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Sample records for ameliorates motor cognitive

  1. Cannabidiol ameliorates cognitive and motor impairments in mice with bile duct ligation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magen, Iddo; Avraham, Yosefa; Ackerman, Zvi; Vorobiev, Lia; Mechoulam, Raphael; Berry, Elliot M

    2009-09-01

    The endocannabinoid system in mice plays a role in models of human cirrhosis and hepatic encephalopathy (HE), induced by a hepatotoxin. We report now the therapeutic effects of cannabidiol (CBD), a non-psychoactive constituent of Cannabis sativa, on HE caused by bile duct ligation (BDL), a model of chronic liver disease. CBD (5mg/kg; i.p.) was administered over 4weeks to mice that had undergone BDL. Cognitive function in the eight arm maze and the T-maze tests, as well as locomotor function in the open field test were impaired by the ligation and were improved by CBD. BDL raised hippocampal expression of the TNF-alpha-receptor 1 gene, which was reduced by CBD. However, BDL reduced expression of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene, which was increased by CBD. The effects of CBD on cognition, locomotion and on TNF-alpha receptor 1 expression were blocked by ZM241385, an A(2)A adenosine receptor antagonist. BDL lowers the expression of this receptor. The effects of BDL apparently result in part from down-regulation of A(2)A adenosine receptor. CBD reverses these effects through activation of this receptor, leading to compensation of the ligation effect.

  2. Cannabidiol ameliorates cognitive and motor impairments in bile-duct ligated mice via 5-HT1A receptor activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magen, I; Avraham, Y; Ackerman, Z; Vorobiev, L; Mechoulam, R; Berry, E M

    2010-02-01

    We aimed to demonstrate the involvement of 5-HT(1A) receptors in the therapeutic effect of cannabidiol, a non-psychoactive constituent of Cannabis sativa, in a model of hepatic encephalopathy induced by bile-duct ligation (BDL) in mice. Cannabidiol (5 mg x kg(-1); i.p.) was administered over 4 weeks to BDL mice. Cognition and locomotion were evaluated using the eight-arm maze and the open field tests respectively. Hippocampi were analysed by RT-PCR for expression of the genes for tumour necrosis factor-alpha receptor 1, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and 5-HT(1A) receptor. N-(2-(4-(2-methoxy-phenyl)-1-piperazin-1-yl)ethyl)-N-(2-pyridyl) cyclohexanecarboxamide (WAY-100635), a 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonist (0.5 mg x kg(-1)), was co-administered with cannabidiol. Liver function was evaluated by measuring plasma liver enzymes and bilirubin. Cannabidiol improved cognition and locomotion, which were impaired by BDL, and restored hippocampal expression of the tumour necrosis factor-alpha receptor 1 and the BDNF genes, which increased and decreased, respectively, following BDL. It did not affect reduced 5-HT(1A) expression in BDL mice. All the effects of cannabidiol, except for that on BDNF expression, were blocked by WAY-100635, indicating 5-HT(1A) receptor involvement in cannabidiol's effects. Cannabidiol did not affect the impaired liver function in BDL. The behavioural outcomes of BDL result from both 5-HT(1A) receptor down-regulation and neuroinflammation. Cannabidiol reverses these effects through a combination of anti-inflammatory activity and activation of this receptor, leading to improvement of the neurological deficits without affecting 5-HT(1A) receptor expression or liver function. BDNF up-regulation by cannabidiol does not seem to account for the cognitive improvement.

  3. The NCAM-derived P2 peptide facilitates recovery of cognitive and motor function and ameliorates neuropathology following traumatic brain injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klementiev, B; Novikova, T; Korshunova, Irina

    2008-01-01

    The neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) plays a crucial role during development and regeneration of the nervous system, mediating neuronal differentiation, survival and plasticity. Moreover, NCAM regulates learning and memory. A peptide termed P2, corresponding to a 12-amino-acid sequence...... significantly improved postlesion recovery of motor and cognitive function, reduced neuronal degeneration, protected cells against oxidative stress, and increased reactive astrogliosis and neuronal plasticity in the sublesional area. P2 appeared rapidly in blood and cerebrospinal fluid after subcutaneous...

  4. Amelioration of cognitive, motor and endogenous defense functions with silymarin, piracetam and protocatechuic acid in the cerebral global ischemic rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muley, Milind M; Thakare, Vishnu N; Patil, Rajesh R; Bafna, Pallavi A; Naik, Suresh R

    2013-07-19

    The neuroprotective activities of silymarin, piracetam and protocatechuic acid ethyl ester (PCA) on cerebral global ischemic/reperfusion were evaluated in a rat model. A midline ventral incision was made in the throat region. The right and left common carotid arteries were located and a bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO) was performed for 30min using atraumatic clamps followed by a 24h period of reperfusion. Neurological/behavioral functions (cognitive and motor), endogenous defense systems (lipid peroxidation, glutathione, catalase, and superoxide dismutase), reduced water content and infarct size and histopathological alterations were then studied. Silymarin and PCA treatments significantly improved cognitive, motor and endogenous defense functions, histopathological alterations, and, reduced both water content and infarct size compared to the vehicle-treated ischemic control group. Piracetam treatment improved neurological and histopathological alterations, reduced water content and infarct size, but failed to restore/prevent the impaired endogenous defense functions significantly. Silymarin showed better neuroprotection than piracetam and PCA in experimentally induced global ischemic/reperfusion and was able to facilitate mnemonic performance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Salvianolic Acid B Ameliorates Motor Dysfuntion in Spinal Cord ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Salvianolic Acid B Ameliorates Motor Dysfuntion in Spinal. Cord Injury Rats. Chong Xun, Shouyu Wang, Guang Chen, Yang Hu, Jiaqi Xie and Decheng Lv*. Department of ... Purpose: To evaluate the effect of salvianolic acid B (Sal B) treatment on the motor function of spinal ... China. All the animals were housed at 25 °C in.

  6. Motoric cognitive risk syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annweiler, Cedric; Ayers, Emmeline; Barzilai, Nir; Beauchet, Olivier; Bennett, David A.; Bridenbaugh, Stephanie A.; Buchman, Aron S.; Callisaya, Michele L.; Camicioli, Richard; Capistrant, Benjamin; Chatterji, Somnath; De Cock, Anne-Marie; Ferrucci, Luigi; Giladi, Nir; Guralnik, Jack M.; Hausdorff, Jeffrey M.; Holtzer, Roee; Kim, Ki Woong; Kowal, Paul; Kressig, Reto W.; Lim, Jae-Young; Lord, Susan; Meguro, Kenichi; Montero-Odasso, Manuel; Muir-Hunter, Susan W.; Noone, Mohan L.; Rochester, Lynn; Srikanth, Velandai; Wang, Cuiling

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Our objective is to report prevalence of motoric cognitive risk syndrome (MCR), a newly described predementia syndrome characterized by slow gait and cognitive complaints, in multiple countries, and its association with dementia risk. Methods: Pooled MCR prevalence analysis of individual data from 26,802 adults without dementia and disability aged 60 years and older from 22 cohorts from 17 countries. We also examined risk of incident cognitive impairment (Mini-Mental State Examination decline ≥4 points) and dementia associated with MCR in 4,812 individuals without dementia with baseline Mini-Mental State Examination scores ≥25 from 4 prospective cohort studies using Cox models adjusted for potential confounders. Results: At baseline, 2,808 of the 26,802 participants met MCR criteria. Pooled MCR prevalence was 9.7% (95% confidence interval [CI] 8.2%–11.2%). MCR prevalence was higher with older age but there were no sex differences. MCR predicted risk of developing incident cognitive impairment in the pooled sample (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 2.0, 95% CI 1.7–2.4); aHRs were 1.5 to 2.7 in the individual cohorts. MCR also predicted dementia in the pooled sample (aHR 1.9, 95% CI 1.5–2.3). The results persisted even after excluding participants with possible cognitive impairment, accounting for early dementia, and diagnostic overlap with other predementia syndromes. Conclusion: MCR is common in older adults, and is a strong and early risk factor for cognitive decline. This clinical approach can be easily applied to identify high-risk seniors in a wide variety of settings. PMID:25031288

  7. Cognitive aging affects motor performance and learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jie; Wu, Yan D; Chan, John S Y; Yan, Jin H

    2013-01-01

    Substantial evidence indicates that declines in cognitive and motor functioning are often observed when we age. The interdependence of cognition and behavior has been reported in a wide range of studies. However, research on the cognitive-motor associations in aging has been lacking. We review behavioral and neural characteristics of cognitive aging in relation to motor aging and aim to elucidate their interrelationships in an aging context. From a developmental view, we propose an integrative concept focusing on the dynamics of cognitive functioning, motor performance and skill acquisition. In the framework, representations and motor learning potential are closely related. and supported by distributed neural systems, which are less susceptible to functional declines in the aging process. Mostly supported by high-level areas, control processes, motor learning efficiency and motor performance are closely related. As high-level areas are more vulnerable during aging, control processes, motor learning efficiency and motor performance are substantially affected when one approaches late adulthood. Practical implications and future research directions are discussed. © 2012 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  8. Naringin ameliorates cognitive deficits in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianchu Liu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s:Previous research demonstrated that diabetes is one of the leading causes of learning and memory deficits. Naringin, a bioflavonoid isolated from grapefruits and oranges, has potent protective effects on streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic rats. Recently, the effects of naringin on learning and memory performances were monitored in many animal models of cognitive impairment. However, to date, no studies have investigated the ameliorative effects of naringin on diabetes-associated cognitive decline (DACD. In this study, we investigated the effects of naringin, using a STZ-injected rat model and explored its potential mechanism. Materials and Methods:Diabetic rats were treated with naringin (100 mg/kg/d for 7 days. The learning and memory function were assessed by Morris water maze test. The oxidative stress indicators [superoxide dismutase (SOD and malondialdehyde (MDA] and inflammatory cytokines (TNF-a, IL-1β, and IL-6 were measured in hippocampus using corresponding commercial kits. The mRNA and protein levels of PPARγ were evaluated by real time (RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. Results:The results showed that supplementation of naringin improved learning and memory performances compared with the STZ group. Moreover, naringin supplement dramatically increased SOD levels, reduced MDA levels, and alleviated TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 compared with the STZ group in the hippocampus. The pretreatment with naringin also significantly increased PPARγ expression. Conclusion: Our results showed that naringin may be a promising therapeutic agent for improving cognitive decline in DACD.

  9. Salvianolic Acid B Ameliorates Motor Dysfuntion in Spinal Cord ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of salvianolic acid B (Sal B) treatment on the motor function of spinal cord injury (SCI) rat. Methods: SCI rats were modelled by contusion, and then received 10 mg/kg Sal B, or methylprednisolone, or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) intraperitoneally daily for 4 weeks, two hours after the ...

  10. Motor Proficiency Predicts Cognitive Ability in Four-Year-Olds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Amanda Martinez; Caçola, Priscila

    2015-01-01

    Research has shown links between motor proficiency and cognition in school-age children, however, few have explored earlier ages. We aimed to determine the association between motor proficiency and cognitive ability in four-year-olds. Motor and cognitive skills were examined in 32 (15 males, 17 females) four-year-olds (±5.59 months) using the…

  11. Mild cognitive impairment affects motor control and skill learning.

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    Wu, Qiaofeng; Chan, John S Y; Yan, Jin H

    2016-02-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a transitional phase between normal cognitive aging and dementia. As the world population is aging rapidly, more MCI patients will be identified, posing significant problems to society. Normal aging is associated with cognitive and motor decline, and MCI brings additional impairments. Compared to healthy older adults, MCI patients show poorer motor control in a variety of tasks. Efficient motor control and skill learning are essential for occupational and leisure purposes; degradation of motor behaviors in MCI patients often adversely affects their health and quality of life. In this article, we first define MCI and describe its pathology and neural correlates. After this, we review cognitive changes and motor control and skill learning in normal aging. This section is followed by a discussion of MCI-related degradation of motor behaviors. Finally, we propose that multicomponent interventions targeting both cognitive and motor domains can improve MCI patients' motor functions. Future research directions are also raised.

  12. Relationship between motor and cognitive learning abilities among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The relationship between motor and cognitive development has already been proven in young children. However, in relation to the academic achievement the association between motor and cognitive performance still not well established. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the levels of motor and ...

  13. Subliminal stimulation and cognitive and motor performance.

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    Gustafson, R; Källmén, H

    1990-08-01

    The present experiment investigated whether subliminally exposed messages affect cognitive and motor performance and whether personality factors can explain interindividual differences in this respect. According to Silverman (1983), people have a symbiotic fantasy, that is, a need for symbiotic oneness with the mother figure. This need can temporarily be satisfied by a tachistoscopic exposure of the message "Mommy and I are one." By relieving the unconscious conflict, psychological tension is reduced. Using these notions, it was hypothesized that different measures of performance should be improved. The results indicate that both cognitive performance, in terms of the ability to interpret incomplete and fragmented pictures, and motor performance, in terms of the ability to follow a printed line with a stylus, is improved by this procedure compared to that of a control group exposed to the neutral message "People are walking." However, it was not possible to relate these changes to individual differences in terms of the individual's structure of his psychological defense system as measured by the Defense Mechanism Test (DMT). Other possible explanations are discussed.

  14. Mesenchymal stem cell transplantation ameliorates motor function deterioration of spinocerebellar ataxia by rescuing cerebellar Purkinje cells

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    Ma Wei-Hsien

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA refers to a disease entity in which polyglutamine aggregates are over-produced in Purkinje cells (PCs of the cerebellum as well as other neurons in the central nervous system, and the formation of intracellular polyglutamine aggregates result in the loss of neurons as well as deterioration of motor functions. So far there is no effective neuroprotective treatment for this debilitating disease although numerous efforts have been made. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs possess multi-lineage differentiation potentials as well as immuno-modulatory properties, and are theoretically good candidates for SCA treatment. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether transplantation of human MSCs (hMSCs can rescue cerebellar PCs and ameliorate motor function deterioration in SCA in a pre-clinical animal model. Method Transgenic mice bearing poly-glutamine mutation in ataxin-2 gene (C57BL/6J SCA2 transgenic mice were serially transplanted with hMSCs intravenously or intracranially before and after the onset of motor function loss. Motor function of mice was evaluated by an accelerating protocol of rotarod test every 8 weeks. Immunohistochemical stain of whole brain sections was adopted to demonstrate the neuroprotective effect of hMSC transplantation on cerebellar PCs and engraftment of hMSCs into mice brain. Results Intravenous transplantation of hMSCs effectively improved rotarod performance of SCA2 transgenic mice and delayed the onset of motor function deterioration; while intracranial transplantation failed to achieve such neuroprotective effect. Immunohistochemistry revealed that intravenous transplantation was more effective in the preservation of the survival of cerebellar PCs and engraftment of hMSCs than intracranial injection, which was compatible to rotarod performance of transplanted mice. Conclusion Intravenous transplantation of hMSCs can indeed delay the onset as well as improve the motor

  15. Individually modifiable risk factors to ameliorate cognitive aging: a systematic review and meta-analysis

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    Lehert, Philippe; Villaseca, Paulina; Hogervorst, Eef; Maki, Pauline M.; Henderson, Victor W.

    2016-01-01

    A number of health and lifestyle factors are thought to contribute to cognitive decline associated with age but cannot be easily modified by the individual patient. We identified 12 individually-modifiable interventions that can be implemented during midlife or later with the potential to ameliorate cognitive aging. For 10 of these, we used PubMed databases for a systematic review of long-duration (at least six months), randomized controlled trials in midlife and older adults without dementia or mild cognitive impairment with objective measures of neuropsychological performance. Using network meta-analysis, we performed a quantitative synthesis for global cognition (primary outcome) and episodic memory (secondary outcome). Of 1038 publications identified by our search strategy, 24 eligible trials were included in the network meta-analysis. Results suggested that the Mediterranean diet supplemented by olive oil and tai chi exercise may improve global cognition, and the Mediterranean diet plus olive oil and soy isoflavone supplements may improve memory. Effect sizes were no more than small (standardized mean differences 0.11 to 0.22). Cognitive training may have cognitive benefit as well. Most individually modifiable risk factors have not yet been adequately studied. We conclude that some interventions that can be self-initiated by healthy midlife and older adults may ameliorate cognitive aging. PMID:26361790

  16. Obesity Reduces Cognitive and Motor Functions across the Lifespan

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    Wang, Chuanming; Chan, John S. Y.; Ren, Lijie; Yan, Jin H.

    2016-01-01

    Due to a sedentary lifestyle, more and more people are becoming obese nowadays. In addition to health-related problems, obesity can also impair cognition and motor performance. Previous results have shown that obesity mainly affects cognition and motor behaviors through altering brain functions and musculoskeletal system, respectively. Many factors, such as insulin/leptin dysregulation and inflammation, mediate the effect of obesity and cognition and motor behaviors. Substantial evidence has suggested exercise to be an effective way to improve obesity and related cognitive and motor dysfunctions. This paper aims to discuss the association of obesity with cognition and motor behaviors and its underlying mechanisms. Following this, mechanisms of exercise to improve obesity-related dysfunctions are described. Finally, implications and future research direction are raised. PMID:26881095

  17. The effect of interactive cognitive-motor training in reducing fall risk in older people: a systematic review.

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    Schoene, Daniel; Valenzuela, Trinidad; Lord, Stephen R; de Bruin, Eling D

    2014-09-20

    It is well-known physical exercise programs can reduce falls in older people. Recently, several studies have evaluated interactive cognitive-motor training that combines cognitive and gross motor physical exercise components. The aim of this systematic review was to determine the effects of these interactive cognitive-motor interventions on fall risk in older people. Studies were identified with searches of the PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane CENTRAL databases from their inception up to 31 December 2013. Criteria for inclusion were a) at least one treatment arm that contained an interactive cognitive-motor intervention component; b) a minimum age of 60 or a mean age of 65 years; c) reported falls or at least one physical, psychological or cognitive fall risk factor as an outcome measure; d) published in Dutch, English or German. Single case studies and robot-assisted training interventions were excluded. Due to the diversity of populations included, outcome measures and heterogeneity in study designs, no meta-analyses were conducted. Thirty-seven studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Reporting and methodological quality were often poor and sample sizes were mostly small. One pilot study found balance board training reduced falls and most studies reported training improved physical (e.g. balance and strength) and cognitive (e.g. attention, executive function) measures. Inconsistent results were found for psychological measures related to falls-efficacy. Very few between-group differences were evident when interactive cognitive-motor interventions were compared to traditional training programs. The review findings provide preliminary evidence that interactive cognitive-motor interventions can improve physical and cognitive fall risk factors in older people, but that the effect of such interventions on falls has not been definitively demonstrated. Interactive cognitive-motor interventions appear to be of equivalent efficacy in ameliorating fall risk as traditional

  18. Infant motor and cognitive abilities and subsequent executive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Meng; Liang, Xi; Lu, Shan; Wang, Zhengyan

    2017-11-01

    Although executive function (EF) is widely considered crucial to several aspects of life, the mechanisms underlying EF development remain largely unexplored, especially for infants. From a behavioral or neurodevelopmental perspective, motor and general cognitive abilities are linked with EF. EF development is a multistage process that starts with sensorimotor interactive behaviors, which become basic cognitive abilities and, in turn, mature EF. This study aims to examine how infant motor and general cognitive abilities are linked with their EF at 3 years of age. This work also aims to explore the potential processes of EF development from early movement. A longitudinal study was conducted with 96 infants (55 girls and 41 boys). The infants' motor and general cognitive abilities were assessed at 1 and 2 years of age with Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Second and Third Editions, respectively. Infants' EFs were assessed at 3 years of age with Working Memory Span task, Day-Night task, Wrapped Gift task, and modified Gift-in-Bag task. Children with higher scores for cognitive ability at 2 years of age performed better in working memory, and children with higher scores for gross motor ability at 2 years performed better in cognitive inhibitory control (IC). Motor ability at 1 year and fine/gross motor ability at 2 years indirectly affected cognitive IC via general cognitive ability at 2 years and working memory. EF development is a multistage process that originates from physical movement to simple cognitive function, and then to complex cognitive function. Infants and toddlers can undergo targeted motor training to promote EF development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Cognition and behavior in motor neuron disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raaphorst, J.

    2015-01-01

    Motor neuron disease (MND) is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive motor neuron loss, leading to weakness of the muscles of arms and legs, bulbar and respiratory muscles. Depending on the involvement of the lower and the upper motor neuron, amyotrophic lateral

  20. Flos Puerariae Extract Ameliorates Cognitive Impairment in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Mice

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    Zhong-he Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The effects of Flos Puerariae extract (FPE on cognitive impairment associated with diabetes were assessed in C57BL/6J mice. Methods. Experimental diabetic mice model was induced by one injection of 50 mg/kg streptozotocin (STZ for 5 days consecutively. FPE was orally administrated at the dosages of 50, 100, or 200 mg/kg/day, respectively. The learning and memory ability was assessed by Morris water maze test. Body weight, blood glucose, free fatty acid (FFA and total cholesterol (TCH in serum, malondialdehyde (MDA, superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px, and acetylcholinesterase (AChE activities in cerebral cortex and hippocampus were also measured. Results. Oral administration of FPE significantly improved cognitive deficits in STZ-induced diabetic mice. FPE treatment also maintained body weight and ameliorated hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia in diabetic mice. Additionally, decreased MDA level, enhanced CAT, and GSH-Px activities in cerebral cortex or hippocampus, as well as alleviated AChE activity in cerebral cortex, were found in diabetic mice supplemented with FPE. Conclusion. This study suggests that FPE ameliorates memory deficits in experimental diabetic mice, at least partly through the normalization of metabolic abnormalities, ameliorated oxidative stress, and AChE activity in brain.

  1. Aging and Concurrent Task Performance: Cognitive Demand and Motor Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albinet, Cedric; Tomporowski, Phillip D.; Beasman, Kathryn

    2006-01-01

    A motor task that requires fine control of upper limb movements and a cognitive task that requires executive processing--first performing them separately and then concurrently--was performed by 18 young and 18 older adults. The motor task required participants to tap alternatively on two targets, the sizes of which varied systematically. The…

  2. Electroacupuncture Ameliorates Cognitive Deficit and Improves Hippocampal Synaptic Plasticity in Adult Rat with Neonatal Maternal Separation

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    Lili Guo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to adverse early-life events is thought to be the risk factors for the development of psychiatric and altered cognitive function in adulthood. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether electroacupuncture (EA treatment in young adult rat would improve impaired cognitive function and synaptic plasticity in adult rat with neonatal maternal separation (MS. Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: control group, MS group, MS with EA treatment (MS + EA group, and MS with Sham-EA treatment (MS + Sham-EA group. We evaluated the cognitive function by using Morris water maze and fear conditioning tests. Electrophysiology experiment used in vivo long-term potentiation (LTP at Schaffer Collateral-CA1 synapses was detected to assess extent of synaptic plasticity. Repeated EA stimulation at Baihui (GV 20 and Yintang (GV 29 during postnatal 9 to 11 weeks was identified to significantly ameliorate poor performance in behavior tests and improve the impaired LTP induction detected at Schaffer Collateral-CA1 synapse in hippocampus. Collectively, the findings suggested that early-life stress due to MS may induce adult cognitive deficit associated with hippocampus, and EA in young adult demonstrated that its therapeutic efficacy may be via ameliorating deficit of hippocampal synaptic plasticity.

  3. Cannabis-induced Moto-Cognitive Dysfunction in Wistar Rats: Ameliorative Efficacy of Nigella Sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imam, Aminu; Ajao, Moyosore Saliu; Amin, Abdulbasit; Abdulmajeed, Wahab Imam; Ibrahim, Abdulmumin; Olajide, Olayemi Joseph; Ajibola, Musa Iyiola; Alli-Oluwafuyi, Abdulmusawir; Balogun, Wasiu Gbolahan

    2016-09-01

    Cannabis is a widely used illicit drug with various threats of personality syndrome, and Nigella sativa has been widely implicated as having therapeutic efficacy in many neurological diseases. The present study investigates the ameliorative efficacy of Nigella sativa oil (NSO) on cannabis-induced moto-cognitive defects. Scopolamine (1 mg/kg i.p.) was given to induce dementia as a standard base line for cannabis (20 mg/kg)-induced cognitive impairment, followed by an oral administration of NSO (1 ml/kg) for 14 consecutive days. The Morris water maze (MWM) paradigm was used to assess the memory index, the elevated plus maze was used for anxiety-like behaviour, and the open field test was used for locomotor activities; thereafter, the rats were sacrificed and their brains were removed for histopathologic studies. Cannabis-like Scopolamine caused memory impairment, delayed latency in the MWM, and anxiety-like behaviour, coupled with alterations in the cerebello-hippocampal neurons. The post-treatment of rats with NSO mitigated cannabis-induced cognitive dysfunction as with scopolamine and impaired anxiety-like behaviour by increasing open arm entry, line crossing, and histological changes. The observed ameliorative effects of NSO make it a promising agent against moto-cognitive dysfunction and cerebelo-hippocampal alterations induced by cannabis.

  4. The effect of tuberculous meningitis on the cognitive and motor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Council diagnosis classification.s. Cognitive and motor functions were evaluated by one of two occupational therapists by means of the Herbst test ... case of Arens et al.,2 on the presence of cerebral palsy with or without other neurological complications. Our study concentrated on TBM's effect on cognitive development as.

  5. Cannabidiol prevents motor and cognitive impairments induced by reserpine in rats

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    Fernanda Fiel Peres

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cannabidiol (CBD is a non-psychotomimetic compound from Cannabis sativa that presents antipsychotic, anxiolytic, anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects. In Parkinson’s disease patients, CBD is able to attenuate the psychotic symptoms induced by L-DOPA and to improve quality of life. Repeated administration of reserpine in rodents induces motor impairments that are accompanied by cognitive deficits, and has been applied to model both tardive dyskinesia and Parkinson’s disease. The present study investigated whether CBD administration would attenuate reserpine-induced motor and cognitive impairments in rats. Male Wistar rats received four injections of CBD (0.5 or 5 mg/kg or vehicle (days 2-5. On days 3 and 5, animals received also one injection of 1 mg/kg reserpine or vehicle. Locomotor activity, vacuous chewing movements and catalepsy were assessed from day 1 to day 7. On days 8 and 9, we evaluated animals’ performance on the plus-maze discriminative avoidance task, for learning/memory assessment. CBD (0.5 and 5 mg/kg attenuated the increase in catalepsy behavior and in oral movements – but not the decrease in locomotion – induced by reserpine. CBD (0.5 mg/kg also ameliorated the reserpine-induced memory deficit in the discriminative avoidance task. Our data show that CBD is able to attenuate motor and cognitive impairments induced by reserpine, suggesting the use of this compound in the pharmacotherapy of Parkinson’s disease and tardive dyskinesia.

  6. Modafinil ameliorates cognitive deficits induced by maternal separation and sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Vanessa Athaíde; Hirotsu, Camila; Matos, Gabriela; Alvarenga, Tathiana; Pires, Gabriel Natan; Kapczinski, Flávio; Schröder, Nadja; Tufik, Sergio; Andersen, Monica Levy

    2013-09-15

    Animals exposed to an early adverse event may be more susceptible to a second source of stress later in life, and these stressors may have additive deleterious effects. Sleep deprivation is known to be a stressor, affecting multiple body functions such as the cognition. Modafinil enhances working memory and attention in healthy non-sleep deprived subjects and in animal models of sleep deprivation. The first aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of maternal separation (MS) combined with paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD) in adulthood on recognition memory in rats. Second, we aimed to evaluate whether the administration of modafinil would be able to ameliorate memory deficits induced by MS and PSD. Wistar rat pups were initially distributed into MS and handling (H) groups, with their litters standardized in 4 females and 4 males. In adulthood, the male rats were submitted to PSD or control condition, being redistributed afterwards in modafinil- or vehicle-treatment immediately after the training session of object recognition task. PSD did not potentiate the cognitive deficit due to MS. However, modafinil was able to recover memory impairments associated to PSD and also to MS in the neonatal period. This study demonstrates for the first time that modafinil ameliorates cognitive deficits associated to MS and to PSD in adulthood, independent from MS in the neonatal period. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Motor interventions in children with severe or profound intellectual disabilities: motor, cognitive and social effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houwen, Suzanne; van der Putten, Annette; Vlaskamp, Carla

    2014-01-01

    Background: It is generally agreed that motor activity promotes motor, cognitive, and social development, but the specific benefits in children with severe or profound intellectual disabilities (S-PID) are as yet unknown. The aim of this study was to systematically review the evidence related to

  8. Cognitive and Motor Aspects of Parkinson's Disease Associated with Dysphagia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Sun; Youn, Jinyoung; Suh, Mee Kyung; Kim, Tae-Eun; Chin, Juhee; Park, Suyeon; Cho, Jin Whan

    2015-11-01

    Dysphagia is a common symptom and an important prognostic factor in Parkinson's disease (PD). Although cognitive and motor dysfunctions may contribute to dysphagia in patients with PD, any specific association between such problems and swallowing functions is unclear. Here, we examined the potential relationship between cognitive/motor components and swallowing functions in PD. We evaluated the contributions of cognition and motor function to the components of swallowing via video fluoroscopic swallowing (VFS) experiments. We prospectively enrolled 56 patients without dementia having PD. Parkinson's disease severity was assessed by the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS). All participants received neuropsychological tests covering general mental status, visuospatial function, attention, language, learning and memory, and frontal executive function. The well-validated "modified barium swallow impairment profile" scoring system was applied during VFS studies to quantify swallowing impairments. Finally, correlations between neuropsychological or motor functions and impairment in swallowing components were calculated. The most significant correlations were found between the frontal/executive or learning/memory domains and the oral phase of swallowing, though a minor component of the pharyngeal phase correlated with frontal function as well. Bradykinesia and the UPDRS total score were associated with both the pharyngeal and oral phases. Our findings suggest that cognitive dysfunctions are associated with the oral phase of swallowing in patients with early stage PD while the severity of motor symptoms may be associated with overall swallowing function.

  9. Apelin-13 ameliorates cognitive impairments in 6-hydroxydopamine-induced substantia nigra lesion in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghparast, Elham; Esmaeili-Mahani, Saeed; Abbasnejad, Mehdi; Sheibani, Vahid

    2018-04-01

    Although Parkinson's disease (PD) is well known with its motor deficits, the patients often suffer from cognitive dysfunction. Apelin, as the endogenous ligand of the APJ receptor, is found in several brain regions such as substantia nigra and mesolimbic pathway. However, the role of apelin in cognition and cognitive disorders has not been fully clarified. In this study the effects of apelin-13 were investigated on cognitive disorders in rat Parkinsonism experimental model. 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) was administrated into the substantia nigra. Apelin-13 (1, 2 and 3μg/rat) was administered into the substantia nigra one week after the 6-OHDA injection. Morris water maze (MWM), object location and novel object recognition tests were performed one month after the apelin injection. 6-OHDA-treated animals showed a significant impairment in cognitive functions which was revealed by the increased in the escape latency and traveled distance in MWM test and decreased in the exploration index in novel object recognition and object location tasks. Apelin-13 (3μg/rat) significantly attenuates the mentioned cognitive impairments in 6-OHDA-treated animals. In conclusion, the data support the pro-cognitive property of apelin-13 in 6-OHDA-induced cognitive deficit and provided a new pharmacological aspect of the neuropeptide apelin. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Cognitive and cognitive-motor interventions affecting physical functioning: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murer Kurt

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several types of cognitive or combined cognitive-motor intervention types that might influence physical functions have been proposed in the past: training of dual-tasking abilities, and improving cognitive function through behavioral interventions or the use of computer games. The objective of this systematic review was to examine the literature regarding the use of cognitive and cognitive-motor interventions to improve physical functioning in older adults or people with neurological impairments that are similar to cognitive impairments seen in aging. The aim was to identify potentially promising methods that might be used in future intervention type studies for older adults. Methods A systematic search was conducted for the Medline/Premedline, PsycINFO, CINAHL and EMBASE databases. The search was focused on older adults over the age of 65. To increase the number of articles for review, we also included those discussing adult patients with neurological impairments due to trauma, as these cognitive impairments are similar to those seen in the aging population. The search was restricted to English, German and French language literature without any limitation of publication date or restriction by study design. Cognitive or cognitive-motor interventions were defined as dual-tasking, virtual reality exercise, cognitive exercise, or a combination of these. Results 28 articles met our inclusion criteria. Three articles used an isolated cognitive rehabilitation intervention, seven articles used a dual-task intervention and 19 applied a computerized intervention. There is evidence to suggest that cognitive or motor-cognitive methods positively affects physical functioning, such as postural control, walking abilities and general functions of the upper and lower extremities, respectively. The majority of the included studies resulted in improvements of the assessed functional outcome measures. Conclusions The current evidence on the

  11. Cognitive Ameliorating Effect of Acanthopanax koreanum Against Scopolamine-Induced Memory Impairment in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sunhee; Park, Ho Jae; Jeon, Se Jin; Kim, Eunji; Lee, Hyung Eun; Kim, Haneul; Kwon, Yubeen; Zhang, Jiabao; Jung, In Ho; Ryu, Jong Hoon

    2017-03-01

    Acanthopanax koreanum Nakai (Araliaceae) is one of the most widely cultivated medicinal plants in Jeju Island, Korea, and the roots and stem bark of A. koreanum have been traditionally used as a tonic agent for general weakness. However, the use of A. koreanum for general weakness observed in the elderly, including those with declined cognitive function, has not been intensively investigated. This study was performed to investigate the effect of the ethanol extract of A. koreanum (EEAK) on cholinergic blockade-induced memory impairment in mice. To evaluate the ameliorating effects of EEAK against scopolamine-induced memory impairment, mice were orally administered EEAK (25, 50, 100, or 200 mg/kg), and several behavioral tasks, including a passive avoidance task, the Y-maze, and a novel object recognition task, were employed. Besides, western blot analysis was conducted to examine whether EEAK affected memory-associated signaling molecules, such as protein kinase B (Akt), Ca 2+ /calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB). The administration of EEAK (100 or 200 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly ameliorated the scopolamine-induced cognitive impairment in the passive avoidance task, the Y-maze, and the novel object recognition task. The phosphorylation levels of both Akt and CaMKII were significantly increased by approximately two-fold compared with the control group because of the administration of EEAK (100 or 200 mg/kg) (p memory-associated signaling molecules and may hold therapeutic potential against cognitive dysfunction, such as that presented in neurodegenerative diseases, for example, Alzheimer's disease. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. THE INFLUENCE OF MOTORIC AND COGNITIVE ABILITIES ON THE SUCCESSFULNESS IN SITUATIONAL MOTORIC TESTS IN VOLLEYBALL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bećir Šabotić

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The process of management of moving in volleyball is significally leaning on the activity of analyst. By practicing the game the sharpness of visual, tactical, cinestatical, vestbular and hearing feelings are significally improving. The aim of this work is to consolidate the relation between motoric and cognitive abilities of situational motoric abilities in volleyball. The sample of examination is taken from the population of pupils in eighth grade of primary school. For the processing of results the method of canonically – corelational analyses has been used. According to the given results it can be concluded that there is a very significant connection between the group of predictorical variables of motoric and cognitive abilities with the group of criteria variables of situational motoric abilities. Results like this are logical as well concerning the structure of performing the exercises in volleyball, which comes from the performing of quick movements and good coordination.

  13. The effect of tuberculous meningitis on the cognitive and motor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of tuberculous meningitis on the cognitive and motor development of children. C.J. Schoeman, I. Herbst, D.C. Nienkemper. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL.

  14. Effects of blueberries on inflammation, motor performance and cognitive function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motor and cognitive function decrease with age, to include deficits in balance, coordination, gait, processing speed, executive function, memory, and spatial learning. These functional declines may be caused by long term increases in and susceptibility to oxidative stress and inflammation. Research ...

  15. Short-Term Limb Immobilization Affects Cognitive Motor Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toussaint, Lucette; Meugnot, Aurore

    2013-01-01

    We examined the effects of a brief period of limb immobilization on the cognitive level of action control. A splint placed on the participants' left hand was used as a means of immobilization. We used a hand mental rotation task to investigate the immobilization-induced effects on motor imagery performance (Experiments 1 and 2) and a number mental…

  16. Early Speech Motor Development: Cognitive and Linguistic Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nip, Ignatius S. B.; Green, Jordan R.; Marx, David B.

    2009-01-01

    This longitudinal investigation examines developmental changes in orofacial movements occurring during the early stages of communication development. The goals were to identify developmental trends in early speech motor performance and to determine how these trends differ across orofacial behaviors thought to vary in cognitive and linguistic…

  17. Smart Soup, a traditional Chinese medicine formula, ameliorates amyloid pathology and related cognitive deficits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujun Hou

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that causes substantial public health care burdens. Intensive efforts have been made to find effective and safe disease-modifying treatment and symptomatic intervention alternatives against AD. Smart Soup (SS, a Chinese medicine formula composed of Rhizoma Acori Tatarinowii (AT, Poria cum Radix Pini (PRP and Radix Polygalae (RP, is a typical prescription against memory deficits. Here, we assessed the efficacy of SS against AD. Oral administration of SS ameliorated the cognitive impairment of AD transgenic mice, with reduced Aβ levels, retarded Aβ amyloidosis and reduced Aβ-induced gliosis and neuronal loss in the brains of AD mice. Consistently, SS treatment reduced amyloid-related locomotor dysfunctions and premature death of AD transgenic Drosophila. Mechanistic studies showed that RP reduced Aβ generation, whereas AT and PRP exerted neuroprotective effects against Aβ. Taken together, our study indicates that SS could be effective against AD, providing a practical therapeutic strategy against the disease.

  18. How to Cheat and Not Feel Guilty: Cognitive Dissonance and Its Amelioration in the Domain of Academic Dishonesty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Jason M.

    2017-01-01

    The belief that cheating is wrong doesn't prevent its enactment. For example, many students cheat despite believing that is wrong or unjustifiable. The question taken up in this article concerns how the resulting cognitive dissonance is ameliorated; that is, how do students cheat and not feel guilty? This article will describe two "good"…

  19. The cognitive complexity of concurrent cognitive-motor tasks reveals age-related deficits in motor performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira, Anderson Souza; Reiche, Mikkel Staall; Vinescu, Cristina Ioana

    2018-01-01

    Aging reduces cognitive functions, and such impairments have implications in mental and motor performance. Cognitive function has been recently linked to the risk of falls in older adults. Physical activities have been used to attenuate the declines in cognitive functions and reduce fall incidence...... tasks when compared to younger adults. Both upper limb and walking tasks involved simple and complex cognitive demands through decision-making. For both tasks, decision-making was assessed by including a distracting factor to the execution. The results showed that older adults were substantially slower......, but little is known whether a physically active lifestyle can maintain physical performance under cognitively demanding conditions. The aim of this study was to verify whether physically active older adults present similar performance deficits during upper limb response time and precision stepping walking...

  20. Dihydrotestosterone ameliorates degeneration in muscle, axons and motoneurons and improves motor function in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis model mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Eun Yoo

    Full Text Available Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is a lethal disease characterized by a progressive loss of motoneurons. The clinical symptoms include skeletal muscle weakness and atrophy, which impairs motor performance and eventually leads to respiratory failure. We tested whether dihydrotestosterone (DHT, which has both anabolic effects on muscle and neuroprotective effects on axons and motoneurons, can ameliorate clinical symptoms in ALS. A silastic tube containing DHT crystals was implanted subcutaneously in SOD1-G93A mice at early symptomatic age when decreases in body weight and grip-strength were observed as compared to wild-type mice. DHT-treated SOD1-G93A mice demonstrated ameliorated muscle atrophy and increased body weight, which was associated with stronger grip-strength. DHT treatment increased the expression of insulin-like growth factor-1 in muscle, which can exert myotrophic as well as neurotrophic effects through retrograde transport. DHT treatment attenuated neuromuscular junction denervation, and axonal and motoneuron loss. DHT-treated SOD1-G93A mice demonstrated improvement in motor behavior as assessed by rota-rod and gait analyses, and an increased lifespan. Application of DHT is a relatively simple and non-invasive procedure, which may be translated into therapy to improve the quality of life for ALS patients.

  1. Effects of Risperidone on Cognitive-Motor Performance and Motor Movements in Chronically Medicated Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aman, Michael G.; Hollway, Jill A.; Leone, Sarah; Masty, Jessica; Lindsay, Ronald; Nash, Patricia; Arnold, L. Eugene

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to explore the placebo-controlled effects of risperidone on cognitive-motor processes, dyskinetic movements, and behavior in children receiving maintenance risperidone therapy. Sixteen children aged 4-14 years with disruptive behavior were randomly assigned to drug order in a crossover study of risperidone and placebo for 2…

  2. Apathy, cognitive function and motor function in Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salma S. Soleman Hernandez

    Full Text Available Abstract The aims of this study were to characterize the presence of apathy in patients with AD, determine the relationship between apathy, motor function and cognitive function, and to verify differences among patients stratified by level of apathy in relation to cognitive and motor abilities. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted of 37 patients with AD. The following tests were used: MoCA, the Frontal Assessment Battery, Verbal Fluency, Clock Drawing Test, Andreotti & Okuma Battery Tests, Sit and Reach, Resistance of Upper Limbs - AAHPERD Battery Test, Sit and Lift Chair and the Apathy domain of the Neuropsychiatric Inventory. After verifying the normality of the data distribution, comparisons were made using Student's t-test and the U Mann Whitney test; relationships were also assessed using Pearson's and Spearman's correlation coefficients. All analyses were considered to be statistically significant at a p-value of 0.05. Results: 46% of participants in this study showed mild symptoms of apathy. Significant and weak associations were found (p=0.04 between apathy and the attention domain on the MoCA and between apathy and the Walk Test. Analysis of differences in cognitive and motor functions according to participants' level of apathy revealed no significant differences for any of the variables. Conclusion: Apathy was reflected in attention and the Walk Test, suggesting these variables may be related to cognitive and functional decline in AD patients.

  3. The motor intervention as delays prevention factor in motor and cognitive development of infants during the hospital stay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    arolina Panceri

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cognitive-motor tasks intervention is beneficial for the infant’s motor and cognitive development. These interventions in the hospital setting, have been widely studied in neonatal intensive care units, however, few studies evaluate child development within pediatric units. Objective: To evaluate the impact of cognitive-motor intervention in motor and cognitive development of infants hospitalized with respiratory diseases. Method: The research was characterized as quasi-experimental, 22 babies hospitalized in the pediatric unit for respiratory disease were divided into 2 groups (10 in the control group and 12 in the intervention group without significant differences in biological and socioeconomic data. The mean age was 5.50 months (SD ± 4.51, ranging between 1 and 16 months. Questionnaire was conducted with the infant’s parent/guardian for sample characterization. The Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS and the Bayley Scales of Infant Development (BSID-III was used to evaluate motor e cognitive development. Data analysis was performed using descriptive statistics, Student’s t test, General Linear Model and One Way ANOVA. Results: The results show a significant interaction between group x time in motor and cognitive scores. When comparing the two times, the intervention group changed positively and significantly from pre- to post-intervention in motor and cognitive scores. The same was not observed for the control group. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that the intervention during the hospital stay contributes positively to the motor and cognitive development.

  4. Flexible cognitive strategies during motor learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jordan A; Ivry, Richard B

    2011-03-01

    Visuomotor rotation tasks have proven to be a powerful tool to study adaptation of the motor system. While adaptation in such tasks is seemingly automatic and incremental, participants may gain knowledge of the perturbation and invoke a compensatory strategy. When provided with an explicit strategy to counteract a rotation, participants are initially very accurate, even without on-line feedback. Surprisingly, with further testing, the angle of their reaching movements drifts in the direction of the strategy, producing an increase in endpoint errors. This drift is attributed to the gradual adaptation of an internal model that operates independently from the strategy, even at the cost of task accuracy. Here we identify constraints that influence this process, allowing us to explore models of the interaction between strategic and implicit changes during visuomotor adaptation. When the adaptation phase was extended, participants eventually modified their strategy to offset the rise in endpoint errors. Moreover, when we removed visual markers that provided external landmarks to support a strategy, the degree of drift was sharply attenuated. These effects are accounted for by a setpoint state-space model in which a strategy is flexibly adjusted to offset performance errors arising from the implicit adaptation of an internal model. More generally, these results suggest that strategic processes may operate in many studies of visuomotor adaptation, with participants arriving at a synergy between a strategic plan and the effects of sensorimotor adaptation.

  5. Effects of Gait and Cognitive Task Difficulty on Cognitive-Motor Interference in Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prudence Plummer-D'Amato

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although gait-related dual-task interference in aging is well established, the effect of gait and cognitive task difficulty on dual-task interference is poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of gait and cognitive task difficulty on cognitive-motor interference in aging. Fifteen older adults (72.1 years, SD 5.2 and 20 young adults (21.7 years, SD 1.6 performed three walking tasks of varying difficulty (self-selected speed, fast speed, and fast speed with obstacle crossing under single- and dual-task conditions. The cognitive tasks were the auditory Stroop task and the clock task. There was a significant Group × Gait Task × Cognitive Task interaction for the dual-task effect on gait speed. After adjusting for education, there were no significant effects of gait or cognitive task difficulty on the dual-task effects on cognitive task performance. The results of this study provide evidence that gait task difficulty influences dual-task effects on gait speed, especially in older adults. Moreover, the effects of gait task difficulty on dual-task interference appear to be influenced by the difficulty of the cognitive task. Education is an important factor influencing cognitive-motor interference effects on cognition, but not gait.

  6. Spatial cognitive rehabilitation and motor recovery after stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, A.M.; Muzaffar, Tufail

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review Stroke rehabilitation needs to take major steps forward to reduce functional disability for survivors. In this article, we suggest that spatial retraining might greatly increase the efficiency and efficacy of motor rehabilitation, directly addressing the burden and cost of paralysis after stroke. Recent findings Combining motor and cognitive treatment may be practical, as well as addressing needs after moderate–to-severe stroke. Spatial neglect could suppress motor recovery and reduce motor learning, even when patients receive appropriate rehabilitation to build strength, dexterity, and endurance. Spatial neglect rehabilitation acts to promote motor as well as visual-perceptual recovery. These findings, and previous underemphasized studies, make a strong case for combining spatial neglect treatment with traditional exercise training. Spatial neglect therapies might also help people who cannot participate in intensive movement therapies because of limited strength and endurance after stroke. Summary Spatial retraining, currently used selectively after right brain stroke, may be broadly useful after stroke to promote rapid motor recovery. PMID:25364954

  7. Review of Apraxia: The cognitive side of motor control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martínez-Ferreiro, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Reviews the book, Apraxia: The Cognitive Side of Motor Control by G. Goldenberg (see record 2013-31133-000). The book makes a significant contribution to the study of this multifaceted syndrome, especially in relation to limb apraxia, the author’s main research area. Despite more than 100 years o...... and current state of apraxia research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)...

  8. Motor and cognitive development: the role of karate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alesi, Marianha; Bianco, Antonino; Padulo, Johnny; Vella, Francesco Paolo; Petrucci, Marco; Paoli, Antonio; Palma, Antonio; Pepi, Annamaria

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background: regular physical activity has an effect on biological responses in both muscles and organs that, in turn, alter the structure and functions of the brain. Therefore, this study aims at comparing motor (sprint, coordination ability and explosive legs strength skills) and cognitive abilities (working memory, attention, executive functioning) in children. Methods: 39 children with average chronological age of 9 years were divided in: Karatekas (n=19) and Sedentary (n=20) groups. Their abilities were measured by motor and cognitive tests. Motor skills were assessed through a battery composed by the 20 mt Sprint test, the Agility test and the Standing board jump Test. Cognitive profile was assessed by a battery of tests derived from BVN 5–11, “Batteria di Valutazione Neuropsicologica per l’Et à Evolutiva”: Visual discrimination test, Reaction time test, Forwards and Backwards Digit Span Tests, Corsi Block-Tapping test and Tower of London. Results: our results reveal significant differences between two groups (p < 0.05). Karate children show better speed times, explosive legs strength and coordination skills. They scored better on working memory, visual selective attention and executive functions. Conclusion: karate exercise training shows global benefits resulting in physiological and psychological gains in children. PMID:25332920

  9. Minocycline ameliorates cognitive impairment induced by whole-brain irradiation: an animal study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Liyuan; Li, Kun; Sun, Rui; Zhang, Yuan; Ji, JianFeng; Huang, Peigeng; Yang, Hongying; Tian, Ye

    2014-01-01

    It has been long recognized that cranial irradiation used for the treatment of primary and metastatic brain tumor often causes neurological side-effects such as intellectual impairment, memory loss and dementia, especially in children patients. Our previous study has demonstrated that whole-brain irradiation (WBI) can cause cognitive decline in rats. Minocycline is an antibiotic that has shown neuroprotective properties in a variety of experimental models of neurological diseases. However, whether minocycline can ameliorate cognitive impairment induced by ionizing radiation (IR) has not been tested. Thus this study aimed to demonstrate the potential implication of minocycline in the treatment of WBI-induced cognitive deficits by using a rat model. Sprague Dawley rats were cranial irradiated with electron beams delivered by a linear accelerator with a single dose of 20 Gy. Minocycline was administered via oral gavages directly into the stomach before and after irradiation. The open field test was used to assess the anxiety level of rats. The Morris water maze (MWM) was used to assess the spatial learning and memory of rats. The level of apoptosis in hippocampal neurons was measured using immunohistochemistry for caspase-3 and relative markers for mature neurons (NeuN) or for newborn neurons (Doublecortin (DCX)). Neurogenesis was determined by BrdU incorporation method. Neither WBI nor minocycline affected the locomotor activity and anxiety level of rats. However, compared with the sham-irradiated controls, WBI caused a significant loss of learning and memory manifest as longer latency to reach the hidden platform in the MWM task. Minocycline intervention significantly improved the memory retention of irradiated rats. Although minocycline did not rescue neurogenesis deficit caused by WBI 2 months post-IR, it did significantly decreased WBI-induced apoptosis in the DCX positive neurons, thereby resulting in less newborn neuron depletion 12 h after irradiation

  10. Huperzine A Ameliorates Cognitive Deficits in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Yuan Mao

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to probe the effects of Huperzine A (HupA on diabetes-associated cognitive decline (DACD using a streptozotocin (STZ-injected rat model. Diabetic rats were treated with HupA (0.05 and 0.1 mg/kg for seven weeks. Memory functions were evaluated by the water maze test. Nissl staining was selected for detecting neuronal loss. Protein and mRNA levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF were analyzed by ELISA and real-time PCR, respectively. The activities of choline acetylase (ChAT, Acetylcholinesterase (AChE, malondialdehyde (MDA, superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px, catalase (CAT, NF-κB p65 unit, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and caspase-3 were measured using corresponding kits. After seven weeks, diabetic rats exhibited remarkable reductions in: body weight, percentage of time spent in target quadrant, number of times crossing the platform, ChAT and BDNF levels, SOD, GSH-Px and CAT accompanied with increases in neuronal damage, plasma glucose levels, escape latency, mean path length, AChE, MDA level as well as CAT, NF-κB p65 unit, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and caspase-3 in cerebral cortex and hippocampus. Supplementation with HupA significantly and dose-dependently reversed the corresponding values in diabetes. It is concluded that HupA ameliorates DACD via modulating BDNF, oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis.

  11. Relationship between motor and cognitive development in children with developmental disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houwen, Suzanne; Visser, Linda; van der Putten, Annette; Vlaskamp, Carla

    2014-01-01

    Background: There is an emerging body of evidence showing that motor and cognitive development are intertwined. However, little is known about (early) motor, cognitive, and language development in children with developmental disabilities. The aims of this study were to examine motor development in

  12. Age-Related Decline in Anticipatory Motor Planning and Its Relation to Cognitive and Motor Skill Proficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Tino Stöckel; Kathrin Wunsch; Charmayne M. L. Hughes; Charmayne M. L. Hughes

    2017-01-01

    Anticipatory motor planning abilities mature as children grow older, develop throughout childhood and are likely to be stable till the late sixties. In the seventh decade of life, motor planning performance dramatically declines, with anticipatory motor planning abilities falling to levels of those exhibited by children. At present, the processes enabling successful anticipatory motor planning in general, as do the cognitive processes mediating these age-related changes, remain elusive. Thus,...

  13. Neuronal nicotinic receptor agonists ameliorate spontaneous motor asymmetries and motor discoordination in a unilateral mouse model of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucinski, Aaron; Wersinger, Scott; Stachowiak, Ewa K; Corso, Thomas D; Parry, Matthew J; Zhang, Jenny; Jordan, Kristen; Letchworth, Sharon; Bencherif, Merouane; Stachowiak, Michal K

    2013-10-01

    The degeneration of the nigrostriatal dopamine (DA) system underlies the motor deficits in Parkinson's disease (PD). In recent years, epidemiological reports that smokers have lower incidences of PD have brought attention to the nicotinic acetylcholine system as a potential target for novel therapeutics. Nicotine, an agonist of neuronal nicotinic receptors (NNRs), modulates functions relevant to PD via stimulation of dopaminergic transmission in the nigrostriatal pathway, particularly via activation of α6β2* and α4β2* NNRs. Recently, reduced support of DA neurons by neurotrophic growth factors has been described in PD. Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) is critical for the development and protection of adult DA neurons. In FGF-2 knockout mice and the related th-fgfr1(tk-) mouse model there is heightened sensitivity to DA neuronal oxidative neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA). In the present study, FGF-deficient transgenic mice th-fgfr1(tk-) were used to analyze the effects of novel full (TC-8831) and partial (TC-8581) agonists of β2-containing nicotinic receptors on impaired motor behavior following unilateral 6-OHDA lesions. The lesions generated spontaneous (drug-naïve) turning asymmetries that correlated exponentially with the depletion of DA biomarkers in the lesioned striata. These mice also exhibited a reduced capacity to remain on the accelerating rotarod. Oral administration of TC-8831, an NNR agonist with high specificity for β2 subunits and a full agonist at producing DA release from striatal synaptosomes, attenuated unidirectional turning and improved motor coordination. In contrast, partial β2 NNR agonist TC-8581 had no effect on behaviors in this model. This study demonstrates the potential of NNR targeting-compounds to facilitate motor function in PD. © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Treadmill exercise improves motor coordination through ameliorating Purkinje cell loss in amyloid beta23-35-induced Alzheimer's disease rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae-Min; Shin, Mal-Soon; Ji, Eun-Sang; Kim, Tae-Woon; Cho, Han-Sam; Kim, Chang-Ju; Jang, Myung-Soo; Kim, Tae-Wook; Kim, Bo-Kyun; Kim, Dong-Hee

    2014-10-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a most common age-related neurodegenerative disease. AD is characterized by a progressive loss of neurons causing cognitive dysfunction. The cerebellum is closely associated with integration of movement, including motor coordination, control, and equilibrium. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of tread-mill exercise on the survival of Purkinje neurons in relation with reactive astrocyte in the cerebellum using Aβ25-35-induced AD rats. AD was induced by a bilateral intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of Aβ25-35. The rats in the exercise groups were forced to run on a motorized treadmill for 30 min once a day for 4 weeks, starting 2 days after Aβ25-35 injection. In the present results, ICV injection of Aβ25-35 deteriorated motor coordination and balance. The number of calbindin-positive cells in the cerebellar vermis was decreased and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression in the cerebellar vermis was increased in the Aβ25-35-induced AD rats. Treadmill exercise improved motor coordination and balance. Treadmill exercise increased the number of Purkinje neurons and suppressed GFAP expression in the cerebellar vermis. The present study demonstrated that treadmill exercises alleviated dysfunction of motor coordination and balance by reduction of Purkinje cell loss through suppressing reactive astrocytes in the cerebellum of AD rats. The present study provides the possibility that treadmill exercise might be an important therapeutic strategy for the symptom improvement of AD patients.

  15. Relations among motor, social, and cognitive skills in pre-kindergarten children with developmental disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Helyn; Carlson, Abby G; Curby, Timothy W; Winsler, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Despite the comorbidity between motor difficulties and certain disabilities, limited research has examined links between early motor, cognitive, and social skills in preschool-aged children with developmental disabilities. The present study examined the relative contributions of gross motor and fine motor skills to the prediction of improvements in children's cognitive and social skills among 2,027 pre-kindergarten children with developmental disabilities, including specific learning disorder, speech/language impairment, intellectual disability, and autism spectrum disorder. Results indicated that for pre-kindergarten children with developmental disabilities, fine motor skills, but not gross motor skills, were predictive of improvements in cognitive and social skills, even after controlling for demographic information and initial skill levels. Moreover, depending on the type of developmental disability, the pattern of prediction of gross motor and fine motor skills to improvements in children's cognitive and social skills differed. Implications are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Relationship between motor coordination, cognitive abilities, and academic achievement in Japanese children with neurodevelopmental disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuya Higashionna

    2017-12-01

    Conclusion: These findings stress that it is essential to accurately identify motor coordination impairments and the interventions that would consider motor coordination problems related to cognitive abilities and academic achievement in Japanese children with neurodevelopmental disorders.

  17. Motor cognition-motor semantics: action perception theory of cognition and communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulvermüller, Friedemann; Moseley, Rachel L; Egorova, Natalia; Shebani, Zubaida; Boulenger, Véronique

    2014-03-01

    A new perspective on cognition views cortical cell assemblies linking together knowledge about actions and perceptions not only as the vehicles of integrated action and perception processing but, furthermore, as a brain basis for a wide range of higher cortical functions, including attention, meaning and concepts, sequences, goals and intentions, and even communicative social interaction. This article explains mechanisms relevant to mechanistic action perception theory, points to concrete neuronal circuits in brains along with artificial neuronal network simulations, and summarizes recent brain imaging and other experimental data documenting the role of action perception circuits in cognition, language and communication. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. DL0410 Ameliorates Memory and Cognitive Impairments Induced by Scopolamine via Increasing Cholinergic Neurotransmission in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenwen Lian

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Deficiency of the cholinergic system is thought to play a vital role in cognitive impairment of dementia. DL0410 was discovered as a dual inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase (AChE and butyrylcholinestease (BuChE, with potent efficiency in in-vitro experiments, but its in vivo effect on the cholinergic model has not been evaluated, and its action mechanism has also not been illustrated. In the present study, the capability of DL0410 in ameliorating the amnesia induced by scopolamine was investigated, and its effect on the cholinergic system in the hippocampus and its binding mode in the active site of AChE was also explored. Mice were administrated DL0410 (3 mg/kg, 10 mg/kg, and 30 mg/kg, and mice treated with donepezil were used as a positive control. The Morris water maze, escape learning task, and passive avoidance task were used as behavioral tests. The test results indicated that DL0410 could significantly improve the learning and memory impairments induced by scopolamine, with 10 mg/kg performing best. Further, DL0410 inhibited the AChE activity and increased acetylcholine (ACh levels in a dose-dependent manner, and interacted with the active site of AChE in a similar manner as donepezil. However, no difference in the activity of BuChE was found in this study. All of the evidence indicated that its AChE inhibition is an important mechanism in the anti-amnesia effect. In conclusion, DL0410 could be an effective therapeutic drug for the treatment of dementia, especially Alzheimer’s disease.

