peach gum-derived polysaccharide on postprandial blood glucose control in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice.

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    Wang, Yuting; Lin, Dingbo; Wang, Xiaoli; Zhu, Wei; Ye, Junli; Li, Guohuai; Ma, Zhaocheng; Deng, Xiuxin

    2017-05-01

    Peach [Prunus persica (L.)] gum exudates are produced by the trunks and fruits in peach gummosis. Clinically, these exudates have been used to treat diabetes in China, though the molecular mechanism underlying remains unclear. In the current study, a novel peach gum-derived polysaccharide was isolated, designated as PGPSD, and its anti-diabetic effect was assessed in mice. This polysaccharide was composed of arabinose, xylose and galactose in the molar ratio of 5.98:1:3.55, with the average molecular weight at 1.00×10 6 Da. The animal study demonstrated that the PGPSD polysaccharide significantly lowered the postprandial blood glucose in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. Histology and immunohistochemistry results further confirmed that the application of PGPSD polysaccharide partially restored the pancreatic islets in diabetic mice, and enhanced the expression of pancreatic duodenal homeobox-1, insulin and hexokinase1. Collectively, the data suggested that the peach gum-derived polysaccharide had a meaningful potential as a non-insulin therapeutic compound in the treatment of diabetes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Response of glycemic index and liver tissue damage to aerobic exercise followed by coriander seed extract in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

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    Ahmad Abdi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the response of glycemic index and liver tissue damage to aerobic training along with coriander seed extract in Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: diabetic male Wistar rats (n=40, average age: 12 weeks; weight: 130±10 g were randomly divided into four groups: Control, Extract, Exercise and Exercise+Extract. The diabetes model in rats was induced with a single injection of Streptozotocin-(60 mg/kg dissolved in citrate buffer (0.05 mole. The high glucose level of 250 mg/dl is defined as the diabetic criterion. The extract was administered orally (150 mg/kg/day. The exercise program was six weeks of aerobic exercise, 5 times a week with 50-55% of maximal oxygen consumption. Results: The application of aerobic training followed by coriander seed extract in diabetic rats had a significant effect on total serum glucose (P=0.002, AST (P=0.001, ALT (P=0.005 and ALP (P=0.033; however, it had no significant effect on insulin level (P=0.656 and insulin-resistance (P=0.458. Conclusion: It seems that the combination of a regular aerobic exercise and coriander seed extract in diabetic rats had beneficial effects on liver tissue damage and possibly can prevent and improve liver tissue damage via the reduction of the of some liver tissue damage markers.

  20. The Effect of N-acetyl-cysteine on Memory Retrieval and the Number of Intact Neurons of Hippocampal CA1 Area in Streptozotocin-induced Alzheimeric Male Rats

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    Niloufar Darbandi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Alzheimer is a neurodegenerative disease wich caused memory impairment, reduced cognitive functions, intellectual ability and behavior changes. In this study, the effect of N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC as a strong antioxidant on memory deficiency and number of CA1 pyramidal neurons in Streptozotocine (STZ - induced Alzheimeric rats were studied. Materials and Methods: 32 Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: sham group, streptozotocin group, treated group with streptozotocin plus N-acetyl-cysteine, and treated group with N-acetyl-cysteine alone. Intracerebroventricular (ICV administration of STZ was done in the first and the third day of surgery and i.p injection of N-acetyl-cysteine was done in the fourth of surgery. After the memory test, the animals were killed and their brains were fixed and density of intact neurons in the CA1 area of the hippocampus was investigated. Statistical analysis was performed with software SPSS, ANOVA and Prisme software. The level of statistical significance was set at p 0.05. Conclusion: N-acetyl-cysteine improved memory retrieval and hippocampal CA1 area intact neurons in streptozotocin-induced Alzheimeric male rats.

  1. Concentration of Zinc, Copper, Iron, Calcium, and Magnesium in the Serum, Tissues, and Urine of Streptozotocin-Induced Mild Diabetic Rat Model.

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    Gómez, Tahiry; Bequer, Leticia; Mollineda, Angel; Molina, José L; Álvarez, Alain; Lavastida, Mayrelis; Clapés, Sonia

    2017-10-01

    The present study aimed to investigate, in the streptozotocin-induced mild diabetic rat model, the zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), calcium (Ca), and magnesium (Mg) concentration in serum, liver, and kidney tissues, and urine samples from adult Wistar rats treated neonatally with streptozotocin (STZ). Diabetes was induced by subcutaneous administration of streptozotocin (100 mg/Kg) in female Wistar rats of 2 days old (STZ, n = 10). Control group (CG, n = 10) received only sodium-citrate buffer. The mineral concentrations were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The validity and accuracy were checked by conventional methods. STZ neonatal injection successfully leaded to mild diabetes in the adult rats. Serum concentrations of Zn, Cu, Fe, Ca, and Mg showed no changes (p > 0.05) due to diabetes. The Zn, Fe, Ca, and Mg concentrations in liver and kidney tissues were not different (p > 0.05) between STZ and CG. The mean values of Cu were higher (p Urine minerals concentrations (Zn, Cu, Fe and Ca) in STZ-rats group were lower (p urine were higher (p  0.7; p < 0.001). Observed changes in mineral metabolism of STZ-induced mild diabetes model could be due to the endocrine imbalance associated with the diabetic condition.

  2. Postprandial anti-hyperglycemic activity of marineStreptomyces coelicoflavusSRBVIT13 mediated gold nanoparticles in streptozotocin induced diabetic male albino Wister rats.

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    Sathish Kumar, Sathyanarayanan Ravi; Bhaskara Rao, Kokati Venkata

    2016-10-01

    The present study focuses on the biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) using Streptomyces coelicoflavus ( S. coelicoflavus ) SRBVIT13 isolated from marine salt pan soils collected from Ongole, Andhra Pradesh, India. The biosynthesised AuNPs are characterised by UV-visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis. Transmission electron microscopy study suggests that the biosynthesised AuNPs are spherical in shape within a size range of 12-20 nm (mean diameter as 14 nm). The anti-type II diabetes activity of AuNPs is carried out by testing it in vitro α -glucosidase and α -amylase enzyme inhibition activity and in vivo postprandial anti-hyperglycemic activity in sucrose and glucose-loaded streptozotocin induced diabetic albino Wister rats. AuNPs has shown a significant inhibitory activity of 84.70 and 87.82% with IC 50 values of 67.65 and 65.59 μg/mL to α -glucosidase and α -amylase enzymes, while the diabetic rats have shown significant reduction in the post postprandial blood glucose level by 57.80 and 88.09%, respectively compared with control group after AuNPs treatment at the concentration of 300 and 600 mg/kg body weight. Hence, this biosynthesised AuNPs might be useful in combating type II diabetes mellitus for the betterment of human life.

  3. Neurons in the hippocampal CA1 region, but not the dentate gyrus, are susceptible to oxidative stress in rats with streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetes

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    Sang Gun Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the effects of streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetes on antioxidant-like protein-1 immunoreactivity, protein carbonyl levels, and malondialdehyde formation, a marker for lipid peroxidation, in the hippocampus. For this study, streptozotocin (75 mg/kg was intraperitoneally injected into adult rats to induce type 1 diabetes. The three experimental parameters were determined at 2, 3, 4 weeks after streptozotocin treatment. Fasting blood glucose levels significantly increased by 20.7-21.9 mM after streptozotocin treatment. The number of antioxidant-like protein-1 immunoreactive neurons significantly decreased in the hippocampal CA1 region, but not the dentate gyrus, 3 weeks after streptozotocin treatment compared to the control group. Malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl levels, which are modified by oxidative stress, significantly increased with a peak at 3 weeks after malondialdehyde treatment, and then decreased 4 weeks after malondialdehyde treatment. These results suggest that neurons in the hippocampal CA1 region, but not the dentate gyrus, are susceptible to oxidative stress 3 weeks after malondialdehyde treatment.

  4. Modulation of pancreatic β-cells in neonatally streptozotocin-induced type 2 diabetic rats by the ethanolic extract of Momordica charantia fruit pulp.

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    Hafizur, Rahman Md; Kabir, Nurul; Chishti, Sidra

    2011-02-01

    Effective doses of the Momordica charantia fruit pulp (MCF) ethanolic extract on pancreatic β-cells modulation in neonatally streptozotocin-induced type 2 diabetic rats were studied. Diabetic rats (n=8) were treated with MCF extract (400 mg kg(-1) day(-1)) or glibenclamide (5 mg kg(-1)) for 28 days. Control rats (n=11) and untreated diabetic rats (n=8) received only water. Fasting glucose, serum insulin (by ELISA) and β-cell function (HOMA %B by homeostasis model assessment) were measured. β- and α-cells were identified by immunostaining, nuclei by DAPI, and β-cell size and number by morphometry. Significant improvement of fasting blood glucose, serum insulin and β-cell function was observed with the MCF extract for the diabetic rat model. The islet size, total β-cell area and number of β-cells were increased to almost double in the diabetic rats treated with MCF extract as compared to the untreated diabetic rats. The number of α-cells did not change significantly. Insulin granules in β-cells were notably reduced in diabetic islets as compared to control islets. However, extract-treated diabetic rat β-cells were abundant with insulin granules, which was comparable to non-diabetic control islets. The modulation of pancreatic β-cells may be involved in the experimental observation of anti-diabetic effects of M. charantia extract.

  5. Evaluation of antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant effects of Boehmeria nivea (L. Gaudich., Urticaceae, root extract in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

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    Shruti Sancheti

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The potential role of 80% methanolic extract of Boehmeria nivea (L. Gaudich., Urticaceae, root in the treatment of diabetes, along with its antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant effects, was studied in streptozotocin-induced diabetic male Wistar rats. Preliminary screening of the extract revealed the presence of polyphenolics and flavonoids. The animal study was conducted with variable doses of 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg of extract for 21 days in diabetic rats. A significant effect was observed at a dose of 500 mg/kg, which was comparable to the standard drug, glibenclamide. Administration of the extract at a 500 mg/kg dose resulted in a significant reduction of fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, blood urea, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, urine sugar and urine ketone levels in diabetic rats in comparison with the diabetic control group. Additionally, this dose significantly increased body weight, hemoglobin, plasma total protein, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, liver glycogen content, superoxide dismutase, reduced glutathione and catalase levels in diabetic rats at the end of 21 days of treatment. Therefore, dietary supplementation with Boehmeria nivea root extract could be beneficial for correcting hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia and enhancing the antioxidant defense system.

  6. Alteration of the gene and protein levels of insulin-like growth factors in streptozotocin-induced diabetic male rats.

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    Han, Ho Jae; Park, Soo Hyun

    2006-05-01

    Insulin-like growth factor (IGFs: IGF-I and IGF-II) systems have been reported to be associated with the onset of diabetic mellitus. Therefore, we investigated the effect of diabetes on regulation of the IGF system in the liver, kidneys and heart, which are important organs in the pathogenesis of diabetes. The experimental groups were subdivided into three groups: 1) controls, 2) streptozotocin (STZ)-induced untreated diabetic group, and 3) an insulin-treated group (plus diabetic rats). In the present study, starting on the second day after STZ treatment, the diabetic group exhibited hyperglycemia, polyuria, and polydipsia, which are characteristic of diabetes melittus. Serum levels of IGF-I were decreased, but those of IGF-II were increased in the diabetic group compared with the controls. The expression levels of IGF-I and IGF-II protein in the livers of the diabetic group had a similar pattern to the serum. In addition, the expression levels of liver IGF-I mRNA and IGF-II mRNA were decreased in the diabetic groups. In the heart, IGF-I levels were decreased, but IGF-II levels were increased in the untreated diabetic groups, which was consistent with the expression levels of their mRNA. However, both the IGF-I and IGF-II levels in the kidneys were increased in the untreated diabetic groups, but the mRNA levels were decreased. Insulin treatment ameliorated the changes of IGF system in the serum, liver, kidneys, and heart. In conclusion, diabetes induced alteration of the IGF system tissue-specifically, and this was blocked by insulin treatment.

  7. Protective Effects of Total Extracts of Averrhoa carambola L. (Oxalidaceae Roots on Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Mice

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    Xiaohui Xu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: In Chinese culture, the roots of Averrhoa carambola L. have long been used for medical purposes due to their potent pharmaceutical activities, such as improving digestive function and treating diabetes. Methods: Recently, we prepared extracts of Averrhoa carambola L. root (EACR, which were isolated from Averrhoa carambola L. roots using ethanol or water. This study was designed to investigate the potential effects of EACR on streptozotocin (STZ diabetic mice and to explore the underlying mechanism of these effects. Male mice were injected with STZ through the tail vein (120 mg/kg body weight and were identified as a diabetic mouse model when the level of blood glucose was ≥11.1 mmol/L. Subsequently, the mice were administered EACR (150, 300, 600, 1200 mg/kg body weight/d and metformin (320 mg/kg body weight/d via intragastric gavage for three weeks. Results: The results indicated that EACR significantly decreased the serum levels of blood glucose, total cholesterol (TC, triglycerides (TGs and free fatty acids (FFAs, whereas the content of serum insulin was elevated. In addition, the expressions of apoptosis-related regulators (including caspase-3, caspase-8 and caspase-9 and the apoptosis-induced protein Bax were markedly down-regulated by EACR, whereas the expression of the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein was notably increased. Furthermore, EACR could protect the diabetic mice against the STZ-induced apoptosis of pancreatic β cells. Conclusion: Taken together, these findings indicate that EACR plays an effective hyperglycemic role that is associated with ameliorating metabolic functions and with inhibiting apoptosis in pancreas tissue.

  8. Combination therapy with losartan and L-carnitine protects against endothelial dysfunction of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

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    Sleem, Mostafa; Taye, Ashraf; El-Moselhy, Mohamed A; Mangoura, Safwat A

    2014-12-05

    Endothelial dysfunction is a critical factor during the initiation of diabetic cardiovascular complications and angiotensin II appears to play a pivotal role in this setting. The present study aimed to investigate whether the combination therapy with losartan and the nutritional supplement, L-carnitine can provide an additional protection against diabetes-associated endothelial dysfunction and elucidate the possible mechanism(s) underlying this effect. Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ) (60 mg/kg) in rat. Effects of losartan (20 mg/kg, orally, 3 months) and L-carnitine (200 mg/kg, orally, 3 months) on tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, oxidative stress parameters, endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression (eNOS), and vascular function were evaluated. Our results showed a marked increase in aortic superoxide anion (O2(-)) production and serum malondialdehyde (MDA) level alongside attenuating antioxidant enzyme capacities in diabetic rats. This was associated with a significant increase in anigiotensin II type 1 receptor gene expression and TNF-α serum level of diabetic rats alongside reducing aortic eNOS gene expression and nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability. The single or combined administration of losartan and L-carnitine significantly inhibited these changes. Additionally, the vascular endothelium-dependent relaxation with acetylcholine (ACh) in aortic diabetic rat was significantly ameliorated by the single and combined administration of losartan or L-carnitine. Noteworthy, the combination therapy exhibited a more profound response over the monotherapy. Collectively, our results demonstrate that the combined therapy of losartan and L-carnitine affords additive beneficial effects against diabetes-associated endothelial dysfunction, possibly via normalizing the dysregulated eNOS and reducing the inflammation and oxidative stress in diabetic rats. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Astragaloside IV attenuates proteinuria in streptozotocin-induced diabetic nephropathy via the inhibition of endoplasmic reticulum stress.

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    Wang, Zeng Si; Xiong, Fei; Xie, Xiao Hang; Chen, Dan; Pan, Jian Hua; Cheng, Li

    2015-03-31

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a major cause of Chronic Kidney Disease and End-Stage Renal Disease throughout the world; however, the reversibility of diabetic nephropathy remains controversial. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of DN. Astragaloside IV (AS-IV) is derived from Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch) Bge, a widely used traditional herbal medicine in China, and has diverse pharmacological activities including the attenuation of podocyte injury and amelioration of proteinuria in idiopathic nephrotic syndrome. The present study aimed to investigate the effect and mechanism of AS-IV on proteinuria in the rat streptozotocin (STZ)-induced model of diabetes. Male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into four groups: normal control (Normal group), diabetic nephropathy (Model group), diabetic nephropathy plus AS-IV treatment (AS-IV group) and diabetic nephropathy plus 4-phenyl butyric acid treatment (PBA group). ER stress was induced in cultured human podocytes, pretreated with or without AS-IV, with tunicamycin (TM). At the end of 8 weeks, serum creatinine (Scr), blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and 24-hour urinary protein excretion rate (UAER) were determined. Renal morphology was examined after periodic acid-Schiff staining of kidney sections. Apoptosis of podocytes was measured by flow cytometry. The total expression and phosphorylation of eIF2α, PERK and JNK, and the expression of CHOP and cleaved caspase-3 were determined by western blotting. The expression of glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) and 150 kDa oxygen-regulated protein (ORP150) mRNA and protein was determined by real-time PCR and western blotting respectively. AS-IV treatment significantly reduced urinary albumin excretion, plasma creatinine and blood urea nitrogen levels, and prevented the mesangial matrix expansion and increase in mean mesangial induced by STZ. AS-IV also prevented the phosphorylation of eIF2α, PERK and JNK, and inhibited the

  10. Antidiabetic Effects of Yam (Dioscorea batatas) and Its Active Constituent, Allantoin, in a Rat Model of Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Go, Hyeon-Kyu; Rahman, Md Mahbubur; Kim, Gi-Beum; Na, Chong-Sam; Song, Choon-Ho; Kim, Jin-Shang; Kim, Shang-Jin; Kang, Hyung-Sub

    2015-10-15

    The objective of this study was to investigate the therapeutic efficacies of crude yam (Dioscorea batatas) powder (PY), water extract of yam (EY), and allantoin (the active constituent of yam) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats with respect to glucose, insulin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), C-peptide, glycated hemoglobin (HbAlc), lipid metabolism, and oxidative stress. For this purpose, 50 rats were divided into five groups: normal control (NC), diabetic control (STZ), and STZ plus treatment groups (STZ + PY, STZ + EY, and STZ + allantoin). After treatment for one-month, there was a decrease in blood glucose: 385 ± 7 in STZ, 231 ± 3 in STZ + PY, 214 ± 11 in STZ + EY, and 243 ± 6 mg/dL in STZ + allantoin, respectively. There were significant statistical differences (p < 0.001) compared to STZ (100%): 60% in STZ + PY, 55% in STZ + EY, and 63% in STZ + allantoin. With groups in the same order, there were significant decreases (p < 0.001) in HbAlc (100% as 24.4 ± 0.6 ng/mL, 78%, 75%, and 77%), total cholesterol (100% as 122 ± 3 mg/dL, 70%, 67%, and 69%), and low-density lipoprotein (100% as 29 ± 1 mg/dL, 45%, 48%, and 38%). There were also significant increases (p < 0.001) in insulin (100% as 0.22 ± 0.00 ng/mL, 173%, 209%, and 177%), GLP-1 (100% as 18.4 ± 0.7 pmol/mL, 160%, 166%, and 162%), and C-peptide (100% as 2.56 ± 0.10 ng/mL, 129%, 132%, and 130%). The treatment effectively ameliorated antioxidant stress as shown by a significant decrease (p < 0.001) in malondialdehyde (100% as 7.25 ± 0.11 nmol/mL, 87%, 86%, and 85%) together with increases (p < 0.01) in superoxide dismutase (100% as 167 ± 6 IU/mL, 147%, 159%, and 145%) and reduced glutathione (100% as 167 ± 6 nmol/mL, 123%, 141%, and 140%). The results indicate that yam and allantoin have antidiabetic effects by modulating antioxidant activities, lipid profiles and by promoting the release of GLP-1, thereby improving the function of β-cells maintaining normal insulin and glucose

  11. Adipose Tissue-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Exert In Vitro Immunomodulatory and Beta Cell Protective Functions in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Mice Model

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    Hossein Rahavi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Regenerative and immunomodulatory properties of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs might be applied for type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM treatment. Thus, we proposed in vitro assessment of adipose tissue-derived MSCs (AT-MSCs immunomodulation on autoimmune response along with beta cell protection in streptozotocin- (STZ- induced diabetic C57BL/6 mice model. MSCs were extracted from abdominal adipose tissue of normal mice and cultured to proliferate. Diabetic mice were prepared by administration of multiple low-doses of streptozotocin. Pancreatic islets were isolated from normal mice and splenocytes prepared from normal and diabetic mice. Proliferation, cytokine production, and insulin secretion assays were performed in coculture experiments. AT-MSCs inhibited splenocytes proliferative response to specific (islet lysate and nonspecific (PHA triggers in a dose-dependent manner (P<0.05. Decreased production of proinflammatory cytokines, such as IFN-γ, IL-2, and IL-17, and increased secretion of regulatory cytokines such as TGF-β, IL-4, IL-10, and IL-13 by stimulated splenocytes were also shown in response to islet lysate or PHA stimulants (P<0.05. Finally, we demonstrated that AT-MSCs could effectively sustain viability as well as insulin secretion potential of pancreatic islets in the presence of reactive splenocytes (P<0.05. In conclusion, it seems that MSCs may provide a new horizon for T1DM cell therapy and islet transplantation in the future.

  12. Absorption, transport and insulin-mimetic properties of bis(maltolato)oxovanadium (IV) in streptozotocin-induced hyperglycemic rats by integrated mass spectrometric techniques.

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    Iglesias-González, T; Sánchez-González, C; Montes-Bayón, M; Llopis-González, J; Sanz-Medel, A

    2012-01-01

    The use of V(IV) complexes as insulin-enhancing agents has been increasing during the last decade. Among them, 3-hydroxy-2-methyl-4-pyrone and 2-ethyl-3-hydroxy-4-pyrone (maltol and ethyl maltol, respectively) have proven to be especially suitable as ligands for vanadyl ions. In fact, they have passed phase I and phase II clinical trials, respectively. However, the mechanism through which those drugs exert their insulin-mimetic properties is still not fully understood. Thus, the aim of this study is to obtain an integrated picture of the absorption, biodistribution and insulin-mimetic properties of the bis(maltolato)oxovanadium (IV) (BMOV) in streptozotocin-induced hyperglycaemic rats. For this purpose, BMOV hypoglycaemic properties were evaluated by monitoring both the circulating glucose and the glycohemoglobin, biomarkers of diabetes mellitus. In both cases, the results were drug concentration dependent. Using doses of vanadium at 3 mg/day, it was possible to reduce the glycaemia of the diabetic rats to almost control levels. BMOV absorption experiments have been conducted by intestinal perfusion revealing that approximately 35% of V is absorbed by the intestinal cells. Additionally, the transport of the absorbed vanadium (IV) by serum proteins was studied. For this purpose, a speciation strategy using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for separation and inductively coupled serum mass spectrometry, ICP-MS, for detection has been employed. The obtained HPLC-ICP-MS results, confirmed by MALDI-MS data, showed evidence that V, administered orally, is uniquely bound to transferrin in rat serum.

  13. Effects of dietary supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA on hippocampal gene expression in streptozotocin induced diabetic C57Bl/6 mice

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    Jency Thomas

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A body of evidence has accumulated indicating diabetes is associated with cognitive impairments. Effective strategies are therefore needed that will delay or prevent the onset of these diabetes-related deficits. In this regard, dietary modification with the naturally occurring compound, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, holds significant promise as it has been shown to have anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and anti-apoptotic properties. The hippocampus, a limbic structure involved in cognitive functions such as memory formation, is particularly vulnerable to the neurotoxic effects related to diabetes, and we have previously shown that streptozotocin-induced diabetes alters hippocampal gene expression, including genes involved in synaptic plasticity and neurogenesis. In the present study, we explored the effects of dietary supplementation with DHA on hippocampal gene expression in C57Bl/6 diabetic mice. Diabetes was established using streptozotocin (STZ and once stable, the dietary intervention group received AIN93G diet supplemented with DHA (50 mg/kg/day for 6 weeks. Microarray based genome-wide expression analysis was carried out on the hippocampus of DHA supplemented diabetic mice and confirmed by real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR. Genome-wide analysis identified 353 differentially expressed genes compared to non-supplemented diabetic mice. For example, six weeks of dietary DHA supplementation resulted in increased hippocampal expression of Igf II and Sirt1 and decreased expression of Tnf-α, Il6, Mapkapk2 and ApoE, compared to non-supplemented diabetic mice. Overall, DHA supplementation appears to alter hippocampal gene expression in a way that is consistent with it being neuroprotective in the context of the metabolic and inflammatory insults associated with diabetes.

  14. The effects of magnetic field on the biomechanics parameters of soleus and extensor digitorum longus muscles in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes.

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    Pelit, A; Ozaykan, B; Tuli, A; Demirkazik, A; Emre, M; Günay, I

    2008-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of the magnetic field (MF) on the isometric contractile characteristics of the soleus and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles in rats both with and without diabetes. Biomechanical parameters were recorded in vitro from Wistar rats without diabetes (Group I, n=20), rats without diabetes exposed to MF (Group II, n=20), rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes (Group III, n=20), and rats with diabetes exposed to MF (Group IV, n=20). Muscle strips were taken from the distal tendon soleus and EDL muscles of rats killed by decapitation. The muscles were hung in organ baths containing Krebs solution (pH 7.4) with a gas mixture of 95% O2 and 5% CO2. Then the muscles were triggered to direct supramaximal stimulation with 0.05 Hz frequency square pulses for periods of 0.5 ms to obtain control values. The contractile parameters were also determined for two muscles of the four groups. Later, the tension-frequency relationship was determined by applying stimulating pulses of 10, 20, 50, and 100 Hz to the muscles. Diabetes caused a certain amount of decrease in the contractile force of the two muscles compared with that of control values. However, MF increased the contractile force of the two muscles in rats both with and without diabetes. The isometric contraction forces obtained by different stimulating frequencies showed a significant linear increase in the tetanic contraction (P0.05). In our study, these results suggest that MF exposure regulates the isometric contractile characteristics of the soleus and EDL muscles of rats with diabetes, positively.

  15. Effective wound healing in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats by adipose-derived stromal cell transplantation in plasma-gel containing fragmin/protamine microparticles.

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    Sumi, Yuki; Ishihara, Masayuki; Kishimoto, Satoko; Takikawa, Makoto; Hattori, Hidemi; Takikawa, Megumi; Azuma, Ryuichi; Nakamura, Shingo; Fujita, Masanori; Kiyosawa, Tomoharu

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effectiveness of the application of inbred adipose-derived stromal cells (IR-ASCs) in high inbred rat plasma (IRP) (6%)-Dulbecco modified Eagle medium (DMEM) gel with fragmin/protamine microparticles (F/P MPs) (IR-ASCs + IRP-DMEM gel + F/P MPs) on wound healing in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. F/P MPs have previously been used as a cell carrier for IR-ASCs in inbred Fisher 344 rats and for preservation and controlled release of various cytokines in IRP-DMEM gel. We applied IR-ASCs + IRP-DMEM gel + F/P MPs to full-thickness skin excisions on the backs of the diabetic rats. The statistical significance of wound closure was evaluated on postwounding days 3, 7, 10, and 14, and the skin area surrounding the wound was removed for histological examination on days 7 and 14. The wound closure rate and histological examination of wounds treated with IR-ASCs + IRP-DMEM gel + F/P MPs demonstrated significantly advanced epithelialization, capillary formation, and granulation tissue formation. When DiI-labeled IR-ASCs + IRP-DMEM gel + F/P MPs were applied to full-thickness skin wounds on the backs of the diabetic rats, histological observation at 2 weeks showed appearances of both DiI-labeled granulation tissue and CD31-immunostained microvessels in the transplant areas. A portion of the transplanted IR-ASCs + IRP-DMEM gel + F/P MPs had been taken up into the granulation tissues to promote wound healing. Thus, IR-ASCs + IRP-DMEM gel + F/P MPs were effective for repairing healing-impaired wounds such as those arising in the diabetic rats.

  16. Effect of angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor on the intraocular growth factors and their receptors in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

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    Ik Soo Byon

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the effect of angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker (ARB and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI on intraocular growth factors and their receptors in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. METHODS: Forty Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups: control, diabetes mellitus (DM, candesartan-treated DM, and enalapril-treated DM (each group, n=10. After the induction of DM by streptozotocin, candesartan [ARB, 5 mg/(kg·d] and enalapril [ACEI, 10 mg/(kg·d] were administered to rats orally for 4wk. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and angiotensin II (Ang II concentrations in the vitreous were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, and VEGF receptor 2 and angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R levels were assessed at week 4 by Western blotting. RESULTS: Vitreous Ang II levels were significantly higher in the DM group and candesartan-treated DM group than in the control (P=0.04 and 0.005, respectively. Vitreous AT1R increased significantly in DM compared to the other three groups (P<0.007. Candesartan-treated DM rats showed higher vitreal AT1R concentration than the enalapril-treated DM group and control (P<0.001 and P=0.005, respectively. No difference in vitreous Ang II and AT1R concentration was found between the enalapril-treated DM group and control. VEGF and its receptor were below the minimum detection limit in all 4 groups. CONCLUSION: Increased Ang II and AT1R in the hyperglycemic state indicate activated the intraocular renin-angiotensin system, which is inhibited more effectively by systemic ACEI than systemic ARB.

  17. Hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic and antioxidant properties of combination ofCurcumin fromCurcuma longa, Linn, and partially purified product fromAbroma augusta, Linn. in streptozotocin induced diabetes.

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    Ali Hussain, Halim Eshrat M

    2002-07-01

    Dietary spice components ofCurcuma longa andAbroma augusta have been screened for their protective effect against reactive oxygen species induced lipid peroxidation. They have been found to be efficient antioxidant when administered in combination. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of oral administration (300mg/Kg) of the aqueous extract of turmeric whose active ingredient isCurcumin andAbromine powder as a hypoglycemic agent mixed with diet. The effect of this aqueous extract on blood glucose, lipid peroxidation (LPO) and the antioxidant defense system in rat tissues like liver, lung, kidney and brain was studied for 8 weeks in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. The administration of an aqueous extract of turmeric and abromine powder resulted in a significant reduction in blood glucose and an increase in total haemoglobin. The aqueous extract also resulted in decreased free radical formation in the tissues studied.The decrease in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and increase in reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) clearly showed the antioxidant property of the mixture. It is suggested that these changes initially counteract the oxidative stress in diabetes however, a gradual decrease in the antioxidative process may be one of the factors which results in chronic diabetes. These results indicate that the mixture of the two plants have shown antidiabetic activity and also reduced oxidative stress in diabetes. A combination ofAbroma augusta and Curcuma longa also restored the other general parameters in diabetic animals. The results were statistically analyzed and indicated that combination of herbal extracts showed better efficacy as compared to individual herbal plant extracts used.

  18. Effects of exenatide therapy on insulin resistance in the skeletal muscles of high-fat diet and low-dose streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

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    Wu, Hui; Sui, Chunhua; Xia, Fangzhen; Zhai, Hualing; Zhang, Huixin; Xu, Hui; Weng, Pan; Lu, Yingli

    2016-01-01

    The glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 agonist exenatide shows the same multiple effects on glucose homeostasis as native GLP-1, which can reduce blood glucose levels in individuals with type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, its underlying action mechanism on glucose metabolism in the skeletal muscle of T2DM cases is unknown. We investigated the effects and action mechanisms of exenatide on insulin resistance (IR) in the skeletal muscle of high-fat diet and low-dose streptozotocin-induced T2DM rats. Four groups of Sprague-Dawley rats were studied: non-T2DM (control, C); non-T2DM + exenatide (C + E); T2DM (D); and T2DM + exenatide (D + E). After eight weeks, isotope-tracer methodology was applied to measure the total rate of appearance (Ra) of glucose and glucose infusion rate (GIR) using a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp with 3-(3)H-glucose infusion. Glucose uptake in gastrocnemius muscles was determined by measuring 2-deoxy-D-(14)C-glucose radioactivity. Simultaneously, ultrastructural changes in the cells of gastrocnemius muscles were studied. In the D + E group, body weight and levels of fasting plasma glucose, triglyceride, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein and insulin were decreased significantly (p muscle (0.24 ± 0.02 versus 0.17 ± 0.02 μmol/g/min) were increased markedly (p muscle of T2DM rats. These data suggest that exenatide can significantly improve insulin sensitivity in skeletal muscle by increasing glucose uptake in T2DM rats.

  19. GC-MS analysis and screening of antidiabetic, antioxidant and hypolipidemic potential of Cinnamomum tamala oil in streptozotocin induced diabetes mellitus in rats

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    Kumar Suresh

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim of the study This study was made to investigate the antidiabetic, antioxidant and hypolipidemic potential of Cinnamomum tamala, (Buch.-Ham. Nees & Eberm (Tejpat oil (CTO in streptozotocin (STZ induced diabetes in rats along with evaluation of chemical constituents. Materials and methods The GC-MS (Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis of the oil showed 31 constituents of which cinnamaldehyde was found the major component (44.898%. CTO and cinnamaldehyde was orally administered to diabetic rats to study its effect in both acute and chronic antihyperglycemic models. The body weight, oral glucose tolerance test and biochemical parameters viz. glucose level, insulin level, liver glycogen content, glycosylated hemoglobin, total plasma cholesterol, triglyceride and antioxidant parameters were estimated for all treated groups and compared against diabetic control group. Results CTO (100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg, cinnamaldehyde (20 mg/kg and glibenclamide (0.6 mg/kg in respective groups of diabetic animals administered for 28 days reduced the blood glucose level in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. There was significant increase in body weight, liver glycogen content, plasma insulin level and decrease in the blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin and total plasma cholesterol in test groups as compared to control group. The results of CTO and cinnamaldehyde were found comparable with standard drug glibenclamide. In vitro antioxidant studies on CTO using various models showed significant antioxidant activity. In vivo antioxidant studies on STZ induced diabetic rats revealed decreased malondialdehyde (MDA and increased reduced glutathione (GSH. Conclusion Thus the investigation results that CTO has significant antidiabetic, antioxidant and hypolipidemic activity.

  20. RETRACTED: Polysaccharide from Angelica sinensis ameliorates high-fat diet and STZ-induced hepatic oxidative stress and inflammation in diabetic mice by activating the Sirt1-AMPK pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kaiping; Tang, Zhuohong; Wang, Jinglin; Cao, Peng; Li, Qiang; Shui, Weizhi; Wang, Hongjing; Zheng, Ziming; Zhang, Yu

    2017-05-01

    This article has been retracted: please see Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal (https://www.elsevier.com/about/our-business/policies/article-withdrawal). This article has been retracted at the request of the Editor-in-Chief because of duplication of data already published in the following paper in Food & Function: “Protective effects of Angelica sinensis polysaccharide against hyperglycemia and liver injury in multiple low-dose streptozotocin-induced type 2 diabetic BALB/c mice” by Wang K et al. in Food Funct 2016; 7; 4889-4897. The following data are the same in both papers: 1 The results of liver slices of oil red O staining in JNB Figure 1 are the same as Figure 6 in Food & Function. 2 JNB Figures 1 A and B are the same as Figure 7 B in the paper in Food & Function. 3 JNB Table 1 is the same as data presented in Figures 6 A-D and parts of Figure 3 A in the paper in Food & Function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of livingstonepotato (Plectranthus esculenthus N.E.Br) on hyperglycemia, antioxidant activity and lipid metabolism of streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.

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    Eleazu, C O; Eleazu, K C; Chukwuma, S C; Okoronkwo, J; Emelike, C U

    2014-01-01

    The effect of livingstone potato ( Plectranthus esculenthus N.E.Br) on serum glucose, glycated hemoglobin (HbA 1C ), serum triglyceride, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), hepatic malic enzyme (ME), isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) and catalase activities of Streptozotocin induced diabetic rats were investigated using standard techniques. The atherogenic index (AI) and coronary risk index (CRI) of the rats were calculated as the ratios of LDL to HDL and total cholesterol to HDL, respectively. The serum glucose of the non-diabetic, diabetic control and diabetic rats given livingstone potato incorporated feeds (test feed) were 92.58 ± 3.97, 352.30 ± 4.88 and 165.50 ± 7.88 mg/dl, respectively. Intake of the test feed by the diabetic rats of group 3, resulted in significant ( P < 0.05) decrease of their serum glucose, HbA 1c , triglyceride, cholesterol, LDL, VLDL, AI and CRI but significant increase ( P < 0.05) of hepatic levels of ME, IDH, catalase and serum HDL compared with the diabetic control rats that had significant alteration of these parameters ( P < 0.05) compared with the non-diabetic rats. The feed intakes of the non-diabetic, diabetic control and diabetic rats given the test feed were 133.34 ± 1.32, 137.84 ± 5.77 and 146.38 ± 4.33 g/rat/week by the last week of experimentation. The diabetic control rats recorded significant loss of weight ( P < 0.05) compared with the non diabetic rats despite increased feed intake. Chemical analysis of the standard and test feeds showed that the standard rat feed contained 15.00 ± 0.78% protein, 7.24 ± 1.20% fat, 31.55 ± 2.62% carbohydrates, energy value of 290.65 ± 4.77 kcal/100 g, 10% crude fiber and 0.12 ± 0.04 mg Gallic Acid Equivalent while the test feed contained 40.10 ± 0.16% carbohydrates, 17.22 ± 0.40% protein, 22.16 ± 0.34% fat, energy value of 428.70 ± 2.12 kcal/100 g, 8.51 ± 0.16% crude fiber, 1.3 ± 0.2 mg Gallic

  2. Effect of livingstonepotato (Plectranthus esculenthus N.E.Br on hyperglycemia, antioxidant activity and lipid metabolism of streptozotocin induced diabetic rats

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    C.O. Eleazu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of livingstone potato (Plectranthus esculenthus N.E.Br on serum glucose, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C, serum triglyceride, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL, low density lipoprotein (LDL, very low density lipoprotein (VLDL, hepatic malic enzyme (ME, isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH and catalase activities of Streptozotocin induced diabetic rats were investigated using standard techniques. The atherogenic index (AI and coronary risk index (CRI of the rats were calculated as the ratios of LDL to HDL and total cholesterol to HDL, respectively. The serum glucose of the non-diabetic, diabetic control and diabetic rats given livingstone potato incorporated feeds (test feed were 92.58 ± 3.97, 352.30 ± 4.88 and 165.50 ± 7.88 mg/dl, respectively. Intake of the test feed by the diabetic rats of group 3, resulted in significant (P < 0.05 decrease of their serum glucose, HbA1c, triglyceride, cholesterol, LDL, VLDL, AI and CRI but significant increase (P < 0.05 of hepatic levels of ME, IDH, catalase and serum HDL compared with the diabetic control rats that had significant alteration of these parameters (P < 0.05 compared with the non-diabetic rats. The feed intakes of the non-diabetic, diabetic control and diabetic rats given the test feed were 133.34 ± 1.32, 137.84 ± 5.77 and 146.38 ± 4.33 g/rat/week by the last week of experimentation. The diabetic control rats recorded significant loss of weight (P < 0.05 compared with the non diabetic rats despite increased feed intake. Chemical analysis of the standard and test feeds showed that the standard rat feed contained 15.00 ± 0.78% protein, 7.24 ± 1.20% fat, 31.55 ± 2.62% carbohydrates, energy value of 290.65 ± 4.77 kcal/100 g, 10% crude fiber and 0.12 ± 0.04 mg Gallic Acid Equivalent while the test feed contained 40.10 ± 0.16% carbohydrates, 17.22 ± 0.40% protein, 22.16 ± 0.34% fat, energy value of 428.70 ± 2.12 kcal/100 g, 8.51 ± 0.16% crude fiber, 1.3 ± 0.2 mg Gallic

  3. Anti-diabetic potential of Catharanthus roseus Linn. and its effect on the glucose transport gene (GLUT-2 and GLUT-4) in streptozotocin induced diabetic wistar rats.