  19. Neuroprotective effects of Caralluma tuberculata on ameliorating cognitive impairment in a d-galactose-induced mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Zahid; Atlas, Nagina; Nawaz, Waqas

    2016-12-01

    Cognitive deficiency and oxidative stress have been well documented in aging disorders including Alzheimer's disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the therapeutic efficacy of Caralluma tuberculata methanolic extract (CTME) on cognitive impairment in mice induced with d-galactose. In this study we assessed the therapeutic efficacy of CTME on cognitive impairment in mice induced with d-galactose by conduction of behavioral and cognitive performance tests. In order to explore the possible role of CTME against d-galactose-induced oxidative damages, various biochemical indicators were assessed. Chronic administration of d-galactose (150mg/kgd, s.c.) for 7 weeks significantly impaired cognitive performance (in step-through passive, active avoidance test, Hole-Board test, Novel object recognition task and Morris water maze) and oxidative defense as compared to the control group. The results revealed that CTME treatment for two weeks (100, 200 and 300mg/kg p.o) significantly ameliorated cognitive performance and oxidative defense. All groups of CTME enhanced the learning and memory ability in step-through passive, active avoidance test, Hole-Board test Novel object recognition task and Morris water maze. Furthermore, high and middle level of CTME (300 and 200mg/kg p.o) significantly increased Total antioxidative capacity (T-AOC), Glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, neprilysin (NEP), and β-site AβPP cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) expression while Nitric Oxide (NO), Nitric Oxide Synthase (NOS) activity and Malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration, and the level of Aβ1-42 and presenilin 1 (PS1) were decreased. The present study showed that CTME have a significant relieving effect on learning, memory and spontaneous activities in d-galactose-induced mice model, and ameliorates cognitive impairment and biochemical dysfunction in mice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Motor and cognitive performance of overweight preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krombholz, Heinz

    2013-02-01

    Gross and fine motor skills and cognitive performance in obese and overweight children were compared to healthy weight children. Participants were 1,543 children (797 boys and 746 girls) ages 43 to 84 months, attending childcare centers in Munich, Germany. According to German Body Mass Index (BMI) standards for age and sex, 4.6% of the children were classified as obese (percentile greater or equal 97), 6.8% as overweight (percentile greater or equal 90 and less than 97), 5.9% as underweight (percentile less than 10), and 83.1% as being of healthy weight. Dependent variables were physical characteristics (height, weight, skinfold thickness), physical fitness (standing broad jump, shuttle run, hanging), body coordination (balancing forward, balancing backward, lateral jump, hopping), manual dexterity (right and left hand), and cognitive performance (intelligence, verbal ability, concentration). Higher proportions of children from lower socioeconomic and immigrant backgrounds were overweight. There was no association between weight and sex. Overweight children showed lower performance on gross motor skills (coordination and fitness), manual dexterity, and intelligence compared to healthy weight children, even after controlling for the effects of social class and immigration status.

  1. Intervention modalities for targeting cognitive-motor interference in individuals with neurodegenerative disease: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wajda, Douglas A; Mirelman, Anat; Hausdorff, Jeffrey M; Sosnoff, Jacob J

    2017-03-01

    Individuals with neurodegenerative disease (NDD) commonly have elevated cognitive-motor interference, change in either cognitive or motor performance (or both) when tasks are performed simultaneously, compared to healthy controls. Given that cognitive-motor interference is related to reduced community ambulation and elevated fall risk, it is a target of rehabilitation interventions. Areas covered: This review details the collective findings of previous dual task interventions in individuals with NDD. A total of 21 investigations focusing on 4 different neurodegenerative diseases and one NDD precursor (Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease (AD), dementia other than AD, and mild cognitive impairment) consisting of 721 participants were reviewed. Expert commentary: Preliminary evidence from interventions targeting cognitive-motor interference, both directly and indirectly, show promising results for improving CMI in individuals with neurodegenerative diseases. Methodological limitations, common to pilot investigations preclude firm conclusions. Well-designed randomized control trials targeting cognitive motor interference are warranted.

  2. Influence of mental practice and movement observation on motor memory, cognitive function and motor performance in the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline D. C. Altermann

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: With aging, it is important to maintain cognitive and motor functions to ensure autonomy and quality of life. During the acquisition of motor skills, it is necessary for the elderly to understand the purpose of the proposed activities. Physical and mental practice, as well as demonstrations, are strategies used to learn movements. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the influence of mental practice and the observation of movement on motor memory and to understand the relationship between cognitive function and motor performance in the execution of a sequence of digital movements in the elderly. METHOD: This was a cross-sectional study conducted with 45 young and 45 aged subjects. The instruments used were Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE, Manual Preference Inventory and a Digital Motor Task (composed of a training of a sequence of movements, an interval and a test phase. The subjects were divided into three subgroups: control, mental practice and observation of movement. RESULTS: The elderly depend more strongly on mental practice for the acquisition of a motor memory. In comparing the performances of people in different age groups, we found that in the elderly, there was a negative correlation between the MMSE score and the execution time as well as the number of errors in the motor task. CONCLUSIONS: For the elderly, mental practice can advantage motor performance. Also, there is a significant relationship between cognitive function, learning and the execution of new motor skills.

  3. Influence of mental practice and movement observation on motor memory, cognitive function and motor performance in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altermann, Caroline D C; Martins, Alexandre S; Carpes, Felipe P; Mello-Carpes, Pâmela B

    2014-01-01

    With aging, it is important to maintain cognitive and motor functions to ensure autonomy and quality of life. During the acquisition of motor skills, it is necessary for the elderly to understand the purpose of the proposed activities. Physical and mental practice, as well as demonstrations, are strategies used to learn movements. To investigate the influence of mental practice and the observation of movement on motor memory and to understand the relationship between cognitive function and motor performance in the execution of a sequence of digital movements in the elderly. This was a cross-sectional study conducted with 45 young and 45 aged subjects. The instruments used were Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Manual Preference Inventory and a Digital Motor Task (composed of a training of a sequence of movements, an interval and a test phase). The subjects were divided into three subgroups: control, mental practice and observation of movement. The elderly depend more strongly on mental practice for the acquisition of a motor memory. In comparing the performances of people in different age groups, we found that in the elderly, there was a negative correlation between the MMSE score and the execution time as well as the number of errors in the motor task. For the elderly, mental practice can advantage motor performance. Also, there is a significant relationship between cognitive function, learning and the execution of new motor skills.

  4. Lutein protects dopaminergic neurons against MPTP-induced apoptotic death and motor dysfunction by ameliorating mitochondrial disruption and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nataraj, Jagatheesan; Manivasagam, Thamilarasan; Thenmozhi, Arokiasamy Justin; Essa, Musthafa Mohammed

    2016-07-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress-mediated apoptosis plays an important role in various neurodegenerative diseases including Huntington's disease, Parkinson's disease (PD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). 1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), the most widely used neurotoxin mimics the symptoms of PD by inhibiting mitochondrial complex I that stimulates excessive intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and finally leads to mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis. Lutein, a carotenoid of xanthophyll family, is found abundantly in leafy green vegetables such as spinach, kale and in egg yolk, animal fat and human eye retinal macula. Increasing evidence indicates that lutein has offers benefits against neuronal damages during diabetic retinopathy, ischemia and AD by virtue of its mitochondrial protective, antioxidant and anti-apoptotic properties. Male C57BL/6 mice (23-26 g) were randomized and grouped in to Control, MPTP, and Lutein treated groups. Lutein significantly reversed the loss of nigral dopaminergic neurons by increasing the striatal dopamine level in mice. Moreover, lutein-ameliorated MPTP induced mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress and motor abnormalities. In addition, lutein repressed the MPTP-induced neuronal damage/apoptosis by inhibiting the activation of pro-apoptotic markers (Bax, caspases-3, 8 and 9) and enhancing anti-apoptotic marker (Bcl-2) expressions. Our current results revealed that lutein possessed protection on dopaminergic neurons by enhancing antioxidant defense and diminishing mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptotic death, suggesting the potential benefits of lutein for PD treatment.

  5. Cognitive dysfunction in lower motor neuron disease: executive and memory deficits in progressive muscular atrophy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raaphorst, J.; de Visser, M.; van Tol, M.-J.; Linssen, W.H.J.P.; van der Kooi, A.J.; de Haan, R.J.; van den Berg, L.H.; Schmand, B.

    2011-01-01

    Aim In contrast with findings in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), cognitive impairments have as yet not been shown in the lower motor neuron variant of motor neuron disease, progressive spinal muscular atrophy (PMA). The objective of this study was to investigate cognitive function in PMA and to

  6. Corpus callosum tissue loss and development of motor and global cognitive impairment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Kristian Steen; Garde, Ellen; Skimminge, Arnold

    2011-01-01

    To examine the impact of corpus callosum (CC) tissue loss on the development of global cognitive and motor impairment in the elderly.......To examine the impact of corpus callosum (CC) tissue loss on the development of global cognitive and motor impairment in the elderly....

  7. Exendin-4 ameliorates motor neuron degeneration in cellular and animal models of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazhou Li

    Full Text Available Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is a devastating neurodegenerative disease characterized by a progressive loss of lower motor neurons in the spinal cord. The incretin hormone, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1, facilitates insulin signaling, and the long acting GLP-1 receptor agonist exendin-4 (Ex-4 is currently used as an anti-diabetic drug. GLP-1 receptors are widely expressed in the brain and spinal cord, and our prior studies have shown that Ex-4 is neuroprotective in several neurodegenerative disease rodent models, including stroke, Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease. Here we hypothesized that Ex-4 may provide neuroprotective activity in ALS, and hence characterized Ex-4 actions in both cell culture (NSC-19 neuroblastoma cells and in vivo (SOD1 G93A mutant mice models of ALS. Ex-4 proved to be neurotrophic in NSC-19 cells, elevating choline acetyltransferase (ChAT activity, as well as neuroprotective, protecting cells from hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress and staurosporine-induced apoptosis. Additionally, in both wild-type SOD1 and mutant SOD1 (G37R stably transfected NSC-19 cell lines, Ex-4 protected against trophic factor withdrawal-induced toxicity. To assess in vivo translation, SOD1 mutant mice were administered vehicle or Ex-4 at 6-weeks of age onwards to end-stage disease via subcutaneous osmotic pump to provide steady-state infusion. ALS mice treated with Ex-4 showed improved glucose tolerance and normalization of behavior, as assessed by running wheel, compared to control ALS mice. Furthermore, Ex-4 treatment attenuated neuronal cell death in the lumbar spinal cord; immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated the rescue of neuronal markers, such as ChAT, associated with motor neurons. Together, our results suggest that GLP-1 receptor agonists warrant further evaluation to assess whether their neuroprotective potential is of therapeutic relevance in ALS.

  8. Cognitive and Developmental Influences in Visual-Motor Integration Skills in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Scott L.; Englund, Julia A.; Carboni, Jessica A.; Brooks, Janell H.

    2011-01-01

    Measures of visual-motor integration skills continue to be widely used in psychological assessments with children. However, the construct validity of many visual-motor integration measures remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the relative contributions of maturation and cognitive skills to the development of visual-motor integration…

  9. Familial and genetic effects on motor coordination, laterality, and reading-related cognition

    OpenAIRE

    Francks, C.; Fisher, S.; Marlow, A.; MacPhie, I.; Taylor, K.; Richardson, A.; Stein, J.; Monaco, A.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Recent research has provided evidence for a genetically mediated association between language or reading-related cognitive deficits and impaired motor coordination. Other studies have identified relationships between lateralization of hand skill and cognitive abilities. With a large sample, the authors aimed to investigate genetic relationships between measures of reading-related cognition, hand motor skill, and hand skill lateralization. METHOD: The authors applied univariate and ...

  10. Effect of aging and genetic variations on decision making, fine motor and cognitive skills

    OpenAIRE

    Bogaers, Lise

    2011-01-01

    Aging is associated with a decline in cognition and motor function. Several SNPs have been linked to neural and cognitive variation in healthy adults. Moreover, it is suggested that the effects of genetic variants are enhanced with human aging. The present study investigates whether aging and genetic variants, in this case the BDNF and COMT Val/Met polymorphisms, influence executive functioning, fine hand motor control and cognitive skills. Fifty-seven healthy volunteers were genotyped fo...

  11. Differential effects of aging on motor and cognitive functioning in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Shumita; Frndak, Seth; Drake, Allison S; Irwin, Lauren; Zivadinov, Robert; Weinstock-Guttman, Bianca; Benedict, Ralph Hb

    2017-09-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) patients are impaired in motor and cognitive performance, but the extent to which these deficits are magnified by aging is unknown. In one prior study, differences in cognitive processing speed between MS patients and healthy individuals were of similar magnitude across the lifespan. Here, we have improved on this work by expanding assessment to multiple cognitive domains and motor functioning. To determine whether the degree of cognitive and motor dysfunction in MS is magnified with increasing age. In all, 698 MS patients (aged 29-71 years) and 226 healthy controls (HCs; aged 18-72 years) completed neuroperformance tests covering ambulation, upper extremity function, information processing speed, and memory. Linear regression models predicting cognitive and motor function revealed main effects of MS/HC diagnosis, age, and education across all measures. There was also an interaction between age and diagnosis on measures of motor function, but not on cognitive outcomes. The progression of motor decline is amplified by aging in MS. However, the degree of cognitive impairment does not vary across the lifespan. Thus, evidence of accelerated cognitive impairment in older adults with MS may signal the presence of other age-related cognitive pathologies.

  12. Cognitive performance under motor demands - On the influence of task difficulty and postural control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebherr, Magnus; Weiland-Breckle, Hanna; Grewe, Tanja; Schumacher, Petra B

    2018-04-01

    We often walk around when we have to think about something, but suddenly stop when we are confronted with a demanding cognitive task, such as calculating 1540*24. While previous neurophysiological research investigated cognitive and motor performance separately, findings that combine both are rare. To get a deeper understanding of the influence of motor demands as well as the difficulty of a simultaneously performed cognitive task, we investigated 20 healthy individuals. Participants performed two cognitive tasks with different levels of difficulty while sitting or standing on one leg. In addition to behavioral data, we recorded the electroencephalogram from 26Ag/AgCI scalp electrodes. The critical time-windows, predefined by visual inspection, yielded an early (200-300 ms, P2) and a subsequent positivity (350-500 ms, P3). Statistical analysis of the early time window registered a motor × cognition interaction. Resolution of this interaction revealed an effect of the cognitive task in the one-legged stance motor condition, with a more pronounced positivity for the difficult task. No significant differences between cognitive tasks emerged for the simple motor condition. The time-window between 350 and 500 ms registered main effects of the motor task and a trend for the cognitive task. While the influence of cognitive task difficulty (in the P3) is in accordance with previous studies, the motor task effect is specific to one-legged stance (cf. no effects for running in previous research). The motor-cognition interaction found in the P2 indicates that the more difficult motor task (one-legged stance) facilitates cognitive task performance. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Motor system hyperconnectivity in juvenile myoclonic epilepsy: a cognitive functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmar, Christian; O'Muircheartaigh, Jonathan; Barker, Gareth J; Symms, Mark R; Thompson, Pamela; Kumari, Veena; Duncan, John S; Janz, Dieter; Richardson, Mark P; Koepp, Matthias J

    2011-06-01

    Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy is the most frequent idiopathic generalized epilepsy syndrome. It is characterized by predominant myoclonic jerks of upper limbs, often provoked by cognitive activities, and typically responsive to treatment with sodium valproate. Neurophysiological, neuropsychological and imaging studies in juvenile myoclonic epilepsy have consistently pointed towards subtle abnormalities in the medial frontal lobes. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging with an executive frontal lobe paradigm, we investigated cortical activation patterns and interaction between cortical regions in 30 patients with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy and 26 healthy controls. With increasing cognitive demand, patients showed increasing coactivation of the primary motor cortex and supplementary motor area. This effect was stronger in patients still suffering from seizures, and was not seen in healthy controls. Patients with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy showed increased functional connectivity between the motor system and frontoparietal cognitive networks. Furthermore, we found impaired deactivation of the default mode network during cognitive tasks with persistent activation in medial frontal and central regions in patients. Coactivation in the motor cortex and supplementary motor area with increasing cognitive load and increased functional coupling between the motor system and cognitive networks provide an explanation how cognitive effort can cause myoclonic jerks in juvenile myoclonic epilepsy. The supplementary motor area represents the anatomical link between these two functional systems, and our findings may be the functional correlate of previously described structural abnormalities in the medial frontal lobe in juvenile myoclonic epilepsy.

  14. An Evolutionary Upgrade of Cognitive Load Theory: Using the Human Motor System and Collaboration to Support the Learning of Complex Cognitive Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paas, Fred; Sweller, John

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive load theory is intended to provide instructional strategies derived from experimental, cognitive load effects. Each effect is based on our knowledge of human cognitive architecture, primarily the limited capacity and duration of a human working memory. These limitations are ameliorated by changes in long-term memory associated with…

  15. Using Video Game Telemetry Data to Research Motor Chunking, Action Latencies, and Complex Cognitive-Motor Skill Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Joseph J; McColeman, C M; Stepanova, Ekaterina R; Blair, Mark R

    2017-04-01

    Many theories of complex cognitive-motor skill learning are built on the notion that basic cognitive processes group actions into easy-to-perform sequences. The present work examines predictions derived from laboratory-based studies of motor chunking and motor preparation using data collected from the real-time strategy video game StarCraft 2. We examined 996,163 action sequences in the telemetry data of 3,317 players across seven levels of skill. As predicted, the latency to the first action (thought to be the beginning of a chunked sequence) is delayed relative to the other actions in the group. Other predictions, inspired by the memory drum theory of Henry and Rogers, received only weak support. Copyright © 2017 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  16. Cognitive aspects of human motor activity: Contribution of right hemisphere and cerebellum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedov A. S.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. Concepts of movement and action are not completely synonymous, but what distinguishes one from the other? Movement may be defined as stimulus- driven motor acts, while action implies realization of a specific motor goal, essential for cognitively driven behavior. Although recent clinical and neuroimaging studies have revealed some areas of the brain that mediate cognitive aspects of human motor behavior, the identification of the basic neural circuit underlying the interaction between cognitive and motor functions remains a challenge for neurophysiology and psychology. Objective. In the current study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to investigate elementary cognitive aspects of human motor behavior. Design. Twenty healthy right-handed volunteers were asked to perform stimulus-driven and goal-directed movements by clenching the right hand into a fist (7 times. The cognitive component lay in anticipation of simple stimuli signals. In order to disentangle the purely motor component of stimulus-driven movements, we used the event-related (ER paradigm. FMRI was performed on a 3 Tesla Siemens Magnetom Verio MR-scanner with 32-channel head coil. Results. We have shown differences in the localization of brain activity depending on the involvement of cognitive functions. These differences testify to the role of the cerebellum and the right hemisphere in motor cognition. In particular, our results suggest that right associative cortical areas, together with the right posterolateral cerebellum (Crus I and lobule VI and basal ganglia, de ne cognitive control of motor activity, promoting a shift from a stimulus-driven to a goal-directed mode. Conclusion. These results, along with recent data from research on cerebro-cerebellar circuitry, redefine the scope of tasks for exploring the contribution of the cerebellum to diverse aspects of human motor behavior and cognition.

  17. Ameliorative effect of lotus seedpod proanthocyanidins on cognitive impairment and brain aging induced by D-galactose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yu-Shi; Guo, Juan; Hu, Kun; Gao, Yong-Qing; Xie, Bi-Jun; Sun, Zhi-Da; Yang, Er-Ning; Hou, Fang-Li

    2016-02-01

    This study mainly investigated the ameliorative effect of lotus seedpod proanthocyanidins (LSPC) and the mechanism underlying such effect on cognitive impairment and brain aging induced by d-galactose. Aging mice induced by d-galactose (150 mg/kg, sc injection daily for 6 weeks) were chosen for the experiment. LSPCs (30, 60, and 90 mg/kg, ig) were provided after d-galactose injection. Learning and memory functions were detected by Y-maze and step-down avoidance tests. Then, some biochemical indexes related to cognitive ability and aging were measured. Histopathological feature and P53 protein expression in the hippocampus were observed. Results showed that the three different doses of LSPC could significantly ameliorate the learning and memory abilities impaired by d-galactose. LSPC significantly reduced the levels of malondialdehyde and nitric oxide (i.e. 90 mg/kg LSPC group vs. model group, P=0.008), reduced the content of β-amyloid peptide 1-42 (i.e. 90 mg/kg LSPC group vs. model group, P=0.009), decreased the activities of acetylcholinesterase, monoamine oxidase B, total nitric oxide synthase (i.e. 90 mg/kg LSPC group vs. model group, P=0.006), and neuronal nitric oxide synthase and synchronously increased the activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase in the brain. Furthermore, LSPC could prevent neuron damage and could lessen the expression of P53 protein in the hippocampus. These findings demonstrated that LSPC effectively attenuated cognitive damage and improved parameters related to brain aging in senescent mice induced by d-galactose, and may be used to treat Alzheimer's disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. 7,8-Dihydroxyflavone Ameliorates Cognitive Impairment by Inhibiting Expression of Tau Pathology in ApoE-Knockout Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Tan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available 7,8-Dihydroxyflavone (7,8-DHF, a tyrosine kinase B (TrkB agonist that mimics the neuroprotective properties of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, which can not efficiently deliver into the brain, has been reported to be useful in ameliorating cognitive impairment in many diseases. Researches have indicated that apolipoprotein E-knockout (ApoE-KO mouse was associated with cognitive alteration via various mechanisms. Our present study investigated the possible mechanisms of cognitive impairment of ApoE-KO mouse fed with western type diet and the protective effects of 7,8-DHF in improving spatial learning and memory in ApoE-KO mouse. 5-weeks-old ApoE-KO mice and C57BL/6 mice were chronically treated with 7,8-DHF (with a dosage of 5mg/kg or vehicles orally for 25 weeks, and then subjected to Morris water maze at the age of 30 weeks to evaluate the cognitive performances. Afterwards, histology analysis and western blotting were performed. Spatial learning and memory deficits were observed in ApoE-KO mice, which were consistent with higher expression of active-asparaginyl endopeptidase (active-AEP as well as AEP-derived truncated tauN368 compared with normal group. In addition to that, long-term treatment of 7,8-DHF dramatically ameliorated cognitive decline in ApoE-KO mice, accompanied by the activation in phosphorylated protein kinase B (Akt/glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β pathway and down-regulated expression of tau S396 and PHF-tau (phosphorylated tau at ser396 and ser404 epitope. These findings suggested that cognitive impairment of ApoE-KO mouse might associate with tau pathology and 7,8-DHF could activate AKT and then phosphorylate its downstream molecule to inhibit expression of abnormal tau, meanwhile, 7,8-DHF could reduce the expression of active-AEP and then inhibit production of truncated tauN368.

  19. Anti-semaphorin 4D immunotherapy ameliorates neuropathology and some cognitive impairment in the YAC128 mouse model of Huntington disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southwell, Amber L; Franciosi, Sonia; Villanueva, Erika B; Xie, Yuanyun; Winter, Laurie A; Veeraraghavan, Janaki; Jonason, Alan; Felczak, Boguslaw; Zhang, Weining; Kovalik, Vlad; Waltl, Sabine; Hall, George; Pouladi, Mahmoud A; Smith, Ernest S; Bowers, William J; Zauderer, Maurice; Hayden, Michael R

    2015-04-01

    Huntington disease (HD) is an inherited, fatal neurodegenerative disease with no disease-modifying therapy currently available. In addition to characteristic motor deficits and atrophy of the caudate nucleus, signature hallmarks of HD include behavioral abnormalities, immune activation, and cortical and white matter loss. The identification and validation of novel therapeutic targets that contribute to these degenerative cellular processes may lead to new interventions that slow or even halt the course of this insidious disease. Semaphorin 4D (SEMA4D) is a transmembrane signaling molecule that modulates a variety of processes central to neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration including glial cell activation, neuronal growth cone collapse and apoptosis of neural precursors, as well as inhibition of oligodendrocyte migration, differentiation and process formation. Therefore, inhibition of SEMA4D signaling could reduce CNS inflammation, increase neuronal outgrowth and enhance oligodendrocyte maturation, which may be of therapeutic benefit in the treatment of several neurodegenerative diseases, including HD. To that end, we evaluated the preclinical therapeutic efficacy of an anti-SEMA4D monoclonal antibody, which prevents the interaction between SEMA4D and its receptors, in the YAC128 transgenic HD mouse model. Anti-SEMA4D treatment ameliorated neuropathological signatures, including striatal atrophy, cortical atrophy, and corpus callosum atrophy and prevented testicular degeneration in YAC128 mice. In parallel, a subset of behavioral symptoms was improved in anti-SEMA4D treated YAC128 mice, including reduced anxiety-like behavior and rescue of cognitive deficits. There was, however, no discernible effect on motor deficits. The preservation of brain gray and white matter and improvement in behavioral measures in YAC128 mice treated with anti-SEMA4D suggest that this approach could represent a viable therapeutic strategy for the treatment of HD. Importantly, this work

  20. Familial and genetic effects on motor coordination, laterality, and reading-related cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francks, Clyde; Fisher, Simon E; Marlow, Angela J; MacPhie, I Laurence; Taylor, Kathleen E; Richardson, Alex J; Stein, John F; Monaco, Anthony P

    2003-11-01

    Recent research has provided evidence for a genetically mediated association between language or reading-related cognitive deficits and impaired motor coordination. Other studies have identified relationships between lateralization of hand skill and cognitive abilities. With a large sample, the authors aimed to investigate genetic relationships between measures of reading-related cognition, hand motor skill, and hand skill lateralization. The authors applied univariate and bivariate correlation and familiality analyses to a range of measures. They also performed genomewide linkage analysis of hand motor skill in a subgroup of 195 sibling pairs. Hand motor skill was significantly familial (maximum heritability=41%), as were reading-related measures. Hand motor skill was weakly but significantly correlated with reading-related measures, such as nonword reading and irregular word reading. However, these correlations were not significantly familial in nature, and the authors did not observe linkage of hand motor skill to any chromosomal regions implicated in susceptibility to dyslexia. Lateralization of hand skill was not correlated with reading or cognitive ability. The authors confirmed a relationship between lower motor ability and poor reading performance. However, the genetic effects on motor skill and reading ability appeared to be largely or wholly distinct, suggesting that the correlation between these traits may have arisen from environmental influences. Finally, the authors found no evidence that reading disability and/or low general cognitive ability were associated with ambidexterity.

  1. Concurrent cognitive task may improve motor work performance and reduce muscle fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evstigneeva, Maria; Aleksandrov, Aleksandr; Mathiassen, Svend Erik; Lyskov, Eugene

    2012-01-01

    Performance of certain cognitive tasks either during physical load or in rest pauses between boosts might lead to slowing of muscle fatigue and fatigue related decline in performance. Seventeen right-handed healthy volunteers (age 24 ± 1.4, 8 males) participated in this study, aiming to investigate the effect of the level of the cognitive information processing - 1) passive perception of audio stimuli, 2) active stimuli discrimination, 3) active stimuli discrimination following motor response - on motor task performance (handgrip test 30% and 7% of MVC) and muscle fatigue development. Cognitive tasks show the following effects on motor work: i) Perceived fatigue during 30 % MVC (fatiguing) condition developed slower if participant pressed button in response to deviant acoustic stimuli, as compared to passive listening. Counting task, an active task without motor component, took the intermediate position and did not differ significantly from two other cognitive tasks. ii) MVC after 30% MVC (fatiguing) condition tended to decrease stronger when accompanied with passive listening in comparison with both active tasks. iii) Motor task performance during 30% MVC (fatiguing) condition was better for active cognitive task with motor component than for passive task. Active task without motor component took the intermediate position and did not differ significantly from both the other cognitive tasks.

  2. Ginsenoside Re Ameliorates Brain Insulin Resistance and Cognitive Dysfunction in High Fat Diet-Induced C57BL/6 Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong Min; Park, Chang Hyeon; Park, Seon Kyeong; Seung, Tae Wan; Kang, Jin Yong; Ha, Jeong Su; Lee, Du Sang; Lee, Uk; Kim, Dae-Ok; Heo, Ho Jin

    2017-04-05

    The ameliorating effects of ginsenoside Re (G Re) on high fat diet (HFD)-induced insulin resistance in C57BL/6 mice were investigated to assess its physiological function. In the results of behavioral tests, G Re improved cognitive dysfunction in diabetic mice using Y-maze, passive avoidance, and Morris water maze tests. G Re also significantly recovered hyperglycemia and fasting blood glucose level. In the results of serum analysis, G Re decreased triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TCHO), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC), glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT) and increased the ratio of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC). G Re regulated acetylcholine (ACh), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and oxidized glutathione (GSH)/total GSH by regulating the c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK) pathway. These findings suggest that G Re could be used to improve HFD-induced insulin resistance condition by ameliorating hyperglycemia via protecting the cholinergic and antioxidant systems in the mouse brains.

  3. Cognitive-motor interference in multiple sclerosis: a systematic review of evidence, correlates, and consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wajda, Douglas A; Sosnoff, Jacob J

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS) regularly exhibit deficits in motor and cognitive function. Recent evidence suggests that these impairments are compounded when motor and cognitive task are performed simultaneously such as walking while talking. The changes incurred during simultaneous performance of motor and cognitive tasks are a result of cognitive-motor interference (CMI) and operationalized as dual task costs (DTC). Recently in MS, research has been conducted to understand and analyze the impact of CMI. The purpose of this paper was to review the current literature related to the evidence, correlates, and consequences of CMI in MS. Relevant literature was collected from the results of a PubMed search for terms including "Cognitive-motor interference" or "Cognitive-motor interaction" or "Dual task" and "multiple sclerosis." Overall, 20 papers were included for review which focused on CMI during balance and walking tasks. The finding that there is a lack of evidence pertaining to changes in the cognitive domain as well as to the specific consequences of CMI in MS was noted. Future work should aim to fill these gaps and ultimately investigate the usefulness of targeted interventions in reducing the deleterious effects of CMI in individuals with MS.

  4. Cognitive decline tracks motor progression and not disease duration in Parkinson patients

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    BD Riggeal

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available BD Riggeal1, GP Crucian1, P Seignourel2, CE Jacobson IV1, MS Okun1, RL Rodriguez1, Hubert H Fernandez11Department of Neurology; 2Department of Community Health and Psychology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USAAbstract: We performed an analysis of prospectively-acquired cross sectional data on 106 Parkinson disease (PD patients who underwent comprehensive neuropsychological testing and the Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS motor scale. A significant correlation between the UPDRS motor and neuropsychological tests in all cognitive domains except for general intelligence and visuo-spatial function was seen. In this study, cognitive decline within this PD cohort correlated with motor impairment but not disease duration. Our findings suggest that overall cognitive impairment (except visuospatial dysfunction may track motor progression in PD more than duration of disease. Longitudinal studies are needed to confirm our results.Keywords: Parkinson, dementia, cognition, visual-spatial dysfunction

  5. Motor functioning, exploration, visuospatial cognition and language development in preschool children with autism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellendoorn, Annika|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/357400143; Wijnroks, Lex|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/124623999; van Daalen, Emma; Dietz, Claudine; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Leseman, Paul|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/070760810

    2015-01-01

    In order to understand typical and atypical developmental trajectories it is important to assess how strengths or weaknesses in one domain may be affecting performance in other domains. This study examined longitudinal relations between early fine motor functioning, visuospatial cognition,

  6. Voluntary Physical Exercise Improves Subsequent Motor and Cognitive Impairments in a Rat Model of Parkinson’s Disease

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    Shih-Chang Hsueh

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Parkinson’s disease (PD is typically characterized by impairment of motor function. Gait disturbances similar to those observed in patients with PD can be observed in animals after injection of neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA to induce unilateral nigrostriatal dopamine depletion. Exercise has been shown to be a promising non-pharmacological approach to reduce the risk of neurodegenerative disease. Methods: In this study, we investigated the long-term effects of voluntary running wheel exercise on gait phenotypes, depression, cognitive, rotational behaviors as well as histology in a 6-OHDA-lesioned rat model of PD. Results: We observed that, when compared with the non-exercise controls, five-week voluntary exercise alleviated and postponed the 6-OHDA-induced gait deficits, including a significantly improved walking speed, step/stride length, base of support and print length. In addition, we found that the non-motor functions, such as novel object recognition and forced swim test, were also ameliorated by voluntary exercise. However, the rotational behavior of the exercise group did not show significant differences when compared with the non-exercise group. Conclusions: We first analyzed the detailed spatiotemporal changes of gait pattern to investigate the potential benefits after long-term exercise in the rat model of PD, which could be useful for future objective assessment of locomotor function in PD or other neurological animal models. Furthermore, these results suggest that short-term voluntary exercise is sufficient to alleviate cognition deficits and depressive behavior in 6-OHDA lesioned rats and long-term treatment reduces the progression of motor symptoms and elevates tyrosine hydroxylase (TH, Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, bone marrow tyrosine kinase in chromosome X (BMX protein expression level without affecting dopaminergic (DA neuron loss in this PD rat model.

  7. Does early intervention in infants at high risk for a developmental motor disorder improve motor and cognitive development?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blauw-Hospers, C. H.; de Graaf-Peters, V. B.; Dirks, T.; Bos, A. F.; Hadders-Algra, M.

    2007-01-01

    Infants at high risk for developmental motor disorders are in general referred to early intervention (EI) services. It is a matter of debate to which extent El may facilitate outcome in various developmental domains. We reviewed the effects of El programmes aiming at promoting rnotor and cognitive

  8. Brazilian infant motor and cognitive development: Longitudinal influence of risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Keila Rg; Valentini, Nadia C; Saccani, Raquel

    2016-12-01

    Infant developmental delays have been associated with several risk factors, such as familial environmental, individual and demographic characteristics. The goal of this study was to longitudinally investigate the effects of maternal knowledge and practices, home environment and biological factors on infant motor and cognitive outcomes. This was a prospective cohort study with a sample of 49 infants from Southern Brazil. The infants were assessed three times over 4 months using the Alberta Infant Motor Scale and the Bayley Scale of Infant Development (Mental Development Scale). Parents completed the Daily Activities Scale of Infants, the Affordances in The Home Environment for Motor Development - Infant Scale, the Knowledge of Infant Development Inventory and a demographic questionnaire. Generalized estimating equation with Bonferroni method as the follow-up test and Spearman correlation and multivariate linear backward regression were used. Cognitive and motor scores were strongly associated longitudinally and increased over time. Associations between the home affordances, parental practices and knowledge, and motor and cognitive development over time were observed. This relationship explained more variability in motor and cognitive scores compared with biological factors. Variability in motor and cognitive development is better explained by environment and parental knowledge and practice. The investigation of factors associated with infant development allows the identification of infants at risk and the implementation of educational programs and parental training to minimize the effects of developmental delay. © 2016 Japan Pediatric Society.

  9. Baseline Association of Motoric Cognitive Risk Syndrome With Sustained Attention, Memory, and Global Cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, Fiachra J; Killane, Isabelle; Creagh, Andrew P; Donoghue, Orna; Kenny, Rose Anne; Reilly, Richard B

    2018-01-01

    Slow gait has been shown to be a good predictor of declining cognitive function in healthy older adults. Motoric cognitive risk (MCR) syndrome is a new construct incorporating slow gait and subjective cognitive complaints in individuals without dementia who have preserved activities of daily living. This analysis investigated the prevalence of MCR and factors associated with MCR in a nationally representative population. In addition, cross-sectional associations between MCR and cognitive domains, an relationship yet to be fully elucidated in literature, was investigated. Participants completed a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment and gait analysis at a health assessment center. Logistic regression was employed to examine associated health factors. Composite scores reflecting global cognition, memory, sustained attention, executive function, and processing speed were constructed using neuropsychological test scores. Associations between MCR and these composites were quantified using multivariate generalized linear modelling. All analyses were weighted to be nationally representative. Community-dwelling adults in The Irish Longitudinal Study on Aging (TILDA) completed an interview and a center-based health assessment. Participants aged 60 years and over (n = 2151, age; mean: 67.84 years, range: 60-93) were included. Participants with a Mini-Mental State Examination score of below 24, a diagnosis of serious memory impairment, Parkinson disease, dementia, or Alzheimer disease were excluded. MCR prevalence was estimated at 2.56% (95% confidence interval 1.97, 3.31). Significant risk factors for MCR were antidepressant use [odds ratio (OR) 4.46, P vision (OR 4.92, P worse on tests that assess memory (B: -0.58, P cognition (B: -0.42, P cognition, attention, and memory. This may be indicative of the underlying pathology of MCR. The effect of antidepressant use on MCR is novel and may represent an important consideration in future studies. Copyright

  10. Berberine Ameliorates Diabetes-Associated Cognitive Decline through Modulation of Aberrant Inflammation Response and Insulin Signaling Pathway in DM Rats

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    Qingjie Chen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Memory-impairment was one of the common characteristics in patients with diabetes mellitus. The release of chronic inflammation mediators and insulin resistance in diabetic brain gave rise to the generation of toxic factor Aβ42 which was the marker of Alzheimer’s disease. In addition, the impairment of memory in diabetes mellitus was also correlated predominantly with uptake/metabolism of glucose in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC. Previously, anti-inflammation and hypoglycemic effects of berberine (BBr have been described in peripheral tissues. For better understanding the effects of BBr on cognitive action in diabetics, we investigated the functions of BBr involved in anti-inflammation and ameliorating insulin resistance in prefrontal cortex of diabetic rats.Methods: Intragastric administration of BBr (187.5 mg/Kg/d was used in diabetic rats. Fear-condition assay was applied for cognitive assessment, and relative protein expressions were detected by western-blot. The glucose uptake in prefrontal cortex of diabetic rats was tested by Positron-Emission Tomography imaging. The levels of inflammation mediators were determined by commercial ELISA kits.Results: The inflammation mediator release and insulin resistance in the mPFC of diabetic rats was inhibited by BBr. The activation of PI3K/Akt/mTOR and MAPK signaling pathway, as well as two novel isoforms PKCη and PKC and the translocation of NF-κB in neuron were also down-regulated by BBr; furthermore, the neuron specific glucose transporter GLUT3 was remarkably augmented by 2–3 times when compared with diabetic group; meanwhile, BBr also promoted glucose uptake in the brain. Additionally BBr decreased the expressions of amyloid precursor protein and BACE-1, and the production of oligomeric Aβ42. Finally, it accelerates the reinforcement of the information and ameliorates cognitive impairment.Conclusion: BBr inhibited the activation of inflammation pathway and insulin resistance

  11. "The effects of family-centered physiotherapy on the cognitive and motor performance in premature infants".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbasan, Bulent; Kocyigit, Murat Fatih; Soysal-Acar, A Sebnem; Atalay, Yıldız; Gucuyener, Kivilcim

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of family centered physiotherapy according to the neurodevelopmental treatment (NDT) principles on mental and motor performance in premature infants. A total of 156 infant, ≥24/36 week+6days gestational age included in the study. All the infants were diagnosed by a child neurologist and referred to psychology and physiotherapy department for their neurodevelopmental assessment and treatment. Bayley Scale of Infant II (BSI-II) was used for neurodevelopmental assessment and Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS) was used for assessing their motor performance. Seventy-eight of the infants were in the study group and 76 were recruited as age matched controls according to the classification of their gestational age. Family centered physiotherapy according to the neurodevelopmental treatment principles was used as an intervention and all the mothers are trained accordingly. Cognitive Development Scores and Motor Development Scores of Bayley II were recorded for the 3., 6., 9., and 12 months respectively. Between the 3. and 12. month of gestational age, within-groups measurements in both Cognitive Development Scores (pMotor Development Scores (pMotor Development Scores (p=0.334) between the groups was not different. Family centered physiotherapy with NDT principles may not be enough to improve motor and cognitive performance in preterm infants at the first year of age. For supporting the motor and cognitive development of the preterm infants other intervention modalities also should be considered. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Overweight and obese infants present lower cognitive and motor development scores than normal-weight peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargos, Ana Cristina Resende; Mendonça, Vanessa Amaral; Andrade, Camila Alves de; Oliveira, Katherine Simone Caires; Lacerda, Ana Cristina Rodrigues

    2016-12-01

    Compare the cognitive and motor development in overweight/obese infants versus normal-weight peers and investigate the correlation of body weight, body length and body mass index with cognitive and motor development. We conducted a cross-sectional study with 28 overweight/obese infants and 28 normal-weight peers between 6 and 24 months of age. Both groups were evaluated with cognitive and motor scales of the Bayley-III infant development test. The t-test for independent samples was performed to compare the groups, and the Spearman correlation was used to verify the association between variables. Overweight/obese infants showed lower cognitive and motor composite scores than their normal-weight peers. A significant negative association was found of body weight and body length with cognitive development and of body mass index with motor development. This is the first study that found an effect on both cognitive and motor development in overweight/obese infants when compared with normal-weight peers between 6 and 24 months of age. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Acute effects of dietary constituents on motor skill and cognitive performance in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Lindsay B; Nuccio, Ryan P; Jeukendrup, Asker E

    2014-12-01

    Performance in many sports is at least partially dependent on motor control, coordination, decision-making, and other cognitive tasks. This review summarizes available evidence about the ingestion of selected nutrients or isolated compounds (dietary constituents) and potential acute effects on motor skill and/or cognitive performance in athletes. Dietary constituents discussed include branched-chain amino acids, caffeine, carbohydrate, cocoa flavanols, Gingko biloba, ginseng, guarana, Rhodiola rosea, sage, L-theanine, theobromine, and tyrosine. Although this is not an exhaustive list, these are perhaps the most researched dietary constituents. Caffeine and carbohydrate have the greatest number of published reports supporting their ability to enhance acute motor skill and cognitive performance in athletes. At this time, there is insufficient published evidence to substantiate the use of any other dietary constituents to benefit sports-related motor skill or cognitive performance. The optimal dose and timing of caffeine and carbohydrate intake promoting enhanced motor skill and cognitive performance remain to be identified. Valid, reliable, and sensitive batteries of motor skills and cognitive tests should be developed for use in future efficacy studies. © 2014 International Life Sciences Institute.

  14. Reducing Fall Risk with Combined Motor and Cognitive Training in Elderly Fallers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Barban

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Falling is a major clinical problem in elderly people, demanding effective solutions. At present, the only effective intervention is motor training of balance and strength. Executive function-based training (EFt might be effective at preventing falls according to evidence showing a relationship between executive functions and gait abnormalities. The aim was to assess the effectiveness of a motor and a cognitive treatment developed within the EU co-funded project I-DONT-FALL. Methods. In a sample of 481 elderly people at risk of falls recruited in this multicenter randomised controlled trial, the effectiveness of a motor treatment (pure motor or mixed with EFt of 24 one-hour sessions delivered through an i-Walker with a non-motor treatment (pure EFt or control condition was evaluated. Similarly, a 24 one-hour session cognitive treatment (pure EFt or mixed with motor training, delivered through a touch-screen computer was compared with a non-cognitive treatment (pure motor or control condition. Results. Motor treatment, particularly when mixed with EFt, reduced significantly fear of falling (F(1,478 = 6.786, p = 0.009 although to a limited extent (ES −0.25 restricted to the period after intervention. Conclusions. This study suggests the effectiveness of motor treatment empowered by EFt in reducing fear of falling.

  15. Relationship between Motor Symptoms, Cognition, and Demographic Characteristics in Treated Mild/Moderate Parkinson's Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay S Schneider

    Full Text Available Although Parkinson's disease (PD is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized primarily by motor symptoms, PD patients, at all stages of the disease, can experience cognitive dysfunction. However, the relationships between cognitive and motor symptoms and specific demographic characteristics are not well defined, particularly for patients who have progressed to requiring dopaminergic medication.To examine relationships between motor and cognitive symptoms and various demographic factors in mild to moderate, PD patients requiring anti-PD medication.Cognitive function was assessed in 94 subjects with a variety of neuropsychological tests during baseline evaluations as part of an experimental treatment study. Data were analyzed in relation to Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale motor scores and demographic variables.Of the UPDRS subscores analyzed, posture/balance/gait was associated with the highest number of adverse cognitive outcomes followed by speech/facial expression, bradykinesia, and rigidity. No associations were detected between any of the cognitive performance measures and tremor. Motor functioning assessed in the "off" condition correlated primarily with disease duration; neuropsychological performance in general was primarily related to age.In PD patients who have advanced to requiring anti-PD therapies, there are salient associations between axial signs and cognitive performance and in particular, with different aspects of visuospatial function suggesting involvement of similar circuits in these functions. Associations between executive functions and bradykinesia also suggest involvement similar circuits in these functions.

  16. Association between obesity-related biomarkers and cognitive and motor development in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargos, Ana Cristina R; Mendonça, Vanessa A; Oliveira, Katherine S C; de Andrade, Camila Alves; Leite, Hércules Ribeiro; da Fonseca, Sueli Ferreira; Vieira, Erica Leandro Marciano; Teixeira Júnior, Antônio Lúcio; Lacerda, Ana Cristina Rodrigues

    2017-05-15

    This study aimed to verify the association between obesity-related biomarkers and cognitive and motor development in infants between 6 and 24 months of age. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 50 infants and plasma levels of leptin, adiponectin, resistin, soluble tumor necrosis factor receptors 1 and 2 (sTNFR1 and sTNFR2), chemokines, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), serum cortisol and redox status were measured. The Bayley-III test was utilized to evaluate cognitive and motor development, and multiple linear stepwise regression models were performed to verify the association between selected biomarkers and cognitive and motor development. A significant association was found among plasma leptin and sTNFR1 levels with cognitive composite scores, and these two independents variables together explained 37% of the variability of cognitive composite scores (p=0.001). Only plasma sTNFR1 levels were associated and explained 24% of the variability of motor composite scores (p=0.003). Plasma levels of sTNFR1 were associated with the increase in cognitive and motor development scores in infants between 6 and 24 months of age through a mechanism not directly related to excess body weight. Moreover, increase in plasma levels of leptin reduced the cognitive development in this age range. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. THE DIFFERENCES IN MOTOR AND COGNITIVE ABILITIES IN GIRLS AGED 7

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    Dejan Orlić

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The sample of 164 examinees (divided into three groups according to their IQ – all of them girls from the major towns of Vojvodina – underwent an assessment of motor abilities where battery of 7 motor tests was used and an assessment of cognitive abilities in the case of which Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices were used. The results of the research show that there are statistically significant differences in motor and cognitive abilities between the analyzed groups in this sample of the examinees.

  18. The effect of caffeine on cognitive task performance and motor fatigue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Duinen, Hiske; Lorist, Monicque M.; Zijdewind, Inge

    Rationale: In everyday life, people are usually capable of performing two tasks simultaneously. However, in a previous study we showed that during a fatiguing motor task, cognitive performance declined progressively. There is extensive literature on the ( positive) effects of caffeine on cognitive

  19. Motor imagery cognitive network after left ischemic stroke: study of the patients during mental rotation task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Yan

    Full Text Available Although motor imagery could improve motor rehabilitation, the detailed neural mechanisms of motor imagery cognitive process of stroke patients, particularly from functional network perspective, remain unclear. This study investigated functional brain network properties in each cognitive sub-stage of motor imagery of stroke patients with ischemic lesion in left hemisphere to reveal the impact of stroke on the cognition of motor imagery. Both stroke patients and control subjects participated in mental rotation task, which includes three cognitive sub-stages: visual stimulus perception, mental rotation and response cognitive process. Event-related electroencephalograph was recorded and interdependence between two different cortical areas was assessed by phase synchronization. Both global and nodal properties of functional networks in three sub-stages were statistically analyzed. Phase synchronization of stroke patients significantly reduced in mental rotation sub-stage. Longer characteristic path length and smaller global clustering coefficient of functional network were observed in patients in mental rotation sub-stage which implied the impaired segregation and integration. Larger nodal clustering coefficient and betweenness in contralesional occipitoparietal and frontal area respectively were observed in patients in all sub-stages. In addition, patients also showed smaller betweenness in ipsilesional central-parietal area in response sub-stage. The compensatory effects on local connectedness and centrality indicated the neuroplasticity in contralesional hemisphere. The functional brain networks of stroke patients demonstrated significant alterations and compensatory effects during motor imagery.

  20. Nicotine ameliorates schizophrenia-like cognitive deficits induced by maternal LPS exposure: a study in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uta Waterhouse

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Maternal exposure to infectious agents is a predisposing factor for schizophrenia with associated cognitive deficits in offspring. A high incidence of smoking in these individuals in adulthood might be, at least in part, due to the cognitive-enhancing effects of nicotine. Here, we have used prenatal exposure to maternal lipopolysaccharide (LPS, bacterial endotoxin at different time points as a model for cognitive deficits in schizophrenia to determine whether nicotine reverses any associated impairments. Pregnant rats were treated subcutaneously with LPS (0.5 mg/kg at one of three neurodevelopmental time periods [gestation days (GD 10-11, 15-16, 18-19]. Cognitive assessment in male offspring commenced in early adulthood [postnatal day (PND 60] and included: prepulse inhibition (PPI, latent inhibition (LI and delayed non-matching to sample (DNMTS. Following PND 100, daily nicotine injections (0.6 mg/kg, subcutaneously were administered, and animals were re-tested in the same tasks (PND 110. Only maternal LPS exposure early during fetal neurodevelopment (GD 10-11 resulted in deficits in all tests compared to animals that had been prenatally exposed to saline at the same gestational time point. Repeated nicotine treatment led to global (PPI and selective (LI improvements in performance. Early but not later prenatal LPS exposure induced consistent deficits in cognitive tests with relevance for schizophrenia. Nicotine reversed the LPS-induced deficits in selective attention (LI and induced a global enhancement of sensorimotor gating (PPI.

  1. Bee Venom Ameliorates Cognitive Dysfunction Caused by Neuroinflammation in an Animal Model of Vascular Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Mudan; Lee, Jun Hwan; Yang, Eun Jin

    2017-10-01

    Vascular dementia (VaD) is caused by the reduction of blood supply by vessel occlusion and is characterized by progressive cognitive decline. VaD incidence has been growing due to the aging population, placing greater strain on social and economic resources. However, the pathological mechanisms underlying VaD remain unclear. Many studies have used the bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO) animal model to investigate potential therapeutics for VaD. In this study, we investigated whether bee venom (BV) improves cognitive function and reduces neuroinflammation in the hippocampus of BCCAO animals. Animals were randomly divided into three groups: a sham group (n = 15), BCCAO control group (n = 15), and BV-treated BCCAO group (n = 15). BCCAO animals were treated with 0.1 μg/g BV at ST36 ("Joksamli" acupoint) four times every other day. In order to investigate the effect of BV treatment on cognitive function, we performed a Y-maze test. In order to uncover any potential relationship between these results and neuroinflammation, we also performed Western blotting in the BCCAO group. Animals that had been treated with BV showed an improved cognitive function and a reduced expression of neuroinflammatory proteins in the hippocampus, including Iba-1, TLR4, CD14, and TNF-α. Furthermore, we demonstrated that BV treatment increased pERK and BDNF in the hippocampus. The present study thus underlines the neuroprotective effect of BV treatment against BCCAO-induced cognitive impairment and neuroinflammation. Our findings suggest that BV may be an effective complementary treatment for VaD, as it may improve cognitive function and attenuate neuroinflammation associated with dementia.

  2. Motor imagery and action observation : cognitive tools for rehabilitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, Th.

    2007-01-01

    Rehabilitation, for a large part may be seen as a learning process where old skills have to be re-acquired and new ones have to be learned on the basis of practice. Active exercising creates a flow of sensory (afferent) information. It is known that motor recovery and motor learning have many

  3. A systematic review of the effects of motor interventions to improve motor, cognitive, and/or social functioning in people with severe or profound intellectual disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houwen, Suzanne; van der Putten, Annette; Vlaskamp, Carla

    While if is generally agreed that motor activity promotes motor, cognitive, and social development, the specific benefits in people with severe or profound intellectual disabilities (S-PID) are as yet unknown. The aim of this study was to systematically review the evidence related to motor

  4. Impact of a Community-Based Programme for Motor Development on Gross Motor Skills and Cognitive Function in Preschool Children from Disadvantaged Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, Catherine E.; Achmat, Masturah; Forbes, Jared; Lambert, Estelle V.

    2012-01-01

    The aims of the studies were to assess the impact of the Little Champs programme for motor development on (1) the gross motor skills, and (2) cognitive function of children in the programme. In study 1, 118 children from one Early Childhood Development Centre (ECDC) were tested using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2, and in study 2, 83…

  5. Enriched environment ameliorates depression-induced cognitive deficits and restores abnormal hippocampal synaptic plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahati, K; Bhagya, V; Christofer, T; Sneha, A; Shankaranarayana Rao, B S

    2016-10-01

    Severe depression compromises structural and functional integrity of the brain and results in impaired learning and memory, maladaptive synaptic plasticity as well as degenerative changes in the hippocampus and amygdala. The precise mechanisms underlying cognitive dysfunctions in depression remain largely unknown. On the other hand, enriched environment (EE) offers beneficial effects on cognitive functions, synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus. However, the effect of EE on endogenous depression associated cognitive dysfunction has not been explored. Accordingly, we have attempted to address this issue by investigating behavioural, structural and synaptic plasticity mechanisms in an animal model of endogenous depression after exposure to enriched environment. Our results demonstrate that depression is associated with impaired spatial learning and enhanced anxiety-like behaviour which is correlated with hypotrophy of the dentate gyrus and amygdalar hypertrophy. We also observed a gross reduction in the hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP). We report a complete behavioural recovery with reduced indices of anhedonia and behavioural despair, reduced anxiety-like behaviour and improved spatial learning along with a complete restoration of dentate gyrus and amygdalar volumes in depressive rats subjected to EE. Enrichment also facilitated CA3-Schaffer collateral LTP. Our study convincingly proves that depression-induces learning deficits and impairs hippocampal synaptic plasticity. It also highlights the role of environmental stimuli in restoring depression-induced cognitive deficits which might prove vital in outlining more effective strategies to treat major depressive disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor Trichostatin A Ameliorated Endotoxin-Induced Neuroinflammation and Cognitive Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Hsi Hsing

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Excessive production of cytokines by microglia may cause cognitive dysfunction and long-lasting behavioral changes. Activating the peripheral innate immune system stimulates cytokine secretion in the central nervous system, which modulates cognitive function. Histone deacetylases (HDACs modulate cytokine synthesis and release. Trichostatin A (TSA, an HDAC inhibitor, is documented to be anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective. We investigated whether TSA reduces lipopolysaccharide- (LPS- induced neuroinflammation and cognitive dysfunction. ICR mice were first intraperitoneally (i.p. injected with vehicle or TSA (0.3 mg/kg. One hour later, they were injected (i.p. with saline or Escherichia coli LPS (1 mg/kg. We analyzed the food and water intake, body weight loss, and sucrose preference of the injected mice and then determined the microglia activation and inflammatory cytokine expression in the brains of LPS-treated mice and LPS-treated BV-2 microglial cells. In the TSA-pretreated mice, microglial activation was lower, anhedonia did not occur, and LPS-induced cognitive dysfunction (anorexia, weight loss, and social withdrawal was attenuated. Moreover, mRNA expression of HDAC2, HDAC5, indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO, TNF-α, MCP-1, and IL-1β in the brain of LPS-challenged mice and in the LPS-treated BV-2 microglial cells was lower. TSA diminished LPS-induced inflammatory responses in the mouse brain and modulated the cytokine-associated changes in cognitive function, which might be specifically related to reducing HDAC2 and HDAC5 expression.

  7. The AT1 Receptor Antagonist, L-158,809, Prevents or Ameliorates Fractionated Whole-Brain Irradiation-Induced Cognitive Impairment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robbins, Mike E.; Payne, Valerie B.S.; Tommasi, Ellen B.S.; Diz, Debra I.; Hsu, Fang-Chi; Brown, William R.; Wheeler, Kenneth T.; Olson, John; Zhao Weiling

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: We hypothesized that administration of the angiotensin type 1 (AT1) receptor antagonist, L-158,809, to young adult male rats would prevent or ameliorate fractionated whole-brain irradiation (WBI)-induced cognitive impairment. Materials and Methods: Groups of 80 young adult male Fischer 344 x Brown Norway (F344xBN) rats, 12-14 weeks old, received either: (1) fractionated WBI; 40 Gy of γ rays in 4 weeks, 2 fractions/week, (2) sham-irradiation; (3) WBI plus L-158,809 (20 mg/L drinking water) starting 3 days prior, during, and for 14, 28, or 54 weeks postirradiation; and (4) sham-irradiation plus L-158,809 for 14, 28, or 54 weeks postirradiation. An additional group of rats (n = 20) received L-158,809 before, during, and for 5 weeks postirradiation, after which they received normal drinking water up to 28 weeks postirradiation. Results: Administration of L-158,809 before, during, and for 28 or 54 weeks after fractionated WBI prevented or ameliorated the radiation-induced cognitive impairment observed 26 and 52 weeks postirradiation. Moreover, giving L-158,809 before, during, and for only 5 weeks postirradiation ameliorated the significant cognitive impairment observed 26 weeks postirradiation. These radiation-induced cognitive impairments occurred without any changes in brain metabolites or gross histologic changes assessed at 28 and 54 weeks postirradiation, respectively. Conclusions: Administering L-158,809 before, during, and after fractionated WBI can prevent or ameliorate the chronic, progressive, cognitive impairment observed in rats at 26 and 52 weeks postirradiation. These findings offer the promise of improving the quality of life for brain tumor patients

  8. Relationship between Age Cognitive Decline and Performance of Cognitive Motor Tasks in Seniors

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    Jiří Mudrák

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Relationship between Age Cognitive Decline and Performance of Cognitive Motor Tasks in Seniors Relationship between the age-related cognitive decline and decline in cognitive processing speed, in a variety of cognitive motor tasks was examined. The sample consisted of 33 well-adjusted older adults (on average 68 years old, recruited from several physical activity programs. The participants performed five cognitive tests selected from the Vienna test system battery. Subsequently, the relationship of their age and the measures of cognitive function was analyzed. It was found that the age of respondents was related only to their performance in complex tasks which included a processing speed component. The participant’s performance in simple tasks and in measures unaffected by processing speed was unrelated to age. Results are consistent with the processing speed theory of adult age differences in cognition (Salthouse, 1996. Furthermore, the performance in complex cognitive tasks was influenced by the level of participation in leisure physical activities; this suggests that physically active lifestyle may limit the impact of age on cognitive function. Stárnutí a rychlost zpracování kognitivních funkcí V předkládáné studii se zabýváme některými aspekty věkem podmíněného úbytku kognitivních funkcí. Konkrétně zkoumáme předpoklady vycházející z teorie rychlosti zpracování (Salthouse, 1996 týkající se toho, že věkem podmíněný pokles kognitivních funkcí je dán především poklesem rychlosti kognitivních procesů, což se projevuje především u komplexních kognitivních úkolů. Vzorek v naší studii se skládal z 33 seniorů a seniorek (průměrný věk byl 68 let, které jsme oslovili prostřednictvím několika programů pro seniory. Respondenti byli testováni prostřednictvím pěti testů kognitivních funkcí, které jsme vybrali z testové baterie Vienna test systém. Následně jsme analyzovali

  9. Risperidone ameliorated Aβ1-42-induced cognitive and hippocampal synaptic impairments in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lingzhi; Feng, Xiaowen; Li, Tingting; Sun, Baojuan; Khan, Muhammad Zahid; He, Ling

    2017-03-30

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a complex neurodegenerative disorder with cognitive impairment and major neuropathologic hallmark of amyloid-beta (Aβ) peptides. Risperidone, an atypical antipsychotic, can improve concentration and cognitive deficit in schizophrenia patients. In this study, behavior tests including Morris Water Maze test, Step-through passive avoidance test, Open Field test, Step-Down test, Hole-Board test and Novel object recognition test were preformed to examine the effect of Risperidone on Aβ 1-42 -induced cognitive dysfunction in both long-term and short-term memory. Furthermore, ELISA assay was conducted to measure the levels of Aβ 1-42, BACE1 and p-Tau in the hippocampus and cortex. Moreover, primary cortical neuron was cultured in vitro, and the cell viability, mitochondrial membrane potential, and the level of p-Akt, GSK3β and Caspase-3 protein were measured. For behavior tests, the results showed that Risperidone significantly reversed the Aβ 1-42 -induced dysfunction in learning, memory, locomotor activity and exploratory behavior. As detected by ELISA assay, risperidone decreased the levels of Aβ 1-42 , BACE1 and p-Tau in the hippocampus and cortex of AD model mice. Biochemical assay showed that Risperidone reversed the Aβ 1-42 -induced decrease of cell viability and mitochondrial membrane potential in cultured cortical neurons. The expression of p-Akt was increased, whereas the expression of GSK3β and Caspase-3 were decreased. These results suggested that Risperidone may be used as a promising candidate for AD treatment, for its effects of inhibiting Aβ generation and improving cognitive impairment in mice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Location of lesion determines motor vs. cognitive consequences in patients with cerebellar stroke

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    Catherine J. Stoodley

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerebellar lesions can cause motor deficits and/or the cerebellar cognitive affective syndrome (CCAS; Schmahmann's syndrome. We used voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping to test the hypothesis that the cerebellar motor syndrome results from anterior lobe damage whereas lesions in the posterolateral cerebellum produce the CCAS. Eighteen patients with isolated cerebellar stroke (13 males, 5 females; 20–66 years old were evaluated using measures of ataxia and neurocognitive ability. Patients showed a wide range of motor and cognitive performance, from normal to severely impaired; individual deficits varied according to lesion location within the cerebellum. Patients with damage to cerebellar lobules III–VI had worse ataxia scores: as predicted, the cerebellar motor syndrome resulted from lesions involving the anterior cerebellum. Poorer performance on fine motor tasks was associated primarily with strokes affecting the anterior lobe extending into lobule VI, with right-handed finger tapping and peg-placement associated with damage to the right cerebellum, and left-handed finger tapping associated with left cerebellar damage. Patients with the CCAS in the absence of cerebellar motor syndrome had damage to posterior lobe regions, with lesions leading to significantly poorer scores on language (e.g. right Crus I and II extending through IX, spatial (bilateral Crus I, Crus II, and right lobule VIII, and executive function measures (lobules VII–VIII. These data reveal clinically significant functional regions underpinning movement and cognition in the cerebellum, with a broad anterior-posterior distinction. Motor and cognitive outcomes following cerebellar damage appear to reflect the disruption of different cerebro-cerebellar motor and cognitive loops.