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    Al-Shaqha, Waleed M; Khan, Mohsin; Salam, Nasir; Azzi, Arezki; Chaudhary, Anis Ahmad

    2015-10-21

    Catharanthus roseus is an important Ayurvedic medication in traditional medicine. It is potentially used in countries like India, South Africa, China and Malaysia for the healing of diabetes mellitus. Although, the molecular mechanisms behind this effect are yet to be exclusively explored. Due to the great antidiabetic and hyperlipidemic potential of c. roseus, we hypothesized that the insulin mimetic effect of ethanolic extract of c. roseus might add to glucose uptake through improvement in the expression of genes of the glucose transporter (GLUT) family messenger RNA (mRNA) in liver. STZ-induced diabetic rats treated by ethanolic extract of c. roseus 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg; and one group treated with Metformin (100 mg/kg). After final administration of treatment of 4 weeks, blood samples were collected under fasting conditions, and the body weights (BWs) were measured. Total RNA from liver was extracted with the Qiagen RNEasy Micro kit (GERMANY) as described in the manufacturer's instructions. First-strand complementary DNA (cDNA) was synthesized at 40 °C by priming with oligo-dT12-18 (Invitrogen, USA) and using Super ScriptII reverse transcriptase according to the protocol provided by the manufacturer (Invitrogen, USA). Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplifications for GLUT-4 (gene ID: 25139) were conducted using Light-Cycler 480 (Roche, USA) with the SyBr® I nucleic acid stain (Invitrogen, USA) according to the manufacturer's instructions. Polymerase chain reaction products of β-actin primer gene were used as an internal standard. The proposed study was framed to look at the antidiabetic efficacy of ethanolic extract of c. roseus and an expression of GLUT-2 and GLUT-4 gene in streptozotocin induced diabetic wistar rats. The doses were administered orally at a rate of 100 and 200 mg/kg and detrain the glucose transport system in liver for 4 weeks. The observed results showed a good positive correlation between intracellular calcium and insulin

  4. Oxidative Stress Parameters and Erythrocyte Membrane Adenosine Triphosphatase Activities in Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Rats Administered Aqueous Preparation of Kalanchoe Pinnata Leaves.

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    Menon, Nikhil; Sparks, Jean; Omoruyi, Felix O

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disease that according to the World Health Organization affects more than 382 million people. The rise in diabetes mellitus coupled with the lack of an effective treatment has led many to investigate medicinal plants to identify a viable alternative. To evaluate red blood cell (RBC) membrane adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) activities and antioxidant levels in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats administered aqueous preparation of Kalanchoe pinnata leaves. Diabetes mellitus was induced in rats by a single administration of streptozotocin (60 mg/kg). Diabetic rats were then treated with aqueous K. pinnata preparation (three mature leaves ~ 9.96 g/70 kg body weight or about 0.14 g/kg body weight/day) for 30 days. Serum glucose, RBC membrane ATPase activities, and antioxidant levels were determined. We noted weight loss and reduced food consumption in the treated diabetic group. Serum glucose levels were reduced in the treated diabetic group compared to the other groups. Superoxide dismutase activity and glutathione levels were not significantly elevated in the treated group compared to the diabetic group. However, serum catalase activity was significantly (P < 0.05) increased in the treated diabetic group compared to the other groups. Serum thiobarbituric acid reactive substances were not significantly altered among the groups. There was a significant (P < 0.05) increase in Mg(2+) ATPase activity and a nonsignificant increase in Na(+)/K(+) ATPase activity in the RBC membrane of the treated diabetic group compared to the diabetic group. The consumption of aqueous preparation of K. pinnata may accrue benefits in the management of diabetes by lowering oxidative stress often associated with the disease and improving the availability of cellular magnesium through an increase in the magnesium ATPase pump in the RBC membrane for increased cellular metabolism of glucose through the glycolytic pathway. We noted weight loss and

  5. Göttingen minipig model of diet-induced atherosclerosis: influence of mild streptozotocin-induced diabetes on lesion severity and markers of inflammation evaluated in obese, obese and diabetic, and lean control animals.

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    Ludvigsen, Trine Pagh; Kirk, Rikke Kaae; Christoffersen, Berit Østergaard; Pedersen, Henrik Duelund; Martinussen, Torben; Kildegaard, Jonas; Heegaard, Peter M H; Lykkesfeldt, Jens; Olsen, Lisbeth Høier

    2015-09-22

    From a pharmacological perspective, readily-available, well-characterized animal models of cardiovascular disease, including relevant in vivo markers of atherosclerosis are important for evaluation of novel drug candidates. Furthermore, considering the impact of diabetes mellitus on atherosclerosis in human patients, inclusion of this disease aspect in the characterization of a such model, is highly relevant. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of mild streptozotocin-induced diabetes on ex- and in vivo end-points in a diet-induced atherosclerotic minipig model. Castrated male Göttingen minipigs were fed standard chow (CD), atherogenic diet alone (HFD) or with superimposed mild streptozotocin-induced diabetes (HFD-D). Circulating markers of inflammation (C-reactive protein (CRP), oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, lipid and glucose metabolism were evaluated together with coronary and aortic atherosclerosis after 22 or 43 diet-weeks. Group differences were evaluated by analysis of variance for parametric data and Kruskal-Wallis test for non-parametric data. For qualitative assessments, Fisher's exact test was applied. For all analyses, p diabetes was observed on plaque area, lesion severity or inflammatory markers.

  6. Global gene expression profiling of pancreatic islets in mice during streptozotocin-induced β-cell damage and pancreatic Glp-1 gene therapy

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    Jason M. Tonne

    2013-09-01

    Streptozotocin (STZ, a glucosamine-nitrosourea compound, has potent genotoxic effects on pancreatic β-cells and is frequently used to induce diabetes in experimental animals. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 has β-cell protective effects and is known to preserve β-cells from STZ treatment. In this study, we analyzed the mechanisms of STZ-induced diabetes and GLP-1-mediated β-cell protection in STZ-treated mice. At 1 week after multiple low-dose STZ administrations, pancreatic β-cells showed impaired insulin expression, while maintaining expression of nuclear Nkx6.1. This was accompanied by significant upregulation of p53-responsive genes in islets, including a mediator of cell cycle arrest, p21 (also known as Waf1 and Cip1. STZ treatment also suppressed expression of a wide range of genes linked with key β-cell functions or diabetes development, such as G6pc2, Slc2a2 (Glut2, Slc30a8, Neurod1, Ucn3, Gad1, Isl1, Foxa2, Vdr, Pdx1, Fkbp1b and Abcc8, suggesting global β-cell defects in STZ-treated islets. The Tmem229B, Prss53 and Ttc28 genes were highly expressed in untreated islets and strongly suppressed by STZ, suggesting their potential roles in β-cell function. When a pancreas-targeted adeno-associated virus (AAV vector was employed for long-term Glp-1 gene delivery, pancreatic GLP-1 expression protected mice from STZ-induced diabetes through preservation of the β-cell mass. Despite its potent β-cell protective effects, however, pancreatic GLP-1 overexpression showed limited effects on the global gene expression profiles in the islets. Network analysis identified the programmed-cell-death-associated pathways as the most relevant network in Glp-1 gene therapy. Upon pancreatic GLP-1 expression, upregulation of Cxcl13 and Nptx2 was observed in STZ-damaged islets, but not in untreated normal islets. Given the pro-β-cell-survival effects of Cxcl12 (Sdf-1 in inducing GLP-1 production in α-cells, pancreatic GLP-1-mediated Cxcl13 induction might also play a

  7. Curcumin ameliorates skeletal muscle atrophy in type 1 diabetic mice by inhibiting protein ubiquitination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Taisuke; Takada, Shingo; Kinugawa, Shintaro; Tsutsui, Hiroyuki

    2015-09-01

    What is the central question of this study? We sought to examine whether curcumin could ameliorate skeletal muscle atrophy in diabetic mice by inhibiting protein ubiquitination, inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress. What is the main finding and its importance? We found that curcumin ameliorated skeletal muscle atrophy in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice by inhibiting protein ubiquitination without affecting protein synthesis. This favourable effect of curcumin was possibly due to the inhibition of inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress. Curcumin may be beneficial for the treatment of muscle atrophy in type 1 diabetes mellitus. Skeletal muscle atrophy develops in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM), especially in type 1 DM, which is associated with chronic inflammation. Curcumin, the active ingredient of turmeric, has various biological actions, including anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. We hypothesized that curcumin could ameliorate skeletal muscle atrophy in mice with streptozotocin-induced type 1 DM. C57BL/6 J mice were injected with streptozotocin (200 mg kg(-1) i.p.; DM group) or vehicle (control group). Each group of mice was randomly subdivided into two groups of 10 mice each and fed a diet with or without curcumin (1500 mg kg(-1) day(-1)) for 2 weeks. There were significant decreases in body weight, skeletal muscle weight and cellular cross-sectional area of the skeletal muscle in DM mice compared with control mice, and these changes were significantly attenuated in DM+Curcumin mice without affecting plasma glucose and insulin concentrations. Ubiquitination of protein was increased in skeletal muscle from DM mice and decreased in DM+Curcumin mice. Gene expressions of muscle-specific ubiquitin E3 ligase atrogin-1/MAFbx and MuRF1 were increased in DM and inhibited in DM+Curcumin mice. Moreover, nuclear factor-κB activation, concentrations of the inflammatory cytokines tumour necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β and oxidative

  8. Göttingen minipig model of diet-induced atherosclerosis: influence of mild streptozotocin-induced diabetes on lesion severity and markers of inflammation evaluated in obese, obese and diabetic, and lean control animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ludvigsen, Trine Pagh; Kirk, Rikke Kaae; Christoffersen, Berit Østergaard

    2015-01-01

    From a pharmacological perspective, readily-available, well-characterized animal models of cardiovascular disease, including relevant in vivo markers of atherosclerosis are important for evaluation of novel drug candidates. Furthermore, considering the impact of diabetes mellitus on atherosclerosis...... Göttingen minipigs were fed standard chow (CD), atherogenic diet alone (HFD) or with superimposed mild streptozotocin-induced diabetes (HFD-D). Circulating markers of inflammation (C-reactive protein (CRP), oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, lipid and glucose...... metabolism were evaluated together with coronary and aortic atherosclerosis after 22 or 43 diet-weeks. Group differences were evaluated by analysis of variance for parametric data and Kruskal-Wallis test for non-parametric data. For qualitative assessments, Fisher's exact test was applied. For all analyses...

  9. Thujone improves glucose homeostasis in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats through activation of Akt/GSK-3AND#946; signaling pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Hakam Hasan Alkhateeb

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Thujone, a main constituent of medicinal herbs, has been shown to have antidiabetic properties. Therefore the primary objective of this study was to investigate the mechanism(s) by which thujone ameliorates diabetes and insulin resistance in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were rendered diabetic by a single intraperitoneal injection of STZ (55 mg/kg). Thereafter, rats were randomly divided into three groups: normal control rats; STZ...

  10. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist inhibits asymmetric dimethylarginine generation in the kidney of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats by blocking advanced glycation end product-induced protein arginine methyltranferase-1 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojima, Ayako; Ishibashi, Yuji; Matsui, Takanori; Maeda, Sayaka; Nishino, Yuri; Takeuchi, Masayoshi; Fukami, Kei; Yamagishi, Sho-ichi

    2013-01-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and their receptor (RAGE) play a role in diabetic nephropathy. Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), an endogenous inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, contributes to diabetic nephropathy. We have found that glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) inhibits the AGE-induced inflammatory reactions in endothelial cells. However, effects of GLP-1 on the AGE-RAGE-ADMA axis are unknown. This study examined the effects of GLP-1 on reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, gene expression of protein arginine methyltransfetase-1 (PRMT-1), an enzyme that mainly generates ADMA, and ADMA levels in human proximal tubular cells. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats received continuous i.p. infusion of 0.3 μg of vehicle or 1.5 μg of the GLP-1 analog exendin-4 per kilogram of body weight for 2 weeks. We further investigated whether and how exendin-4 treatment reduced ADMA levels and renal damage in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. GLP-1 inhibited the AGE-induced RAGE and PRMT-1 gene expression, ROS, and ADMA generation in tubular cells, which were blocked by small-interfering RNAs raised against GLP-1 receptor. Exendin-4 treatment decreased gene expression of Rage, Prmt-1, Icam-1, and Mcp-1 and ADMA level; reduced urinary excretions of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine and albumin; and improved histopathologic changes of the kidney in diabetic rats. Our present study suggests that GLP-1 receptor agonist may inhibit the AGE-RAGE-mediated ADMA generation by suppressing PRMT-1 expression via inhibition of ROS generation, thereby protecting against the development and progression of diabetic nephropathy. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Response of streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats under oxidative stress of intermittent radiation exposure to either antioxidant or insulin mimic treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noaman, E.; El-Tahawy, N.A.; Hedayat, I.S.; Mansour, S.Z.; Fahmy, Y.N.

    2005-01-01

    Diabetic rats were treated with 0.5% a-lipoic acid, as a diet supplement, or was administered with vanadyl sulphate in drinking water at a dose of 75 mg/kg with or without whole body gamma radiation exposure with repeated dose of 4 Gy/week for 4 weeks. Both treatments significantly improved diabetes-induced increase in glucose concentration. Treating diabetic rats with a-lipoic acid prevented the diabetes-induced increase in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in plasma and significantly improved liver glutathione levels. On the other hand, treating diabetic rats with vanadyl sulphate not only prevented diabetes-induced changes of either of these oxidative stress markers but also normalized glucose concentration and ameliorated the increase in body weight gain. Diabetes with or without radiation exposure induced increase in liver conjugated diene levels and such elevation was improved by the treatment with either a-lipoic acid or vanadyl sulphate. Treating diabetic rats with a-lipoic acid and vanadyl sulphate partially improved liver No*VlC-ATPase activity and sorbitol and myo-inositol contents. The increase in liver sorbitol levels in diabetic rats was ameliorated by either treatment. These studies suggest that diabetes-induced oxidative stress may be partially responsible for the development of diabetic complications and the treatment with vanadyl sulphate was more advantageous than a-lipoic acid in handling these complications

  12. The Protective Effect of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Rosa canina (Dog Rose) Fruit on Liver Function and Structure in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghizadeh, Mohsen; Rashidi, Ali Akbar; Taherian, Ali Akbar; Vakili, Zarichehr; Mehran, Mehdi

    2017-11-02

    This study was conducted to evaluate the hepatoprotective effects of Rosa canina (R. canina) extract on streptozotocin- (STZ-) induced diabetes in rats by measuring the fasting blood glucose (FBG), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and liver enzyme activity, including serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). Forty adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups and treated daily for 42 days as follows: group I (control) received saline as a vehicle; group II (diabetic) received saline; groups III and IV (diabetic) treated with 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight (BW) per day R. canina extract, respectively. Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal (IP) injection of streptozotocin (50 mg/kg BW). At the end of the study, blood samples were collected via heart puncture and sera were used for estimation of the mentioned parameters. Then all the rats were sacrificed and their livers used for histopathological evaluations. In the untreated diabetic group, the results showed a significant increase in FBG, ALT, and AST levels compared to the other groups (p .05). In the treated groups, administration of R. canina extract significantly improved the mentioned parameters in a dose-dependent manner (p < .05). Histological evaluations indicated that R. canina extract ameliorated defective liver caused by STZ. It can be concluded that R. canina extract has a hepatoprotective effect in STZ-induced diabetes in rats.

  13. Comparative effects of zinc, selenium and vitamin E or their combination on carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes and oxidative stress in streptozotocin induced-diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aly, H F; Mantawy, M M

    2012-01-01

    It is well documented that oxidative stress is a basic mechanism behind the development of diabetic state. The current study was undertaken to elucidate the hypoglycemic role of zinc, selenium and vitamin E and their mixture in comparison with the antidiabetic drug glibenclamide. Male Wistar rats weighing 250 +/- 50 g were made diabetic by injection with a single i.p. dose of streptozotocin (STZ) (65 mg/kg b. wt). Diabetic groups were simultaneously i.p. injected either with zinc chloride (ZnCI2) (5 mg/kg) or with selenium and vitamin E (1.5 mg/kg as sodium selenite and vitamin E 1000 mg/kg) or with zinc, selenium and vitamin E each element i.p. injected according to its corresponding therapeutic dose daily for one month. Another group was orally treated daily with glibenclamide drug (5 mg/kg) for one month. Blood and tissue samples were collected at day 3 post STZ injection (from one group serum glucose level significantly elevated selenium and vitamin E or their combination blunted the increment in serum glucose induced by STZ, preserved liver architecture and ameliorated all the previous mentioned biochemical parameters. It was found that, the combined administration of zinc, selenium and vitamin E exhibited a more remarkable effect than either zinc or selenium and vitamin E. So, the results clearly indicate the beneficial effects of micronutrients combination in controlling hyperglycemia.

  14. Therapeutic potential of the immunomodulatory proteins Wuchereria bancrofti L2 and Brugia malayi abundant larval transcript 2 against streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetes in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amdare, N P; Khatri, V K; Yadav, R S P; Tarnekar, A; Goswami, K; Reddy, M V R

    2017-09-01

    Epidemiological and experimental evidence has supported the concept of using helminths as alternative bio-therapeutic agents in the treatment of type 1 diabetes (T1D). In the current study, two filarial proteins, recombinant Wuchereria bancrofti L2 (rWbL2) and Brugia malayi abundant larval transcript 2 (rBmALT-2) have been investigated, individually and in combination, for their therapeutic potential in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced T1D. The rWbL2 and rBmALT-2 proteins, when administered individually or in combination, have resulted in lowering of the blood glucose levels and reducing the incidence of T1D in mice. In addition, these proteins have led to reduced lymphocytic infiltration and decreased islet damage and inflammation. The curative effect was found to be associated with the suppression of release of tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ), and increased production of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5 and IL-10 cytokines by the splenocytes of the diabetic mice. Insulin-specific IgG1 and antigen-specific IgE antibodies were found to be elevated in the sera of mice treated with rWbL2 and rBmALT-2 proteins. From the findings in this study, it can be envisaged that both of these filarial immunomodulatory proteins have the potential to ameliorate T1D by altering the regulatory immune responses.

  15. Effects of Hydro-alcoholic Extract from Arctium lappa L. (Burdock) Root on Gonadotropins, Testosterone, and Sperm Count and Viability in Male Mice with Nicotinamide/ Streptozotocin-Induced Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahangarpour, Akram; Oroojan, Ali Akbar; Heidari, Hamid; Ghaedi, Ehsan; Taherkhani, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Reproductive dysfunction is a complication of diabetes. Arctium lappa (burdock) root has hypoglycemic and antioxidative properties, which are traditionally used for treatment of impotence and sterility. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate the effects of its hydro alcoholic extract on gonadotropin, testosterone, and sperm parameters in nicotinamide/ streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. In this experimental study, 56 adult male Naval Medical Research Institute (NMRI) mice (30-35 g) were randomly divided into seven groups: control, diabetes, diabetes + glibenclamide (0.25 mg/kg), diabetes + extract (200 or 300 mg/kg), and extract (200 or 300 mg/kg). Diabetes was induced with intraperitoneal injection of nicotinamide (NA) and streptozotocin (STZ). Twenty-four hours after the last extract and drug administration, serum samples, testes, and cauda epididymis were removed immediately for experimental assessment. Body weight, serum luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), and testosterone levels, and sperm count (P lappa plant has an effect on the health of the reproductive system in order to improve diabetic conditions.

  16. Antidiabetic Potentiality of the Aqueous-Methanolic Extract of Seed of Swietenia mahagoni (L. Jacq. in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Male Albino Rat: A Correlative and Evidence-Based Approach with Antioxidative and Antihyperlipidemic Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debasis De

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Antidiabetic, antioxidative, and antihyperlipidemic activities of aqueous-methanolic (2 : 3 extract of Swietenia mahagoni (L. Jacq. (family Meliaceae seed studied in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Feeding with seed extract (25 mg 0.25 mL distilled water−1100 gm b.w.−1rat−1 day−1 for 21 days to diabetic rat lowered the blood glucose level as well as the glycogen level in liver. Moreover, activities of antioxidant enzymes like catalase, peroxidase, and levels of the products of free radicals like conjugated diene and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in liver, kidney, and skeletal muscles were corrected towards the control after this extract treatment in this model. Furthermore, the seed extract corrected the levels of serum urea, uric acid, creatinine, cholesterol, triglyceride, and lipoproteins towards the control level in this experimental diabetic model. The results indicated the potentiality of the extract of S. mahagoni seed for the correction of diabetes and its related complications like oxidative stress and hyperlipidemia. The extract may be a good candidate for developing a safety, tolerable, and promising neutraceutical treatment for the management of diabetes.

  17. Effects of vitamin A, C and E, or omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on the level of paraoxonase and arylesterase activity in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats: an investigation of activities in plasma, and heart and liver homogenates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarei, Mahnaz; Fakher, Shima; Tabei, Seyed Mohammad Bagher; Javanbakht, Mohammad Hassan; Derakhshanian, Hoda; Farahbakhsh-Farsi, Payam; Sadeghi, Mohammad Reza; Mostafavi, Ebrahim; Djalali, Mahmoud

    2016-03-01

    This study was designed and conducted to evaluate the effects of vitamin A, C and E supplementation, and omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on the activity of paraoxonase and arylesterase in an experimental model of diabetes mellitus. A total of 64 male Sprague Dawley® rats, each weighing 250 g, were randomly distributed into four groups: (a) normal control; (b) diabetic control; (c) diabetic with vitamin A, C and E supplementation; and (d) diabetic with omega-3 fatty acid supplementation. The animals were anaesthetised after four weeks of intervention, and paraoxonase and arylesterase activity in blood plasma, and liver and heart homogenates were measured. Arylesterase activity in the heart and liver homogenates was significantly lower in the diabetic control group than in the normal control group (p Vitamin A, C and E supplementation, and omega-3 fatty acid supplementation significantly increased liver arylesterase activity (p Vitamin A, C and E, or omega-3 fatty acid supplementation were found to increase liver arylesterase activity in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. These supplements may be potential agents for the treatment of diabetes mellitus complications. Copyright: © Singapore Medical Association.

  18. Effects of pomegranate seed oil on oxidative stress markers, serum biochemical parameters and pathological findings in kidney and heart of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollazadeh, Hamid; Sadeghnia, Hamid R; Hoseini, Azar; Farzadnia, Mehdi; Boroushaki, Mohammad Taher

    2016-09-01

    Oxidative stress due to hyperglycemia is a major cause of diabetes complications. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of pomegranate seed oil (PSO) on serum biochemical parameters, cardiomyopathy and nephropathy induced by diabetes mellitus. W/A adult rats were divided into four groups (12 each): group 1, received saline (1 mL/kg), group 2, received streptozotocin (STZ, 65 mg/kg, a single dose as i.p.), groups 3 and 4, received STZ + PSO (0.4 and 0.8 mL/kg, daily by gavage, respectively). After three weeks, six rats of each group and one week later the remaining animals were anesthetized, blood samples were taken for measuring serum biochemical parameters. Sections of heart and kidneys were used for histopathological studies and the remaining tissues were homogenized for measuring malondialdehyde (MDA) and total sulfhydryl groups. Significant elevation of serum creatinine and urea, LDL, triglyceride, glucose levels as well as urine markers, MDA levels in tissue homogenates and a significant decrease in total thiol content and serum HDL were observed in STZ-treated group as compared with control group. PSO treatment resulted in a significant decrease in tissue MDA content, serum creatinine and urea levels as well as urine markers as compared with STZ-treated group. Lipid profile was ameliorated with PSO treatment. PSO also significantly reversed STZ-induced depletion in thiol content and histological abnormality. Effect of PSO was more specific at 28th than 21th days of study. The results showed that PSO has a protective effect against diabetes complications in rats.

  19. Hypoxis hemerocallidea Significantly Reduced Hyperglycaemia and Hyperglycaemic-Induced Oxidative Stress in the Liver and Kidney Tissues of Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Male Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguntibeju, Oluwafemi O; Meyer, Samantha; Aboua, Yapo G; Goboza, Mediline

    2016-01-01

    Background. Hypoxis hemerocallidea is a native plant that grows in the Southern African regions and is well known for its beneficial medicinal effects in the treatment of diabetes, cancer, and high blood pressure. Aim. This study evaluated the effects of Hypoxis hemerocallidea on oxidative stress biomarkers, hepatic injury, and other selected biomarkers in the liver and kidneys of healthy nondiabetic and streptozotocin- (STZ-) induced diabetic male Wistar rats. Materials and Methods. Rats were injected intraperitoneally with 50 mg/kg of STZ to induce diabetes. The plant extract-Hypoxis hemerocallidea (200 mg/kg or 800 mg/kg) aqueous solution was administered (daily) orally for 6 weeks. Antioxidant activities were analysed using a Multiskan Spectrum plate reader while other serum biomarkers were measured using the RANDOX chemistry analyser. Results. Both dosages (200 mg/kg and 800 mg/kg) of Hypoxis hemerocallidea significantly reduced the blood glucose levels in STZ-induced diabetic groups. Activities of liver enzymes were increased in the diabetic control and in the diabetic group treated with 800 mg/kg, whereas the 200 mg/kg dosage ameliorated hepatic injury. In the hepatic tissue, the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), catalase, and total glutathione were reduced in the diabetic control group. However treatment with both doses improved the antioxidant status. The FRAP and the catalase activities in the kidney were elevated in the STZ-induced diabetic group treated with 800 mg/kg of the extract possibly due to compensatory responses. Conclusion. Hypoxis hemerocallidea demonstrated antihyperglycemic and antioxidant effects especially in the liver tissue.

  20. Preventive Effect of Garlic (Allium sativum L.) on Serum Biochemical Factors and Histopathology of Pancreas and Liver in Streptozotocin- Induced Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masjedi, Fatemeh; Gol, Ali; Dabiri, Shahriar

    2013-01-01

    Antidiabetic action of garlic is established in animal studies. Since all of the pervious studies have focused on the therapeutic role of garlic, this study investigated the preventive effect of garlic juice on biochemical factors and histological features in Streptozotocin (STZ)- induced diabetic rats. Forty male rats were divided into five groups (n = 8): 1-Normal group (N), 2-Normal+Garlic group (N+G) received garlic juice (1 mL/100g BW) for 6 weeks, 3-Diabetic group (D) was injected with STZ (60 mg/kg, IP), 4-Diabetic+Garlic-before group (D+Gb) received garlic juice for 3 weeks before STZ injection and continued for another 3 weeks, 5-Diabetic+Garlic-after group (D+Ga), three days after STZ injection, they received garlic juice for 3 weeks. Serum biochemical factors were measured by the enzymatic methods and H&E stained sections of pancreas and liver were prepared for light microscopy. In diabetic rats, elevated levels of glucose, cholesterol and triglycerides, the increment of the activities of ALT and AST, increased food and water consumption were observed. The abnormal increases were significantly (p < 0.05) decreased in D+Gb groups compared to D group. In D group, scattered degeneration of the hepatocytes with lymphocytic infiltration in the portal areas, decrease of pancreatic islets numbers and diameter, atrophy of pancreatic islets were observed. These abnormal histological signs were dramatically ameliorated in D+Gb group compared to D group. In D+Ga group compared to D+Gb group slighter effects of garlic juice on histopathological and biochemical changes were seen. These results indicate that garlic juice may help in the prevention of the complications of diabetes.

  1. Treadmill Exercise Exerts Neuroprotection and Regulates Microglial Polarization and Oxidative Stress in a Streptozotocin-Induced Rat Model of Sporadic Alzheimer’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yujiao; Dong, Yan; Tucker, Donovan; Wang, Ruimin; Ahmed, Mohammad Ejaz; Brann, Darrell; Zhang, Quanguang

    2017-01-01

    Recent work has suggested that exercise may be beneficial in preventing or ameliorating symptoms of several neurological disorders, although the mechanism is not entirely understood. The current study was designed to examine the potential beneficial effect of treadmill exercise upon cognitive function in a streptozotocin (STZ)-induced rat model of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Animals underwent treadmill exercise (30 min/day, 5 days/week) for 4 weeks after bilateral STZ intracerebroventricular injection (2.4 mg/kg). We demonstrated that treadmill exercise significantly attenuated STZ-induced neurodegeneration in the rat hippocampal CA1 region and strongly preserved hippocampal-dependent cognitive functioning. Further mechanistic investigation displayed a marked suppression of STZ-induced amyloid-β accumulation and tau phosphorylation. Intriguingly, treadmill exercise remarkably inhibited reactive gliosis following STZ insult and effectively shifted activated microglia from a pro-inflammatory M1 to an anti-inflammatory M2 phenotype, which was correlated with a significantly reduced expression of pro-inflammatory mediators and a corresponding enhancement of anti-inflammatory cytokine expression in the hippocampus. Furthermore, treadmill exercise caused a robust suppression of oxidative damage as evidenced by significantly reduced peroxynitrite production, lipid peroxidation, and oxidized DNA damage. Finally, treadmill exercise strongly attenuated STZ-induced mitochondrial dysfunction manifested by a dramatically elevated intra-mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase activity and ATP synthesis, and markedly inhibited neuronal apoptosis in the hippocampus. These findings demonstrate that treadmill exercise has a multifactorial effect to attenuate many of the pathological processes that play a key role in AD, and provide further support for the beneficial role of exercise as a potential therapeutic option in AD treatment. PMID:28157094

  2. Treadmill exercise decreases incidence of Alzheimer’s disease by suppressing glycogen synthase kinase-3β expression in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae-Young; Jung, Sun-Young; Kim, Tae-Woon; Lee, Kwang-Sik; Kim, Kijeong

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes is a metabolic disorder, and it is considered as a major risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). In the present study, we evaluated whether treadmill exercise ameliorates progression of AD in relation with glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) activity using streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. For this study, step-down avoidance task, immunohistochemistry for glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) and tau, and western blot for phosphor-phosphoinositide 3 kinase (p-PI3K)/PI3K and phosphor-Akt (p-Akt)/Akt were performed. Diabetes mellitus was induced by intraperitoneal injection of STZ. The rats in the exercise groups were made to run on the treadmill for 30 min per one day, five times a week, during 12 weeks. The present results showed that short-term and long-term latencies in the step-down avoidance task were decreased by induction of diabetes, and treadmill exercise inhibited these latencies in the diabetic rats. Induction of diabetes suppressed the ratio of p-PI3K to PI3K and the ratio of p-Akt to Akt, and treadmill exercise increased these ratios in the diabetic rats. The numbers of GSK-3β-positive and tau-positive cells in the hippocampal dentate gyrus was higher in the diabetes-induction group than that in the control group, and treadmill exercise inhibited these numbers in the diabetic rats. In the present study, treadmill exercise suppressed hyperphosphorylation of tau in the hippocampus by decreased GSK-3β activity through PI3K/Akt pathway activation in the diabetic rats. Based on the present results, treadmill exercise may helpful to prevent diabetes-associated AD occurrence. PMID:25960981

  3. Effect of vitamins C and E alone and in combination with each other on LDL and fibrinogen in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talat, A.; Khan, T.B.; Mahmood, S.

    2011-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a heterogeneous group of disorders, manifested by raised plasma glucose concentration and disturbances of glucose metabolism Diabetes mellitus is a complex of metabolic disorders affecting different systems of body. The main etiology of mortality and high percentage of morbidity in patients with diabetes mellitus is atherosclerosis. The vascular endothelium overlying lesion - prone arterial sites shows increased permeability to plasma proteins, LDL and fibrinogen. High plasma fibrinogen concentration in adults is associated with elevated risk of coronary heart disease and stroke. Treatment with antioxidants like vitamin C and vitamin E reduces diabetic complications. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of antioxidants vitamin C and E in lowering the fibrinogen and LDL levels. Present study was conducted on 48 albino rats. They were divided into four groups. Dia-betes was induced in all rats by giving streptozotocin 65 mg/kg intraperitoneally. First group was control diabetic. Second group was given vitamin C in a dose of 150 mg/kg b.w/day and third group was given vita-min E in a dose of 100 mg/kg b.w/day. Fourth group was given vitamin C with vitamin E intraperitoneally in the same doses. Effects of vitamin C and E were observed on serum LDL and plasma fibrinogen level by using commercially available kits. LDL cholesterol was decreased in groups B, C and D as compared to group A. Fibrinogen level was decreased in - group B and D and increased in group C. Vitamin C alone and in combination with vitamin E help in ameliorating atherosclerosis by decreasing LDL and fibrinogen levels. Vitamin E lowers LDL level but not fibrinogen level. There is a synergistic action of vitamin E and C in lowering fibrinogen and LDL level. (author)

  4. Treadmill Exercise Exerts Neuroprotection and Regulates Microglial Polarization and Oxidative Stress in a Streptozotocin-Induced Rat Model of Sporadic Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yujiao; Dong, Yan; Tucker, Donovan; Wang, Ruimin; Ahmed, Mohammad Ejaz; Brann, Darrell; Zhang, Quanguang

    2017-01-01

    Recent work has suggested that exercise may be beneficial in preventing or ameliorating symptoms of several neurological disorders, although the mechanism is not entirely understood. The current study was designed to examine the potential beneficial effect of treadmill exercise upon cognitive function in a streptozotocin (STZ)-induced rat model of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Animals underwent treadmill exercise (30 min/day, 5 days/week) for 4 weeks after bilateral STZ intracerebroventricular injection (2.4 mg/kg). We demonstrated that treadmill exercise significantly attenuated STZ-induced neurodegeneration in the rat hippocampal CA1 region and strongly preserved hippocampal-dependent cognitive functioning. Further mechanistic investigation displayed a marked suppression of STZ-induced amyloid-β accumulation and tau phosphorylation. Intriguingly, treadmill exercise remarkably inhibited reactive gliosis following STZ insult and effectively shifted activated microglia from a pro-inflammatory M1 to an anti-inflammatory M2 phenotype, which was correlated with a significantly reduced expression of pro-inflammatory mediators and a corresponding enhancement of anti-inflammatory cytokine expression in the hippocampus. Furthermore, treadmill exercise caused a robust suppression of oxidative damage as evidenced by significantly reduced peroxynitrite production, lipid peroxidation, and oxidized DNA damage. Finally, treadmill exercise strongly attenuated STZ-induced mitochondrial dysfunction manifested by a dramatically elevated intra-mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase activity and ATP synthesis, and markedly inhibited neuronal apoptosis in the hippocampus. These findings demonstrate that treadmill exercise has a multifactorial effect to attenuate many of the pathological processes that play a key role in AD, and provide further support for the beneficial role of exercise as a potential therapeutic option in AD treatment.

  5. Hypoxis hemerocallidea Significantly Reduced Hyperglycaemia and Hyperglycaemic-Induced Oxidative Stress in the Liver and Kidney Tissues of Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Male Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwafemi O. Oguntibeju

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Hypoxis hemerocallidea is a native plant that grows in the Southern African regions and is well known for its beneficial medicinal effects in the treatment of diabetes, cancer, and high blood pressure. Aim. This study evaluated the effects of Hypoxis hemerocallidea on oxidative stress biomarkers, hepatic injury, and other selected biomarkers in the liver and kidneys of healthy nondiabetic and streptozotocin- (STZ- induced diabetic male Wistar rats. Materials and Methods. Rats were injected intraperitoneally with 50 mg/kg of STZ to induce diabetes. The plant extract-Hypoxis hemerocallidea (200 mg/kg or 800 mg/kg aqueous solution was administered (daily orally for 6 weeks. Antioxidant activities were analysed using a Multiskan Spectrum plate reader while other serum biomarkers were measured using the RANDOX chemistry analyser. Results. Both dosages (200 mg/kg and 800 mg/kg of Hypoxis hemerocallidea significantly reduced the blood glucose levels in STZ-induced diabetic groups. Activities of liver enzymes were increased in the diabetic control and in the diabetic group treated with 800 mg/kg, whereas the 200 mg/kg dosage ameliorated hepatic injury. In the hepatic tissue, the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP, catalase, and total glutathione were reduced in the diabetic control group. However treatment with both doses improved the antioxidant status. The FRAP and the catalase activities in the kidney were elevated in the STZ-induced diabetic group treated with 800 mg/kg of the extract possibly due to compensatory responses. Conclusion. Hypoxis hemerocallidea demonstrated antihyperglycemic and antioxidant effects especially in the liver tissue.

  6. The anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic effects of Coreopsis tinctoria Nutt on high-glucose-fat diet and streptozotocin-induced diabetic renal damage in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Lan; Li, Linlin; Li, Xinxia; Li, Hui; Zhang, Yujie; Zhang, Rui; Wang, Jian; Mao, Xinmin

    2015-09-07

    Diabetic nephropathy is a serious complication of diabetes whose development process is associated with inflammation, renal hypertrophy, and fibrosis. Coreopsis tinctoria Nutt, traditionally used as a healthcare tea, has anti-inflammatory, anti-hyperlipidemia, and glycemic regulation activities. The aim of our study was to investigate the renal protective effect of ethyl acetate extract of C. tinctoria Nutt (AC) on high-glucose-fat diet and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. A diabetic rat model was induced by high-glucose-fat diet and intraperitoneal injection of 35 mg/kg STZ. After treatment with AC at a daily dose of 150, 300 or, 600 mg/kg for 4 weeks, metabolic and renal function parameters of serum and urine were examined. Degree of renal damage, renal proinflammatory cytokines, and fibrotic protein expression were analyzed by histopathology and immunohistochemistry. Renal AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1/Smad signaling pathway were determined by western blotting. Diabetic rats showed obvious renal dysfunction, inflammation and fibrosis. However, AC significantly reduced levels of blood glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride, blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine and urinary albumin, as well as expression of kidney proinflammatory cytokines of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and intercellular adhesion molecule-1. AC also ameliorated renal hypertrophy and fibrosis by reducing fibronectin and collagen IV and suppressing the TGF-β1/Smad signaling pathway. Meanwhile, AMPKα as a protective cytokine was markedly stimulated by AC. In summary, AC controls blood glucose, inhibits inflammatory and fibrotic processes, suppresses the TGF-β1/Smad signaling pathway, and activates phosphorylation of AMPKα in the kidneys, which confirms the protective effects of AC in the early stage of diabetic kidney disease.

  7. Amelioration of renal lesions associated with diabetes by dietary curcumin in streptozotocin diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh Babu, P; Srinivasan, K

    1998-04-01

    Curcumin, the coloring principle of the commonly used spice turmeric (Curcuma longa) was fed at 0.5% in the diet to streptozotocin-induced diabetic Wistar rats for 8 weeks. Renal damage was assessed by the amount of proteins excreted in the urine and the extent of leaching of renal tubular enzymes: NAG, LDH, AsAT, AlAT, alkaline and acid phosphatases. The integrity of kidney was assessed by measuring the activities of several key enzymes of the renal tissue: glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glucose-6-phosphatase, and LDH (Carbohydrate metabolism), aldose reductase and sorbitol dehydrogenase (polyol pathway), transaminases, ATPases and membrane PUFA/SFA ratio (membrane integrity). Data on enzymuria, albuminuria, activity of kidney ATPases and fatty acid composition of renal membranes in diabetic condition suggested that dietary curcumin brought about significant beneficial modulation of the progression of renal lesions in diabetes. These findings were also corroborated by histological examination of kidney sections. It is inferred that this beneficial ameliorating influence of dietary curcumin on diabetic nephropathy is possibly mediated through its ability to lower blood cholesterol levels.

  8. Ghrelin ameliorates nerve growth factor Dysmetabolism and inflammation in STZ-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yuxing; Shen, Zhaoxing; Zhang, Dongling; Luo, Huiqiong; Chen, Jinliang; Sun, Yue; Xiao, Qian

    2017-06-01

    Diabetic encephalopathy is characterized by cognitive impairment and neuroinflammation, deficient neurotrophic support, and neuronal and synaptic loss. Ghrelin, a 28 amino acid peptide, is associated with neuromodulation and cognitive improvement, which has been considered as a potential protective agent for several neurodegenerative diseases. Here we sought to investigate the role of ghrelin in preventing diabetic-related neuropathology. We found that ghrelin attenuated astrocytic activation and reduced levels of interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. In addition, ghrelin inhibited p38 mitogen-associated protein kinase activation. The upregulation of nerve growth factor (NGF) precursor and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 and downregulation of mature NGF and MMP-7 in the diabetic brain were reversed by ghrelin. Treatment with ghrelin elevated synaptophysin expression and synaptic density in diabetic rats. Taken together, our results demonstrate that ghrelin ameliorates diabetes-related neurodegeneration by preventing NGF dysmetabolism and synaptic degeneration through regulating MMP levels as well as inhibiting neuroinflammation.

  9. Secreted factors from dental pulp stem cells improve glucose intolerance in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice by increasing pancreatic β-cell function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumoto-Akita, Takako; Tsunekawa, Shin; Yamamoto, Akihito; Uenishi, Eita; Ishikawa, Kota; Ogata, Hidetada; Iida, Atsushi; Ikeniwa, Makoto; Hosokawa, Kaori; Niwa, Yasuhiro; Maekawa, Ryuya; Yamauchi, Yuichiro; Seino, Yusuke; Hamada, Yoji; Hibi, Hideharu; Arima, Hiroshi; Ueda, Minoru; Oiso, Yutaka

    2015-01-01

    Many studies have reported that stem cell transplantation promotes propagation and protection of pancreatic β-cells in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice without the differentiation of transplanted cells into pancreatic β-cells, suggesting that the improvement is due to a paracrine effect of the transplanted cells. We investigated the effects of factors secreted by dental pulp stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED) on β-cell function and survival. Conditioned medium from SHED (SHED-CM) was collected 48 h after culturing in serum-free Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM). The insulin levels in SHED-CM and serum-free conditioned media from human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-CM) were undetectable. STZ-induced diabetic male C57B/6J mice were injected with DMEM as a control, SHED-CM, exendin-4 (Ex-4), or BM-CM for 14 days. Mouse pancreatic β-cell line MIN6 cells were incubated with different concentrations of STZ with SHED-CM, DMEM, Ex-4, or BM-CM for 6 h. Administration of 1 mL of SHED-CM twice a day improved glucose intolerance in STZ-induced diabetic mice and the effect continued for 20 days after the end of treatment. SHED-CM treatment increased pancreatic insulin content and β-cell mass through proliferation and an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test revealed enhanced insulin secretion. Incubation of MIN6 cells (a mouse pancreatic β-cell line) with SHED-CM enhanced insulin secretion in a glucose concentration-dependent manner and reduced STZ-induced cell death, indicating that the amelioration of hyperglycemia was caused by the direct effects of SHED-CM on β-cell function and survival. These effects were more pronounced than with the use of Ex-4, a conventional incretin-based drug, and BM-CM, which is a medium derived from other stem cells. These findings suggest that SHED-CM provides direct protection and encourages the propagation of β-cells, and has potential as a novel strategy for treatment

  10. Modulation of the lipid profile and insulin levels of streptozotocin induced diabetic rats by ethanol extract of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius leaves and some fractions: Effect on the oral glucose tolerance of normoglycemic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achi, N K; Ohaeri, O C; Ijeh, I I; Eleazu, C

    2017-02-01

    No study to date has investigated the effect of different polar solvent extracts from Cnidoscolus aconitifolius leaves on glycemic control as used in folk medicine. Hence this study which investigated the effect of ethanol extract and fractions of C. aconitifolius leaves on body weights, relative organ weights, serum levels of glucose, lipid profiles and insulin in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats and on oral glucose tolerance of normoglycemic rats. The ethanol extract was partitioned using methanol, hexane and chloroform to obtain different fractions. The ethanol extract, fractions or glibenclamide demonstrated hypoglycemic/therapeutic actions as seen from the reduction of serum glucose but increase in serum insulin and body weights of the diabetic rats at the end of experimentation following their administration, unlike the diabetic control that had significant alteration of these parameters with respect to the normal control. Whereas the diabetic control had significant increase in pancreatic weights with no alteration in the heart weights, the ethanol extract, fractions or glibenclamide had no effect on these organs. The ethanol extract, methanol fractions or glibenclamide showed better hypoglycemic actions than the n-hexane or chloroform fractions at the doses used and results obtained were corroborated by histology. Furthermore, the ethanol extract, n-hexane (at 250mg/kg) and methanol fractions or glibenclamide improved glucose tolerance in glucose loaded normal rats. The methanol fraction (500mg/kg) demonstrated anti-hypercholesterolemic, anti-hypertriglyceridemic and insulin modulatory properties in a manner akin to glibenclamide. Acute toxicity study revealed the non toxicity of the plant CONCLUSION: The study justifies the use of polar solvent extracts of this plant in the management of diabetes mellitus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. In Vitro Antioxidant Effects of Aloe barbadensis Miller Extracts and the Potential Role of These Extracts as Antidiabetic and Antilipidemic Agents on Streptozotocin-Induced Type 2 Diabetic Model Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Ibrahim Khalil

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the total phenolic and flavonoid contents, the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging ability and the ferric reducing power (FRAP of Aloe vera were measured to determine the antioxidant activity of this species. The in vivo antidiabetic effects of the plant were also investigated using streptozotocin-induced type 2 diabetic model rats that were divided into five groups based on the treatment received: (1 water (WC; (2 glibenclamide; (3 concentrated gel extract (Gel-C; (4 ethanol (80% gel extract (Gel-Et; and (5 ethanol (80% skin extract of Aloe vera (Skin-Et. Skin-Et, which contained the highest level of total phenolics (62.37 ± 1.34 mggallic acid/kg and flavonoids (20.83 ± 0.77 mg/kg, exhibited the highest scavenging activity (85.01 ± 0.52% and the greatest reducing power (185.98 ± 0.41 µM, indicating that the skin contained the highest level of antioxidants. The oral consumption of Gel-Et for 4 weeks a caused significant reduction in the fasting serum glucose levels of the rats. The rats in the Gel-C-, Gel-Et- and Skin-Et-treated groups experienced a reduction in their total cholesterol levels by 11%, 17% and 25%, respectively and a reduction in their LDL cholesterol levels by 45%, 3% and 69%, respectively. The in vivo experimental antioxidant parameter MDA is strongly correlated with the in vitro antioxidant parameters of flavonoids and polyphenols, namely the DPPH and FRAP values (r = 0.94, 0.92, 0.93, 0.90, thus confirming the antioxidant potential of the Aloe vera extracts.

  12. Gallic acid attenuates high-fat diet fed-streptozotocin-induced insulin resistance via partial agonism of PPARγ in experimental type 2 diabetic rats and enhances glucose uptake through translocation and activation of GLUT4 in PI3K/p-Akt signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Gopalsamy Rajiv; Jothi, Gnanasekaran; Antony, Poovathumkal James; Balakrishna, Kedike; Paulraj, Michael Gabriel; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu; Stalin, Antony; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah

    2014-12-15

    In this study, the therapeutic efficacy of gallic acid from Cyamopsis tetragonoloba (L.) Taub. (Fabaceae) beans was examined against high-fat diet fed-streptozotocin-induced experimental type 2 diabetic rats. Molecular-dockings were done to determine the putative binding modes of gallic acid into the active sites of key insulin-signaling markers. Gallic acid (20 mg/kg) given to high-fat diet fed-streptozotocin-induced rats lowered body weight gain, fasting blood glucose and plasma insulin in diabetic rats. It further restored the alterations of biochemical parameters to near normal levels in diabetic treated rats along with cytoprotective action on pancreatic β-cell. Histology of liver and adipose tissues supported the biochemical findings. Gallic acid significantly enhanced the level of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) expression in the adipose tissue of treated rat compared to untreated diabetic rat; it also slightly activated PPARγ expressions in the liver and skeletal muscle. Consequently, it improved insulin-dependent glucose transport in adipose tissue through translocation and activation of glucose transporter protein 4 (GLUT4) in phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/phosphorylated protein kinase B (p-Akt) dependent pathway. Gallic acid docked with PPARγ; it exhibited promising interactions with the GLUT4, glucose transporter protein 1 (GLUT1), PI3K and p-Akt. These findings provided evidence to show that gallic acid could improve adipose tissue insulin sensitivity, modulate adipogenesis, increase adipose glucose uptake and protect β-cells from impairment. Hence it can be used in the management of obesity-associated type 2 diabetes mellitus. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Aqueous Extract from Hibiscus sabdariffa Linnaeus Ameliorate Diabetic Nephropathy via Regulating Oxidative Status and Akt/Bad/14-3-3γ in an Experimental Animal Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shou-Chieh Wang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Several studies point out that oxidative stress maybe a major culprit in diabetic nephropathy. Aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (HSE has been demonstrated as having beneficial effects on anti-oxidation and lipid-lowering in experimental studies. This study aimed at investigating the effects of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. on diabetic nephropathy in streptozotocin induced type 1 diabetic rats. Our results show that HSE is capable of reducing lipid peroxidation, increasing catalase and glutathione activities significantly in diabetic kidney, and decreasing the plasma levels of triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein (LDL and increasing high-density lipoprotein (HDL value. In histological examination, HSE improves hyperglycemia-caused osmotic diuresis in renal proximal convoluted tubules (defined as hydropic change in diabetic rats. The study also reveals that up-regulation of Akt/Bad/14-3-3γ and NF-κB-mediated transcription might be involved. In conclusion, our results show that HSE possesses the potential effects to ameliorate diabetic nephropathy via improving oxidative status and regulating Akt/Bad/14-3-3γ signaling.

  14. Aqueous Extract from Hibiscus sabdariffa Linnaeus Ameliorate Diabetic Nephropathy via Regulating Oxidative Status and Akt/Bad/14-3-3γ in an Experimental Animal Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shou-Chieh; Lee, Shiow-Fen; Wang, Chau-Jong; Lee, Chao-Hsin; Lee, Wen-Chin; Lee, Huei-Jane

    2011-01-01

    Several studies point out that oxidative stress maybe a major culprit in diabetic nephropathy. Aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (HSE) has been demonstrated as having beneficial effects on anti-oxidation and lipid-lowering in experimental studies. This study aimed at investigating the effects of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. on diabetic nephropathy in streptozotocin induced type 1 diabetic rats. Our results show that HSE is capable of reducing lipid peroxidation, increasing catalase and glutathione activities significantly in diabetic kidney, and decreasing the plasma levels of triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and increasing high-density lipoprotein (HDL) value. In histological examination, HSE improves hyperglycemia-caused osmotic diuresis in renal proximal convoluted tubules (defined as hydropic change) in diabetic rats. The study also reveals that up-regulation of Akt/Bad/14-3-3γ and NF-κB-mediated transcription might be involved. In conclusion, our results show that HSE possesses the potential effects to ameliorate diabetic nephropathy via improving oxidative status and regulating Akt/Bad/14-3-3γ signaling. PMID:19965962

  15. Adiponectin ameliorates hyperglycemia-induced cardiac hypertrophy and dysfunction by concomitantly activating Nrf2 and Brg1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haobo; Yao, Weifeng; Irwin, Michael G; Wang, Tingting; Wang, Shuang; Zhang, Liangqing; Xia, Zhengyuan

    2015-07-01

    Hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress is implicated in the development of cardiomyopathy in diabetes that is associated with reduced adiponectin (APN) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). Brahma-related gene 1 (Brg1) assists nuclear factor-erythroid-2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) to activate HO-1 to increase myocardial antioxidant capacity in response to oxidative stress. We hypothesized that reduced adiponectin (APN) impairs HO-1 induction which contributes to the development of diabetic cardiomyopathy, and that supplementation of APN may ameliorate diabetic cardiomyopathy by activating HO-1 through Nrf2 and Brg1 in diabetes. Control (C) and streptozotocin-induced diabetic (D) rats were untreated or treated with APN adenovirus (1×10(9) pfu) 3 weeks after diabetes induction and examined and terminated 1 week afterward. Rat left ventricular functions were assessed by a pressure-volume conductance system, before the rat hearts were removed to perform histological and biochemical assays. Four weeks after diabetes induction, D rats developed cardiac hypertrophy evidenced as increased ratio of heart weight to body weight, elevated myocardial collagen I content, and larger cardiomyocyte cross-sectional area (all Psupplementation of recombined globular APN (gAd, 2μg/mL) reversed HG-induced reductions of HO-1, Brg1, and nuclear Nrf2 protein expression and attenuated cellular oxidative stress, myocyte size, and apoptotic cells. Inhibition of HO-1 by ZnPP (10μM) or small interfering RNA (siRNA) canceled all the above gAd beneficial effects. Moreover, inhibition of Nrf2 (either by the Nrf2 inhibitor luteolin or siRNA) or Brg1 (by siRNA) canceled gAd-induced HO-1 induction and cellular protection in CMs and in H9C2 cells incubated with HG. In summary, our present study demonstrated that APN reduced cardiac oxidative stress, ameliorated cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, and prevented left ventricular dysfunction in diabetes by concomitantly activating Nrf2 and Brg1 to facilitate HO-1 induction

  16. The anti-inflammation effect of Moutan Cortex on advanced glycation end products-induced rat mesangial cells dysfunction and High-glucose-fat diet and streptozotocin-induced diabetic nephropathy rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming-hua; Feng, Liang; Zhu, Mao-mao; Gu, Jun-fei; Jiang, Jun; Cheng, Xu-dong; Ding, Shu-ming; Wu, Chan; Jia, Xiao-bin

    2014-01-01

    the pretreatment of RAGE-Ab (5 μg/ml). These findings indicated that the extract of MC had an amelioration activity on the inflammation in AGEs-induced mesangial cells dysfunction and high-glucose-fat diet and STZ-induced DN rats. The protective effect might be associated with the intervention of MC via target of RAGE. These findings suggested that MC might be a benefit agent for the prevention and treatment of DN. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Black ginseng extract ameliorates hypercholesterolemia in rats

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    Evelyn Saba

    2016-04-01

    Conclusion: Administration of BG extracts to Sprague Dawley rats fed with high-cholesterol diet ameliorated hypercholesterolemia, which was mediated via modulation of cholesterol-metabolizing marker genes. This data throw a light on BG's cardioprotective effects.

  18. Effects of xenoestrogens on streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, H S; Yang, H; Ahn, C; Kang, H Y; Hong, E J; Jaung, E B

    2014-04-01

    In diabetic mellitus, apoptotic or necrotic deaths of pancreatic β-cells lead to insulin deficiency because plasma insulin is synthesized and released from pancreatic β-cells and involved with blood glucose homeostasis. Since estrogen receptors have been related with glucose metabolis, estrogen-like chemicals (xenoestrogens) including bisphenol A (BPA) and octylphenol (OP) alter the endocrine system, and cause adverse health consequences such as obesity and diabetes. In the current study, levels of plasma glucose were evaluated after administration of BPA and OP using biochemical analysis, and were investigated in insulin and insulin synthesis-related genes in the pancreas and liver of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced insulin-deficient mice. Although the STZ-induced insulin-deficient groups showed an increase in blood glucose compared with control groups, the induced blood glucose level dropped to that of baseline after administration of xenoestrogens. When insulin level and mRNA expression of insulin transcriptional regulators (Pdx1, Mafa, and Neurod1) in pancreatic β-cells were decreased in STZ-induced insulin-deficient groups, they were significantly restored by administration of xenoestrogens. The latter observation is also related to NF-κB activation for anti-apoptosis effects in pancreatic β-cells. In addition, we observed a complementary convergence in regulation of gluconeogenesis for determination of blood glucose levels. Therefore, the current study may be particularly important for assessment of xenoestrogens under condition of diabetic mellitus or metabolic disorder.

  19. Liver function of Streptozotocin- Induced Diabetic Rats Orally ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Klinische Chemie (Rec. GSCC DGKC) (1972) and the. Szasz (1969) methods respectively. Serum and liver protein concentrations were measured by Biuret method (Gornall et al., 1949), serum albumins concentration was measured by Doumas and Biggs. (1972) method while the amount of globulins was calculated as a ...

  20. Root Extract and Fractions in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    function and worsening blood glucose control [7]. About 20 to 50 % of the ... Fractionation of hydro alcoholic extract. Hydro alcoholic extract .... Figure 1: Effect of P. alba total extract an fractions on oral glucose tolerance test in normal rats. A: Blood glucose level; B:area under the curve (AUC); Control: received distilled water ...

  1. Sulodexide prevents peripheral nerve damage in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Heung Yong; Lee, Kyung Ae; Song, Sun Kyung; Liu, Wei Jing; Choi, Ji Hae; Song, Chang Ho; Baek, Hong Sun; Park, Tae Sun

    2012-01-15

    We investigated whether sulodexide has additional protective effects against peripheral nerve damage caused by microvascular dysfunction in a rat model of diabetes. Female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were divided into the following 4 groups (n=7-9/group): Normal, Normal+Sulodexide (sulodexide 10mg/kg), diabetic group, and diabetic+Sulodexide (sulodexide 10mg/kg). We assessed current perception threshold, skin blood flow, superoxide dismutase, and proteinuria in experimental rats after oral administration of sulodexide for 20 weeks. We also performed morphometric analysis of sciatic nerves and intraepidermal nerve fibers of the foot. Superoxide dismutase activity in the blood and sciatic nerve were increased significantly after sulodexide treatment in the diabetic group. Current perception threshold was reduced at 2000 Hz (633.3 ± 24.15 vs 741.2 ± 23.5 μA, Pdiabetic+Sulodexide group compared with the diabetic group. The mean myelinated axon area was significantly larger (56.6 ± 2.2 vs 49.8 ± 2.7 μm(2), Pnerve fiber density was significantly less reduced (6.27 ± 0.24 vs 5.40 ± 0.25/mm, Pdiabetic+Sulodexide group compared to the diabetic group. Our results demonstrate that sulodexide exhibits protective effects against peripheral nerve damage in a rat experimental model of diabetes. Therefore, these findings suggest that sulodexide is a potential new therapeutic agent for diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. (CHP)-enriched yeast hydrolysate in streptozotocin-induced diabetic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lee hyun jung

    2013-08-28

    Aug 28, 2013 ... 1Department of Food and Nutrition, Korea University, Seoul 136-703, Republic of Korea. 2Department of Bioindustry, College of Life and Environment, Daegu University, Gyeongsan 712-714, Republic of Korea. 3Department of Food and Biotechnology, Hankyong National University Anseong, Anseong ...

  3. Cereblon (CRBN) deletion reverses streptozotocin induced diabetic osteoporosis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Cong; Guo, Xiong; Yao, Wan-Xia; Zhang, Chun

    2018-02-12

    Diabetes mellitus is a major cause to induce osteoporosis. Though the pathogenesis of osteoporosis progression has been well investigated, its still not fully understood. Recently, cereblon (CRBN) was considered as a negative modulator of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in vitro and in vivo. Here, we presented results indicating that CRBN could effectively regulate osteoporosis development. In STZ-induced wild type (WT) mice with diabetes, the osteoclasts were highly increased along with the deterioration of bone structure. However, CRBN knockout (KO) reduced blood glucose the levels and attenuated insulin resistance. What's more, CRBN ablation suppressed osteoclast differentiation and rescued diabetic bone loss in vivo, accompanied with decreased receptor activator of NF-kB ligand (RANKL), RANKL/osteoprotegerin (OPG), and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) levels, as well as improved AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) α/acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC)αactivation. In vitro, suppressing CRBN expression could reduce RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis, supported by the reduction of TRAP-positive cells. CRBN knockdown (KD) obviously reduced RANKL-induced activity of IκBα/nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathway. In addition, osteoclast-specific genes expression levels stimulated by RANKL were also decreased by CRBN silence. More importantly, CRBN blockage increased phosphorylated AMPK-α and ACC-α expressions in RANKL-incubated cells. However, these processes could be abolished by suppressing AMPK-α with its inhibitor, Compound C. Collectively, our data suggested that CRBN is a potential treatment option against diabetes-induced osteolytic bone disease. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Fucoidan Extracts Ameliorate Acute Colitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Ying Lean

    Full Text Available Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD, such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, are an important cause of morbidity and impact significantly on quality of life. Overall, current treatments do not sustain a long-term clinical remission and are associated with adverse effects, which highlight the need for new treatment options. Fucoidans are complex sulphated, fucose-rich polysaccharides, found in edible brown algae and are described as having multiple bioactivities including potent anti-inflammatory effects. Therefore, the therapeutic potential of two different fucoidan preparations, fucoidan-polyphenol complex (Maritech Synergy and depyrogenated fucoidan (DPF was evaluated in the dextran sulphate sodium (DSS mouse model of acute colitis. Mice were treated once daily over 7 days with fucoidans via oral (Synergy or DPF or intraperitoneal administration (DPF. Signs and severity of colitis were monitored daily before colons and spleens were collected for macroscopic evaluation, cytokine measurements and histology. Orally administered Synergy and DPF, but not intraperitoneal DPF treatment, significantly ameliorated symptoms of colitis based on retention of body weight, as well as reduced diarrhoea and faecal blood loss, compared to the untreated colitis group. Colon and spleen weight in mice treated with oral fucoidan was also significantly lower, indicating reduced inflammation and oedema. Histological examination of untreated colitis mice confirmed a massive loss of crypt architecture and goblet cells, infiltration of immune cells and oedema, while all aspects of this pathology were alleviated by oral fucoidan. Importantly, in this model, the macroscopic changes induced by oral fucoidan correlated significantly with substantially decreased production of at least 15 pro-inflammatory cytokines by the colon tissue. Overall, oral fucoidan preparations significantly reduce the inflammatory pathology associated with DSS-induced colitis and could

  5. Ethanol extract of mango (Mangifera indica L.) peel inhibits α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities, and ameliorates diabetes related biochemical parameters in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondi, Mahendranath; Prasada Rao, U J S

    2015-12-01

    Peel is a major by-product during processing of mango fruit into pulp. Recent report indicates that the whole peel powder ameliorated diabetes. In the present study, ethanolic extract of mango peel was analysed for its bioactive compounds, evaluated for α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory properties, oral glucose tolerance test, antioxidant properties, plasma insulin level and biochemical parameters related to diabetes. In addition to gallic and protocatechuic acids, the extract also had chlorogenic and ferulic acids, which were not reported earlier in mango peel extracts. The peel extract inhibited α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities, with IC50 values of 4.0 and 3.5 μg/ml. Ethanolic extract of peel showed better glucose utilization in oral glucose tolerance test. Treatment of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats with the extract decreased fasting blood glucose, fructosamine and glycated hemoglobin levels, and increased plasma insulin level. Peel extract treatment decreased malondialdehyde level, but increased the activities of antioxidant enzymes significantly in liver and kidney compared to diabetic rats. These beneficial effects were comparable to metformin, but better than gallic acid treated diabetic rats. The beneficial effects of peel extract may be through different mechanism like increased plasma insulin levels, decreased oxidative stress and inhibition of carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzyme activities by its bioactive compounds. Thus, results suggest that the peel extract can be a potential source of nutraceutical or can be used in functional foods and this is the first report on antidiabetic properties of mango peel extract.

  6. ANTIOXIDANTS AMELIORATION OF ARSENICAL-INDUCED EFFECTS IN VIVO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antioxidant amelioration of arsenical-induced effects in vivo. ES Hunter and EH Rogers. Reproductive Toxicology Division, NHEERL, US EPA, RTP, NC. Antioxidants have been reported to ameliorate the effects of many developmental toxicants. We tested the hypothesis that oxi...

  7. 27 CFR 24.178 - Amelioration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Amelioration. 24.178 Section 24.178 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT..., during and after fermentation. The fixed acid level of the juice is determined prior to fermentation and...

  8. Ameliorative effects of selenium and zinc

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methidathion-induced hematological, biochemical and hepatohistological alterations in rat: Ameliorative effects of selenium and zinc. ... In contrast, reduced glutathione level (GSH), and the activities of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and the glutathione peroxidase (GPx) content of hepatic tissue decreased ...

  9. Ameliorative effect of Lentinus squarrosulus mycomeat against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ameliorative effect of Lentinus squarrosulus mycomeat against Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection using albino rat as animal model. ... The increasing awareness of inherent therapeutic and prophylactic benefits of some higher fungi and their products has been the recent trend for improving a healthy vigour. Mycomeat is a ...

  10. Amelioration of radiation nephropathy by acetylsalicylic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheij, M.; Stewart, F. A.; Oussoren, Y.; Weening, J. J.; Dewit, L.

    1995-01-01

    This investigation was carried out to assess the amelioration by two antithrombotic drugs of radiation nephropathy in mice. Mouse kidneys were given split-dose irradiation to total doses between 17 and 22 Gy. A first group of animals was given acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) in drinking water, a second

  11. Activity, distribution and regulation of phosphofructokinase in salivary gland of rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes Atividade, distribuição e regulação da fosfofrutoquinase em glândulas salivares de ratos com diabetes induzido por estreptozotocina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Nicolau

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Although the influence of diabetes on salivary glands is well studied, it still presents conflicting results. In this work, the regulation of the phosphofructokinase-1 enzyme (PFK-1 was studied utilizing the salivary glands of rats. Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (60 mg/Kg of body weight in rats (180-200 g. The animals were killed 30 days after the induction of diabetes and the submandibular and parotid salivary glands were used. Hyperglycemia was evaluated by blood sugar determination. The distribution of PFK-1 between the soluble and cytoskeleton fractions, the phosphate content of PFK-1, the content of fructose-2,6-bisphosphate and the activity of the PFK-2 enzyme were determined. The calculated relative glandular weight showed a higher value for the parotid gland in comparison with the control, but not for the submandibular gland. The activity of PFK-1 expressed per gland showed no variation between diabetic and control animals. However, considering the specific activity, the soluble enzyme presented a value 50% higher than that of the control and the cytoskeleton bound form increased by 84% compared to the control. For the parotid gland, no difference in the specific activity between diabetic and control animals was observed. On the other hand, the activity per gland of the soluble enzyme increased in the diabetic animals. The phosphate content of PFK-1 increased in the submandibular and parotid glands of diabetic rats. Both the content of fructose-2,6-bisphosphate and the active form of PFK-2 were reduced in the diabetic glands. In conclusion, the increase in the activity of PFK-1 observed in the salivary glands of rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes does not seem to be due to its modulator fructose-2,6-bisphosphate.Apesar de existirem muitos estudos sobre a influência do diabetes nas glândulas salivares, esses apresentam resultados conflitantes. Neste estudo, a regulação da enzima

  12. Acetylcholinesterase inhibition ameliorates deficits in motivational drive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinowich Keri

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Apathy is frequently observed in numerous neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's, as well as neuropsychiatric disorders including schizophrenia. Apathy is defined as a lack of motivation characterized by diminished goal-oriented behavior and self-initiated activity. This study evaluated a chronic restraint stress (CRS protocol in modeling apathetic behavior, and determined whether administration of an anticholinesterase had utility in attenuating CRS-induced phenotypes. Methods We assessed behavior as well as regional neuronal activity patterns using FosB immunohistochemistry after exposure to CRS for 6 h/d for a minimum of 21 d. Based on our FosB findings and recent clinical trials, we administered an anticholinesterase to evaluate attenuation of CRS-induced phenotypes. Results CRS resulted in behaviors that reflect motivational loss and diminished emotional responsiveness. CRS-exposed mice showed differences in FosB accumulation, including changes in the cholinergic basal forebrain system. Facilitating cholinergic signaling ameliorated CRS-induced deficits in initiation and motivational drive and rescued immediate early gene activation in the medial septum and nucleus accumbens. Conclusions Some CRS protocols may be useful for studying deficits in motivation and apathetic behavior. Amelioration of CRS-induced behaviors with an anticholinesterase supports a role for the cholinergic system in remediation of deficits in motivational drive.

  13. Cacao polyphenols ameliorate autoimmune myocarditis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zempo, Hirofumi; Suzuki, Jun-ichi; Watanabe, Ryo; Wakayama, Kouji; Kumagai, Hidetoshi; Ikeda, Yuichi; Akazawa, Hiroshi; Komuro, Issei; Isobe, Mitsuaki

    2016-04-01

    Myocarditis is a clinically severe disease; however, no effective treatment has been established. The aim of this study was to determine whether cacao bean (Theobroma cacao) polyphenols ameliorate autoimmune myocarditis. We used an experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM) model in Balb/c mice. Mice with induced EAM were treated with a cacao polyphenol extract (CPE, n=12) or vehicle (n=12). On day 21, hearts were harvested and analyzed. Elevated heart weight to body weight and fibrotic area ratios as well as high cardiac cell infiltration were observed in the vehicle-treated EAM mice. However, these increases were significantly suppressed in the CPE-treated mice. Reverse transcriptase-PCR revealed that mRNA expressions of interleukin (Il)-1β, Il-6, E-selectin, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and collagen type 1 were lower in the CPE group compared with the vehicle group. The mRNA expressions of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-oxidase (Nox)2 and Nox4 were increased in the vehicle-treated EAM hearts, although CPE treatment did not significantly suppress the transcription levels. However, compared with vehicle treatment of EAM hearts, CPE treatment significantly suppressed hydrogen peroxide concentrations. Cardiac myeloperoxidase activity, the intensity of dihydroethidium staining and the phosphorylation of nuclear factor-κB p65 were also lower in the CPE group compared with the vehicle group. Our data suggest that CPE ameliorates EAM in mice. CPE is a promising dietary supplement to suppress cardiovascular inflammation and oxidative stress.

  14. The performance of maize crop during acid amelioration with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tanzania Journal of Science ... This study evaluated acid ameliorative potential and their effects on maize growth of four organic residues namely wild spikenard, cordia, cowpea and pigeon peas ... The finding suggests different acid ameliorating potential of residues, pigeon peas and cordia being the most effective.

  15. Use of Coffee Pulp and Minerals for Natural Soil Ameliorant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pujiyanto Pujiyanto

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available In coffee plantation, solid waste of coffee pulp is usually collected as heap nearby processing facilities for several months prior being used as compost. The practice is leading to the formation of odor and liquid which contaminate the environment. Experiments to evaluate the effect of natural soil ameliorant derived from coffee pulp and minerals were conducted at The Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute in Jember, East Java. The experiments were intended to optimize the use of coffee pulp to support farming sustainability and minimize negative impacts of solid waste disposal originated from coffee cherry processing. Prior to applications, coffee pulp was hulled to organic paste. The paste was then mixed with 10% minerals (b/b. Composition of the minerals was 50% zeolite and 50% rock phosphate powder. The ameliorant was characterized for their physical and chemical properties. Agronomic tests were conducted on coffee and cocoa seedling. The experiments were arranged according to Randomized Completely Design with 2 factors, consisted of natural ameliorant and inorganic fertilizer respectively. Natural ameliorant derived from coffee pulp was applied at 6 levels: 0, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 g dry ameliorant/seedling of 3 kg soil, equivalent to 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5% (b/b of ameliorant respectively. Inorganic fertilizer was applied at 2 levels: 0 and 2 g fertilizer/application of N-P-K compound fertilizer of 15-15-15 respectively. The inorganic fertilizer was applied 4 times during nursery of coffee and cocoa. The result of the experiment indicated that coffee pulp may be used as natural soil ameliorant. Composition of ameliorant of 90% coffee pulp and 10% of minerals has good physical and chemical characteristics for soil amelioration. The composition has high water holding capacity; cations exchange capacity, organic carbon and phosphorus contents which are favorable to increase soil capacity to support plant growth. Application of

  16. Characterization of prefrontal cortex microstructure and antioxidant status in a rat model of neurodegeneration induced by aluminium chloride and multiple low-dose streptozotocin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinola, Oluwole B; Biliaminu, Sikiru A; Adediran, Rianat A; Adeniye, Kehinde A; Abdulquadir, Fatimah C

    2015-12-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD), and several individuals with AD are diabetic. Most non-transgenic animal models of AD make use of oral treatment with aluminium chloride (AlCl(3)) to induce brain lesions pathognomonic of the disease. Moreover, streptozotocin (STZ) can induce pathological features of either AD or DM depending on the mode of treatment. In the present study, we characterised prefrontal microanatomy and antioxidant defence system in a rat model of AD confounded by DM, with the objective of assessing the suitability of this model in the study of sporadic AD with DM co-morbidity. Adult Wistar rats were randomly assigned to receive either intraperitoneal STZ (30 mg/kg/day for 3 days; to induce DM), oral AlCl(3) (500 mg/kg/day for 4 weeks; to induce some brain lesions characteristic of AD); or both STZ and AlCl(3) (to induce AD with DM co-morbidity). Untreated rats served as controls. During treatment, blood glucose levels and body weights were evaluated repeatedly in all rats. At euthanasia, prefrontal cortex was homogenized in phosphate buffer solution and the supernatants assayed for some antioxidant enzymes (catalase, CAT; superoxide dismutase, SOD; and reduced glutathione, GSH). Moreover, following perfusion-fixation of the brain, frontal lobes were processed by the haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) or Congo red technique. Our findings showed that in rats co-administered AlCl(3) and STZ (AD + DM rats), prefrontal levels of GSH reduced significantly (p 0.05) compared with the controls. Moreover, in this model of AD with DM co-morbidity, extensive neuronal cell loss was observed in the prefrontal cortex, but Congophilic deposits were not present. The neurodegenerative lesions and antioxidant deficits characteristic of this AlCl(3) + STZ (AD + DM) rat model were more pronounced than similar lesions associated with mono-treatment with either STZ (DM) or AlCl(3) (AD) alone; and this makes the AlCl(3) + STZ model a suitable option for the study of neurodegenerative diseases (such as AD) with DM co-morbidity.

  17. Improvement for Amelioration Inventory Model with Weibull Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han-Wen Tuan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Most inventory models dealt with deteriorated items. On the contrary, just a few papers considered inventory systems under amelioration environment. We study an amelioration inventory model with Weibull distribution. However, there are some questionable results in the amelioration paper. We will first point out those questionable results in the previous paper that did not derive the optimal solution and then provide some improvements. We will provide a rigorous analytical work for different cases dependent on the size of the shape parameter. We present a detailed numerical example for different ranges of the sharp parameter to illustrate that our solution method attains the optimal solution. We developed a new amelioration model and then provided a detailed analyzed procedure to find the optimal solution. Our findings will help researchers develop their new inventory models.

  18. Riboflavin ameliorates cisplatin induced toxicities under photoillumination.

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    Iftekhar Hassan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cisplatin is an effective anticancer drug that elicits many side effects mainly due to induction of oxidative and nitrosative stresses during prolonged chemotherapy. The severity of these side effects consequently restricts its clinical use under long term treatment. Riboflavin is an essential vitamin used in various metabolic redox reactions in the form of flavin adenine dinucleotide and flavin mononucleotide. Besides, it has excellent photosensitizing property that can be used to ameliorate these toxicities in mice under photodynamic therapy. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Riboflavin, cisplatin and their combinations were given to the separate groups of mice under photoilluminated condition under specific treatment regime. Their kidney and liver were excised for comet assay and histopathological studies. Furthermore, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy of riboflavin-cisplatin combination in vitro was also conducted to investigate any possible interaction between the two compounds. Their comet assay and histopathological examination revealed that riboflavin in combination with cisplatin was able to protect the tissues from cisplatin induced toxicities and damages. Moreover, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy analysis of the combination indicated a strong molecular interaction among their constituent groups that may be assigned for the protective effect of the combination in the treated animals. CONCLUSION: Inclusion of riboflavin diminishes cisplatin induced toxicities which may possibly make the cisplatin-riboflavin combination, an effective treatment strategy under chemoradiotherapy in pronouncing its antineoplastic activity and sensitivity towards the cancer cells as compared to cisplatin alone.