  11. Effects of Physical Activity on Motor Skills and Cognitive Development in Early Childhood: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Xu; Xiang, Ping

    2017-01-01

    Objective This study synthesized literature concerning casual evidence of effects of various physical activity programs on motor skills and cognitive development in typically developed preschool children. Methods Electronic databases were searched through July 2017. Peer-reviewed randomized controlled trials (RCTs) examining the effectiveness of physical activity on motor skills and cognitive development in healthy young children (4–6 years) were screened. Results A total of 15 RCTs were included. Of the 10 studies assessing the effects of physical activity on motor skills, eight (80%) reported significant improvements in motor performance and one observed mixed findings, but one failed to promote any beneficial outcomes. Of the five studies investigating the influence of physical activity on cognitive development, four (80%) showed significant and positive changes in language learning, academic achievement, attention, and working memory. Notably, one indicated no significant improvements were observed after the intervention. Conclusions Findings support causal evidence of effects of physical activity on both motor skills and cognitive development in preschool children. Given the shortage of available studies, future research with large representative samples is warranted to explore the relationships between physical activity and cognitive domains as well as strengthen and confirm the dose-response evidence in early childhood. PMID:29387718

  12. Effects of Physical Activity on Motor Skills and Cognitive Development in Early Childhood: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Zeng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study synthesized literature concerning casual evidence of effects of various physical activity programs on motor skills and cognitive development in typically developed preschool children. Methods. Electronic databases were searched through July 2017. Peer-reviewed randomized controlled trials (RCTs examining the effectiveness of physical activity on motor skills and cognitive development in healthy young children (4–6 years were screened. Results. A total of 15 RCTs were included. Of the 10 studies assessing the effects of physical activity on motor skills, eight (80% reported significant improvements in motor performance and one observed mixed findings, but one failed to promote any beneficial outcomes. Of the five studies investigating the influence of physical activity on cognitive development, four (80% showed significant and positive changes in language learning, academic achievement, attention, and working memory. Notably, one indicated no significant improvements were observed after the intervention. Conclusions. Findings support causal evidence of effects of physical activity on both motor skills and cognitive development in preschool children. Given the shortage of available studies, future research with large representative samples is warranted to explore the relationships between physical activity and cognitive domains as well as strengthen and confirm the dose-response evidence in early childhood.

  13. The Relationship between Social and Motor Cognition in Primary School Age-Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Lorcan; Hill, Elisabeth; Hamilton, Antonia F. de C.

    2016-01-01

    There is increased interest in the relationship between motor skills and social skills in child development, with evidence that the mechanisms underlying these behaviors may be linked. We took a cognitive approach to this problem, and examined the relationship between four specific cognitive domains: theory of mind, motor skill, action understanding, and imitation. Neuroimaging and adult research suggest that action understanding and imitation are closely linked, but are somewhat independent of theory of mind and low-level motor control. Here, we test if a similar pattern is shown in child development. A sample of 101 primary school aged children with a wide ability range completed tests of IQ (Raven’s matrices), theory of mind, motor skill, action understanding, and imitation. Parents reported on their children’s social, motor and attention performance as well as developmental concerns. The results showed that action understanding and imitation correlate, with the latter having a weak link to motor control. Theory of mind was independent of the other tasks. These results imply that independent cognitive processes for social interaction (theory of mind) and for motor control can be identified in primary school age children, and challenge approaches that link all these domains together. PMID:26941685

  14. The relationship between social and motor cognition in primary school age-children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorcan eKenny

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThere is increased interest in the relationship between motor skills and social skills in child development, with evidence that the mechanisms underlying these behaviors may be linked. We took a cognitive approach to this problem, and examined the relationship between four specific cognitive domains: theory of mind, motor skill, action understanding and imitation. Neuroimaging and adult research suggest that action understanding and imitation are closely linked, but are somewhat independent of theory of mind and low-level motor control. Here we test if a similar pattern is shown in child development. A sample of 101 primary school aged children with a wide ability range completed tests of IQ (Raven’s matrices, theory of mind, motor skill, action understanding and imitation. Parents reported on their children’s social, motor and attention performance as well as developmental concerns. The results showed that action understanding and imitation correlate, with the latter having a weak link to motor control. Theory of mind was independent of the other tasks. These results imply that independent cognitive processes for social interaction (theory of mind and for motor control can be identified in primary school age children, and challenge approaches that link all these domains together.

  15. [Non-motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease: cognition and behavior].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, Anne Marie; Czernecki, Virginie

    2013-09-01

    Although the diagnosis of Parkinson disease is based on motor symptoms, it is now well known that non-motor symptoms are an integral part of this pathology, involving in fact multiple systems. These non-motor symptoms affect large population of patients and can appear sometimes before the motor disorders. The non-motor symptoms include mainly neuropsychological difficulties, neuropsychiatric symptoms, and autonomic disorders, but involve also pain and sleep disturbances for example. Depression may occur at any stage of the disease, and consists in major depressive disorder, minor depressive disorder, and dysthymia. During the course of the disease, 50% of patients experience anxiety. Apathy is present in up to 30-40% of patients, due to loss of motivation, appearing in emotional, intellectual and behavioral domains. Dopamine dysregulation syndrome and impulse control disorders are not rare, and in relation with dopaminergic therapies. Impulse control disorders include pathological gambling, hyper sexuality, compulsive shopping, and eating disorder. Visual hallucinations can occur in 30% of patients, mostly induced by dopaminergic therapies. Often, they have deeper impact on the quality of life than the motor symptoms themselves, which stay the focus of attention during consulting. Identifying those can help in providing better care with a positive impact on the quality of life of the patients.

  16. Cognitive ability predicts motor learning on a virtual reality game in patients with TBI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Rochelle L; Skeel, Reid L; Ustinova, Ksenia I

    2013-01-01

    Virtual reality games and simulations have been utilized successfully for motor rehabilitation of individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Little is known, however, how TBI-related cognitive decline affects learning of motor tasks in virtual environments. To fill this gap, we examined learning within a virtual reality game involving various reaching motions in 14 patients with TBI and 15 healthy individuals with different cognitive abilities. All participants practiced ten 90-second gaming trials to assess various aspects of motor learning. Cognitive abilities were assessed with a battery of tests including measures of memory, executive functioning, and visuospatial ability. Overall, participants with TBI showed both reduced performance and a slower learning rate in the virtual reality game compared to healthy individuals. Numerous correlations between overall performance and several of the cognitive ability domains were revealed for both the patient and control groups, with the best predictor being overall cognitive ability. The results may provide a starting point for rehabilitation programs regarding which cognitive domains interact with motor learning.

  17. Neural activation in cognitive motor processes: comparing motor imagery and observation of gymnastic movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munzert, Jörn; Zentgraf, Karen; Stark, Rudolf; Vaitl, Dieter

    2008-07-01

    The simulation concept suggested by Jeannerod (Neuroimage 14:S103-S109, 2001) defines the S-states of action observation and mental simulation of action as action-related mental states lacking overt execution. Within this framework, similarities and neural overlap between S-states and overt execution are interpreted as providing the common basis for the motor representations implemented within the motor system. The present brain imaging study compared activation overlap and differential activation during mental simulation (motor imagery) with that while observing gymnastic movements. The fMRI conjunction analysis revealed overlapping activation for both S-states in primary motor cortex, premotor cortex, and the supplementary motor area as well as in the intraparietal sulcus, cerebellar hemispheres, and parts of the basal ganglia. A direct contrast between the motor imagery and observation conditions revealed stronger activation for imagery in the posterior insula and the anterior cingulate gyrus. The hippocampus, the superior parietal lobe, and the cerebellar areas were differentially activated in the observation condition. In general, these data corroborate the concept of action-related S-states because of the high overlap in core motor as well as in motor-related areas. We argue that differential activity between S-states relates to task-specific and modal information processing.

  18. Intermittent fasting could ameliorate cognitive function against distress by regulation of inflammatory response pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shojaie, Marjan; Ghanbari, Farzane; Shojaie, Nasrin

    2017-11-01

    Undesirable and desirable effects of stressors on the body are assigned to distress and eustress, respectively. Immune system and brain are the most susceptible parts to stressful conditions, whereas long-lasting alterations in putative immune proteins involved in tension such as corticosterone (CORT), interleukin 6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) can impact learning and memory. Intermittent fasting (IF) is a repeated regular cycle of dietary restriction with well-known beneficial properties on the body. The aim of this study was to identify the eustress effects of IF on cognitive function by assessing the critical inflammatory factors in chronic distress. Forty male mice were divided into four groups (n = 10/group). Distress and control normally received food and water, whereas IF and IF with distress groups were daily deprived of food and water for two hours. In the second week, the electrical foot shock was induced to distress and IF with distress groups. Finally, the cognitive functions of all mice were evaluated by Barnes maze, their blood samples were taken to determine the plasma level of CORT, IL-6 and TNF-α, and the removed brain and adrenal glands were weighed in the third week. A significant gain in plasma level of CORT, IL-6 and TNF-α with a considerable brain hypotrophy and adrenal hypertrophy was found in distress group, whereas IF caused a remarkable reduction of the plasma inflammatory factors, especially in IF with distress mice ( P  ≤ 0.05). In conclusion, IF could improve cognitive function and preserve the brain against distress by regulation of inflammatory response pathway.

  19. Intermittent fasting could ameliorate cognitive function against distress by regulation of inflammatory response pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Shojaie

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Undesirable and desirable effects of stressors on the body are assigned to distress and eustress, respectively. Immune system and brain are the most susceptible parts to stressful conditions, whereas long-lasting alterations in putative immune proteins involved in tension such as corticosterone (CORT, interleukin 6 (IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α can impact learning and memory. Intermittent fasting (IF is a repeated regular cycle of dietary restriction with well-known beneficial properties on the body. The aim of this study was to identify the eustress effects of IF on cognitive function by assessing the critical inflammatory factors in chronic distress. Forty male mice were divided into four groups (n = 10/group. Distress and control normally received food and water, whereas IF and IF with distress groups were daily deprived of food and water for two hours. In the second week, the electrical foot shock was induced to distress and IF with distress groups. Finally, the cognitive functions of all mice were evaluated by Barnes maze, their blood samples were taken to determine the plasma level of CORT, IL-6 and TNF-α, and the removed brain and adrenal glands were weighed in the third week. A significant gain in plasma level of CORT, IL-6 and TNF-α with a considerable brain hypotrophy and adrenal hypertrophy was found in distress group, whereas IF caused a remarkable reduction of the plasma inflammatory factors, especially in IF with distress mice (P ≤ 0.05. In conclusion, IF could improve cognitive function and preserve the brain against distress by regulation of inflammatory response pathway.

  20. Cognitive and motor function of neurologically impaired extremely low birth weight children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardo, Janine; Friedman, Harriet; Minich, Nori; Taylor, H Gerry; Wilson-Costello, Deanne; Hack, Maureen

    2015-01-01

    Rates of neurological impairment among extremely low birth weight children (ELBW [<1 kg]) have decreased since 2000; however, their functioning is unexamined. To compare motor and cognitive functioning of ELBW children with neurological impairment, including cerebral palsy and severe hypotonia/hypertonia, between two periods: 1990 to 1999 (n=83) and 2000 to 2005 (n=34). Measures of function at 20 months corrected age included the Mental and Psychomotor Developmental Indexes of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development and the Gross Motor Functional Classification System as primary outcomes and individual motor function items as secondary outcomes. Analysis failed to reveal significant differences for the primary outcomes, although during 2000 to 2005, sitting significantly improved in children with neurological impairment (P=0.003). Decreases in rates of neurological impairment among ELBW children have been accompanied by a suggestion of improved motor function, although cognitive function has not changed.

  1. Increasing and decreasing motor and cognitive output: a model of general action and inaction goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarracín, Dolores; Handley, Ian M; Noguchi, Kenji; McCulloch, Kathleen C; Li, Hong; Leeper, Joshua; Brown, Rick D; Earl, Allison; Hart, William P

    2008-09-01

    General action and inaction goals can influence the amount of motor or cognitive output irrespective of the type of behavior in question, with the same stimuli producing trivial and important motor and cognitive manifestations normally viewed as parts of different systems. A series of experiments examined the effects of instilling general action and inaction goals using word primes, such as "action" and "rest." The first 5 experiments showed that the same stimuli influenced motor output, such as doodling on a piece of paper and eating, as well as cognitive output, such as recall and problem solving. The last 2 experiments supported the prediction that these diverse effects can result from the instigation of general action and inaction goals. Specifically, these last 2 studies confirmed that participants were motivated to achieve active or inactive states and that attaining them decreased the effects of the primes on behavior.

  2. Comparison of motor and cognitive performance of children attending public and private day care centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana M. Santos

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Given that environmental factors, such as the school environment, can influence child development, more attention should be paid to the development of children attending day care centers. OBJECTIVE: Todetermine whether there are differences in the gross motor, fine motor, or cognitive performances of children between 1 and3 years-old of similar socioeconomic status attending public and private day care centers full time. METHOD: Participants were divided into 2 groups, 1 of children attending public day care centers (69 children and another of children attending private day care centers (47 children. All children were healthy and regularly attended day care full time for over 4 months. To assess cognitive, gross and fine motor performance, the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development III was used. The Mann-Whitney test was used for comparative analyses between groups of children between 13 and 24 months, 25 and 41 months, and 13 and 41 months. RESULTS: Children in public day care centers exhibited lower scores on the cognitive development scale beginning at 13 months old. The fine and gross motor performance scores were lower in children over the age of 25 months attending public centers. Maternal education was not related to the performance of children in either group. CONCLUSION: The scores of cognitive performance as well as fine and gross motor performance of children of similar socioeconomic status who attend public day care centers are lower than children attending private daycare centers.

  3. Deliberate play and preparation jointly benefit motor and cognitive development: mediated and moderated effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caterina ePesce

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In light of the interrelation between motor and cognitive development and the predictive value of the former for the latter, the secular decline observed in motor coordination ability as early as preschool urges identification of interventions that may jointly impact motor and cognitive efficiency.The aim of this study was twofold. It (1 explored the outcomes of enriched physical education, centered on deliberate play and cognitively challenging variability of practice, on motor coordination and cognitive processing; (2 examined whether motor coordination outcomes mediate intervention effects on children’s cognition, while controlling for moderation by lifestyle factors as outdoor play habits and weight status. Four hundred and sixty children aged 5-10 years participated in a 6-month group randomized intervention in physical education, with or without playful coordinative and cognitive enrichment. The weight status and spontaneous outdoor play habits of children (parental report of outdoor play were evaluated at baseline. Before and after the intervention, motor developmental level (Movement Assessment Battery for Children was evaluated in all children, who were then assessed either with a test of working memory (Random Number Generation task, or with a test of attention (from the Cognitive Assessment System, CAS.Children assigned to the ‘enriched’ intervention showed more pronounced improvements in all motor coordination assessments (manual dexterity, ball skills, static/dynamic balance. The beneficial effect on ball skills was amplified by the level of spontaneous outdoor play and weight status. Among indices of executive function and attention, only that of inhibition showed a differential effect of intervention type. Moderated mediation showed that the better outcome of the enriched physical education on ball skills mediated the better inhibition outcome, but only when the enrichment intervention was paralleled by a medium

  4. Deliberate Play and Preparation Jointly Benefit Motor and Cognitive Development: Mediated and Moderated Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesce, Caterina; Masci, Ilaria; Marchetti, Rosalba; Vazou, Spyridoula; Sääkslahti, Arja; Tomporowski, Phillip D.

    2016-01-01

    In light of the interrelation between motor and cognitive development and the predictive value of the former for the latter, the secular decline observed in motor coordination ability as early as preschool urges identification of interventions that may jointly impact motor and cognitive efficiency. The aim of this study was twofold. It (1) explored the outcomes of enriched physical education (PE), centered on deliberate play and cognitively challenging variability of practice, on motor coordination and cognitive processing; (2) examined whether motor coordination outcomes mediate intervention effects on children’s cognition, while controlling for moderation by lifestyle factors as outdoor play habits and weight status. Four hundred and sixty children aged 5–10 years participated in a 6-month group randomized intervention in PE, with or without playful coordinative and cognitive enrichment. The weight status and spontaneous outdoor play habits of children (parental report of outdoor play) were evaluated at baseline. Before and after the intervention, motor developmental level (Movement Assessment Battery for Children) was evaluated in all children, who were then assessed either with a test of working memory (Random Number Generation task), or with a test of attention (from the Cognitive Assessment System). Children assigned to the ‘enriched’ intervention showed more pronounced improvements in all motor coordination assessments (manual dexterity, ball skills, static/dynamic balance). The beneficial effect on ball skills was amplified by the level of spontaneous outdoor play and weight status. Among indices of executive function and attention, only that of inhibition showed a differential effect of intervention type. Moderated mediation showed that the better outcome of the enriched PE on ball skills mediated the better inhibition outcome, but only when the enrichment intervention was paralleled by a medium-to-high level of outdoor play. Results suggest that

  5. Cognitive and motor abilities of young children and risk of injuries in the home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrhardt, Jennifer; Xu, Yingying; Khoury, Jane; Yolton, Kimberly; Lanphear, Bruce; Phelan, Kieran

    2017-02-01

    Residential injury is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in US children. Rates and types of injury vary by child age but little is known about injury risk based on child cognitive and motor abilities. The objective of this study was to determine whether cognitive or motor development in young children is associated with residential injury. We employed data from Health Outcomes and Measures of the Environment (HOME) Study. Parent report of medically attended injury was obtained at regular intervals from 0 to 42 months. Child development was assessed at 12, 24 and 36 months using Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, 2nd edition, which generates both mental developmental index (MDI) and a psychomotor developmental index (PDI). Injury risk was modelled using multivariable logistic regression as function of child's MDI or PDI. Effects of MDI and PDI on injury risk were examined separately and jointly, adjusting for important covariates. Children with cognitive delay (MDI children without cognitive delay (OR=3.7, 95% CI 1.4 to 10.5, p=0.012). There was no significant association of PDI with injury. There was, however, significant interaction of MDI and PDI (p=0.02); children with cognitive delay but normal motor development were at significantly higher risk of injury than children with normal cognitive and motor development (OR=9.6, 95% CI 2.6 to 35.8, p=0.001). Children with cognitive delays, especially those with normal motor development, are at elevated risk for residential injuries. Injury prevention efforts should target children with developmental delays. NCT00129324; post-results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  6. The functional implications of motor, cognitive, psychiatric, and social problem-solving states in Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Liew, Charles; Gluhm, Shea; Goldstein, Jody; Cronan, Terry A; Corey-Bloom, Jody

    2013-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a genetic, neurodegenerative disorder characterized by motor, cognitive, and psychiatric dysfunction. In HD, the inability to solve problems successfully affects not only disease coping, but also interpersonal relationships, judgment, and independent living. The aim of the present study was to examine social problem-solving (SPS) in well-characterized HD and at-risk (AR) individuals and to examine its unique and conjoint effects with motor, cognitive, and psychiatric states on functional ratings. Sixty-three participants, 31 HD and 32 gene-positive AR, were included in the study. Participants completed the Social Problem-Solving Inventory-Revised: Long (SPSI-R:L), a 52-item, reliable, standardized measure of SPS. Items are aggregated under five scales (Positive, Negative, and Rational Problem-Solving; Impulsivity/Carelessness and Avoidance Styles). Participants also completed the Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale functional, behavioral, and cognitive assessments, as well as additional neuropsychological examinations and the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90R). A structural equation model was used to examine the effects of motor, cognitive, psychiatric, and SPS states on functionality. The multifactor structural model fit well descriptively. Cognitive and motor states uniquely and significantly predicted function in HD; however, neither psychiatric nor SPS states did. SPS was, however, significantly related to motor, cognitive, and psychiatric states, suggesting that it may bridge the correlative gap between psychiatric and cognitive states in HD. SPS may be worth assessing in conjunction with the standard gamut of clinical assessments in HD. Suggestions for future research and implications for patients, families, caregivers, and clinicians are discussed.

  7. Exploring cognitive motor interference in multiple sclerosis by the visual Stroop test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coghe, Giancarlo; Pilloni, Giuseppina; Zucca, Erica; Porta, Micaela; Corona, Federica; Frau, Jessica; Fenu, Giuseppe; Lorefice, Lorena; Marrosu, Maria Giovanna; Pau, Massimiliano; Cocco, Eleonora

    2018-02-24

    The dual task paradigm (the simultaneous performance of motor and cognitive task) is used in a laboratory setting to evaluate walking impairments that affect patients' daily lives. Although promising, it is poorly standardized and neither the cognitive task nor the motor task have been validated in a matched healthy control group (HC) for multiple sclerosis (MS). Our aim was to set up a standardized instrument to evaluate cognitive motor interference in MS using the interference test par excellence: the stroop colour word test (SCWT). Patients with MS and HC underwent 3D gait analysis with a dual task protocol, using the SCWT as a cognitive task. Gait performance impairment during the dual task was evaluated by dual task cost (DTC). A MANOVA was used to verify the effect of status (MS, HC) on DTC, calculated for the spatiotemporal parameter of the gait. In MS, the DTC was higher for the following gait parameters: speed (p = .013), cadence (p = .004), stride time (p = .005) stance phase (p cognitive motor interference in MS. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Neural substrates of motor and cognitive dysfunctions in SCA2 patients: A network based statistics analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Olivito

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, the network-based statistics (NBS approach was used to assess differences in functional connectivity between specific cerebellar and cerebral “nodes” in SCA2 patients. Altered inter-nodal connectivity was found between more posterior regions in the cerebellum and regions in the cerebral cortex clearly related to cognition and emotion. Furthermore, more anterior cerebellar lobules showed altered inter-nodal connectivity with motor and somatosensory cerebral regions. The present data suggest that in SCA2 a cerebellar dysfunction affects long-distance cerebral regions and that the clinical symptoms may be specifically related with connectivity changes between motor and non-motor cerebello-cortical nodes.

  9. Developmental Relations among Motor and Cognitive Processes and Mathematics Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Helyn; Duran, Chelsea A. K.; Cameron, Claire E.; Grissmer, David

    2018-01-01

    This study explored transactional associations among visuomotor integration, attention, fine motor coordination, and mathematics skills in a diverse sample of one hundred thirty-five 5-year-olds (kindergarteners) and one hundred nineteen 6-year-olds (first graders) in the United States who were followed over the course of 2 school years.…

  10. Amelioration of motor/sensory dysfunction and spasticity in a rat model of acute lumbar spinal cord injury by human neural stem cell transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Intraspinal grafting of human neural stem cells represents a promising approach to promote recovery of function after spinal trauma. Such a treatment may serve to: I) provide trophic support to improve survival of host neurons; II) improve the structural integrity of the spinal parenchyma by reducing syringomyelia and scarring in trauma-injured regions; and III) provide neuronal populations to potentially form relays with host axons, segmental interneurons, and/or α-motoneurons. Here we characterized the effect of intraspinal grafting of clinical grade human fetal spinal cord-derived neural stem cells (HSSC) on the recovery of neurological function in a rat model of acute lumbar (L3) compression injury. Methods Three-month-old female Sprague–Dawley rats received L3 spinal compression injury. Three days post-injury, animals were randomized and received intraspinal injections of either HSSC, media-only, or no injections. All animals were immunosuppressed with tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, and methylprednisolone acetate from the day of cell grafting and survived for eight weeks. Motor and sensory dysfunction were periodically assessed using open field locomotion scoring, thermal/tactile pain/escape thresholds and myogenic motor evoked potentials. The presence of spasticity was measured by gastrocnemius muscle resistance and electromyography response during computer-controlled ankle rotation. At the end-point, gait (CatWalk), ladder climbing, and single frame analyses were also assessed. Syrinx size, spinal cord dimensions, and extent of scarring were measured by magnetic resonance imaging. Differentiation and integration of grafted cells in the host tissue were validated with immunofluorescence staining using human-specific antibodies. Results Intraspinal grafting of HSSC led to a progressive and significant improvement in lower extremity paw placement, amelioration of spasticity, and normalization in thermal and tactile pain/escape thresholds at

  11. OJKO-project: Longitudinal study on the development of young children with a serious cognitive and motor developmental delay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colla, Stephy; Van Keer, Ines; Schalen, Gertruud Henrike; van der Putten, Annette; Visser, Linda; Maes, Bea; Vlaskamp, Carla; van der Meulen, Bieuwe

    2015-01-01

    Recently, a longitudinal project on the development of children with a serious cognitive and motor developmental delay has started in Belgium and the Netherlands. The aims of this study are to evaluate the cognitive, motor, communicative and social-emotional abilities of young children with a severe

  12. Profiles and Cognitive Predictors of Motor Functions among Early School-Age Children with Mild Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuang, Y.-P.; Wang, C.-C.; Huang, M.-H.; Su, C.-Y.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The purpose of the study was to describe sensorimotor profile in children with mild intellectual disability (ID), and to examine the association between cognitive and motor function. Methods: A total of 233 children with mild ID aged 7 to 8 years were evaluated with measures of cognitive, motor and sensory integrative functioning.…

  13. The interrelationships between motor, cognitive, and language development in children with and without intellectual and developmental disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houwen, Suzanne; Visser, Linda; van der Putten, Annette; Vlaskamp, Carla

    2016-01-01

    It is generally agreed that cognitive and language development are dependent on the emergence of motor skills. As the literature on this issue concerning children with developmental disabilities is scarce, we examined the interrelationships between motor, cognitive, and language development in

  14. Ameliorating effects of aged garlic extracts against Aβ-induced neurotoxicity and cognitive impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background In vitro antioxidant activities and neuron-like PC12 cell protective effects of solvent fractions from aged garlic extracts were investigated to evaluate their anti-amnesic functions. Ethyl acetate fractions of aged garlic had higher total phenolics than other fractions. Methods Antioxidant activities of ethyl acetate fractions from aged garlic were examined using 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) and malondialdehyde (MDA) inhibitory effect using mouse whole brain homogenates. Levels of cellular oxidative stress as reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation were measured using 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCF-DA). PC12 cell viability was investigated by 3-[4,5-dimethythiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and lactate dehydtrogenase (LDH) assay. The learning and memory impairment in institute of cancer research (ICR) mice was induced by neurotoxic amyloid beta protein (Aβ) to investigate in vivo anti-amnesic effects of aged garlic extracts by using Y-maze and passive avoidance tests. Results We discovered that ethyl acetate fractions showed the highest ABTS radical scavenging activity and MDA inhibitory effect. Intracellular ROS accumulation resulting from Aβ treatment in PC12 cells was significantly reduced when ethyl acetate fractions were presented in the medium compare to PC12 cells which was only treated with Aβ only. Ethyl acetate fractions from aged garlic extracts showed protection against Aβ-induced neurotoxicity. Pre-administration with aged garlic extracts attenuated Aβ-induced learning and memory deficits in both in vivo tests. Conclusions Our findings suggest that aged garlic extracts with antioxidant activities may improve cognitive impairment against Aβ-induced neuronal deficit, and possess a wide range of beneficial activities for neurodegenerative disorders, notably Alzheimer's disease (AD). PMID:24134394

  15. Effect of motor imagery therapy on cognitive function of patients with stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-jun GONG

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the rehabilitation effect of motor imagery therapy on cognitive function of stroke patients.  Methods A total of 99 stroke patients with mild to moderate cognitive dysfunction were randomly divided into 3 groups: control group (N = 33, cognitive training group (N = 33 and motor imagery training group (N = 33. All patients received conventional rehabilitation training. Before and after 8-week training, all subjects were assessed with Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA. At the same time, event-related potential (ERP was examined to detect P300 latency and amplitude.   Results ompared with before training, MMSE (P = 0.000 and MoCA (P = 0.000 scores were significantly increased, P300 latency was shortened (P = 0.000 and P300 amplitude was increased (P = 0.000 in 3 groups after 8 - week training. There were significant differences among 3 groups on MMSE (P = 0.030 and MoCA (P = 0.013 scores, P300 latency (P = 0.004 and P300 amplitude (P = 0.009 before and after training. Among them, cognitive training group and motor imagery training group had significantly higher MMSE (P = 0.019, 0.021 and MoCA (P = 0.003, 0.031 scores, shorter P300 latency (P = 0.020, 0.003 and higher P300 amplitude (P = 0.003, 0.002 than control group.  Conclusions Motor imagery training can not only improve motor function of stroke patients, but also improve their cognitive function. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2017.06.005

  16. Cognitive Resources Necessary for Motor Control in Older Adults Are Reduced by Walking and Coordination Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godde, Ben; Voelcker-Rehage, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    We examined if physical exercise interventions were effective to reduce cognitive brain resources recruited while performing motor control tasks in older adults. Forty-three older adults (63-79 years of age) participated in either a walking ( n = 17) or a motor coordination ( n = 15) intervention (1 year, 3 times per week) or were assigned to a control group ( n = 11) doing relaxation and stretching exercises. Pre and post the intervention period, we applied functional MRI to assess brain activation during imagery of forward and backward walking and during counting backwards from 100 as control task. In both experimental groups, activation in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) during imagery of forward walking decreased from pre- to post-test (Effect size: -1.55 and -1.16 for coordination and walking training, respectively; Cohen's d ). Regression analysis revealed a significant positive association between initial motor status and activation change in the right DLPFC ( R 2 = 0.243, F (3,39) = 4.18, p = 0.012). Participants with lowest motor status at pretest profited most from the interventions. Data suggest that physical training in older adults is effective to free up cognitive resources otherwise needed for the control of locomotion. Training benefits may become particularly apparent in so-called dual-task situations where subjects must perform motor and cognitive tasks concurrently.

  17. Relationship between motor and cognitive learning abilities among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osama Abdelkarim

    2017-01-11

    Jan 11, 2017 ... c Research Unit (EM2S), High Institute of Sport and Physical Education, Sfax University, Tunisia d Institute of Sports Science, .... tors, participants, and their parents or guardians before the chil- dren entered into the ..... nent that played a key role in cognitive psychology research on information processing- ...

  18. Motor, Emotional, and Cognitive Empathy in Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Conduct Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bons, Danielle; van den Broek, Egon; Scheepers, Floor; Herpers, Pierre; Rommelse, Nanda; Buitelaaar, Jan K.

    2013-01-01

    It is unclear which aspects of empathy are shared and which are uniquely affected in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and conduct disorder (CD) as are the neurobiological correlates of these empathy impairments. The aim of this systematic review is to describe the overlap and specificity of motor, emotional, and cognitive aspects of empathy in…

  19. Cognitive Motor Coordination Training Improves Mental Rotation Performance in Primary School-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietsch, Stefanie; Böttcher, Caroline; Jansen, Petra

    2017-01-01

    The long-term physical activity in specific sport activities can change the quality of mental rotation performance. This study investigates the influence of "Life Kinetik"--a motion program with tasks of cognition and motor coordination--on mental rotation performance of 44 primary school-aged children. While the experimental group…

  20. Hand Preference and Cognitive, Motor, and Behavioral Functioning in 10-Year-Old Extremely Preterm Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Alice C; Anderson, Peter J; Joseph, Robert M; Allred, Elizabeth N; O'Shea, T Michael; Kuban, Karl C K; Leviton, Alan

    2018-04-01

    The association of hand preference (left, mixed, and right) with cognitive, academic, motor, and behavioral function was evaluated in 864 extremely preterm children at 10 years of age. Left-handed and right-handed children performed similarly but mixed-handed children had greater odds of functional deficits across domains than right-handed children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluation of Cognitive and Motor Development in Toddlers With Congenital Hypothyroidism Diagnosed by Neonatal Screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Sluijs Veer, L.; Kempers, M.J.E.; Wiedijk, B.M.; Last, B.F.; Grootenhuis, M.A.; Vulsma, T.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The Dutch neonatal congenital hypothyroidism (CH) screening procedure and treatment modality has been adapted several times since its national institution in 1981. These changes enabled us to investigate whether earlier treatment has resulted in improved cognitive and motor outcomes. The

  2. Evaluation of cognitive and motor development in toddlers with congenital hypothyroidism diagnosed by neonatal screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Sluijs Veer, L.; Kempers, M.J.; Wiedijk, B.M.; Last, B.F.; Grootenhuis, M.A.; Vulsma, T.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The Dutch neonatal congenital hypothyroidism (CH) screening procedure and treatment modality has been adapted several times since its national institution in 1981. These changes enabled us to investigate whether earlier treatment has resulted in improved cognitive and motor outcomes. The

  3. Evaluation of Cognitive and Motor Development in Toddlers With Congenital Hypothyroidism Diagnosed by Neonatal Screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Sluijs Veer, Liesbeth; Kempers, Marlies J. E.; Wiedijk, Brenda M.; Last, Bob F.; Grootenhuis, Martha A.; Vulsma, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The Dutch neonatal congenital hypothyroidism (CH) screening procedure and treatment modality has been adapted several times since its national institution in 1981. These changes enabled us to investigate whether earlier treatment has resulted in improved cognitive and motor outcomes. The

  4. Motor and Cognitive Performance Differences between Children with and without Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asonitou, Katerina; Koutsouki, Dimitra; Kourtessis, Thomas; Charitou, Sofia

    2012-01-01

    The current study adopts the PASS theory of information processing to investigate the probable differences in specific motor and cognitive abilities between children with and without developmental coordination disorder (DCD). Participants were 108 5- and 6-year-old preschoolers (54 children with DCD and 54 children without DCD). The Movement…

  5. Rehabilitation after stroke: predictive power of Barthel Index versus a cognitive and a motor index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, A; Bentzen, L; Garde, B

    1995-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the predictive power of ratings of Barthel Index at Day 40 post stroke, compared with and/or combined with simultaneous ratings from a mobility scale (EG motor index) and a rather simple cognitive test scale (CT50). The parameter to be individually ...

  6. Rehabilitation of stroke patients with apraxia : the role of additional cognitive and motor impairments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Heugten, C.M.; Dekker, J.; Deelman, B.G.; Stehmann-Saris, J.C; Kinebanian, A

    Purpose : The present study investigated which additional cognitive and motor impairments were present in stroke patients with apraxia and which of these factors influenced the effects of treatment. Method: A group of 33 patients with apraxia were treated according to the guidelines of a therapy

  7. Rehabilitation of stroke patients with apraxia: the role of additional cognitive and motor impairments.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heugten, C.M. van; Dekker, J.; Deelman, B.G.; Stehmann-Saris, J.C.; Kinebanian, A.

    2000-01-01

    PURPOSE: The present study investigated which additional cognitive and motor impairments were present in stroke patients with apraxia and which of these factors influenced the effects of treatment. METHOD: A group of 33 patients with apraxia were treated according to the guidelines of a therapy

  8. Dietary supplementation with coffee improves motor and cognitive performance in aged rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyphenols found in fruits and nuts have anti-inflammatory properties that may provide protection against the decline of cognitive, motor and neuronal function in senescence. The presence of a number of bioactive compounds (e.g., polyphenols) implicates coffee as a potential nutritional therapeutic...

  9. Tong Luo Jiu Nao ameliorates Aβ1-40-induced cognitive impairment on adaptive behavior learning by modulating ERK/CaMKII/CREB signaling in the hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zhe; Lu, Cong; Sun, Xiuping; Wang, Qiong; Chen, Shanguang; Li, Yinghui; Qu, Lina; Chen, Lingling; Bu, Lanlan; Liao, Duanfang; Liu, Xinmin

    2015-03-11

    Tong Luo Jiu Nao (TLJN), a modern formula of Chinese medicine extracts on the basis of Traditional Chinese Medicine theory, has been used to treat dementia. The present study aimed to investigate its ameliorating effects on Aβ1-40-induced cognitive impairment in rats using a series of novel reward-directed instrumental learning (RDIL) tasks, and to determine its possible mechanism of action. Rats were pretreated with TLJN extract (0.9 and 1.8 g/kg, p.o.) for 10 daysbefore surgery, and were trained to gain reward reinforcement by lever pressing at the meantime. Thereafter, rats received a bilateral microinjection of Aβ1-40 in CA1 regions of the hippocampus. Cognitive performance was evaluated with the goal directed (higher response ratio) and habit (visual signal discrimination and extinction) learning tasks, as well as on the levels of biochemical parameters and molecules. Our findings first demonstrated that TLJN can improve Aβ1-40-induced amnesia in RDIL via enhancing the comprehension of action-outcome association and the utilization of cue information to guide behavior. Then, its ameliorating effects should attribute to the modulation of ERK/CaMKII/CREB signaling in the hippocampus. TLJN can markedly enhance cognitions of Aβ1-40 microinjection animal model in adaptive behavioral tasks. It has the potential, possibly as complementary and alternative therapy, to prevent and/or delay the deterioration of cognitive impairment in AD.

  10. Validity of Brief Cognitive Assessment Tool modifications for older adults with visual and motor limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mace, Ryan A; Mansbach, William E

    2018-01-30

    The prevalence of cognitive, sensory, and physical impairments is expected to grow alongside increasing life expectancy. These chronic conditions pose challenges for geriatric assessment. We examined whether Brief Cognitive Assessment Tool (BCAT) modifications to accommodate visual and motor limitations would retain strong validity for identifying mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia. Psychometric analyses were performed on archival data (N = 458) from community-dwelling older adults and residents of assisted living facilities and nursing homes in Maryland, USA (age ≥ 50 years). Participants completed a brief testing battery, including the BCAT, and were assigned a cognitive diagnosis (normal cognition, MCI, mild dementia, moderate dementia, severe dementia) by licensed clinical psychologists. Receiver operator characteristic curve analyses evidenced excellent diagnostic validity of BCAT modification cutoffs for identifying the cognitive categories. Contextual memory and executive control factors, which explained over 80% of variance in cognitive diagnoses, may account for the preservation of validity despite BCAT modifications. The results indicate strong psychometric evidence for the BCAT modifications and provide cutoffs for identifying MCI and staging dementia. For clinicians, the score guidelines are preferable to the guesswork involved with adjusting cutoffs to accommodate visual and motor limitations.

  11. Rehabilitation of stroke patients with apraxia: the role of additional cognitive and motor impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Heugten, C M; Dekker, J; Deelman, B G; Stehmann-Saris, J C; Kinebanian, A

    2000-08-15

    The present study investigated which additional cognitive and motor impairments were present in stroke patients with apraxia and which of these factors influenced the effects of treatment. A group of 33 patients with apraxia were treated according to the guidelines of a therapy programme based on teaching patients strategies to compensate for the presence of apraxia. Patients were treated at occupational therapy departments in general hospitals, rehabilitation centres and nursing homes. The outcome of the strategy training was studied in a pre-post test design; measurements were conducted at baseline and after 12 weeks of therapy. The pretreatment scores of the patients with apraxia were compared to normscores and scores of a control group of patients without apraxia (n = 36) to investigate which impairments are present. The following variables were analysed in order to determine which factors influence outcome: additional neuropsychological deficits (comprehension of language, cognitive impairments due to dementia, neglect and short term memory), level of motor functioning, severity of apraxia and performance on activities of daily living (ADL), and some relevant patient characteristics (gender, age, type of stroke, time since stroke, and location of treatment). The results showed that the presence of apraxia is associated with the presence of additional cognitive and motor impairments. The successful outcome of strategy training was not negatively influenced by cognitive comorbidity. The outcome seemed to be more prominent in patients who were more severely impaired at the start of rehabilitation in terms of the degree of motor impairments, the severity of apraxia and the initial ADL dependence. The ADL observations, however, displayed a ceiling effect, which was taken into account in discussing the results. Demographic variables, especially age, did not predict the outcome of treatment. We suggest that the effect of this training is stronger in more severely

  12. Training Attentional Control Improves Cognitive and Motor Task Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducrocq, Emmanuel; Wilson, Mark; Vine, Sam; Derakshan, Nazanin

    2016-10-01

    Attentional control is a necessary function for the regulation of goal-directed behavior. In three experiments we investigated whether training inhibitory control using a visual search task could improve task-specific measures of attentional control and performance. In Experiment 1 results revealed that training elicited a near-transfer effect, improving performance on a cognitive (antisaccade) task assessing inhibitory control. In Experiment 2 an initial far-transfer effect of training was observed on an index of attentional control validated for tennis. The principal aim of Experiment 3 was to expand on these findings by assessing objective gaze measures of inhibitory control during the performance of a tennis task. Training improved inhibitory control and performance when pressure was elevated, confirming the mechanisms by which cognitive anxiety impacts performance. These results suggest that attentional control training can improve inhibition and reduce taskspecific distractibility with promise of transfer to more efficient sporting performance in competitive contexts.

  13. Adapted Tango Improves Mobility, Motor-Cognitive Function, and Gait but Not Cognition in Older Adults in Independent Living.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackney, Madeleine E; Byers, Colleen; Butler, Gail; Sweeney, Morgan; Rossbach, Lauren; Bozzorg, Aaron

    2015-10-01

    To determine the efficacy of adapted tango for improving mobility, motor-cognitive function, and gait; to determine whether former dance experience was associated with improvements; and to evaluate participant satisfaction, changes in depression, and quality of life. Quasi-experimental, two-group, repeated-measures preintervention, postintervention, and 3-month postintervention study. Diverse senior independent living communities in an urban metropolitan area. Individuals aged 59 to 95 (73% aged 80 and older; 31% nonwhite, 72% female) (N = 74). Participants were assigned to 20 sessions of 90-minute tango (n = 62) or health education (n = 12) classes over 12 weeks. Mobility, motor-cognitive function, gait, cognition, and psychosocial function were evaluated before, immediately after, and 3 months after the intervention. Two (groups) by two (before and after) repeated-measures analyses of variance with post hoc comparisons were used to evaluate differences in primary analyses. Secondary analyses from immediately after to 3 months after were used to examine the data for retention of any gains. Forty-four tango and 10 education participants completed 20 sessions. Significant group by time interactions revealed that tango improved mobility (P = .006), backward and fast gait speeds (P cognitive function (P = .03). Education improved depression (P = .001). No relationship was noted between previous dance experience and improvements. Gains were maintained 3 months after the intervention. Adapted tango may improve mobility, gait and motor-cognitive function more than health education classes in older adults. Further research is necessary to confirm these findings. © 2015, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2015, The American Geriatrics Society.

  14. Effect of motor cognition program for improving temporal-spatial timing memory ability with mild cognitive impairment patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sooyeon

    2017-08-01

    This exploratory study evaluated motor cognition program for improving temporal-spatial timing memory ability with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients. The purpose was to explore the efficacies of motor cognition program according to practice methods, centering on coordination and observation pattern. Two practice methods were applied to the 40 MCI elder. In experiment 1, participants divided into two group as, one-hand practice group (n=20) and both-hands practice group (n=20). In experiment 2, participants divided into two group as, active observation group (n=20) and passive observation group (n=20). The participant was asked to alternatively press two buttons 6 times with the index finger hand with goal rhythm pattern (3,600 msec in total duration). In coordination pattern, bimanual practice was more effective for improving temporal-spatial timing memory ability than unilateral practice. In observation pattern, active observation showed better learning effect than passive observation. However, there was a learning effect even in passive observation pattern. Such a result claimed for the elderly, who has problem to do daily activity, could use observation of temporal-spatial timing task for improving cognitive ability.

  15. Walk this way, Talk this way. Motor skills, spatial exploration, and the development of spatial cognition and language

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oudgenoeg-Paz, O.

    2014-01-01

    According to the ecological embodied cognition approach, cognition and language develop through real-time body-environment interactions. These ongoing interactions, in which children explore the environment, are the basis for the development of cognition and language. The attainment of motor

  16. Behavioral Senescence and Aging-Related Changes in Motor Neurons and Brain Neuromodulator Levels Are Ameliorated by Lifespan-Extending Reproductive Dormancy in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Sifang; Broughton, Susan; Nässel, Dick R.

    2017-01-01

    The lifespan of Drosophila melanogaster can be extended substantially by inducing reproductive dormancy (also known as diapause) by lowered temperature and short days. This increase of longevity is accompanied by lowered metabolism and increased stress tolerance. We ask here whether behavioral senescence is ameliorated during adult dormancy. To study this we kept flies for seven or more weeks in normal rearing conditions or in diapause conditions and compared to 1-week-old flies in different behavioral assays of sleep, negative geotaxis and exploratory walking. We found that the senescence of geotaxis and locomotor behavior seen under normal rearing conditions was negligible in flies kept in dormancy. The normal senescence of rhythmic activity and sleep patterns during the daytime was also reduced by adult dormancy. Investigating the morphology of specific neuromuscular junctions (NMJs), we found that changes normally seen with aging do not take place in dormant flies. To monitor age-associated changes in neuronal circuits regulating activity rhythms, sleep and walking behavior we applied antisera to tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), serotonin and several neuropeptides to examine changes in expression levels and neuron morphology. In most neuron types the levels of stored neuromodulators decreased during normal aging, but not in diapause treated flies. No signs of neurodegeneration were seen in either condition. Our data suggest that age-related changes in motor neurons could be the cause of part of the behavioral senescence and that this is ameliorated by reproductive diapause. Earlier studies established a link between age-associated decreases in neuromodulator levels and behavioral decline that could be rescued by overexpression of neuromodulator. Thus, it is likely that the retained levels of neuromodulators in dormant flies alleviate behavioral senescence. PMID:28503133

  17. Behavioral Senescence and Aging-Related Changes in Motor Neurons and Brain Neuromodulator Levels Are Ameliorated by Lifespan-Extending Reproductive Dormancy in Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dick R. Nässel

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The lifespan of Drosophilamelanogaster can be extended substantially by inducing reproductive dormancy (also known as diapause by lowered temperature and short days. This increase of longevity is accompanied by lowered metabolism and increased stress tolerance. We ask here whether behavioral senescence is ameliorated during adult dormancy. To study this we kept flies for seven or more weeks in normal rearing conditions or in diapause conditions and compared to 1-week-old flies in different behavioral assays of sleep, negative geotaxis and exploratory walking. We found that the senescence of geotaxis and locomotor behavior seen under normal rearing conditions was negligible in flies kept in dormancy. The normal senescence of rhythmic activity and sleep patterns during the daytime was also reduced by adult dormancy. Investigating the morphology of specific neuromuscular junctions (NMJs, we found that changes normally seen with aging do not take place in dormant flies. To monitor age-associated changes in neuronal circuits regulating activity rhythms, sleep and walking behavior we applied antisera to tyrosine hydroxylase (TH, serotonin and several neuropeptides to examine changes in expression levels and neuron morphology. In most neuron types the levels of stored neuromodulators decreased during normal aging, but not in diapause treated flies. No signs of neurodegeneration were seen in either condition. Our data suggest that age-related changes in motor neurons could be the cause of part of the behavioral senescence and that this is ameliorated by reproductive diapause. Earlier studies established a link between age-associated decreases in neuromodulator levels and behavioral decline that could be rescued by overexpression of neuromodulator. Thus, it is likely that the retained levels of neuromodulators in dormant flies alleviate behavioral senescence.

  18. The pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus as a motor and cognitive interface between the cerebellum and basal ganglia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumika Mori

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available As an important component of ascending activating systems, brainstem cholinergic neurons in the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPTg are involved in the regulation of motor control (locomotion, posture and gaze and cognitive processes (attention, learning, and memory. The PPTg is highly interconnected with several regions of the basal ganglia, and one of its key functions is to regulate and relay activity from the basal ganglia. Together, they have been implicated in the motor control system (such as voluntary movement initiation or inhibition, and modulate aspects of executive function (such as motivation. In addition to its intimate connection with the basal ganglia, projections from the PPTg to the cerebellum have been recently reported to synaptically activate the deep cerebellar nuclei. Classically, the cerebellum and basal ganglia were regarded as forming separated anatomical loops that play a distinct functional role in motor and cognitive behavioral control. Here, we suggest that the PPTg may also act as an interface device between the basal ganglia and cerebellum. As such, part of the therapeutic effect of PPTg deep brain stimulation to relieve gait freezing and postural instability in advanced Parkinson’s disease patients might also involve modulation of the cerebellum. We review the anatomical position and role of the PPTg in the pathway of basal ganglia and cerebellum in relation to motor control, cognitive function, and Parkinson’s disease.

  19. Improvement of gross motor and cognitive abilities by an exercise training program: three case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alesi M

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Marianna Alesi,1 Giuseppe Battaglia,2 Michele Roccella,1 Davide Testa,1 Antonio Palma,2 Annamaria Pepi1 1Department of Psychology, 2Department of Law, Social and Sport Science, University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy Background: This work examined the efficacy of an integrated exercise training program (coach and family in three children with Down syndrome to improve their motor and cognitive abilities, in particular reaction time and working memory. Methods: The integrated exercise training program was used in three children with Down syndrome, comprising two boys (M1, with a chronological age of 10.3 years and a mental age of 4.7 years; M2, with a chronological age of 14.6 years and a mental age of less than 4 years and one girl (F1, chronological age 14.0 years and a mental age of less than 4 years. Results: Improvements in gross motor ability scores were seen after the training period. Greater improvements in task reaction time were noted for both evaluation parameters, ie, time and omissions. Conclusion: There is a close interrelationship between motor and cognitive domains in individuals with atypical development. There is a need to plan intervention programs based on the simultaneous involvement of child and parents and aimed at promoting an active lifestyle in individuals with Down syndrome. Keywords: disability, Down syndrome, gross motor abilities, cognitive abilities, physical activity

  20. Cognitive-behaviour therapy and skilled motor performance in adults with chronic tic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Kieron P; Lavoie, Marc E; Stip, Emmanuel; Borgeat, François; Laverdure, Anick

    2008-01-01

    The first aim of the present study was to compare performance of people with tic disorders (TD) and controls on executive function and a range of skilled motor tests requiring complex performance, guided movements, hand co-ordination, and fine control of steadiness. The second aim was to investigate the effect of cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) on motor performance. A total of 55 patients with TD were recruited at baseline from participants in a behavioural management programme. A comparison group of 55 patients suffering from a variety of habit disorders (HD) involving complex manual movements, were matched on age and level of education to 34 non-psychiatric controls. Participants were evaluated pre- and post-treatment and post-waitlist with a neuropsychological evaluation focusing on executive function (Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, WCST) and skilled motor performance (Purdue Pegboard, Hole Steadiness Test, and the Groove Test). Results revealed WCST scores in the normal range, while motor performance differed significantly on the Purdue Pegboard Tests in both TD and HD as compared to the control group. Cognitive-behavioural treatment selectively improved motor performance in both clinical groups compared to waitlist control, and this improvement related to clinical outcome measures.

  1. Intermittent hypoxia can aggravate motor neuronal loss and cognitive dysfunction in ALS mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Min Kim

    Full Text Available Patients with ALS may be exposed to variable degrees of chronic intermittent hypoxia. However, all previous experimental studies on the effects of hypoxia in ALS have only used a sustained hypoxia model and it is possible that chronic intermittent hypoxia exerts effects via a different molecular mechanism from that of sustained hypoxia. No study has yet shown that hypoxia (either chronic intermittent or sustained can affect the loss of motor neurons or cognitive function in an in vivo model of ALS.To evaluate the effects of chronic intermittent hypoxia on motor and cognitive function in ALS mice.Sixteen ALS mice and 16 wild-type mice were divided into 2 groups and subjected to either chronic intermittent hypoxia or normoxia for 2 weeks. The effects of chronic intermittent hypoxia on ALS mice were evaluated using the rotarod, Y-maze, and wire-hanging tests. In addition, numbers of motor neurons in the ventral horn of the spinal cord were counted and western blot analyses were performed for markers of oxidative stress and inflammatory pathway activation.Compared to ALS mice kept in normoxic conditions, ALS mice that experienced chronic intermittent hypoxia had poorer motor learning on the rotarod test, poorer spatial memory on the Y-maze test, shorter wire hanging time, and fewer motor neurons in the ventral spinal cord. Compared to ALS-normoxic and wild-type mice, ALS mice that experienced chronic intermittent hypoxia had higher levels of oxidative stress and inflammation.Chronic intermittent hypoxia can aggravate motor neuronal death, neuromuscular weakness, and probably cognitive dysfunction in ALS mice. The generation of oxidative stress with activation of inflammatory pathways may be associated with this mechanism. Our study will provide insight into the association of hypoxia with disease progression, and in turn, the rationale for an early non-invasive ventilation treatment in patients with ALS.

  2. The impact of threat and cognitive stress on speech motor control in people who stutter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieshout, Pascal van; Ben-David, Boaz; Lipski, Melinda; Namasivayam, Aravind

    2014-06-01

    In the present study, an Emotional Stroop and Classical Stroop task were used to separate the effect of threat content and cognitive stress from the phonetic features of words on motor preparation and execution processes. A group of 10 people who stutter (PWS) and 10 matched people who do not stutter (PNS) repeated colour names for threat content words and neutral words, as well as for traditional Stroop stimuli. Data collection included speech acoustics and movement data from upper lip and lower lip using 3D EMA. PWS in both tasks were slower to respond and showed smaller upper lip movement ranges than PNS. For the Emotional Stroop task only, PWS were found to show larger inter-lip phase differences compared to PNS. General threat words were executed with faster lower lip movements (larger range and shorter duration) in both groups, but only PWS showed a change in upper lip movements. For stutter specific threat words, both groups showed a more variable lip coordination pattern, but only PWS showed a delay in reaction time compared to neutral words. Individual stuttered words showed no effects. Both groups showed a classical Stroop interference effect in reaction time but no changes in motor variables. This study shows differential motor responses in PWS compared to controls for specific threat words. Cognitive stress was not found to affect stuttering individuals differently than controls or that its impact spreads to motor execution processes. After reading this article, the reader will be able to: (1) discuss the importance of understanding how threat content influences speech motor control in people who stutter and non-stuttering speakers; (2) discuss the need to use tasks like the Emotional Stroop and Regular Stroop to separate phonetic (word-bound) based impact on fluency from other factors in people who stutter; and (3) describe the role of anxiety and cognitive stress on speech motor processes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. [The rehabilitation treatment of patients with motor and cognitive disorders after stroke].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakharov, V Iu; Isanova, V A

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To study the possibility of using the rehabilitative pneumatic suit "Atlant" in stroke outpatients. Material and methods. We studied 11 stroke patients who wore the pneumatic suit in the early rehabilitation period. A comparison group included 13 patients. The high effectiveness of complex treatment with using the suit "Atlant" was shown. The motor activity was improved in 71.4% of patients, the recovery of speech was found in 33.3% patients. Conclusion. Continuity of rehabilitation in outpatients with stroke promotes the recovery of functional activity, motor, cognitive and speech functions and positively impacts on the emotional state of the patient.