  19. Black ginseng extract ameliorates hypercholesterolemia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saba, Evelyn; Jeon, Bo Ra; Jeong, Da-Hye; Lee, Kija; Goo, Youn-Kyoung; Kim, Seung-Hyung; Sung, Chang-Keun; Roh, Seong-Soo; Kim, Sung Dae; Kim, Hyun-Kyoung; Rhee, Man-Hee

    2016-04-01

    Ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer) is a well-characterized medicinal herb listed in the classic oriental herbal dictionary as "Shin-nong-bon-cho-kyung." Ginseng has diverse pharmacologic and therapeutic properties. Black ginseng (BG, Ginseng Radix nigra) is produced by repeatedly steaming fresh ginseng nine times. Studies of BG have shown that prolonged heat treatment enhances the antioxidant activity with increased radical scavenging activity. Several recent studies have showed the effects of BG on increased lipid profiles in mice. In this study report the effects of water and ethanol extracts of BG on hypercholesterolemia in rats. To our knowledge, this is the first time such an effect has been reported. Experiments were conducted on male Sprague Dawley rats fed with a high-cholesterol diet supplemented with the water and ethanol extracts of BG (200 mg/kg). Their blood cholesterol levels, serum white blood cell levels, and cholesterol-metabolizing marker genes messenger RNA (mRNA) expression were determined. Liver and adipose tissues were histologically analyzed. We found that BG extracts efficiently reduced the total serum cholesterol levels, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels with increased food efficiency ratio and increased number of neutrophil cells. It also attenuated the key genes responsible for lipogenesis, that is, acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA) acetyltransferase 2, 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase, and sterol regulatory element-binding protein 2, at the mRNA level inside liver cells. Furthermore, the BG extract also reduced the accumulation of fat in adipose tissues, and inhibited the neutral fat content in liver cells stained with hematoxylin and eosin and oil red O. Administration of BG extracts to Sprague Dawley rats fed with high-cholesterol diet ameliorated hypercholesterolemia, which was mediated via modulation of cholesterol-metabolizing marker genes. This data throw a light on BG's cardioprotective effects.

  20. Zinc Deficiency in Humans and its Amelioration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yashbir Singh Shivay

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Zinc (Zn deficiency in humans has recently received considerable attention. Global mortality in children under 5 years of age in 2004 due to Zn deficiency was estimated at 4,53,207 as against 6,66,771 for vitamin A deficiency; 20,854 for iron deficiency and 3,619 for iodine deficiency. In humans 2800-3000 proteins contain Zn prosthetic group and Zn is an integral component of zinc finger prints that regulate DNA transcription. Zinc is a Type-2 nutrient, which means that its concentration in blood does not decrease in proportion of the Zn deficiency. Adverse effects of Zn deficiency vary with age: low weight gain, diarrhoea, aneroxia and neurobehavioral disturbances are observed in infants, while skin changes and dwarfism are frequent in toddlers and adolescents. Common manifestations of Zn deficiency among elderly include hypogeusia, chronic non-healing ulcers and recurrent infections.Ameliorative measures of Zn deficiency in humans can be classified in two groups, namely, nutraceutical and biofortification of food grains. Nutraceutical interventions include pharmaceutical supplements, dietary supplements and dietary diversification, while biofortification of food grains can be achieved by genetic modification (GM of crops or by agronomic techniques that include soil or/and foliar fertilization of crops.The major disadvantage of nutraceutical approaches is that the major beneficiaries are urban people and the poor rural masses that need adequate Zn nutrition most are left out. Genetic biofortification of food grains requires large amounts of funds and a fairly long-period of time. Further, a large number of countries have not yet accepted genetically modified (GM foods. On the other hand agronomic biofortification of food grains yields immediate effects and rural and urban people are equally benefitted. Our studies have shown that Zn concentration in cereals (rice, wheat etc and pulses can be considerably increased by soil or/and foliar

  1. The ameliorative effects of Moringa oleifera leaf extract on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    2017-03-13

    Mar 13, 2017 ... *Correspondence: Tel.: +2348033858362; E-mail: misibisol@yahoo.com. Abstract. The present study was aimed at evaluating the ameliorating effects of Moringa oleifera extract compared to ... At the end of the exposure, 0.2ml of blood samples obtained from individual rat in each group were suspended in ...

  2. Ameliorative effect of ethanolic extract of leaves of Momordica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mormodica charantia has been shown to possess antioxidant, hepatoprotective and anticancer effects while the kidneys have been shown to be the second largest repository of lead in lead poisoining. This study assessed the ameliorative effect of ethanolic leaf extract of Momordica charantia on lead nitrate induced kidney ...

  3. Antibiotics can ameliorate circulatory complications of liver cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Bjørn Stæhr; Schaffalitzky de Muckadell, Ove B

    2011-01-01

    . This review focuses on how broad spectrum antibiotics can ameliorate the haemodynamic consequences of bacterial translocation. It is possible that the use of broad spectrum antibiotics in the future may be used to prevent other complications of liver cirrhosis than spontaneous bacterial peritonitis...

  4. Designing urban parks that ameliorate the effects of climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, R.D.; Vanos, J.; Kenny, N.; Lenzholzer, S.

    2015-01-01

    Many inhabitants of cities throughout the world suffer from health problems and discomfort that are caused by overheating of urban areas, and there is compelling evidence that these problems will be exacerbated by global climate change. Most cities are not designed to ameliorate these effects

  5. Bacterial mediated amelioration of drought stress in drought tolerant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacterial mediated amelioration of drought stress in drought tolerant and susceptible cultivars of rice (Oryza sativa L.) YS Gusain, US Singh, AK Sharma. Abstract. In the present study, plant growth promoting rhizobacterial (PGPR) strains Pseudomonas fluorescence strain P2, Pseudomonas jessenii R62, Pseudomonas ...

  6. Cancer ameliorating potential of Phyllanthus amarus: In vivo and in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Md. Sultan Ahmad

    2015-06-10

    Jun 10, 2015 ... ORIGINAL ARTICLE. Cancer ameliorating potential of Phyllanthus amarus: In vivo and in vitro studies against. Aflatoxin B1 toxicity. Md. Sultan Ahmad *, Sultana Bano, Shafaat Anwar. Department of Zoology, Shibli National (P.G) College, Azamgarh, U.P. 276001, India. Received 17 April 2015; accepted 14 ...

  7. Oral Metformin-Ascorbic Acid Co-Administration Ameliorates Alcohol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oral Metformin-Ascorbic Acid Co-Administration Ameliorates Alcohol-Induced Hepatotoxicity In Rats. ... Nigerian Quarterly Journal of Hospital Medicine ... the present in vivo animal study was to determine whether metformin-ascorbic acid co-administration also prevents alcoholic hepatotoxicity in chronic alcohol exposure.

  8. Salvianolic Acid B Ameliorates Motor Dysfuntion in Spinal Cord ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Salvianolic Acid B Ameliorates Motor Dysfuntion in Spinal. Cord Injury Rats. Chong Xun, Shouyu Wang, Guang Chen, Yang Hu, Jiaqi Xie and Decheng Lv*. Department of ... Purpose: To evaluate the effect of salvianolic acid B (Sal B) treatment on the motor function of spinal ... China. All the animals were housed at 25 °C in.

  9. Dose-Dependent Amelioration of Gentamicin-Induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    increase in serum urea and creatine while 3ml/kg of the same drug completely prevented the increase in serum urea and creatine in this model. Conclusion: Vitamin B-complex dose-dependently ameliorated gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in adult Swiss albino rats when given intramuscularly. This finding may have ...

  10. The Effect of Vitamin E on Ameliorating Primary Dysmenorrhea: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dysmenorrhea or painful menstruation is one of the most common problems of women. Using systematic review and meta‑analysis, this study aimed to determine the effect of vitamin E on ameliorating the intensity of pain of primary dysmenorrhea. Available databases comprising PubMed, Google Scholar, ISI, Science ...

  11. Ameliorative effects of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius on anaemia and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to evaluate the ameliorative effect of dietary supplementation of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius leaf on anaemia and changes in erythrocyte osmotic fragility in protein energy malnourished rats. Protein energy malnutrition has been associated with anaemia and changes in osmotic fragility, deformability ...

  12. Ameliorative effects of salt resistance on physiological parameters in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ameliorative effects of salt resistance on physiological parameters in the halophyte Salicornia bigelovii torr. with plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria. Edgar Omar Rueda-Puente, R Prabhaharan, B Murillo-Amador, F Ruiz-Espinoza, M Puente, RD Valdez-Cepeda ...

  13. Ameliorative effect of the hydroethanolic whole plant extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    At the end of the study, biochemical markers of nitrosative and oxidative stress status were determined. Results: DH (12.5, 50 and 100 mg/kg) significantly ameliorated haloperidol-induced catalepsy (bar test), spontaneous motor and working memory deficits (open field and elevated plus maze tests, respectively), ...

  14. Erratum: Unripe Musa paradisiaca Fruit Diet Ameliorates Impaired ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the article “Unripe Musa paradisiaca Fruit Diet Ameliorates Impaired Glucose Regulation Caused by Iron-Induced Oxidative Stress” by Ige A.O, Oyekunle A.O, Olaoye M. O and Adewoye E.O which appeared on pages 301-308 of the September 2017 issue, it has been observed that the name of the second author was ...

  15. Using innovation platforms to scale out soil acidity- ameliorating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr V.Kabambe

    2012-01-10

    Jan 10, 2012 ... ameliorating technologies in Dedza district in central. Malawi. V. H. Kabambe1* ... end of the project support in 2008, the participating farmers were willing to invest in the technology and raised funds for purchase ..... Engineering Commodity Group Project Meeting held at Mzuzu Hotel,. 10-15 August 1996.

  16. Ameliorative effects of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius on anaemia and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-06-03

    Jun 3, 2008 ... Accepted 28 April, 2008. This study was designed to evaluate the ameliorative effect of dietary supplementation of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius leaf on anaemia and changes in erythrocyte osmotic fragility in protein energy malnourished rats. Protein energy malnutrition has been associated with anaemia and ...

  17. The ameliorative effects of Moringa oleifera leaf extract on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was aimed at evaluating the ameliorating effects of Moringa oleifera extract compared to captopril and candesartan cilexetil on cardiovascular functions and osmotic fragility of rats exposed to petrol vapour. Twenty five adult male Wistar rats (130g-200g) were randomly grouped to five with five rats in a ...

  18. Biochar from commercially cultivated seaweed for soil amelioration

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, David A.; Paul, Nicholas A.; Dworjanyn, Symon A.; Bird, Michael I.; de Nys, Rocky

    2015-01-01

    Seaweed cultivation is a high growth industry that is primarily targeted at human food and hydrocolloid markets. However, seaweed biomass also offers a feedstock for the production of nutrient-rich biochar for soil amelioration. We provide the first data of biochar yield and characteristics from intensively cultivated seaweeds (Saccharina, Undaria and Sargassum ? brown seaweeds, and Gracilaria, Kappaphycus and Eucheuma ? red seaweeds). While there is some variability in biochar properties as ...

  19. Biflorin Ameliorates Memory Impairments Induced by Cholinergic Blockade in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Se Jin; Kim, Boseong; Ryu, Byeol; Kim, Eunji; Lee, Sunhee; Jang, Dae Sik; Ryu, Jong Hoon

    2017-01-01

    To examine the effect of biflorin, a component of Syzygium aromaticum, on memory deficit, we introduced a scopolamine-induced cognitive deficit mouse model. A single administration of biflorin increased latency time in the passive avoidance task, ameliorated alternation behavior in the Y-maze, and increased exploration time in the Morris water maze task, indicating the improvement of cognitive behaviors against cholinergic dysfunction. The biflorin-induced reverse of latency in the scopolamine-treated group was attenuated by MK-801, an NMDA receptor antagonist. Biflorin also enhanced cognitive function in a naïve mouse model. To understand the mechanism of biflorin for memory amelioration, we performed Western blot. Biflorin increased the activation of protein kinase C-ζ and its downstream signaling molecules in the hippocampus. These results suggest that biflorin ameliorates drug-induced memory impairment by modulation of protein kinase C-ζ signaling in mice, implying that biflorin could function as a possible therapeutic agent for the treatment of cognitive problems. PMID:27829270

  20. Biochar from commercially cultivated seaweed for soil amelioration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, David A.; Paul, Nicholas A.; Dworjanyn, Symon A.; Bird, Michael I.; de Nys, Rocky

    2015-01-01

    Seaweed cultivation is a high growth industry that is primarily targeted at human food and hydrocolloid markets. However, seaweed biomass also offers a feedstock for the production of nutrient-rich biochar for soil amelioration. We provide the first data of biochar yield and characteristics from intensively cultivated seaweeds (Saccharina, Undaria and Sargassum – brown seaweeds, and Gracilaria, Kappaphycus and Eucheuma – red seaweeds). While there is some variability in biochar properties as a function of the origin of seaweed, there are several defining and consistent characteristics of seaweed biochar, in particular a relatively low C content and surface area but high yield, essential trace elements (N, P and K) and exchangeable cations (particularly K). The pH of seaweed biochar ranges from neutral (7) to alkaline (11), allowing for broad-spectrum applications in diverse soil types. We find that seaweed biochar is a unique material for soil amelioration that is consistently different to biochar derived from ligno-cellulosic feedstock. Blending of seaweed and ligno-cellulosic biochar could provide a soil ameliorant that combines a high fixed C content with a mineral-rich substrate to enhance crop productivity. PMID:25856799

  1. Administration of red ginseng ameliorates memory decline in aged mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yeonju; Oh, Seikwan

    2015-07-01

    It has been known that ginseng can be applied as a potential nutraceutical for memory impairment; however, experiments with animals of old age are few. To determine the memory enhancing effect of red ginseng, C57BL/6 mice (21 mo old) were given experimental diet pellets containing 0.12% red ginseng extract (approximately 200 mg/kg/d) for 3 mo. Young and old mice (4 mo and 21 mo old, respectively) were used as the control group. The effect of red ginseng, which ameliorated memory impairment in aged mice, was quantified using Y-maze test, novel objective test, and Morris water maze. Red ginseng ameliorated age-related declines in learning and memory in older mice. In addition, red ginseng's effect on the induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase and proinflammatory cytokines was investigated in the hippocampus of aged mice. Red ginseng treatment suppressed the production of age-processed inducible nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-1β expressions. Moreover, it was observed that red ginseng had an antioxidative effect on aged mice. The suppressed glutathione level in aged mice was restored with red ginseng treatment. The antioxidative-related enzymes Nrf2 and HO-1 were increased with red ginseng treatment. The results revealed that when red ginseng is administered over long periods, age-related decline of learning and memory is ameliorated through anti-inflammatory activity.

  2. Biochar from commercially cultivated seaweed for soil amelioration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, David A.; Paul, Nicholas A.; Dworjanyn, Symon A.; Bird, Michael I.; de Nys, Rocky

    2015-04-01

    Seaweed cultivation is a high growth industry that is primarily targeted at human food and hydrocolloid markets. However, seaweed biomass also offers a feedstock for the production of nutrient-rich biochar for soil amelioration. We provide the first data of biochar yield and characteristics from intensively cultivated seaweeds (Saccharina, Undaria and Sargassum - brown seaweeds, and Gracilaria, Kappaphycus and Eucheuma - red seaweeds). While there is some variability in biochar properties as a function of the origin of seaweed, there are several defining and consistent characteristics of seaweed biochar, in particular a relatively low C content and surface area but high yield, essential trace elements (N, P and K) and exchangeable cations (particularly K). The pH of seaweed biochar ranges from neutral (7) to alkaline (11), allowing for broad-spectrum applications in diverse soil types. We find that seaweed biochar is a unique material for soil amelioration that is consistently different to biochar derived from ligno-cellulosic feedstock. Blending of seaweed and ligno-cellulosic biochar could provide a soil ameliorant that combines a high fixed C content with a mineral-rich substrate to enhance crop productivity.

  3. Ghrelin Ameliorates Asthma by Inhibiting Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Tian; Wang, Lei; Zeng, Qingdi; Zhang, Yan; Sheng, Baowei; Han, Liping

    2017-12-01

    This study aimed to confirm the ameliorative effect of ghrelin on asthma and investigate its mechanism. The murine model of asthma was induced by ovalbumin (OVA) treatment and assessed by histological pathology and airway responsiveness to methacholine. The total and differential leukocytes were counted. Tumor necrosis factor α, interferon γ, interleukin-5 and interleukin-13 levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were quantified by commercial kits. The protein levels in pulmonary tissues were measured by Western blot analysis. Ghrelin ameliorated the histological pathology and airway hyperresponsiveness in the OVA-induced asthmatic mouse model. Consistently, OVA-increased total and differential leukocytes and levels of tumor necrosis factor α, interferon γ, interleukin-5 and interleukin-13 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were significantly attenuated by ghrelin. Ghrelin prevented the increased protein levels of the endoplasmic reticulum stress markers glucose regulated protein 78 and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein homologous protein and reversed the reduced levels of p-Akt in asthmatic mice. Ghrelin might prevent endoplasmic reticulum stress activation by stimulating the Akt signaling pathway, which attenuated inflammation and ameliorated asthma in mice. Ghrelin might be a new target for asthma therapy. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Biochar from commercially cultivated seaweed for soil amelioration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, David A; Paul, Nicholas A; Dworjanyn, Symon A; Bird, Michael I; de Nys, Rocky

    2015-04-09

    Seaweed cultivation is a high growth industry that is primarily targeted at human food and hydrocolloid markets. However, seaweed biomass also offers a feedstock for the production of nutrient-rich biochar for soil amelioration. We provide the first data of biochar yield and characteristics from intensively cultivated seaweeds (Saccharina, Undaria and Sargassum--brown seaweeds, and Gracilaria, Kappaphycus and Eucheuma--red seaweeds). While there is some variability in biochar properties as a function of the origin of seaweed, there are several defining and consistent characteristics of seaweed biochar, in particular a relatively low C content and surface area but high yield, essential trace elements (N, P and K) and exchangeable cations (particularly K). The pH of seaweed biochar ranges from neutral (7) to alkaline (11), allowing for broad-spectrum applications in diverse soil types. We find that seaweed biochar is a unique material for soil amelioration that is consistently different to biochar derived from ligno-cellulosic feedstock. Blending of seaweed and ligno-cellulosic biochar could provide a soil ameliorant that combines a high fixed C content with a mineral-rich substrate to enhance crop productivity.

  5. Anti-diabetic effects of Sargassum oligocystum on Streptozotocin- induced diabetic rat

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    Samad Akbarzadeh

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Diabetes is a metabolic syndrome which is associated with the worldwide major public health problems. There are many natural compounds from the sea-market, as a valuable aquatic source, along with the variety of health and therapeutic benefits. In the present research, with respect to the traditional and ethnic uses of Sargassum oligocystum algae for healing of some diseases which have similar metabolic mechanism to the diabetes, its anti-diabetic effects in animal model was proposed. Materials and Methods: The animals (rat were divided into the normal control, diabetic control, positive control and, the test groups. The test groups were gavaged with oral doses of 150 and 300 mg/kg of algae hydroalcoholic extracts. After 30 days of intervention the serum glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, HDLC, LDLC, insulin, insulin resistance, β-cells function and, the histopathology of pancreatic tissue were evaluated. Results: In animals that were fed with algae extracts a significant decrease in the fasting blood glucose, triglyceride and HOMA-IR and an increase in the HOMA-B with no significant impacts on the insulin, cholesterol and HDL were observed. Also, the histopathology evaluations in the groups which were treated with algae extract revealed the regeneration and reconstitution of damaged pancreatic β-cells. Conclusion: The results give evidence that, the S. oligocystum algae extract has a healing effect on diabetes which can be considered as a new research prospect for the natural therapy of diabetes.

  6. Increased intrinsic mitochondrial respiratory capacity in skeletal muscle from rats with streptozotocin-induced hyperglycemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Steen; Scheede-Bergdahl, Celena; Whitesell, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    expression and integrated mitochondrial respiratory function. Mitochondrial capacity for oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) was found to be higher in the slow (more oxidative) soleus muscle from STZ rats when evaluating lipid and complex I linked OXPHOS capacity, whereas no difference was detected between...... the groups when evaluating the more physiol. complex I and II linked OXPHOS capacity. These findings indicate that chronic hyperglycemia results in an elevated intrinsic mitochondrial respiratory capacity in both soleus and, at varying degree, plantaris muscle, findings that are consistent with human T1DM...

  7. Neural Degeneration in the Retina of the Streptozotocin-Induced Type 1 Diabetes Model

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    Yoko Ozawa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic retinopathy, a vision-threatening disease, has been regarded as a vascular disorder. However, impaired oscillatory potentials (OPs in the electroretinogram (ERG and visual dysfunction are recorded before severe vascular lesions appear. Here, we review the molecular mechanisms underlying the retinal neural degeneration observed in the streptozotocin-(STZ- induced type 1 diabetes model. The renin-angiotensin system (RAS and reactive oxygen species (ROS both cause OP impairment and reduced levels of synaptophysin, a synaptic vesicle protein for neurotransmitter release, most likely through excessive protein degradation by the ubiquitin-proteasome system. ROS also decrease brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and inner retinal neuronal cells. The influence of both RAS and ROS on synaptophysin suggests that RAS-ROS crosstalk occurs in the diabetic retina. Therefore, suppressors of RAS or ROS, such as angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers or the antioxidant lutein, respectively, are potential candidates for neuroprotective and preventive therapies to improve the visual prognosis.

  8. Hepatoprotective effect of tualang honey supplementation in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    OpenAIRE

    OO Erejuwa; SA Sulaiman; MS Wahab; KNS Sirajudeen; MS Salleh; S Gurtu

    2012-01-01

    Summary: Hepatic dysfunction such as elevations of transaminases and alkaline phosphatase is associated with diabetes. We investigated the hepatoprotective effect of Malaysian tualang honey in streptozotocin (STZ; 60 mg/kg; ip)-induced diabetic rats by measuring serum AST, ALT and ALP activities. Non-diabetic and diabetic rats were administered distilled water or tualang honey orally for four weeks. Serum AST, ALP and ALT activities were significantly (p < 0.01) elevated in diabetic contro...

  9. Relationship between cardiovascular dysfunction and hyperglycemia in streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats

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    Schaan B.D.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetes in rats is characterized by cardiovascular dysfunction beginning 5 days after STZ injection, which may reflect functional or structural autonomic nervous system damage. We investigated cardiovascular and autonomic function, in rats weighing 166 ± 4 g, 5-7, 14, 30, 45, and 90 days after STZ injection (N = 24, 33, 27, 14, and 13, respectively. Arterial pressure (AP, mean AP (MAP variability (standard deviation of the mean of MAP, SDMMAP, heart rate (HR, HR variability (standard deviation of the normal pulse intervals, SDNN, and root mean square of successive difference of pulse intervals (RMSSD were measured. STZ induced increased glycemia in diabetic rats vs control rats. Diabetes reduced resting HR from 363 ± 12 to 332 ± 5 bpm (P < 0.05 5 to 7 days after STZ and reduced MAP from 121 ± 2 to 104 ± 5 mmHg (P = 0.007 14 days after STZ. HR and MAP variability were lower in diabetic vs control rats 30-45 days after STZ injection (RMSSD decreased from 5.6 ± 0.9 to 3.4 ± 0.4 ms, P = 0.04 and SDMMAP from 6.6 ± 0.6 to 4.2 ± 0.6 mmHg, P = 0.005. Glycemia was negatively correlated with resting AP and HR (r = -0.41 and -0.40, P < 0.001 and with SDNN and SDMMAP indices (r = -0.34 and -0.49, P < 0.01. Even though STZ-diabetic rats presented bradycardia and hypotension early in the course of diabetes, their autonomic function was reduced only 30-45 days after STZ injection and these changes were negatively correlated with plasma glucose, suggesting a metabolic origin.

  10. Lutein dietary supplementation attenuates streptozotocin-induced testicular damage and oxidative stress in diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatani, Amal J; Al-Rejaie, Salim S; Abuohashish, Hatem M; Al-Assaf, Abdullah; Parmar, Mihir Y; Ahmed, Mohammed M

    2015-06-30

    Diabetes mellitus with the successive generation of reactive oxygen species signifies a major risk factor for testicular dysfunction. Antioxidant supplements are one of the best options to prevent such disorder. In the present study, lutein as dietary supplement has been used to explore its potential protective effects against diabetes-induced oxidative stress in testicular cells. Diabetes was induced using a single i.p. injection of streptozotocin (STZ). Lutein was mixed with rat chow powder and supplemented to diabetic rats for 5 weeks. Serum testosterone levels were estimated. In testicular cells, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), total sulfhydryl groups (T-GSH), non-protein sulfhydryl groups (NP-SH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities were measured. Pro-inflammatory mediators like tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and interleukin 1β (IL-1β) were measured in the testis. Nucleic acids and total protein (TP) levels were also estimated in testicular cells. Histopathological changes were evaluated in testis. Serum testosterone level was significantly decreased in diabetic animals compared to controls. Diabetes markedly reduced T-GSH, NP-SH, CAT and SOD, while TBARS, TNF-α and IL-1β levels were increased in the diabetic testis compared to non-diabetic controls. Lutein supplementation, significantly and dose dependently increased the serum testosterone level. The elevated TBARS levels were significantly decreased compared to diabetic group, while the decreased levels of T-GSH and NP-SH and activities of CAT and SOD were found increased by lutein treatments in dose dependent manner. Lutein pretreatment also inhibited the TNF-α and IL-1β levels compared to diabetic group. The decreased values of nucleic acids and total protein in diabetic group were also significantly increased in lutein supplemented groups. The histopathological evaluation revealed protection the damaged testicular cells in the diabetic rats by lutein supplementation. These findings showed that lutein has potential beneficial effects in diabetes-induced testicular damage, probably through its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.

  11. Changes in the pharmacokinetics of glibenclamide in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus

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    Yuqing Li

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetics of glibenclamide (Gli administrated orally and intravenously to normal and diabetic rats. The AUC(0–720 min of orally administered Gli in diabetic rats (321.24 mg min/L was greater than that (57.752 mg min/L in normal rats. CL (0.019 L/min/kg was significantly slower than that (0.092 L/min/kg of normal rats. The AUC(0–480min of intravenous Gli in diabetic rats (1528.280 mg min/L also was significantly greater than that (509.523 mg min/L in normal rats, and CL was decreased approximately 3-fold. No significant difference in intestinal absorption of Gli was observed between normal and diabetic rats as determined by in situ single-pass intestinal perfusion. The clearance of Diclofenac (a substrate of CYP2C9 was determined to evaluate changes in hepatic drug-metabolizing enzyme activity in rats. The CL in diabetic rats was significantly lower (42.43% decrease than that in normal rats. Hepatic protein expression of CYP2C9 was measured using Western blot analysis; compared with normal rats, the hepatic protein expression of CYP2A9 was decreased in diabetic rats. Therefore, the slower clearance of Gli in diabetic rats can be attributed primarily to the lower expression of hepatic CYP2C9.

  12. Protective Action of Carica papaya on β-Cells in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda-Osorio, Pedro H; Castell-Rodríguez, Andrés E; Vargas-Mancilla, Juan; Tovilla-Zárate, Carlos A; Ble-Castillo, Jorge L; Aguilar-Domínguez, Dora E; Juárez-Rojop, Isela E; Díaz-Zagoya, Juan C

    2016-04-27

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of C. papaya L. leaf extract (CPLE) on pancreatic islets in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats, as well as on cultured normal pancreatic cells with STZ in the medium. CPLE (3-125 mg/Kg) was administered orally for 20 days, while a group of diabetic rats received 5 IU/Kg/day of insulin. At the end of the treatment the rats were sacrificed. Blood was obtained to assess glucose and insulin levels. The pancreas was dissected to evaluate β cells by immunohistochemistry. In addition, normal pancreatic cells were cultured in a medium that included CPLE (3-12 mg). One half of the cultured cells received simultaneously CPLE and STZ (6 mg), while the other half received CPLE and five days later the STZ. After three days of incubation, insulin was assayed in the incubation medium. The CPLE administered to diabetic rats improved the fasting glycemia and preserved the number and structure of pancreatic islets. However, when CPLE was added to pancreatic cells in culture along with STZ, the insulin concentration was higher in comparison with the cells that only received STZ. In conclusion, the CPLE preserves the integrity of pancreatic islets, improves the basal insulin secretion and protects cultured cells from the adverse effects of STZ.

  13. Hypoglycemic effect of Carica papaya leaves in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juárez-Rojop, Isela Esther; Díaz-Zagoya, Juan C; Ble-Castillo, Jorge L; Miranda-Osorio, Pedro H; Castell-Rodríguez, Andrés E; Tovilla-Zárate, Carlos A; Rodríguez-Hernández, Arturo; Aguilar-Mariscal, Hidemi; Ramón-Frías, Teresa; Bermúdez-Ocaña, Deysi Y

    2012-11-28

    Traditional plant treatment for diabetes has shown a surging interest in the last few decades. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the hypoglycemic effect of the aqueous extract of C. papaya leaves in diabetic rats. Several studies have reported that some parts of the C. papaya plant exert hypoglycemic effects in both animals and humans. Diabetes was induced in rats by intraperitoneal administration of 60 mg/kg of streptozotocin (STZ). The aqueous extract of C. papaya was administered in three different doses (0.75, 1.5 and 3 g/100 mL) as drinking water to both diabetic and non-diabetic animals during 4 weeks. The aqueous extract of Carica papaya (0.75 g and 1.5 g/100 mL) significantly decreased blood glucose levels (ppapaya could help islet regeneration manifested as preservation of cell size. In the liver of diabetic treated rats, C. papaya prevented hepatocyte disruption, as well as accumulation of glycogen and lipids. Finally, an antioxidant effect of C. papaya extract was also detected in diabetic rats. This study showed that the aqueous extract of C. papaya exerted a hypoglycemic and antioxidant effect; it also improved the lipid profile in diabetic rats. In addition, the leaf extract positively affected integrity and function of both liver and pancreas.

  14. The effect of genistein on intracerebroventricular streptozotocin-induced cognitive deficits in male rat

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    Tourandokht Balouchnejadmojarad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract  Introduction: Intracerebroventricular (ICV injection of streptozotocin (STZ causes cognitive impairment in rats. The beneficial effect of genistein (GEN was investigated on ICV STZ-induced learning, memory, and cognitive impairment in male rats. Methods: For this purpose, rats were injected with ICV STZ bilaterally, on days 1 and 3 (3 mg/kg. The STZ-injected rats received GEN (1 mg/kg/day, p.o. starting one day pre-surgery for two weeks. The learning and memory performance was assessed using passive avoidance paradigm, and for spatial cognition evaluation, radial eight-arm maze (RAM task was used.  Results: It was found out that GEN-treated STZ-injected rats show higher correct choices and lower errors in RAM than vehicle-treated STZ-injected rats. In addition, GEN administration significantly attenuated learning and memory impairment in treated STZ-injected group in passive avoidance test.Discussion: These results demonstrate the effectiveness of GEN in preventing the cognitive deficits caused by ICV STZ in rats and its potential in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD.

  15. The effect of genistein on intracerebroventricular streptozotocin-induced cognitive deficits in male rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tourandokht Balouchnejadmojarad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available   Abstract  Introduction: Intracerebroventricular (ICV injection of streptozotocin (STZ causes cognitive impairment in rats. The beneficial effect of genistein (GEN was investigated on ICV STZ-induced learning, memory, and cognitive impairment in male rats. Methods: For this purpose, rats were injected with ICV STZ bilaterally, on days 1 and 3 (3 mg/kg. The STZ-injected rats received GEN (1 mg/kg/day, p.o. starting one day pre-surgery for two weeks. The learning and memory performance was assessed using passive avoidance paradigm, and for spatial cognition evaluation, radial eight-arm maze (RAM task was used.  Results: It was found out that GEN-treated STZ-injected rats show higher correct choices and lower errors in RAM than vehicle-treated STZ-injected rats. In addition, GEN administration significantly attenuated learning and memory impairment in treated STZ-injected group in passive avoidance test.Discussion: These results demonstrate the effectiveness of GEN in preventing the cognitive deficits caused by ICV STZ in rats and its potential in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD.  

  16. WITHDRAWN: The role of ascorbic acid transporter in the lens of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazawa, Yosuke; Oka, Mikako; Bando, Masayasu; Inoue, Takashi; Takehana, Makoto

    2010-09-25

    The Publisher regrets that this article is an accidental duplication of an article that has already been published, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bionut.2010.09.008. The duplicate article has therefore been withdrawn. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier SAS.. All rights reserved.

  17. Urtica dioica modulates hippocampal insulin signaling and recognition memory deficit in streptozotocin induced diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Sita Sharan; Gupta, Sahil; Udayabanu, Malairaman

    2016-06-01

    Diabetes mellitus has been associated with functional abnormalities in the hippocampus and performance of cognitive function. Urtica dioica (UD) has been used in the treatment of diabetes. In our previous report we observed that UD extract attenuate diabetes mediated associative and spatial memory dysfunction. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of UD extract on mouse model of diabetes-induced recognition memory deficit and explore the possible mechanism behind it. Streptozotocin (STZ) (50 mg/kg, i.p. consecutively for 5 days) was used to induce diabetes followed by UD extract (50 mg/kg, oral) or rosiglitazone (ROSI) (5 mg/kg, oral) administration for 8 weeks. STZ induced diabetic mice showed significant decrease in hippocampal insulin signaling and translocation of glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) to neuronal membrane resulting in cognitive dysfunction and hypolocomotion. UD treatment effectively improved hippocampal insulin signaling, glucose tolerance and recognition memory performance in diabetic mice, which was comparable to ROSI. Further, diabetes mediated oxidative stress and inflammation was reversed by chronic UD or ROSI administration. UD leaves extract acts via insulin signaling pathway and might prove to be effective for the diabetes mediated central nervous system complications.

  18. Novel mechanism for plasma glucose-lowering action of metformin in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Juei-Tang; Huang, Ching-Chiu; Liu, I-Min; Tzeng, Thing-Fong; Chang, Chih Jen

    2006-03-01

    To better understand the insulin-independent plasma glucose-lowering action of metformin, we used streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats to investigate the possible mechanisms. Oral intake of metformin decreased the plasma glucose of STZ-induced diabetic rats with a parallel increase of plasma beta-endorphin-like immunoreactivity (BER). Mediation of opioid mu-receptors in the action of metformin was identified by the blockade of receptors with antagonist in STZ-induced diabetic rats and the failure of action in opioid mu-receptor knockout diabetic mice. Release of BER from adrenal glands by metformin was characterized, using bilateral adrenalectomy and the release of BER from isolated adrenal medulla of STZ-induced diabetic rats. Repeated treatment with metformin in STZ-induced diabetic rats increased the mRNA and protein levels of GLUT-4 in soleus muscle that was blocked by naloxonazine. Reduction of the mRNA or protein levels of hepatic PEPCK was also impeded in the same group of STZ-induced diabetic rats. In conclusion, our results provide novel mechanisms for the plasma glucose-lowering action of metformin, via an increase of beta-endorphin secretion from adrenal glands to stimulate opioid mu-receptor linkage, leading to an increase of GLUT-4 gene expression and an attenuation of hepatic PEPCK gene expression in STZ-induced diabetic rats.

  19. B-1 cells produce insulin and abrogate experimental streptozotocin-induced diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvares-Saraiva, Anuska M; Novo, Marília C T; de Oliveira, Vivian Cristina; Maricato, Juliana T; Lopes, José Daniel; Popi, Ana Flavia; Mariano, Mario

    2015-05-01

    The participation of B-1 cells in a murine model of spontaneous diabetes has been recently reported. Here, we describe the role of B-1 cells in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetes in mice. We demonstrated that XID (B-1 cell-deficient) mice are more susceptible to STZ treatment than WT mice, as evidenced by their higher blood glucose level in response to STZ. Unexpectedly, the XID mice that were i.p. transferred with purified B-1 cells, either before or after the STZ treatment, did not develop diabetes. These cell transfers provided long-lasting protection for the XID mice against STZ-induced diabetes, suggesting that B-1 cells play an important role in the experimental diabetes pathobiology. We also showed that B-1 cell culture supernatants were able to regulate the blood glucose level of the diabetic XID mice, and we identified insulin-producing cells when B-1 cells were differentiated in B-1 cell-derived phagocyte in vitro. These findings provide a novel role for B-1 cells in metabolic processes, presenting a new mechanism to explain the pathogenesis of diabetes and a possible therapeutical target. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Bacterial Flora Changes in Conjunctiva of Rats with Streptozotocin-Induced Type I Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chao; Fei, Yuda; Qin, Yali; Luo, Dan; Yang, Shufei; Kou, Xinyun; Zi, Yingxin; Deng, Tingting; Jin, Ming

    2015-01-01

    The microbiota of both humans and animals plays an important role in their health and the development of disease. Therefore, the bacterial flora of the conjunctiva may also be associated with some diseases. However, there are no reports on the alteration of bacterial flora in conjunctiva of diabetic rats in the literature. Therefore, we investigated the changes in bacterial flora in bulbar conjunctiva of rats with streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type I diabetes. A high dose of STZ (60 mg/kg, i.p.) was injected into Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats to induce type I diabetes mellitus (T1DM). The diabetic rats were raised in the animal laboratory and at 8 months post-injection of STZ swab samples were taken from the bulbar conjunctiva for cultivation of aerobic bacteria. The bacterial isolates were identified by Gram staining and biochemical features. The identified bacteria from both diabetic and healthy rats were then compared. The diabetic and healthy rats had different bacterial flora present in their bulbar conjunctiva. In total, 10 and 8 bacterial species were found in the STZ and control groups, respectively, with only three species (Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus gallinarum and Escherichia coli) shared between the two groups. Gram-positive bacteria were common in both groups and the most abundant was Enterococcus faecium. However, after the development of T1DM, the bacterial flora in the rat bulbar conjunctiva changed considerably, with a reduced complexity evident. STZ-induced diabetes caused alterations of bacterial flora in the bulbar conjunctiva in rats, with some bacterial species disappearing and others emerging. Our results indicate that the conjunctival bacterial flora in diabetic humans should be surveyed for potential diagnostic markers or countermeasures to prevent eye infections in T1DM patients.