  4. Distinct cerebellar regions related to motor and cognitive performance in SCA6 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rentiya, Zubir; Khan, Noore-Sabah; Ergun, Ezgi; Ying, Sarah H; Desmond, John E

    2017-12-01

    To demonstrate a correlation between anatomic regional changes in Spinocerebellar Ataxia type 6 (SCA6) patients and measures of cognitive performance on neuropsychological tests. Neurocognitive testing was conducted on 24 SCA6 and 28 control subjects. For each cognitive test, SCA6 patients were compared against the controls using Student's t-test. For the cerebellar patients, using voxel based morphometry, correlations between cerebellar gray matter volume at each voxel and performance on the neuropsychological exams were calculated using the Pearson correlation coefficient implemented in SPM8. Compared to controls, SCA6 patients exhibited significantly impaired performance on the following cognitive tests: Rey-Auditory Verbal Learning Test Trial V, Controlled Oral Word Association phonemic test and semantic-verb test, Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure copy test as well as immediate and delayed visuo-spatial memory recall test, Trail Making Test (TMT) Part A and Part B, Stroop Color Task completion time, Stroop Color-Word Task score, and Grooved Pegboard Test (GPT) Dominant and Non-Dominant Hand time. Correlations of gray matter density with cognitive test performance were determined for all SCA6 subjects. Using a p-value threshold of 0.001 and family-wise small volume error correction, significant correlations were found for GPT Non-Dominant, GPT Dominant, TMT Part A, and TMT Part B. Different regional patterns of cerebellar involvement were found for the motoric GPT task and the executive version of the TMT. The results for the GPT strongly indicated that the integrity of medial superior hemispheric regions was associated with motor task performance, whereas executive cognitive function was localized in distinctly different inferior regions. This is the first VBM study to differentiate cognitive and motor contributions of the cerebellum. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Distinct brain metabolic patterns separately associated with cognition, motor function, and aging in Parkinson's disease dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Ji Hyun; Katako, Audrey; Aljuaid, Maram; Goertzen, Andrew L; Borys, Andrew; Hobson, Douglas E; Kim, Seok Min; Lee, Chong Sik

    2017-12-01

    We explored whether patients with Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD) show a distinct spatial metabolic pattern that characterizes cognitive deficits in addition to motor dysfunction. Eighteen patients with PDD underwent 3 separate positron emission tomography sessions with [ 18 F]fluorodeoxyglucose (for glucose metabolism), fluorinated N-3-fluoropropyl-2-beta-carboxymethoxy-3-beta-(4-iodophenyl) nortropane (for dopamine transporter density) and Pittsburgh compound-B (for beta-amyloid load). We confirmed in PDD versus normal controls, overall hypometabolism in the posterior and prefrontal brain regions accompanied with hypermetabolism in subcortical structures and the cerebellar vermis. A multivariate network analysis then revealed 3 metabolic patterns that are separately associated with cognitive performance (p = 0.042), age (p = 0.042), and motor symptom severity (p = 0.039). The age-related pattern's association with aging was replicated in healthy controls (p = 0.047) and patients with Alzheimer's disease (p = 0.002). The cognition-related pattern's association with cognitive performance was observed, with a trend-level of correlation, in patients with dementia with Lewy bodies (p = 0.084) but not in patients with Alzheimer's disease (p = 0.974). We found no association with fluorinated N-3-fluoropropyl-2-beta-carboxymethoxy-3-beta-(4-iodophenyl) nortropane and Pittsburgh compound-B positron emission tomography with patients' cognitive performance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The canonical relationship between sensory-motor functioning and cognitive processing in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Andrew S; Pass, Lisa A; Finch, W Holmes; Dean, Raymond S; Woodcock, Richard W

    2009-05-01

    Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) typically exhibits a pattern of behavioral deficits, impairment in academic achievement, and cognitive processing, and presents with sensory-motor deficits. This study examined the relationships between sensory-motor tasks, cognitive processing, and academic achievement for a group of 67 children with ADHD. Strong canonical correlations emerged between sensory-motor functioning and academic achievement (.93) and sensory-motor functioning and cognitive processing (.98). An analysis of the redundancy coefficient showed that sensory-motor skills accounted for 65% of the variance in the achievement variables and 31% of the variance in the cognitive processing variables. The strong relationship between sensory-motor skills and higher order cognitive processes indicates that early assessment of sensory-motor skills may be useful in the identification of subsequent deficits in academic performance. Neuropsychologists should carefully consider the contribution of sensory-motor functioning to the more widely studied and assessed constructs of academic, behavioral, and emotional problems in children with ADHD.

  7. Validation of the fatigue scale for motor and cognitive functions in a danish multiple sclerosis cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oervik, M. S.; Sejbaek, T.; Penner, I. K.

    2017-01-01

    Background Our objective was to validate the Danish translation of the Fatigue Scale for Motor and Cognitive Functions (FSMC) in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. Materials and methods A Danish MS cohort (n = 84) was matched and compared to the original German validation cohort (n = 309) and a he......Background Our objective was to validate the Danish translation of the Fatigue Scale for Motor and Cognitive Functions (FSMC) in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. Materials and methods A Danish MS cohort (n = 84) was matched and compared to the original German validation cohort (n = 309...... positive correlations between the two fatigue scales implied high convergent validity (total scores: r = 0.851, p gender). Correcting for depression did not result in any significant adjustments of the correlations...

  8. Using a dual-task protocol to investigate motor and cognitive performance in healthy children and youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabri, Tracy L; Wilson, Katherine E; Holland, Nicole; Hickling, Andrea; Murphy, James; Fait, Philippe; Reed, Nick

    2017-05-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury (or concussion) is a prevalent yet understudied health concern in children and youth. This injury can cause dysfunction in both motor and cognitive domains; however, most literature focuses on single-task neuropsychological tests which only assess cognition. Although dual-task research on concussed children and youth is needed as many daily activities require both motor and cognitive domains, we must first investigate whether performing simultaneous motor and cognitive tasks of varied complexity impact these domains in healthy children and youth. Data collected from 106 healthy children and youth (5-18 years) created a normative dataset. Participants performed motor (postural stability) and cognitive (visual attention) tasks under single- and dual-task conditions. The cognitive task difficulty remained constant while the motor task had four conditions of increasing difficulty. The relationship between the number of correct responses (cognitive performance) and sway index (motor performance) was determined using two repeated measures ANOVAs (pchildren and youth following concussion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Behavioral, neuropsychiatric and cognitive disorders in Parkinson's disease patients with and without motor complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solla, P; Cannas, A; Floris, G L; Orofino, G; Costantino, E; Boi, A; Serra, C; Marrosu, M G; Marrosu, F

    2011-06-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD), commonly defined as a hypokinetic movement disorder, is hampered by the appearance of motor complications (MC), including dyskinesias and motor fluctuations, and non-motor symptoms such as behavioral, neuropsychiatric and cognitive disorders, which, in the last years, are gaining increasing attention. The factors affecting MC and these non-motor symptoms are still largely unknown and their interactions are not yet fully evaluated. To identify the presence of behavioral, neuropsychiatric and cognitive disorders in PD patients with and without MC and to evaluate their association with MC. Consecutive PD patients received a comprehensive structured clinical evaluation including pharmacologic treatment, MC and non-motor symptoms such as reward-seeking behaviors, neuropsychiatric symptoms (depression, anxiety, psychoses and hallucinations) and dementia. 349 patients were included in this analysis. Patient with MC showed enhanced frequency of dementia (p compulsive shopping (p < 0.001), while they were not significantly associated with pathological gambling and binge eating. Patients with dyskinesias also had significantly higher frequency of dopamine dysregulation syndrome, hallucinations and delusions (p < 0.001), with the exception of delusional jealousy. We found a higher frequency of behavioral, neuropsychiatric and cognitive disorders in patients with MC. The lack of detection of dyskinesias in several PD patients with pathological gambling in our study represents a very interesting issue. While binge eating mainly seems to be related to the use of dopamine agonists, the significant lack of association between dyskinesias and delusional jealousy suggests the hypothesis of a possible underlying psychopathological predisposition rather than a mere pharmacologic effect in PD patients with these behavioral complications. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Wushu as a tool for motor, cognitive and socioaffective development at school: an exploratory study

    OpenAIRE

    Everton de Souza da Silva; Diego Pereira Alves; Marcelo Augusto P. dos Santos; Lucas Ribeiro Dos Santos; Sumara Brito Soares; Bianca Miarka

    2017-01-01

    The present work investigated the use of wushu at school by Physical Education teachers (PEF) as a tool for the motor, cognitive and socioaffective development, and compared practitioners and non-practitioners in concept, understanding and application of wushu resignified practices in Elementary School grades I and II in São Paulo, Brazil. For this purpose, 40 PEFs were assigned to one of two groups, wushu Practitioners (PW, n=27) or Non wushu Practitioners (NPW, n=13). All participants answe...

  11. Virtual Reality Rehabilitation from Social Cognitive and Motor Learning Theoretical Perspectives in Stroke Population

    OpenAIRE

    Imam, Bita; Jarus, Tal

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To identify the virtual reality (VR) interventions used for the lower extremity rehabilitation in stroke population and to explain their underlying training mechanisms using Social Cognitive (SCT) and Motor Learning (MLT) theoretical frameworks. Methods. Medline, Embase, Cinahl, and Cochrane databases were searched up to July 11, 2013. Randomized controlled trials that included a VR intervention for lower extremity rehabilitation in stroke population were included. The Physiothera...

  12. Cognitive alterations in motor imagery process after left hemispheric ischemic stroke.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Yan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Motor imagery training is a promising rehabilitation strategy for stroke patients. However, few studies had focused on the neural mechanisms in time course of its cognitive process. This study investigated the cognitive alterations after left hemispheric ischemic stroke during motor imagery task. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Eleven patients with ischemic stroke in left hemisphere and eleven age-matched control subjects participated in mental rotation task (MRT of hand pictures. Behavior performance, event-related potential (ERP and event-related (desynchronization (ERD/ERS in beta band were analyzed to investigate the cortical activation. We found that: (1 The response time increased with orientation angles in both groups, called "angle effect", however, stoke patients' responses were impaired with significantly longer response time and lower accuracy rate; (2 In early visual perceptual cognitive process, stroke patients showed hypo-activations in frontal and central brain areas in aspects of both P200 and ERD; (3 During mental rotation process, P300 amplitude in control subjects decreased while angle increased, called "amplitude modulation effect", which was not observed in stroke patients. Spatially, patients showed significant lateralization of P300 with activation only in contralesional (right parietal cortex while control subjects showed P300 in both parietal lobes. Stroke patients also showed an overall cortical hypo-activation of ERD during this sub-stage; (4 In the response sub-stage, control subjects showed higher ERD values with more activated cortical areas particularly in the right hemisphere while angle increased, named "angle effect", which was not observed in stroke patients. In addition, stroke patients showed significant lower ERD for affected hand (right response than that for unaffected hand. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Cortical activation was altered differently in each cognitive sub-stage of motor imagery after

  13. Rehabilitation of stroke patients with apraxia: the role of additional cognitive and motor impairments.

    OpenAIRE

    Heugten, C.M. van; Dekker, J.; Deelman, B.G.; Stehmann-Saris, J.C.; Kinebanian, A.

    2000-01-01

    PURPOSE: The present study investigated which additional cognitive and motor impairments were present in stroke patients with apraxia and which of these factors influenced the effects of treatment. METHOD: A group of 33 patients with apraxia were treated according to the guidelines of a therapy programme based on teaching patients strategies to compensate for the presence of apraxia. Patients were treated at occupational therapy departments in general hospitals, rehabilitation centres and nur...

  14. The motor signature of mild cognitive impairment: results from the gait and brain study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero-Odasso, Manuel; Oteng-Amoako, Afua; Speechley, Mark; Gopaul, Karen; Beauchet, Olivier; Annweiler, Cedric; Muir-Hunter, Susan W

    2014-11-01

    Early motor changes associated with aging predict cognitive decline, which suggests that a "motor signature" can be detected in predementia states. In line with previous research, we aim to demonstrate that individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) have a distinct motor signature, and specifically, that dual-task gait can be a tool to distinguish amnestic (a-MCI) from nonamnestic MCI. Older adults with MCI and controls from the "Gait and Brain Study" were assessed with neurocognitive tests to assess cognitive performance and with an electronic gait mat to record temporal and spatial gait parameters. Mean gait velocity and stride time variability were evaluated under simple and three separate dual-task conditions. The relationship between cognitive groups (a-MCI vs nonamnestic MCI) and gait parameters was evaluated with linear regression models and adjusted for confounders. Ninety-nine older participants, 64 MCI (mean age 76.3±7.1 years; 50% female), and 35 controls (mean age 70.4±3.9 years; 82.9% female) were included. Forty-two participants were a-MCI and 22 were nonamnestic MCI. Multivariable linear regression (adjusted for age, sex, physical activity level, comorbidities, and executive function) showed that a-MCI was significantly associated with slower gait and higher dual-task cost under dual-task conditions. Participants with a-MCI, specifically with episodic memory impairment, had poor gait performance, particularly under dual tasking. Our findings suggest that dual-task assessment can help to differentiate MCI subtyping, revealing a motor signature in MCI. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America.

  15. Cognitive-Motor Interference on Upper Extremity Motor Performance in a Robot-Assisted Planar Reaching Task Among Patients With Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Joon-Ho; Park, Gyulee; Cho, Duk Youn

    2017-04-01

    To explore motor performance on 2 different cognitive tasks during robotic rehabilitation in which motor performance was longitudinally assessed. Prospective study. Rehabilitation hospital. Patients (N=22) with chronic stroke and upper extremity impairment. A total of 640 repetitions of robot-assisted planar reaching, 5 times a week for 4 weeks. Longitudinal robotic evaluations regarding motor performance included smoothness, mean velocity, path error, and reach error by the type of cognitive task. Dual-task effects (DTEs) of motor performance were computed to analyze the effect of the cognitive task on dual-task interference. Cognitive task type influenced smoothness (P=.006), the DTEs of smoothness (P=.002), and the DTEs of reach error (P=.052). Robotic rehabilitation improved smoothness (P=.007) and reach error (P=.078), while stroke severity affected smoothness (P=.01), reach error (Pperformance. The results provide evidence for the effect of cognitive-motor interference on upper extremity performance among participants with stroke using a robotic-guided rehabilitation system. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The Relationship Between Balance Confidence and Cognitive Motor Interference in Individuals With Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wajda, Douglas A; Roeing, Kathleen L; McAuley, Edward; Motl, Robert W; Sosnoff, Jacob J

    2016-01-01

    Gait and cognitive impairments are compounded when performed simultaneously in individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS), and this is termed cognitive-motor interference (CMI). The authors examined whether CMI is related to balance confidence in individuals with MS. They hypothesized that individuals with low balance confidence would exhibit greater CMI possibly indicating a behavioral modification during dual task conditions. Thirty-four individuals with MS completed Activity-specific Balance Confidence (ABC) scale and a cognitive assessment as well as single and dual task walking trials at a comfortable pace. CMI was calculated as the percent change in walking velocity and cognitive task performance from single- to dual-task conditions and termed dual-task cost (DTC). A correlation analysis was performed to determine the relationships between DTCs of gait and cognitive performance and ABC scores. The correlation analysis revealed no significant association between ABC and DTC of walking velocity (p > .05). A significant relationship between balance confidence and DTCs of cognition was observed. The observed relationships suggest individuals with MS tend to alter their cognitive performance rather than manipulating their gait when confronted with a dual task. Overall, the findings partially support a behavioral explanation of CMI in individuals with MS.

  17. Effects of caffeine on the electrophysiological, cognitive and motor responses of the central nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deslandes A.C.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Caffeine is the most consumed psychoactive substance in the world. The effects of caffeine have been studied using cognitive and motor measures, quantitative electroencephalography (qEEG and event-related potentials. However, these methods are not usually employed in combination, a fact that impairs the interpretation of the results. The objective of the present study was to analyze changes in electrophysiological, cognitive and motor variables with the ingestion of caffeine, and to relate central to peripheral responses. For this purpose we recorded event-related potentials and eyes-closed, resting EEG, applied the Stroop test, and measured reaction time. Fifteen volunteers took caffeine (400 mg or placebo in a randomized, crossover, double-blind design. A significant reduction of alpha absolute power over the entire scalp and of P300 latency at the Fz electrode were observed after caffeine ingestion. These results are consistent with a stimulatory effect of caffeine, although there was no change in the attention (Stroop test or in reaction time. The qEEG seems to be the most sensitive index of the changes produced by caffeine in the central nervous system since it proved to be capable of detecting changes that were not evident in the tests of cognitive or motor performance.

  18. Effects of caffeine on the electrophysiological, cognitive and motor responses of the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deslandes, A C; Veiga, H; Cagy, M; Piedade, R; Pompeu, F; Ribeiro, P

    2005-07-01

    Caffeine is the most consumed psychoactive substance in the world. The effects of caffeine have been studied using cognitive and motor measures, quantitative electroencephalography (qEEG) and event-related potentials. However, these methods are not usually employed in combination, a fact that impairs the interpretation of the results. The objective of the present study was to analyze changes in electrophysiological, cognitive and motor variables with the ingestion of caffeine, and to relate central to peripheral responses. For this purpose we recorded event-related potentials and eyes-closed, resting EEG, applied the Stroop test, and measured reaction time. Fifteen volunteers took caffeine (400 mg) or placebo in a randomized, crossover, double-blind design. A significant reduction of alpha absolute power over the entire scalp and of P300 latency at the Fz electrode were observed after caffeine ingestion. These results are consistent with a stimulatory effect of caffeine, although there was no change in the attention (Stroop) test or in reaction time. The qEEG seems to be the most sensitive index of the changes produced by caffeine in the central nervous system since it proved to be capable of detecting changes that were not evident in the tests of cognitive or motor performance.

  19. Oil palm phenolics confer neuroprotective effects involving cognitive and motor functions in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leow, Soon-Sen; Sekaran, Shamala Devi; Tan, YewAi; Sundram, Kalyana; Sambanthamurthi, Ravigadevi

    2013-09-01

    Phenolics are important phytochemicals which have positive effects on chronic diseases, including neurodegenerative ailments. The oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) is a rich source of water-soluble phenolics. This study was carried out to discover the effects of administering oil palm phenolics (OPP) to mice, with the aim of identifying whether these compounds possess significant neuroprotective properties. OPP was given to BALB/c mice on a normal diet as fluids for 6 weeks while the controls were given distilled water. These animals were tested in a water maze and on a rotarod weekly to assess the effects of OPP on cognitive and motor functions, respectively. Using Illumina microarrays, we further explored the brain gene expression changes caused by OPP in order to determine the molecular mechanisms involved. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction experiments were then carried out to validate the microarray data. We found that mice given OPP showed better cognitive function and spatial learning when tested in a water maze, and their performance also improved when tested on a rotarod, possibly due to better motor function and balance. Microarray gene expression analysis showed that these compounds up-regulated genes involved in brain development and activity, such as those under the regulation of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor. OPP also down-regulated genes involved in inflammation. These results suggest that the improvement of mouse cognitive and motor functions by OPP is caused by the neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects of the extract.

  20. Acquisition of Motor and Cognitive Skills through Repetition in Typically Developing Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Magallón

    Full Text Available Procedural memory allows acquisition, consolidation and use of motor skills and cognitive routines. Automation of procedures is achieved through repeated practice. In children, improvement in procedural skills is a consequence of natural neurobiological development and experience.The aim of the present research was to make a preliminary evaluation and description of repetition-based improvement of procedures in typically developing children (TDC. Ninety TDC children aged 6-12 years were asked to perform two procedural learning tasks. In an assembly learning task, which requires predominantly motor skills, we measured the number of assembled pieces in 60 seconds. In a mirror drawing learning task, which requires more cognitive functions, we measured time spent and efficiency. Participants were tested four times for each task: three trials were consecutive and the fourth trial was performed after a 10-minute nonverbal interference task. The influence of repeated practice on performance was evaluated by means of the analysis of variance with repeated measures and the paired-sample test. Correlation coefficients and simple linear regression test were used to examine the relationship between age and performance.TDC achieved higher scores in both tasks through repetition. Older children fitted more pieces than younger ones in assembling learning and they were faster and more efficient at the mirror drawing learning task.These findings indicate that three consecutive trials at a procedural task increased speed and efficiency, and that age affected basal performance in motor-cognitive procedures.

  1. Motor, emotional, and cognitive empathy in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder and conduct disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bons, Danielle; van den Broek, Egon; Scheepers, Floor; Herpers, Pierre; Rommelse, Nanda; Buitelaar, Jan K; Buitelaaar, Jan K

    2013-04-01

    It is unclear which aspects of empathy are shared and which are uniquely affected in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and conduct disorder (CD) as are the neurobiological correlates of these empathy impairments. The aim of this systematic review is to describe the overlap and specificity of motor, emotional, and cognitive aspects of empathy in children and adolescents with ASD or CD. Motor and cognitive empathy impairments are found in both ASD and CD, yet the specificity seems to differ. In ASD facial mimicry and emotion recognition may be impaired for all basic emotions, whereas in CD this is only the case for negative emotions. Emotional empathy and the role of attention to the eyes therein need further investigation. We hypothesize that impaired motor and cognitive empathy in both disorders are a consequence of lack of attention to the eyes. However, we hypothesize major differences in emotional empathy deficits between ASD and CD, probably due to emotional autonomic and amygdala hyper-responsivity in ASD versus hypo-responsivity in CD, both resulting in lack of attention to the eyes.

  2. Dissociating cognitive and motor interference effects on kinesthetic short-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Waldemar; Hennighausen, Erwin; Rösler, Frank

    2009-05-01

    In two experiments, we investigated how short-term memory of kinesthetically defined spatial locations suffers from either motor or cognitive distraction. In Exp. 1, 22 blindfolded participants moved a handle with their right hand towards a mechanical stop and back to the start and then reproduced the encoded stop position by a second movement. The retention interval was adjusted to approximately 0 and 8 s. In half of the trials participants had to provide a verbal judgment of the target distance after encoding (cognitive distractor). Analyses of constant and variable errors indicated that the verbal judgments interfered with the motor reproduction only, when the retention interval was long. In Exp. 2, 22 other participants performed the same task but instead of providing verbal distance estimations they performed an additional movement either with their right or left hand during the retention interval. Constant error was affected by the side of the interpolated movement (right vs. left hand) and by the delay interval. The results show that reproduction of kinesthetically encoded spatial locations is affected differently in long- and short-retention intervals by cognitive and motor interference. This suggests that reproduction behavior is based on distinct codes during immediate vs. delayed recall.

  3. Motor, affective and cognitive empathy in adolescence: Interrelations between facial electromyography and self-reported trait and state measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Graaff, Jolien; Meeus, Wim; de Wied, Minet; van Boxtel, Anton; van Lier, Pol A C; Koot, Hans M; Branje, Susan

    2016-01-01

    This study examined interrelations of trait and state empathy in an adolescent sample. Self-reported affective trait empathy and cognitive trait empathy were assessed during a home visit. During a test session at the university, motor empathy (facial electromyography), and self-reported affective and cognitive state empathy were assessed in response to empathy-inducing film clips portraying happiness and sadness. Adolescents who responded with stronger motor empathy consistently reported higher affective state empathy. Adolescents' motor empathy was also positively related to cognitive state empathy, either directly or indirectly via affective state empathy. Whereas trait empathy was consistently, but modestly, related to state empathy with sadness, for state empathy with happiness few trait-state associations were found. Together, the findings provide support for the notion that empathy is a multi-faceted phenomenon. Motor, affective and cognitive empathy seem to be related processes, each playing a different role in the ability to understand and share others' feelings.

  4. Prenatal Exposure to Organohalogens, Including Brominated Flame Retardants, Influences Motor, Cognitive, and Behavioral Performance at School Age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roze, Elise; Meijer, Lisethe; Bakker, Attie; Van Braeckel, Koenraad N. J. A.; Sauer, Pieter J. J.; Bos, Arend F.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Organohalogen compounds (OHCs) are known to have neurotoxic effects on the developing brain. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the influence of prenatal exposure to OHCs, including brominated flame retardants, on motor, cognitive, and behavioral outcome in healthy children of school age.

  5. Morphological features of the neonatal brain support development of subsequent cognitive, language, and motor abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spann, Marisa N; Bansal, Ravi; Rosen, Tove S; Peterson, Bradley S

    2014-09-01

    Knowledge of the role of brain maturation in the development of cognitive abilities derives primarily from studies of school-age children to adults. Little is known about the morphological features of the neonatal brain that support the subsequent development of abilities in early childhood, when maturation of the brain and these abilities are the most dynamic. The goal of our study was to determine whether brain morphology during the neonatal period supports early cognitive development through 2 years of age. We correlated morphological features of the cerebral surface assessed using deformation-based measures (surface distances) of high-resolution MRI scans for 33 healthy neonates, scanned between the first to sixth week of postmenstrual life, with subsequent measures of their motor, language, and cognitive abilities at ages 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. We found that morphological features of the cerebral surface of the frontal, mesial prefrontal, temporal, and occipital regions correlated with subsequent motor scores, posterior parietal regions correlated with subsequent language scores, and temporal and occipital regions correlated with subsequent cognitive scores. Measures of the anterior and middle portions of the cingulate gyrus correlated with scores across all three domains of ability. Most of the significant findings were inverse correlations located bilaterally in the brain. The inverse correlations may suggest either that a more protracted morphological maturation or smaller local volumes of neonatal brain tissue supports better performance on measures of subsequent motor, language, and cognitive abilities throughout the first 2 years of postnatal life. The correlations of morphological measures of the cingulate with measures of performance across all domains of ability suggest that the cingulate supports a broad range of skills in infancy and early childhood, similar to its functions in older children and adults. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. The effects of cognitive versus motor demands on postural performance and weight bearing asymmetry in patients with stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negahban, Hossein; Ebrahimzadeh, Masoome; Mehravar, Mohammad

    2017-10-17

    While several studies have investigated the interaction between postural control and secondary cognitive tasks in stroke patients, little is known about the influence of secondary motor task on postural control in these patients. The current research was designed to further examine dual-task performance by comparing the effects of cognitive versus motor dual-tasks on postural performance and weight bearing asymmetry (WBA) in stroke patients (n=23) relative to healthy, matched controls (n=22). All participants stood on dual-force plate under 5 conditions: (1) free standing; (2) simple cognitive task (easy Stroop) while standing; (3) difficult cognitive task (difficult Stroop) while standing; (4) simple motor task (holding a tray while a cylinder lying on its flat side) while standing; and (5) difficult motor task (holding a tray while a cylinder lying on its round side) while standing. The center of pressure (COP) measures was greater in stroke patients than healthy controls. Also, the WBA of the patients was greater than the controls. The COP measures increased when moving from single-task to cognitive dual-task conditions. No significant effect of motor dual-tasking was seen when moving from single-task to motor dual-task conditions. However, in contrast to cognitive dual-tasking, stroke patients and healthy controls employed different strategies during simultaneous performance of postural and motor tasks. It can be suggested that performing a motor task while standing requires greater attentional resources compared to performing a cognitive task while standing and this resulted in greater dual-task interference on motor performance in the stroke patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. From Cerebellar Activation and Connectivity to Cognition: A Review of the Quadrato Motor Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tal Dotan Ben-Soussan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of the cerebellum is increasingly recognized, not only in motor control but also in cognitive learning and function. Nevertheless, the relationship between training-induced cerebellar activation and electrophysiological and structural changes in humans has yet to be established. In the current paper, we suggest a general model tying cerebellar function to cognitive improvement, via neuronal synchronization, as well as biochemical and anatomical changes. We then suggest that sensorimotor training provides an optimal paradigm to test the proposed model and review supporting evidence of Quadrato Motor Training (QMT, a sensorimotor training aimed at increasing attention and coordination. Subsequently, we discuss the possible mechanisms through which QMT may exert its beneficial effects on cognition (e.g., increased creativity, reflectivity, and reading, focusing on cerebellar alpha activity as a possible mediating mechanism allowing cognitive improvement, molecular and anatomical changes. Using the example of QMT research, this paper emphasizes the importance of investigating whole-body sensorimotor training paradigms utilizing a multidisciplinary approach and its implications to healthy brain development.

  8. D-amphetamine improves cognitive deficits and physical therapy promotes fine motor rehabilitation in a rat embolic stroke model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Rune Skovgaard; Overgaard, K; Hildebrandt-Eriksen, E S

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of D-amphetamine (D-amph) and physical therapy separately or combined on fine motor performance, gross motor performance and cognition after middle cerebral artery thromboembolization in rats. METHODS: Seventy-four rats...

  9. Motoric Cognitive Risk Syndrome: Predictor of Dementia and Age-Related Negative Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagadish K. Chhetri

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive disorders represent a leading cause of disability in the aging population, of which dementia has the highest global burden. Early signs of dementia such as slow gait and memory complaints are known to present well before the overt manifestation of the disease. Motoric cognitive risk (MCR syndrome characterized by the simultaneous presence of gait disturbances and memory complaints in older subjects has been proposed to study the close interactions between the physical and cognitive domains as well as a possible approach to identify individuals at increased risk of dementia. In addition, studies have shown MCR as a predictor of other negative outcomes in older adults, including disability, falls and death. However, the concept of MCR is still in its early stage and approach to the syndrome is still not well established. This review aims to put together the various aspects of MCR syndrome including its pathophysiology, diagnosis, epidemiology, and relationship with other geriatric conditions.

  10. Do cognitive training strategies improve motor and positive psychological skills development in soccer players? Insights from a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slimani, Maamer; Bragazzi, Nicola Luigi; Tod, David; Dellal, Alexandre; Hue, Olivier; Cheour, Foued; Taylor, Lee; Chamari, Karim

    2016-12-01

    Soccer players are required to have well-developed physical, technical and cognitive abilities. The present systematic review, adhering to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analysis guidelines, examined the effects of cognitive training strategies on motor and positive psychological skills development in soccer performance and identified the potential moderators of the "cognitive training-soccer performance" relationship. Thirteen databases were systematically searched using keywords related to psychological or cognitive training in soccer players. The review is based on 18 studies, employing 584 soccer players aged 7-39 years. Cognitive strategies, particularly imagery, appear to improve sports performance in soccer players. Regarding imagery, the combination of two different types of cognitive imagery training (i.e., cognitive general and cognitive specific) has a positive influence on soccer performance during training, whereas motivational imagery (i.e., motivational general-arousal, motivational general-mastery and motivational specific) enhance competition performance. Younger soccer players employ cognitive general and cognitive specific imagery techniques to a greater extent than older soccer players. Combined cognitive training strategies were more beneficial than a single cognitive strategy relative to motor skills enhancement in elite (particularly midfielders) and amateur (i.e., when practising complex and specific soccer skills in precompetitive period) soccer players. In conclusion, it appears that there are differences in cognitive/psychological training interventions, and their efficacy, according to whether they are directed towards training or competition, and the age, standard and playing position of the players.

  11. Motor skills, cognition, and work performance of people with severe mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipskaya-Velikovsky, Lena; Elgerisi, Dikla; Easterbrook, Adam; Ratzon, Navah Z

    2018-01-12

    Employment offers many benefits to people with mental illness, yet their employment rate is much lower than that of the general population. We investigated the effect of work-related motor skills, neurocognition, and job attitudes on the work performance of people with mental illness, comparing those working in sheltered workshops, with controls working in similar jobs. Twenty-nine adults with severe mental illness and 27 controls matched by gender and age were enrolled into the study using convenience sampling. They were assessed for gross and fine motor hand functioning, job attitudes, work performance, and cognition. People with mental illness scored lower on work performance, cognitive functioning, and hand dexterity while sitting and working with tools. They were assigned lower job loads than were controls, and perceived the physical environment at work as more constraining than did controls. Assembling motor skills significantly explained the work performance of people with mental illness. The results expand our understanding of the complexities involved in the employment of people with severe mental illness, and point to new paths for improving vocational outcomes of people with severe mental illness, taking into account their motor skills and job attitudes. Implications for rehabilitation Therapists should be aware that employed people with severe mental illness may have various unmet needs, affecting their work performance and experience of stress. This study results demonstrate importance of motor skills and perception of the work environment for the promotion of vocational outcomes among individuals with severe mental illness. Employment of people with severe mental illness should be viewed from holistic perspective as with general population, rather than focused on traditionally illness-related factors.

  12. Tanshinone I alleviates motor and cognitive impairments via suppressing oxidative stress in the neonatal rats after hypoxic-ischemic brain damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Chunfang; Liu, Yannan; Dong, Zhifang

    2017-11-14

    Neonatal hypoxia-ischemia is one of the main reasons that cause neuronal damage and neonatal death. Several studies have shown that tanshinone I (TsI), one of the major ingredients of Danshen, exerts potential neuroprotective effect in adult mice exposed to permanent left cerebral ischemia. However, it is unclear whether administration of TsI has neuroprotective effect on neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain damage (HIBD), and if so, the potential mechanisms also remain unclear. Here, we reported that treatment with TsI (5 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly alleviated the deficits of myodynamia and motor functions as well as the spatial learning and memory in the rat model of HIBD. These behavioral changes were accompanied by a significant decrease in the number of neuronal loss in the CA1 area of hippocampus. Moreover, ELISA assay showed that TsI significantly increased the production of antioxidants including total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), glutathione (GSH), total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) and catalase (CAT), and reduced the production of pro-oxidants including hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ), total nitric oxide synthase (T-NOS) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Taken together, these results indicate that TsI presents potential neuroprotection against neuronal damage via exerting significantly antioxidative activity and against pro-oxidant challenge, thereby ameliorating hypoxia-ischemia-induced motor and cognitive impairments in the neonatal rats, suggesting that TsI may be a potential therapeutic agent against HIBD.

  13. Parkinson’s disease progression: implicit acquisition, cognitive and motor impairments, and medication effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo ePavão

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson’s disease (PD symptoms have been collectively ascribed to malfunctioning of dopamine-related nigro-striatal and cortico-striatal loops. However, some doubts about this proposition are raised by controversies about the temporal progression of the impairments, and whether they are concomitant or not. The present study consists of a systematic revision of literature data on both functional PD impairments and dopaminergic medication effects in order to draw a coherent picture about the disease progression. It was done in terms of an explanatory model for the disruption of implicit knowledge acquisition, motor and cognitive impairments, and the effects of dopaminergic medication on these functions. Cognitive impairments arise at early stages of PD and stabilizes while disruption of acquisition of implicit knowledge and motor impairments are still in progression; additionally, dopaminergic medication reduces motor impairments and increases disruption of acquisition of implicit knowledge. Since this model revealed consistency and plausibility when confronted with data of others studies not included in model's formulation, it may turn out to be a useful tool for understanding the multifaceted characteristics of PD.

  14. Motor Planning Error: Toward Measuring Cognitive Frailty in Older Adults Using Wearables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Zhou

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Practical tools which can be quickly administered are needed for measuring subtle changes in cognitive–motor performance over time. Frailty together with cognitive impairment, or ‘cognitive frailty’, are shown to be strong and independent predictors of cognitive decline over time. We have developed an interactive instrumented trail-making task (iTMT platform, which allows quantification of motor planning error (MPE through a series of ankle reaching tasks. In this study, we examined the accuracy of MPE in identifying cognitive frailty in older adults. Thirty-two older adults (age = 77.3 ± 9.1 years, body-mass-index = 25.3 ± 4.7 kg/m2, female = 38% were recruited. Using either the Mini-Mental State Examination or Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA, 16 subjects were classified as cognitive-intact and 16 were classified as cognitive-impaired. In addition, 12 young-healthy subjects (age = 26.0 ± 5.2 years, body-mass-index = 25.3 ± 3.9 kg/m2, female = 33% were recruited to establish a healthy benchmark. Subjects completed the iTMT, using an ankle-worn sensor, which transforms ankle motion into navigation of a computer cursor. The iTMT task included reaching five indexed target circles (including numbers 1-to-3 and letters A&B placed in random order on the computer-screen by moving the ankle-joint while standing. The ankle-sensor quantifies MPE through analysis of the pattern of ankle velocity. MPE was defined as percentage of time deviation between subject’s maximum ankle velocity and the optimal maximum ankle velocity, which is halfway through the reaching pathway. Data from gait tests, including single task and dual task walking, were also collected to determine cognitive–motor performance. The average MPE in young-healthy, elderly cognitive-intact, and elderly cognitive-impaired groups was 11.1 ± 5.7%, 20.3 ± 9.6%, and 34.1 ± 4.2% (p < 0.001, respectively. Large effect sizes (Cohen’s d = 1.17–4.56 were observed for

  15. The mediating role of cognitive ability on the relationship between motor proficiency and early academic achievement in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadoret, Geneviève; Bigras, Nathalie; Duval, Stéphanie; Lemay, Lise; Tremblay, Tania; Lemire, Julie

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between motor proficiency and academic achievement in 7 years-old children. A mediating model in which the relation between motor proficiency and academic achievement is mediated by cognitive ability was tested. Participants included 152 children from the longitudinal study Jeunes enfants et leurs milieux de vie (Young Children and their Environments). Motor proficiency was evaluated with the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (BOT2), cognitive ability with the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) and academic achievement with the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test II (WIAT II). Results showed that motor proficiency, cognitive ability and academic achievement were positively correlated with each other. A structural equation modeling analysis revealed that motor proficiency had a positive effect on academic achievement through an indirect path via cognitive ability. These results highlight the fundamental importance of motor skills in children's academic achievement in early school years. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Cerebellar contribution to motor and cognitive performance in multiple sclerosis: An MRI sub-regional volumetric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Ambrosio, Alessandro; Pagani, Elisabetta; Riccitelli, Gianna C; Colombo, Bruno; Rodegher, Mariaemma; Falini, Andrea; Comi, Giancarlo; Filippi, Massimo; Rocca, Maria A

    2017-08-01

    To investigate the role of cerebellar sub-regions on motor and cognitive performance in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. Whole and sub-regional cerebellar volumes, brain volumes, T2 hyperintense lesion volumes (LV), and motor performance scores were obtained from 95 relapse-onset MS patients and 32 healthy controls (HC). MS patients also underwent an evaluation of working memory and processing speed functions. Cerebellar anterior and posterior lobes were segmented using the Spatially Unbiased Infratentorial Toolbox (SUIT) from Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM12). Multivariate linear regression models assessed the relationship between magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measures and motor/cognitive scores. Compared to HC, only secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS) patients had lower cerebellar volumes (total and posterior cerebellum). In MS patients, lower anterior cerebellar volume and brain T2 LV predicted worse motor performance, whereas lower posterior cerebellar volume and brain T2 LV predicted poor cognitive performance. Global measures of brain volume and infratentorial T2 LV were not selected by the final multivariate models. Cerebellar volumetric abnormalities are likely to play an important contribution to explain motor and cognitive performance in MS patients. Consistently with functional mapping studies, cerebellar posterior-inferior volume accounted for variance in cognitive measures, whereas anterior cerebellar volume accounted for variance in motor performance, supporting the assessment of cerebellar damage at sub-regional level.

  17. Cognitive-motor dual-task ability of athletes with and without intellectual impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Biesen, Debbie; Jacobs, Lore; McCulloch, Katina; Janssens, Luc; Vanlandewijck, Yves C

    2018-03-01

    Cognition is important in many sports, for example, making split-second-decisions under pressure, or memorising complex movement sequences. The dual-task (DT) paradigm is an ecologically valid approach for the assessment of cognitive function in conjunction with motor demands. This study aimed to determine the impact of impaired intelligence on DT performance. The motor task required balancing on one leg on a beam, and the cognitive task was a multiple-object-tracking (MOT) task assessing dynamic visual-search capacity. The sample included 206 well-trained athletes with and without intellectual impairment (II), matched for sport, age and training volume (140 males, 66 females, M age = 23.2 ± 4.1 years, M training experience = 12.3 ± 5.7 years). In the single-task condition, II-athletes showed reduced balance control (F = 55.9, P balance and the MOT task between both groups. The DT costs were significantly larger for the II-athletes (-8.28% versus -1.34% for MOT and -33.13% versus -12.89% for balance). The assessment of MOT in a DT paradigm provided insight in how impaired intelligence constrains the ability of II-athletes to successfully perform at the highest levels in the complex and dynamical sport-environment.

  18. Moving Forward: Age Effects on the Cerebellum Underlie Cognitive and Motor Declines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Jessica A.; Seidler, Rachael D.

    2014-01-01

    Though the cortical contributions to age-related declines in motor and cognitive performance are well-known, the potential contributions of the cerebellum are less clear. The diverse functions of the cerebellum make it an important structure to investigate in aging. Here, we review the extant literature on this topic. To date, there is evidence to indicate that there are morphological age differences in the cerebellum that are linked to motor and cognitive behavior. Cerebellar morphology is often as good as -- or even better -- at predicting performance than the prefrontal cortex. We also touch on the few studies using functional neuroimaging and connectivity analyses that further implicate the cerebellum in age-related performance declines. Importantly, we provide a conceptual framework for the cerebellum influencing age differences in performance, centered on the notion of degraded internal models. The evidence indicating that cerebellar age differences associate with performance highlights the need for additional work in this domain to further elucidate the role of the cerebellum in age differences in movement control and cognitive function. PMID:24594194

  19. Motor Skills and Exercise Capacity Are Associated with Objective Measures of Cognitive Functions and Academic Performance in Preadolescent Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geertsen, Svend Sparre; Thomas, Richard; Larsen, Malte Nejst; Dahn, Ida Marie; Andersen, Josefine Needham; Krause-Jensen, Matilde; Korup, Vibeke; Nielsen, Claus Malta; Wienecke, Jacob; Ritz, Christian; Krustrup, Peter; Lundbye-Jensen, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    To investigate associations between motor skills, exercise capacity and cognitive functions, and evaluate how they correlate to academic performance in mathematics and reading comprehension using standardised, objective tests. This cross-sectional study included 423 Danish children (age: 9.29±0.35 years, 209 girls). Fine and gross motor skills were evaluated in a visuomotor accuracy-tracking task, and a whole-body coordination task, respectively. Exercise capacity was estimated from the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 1 children's test (YYIR1C). Selected tests from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) were used to assess different domains of cognitive functions, including sustained attention, spatial working memory, episodic and semantic memory, and processing speed. Linear mixed-effects models were used to investigate associations between these measures and the relationship with standard tests of academic performance in mathematics and reading comprehension. Both fine and gross motor skills were associated with better performance in all five tested cognitive domains (all Pperformance in mathematics and reading comprehension. The data demonstrate that fine and gross motor skills are positively correlated with several aspects of cognitive functions and with academic performance in both mathematics and reading comprehension. Moreover, exercise capacity was associated with academic performance and performance in some cognitive domains. Future interventions should investigate associations between changes in motor skills, exercise capacity, cognitive functions, and academic performance to elucidate the causality of these associations.

  20. Motor Skills and Exercise Capacity Are Associated with Objective Measures of Cognitive Functions and Academic Performance in Preadolescent Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Richard; Larsen, Malte Nejst; Dahn, Ida Marie; Andersen, Josefine Needham; Krause-Jensen, Matilde; Korup, Vibeke; Nielsen, Claus Malta; Wienecke, Jacob; Ritz, Christian; Krustrup, Peter; Lundbye-Jensen, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate associations between motor skills, exercise capacity and cognitive functions, and evaluate how they correlate to academic performance in mathematics and reading comprehension using standardised, objective tests. Methods This cross-sectional study included 423 Danish children (age: 9.29±0.35 years, 209 girls). Fine and gross motor skills were evaluated in a visuomotor accuracy-tracking task, and a whole-body coordination task, respectively. Exercise capacity was estimated from the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 1 children's test (YYIR1C). Selected tests from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) were used to assess different domains of cognitive functions, including sustained attention, spatial working memory, episodic and semantic memory, and processing speed. Linear mixed-effects models were used to investigate associations between these measures and the relationship with standard tests of academic performance in mathematics and reading comprehension. Results Both fine and gross motor skills were associated with better performance in all five tested cognitive domains (all Pperformance in mathematics and reading comprehension. Conclusions The data demonstrate that fine and gross motor skills are positively correlated with several aspects of cognitive functions and with academic performance in both mathematics and reading comprehension. Moreover, exercise capacity was associated with academic performance and performance in some cognitive domains. Future interventions should investigate associations between changes in motor skills, exercise capacity, cognitive functions, and academic performance to elucidate the causality of these associations. PMID:27560512

  1. Correlation between cognitive function, gross motor skills and health – Related quality of life in children with Down syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saly Said Abd El-Hady

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Children with Down syndrome (DS have delayed motor and cognitive development and have problems in health related quality of life (HRQOL. Purpose: To evaluate the correlation between cognitive function; attention/concentration, gross motor skills; standing and walking, running, jumping domains and HRQOL in children with DS. Subjects and methods: Seventy children with DS of both sexes (37 boys and 33 girls were selected from El Tarbia El Fekria School for children with Special Needs and Education and National Institute of neuro motor system. They were selected to be ranged in age from 8 to 12 years and to be free from visual, hearing or perceptual problems. They were divided into two age groups; group A (8–10 years, and group B (10–12 years. The Rehacom was used to evaluate the cognitive function (attention/concentration, the Gross Motor Function Measure-88 (GMFM-88 was used to evaluate the gross motor skills and the Pediatric quality of life inventory parent-proxy report (PedsQL TM was used to evaluate the HRQOL. Results: There was a weak to moderate correlation between the cognitive function, GMFM and HRQOL in both age groups. The level of difficulty of attention/concentration was moderate, positively and significantly correlated with GMFM; standing and walking, running, jumping domains in both age groups. There was a moderate, positive and significant correlation was found between the physical score of HRQOL and walking, running, jumping domain in age group B and between the psychosocial score of HRQOL and standing domain in age group A. Conclusion: The cognitive function and HRQOL should be considered in the evaluation of children with DS in addition to gross motor skills as there was a correlation between the cognitive function, HRQOL and GMFM. Keywords: Cognitive function, Gross motor skills, Health – related quality of life, Down syndrome children

  2. Engaging cognitive circuits to promote motor recovery in degenerative disorders. exercise as a learning modality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakowec Michael W.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Exercise and physical activity are fundamental components of a lifestyle essential in maintaining a healthy brain. This is primarily due to the fact that the adult brain maintains a high degree of plasticity and activity is essential for homeostasis throughout life. Plasticity is not lost even in the context of a neurodegenerative disorder, but could be maladaptive thus promoting disease onset and progression. A major breakthrough in treating brain disorders such as Parkinson’s disease is to drive neuroplasticity in a direction to improve motor and cognitive dysfunction. The purpose of this short review is to present the evidence from our laboratories that supports neuroplasticity as a potential therapeutic target in treating brain disorders. We consider that the enhancement of motor recovery in both animal models of dopamine depletion and in patients with Parkinson’s disease is optimized when cognitive circuits are engaged; in other words, the brain is engaged in a learning modality. Therefore, we propose that to be effective in treating Parkinson’s disease, physical therapy must employ both skill-based exercise (to drive specific circuits and aerobic exercise (to drive the expression of molecules required to strengthen synaptic connections components to select those neuronal circuits, such as the corticostriatal pathway, necessary to restore proper motor and cognitive behaviors. In the wide spectrum of different forms of exercise, learning as the fundamental modality likely links interventions used to treat patients with Parkinson’s disease and may be necessary to drive beneficial neuroplasticity resulting in symptomatic improvement and possible disease modification.

  3. Neurological, nutritional and alcohol consumption factors underlie cognitive and motor deficits in chronic alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fama, Rosemary; Le Berre, Anne-Pascale; Hardcastle, Cheshire; Sassoon, Stephanie A; Pfefferbaum, Adolf; Sullivan, Edith V; Zahr, Natalie M

    2017-12-15

    Variations in pattern and extent of cognitive and motor impairment occur in alcoholism (ALC). Causes of such heterogeneity are elusive and inconsistently accounted for by demographic or alcohol consumption differences. We examined neurological and nutritional factors as possible contributors to heterogeneity in impairment. Participants with ALC (n = 96) and a normal comparison group (n = 41) were examined on six cognitive and motor domains. Signs of historically determined subclinical Wernicke's encephalopathy were detected using the Caine et al. criteria, which were based on postmortem examination and chart review of antemortem data of alcoholic cases with postmortem evidence for Wernicke's encephalopathy. Herein, four Caine criteria provided quantification of dietary deficiency, cerebellar dysfunction, low general cognitive functioning and oculomotor abnormalities in 86 of the 96 ALC participants. Subgroups based on Caine criteria yielded a graded effect, where those meeting more criteria exhibited greater impairment than those meeting no to fewer criteria. These results could not be accounted for by history of drug dependence. Multiple regression indicated that compromised performance on ataxia, indicative of cerebellar dysfunction, predicted non-mnemonic and upper motor deficits, whereas low whole blood thiamine level, consistent with limbic circuit dysfunction, predicted mnemonic deficits. This double dissociation indicates biological markers that contribute to heterogeneity in expression of functional impairment in ALC. That non-mnemonic and mnemonic deficits are subserved by the dissociable neural systems of frontocerebellar and limbic circuitry, both commonly disrupted in ALC, suggests neural mechanisms that can differentially affect selective functions, thereby contributing to heterogeneity in pattern and extent of dysfunction in ALC. © 2017 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  4. Rehabilitation after stroke: predictive power of Barthel Index versus a cognitive and a motor index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, A; Bentzen, L; Garde, B

    1995-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the predictive power of ratings of Barthel Index at Day 40 post stroke, compared with and/or combined with simultaneous ratings from a mobility scale (EG motor index) and a rather simple cognitive test scale (CT50). The parameter to be individually...... predicted was the need for special living facilities and support at discharge from a rehabilitation hospital, as well as six months later; 53 stroke patients with age median 68 years were included in this prospective study. It was shown that a combination of Barthel Index and CT50 had a stronger predictive...

  5. Interactive Cognitive-Motor Step Training Improves Cognitive Risk Factors of Falling in Older Adults - A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Schoene

    Full Text Available Interactive cognitive-motor training (ICMT requires individuals to perform both gross motor movements and complex information processing. This study investigated the effectiveness of ICMT on cognitive functions associated with falls in older adults.A single-blinded randomized controlled trial was conducted in community-dwelling older adults (N = 90, mean age 81.5±7 without major cognitive impairment. Participants in the intervention group (IG played four stepping games that required them to divide attention, inhibit irrelevant stimuli, switch between tasks, rotate objects and make rapid decisions. The recommended minimum dose was three 20-minute sessions per week over a period of 16 weeks unsupervised at home. Participants in the control group (CG received an evidence-based brochure on fall prevention. Measures of processing speed, attention/executive function (EF, visuo-spatial ability, concerns about falling and depression were assessed before and after the intervention.Eighty-one participants (90% attended re-assessment. There were no improvements with respect to the Stroop Stepping Test (primary outcome in the intervention group. Compared to the CG, the IG improved significantly in measures of processing speed, visuo-spatial ability and concern about falling. Significant interactions were observed for measures of EF and divided attention, indicating group differences varied for different levels of the covariate with larger improvements in IG participants with poorer baseline performance. The interaction for depression showed no change for the IG but an increase in the CG for those with low depressive symptoms at baseline. Additionally, low and high-adherer groups differed in their baseline performance and responded differently to the intervention. Compared to high adherers, low adherers improved more in processing speed and visual scanning while high-adherers improved more in tasks related to EF.This study shows that unsupervised stepping

  6. Cognitive and Neurophysiological Effects of Non-invasive Brain Stimulation in Stroke Patients after Motor Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Agata, Federico; Peila, Elena; Cicerale, Alessandro; Caglio, Marcella M; Caroppo, Paola; Vighetti, Sergio; Piedimonte, Alessandro; Minuto, Alice; Campagnoli, Marcello; Salatino, Adriana; Molo, Maria T; Mortara, Paolo; Pinessi, Lorenzo; Massazza, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the effectiveness of two specific Non-Invasive Brain Stimulation (NIBS) paradigms, the repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS), and transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS), in the upper limb rehabilitation of patients with stroke. Short and long term outcomes (after 3 and 6 months, respectively) were evaluated. We measured, at multiple time points, the manual dexterity using a validated clinical scale (ARAT), electroencephalography auditory event related potentials, and neuropsychological performances in patients with chronic stroke of middle severity. Thirty four patients were enrolled and randomized. The intervention group was treated with a NIBS protocol longer than usual, applying a second cycle of stimulation, after a washout period, using different techniques in the two cycles (rTMS/tDCS). We compared the results with a control group treated with sham stimulation. We split the data analysis into three studies. In this first study we examined if a cumulative effect was clinically visible. In the second study we compared the effects of the two techniques. In the third study we explored if patients with minor cognitive impairment have most benefit from the treatment and if cognitive and motor outcomes were correlated. We found that the impairment in some cognitive domains cannot be considered an exclusion criterion for rehabilitation with NIBS. ERP improved, related to cognitive and attentional processes after stimulation on the motor cortex, but transitorily. This effect could be linked to the restoration of hemispheric balance or by the effects of distant connections. In our study the effects of the two NIBS were comparable, with some advantages using tDCS vs. rTMS in stroke rehabilitation. Finally we found that more than one cycle (2-4 weeks), spaced out by washout periods, should be used, only in responder patients, to obtain clinical relevant results.

  7. Functional near-infrared spectroscopy-based correlates of prefrontal cortical dynamics during a cognitive-motor executive adaptation task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolphe J. Gentili

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated changes in brain hemodynamics, as measured by functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIR, during performance of a cognitive-motor adaptation task. The adaptation task involved the learning of a novel visuo-motor transformation (a 60 degree counterclockwise screen-cursor rotation, which required inhibition of a pre-potent visuo-motor response. A control group experienced a familiar transformation and thus, did not face any executive challenge. Analysis of the experimental group hemodynamic responses revealed that the performance enhancement was associated with a monotonic reduction in the oxygenation level in the prefrontal cortex. This finding confirms and extends functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI and electroencephalography (EEG studies of visuo-motor adaptation and learning. The changes in prefrontal brain activation suggest an initial recruitment of frontal executive functioning to inhibit pre-potent visuo-motor mappings followed by a progressive de-recruitment of the same prefrontal regions. The prefrontal hemodynamic changes observed in the experimental group translated into enhanced motor performance revealed by a reduction in movement time, movement extent, root mean square error and the directional error. These kinematic adaptations are consistent with the acquisition of an internal model of the novel visuo-motor transformation. No comparable change was observed in the control group for either the hemodynamics or for the kinematics. This study 1 extends our understanding of the frontal executive processes from the cognitive to the cognitive-motor domain and 2 suggests that optical brain imaging can be employed to provide hemodynamic based-biomarkers to assess and monitor the level of adaptive cognitive-motor performance.

  8. Insights into Working Memory from The Perspective of The EPIC Architecture for Modeling Skilled Perceptual-Motor and Cognitive Human Performance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kieras, David

    1998-01-01

    Computational modeling of human perceptual-motor and cognitive performance based on a comprehensive detailed information- processing architecture leads to new insights about the components of working memory...

  9. Motor Skills and Exercise Capacity Are Associated with Objective Measures of Cognitive Functions and Academic Performance in Preadolescent Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svend Sparre Geertsen

    Full Text Available To investigate associations between motor skills, exercise capacity and cognitive functions, and evaluate how they correlate to academic performance in mathematics and reading comprehension using standardised, objective tests.This cross-sectional study included 423 Danish children (age: 9.29±0.35 years, 209 girls. Fine and gross motor skills were evaluated in a visuomotor accuracy-tracking task, and a whole-body coordination task, respectively. Exercise capacity was estimated from the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 1 children's test (YYIR1C. Selected tests from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB were used to assess different domains of cognitive functions, including sustained attention, spatial working memory, episodic and semantic memory, and processing speed. Linear mixed-effects models were used to investigate associations between these measures and the relationship with standard tests of academic performance in mathematics and reading comprehension.Both fine and gross motor skills were associated with better performance in all five tested cognitive domains (all P<0.001, whereas exercise capacity was only associated with better sustained attention (P<0.046 and spatial working memory (P<0.038. Fine and gross motor skills (all P<0.001, exercise capacity and cognitive functions such as working memory, episodic memory, sustained attention and processing speed were all associated with better performance in mathematics and reading comprehension.The data demonstrate that fine and gross motor skills are positively correlated with several aspects of cognitive functions and with academic performance in both mathematics and reading comprehension. Moreover, exercise capacity was associated with academic performance and performance in some cognitive domains. Future interventions should investigate associations between changes in motor skills, exercise capacity, cognitive functions, and academic performance to elucidate the

  10. Simultaneously measuring gait and cognitive performance in cognitively healthy and cognitively impaired older adults: the basel motor-cognition dual-task paradigm

    OpenAIRE

    Theill, Nathan; Martin, Mike; Schumacher, Vera; Bridenbaugh, S A; Kressig, R W

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate dual-task performance of gait and cognition in cognitively healthy and cognitively impaired older adults using a motor–cognition dual-task paradigm. DESIGN: Cross-sectional retrospective study. SETTING: The Basel Memory Clinic and the Basel Study on the Elderly (Project BASEL). PARTICIPANTS: Seven hundred eleven older adults (mean age 77.2 ± 6.2, 350 (49.2%) female and 361 (50.8%) male). MEASUREMENTS: Gait velocity and cognitive task performance usin...

  11. Wushu as a tool for motor, cognitive and socioaffective development at school: an exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everton de Souza da Silva

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The present work investigated the use of wushu at school by Physical Education teachers (PEF as a tool for the motor, cognitive and socioaffective development, and compared practitioners and non-practitioners in concept, understanding and application of wushu resignified practices in Elementary School grades I and II in São Paulo, Brazil. For this purpose, 40 PEFs were assigned to one of two groups, wushu Practitioners (PW, n=27 or Non wushu Practitioners (NPW, n=13. All participants answered a questionnaire composed of 11 objective questions about the wushu practice by schoolchildren, with answers ranging on four levels ("does not attend", "partially", "fully" and "exceeds". The Mann Whitney test was used to compare the responses, p<0.05. Results showed differences between groups, in which PW considered wushu a valid content to teach aspects related to martial arts for schoolchildren, while NPW believed to be inefficient. Both groups identified wushu as an activity that meets and exceeds the needs of motor, cognitive and socioaffective development in schoolchildren. On the other hand, about 30% of NPWs indicated that wushu is difficult to use in schoolchildren, and 40% of NPWs reported that wushu practices during initial teacher training were only partially or not sufficiently taught. These results suggest the possibility of a relationship between the teachers' experience and the promotion of certain practices, depending the teaching of martial arts on the teachers’ practical experience.

  12. Virtual reality in cognitive and motor rehabilitation: facts, fiction and fallacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tieri, Gaetano; Morone, Giovanni; Paolucci, Stefano; Iosa, Marco

    2018-02-01

    Over recent decades many researchers and clinicians have started to use Virtual Reality (VR) as a new technology for implementing innovative rehabilitation treatments in cognitive and motor domains. However, the expression 'VR' has often also been improperly used to refer to video games. Further, VR efficacy, often confused with that of video-game exercises, is still debated. Areas covered: In this review, we provide the scientific rationale for the advantages of using VR systems in rehabilitation and investigate whether the VR could really be a promising technique for the future of rehabilitation of patients, or if it is just an entertainment for scientists. In addition, we describe some of the most used devices in VR with their potential advantages for research and provide an overview of the recent evidence and meta-analyses in rehabilitation. Expert commentary: We highlight the efficacy and fallacies of VR in neurorehabilitation and discuss the important factors emerging from the use of VR, including the sense of presence and the embodiment over a virtual avatar, in developing future applications in cognitive and motor rehabilitation.

  13. The beneficial effects of berries on cognition, motor behaviour and neuronal function in ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukitt-Hale, Barbara; Bielinski, Donna F; Lau, Francis C; Willis, Lauren M; Carey, Amanda N; Joseph, James A

    2015-11-28

    Previously, it has been shown that strawberry (SB) or blueberry (BB) supplementations, when fed to rats from 19 to 21 months of age, reverse age-related decrements in motor and cognitive performance. We have postulated that these effects may be the result of a number of positive benefits of the berry polyphenols, including decreased stress signalling, increased neurogenesis, and increased signals involved in learning and memory. Thus, the present study was carried out to examine these mechanisms in aged animals by administering a control, 2 % SB- or 2 % BB-supplemented diet to aged Fischer 344 rats for 8 weeks to ascertain their effectiveness in reversing age-related deficits in behavioural and neuronal function. The results showed that rats consuming the berry diets exhibited enhanced motor performance and improved cognition, specifically working memory. In addition, the rats supplemented with BB and SB diets showed increased hippocampal neurogenesis and expression of insulin-like growth factor 1, although the improvements in working memory performance could not solely be explained by these increases. The diverse polyphenolics in these berry fruits may have additional mechanisms of action that could account for their relative differences in efficacy.