  1. Protective effects of polysaccharides from Lilium lancifolium on streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ting; Gao, Jie; Jin, Zheng-Yu; Xu, Xue-Ming; Chen, Han-Qing

    2014-04-01

    In this study, the protective effect of Lilium lancifolium polysaccharides (LLP) on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice and possible mechanism were investigated. The diabetic mice were administered with LLP for 28 days. The results showed that oral administration of LLP could significantly decrease blood glucose level and increase body weight loss in STZ-induced diabetic mice. LLP also significantly increased the activities of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase (CAT) and decreased the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) in serum, liver, and kidney in STZ-induced diabetic mice. Moreover, histopathological examination showed that LLP could markedly improve the structure integrity of pancreatic islet tissue in STZ-induced diabetic mice. However, LLP had no significant effect on organ weight of liver and pancreas of diabetic mice, but significantly decreased kidney weight compared with diabetic control mice. This study suggested that LLP had hypoglycemic and antioxidant properties and could provide protective effect on STZ-induced diabetic mice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Radon inhalation suppresses nephropathy in streptozotocin-induced type-1 diabetic mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishiyama, Yuichi; Kataoka, Takahiro; Yamato, Keiko; Etani, Reo; Taguchi, Takehito; Yamaoka, Kiyonori

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the suppressive effects of radon inhalation against nephropathy in C57BL/6J mice with type-1 diabetes induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (50 mg/kg weight, given five times). Four weeks after diabetes induction, the diabetic mice were continuously treated with inhaled radon-222 of 2000 Bq/m3 or air only (sham) for four weeks. The results showed that radon inhalation did not affect type-1 diabetic symptoms such as body weight loss, hyperglycemia, and hypoinsulinemia. However, diabetic mice treated with radon showed lower urinary albumin excretion and fibrotic change in renal glomeruli compared with diabetic mice not treated with radon. Furthermore, renal superoxide dismutase activity and glutathione content were significantly higher in diabetic mice treated with radon than in diabetic mice not treated with radon. These findings suggested that radon inhalation enhanced renal antioxidants activities, resulting in the suppression of diabetic nephropathy. This study may contribute to the development of a novel approach in the treatment of nephropathy for diabetic patients. (author)

  3. Supplementation of fenugreek leaves lower lipid profile in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annida, B; Stanely Mainzen Prince, P

    2004-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the lipid-lowering effect of fenugreek leaves in diabetes mellitus. Albino Wistar rats were randomly divided into six groups: normal untreated rats; streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats; STZ-induced rats + fenugreek leaves (0.5 g/kg of body weight); STZ-induced rats + fenugreek leaves (1 g/kg of body weight); STZ-induced rats + glibenclamide (600 microg/kg of body weight); and STZ-induced rats + insulin (6 units/kg of body weight). Rats were made diabetic by STZ (40 mg/kg) injected intraperitoneally. Fenugreek leaves were supplemented in the diet daily to diabetic rats for 45 days, and food intake was recorded daily. Blood glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, and free fatty acids were determined in serum, liver, heart, and kidney. Our results show that blood glucose and serum and tissue lipids were elevated in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Supplementation of fenugreek leaves lowered the lipid profile in STZ-induced diabetic rats.

  4. Anti-Diabetic Potential of the Leaves of Anisomeles malabarica in Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Rats

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    Peddanna Kotha

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Diabetes mellitus is a pandemic metabolic disorder that is affecting a majority of populations in recent years. There is a requirement for new drugs that are safer and cheaper due to the side effects associated with the available medications. Methods: We investigated the anti-diabetic activity of leaves of Anisomeles malabarica following bioactivity guided fractionation. The different solvent (hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol and water extracts of A. malabarica leaves were used in acute treatment studies to evaluate and identify the active fraction. The ethyl acetate extract was subjected to further fractionation using silica gel column chromatography and the compounds were identified by LC-SRM/MS and GC-MS. Additional chronic treatment studies were carried out using this active fraction (AMAF for 30 days in experimental diabetic rats. Fasting blood glucose (FBG, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c, plasma insulin levels and glucose tolerance were measured along with insulin resistance/sensitivity indicators (HOMA-IR, HOMA-β and QUICKI to assess the beneficial effects of A. malabarica in the management of diabetes mellitus. Results: Among the different solvent extracts tested, ethyl acetate extract showed maximum (66% anti-hyperglycemic activity. The hexane and ethyl acetate (1: 1 fraction that has maximum anti-diabetic activity was identified as active fraction of A. malabarica (AMAF. The FBG, HbA1c, plasma insulin levels and insulin sensitivity/resistance indicators such as glucose tolerance, HOMA-IR, HOMA-β and QUICKI were significantly improved to near normal in diabetic rats treated with AMAF. Further, we identified key flavonoids and fatty acids as the anti-diabetic active principles from the AMAF of A. malabarica leaves. Conclusion: The results of our study suggest that Anisomeles malabarica has potential anti-diabetic activity in STZ induced diabetic rats.

  5. Vimentin and laminin are altered on cheek pouch microvessels of streptozotocin-induced diabetic hamsters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jemima Fuentes R Silva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Normal endothelial cells respond to shear stress by elongating and aligning in the direction of fluid flow. Hyperglycemia impairs this response and contributes to microvascular complications, which result in deleterious effects to the endothelium. This work aimed to evaluate cheek pouch microvessel morphological characteristics, reactivity, permeability, and expression of cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix components in hamsters after the induction of diabetes with streptozotocin. METHODS: Syrian golden hamsters (90-130 g were injected with streptozotocin (50 mg/kg, i.p. or vehicle either 6 (the diabetes mellitus 6 group or 15 (the diabetes mellitus 15 group days before the experiment. Vascular dimensions and density per area of vessels were determined by morphometric and stereological measurements. Changes in blood flow were measured in response to acetylcholine, and plasma extravasation was measured by the number of leakage sites. Actin, talin, α-smooth muscle actin, vimentin, type IV collagen, and laminin were detected by immunohistochemistry and assessed through a semiquantitative scoring system. RESULTS: There were no major alterations in the lumen, wall diameters, or densities of the examined vessels. Likewise, vascular reactivity and permeability were not altered by diabetes. The arterioles demonstrated increased immunoreactivity to vimentin and laminin in the diabetes mellitus 6 and diabetes mellitus 15 groups. DISCUSSION: Antibodies against laminin and vimentin inhibit branching morphogenesis in vitro. Therefore, laminin and vimentin participating in the structure of the focal adhesion may play a role in angiogenesis. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicated the existence of changes related to cell-matrix interactions, which may contribute to the pathological remodeling that was already underway one week after induction of experimental diabetes.

  6. Effects of sleeve gastrectomy in neonatally streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

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    Yan Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sleeve gastrectomy (SG has emerged recently as a stand-alone bariatric procedure to treat morbid obesity and enhance glucose homeostasis. The aim of the study was to evaluate its effects in neonatally streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic rats (n-STZ diabetic rats. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To induce diabetes, STZ (90 mg/kg was administered intraperitoneally to 2-day-old male pups. When 12 weeks old, diabetic rats were randomized into sleeve operation group (SLG, n = 6 and sham operation group (SOG, n = 6. Body weights were monitored weekly, and daily consumption of water and food were followed for eight consecutive weeks postoperatively. Serum glucose levels were measured periodically at the 4th and 8th week after surgery. Insulin, ghrelin, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP and Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 levels were assayed at the end of the study. Our data showed that SLG rats exhibited significantly lower body weight gain in addition to reduced food and water intakes postoperatively compared to their sham-operation counterparts. However, resolution of diabetes was not observed in our study. Correspondingly, there were no significant differences between SOG rats and SLG rats in glucose metabolism-associated hormones, including insulin, GIP and GLP-1. In contrast, ghrelin level significantly decreased (P<0.01 in SLG group (58.01 ± 3.75 pg/ml after SG surgery compared to SOG group (76.36 ± 3.51 pg/ml. CONCLUSIONS: These observations strongly suggest that SG is effective in controlling body weight. However, SG did not achieve resolution or improvement of diabetes in n-STZ diabetic rats.

  7. Antihyperglycemic Effect of Ginkgo biloba Extract in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daye Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE has been reported to have a wide range of health benefits in traditional Chinese medicine. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antihyperglycemic effects of GBE on streptozotocin- (STZ- induced diabetes in rats. Diabetes was induced in male Wistar rats by the administration of STZ (60 mg/kg b.w. intraperitoneally. GBE (100, 200, and 300 mg/kg b.w. was administered orally once a day for a period of 30 days. Body weight and blood glucose levels were determined in different experimental days. Serum lipid profile and antioxidant enzymes in hepatic and pancreatic tissue were measured at the end of the experimental period. Significant decreases in body weight and antioxidant ability and increases in blood glucose, lipid profile, and lipid peroxidation were observed in STZ-induced diabetic rats. The administration of GBE and glibenclamide daily for 30 days in STZ-induced diabetic rats reversed the above parameters significantly. GBE possesses antihyperglycemic, antioxidant, and antihyperlipidemia activities in STZ-induced chronic diabetic rats, which promisingly support the use of GBE as a food supplement or an adjunct treatment for diabetics.

  8. Antidiabetic Activity of Artemisia amygdalina Decne in Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Rats

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    Khalid Ghazanfar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Artemisia species have been extensively used for the management of diabetes in folklore medicine. The current study was designed to investigate the antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic effects of Artemisia amygdalina. Petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, methanol, and hydroethanolic extracts of Artemisia amygdalina were tested for their antidiabetic potentials in diabetic rats. The effect of extracts was observed by checking the biochemical, physiological, and histopathological parameters in diabetic rats. The hydroethanolic and methanolic extracts each at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg b. w significantly reduced glucose levels in diabetic rats. The other biochemical parameters like cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoproteins (LDL, serum creatinine, serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT, serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT, and alkaline phosphatise (ALP, were found to be reduced by the hydroethanolic and methanolic extracts. The extracts also showed reduction in the feed and water consumption of diabetic rats when compared with the diabetic control. The histopathological results of treated groups showed the regenerative/protective effect on β-cells of pancreas in diabetic rats. The current study revealed the antidiabetic potential of Artemisia amygdalina being effective in hyperglycemia and that it can effectively protect against other metabolic aberrations caused by diabetes in rats, which seems to validate its therapeutic traditional use.

  9. Antidepressant effects of insulin in streptozotocin induced diabetic mice: Modulation of brain serotonin system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Deepali; Kurhe, Yeshwant; Radhakrishnan, Mahesh

    2014-04-22

    Diabetes is a persistent metabolic disorder, which often leads to depression as a result of the impaired neurotransmitter function. Insulin is believed to have antidepressant effects in depression associated with diabetes; however, the mechanism underlying the postulated effect is poorly understood. In the present study, it is hypothesized that insulin mediates an antidepressant effect in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetes in mice through modulation of the serotonin system in the brain. Therefore, the current study investigated the antidepressant effect of insulin in STZ induced diabetes in mice and insulin mediated modulation in the brain serotonin system. In addition, the possible pathways that lead to altered serotonin levels as a result of insulin administration were examined. Experimentally, Swiss albino mice of either sex were rendered diabetic by a single intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of STZ. After one week, diabetic mice received a single dose of either insulin or saline or escitalopram for 14days. Thereafter, behavioral studies were conducted to test the behavioral despair effects using forced swim test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST), followed by biochemical estimations of serotonin concentrations and monoamine oxidase (MAO) activity in the whole brain content. The results demonstrated that, STZ treated diabetic mice exhibited an increased duration of immobility in FST and TST as compared to non-diabetic mice, while insulin treatment significantly reversed the effect. Biochemical assays revealed that administration of insulin attenuated STZ treated diabetes induced neurochemical alterations as indicated by elevated serotonin levels and decreased MAO-A and MAO-B activities in the brain. Collectively, the data indicate that insulin exhibits antidepressant effects in depression associated with STZ induced diabetes in mice through the elevation of the brain serotonin levels. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Brain Aging and AD-Like Pathology in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

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    Jian-Qin Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Numerous epidemiological studies have linked diabetes mellitus (DM with an increased risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease (AD. However, whether or not diabetic encephalopathy shows AD-like pathology remains unclear. Research Design and Methods. Forebrain and hippocampal volumes were measured using stereology in serial coronal sections of the brain in streptozotocin- (STZ- induced rats. Neurodegeneration in the frontal cortex, hypothalamus, and hippocampus was evaluated using Fluoro-Jade C (FJC. Aβ aggregation in the frontal cortex and hippocampus was tested using immunohistochemistry and ELISA. Dendritic spine density in the frontal cortex and hippocampus was measured using Golgi staining, and western blot was conducted to detect the levels of synaptophysin. Cognitive ability was evaluated through the Morris water maze and inhibitory avoidant box. Results. Rats are characterized by insulin deficiency accompanied with polydipsia, polyphagia, polyuria, and weight loss after STZ injection. The number of FJC-positive cells significantly increased in discrete brain regions of the diabetic rats compared with the age-matched control rats. Hippocampal atrophy, Aβ aggregation, and synapse loss were observed in the diabetic rats compared with the control rats. The learning and memory of the diabetic rats decreased compared with those of the age-matched control rats. Conclusions. Our results suggested that aberrant metabolism induced brain aging as characterized by AD-like pathologies.

  11. Hypoglycemic activity of Cassia javanica Linn. in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

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    Urmila C Kumavat

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In present work, one of the ornamentals and medicinally less known plant Cassia javanica has been explored for hypoglycemic potential. It aimed to check the hypoglycemic effect of C. javanica leaves on normal and streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic rats by acute and sub-acute studies. Prior to the hypoglycemic study, acute oral toxicity testing of drug was performed. Later, the effects of single and multiple doses of test drug were studied using various parameters. Dried powdered leaf material was used as an oral drug. The preliminary phytochemistry of drug was done by standard qualitative tests. Diabetes was induced in rats by single intraperitoneal injection of STZ. Single and multiple doses of test drug (0.5 g/kg body weight/day were given to normal and diabetic rats. The parameters studied were blood glucose, serum cholesterol, serum triglycerides, and serum proteins. The results of test drug were compared with standard hypoglycemic drug-glibenclamide (0.01 g/kg/day. Statistical analysis was done by ′Student′s ′t′ test′ and one way ANOVA test. In preliminary phytochemistry, antidiabetic compounds were detected. Unlike acute, subacute treatment of test drug showed highly significant reduction (37.62% in blood glucose level of diabetic rats in ten days. This effect was considerably good in comparison with standard drug (63.51%. The test drug and standard drug exhibited insignificant change in the abnormal levels of serum metabolites of diabetic rats. Preclinically, C. javanica was proved to be effective hypoglycemic agent.

  12. Andrographolide reorganise hyperglycaemia and distorted antioxidant profile in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Ramavat Ravindhar; Munipally, Praveen Kumar; Nagaraju, Turlapati

    2017-10-26

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a constant and illimitable metabolic disorder that can happen even at a young age due to the virtual absence of naturally acting insulin, which uptakes and accumulates glucose; thereby reduce the use of glucose. In the present study, we evaluated the neuroprotective efficacy of andrographolide on streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic Sprague dawley rats. Diabetes was induced by intraperitonial injection of STZ (45 mg/kg B.W) in Sprague dawley rats. Andrographolide (2.5 mg/kg B.W) was administered orally to diabetic rats and Glibenclamide (25mg/kg B.W) as control for 30 days to assess its effects on blood glucose, insulin, insulin resistance and antioxidant profiles such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, reduced glutathione and lipid peroxidation in various regions of brain namely hypothalamus, cerebellum, hippocampus and brain cerebral cortex. Oral supplementation of andrographolide extensively diminished the blood glucose levels than diabetic control. There was noteworthy reduction in the CAT, SOD and GPx activities in the hippocampus, hypothalamus and cerebral cortex cerebellum of the DM rat brain. However, andrographolide supplementation drastically reverses the CAT, GPx and SOD back to normal levels. In conclusion, the results revealed that andrographolide shown beneficial potentiality against neuropathy in STZ induced diabetic rats. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  13. Effect of Tangweian Jianji on upper gastrointestinal remodeling in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gui-Fang; Zhao, Jing-Bo; Zhen, Zhong; Sha, Hong; Chen, Peng-Min; Li, Min; Zhang, Jia-Cheng; Yuan, Ming-Ze; Gao, Wen; Gregersen, Hans; Tong, Xiao-Lin

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of Tangweian Jianji (TWAJJ) on the biomechanical and morphometrical remodeling of the upper gastrointestinal tract in diabetic rats. METHODS: Diabetes was induced in 27 rats by injecting streptozotocin (40 mg/kg body weight), the animals were then divided into three groups (n = 9 in each group), i.e., diabetic control (DM); high dose (10 g/kg, T1) and low dose (5 g/kg, T2). Another 10 rats acted as normal controls (Control). TWAJJ was administered by gavage once daily. Blood glucose and serum insulin levels were measured. Circumferential length, wall thickness and opening angle were measured from esophageal, duodenal, jejunal and ileal ring segments. The residual strain was calculated from the morphometric data. Step-wise distension was carried out on esophageal and jejunal segments. The obtained data on the length, diameter and pressure changes were then used to calculate the circumferential and longitudinal stresses and strains. Real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was used to detect the receptor of advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) mRNA level in jejunal tissues. RESULTS: At the end of the experiment, the blood glucose level was significantly higher and the serum insulin level was significantly lower in DM, T1 and T2 groups than in the control group (Glucose: 30.23 ± 0.41 mmol/L, 27.48 ± 0.27 mmol/L and 27.84 ± 0.29 mmol/L vs 5.05 ± 0.04 mmol/L, P = 1.65 × 10-16, P = 5.89 × 10-19 and P = 1.63 × 10-18, respectively; Insulin: 1.47 ± 0.32 μg/L, 2.66 ± 0.44 μg/L, 2.03 ± 0.29 μg/L and 4.17 ± 0.54 μg/L, P = 0.0001, P = 0.029 and P = 0.025, respectively). However, these levels did not differ among the DM, T1 and T2 groups. The wet weight per unit length, wall thickness and opening angle of esophageal and intestinal segments in the DM group were significantly higher than those in the control group (from P = 0.009 to P = 0.004). These parameters in the T1 group were significantly lower than those in the DM group (wet weight, duodenum: 0.147 ± 0.003 g/cm vs 0.158 ± 0.001 g/cm, P = 0.047; jejunum, 0.127 ± 0.003 g/cm vs 0.151 ± 0.002 g/cm, P = 0.017; ileum, 0.127 ± 0.004 g/cm vs 0.139 ± 0.003 g/cm, P = 0.046; wall thickness, esophagus: 0.84 ± 0.03 mm vs 0.94 ± 0.02 mm, P = 0.014; duodenum: 1.27 ± 0.06 mm vs 1.39 ± 0.05 mm, P = 0.031; jejunum: 1.19 ± 0.07 mm vs 1.34 ± 0.04 mm, P = 0.047; ileum: 1.09 ± 0.04 mm vs 1.15 ± 0.03 mm, P = 0.049; opening angle, esophagus: 112.2 ± 13.2˚ vs 134.7 ± 14.7˚, P = 0.027; duodenum: 105.9 ± 12.3˚ vs 123.1 ± 13.1˚, P = 0.046; jejunum: 90.1 ± 15.4˚ vs 115.5 ± 13.3˚, P = 0.044; ileum: 112.9 ± 13.4˚ vs 136.1 ± 17.1˚, P = 0.035). In the esophageal and jejunal segments, the inner residual stain was significantly smaller and the outer residual strain was larger in the DM group than in the control group (P = 0.022 and P = 0.035). T1 treatment significantly restored this biomechanical alteration (P = 0.011 and P = 0.019), but T2 treatment did not. Furthermore, the circumferential and longitudinal stiffness of the esophageal and jejunal wall increased in the DM group compared with those in the control group. T1, but not T2 treatment, significantly decreased the circumferential wall stiffness in the jejunal segment (P = 0.012) and longitudinal wall stiffness in the esophageal segment (P = 0.023). The mRNA level of RAGE was significantly decreased in the T1 group compared to that in the DM group (P = 0.0069). CONCLUSION: TWAJJ (high dose) treatment partly restored the morphometric and biomechanical remodeling of the upper gastrointestinal tract in diabetic rats. PMID:23002359

  14. Antidiabetic and Antihyperlipidemic Activity of Cucurbita maxima Duchense (Pumpkin) Seeds on Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Ashish K. Sharma; Ashok Sharma

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic effect of petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and alcohol extract of seeds of Cucurbita maxima for its purported use in diabetes. The antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic activity of different extracts of Cucurbita maxima seeds was evaluated in wistar albino rats against streptozotocin (50 mg/kg i.p.) at dose of 200 mg/kg p.o. for 21 days. Glibenclamide (500µg/kg) was used as reference drug. Fasting blood g...

  15. Altered synthesis of some secretory proteins in pancreatic lobules isolated from streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan, R.D.; Erlanson-Albertsson, C.

    1990-01-01

    The in vitro incorporation of [35S]cysteine into lipase, colipase, amylase, procarboxypeptidase A and B, and the serine proteases and total proteins was studied in pancreatic lobules isolated from normal and diabetic rats with or without insulin treatment. The incorporation of [35S]cysteine into total proteins was 65% greater in pancreatic lobules from diabetic animals than from normal rats. The increased incorporation was partly reversed by insulin treatment (2 U/100 g/day for 5 days) of diabetic rats. The relative rates of biosynthesis for amylase and the procarboxypeptidases in diabetic pancreatic lobules were decreased by 75 and 25%, respectively, after 1 h of incubation, while those for lipase, colipase, and the serine proteases were increased by 90, 85, and 35%, respectively. The absolute rates of synthesis for these enzymes changed in the same direction as the relative rates in diabetic lobules, except that for the procarboxypeptidases, which did not change. The changed rates of biosynthesis for the pancreatic enzymes were reversed by insulin treatment of the diabetic rats. Kinetic studies showed that the incorporation of [35S]cysteine into amylase, lipase, and colipase was linear until up to 2 h of incubation in normal pancreatic lobules, while in the diabetic lobules the incorporation into lipase and colipase was accelerated, reaching a plateau level already after 1 h of incubation. It is concluded that the biosynthesis of pancreatic secretory proteins in diabetic rats is greatly changed both in terms of quantity and kinetics

  16. Changes in cardiac heparan sulfate proteoglycan expression and streptozotocin-induced diastolic dysfunction in rats

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    Cestari Ismar N

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Changes in the proteoglycans glypican and syndecan-4 have been reported in several pathological conditions, but little is known about their expression in the heart during diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate in vivo heart function changes and alterations in mRNA expression and protein levels of glypican-1 and syndecan-4 in cardiac and skeletal muscles during streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetes. Methods Diabetes was induced in male Wistar rats by STZ administration. The rats were assigned to one of the following groups: control (sham injection, after 24 hours, 10 days, or 30 days of STZ administration. Echocardiography was performed in the control and STZ 10-day groups. Western and Northern blots were used to quantify protein and mRNA levels in all groups. Immunohistochemistry was performed in the control and 30-day groups to correlate the observed mRNA changes to the protein expression. Results In vivo cardiac functional analysis performed using echocardiography in the 10-day group showed diastolic dysfunction with alterations in the peak velocity of early (E diastolic filling and isovolumic relaxation time (IVRT indices. These functional alterations observed in the STZ 10-day group correlated with the concomitant increase in syndecan-4 and glypican-1 protein expression. Cardiac glypican-1 mRNA and skeletal syndecan-4 mRNA and protein levels increased in the STZ 30-day group. On the other hand, the amount of glypican in skeletal muscle was lower than that in the control group. The same results were obtained from immunohistochemistry analysis. Conclusion Our data suggest that membrane proteoglycans participate in the sequence of events triggered by diabetes and inflicted on cardiac and skeletal muscles.

  17. Antihyperglycemic activity of Caralluma quadrangula in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

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    Essam Abdel-Sattar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes of type 2 is a worldwide epidemic disease of global prevalence. Caralluma quadrangula is wild Saudi plant used by traditional healers as antidiabetic, in case of hunger, and many other diseases. Nothing was reported to justify the use of the plant in case of diabetes. The plant material was extracted with water and with methanol, the methanol fraction was further fractionated into chloroform, n-butanol, in addition to the remaining mother liquor. The water and methanolic extracts as well as different methanolic fractions were evaluated in STZ-induced diabetic rats for their antihyperglycaemic activity. The results showed a significant decrease in fasting blood glucose levels in diabetic treated rats after the administration of most of the extracts and fractions of C. quadrangula and glibenclamide. The most potent activity was shown by administration of the methanolic extract (200 mg/kg, chloroform, n-butanol fraction at dose of 100 mg/kg, as well as the major pregnane glycoside russelioside B isolated from C. quadrangula. In conclusion, this study proved the traditional use of C. quadrangula in diabetes mellitus. Keywords: Asclepiadaceae, Caralluma quadrangula, Antihyperglycemic, Fast blood glucose, G-6-Pase, Insulin

  18. Evaluation of antihyperglycemic activity of Cocos nucifera Linn. on streptozotocin induced type 2 diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naskar, Sagar; Mazumder, Upal K; Pramanik, Goutam; Gupta, Malaya; Kumar, R B Suresh; Bala, Asis; Islam, Aminul

    2011-12-08

    The plant Cocos nucifera Linn. (Arecaceae) is commonly known as coconut. Traditionally the juice of the young spadix when fresh is used in diarrhea and diabetes. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of antidiabetic activity and effect on lipid profile as well as cardioprotective effect of hydro-methanol extract of Cocos nucifera (HECN) on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. After 72 h of STZ (50 mg/kg, b.w. i.p.) administration, animals showing plasma sugar level more than 250 mg/dl were considered as diabetic rat. Fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels were measured on 0th (after 72 h of STZ), 5th, 10th, and 15th day. On the 15th day all the animals were sacrificed and the serum biochemical parameters and antioxidant enzyme status were measured. HECN treated animals showed a significant reduction in FBG level as compared with diabetic control group. Serum enzyme level (SGOT, SGPT, SALP), lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme level such as CAT, GSH, SOD and cholesterol and triglycerides in the HECN treated groups were restored towards normal level as compared to diabetic control groups and the values were comparable with the standard groups (glibenclamide). Improvement in the FBG and the restoration of all other biomarker as well as enzymes indicates that HECN has very good antidiabetic activity with very low side effects and provides a scientific rationale for the use as an antidiabetic agent. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Insulin mimetic effects of macrocyclic binuclear oxovanadium complexes on streptozotocin-induced experimental diabetes in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, B; Kandaswamy, M; Narayanan, V; Subramanian, S

    2003-11-01

    The vanadium complexes so far tested for their insulin mimetic effects are either mono- or binuclear and contain only acyclic ligands. The leaching or hydrolysis of vanadyl ions from these complexes is much easier, and hence they elicit side effects. In the present study, a new binuclear macrocyclic oxovanadium complex was synthesized, and its efficacy was studied on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats over a period of 30 days. The insulin mimetic effect of the complex was tested on the blood sugar level in the STZ-diabetic rats and on the activities of the carbohydrate-metabolizing enzymes present in the liver. Administration of vanadium complex to STZ-induced diabetic rats decreased blood glucose levels from hyperglycaemic to normoglycaemic when compared to diabetic rats. The activity of carbohydrate-metabolizing enzymes such as hexokinase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glycogen synthase and glycogen content were increased to near normal in vanadium complex-administered diabetic rats. The biochemical studies such as assay of blood urea and glutamate oxaloacetate transaminases revealed that the complex is not toxic to the system. The nontoxic nature of this complex may be due to the presence of the vanadyl ions in an intact macrocyclic form. Further, the vanadyl ions present in the macrocyclic binuclear oxovanadium complex are very close to each other, and this may enhance the insulin mimetic activity by synergic effect.

  20. In vivo antidiabetic actions of naglivan, an organic vanadyl compound in streptozotocin-induced diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cam, M C; Cros, G H; Serrano, J J; Lazaro, R; McNeill, J H

    1993-05-01

    The vanadyl (+IV) form of vanadium has been demonstrated to have insulin-mimetic activity in vivo. In an effort to improve the poor gastrointestinal absorption of the ion, an organic complex of vanadyl (naglivan) was synthesized. We tested the antidiabetic effects of naglivan in rats made diabetic with streptozotocin (55 mg/kg, i.v.). Four days after the streptozotocin injection, one diabetic group (DVI) and a control group (CV) were treated with naglivan (50 mg/kg/day, equivalent to 0.06 mmol vanadium/kg/day) by oral gavage. Treatment in the DVI group was supplemented with daily insulin while a second diabetic group (DI) was administered daily titrated doses of insulin alone (Protamine Zinc, s.c.) to achieve stable euglycemia. The dose of exogenous insulin required to maintain normal glucose was significantly lower in the DVI group compared to the DI throughout the treatment period. At the end of week 3, exogenous insulin was withdrawn from both the DVI and DI groups, while naglivan treatment was continued in the CV and DVI groups for an additional 5 weeks. At termination, hearts were isolated and cardiac function (+dP/dt, -dP/dt and left ventricular developed pressure) was assessed in all the animals. After insulin was withdrawn, 4/8 DVI animals which continued to receive naglivan had consistent normoglycemia (as determined by % glycosylated hemoglobin) and an improved cardiac function. All the DI animals and 4/8 DVI rats were hyperglycemic and had depressed heart function despite having similar plasma insulin levels to the euglycemic DVI animals. As with vanadyl sulfate, there were no signs of long-term toxicity with regards to renal or liver function after 8 weeks of treatment. Thus, naglivan is an orally effective form of vanadyl with an oral potency 7.6 times greater than that of vanadyl sulfate (minimum effective dose: 0.06 mmol vanadium.kg-1.day-1) as compared to vanadyl sulfate (0.46 mmol vanadium.kg-1.day-1). The lack of incidence of diarrhea in either control or diabetic animals demonstrates that naglivan could be a more therapeutically desirable form of vanadyl.

  1. SEXUAL BEHAVIOUR, SPERM QUANTITY AND QUALITY AFTER SHORT-TERM STREPTOZOTOCIN-INDUCED HYPERGLYCAEMIA IN RATS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies of diabetes mellitus in the streptozotocin rat model suggest that sexual dysfunctions may result from diabetes-induced alterations of the neuroendocrine-reproductive tract axis. Our investigation was performed to better define the effects of short-term hyperglycemia on ra...

  2. Brain aging and AD-like pathology in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian-Qin; Yin, Jie; Song, Yan-Feng; Zhang, Lang; Ren, Ying-Xiang; Wang, De-Gui; Gao, Li-Ping; Jing, Yu-Hong

    2014-01-01

    Numerous epidemiological studies have linked diabetes mellitus (DM) with an increased risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, whether or not diabetic encephalopathy shows AD-like pathology remains unclear. Forebrain and hippocampal volumes were measured using stereology in serial coronal sections of the brain in streptozotocin- (STZ-) induced rats. Neurodegeneration in the frontal cortex, hypothalamus, and hippocampus was evaluated using Fluoro-Jade C (FJC). Aβ aggregation in the frontal cortex and hippocampus was tested using immunohistochemistry and ELISA. Dendritic spine density in the frontal cortex and hippocampus was measured using Golgi staining, and western blot was conducted to detect the levels of synaptophysin. Cognitive ability was evaluated through the Morris water maze and inhibitory avoidant box. Rats are characterized by insulin deficiency accompanied with polydipsia, polyphagia, polyuria, and weight loss after STZ injection. The number of FJC-positive cells significantly increased in discrete brain regions of the diabetic rats compared with the age-matched control rats. Hippocampal atrophy, Aβ aggregation, and synapse loss were observed in the diabetic rats compared with the control rats. The learning and memory of the diabetic rats decreased compared with those of the age-matched control rats. Our results suggested that aberrant metabolism induced brain aging as characterized by AD-like pathologies.

  3. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic ketoacidosis in a patient with metastatic islet-cell carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berends, M.; Lesterhuis, W. J.; van Laarhoven, H. W. M.

    2013-01-01

    Here we report a severe life-threatening complication of treatment with streptozotocin in a patient with pancreatic island-cell carcinoma. The patient was admitted to the intensive care unit with severe diabetic ketoacidosis which needed aggressive fluid resuscitation and insulin therapy. We believe

  4. Nitrosative Stress in the Rat Retina at the Onset of Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Ramírez, Ernesto; Sánchez-Chávez, Gustavo; Estrella-Salazar, Luis A; Salceda, Rocío

    2017-01-01

    Nitric oxide is a multifunctional molecule that can modify proteins via nitrosylation; it can also initiate signaling cascades through the activation of soluble guanylate cyclase. Diabetic retinopathy is the leading cause of blindness, but its pathogenesis is unknown. Multiple mechanisms including oxidative-nitrosative stress have been implicated. Our main goal was to find significant changes in nitric oxide (NO) levels and determine their association with nitrosative stress in the rat retina at the onset of diabetes. Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal administration of streptozotocin. The possible nitric oxide effects on the rat retina were evaluated by the presence of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate diaphorase (NADPH-d), a specific marker for NO-producing neurons, detected by histochemistry performed on whole retinas and retina sections. Immunohistochemistry was also performed on retina sections for iNOS, 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). Retinal nitric oxide levels were assessed by measuring total nitrate/nitrite concentrations. Retinal cGMP levels were determined by radioimmunoassay. Western blots for nitrotyrosine (3-NT) and oxidized proteins were performed. In the present study, we found increased activity of NADPH-diaphorase and iNOS immunoreactivity in the rat retina at the onset of diabetes; this increase correlated with a remarkable increase in NO levels as early as 7 days after the onset of diabetes. However, cGMP levels were not modified by diabetes, suggesting that NO did not activate its signaling cascade. Even so, Western blots revealed a progressive increase in nitrated proteins at 7 days after diabetes induction. Likewise, positive nitrotyrosine immunolabeling was observed in the photoreceptor layer, ganglion cell layer, inner nuclear layer and some Müller cell processes in the retinas of diabetic rats. In addition, levels of oxidized proteins were increased in the retina early after diabetes induction; these levels were reduced by the administration of L-NAME. In addition, stress in Müller cells was determined by immunoreactivity to the glial fibrillary acidic protein. Our findings indicated the occurrence of nitrosative stress at the onset of diabetes in the rat retina and emphasized the role of NO in retinal function and the pathogenesis of retinopathy. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Aloe vera gel improves behavioral deficits and oxidative status in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabatabaei, Seyed Reza Fatemi; Ghaderi, Shahab; Bahrami-Tapehebur, Mohammad; Farbood, Yaghoob; Rashno, Masome

    2017-12-01

    Oxidative stress has a major role in progression of diabetes-related behavioral deficits. It has been suggested that Aloe vera has anti-diabetic, antioxidative, and neuroprotective effects. The present study was designed to determine the effects of Aloe vera gel on behavioral functions, oxidative status, and neuronal viability in the hippocampus of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Fifty five adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups, including: control (normal saline 8ml/kg/day; P.O.), diabetic (normal saline 8ml/kg/day; P.O.), Aloe vera gel (100mg/kg/day; P.O.), diabetic+Aloe vera gel (100mg/kg/day; P.O.) and diabetic+NPH insulin (10 IU/kg/day; S.C.). All treatments were started immediately following confirmation of diabetes in diabetic groups and were continued for eight weeks. Behavioral functions were evaluated by employing standard behavioral paradigms. Additionally, oxidative status and neuronal viability were assessed in the hippocampus. The results of behavioral tests showed that diabetes enhanced anxiety/depression-like behaviors, reduced exploratory and locomotor activities, decreased memory performance, and increased stress related behaviors. These changes in diabetic rats were accompanied by increasing oxidative stress and neuronal loss in the hippocampus. Interestingly, eight weeks of treatment with Aloe vera gel not only alleviated all the mentioned deficits related to diabetes, but in some aspects, it was even more effective than insulin. In conclusion, the results suggest that both interrelated hypoglycemic and antioxidative properties of Aloe vera gel are possible mechanisms that improve behavioral deficits and protect hippocampal neurons in diabetic animals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Induction, management, and complications of streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus in rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong-Min; Shin, Jun-Seop; Min, Byoung-Hoon; Kim, Hyun-Je; Kim, Jung-Sik; Yoon, Il-Hee; Jeong, Won-Young; Lee, Ga-Eul; Kim, Min-Sun; Kim, Ju-Eun; Jin, Sang-Man; Park, Chung-Gyu

    2016-11-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) model using streptozotocin (STZ) which induces chemical ablation of β cell in the pancreas has been widely used for various research purposes in non-human primates. However, STZ has been known to have a variety of adverse effects such as nephrotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, and even mortality. The purpose of this study is to report DM induction by STZ, toxicity associated with STZ and procedure and complication of exogenous insulin treatment for DM management in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) that are expected to be transplanted with porcine islets within 2 months. Streptozotocin (immediately dissolved in normal saline, 110 mg/kg) was slowly infused via central catheter for 10 minutes in 22 rhesus monkeys. Clinical signs, complete blood count and blood chemistry were monitored to evaluate toxicity for 1 week after STZ injection. Monkey basal C-peptides were measured and intravenous glucose tolerance test was performed to confirm complete induction of DM. Exogenous insulin was subcutaneously injected to maintain blood glucose in diabetic rhesus monkeys and the complications were recorded while in insulin treatment. Severe salivation and vomiting were observed within 1 hour after STZ injection in 22 rhesus monkeys. One monkey died at 6 hours after STZ injection and the reason for the death was unknown. Pancreatitis was noticed in one monkey after STZ injection, but the monkey recovered after 5 days by medical treatment. Serum total protein and albumin decreased whereas the parameters for the liver function such as aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and lactate dehydrogenase significantly increased (PMonkey fasting C-peptide levels after STZ injection were monkeys, but 0.34, 0.22, 0.16 ng/mL in three monkeys, respectively. The value of daily insulin requirement was 0.92±0.26IU/kg/d (range=0.45-1.29) in the monkeys. Diabetic ketoacidosis was observed in one rhesus monkeys, but the monkey recovered after 24 hours by fluid and insulin treatment. Streptozotocin was effective for inducing DM in rhesus monkeys, but various adverse effects such as pancreatitis, liver toxicity or death were observed. Therefore, careful and suitable medical managements should be implemented to eliminate the risks of mortality and severe adverse effects. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. The Extract of Lycium depressum Stocks Enhances Wound Healing in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naji, Siamak; Zarei, Leila; Pourjabali, Masoumeh; Mohammadi, Rahim

    2017-06-01

    In diabetes, impaired wound healing and other tissue abnormalities are considered major concerns. The aim of the present study was to assess the wound-healing activity of methanolic extracts of the extract of Lycium depressum leaves. A total of 60 healthy male Wistar diabetic rats weighing approximately 160 to 180 g and 7 weeks of age were randomized into 10 groups for incision and excision wound models: sham surgery group (SHAM), including creation of wounds and no treatment; base formulation group (FG) with creation of wounds and application of base formulation ointment; treatment group 1 (TG1) with 1 g of powder extract of the plant material in ointment; treatment group 2 (TG2) with 2 g; and treatment group 4 (TG3) with 4 g of powder extract of the plant material in ointment. A wound was induced by an excision- and incision-based wound model in male rats. The mature green leaves of L depressum were collected and authenticated. Extractions of dried leaves were carried out. For wound-healing activity, the extracts were applied topically in the form of ointment and compared with control groups. The healing of the wound was assessed based on excision, incision, hydroxyproline estimation, and biomechanical and biochemical studies. The extract of L depressum leaves enhanced wound contraction, decreased epithelialization time, increased hydroxyproline content, and improved mechanical indices and histological characteristics in treatment groups compared with SHAM and FG ( P wound healing in a diabetes induced model.