  14. Aging with HIV-1 Infection: Motor Functions, Cognition, and Attention--A Comparison with Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVaughn, S; Müller-Oehring, E M; Markey, B; Brontë-Stewart, H M; Schulte, T

    2015-12-01

    Recent advances in highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) in their various combinations have dramatically increased the life expectancies of HIV-infected persons. People diagnosed with HIV are living beyond the age of 50 but are experiencing the cumulative effects of HIV infection and aging on brain function. In HIV-infected aging individuals, the potential synergy between immunosenescence and HIV viral loads increases susceptibility to HIV-related brain injury and functional brain network degradation similar to that seen in Parkinson's disease (PD), the second most common neurodegenerative disorder in the aging population. Although there are clear diagnostic differences in the primary pathology of both diseases, i.e., death of dopamine-generating cells in the substantia nigra in PD and neuroinflammation in HIV, neurotoxicity to dopaminergic terminals in the basal ganglia (BG) has been implied in the pathogenesis of HIV and neuroinflammation in the pathogenesis of PD. Similar to PD, HIV infection affects structures of the BG, which are part of interconnected circuits including mesocorticolimbic pathways linking brainstem nuclei to BG and cortices subserving attention, cognitive control, and motor functions. The present review discusses the combined effects of aging and neuroinflammation in HIV individuals on cognition and motor function in comparison with age-related neurodegenerative processes in PD. Despite the many challenges, some HIV patients manage to age successfully, most likely by redistribution of neural network resources to enhance function, as occurs in healthy elderly; such compensation could be curtailed by emerging PD.

  15. Citalopram Ameliorates Synaptic Plasticity Deficits in Different Cognition-Associated Brain Regions Induced by Social Isolation in Middle-Aged Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Wei-Gang; Wang, Yan-Juan; Zhou, Hong; Li, Xiao-Li; Bai, Feng; Ren, Qing-Guo; Zhang, Zhi-Jun

    2017-04-01

    Our previous experiments demonstrated that social isolation (SI) caused AD-like tau hyperphosphorylation and spatial memory deficits in middle-aged rats. However, the underlying mechanisms of SI-induced spatial memory deficits remain elusive. Middle-aged rats (10 months) were group or isolation reared for 8 weeks. Following the initial 4-week period of rearing, citalopram (10 mg/kg i.p.) was administered for 28 days. Then, pathophysiological changes were assessed by performing behavioral, biochemical, and pathological analyses. We found that SI could cause cognitive dysfunction and decrease synaptic protein (synaptophysin or PSD93) expression in different brain regions associated with cognition, such as the prefrontal cortex, dorsal hippocampus, ventral hippocampus, amygdala, and caudal putamen, but not in the entorhinal cortex or posterior cingulate. Citalopram could significantly improve learning and memory and partially restore synaptophysin or PSD93 expression in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, and amygdala in SI rats. Moreover, SI decreased the number of dendritic spines in the prefrontal cortex, dorsal hippocampus, and ventral hippocampus, which could be reversed by citalopram. Furthermore, SI reduced the levels of BDNF, serine-473-phosphorylated Akt (active form), and serine-9-phosphorylated GSK-3β (inactive form) with no significant changes in the levels of total GSK-3β and Akt in the dorsal hippocampus, but not in the posterior cingulate. Our results suggest that decreased synaptic plasticity in cognition-associated regions might contribute to SI-induced cognitive deficits, and citalopram could ameliorate these deficits by promoting synaptic plasticity mainly in the prefrontal cortex, dorsal hippocampus, and ventral hippocampus. The BDNF/Akt/GSK-3β pathway plays an important role in regulating synaptic plasticity in SI rats.

  16. Hyperbaric Oxygen and Ginkgo Biloba Extract Ameliorate Cognitive and Memory Impairment via Nuclear Factor Kappa-B Pathway in Rat Model of Alzheimer's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li-Da; Ma, Li; Zhang, Li; Dai, Jian-Guo; Chang, Li-Gong; Huang, Pei-Lin; Tian, Xiao-Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Background: Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) and Ginkgo biloba extract (e.g., EGB 761) were shown to ameliorate cognitive and memory impairment in Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the exact mechanism remains elusive. The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible mechanisms of HBO and EGB 761 via the function of nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) pathway. Methods: AD rats were induced by injecting β-amyloid 25–35 into the hippocampus. All animals were divided into six groups: Normal, sham, AD model, HBO (2 atmosphere absolute; 60 min/d), EGB 761 (20 mg·kg−1·d−1), and HBO/EGB 761 groups. Morris water maze tests were used to assess cognitive, and memory capacities of rats; TdT-mediated dUTP Nick-End Labeling staining and Western blotting were used to analyze apoptosis and NF-κB pathway-related proteins in hippocampus tissues. Results: Morris water maze tests revealed that EGB 761 and HBO significantly improved the cognitive and memory ability of AD rats. In addition, the protective effect of combinational therapy (HBO/EGB 761) was superior to either HBO or EGB 761 alone. In line, reduced apoptosis with NF-κB pathway activation was observed in hippocampus neurons treated by HBO and EGB 761. Conclusions: Our results suggested that HBO and EGB 761 improve cognitive and memory capacity in a rat model of AD. The protective effects are associated with the reduced apoptosis with NF-κB pathway activation in hippocampus neurons. PMID:26608991

  17. Low-Frequency Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Ameliorates Cognitive Function and Synaptic Plasticity in APP23/PS45 Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhilin; Tan, Tao; Du, Yehong; Chen, Long; Fu, Min; Yu, Yanzhi; Zhang, Lu; Song, Weihong; Dong, Zhifang

    2017-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disease leading to dementia, which is characterized by progressive memory loss and other cognitive dysfunctions. Recent studies have attested that noninvasive repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) may help improve cognitive function in patients with AD. However, the majority of these studies have focused on the effects of high-frequency rTMS on cognitive function, and little is known about low-frequency rTMS in AD treatment. Furthermore, the potential mechanisms of rTMS on the improvement of learning and memory also remain poorly understood. In the present study, we reported that severe deficits in spatial learning and memory were observed in APP23/PS45 double transgenic mice, a well known mouse model of AD. Furthermore, these behavioral changes were accompanied by the impairment of long-term potentiation (LTP) in the CA1 region of hippocampus, a brain region vital to spatial learning and memory. More importantly, 2-week low-frequency rTMS treatment markedly reversed the impairment of spatial learning and memory as well as hippocampal CA1 LTP. In addition, low-frequency rTMS dramatically reduced amyloid-β precursor protein (APP) and its C-terminal fragments (CTFs) including C99 and C89, as well as β-site APP-cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) in the hippocampus. These results indicate that low-frequency rTMS noninvasively and effectively ameliorates cognitive and synaptic functions in a mouse model of AD, and the potential mechanisms may be attributed to rTMS-induced reduction in Aβ neuropathology.

  18. Low-Frequency Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Ameliorates Cognitive Function and Synaptic Plasticity in APP23/PS45 Mouse Model of Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhilin Huang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD is a chronic neurodegenerative disease leading to dementia, which is characterized by progressive memory loss and other cognitive dysfunctions. Recent studies have attested that noninvasive repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS may help improve cognitive function in patients with AD. However, the majority of these studies have focused on the effects of high-frequency rTMS on cognitive function, and little is known about low-frequency rTMS in AD treatment. Furthermore, the potential mechanisms of rTMS on the improvement of learning and memory also remain poorly understood. In the present study, we reported that severe deficits in spatial learning and memory were observed in APP23/PS45 double transgenic mice, a well known mouse model of AD. Furthermore, these behavioral changes were accompanied by the impairment of long-term potentiation (LTP in the CA1 region of hippocampus, a brain region vital to spatial learning and memory. More importantly, 2-week low-frequency rTMS treatment markedly reversed the impairment of spatial learning and memory as well as hippocampal CA1 LTP. In addition, low-frequency rTMS dramatically reduced amyloid-β precursor protein (APP and its C-terminal fragments (CTFs including C99 and C89, as well as β-site APP-cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1 in the hippocampus. These results indicate that low-frequency rTMS noninvasively and effectively ameliorates cognitive and synaptic functions in a mouse model of AD, and the potential mechanisms may be attributed to rTMS-induced reduction in Aβ neuropathology.

  19. Docosahexaenoic acid intake ameliorates ketamine-induced impairment of spatial cognition and learning ability in ICR mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shucai; Dai, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Zhiwen; Hao, Wei; Chen, Hongxian

    2014-09-19

    Several studies have reported the ketamine-induced cognitive impairment. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation improves cognitive function in human infants and protects against learning impairment in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study, we investigated the effect of DHA on ketamine-induced impairment of spatial cognition and learning ability in Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice. Morris water maze (MWM) was used to assess spatial learning and memory. Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) levels in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results showed that intraperitoneal injection of ketamine (30mg/kg, twice per day) for 4 weeks led to the decline of spatial cognitive ability in mice, and 420mg/(kgd) DHA supplementation for 6 weeks improved ketamine-induced spatial cognitive impairment to a certain extent. The up-regulation of GABA levels in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex was related to the improvement in spatial learning. Our results suggested that DHA supplementation would be a promising intervention to improve ketamine-induced spatial memory and cognitive dysfunction, and this effect of DHA might be correlated with the up-regulation of GABA levels. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Disentangling Inhibition-Based and Retrieval-Based Aftereffects of Distractors: Cognitive Versus Motor Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Tarini; Laub, Ruth; Burgard, Jan Pablo; Frings, Christian

    2017-11-20

    Selective attention refers to the ability to selectively act upon relevant information at the expense of irrelevant information. Yet, in many experimental tasks, what happens to the representation of the irrelevant information is still debated. Typically, 2 approaches to distractor processing have been suggested, namely distractor inhibition and distractor-based retrieval. However, it is also typical that both processes are hard to disentangle. For instance, in the negative priming literature (for a review Frings, Schneider, & Fox, 2015) this has been a continuous debate since the early 1980s. In the present study, we attempted to prove that both processes exist, but that they reflect distractor processing at different levels of representation. Distractor inhibition impacts stimulus representation, whereas distractor-based retrieval impacts mainly motor processes. We investigated both processes in a distractor-priming task, which enables an independent measurement of both processes. For our argument that both processes impact different levels of distractor representation, we estimated the exponential parameter (τ) and Gaussian components (μ, σ) of the exponential Gaussian reaction-time (RT) distribution, which have previously been used to independently test the effects of cognitive and motor processes (e.g., Moutsopoulou & Waszak, 2012). The distractor-based retrieval effect was evident for the Gaussian component, which is typically discussed as reflecting motor processes, but not for the exponential parameter, whereas the inhibition component was evident for the exponential parameter, which is typically discussed as reflecting cognitive processes, but not for the Gaussian parameter. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Superior sensory, motor, and cognitive performance in elderly individuals with multi-year dancing activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan-Christoph Kattenstroth

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Aging is associated with a progressive decline of mental and physical abilities. Considering the current demographic changes in many civilizations there is an urgent need for measures permitting an independent lifestyle into old age. The critical role of physical exercise in mediating and maintaining physical and mental fitness is well-acknowledged. Dance, in addition to physical activity, combines emotions, social interaction, sensory stimulation, motor coordination and music, thereby creating enriched environmental conditions for human individuals. Here we demonstrate the impact of multi-year (average 16.5 years amateur dancing (AD in a group of elderly subjects (aged 65 to 84 years as compared to education-, gender- and aged-matched controls (CG having no record of dancing or sporting activities. Besides posture and balance parameters, we tested reaction times, motor behavior, tactile and cognitive performance. In each of the different domains investigated, the AD group had a superior performance as compared to the non-dancer CG group. Analysis of individual performance revealed that the best participants of the AD group were not better than individuals of the CG group. Instead, the AD group lacked individuals showing poor performance, which was frequently observed for the CG group. This observation implies that maintaining a regular schedule of dancing into old age can preserve cognitive, motor and perceptual abilities and prevent them from degradation. We conclude that the far-reaching beneficial effects found in the AD group make dance, beyond its ability to facilitate balance and posture, a prime candidate for the preservation of everyday life competence of elderly individuals.

  2. Motor abnormalities and cognitive impairment in first-episode psychosis patients, their unaffected siblings and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuesta, Manuel J; Moreno-Izco, Lucia; Ribeiro, María; López-Ilundain, Jose M; Lecumberri, Pablo; Cabada, Teresa; Lorente-Omeñaca, Ruth; Sánchez-Torres, Ana M; Gómez, M Sol; Peralta, Victor

    2017-10-31

    Motor abnormalities (MAs) may be already evidenced long before the beginning of illness and are highly prevalent in psychosis. However, the extent to which the whole range of MAs are related to cognitive impairment in psychosis remains understudied. This study aimed to examine comparatively the relationships between the whole range of motor abnormalities and cognitive impairments in the first-episode of psychosis (FEP), their unaffected siblings and healthy control subjects. Fifty FEP patients, 21 of their healthy siblings and 24 age- and sex matched healthy controls were included. Motor assessment included catatonic, extrapyramidal and neurological soft signs (NSS) by means of standardized instruments. An exhaustive neuropsychological battery was also performed to extract the 7 cognitive dimensions of MATRICS initiative. Higher scores on NSS but not on extrapyramidal and catatonic signs showed significant associations with worse cognitive performance in the three study groups. However, the pattern of associations regarding specific cognitive functions was different among the three groups. Moreover, extrapyramidal signs showed significant associations with cognitive impairment only in FEP patients but not in their unaffected siblings and healthy controls. Catatonic signs did not show any significant association with cognitive functioning in the three study groups. These findings add evidence to the associations between motor abnormalities, particularly NSS and extrapyramidal signs, and cognitive impairment in first-episode psychosis patients. In addition, our results suggest that the specific pattern of associations between MAs and cognitive functioning is different in FEP patients from those of the unaffected siblings and healthy subjects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Malnutrition and Its Determinants Are Associated with Suboptimal Cognitive, Communication, and Motor Development in Tanzanian Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudfeld, Christopher R; McCoy, Dana Charles; Fink, Günther; Muhihi, Alfa; Bellinger, David C; Masanja, Honorati; Smith, Emily R; Danaei, Goodarz; Ezzati, Majid; Fawzi, Wafaie W

    2015-12-01

    A large volume of literature has shown negative associations between stunting and child development; however, there is limited evidence for associations with milder forms of linear growth faltering and determinants of malnutrition in developing countries. The objective of this study was to assess the association between anthropometric growth indicators across their distribution and determinants of malnutrition with development of Tanzanian children. We used the Bayley Scales of Infant Development III to assess a cohort of 1036 Tanzanian children between 18 and 36 mo of age who were previously enrolled in a neonatal vitamin A trial. Linear regression models were used to assess standardized mean differences in child development for anthropometry z scores, along with pregnancy, delivery, and early childhood factors. Height-for-age z score (HAZ) was linearly associated with cognitive, communication, and motor development z scores across the observed range in this population (all P values for linear relation development z scores, respectively. The relation of weight-for-height z score (WHZ) was nonlinear with only wasted children (WHZ development z scores, respectively, relative to nonwasted children. Maternal stature and flush toilet use were associated with higher cognitive and motor z scores, whereas being born small for gestational age (SGA) was associated with a -0.16 (95% CI: -0.30, -0.01) z score deficit in cognition. Mild to severe chronic malnutrition was associated with increasing developmental deficits in Tanzanian children, whereas only wasted children exhibited developmental delays during acute malnutrition. Interventions to reduce SGA, improve sanitation, and increase maternal stature may have positive effects on child development. This trial was registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry as ACTRN12610000636055. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  4. Exploration as a Mediator of the Relation between the Attainment of Motor Milestones and the Development of Spatial Cognition and Spatial Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudgenoeg-Paz, Ora; Leseman, Paul P. M.; Volman, M. J. M.

    2015-01-01

    The embodied-cognition approach views cognition and language as grounded in daily sensorimotor child-environment interactions. Therefore, the attainment of motor milestones is expected to play a role in cognitive-linguistic development. Early attainment of unsupported sitting and independent walking indeed predict better spatial cognition and…

  5. A diet containing grape powder ameliorates the cognitive decline in aged rats with a long-term high-fructose-high-fat dietary pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Liang-Mao; Lin, Ching-I; Chen, Yue-Hwa; Liao, Hsiang; Lin, Shyh-Hsiang

    2016-08-01

    Research has suggested that the consumption of foods rich in polyphenols is beneficial to the cognitive functions of the elderly. We investigated the effects of grape consumption on spatial learning, memory performance and neurodegeneration-related protein expression in aged rats fed a high-fructose-high-fat (HFHF) diet. Six-week-old Wistar rats were fed an HFHF diet to 66 weeks of age to establish a model of an HFHF dietary pattern, before receiving intervention diets containing different amounts of grape powder for another 12 weeks in the second part of the experiment. Spatial learning, memory performance and cortical and hippocampal protein expression levels were assessed. After consuming the HFHF diet for a year, results showed that the rats fed a high grape powder-containing diet had significantly better spatial learning and memory performance, lower expression of β-amyloid and β-secretase and higher expression of α-secretase than the rats fed a low grape powder-containing diet. Therefore, long-term consumption of an HFHF diet caused a decline in cognitive functions and increased the risk factors for neurodegeneration, which could subsequently be ameliorated by the consumption of a polyphenol-rich diet. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Neonatal screening for congenital hypothyroidism in the Netherlands: cognitive and motor outcome at 10 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempers, Marlies J E; van der Sluijs Veer, Liesbeth; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Ria W G; Lanting, Caren I; Kooistra, Libbe; Wiedijk, Brenda M; Last, Bob F; de Vijlder, Jan J M; Grootenhuis, Martha A; Vulsma, Thomas

    2007-03-01

    Patients with thyroidal congenital hypothyroidism (CH-T) born in The Netherlands in 1981-1982 showed persistent intellectual and motor deficits during childhood and adulthood, despite initiation of T(4) supplementation at a median age of 28 d after birth. The present study examined whether advancement of treatment initiation to 20 d had resulted in improved cognitive and motor outcome. In 82 Dutch CH-T patients, born in 1992 to 1993 and treated at a median age of 20 d (mean, 22 d; range, 2-73 d), cognitive and motor outcome was assessed (mean age, 10.5 yr; range, 9.6-11.4 yr). Severity of CH-T was classified according to pretreatment free T(4) concentration. Cognitive and motor outcome of the 1992-1993 cohort in comparison to the 1981 to 1982 cohort was the main outcome measure. Patients with severe CH-T had lower full-scale (93.7), verbal (94.9), and performance (93.9) IQ scores than the normative population (P supplementation from 28 to 20 d after birth did not result in improved cognitive or motor outcome in CH-T patients.

  7. Effects of the dimeric PSD-95 inhibitor UCCB01-144 in mouse models of pain, cognition and motor function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Jesper T; Nasser, Arafat; Caballero-Puntiverio, Maitane

    2016-01-01

    of neuropathic pain. Potential cognitive effects of UCCB01-144 were examined using the social transmission of food preference (STFP) test and the V-maze test, and motor coordination was assessed with the rotarod test. UCCB01-144 (10mg/kg) reversed CFA-induced mechanical hypersensitivity after 1h, and completely......NMDAR antagonism shows analgesic action in humans and animal pain models, but disrupts cognitive and motor functions. NMDAR-dependent NO production requires tethering of the NMDAR to neuronal NO synthase (nNOS) by the postsynaptic density protein-95 (PSD-95). Perturbing the NMDAR/PSD-95/n...

  8. Melatonin ameliorates cognitive impairment induced by sleep deprivation in rats: role of oxidative stress, BDNF and CaMKII.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Hu-Qin; Liang, Xiang-Yan; Zhang, Hai-Feng; Zhang, Ting; Liu, Fang-E

    2013-11-01

    Sleep deprivation (SD) has been shown to induce oxidative stress which causes cognitive impairment. Melatonin, an endogenous potent antioxidant, protects neurons from oxidative stress in many disease models. The present study investigated the effect of melatonin against SD-induced cognitive impairment and attempted to define the possible mechanisms involved. SD was induced in rats using modified multiple platform model. Melatonin (15 mg/kg) was administered to the rats via intraperitoneal injection. The open field test and Morris water maze were used to evaluate cognitive ability. The cerebral cortex (CC) and hippocampus were dissected and homogenized. Nitric oxide (NO) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and the superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzyme activity of hippocampal and cortical tissues (10% wet weight per volume) were performed to determine the level of oxidative stress. The expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and calcium-calmodulin dependent kinase II (CaMKII) proteins in CC and hippocampus was assayed by means of immunohistochemistry. The results revealed that SD impairs cognitive ability, while melatonin treatment prevented these changes. In addition, melatonin reversed SD-induced changes in NO, MDA and SOD in both of the CC and hippocampus. The results of immunoreactivity showed that SD decreased gray values of BDNF and CaMKII in CC and hippocamal CA1, CA3 and dentate gyrus regions, whereas melatonin improved the gray values. In conclusion, our results suggest that melatonin prevents cognitive impairment induced by SD. The possible mechanism may be attributed to its ability to reduce oxidative stress and increase the levels of CaMKII and BDNF in CC and hippocampus. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The Effect of a Six-Month Dancing Program on Motor-Cognitive Dual-Task Performance in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamacher, Dennis; Hamacher, Daniel; Rehfeld, Kathrin; Hökelmann, Anita; Schega, Lutz

    2015-10-01

    Dancing is a complex sensorimotor activity involving physical and mental elements which have positive effects on cognitive functions and motor control. The present randomized controlled trial aims to analyze the effects of a dancing program on the performance on a motor-cognitive dual task. Data of 35 older adults, who were assigned to a dancing group or a health-related exercise group, are presented in the study. In pretest and posttest, we assessed cognitive performance and variability of minimum foot clearance, stride time, and stride length while walking. Regarding the cognitive performance and the stride-to-stride variability of minimum foot clearance, interaction effects have been found, indicating that dancing lowers gait variability to a higher extent than conventional health-related exercise. The data show that dancing improves minimum foot clearance variability and cognitive performance in a dual-task situation. Multi-task exercises (like dancing) might be a powerful tool to improve motor-cognitive dual-task performance.

  10. An Investigation of an Evaluation Method and Retraining Procedures for Emotionally Handicapped Children with Cognitive-Motor Deficits. Interim Report. Part I, Testing for Cognitive-Perceptual-Motor Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Eli Z.; And Others

    Using a 41-test battery of cognitive-perceptual-motor tests supplemented by standardized tests of intelligence, visual perception, eye hand coordination, linguistics, and non-verbal integration, a group of 200 maladjusted school age children from grades 1, 2, 3, and 5 was compared with a group of problem-free children similar in size, sex…

  11. A 9-Week Aerobic and Strength Training Program Improves Cognitive and Motor Function in Patients with Dementia : A Randomized, Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossers, Willem J. R.; van der Woude, Lucas H. V.; Boersma, Froukje; Hortobagyi, Tibor; Scherder, Erik J. A.; van Heuvelen, Marieke J. G.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To compare training and follow-up effects of combined aerobic and strength training versus aerobic-only training on cognitive and motor function in institutionalized patients with dementia and to explore whether improved motor function mediates improved cognitive function. Methods: Using

  12. Motoric Cognitive Risk Syndrome and Falls Risk: A Multi-Center Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callisaya, Michele L.; Ayers, Emmeline; Barzilai, Nir; Ferrucci, Luigi; Guralnik, Jack M.; Lipton, Richard B.; Otahal, Petr; Srikanth, Velandai K.; Verghese, Joe

    2016-01-01

    Background The Motoric Cognitive Risk Syndrome (MCR) is characterized by slow gait speed and cognitive complaints. Objectives The objective of this study was to determine if the presence of MCR increases the risk of falls in older people. Methods Individual participant data (n = 6,204) from five longitudinal studies from three countries were used for this analysis. MCR diagnosis was defined as both the presence of objectively measured slow gait speed and subjective cognitive complaints in those without dementia or mobility disability. Falls were prospectively ascertained using phone calls or questionnaires. Log binomial regression was performed to determine if MCR increased the risk of falls separately in each cohort. Random effects meta-analysis was used to pool results from all cohorts. Results The mean age of participants was 74.9 (SD 6.8) years and 44% (n = 2728) were male. Overall 33.9% (n = 2104) reported a fall over follow-up. Pooled relative risk of MCR with any falls was RR 1.44 95% CI 1.16, 1.79. The components of MCR, slow gait (RR 1.30 95% CI 1.14, 1.47) and cognitive complaint (RR 1.25, 95% CI 1.07, 1.46) were also associated with an increased risk of any falls. In sub-analyses MCR was associated with any fall independent of previous falls (RR 1.29 95% CI 1.09, 1.53) and with multiple falls (RR 1.77, 95% CI 1.25, 2.51). Conclusion MCR is associated with an increased risk of falls. The increase in risk was higher than for its individual components. The simplicity of the MCR makes it an attractive falls risk screening tool for the clinic. PMID:27340851

  13. Beneficial effects of a pyrroloquinolinequinone-containing dietary formulation on motor deficiency, cognitive decline and mitochondrial dysfunction in a mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darrell Sawmiller

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD, a progressive neurodegenerative disorder, is linked to oxidative stress, altered amyloid precursor protein (APP proteolysis, tau hyperphosphorylation and the accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ plaques and neurofibrillary tangles (NFT. A growing body of evidence suggests that mitochondrial dysfunction can be a key promoter of all of these pathologies and predicts that restoration of mitochondrial function might be a potential therapeutic strategy for AD. Therefore, in the present study, we tested the beneficial effect of a nutraceutical formulation Nutrastem II (Nutra II, containing NT020 (a mitochondrial restorative and antioxidant proprietary formulation and pyrroloquinolinequinone (PQQ, a stimulator of mitochondria biogenesis in 5XFAD transgenic mice. Animals were fed Nutra II for 12 weeks, starting at 3 months of age, after which behavioral and neuropathological endpoints were determined. The data from behavioral test batteries clearly revealed that dietary supplementation of Nutra II effectively ameliorated the motor deficiency and cognitive impairment of 5XFAD mice. In addition, Nutra II also protected mitochondrial function in 5XFAD mice brain, as evidenced by declined ROS levels and membrane hyperpolarization, together with elevated ATP levels and respiratory states. Interestingly, while Nutra II treatment only slightly reduced soluble Aβ42 levels, this formulation significantly impacted tau metabolism, as shown by reduced total and phosphorylated tau levels of 5XFAD mouse brain. Taken together, these preclinical findings confirm that mitochondrial function may be a key treatment target for AD and that Nutra II should be further investigated as a potential candidate for AD therapy.

  14. The nuclear receptor Tlx regulates motor, cognitive and anxiety-related behaviours during adolescence and adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, James D; Kozareva, Danka A; Hueston, Cara M; O'Leary, Olivia F; Cryan, John F; Nolan, Yvonne M

    2016-06-01

    The nuclear receptor Tlx is a key regulator of embryonic and adult hippocampal neurogenesis and has been genetically linked to bipolar disorder. Mice lacking Tlx (Nr2e1(-/-)) display deficits in adult hippocampal neurogenesis and behavioural abnormalities. However, whether Tlx regulates behaviour during adolescence or in a sex-dependent manner remains unexplored. Therefore, we investigated the role of Tlx in a series of behavioural tasks in adolescent male and female mice with a spontaneous deletion of Tlx (Nr2e1(-/-) mice). Testing commenced at adolescence (postnatal day 28) and continued until adulthood (postnatal day 67). Adolescent male and female Nr2e1(-/-) mice were hyperactive in an open field, an effect that persisted in adulthood. Male but not female Nr2e1(-/-) mice exhibited reduced thigmotaxis during adolescence and adulthood. Impairments in rotarod motor performance developed in male and female Nr2e1(-/-) mice at the onset of adulthood. Spontaneous alternation in the Y-maze, a hippocampus-dependent task, was impaired in adolescent but not adult male and female Nr2e1(-/-) mice. Contextual fear conditioning was impaired in adolescent male Nr2e1(-/-) mice only, but both male and female adolescent Nr2e1(-/-) mice showed impaired cued fear conditioning, a hippocampal-amygdala dependent cognitive process. These deficits persisted into adulthood in males but not females. In conclusion, deletion of Tlx impairs motor, cognitive and anxiety-related behaviours during adolescence and adulthood in male and female mice with most effects occurring during adolescence rather than adulthood, independent of housing conditions. This suggests that Tlx has functions beyond regulation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis, and may be an important target in understanding neurobiological disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Mild cognitive impairment: loss of linguistic task-induced changes in motor cortex excitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracco, L; Giovannelli, F; Bessi, V; Borgheresi, A; Di Tullio, A; Sorbi, S; Zaccara, G; Cincotta, M

    2009-03-10

    In amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), functional neuronal connectivity may be altered, as suggested by quantitative EEG and neuroimaging data. In young healthy humans, the execution of linguistic tasks modifies the excitability of the hand area of the dominant primary motor cortex (M1(hand)), as tested by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). We used TMS to investigate functional connectivity between language-related cortical areas and M1(hand) in aMCI. Ten elderly women with aMCI and 10 age-matched women were recruited. All participants were right handed and underwent a neuropsychological evaluation. In the first TMS experiment, participants performed three different tasks: reading aloud, viewing of non-letter strings (baseline), and nonverbal oral movements. The second experiment included the baseline condition and three visual searching/matching tasks using letters, geometric shapes, or digits as target stimuli. In controls, motor evoked potentials (MEP) elicited by suprathreshold TMS of the left M1(hand) were significantly larger during reading aloud (170% baseline) than during nonverbal oral movements, whereas no difference was seen for right M1(hand) stimulation. Similarly, MEP elicited by left M1(hand) stimulation during letter and shape searching/matching tasks were significantly larger compared to digit task. In contrast, linguistic task performance did not produce any significant MEP modulation in patients with aMCI, although neuropsychological evaluation showed normal language abilities. Findings suggest that functional connectivity between the language-related brain regions and the dominant M1(hand) may be altered in amnestic mild cognitive impairment. Follow-up studies will reveal whether transcranial magnetic stimulation application during linguistic tasks may contribute to characterize the risk of conversion to Alzheimer disease.

  16. Acupuncture ameliorates cognitive impairment and hippocampus neuronal loss in experimental vascular dementia through Nrf2-mediated antioxidant response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xue-Rui; Shi, Guang-Xia; Yang, Jing-Wen; Yan, Chao-Qun; Lin, Li-Ting; Du, Si-Qi; Zhu, Wen; He, Tian; Zeng, Xiang-Hong; Xu, Qian; Liu, Cun-Zhi

    2015-12-01

    Emerging evidence suggests acupuncture could exert neuroprotection in the vascular dementia via anti-oxidative effects. However, the involvement of Nrf2, a master regulator of antioxidant defense, in acupuncture-induced neuroprotection in vascular dementia remains undetermined. The goal of our study was to investigate the contribution of Nrf2 in acupuncture and its effects on vascular dementia. Morris water maze and Nissl staining were used to assess the effect of acupuncture on cognitive function and hippocampal neurodegeneration in experimental vascular dementia. The distribution of Nrf2 in neurons in hippocampus, the protein expression of Nrf2 in both cytosol and nucleus, and the protein and mRNA levels of its downstream target genes NQO1 and HO-1 were detected by double immunofluorescent staining, Western blotting and realtime PCR analysis respectively. Cognitive function and microglia activation were measured in both wild-type and Nrf2 gene knockout mice after acupuncture treatment. We found that acupuncture could remarkably reverse the cognitive deficits, neuron cell loss, reactive oxygen species production, and decreased cerebral blood flow. It was notable that acupuncture enhanced nuclear translocation of Nrf2 in neurons and up-regulate the protein and mRNA levels of Nrf2 and its target genes HO-1 and NQO1. Moreover, acupuncture could significantly down-regulated the over-activation of microglia after common carotid artery occlusion surgery. However, the reversed cognitive deficits, neuron cell loss and microglia activation by acupuncture were abolished in Nrf2 gene knockout mice. In conclusion, these findings provide evidence that the neuroprotection of acupuncture in models of vascular dementia was via the Nrf2 activation and Nrf2-dependent microglia activation. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Cognitive mechanisms and motor control during a saccadic eye movement task: evidence from quantitative electroencephalography

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    Claudia Diniz

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The saccadic movement is an important behavioral measure used to investigate several cognitive processes, including attention and sensorimotor integration. The present study aimed at investigating changes in beta coherence over frontal, motor, occipital, and parietal cortices during the performance of two different conditions of a prosacadic paradigm. The conditions involved a different pattern of stimulus presentation: a fixed and random stimulus presentation. Twelve healthy volunteers (three male, mean age of 26.25 (SD=4.13 performed the task, while their brain activity pattern was recorded using quantitative electroencephalography. The results showed an interaction between factors condition and moment for the pair of electrode C3/C4. We observed a main effect for moment to CZ/C4, FZ/F3, and P3/PZ. We also found a main effect for condition to FZ/F4, P3/P4, and O1/O2. Our results demonstrated an important role of the inter-connection of the two hemispheres in visual search and movement preparation. The study demonstrates an automation of action and reduction of the focus of attention during the task. We also found that the inter-hemispheric beta coherence plays an important role in the differentiation of the two conditions, and that beta in the right frontal cortex is able to differentiate the conditions, demonstrating a greater involvement of procedural memory in fixed condition. Our results suggest a neuronal specialization in the execution of prosacadic paradigm involving motor task sequence.

  18. The relationship between motor skills and cognitive skills in 4-16 year old typically developing children : A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Fels, Irene M. J.; te Wierike, Sanne C. M.; Hartman, Esther; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T.; Smith, Joanne; Visscher, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This review aims to give an overview of studies providing evidence for a relationship between motor and cognitive skills in typically developing children. Design: A systematic review. Methods: PubMed, Web of Science, and PsychINFO were searched for relevant articles. A total of 21

  19. Effects of prenatal PCB and dioxin background exposure on cognitive and motor abilities in Dutch children at school age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreugdenhil, HJI; Lanting, Caren; Mulder, PCH; Boersma, ER; Weisglas-Kuperus, N

    Objective: Our purpose was to evaluate whether effects of exposure to environmental levels of PCBs and dioxins on development in the Dutch cohort persist until school age. Study design: In the Dutch PCB/dioxin study, cognitive and motor abilities were assessed with the McCarthy Scales of Children's

  20. A Comparison of the Relation of Depression, and Cognitive, Motor and Functional Deficits in Chronic Stroke Patients: A Pilot Study

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    Amin Ghaffari

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim and background: One of the most important psychological disorders after stroke is depression, which leads to reduced quality of life, optimal rehabilitation failure, loss of cognitive tasks and decrease in the recovery process. In this research, relation between patterns of depression and cognitive, motor and function deficits in people with chronic stroke was studied. Methods and materials: In a pilot cross-sectional study, 40 patients with chronic stroke (more than 6 months were enrolled. Depression (Beck Depression Inventory, cognition (attention test TMT-A & B and Wechsler memory, motor (Motorcity index, basic activities of daily living (Barthel scale and instrumental activities of daily living (Lawton scale were evaluated. Results: The results of the study revealed a significant positive correlation between post stroke depression and verbal memory (r=0.440،P<.05, attention (r=0.615،P<.05, motor function(r-0.368،P<.05, independence in basic activities of daily living (r=0.781،P<.05 and instrumental activities of daily living (r=0.741, P<.05. Conclusion: According to the findings, further studies of factors affecting post stroke depression (PSD clinical and practical aspects are necessary. Cognitive rehabilitation programs with motor rehabilitation can decrease depression and gain independence in activities of daily living and more participation in society activities.

  1. Motor, affective and cognitive empathy in adolescence : Interrelations between facial electromyography and self-reported trait and state measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Graaff, Jolien; Meeus, W; de Wied, Minet; van Boxtel, Anton; van Lier, Pol A C; Koot, Hans M.; Branje, Susan

    2016-01-01

    This study examined interrelations of trait and state empathy in an adolescent sample. Self-reported affective trait empathy and cognitive trait empathy were assessed during a home visit. During a test session at the university, motor empathy (facial electromyography), and self-reported affective

  2. Estrogen agonist genistein differentially influences the cognitive and motor disorders in an ovariectomized animal model of Parkinsonism

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    Elaheh Arbabi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Parkinson's disease (PD is a progressive neurological disorder associated with motor disabilities and cognitive dysfunction as well. Evidence indicates that PD occurs less frequently in women than men, confirming a role for steroid hormones in protection of dopaminergic nigrostriatal neurons. It is reported that soy genistein, an estrogen agonist phytoestrogen, display neuroprotective effects against neuronal death. In this study we evaluated the effect of genistein in animal models of Parkinsonism (P and Parkinsonism + ovariectomized (OP. Materials and Methods: The experiments were carried out on the control, P and OP animals. Learning and memory abilities were evaluated using Morris water maze. The latency and speed of locating the platform were measured as cognitive indices. Motor behaviors were assessed by testing the animals in rota rod and the latency to fall from the rod was scored. Results: We found that Parkinsonism leads to the cognitive and motor disabilities; ovariectomy intensified these disorders. Whereas genistein treatment improved the maze performances in both P and OP animals it failed to influence the kinetic problems. Genistein displayed a neuroprotective effect on dopaminergic neurons. Conclusion: Positive impact of genistein on the spatial learning and memory may reflect its effects on the nigrostriatal pathway and striatum. Nevertheless, ineffectiveness of genistein on the motor disorders, despite its neuroprotective impacts, led us to conclude that the cognitive improvement by genistein may also contribute to its effects in other areas of brain.

  3. The Co-Emergence of Cognition, Language, and Speech Motor Control in Early Development: A Longitudinal Correlation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nip, Ignatius S. B.; Green, Jordan R.; Marx, David B.

    2011-01-01

    Although the development of spoken language is dependent on the emergence of cognitive, language, and speech motor skills, knowledge about how these domains interact during the early stages of communication development is currently limited. This exploratory investigation examines the strength of associations between longitudinal changes in…

  4. Effects of a Single Dose of Erythropoietin on Motor Function and Cognition after Focal Brain Ischemia in Adult Rats

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    Michaela Hralová

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We tested the influence of erythropoietin (EPO, a basic cytokine in erythropoiesis regulation, on the process of motor function and cognition after focal brain ischemia induced by a local application of endothelin. Endothelin-1 (ET-1 induced short lasting strong vasoconstriction, with described impact on the structure and on the function of neuronal cells. Neurological description of motor function and Morris water maze test (the swimming test is one of most widely used methods for studying cognitive functions in rodents were used to study the process of learning and memory in three-month-old male albino Wistar rats (n=52. Both tests were performed one week before, and three weeks after ischemia induction (endothelin application on the cortex in the area of a. cerebri media dx.. Experimental group received i.p. injection of EPO (5,000 IU/kg body weight, 10 min before endothelin application. Control group of animals received one i.p. injection of saline at the dose of 1 ml/kg body weight at the same time. Only sham surgery was performed in the third group of animals. Rats with EPO pretreatment before the experimental lesion exhibited significantly better motor and cognitive function then those with saline injection. No significant changes in the motor and cognitive function were found in the third group of rats (sham operated controls.

  5. Phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitors ameliorates cognitive deficits in deoxycorticosterone acetate induced hypertensive rats via cAMP/CREB signaling system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabaris, S Sugin Lal; Sumathy, Haridass; Girish, Ramesh; Narayanan, Shridhar; Sugumar, Mani; Saravana Babu, Chidambaram; Thanikachalam, Sadagopan; Thanikachalam, Mohan

    2015-10-05

    Phosphodiesterase-4 (PDE-4) inhibitors promote memory by blocking the degradation of cAMP. Existing evidence also shows that neuronal survival and plasticity are dependent on the phosphorylation of cAMP-response element-binding protein. In this regard, PDE-4 inhibitors have also been shown to reverse pharmacologically and genetically induced memory impairment in animal models. In the present study, the authors examined the effect of both rolipram and roflumilast (PDE-4 inhibitors) on the impairment of learning and memory observed in hypertensive rats. Deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA) salt hypertensive model was used to induce learning and memory deficits. The mRNA expression of different PDE-4 subtypes along with the protein levels of pCREB and BDNF in the hippocampus was quantified. Systolic blood pressure was significantly increased in DOCA salt hypertensive rats when compared to sham operated rats. This effect was reversed by clonidine, an α2 receptor agonist, while PDE-4 inhibitors did not. PDE-4 inhibitors significantly improved the time-induced memory deficits in object recognition task (ORT). In DOCA salt hypertensive rats, the gene expression of PDE-4B and PDE-4D was significantly increased. Furthermore, both pCREB and BDNF showed decreased levels of expression in hypertensive rats in comparison to sham operated rats. Repeated administration of PDE-4 inhibitors significantly decreased both PDE-4B and PDE-4D with an increase in the expression of pCREB and BDNF in hypersensitive rats. Also, rolipram, roflumilast and roflumilast N-oxide showed a linear increase in the plasma and brain concentrations after ORT. Our present findings suggested that PDE-4 inhibitors ameliorate hypertension-induced learning impairment via cAMP/CREB signaling that regulates BDNF expression downstream in the rat hippocampus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Association between Community Ambulation Walking Patterns and Cognitive Function in Patients with Parkinson’s Disease: Further Insights into Motor-Cognitive Links

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    Aner Weiss

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Cognitive function is generally evaluated based on testing in the clinic, but this may not always reflect real-life function. We tested whether parameters derived from long-term, continuous monitoring of gait are associated with cognitive function in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD. Methods. 107 patients with PD (age: 64.9 ± 9.3 yrs; UPDRS motor sum “off”: 40.4 ± 13.2; 25.23% women wore a 3D accelerometer on their lower back for 3 days. Computerized measures of global cognitive function, executive function, attention, and nonverbal memory were assessed. Three-day acceleration derived measures included cadence, variability, bilateral coordination, and dynamic postural control. Associations between the acceleration derived measures and cognitive function were determined. Results. Linear regression showed associations between vertical gait variability and cadence and between global cognitive score, attention, and executive function (p≤0.048. Dynamic postural control was associated with global cognitive score and attention (p≤0.027. Nonverbal memory was not associated with the acceleration-derived measures. Conclusions. These findings suggest that metrics derived from a 3-day worn body-fixed sensor reflect cognitive function, further supporting the idea that the gait pattern may be altered as cognition declines and that gait provides a window into cognitive function in patients with PD.

  7. Language, motor and cognitive development of extremely preterm children: modeling individual growth trajectories over the first three years of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansavini, Alessandra; Pentimonti, Jill; Justice, Laura; Guarini, Annalisa; Savini, Silvia; Alessandroni, Rosina; Faldella, Giacomo

    2014-01-01

    Survival rate of extremely low gestational age (ELGA) newborns has increased over 80% in the last 15 years, but its consequences on the short- and longer-term developmental competencies may be severe. The aim of this study was to describe growth trajectories of linguistic, motor and cognitive skills among ELGA children, compared to full-term (FT) peers, from the first to the third year of life, a crucial period for development. Growth curve analysis was used to examine individual and group differences in terms of initial status at 12 months and rate of growth through the second and the third year of life with five points of assessment. Twenty-eight monolingual Italian children, of whom 17 were ELGA (mean GA 25.7 weeks) and 11 were FT children, were assessed through the BSID-III at 12, 18, 24, 30 and 36 months for language skills and at 12, 24 and 30 months for motor and cognitive skills. ELGA children presented significantly lower scores than FT peers in language, motor and cognitive skills and they did not overcome their disadvantage by 3 years, even if their corrected age was taken into account. Concerning growth curves, in motor development a significant increasing divergence was found showing a Matthew effect with the preterm sample falling further behind the FT sample. In linguistic and cognitive development, instead, a stable gap between the two samples was found. In addition, great inter-individual differences in rate of change were observed for language development in both samples. Our findings highlight the theoretical and clinical relevance of analyzing, through growth curve analyses, the developmental trajectories of ELGA children in language skills taking into account their inter-individual variability also across motor and cognitive domains. After reading this article, the reader will interpret: (a) characteristics and growth trajectories of ELGA children from the first to the third year of life with respect to FT children in language, motor and

  8. Elderly-technology interaction: accessibility and acceptability of technological devices promoting motor and cognitive training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callari, Tiziana C; Ciairano, Silvia; Re, Alessandra

    2012-01-01

    As the world population is ageing, studies on the socio-economic and health consequences are proliferating. Little has been done on the effectiveness and impact elderly may benefit from the use of technology in their everyday life. The pilot study, implemented within a funded project aimed at identifying sustainable actions to promote Seniors' quality of life, intended to investigate this kind of interaction in terms of accessibility and acceptability that senior citizen experience with technological devices promoting motor and cognitive training. In the hypothesis, interfaces and technological artifacts, that still take in little account the seniors' physical characteristics (e.g. physiological limitations in sight, hearing, movement) and cognitive processes (selective memory often driven by practical needs), can cause elderly to mistrust technology. Study participants were twenty over seventy-year-old people, who were observed and interviewed in context in a two-hour training session regarding the technological devices user experience. The results are presented with scenario-based techniques that help represent typologies of users in different use situations. Findings confirm the hypothesis, highlighting that elderly may accept technological artifacts when they perceive them as bringing benefits in terms of well-being and health.

  9. The developmental cognitive neuroscience of action: semantics, motor resonance and social processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ní Choisdealbha, Áine; Reid, Vincent

    2014-06-01

    The widespread use of EEG methods and the introduction of new brain imaging methods such as near-infrared spectroscopy have made cognitive neuroscience research with infants more feasible, resulting in an explosion of new findings. Among the long-established study of the neural correlates of face and speech perception in infancy, there has been an abundance of recent research on infant perception and production of action and concomitant neurocognitive development. In this review, three significant strands of developmental action research are discussed. The first strand focuses on the relationship of diverse social cognitive processes, including the perception of goals and animacy, and the development of precursors to theory of mind, to action perception. The second investigates the role of motor resonance and mirror systems in early action development. The third strand focuses on the extraction of meaning from action by infants and discusses how semantic processing of action emerges early in life. Although these strands of research are pursued separately, many of the findings from each strand inform all three theoretical frameworks. This review will evaluate the evidence for a synthesised account of infant action development.

  10. Walking in School-Aged Children in a Dual-Task Paradigm Is Related to Age But Not to Cognition, Motor Behavior, Injuries, or Psychosocial Functioning

    OpenAIRE

    Hagmann-von Arx, Priska; Manicolo, Olivia; Lemola, Sakari; Grob, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Age-dependent gait characteristics and associations with cognition, motor behavior, injuries, and psychosocial functioning were investigated in 138 typically developing children aged 6.7–13.2 years (M = 10.0 years). Gait velocity, normalized velocity, and variability were measured using the walkway system GAITRite without an additional task (single task) and while performing a motor or cognitive task (dual task). Assessment of children’s cognition included tests for intelligence and executive...

  11. Betacyanins from Portulaca oleracea L. ameliorate cognition deficits and attenuate oxidative damage induced by D-galactose in the brains of senescent mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chang-Quan; Yang, Gui-Qin

    2010-06-01

    This experiment was designed to assess the protective effect of betacyanins from Portulaca oleracea L. against the D-galactose (D-gal)-induced neurotoxicity in mice. Betacyanins from Portulaca oleracea markedly reversed the D-gal-induced learning and memory impairments, as measured by behavioral tests. The activities of superoxide dismutases (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR) in D-gal-treated mice were enhanced, while the content of the lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde (MDA) was decreased by betacyanin administration. Furthermore, significant negative correlations were found between mouse latency in finding the platform and the activities of SOD, CAT GR and GPx in the mouse brain, but the level of MDA correlated positively with the latency. These results suggest that the neuroprotective effect of betacyanins against D-gal-induced neurotoxicity might be caused, at least in part, by an increase in the activities of antioxidant enzymes with a reduction in lipid peroxidation. In comparison with vitamin C (VC), the betacyanins had a more pronounced effect on ameliorating cognition deficits in mice.

  12. Brief rewarming blunts hypothermia-induced alterations in sensation, motor drive and cognition

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    Marius Brazaitis

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground: It is well known that cold exposure experienced during occupational or recreational activities may adversely affect motor, cognitive performance and health. Most research has used prolonged passive external rewarming modalities and focused on the direct effects on the kinetics of physiological and psychological responses in hypothermic subjects. However, the brief whole body rewarming effects on physiological and psychological responses in parallel with functional consequences on cognitive and neurophysiological functions have not been investigated. This study explores these effects in twelve healthy young men.Methods: Subjects (20±1 years participated in 4 randomized trials, which were designed to compare the effects of whole-body brief (5-min rewarming in 37°C water with rewarming for the same duration in 24°C (air thermoneutral environment in mildly hypothermic subjects. After each rewarming, indicators of neuromuscular function (reflexes, central activation ratio, electromyography of exercising muscle, and contractile properties of calf muscles and cognitive function (attention, simple motor speed, and information processing speed were assessed.Results: Compared to rewarming in thermoneutral environment, after brief rewarming in 37°C water significantly lower metabolic heat production (206±33.4 versus 121.9±24.3 W•m2, P<0.01, heart rate (76±16 versus 60±12 b•min-1, P<0.01, cold strain (6.4±3.1 versus 5.3±2.7, P<0.01, improved thermal comfort and induced cessation of shivering was found. Electrically induced maximum torque amplitudes increased (P100, 102.8±21.3 versus 109.2±17.5 Nm and PTT100, 83.1±17.1 versus 92.7±16.0 Nm, P<0.05, contraction half-relaxation time decreased (599.0±53.8 versus 589.0±56.3 ms, P<0.05, and Mmax-wave latency shortened (17.5±2.2 versus 15.6±2.0 ms, P<0.05 after 37°C water rewarming. Unlike rewarming in thermoneutral environment, 37°C water rewarming blunted the

  13. Diffusion tensor imaging correlates of cognitive-motor decline in normal aging and increased Alzheimer's disease risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Kara M; Goyal, Aman I; Sergio, Lauren E

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is typically associated with impairments in memory and other aspects of cognition, while deficits in complex movements are commonly observed later in the course of the disease. Recent studies, however, have indicated that subtle deteriorations in visuomotor control under cognitively demanding conditions may in fact be an early identifying feature of AD. Our previous work has shown that the ability to perform visuomotor tasks that rely on visual-spatial and rule-based transformations is disrupted in prodromal and preclinical AD. Here, in a sample of 30 female participants (10 young: mean age = 26.6 ± 2.7, 10 low AD risk: mean age = 58.7 ± 5.6, and 10 high AD risk: mean age = 58.5 ± 6.9), we test the hypothesis that these cognitive-motor impairments are associated with early AD-related brain alterations. Using diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, we examined changes in white matter (WM) integrity associated with normal aging and increased AD risk, and assessed the relationship between these underlying WM alterations and cognitive-motor performance. Our whole-brain analysis revealed significant age-related declines in WM integrity, which were more widespread in high relative to low AD risk participants. Furthermore, analysis of mean diffusivity measures within isolated WM clusters revealed a stepwise decline in WM integrity across young, low AD risk, and high AD risk groups. In support of our hypothesis, we also observed that lower WM integrity was associated with poorer cognitive-motor performance. These results are the first to demonstrate a relationship between AD-related WM alterations and impaired cognitive-motor control. The application of these findings may provide a novel clinical strategy for the early detection of individuals at increased AD risk.

  14. Hesperidin ameliorates cognitive dysfunction, oxidative stress and apoptosis against aluminium chloride induced rat model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justin Thenmozhi, Arokiasamy; William Raja, Tharsius Raja; Manivasagam, Thamilarasan; Janakiraman, Udaiyappan; Essa, Musthafa Mohamed

    2017-07-01

    Deregulation of metal ion homeostasis has been assumed as one of the key factors in the progression of neurodegenerative diseases. Aluminium (Al) has been believed as a major risk factor for the cause and progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In our lab, we have previously reported that hesperidin, a citrus bioflavonoid reversed memory loss caused by aluminium intoxication through attenuating acetylcholine esterase activity and the expression of Amyloid β biosynthesis related markers. Al has been reported to cause oxidative stress associated apoptotic neuronal loss in the brain. So in the present study, protective effect of hesperidin against aluminium chloride (AlCl 3 ) induced cognitive impairment, oxidative stress and apoptosis was studied. Male Wistar rats were divided into control, AlCl 3 treated (100 mg/kg., b.w.), AlCl 3 and hesperidin (100 mg/kg., b.w.) co-treated and hesperidin alone treated groups. In control and experimental rats, learning and memory impairment were measured by radial arm maze, elevated plus maze and passive avoidance tests. In addition, oxidative stress and expression of pro and anti-apoptotic markers were also evaluated. Intraperitoneal injection of AlCl 3 (100 mg/kg., b.w.) for 60 days significantly enhanced the learning and memory deficits, levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and the expression of Bax and diminished the levels of reduced glutathione, activities of enzymatic antioxidants and the expression of B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) as compared to control group in the hippocampus, cortex, and cerebellum. Coadministration of hesperidin (100 mg/kg., b.w. oral) for 60 days prevented the cognitive deficits, biochemical anomalies and apoptosis induced by AlCl 3 treatment. Results of the present study demonstrated that hesperidin could be a potential therapeutic agent in the treatment of oxidative stress and apoptosis associated neurodegenerative diseases including AD.

  15. From Action Representation to Action Execution: Exploring the Links Between Cognitive and Biomechanical Levels of Motor Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William eLand

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Along with superior performance, research indicates that expertise is associated with a number of mediating cognitive adaptations. To this extent, extensive practice is associated with the development of general and task-specific mental representations, which play an important role in the organization and control of action. Recently, new experimental methods have been developed, which allow for investigating the organization and structure of these representations, along with the functional structure of the movement kinematics. In the current article, we present a new approach for examining the overlap between skill representations and motor output. In doing so, we first present an architecture model, which addresses links between biomechanical and cognitive levels of motor control. Next, we review the state of the art in assessing memory structures underlying complex action. Following we present a new spatio-temporal decomposition method for illuminating the functional structure of movement kinematics, and finally, we apply these methods to investigate the overlap between the structure of motor representations in memory and their corresponding kinematic structures. Our aim is to understand the extent to which the output at a kinematic level is governed by representations at a cognitive level of motor control.

  16. Long-term assessment of motor and cognitive behaviours in the intraluminal perforation model of subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silasi, Gergely; Colbourne, Frederick

    2009-03-17

    The endovascular perforation model of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a commonly used model in rats as it is performed without a craniotomy and accurately mimics the physiological effects of SAH in humans. The long-term behavioural profile of the model, however, has not been characterized. Given that humans often have cognitive deficits following SAH, we set out to characterize the behavioural profile as well as the spontaneous temperature changes of rats following intraluminal perforation. Rats were pre-trained on three motor tasks (tapered beam, limb-use asymmetry and the horizontal ladder tasks) prior to receiving a SAH. The animals were then assessed on post-surgical days 3, 7, 14 and 21 on these tasks. At the completion of motor testing, the rats were assessed on a moving platform version of the Morris water task. Despite significant mortality (33%), SAH did not result in lasting motor deficits on any of the tasks examined. However, the SAH group did show a minor cognitive impairment in the Morris water task. In addition, SAH produced a slight, but significant elevation in body temperature (vs. sham operated rats) despite an acute decrease in general home cage activity. The majority of the animals did not have any observable infarcts and the SAH did not significantly affect cortical thickness. In summary, the endovascular perforation model of SAH results in no lasting motor deficits and only minor cognitive impairment in survivors, which alone would be difficult to evaluate in neuroprotection or rehabilitation studies.

  17. The Effect of Hyperhomocysteinemia on Motor Symptoms, Cognitive Status, and Vascular Risk in Patients with Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocer, Bilge; Guven, Hayat; Conkbayir, Isik; Comoglu, Selim Selcuk; Delibas, Sennur

    2016-01-01

    Factors related with hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) and the impact of HHcy in Parkinson's disease (PD) are not well understood. We investigated the factors associated with increased levels of homocysteine (Hcy) and the relationship between HHcy and motor symptoms, cognitive status, and vascular risk in patients with Parkinson's disease. Among 60 patients (29 males, 48.3%) with PD, the stage of the disease, the severity of clinical symptoms, and the patients' cognitive status were measured using a modified Hoehn and Yahr Staging Scale (mHY), Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) II and III, and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), respectively. Patients were also noted for having dyskinesia and hallucinations. Serum vitamin B12, folic acid, and plasma Hcy levels were measured. Furthermore, the presence of vascular risk factors was recorded. Finally, we investigated carotid artery intima-media thickening and stenosis using colour Doppler ultrasonography as well as the presence of ischemic lesions using brain imaging techniques. Plasma Hcy levels were higher with advanced age and in males. In addition, there was an inverse relationship between Hcy and vitamin B12 levels. There was no correlation between HHcy and the stage of the disease, severity of motor symptoms, cognitive status as assessed by the MMSE, vascular risk factors, carotid artery atherosclerotic findings, and ischemic brain lesions. Plasma Hcy levels may rise due to several factors in PD. However, the resulting HHcy has no significant effect on the clinical picture in terms of motor features, cognitive status, and vascular diseases.

  18. Automated ambulatory assessment of cognitive performance, environmental conditions, and motor activity during military operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Harris R.; Kramer, F. Matthew; Montain, Scott J.; Niro, Philip; Young, Andrew J.

    2005-05-01

    Until recently scientists had limited opportunities to study human cognitive performance in non-laboratory, fully ambulatory situations. Recently, advances in technology have made it possible to extend behavioral assessment to the field environment. One of the first devices to measure human behavior in the field was the wrist-worn actigraph. This device, now widely employed, can acquire minute-by-minute information on an individual"s level of motor activity. Actigraphs can, with reasonable accuracy, distinguish sleep from waking, the most critical and basic aspect of human behavior. However, rapid technologic advances have provided the opportunity to collect much more information from fully ambulatory humans. Our laboratory has developed a series of wrist-worn devices, which are not much larger then a watch, which can assess simple and choice reaction time, vigilance and memory. In addition, the devices can concurrently assess motor activity with much greater temporal resolution then the standard actigraph. Furthermore, they continuously monitor multiple environmental variables including temperature, humidity, sound and light. We have employed these monitors during training and simulated military operations to collect information that would typically be unavailable under such circumstances. In this paper we will describe various versions of the vigilance monitor and how each successive version extended the capabilities of the device. Samples of data from several studies are presented, included studies conducted in harsh field environments during simulated infantry assaults, a Marine Corps Officer training course and mechanized infantry (Stryker) operations. The monitors have been useful for documenting environmental conditions experienced by wearers, studying patterns of sleep and activity and examining the effects of nutritional manipulations on warfighter performance.