  8. Beneficial Effect of Leptin on Spatial Learning and Memory in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Ghasemi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease which may be accompanied by cognitive impairments. The expression of the obesity gene (ob is decreased in insulin-deficient diabetic animals and increased after the administration of insulin or leptin. Plasma leptin levels are reduced in the streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic rats. Therefore, the deleterious effects of diabetes on memory may be due to the reduction of leptin. Aims: Investigate the effect of subcutaneous injection of leptin on spatial learning and memory in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Study Design: Animal experimentation. Methods: The rats were divided into three groups: 1- control, 2- diabetic, and 3- diabetic-leptin. Diabetes was induced in groups 2 and 3 by STZ injection (55 mg/kg intraperitoneally (i.p. The animals received leptin (0.1 mg/kg or saline subcutaneously (s.c for 10 days before behavioral studies. Then, they were examined in the Morris water maze over 3 blocks after 3 days of the last injection of leptin. Results: The travelled path length and time spent to reach the platform significantly increased in the diabetic group (p<0.001 and decreased with leptin treatment (p<0.01 & p<0.001 respectively; also, a significant increase in path length and time was observed between the diabetic-leptin group and the diabetic group (p<0.01, p<0.001, respectively in the probe test. Conclusion: Leptin can exert positive effects on memory impairments in diabetic rats.

  9. Protective Effects of Red Guava on Inflammation and Oxidative Stress in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pei-Ying; Hsu, Cheng-Chin; Yin, Mei-Chin; Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung; Tang, Feng-Yao; Chao, Che-Yi

    2015-12-12

    Diabetes is an important chronic disease and the 4th leading cause of death in Taiwan. Hyperglycemia-induced oxidative and inflammatory damage are the main causes of chronic complications in diabetic patients. The red guava (red-fleshed guava cultivar of Psidium guajava L.) is a tropical fruit belonging to the Myrtaceae family and an important commercial crop in Taiwan. In this study, the protective effects of a diet containing red guava on inflammation and oxidative stress in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice were examined. The experimental group was divided into seven subgroups: normal (N), diabetes mellitus (DM), diabetes + red guava 1% (L), 2% (M), and 5% (H), diabetes + 5% red guava + anti-diabetic rosiglitazone (HR), and diabetes + anti-diabetic rosiglitazone (R). The mice were fed for 8 weeks and sacrificed by decapitation. Compared with the DM group, the experimental groups with diets containing red guava as well as rosiglitazone all showed significant improvements in blood glucose control, insulin resistance, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, triglycerides, non-esterified fatty acids, cholesterol, c-reactive protein, TNF-α, and IL-10. Furthermore, the expression of inflammatory proteins, such as iNOS and NF-κB, was suppressed via activated PPARγ, and the expression levels of GPx3 and ACO increased. In summary, red guava can significantly suppress inflammatory and oxidative damage caused by diabetes and alleviate diabetic symptoms; thus, it exerts protective effects and has potential applications for the development of a dietary supplement.

  10. Antihyperglycemic effect of Hypericum perforatum ethyl acetate extract on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arokiyaraj, S; Balamurugan, R; Augustian, P

    2011-10-01

    To evaluate the antihyperglycemic activity of ethyl acetate extract of Hypericum perforatum (H. perforatum) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Acute toxicity and oral glucose tolerance test were performed in normal rats. Male albino rats were rendered diabetic by STZ (40 mg/kg, intraperitoneally). H. perforatum ethyl acetate extract was orally administered to diabetic rats at 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg doses for 15 days to determine the antihyperglycemic activity. Biochemical parameters were determined at the end of the treatment. H. perforatum ethyl acetate extract showed dose dependant fall in fasting blood glucose (FBG). After 30 min of extract administration, FBG was reduced significantly when compared with normal rats. H. perforatum ethyl acetate extract produced significant reduction in plasma glucose level, serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose-6-phosphatase levels. Tissue glycogen content, HDL-cholesterol, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase were significantly increased compared with diabetic control. No death or lethal effect was observed in the toxic study. The results demonstrate that H. perforatum ethyl acetate extract possesses potent antihyperglycemic activity in STZ induced diabetic rats.

  11. The effects of photobiomodulation on healing of bone defects in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez Costa Lino, Maíra D.; Bastos de Carvalho, Fabíola; Ferreira Moraes, Michel; Augusto Cardoso, José; Pinheiro, Antônio L. B.; Maria Pedreira Ramalho, Luciana

    2011-03-01

    Previous studies have shown positive effects of Low level laser therapy (LLLT) on the repair of bone defects, but there are only a few that associates bone healing in the presence of a metabolic disorder as Diabetes Melitus and LLLT. The aim of this study was to assess histologically the effect of LLLT (AsGaAl), 780nm, 70mW, CW, Ø~0.4mm, 16J/cm2 per session) on the repair of surgical defects created in the femur of diabetic and non-diabetic Wistar Albinus rats. Surgical bone defects were created in 60 animals divided into four groups of 15 animals each: Group C (non-diabetic - control); Group CL (non-diabetic + LLLT); Group CD (diabetic); Group CDL (diabetic + LLLT). The animals on the irradiated group received 16 J/cm2 per session divided into four points around the defect, being the first irradiation immediately after surgery and repeated every 48h for 14 days. The animals were killed 15, 21 and 30 days after surgery. The results of the present investigation showed histological evidence of improved amount of collagen fibers at early stages of the bone healing (15 days) and increased amount of well organized bone trabeculae at the end of the experimental period (30 days) on irradiated animals, (diabetic and non-diabetic) compared to non irradiated ones. It is concluded that LLLT has a positive biomodulative effect on the healing process of bone defects, even when diabetes mellitus was present.

  12. Piperine restores streptozotocin-induced cognitive impairments: Insights into oxidative balance in cerebrospinal fluid and hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalili-Fomeshi, Mohsen; Azizi, Mohammad Golparvar; Esmaeili, Mohammad Reza; Gol, Mohammad; Kazemi, Sohrab; Ashrafpour, Manouchehr; Moghadamnia, Ali Akbar; Hosseinzadeh, Soheila

    2018-01-30

    Piperine has been shown to have antioxidant activity and a cognitive-enhancing effect following long-term oral administration. In a comparative study of memantine, the current investigation threw light on the cognitive benefits of piperine. Lipid peroxidation and the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and hippocampus in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced experimental dementia of the Alzheimer's type was measured. After reaching a criterion in a memory test, STZ-induced rats received piperine [2.5, 5, and 10mg/kg, intraperitoneally (i.p.)], vehicle, and memantine (10mg/kg, i.p.) for two weeks after the first STZ administration, or two weeks before and one week after, as a preventive approach. After the behavioral studies, samples were taken for biochemical and histological assays. An appropriate concentration of piperine (2.5mg/kg), on a daily basis, effectively increased the number of correct (non-repeated) arm entries and repressed reentry to a previously visited arm, in terms of reference errors as well as memantine (10mg/kg, i.p.), irrespective of the dose administered. The cognitive-enhancing effect induced by piperine at a relevant dose was simultaneous with CSF and hippocampal malonaldehyde decrement, and the redox balance was established to some extent by maintaining the FRAP levels of CSF near to those of the control. Similarly, the neuroprotective properties of piperine are in accordance with histopathological outcomes, which have shown an increased number of live cresyl violet (CV)-positive neurons in a dentate gyrus (DG) subregion. Therefore, the effects of piperine on the redox balance of CSF and hippocampal neurons may certainly contribute to the cognitive-enhancing activity of the drug. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Antifibrogenic role of valproic acid in streptozotocin induced diabetic rat penis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutlu, O; Karaguzel, E; Gurgen, S G; Okatan, A E; Kutlu, S; Bayraktar, C; Kazaz, I O; Eren, H

    2016-05-01

    We investigated the therapeutic effects of valproic acid (VPA) on erectile dysfunction and reducing penile fibrosis in streptozocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Eighteen male rats were divided into three experimental groups (Control, STZ-DM, STZ-DM plus VPA) and diabetes was induced by transperitoneal single dose STZ. Eight weeks after, VPA and placebo treatments were given according to groups for 15 days. All rats were anesthetised for the measurement of in vivo erectile response to cavernous nerve stimulation. Afterward penes were evaluated histologically in terms of immune labelling scores of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1). Slides were also evaluated in terms of collagen/smooth muscle ratio and penile apoptosis. After the treatment with VPA, erectile responses were found as improved when compared with STZ-DM rats but not statistically meaningful. eNOS and VEGF immune expressions diminished in penile corpora of STZ-DM rats and improved with VPA treatment. VPA led to decrease in TGF-β1 expression and collagen content of diabetic rats' penes. Penile apoptosis was not diminished with VPA. In conclusion, VPA treatment seems to be effective for reducing penile fibrosis in diabetic rats and more prolonged treatment period may enhance erectile functions. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Softened food reduces weight loss in the streptozotocin-induced male mouse model of diabetic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Sisse A; Sand, Fredrik W; Sørensen, Dorte B

    2018-01-01

    these issues, we hypothesized that supplementing STZ-induced diabetic mice with water-softened chow in addition to normal chow would reduce weight loss, lower the need for supportive treatment, and reduce the number of mice reaching the humane endpoint of 20% weight loss. In a 15 week STZ-induced DN study we...... without this supplement reached this humane endpoint ( p = 0.0027). Excretion of corticosterone metabolites in faeces was reduced in diabetic mice on softened chow ( p = 0.0007), suggesting lower levels of general stress. Finally, it was demonstrated that the water-softened chow supplement did...... demonstrated that diabetic male mice receiving softened chow had reduced acute weight loss following STZ treatment ( p = 0.045) and additionally fewer mice were euthanized due to weight loss. By supplementing the diabetic mice with softened chow, no mice reached 20% weight loss whereas 37.5% of the mice...

  15. The effect of olive-pomace oil on different blood parameters in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousaf, M.J.; Naveed, A.K.; Khan, S.; Shah, S.Z.H.

    2014-01-01

    To determine the effects of olive-pomace oil on glycemic status and lipid profile in diabetes. Study Design: Randomized controlled trial. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biochemistry, Army Medical College, Rawalpindi in collaboration with Centre for Research in Experimental and Applied Medicine, Army Medical College, Rawalpindi and National Institute of Health, Islamabad from March 2010 to June 2011. Material and Methods: Seventy male albino rats of Sprague-Dawley strain were randomly divided into two groups of 35 rats each. Rats were rendered diabetic by injecting streptozotocin. Group 1 and group 2 were given normal rodent diet and olive pomace oil supplemented diet respectively for 6 weeks. At the end of the experiment fasting blood glucose and lipid profile were measured for comparison. Results: There was significant increase in high density lipoprotein and significant decrease of blood glucose, total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein of group II rats when compared with group I (control). Conclusion: Olive pomace oil can significantly improve fasting blood glucose and lipid profile in diabetic rats. (author)

  16. Influence of low power density on wound healing in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Pik Suan; Bidin, Noriah; Islam, Shumaila; Musa, Nurfatin; Zakaria, Nurlaily; Krishnan, Ganesan

    2017-05-01

    Photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT) is used for wound healing at two different power densities, i.e. 0.2 W cm-2 and 0.4 W cm-2, while maintaining the same fluence of 5 J cm-2. Forty-five streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats were allocated into three groups: the untreated laser group (G0), 0.2 W cm-2 laser treated group (GL1), and 0.4 W cm-2 laser treated group (GL2). Six mm full thickness cutaneous wounds are created on the dorsal side of rats. A 808 nm diode laser irradiates the wound in GL1 and GL2 daily for 9 consecutive days. Groups GL1 and GL2 have the same total fluence but different power densities, 0.2 W cm-2 and 0.4 W cm-2, which results in stimulatory and inhibitory effects in wound healing, respectively. In group GL1, enhanced wound contraction and inflammation has been triggered at an earlier stage compared to the untreated laser group G0. Meanwhile, the laser treated group GL2 exhibits an escalated volume of inflammatory cells, and collagen synthesis is inhibited. Therefore, it can be concluded that PBMT has potential in promoting wound healing under the low power density (0.2 W cm-2) condition.

  17. Evaluation of Topical Tocopherol Cream on Cutaneous Wound Healing in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Teoh Seong; Abd Latiff, Azian; Abd Hamid, Noor Aini; Wan Ngah, Wan Zurinah bt; Mazlan, Musalmah

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes is a common cause of delayed wound healing. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of topical administration of tocopherol cream on the wound healing process in diabetic rats. The study was conducted using 18 male Sprague Dawley rats which were divided into three groups: (I) diabetic rats receiving control cream (n = 6), (II) diabetic rats receiving 0.06% tocopherol cream (n = 6), and (III) diabetic rats receiving 0.29% tocopherol cream (n = 6). Four cutaneous wounds were c...

  18. Evaluation of Topical Tocopherol Cream on Cutaneous Wound Healing in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teoh Seong Lin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes is a common cause of delayed wound healing. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of topical administration of tocopherol cream on the wound healing process in diabetic rats. The study was conducted using 18 male Sprague Dawley rats which were divided into three groups: (I diabetic rats receiving control cream , (II diabetic rats receiving 0.06% tocopherol cream , and (III diabetic rats receiving 0.29% tocopherol cream . Four cutaneous wounds were created at the dorsal region of the rats. Wound healing was assessed by total protein content, rate of wound closure estimation, and histological studies on the tenth day after wounding. Tocopherol treatment enhanced the wound healing process by increasing rate of wound closure and total protein content significantly compared to the control group. Histological observation also showed better organized epithelium and more collagen fibers in the tocopherol treated groups. Application of tocopherol cream enhances wound healing process in diabetic condition which is known to cause delay in wound healing.

  19. Antihypertensive treatment in spontaneously hypertensive rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusaka-Nakamura, M; Kishi, K; Miyazawa, A; Yagi, S; Sokabe, H

    1988-01-01

    Recent clinical reports have suggested that hypertension accelerates the progress of diabetic nephropathy and retinopathy, whereas antihypertensive treatments may retard them. Thus, the effect of antihypertensive treatment in diabetes mellitus with hypertension was evaluated in rats. A model of diabetes mellitus with hypertension has been developed in spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) rats by unilateral nephrectomy and streptozotocin (STZ, 30 mg/kg, i.v. treatment). The rats were treated with four antihypertensive drugs orally for 12 weeks thereafter. STZ treatment induced chronic hypeglycaemia (300-400 mg/dl), decreased body weight and heart rate, and caused vascular changes of ophthalmic fundi and cataracta. The kidney of these rats showed proliferative changes such as periarteritis nodosa, hyperplasia, or fibronecrosis of the arterioles, exudative changes, mesangial proliferation, or thickening of the basement membrane of the glomeruli. Enalapril (10 mg/kg per day) and remipril (Hoe 498) (1 mg/kg per day), converting enzyme inhibitors, or arotinolol (20 mg/kg per day), a beta-adrenoceptor blocking drug, decreased blood pressure, prevented the development of renal and ocular lesions, and tended to increase creatinine clearance. Nisoldipine (3 mg/kg per day), a calcium-entry blocking drug, tended to decrease blood glucose, and prevented the decrease of body weight and development of ocular lesions. In conclusion, antihypertensive treatments were effective in preventing the progress of diabetic retinopathy and nephropathy, and renal insufficiency in this animal model.

  20. Contribution of neural cell death to depressive phenotypes of streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Chen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Major depression disorder (MDD or depression is highly prevalent in individuals with diabetes, and the depressive symptoms are more severe and less responsive to antidepressant therapies in these patients. The underlying mechanism is little understood. We hypothesized that the pathophysiology of comorbid depression was more complex than that proposed for MDD and that neural cell death played a role in the disease severity. To test this hypothesis, we generated streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic mice. These mice had blood glucose levels threefold above controls and exhibited depressive phenotypes as judged by a battery of behavioral tests, thus confirming the comorbidity in mice. Immunohistological studies showed markedly increased TUNEL-positive cells in the frontal cortex and hippocampus of the comorbid mice, indicating apoptosis. This finding was supported by increased caspase-3 and decreased Bcl-2 proteins in these brain regions. In addition, the serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF level of comorbid mice was reduced compared with controls, further supporting the neurodegenerative change. Mechanistic analyses showed an increased expression of mitochondrial fission genes fission protein 1 (Fis1 and dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1, and a decreased expression of mitochondrial fusion genes mitofusin 1 (Mfn1, mitofusin 2 (Mfn2 and optical atrophy 1 (Opa1. Representative assessment of the proteins Drp1 and Mfn2 mirrored the mRNA changes. The data demonstrated that neural cell death was associated with the depressive phenotype of comorbid mice and that a fission-dominant expression of genes and proteins mediating mitochondrial dynamics played a role in the hyperglycemia-induced cell death. The study provides new insight into the disease mechanism and could aid the development of novel therapeutics aimed at providing neuroprotection by modulating mitochondrial dynamics to treat comorbid depression with diabetes.

  1. Partial deficiency of HIF-1 alpha stimulates pathological cardiac changes in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bohuslavová, Romana; Kolář, František; Sedmera, David; Škvorová, Lada; Papoušek, František; Neckář, Jan; Pavlínková, Gabriela

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 14, Feb 6 (2014) ISSN 1472-6823 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA301/09/0117; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : Echocardiographic parameters * Hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha * Diabetic cardiomyopathy Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 1.710, year: 2014

  2. Protective role of grape seed proanthocyanidin antioxidant properties on heart of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansouri, Esrafil; Khorsandi, Layasadat; Abdollahzade Fard, Amin

    2015-01-01

    Grape seed proanthocyanidin (GSP) bears a very powerful antioxidant effects. Studies demonstrated that proanthocyanidins protect against free radicals mediated cardiovascular and renal disorders. The present study was designed to assess the effect of GSP on the heart of diabetic rats. Forty rats were divided into four groups of 10 animals each: Group I: control, Group II: control group were given GSP, Group III: diabetic group, Group IV: diabetic group treated with GSP. Diabetes was induced by a single dose of streptozotocin, and then GSP (200 mg kg(-1) body weight) was administrated for four weeks. Blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and also the levels of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes were examined in the heart tissues of all groups. Oral administration of GSP to diabetic rats significantly reduced (p GSP could be useful for prevention or early treatment of cardiac disorder caused by diabetes.

  3. Renal tissue factor expression is increased in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sommeijer, Dirkje W.; Florquin, Sandrine; Hoedemaker, Inge; Timmerman, Janneke J.; Reitsma, Pieter H.; ten Cate, Hugo

    2005-01-01

    Background: Tissue factor (TF) is the key initiator of the coagulation cascade. Recent evidence suggests that TF plays a role in renal fibrin formation and renal failure in experimental kidney disease. We hypothesized that hyperglycemia is an important stimulus of TF expression in the kidney.

  4. Effect of magnesium sulfate on renal ischemia-reperfusion injury in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akan, M; Ozbilgin, S; Boztas, N; Celik, A; Ozkardesler, S; Ergur, B U; Guneli, E; Sisman, A R; Akokay, P; Meseri, R

    2016-04-01

    Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is a major cause of acute organ dysfunction and I/R related acute renal failure is a common clinical problem. Diabetes mellitus is defined as a risk factor for the development of acute renal injury as diabetic nephropathy compromises the renal tolerance to ischemia. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effect of magnesium sulfate in a diabetic rat renal I/R injury model. Diabetes mellitus was induced using streptozotocin. Thirty-five rats were divided into five groups: Group I: Nondiabetic sham group; Group II: Diabetic sham group; Group III: Diabetic I/R group; Group IV: Diabetic I/R + prophylactic (preischemic) MgSO4; and Group V: Diabetic I/R + therapeutic (following reperfusion) MgSO4 group. MgSO4 was administered 200 mg/kg intraperitoneally. Renal I/R (45 min ischemia + 4 h reperfusion) was induced in both kidneys. Histomorphological, immunohistochemical (caspase-3 and iNOS) and biochemical (BUN, Creatinine) methods were performed to assess the blood and tissue samples. Histomorphological injury scores and immunostaining intensities (for both caspase-3 and iNOS) were significantly lower in the MgSO4 administered groups (prophylactic and therapeutic) than in the Diabetic IR group. There were no significant differences in biochemical parameters (BUN, Cr) between the MgSO4 administered groups and the Diabetic IR group. In the present study, it was demonstrated by histomorphological and immunohistochemical methods that magnesium sulfate administration before ischemia or following reperfusion significantly reduced renal I/R injury in a diabetic rat model.

  5. Effect of Kudzu Root on Memory and Learning Disorders in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Recent research has shown that diabetes leads to movement disorders and cognitive impairment in learning. Kudzu root is an isoflavone and saponin which has often been used as an antihyperglycemic agent. Kudzu has the ability to decrease a glucose level which is insulin independent and similar to the metformin. Also it can reduce oxidative stress by scavenging of free radicals. The present study has been conducted to evaluate of the effect of Kudzu root on learning¸ spatial cognition and mobility in diabetic rats. Materials and Methods In this experimental study¸24 male Wistar rats were divided into following groups: control¸ diabetic and Kudzu- treated diabetic groups. Diabetes was induced by intra-peritoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ (dose 50mg/kg. One week after STZ injection¸ Kudzu was gavaged at the dose of 50 mg/kg for six weeks. Behavioral tests including spatial recognition¸ object recognition and the grip traction motor tests were performed. Results In spatial recognition test¸ the number of locomotion and learning arms of the Y maze in the Kudzu root-treated group increased significantly in comparison with diabetic group. In objects recognition test¸ the number of recognition novel object in Kudzu root-treated diabetic group was significantly more than diabetic group. Conclusion Kudzu root treatment for diabetic rats within 6 weeks can improve movement disorders and cognitive dysfunction in memory and learning.

  6. Protective and Therapeutic Role of Low Dose Gamma Radiation on Streptozotocin Induced Diabetes in Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansour, H.H.; Hafez, H.F.; Shouman, S.A.

    2011-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a multi-factorial disease which is characterized by vascular and renal complication. This study was initiated to investigate the protective and the therapeutic effect of low dose of gamma radiation (LDR) on diabetic complications. A total of 30 adult male rats were divided into 5 groups: Group I: served as control and injected intraperitoneally with 0.2 ml of 0.1 mol/l citrate buffer (ph 4.5), group II: rats became diabetic via intraperitoneal injection with 60 mg/kg streptozotocin (STZ) dissolved in 0.2 ml of 0.1 mol/l citrate buffer (ph 4.5), group III irradiated rats (IRR): submitted to fractionated dose of whole body gamma rays; 0.25 Gy for 2 consecutive days (whole dose 0.5 Gy), group IV diabetic irradiated rats (STZ + IRR): rats became diabetic as group II then four weeks after diabetes induction (day 28), rats were submitted to 2 fractions of whole body gamma rays as in group III, and group V irradiated diabetic rats (IRR + STZ): rats were injected intraperitoneally with 0.2 ml of 0.1 mol/l citrate buffer then submitted to whole body gamma rays; 0.25 Gy for 2 consecutive days then one hour after the last IRR dose, rats were made diabetic as group II. In pre and post-irradiation of STZ rats, significant changes were observed in serum lipid profiles, hepatic and cardiac serum enzymes. Significant decrease in hepatic and cardiac malondialdehyde (MDA) and total nitrate/nitrite (NO(x)) levels, and significant increase in superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione (GSH) levels were observed as compared to diabetic group. The study suggests that LDR may provide useful protective and therapeutic option in the reversal of oxidative stress induced in diabetic rats

  7. Evaluation of Neonatal Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Rat Model for the Development of Cataract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhoosudan A. Patil

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes (T2D generally follows prediabetes (PD conditions such as impaired fasting glucose (IFG and/or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT. Although studies reported an association of IGT or IFG with cataract, the experimental basis for PD associated cataract is not known. Hence, we evaluated neonatal streptozotocin (nSTZ induced rat model to study PD associated cataractogenesis by injecting STZ to two-day old rats. While majority (70% of nSTZ injected pups developed IGT (nSTZ-PD by two months but not cataract even after seven months, remaining (30% nSTZ rats developed hyperglycemia (nSTZ-D by two months and mature cataract by seven months. Lens biochemical analysis indicated increased oxidative stress as indicated by increased SOD activity, lipid peroxidation, and protein carbonyl levels in nSTZ-D cataractous lens. There was also increased polyol pathway as assessed by aldose reductase activity and sorbitol levels. Though nSTZ-PD animals have not shown any signs of lenticular opacity, insolubilization of proteins along with enhanced polyol pathway was observed in the lens. Further there was increased oxidative stress in lens of IGT animals. These results suggest that oxidative stress along with increased polyol pathway might play a role in IGT-associated lens abnormalities. In conclusion, nSTZ-PD rat model could aid to investigate IGT-associated lens abnormalities.

  8. Bioflavonoids Effects of Ginger on Glomerular Podocyte Apoptosis in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajhosieni Laleh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Ginger is a strong antioxidant and long-term treatment of streptozotocin (STZ-diabetic animals, and it has been shown to reduce oxidative stress. Prevalence oxidative stress among urban life and changes in antioxidant capacity are considered asplay an important role in the pathogenesis of chronic diabetes mellitus. Materials and Methods: Wistar male rat (n = 40 were divided into three groups, control group (n = 10 and Ginger Quercetin group that received 100 mg/kg (gavage, (n = 10, and diabetic group, which received 55 mg/kg intra peritoneal (IP STZ (n = 20, which was subdivided to two groups of 10; STZ group and treatment group. Treatment group received 55 mg/kg (IP STZ plus100 mg/kg ginger, daily for, 8 weeks, respectively; however, the control group just received an equal volume of distilled water daily (IP. Diabetes was induced by a single (IP injection of STZ (55 mg/kg. Animals were kept in standard condition. In 28 day after inducing diabetic 5 cc blood were collected for total antioxidant capacity, malondialdehyde and oxidized low density lipoprotein levels and kidney tissues of rat in whole groups were removed then prepared for apoptosis analysis by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated dUTP nick end labeling assay (TUNEL method. Results: Apoptotic cells significantly decreased in group that has received 100 mg/kg ginger (P < 0.05 in comparison to experimental groups (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Since in our study 100 mg/kg ginger have significantly preventive effect on kidney cells damages by reducing number of apoptotic cells in kidney and hence it seems that using it can be effective for treatment in diabetic rat.

  9. Study on The Effect of Royal Jelly on Reproductive Parameters in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Ghanbari

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus has a variety of structural and functional effects on the male reproductive system. Diabetes results in reduced sperm parameters and libido. The present study aims to investigate the effects of royal jelly (RJ on reproductive parameters of testosterone and malondialdehyde (MDA production in diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: This experimental study was conducted on adult male Wistar rats. The animals were divided into four groups (n=8 per group: control, RJ, diabetic and diabetic treated with RJ. Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of 60 mg/kg body weight (BW of streptozotocin (STZ. RJ, at a dose of 100 mg/kg BW was given by gavage. The duration of treatment was six weeks. After the treatment period the rats were sacrificed. The testes were weighed and changes in sperm count, motility, viability, deformity, DNA integrity and chromatin quality were analyzed. Serum testosterone and MDA concentrations of testicular tissue were determined. Data were analyzed by oneway ANOVA with p<0.05 as the significant level. Results: STZ-induced diabetes decreased numerous reproductive parameters in rats. Testicular weight, sperm count, motility, viability and serum testosterone levels increased in the diabetic group treated with RJ. There was a significant decrease observed in sperm deformity, DNA integrity, chromatin quality, and tissue MDA levels in diabetic rats treated with RJ compared to the diabetic group (p<0.05. Conclusion: RJ improved reproductive parameters such as testicular weight, sperm count, viability, motility, deformity, DNA integrity, chromatin quality, serum testosterone and testicular tissue MDA levels in diabetic rats.

  10. Protective effect of polysaccharides from Opuntia dillenii Haw. fruits on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jie; Han, Yu-Lu; Jin, Zheng-Yu; Xu, Xue-Ming; Zha, Xue-Qiang; Chen, Han-Qing; Yin, Yan-Yan

    2015-06-25

    In this study, a novel water-soluble polysaccharide fraction with molecular weight of 6479.1kDa was isolated from the fruits of Opuntia dillenii Haw., which consisted of rhamnose, xylose, mannose and glucose in the molar ratio of 14.99:1.14:1.00:6.47. The protective effect of O. dillenii Haw. fruits polysaccharide (ODFP) against oxidative damage in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats was investigated. The results showed that oral administration of ODFP significantly decreased food intake, water intake, urine production, organ weights and blood glucose level, and increased body weight in STZ-induced diabetic rats. ODFP also significantly increased the activities of SOD, GPx and CAT, and decreased malondialdehyde level in serum, liver, kidney, and pancreas in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Moreover, histopathological examination showed that ODFP could markedly improve the structure integrity of pancreatic islet tissue in STZ-induced diabetic rats. These results suggest that ODFP have hypoglycemic and antioxidant properties and can protect rats from STZ-induced oxidative damage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Sulodexide improves endothelial dysfunction in streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kristová, V.; Líšková, Silvia; Sotníková, R.; Vojtko, R.; Kurtanský, A.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 3 (2008), s. 491-494 ISSN 0862-8408 Grant - others:VEGA(SK) 1/2293/05; VEGA(SK) 2/5009/25 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : diabetes mellitus * endothelemia * acetylcholine-induced relaxation Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.653, year: 2008

  12. Analysis of Heart Rate Variability and Cardiac Autonomic Nerve Remodeling in Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X; Jiang, Y-H; Jiang, P; Lin, H-Q; Yang, J-L; Ma, D-f; Wang, X; Yang, C-H

    2015-05-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with both cardiovascular and autonomic nervous system dysfunction. Spectral analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) can be used to monitor changes in response to autonomic innervation and stimulation of the heart. In this study, conducted in a rat model of diabetes, HRV and changes in associated neurotransmitters and neurotrophic factors in the right atrium (RA) were monitored. Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin (STZ) (60 mg/kg) in male Wistar rats, and HRV data were collected for 10 weeks by telemetry. Time and frequency domains of HRV data were analyzed using established metrics. The levels of various neural enzymes in the RA were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunofluorescence to characterize autonomic nerve remodeling. Insulin and methycobal were used to block the effects of STZ. HRV parameters reflecting parasympathetic tone (SDNN, RMSSD and HF domains) sharply decreased in the first 3 weeks after STZ administration; measures of sympathetic tone (SDANN) increased. After a series of adjustments, cardiac autonomic nerve innervation reached a new equilibrium, with a dominance of sympathetic tone. RA levels of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) increased, and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) decreased, indicating autonomic nerve remodeling. Levels of growth associated protein-43 (GAP43) and nerve growth factor (NGF) increased during the period of diabetes-induced cardiac-nerve damage; however, the level of ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) decreased. The physical condition and indexes of rats were normalized in different degree after administration of the insulin and methycobal, but not completely recovered. STZ-induced diabetes was associated with cardiac autonomic nerve dysfunction at both the organ and molecular levels. Parasympathetic nerves exhibited severe damage and/or weak recovery; remodeling of sympathetic nerves predominated during 10-weeks of STZ-induced diabetes. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Photobiostimulation reverses allodynia and peripheral nerve damage in streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Igor Rafael Correia; Ciena, Adriano Polican; Rosa, Alyne Santana; Martins, Daniel Oliveira; Chacur, Marucia

    2017-04-01

    For better evaluation of the efficacy of low-level laser therapy in treating painful diabetic neuropathy and in protecting nerve fiber damage, we conducted a study with type 1 diabetic rats induced by streptozotocin. It is well known that diabetic peripheral neuropathy is the leading cause of pain in those individuals who suffer from diabetes. Despite the efficacy of insulin in controlling glucose level in blood, there is no effective treatment to prevent or reverse neuropathic damage for total pain relief.Male Wistar rats were divided into saline, vehicle, and treatment groups. A single intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of streptozotocin (STZ) (85 mg/kg) was administered for the induction of diabetes. The von Frey filaments were used to assess nociceptive thresholds (allodynia). Behavioral measurements were accessed 14, 28, 48, and 56 days after STZ administration. Rats were irradiated with GaAs Laser (Gallium Arsenide, Laserpulse, Ibramed Brazil) emitting a wavelength of 904 nm, an output power of 45 mWpk, beam spot size at target 0.13 cm 2 , a frequency of 9500 Hz, a pulse time 60 ns, and an energy density of 6,23 J/cm 2 .The application of four sessions of low-level laser therapy was sufficient to reverse allodynia and protect peripheral nerve damage in diabetic rats.The results of this study indicate that low-level laser therapy is feasible to treat painful diabetic condition in rats using this protocol. Although its efficacy in reversing painful stimuli and protecting nerve fibers from damage was demonstrated, this treatment protocol must be further evaluated in biochemical levels to confirm its biological effects.

  14. Streptozotocin-induced diabetes decreases conducted vasoconstrictor response in mouse cremaster arterioles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rai, A; Riemann, M; Gustafsson, F

    2008-01-01

    radical scavenger tempol, did not improve the decreased conduction of vasoconstriction, but when administered together, the conduction of vasoconstriction was improved from 21.4+/-1.6% to 26.5+/-0.8% at 500 microm and 9.8+/-1.1% to 16.5+/-0.7% at 1000 microm (p

  15. Antihyperlipidemic Effect of a Polyherbal Mixture in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Ghorbani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of a polyherbal mixture containing Allium sativum, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Citrullus colocynthis, Juglans regia, Nigella sativa, Olea europaea, Punica granatum, Salvia officinalis, Teucrium polium, Trigonella foenum, Urtica dioica, and Vaccinium arctostaphylos were tested on biochemical parameters in diabetic rats. The animals were randomized into three groups: (1 normal control, (2 diabetic control, and (3 diabetic rats which received diet containing 15% (w/w of this mixture for 4 weeks. Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (55 mg/kg. At the end of experiment, the mixture had no significant effect on serum hepatic enzymes, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase activities. However, the level of fasting blood glucose, water intake, and urine output in treated group was lower than that in diabetic control rats (P<0.01. Also, the levels of triglyceride and total cholesterol in polyherbal mixture treated rats were significantly lower than those in diabetic control group (P<0.05. Our results demonstrated that this polyherbal mixture has beneficial effects on blood glucose and lipid profile and it has the potential to be used as a dietary supplement for the management of diabetes.

  16. Antioxidant Sol-Gel Improves Cutaneous Wound Healing in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yen-Hsien; Chang, Jung-Jhih; Chien, Chiang-Ting; Yang, Ming-Chien; Chien, Hsiung-Fei

    2012-01-01

    We examined the effects of vitamin C in Pluronic F127 on diabetic wound healing. Full-thickness excision skin wounds were made in normal and diabetic Wistar rats to evaluate the effect of saline, saline plus vitamin C (antioxidant sol), Pluronic F127, or Pluronic F127 plus vitamin C (antioxidant sol-gel). The rate of wound contraction, the levels of epidermal and dermal maturation, collagen synthesis, and apoptosis production in the wound tissue were determined. In vitro data showed that after 6 hours of air exposure, the order of the scavenging abilities for HOCl, H2O2, and O2  − was antioxidant sol-gel > antioxidant saline > Pluronic F127 = saline. After 7 and 14 days of wound injury, the antioxidant sol-gel improved wound healing significantly by accelerated epidermal and dermal maturation, an increase in collagen content, and a decrease in apoptosis formation. However, the wounds of all treatments healed mostly at 3 weeks. Vitamin C in Pluronic F127 hastened cutaneous wound healing by its antioxidant and antiapoptotic mechanisms through a good drug delivery system. This study showed that Pluronic F127 plus vitamin C could potentially be employed as a novel wound-healing enhancer. PMID:22919368

  17. Effect of spent turmeric on kidney glycoconjugates in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Gurusiddaiah Suresh; Salimath, Paramahans Veerayya

    2014-01-01

    Background Curcumin known to have number of medicinal use and masked the fiber containing ukonan like active polysaccharide in turmeric and its pharmacological effect will be addressed on diabetic nephropathy particularly the glycoconjugates of extracellular components viz., glycoproteins and glycosaminoglycans - heparan sulfate (HS). Methods Male Wistar rats were maintained on AIN-76 diet containing 10% spent turmeric and were grouped into control and STZ induced diabetes SFC/TFC and SFD/TFD...

  18. Antihyperglycemic Effect of Methanol Extract of Syzygium polyanthum (Wight. Leaf in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Widyawati

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Syzygium polyanthum (S. polyanthum, a plant belonging to Myrtaceae, is widely used in Indonesian and Malaysian cuisines. Diabetic patients in Indonesia also commonly use it as a traditional medicine. Hence, this study was conducted to investigate the antihyperglycemic effect of the methanol extract (ME of S. polyanthum leaf and its possible mechanisms of action. To test for hypoglycemic activity, ME was administered orally to normal male Sprague Dawley rats after a 12-h fast. To further test for antihyperglycemic activity, the same treatment was administered to glucose-loaded (intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test, IPGTT and streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic rats, respectively. Hypoglycemic test in normal rats did not show significant reduction in blood glucose levels (BGLs by the extract. Furthermore, IPGTT conducted on glucose-loaded normal rats also did not show significant reduction of BGLs. However, repeated administration of metformin and three doses of ME (250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg for six days caused significant reduction of fasting BGLs in STZ-induced diabetic rats. The possible mechanisms of action of S. polyanthum antihyperglycemic activity were assessed by measurement of intestinal glucose absorption and glucose uptake by isolated rat abdominal muscle. It was found that the extract not only inhibited glucose absorption from the intestine but also significantly increased glucose uptake in muscle tissue. A preliminary phytochemical qualitative analysis of ME indicated the presence of tannins, glycosides, flavonoids, alkaloids and saponins. Additionally, Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS analysis detected squalene. In conclusion, S. polyanthum methanol leaf extract exerts its antihyperglycemic effect possibly by inhibiting glucose absorption from the intestine and promoting glucose uptake by the muscles.

  19. The Herbal Medicine Cordyceps sinensis Protects Pancreatic Beta Cells from Streptozotocin-Induced Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong; Cao, Diyong; Liu, Hua; Liu, Xinghai; Mai, Wenli; Lan, Haitao; Huo, Wen; Zheng, Qian

    2016-08-01

    Our previous work found that Cordyceps sinensis (CS) improves the activity and secretory function of pancreatic islet beta cells. The objective was to observe a further possible role of CS in the protection of insulin-secreting cells. A rat model of type 2 diabetes mellitus was developed with streptozotocin (STZ) and a high-energy fat diet (HFD). CS was administered in the successful model of rats with type 2 diabetes. After 4 weeks, the biochemistry index of blood samples was measured, and pathologic observation was performed by immunohistochemistry. In the rats with type 2 diabetes induced by a HFD and STZ, the levels of fasting blood glucose and fasting insulin were elevated, and the insulin sensitivity index was decreased. Pathologic examination found an increased number of apoptotic cells, an elevated protein expression of pro-apoptotic C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) and an increased c-Jun level by means of JNK phosphorylation, responsive to the endoplasmic reticulum stress of islet beta cells. With treatment by CS for 4 weeks, the elevated levels of both fasting blood glucose and fasting insulin in the rats with type 2 diabetes were significantly lower, and the decreased insulin sensitivity index was reversed. Compared to the control rats with type 2 diabetes, CS application significantly reduced the number of apoptotic cells and decreased protein expression of both CHOP and c-Jun. The herbal compound CS could protect pancreatic beta cells from the pro-apoptotic endoplasmic reticulum stress induced by HFD-STZ. This suggests an alternative approach to treating type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Antidiabetic activity of Momordica charantia seeds on streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekar, D Sathish; Sivagnanam, K; Subramanian, S

    2005-05-01

    The present study was aimed to evaluate the hypoglycemic efficacy in an aqueous extract of seeds of two varieties, namely a country and a hybrid variety of Momordica charantia (MCSEt1 and MCSEt2) respectively in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats. STZ-induced diabetic rats were treated with aqueous extracts of MCSEt1 and t2 for a period of 30 days. MCSEt1 and t2 extract treatment to diabetic rats resulted in a significant reduction in blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, lactate dehydrogenase, glucose-6-phosphatase, fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase and glycogen phosphorylase, and a concomitant increase in the levels of hemoglobin, glycogen and activities of hexokinase and glycogen synthase. These results clearly show the antidiabetic properties of Momordica charantia. Both the varieties showed safe and significant hypoglycemic effects which were more pronounced in MCSEt1 compared to MCSEt2 and glibenclamide.

  1. Intracerebroventricular administration of adiponectin attenuates streptozotocin-induced memory impairment in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazrooie, R; Rohampour, K; Zamani, M; Hosseinmardi, N; Zeraati, M

    2017-06-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been reported to be linked with diabetes mellitus and insulin resistance. Adiponectin (ADN), an adipocytokine secreted from adipose tissue, is involved in the regulation of insulin sensitivity, energy homeostasis, and mitochondrial dysfunction. In this study, we examined the effect of ADN on passive avoidance memory in animal model of sporadic AD (sAD). On days 1 and 3 after cannulation, rats received intracerebroventricular (icv) injection of streptozotocin (STZ) (3 mg/kg). Thirty minutes before the learning process, animals received saline or ADN in different doses (6, 60, and 600 µg). The step-through latency (STL) and total time spent in the dark compartment (TDC) were recorded and analyzed. In STZ-treated rats, STL was significantly decreased, whereas TDC showed a dramatic increase. In ADN-treated rats, STL was significantly increased (P ADN (P ADN is useful to improve the STZ-induced memory impairment. This study showed, for the first time, that icv administration of ADN could improve the memory acquisition in animal model of sAD.

  2. Effects of streptozotocin-induced diabetes on the pharmacology of rat conduit and resistance intrapulmonary arteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howarth Frank C

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Poor control of blood glucose in diabetes is known to promote vascular dysfunction and hypertension. Diabetes was recently shown to be linked to an increased prevalence of pulmonary hypertension. The aim of this study was to determine how the pharmacological reactivity of intrapulmonary arteries is altered in a rat model of diabetes. Methods Diabetes was induced in rats by the β-cell toxin, streptozotocin (STZ, 60 mg/kg, and isolated conduit and resistance intrapulmonary arteries studied 3–4 months later. Isometric tension responses to the vasoconstrictors phenylephrine, serotonin and PGF2α, and the vasodilators carbachol and glyceryl trinitrate, were compared in STZ-treated rats and age-matched controls. Results STZ-induced diabetes significantly blunted the maximum response of conduit, but not resistance pulmonary arteries to phenylephrine and serotonin, without a change in pEC50. Agonist responses were differentially reduced, with serotonin (46% smaller affected more than phenylephrine (32% smaller and responses to PGF2α unaltered. Vasoconstriction caused by K+-induced depolarisation remained normal in diabetic rats. Endothelium-dependent dilation to carbachol and endothelium-independent dilation to glyceryl trinitrate were also unaffected. Conclusion The small resistance pulmonary arteries are relatively resistant to STZ-induced diabetes. The impaired constrictor responsiveness of conduit vessels was agonist dependent, suggesting possible loss of receptor expression or function. The observed effects cannot account for pulmonary hypertension in diabetes, rather the impaired reactivity to vasoconstrictors would counteract the development of pulmonary hypertensive disease.

  3. Beneficial effects of dietary acarbose in the streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katovich, M J; Meldrum, M J; Vasselli, J R

    1991-12-01

    Diabetes is characterized by hyperphagia, polydipsia, polyuria, and elevations in blood and urinary glucose. It has also been documented that beta-adrenergic responsiveness is reduced in diabetes. The intestinal glucosidase inhibitor, acarbose (BAY G 5421), decreases postprandial glycemia by delaying carbohydrate absorption. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of chronic acarbose treatment (20 and 40 mg/100 g of diet) on the metabolic and adrenergic parameters altered in streptozotocin (STZ) (50 mg/kg, intravenously [IV] )-induced diabetes. Metabolic parameters were measured daily for 8 weeks. Diabetic rats were hyperphagic, polydipsic, and polyuric within 1 week of STZ treatment. Acarbose treatment did not consistently effect the food intake but did reduce water intake, urinary output, blood glucose, and the urinary loss of glucose associated with STZ-induced diabetes. Adrenergic responses were assessed by monitoring the increase in tail skin temperature (TST) associated with administration of isoproterenol. Diabetic rats were less responsive than controls and acarbose treatment restored responses toward that of the controls. Additionally, 3H-NE release from the tail artery was elevated in the diabetic rat and restored to normal in the acarbose-treated animals. Collectively these data suggest that acarbose treatment is effective in reducing the severity of metabolic and autonomic complications associated with STZ-induced diabetes.

  4. Impaired Mitochondrial Respiratory Functions and Oxidative Stress in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subbuswamy K. Prabu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available We have previously shown a tissue-specific increase in oxidative stress in the early stages of streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic rats. In this study, we investigated oxidative stress-related long-term complications and mitochondrial dysfunctions in the different tissues of STZ-induced diabetic rats (>15 mM blood glucose for 8 weeks. These animals showed a persistent increase in reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS, respectively production. Oxidative protein carbonylation was also increased with the maximum effect observed in the pancreas of diabetic rats. The activities of mitochondrial respiratory enzymes ubiquinol: cytochrome c oxidoreductase (Complex III and cytochrome c oxidase (Complex IV were significantly decreased while that of NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (Complex I and succinate:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (Complex II were moderately increased in diabetic rats, which was confirmed by the increased expression of the 70 kDa Complex II sub-unit. Mitochondrial matrix aconitase, a ROS sensitive enzyme, was markedly inhibited in the diabetic rat tissues. Increased expression of oxidative stress marker proteins Hsp-70 and HO-1 was also observed along with increased expression of nitric oxide synthase. These results suggest that mitochondrial respiratory complexes may play a critical role in ROS/RNS homeostasis and oxidative stress related changes in type 1 diabetes and may have implications in the etiology of diabetes and its complications.

  5. A Comprehensive Study of Chronic Diabetes Complications in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rat

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    Sinan MA Al-Mahmood

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study was to provide a reference of chronic diabetes complications by investigating the prolonged hyperglycemia effects on hematological, biochemical and histopathological changes (liver, kidney, spleen, cardiac muscle, adrenal gland, and endocrine pancreas in diabetic rats induced by streptozotocin. Methods: Ten adult female Sprague-Dawley of uniform age were divided into two Groups. Group 1 was made diabetic by single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (60 mg/kg/bw whereas Group 2 served as control. After six months, the rats were anesthetized using pentobarbital. Cardiac puncture was performed to get 3 ml of the blood sample; following 12 hours of an overnight fast. Serum chemistry test and complete blood analysis for lipid profile and blood glucose test; liver and renal functions were performed. Tissue specimens of liver, kidney, spleen, cardiac muscle, adrenal gland, and endocrine pancreas were fixed in 10% formal saline and processed for histological study. Results: There were severe histopathological changes in the affected organs; and the presence of a significant abnormality of lipid profile, liver, and renal functions. Conclusions: The presence of histopathological changes with abnormal biochemical changes is related to the chronic absence of insulin production in the destroyed β -cells which reflect the diabetic complications in a human being.

  6. A note on inventory model for ameliorating items with time dependent second order demand rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gobinda Chandra Panda

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: This paper is concerned with the development of ameliorating inventory models. The ameliorating inventory is the inventory of goods whose utility increases over the time by ameliorating activation. Material and Methods: This study is performed according to two areas: one is an economic order quantity (EOQ model for the items whose utility is ameliorating in accordance with Weibull distribution, and the other is a partial selling quantity (PSQ model developed for selling the surplus inventory accumulated by ameliorating activation with linear demand. The aim of this paper was to develop a mathematical model for inventory type concerned in the paper. Numerical examples were presented show the effect of ameliorating rate on inventory polices.  Results and Conclusions:  The inventory model for items with Weibull ameliorating is developed. For the case of small ameliorating rate (less than linear demand rate, EOQ model is developed, and for the case where ameliorating rate is greater than linear demand rate, PSQ model is developed.  .  

  7. Incremental Beliefs About Ability Ameliorate Self-Doubt Effects

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    Qin Zhao

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Past research has typically shown negative effects of self-doubt on performance and psychological well-being. We suggest that these self-doubt effects largely may be due to an underlying assumption that ability is innate and fixed. The present research investigated the main hypothesis that incremental beliefs about ability might ameliorate negative effects of self-doubt. We examined our hypotheses using two lab tasks: verbal reasoning and anagram tasks. Participants’ self-doubt was measured and beliefs about ability were measured after participants read articles advocating either for incremental or entity theories of ability. American College Testing (ACT scores were obtained to index actual ability level. Consistent with our hypothesis, for participants who believed ability was relatively fixed, higher self-doubt was associated with increased negative affect and lower task performance and engagement. In contrast, for participants who believed that ability was malleable, negative self-doubt effects were ameliorated; self-doubt was even associated with better task performance. These effects were further moderated by participants’ academic ability. These findings suggest that mind-sets about ability moderate self-doubt effects. Self-doubt may have negative effects only when it is interpreted as signaling that ability is immutably low.

  8. Guanfacine ameliorates hypobaric hypoxia induced spatial working memory deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauser, H; Sahu, S; Kumar, S; Panjwani, U

    2014-01-17

    Hypobaric hypoxia (HH) observed at high altitude causes mild cognitive impairment specifically affecting attention and working memory. Adrenergic dysregulation and neuronal damage in prefrontal cortex (PFC) has been implicated in hypoxia induced memory deficits. Optimal stimulation of alpha 2A adrenergic receptor in PFC facilitates the spatial working memory (SWM) under the conditions of adrenergic dysregulation. Therefore the present study was designed to test the efficacy of alpha 2A adrenergic agonist, Guanfacine (GFC), to restore HH induced SWM deficits and PFC neuronal damage. The rats were exposed to chronic HH equivalent to 25,000ft for 7days in an animal decompression chamber and received daily treatment of GFC at a dose of 1mg/kg body weight via the intramuscular route during the period of exposure. The cognitive performance was assessed by Delayed Alternation Task (DAT) using T-Maze and PFC neuronal damage was studied by apoptotic and neurodegenerative markers. Percentage of correct choice decreased significantly while perseverative errors showed a significant increase after 7days HH exposure, GFC significantly ameliorated the SWM deficits and perseveration. There was a marked and significant increase in chromatin condensation, DNA fragmentation, neuronal pyknosis and fluoro Jade positive cells in layer II of the medial PFC in hypoxia exposed group, administration of GFC significantly reduced the magnitude of these changes. Modulation of adrenergic mechanisms by GFC may serve as an effective countermeasure in amelioration of prefrontal deficits and neurodegenerative changes during HH. © 2013.

  9. Phytoceramide Shows Neuroprotection and Ameliorates Scopolamine-Induced Memory Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seikwan Oh

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The function and the role phytoceramide (PCER and phytosphingosine (PSO in the central nervous system has not been well studied. This study was aimed at investigating the possible roles of PCER and PSO in glutamate-induced neurotoxicity in cultured neuronal cells and memory function in mice. Phytoceramide showed neuro-protective activity in the glutamate-induced toxicity in cultured cortical neuronal cells. Neither phytosphingosine nor tetraacetylphytosphingosine (TAPS showed neuroproective effects in neuronal cells. PCER (50 mg/kg, p.o. recovered the scopolamine-induced reduction in step-through latency in the passive avoidance test; however, PSO did not modulate memory function on this task. The ameliorating effects of PCER on spatial memory were confirmed by the Morris water maze test. In conclusion, through behavioral and neurochemical experimental results, it was demonstrated that central administration of PCER produces amelioration of memory impairment. These results suggest that PCER plays an important role in neuroprotection and memory enhancement and PCER could be a potential new therapeutic agent for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease.

  10. Phytoceramide shows neuroprotection and ameliorates scopolamine-induced memory impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jae-Chul; Lee, Yeonju; Moon, Sohyeon; Ryu, Jong Hoon; Oh, Seikwan

    2011-10-28

    The function and the role phytoceramide (PCER) and phytosphingosine (PSO) in the central nervous system has not been well studied. This study was aimed at investigating the possible roles of PCER and PSO in glutamate-induced neurotoxicity in cultured neuronal cells and memory function in mice. Phytoceramide showed neuro-protective activity in the glutamate-induced toxicity in cultured cortical neuronal cells. Neither phytosphingosine nor tetraacetylphytosphingosine (TAPS) showed neuroproective effects in neuronal cells. PCER (50 mg/kg, p.o.) recovered the scopolamine-induced reduction in step-through latency in the passive avoidance test; however, PSO did not modulate memory function on this task. The ameliorating effects of PCER on spatial memory were confirmed by the Morris water maze test. In conclusion, through behavioral and neurochemical experimental results, it was demonstrated that central administration of PCER produces amelioration of memory impairment. These results suggest that PCER plays an important role in neuroprotection and memory enhancement and PCER could be a potential new therapeutic agent for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease.

  11. Arginase Inhibition Ameliorates Hepatic Metabolic Abnormalities in Obese Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Jiyoung; Do, Hyun Ju; Cho, Yoonsu; Shin, Min-Jeong

    2014-01-01

    Objectives We examined whether arginase inhibition influences hepatic metabolic pathways and whole body adiposity in diet-induced obesity. Methods and Results After obesity induction by a high fat diet (HFD), mice were fed either the HFD or the HFD with an arginase inhibitor, Nω-hydroxy-nor-L-arginine (nor-NOHA). Nor-NOHA significantly prevented HFD-induced increases in body, liver, and visceral fat tissue weight, and ameliorated abnormal lipid profiles. Furthermore, nor-NOHA treatment reduced lipid accumulation in oleic acid-induced hepatic steatosis in vitro. Arginase inhibition increased hepatic nitric oxide (NO) in HFD-fed mice and HepG2 cells, and reversed the elevated mRNA expression of hepatic genes in lipid metabolism. Expression of phosphorylated 5′ AMPK-activated protein kinase α was increased by arginase inhibition in the mouse livers and HepG2 cells. Conclusions Arginase inhibition ameliorated obesity-induced hepatic lipid abnormalities and whole body adiposity, possibly as a result of increased hepatic NO production and subsequent activation of metabolic pathways involved in hepatic triglyceride metabolism and mitochondrial function. PMID:25057910

  12. Gemigliptin ameliorates Western-diet-induced metabolic syndrome in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seung Hee; Leem, Jaechan; Park, Sungmi; Lee, Chong-Kee; Park, Keun-Gyu; Lee, In-Kyu

    2017-02-01

    Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitors are widely used antihyperglycemic agents for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Recently, increasing attention has been focused on the pleiotropic actions of DPP-4 inhibitors. The aim of the present study was to examine whether gemigliptin, a recently developed DPP-4 inhibitor, could ameliorate features of metabolic syndrome. Mice were fed a Western diet (WD) for 12 weeks and were subsequently divided into 2 groups: mice fed a WD diet alone or mice fed a WD diet supplemented with gemigliptin for an additional 4 weeks. Gemigliptin treatment attenuated WD-induced body mass gain, hypercholesterolemia, adipocyte hypertrophy, and macrophage infiltration into adipose tissue, which were accompanied by an increased expression of uncoupling protein 1 in subcutaneous fat. These events contributed to improved insulin sensitivity, as assessed by the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance and intraperitoneal insulin tolerance test. Furthermore, gemigliptin reduced WD-induced hepatic triglyceride accumulation via inhibition of de novo lipogenesis and activation of fatty acid oxidation, which was accompanied by AMP-dependent protein kinase activation. Gemigliptin ameliorated WD-induced hepatic inflammation and fibrosis through suppression of oxidative stress. These results suggest that DPP-4 inhibitors may represent promising therapeutic agents for metabolic syndrome beyond their current role as antihyperglycemic agents.

  13. Naltrexone ameliorates functional network abnormalities in alcohol‐dependent individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Kwangyeol; Tait, Roger; Elliott, Rebecca; Ersche, Karen D.; Flechais, Remy; McGonigle, John; Murphy, Anna; Nestor, Liam J.; Orban, Csaba; Passetti, Filippo; Paterson, Louise M.; Rabiner, Ilan; Reed, Laurence; Smith, Dana; Suckling, John; Taylor, Eleanor M.; Bullmore, Edward T.; Lingford‐Hughes, Anne R.; Deakin, Bill; Nutt, David J.; Sahakian, Barbara J.; Robbins, Trevor W.; Voon, Valerie

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Naltrexone, an opioid receptor antagonist, is commonly used as a relapse prevention medication in alcohol and opiate addiction, but its efficacy and the mechanisms underpinning its clinical usefulness are not well characterized. In the current study, we examined the effects of 50‐mg naltrexone compared with placebo on neural network changes associated with substance dependence in 21 alcohol and 36 poly‐drug‐dependent individuals compared with 36 healthy volunteers. Graph theoretic and network‐based statistical analysis of resting‐state functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data revealed that alcohol‐dependent subjects had reduced functional connectivity of a dispersed network compared with both poly‐drug‐dependent and healthy subjects. Higher local efficiency was observed in both patient groups, indicating clustered and segregated network topology and information processing. Naltrexone normalized heightened local efficiency of the neural network in alcohol‐dependent individuals, to the same levels as healthy volunteers. Naltrexone failed to have an effect on the local efficiency in abstinent poly‐substance‐dependent individuals. Across groups, local efficiency was associated with substance, but no alcohol exposure implicating local efficiency as a potential premorbid risk factor in alcohol use disorders that can be ameliorated by naltrexone. These findings suggest one possible mechanism for the clinical effects of naltrexone, namely, the amelioration of disrupted network topology. PMID:28247526

  14. 75 FR 58415 - Prospective Grant of Exclusive License: Prevention, Prophylaxis, Cure, Amelioration, and/or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-24

    ... Exclusive License: Prevention, Prophylaxis, Cure, Amelioration, and/or Treatment of Infection and/or the... dengue virus, characterized by rash, high fever, and severe, sometimes persistent arthritis. The field of use may be limited to ``Prevention, prophylaxis, cure, amelioration, and/or treatment of infection and...

  15. Quercetin Treatment Ameliorates Systemic Oxidative Stress in Cirrhotic Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Emanuelle Kerber; Bona, Silvia; Di Naso, Fábio Cangeri; Porawski, Marilene; Tieppo, Juliana; Marroni, Norma Possa

    2011-01-01

    Our aim was to investigate whether the antioxidant quercetin protects against liver injury and ameliorates the systemic oxidative stress in rats with common bile duct ligation. Secondary biliary cirrhosis was induced through 28 days of bile duct obstruction. Animals received quercetin (Q) after 14 days of obstruction. Groups of control (CO) and cirrhotic (CBDL) animals received a daily 50 mg/kg body weight i.p. injection of quercetin (CO + Q; CBDL + Q) or vehicle (CO; CBDL). Quercetin corrected the reduction in superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase CAT, and glutathione peroxidase GPx activities and prevented the increase of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), aminotransferases, and alkaline phosphatase in cirrhotic animals. Quercetin administration also corrected the reduced total nitrate concentration in the liver and prevented liver fibrosis and necrosis. These effects suggest that quercetin might be a useful agent to preserve liver function and prevent systemic oxidative stress. PMID:21991520

  16. Pleurotus eryngii Ameliorates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Lung Inflammation in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junya Kawai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pleurotus eryngii (P. eryngii is consumed as a fresh cultivated mushroom worldwide and demonstrated to have multiple beneficial effects. We investigated the anti-inflammatory effect of P. eryngii in mice with acute lung injury (ALI. Intranasal instillation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS (10 μg/site/mouse induced marked lung inflammation (increase in the number of inflammatory cells, protein leakage, and production of nitric oxide in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid as well as histopathological damage in the lung, 6 h after treatment. Mice administered heat-treated P. eryngii (0.3–1 g/kg, p.o. (HTPE 1 h before LPS challenge showed decreased pulmonary inflammation and ameliorated histopathological damage. These results suggest that HTPE has anti-inflammatory effects against ALI. Thus, P. eryngii itself may also have anti-inflammatory effects and could be a beneficial food for the prevention of ALI induced by bacterial infection.

  17. Ameliorating the effects of global crisis on human resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilfred UKPERE

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Capitalist globalisation has produced certain negative consequences for human resources, industrial democracy and humanity in general. Globalisation is a powerful force that cannot be denied, however, conversely, it has also threatened life, in a broader sense. Globalisation was perceived by globalisers as a worldwide remedy for worldwide problems, but is viewed with great pessimism amongst proletariat (workers. In fact, current globalisation has an enormous negative impact on human resources, industrial democracy and humanity, at large. Hence, the aim of this paper is to proffer mechanisms, which can ameliorate negative impacts of globalisation on human resources, industrial democracy and humanity. It is the author’s belief that if current postulates are considered, globalisation might present a different picture, which could have positive effects on human resources, industrial democracy and humanity, in general.

  18. Biochar Ameliorate Drought and Salt Stress in Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saleem Akhtar, Saqib

    . Drought and salinity are the two most crucial abiotic stresses that limit crops production worldwide. In this PhD project, it was hypothesized that biochar could be used to effectively mitigate drought and salinity stresses in crop plants due to its putative physiochemical properties. The overall...... objectives of the present PhD project were to reveal the mechanisms by which biochar addition mitigates negative effect of drought and salinity stress on plants and to test the efficacy of biochar when applied in combination with already existing drought (like DI and PRD) and salt management (inoculation...... of plant with halophytic plant growth promoting bacteria) approaches. The results showed that: - Biochar mitigated drought stress in plants by enhancing soil moisture availability due to its high porosity and large surface area - Biochar ameliorated salinity stress in plant by a high transient Na+ binding...

  19. Flemingia macrophylla Extract Ameliorates Experimental Osteoporosis in Ovariectomized Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Ya Ho

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Flemingia macrophylla (Leguminosae, a native plant of Taiwan, is used as folk medicine. An in vitro study showed that a 75% ethanolic extract of F. macrophylla (FME inhibited osteoclast differentiation of cultured rat bone marrow cells, and the active component, lespedezaflavanone A (LDF-A, was isolated. It was found that oral administration of FME for 13 weeks suppressed bone loss in ovariectomized rats, an experimental model of osteoporosis. In addition, FME decreased urinary deoxypyridinoline concentrations but did not inhibit serum alkaline phosphatase activities, indicating that it ameliorated bone loss via inhibition of bone resorption. These results suggest that FME may represent a useful remedy for the treatment of bone resorption diseases, such as osteoporosis. In addition, LDF-A could be used as a marker compound to control the quality of FME.

  20. Dihydromyricetin ameliorates atherosclerosis in LDL receptor deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ting Ting; Zeng, Yi; Tang, Kun; Chen, XueMeng; Zhang, Wei; Xu, Xiao Le

    2017-07-01

    Dihydromyricetin, the most abundant flavonoid in Ampelopsis grossedentata, exerts numerous pharmacological activities, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, and lipid regulatory activities; however, its protective effect against atherosclerosis remains poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of dihydromyricetin on high fat diet (HFD)-induced atherosclerosis using LDL receptor deficient (LDLr -/- ) mice. Blood samples were collected for determination of serum lipid profiles, oxidized LDL (ox-LDL) and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Histology, hepatic lipid content, quantification of atherosclerosis, assessment of oxidative stress and inflammation were performed on liver and aorta samples by molecular biology methods. The effects of dihydromyricetin on ox-LDL-induced human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) dysfunction and foam cell formation were further studied. (1) Dihydromyricetin ameliorated hyperlipidemia, reduced serum ox-LDL, IL-6 and TNF-α levels in HFD-fed LDLr -/- mice. Moreover, (2) dihydromyricetin suppressed hepatic lipid accumulation and increased protein expressions of PPARα, LXRα and ABCA1. (3) It inhibited atherosclerotic lesion formation and favoured features of plaque stability. (4) Dihydromyricetin prevented hepatic and aortic inflammation as evidenced by the reduced IL-6 and TNF-α mRNA expression; (5) it prevented hepatic and aortic oxidative stress by normalizing activities of antioxidant enzymes in the liver and suppressing reactive oxygen species generation and NOX2 protein expression in both liver and aorta; (6) it inhibited oxLDL-induced injury, monocytes adhesion and oxidative stress in HUVECs and (7) inhibited macrophage foam cell formation and enhanced cholesterol efflux. These findings suggest that dihydromyricetin could reduce atherosclerosis via its pleiotropic effects, including improvement of endothelial dysfunction, inhibition of macrophage foam cell formation

  1. Elm bark extract improves immunomodulation and ameliorates oxidative stress in irradiated mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You-Suk Lee

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: Our results indicate that EB extract (50 mg/kg body weight protects against radiation damage, at least in part, by improving immunomodulation and ameliorating oxidative stress in irradiated mice.

  2. Nitric oxide synthase inhibition ameliorates nicotine-induced sperm function decline in male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibukun P. Oyeyipo

    2015-09-01

    Conclusion: Taken together, the present data indicate the abilities of l-NAME to ameliorate nicotine-induced spermatotoxic effects in male rats via a mechanism dependent on the circulating testosterone level.

  3. Ameliorative Effect of Allopurinol on Vascular Complications of Insulin Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hany M. El-Bassossy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current study was to evaluate the possible protective effect of allopurinol (Allo on experimentally induced insulin resistance (IR and vascular complications. Rats were divided into four groups: control, IR, allopurinol-treated IR (IR-Allo, and allopurinol-treated control (Allo. IR was induced by adding fructose and high fat, high salt diet for 12 weeks. The results showed that Allo has alleviated the increased level of TNF-α and the systolic, diastolic, mean, and notch pressure observed in IR with no change in pulse pressure. In addition, Allo decreased the heart rate in the treated group compared to IR rats. On the other hand, it has no effect on increased levels of insulin, glucose, fructosamine, or body weight gain compared to IR group, while it increased significantly the insulin level and body weight without hyperglycemia in the control group. Moreover, Allo treatment ameliorated increased level of 4HNE, Ang II, and Ang R1. In conclusion, the results of the current study show that Allo has a protective effect on vascular complications of IR which may be attributed to the effect of Allo on decreasing the TNF-α, 4HNE, Ang II, and Ang R1 as well as increasing the level of insulin secretion.

  4. Insulin sensitizer prevents and ameliorates experimental type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valitsky, Michael; Hoffman, Amnon; Unterman, Terry; Bar-Tana, Jacob

    2017-12-01

    Insulin-dependent type-1 diabetes (T1D) is driven by autoimmune β-cell failure, whereas systemic resistance to insulin is considered the hallmark of insulin-independent type-2 diabetes (T2D). In contrast to this canonical dichotomy, insulin resistance appears to precede the overt diabetic stage of T1D and predict its progression, implying that insulin sensitizers may change the course of T1D. However, previous attempts to ameliorate T1D in animal models or patients by insulin sensitizers have largely failed. Sensitization to insulin by MEthyl-substituted long-chain DICArboxylic acid (MEDICA) analogs in T2D animal models surpasses that of current insulin sensitizers, thus prompting our interest in probing MEDICA in the T1D context. MEDICA efficacy in modulating the course of T1D was verified in streptozotocin (STZ) diabetic rats and autoimmune nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice. MEDICA treatment normalizes overt diabetes in STZ diabetic rats when added on to subtherapeutic insulin, and prevents/delays autoimmune T1D in NOD mice. MEDICA treatment does not improve β-cell insulin content or insulitis score, but its efficacy is accounted for by pronounced total body sensitization to insulin. In conclusion, potent insulin sensitizers may counteract genetic predisposition to autoimmune T1D and amplify subtherapeutic insulin into an effective therapeutic measure for the treatment of overt T1D. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  5. use of tolerant plants for environmental amelioration of saline soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salem, S.M.

    2007-01-01

    the objectives of this work are to use halophyte plants as suitable means for ameliorating salt-affected soils and to evaluate the use of saline water in irrigation halophyte plants as well as to determine the impact of saline irrigation on different properties of the salt -affected soil. two halophyte plants (i.e Atriplex nummularia and leptochloa fusca ( kallar grass)) were grown for 120 days during growth seasons of 2004 (first season) and 2005 ( second season)in lysimeters of 250 k gs capacity, which were filled with 180 k gs soil. the experiment was a randomized complete block factorial, involving two factors. the first factor was halophyte type (two halophytes were used, kallar grass and atriplex).the investigated data point to Ca accumulation in soil profile was increased with the increase in salinity level of irrigation water. increasing salinity of irrigation water sharply increased Mg accumulation in soil profile, especially with the cultivation of atriplex, where Mg accumulation by kallar grass was dramatically more than those occurred by atriplex.. kallar grass appears to have a good ability to reduce R Na C from the three soil layers under different saline irrigation waters rather than atriplex. R Na C (under using fresh water) was the lowest in the three soil layers rather the rest of the saline irrigation waters in both case of the two plants. a high residual sodium concentration recorded in soil cultivated by atriplex rather than kallar grass

  6. Coniferyl Aldehyde Ameliorates Radiation Intestine Injury via Endothelial Cell Survival

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Ye Ji; Jung, Myung Gu; Lee, Yoonjin; Lee, Haejune [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yunsil [Ewha Woman' s Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Younggyu [Korea Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Cancer treatments related gastrointestinal toxicity has also been recognized as a significant economic burden. Especially, extensive apoptosis of microvascular endothelial cell of the lamina propria is the primary lesion initiating intestinal radiation damage after abdominal radiation therapy. Coniferyl aldehyde (CA) is phenolic compounds isolated from cork stoppers, and one of the major pyrolysis products of lignin. Shi H. was support for the empirical use of CA as a medicinal food for cardiovascular diseases. CA has positive effect in broad way but there is no consequence in radiation induced intestine damage. Here, we investigate effect of CA on small intestine after abdominal IR to mice in this study. In this study, CA increased the survival rate in C3H mice against 13.5 Gy abdominal IR. We found CA protects small intestine via preventing endothelial cell apoptosis and enhancing their angiogenic activity. CA also showed protective effect on crypt cell survival. Endothelial cell survival may affect crypt cell protection against IR. From this data, we concluded that CA is effective for protection against abdominal radiation injury. CA could ameliorate side-effect of radiation therapy.

  7. Exenatide with Metformin Ameliorated Visceral Adiposity and Insulin Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Du

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. To study the effectiveness of exenatide with metformin and sequential treatment with exenatide and glargine added to metformin and their influence on insulin sensitivity and adipose distribution. Methods. 20 newly diagnosed obese type 2 diabetic patients were enrolled, and 2-month washout treatment of metformin, 6-month exenatide treatment, and 6-month glargine treatment were administrated sequentially accompanied with previous metformin. Glucolipid metabolic parameters were compared among groups. Adipose distribution was quantified with computerized tomography according to anatomy, dividing into visceral adipose tissue (VAT and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT, adding up to total adipose tissue (TAT. Results. The 6-month exenatide treatment dramatically ameliorated the glucose and lipid profile, improved insulin sensitivity, and mainly decreased VAT and also the ratio of VAT/SAT (RVS. The following 6-month glargine treatment increased VAT. The whole 12-month sequential treatment with exenatide and glargine added to metformin basically improved the insulin sensitivity and glucolipid control though VAT rebounded at the end, however without deteriorating the other parameters. Conclusion. Exenatide is an ideal treatment for obese type 2 diabetic patients in the aspect of adipose tissue distribution. Sequential treatment of exenatide and glargine could be an alternative for low-income patients who cannot afford GLP-1 agonist for long time. This trial is registered with ChiCTR-OOC-17013679.

  8. Cannabidiol treatment ameliorates ischemia/reperfusion renal injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouad, Amr A; Al-Mulhim, Abdulruhman S; Jresat, Iyad

    2012-09-17

    To investigate the protective effect of cannabidiol, the major non-psychotropic Cannabis constituent, against renal ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats. Bilateral renal ischemia was induced for 30 min followed by reperfusion for 24h. Cannabidiol (5mg/kg, i.v.) was given 1h before and 12h following the procedure. Ischemia/reperfusion caused significant elevations of serum creatinine and renal malondialdehyde and nitric oxide levels, associated with a significant decrease in renal reduced glutathione. Cannabidiol significantly attenuated the deterioration in the measured biochemical parameters induced by ischemia/reperfusion. Histopathological examination showed that cannabidiol ameliorated ischemia/reperfusion-induced kidney damage. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that cannabidiol significantly reduced the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, tumor necrosis factor-α, cyclooxygenase-2, nuclear factor-κB, Fas ligand and caspase-3, and increased the expression of survivin in ischemic/reperfused kidney tissue. Cannabidiol, via its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, may represent a potential therapeutic option to protect against ischemia/reperfusion renal injury. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Listening to classical music ameliorates unilateral neglect after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Pei-Luen; Chen, Mei-Ching; Huang, Yu-Ting; Lin, Keh-Chung; Chen, Kuan-Lin; Hsu, Yung-Wen

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. We determined whether listening to excerpts of classical music ameliorates unilateral neglect (UN) in stroke patients. METHOD. In this within-subject study, we recruited and separately tested 16 UN patients with a right-hemisphere stroke under three conditions within 1 wk. In each condition, participants were asked to complete three subtests of the Behavioral Inattention Test while listening to classical music, white noise, or nothing. All conditions and the presentation of the tests were counterbalanced across participants. Visual analog scales were used to provide self-reported ratings of arousal and mood. RESULTS. Participants generally had the highest scores under the classical music condition and the lowest scores under the silence condition. In addition, most participants rated their arousal as highest after listening to classical music. CONCLUSION. Listening to classical music may improve visual attention in stroke patients with UN. Future research with larger study populations is necessary to validate these findings. Copyright © 2013 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  10. Cellulose Supplementation Early in Life Ameliorates Colitis in Adult Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy-Szakal, Dorottya; Hollister, Emily B.; Luna, Ruth Ann; Szigeti, Reka; Tatevian, Nina; Smith, C. Wayne; Versalovic, James; Kellermayer, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Decreased consumption of dietary fibers, such as cellulose, has been proposed to promote the emergence of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD: Crohn disease [CD] and ulcerative colitis [UC]) where intestinal microbes are recognized to play an etiologic role. However, it is not known if transient fiber consumption during critical developmental periods may prevent consecutive intestinal inflammation. The incidence of IBD peaks in young adulthood indicating that pediatric environmental exposures may be important in the etiology of this disease group. We studied the effects of transient dietary cellulose supplementation on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) colitis susceptibility during the pediatric period in mice. Cellulose supplementation stimulated substantial shifts in the colonic mucosal microbiome. Several bacterial taxa decreased in relative abundance (e.g., Coriobacteriaceae [p = 0.001]), and other taxa increased in abundance (e.g., Peptostreptococcaceae [p = 0.008] and Clostridiaceae [p = 0.048]). Some of these shifts persisted for 10 days following the cessation of cellulose supplementation. The changes in the gut microbiome were associated with transient trophic and anticolitic effects 10 days following the cessation of a cellulose-enriched diet, but these changes diminished by 40 days following reversal to a low cellulose diet. These findings emphasize the transient protective effect of dietary cellulose in the mammalian large bowel and highlight the potential role of dietary fibers in amelioration of intestinal inflammation. PMID:23437211

  11. Yangjing Capsule Ameliorates Spermatogenesis in Male Mice Exposed to Cyclophosphamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongle Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Yangjing capsule (YC, a traditional Chinese compound herbal preparation, has been proven as an effective drug to improve spermatogenesis in clinical practice. However, its pharmacological mechanisms were not fully clarified. This study was designed to investigate the protective effects of YC on spermatogenesis in the mouse model of spermatogenesis dysfunction induced by cyclophosphamide (CP. The administration of YC significantly increased the epididymal index, sperm count, and sperm motility of model mice. Histopathological changes demonstrated that CP caused obvious structural damage to testis, which were reversed by the administration of YC. Results from TUNEL assay showed that treatment with YC dramatically decreased the apoptosis of spermatogenic cell induced by CP. Moreover, YC treatment could inhibit the mRNA and protein expression of Bax to Bcl-2 and also raised expression of AR at both mRNA and protein levels. These data suggest that YC might ameliorate spermatogenesis in male mice exposed to CP through inhibiting the apoptosis of spermatogenic cell and enhancing the actions of testosterone in spermatogenesis.