  19. Relationships linking emotional, motor, cognitive and GABAergic dysfunctions in dystrophin-deficient mdx mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaillend, Cyrille; Chaussenot, Rémi

    2017-03-15

    Alterations in the Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) gene have been associated with enhanced stress reactivity in vertebrate species, suggesting a role for brain dystrophin in fear-related behavioral and cognitive processes. Because the loss of dystrophin (Dp427) reduces clustering of central γ-aminobutyric acid (GABAA) receptors, it is suspected that local inhibitory tuning and modulation of neuronal excitability are perturbed in a distributed brain circuit that normally controls such critical behavioral functions. In this study, we undertook a large-scale behavioral study to evaluate fear-related behavioral disturbances in dystrophin-deficient mdx mice. We first characterized the behavioral determinants of the enhanced fearfulness displayed by mdx mice following mild acute stress and its association with increased anxiety and altered fear memories. We further demonstrated that this enhanced fearfulness induces long-lasting motor inhibition, suggesting that neurobehavioral dysfunctions significantly influence motor outcome measures in this model. We also found that mdx mice are more sensitive to the sedative and hypnotic effects of 4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo[5,4-c]pyridin-3-ol hydrochlorid (THIP), a selective pharmacological activator of extrasynaptic GABAA receptors involved in central tonic inhibition. Our results highlight that information on the emotional aspects of mdx mice are important to better understand the bases of intellectual and neuropsychiatric defects in DMD and to better define valuable functional readouts for preclinical studies. Our data also support the hypothesis that altered spatial localization of GABAA receptors due to Dp427 loss is a pathological mechanism associated with brain dysfunction in DMD, suggesting that extrasynaptic GABAA receptors might be candidate targets for future therapeutic developments. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Timosaponin B-II ameliorates scopolamine-induced cognition deficits by attenuating acetylcholinesterase activity and brain oxidative damage in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xu; Liu, Chunmei; Qi, Yu; Fang, Lina; Luo, Jie; Bi, Kaishun; Jia, Ying

    2016-12-01

    Timosaponin B-II (TB-II) is a main active saponin isolated from the rhizome of Anemarrhena asphodeloides Bge., which is widely used in traditional Chinese medicine. In this study, the effect of TB-II on learning and memory was investigated in a scopolamine-induced mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. The results of behavioral tests indicated that TB-II significantly increased the spontaneous alternation in the Y-maze test, and reversed the shortening of step-through latency induced by scopolamine in the passive avoidance test, showing protective effects on short-term and working memory. In the Morris water maze test, TB-II reduced the escape latency time in the training trial, and increased the swimming time in the target quadrant in the probe trial. Biochemical data demonstrated that TB-II significantly inhibited acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of mice. Moreover, TB-II markably attenuated the reduction in glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities, and decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, which are key biomarkers of brain oxidative stress. These results indicated that TB-II offers protection against scopolamine-induced deficits in learning and memory, possibly by inhibiting AChE and preventing oxidative stress damage. The findings suggested that TB-II has a potential therapeutic effect on cognitive and behavioral impairment.

  1. A neurological model of sensory-motor problem solving with possible implications for higher-order cognition and instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Anton E.

    Grossberg's neural modeling principles of learning, perception, cognition, and motor control are presented as the basis for construction of a neurological model of sensory-motor problem solving. The pattern of problem solving is assumed to be universal, thus is sought in the higher-order shift from the child's use of an additive strategy to the adolescent's use of a proportions strategy to solve the Pouring Water Task (Suarez and Rhonheimer, 1974). Possible neurological principles involved in this shift and in the process of psychological equilibration are discussed as are possible educational implications.

  2. Motor skills and exercise capacity are associated with objective measures of cognitive functions and academic performance in preadolescent children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geertsen, Svend Sparre; Thomas, Richard; Larsen, Malte Nejst

    2016-01-01

    sustained attention (Pmemory (Pmemory, episodic memory, sustained attention and processing speed were all associated with better performance in mathematics and reading......OBJECTIVE: To investigate associations between motor skills, exercise capacity and cognitive functions, and evaluate how they correlate to academic performance in mathematics and reading comprehension using standardised, objective tests. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 423 Danish...... the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) were used to assess different domains of cognitive functions, including sustained attention, spatial working memory, episodic and semantic memory, and processing speed. Linear mixed-effects models were used to investigate associations between...

  3. Virtual Reality Rehabilitation from Social Cognitive and Motor Learning Theoretical Perspectives in Stroke Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bita Imam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To identify the virtual reality (VR interventions used for the lower extremity rehabilitation in stroke population and to explain their underlying training mechanisms using Social Cognitive (SCT and Motor Learning (MLT theoretical frameworks. Methods. Medline, Embase, Cinahl, and Cochrane databases were searched up to July 11, 2013. Randomized controlled trials that included a VR intervention for lower extremity rehabilitation in stroke population were included. The Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro scale was used to assess the quality of the included studies. The underlying training mechanisms involved in each VR intervention were explained according to the principles of SCT (vicarious learning, performance accomplishment, and verbal persuasion and MLT (focus of attention, order and predictability of practice, augmented feedback, and feedback fading. Results. Eleven studies were included. PEDro scores varied from 3 to 7/10. All studies but one showed significant improvement in outcomes in favour of the VR group (P<0.05. Ten VR interventions followed the principle of performance accomplishment. All the eleven VR interventions directed subject’s attention externally, whereas nine provided training in an unpredictable and variable fashion. Conclusions. The results of this review suggest that VR applications used for lower extremity rehabilitation in stroke population predominantly mediate learning through providing a task-oriented and graduated learning under a variable and unpredictable practice.

  4. Virtual reality rehabilitation from social cognitive and motor learning theoretical perspectives in stroke population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imam, Bita; Jarus, Tal

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To identify the virtual reality (VR) interventions used for the lower extremity rehabilitation in stroke population and to explain their underlying training mechanisms using Social Cognitive (SCT) and Motor Learning (MLT) theoretical frameworks. Methods. Medline, Embase, Cinahl, and Cochrane databases were searched up to July 11, 2013. Randomized controlled trials that included a VR intervention for lower extremity rehabilitation in stroke population were included. The Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) scale was used to assess the quality of the included studies. The underlying training mechanisms involved in each VR intervention were explained according to the principles of SCT (vicarious learning, performance accomplishment, and verbal persuasion) and MLT (focus of attention, order and predictability of practice, augmented feedback, and feedback fading). Results. Eleven studies were included. PEDro scores varied from 3 to 7/10. All studies but one showed significant improvement in outcomes in favour of the VR group (P learning through providing a task-oriented and graduated learning under a variable and unpredictable practice.

  5. A modern neuroscience approach to chronic spinal pain: combining pain neuroscience education with cognition-targeted motor control training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijs, Jo; Meeus, Mira; Cagnie, Barbara; Roussel, Nathalie A; Dolphens, Mieke; Van Oosterwijck, Jessica; Danneels, Lieven

    2014-05-01

    Chronic spinal pain (CSP) is a severely disabling disorder, including nontraumatic chronic low back and neck pain, failed back surgery, and chronic whiplash-associated disorders. Much of the current therapy is focused on input mechanisms (treating peripheral elements such as muscles and joints) and output mechanisms (addressing motor control), while there is less attention to processing (central) mechanisms. In addition to the compelling evidence for impaired motor control of spinal muscles in patients with CSP, there is increasing evidence that central mechanisms (ie, hyperexcitability of the central nervous system and brain abnormalities) play a role in CSP. Hence, treatments for CSP should address not only peripheral dysfunctions but also the brain. Therefore, a modern neuroscience approach, comprising therapeutic pain neuroscience education followed by cognition-targeted motor control training, is proposed. This perspective article explains why and how such an approach to CSP can be applied in physical therapist practice.

  6. Prenatal Exposure to Organohalogens, Including Brominated Flame Retardants, Influences Motor, Cognitive, and Behavioral Performance at School Age

    OpenAIRE

    Roze, Elise; Meijer, Lisethe; Bakker, Attie; Van Braeckel, Koenraad N.J.A.; Sauer, Pieter J.J.; Bos, Arend F.

    2009-01-01

    Background Organohalogen compounds (OHCs) are known to have neurotoxic effects on the developing brain. Objective We investigated the influence of prenatal exposure to OHCs, including brominated flame retardants, on motor, cognitive, and behavioral outcome in healthy children of school age. Methods This study was part of the prospective Groningen infant COMPARE (Comparison of Exposure-Effect Pathways to Improve the Assessment of Human Health Risks of Complex Environmental Mixtures of Organoha...

  7. Combined assessment of attentional reserve and cognitive-motor effort under various levels of challenge with a dry EEG system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentili, Rodolphe J; Jaquess, Kyle J; Shuggi, Isabelle M; Shaw, Emma P; Oh, Hyuk; Lo, Li-Chuan; Tan, Ying Ying; Domingues, Clayton A; Blanco, Justin A; Rietschel, Jeremy C; Miller, Matthew W; Hatfield, Bradley D

    2018-02-09

    A novel ERP approach was proposed to index variations in mental workload, particularly in attentional reserve, which is complementary to EEG spectral content thought to reflect mental effort. To our knowledge, no study has assessed mental effort and attentional reserve simultaneously in EEG gel-based and, importantly, dry systems, which are particularly well suited for real-world settings. Therefore, by systematically considering ERP, EEG spectral, and importantly the combination of both, this study examined if a small set of dry EEG electrodes could detect changes in both spectral and ERP metrics to assess the mental workload under various challenges with a similar fidelity to their gel-based counterparts in a laboratory setting. By employing both EEG gel-based and dry systems, the ERP and spectral markers were computed while participants executed a visuomotor task under three levels of challenge. For both EEG systems, more challenging levels of difficulty were associated with concomitant changes in ERP amplitude, and spectral power reflected a reduction of the attentional reserve and an increase in cognitive-motor effort, respectively. Those variations in attentional reserve and cognitive-motor effort collectively indexed mental workload with nearly identical fidelity for both gel-based and dry EEG systems. These findings promise to assess the mental workload in situations where the use of dry EEG systems could be advantageously employed to examine human cognitive-motor performance. © 2018 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  8. HISTAMINE H3 RECEPTOR INVERSE AGONISTS ON COGNITIVE AND MOTOR PROCESSES: RELEVANCE TO ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE, ADHD, SCHIZOPHRENIA AND DRUG ABUSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya eVohora

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Histamine H3 receptor antagonists/ inverse agonists possess potential to treat diverse disease states of the central nervous system (CNS. Cognitive dysfunction and motor impairments are the hallmark of multifarious neurodegenerative and/or psychiatric disorders. This review presents the various neurobiological/ neurochemical evidences available so far following H3 receptor inverse agonists/ antagonists in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer’s disease (AD, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, schizophrenia and drug abuse each of which is accompanied by deficits of some aspects of cognitive and/or motor functions. Whether the H3 receptor inverse agonism modulates the neurochemical basis underlying the disease condition or affects only the cognitive/motor component of the disease process is discussed with the aim to provide a rationale for their use in diverse disease states that are interlinked and are accompanied by some common motor, cognitive and attentional deficits.

  9. The effect of cognitive-motor dual-task training on cognitive function and plasma amyloid ? peptide 42/40 ratio in healthy elderly persons: a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Yokoyama, Hisayo; Okazaki, Kazunobu; Imai, Daiki; Yamashina, Yoshihiro; Takeda, Ryosuke; Naghavi, Nooshin; Ota, Akemi; Hirasawa, Yoshikazu; Miyagawa, Toshiaki

    2015-01-01

    Background Physical activity reduces the incidence and progression of cognitive impairment. Cognitive-motor dual-task training, which requires dividing attention between cognitive tasks and exercise, may improve various cognitive domains; therefore, we examined the effect of dual-task training on the executive functions and on plasma amyloid ? peptide (A?) 42/40 ratio, a potent biomarker of Alzheimer?s disease, in healthy elderly people. Methods Twenty-seven sedentary elderly people participa...

  10. Over the Hill at 24: Persistent Age-Related Cognitive-Motor Decline in Reaction Times in an Ecologically Valid Video Game Task Begins in Early Adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, Joseph J.; Blair, Mark R.; Henrey, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    Typically studies of the effects of aging on cognitive-motor performance emphasize changes in elderly populations. Although some research is directly concerned with when age-related decline actually begins, studies are often based on relatively simple reaction time tasks, making it impossible to gauge the impact of experience in compensating for this decline in a real world task. The present study investigates age-related changes in cognitive motor performance through adolescence and adulthoo...

  11. I Feel, Therefore, I am: The Insula and Its Role in Human Emotion, Cognition and the Sensory-Motor System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mani Pavuluri

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The insula is instrumental in integrating the emotional, cognitive, and sensory-motor systems. This manuscript lays a foundational framework for understanding the insula’s mechanistic role in moderating brain networks in illness and wellness. Methods: Reviewed here is the select literature on the brain anatomy and function relevant to the insula’s role in psychiatrically ill and normative populations. Results: The insula is a hub for moderating social cognition, empathy, reward-driven decision-making, arousal, reactivity to emotional stimuli, and somatic pain processing. Findings indicate a spectrum of increasing complexity in insular function – from receiving and interpreting sensorimotor sensations in the posterior insula to subjective perception of emotions in the anterior insula. The insula plays a key role at the interface of cognitive and emotional domains, functioning in concert with other brain regions that share common cytoarchitecture, such as the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and the anterior cingulate cortex. Pharmacotherapy and mindfulness-based interventions can alter insular activation. Conclusion: The insula serves as a receiver and interpreter of emotions in the context of cognitive and sensory-motor information. Therefore, insular function and connectivity may potentially be utilized as a biomarker for treatment selection and outcome.

  12. Reward Pays the Cost of Noise Reduction in Motor and Cognitive Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manohar, Sanjay G; Chong, Trevor T-J; Apps, Matthew A J; Batla, Amit; Stamelou, Maria; Jarman, Paul R; Bhatia, Kailash P; Husain, Masud

    2015-06-29

    Speed-accuracy trade-off is an intensively studied law governing almost all behavioral tasks across species. Here we show that motivation by reward breaks this law, by simultaneously invigorating movement and improving response precision. We devised a model to explain this paradoxical effect of reward by considering a new factor: the cost of control. Exerting control to improve response precision might itself come at a cost--a cost to attenuate a proportion of intrinsic neural noise. Applying a noise-reduction cost to optimal motor control predicted that reward can increase both velocity and accuracy. Similarly, application to decision-making predicted that reward reduces reaction times and errors in cognitive control. We used a novel saccadic distraction task to quantify the speed and accuracy of both movements and decisions under varying reward. Both faster speeds and smaller errors were observed with higher incentives, with the results best fitted by a model including a precision cost. Recent theories consider dopamine to be a key neuromodulator in mediating motivational effects of reward. We therefore examined how Parkinson's disease (PD), a condition associated with dopamine depletion, alters the effects of reward. Individuals with PD showed reduced reward sensitivity in their speed and accuracy, consistent in our model with higher noise-control costs. Including a cost of control over noise explains how reward may allow apparent performance limits to be surpassed. On this view, the pattern of reduced reward sensitivity in PD patients can specifically be accounted for by a higher cost for controlling noise. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Reliability and validity of play-based assessments of motor and cognitive skills for infants and young children: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Grady, Michael G; Dusing, Stacey C

    2015-01-01

    Play is vital for development. Infants and children learn through play. Traditional standardized developmental tests measure whether a child performs individual skills within controlled environments. Play-based assessments can measure skill performance during natural, child-driven play. The purpose of this study was to systematically review reliability, validity, and responsiveness of all play-based assessments that quantify motor and cognitive skills in children from birth to 36 months of age. Studies were identified from a literature search using PubMed, ERIC, CINAHL, and PsycINFO databases and the reference lists of included papers. Included studies investigated reliability, validity, or responsiveness of play-based assessments that measured motor and cognitive skills for children to 36 months of age. Two reviewers independently screened 40 studies for eligibility and inclusion. The reviewers independently extracted reliability, validity, and responsiveness data. They examined measurement properties and methodological quality of the included studies. Four current play-based assessment tools were identified in 8 included studies. Each play-based assessment tool measured motor and cognitive skills in a different way during play. Interrater reliability correlations ranged from .86 to .98 for motor development and from .23 to .90 for cognitive development. Test-retest reliability correlations ranged from .88 to .95 for motor development and from .45 to .91 for cognitive development. Structural validity correlations ranged from .62 to .90 for motor development and from .42 to .93 for cognitive development. One study assessed responsiveness to change in motor development. Most studies had small and poorly described samples. Lack of transparency in data management and statistical analysis was common. Play-based assessments have potential to be reliable and valid tools to assess cognitive and motor skills, but higher-quality research is needed. Psychometric properties

  14. The Effect of Hyperhomocysteinemia on Motor Symptoms, Cognitive Status, and Vascular Risk in Patients with Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilge Kocer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Factors related with hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy and the impact of HHcy in Parkinson’s disease (PD are not well understood. We investigated the factors associated with increased levels of homocysteine (Hcy and the relationship between HHcy and motor symptoms, cognitive status, and vascular risk in patients with Parkinson’s disease. Among 60 patients (29 males, 48.3% with PD, the stage of the disease, the severity of clinical symptoms, and the patients’ cognitive status were measured using a modified Hoehn and Yahr Staging Scale (mHY, Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS II and III, and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE, respectively. Patients were also noted for having dyskinesia and hallucinations. Serum vitamin B12, folic acid, and plasma Hcy ​​levels were measured. Furthermore, the presence of vascular risk factors was recorded. Finally, we investigated carotid artery intima-media thickening and stenosis using colour Doppler ultrasonography as well as the presence of ischemic lesions using brain imaging techniques. Plasma Hcy ​​levels were higher with advanced age and in males. In addition, there was an inverse relationship between Hcy ​​and vitamin B12 levels. There was no correlation between HHcy and the stage of the disease, severity of motor symptoms, cognitive status as assessed by the MMSE, vascular risk factors, carotid artery atherosclerotic findings, and ischemic brain lesions. Plasma Hcy levels may rise due to several factors in PD. However, the resulting HHcy has no significant effect on the clinical picture in terms of motor features, cognitive status, and vascular diseases.

  15. Innate Immunity Stimulation via Toll-Like Receptor 9 Ameliorates Vascular Amyloid Pathology in Tg-SwDI Mice with Associated Cognitive Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholtzova, Henrieta; Do, Eileen; Dhakal, Shleshma; Sun, Yanjie; Liu, Shan; Mehta, Pankaj D; Wisniewski, Thomas

    2017-01-25

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by the presence of parenchymal amyloid-β (Aβ) plaques, cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) and neurofibrillary tangles. Currently there are no effective treatments for AD. Immunotherapeutic approaches under development are hampered by complications related to ineffectual clearance of CAA. Genome-wide association studies have demonstrated the importance of microglia in AD pathogenesis. Microglia are the primary innate immune cells of the brain. Depending on their activation state and environment, microglia can be beneficial or detrimental. In our prior work, we showed that stimulation of innate immunity with Toll-like receptor 9 agonist, class B CpG (cytosine-phosphate-guanine) oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs), can reduce amyloid and tau pathologies without causing toxicity in Tg2576 and 3xTg-AD mouse models. However, these transgenic mice have relatively little CAA. In the current study, we evaluated the therapeutic profile of CpG ODN in a triple transgenic mouse model, Tg-SwDI, with abundant vascular amyloid, in association with low levels of parenchymal amyloid deposits. Peripheral administration of CpG ODN, both before and after the development of CAA, negated short-term memory deficits, as assessed by object-recognition tests, and was effective at improving spatial and working memory evaluated using a radial arm maze. These findings were associated with significant reductions of CAA pathology lacking adverse effects. Together, our extensive evidence suggests that this innovative immunomodulation may be a safe approach to ameliorate all hallmarks of AD pathology, supporting the potential clinical applicability of CpG ODN. Recent genetic studies have underscored the emerging role of microglia in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis. Microglia lose their amyloid-β-clearing capabilities with age and as AD progresses. Therefore, the ability to modulate microglia profiles offers a promising therapeutic avenue for reducing AD

  16. Cognitive Training as an Intervention to Improve Driving Ability in the Older Adult

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-08

    The notion that cognitive and motor skills are plastic and can be improved with training is very exciting, because it opens up the possibility for rehabilitation and amelioration of age-related declines in performance. It has been shown that older ad...

  17. The influence of sleep deprivation and oscillating motion on sleepiness, motion sickness, and cognitive and motor performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Janna; Ventura, Joel; Bakshi, Avijit; Pierobon, Alberto; Lackner, James R; DiZio, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Our goal was to determine how sleep deprivation, nauseogenic motion, and a combination of motion and sleep deprivation affect cognitive vigilance, visual-spatial perception, motor learning and retention, and balance. We exposed four groups of subjects to different combinations of normal 8h sleep or 4h sleep for two nights combined with testing under stationary conditions or during 0.28Hz horizontal linear oscillation. On the two days following controlled sleep, all subjects underwent four test sessions per day that included evaluations of fatigue, motion sickness, vigilance, perceptual discrimination, perceptual learning, motor performance and learning, and balance. Sleep loss and exposure to linear oscillation had additive or multiplicative relationships to sleepiness, motion sickness severity, decreases in vigilance and in perceptual discrimination and learning. Sleep loss also decelerated the rate of adaptation to motion sickness over repeated sessions. Sleep loss degraded the capacity to compensate for novel robotically induced perturbations of reaching movements but did not adversely affect adaptive recovery of accurate reaching. Overall, tasks requiring substantial attention to cognitive and motor demands were degraded more than tasks that were more automatic. Our findings indicate that predicting performance needs to take into account in addition to sleep loss, the attentional demands and novelty of tasks, the motion environment in which individuals will be performing and their prior susceptibility to motion sickness during exposure to provocative motion stimulation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Preterm children have unfavorable motor, cognitive, and functional performance when compared to term children of preschool age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggi, Eliane F; Magalhães, Lívia C; Campos, Alexandre F; Bouzada, Maria Cândida F

    2014-01-01

    to compare the motor coordination, cognitive, and functional development of preterm and term children at the age of 4 years. this was a cross-sectional study of 124 four-year-old children, distributed in two different groups, according to gestational age and birth weight, paired by gender, age, and socioeconomic level. All children were evaluated by the Movement Assessment Battery for Children - second edition (MABC-2), the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI), and the Columbia Mental Maturity Scale (CMMS). preterm children had worse performance in all tests, and 29.1% of the preterm and 6.5% of term groups had scores on the MABC-2 indicative of motor coordination disorder (p=0.002). In the CMMS (p=0.034), the median of the standardized score for the preterm group was 99.0 (± 13.75) and 103.0 (± 12.25) for the term group; on the PEDI, preterm children showed more limited skill repertoire (p=0.001) and required more assistance from the caregiver (p=0.010) than term children. this study reinforced the evidence that preterm children from different socioeconomic backgrounds are more likely to have motor, cognitive, and functional development impairment, detectable before school age, than their term peers. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  19. Impairment of fine motor dexterity in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease dementia: association with activities of daily living

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas J. de Paula

    Full Text Available Objective: Cognitive impairment is a hallmark of mild cognitive impairment (MCI and Alzheimer’s disease dementia (AD. Although the cognitive profile of these patients and its association with activities of daily living (ADLs is well documented, few studies have assessed deficits in fine motor dexterity and their association with ADL performance. The objective of this research paper is to evaluate fine motor dexterity performance among MCI and AD patients and to investigate its association with different aspects of ADLs. Methods: We assessed normal aging controls, patients with multiple- and single-domain amnestic MCI (aMCI, and patients with mild AD. Fine motor dexterity was measured with the Nine-Hole Peg Test and cognitive functioning by the Mattis Dementia Rating Scale. We analyzed the data using general linear models. Results: Patients with AD or multiple-domain aMCI had slower motor responses when compared to controls. AD patients were slower than those with single-domain aMCI. We found associations between cognition and instrumental ADLs, and between fine motor dexterity and self-care ADLs. Conclusion: We observed progressive slowing of fine motor dexterity along the normal aging-MCI-AD spectrum, which was associated with autonomy in self-care ADLs.

  20. Cognitive-motor dual-task interference modulates mediolateral dynamic stability during gait in post-stroke individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisserand, R; Armand, S; Allali, G; Schnider, A; Baillieul, S

    2018-04-01

    Gait asymmetry and dynamic balance impairments observed in post-stroke individuals increase their risk of fall. Moreover, walking while performing a cognitive task (i.e. dual-task) disturbs the control of balance in post-stroke individuals. Here we investigated the mediolateral dynamic stability in twenty-two community-dwelling participants (12 post-strokes and 10 healthy controls) while walking in single-task (normal gait) and four different dual-tasks (cognitive-motor interference). Positions of the extrapolated center of mass and mediolateral widths of both margin of stability and base of support were extracted from 35 marker trajectories. Post-stroke participants presented larger margin of stability and base of support than controls during single-task (both p dual-task was found between groups. In post-stroke participants, dual-task induced slight modification of the mediolateral stability strategy, as the margin of stability was not different between the two limbs at foot-strike, and significantly reduced the performance in every cognitive task. Post-stroke participants increased their dynamic stability in the frontal plane in single-task by extending their base of support and mainly relying on their non-paretic limb. Under cognitive-motor interference (dual-task), post-stroke participants prioritized dynamic stability over cognitive performance to ensure a safe locomotion. Thus, rehabilitation programs should consider both dynamic balance and dual-task training, even at a chronic delay following stroke, to reduce the risk of fall in post-stroke individuals. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Defining Optimal Aerobic Exercise Parameters to Affect Complex Motor and Cognitive Outcomes after Stroke: A Systematic Review and Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Mahmudul Hasan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although poststroke aerobic exercise (AE increases markers of neuroplasticity and protects perilesional tissue, the degree to which it enhances complex motor or cognitive outcomes is unknown. Previous research suggests that timing and dosage of exercise may be important. We synthesized data from clinical and animal studies in order to determine optimal AE training parameters and recovery outcomes for future research. Using predefined criteria, we included clinical trials of stroke of any type or duration and animal studies employing any established models of stroke. Of the 5,259 titles returned, 52 articles met our criteria, measuring the effects of AE on balance, lower extremity coordination, upper limb motor skills, learning, processing speed, memory, and executive function. We found that early-initiated low-to-moderate intensity AE improved locomotor coordination in rodents. In clinical trials, AE improved balance and lower limb coordination irrespective of intervention modality or parameter. In contrast, fine upper limb recovery was relatively resistant to AE. In terms of cognitive outcomes, poststroke AE in animals improved memory and learning, except when training was too intense. However, in clinical trials, combined training protocols more consistently improved cognition. We noted a paucity of studies examining the benefits of AE on recovery beyond cessation of the intervention.

  2. Using a generalized linear mixed model approach to explore the role of age, motor proficiency, and cognitive styles in children's reach estimation accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caçola, Priscila M; Pant, Mohan D

    2014-10-01

    The purpose was to use a multi-level statistical technique to analyze how children's age, motor proficiency, and cognitive styles interact to affect accuracy on reach estimation tasks via Motor Imagery and Visual Imagery. Results from the Generalized Linear Mixed Model analysis (GLMM) indicated that only the 7-year-old age group had significant random intercepts for both tasks. Motor proficiency predicted accuracy in reach tasks, and cognitive styles (object scale) predicted accuracy in the motor imagery task. GLMM analysis is suitable to explore age and other parameters of development. In this case, it allowed an assessment of motor proficiency interacting with age to shape how children represent, plan, and act on the environment.

  3. Effects of dance on motor functions, cognitive functions, and mental symptoms of Parkinson's disease: a quasi-randomized pilot trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Hiroko; Takabatake, Shinichi; Miyaguchi, Hideki; Nakanishi, Hajime; Naitou, Yasuo

    2015-04-01

    To examine the effectiveness of dance on motor functions, cognitive functions, and mental symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD). This study employed a quasi-randomised, between-group design. Dance, PD exercise, and all assessments were performed in community halls in different regions of Japan. Forty-six mild-moderate PD patients participated. Six PD patient associations that agreed to participate in the study were randomly assigned to a dance group, PD exercise group, or non-intervention group. The dance and PD exercise groups performed one 60-min session per week for 12 weeks. Control group patients continued with their normal lives. All groups were assessed before and after the intervention. We used the Timed Up-and-Go Test (TUG) and Berg Balance Scale (BBS) to assess motor function, the Frontal Assessment Battery at bedside (FAB) and Mental Rotation Task (MRT) to assess cognitive function, and the Apathy Scale (AS) and Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS) to assess mental symptoms of PD. The Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) was used for general assessment of PD. When comparing results before and after intervention, the dance group showed a large effect in TUG time (ES=0.65, p=0.006), TUG step number (ES=0.66, p=0.005), BBS (ES=0.75, p=0.001), FAB (ES=0.77, p=0.001), MRT response time (ES=0.79, pDance was effective in improving motor function, cognitive function, and mental symptoms in PD patients. General symptoms in PD also improved. Dance is an effective method for rehabilitation in PD patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The impact of falls on motor and cognitive recovery after discharge from in-patient stroke rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Jennifer S.; Brooks, Dina; Inness, Elizabeth L.; Mansfield, Avril

    2016-01-01

    Background Falls are common among community-dwelling stroke survivors. The aim of this study was to (1) compare motor and cognitive outcomes between individuals who fell in the six months post-discharge from in-patient stroke rehabilitation and those who did not fall, and (2) explore potential mechanisms underlying the relationship between falls and recovery of motor and cognitive function. Methods Secondary analysis of a prospective cohort study of individuals discharged home from in-patient rehabilitation was conducted. Participants were recruited at discharge and completed a six-month falls monitoring period using postcards with follow-up. Non-fallers and fallers were compared at the six-month follow-up assessment on the Berg Balance Scale (BBS), Chedoke-McMaster Stroke Assessment (CMSA), gait speed, and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). Measures of balance confidence and physical activity were also assessed. Results 23 fallers were matched to 23 non-fallers on age and functional balance scores at discharge. A total of 43 falls were reported during the study period (8 participants fell more than once). At follow-up, BBS scores (p=0.0066) and CMSA foot scores (p=0.0033) were significantly lower for fallers than non-fallers. The two groups did not differ on CMSA leg scores (p=0.049), gait speed (p=0.47) or MoCA (p=0.23). There was no significant association between change in balance confidence scores and change in physical activity levels among all participants from the first and third questionnaire (r=0.27, p=0.08). Conclusions Performance in balance and motor recovery of the foot were compromised in fallers when compared to non-fallers at six months post-discharge from in-patient stroke rehabilitation. PMID:27062418

  5. The Impact of Falls on Motor and Cognitive Recovery after Discharge from In-Patient Stroke Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Jennifer S; Brooks, Dina; Inness, Elizabeth L; Mansfield, Avril

    2016-07-01

    Falls are common among community-dwelling stroke survivors. The aims of this study were (1) to compare motor and cognitive outcomes between individuals who fell in the 6 months' postdischarge from in-patient stroke rehabilitation and those who did not fall, and (2) to explore potential mechanisms underlying the relationship between falls and recovery of motor and cognitive function. Secondary analysis of a prospective cohort study of individuals discharged home from in-patient rehabilitation was conducted. Participants were recruited at discharge and completed a 6-month falls monitoring period using postcards with follow-up. Nonfallers and fallers were compared at the 6-month follow-up assessment on the Berg Balance Scale (BBS), the Chedoke-McMaster Stroke Assessment (CMSA), gait speed, and the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). Measures of balance confidence and physical activity were also assessed. Twenty-three fallers were matched to 23 nonfallers on age and functional balance scores at discharge. A total of 43 falls were reported during the study period (8 participants fell more than once). At follow-up, BBS scores (P = .0066) and CMSA foot scores (P = .0033) were significantly lower for fallers than for nonfallers. The 2 groups did not differ on CMSA leg scores (P = .049), gait speed (P = .47), or MoCA score (P = .23). There was no significant association between change in balance confidence scores and change in physical activity levels among all participants from the first and third questionnaire (r = .27, P = .08). Performance in balance and motor recovery of the foot were compromised in fallers when compared to nonfallers at 6 months post discharge from in-patient stroke rehabilitation. Copyright © 2016 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Pyramidal and extrapyramidal scale (PEPS): a new scale for the assessment of motor impairment in vascular cognitive impairment associated with small vessel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sook Hui; Seo, Sang Won; Go, Seok Min; Chin, Juhee; Lee, Byung Hwa; Lee, Jae-Hong; Han, Seol-Heui; Na, Duk L

    2011-04-01

    Vascular cognitive impairment associated with small vessel disease (sVCI) may manifest as both cognitive and motor dysfunctions. However, few instruments exist for systematically assessing motor symptoms in sVCI, even though many neuropsychological tests exist to evaluate cognitive function. We developed a new scale for assessing motor impairments and evaluated the reliability and validity of the scale in patients with sVCI. A new motor scale, called the PEPS (Pyramidal and Extra Pyramidal Scale for sVCI), consisted of 34 items (for 60 total points) with 5 subdomains: corticospinal, corticobulbar, extrapyramidal signs, gait abnormalities, and gait severity. The PEPS was compared between 75 patients with sVCI and 73 control patients who had dementia or mild cognitive impairment (MCI) without ischemia. The PEPS had good interrater and test-retest reliability, and it was moderately to highly correlated with the UPDRS, NIHSS, MMSE, CDR, and ADL scales. An optimal cut-off score of PEPS to discriminate dementia or MCI patients with ischemia from those without ischemia was 6.5 with a sensitivity of 88% and a specificity of 100%. The PEPS is a reliable and valid scale that can be used to assess and monitor motor impairment in patients with vascular cognitive impairment due to small vessel disease. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Walking in school-aged children in a dual-task paradigm is related to age but not to cognition, motor behavior, injuries, or psychosocial functioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priska eHagmann-von Arx

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Age-dependent gait characteristics and associations with cognition, motor behavior, injuries, and psychosocial functioning were investigated in 138 typically developing children aged 6.7 to 13.2 years (M =10.0 years. Gait velocity, normalized velocity, and variability were measured using the walkway system GAITRite without an additional task (single task and while performing a motor or cognitive task (dual task. Assessment of children’s cognition included tests for intelligence and executive functions; parents reported on their child’s motor behavior, injuries, and psychosocial functioning. Gait variability (an index of gait regularity decreased with increasing age in both single- and dual-task walking. Dual-task gait decrements were stronger when children walked in the motor compared to the cognitive dual-task condition and decreased with increasing age in both dual-task conditions. Gait alterations from single- to dual-task conditions were not related to children’s cognition, motor behavior, injuries, or psychosocial functioning.

  8. A Six-Month Cognitive-Motor and Aerobic Exercise Program Improves Executive Function in Persons with an Objective Cognitive Impairment: A Pilot Investigation Using the Antisaccade Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Matthew; Weiler, Jeffrey; Gregory, Michael A; Gill, Dawn P; Petrella, Robert J

    2016-10-04

    Persons with an objective cognitive impairment (OCI) are at increased risk for progression to Alzheimer's disease and related dementias. The present pilot project sought to examine whether participation in a long-term exercise program involving cognitive-motor (CM) dual-task gait training and aerobic exercise training improves executive function in persons with an OCI. To accomplish our objective, individuals with an OCI (n = 12) as determined by a Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) score of less than 26 and older adults (n = 11) deemed to be cognitively healthy (i.e., control group: MoCA score ≥26) completed a six-month moderate-to-high intensity (65-85% maximum heart rate) treadmill-based CM and aerobic exercise training program wherein pre- and post-intervention executive control was examined via the antisaccade task. Notably, antisaccades require a goal-directed eye-movement mirror-symmetrical to a target and represent an ideal tool for the study of executive deficits because of its hands- and language-free nature. As well, the cortical networks mediating antisaccades represent regions associated with neuropathology in cognitive decline and dementia (e.g., dorsolateral prefrontal cortex). Results showed that antisaccade reaction times for the OCI group reliably decreased by 30 ms from pre- to post-intervention, whereas the control group did not produce a reliable pre- to post-intervention change in reaction time (i.e., 6 ms). Thus, we propose that in persons with OCI long-term CM and aerobic training improves the efficiency and effectiveness of the executive mechanisms mediating high-level oculomotor control.

  9. Vocal Markers of Motor, Cognitive, and Depressive Symptoms in Parkinson’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-02

    D. (2013, October). Vocal biomarkers of depression based on motor incoordination. In Proceedings of the 3rd ACM international workshop on Audio...Vocal and facial biomarkers of depression based on motor incoordination and timing. In Proceedings of the 4th International Workshop on Audio/Visual...LAB. [45] Trevino AC, Quatieri TF, Malyska N (2011) Phonologically- based biomarkers for major depressive disorder. EURASIP Journal on Advances in Signal Processing 1, 1-18.

  10. Action Observation and Motor Imagery: Innovative Cognitive Tools in the Rehabilitation of Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Abbruzzese

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson’s disease (PD is characterized by a progressive impairment of motor skills with deterioration of autonomy in daily living activities. Physiotherapy is regarded as an adjuvant to pharmacological and neurosurgical treatment and may provide small and short-lasting clinical benefits in PD patients. However, the development of innovative rehabilitation approaches with greater long-term efficacy is a major unmet need. Motor imagery (MI and action observation (AO have been recently proposed as a promising rehabilitation tool. MI is the ability to imagine a movement without actual performance (or muscle activation. The same cortical-subcortical network active during motor execution is engaged in MI. The physiological basis of AO is represented by the activation of the “mirror neuron system.” Both MI and AO are involved in motor learning and can induce improvements of motor performance, possibly mediated by the development of plastic changes in the motor cortex. The review of available evidences indicated that MI ability and AO feasibility are substantially preserved in PD subjects. A few preliminary studies suggested the possibility of using MI and AO as parts of rehabilitation protocols for PD patients.

  11. Mutant glycyl-tRNA synthetase (Gars ameliorates SOD1(G93A motor neuron degeneration phenotype but has little affect on Loa dynein heavy chain mutant mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gareth T Banks

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available In humans, mutations in the enzyme glycyl-tRNA synthetase (GARS cause motor and sensory axon loss in the peripheral nervous system, and clinical phenotypes ranging from Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy to a severe infantile form of spinal muscular atrophy. GARS is ubiquitously expressed and may have functions in addition to its canonical role in protein synthesis through catalyzing the addition of glycine to cognate tRNAs.We have recently described a new mouse model with a point mutation in the Gars gene resulting in a cysteine to arginine change at residue 201. Heterozygous Gars(C201R/+ mice have locomotor and sensory deficits. In an investigation of genetic mutations that lead to death of motor and sensory neurons, we have crossed the Gars(C201R/+ mice to two other mutants: the TgSOD1(G93A model of human amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and the Legs at odd angles mouse (Dync1h1(Loa which has a defect in the heavy chain of the dynein complex. We found the Dync1h1(Loa/+;Gars(C201R/+ double heterozygous mice are more impaired than either parent, and this is may be an additive effect of both mutations. Surprisingly, the Gars(C201R mutation significantly delayed disease onset in the SOD1(G93A;Gars(C201R/+ double heterozygous mutant mice and increased lifespan by 29% on the genetic background investigated.These findings raise intriguing possibilities for the study of pathogenetic mechanisms in all three mouse mutant strains.

  12. Baseline Cognition, Behavior, and Motor Skills in Children with New-Onset, Idiopathic Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhise, Vikram V.; Burack, Gail D.; Mandelbaum, David E.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: Epilepsy is associated with difficulties in cognition and behavior in children. These problems have been attributed to genetics, ongoing seizures, psychosocial issues, underlying abnormality of the brain, and/or antiepileptic drugs. In a previous study, we found baseline cognitive differences between children with partial versus generalized…

  13. Development and initial assessment of a new paradigm for assessing cognitive and motor inhibition: the bimodal virtual-reality Stroop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Mylène; Joyal, Christian C; Nolin, Pierre

    2012-09-30

    Assessing and predicting inhibition in adults is a common assignment for clinicians. However, there is no single measure of inhibition that is complete, sensitive and enjoyable. The main goal of this study was to develop a virtual reality neuropsychological task (the bimodal VR-Stroop) capable of measuring both cognitive (control of internal and external interference) and motor inhibition (a go no-go paradigm with reaction time variation, commission errors and omissions). Preliminary data obtained with 71 healthy adult participants confirmed that the VR-Stroop is capable of eliciting the Stroop effect with bimodal stimuli. Initial validation data also suggested that measures of the VR-Stroop significantly correlate with measures of the Elevator counting with distracters, the Continuous Performance Task (CPT-II), and the Stop-it task. Finally, regression analyses indicated that commission errors and variability of reaction times at the VR-Stroop were significantly predicted by scores of the Elevator task and the CPT-II. These preliminary results suggest that the VR-Stroop is an interesting measure of cognitive and motor inhibition for adults, although confirmatory investigations are warranted. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Stereotype threat and lift effects in motor task performance: the mediating role of somatic and cognitive anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurin, Raphael

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to replicate the stereotype threat and lift effects in a motor task in a neutral sex-typed activity, using somatic and cognitive anxiety as key mediators of these phenomena. It was hypothesized that an ingroup/outgroup social categorization based on gender would have distinctive effects for female and male participants. A total of 161 French physical education students were randomly assigned to three threat conditions--no threat, female threat, and male threat--thus leading to a 3 x 2 (threat by gender) design. The analyses revealed a stereotype lift effect on the performances for both male and female participants, as well as a stereotype threat effect only for female participants. They also indicated that somatic anxiety had a mediating effect on the performance of female participants targeted by a negative stereotype, but that it had a facilitating effect on their performance. The stereotype threat and lift effects on motor tasks were replicated in a neutral sex-typed activity and somatic anxiety seems to have a facilitating mediating effect of the relationships between the gender-conditions (control or female threat) interaction and free-throw performance. The model used to distinguish somatic and cognitive anxiety appeared to be a relevant means of explaining the stereotype threat and lift mechanisms.

  15. Motor-cognitive dual-task training improves local dynamic stability of normal walking in older individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamacher, Dennis; Hamacher, Daniel; Rehfeld, Kathrin; Schega, Lutz

    2016-02-01

    Extreme levels of gait variability and local dynamic stability of walking are associated with risk of falling and reduced executive functions. However, it is not sufficiently investigated how gait variability and local dynamic stability of human walking develop in the course of a motor-cognitive intervention. As dancing implies high demands on (and therewith trains) executive functioning and motor control, it might increase local dynamic stability or reduce gait variability. 32 older healthy participants were randomly assigned to either a health-related exercise group (age: mean=68.33 years, standard deviation=3.17 years; BMI: mean=27.46, standard deviation=2.94; female/male: 10/6) or a dancing group (age: mean=66.73 years, standard deviation=3.33 years; BMI: mean=26.02, standard deviation=3.55; female/male: 11/5). Based on angular velocity data of trunk kinematics, local dynamic stability and stride-to-stride variability in level overground walking were assessed prior to and after the specific intervention. The data were analysed by a blinded observer using two-way repeated measures ANOVAs. Based on one-way ANOVAs, time and group effects were determined. Regarding the variability of trunk movements, no interaction effect was observed (F 1,30=0.506, P=.482; η2=0.017). For local dynamic stability of trunk movements, an interaction effect in favour of the dancing group was observed (F 1,30=5,436; P=.026; η2=0.146). Our data indicate that a dancing programme (which combines cognitive and motor efforts) might increase local dynamic stability in older people. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Characterization of Sensory-Motor Behavior Under Cognitive Load Using a New Statistical Platform for Studies of Embodied Cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihye Ryu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The field of enacted/embodied cognition has emerged as a contemporary attempt to connect the mind and body in the study of cognition. However, there has been a paucity of methods that enable a multi-layered approach tapping into different levels of functionality within the nervous systems (e.g., continuously capturing in tandem multi-modal biophysical signals in naturalistic settings. The present study introduces a new theoretical and statistical framework to characterize the influences of cognitive demands on biophysical rhythmic signals harnessed from deliberate, spontaneous and autonomic activities. In this study, nine participants performed a basic pointing task to communicate a decision while they were exposed to different levels of cognitive load. Within these decision-making contexts, we examined the moment-by-moment fluctuations in the peak amplitude and timing of the biophysical time series data (e.g., continuous waveforms extracted from hand kinematics and heart signals. These spike-trains data offered high statistical power for personalized empirical statistical estimation and were well-characterized by a Gamma process. Our approach enabled the identification of different empirically estimated families of probability distributions to facilitate inference regarding the continuous physiological phenomena underlying cognitively driven decision-making. We found that the same pointing task revealed shifts in the probability distribution functions (PDFs of the hand kinematic signals under study and were accompanied by shifts in the signatures of the heart inter-beat-interval timings. Within the time scale of an experimental session, marked changes in skewness and dispersion of the distributions were tracked on the Gamma parameter plane with 95% confidence. The results suggest that traditional theoretical assumptions of stationarity and normality in biophysical data from the nervous systems are incongruent with the true statistical nature of

  17. Fast but fleeting: adaptive motor learning processes associated with aging and cognitive decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trewartha, Kevin M; Garcia, Angeles; Wolpert, Daniel M; Flanagan, J Randall

    2014-10-01

    Motor learning has been shown to depend on multiple interacting learning processes. For example, learning to adapt when moving grasped objects with novel dynamics involves a fast process that adapts and decays quickly-and that has been linked to explicit memory-and a slower process that adapts and decays more gradually. Each process is characterized by a learning rate that controls how strongly motor memory is updated based on experienced errors and a retention factor determining the movement-to-movement decay in motor memory. Here we examined whether fast and slow motor learning processes involved in learning novel dynamics differ between younger and older adults. In addition, we investigated how age-related decline in explicit memory performance influences learning and retention parameters. Although the groups adapted equally well, they did so with markedly different underlying processes. Whereas the groups had similar fast processes, they had different slow processes. Specifically, the older adults exhibited decreased retention in their slow process compared with younger adults. Within the older group, who exhibited considerable variation in explicit memory performance, we found that poor explicit memory was associated with reduced retention in the fast process, as well as the slow process. These findings suggest that explicit memory resources are a determining factor in impairments in the both the fast and slow processes for motor learning but that aging effects on the slow process are independent of explicit memory declines. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/3413411-11$15.00/0.

  18. Associations between fine and gross motor skills, aerobic fitness, cognition and academic performance in 7-8 years old Danish children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Rune Rasmussen; Beck, Mikkel Malling; Geertsen, Svend Sparre

    Purpose: The current literature is concentrated around the positive effects of aerobic fitness (AF) on performance in cognitive tests (CP) and academic performance (AP) (reviewed in Hillman 2008). However, motor skills (MS) are often overlooked in this equation, and studies evaluating both AF......, phonological working-memory capacity (PWM), spatial working-memory capacity (SWM), math performance (MP) and fine- and gross-motor skill (FMS & GMS) assessed. Results: Significant associations were found between FMS and MP (P

  19. Two-day fasting evokes stress, but does not affect mood, brain activity, cognitive, psychomotor, and motor performance in overweight women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solianik, Rima; Sujeta, Artūras

    2018-02-15

    The physiological, cognitive state, and motor behavior changes that occur during acute fasting are not completely understood. Thus, the aim of this study was to estimate the effect of 2-day total fasting on evoked stress, mood, brain activity, and cognitive, psychomotor, and motor function in overweight women. Eleven overweight women (body mass index above 25kg/m 2 ) aged 20-30 years were tested under two conditions allocated randomly: 2-day zero-calorie diet with water provided ad libitum and 2-day usual diet. One week before the experiment, aerobic fitness was evaluated. Subjective stress ratings in relation to the diet, autonomic function, prefrontal cortex activity, cognitive performance, psychomotor coordination, and grip strength were evaluated before and after each diet. The study demonstrated that fasting decreased log-transformed high-frequency (HF) power, without affecting heart rate. The relative maximum oxygen uptake was negatively correlated with subjective stress rating and changes in log-transformed HF. Fasting did not affect mood, brain activity, and cognitive, motor, and psychomotor performance. Thus, 2-day total fasting evoked moderate stress with a shift of the autonomic nervous system balance toward sympathetic activity in overweight women. Better aerobic endurance is likely to facilitate the capacity for dealing with acute fasting. Regardless of the evoked stress, cognitive state and motor behavior remained intact. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Cognitive domains in the dog: independence of working memory from object learning, selective attention, and motor learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanghi, Brian M; Araujo, Joseph; Milgram, Norton W

    2015-05-01

    Cognition in dogs, like in humans, is not a unitary process. Some functions, such as simple discrimination learning, are relatively insensitive to age; others, such as visuospatial learning can provide behavioral biomarkers of age. The present experiment sought to further establish the relationship between various cognitive domains, namely visuospatial memory, object discrimination learning (ODL), and selective attention (SA). In addition, we also set up a task to assess motor learning (ML). Thirty-six beagles (9-16 years) performed a variable delay non-matching to position (vDNMP) task using two objects with 20- and 90-s delay and were divided into three groups based on a combined score (HMP = 88-93 % accuracy [N = 12]; MMP = 79-86 % accuracy [N = 12]; LMP = 61-78 % accuracy [N = 12]). Variable object oddity task was used to measure ODL (correct or incorrect object) and SA (0-3 incorrect distractor objects with same [SA-same] or different [SA-diff] correct object as ODL). ML involved reaching various distances (0-15 cm). Age did not differ between memory groups (mean 11.6 years). ODL (ANOVA P = 0.43), or SA-same and SA-different (ANOVA P = 0.96), performance did not differ between the three vDNMP groups, although mean errors during ODL was numerically higher for LMP dogs. Errors increased (P memory performance in aged dogs does not appear to predict performance of cognitive domains associated with object learning, SA, or maximum ML distance.

  1. Motor, emotional, and cognitive empathy in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder and conduct disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bons, D.; van den Broek, Egon; Scheepers, F.; Herpers, P.; Rommelse, N.; Buitelaar, J.K.

    It is unclear which aspects of empathy are shared and which are uniquely affected in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and conduct disorder (CD) as are the neurobiological correlates of these empathy impairments. The aim of this systematic review is to describe the overlap and specificity of motor,

  2. Motor, emotional, and cognitive empathy in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder and conduct disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bons, D.; Broek, E. van den; Scheepers, F.; Herpers, P.; Rommelse, N.N.J.; Buitelaar, J.K.

    2013-01-01

    It is unclear which aspects of empathy are shared and which are uniquely affected in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and conduct disorder (CD) as are the neurobiological correlates of these empathy impairments. The aim of this systematic review is to describe the overlap and specificity of motor,

  3. Low-Frequency Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Ameliorates Cognitive Function and Synaptic Plasticity in APP23/PS45 Mouse Model of Alzheimer’s Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Zhilin Huang; Zhilin Huang; Tao Tan; Tao Tan; Yehong Du; Yehong Du; Long Chen; Long Chen; Min Fu; Min Fu; Yanzhi Yu; Yanzhi Yu; Lu Zhang; Lu Zhang; Weihong Song

    2017-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disease leading to dementia, which is characterized by progressive memory loss and other cognitive dysfunctions. Recent studies have attested that noninvasive repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) may help improve cognitive function in patients with AD. However, the majority of these studies have focused on the effects of high-frequency rTMS on cognitive function, and little is known about low-frequency rTMS in AD treatment...

  4. Amelioration of sexual behavior and motor activity deficits in a castrated rodent model with a selective androgen receptor modulator SARM-2f.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megumi Morimoto

    Full Text Available Sarcopenia and cachexia present characteristic features of a decrease in skeletal muscle mass and strength, anorexia, and lack of motivation. Treatments for these diseases have not yet been established, although selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs are considered as therapeutic targets. We previously reported that a novel SARM compound, SARM-2f, exhibits anabolic effect on muscles, with less stimulatory effect on prostate weight compared with testosterone, in rat Hershberger assays and cancer cachexia models. In this study, we studied the mechanism of action for SARM-2f selectivity and also assessed whether the muscle increase by this compound might lead to improvement of muscle function and physical activity. First, we examined the tissue distribution of SARM-2f. Tissue concentration was 1.2-, 1.6-, and 1.9-fold as high as the plasma concentration in the levator ani muscle, brain, and prostate, respectively. This result showed that the tissue-selective pharmacological effect did not depend on SARM-2f concentration in the tissues. The ability of SARM-2f to influence androgen receptor (AR-mediated transcriptional activation was examined by reporter assays using human normal prostate epithelial cells (PrEC and skeletal muscle cells (SKMC. SARM-2f exerted higher activity against AR in SKMC than in PrEC. Mammalian two hybrid assays showed different co-factor recruitment patterns between SARM-2f and dihydrotestosterone. Next, we studied the effect of SARM-2f on motivation and physical functions such as sexual behavior and motor activities in castrated rat or mouse models. SARM-2f restored the sexual behavior that was lost by castration in male rats. SARM-2f also increased voluntary running distance and locomotor activities. These results suggest that tissue-specific AR regulation by SARM-2f, but not tissue distribution, might account for its tissue specific androgenic effect, and that the muscle mass increase by SARM-2f leads to improvement

  5. Amelioration of sexual behavior and motor activity deficits in a castrated rodent model with a selective androgen receptor modulator SARM-2f.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Megumi; Amano, Yuichiro; Oka, Masahiro; Harada, Ayako; Fujita, Hisashi; Hikichi, Yukiko; Tozawa, Ryuichi; Yamaoka, Masuo; Hara, Takahito

    2017-01-01

    Sarcopenia and cachexia present characteristic features of a decrease in skeletal muscle mass and strength, anorexia, and lack of motivation. Treatments for these diseases have not yet been established, although selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) are considered as therapeutic targets. We previously reported that a novel SARM compound, SARM-2f, exhibits anabolic effect on muscles, with less stimulatory effect on prostate weight compared with testosterone, in rat Hershberger assays and cancer cachexia models. In this study, we studied the mechanism of action for SARM-2f selectivity and also assessed whether the muscle increase by this compound might lead to improvement of muscle function and physical activity. First, we examined the tissue distribution of SARM-2f. Tissue concentration was 1.2-, 1.6-, and 1.9-fold as high as the plasma concentration in the levator ani muscle, brain, and prostate, respectively. This result showed that the tissue-selective pharmacological effect did not depend on SARM-2f concentration in the tissues. The ability of SARM-2f to influence androgen receptor (AR)-mediated transcriptional activation was examined by reporter assays using human normal prostate epithelial cells (PrEC) and skeletal muscle cells (SKMC). SARM-2f exerted higher activity against AR in SKMC than in PrEC. Mammalian two hybrid assays showed different co-factor recruitment patterns between SARM-2f and dihydrotestosterone. Next, we studied the effect of SARM-2f on motivation and physical functions such as sexual behavior and motor activities in castrated rat or mouse models. SARM-2f restored the sexual behavior that was lost by castration in male rats. SARM-2f also increased voluntary running distance and locomotor activities. These results suggest that tissue-specific AR regulation by SARM-2f, but not tissue distribution, might account for its tissue specific androgenic effect, and that the muscle mass increase by SARM-2f leads to improvement of physical

  6. Tandospirone, a 5-HT1A partial agonist, ameliorates aberrant lactate production in the prefrontal cortex of rats exposed to blockade of N-methy-D-aspartate receptors; Towards the therapeutics of cognitive impairment of schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi eUehara

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Rationale Augmentation therapy with serotonin-1A (5-HT1A receptor partial agonists has been suggested to improve cognitive deficits in patients with schizophrenia. Decreased activity of prefrontal cortex may provide a basis for cognitive deficits of the disease. Lactate plays a significant role in the supply of energy to the brain, and glutamatergic neurotransmission contributes to lactate production.Objectives and methods The purposes of this study were to examine the effect of repeated administration (once a daily for 4 days of tandospirone (0.05 and 5 mg/kg on brain energy metabolism, as represented by extracellular lactate concentration (eLAC in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC of young adult rats..Results Four-day treatment with MK-801, an NMDA-R antagonist, prolonged eLAC elevation induced by foot shock stress (FS. Co-administration with the high-dose tandospirone suppressed prolonged FS-induced eLAC elevation in rats receiving MK-801, whereas tandospirone by itself did not affected eLAC increment.Conclusions These results suggest that stimulation of 5-HT1A receptors ameliorates abnormalities of energy metabolism in the mPFC due to blockade of NMDA receptors. These findings provide a possible mechanism based on brain energy metabolism by which 5-HT1A agonism improve cognitive impairment in schizophrenia and related disorders.

  7. Training Cognitive Control in Older Adults with the Space Fortress Game: The Role of Training
    Instructions and Basic Motor Ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena M Blumen

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This study examined if and how cognitively-healthy older adults can learn to play a complex computer-based action game called the Space Fortress (SF as a function of training instructions (Standard vs. Emphasis Change (EC; e.g. Gopher, Weil & Siegel, 1989 and basic motor ability. A total of 35 cognitively-healthy older adults completed a 3-month SF training program with three SF sessions weekly. Twelve 3-minute games were played during each session. Basic motor ability was assessed with an aiming task, which required rapidly rotating a spaceship to shoot targets. Older adults showed improved performance on the SF task over time, but did not perform at the same level as younger adults. Unlike studies of younger adults, overall SF performance in older adults was greater following standard instructions than following EC instructions. However, this advantage was primarily due to collecting more bonus points and not – the primary goal of the game – shooting and destroying the fortress, which in contrast benefitted from EC instructions. Basic motor ability was low and influenced many different aspects of SF game learning, often interacted with learning rate, and influenced overall SF performance. These findings show that older adults can be trained to deal with the complexity of the SF task but that overall SF performance, and the ability to capitalize on EC instructions, differs when a basic ability such as motor control is low. Hence, the development of this training program as a cognitive intervention that can potentially compensate for age-related cognitive decline should consider that basic motor ability can interact with the efficiency of training instructions that promote the use of cognitive control (e.g. EC instructions – and the confluence between such basic abilities and higher-level cognitive control abilities should be further examined.