  12. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Zhang, Xiaoqi. Vol 15, No 2 (2016) - Articles Ameliorative Effect and Underlying Mechanisms of Total Triterpenoids from Psidium guajava Linn (Myrtaceae) Leaf on High-Fat Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy in Rats Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1596-9827. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL.

  13. Stopping the error cascade: a report on ameliorators from the ASIPS collaborative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnes, Bennett; Fernald, Douglas; Quintela, Javán; Araya‐Guerra, Rodrigo; Westfall, John; Harris, Daniel; Pace, Wilson

    2007-01-01

    Objective To present a novel examination of how error cascades are stopped (ameliorated) before they affect patients. Design Qualitative analysis of reported errors in primary care. Setting Over a three‐year period, clinicians and staff in two practice‐based research networks voluntarily reported medical errors to a primary care patient safety reporting system, Applied Strategies for Improving Patient Safety (ASIPS). The authors found a number of reports where the error was corrected before it had an adverse impact on the patient. Results Of 754 codeable reported events, 60 were classified as ameliorated events. In these events, a participant stopped the progression of the event before it reached or affected the patient. Ameliorators included doctors, nurses, pharmacists, diagnostic laboratories and office staff. Additionally, patients or family members may be ameliorators by recognising the error and taking action. Ameliorating an event after an initial error requires an opportunity to catch the error by systems, chance or attentiveness. Correcting the error before it affects the patient requires action either directed by protocols and systems or by vigilance, power to change course and perseverance on the part of the ameliorator. Conclusion Despite numerous individual and systematic methods to prevent errors, a system to prevent all potential errors is not feasible. However, a more pervasive culture of safety that builds on simple acts in addition to more costly and complex electronic systems may improve patient outcomes. Medical staff and patients who are encouraged to be vigilant, ask questions and seek solutions may correct otherwise inevitable wrongs. PMID:17301195

  14. Amelioration and reforestation of sulfurous mine soils in Lusatia (eastern Germany)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katzur, J.; Haubold-Rosar, M.

    1996-01-01

    In Germany nearly 1.550 km 2 have been claimed by brown coal mining until now. Mine soils formed of carboniferous and sulfurous overburden are classified as sulfurous mine soils. They remain vegetation-free for decades and may be cultivated only after soil amelioration. The objective of amelioration is a sustained improvement of soil reaction. Lime requirement for the achievement of a certain pH-value is calculated from acid-base-balance (SBB). Lime fertilizers and base-rich brown coal ashes are used for amelioration. As ashes have several advantages, their application is recommended. The ameliorative application of lime fertilizer or brown coal ash should be incorporated intensively into the soil to a depth of 60 cm, better 100 cm. Amelioration includes a mineral fertilization with N, P and K. Afforestation with Pinus sylvestris, Pinus nigra, Larix decidua, Larix eurolepis. Tilia cordata, Quercus rubra and Quercus petraea on ameliorated mine soils show surprising good results. Multi-species stands have very positive effects on soil formation. Raw humus is formed under pine and larch, and under deciduous trees moder and mull with higher bioactivity and better development of water and nutrient balance in the topsoil are found. 55 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs

  15. Carvacrol Ameliorates Ligation-Induced Periodontitis in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Po-Jan; Hung, Tsung-Fu; Lin, Chi-Yu; Hsiao, Hsiang-Yin; Fu, Min-Wen; Hong, Po-Da; Chiu, Hsien-Chung; Fu, Earl

    2017-07-01

    This study aims to evaluate the ameliorative effect of carvacrol, an anti-inflammatory monoterpenoid phenol and a major component of Plectranthus amboinicus, on periodontal damage in an experimental rat model of periodontitis. Forty Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into ligation (Lig), non-ligation (n-Lig), and two ligation plus carvacrol (Lig+C) groups. Carvacrol (17.5 or 35.0 mg/kg body weight/day) was administered intragastrically from 1 day before ligation. On day 8, dental alveolar bone loss and gingival inflammation in periodontal specimens were examined by dental radiography, microcomputed tomography, and histology. Expressions of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and inducible nitric oxide synthase messenger (m)RNAs, and levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 in gingiva were examined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and zymography. Dental radiography revealed periodontal bone-supporting ratios in Lig and Lig+C groups were lower than the n-Lig group, with Lig group ratios being lowest. Compared with the n-Lig group, the cemento-enamel junction-bone distance was significantly longer in Lig and Lig+C groups, with Lig+C groups showing shorter distances regardless of radiographic methods used. Histology and histometry showed less inflammatory area and stronger connective tissue attachment in Lig+C groups than in the Lig group. Cytokine/mediator mRNA expression and MMP-9 levels were reduced in the Lig+C groups. Carvacrol reduced tissue damage and bone loss caused by ligation-induced periodontitis. The present results indicate that carvacrol might reduce tissue destruction by downregulating expression of proinflammatory mediators and MMP-9.

  16. Orthosiphon stamineus (Misai Kucing) ameliorated postmenopausal osteoporosis in rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokhari, Rubiatul Adawiyah; Lau, Seng Fong; Mohamed, Suhaila

    2018-02-01

    Orthosiphon stamineus (OS) or Misai Kucing (Java tea) is a popular herbal supplement from Southeast Asia for various metabolic, age-related diseases. This study investigated the potential use of OS leaf extracts to ameliorate osteoporosis in ovariectomized rats. Fifty-six female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly allocated into eight groups (n = 7): SHAM (healthy sham control); OVX (ovarietomized) nontreated rats (negative control); OVX + Remifemin (100 mg/kg body weight), and 2% green tea extract (positive controls); OVX + OS 50% ethanolic and aqueous extracts, both at either 150 or 300 mg/kg. After 16 weeks, the rats' bones and blood were evaluated for osteoporosis indicators (protein and mRNA expressions), micro-computed tomography for bone histomorphometry, and three-point bending test for tibia mechanical strength. The extracts dose-dependently and significantly (P < 0.05) improved bone strength and flexibility, bone mineral density, bone formation protein markers (P1NP), and bone histomorphometry. All extracts reduced the inflammation biomarker (interleukin-6). The extracts up-regulated osteoblastogenesis (bone morphogenetic protein-2) and collagen-1 synthesis (collagen type 1 alpha-1) mRNA expressions, and down-regulated bone resorption (TNFSF11 and nuclear factor-kappa B) mRNA expressions. Both the water and 50% ethanolic extract were effective. The effective dose is equivalent to 25 to 50 mg/kg extract for humans. The extract showed bone-protective and antiosteoporotic effects (improving bone strength, flexibility, bone density, and bone morphometry) by reducing inflammation and the bone resorption biomarkers, while enhancing bone formation biomarkers and collagen synthesis.

  17. Probiotic BIFICO cocktail ameliorates Helicobacter pylori induced gastritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hong-Jing; Liu, Wei; Chang, Zhen; Shen, Hui; He, Li-Juan; Wang, Sha-Sha; Liu, Lu; Jiang, Yuan-Ying; Xu, Guo-Tong; An, Mao-Mao; Zhang, Jun-Dong

    2015-06-07

    To determine the protective effect of triple viable probiotics on gastritis induced by Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) and elucidate the possible mechanisms of protection. Colonization of BIFICO strains in the mouse stomach was determined by counting colony-forming units per gram of stomach tissue. After treatment with or without BIFICO, inflammation and H. pylori colonization in the mouse stomach were analyzed by hematoxylin and eosin and Giemsa staining, respectively. Cytokine levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Milliplex. The activation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB and MAPK signaling in human gastric epithelial cells was evaluated by Western blot analysis. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was used to quantify TLR2, TLR4 and MyD88 mRNA expression in the mouse stomach. We demonstrated that BIFICO, which contains a mixture of Enterococcus faecalis, Bifidobacterium longum and Lactobacillus acidophilus, was tolerant to the mouse stomach environment and was able to survive both the 8-h and 3-d courses of administration. Although BIFICO treatment had no effect on the colonization of H. pylori in the mouse stomach, it ameliorated H. pylori-induced gastritis by significantly inhibiting the expression of cytokines and chemokines such as TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-10, IL-6, G-CSF and MIP-2 (P pylori-induced inflammatory response in gastric mucosal epithelial cells in vitro via the NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways. Indeed, we observed a decrease in the expression of the NF-κB subunit p65 and in the phosphorylation of IκB-α, ERK and p38. Moreover, there was a significant decrease in the production of IL-8, TNF-α, G-CSF and GM-CSF (P pylori in the stomach was also significantly reduced following BIFICO treatment (P pylori-induced gastritis by inhibiting the inflammatory response in gastric epithelial cells.

  18. Salt supplementation ameliorates developmental kidney defects in COX-2-/- mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slattery, Patrick; Frölich, Stefanie; Goren, Itamar; Nüsing, Rolf M

    2017-06-01

    Deficiency of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) activity in the early postnatal period causes impairment of kidney development leading to kidney insufficiency. We hypothesize that impaired NaCl reabsorption during the first days of life is a substantial cause for nephrogenic defects observed in COX-2 -/- mice and that salt supplementation corrects these defects. Daily injections of NaCl (0.8 mg·g -1 ·day -1 ) for the first 10 days after birth ameliorated impaired kidney development in COX-2 -/- pups resulting in an increase in glomerular size and fewer immature superficial glomeruli. However, impaired renal subcortical growth was not corrected. Increasing renal tubular flow by volume load or injections of KCl did not relieve the renal histomorphological damage. Administration of torsemide and spironolactone also affected nephrogenesis resulting in diminished glomeruli and cortical thinning. Treatment of COX-2 -/- pups with NaCl/DOCA caused a stronger mitigation of glomerular size and induced a slight but significant growth of cortical tissue mass. After birth, renal mRNA expression of NHE3, NKCC2, ROMK, NCCT, ENaC, and Na + /K + -ATPase increased relative to postnatal day 2 in wild-type mice. However, in COX-2 -/- mice, a significantly lower expression was observed for NCCT, whereas NaCl/DOCA treatment significantly increased NHE3 and ROMK expression. Long-term effects of postnatal NaCl/DOCA injections indicate improved kidney function with normalization of pathologically enhanced creatinine and urea plasma levels; also, albumin excretion was observed. In summary, we present evidence that salt supplementation during the COX-2-dependent time frame of nephrogenesis partly reverses renal morphological defects in COX-2 -/- mice and improves kidney function. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  19. NAD+ biosynthesis ameliorates a zebrafish model of muscular dystrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle F Goody

    Full Text Available Muscular dystrophies are common, currently incurable diseases. A subset of dystrophies result from genetic disruptions in complexes that attach muscle fibers to their surrounding extracellular matrix microenvironment. Cell-matrix adhesions are exquisite sensors of physiological conditions and mediate responses that allow cells to adapt to changing conditions. Thus, one approach towards finding targets for future therapeutic applications is to identify cell adhesion pathways that mediate these dynamic, adaptive responses in vivo. We find that nicotinamide riboside kinase 2b-mediated NAD+ biosynthesis, which functions as a small molecule agonist of muscle fiber-extracellular matrix adhesion, corrects dystrophic phenotypes in zebrafish lacking either a primary component of the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex or integrin alpha7. Exogenous NAD+ or a vitamin precursor to NAD+ reduces muscle fiber degeneration and results in significantly faster escape responses in dystrophic embryos. Overexpression of paxillin, a cell adhesion protein downstream of NAD+ in this novel cell adhesion pathway, reduces muscle degeneration in zebrafish with intact integrin receptors but does not improve motility. Activation of this pathway significantly increases organization of laminin, a major component of the extracellular matrix basement membrane. Our results indicate that the primary protective effects of NAD+ result from changes to the basement membrane, as a wild-type basement membrane is sufficient to increase resilience of dystrophic muscle fibers to damage. The surprising result that NAD+ supplementation ameliorates dystrophy in dystrophin-glycoprotein complex- or integrin alpha7-deficient zebrafish suggests the existence of an additional laminin receptor complex that anchors muscle fibers to the basement membrane. We find that integrin alpha6 participates in this pathway, but either integrin alpha7 or the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex is required in conjunction

  20. Aedes aegypti salivary gland extract ameliorates experimental inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales-Campos, Helioswilton; de Souza, Patricia Reis; Basso, Paulo José; Ramos, Anderson Daniel; Nardini, Viviani; Chica, Javier Emílio Lazo; Capurro, Margareth Lara; Sá-Nunes, Anderson; de Barros Cardoso, Cristina Ribeiro

    2015-05-01

    Current therapies for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are not totally effective, resulting in persistent and recurrent disease for many patients. Mosquito saliva contains immunomodulatory molecules and therein could represent a novel therapy for IBD. Here, we demonstrated the therapeutic activity of salivary gland extract (SGE) of Aedes aegypti on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. For this purpose, C57BL/6 male mice were exposed to 3% DSS in drinking water and treated with SGE at early (days 3-5) or late (days 5-8) time points, followed by euthanasia on days 6 and 9, respectively, for sample collection. The results showed an improvement in clinical disease outcome and postmortem scores after SGE treatment, accompanied by the systemic reduction in peripheral blood lymphocytes, with no impact on bone marrow and mesenteric lymph nodes cellularity or macrophages toxicity. Moreover, a local diminishment of IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-5 cytokines together with a reduction in the inflammatory area were observed in the colon of SGE-treated mice. Strikingly, early treatment with SGE led to mice protection from a late DSS re-challenging, as observed by decreased clinical and postmortem scores, besides reduced circulating lymphocytes, indicating that the mosquito saliva may present components able to prevent disease relapse. Indeed, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) experiments pointed to a major SGE pool fraction (F3) able to ameliorate disease signs. In conclusion, SGE and its components might represent a source of important immunomodulatory molecules with promising therapeutic activity for IBD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Economic recession and suicidal behaviour: Possible mechanisms and ameliorating factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haw, Camilla; Hawton, Keith; Gunnell, David; Platt, Stephen

    2015-02-01

    A growing body of research evidence from countries around the world indicates that economic recession is associated with increases in suicide, particularly in males of working age. To explore contributory and ameliorating factors associated with economic recession and suicide and thereby stimulate further research in this area and encourage policy makers to consider how best to reduce the impact of recession on mental health and suicidal behaviour. We conducted a selective review of the worldwide literature focusing on possible risk factors, mechanisms and preventative strategies for suicidal behaviour linked to economic recession. A model of how recession might affect suicide rates is presented. A major and often prolonged effect of recession is on unemployment and job insecurity. Other important effects include those exerted by financial loss, bankruptcy and home repossession. It is proposed these factors may lead directly or indirectly to mental health problems such as depression, anxiety and binge drinking and then to suicidal behaviour. Countries with active labour market programmes and sustained welfare spending during recessions have less marked increases in suicide rates than those that cut spending on welfare and job-search initiatives for the unemployed. Other measures likely to help include targeted interventions for unemployed people, membership of social organisations and responsible media reporting. Good primary care and mental health services are needed to cope with increased demand in times of economic recession but some governments have in fact reduced healthcare spending as an austerity measure. The research evidence linking recession, unemployment and suicide is substantial, but the evidence for the other mechanisms we have investigated is much more tentative. We describe the limitations of the existing body of research as well as make suggestions for future research into the effects of economic recession on suicidal behaviour. © The Author

  2. Caloric restriction ameliorates acrolein-induced neurotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ying-Juan; Zhang, Li; Shi, Lan-Ying; Wang, Yuan-Yuan; Yang, Yu-Bin; Ke, Bin; Zhang, Ting-Ying; Qin, Jian

    2018-03-01

    Acrolein, a highly reactive unsaturated aldehyde, is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant and oxidative damage induced by acrolein is hypothesized to involve in the etiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Calorie restriction (CR) is the only non-genetic intervention that has consistently been verified to retard aging by ameliorating oxidative stress. Therefore, we investigated the effects of CR on acrolein-induced neurotoxicity in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. A total of 45 weaned and specific-pathogen-free SD rats (male, weighing 180-220 g) were gavage-fed with acrolein (2.5 mg/kg/day) and fed ab libitum of 10 g/day or 7 g/day (representing 30% CR regimen), or gavage-fed with same volume of tap water and fed al libitum as vehicle control for 12 weeks. After behavioral test conducted by Morris Water Maze, SD rats were sacrificed and brain tissues were prepared for histochemical evaluation and Western blotting to detect alterations in oxidative stress, BDNF/TrkB pathway and key enzymes involved in amyloid precursor protein (APP) metabolism. Treatment with 30% CR in SD rats significantly attenuated acrolein-induced cognitive impairment. Oxidative damage including deletion of glutathione and superoxide dismutase and sharp rise in malondialdehyde were notably improved by 30% CR. Further study suggested that 30% CR showed protective effects against acrolein by modulating BDNF/TrkB signaling pathways. Moreover, 30% CR restored acrolein-induced changes of APP, β-secretase, α-secretase and receptor for advanced glycation end products. These findings suggest that CR may provide a promising approach for the treatment of AD, targeting acrolein. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Glycine and Folate Ameliorate Models of Congenital Sideroblastic Anemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Pedro Fernández-Murray

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sideroblastic anemias are acquired or inherited anemias that result in a decreased ability to synthesize hemoglobin in red blood cells and result in the presence of iron deposits in the mitochondria of red blood cell precursors. A common subtype of congenital sideroblastic anemia is due to autosomal recessive mutations in the SLC25A38 gene. The current treatment for SLC25A38 congenital sideroblastic anemia is chronic blood transfusion coupled with iron chelation. The function of SLC25A38 is not known. Here we report that the SLC25A38 protein, and its yeast homolog Hem25, are mitochondrial glycine transporters required for the initiation of heme synthesis. To do so, we took advantage of the fact that mitochondrial glycine has several roles beyond the synthesis of heme, including the synthesis of folate derivatives through the glycine cleavage system. The data were consistent with Hem25 not being the sole mitochondrial glycine importer, and we identify a second SLC25 family member Ymc1, as a potential secondary mitochondrial glycine importer. Based on these findings, we observed that high levels of exogenous glycine, or 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-Ala a metabolite downstream of Hem25 in heme biosynthetic pathway, were able to restore heme levels to normal in yeast cells lacking Hem25 function. While neither glycine nor 5-Ala could ameliorate SLC25A38 congenital sideroblastic anemia in a zebrafish model, we determined that the addition of folate with glycine was able to restore hemoglobin levels. This difference is likely due to the fact that yeast can synthesize folate, whereas in zebrafish folate is an essential vitamin that must be obtained exogenously. Given the tolerability of glycine and folate in humans, this study points to a potential novel treatment for SLC25A38 congenital sideroblastic anemia.

  4. Cisplatin-induced renal inflammation is ameliorated by cilastatin nephroprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humanes, Blanca; Camaño, Sonia; Lara, Jose Manuel; Sabbisetti, Venkatta; González-Nicolás, María Ángeles; Bonventre, Joseph V; Tejedor, Alberto; Lázaro, Alberto

    2017-10-01

    Cisplatin is a potent chemotherapeutic drug whose nephrotoxic effect is a major complication and a dose-limiting factor for antitumoral therapy. There is much evidence that inflammation contributes to the pathogenesis of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. We found that cilastatin, a renal dehydropeptidase-I inhibitor, has protective effects in vitro and in vivo against cisplatin-induced renal damage by inhibiting apoptosis and oxidation. Here, we investigated the potential use of cilastatin to protect against cisplatin-induced kidney injury and inflammation in rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: control, cilastatin-control, cisplatin and cilastatin-cisplatin. Nephrotoxicity was assessed 5 days after administration of cisplatin based on blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, glomerular filtration rate (GFR), kidney injury molecule (KIM)-1 and renal morphology. Inflammation was measured using the electrophoretic mobility shift assay, immunohistochemical studies and evaluation of inflammatory mediators. Compared with the control rats, cisplatin-administered rats were affected by significant proximal tubule damage, decreased GFR, increased production of inflammatory mediators and elevations in urea, creatinine and tissue KIM-1 levels. Cilastatin prevented these changes in renal function and ameliorated histological damage in cisplatin-administered animals. Cilastatin also reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine levels, activation of nuclear factor-κB and CD68-positive cell concentrations. Cilastatin reduces cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity, which is associated with decreased inflammation in vivo. Although the exact role of decreased inflammation in nephroprotection has not been fully elucidated, treatment with cilastatin could be a novel strategy for the prevention of cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  5. PEG minocycline-liposomes ameliorate CNS autoimmune disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Hu

    Full Text Available Minocycline is an oral tetracycline derivative with good bioavailability in the central nervous system (CNS. Minocycline, a potent inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-9, attenuates disease activity in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE, an animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS. Potential adverse effects associated with long-term daily minocycline therapy in human patients are concerning. Here, we investigated whether less frequent treatment with long-circulating polyethylene glycol (PEG minocycline liposomes are effective in treating EAE.Performing in vitro time kinetic studies of PEG minocycline-liposomes in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs, we determined that PEG minocycline-liposome preparations stabilized with CaCl(2 are effective in diminishing MMP-9 activity. Intravenous injections of PEG minocycline-liposomes every five days were as effective in ameliorating clinical EAE as daily intraperitoneal injections of minocycline. Treatment of animals with PEG minocycline-liposomes significantly reduced the number of CNS-infiltrating leukocytes, and the overall expression of MMP-9 in the CNS. There was also a significant suppression of MMP-9 expression and proteolytic activity in splenocytes of treated animals, but not in CNS-infiltrating leukocytes. Thus, leukocytes gaining access to the brain and spinal cord require the same absolute amount of MMP-9 in all treatment groups, but minocycline decreases the absolute cell number.Our data indicate that less frequent injections of PEG minocycline-liposomes are an effective alternative pharmacotherapy to daily minocycline injections for the treatment of CNS autoimmune diseases. Also, inhibition of MMP-9 remains a promising treatment target in EAE and patients with MS.

  6. Amelioration of acidic soil using various renewable waste resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Deok Hyun; Chang, Yoon-Young; Ok, Yong Sik; Cheong, Kyung Hoon; Koutsospyros, Agamemnon; Park, Jeong-Hun

    2014-01-01

    In this study, improvement of acidic soil with respect to soil pH and exchangeable cations was attempted for sample with an initial pH of approximately 5. Acidic soil was amended with various waste resources in the range of 1 to 5 wt.% including waste oyster shells (WOS), calcined oyster shells (COS), Class C fly ash (FA), and cement kiln dust (CKD) to improve soil pH and exchangeable cations. Upon treatment, the soil pH was monitored for periods up to 3 months. The exchangeable cations were measured after 1 month of curing. After a curing period of 1 month, a maize growth experiment was conducted with selected-treated samples to evaluate the effectiveness of treatment. The treatment results indicate that in order to increase the soil pH to a value of 7, 1 wt.% of WOS, 3 wt.% of FA, and 1 wt.% of CKD are required. In the case of COS, 1 wt.% was more than enough to increase the soil pH value to 7 because of COS's strong alkalinity. Moreover, the soil pH increases after a curing period of 7 days and remains virtually unchanged thereafter up to 1 month of curing. Upon treatment, the summation of cations (Ca, Mg, K, and Na) significantly increased. The growth of maize is superior in the treated samples rather than the untreated one, indicating that the amelioration of acidic soil is beneficial to plant growth, since soil pH was improved and nutrients were replenished.

  7. SIRT2 ameliorates lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in macrophages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ae Sin; Jung, Yu Jin; Kim, Dal; Nguyen-Thanh, Tung [Department of Internal Medicine, Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Kyung Pyo [Department of Internal Medicine, Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Research Institute of Clinical Medicine of Chonbuk National University, Chonbuk National University Hospital, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sik [Department of Internal Medicine, Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sung Kwang [Department of Internal Medicine, Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Research Institute of Clinical Medicine of Chonbuk National University, Chonbuk National University Hospital, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Won, E-mail: kwon@jbnu.ac.kr [Department of Internal Medicine, Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Research Institute of Clinical Medicine of Chonbuk National University, Chonbuk National University Hospital, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-08

    deficiency of SIRT2 ameliorates iNOS, NO expression and reactive oxygen species production with suppressing LPS-induced activation of NFκB in macrophages.

  8. Treatment with dimethyl fumarate ameliorates liver ischemia/reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takasu, Chie; Vaziri, Nosratola D; Li, Shiri; Robles, Lourdes; Vo, Kelly; Takasu, Mizuki; Pham, Christine; Farzaneh, Seyed H; Shimada, Mitsuo; Stamos, Michael J; Ichii, Hirohito

    2017-07-07

    To investigate the hypothesis that treatment with dimethyl fumarate (DMF) may ameliorate liver ischemia/reperfusion injury (I/RI). Rats were divided into 3 groups: sham, control (CTL), and DMF. DMF (25 mg/kg, twice/d) was orally administered for 2 d before the procedure. The CTL and DMF rats were subjected to ischemia for 1 h and reperfusion for 2 h. The serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, adenosine triphosphate (ATP), NO × metabolites, anti-oxidant enzyme expression level, anti-inflammatory effect, and anti-apoptotic effect were determined. Histological tissue damage was significantly reduced in the DMF group (Suzuki scores: sham: 0 ± 0; CTL: 9.3 ± 0.5; DMF: 2.5 ± 1.2; sham vs CTL, P < 0.0001; CTL vs DMF, P < 0.0001). This effect was associated with significantly lower serum ALT (DMF 5026 ± 2305 U/L vs CTL 10592 ± 1152 U/L, P = 0.04) and MDA (DMF 18.2 ± 1.4 μmol/L vs CTL 26.0 ± 1.0 μmol/L, P = 0.0009). DMF effectively improved the ATP content (DMF 20.3 ± 0.4 nmol/mg vs CTL 18.3 ± 0.6 nmol/mg, P = 0.02), myeloperoxidase activity (DMF 7.8 ± 0.4 mU/mL vs CTL 6.0 ± 0.5 mU/mL, P = 0.01) and level of endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression (DMF 0.38 ± 0.05-fold vs 0.17 ± 0.06-fold, P = 0.02). The higher expression levels of anti-oxidant enzymes (catalase and glutamate-cysteine ligase modifier subunit and lower levels of key inflammatory mediators (nuclear factor-kappa B and cyclooxygenase-2 were confirmed in the DMF group. DMF improved the liver function and the anti-oxidant and inflammation status following I/RI. Treatment with DMF could be a promising strategy in patients with liver I/RI.

  9. Amelioration of the irrigated lands of the Vakhsh valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikromov, Islomkul; Mirzoev, Mm

    2015-04-01

    In the agro-industrial country like Tajikistan, the efficient use of irrigation of arable land is important because it contributes to the solution of the State Program of the Food independence of the country, by increasing the yield of agricultural production per unit of irrigated area. The irrigated area in the Republic of Tajikistan as of 1.01.2014g. equal to about 750 thousand. ha, per capita, on average, less than 0.10 hectares. and its share in relation to agricultural land is only 10.5%. However, more than 90% of crop production are grown on these lands. Given the demographic growth of the population of the republic specific area of irrigated land from year to year is becoming less and less of that call into question the successful solution of the above program. Therefore, in our view, to ensure food independence of the country in addition to the development of land from the reserve, should focus on the amelioration of existing irrigated areas, improve the culture of land and water, on modernization of reclamation systems contribute to a high degree of adaptability based on a high degree of water metering, water distribution, water and resource conservation, the use of the latest technology and irrigation techniques. Condition of the soil is their estimated figures is mainly determined by its productivity. It is determined by the degree of salinity of soils, the depth of the groundwater level and salinity, erosion and on stony ground. Vakhsh valley in Tajikistan is one of the main oases, ensuring production of agricultural products but, in recent years due to a number of man-made reasons: Adherence crop irrigation, low technical condition of irrigation systems and as a consequence their efficiency and utilization of irrigation water and farming, inoperable drainage system, or lack of them all, the virtual absence of vodouchёta on the field, no use of it modern technology and irrigation techniques, etc., the level of both fresh and saline groundwater rose

  10. CREB Overexpression Ameliorates Age-related Behavioral and Biophysical Deficits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiao-Wen

    Age-related cognitive deficits are observed in both humans and animals. Yet, the molecular mechanisms underlying these deficits are not yet fully elucidated. In aged animals, a decrease in intrinsic excitability of pyramidal neurons from the CA1 sub-region of hippocampus is believed to contribute to age-related cognitive impairments, but the molecular mechanism(s) that modulate both these factors has yet to be identified. Increasing activity of the transcription factor cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) in young adult rodents has been shown to facilitate cognition, and increase intrinsic excitability of their neurons. However, how CREB changes with age, and how that impacts cognition in aged animals, is not clear. Therefore, we first systematically characterized age- and training-related changes in CREB levels in dorsal hippocampus. At a remote time point after undergoing behavioral training, levels of total CREB and activated CREB (phosphorylated at S133, pCREB) were measured in both young and aged rats. We found that pCREB, but not total CREB was significantly reduced in dorsal CA1 of aged rats. Importantly, levels of pCREB were found to be positively correlated with short-term spatial memory in both young and aged rats i.e. higher pCREB in dorsal CA1 was associated with better spatial memory. These findings indicate that an age-related deficit in CREB activity may contribute to the development of age-related cognitive deficits. However, it was still unclear if increasing CREB activity would be sufficient to ameliorate age-related cognitive, and biophysical deficits. To address this question, we virally overexpressed CREB in CA1, where we found the age-related deficit. Young and aged rats received control or CREB virus, and underwent water maze training. While control aged animals exhibited deficits in long-term spatial memory, aged animals with CREB overexpression performed at levels comparable to young animals. Concurrently, aged neurons

  11. Amelioration of testosterone induced benign prostatic hyperplasia by Prunus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jena, Ashish Kumar; Vasisht, Karan; Sharma, Neetika; Kaur, Ramdeep; Dhingra, Mamta Sachdeva; Karan, Maninder

    2016-08-22

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a common urological disorder of men. The ethnomedicinal use of an African plant Prunus africana (Hook.f.) Kalkman (Pygeum) in treating men's problems made it a popular remedy all over the globe for the treatment of BPH and related disorders. However, rampant collections made from the wild in Africa have pushed the plant to Appendix II of CITES demanding conservation of the species. In the present study, the aim was to unearth the protective effect of bark of different species of Prunus against BPH. The five selected Indian plants of family Rosaceae viz. Prunus amygdalus Stokes, Prunus armeniaca L., Prunus cerasoides Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don, Prunus domestica L. and Prunus persica (L.) Batsch were evaluated against P. africana (Hook.f.) Kalkman for a suitable comparison of efficacy as antiBPH agents. The antiBPH activity was evaluated in testosterone (2mg/kg/day, s.c, 21 days) induced BPH in Wistar rats. The parameters studied were body weights; histopathological examination, immunohistochemistry (PCNA) and biochemical estimations of the prostate; supported by prostatic index, testicular index, creatinine, testosterone levels; antioxidant and anti-inflammatory evaluation. The study also included chemical profiling using three markers (β-sitosterol, docosyl ferulate and ursolic acid) and estimation of β-sitosterol content through GC. The Prunus species showed the presence of all the three markers in their TLC fingerprint profile and maximum amount of β-sitosterol by GC was observed in P. domestica. Interestingly, all the species exhibited significant amelioration in testosterone induced parameters with P. domestica showing the most encouraging effect as indicated from histopathological examination, immunohistochemistry and biochemical studies. The Prunus species further showed remarkable anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity signifying their role in interfering with various possible factors involved in BPH. These findings are

  12. Assessment of changes of some functions of Ukrainian acid soils after chemical amelioration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zapko Yurij

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the article was to determine the effectiveness of lime of different origin for chemical amelioration of soils and examine its impact on soil functions such as productivity, habitat, regulation of water quality, and the protective buffer biogeocenotic screen. Limy ameliorants were applied in small local field experiment on Luvic Chernozem, and experiment with lysimeter columns was carried out on Albic Luvisol. The number of the main groups of microflora and enzymatic activity of soil was determined in soil samples taken for the analysis from the root zone. Research concerning the influence of natural and industrial origin ameliorants on soil as habitat showed the correlation of sugar beets productivity with soil biogenic. The increase of biomultiplicity of soil microbiota after addition of a cement dust and negative influence of red sludge on soil as habitat for living organisms was observed. Research involving the influence of ameliorants on soil by lime as the protective buffer biogeocenotic screen was carried out using lysimeter columns. It was stated that the addition of limy ameliorants reduces mobility of heavy metals.

  13. The Effectiveness of Ameliorant to Increase Carbon Stock of Oilpalm and Rubber Plantation on Peatland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai Dariah

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Application of peatland amelioration can improve soil quality, reduce GHG emissions, and increase carbon sequestration. The research aimed to study the effect of peatland amelioration on oil palm and rubber carbon stock improvement. Research was conducted from August 2013 until June 2014. The researches on oil palm were done in Arang-arang Village, Kumpeh Subdistrict, Muaro Jambi District, and in Lubuk Ogong Village, Bandar Seikijang Sub-district, Pelalawan District. Both sites are in Jambi and Riau Province. The research on rubber was done in Jabiren Village, Jabiren Raya Subdistrict, Pulang Pisau District, Central Kalimantan Province. The study used a Randomized Completely Block Design (RCBD, in four treatments and four replications. The treatments were pugam (peat fertilizer enriched by polyvalent cation, manure; empty fruit bunch compost, and control (no application. The measurement of C stock was performed 10 months after application using nondestructive methods. The results showed that peatland amelioration treatments had no significant effect to improve C stock on oil palm in 6 years old and 7 years old of rubber. After 10 months of amelioration application, the treatments increased C - stock of oil palm and rubber were 2.1-2.4 Mg ha-1 and 5-11 Mg ha-1, respectively. Longer time observation may be needed to study the effect of ameliorant on C-stock of annual crops.

  14. Lipid abnormalities in streptozotocin-diabetes: Amelioration by Morus indica L. cv Suguna leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Andallu, B.; Vinay Kumar, A. V.; Varadacharyulu, N. Ch.

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To observe the influence of mulberry (Morus indica L. cv Suguna) leaves on lipid abnormalities in STZ-diabetic rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Treatment with dried mulberry leaf powder for a period of 8 weeks in hyperglycemic and hyperlipidemic STZ-diabetic rats. RESULTS: Mulberry leaves regulated fasting blood glucose, ameliorated the abnormalities in lipid profile as indicated by significant (P

  15. Amelioration of Tamoxifen-Induced Oxidative Stress in Rats | El Deib ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to investigate the ameliorative effect of silymarin on the oxidative stress induced by tamoxifen (TAM) in female albino rats. ... β- galactosidase (β-GAL) were significantly decreased in TAM-treated animals while concomitant treatment by silymarin caused marked decrease in the activities of the three ...

  16. Clinical Aspects of Pregnancy-induced Amelioration of Rheumatoid Arthritis: PARA-study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y.A. de Man (Yael)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractIn this PhD thesis, embedded in the PARA (Pregnancy-induced Amelioration of Rheumatoid Arthritis) study, several clinical aspects of the spontaneously occurring pregnancy-induced improvement of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are addressed. An overview is given of inflammatory rheumatic

  17. Economic efficiency of the use of the bush vegetation from slopes of the ameliorative canals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titov, V.N.

    2009-01-01

    The results of calculations of the economic efficiency of the use of the bush vegetation from slopes of the ameliorative canals for fuel and energy purposes has been presented. The two variants of disposal of bushes are considered burning and conversion into fuel chips. (authors)

  18. A systematic review of the efficacy of gum chewing for the amelioration of postoperative ileus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Castro, S. M. M.; van den Esschert, J. W.; van Heek, N. T.; Dalhuisen, S.; Koelemay, M. J. W.; Busch, O. R. C.; Gouma, D. J.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent trials have shown promising results for the efficacy of gum chewing for the amelioration of postoperative ileus. This finding could have a major clinical impact since gum chewing is relatively harmless and cheap while postoperative ileus has a significant impact on healthcare.

  19. Sodium fusidate (fusidin) ameliorates the course of monophasic experimental allergic encephalomyelitis in the Lewis rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Marco, R; Puglisi, G; Papaccio, G

    2001-01-01

    We have evaluated the effect of the immunosuppressant sodium fusidate (fusidin) on the course of acute monophasic experimental encephalomyelitis (EAE) in male Lewis rats. Prophylactic treatment with fusidin, 80 or 120 mg/kg bd wt., markedly ameliorated the course of the disease in rats immunized...

  20. Amelioration of Anti-Nutritive Effects of Castor Oil Seed ( Ricinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three hundred and twenty (320) day old male broilers were used to investigate the amelioration of anti-nutritive effects of castor oil seed (Ricinus communis) meal in broilers' ration using natural fermentation and DL-Methionine supplementation. The experimental designed was a 4 × 2 factorial arrangement of dietary ...