  8. Cognitive and motor outcomes in children with unilateral Sturge-Weber syndrome: Effect of age at seizure onset and side of brain involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luat, Aimee F; Behen, Michael E; Chugani, Harry T; Juhász, Csaba

    2018-03-01

    Most children with Sturge-Weber syndrome (SWS) develop seizures that may contribute to neurocognitive status. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that very early seizure onset has a particularly detrimental effect on the cognitive and/or motor outcomes of children with unilateral SWS. We also tested whether side of SWS brain involvement modulates the effect of seizure variables on the pattern of cognitive abnormalities. Thirty-four children (22 girls; mean age 6.1years) with unilateral SWS and history of epilepsy in a longitudinal cohort underwent neurological and cognitive evaluations. Global intelligent quotient (GIQ), verbal intelligent quotient (VIQ), nonverbal intelligent quotient (IQ), and motor function were correlated with epilepsy variables, side and extent of brain involvement on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Mean age at seizure onset was 1.3years (0.1-6years) and mean IQ at follow-up was 86 (45-118). Age at seizure onset showed a logarithmic association with IQ, with maximum impact of seizures starting before age 1year, both in uni- and multivariate regression analyses. In the left SWS group (N=20), age at seizure onset was a strong predictor of nonverbal IQ (p=0.001); while early seizure onset in the right-hemispheric group had a more global effect on cognitive functions (p=0.02). High seizure frequency and long epilepsy duration also contributed to poor outcome IQ independently in multivariate correlations. Children with motor involvement started to have seizures at/before 7months of age, while frontal lobe involvement was the strongest predictor of motor deficit in a multivariate analysis (p=0.017). These findings suggest that seizure onset prior to age 1year has a profound effect on severity of cognitive and motor dysfunction in children with SWS; however, the effect of seizures on the type of cognitive deficit is influenced by laterality of brain involvement. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Donepezil Is Ineffective in Promoting Motor and Cognitive Benefits after Controlled Cortical Impact Injury in Male Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Kaitlyn E.; Bondi, Corina O.; Light, Samuel H.; Massimino, Lire A.; McAloon, Rose L.; Monaco, Christina M.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor donepezil is used as a therapy for Alzheimer's disease and has been recommended as a treatment for enhancing attention and memory after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Although select clinical case studies support the use of donepezil for enhancing cognition, there is a paucity of experimental TBI studies assessing the potential efficacy of this pharmacotherapy. Hence, the aim of this pre-clinical study was to evaluate several doses of donepezil to determine its effect on functional outcome after TBI. Ninety anesthetized adult male rats received a controlled cortical impact (CCI; 2.8 mm cortical depth at 4 m/sec) or sham injury, and then were randomly assigned to six TBI and six sham groups (donepezil 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, or 3.0 mg/kg, and saline vehicle 1.0 mL/kg). Treatments began 24 h after surgery and were administered i.p. once daily for 19 days. Function was assessed by motor (beam balance/walk) and cognitive (Morris water maze) tests on days 1–5 and 14–19, respectively. No significant differences were observed among the sham control groups in any evaluation, regardless of dose, and therefore the data were pooled. Furthermore, no significant differences were revealed among the TBI groups in acute neurological assessments (e.g., righting reflex), suggesting that all groups received the same level of injury severity. None of the five doses of donepezil improved motor or cognitive function relative to vehicle-treated controls. Moreover, the two highest doses significantly impaired beam-balance (3.0 mg/kg), beam-walk (2.0 mg/kg and 3.0 mg/kg), and cognitive performance (3.0 mg/kg) versus vehicle. These data indicate that chronic administration of donepezil is not only ineffective in promoting functional improvement after moderate CCI injury, but depending on the dose is actually detrimental to the recovery process. Further work is necessary to determine if other AChE inhibitors exert similar

  10. Exploring the motor development of young children with possible severe to profound cognitive and motor developmental delay by means of a questionnaire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schalen, Gertruud Henrike; van der Putten, Annette; Maes, Bea; Vlaskamp, Carla

    Aim: Early motor stimulation may be valuable for children with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD), however limited knowledge of their typical motor developmental trajectory may be currently restraining the efficacy and specificity of this intervention. Research on young children

  11. Embodied cognition: Is activation of the motor cortex essential for understanding action verbs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jeff; Brookie, Kate; Wales, Sid; Wallace, Simon; Kaup, Barbara

    2018-03-01

    In 8 experiments using language processing tasks ranging from lexical decision to sensibility judgment, participants made hand or foot responses after reading hand- or foot-associated words such as action verbs. In general, response time (RT) tended to be faster when the hand- versus foot-associated word was compatible with the limb that was required to respond (e.g., hand response to a hand-associated word) than when it was incompatible (e.g., foot response to a hand-associated word). To see whether this compatibility effect reflects differential hand- versus foot-specific motor activation produced by the words, as suggested by some embodied theories of language understanding, we monitored 2 event-related potential (ERP) measures previously found to be sensitive to the activation of these limbs. As expected, the ERP results replicated previous findings that the monitored ERPs differ for hand versus foot movements. More importantly, the ERPs provided no evidence of any difference for hand- versus foot-associated words. Thus, the results weaken previous claims that the understanding of action verbs requires activation of the motor areas used to carry out the named action. Instead, they support claims that language-related compatibility effects on RT may arise prior to motor processes, which implies that such effects are not decisive evidence for embodied language understanding. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Astragalus membranaceus-Polysaccharides Ameliorates Obesity, Hepatic Steatosis, Neuroinflammation and Cognition Impairment without Affecting Amyloid Deposition in Metabolically Stressed APPswe/PS1dE9 Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Cheng Huang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Astragalus membranaceus is commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine for strengthening the host defense system. Astragalus membranaceus-polysaccharides is an effective component with various important bioactivities, such as immunomodulation, antioxidant, anti-diabetes, anti-inflammation and neuroprotection. In the present study, we determine the effects of Astragalus membranaceus-polysaccharides on metabolically stressed transgenic mice in order to develop this macromolecules for treatment of sporadic Alzheimer’s disease, a neurodegenerative disease with metabolic risk factors. Transgenic mice, at 10 weeks old prior to the appearance of senile plaques, were treated in combination of administrating high-fat diet and injecting low-dose streptozotocin to create the metabolically stressed mice model. Astragalus membranaceus-polysaccharides was administrated starting at 14 weeks for 7 weeks. We found that Astragalus membranaceus-polysaccharides reduced metabolic stress-induced increase of body weight, insulin and insulin and leptin level, insulin resistance, and hepatic triglyceride. Astragalus membranaceus-polysaccharides also ameliorated metabolic stress-exacerbated oral glucose intolerance, although the fasting blood glucose was only temporally reduced. In brain, metabolic stress-elicited astrogliosis and microglia activation in the vicinity of plaques was also diminished by Astragalus membranaceus-polysaccharides administration. The plaque deposition, however, was not significantly affected by Astragalus membranaceus-polysaccharides administration. These findings suggest that Astragalus membranaceus-polysaccharides may be used to ameliorate metabolic stress-induced diabesity and the subsequent neuroinflammation, which improved the behavior performance in metabolically stressed transgenic mice.

  13. Group Cognitive Behavioral Treatment for PTSD: Treatment of Motor Vehicle Accident Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, J. Gayle; Coffey, Scott F.

    2005-01-01

    Individual cognitive behavioral therapies (CBT) are now considered the first-line treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD; Foa, Keane, & Friedman, 2000). As mental health reimbursement becomes more restricted, it is imperative that we adapt individual-format therapies for use in a small group format. Group therapies have a number of…

  14. Inhibition of PirB Activity by TAT-PEP Improves Mouse Motor Ability and Cognitive Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Ya-Jing; Chen, Hai; Guo, Na; Sun, Meng-Yi; Zhao, Zhao-Hua; Gao, Xing-Chun; Wang, Xiao-Long; Zhang, Rui-San; Zhou, Jiang-Bing; Gou, Xing-Chun

    2017-01-01

    Paired immunoglobulin-like receptor B (PirB), a functional receptor for myelin-associated inhibitory proteins, plays an important role in axon regeneration in injured brains. However, its role in normal brain function with age has not been previously investigated. Therefore in this study, we examined the expression level of PirB in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum of mice at 1 month, 3 months and 18 months of age. The results showed that the expression of PirB increased with age. We further demonstrated that overexpression of PirB inhibited neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells, and this inhibitory activity of PirB could be reversed by TAT-PEP, which is a recombinant soluble PirB ectodomain fused with TAT domain for blood-brain barrier penetration. In vivo study, intraperitoneal administration of TAT-PEP was capable of enhancing motor capacity and spatial learning and memory in mice, which appeared to be mediated through regulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) secretion. Our study suggests that PirB is associated with aging and TAT-PEP may be a promising therapeutic agent for modulation of age-related motor and cognitive dysfunctions.

  15. Corpus callosum atrophy as a predictor of age-related cognitive and motor impairment: a 3-year follow-up of the LADIS study cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, C; Rostrup, E; Paulson, O B

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this 3-year follow-up study was to investigate whether corpus callosum (CC) atrophy may predict future motor and cognitive impairment in an elderly population. On baseline MRI from 563 subjects with age-related white matter changes (ARWMC) from the Leukoaraiosis And DISability (LADIS) ...

  16. Structural Model of the Relationships among Cognitive Processes, Visual Motor Integration, and Academic Achievement in Students with Mild Intellectual Disability (MID)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Mohamed Mostafa

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to test a proposed structural model of the relationships and existing paths among cognitive processes (attention and planning), visual motor integration, and academic achievement in reading, writing, and mathematics. The study sample consisted of 50 students with mild intellectual disability or MID. The average age of these…

  17. Motor-symptom laterality affects acquisition in Parkinson's disease: A cognitive and functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Pei; Tan, Yu-Yan; Liu, Dong-Qiang; Herzallah, Mohammad M; Lapidow, Elizabeth; Wang, Ying; Zang, Yu-Feng; Gluck, Mark A; Chen, Sheng-Di

    2017-07-01

    Asymmetric onset of motor symptoms in PD can affect cognitive function. We examined whether motor-symptom laterality could affect feedback-based associative learning and explored its underlying neural mechanism by functional magnetic resonance imaging in PD patients. We recruited 63 early-stage medication-naïve PD patients (29 left-onset medication-naïve patients, 34 right-onset medication-naïve patients) and 38 matched normal controls. Subjects completed an acquired equivalence task (including acquisition, retention, and generalization) and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scans. Learning accuracy and response time in each phase of the task were recorded for behavioral measures. Regional homogeneity was used to analyze resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data, with regional homogeneity lateralization to evaluate hemispheric functional asymmetry in the striatum. Left-onset patients made significantly more errors in acquisition (feedback-based associative learning) than right-onset patients and normal controls, whereas right-onset patients performed as well as normal controls. There was no significant difference among these three groups in the accuracy of either retention or generalization phase. The three groups did not show significant differences in response time. In the left-onset group, there was an inverse relationship between acquisition errors and regional homogeneity in the right dorsal rostral putamen. There were no significant regional homogeneity changes in either the left or the right dorsal rostral putamen in right-onset patients when compared to controls. Motor-symptom laterality could affect feedback-based associative learning in PD, with left-onset medication-naïve patients being selectively impaired. Dysfunction in the right dorsal rostral putamen may underlie the observed deficit in associative learning in patients with left-sided onset.© 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2017

  18. Recessive mutations in SPTBN2 implicate β-III spectrin in both cognitive and motor development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Lise

    Full Text Available β-III spectrin is present in the brain and is known to be important in the function of the cerebellum. Heterozygous mutations in SPTBN2, the gene encoding β-III spectrin, cause Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 5 (SCA5, an adult-onset, slowly progressive, autosomal-dominant pure cerebellar ataxia. SCA5 is sometimes known as "Lincoln ataxia," because the largest known family is descended from relatives of the United States President Abraham Lincoln. Using targeted capture and next-generation sequencing, we identified a homozygous stop codon in SPTBN2 in a consanguineous family in which childhood developmental ataxia co-segregates with cognitive impairment. The cognitive impairment could result from mutations in a second gene, but further analysis using whole-genome sequencing combined with SNP array analysis did not reveal any evidence of other mutations. We also examined a mouse knockout of β-III spectrin in which ataxia and progressive degeneration of cerebellar Purkinje cells has been previously reported and found morphological abnormalities in neurons from prefrontal cortex and deficits in object recognition tasks, consistent with the human cognitive phenotype. These data provide the first evidence that β-III spectrin plays an important role in cortical brain development and cognition, in addition to its function in the cerebellum; and we conclude that cognitive impairment is an integral part of this novel recessive ataxic syndrome, Spectrin-associated Autosomal Recessive Cerebellar Ataxia type 1 (SPARCA1. In addition, the identification of SPARCA1 and normal heterozygous carriers of the stop codon in SPTBN2 provides insights into the mechanism of molecular dominance in SCA5 and demonstrates that the cell-specific repertoire of spectrin subunits underlies a novel group of disorders, the neuronal spectrinopathies, which includes SCA5, SPARCA1, and a form of West syndrome.

  19. Assessment of lithium ingestion on cognition and some subset of motor skill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P D Shallie

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Patients taking lithium often report of difficulties in concentration, memory, learning, and attention. Laboratory tests of cognitive functions in healthy volunteers on chronic lithium demonstrate that disruptions in memory-learning processes are apparent at the time of memory retrieval. Aim : This study has attempted to evaluate the impact of lithium ingestion on cognition and some subset of sensory skill, by examining comparatively how lithium or a lithium / saline supplement either harms or helps the brain. Materials and Methods : Wistar Rats (male and female were housed in individual improvised cages. The rats were acclimatized for two weeks after which they were randomly grouped into three, namely, control, lithium-treated, and lithium with saline-treated groups, and treated for four weeks. The lithium-treated group received 40 mM lithium bicarbonate per kg of feed for the first one week, and the dosage was increased to 60mM per kg of feed for the rest of the three weeks. The lithium-saline group received saline solution in addition to lithium. The control group was given normal feed and water liberally for the period of the experiment. The rats were subjected to a cognitive test using the Barnes maze, assessments of negative geotaxis, cliff avoidance, and some neurotransmitters (acetylcholine and glutamate. The data were analyzed by Microsoft excel 2007. Results : This study shows that lithium ingestion is characterized by a significant ( P ≤ 0.05 decline in learning and memory as compared to the control. While the lithium-saline-treated animals exhibit enhanced cognitive ability. The subset of sensory activity was assessed; negative geotaxis and cliff avoidance were grossly compromised, thus lithium carbonate appeared to have definite negative effects on the psychsensory speed. Conclusion : In conclusion lithium should be co-administered with saline to counter the detrimental effects of lithium noticed in this study, which

  20. Motor and cognitive assessment of infants and young boys with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy: results from the Muscular Dystrophy Association DMD Clinical Research Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Anne M; Florence, Julaine M; Cradock, Mary M; Malkus, Elizabeth C; Schierbecker, Jeanine R; Siener, Catherine A; Wulf, Charlie O; Anand, Pallavi; Golumbek, Paul T; Zaidman, Craig M; Philip Miller, J; Lowes, Linda P; Alfano, Lindsay N; Viollet-Callendret, Laurence; Flanigan, Kevin M; Mendell, Jerry R; McDonald, Craig M; Goude, Erica; Johnson, Linda; Nicorici, Alina; Karachunski, Peter I; Day, John W; Dalton, Joline C; Farber, Janey M; Buser, Karen K; Darras, Basil T; Kang, Peter B; Riley, Susan O; Shriber, Elizabeth; Parad, Rebecca; Bushby, Kate; Eagle, Michelle

    2013-07-01

    Therapeutic trials in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) exclude young boys because traditional outcome measures rely on cooperation. The Bayley III Scales of Infant and Toddler Development (Bayley III) have been validated in developing children and those with developmental disorders but have not been studied in DMD. Expanded Hammersmith Functional Motor Scale (HFMSE) and North Star Ambulatory Assessment (NSAA) may also be useful in this young DMD population. Clinical evaluators from the MDA-DMD Clinical Research Network were trained in these assessment tools. Infants and boys with DMD (n = 24; 1.9 ± 0.7 years) were assessed. The mean Bayley III motor composite score was low (82.8 ± 8; p ≤ .0001) (normal = 100 ± 15). Mean gross motor and fine motor function scaled scores were low (both p ≤ .0001). The mean cognitive comprehensive (p=.0002), receptive language (p ≤ .0001), and expressive language (p = .0001) were also low compared to normal children. Age was negatively associated with Bayley III gross motor (r = -0.44; p = .02) but not with fine motor, cognitive, or language scores. HFMSE (n=23) showed a mean score of 31 ± 13. NSAA (n = 18 boys; 2.2 ± 0.4 years) showed a mean score of 12 ± 5. Outcome assessments of young boys with DMD are feasible and in this multicenter study were best demonstrated using the Bayley III. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Resonant cholinergic dynamics in cognitive and motor decision-making:Attention, category learning, and choice in neocortex, superior colliculus, and optic tectum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen eGrossberg

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Freely behaving organisms need to rapidly calibrate their perceptual, cognitive, and motor decisions based on continuously changing environmental conditions. These plastic changes include sharpening or broadening of cognitive and motor attention and learning to match the behavioral demands that are imposed by changing environmental statistics. This article proposes that a shared circuit design for such flexible decision-making is used in specific cognitive and motor circuits, and that both types of circuits use acetylcholine to modulate choice selectivity. Such task-sensitive control is proposed to control thalamocortical choice of the critical features that are cognitively attended and that are incorporated through learning into prototypes of visual recognition categories. A cholinergically-modulated process of vigilance control determines if a recognition category and its attended features are abstract (low vigilance or concrete (high vigilance. Homologous neural mechanisms of cholinergic modulation are proposed to focus attention and learn a multimodal map within the deeper layers of superior colliculus. This map enables visual, auditory, and planned movement commands to compete for attention, leading to selection of a winning position that controls where the next saccadic eye movement will go. Such map learning may be viewed as a kind of attentive motor category learning. The article hereby explicates a link between attention, learning, and cholinergic modulation during decision making within both cognitive and motor systems. Homologs between the mammalian superior colliculus and the avian optic tectum lead to predictions about how multimodal map learning may occur in the avian brain and how such learning may be modulated by acetycholine.

  2. A potential psychological mechanism linking disaster-related prenatal maternal stress with child cognitive and motor development at 16 months: The QF2011 Queensland Flood Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Katrina M; Simcock, Gabrielle; Cobham, Vanessa; Kildea, Sue; Elgbeili, Guillaume; Laplante, David P; King, Suzanne

    2017-04-01

    Fetal exposure to prenatal maternal stress can have lifelong consequences, with different types of maternal stress associated with different areas of child development. Fewer studies have focused on motor skills, even though they are strongly predictive of later development across a range of domains. Research on mechanisms of transmission has identified biological cascades of stress reactions, yet links between psychological stress reactions are rarely studied. This study investigates the relationship between different aspects of disaster-related prenatal maternal stress and child cognitive and motor development, and proposes a cascade of stress reactions as a potential mechanism of transmission. Mothers in the Queensland Flood Study (QF2011) exposed to a major flood during pregnancy completed questionnaires assessing flood exposure, symptoms of peritraumatic distress, dissociation, and posttraumatic stress (PTSD), and cognitive appraisal of the overall flood consequences. At 16 months post-partum, children's (N = 145) cognitive and motor development was assessed using the Bayley-III. Flood exposure predicted child cognitive development and maternal PTSD symptoms and negative cognitive appraisal were significantly negatively related to child motor development, with all relationships moderated by timing of exposure. Together, a cascade of stress reactions linked maternal flood exposure to poorer fine motor development. These findings suggest that the way stress reactions operate together is as important as the way they operate in isolation, and identifies a potential psychological mechanism of transmission for the effects of prenatal stress. Results have implications for conceptualizing prenatal stress research and optimizing child development in the wake of natural disasters. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. "Pushing the Limits": Rethinking Motor and Cognitive Resources After a Highly Challenging Balance Training Program for Parkinson Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavy, Breiffni; Roaldsen, Kirsti Skavberg; Nylund, Kamilla; Hagströmer, Maria; Franzén, Erika

    2017-01-01

    There is growing evidence for the positive effects of exercise training programs on balance control in Parkinson disease (PD). To be effective, balance training needs to be specific, progressive, and highly challenging. Little evidence exists, however, for how people with PD-related balance impairments perceive highly challenging and progressive balance training programs with dual-task components. The purpose of this study was to explore and describe perceptions of a highly challenging balance training program among people with mild to moderate PD. This study was qualitative in nature. In-depth interviews were conducted with 13 individuals with mild to moderate PD who had participated in a highly challenging balance training program. Interview transcripts were analyzed using qualitative content analysis, with an inductive approach. The analysis revealed 3 subthemes concerning participants' perceptions of highly challenging and progressive balance training: (1) movement to counter the disease, (2) dual-task training in contrast to everyday strategies, and (3) the struggle to maintain positive effects. The first subtheme reflects how physical activity was used as a short-term and long-term strategy for counteracting PD symptoms and their progression. The second subtheme incorporates the described experiences of being maximally challenged in a secure and supportive group environment, circumstances that stood in contrast to participants' everyday lives. The third subtheme describes participants' long-term struggle to maintain program effects on cognitive and physical function in the face of disease progression. Interpretation of the underlying patterns of these subthemes resulted in one overarching theme: training at the limits of balance capacity causes a rethinking motor and cognitive resources. The findings of this study cannot be considered to reflect the beliefs of those with weaker or negative beliefs concerning physical activity or be transferred to those at

  4. Amelioration of Metabolic Syndrome-Associated Cognitive Impairments in Mice via a Reduction in Dietary Fat Content or Infusion of Non-Diabetic Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lance A. Johnson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity, metabolic syndrome (MetS and type 2 diabetes (T2D are associated with decreased cognitive function. While weight loss and T2D remission result in improvements in metabolism and vascular function, it is less clear if these benefits extend to cognitive performance. Here, we highlight the malleable nature of MetS-associated cognitive dysfunction using a mouse model of high fat diet (HFD-induced MetS. While learning and memory was generally unaffected in mice with type 1 diabetes (T1D, multiple cognitive impairments were associated with MetS, including deficits in novel object recognition, cued fear memory, and spatial learning and memory. However, a brief reduction in dietary fat content in chronic HFD-fed mice led to a complete rescue of cognitive function. Cerebral blood volume (CBV, a measure of vascular perfusion, was decreased during MetS, was associated with long term memory, and recovered following the intervention. Finally, repeated infusion of plasma collected from age-matched, low fat diet-fed mice improved memory in HFD mice, and was associated with a distinct metabolic profile. Thus, the cognitive dysfunction accompanying MetS appears to be amenable to treatment, related to cerebrovascular function, and mitigated by systemic factors.

  5. Motor control and aging: links to age-related brain structural, functional, and biochemical effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidler, Rachael D; Bernard, Jessica A; Burutolu, Taritonye B; Fling, Brett W; Gordon, Mark T; Gwin, Joseph T; Kwak, Youngbin; Lipps, David B

    2010-04-01

    Although connections between cognitive deficits and age-associated brain differences have been elucidated, relationships with motor performance are less well understood. Here, we broadly review age-related brain differences and motor deficits in older adults in addition to cognition-action theories. Age-related atrophy of the motor cortical regions and corpus callosum may precipitate or coincide with motor declines such as balance and gait deficits, coordination deficits, and movement slowing. Correspondingly, degeneration of neurotransmitter systems-primarily the dopaminergic system-may contribute to age-related gross and fine motor declines, as well as to higher cognitive deficits. In general, older adults exhibit involvement of more widespread brain regions for motor control than young adults, particularly the prefrontal cortex and basal ganglia networks. Unfortunately these same regions are the most vulnerable to age-related effects, resulting in an imbalance of "supply and demand". Existing exercise, pharmaceutical, and motor training interventions may ameliorate motor deficits in older adults. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Garcinia kola seeds may prevent cognitive and motor dysfunctions in a type 1 diabetes mellitus rat model partly by mitigating neuroinflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seke Etet, Paul F; Farahna, Mohammed; Satti, Gwiria M H; Bushara, Yahia M; El-Tahir, Ahmed; Hamza, Muaawia A; Osman, Sayed Y; Dibia, Ambrose C; Vecchio, Lorella

    2017-04-15

    Background We reported recently that extracts of seeds of Garcinia kola, a plant with established hypoglycemic properties, prevented the loss of inflammation-sensible neuronal populations like Purkinje cells in a rat model of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Here, we assessed G. kola extract ability to prevent the early cognitive and motor dysfunctions observed in this model. Methods Rats made diabetic by single injection of streptozotocin were treated daily with either vehicle solution (diabetic control group), insulin, or G. kola extract from the first to the 6th week post-injection. Then, cognitive and motor functions were assessed using holeboard and vertical pole behavioral tests, and animals were sacrificed. Brains were dissected out, cut, and processed for Nissl staining and immunohistochemistry. Results Hyperglycemia (209.26 %), body weight loss (-12.37 %), and T1DM-like cognitive and motor dysfunctions revealed behavioral tests in diabetic control animals were not observed in insulin and extract-treated animals. Similar, expressions of inflammation markers tumor necrosis factor (TNF), iba1 (CD68), and Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), as well as decreases of neuronal density in regions involved in cognitive and motor functions (-49.56 % motor cortex, -33.24 % medial septal nucleus, -41.8 % /-37.34 % cerebellar Purkinje /granular cell layers) were observed in diabetic controls but not in animals treated with insulin or G. kola. Conclusions Our results indicate that T1DM-like functional alterations are mediated, at least partly, by neuroinflammation and neuronal loss in this model. The prevention of the development of such alterations by early treatment with G. kola confirms the neuroprotective properties of the plant and warrant further mechanistic studies, considering the potential for human disease.

  7. Effect Anticipation Affects Perceptual, Cognitive, and Motor Phases of Response Preparation: Evidence from an Event-Related Potential (ERP) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Neil R.; Ziessler, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The anticipation of action effects is a basic process that can be observed even for key-pressing responses in a stimulus-response paradigm. In Ziessler et al.’s (2012) experiments participants first learned arbitrary effects of key-pressing responses. In the test phase an imperative stimulus determined the response, but participants withheld the response until a Go-stimulus appeared. Reaction times (RTs) were shorter if the Go-stimulus was compatible with the learned response effect. This is strong evidence that effect representations were activated during response planning. Here, we repeated the experiment using event-related potentials (ERPs), and we found that Go-stimulus locked ERPs depended on the compatibility relationship between the Go-stimulus and the response effect. In general, this supports the interpretation of the behavioral data. More specifically, differences in the ERPs between compatible and incompatible Go-stimuli were found for the early perceptual P1 component and the later frontal P2 component. P1 differences were found only in the second half of the experiment and for long stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs) between imperative stimulus and Go-stimulus, i.e., when the effect was fully anticipated and the perceptual system was prepared for the effect-compatible Go-stimulus. P2 amplitudes, likely associated with evaluation and conflict detection, were larger when Go-stimulus and effect were incompatible; presumably, incompatibility increased the difficulty of effect anticipation. Onset of response-locked lateralized readiness potentials (R-LRPs) occurred earlier under incompatible conditions indicating extended motor processing. Together, these results strongly suggest that effect anticipation affects all (i.e., perceptual, cognitive, and motor) phases of response preparation. PMID:26858621

  8. Effect anticipation affects perceptual, cognitive, and motor phases of response preparation: evidence from an event-related potential (ERP study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Richard Harrison

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The anticipation of action effects is a basic process that can be observed even for key-pressing responses in a stimulus-response paradigm. In Ziessler, Nattkemper and Vogt’s (2012 experiments participants first learned arbitrary effects of key-pressing responses. In the test phase an imperative stimulus determined the response, but participants withheld the response until a Go-stimulus appeared. Reaction times were shorter if the Go-stimulus was compatible with the learned response effect. This is strong evidence that effect representations were activated during response planning. Here we repeated the experiment using event-related potentials (ERPs, and we found that Go-stimulus locked ERPs depended on the compatibility relationship between the Go-stimulus and the response effect. In general, this supports the interpretation of the behavioural data. More specifically, differences in the ERPs between compatible and incompatible Go-stimuli were found for the early perceptual P1 component and the later frontal P2 component. P1 differences were found only in the second half of the experiment and for long SOAs between imperative stimulus and Go-stimulus, i.e. when the effect was fully anticipated and the perceptual system was prepared for the effect-compatible Go-stimulus. P2 amplitudes, likely associated with evaluation and conflict detection, were larger when Go-stimulus and effect were incompatible; presumably, incompatibility increased the difficulty of effect anticipation. Onset of response-locked LRPs occurred earlier under incompatible conditions indicating extended motor processing. Together, these results strongly suggest that effect anticipation affects all (i.e. perceptual, cognitive, and motor phases of response preparation.

  9. Premature primary tooth eruption in cognitive/motor-delayed ADNP-mutated children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozes, I; Van Dijck, A; Hacohen-Kleiman, G; Grigg, I; Karmon, G; Giladi, E; Eger, M; Gabet, Y; Pasmanik-Chor, M; Cappuyns, E; Elpeleg, O; Kooy, R F; Bedrosian-Sermone, S

    2017-02-21

    A major flaw in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) management is late diagnosis. Activity-dependent neuroprotective protein (ADNP) is a most frequent de novo mutated ASD-related gene. Functionally, ADNP protects nerve cells against electrical blockade. In mice, complete Adnp deficiency results in dysregulation of over 400 genes and failure to form a brain. Adnp haploinsufficiency results in cognitive and social deficiencies coupled to sex- and age-dependent deficits in the key microtubule and ion channel pathways. Here, collaborating with parents/caregivers globally, we discovered premature tooth eruption as a potential early diagnostic biomarker for ADNP mutation. The parents of 44/54 ADNP-mutated children reported an almost full erupted dentition by 1 year of age, including molars and only 10 of the children had teeth within the normal developmental time range. Looking at Adnp-deficient mice, by computed tomography, showed significantly smaller dental sacs and tooth buds at 5 days of age in the deficient mice compared to littermate controls. There was only trending at 2 days, implicating age-dependent dysregulation of teething in Adnp-deficient mice. Allen Atlas analysis showed Adnp expression in the jaw area. RNA sequencing (RNAseq) and gene array analysis of human ADNP-mutated lymphoblastoids, whole-mouse embryos and mouse brains identified dysregulation of bone/nervous system-controlling genes resulting from ADNP mutation/deficiency (for example, BMP1 and BMP4). AKAP6, discovered here as a major gene regulated by ADNP, also links cognition and bone maintenance. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that early primary (deciduous) teething is related to the ADNP syndrome, providing for early/simple diagnosis and paving the path to early intervention/specialized treatment plan.

  10. Psychological modeling and adaptations in cognitive representations with increased resistance during motor skill acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catina, Peter

    2009-03-01

    It was hypothesized that subjects receiving increased resistance in the squat exercise would demonstrate better technique and better understanding of how to perform the skill than subjects performing the exercise with no increase in resistance. Scores were recorded on the following analyses: the questionnaire analysis, which measured cognitive representation; the video analysis, which measured squat performance technique; and the 3-dimensional figure analysis, which measured the degree of similarity between the position of the model and the position of the subjects during the performance task. Ten undergraduate students were sampled, half of whom received increased resistance in the squat exercise. Admission requirements were that the subjects be men, be matched for age, body weight, and height, and have no experience in resistance training or formal instruction in proper squat technique. After measuring subjects' cognitive representation with the questionnaire, subsequent analyses were conducted to further clarify treatment effects. The second analysis involved measuring differences between the videotaped performance of the model and the videotaped performance of naive subjects. The third analysis consisted of subjects assembling a 3-dimensional wooden figure to duplicate the proper biomechanics of the expert model, which was then photographed and compared with the model's template assembly of the wooden figure. It was concluded that subjects performing the squat with increased resistance showed significant (p technique compared with subjects who performed the squat with no increase in resistance. The directional hypothesis was supported. Namely, the scores of subjects receiving the treatment were predicted to be significantly greater than the scores of those who received no treatment. These data suggest that increasing the resistance in subsequent trials of the squat exercise may be a positive factor in enhancing the performance and improving the biomechanical

  11. Effect of psychological treatment on cognitive bias in motor vehicle accident-related Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devineni, Trishul; Blanchard, Edward B; Hickling, Edward J; Buckley, Todd C

    2004-01-01

    The modified or "emotional" Stroop paradigm has been frequently employed in previous evaluations of information processing models of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and other anxiety disorders. These studies have frequently documented an attentional bias to trauma-specific threatening stimuli in PTSD patients. However, the response of the Stroop color-naming interference effect to psychological treatment has yet to be tested in a trauma population. The present study evaluated the effects of three treatment conditions on the Stroop interference effect in motor vehicle accident (MVA) survivors with PTSD. Following treatment, participants were classified as either treatment responders or nonresponders. Participants named the color of three types of stimuli: MVA trauma-specific words, neutral words, and nonwords. Results showed that change in selective color-naming interference for trauma cues was unrelated to treatment response or modality at either posttreatment or follow-up. Findings cast doubt on the clinical utility of the modified Stroop test as a measure of treatment outcome in this population.

  12. From features to dimensions: Cognitive and motor development in pop-out search in children and young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna eGrubert

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In an experiment involving a total 124 participants, divided into eight age groups (6-, 8-, 10-, 12-, 14-, 16-, 18, and 20-year-olds the development of the processing components underlying visual search for pop-out targets was tracked. Participants indicated the presence or absence of color or orientation feature singleton targets. Observers also solved a detection task, in which they responded to the onset of search arrays. There were two main results. First, analyses of inter-trial effects revealed differences in the search strategies of the 6-year-old participants compared to older age groups. Participants older than eight years based target detection on feature-less dimensional salience signals (indicated by cross-trial RT costs in target dimension change relative to repetition trials, the 6-year-olds accessed the target feature to make a target present or absent decision (cross-trial RT costs in target feature change relative to feature repetition trials. The result agrees with predictions derived from the Dimension Weighting account and previous investigations of inter-trial effects in adult observers (Found & Müller, 1996; Müller et al., 1995. The results are also in line with theories of cognitive development suggesting that the ability to abstract specific visual features into feature categories is developed after the age seven years. Second, overall search RTs decreased with increasing age in a decelerated fashion. RT differences between consecutive age groups can be explained by sensory-motor maturation up to the age of ten years (as indicated by RTs in the onset detection task. Expedited RTs in older age groups (10-, vs. 12-year-olds; 14- vs. 16-year-olds, but also in the 6- vs. 8-year-olds, are due to the development of search-related (cognitive processes. Overall, the results suggest that the level of adult performance in visual search for pop-out targets is achieved by the age of sixteen.

  13. Dual-task training effects on motor and cognitive functional abilities in individuals with stroke: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ying; Yang, Lei; Zhou, Jing; Yao, Liqing; Pang, Marco Yiu Chung

    2018-02-01

    This systematic review aimed to examine the effects of dual-task balance and mobility training in people with stroke. An extensive electronic databases literature search was conducted using MEDLINE, PubMed, EBSCO, The Cochrane Library, Web of Science, SCOPUS, and Wiley Online Library. Randomized controlled studies that assessed the effects of dual-task training in stroke patients were included for the review (last search in December 2017). The methodological quality was evaluated using the Cochrane Collaboration recommendation, and level of evidence was determined according to the criteria described by the Oxford Center for Evidence-Based Medicine. About 13 articles involving 457 participants were included in this systematic review. All had substantial risk of bias and thus provided level IIb evidence only. Dual-task mobility training was found to induce more improvement in single-task walking function (standardized effect size = 0.14-2.24), when compared with single-task mobility training. Its effect on dual-task walking function was not consistent. Cognitive-motor balance training was effective in improving single-task balance function (standardized effect size = 0.27-1.82), but its effect on dual-task balance ability was not studied. The beneficial effect of dual-task training on cognitive function was provided by one study only and thus inconclusive. There is some evidence that dual-task training can improve single-task walking and balance function in individuals with stroke. However, any firm recommendation cannot be made due to the weak methodology of the studies reviewed.

  14. Are abstract action words embodied? An fMRI investigation at the interface between language and motor cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin eSakreida

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The cognitive and neural representation of abstract words is still an open question for theories of embodied cognition. Generally, it is proposed that abstract words are grounded in the activation of sensorimotor or at least experiential properties, exactly as concrete words. Further behavioral theories propose multiple representations evoked by abstract and concrete words. We conducted a functional magnetic resonance imaging study to investigate the neural correlates of concrete and abstract multi-word expressions in an action context. Participants were required to read simple sentences which combined each concrete noun with an adequate concrete verb and an adequate abstract verb, as well as an adequate abstract noun with either kind of verbs previously used. Thus, our experimental design included a continuum from pure concreteness to mere abstractness. As expected, comprehension of both concrete and abstract language content activated the core areas of the sensorimotor neural network namely the left lateral (precentral gyrus and medial (supplementary motor area premotor cortex. While the purely concrete multi-word expressions elicited activations within the left inferior frontal gyrus (pars triangularis and two foci within the left inferior parietal cortex, the purely abstract multi-word expressions were represented in the anterior part of left middle temporal gyrus that is part of the language processing system. Although the sensorimotor neural network is engaged in both concrete and abstract language contents, the present findings show that concrete multi-word processing relies more on the sensorimotor system, and abstract multi-word processing relies more on the linguistic system.

  15. Ketogenic diet improves motor performance but not cognition in two mouse models of Alzheimer's pathology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milene L Brownlow

    Full Text Available Dietary manipulations are increasingly viewed as possible approaches to treating neurodegenerative diseases. Previous studies suggest that Alzheimer's disease (AD patients present an energy imbalance with brain hypometabolism and mitochondrial deficits. Ketogenic diets (KDs, widely investigated in the treatment and prevention of seizures, have been suggested to bypass metabolic deficits present in AD brain by providing ketone bodies as an alternative fuel to neurons. We investigated the effects of a ketogenic diet in two transgenic mouse lines. Five months old APP/PS1 (a model of amyloid deposition and Tg4510 (a model of tau deposition mice were offered either a ketogenic or a control (NIH-31 diet for 3 months. Body weight and food intake were monitored throughout the experiment, and blood was collected at 4 weeks and 4 months for ketone and glucose assessments. Both lines of transgenic mice weighed less than nontransgenic mice, yet, surprisingly, had elevated food intake. The ketogenic diet did not affect these differences in body weight or food consumption. Behavioral testing during the last two weeks of treatment found that mice offered KD performed significantly better on the rotarod compared to mice on the control diet independent of genotype. In the open field test, both transgenic mouse lines presented increased locomotor activity compared to nontransgenic, age-matched controls, and this effect was not influenced by KD. The radial arm water maze identified learning deficits in both transgenic lines with no significant differences between diets. Tissue measures of amyloid, tau, astroglial and microglial markers in transgenic lines showed no differences between animals fed the control or the ketogenic diet. These data suggest that ketogenic diets may play an important role in enhancing motor performance in mice, but have minimal impact on the phenotype of murine models of amyloid or tau deposition.

  16. Mangiferin ameliorates aluminium chloride-induced cognitive dysfunction via alleviation of hippocampal oxido-nitrosative stress, proinflammatory cytokines and acetylcholinesterase level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasbe, Prajapati; Jangra, Ashok; Lahkar, Mangala

    2015-01-01

    Mangiferin is a phytochemical primarily present in the stem, leaves and bark of Mangifera indica. It offers neuroprotection mainly through inhibition of oxidative stress, and decreasing proinflammatory cytokines level in the brain. Aluminium has been reported to cause oxidative stress-associated damage in the brain. In the present investigation, protective effect of mangiferin against aluminium chloride (AlCl3)-induced neurotoxicity and cognitive impairment was studied in male Swiss albino mice. AlCl3 (100 mg/kg) was administered once daily through oral gavage for 42 days. Mangiferin (20 and 40 mg/kg, p.o.) was given to mice for last 21 days of the study. We found cognitive dysfunction in AlCl3-treated group, which was assessed by Morris water maze test, and novel object recognition test. AlCl3-treated group showed elevated level of oxidative stress markers, proinflammatory cytokines level and lowered hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) content. Mangiferin (40 mg/kg) prevented the cognitive deficits, hippocampal BDNF depletion, and biochemical anomalies induced by AlCl3-treatment. In conclusion, our data demonstrated that mangiferin offers neuroprotection in AlCl3-induced neurotoxicity and it may be a potential therapeutic approach in the treatment of oxido-nitrosative stress and inflammation-associated neurotoxicity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of sleep deprivation and exercise on cognitive, motor performance and mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Jonathon P R; McNaughton, Lars R; Polman, Remco C J

    2006-02-28

    This study examined the effect of 30 h of sleep deprivation and intermittent physical exercise, on both cognitive and psychomotor function as well subjective ratings of mood. Six subjects with the following physical characteristics participated in the study (Mean +/- S.D.): age 22 +/- 0.3 years, height 180 +/- 5 cm, body mass: 77 +/- 5 kg, VO2peak 44 +/- 5 ml kg(-1) min(-1). Three subjects engaged in normal sedentary activities while three others cycled on a cycle ergometer at 50% VO2peak for 20 min out of every 2 h during 30 h of sleep deprivation. One week later sleep deprivation was repeated with a cross over of subjects. Every 4 h, subjects completed simple and two-choice reaction time tasks at both rest and during exercise, a computerized tracking task, a number cancellation task, and an assessment of subjective mood state as measured by the POMS questionnaire. A 3 x 4 repeated measures ANOVA revealed that resting but not exercising reaction times were significantly slower with sleep deprivation. Sleep deprivation was also associated with significantly greater negative disturbances to subjective vigour, fatigue and depression assessed by the Profile of Mood States questionnaire. Compared to those who have been deprived of sleep alone, individuals that performed 5 h of intermittent moderate exercise during 30 h of sleep deprivation appeared to be more vulnerable to negative mood disturbances and impairment in reaction times. This could result in greater risk of accident due to a reduced capacity to respond quickly.

  18. Effect of the static magnetic field of the MR-scanner on ERPs: evaluation of visual, cognitive and motor potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assecondi, S; Vanderperren, K; Novitskiy, N; Ramautar, J R; Fias, W; Staelens, S; Stiers, P; Sunaert, S; Van Huffel, S; Lemahieu, I

    2010-05-01

    This work investigates the influence of the static magnetic field of the MR-scanner on ERPs extracted from simultaneous EEG-fMRI recordings. The quality of the ERPs after BallistoCardioGraphic (BCG) artifact removal, as well as the reproducibility of the waveforms in different environments is investigated. We consider a Detection, a Go-Nogo and a Motor task, eliciting peaks that differ in amplitude, latency and scalp topography, repeated in two situations: outside the scanner room (0T) and inside the MR-scanner but without gradients (3T). The BCG artifact is removed by means of three techniques: the Average Artifact Subtraction (AAS) method, the Optimal Basis Set (OBS) method and the Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA) approach. The performance of the three methods depends on the amount of averaged trials. Moreover, differences are found on both amplitude and latency of ERP components recorded in two environments (0T vs 3T). We showed that, while ERPs can be extracted from simultaneous EEG-fMRI data at 3T, the static magnetic field might affect the physiological processes under investigation. The reproducibility of the ERPs in different recording environments (0T vs 3T) is a relevant issue that deserves further investigation to clarify the equivalence of cognitive processes in both behavioral and imaging studies. Copyright 2010 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Do children and adolescent ice hockey players with and without a history of concussion differ in robotic testing of sensory, motor and cognitive function?

    OpenAIRE

    Little, C. Elaine; Emery, Carolyn; Scott, Stephen H.; Meeuwisse, Willem; Palacios-Derflingher, Luz; Dukelow, Sean P.

    2016-01-01

    Background KINARM end point robotic testing on a range of tasks evaluating sensory, motor and cognitive function in children/adolescents with no neurologic impairment has been shown to be reliable. The objective of this study was to determine whether differences in baseline performance on multiple robotic tasks could be identified between pediatric/adolescent ice hockey players (age range 10?14) with and without a history of concussion. Methods Three hundred and eighty-five pediatric/adolesce...

  20. Short-term impact of fampridine on motor and cognitive functions, mood and quality of life among multiple sclerosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavsic, Katja; Pelicon, Katarina; Ledinek, Alenka Horvat; Sega, Sasa

    2015-12-01

    Previous studies have predominantly investigated the effect of fampridine on lower extremities motor functions while data on its impact on other symptoms of multiple sclerosis (MS) are scarce. The aim of our study was to assess the impact of fampridine on walking, arm/hand function, fatigue, cognitive function, mood and quality of life among responders. Our prospective non-randomized study included 30 patients with different types of MS, aged 35-70, EDSS value 3.5-6.5. They were treated with 10mg of fampridine twice daily. The examinations were performed before the treatment, after 14 days, when responders were defined by T25FW (Timed 25-Foot Walk) and 2-min walk test (2MWT) was performed, and after 28 days of treatment, when only the responders were examined. Standardized protocols and questionnaires were used to evaluate the impact of fampridine on walking speed (T25FW, 2MWT), arm/hand function (9-HPT - Nine-Hole Peg Test), cognitive function (PASAT - Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test), total MSFC score (Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite), fatigue (MFIS - Modified Fatigue Impact Scale), mood (BDI - Beck Depression Inventory) and quality of life (EQ-5D index, EQ-VAS - Euro Quality of Life - 5 Dimension questionnaire and visual analogue scale) in responders. Response rate was 56.7%. Average improvement of T25FW and 2MWT after 14 days of treatment in responders was 3.6s (34.5%) and 37.4m (42.3%), respectively. This improvement persisted after 28 days of treatment. In non-responders there was no significant improvement of T25FW after 14 days (p=0.689), but there was improvement of 2MWT for 13.4m (14.3%) (p=0.000). After 28 days of treatment significant improvement among responders occurred in total MSFC score (p=0.001), 9-HPT (p=0.002), BDI (p=0.005), MFIS total score (p=0.003), physical (p=0.001), cognitive (p=0.008) MFIS subscales, and EQ-5D index (p=0.012). There were implied trends towards improvement in EQ-VAS and psychosocial MFIS subscale, yet not

  1. Neuroinflammation increases GABAergic tone and impairs cognitive and motor function in hyperammonemia by increasing GAT-3 membrane expression. Reversal by sulforaphane by promoting M2 polarization of microglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Rabaza, Vicente; Cabrera-Pastor, Andrea; Taoro-Gonzalez, Lucas; Gonzalez-Usano, Alba; Agusti, Ana; Balzano, Tiziano; Llansola, Marta; Felipo, Vicente

    2016-04-18

    Hyperammonemia induces neuroinflammation and increases GABAergic tone in the cerebellum which contributes to cognitive and motor impairment in hepatic encephalopathy (HE). The link between neuroinflammation and GABAergic tone remains unknown. New treatments reducing neuroinflammation and GABAergic tone could improve neurological impairment. The aims were, in hyperammonemic rats, to assess whether: (a) Enhancing endogenous anti-inflammatory mechanisms by sulforaphane treatment reduces neuroinflammation and restores learning and motor coordination. (b) Reduction of neuroinflammation by sulforaphane normalizes extracellular GABA and glutamate-NO-cGMP pathway and identify underlying mechanisms. (c) Identify steps by which hyperammonemia-induced microglial activation impairs cognitive and motor function and how sulforaphane restores them. We analyzed in control and hyperammonemic rats, treated or not with sulforaphane, (a) learning in the Y maze; (b) motor coordination in the beam walking; (c) glutamate-NO-cGMP pathway and extracellular GABA by microdialysis; (d) microglial activation, by analyzing by immunohistochemistry or Western blot markers of pro-inflammatory (M1) (IL-1b, Iba-1) and anti-inflammatory (M2) microglia (Iba1, IL-4, IL-10, Arg1, YM-1); and (e) membrane expression of the GABA transporter GAT-3. Hyperammonemia induces activation of astrocytes and microglia in the cerebellum as assessed by immunohistochemistry. Hyperammonemia-induced neuroinflammation is associated with increased membrane expression of the GABA transporter GAT-3, mainly in activated astrocytes. This is also associated with increased extracellular GABA in the cerebellum and with motor in-coordination and impaired learning ability in the Y maze. Sulforaphane promotes polarization of microglia from the M1 to the M2 phenotype, reducing IL-1b and increasing IL-4, IL-10, Arg1, and YM-1 in the cerebellum. This is associated with astrocytes deactivation and normalization of GAT-3 membrane

  2. Relationship of mercury to cognitive, affective and perceptual motor functioning in a normal sample in Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sine, L.F.

    1983-01-01

    Although the effects of toxic levels of mercury have been well documented, the effects of subclinical levels of mercury on normal populations have generally not been studied. The purpose of this investigation was to assess the impact of mercury risk factors on cognition, affect, psychopathology, and known mercury-related symptoms in a normal sample in Hawaii exposed to subclinical although elevated levels of elemental mercury through inhalation associated with volcanic activity and of methylmercury mostly through ingestion of large ocean species fish. The following summarizes the findings and conclusions of the study: 1) a four week test-retest reliability using 41 of the subjects showed that the 41 measures used in the study exhibited an average correlation of .78. Using all 413 subjects, the average internal consistency measured by Cronbach's ..cap alpha.. was .82 for the 17 affect, psychopathology, and symptom measures; 2) nine mercury source variables were used to predict the amount of total mercury in hair. Interestingly, none of the source variables predicted hair total mercury; 3) the source variables in addition to hair total mercury and statistical control variables were used to predict the twenty-two functioning variables in the four domains cited above with a relative absence of relationships noted. This finding indicates that the normal population in Hawaii appears not to be at risk; and 4) one historical mercury source variable, reported fish intake when young, related to six functioning variables - the psychopathology measures of Somatization, Obsessive-Compulsive and Anxiety as well as the Sensory, Affect and Mental symptoms - with Beta weights in the .15 to .20 range. The implications of the findings were discussed and suggestions offered for future research especially with respect to specific high risk subgroups.

  3. Neonatal pain, parenting stress and interaction, in relation to cognitive and motor development at 8 and 18 months in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunau, Ruth E; Whitfield, Michael F; Petrie-Thomas, Julianne; Synnes, Anne R; Cepeda, Ivan L; Keidar, Adi; Rogers, Marilyn; Mackay, Margot; Hubber-Richard, Philippa; Johannesen, Debra

    2009-05-01

    Procedural pain in the neonatal intensive care unit triggers a cascade of physiological, behavioral and hormonal disruptions which may contribute to altered neurodevelopment in infants born very preterm, who undergo prolonged hospitalization at a time of physiological immaturity and rapid brain development. The aim of this study was to examine relationships between cumulative procedural pain (number of skin-breaking procedures from birth to term, adjusted for early illness severity and overall intravenous morphine exposure), and later cognitive, motor abilities and behavior in very preterm infants at 8 and 18 months corrected chronological age (CCA), and further, to evaluate the extent to which parenting factors modulate these relationships over time. Participants were N=211 infants (n=137 born preterm 32 weeks gestational age [GA] and n=74 full-term controls) followed prospectively since birth. Infants with significant neonatal brain injury (periventricular leucomalacia, grade 3 or 4 intraventricular hemorrhage) and/or major sensori-neural impairments, were excluded. Poorer cognition and motor function were associated with higher number of skin-breaking procedures, independent of early illness severity, overall intravenous morphine, and exposure to postnatal steroids. The number of skin-breaking procedures as a marker of neonatal pain was closely related to days on mechanical ventilation. In general, greater overall exposure to intravenous morphine was associated with poorer motor development at 8 months, but not at 18 months CCA, however, specific protocols for morphine administration were not evaluated. Lower parenting stress modulated effects of neonatal pain, only on cognitive outcome at 18 months.

  4. The effect of a cognitive-motor intervention on voluntary step execution under single and dual task conditions in older adults: a randomized controlled pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pichierri G

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Giuseppe Pichierri,1 Amos Coppe,1 Silvio Lorenzetti,2 Kurt Murer,1 Eling D de Bruin11Institute of Human Movement Sciences and Sport, Department of Health Sciences and Technology, ETH Zurich, Switzerland; 2Institute for Biomechanics, Department of Health Sciences and Technology, ETH Zurich, SwitzerlandBackground: This randomized controlled pilot study aimed to explore whether a cognitive-motor exercise program that combines traditional physical exercise with dance video gaming can improve the voluntary stepping responses of older adults under attention demanding dual task conditions.Methods: Elderly subjects received twice weekly cognitive-motor exercise that included progressive strength and balance training supplemented by dance video gaming for 12 weeks (intervention group. The control group received no specific intervention. Voluntary step execution under single and dual task conditions was recorded at baseline and post intervention (Week 12.Results: After intervention between-group comparison revealed significant differences for initiation time of forward steps under dual task conditions (U = 9, P = 0.034, r = 0.55 and backward steps under dual task conditions (U = 10, P = 0.045, r = 0.52 in favor of the intervention group, showing altered stepping levels in the intervention group compared to the control group.Conclusion: A cognitive-motor intervention based on strength and balance exercises with additional dance video gaming is able to improve voluntary step execution under both single and dual task conditions in older adults.Keywords: fall prevention, exercise, dance, video game

  5. The effect of a cognitive-motor intervention on voluntary step execution under single and dual task conditions in older adults: a randomized controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichierri, Giuseppe; Coppe, Amos; Lorenzetti, Silvio; Murer, Kurt; de Bruin, Eling D

    2012-01-01

    This randomized controlled pilot study aimed to explore whether a cognitive-motor exercise program that combines traditional physical exercise with dance video gaming can improve the voluntary stepping responses of older adults under attention demanding dual task conditions. Elderly subjects received twice weekly cognitive-motor exercise that included progressive strength and balance training supplemented by dance video gaming for 12 weeks (intervention group). The control group received no specific intervention. Voluntary step execution under single and dual task conditions was recorded at baseline and post intervention (Week 12). After intervention between-group comparison revealed significant differences for initiation time of forward steps under dual task conditions (U = 9, P = 0.034, r = 0.55) and backward steps under dual task conditions (U = 10, P = 0.045, r = 0.52) in favor of the intervention group, showing altered stepping levels in the intervention group compared to the control group. A cognitive-motor intervention based on strength and balance exercises with additional dance video gaming is able to improve voluntary step execution under both single and dual task conditions in older adults.

  6. [Attachment and Cognitive and Motor Development in the First Years after Adoption: A Review of Studies on Internationally Adopted Children from China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juffer, Femmie; Finet, Chloe; Vermeer, Harriet; van den Dries, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Due to early-childhood adversity, adopted children often display delays in their cognitive and motor development and have problems developing secure attachment relationships with their adoptive parents. In this review we present the results of all available studies on the attachment and the cognitive and motor development of internationally adopted children from China in the first years after arriving in the adoptive family. Seven pertinent studies were found, based on five samples examined in the USA, Canada, and the Netherlands. Regarding cognitive and motor development (five studies) the adoptees showed a delayed development at arrival in the adoptive family. As soon as six months after arrival the adoptees were, on average, functioning within normal ranges, although their catch-up to non-adopted children was not yet complete. Two years after arrival the catch-up to non-adopted peers appeared to be complete. Regarding attachment (two studies) observations of attachment six and twelve months after adoption showed less secure and more disorganized attachment for the adopted children compared to the normative distribution of non-adopted children. Two years after adoption, observations of attachment confirmed a catch-up in secure attachment, but the adoptees still displayed more insecure disorganized attachment than children in the norm group.

  7. Perceptual-cognitive changes during motor learning: The influence of mental and physical practice on mental representation, gaze behavior, and performance of a complex action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia eFrank

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the wealth of research on differences between experts and novices with respect to their perceptual-cognitive background (e.g., mental representations, gaze behavior, little is known about the change of these perceptual-cognitive components over the course of motor learning. In the present study, changes in one’s mental representation, quiet eye behavior, and outcome performance were examined over the course of skill acquisition as it related to physical and mental practice. Novices (N = 45 were assigned to one of three conditions: physical practice, physical practice plus mental practice, and no practice. Participants in the practice groups trained on a golf putting task over the course of three days, either by repeatedly executing the putt, or by both executing and imaging the putt. Findings revealed improvements in putting performance across both practice conditions. Regarding the perceptual-cognitive changes, participants practicing mentally and physically revealed longer quiet eye durations as well as more elaborate representation structures in comparison to the control group, while this was not the case for participants who underwent physical practice only. Thus, in the present study, combined mental and physical practice led to both formation of mental representations in long-term memory and longer quiet eye durations. Interestingly, the length of the quiet eye directly related to the degree of elaborateness of the underlying mental representation, supporting the notion that the quiet eye reflects cognitive processing. This study is the first to show that the quiet eye becomes longer in novices practicing a motor action. Moreover, the findings of the present study suggest that perceptual and cognitive adaptations co-occur over the course of motor learning.

  8. Perceptual-Cognitive Changes During Motor Learning: The Influence of Mental and Physical Practice on Mental Representation, Gaze Behavior, and Performance of a Complex Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Cornelia; Land, William M; Schack, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Despite the wealth of research on differences between experts and novices with respect to their perceptual-cognitive background (e.g., mental representations, gaze behavior), little is known about the change of these perceptual-cognitive components over the course of motor learning. In the present study, changes in one's mental representation, quiet eye behavior, and outcome performance were examined over the course of skill acquisition as it related to physical and mental practice. Novices (N = 45) were assigned to one of three conditions: physical practice, combined physical plus mental practice, and no practice. Participants in the practice groups trained on a golf putting task over the course of 3 days, either by repeatedly executing the putt, or by both executing and imaging the putt. Findings revealed improvements in putting performance across both practice conditions. Regarding the perceptual-cognitive changes, participants practicing mentally and physically revealed longer quiet eye durations as well as more elaborate representation structures in comparison to the control group, while this was not the case for participants who underwent physical practice only. Thus, in the present study, combined mental and physical practice led to both formation of mental representations in long-term memory and longer quiet eye durations. Interestingly, the length of the quiet eye directly related to the degree of elaborateness of the underlying mental representation, supporting the notion that the quiet eye reflects cognitive processing. This study is the first to show that the quiet eye becomes longer in novices practicing a motor action. Moreover, the findings of the present study suggest that perceptual and cognitive adaptations co-occur over the course of motor learning.

  9. Short-term testosterone manipulations do not affect cognition or motor function but differentially modulate emotions in young and older male rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Brian; Maguire-Herring, Vanessa; Rose, Christian M; Gore, Heather E; Ferrigno, Stephen; Novak, Melinda A; Lacreuse, Agnès

    2014-11-01

    Human aging is characterized by declines in cognition and fine motor function as well as improved emotional regulation. In men, declining levels of testosterone (T) with age have been implicated in the development of these age-related changes. However, studies examining the effects of T replacement on cognition, emotion and fine motor function in older men have not provided consistent results. Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) are excellent models for human cognitive aging and may provide novel insights on this issue. We tested 10 aged intact male rhesus monkeys (mean age=19, range 15-25) on a battery of cognitive, motor and emotional tasks at baseline and under low or high T experimental conditions. Their performance was compared to that of 6 young males previously tested in the same paradigm (Lacreuse et al., 2009; Lacreuse et al., 2010). Following a 4-week baseline testing period, monkeys were treated with a gonadotropin releasing hormone agonist (Depot Lupron, 200 μg/kg) to suppress endogenous T and were tested on the task battery under a 4-week high T condition (injection of Lupron+T enanthate, 20 mg/kg, n=8) or 4-week low T condition (injection of Lupron+oil vehicle, n=8) before crossing over to the opposite treatment. The cognitive tasks consisted of the Delayed Non-Matching-to-Sample (DNMS), the Delayed Response (DR), and the Delayed Recognition Span Test (spatial-DRST). The emotional tasks included an object Approach-Avoidance task and a task in which monkeys were played videos of unfamiliar conspecifics in different emotional context (Social Playbacks). The fine motor task was the Lifesaver task that required monkeys to remove a Lifesaver candy from rods of different complexity. T manipulations did not significantly affect visual recognition memory, working memory, reference memory or fine motor function at any age. In the Approach-Avoidance task, older monkeys, but not younger monkeys, spent more time in proximity of novel objects in the high T condition

  10. Activation of Sigma-1 receptor ameliorates anxiety-like behavior and cognitive impairments in a rat model of post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Li-Li; Peng, Jun-Bo; Fu, Chang-Hai; Cao, Dong; Li, Dan; Tong, Lei; Wang, Zhen-Yu

    2016-09-15

    Among learning and memory processes, fear memories are crucial in some psychiatric disorders like post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Accumulating evidence shows that the sigma-1 receptor (Sig-1R) has comprehensive involvement in cognitive impairment and neuroprotective effects. It has also been reported that BDNF appears to enhance extinction of fear in anxiety disorders via the MAPK signaling cascade. However, it remains unclear whether BDNF-TrkB-MAPK pathway may be mechanistically involved in the therapeutic effect of sigma-1 receptor in the development of PTSD. To address this question, rats were subjected to a classical single-prolonged stress procedure (SPS) and kept undisturbed for 7 days. After that, rats were re-stressed by re-exposure to the forced swim component of SPS (RSPS). Behavior tests were subsequently performed to assess anxiety and cognitive impairments. Furthermore, we analyzed the expression of BDNF and the phosphorylation of TrkB and three MAPK pathways, namely, the ERK, JNK and p38. We found that the levels of BDNF and p-TrkB were increased following the RSPS procedure, which were reversed by the administration of PRE-084. Meanwhile, among the three MAPK signaling pathways, only the p-ERK expression was increased following the RSPS procedure. Collectively, our results indicate that BDNF-TrkB-ERK signaling pathway may be involved in the activation of sigma-1 receptor to yield therapeutic benefits for PTSD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Nutrition, hygiene, and stimulation education to improve growth, cognitive, language, and motor development among infants in Uganda: A cluster-randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhoozi, Grace K M; Atukunda, Prudence; Diep, Lien M; Mwadime, Robert; Kaaya, Archileo N; Skaare, Anne B; Willumsen, Tiril; Westerberg, Ane C; Iversen, Per O

    2018-04-01

    Stunting is associated with impaired cognitive and motor function. The effect of an education intervention including nutrition, stimulation, sanitation, and hygiene on child growth and cognitive/language/motor development, delivered to impoverished mothers in Uganda, was assessed. In a community-based, open cluster-randomized trial, 511 mother/children dyads aged 6-8 months were enrolled to an intervention (n = 263) or control (n = 248) group. The primary outcome was change in length-for-age z-score at age 20-24 months. Secondary outcomes included anthropometry and scores on the 2 developmental scales: Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development-III and the Ages and Stages Questionnaire. There was no evidence of a difference in mean length-for-age z-score at 20-24 months between the 2 study groups: 0.10, 95% CI [-0.17, 0.36], p = .49. The intervention group had higher mean composite development scores than the controls on Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development-III, the mean difference being 15.6, 95% CI [10.9, 20.2], p = .0001; 9.9, 95% CI [6.4, 13.2], p = .0001; and 14.6, 95% CI [10.9, 18.2], p = .0001, for cognitive, language, and motor composite scores, respectively. The mean difference in scores from the Ages and Stages Questionnaire were 7.0, 95% CI [2.9, 11.3], p = .001; 5.9, 95% CI [1.2, 10.3], p = .01; 4.2, 95% CI [1.7, 6.7], p = .001; 8.9, 95% CI [5.3, 12.3], p = .0001; and 4.4, 95% CI [0.0, 8.8], p = .05, for communication, gross motor, fine motor, problem solving, and personal-social development, respectively. The intervention education delivered to mothers promoted early development domains in cognitive, language, and motor development but not linear growth of small children in impoverished rural communities in Uganda. Our study showed that child development may be improved with a relatively low cost intervention strategy. This trial was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov as NCT02098031. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Over the hill at 24: persistent age-related cognitive-motor decline in reaction times in an ecologically valid video game task begins in early adulthood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph J Thompson

    Full Text Available Typically studies of the effects of aging on cognitive-motor performance emphasize changes in elderly populations. Although some research is directly concerned with when age-related decline actually begins, studies are often based on relatively simple reaction time tasks, making it impossible to gauge the impact of experience in compensating for this decline in a real world task. The present study investigates age-related changes in cognitive motor performance through adolescence and adulthood in a complex real world task, the real-time strategy video game StarCraft 2. In this paper we analyze the influence of age on performance using a dataset of 3,305 players, aged 16-44, collected by Thompson, Blair, Chen & Henrey [1]. Using a piecewise regression analysis, we find that age-related slowing of within-game, self-initiated response times begins at 24 years of age. We find no evidence for the common belief expertise should attenuate domain-specific cognitive decline. Domain-specific response time declines appear to persist regardless of skill level. A second analysis of dual-task performance finds no evidence of a corresponding age-related decline. Finally, an exploratory analyses of other age-related differences suggests that older participants may have been compensating for a loss in response speed through the use of game mechanics that reduce cognitive load.

  13. Over the hill at 24: persistent age-related cognitive-motor decline in reaction times in an ecologically valid video game task begins in early adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Joseph J; Blair, Mark R; Henrey, Andrew J

    2014-01-01

    Typically studies of the effects of aging on cognitive-motor performance emphasize changes in elderly populations. Although some research is directly concerned with when age-related decline actually begins, studies are often based on relatively simple reaction time tasks, making it impossible to gauge the impact of experience in compensating for this decline in a real world task. The present study investigates age-related changes in cognitive motor performance through adolescence and adulthood in a complex real world task, the real-time strategy video game StarCraft 2. In this paper we analyze the influence of age on performance using a dataset of 3,305 players, aged 16-44, collected by Thompson, Blair, Chen & Henrey [1]. Using a piecewise regression analysis, we find that age-related slowing of within-game, self-initiated response times begins at 24 years of age. We find no evidence for the common belief expertise should attenuate domain-specific cognitive decline. Domain-specific response time declines appear to persist regardless of skill level. A second analysis of dual-task performance finds no evidence of a corresponding age-related decline. Finally, an exploratory analyses of other age-related differences suggests that older participants may have been compensating for a loss in response speed through the use of game mechanics that reduce cognitive load.

  14. Over the Hill at 24: Persistent Age-Related Cognitive-Motor Decline in Reaction Times in an Ecologically Valid Video Game Task Begins in Early Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Joseph J.; Blair, Mark R.; Henrey, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    Typically studies of the effects of aging on cognitive-motor performance emphasize changes in elderly populations. Although some research is directly concerned with when age-related decline actually begins, studies are often based on relatively simple reaction time tasks, making it impossible to gauge the impact of experience in compensating for this decline in a real world task. The present study investigates age-related changes in cognitive motor performance through adolescence and adulthood in a complex real world task, the real-time strategy video game StarCraft 2. In this paper we analyze the influence of age on performance using a dataset of 3,305 players, aged 16-44, collected by Thompson, Blair, Chen & Henrey [1]. Using a piecewise regression analysis, we find that age-related slowing of within-game, self-initiated response times begins at 24 years of age. We find no evidence for the common belief expertise should attenuate domain-specific cognitive decline. Domain-specific response time declines appear to persist regardless of skill level. A second analysis of dual-task performance finds no evidence of a corresponding age-related decline. Finally, an exploratory analyses of other age-related differences suggests that older participants may have been compensating for a loss in response speed through the use of game mechanics that reduce cognitive load. PMID:24718593

  15. Mesenchymal stem cell-derived extracellular vesicles ameliorate inflammation-induced preterm brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drommelschmidt, Karla; Serdar, Meray; Bendix, Ivo; Herz, Josephine; Bertling, Frederik; Prager, Sebastian; Keller, Matthias; Ludwig, Anna-Kristin; Duhan, Vikas; Radtke, Stefan; de Miroschedji, Kyra; Horn, Peter A; van de Looij, Yohan; Giebel, Bernd; Felderhoff-Müser, Ursula

    2017-02-01

    Preterm brain injury is a major cause of disability in later life, and may result in motor, cognitive and behavioural impairment for which no treatment is currently available. The aetiology is considered as multifactorial, and one underlying key player is inflammation leading to white and grey matter injury. Extracellular vesicles secreted by mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSC-EVs) have shown therapeutic potential in regenerative medicine. Here, we investigated the effects of MSC-EV treatment on brain microstructure and maturation, inflammatory processes and long-time outcome in a rodent model of inflammation-induced brain injury. 3-Day-old Wistar rats (P3) were intraperitoneally injected with 0.25mg/kg lipopolysaccharide or saline and treated with two repetitive doses of 1×10 8 cell equivalents of MSC-EVs per kg bodyweight. Cellular degeneration and reactive gliosis at P5 and myelination at P11 were evaluated by immunohistochemistry and western blot. Long-term cognitive and motor function was assessed by behavioural testing. Diffusion tensor imaging at P125 evaluated long-term microstructural white matter alterations. MSC-EV treatment significantly ameliorated inflammation-induced neuronal cellular degeneration reduced microgliosis and prevented reactive astrogliosis. Short-term myelination deficits and long-term microstructural abnormalities of the white matter were restored by MSC-EV administration. Morphological effects of MSC-EV treatment resulted in improved long-lasting cognitive functions INTERPRETATION: MSC-EVs ameliorate inflammation-induced cellular damage in a rat model of preterm brain injury. MSC-EVs may serve as a novel therapeutic option by prevention of neuronal cell death, restoration of white matter microstructure, reduction of gliosis and long-term functional improvement. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. High-fat-diet-induced weight gain ameliorates bone loss without exacerbating AβPP processing and cognition in female APP/PS1 mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunhua ePeng

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is negatively correlated with body mass, whereas both osteoporosis and weight loss occur at higher incidence during the progression of Alzheimer’s disease (AD than the age-matched non-dementia individuals. Given that there is no evidence that overweight associated with AD-type cognitive dysfunction, we hypothesized that moderate weight gain might have a protective effect on the bone loss in AD without exacerbating cognitive dysfunction. In the present study, feeding a high-fat-diet (HFD, 45% calorie from fat to female APP/PS1 transgenic mice, an AD animal model, induced weight gain. The bone mineral density, microarchitecture, and biomechanical properties of the femurs were then evaluated. The results showed that the middle-aged female APP/PS1 transgenic mice were susceptible to osteoporosis of the femoral bones and that weight gain significantly enhanced bone mass and mechanical properties. Notably, HFD was not detrimental to brain insulin signaling and AβPP processing, as well as to exploration ability and working, learning and memory performance of the transgenic mice measured by T maze and water maze, compared with the mice fed a normal fat diet (10% calorie from fat. In addition, the circulating levels of leptin but not estradiol were remarkably elevated in HFD-treated mice. These results suggest that a body weight gain induced by the HFD feeding regimen significantly improved bone mass in female APP/PS1 mice with no detriments to exploration ability and spatial memory, most likely via the action of elevated circulating leptin.

  17. At the interface of sensory and motor dysfunctions and Alzheimer’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, Mark W.; Gilmore, Grover C.; Kaye, Jeffrey; Murphy, Claire; Wingfield, Arthur; Bennett, David A.; Boxer, Adam L.; Buchman, Aron S.; Cruickshanks, Karen J.; Devanand, Davangere P.; Duffy, Charles J.; Gall, Christine M.; Gates, George A.; Granholm, Ann-Charlotte; Hensch, Takao; Holtzer, Roee; Hyman, Bradley T.; Lin, Frank R.; McKee, Ann C.; Morris, John C.; Petersen, Ronald C.; Silbert, Lisa C.; Struble, Robert G.; Trojanowski, John Q.; Verghese, Joe; Wilson, Donald A.; Xu, Shunbin; Zhang, Li I.

    2014-01-01

    Recent evidence indicates that sensory and motor changes may precede the cognitive symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) by several years and may signify increased risk of developing AD. Traditionally, sensory and motor dysfunctions in aging and AD have been studied separately. To ascertain the evidence supporting the relationship between age-related changes in sensory and motor systems and the development of AD and to facilitate communication between several disciplines, the National Institute on Aging held an exploratory workshop titled “Sensory and Motor Dysfunctions in Aging and Alzheimer’s Disease”. The scientific sessions of the workshop focused on age-related and neuropathological changes in the olfactory, visual, auditory, and motor systems, followed by extensive discussion and hypothesis generation related to the possible links among sensory, cognitive, and motor domains in aging and AD. Based on the data presented and discussed at this workshop, it is clear that sensory and motor regions of the CNS are affected by Alzheimer pathology and that interventions targeting amelioration of sensory-motor deficits in AD may enhance patient function as AD progresses. PMID:25022540

  18. The impact of positive, negative and neutral stimuli in a virtual reality cognitive-motor rehabilitation task: a pilot study with stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameirão, Mónica S; Faria, Ana Lúcia; Paulino, Teresa; Alves, Júlio; Bermúdez I Badia, Sergi

    2016-08-09

    Virtual Reality (VR) based methods for stroke rehabilitation have mainly focused on motor rehabilitation, but there is increasing interest in integrating motor and cognitive training to increase similarity to real-world settings. Unfortunately, more research is needed for the definition of which type of content should be used in the design of these tools. One possibility is the use of emotional stimuli, which are known to enhance attentional processes. According to the Socioemotional Selectivity Theory, as people age, the emotional salience arises for positive and neutral, but not for negative stimuli. For this study we developed a cognitive-motor VR task involving attention and short-term memory, and we investigated the impact of using emotional images of varying valence. The task consisted of finding a target image, shown for only two seconds, among fourteen neutral distractors, and selecting it through arm movements. After performing the VR task, a recall task took place and the patients had to identify the target images among a valence-matched number of distractors. Ten stroke patients participated in a within-subjects experiment with three conditions based on the valence of the images: positive, negative and neutral. Eye movements were recorded during VR task performance with an eye tracking system. Our results show decreased attention for negative stimuli in the VR task performance when compared to neutral stimuli. The recall task shows significantly more wrongly identified images (false memories) for negative stimuli than for neutral. Regression and correlation analyses with the Montreal Cognitive Assessment and the Geriatric Depression Scale revealed differential effects of cognitive function and depressive symptomatology in the encoding and recall of positive, negative and neutral images. Further, eye movement data shows reduced search patterns for wrongly selected stimuli containing emotional content. The results of this study suggest that it is feasible

  19. Cognitive motor interference for preventing falls in older adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xueqiang; Pi, Yanling; Chen, Peijie; Liu, Yu; Wang, Ru; Chan, Chetwyn

    2015-03-01

    We conducted a systematic review to determine the effect of cognitive motor interference (CMI) for the prevention of falls in older adults. We searched studies through Medline, Embase, the Cochrane Library, Web of Science, CINAHL, PEDro and the China Biology Medicine disc. Only randomised controlled trials examining the effects of CMI for older people were included. The primary outcome measure was falls; the secondary outcome measures included gait, balance function and reaction time. A total of 30 studies of 1,206 participants met the inclusion criteria, and 27 studies of 1,165 participants were used as data sources for the meta-analyses. The pooling revealed that CMI was superior to control group for fall rate [standard mean difference (SMD) (95% CI)=-3.03 (-4.33, -1.73), P<0.0001], gait speed [SMD (95% CI)=0.36 (0.07, 0.66), P=0.01], step length [SMD (95% CI)=0.48 (0.16, 0.80), P=0.003], cadence [SMD (95% CI)=0.19 (0.01, 0.36), P=0.03], timed up and go test [SMD (95% CI)=-0.22 (-0.38, -0.06), P=0.007], centre of pressure displacement [SMD (95% CI)=-0.32 (-1.06, 0.43), P=0.04] and reaction time [SMD (95% CI)=-0.47 (-0.86, -0.08), P=0.02]. The systematic review demonstrates that CMI is effective for preventing falls in older adults in the short term. However, there is, as yet, little evidence to support claims regarding long-term benefits. Hence, future studies should investigate the long-term effectiveness of CMI in terms of fall prevention in older adults. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. An Evolutionary Upgrade of Cognitive Load Theory: Using the Human Motor System and Collaboration to Support the Learning of Complex Cognitive Tasks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.W.C. Paas (Fred); J. Sweller (John)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractCognitive load theory is intended to provide instructional strategies derived from experimental, cognitive load effects. Each effect is based on our knowledge of human cognitive architecture, primarily the limited capacity and duration of a human working memory. These limitations are

  1. Cortical thickness in de novo patients with Parkinson disease and mild cognitive impairment with consideration of clinical phenotype and motor laterality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danti, S; Toschi, N; Diciotti, S; Tessa, C; Poletti, M; Del Dotto, P; Lucetti, C

    2015-12-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder with motor and non-motor symptoms, including cognitive deficits. Several magnetic resonance imaging approaches have been applied to investigate brain atrophy in PD. The aim of this study was to detect early structural cortical and subcortical changes in de novo PD whilst distinguishing cognitive status, clinical phenotype and motor laterality. Eighteen de novo PD with mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI), 18 de novo PD without MCI (PD-NC) and 18 healthy control subjects were evaluated. In the PD-MCI group, nine were tremor dominant and nine were postural instability gait disorder (PIGD) phenotype; 11 had right-sided symptom dominance and seven had left-sided symptom dominance. FreeSurfer was used to measure cortical thickness/folding, subcortical structures and to study group differences as well as the association with clinical and neuropsychological data. Parkinson's disease with MCI showed regional thinning in the right frontal, right middle temporal areas and left insula compared to PD-NC. A reduction of the volume of the left and right thalamus and left hippocampus was found in PD-MCI compared to PD-NC. PD-MCI PIGD showed regional thinning in the right inferior parietal area compared to healthy controls. A decreased volume of the left thalamus was reported in PD-MCI with right-sided symptom dominance compared to PD-NC and PD-MCI with left-sided symptom dominance. When MCI was present, PD patients showed a fronto-temporo-parietal pattern of cortical thinning. This cortical pattern does not appear to be influenced by motor laterality, although one-sided symptom dominance may contribute to volumetric reduction of specific subcortical structures. © 2015 EAN.

  2. Neuroprotective Effect of Portulaca oleraceae Ethanolic Extract Ameliorates Methylmercury Induced Cognitive Dysfunction and Oxidative Stress in Cerebellum and Cortex of Rat Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumathi, Thangarajan; Christinal, Johnson

    2016-07-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is highly toxic, and its principal target tissue in human is the nervous system, which has made MeHg intoxication a public health concern for many decades. Portulaca oleraceae (purslane), a member of the Portulacaceae family, is widespread as a weed and has been ranked the eighth most common plant in the world. In this study, we sought for potential beneficial effects of Portulaca oleracea ethanolic extract (POEE) against the neurotoxicity induced by MeHg in cerebellum and cortex of rats. Male Wistar rats were administered with MeHg orally at a dose of 5 mg/kg b.w. for 21 days. Experimental rats were given MeHg and also administered with POEE (4 mg/kg, orally) 1 h prior to the administration of MeHg for 21 days. After MeHg exposure, we determine the mercury concentration by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS); mercury content was observed high in MeHg-induced group. POEE reduced the mercury content. We also observed that the activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and the level of glutathione were reduced. The levels of glutathione reductase and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance were found to be increased. The above biochemical changes were found to be reversed with POEE. Behavioral changes like decrease tail flick response, longer immobility time, and decreased motor activity were noted down during MeHg exposure. POEE pretreatment offered protection from these behavioral changes. MeHg intoxication also caused histopathological changes in cerebellum and cortex, which was found to be normalized by treatment with POEE. The present results indicate that POEE has protective effect against MeHg-induced neurotoxicity.

  3. Cognitive loading affects motor awareness and movement kinematics but not locomotor trajectories during goal-directed walking in a virtual reality environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Alan Kannape

    Full Text Available The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of cognitive loading on movement kinematics and trajectory formation during goal-directed walking in a virtual reality (VR environment. The secondary objective was to measure how participants corrected their trajectories for perturbed feedback and how participants' awareness of such perturbations changed under cognitive loading. We asked 14 healthy young adults to walk towards four different target locations in a VR environment while their movements were tracked and played back in real-time on a large projection screen. In 75% of all trials we introduced angular deviations of ±5° to ±30° between the veridical walking trajectory and the visual feedback. Participants performed a second experimental block under cognitive load (serial-7 subtraction, counter-balanced across participants. We measured walking kinematics (joint-angles, velocity profiles and motor performance (end-point-compensation, trajectory-deviations. Motor awareness was determined by asking participants to rate the veracity of the feedback after every trial. In-line with previous findings in natural settings, participants displayed stereotypical walking trajectories in a VR environment. Our results extend these findings as they demonstrate that taxing cognitive resources did not affect trajectory formation and deviations although it interfered with the participants' movement kinematics, in particular walking velocity. Additionally, we report that motor awareness was selectively impaired by the secondary task in trials with high perceptual uncertainty. Compared with data on eye and arm movements our findings lend support to the hypothesis that the central nervous system (CNS uses common mechanisms to govern goal-directed movements, including locomotion. We discuss our results with respect to the use of VR methods in gait control and rehabilitation.

  4. Purple Sweet Potato Color Ameliorates Cognition Deficits and Attenuates Oxidative Damage and Inflammation in Aging Mouse Brain Induced by D-Galactose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Qun; Lu, Jun; Zheng, Yuanlin; Li, Jing; Zhou, Zhong; Hu, Bin; Zhang, Zifeng; Fan, Shaohua; Mao, Zhen; Wang, Yong-jian; Ma, Daifu

    2009-01-01

    Purple sweet potato color (PSPC), a naturally occurring anthocyanin, has a powerful antioxidant activity in vitro and in vivo. This study explores whether PSPC has the neuroprotective effect on the aging mouse brain induced by D-galactose (D-gal). The mice administrated with PSPC (100 mg/kg.day, 4 weeks, from 9th week) via oral gavage showed significantly improved behavior performance in the open field and passive avoidance test compared with D-gal-treated mice (500 mg/kg.day, 8 weeks). We further investigate the mechanism involved in neuroprotective effects of PSPC on mouse brain. Interestingly, we found, PSPC decreased the expression level of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), inhibited nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB), increased the activity of copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn-SOD) and catalase (CAT), and reduced the content of malondialdehyde (MDA), respectively. Our data suggested that PSPC attenuated D-gal-induced cognitive impairment partly via enhancing the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory capacity. PMID:19865488

  5. Heme Oxygenase-1 Activity as a Correlate to Exercise-Mediated Amelioration of Cognitive Decline and Neuropathological Alterations in an Aging Rat Model of Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Kurucz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD is a neurodegenerative disorder with cognitive impairment. Physical exercise has long been proven to be beneficial in the disorder. The present study was designed to examine the effect of voluntary exercise on spatial memory, imaging, and pathological abnormalities. Particular focus has been given to the role of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1—an important cellular cytoprotectant in preserving mental acuity—using an aging rat model of dementia. Male and female Wistar rats were segregated into six groups—namely, (i aged sedentary (control females (ASF, n=8; (ii aged sedentary (control males (ASM, n=8; (iii aged running females (ARF, n=8; (iv aged running males (ARM, n=8; (v young control females (YCF, n=8; and (vi young control males (YCM, n=8. Rats in the ARF and ARM groups had free access to a standardized inbuilt running wheel during the 3-month evaluation period. Spatial memory was investigated using the Morris Water Test, imaging and pathological alterations were assessed using positron emission tomography (PET imaging and histopathological examinations (H&E, Congo red staining, respectively, and HO-1 enzyme activity assays were also conducted. The outcomes suggest that voluntary physical exercise mitigates impaired spatial memory and neuropathological changes exhibited by the aging sedentary group, via elevated HO-1 activity, contributing to the antioxidant capacity in the aging brain.

  6. Purple Sweet Potato Color Ameliorates Cognition Deficits and Attenuates Oxidative Damage and Inflammation in Aging Mouse Brain Induced by D-Galactose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qun Shan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Purple sweet potato color (PSPC, a naturally occurring anthocyanin, has a powerful antioxidant activity in vitro and in vivo. This study explores whether PSPC has the neuroprotective effect on the aging mouse brain induced by D-galactose (D-gal. The mice administrated with PSPC (100 mg/kg.day, 4 weeks, from 9th week via oral gavage showed significantly improved behavior performance in the open field and passive avoidance test compared with D-gal-treated mice (500 mg/kg.day, 8 weeks. We further investigate the mechanism involved in neuroprotective effects of PSPC on mouse brain. Interestingly, we found, PSPC decreased the expression level of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2, inhibited nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB, increased the activity of copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn-SOD and catalase (CAT, and reduced the content of malondialdehyde (MDA, respectively. Our data suggested that PSPC attenuated D-gal-induced cognitive impairment partly via enhancing the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory capacity.

  7. Different MK-801 administration schedules induce mild to severe learning impairments in an operant conditioning task: role of buspirone and risperidone in ameliorating these cognitive deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapanelli, Maximiliano; Frick, Luciana Romina; Bernardez-Vidal, Micaela; Zanutto, Bonifacio Silvano

    2013-11-15

    Blockade of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDA) by the noncompetitive NMDA receptor (NMDAR) antagonist MK-801 produces behavioral abnormalities and alterations in prefrontal cortex (PFC) functioning. Due to the critical role of the PFC in operant conditioning task learning, we evaluated the effects of acute, repeated postnatal injections of MK-801 (0.1mg/kg) on learning performance. We injected Long-Evans rats i.p. with MK-801 (0.1mg/kg) using three different administration schedules: injection 40 min before beginning the task (during) (n=12); injection twice daily for six consecutive days prior to beginning the experimental procedures (prior) (n=12); or twice daily subcutaneous injections from postnatal day 7 to 11 (postnatal) (n=12). Next, we orally administered risperidone (serotonin receptor 2A and dopamine receptor 2 antagonist, 1mg/kg) or buspirone (serotonin receptor 1A partial agonist, 10mg/kg) to animals treated with the MK-801 schedule described above. The postnatal and prior administration schedules produced severe learning deficits, whereas injection of MK-801 just before training sessions had only mild effects on acquisition of an operant conditioning. Risperidone was able to reverse the detrimental effect of MK-801 in the animals that were treated with MK-801 during and prior training sessions. In contrast, buspirone was only effective at mitigating the cognitive deficits induced by MK-801 when administered during the training procedures. The data demonstrates that NMDA antagonism disrupts basic mechanisms of learning in a simple PFC-mediated operant conditioning task, and that buspirone and risperidone failed to attenuate the learning deficits when NMDA neurotransmission was blocked in the early stages of the postnatal period. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Inhaled essential oil from Chamaecyparis obtuse ameliorates the impairments of cognitive function induced by injection of β-amyloid in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Donghyuck; Seol, Heejin; Yoon, Ho-Geun; Na, Ju-Ryun; Oh, Kyonyeo; Choi, Chul Yung; Lee, Dong-wook; Jun, Woojin; Youl Lee, Kwang; Lee, Jeongmin; Hwang, Kwontack; Lee, Yoo-Hyun; Kim, Sunoh

    2012-07-01

    Chamaecyparis obtusa Sieb. & Zucc., Endlicher (Cupressaceae) forest bathing or aromatherapy has been shown in various studies to have biological functions such as anticancer, antiallergies, antiinflammatory, and antioxidant activity. However, no reports exist on the pharmacological or biological activities of the essential oil of C. obtusa (EOCO) or its effects on central nervous system. The aggregation and formation of β-amyloid peptides (Aβ) into fibrils are central events in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), and overproduction and aggregation of Aβ into oligomers have been known to trigger neurotoxicity. In this study, we investigated the effects of inhaled EOCO on cognitive function and neuronal apoptosis in rats intrahippocampally injected with Aβ. To model AD, 4 μg of aggregated Aβ was injected into the hippocampus. To test the effects of EOCO, behavioral performance in the Morris water maze was tested 4 days after injection. After behavioral testing, brain sections were prepared for TTC staining and TUNEL assay. Inhaled EOCO protected spatial learning and memory from the impairments induced by Aβ(1-40) injection. In addition, the behavioral deficits accompanying Aβ(1-40)-induced AD were attenuated by inhalation of EOCO. Furthermore, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and neuronal apoptosis were significantly inhibited in rats treated with Aβ(1-40) and EOCO compared to rats treated only with Aβ(1-40). EOCO suppressed both AD-related neuronal cell apoptosis and AD-related dysfunction of the memory system. Thus, the results of this study support EOCO as a candidate drug for the treatment of AD.

  9. Common Cognitive Deficits in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Autism: Working Memory and Visual-Motor Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englund, Julia A.; Decker, Scott L.; Allen, Ryan A.; Roberts, Alycia M.

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive deficits in working memory (WM) are characteristic features of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and autism. However, few studies have investigated cognitive deficits using a wide range of cognitive measures. We compared children with ADHD ("n" = 49) and autism ("n" = 33) with a demographically matched…

  10. Do children and adolescent ice hockey players with and without a history of concussion differ in robotic testing of sensory, motor and cognitive function?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, C Elaine; Emery, Carolyn; Scott, Stephen H; Meeuwisse, Willem; Palacios-Derflingher, Luz; Dukelow, Sean P

    2016-10-12

    KINARM end point robotic testing on a range of tasks evaluating sensory, motor and cognitive function in children/adolescents with no neurologic impairment has been shown to be reliable. The objective of this study was to determine whether differences in baseline performance on multiple robotic tasks could be identified between pediatric/adolescent ice hockey players (age range 10-14) with and without a history of concussion. Three hundred and eighty-five pediatric/adolescent ice hockey players (ages 10-14) completed robotic testing (94 with and 292 without a history of concussion). Five robotic tasks characterized sensorimotor and/or cognitive performance with assessment of reaching, position sense, bimanual motor function, visuospatial skills, attention and decision-making. Seventy-six performance parameters are reported across all tasks. There were no significant differences in performance demonstrated between children with a history of concussion [median number of days since last concussion: 480 (range 8-3330)] and those without across all five tasks. Performance by the children with no history of concussion was used to identify parameter reference ranges that spanned 95 % of the group. All 76 parameter means from the concussion group fell within the normative reference ranges. There are no differences in sensorimotor and/or cognitive performance across multiple parameters using KINARM end point robotic testing in children/adolescents with or without a history of concussion.

  11. UCCB01-125, a dimeric inhibitor of PSD-95, reduces inflammatory pain without disrupting cognitive or motor performance: Comparison with the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Jesper T.; Bach, Anders; Gynther, Mikko

    2013-01-01

    Excessive N-Methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)-dependent production of nitric oxide (NO) is involved in the development and maintenance of chronic pain states, and is mediated by postsynaptic density protein-95 (PSD-95). By binding to both the NMDAR and neuronal NO synthase (nNOS), PSD-95 mediates...... a specific coupling between NMDAR activation and NO production. NMDAR antagonism shows anti-nociceptive action in humans and animal models of chronic pain but is associated with severe disturbances of cognitive and motor functions. An alternative approach to modulate the NMDAR-related activity is to perturb......'s adjuvant (CFA) model of inflammatory pain. To examine side-effect profiles we also compared the effects of UCCB01-125 and MK-801 in tests of attention, long-term memory, and motor performance. When administered concurrently with CFA, both MK-801 and UCCB01-125 prevented the development of CFA...

  12. Identifying Motor, Emotional-Behavioral, and Cognitive Deficits that Comprise the Triad of HD Symptoms from Patient, Caregiver, and Provider Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Victorson

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objective of this study was to identify important attributes associated with the triad of symptoms (cognition, emotional–behavioral, and motor of Huntington's disease (HD from patient, caregiver, and medical provider perspectives to facilitate development of a new disease‐specific, health‐related quality of life (HRQOL instrument. Methods: We conducted a targeted literature review of HD and HRQOL instruments, expert surveys, and patient and caregiver phone‐based interviews to extract information on the symptoms and issues most relevant to the HD symptom triad (HD triad. The data collected from these sources were used to generate themes and subdomains and to develop an integrated schema that highlights the key dimensions of the triad. Results: The search identified the following areas: emotional functioning/behavioral changes (e.g., positive emotions, sadness/depression; cognitive functioning (e.g., memory/learning, attention/comprehension; physical functioning (e.g., motor functioning, medication; social functioning (e.g., leisure, interpersonal relationships; end‐of‐life concerns/planning; and gene testing. Fifteen individuals diagnosed with HD and 16 HD caregivers, recruited from several Huntington's Disease Society of America support group networks, completed phone interviews. Nineteen US medical providers who specialize in HD completed the online survey. Twenty‐six subdomains of the HD symptom triad (seven cognition, 12 emotional–behavioral, and seven motor emerged relatively consistently across patient, caregiver, and provider samples. These included movements/chorea, memory impairment, depression, and anxiety. Discussion: Based on an integrated, mixed‐methods approach, important HD triad symptom were identified and organized into a guiding schema. These patient‐, caregiver‐, and provider‐triangulated data served as the basis for development of a HD‐specific HRQOL instrument, the HD‐PRO‐TRIAD™.

  13. How motor, cognitive and musical expertise shapes the brain: Focus on fMRI and EEG resting-state functional connectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cantou, Pauline; Platel, Hervé; Desgranges, Béatrice

    2017-01-01

    Brain activity and structure are shaped by life experiences. This plasticity has often been demonstrated with different types of expertise by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and electroencephalography (EEG). Experts showed domain-specific functional neural changes during......-dependent (BOLD) and spontaneous neural activity fluctuations at rest. Since these correlations are thought to reflect a prior history co-activation of brain regions, we propose reviewing studies that focused on the effects of expertise in the motor, cognitive and musical domains on brain plasticity at rest...

  14. Ameliorative effect of the hydroethanolic whole plant extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    At the end of the study, biochemical markers of nitrosative and oxidative stress status were determined. Results: DH (12.5, 50 and 100 mg/kg) significantly ameliorated haloperidol-induced catalepsy (bar test), spontaneous motor and working memory deficits (open field and elevated plus maze tests, respectively), ...

  15. Translating the Cognitive Model of PTSD to the Treatment of Very Young Children: A Single Case Study of an 8-Year-Old Motor Vehicle Accident Survivor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodall, Benjamin; Chadwick, Isobel; McKinnon, Anna; Werner-Seidler, Aliza; Meiser-Stedman, Richard; Smith, Patrick; Dalgleish, Tim

    2017-05-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a clinical condition that occurs after a discrete traumatic event, such as an accident or assault. Research into PTSD has primarily been adult-focused; however, there is a growing body of evidence evaluating the theory and treatment of PTSD in young children. Consequently, cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) interventions for PTSD in youth have been developed that focus on 3 core components of the cognitive model-a disorganized memory of the trauma, maladaptive appraisals of the trauma and its effects (meanings), and dysfunctional coping mechanisms (management). Here, we describe the extension of this treatment approach (termed CBT-3M) to very young children (3-8 years) through the case of Dylan, an 8-year-old motor vehicle accident survivor. This serves as an illustration of the underlying theory and its successful application. Further work is intended to provide evidence of the efficacy of this treatment via an ongoing treatment trial. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Physical activity level in people with age related white matter changes correlates to better motor performance, lower comorbidity and higher cognitive level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettersson, Anna F; Wahlund, Lars-Olof; Bronge, Lena; Olsson, Elisabeth; Amberla, Kaarina; Baezner, Hansjoerg; Crisby, Milita

    2017-07-12

    Physical activity plays a pivotal role in the development of disability and may modify the negative effect of vascular risk factors on progression of both cardio and cerebrovascular disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate the activity level in people with age-related white matter changes as identified on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in relation to motor performance, cognition and perceived health. Data came from the first year follow up of one participating centers of the LADIS study. Fifty one subjects were first enrolled in the study. Complete first year follow up data was available for 41 subjects. Information on comorbidity, physical activity level, physical function, cognition, level of white matter changes and perceived health was collected. Physical activity level was classified with a yes or no question and with the Frenchay Activities Index (FAI). Only 36% of the subjects in this study were physically active according to the yes/no question. 27.5% of the subjects were active according to the FAI score which evaluates the everyday activities. Being active discriminated subjects with better physical function. Subjects active according to the FAI score had a higher cognitive level (p ≤ 0.01), lower comorbidity (p = 0.02) and performed better on all motor function tasks as assessed by walking speed (p ≤ 0.01) and the Short Physical Performance battery (SPPB) (p ≤ 0.01). Being physically active seems to be a long term protective factor. In our study, the majority of subjects with Age Related White Mattter Changes (ARWMC) with no or mild Instrumental Activity of Daily Living (IADL) disability did not attain recommended level of activity at first year follow up. Whether or not increasing physical activity may slow down cognitive decline and lessen development of disability in physically inactive subjects with manifest ARWC remains to be studied. not applicable.

  17. Acute, transient hemorrhagic hypotension does not aggravate structural damage or neurologic motor deficits but delays the long-term cognitive recovery following mild to moderate traumatic brain injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schütz, Christian; Stover, John F.; Thompson, Hilaire J.; Hoover, Rachel C.; Morales, Diego M.; Schouten, Joost W.; McMillan, Asenia; Soltesz, Kristie; Motta, Melissa; Spangler, Zachery; Neugebauer, Edmund; McIntosh, Tracy K.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives Posttraumatic hypotension is believed to increase morbidity and mortality in traumatically brain-injured patients. Using a clinically relevant model of combined traumatic brain injury with superimposed hemorrhagic hypotension in rats, the present study evaluated whether a reduction in mean arterial blood pressure aggravates regional brain edema formation, regional cell death, and neurologic motor/cognitive deficits associated with traumatic brain injury. Design Experimental prospective, randomized study in rodents. Setting Experimental laboratory at a university hospital. Subjects One hundred nineteen male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 350-385 g. Interventions Experimental traumatic brain injury of mild to moderate severity was induced using the lateral fluid percussion brain injury model in anesthetized rats (n = 89). Following traumatic brain injury, in surviving animals one group of animals was subjected to pressure-controlled hemorrhagic hypotension, maintaining the mean arterial blood pressure at 50-60 mm Hg for 30 mins (n = 47). The animals were subsequently either resuscitated with lactated Ringer’s solution (three times shed blood volume, n = 18) or left uncompensated (n = 29). Other groups of animals included those with isolated traumatic brain injury (n = 34), those with isolated hemorrhagic hypotension (n = 8), and sham-injured control animals receiving anesthesia and surgery alone (n = 22). Measurements and Main Results The withdrawal of 6-7 mL of arterial blood significantly reduced mean arterial blood pressure by 50% without decreasing arterial oxygen saturation or Pao2. Brain injury induced significant cerebral edema (p hypotension. Brain injury-induced neurologic deficits persisted up to 20 wks after injury and were also not aggravated by the hemorrhagic hypotension. Cognitive dysfunction persisted for up to 16 wks postinjury. The superimposition of hemorrhagic hypotension significantly delayed the time course of cognitive recovery

  18. Performance of Male and Female C57BL/6J Mice on Motor and Cognitive Tasks Commonly Used in Pre-Clinical Traumatic Brain Injury Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Laura B; Fu, Amanda H; McCabe, Joseph T

    2016-05-01

    To date, clinical trials have failed to find an effective therapy for victims of traumatic brain injury (TBI) who live with motor, cognitive, and psychiatric complaints. Pre-clinical investigators are now encouraged to include male and female subjects in all translational research, which is of particular interest in the field of neurotrauma given that circulating female hormones (progesterone and estrogen) have been demonstrated to exert neuroprotective effects. To determine whether behavior of male and female C57BL6/J mice is differentially impaired by TBI, male and cycling female mice were injured by controlled cortical impact and tested for several weeks with functional assessments commonly employed in pre-clinical research. We found that cognitive and motor impairments post-TBI, as measured by the Morris water maze (MWM) and rotarod, respectively, were largely equivalent in male and female animals. However, spatial working memory, assessed by the y-maze, was poorer in female mice. Female mice were generally more active, as evidenced by greater distance traveled in the first exposure to the open field, greater distance in the y-maze, and faster swimming speeds in the MWM. Statistical analysis showed that variability in all behavioral data was no greater in cycling female mice than it was in male mice. These data all suggest that with careful selection of tests, procedures, and measurements, both sexes can be included in translational TBI research without concern for effect of hormones on functional impairments or behavioral variability.

  19. Predicting athletic performance with self-confidence and somatic and cognitive anxiety as a function of motor and physiological requirements in six sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, J

    1987-03-01

    The purpose of the present study is to examine the ability of certain psychological attributes to predict performance in six National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I collegiate sports. Eighty-four athletes from the varsity sports teams of cross country running, alpine and nordic skiing, tennis, basketball, and track and field at the University of Colorado completed a questionnaire adapted from Martens (1977; Martens et al., 1983) that measured their trait levels of self-confidence (Bandura, 1977), somatic anxiety, and cognitive anxiety (Martens, 1977; Martens et al., 1983). In addition, at three to six competitions during the season, the members of the cross country running and tennis teams filled out a state measure (Martens et al., 1983) of the three attributes from one to two hours prior to the competition. Following each competition, subjective and objective ratings of performance were obtained, and, for all sports, coaches' ratings of performance and an overall seasonal team ranking were determined as seasonal performance measures. The sports were dichotomized along motor and physiological dimensions. Results indicate that all three psychological attributes were significant predictors of performance in both fine motor, anaerobic sports and gross motor, aerobic sports. Further, clear differences in these relationships emerged as a function of the dichotomization. In addition, unexpected sex differences emerged. The findings are discussed relative to prior research and their implications for future research.

  20. Exercise-related cognitive effects on sensory-motor control in athletes and drummers compared to non-athletes and other musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, V; Berchicci, M; Perri, R L; Quinzi, F; Di Russo, F

    2017-09-30

    Both playing a musical instrument and playing sport produce brain adaptations that might affect sensory-motor functions. While the benefits of sport practice have traditionally been attributed to aerobic fitness, it is still unknown whether playing an instrument might induce similar brain adaptations, or if a specific musical instrument like drums might be associated to specific benefits because of its high energy expenditure. Since the aerobic costs of playing drums was estimated to be comparable to those of average sport activities, we hypothesized that these two groups might show both behavioral and neurocognitive similarities. To test this hypothesis, we recruited 48 young adults and divided them into four age-matched groups: 12 drummers, 12 athletes, 12 no-drummer musicians and 12 non-athletes. Participants performed a visuo-motor discriminative response task, namely the Go/No-go, and their cortical activity was recorded by means of a 64-channel electroencephalography (EEG). Behavioral performance showed that athletes and drummers were faster than the other groups. Electrophysiological results showed that the pre-stimulus motor preparation (i.e. the Bereitschaftspotential or BP) and attentional control (i.e., the prefrontal negativity or pN), and specific post-stimulus components like the P3 and the pP2 (reflecting the stimulus categorization process) were enhanced in the athletes and drummers' groups. Overall, these results suggest that playing sport and drums led to similar benefits at behavioral and cognitive level as detectable in a cognitive task. Explanations of these findings, such as on the difference between drummers and other musicians, are provided in terms of long-term neural adaptation mechanisms and increased visuo-spatial abilities. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of age on the soccer-specific cognitive-motor performance of elite young soccer players: Comparison between objective measurements and coaches’ evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauvin, Alan; Chassot, Steve; Chenevière, Xavier; Taube, Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    The cognitive-motor performance (CMP), defined here as the capacity to rapidly use sensory information and transfer it into efficient motor output, represents a major contributor to performance in almost all sports, including soccer. Here, we used a high-technology system (COGNIFOOT) which combines a visual environment simulator fully synchronized with a motion capture system. This system allowed us to measure objective real-time CMP parameters (passing accuracy/speed and response times) in a large turf-artificial grass playfield. Forty-six (46) young elite soccer players (including 2 female players) aged between 11 and 16 years who belonged to the same youth soccer academy were tested. Each player had to pass the ball as fast and as accurately as possible towards visual targets projected onto a large screen located 5.32 meters in front of him (a short pass situation). We observed a linear age-related increase in the CMP: the passing accuracy, speed and reactiveness of players improved by 4 centimeters, 2.3 km/h and 30 milliseconds per year of age, respectively. These data were converted into 5 point-scales and compared to the judgement of expert coaches, who also used a 5 point-scale to evaluate the same CMP parameters but based on their experience with the players during games and training. The objectively-measured age-related CMP changes were also observed in expert coaches’ judgments although these were more variable across coaches and age categories. This demonstrates that high-technology systems like COGNIFOOT can be used in complement to traditional approaches of talent identification and to objectively monitor the progress of soccer players throughout a cognitive-motor training cycle. PMID:28953958

  2. Effects of age on the soccer-specific cognitive-motor performance of elite young soccer players: Comparison between objective measurements and coaches' evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicheur, Halim; Chauvin, Alan; Chassot, Steve; Chenevière, Xavier; Taube, Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    The cognitive-motor performance (CMP), defined here as the capacity to rapidly use sensory information and transfer it into efficient motor output, represents a major contributor to performance in almost all sports, including soccer. Here, we used a high-technology system (COGNIFOOT) which combines a visual environment simulator fully synchronized with a motion capture system. This system allowed us to measure objective real-time CMP parameters (passing accuracy/speed and response times) in a large turf-artificial grass playfield. Forty-six (46) young elite soccer players (including 2 female players) aged between 11 and 16 years who belonged to the same youth soccer academy were tested. Each player had to pass the ball as fast and as accurately as possible towards visual targets projected onto a large screen located 5.32 meters in front of him (a short pass situation). We observed a linear age-related increase in the CMP: the passing accuracy, speed and reactiveness of players improved by 4 centimeters, 2.3 km/h and 30 milliseconds per year of age, respectively. These data were converted into 5 point-scales and compared to the judgement of expert coaches, who also used a 5 point-scale to evaluate the same CMP parameters but based on their experience with the players during games and training. The objectively-measured age-related CMP changes were also observed in expert coaches' judgments although these were more variable across coaches and age categories. This demonstrates that high-technology systems like COGNIFOOT can be used in complement to traditional approaches of talent identification and to objectively monitor the progress of soccer players throughout a cognitive-motor training cycle.

  3. Effects of age on the soccer-specific cognitive-motor performance of elite young soccer players: Comparison between objective measurements and coaches' evaluation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halim Hicheur

    Full Text Available The cognitive-motor performance (CMP, defined here as the capacity to rapidly use sensory information and transfer it into efficient motor output, represents a major contributor to performance in almost all sports, including soccer. Here, we used a high-technology system (COGNIFOOT which combines a visual environment simulator fully synchronized with a motion capture system. This system allowed us to measure objective real-time CMP parameters (passing accuracy/speed and response times in a large turf-artificial grass playfield. Forty-six (46 young elite soccer players (including 2 female players aged between 11 and 16 years who belonged to the same youth soccer academy were tested. Each player had to pass the ball as fast and as accurately as possible towards visual targets projected onto a large screen located 5.32 meters in front of him (a short pass situation. We observed a linear age-related increase in the CMP: the passing accuracy, speed and reactiveness of players improved by 4 centimeters, 2.3 km/h and 30 milliseconds per year of age, respectively. These data were converted into 5 point-scales and compared to the judgement of expert coaches, who also used a 5 point-scale to evaluate the same CMP parameters but based on their experience with the players during games and training. The objectively-measured age-related CMP changes were also observed in expert coaches' judgments although these were more variable across coaches and age categories. This demonstrates that high-technology systems like COGNIFOOT can be used in complement to traditional approaches of talent identification and to objectively monitor the progress of soccer players throughout a cognitive-motor training cycle.

  4. The impact of biological sex and sex hormones on cognition in a rat model of early, pre-motor Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt, Erika; Wachtel, Jonathan; Michaelos, Michalis; Haggerty, Michael; Conforti, Jessica; Kritzer, Mary F

    2017-03-14

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is well known for motor deficits such as bradykinesia. However, patients often experience additional deficits in working memory, behavioral selection, decision-making and other executive functions. Like other features of PD, the incidence and severity of these cognitive symptoms differ in males and females. However, preclinical models have not been used to systematically investigate the roles that sex or sex hormones may play in these complex signs. To address this, we used a Barnes maze spatial memory paradigm to compare the effects of a bilateral nigrostriatal dopamine lesion model of early PD on cognitive behaviors in adult male and female rats and in adult male rats that were gonadectomized or gonadectomized and supplemented with testosterone or estradiol. We found that dopamine lesions produced deficits in working memory and other executive operations, albeit only in male rats where circulating androgen levels were physiological. In males where androgen levels were depleted, lesions produced no additional Barnes maze deficits and attenuated those previously linked to androgen deprivation. We also found that while most measures of Barnes maze performance were unaffected by dopamine lesions in the females, lesions did induce dramatic shifts from their preferred use of thigmotactic navigation to the use of spatially guided place strategies similar to those normally preferred by males. These and other sex- and sex hormone-specific differences in the effects of nigrostriatal dopamine lesions on executive function highlight the potential of gonadal steroids as protective and/or therapeutic for the cognitive symptoms of PD. However, their complexity also indicates the need for a more thorough understanding of androgen and estrogen effects in guiding the development of hormone therapies that might effectively address these non-motor signs. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Can Touch Screen Tablets be Used to Assess Cognitive and Motor Skills in Early Years Primary School Children? A Cross-Cultural Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitchford, Nicola J; Outhwaite, Laura A

    2016-01-01

    Assessment of cognitive and motor functions is fundamental for developmental and neuropsychological profiling. Assessments are usually conducted on an individual basis, with a trained examiner, using standardized paper and pencil tests, and can take up to an hour or more to complete, depending on the nature of the test. This makes traditional standardized assessments of child development largely unsuitable for use in low-income countries. Touch screen tablets afford the opportunity to assess cognitive functions in groups of participants, with untrained administrators, with precision recording of responses, thus automating the assessment process. In turn, this enables cognitive profiling to be conducted in contexts where access to qualified examiners and standardized assessments are rarely available. As such, touch screen assessments could provide a means of assessing child development in both low- and high-income countries, which would afford cross-cultural comparisons to be made with the same assessment tool. However, before touch screen tablet assessments can be used for cognitive profiling in low-to-high-income countries they need to be shown to provide reliable and valid measures of performance. We report the development of a new touch screen tablet assessment of basic cognitive and motor functions for use with early years primary school children in low- and high-income countries. Measures of spatial intelligence, visual attention, short-term memory, working memory, manual processing speed, and manual coordination are included as well as mathematical knowledge. To investigate if this new touch screen assessment tool can be used for cross-cultural comparisons we administered it to a sample of children ( N = 283) spanning standards 1-3 in a low-income country, Malawi, and a smaller sample of children ( N = 70) from first year of formal schooling from a high-income country, the UK. Split-half reliability, test-retest reliability, face validity, convergent

  6. Frequency and risk factor analysis of cognitive and anxiety-depressive disorders in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/motor neuron disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Fang; Zhu, Wenjia; Zhou, Zhibin; Ren, Yuting; Li, Yifan; Li, Mao; Huo, Yunyun; Huang, Xusheng

    2015-01-01

    To examine the frequency and risk factors of cognitive and anxiety-depressive disorders in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/motor neuron disease (ALS/MND). This was an observational study of 100 ALS/MND patients treated at our hospital outpatient and inpatient departments between January 2009 and April 2010 and 100 matched healthy controls. Subjects were surveyed using Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS), and Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS). Patient neurological status was graded by the ALS Functional Rating Scale (ALSFRS). Multivariate linear regression was used to identify factors associated with the MMSE, SAS, SDS, and ALSFRS scores. Patients had significantly lower MMSE scores than controls (P0.05). Patients with higher educational level (college and above), shorter disease course (disease course, and lower ALSFRS score were independent predictors of better cognitive function (higher MMSE score). Patients had significantly higher mean SAS and SDS total scores than controls (both Pdisease duration, and disease awareness did not influence SAS or SDS scores. Multivariate analysis indicated that lower education and lower ALSFRS were protective factors against anxiety and depression. The frequency of anxiety-depressive disorders was high among patients with ALS/MND. High educational level, short course of disease, and lower ALSFRS were associated with preserved cognitive function. Female sex, higher education, and lower ALSFRS score conferred a greater risk of anxiety and depression. Tailored pharmacotherapy and psychological interventions may help in reducing anxiety and depression in these patients.

  7. Neonatal screening for congenital hypothyroidism in The Netherlands: Cognitive and motor outcome at 10 years of age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kempers, M.J.E.; Sluijs Veer, L. van der; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, R.W.G.; Lanting, C.I.; Kooistra, L.; Wiedijk, B.M.; Last, B.F.; Vijlder, J.J.M. de; Grootenhuis, M.A.; Vulsma, T.

    2007-01-01

    Context: Patients with thyroidal congenital hypothyroidism (CH-T) born in The Netherlands in 1981-1982 showed persistent intellectual and motor deficits during childhood and adulthood, despite initiation of T4 supplementation at a median age of 28 d after birth. Objective: The present study examined

  8. Neonatal screening for congenital hypothyroidism in the Netherlands: cognitive and motor outcome at 10 years of age.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kempers, M.J.E.; Sluijs-Veer, L. van der; Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, M.W.G.; Lanting, C.I.; Kooistra, L.; Wiedijk, B.M.; Last, B.F.; Vijlder, J.J. de; Grootenhuis, M.A.; Vulsma, T.

    2007-01-01

    CONTEXT: Patients with thyroidal congenital hypothyroidism (CH-T) born in The Netherlands in 1981-1982 showed persistent intellectual and motor deficits during childhood and adulthood, despite initiation of T(4) supplementation at a median age of 28 d after birth. OBJECTIVE: The present study

  9. Neonatal screening for congenital hypothyroidism in the Netherlands: cognitive and motor outcome at 10 years of age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kempers, Marlies J. E.; van der Sluijs Veer, Liesbeth; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Ria W. G.; Lanting, Caren I.; Kooistra, Libbe; Wiedijk, Brenda M.; Last, Bob F.; de Vijlder, Jan J. M.; Grootenhuis, Martha A.; Vulsma, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    CONTEXT: Patients with thyroidal congenital hypothyroidism (CH-T) born in The Netherlands in 1981-1982 showed persistent intellectual and motor deficits during childhood and adulthood, despite initiation of T(4) supplementation at a median age of 28 d after birth. OBJECTIVE: The present study

  10. Cognitive mechanisms of visuomotor transformation in movement imitation: examining predictions based on models of apraxia and motor control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravenhorst, Robynne M; Walter, Charles B

    2009-11-01

    When we observe a movement and then reproduce it, how is this visual input transformed into motor output? Studies on stroke patients with apraxia suggest that there may be two distinct routes used for gesture imitation; an indirect route that recruits stored movement memories (motor programs) and a direct route that bypasses them. The present study examined 30 healthy adults ages 18-80 (mean age=44.0 years, SD=19.5) to learn how motor programs are recruited or bypassed in movement imitation depending upon task conditions (whether familiar letters or novel shapes are imitated) and perceptual factors (whether shapes or letters are perceived). Subjects were asked to imitate the movements of a model who formed shapes and letters on a sheer mesh screen, and to report whether they perceived the task as a shape or a letter. Movements were recorded using a Vicon motion analysis system, and subsequently analyzed to determine the degree of difference between the demonstrated and produced movements. As predicted, letter perception on the letter tasks resulted in increased temporal error when the demonstrated stroke order conflicted with subjects' habitual pattern of letter formation. No such interference effects were observed when the letter tasks were perceived as shapes. These findings are discussed in the context of current theories on imitation, and implications for rehabilitation and motor re-learning are presented.

  11. Motor phenotype of decline in cognitive performance among community-dwellers without dementia: population-based study and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Beauchet

    .06 [95% CI: 0.40;1.72].Higher STV appears to be a motor phenotype of cognitive decline.

  12. How motor, cognitive and musical expertise shapes the brain: Focus on fMRI and EEG resting-state functional connectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cantou, Pauline; Platel, Hervé; Desgranges, Béatrice

    2017-01-01

    Brain activity and structure are shaped by life experiences. This plasticity has often been demonstrated with different types of expertise by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and electroencephalography (EEG). Experts showed domain-specific functional neural changes during......-dependent (BOLD) and spontaneous neural activity fluctuations at rest. Since these correlations are thought to reflect a prior history co-activation of brain regions, we propose reviewing studies that focused on the effects of expertise in the motor, cognitive and musical domains on brain plasticity at rest......, to determine whether there is a domain-specific neural signature of expertise. After highlighting expertise-related changes within resting-state networks for each domain, we discuss their specificity to the trained activity and the methodological considerations concerning different conditions and analyses used...

  13. NAAG peptidase inhibitors block cognitive deficit induced by MK-801 and motor activation induced by d-amphetamine in animal models of schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszewski, R T; Janczura, K J; Ball, S R; Madore, J C; Lavin, K M; Lee, J C-M; Lee, M J; Der, E K; Hark, T J; Farago, P R; Profaci, C P; Bzdega, T; Neale, J H

    2012-01-01

    The most widely validated animal models of the positive, negative and cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia involve administration of d-amphetamine or the open channel NMDA receptor blockers, dizocilpine (MK-801), phencyclidine (PCP) and ketamine. The drug ZJ43 potently inhibits glutamate carboxypeptidase II (GCPII), an enzyme that inactivates the peptide transmitter N-acetylaspartylglutamate (NAAG) and reduces positive and negative behaviors induced by PCP in several of these models. NAAG is an agonist at the metabotropic glutamate receptor 3 (mGluR3). Polymorphisms in this receptor have been associated with expression of schizophrenia. This study aimed to determine whether two different NAAG peptidase inhibitors are effective in dopamine models, whether their efficacy was eliminated in GCPII knockout mice and whether the efficacy of these inhibitors extended to MK-801-induced cognitive deficits as assessed using the novel object recognition test. ZJ43 blocked motor activation when given before or after d-amphetamine treatment. (R,S)-2-phosphono-methylpentanedioic acid (2-PMPA), another potent NAAG peptidase inhibitor, also reduced motor activation induced by PCP or d-amphetamine. 2-PMPA was not effective in GCPII knockout mice. ZJ43 and 2-PMPA also blocked MK-801-induced deficits in novel object recognition when given before, but not after, the acquisition trial. The group II mGluR antagonist LY341495 blocked the effects of NAAG peptidase inhibition in these studies. 2-PMPA was more potent than ZJ43 in a test of NAAG peptidase inhibition in vivo. By bridging the dopamine and glutamate theories of schizophrenia with two structurally different NAAG peptidase inhibitors and demonstrating their efficacy in blocking MK-801-induced memory deficits, these data advance the concept that NAAG peptidase inhibition represents a potentially novel antipsychotic therapy. PMID:22850437

  14. A cognitive-motor intervention using a dance video game to enhance foot placement accuracy and gait under dual task conditions in older adults: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichierri, Giuseppe; Murer, Kurt; de Bruin, Eling D

    2012-12-14

    Computer-based interventions have demonstrated consistent positive effects on various physical abilities in older adults. This study aims to compare two training groups that achieve similar amounts of strength and balance exercise where one group receives an intervention that includes additional dance video gaming. The aim is to investigate the different effects of the training programs on physical and psychological parameters in older adults. Thirty-one participants (mean age ± SD: 86.2 ± 4.6 years), residents of two Swiss hostels for the aged, were randomly assigned to either the dance group (n = 15) or the control group (n = 16). The dance group absolved a twelve-week cognitive-motor exercise program twice weekly that comprised progressive strength and balance training supplemented with additional dance video gaming. The control group performed only the strength and balance exercises during this period. Outcome measures were foot placement accuracy, gait performance under single and dual task conditions, and falls efficacy. After the intervention between-group comparison revealed significant differences for gait velocity (U = 26, P = .041, r = .45) and for single support time (U = 24, P = .029, r = .48) during the fast walking dual task condition in favor of the dance group. No significant between-group differences were observed either in the foot placement accuracy test or in falls efficacy. There was a significant interaction in favor of the dance video game group for improvements in step time. Significant improved fast walking performance under dual task conditions (velocity, double support time, step length) was observed for the dance video game group only. These findings suggest that in older adults a cognitive-motor intervention may result in more improved gait under dual task conditions in comparison to a traditional strength and balance exercise program. This trial has been registered under ISRCTN05350123 (www.controlled-trials.com)

  15. Automated, quantitative measures of grey and white matter lesion burden correlates with motor and cognitive function in children with unilateral cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex M. Pagnozzi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available White and grey matter lesions are the most prevalent type of injury observable in the Magnetic Resonance Images (MRIs of children with cerebral palsy (CP. Previous studies investigating the impact of lesions in children with CP have been qualitative, limited by the lack of automated segmentation approaches in this setting. As a result, the quantitative relationship between lesion burden has yet to be established. In this study, we perform automatic lesion segmentation on a large cohort of data (107 children with unilateral CP and 18 healthy children with a new, validated method for segmenting both white matter (WM and grey matter (GM lesions. The method has better accuracy (94% than the best current methods (73%, and only requires standard structural MRI sequences. Anatomical lesion burdens most predictive of clinical scores of motor, cognitive, visual and communicative function were identified using the Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection operator (LASSO. The improved segmentations enabled identification of significant correlations between regional lesion burden and clinical performance, which conform to known structure-function relationships. Model performance was validated in an independent test set, with significant correlations observed for both WM and GM regional lesion burden with motor function (p < 0.008, and between WM and GM lesions alone with cognitive and visual function respectively (p < 0.008. The significant correlation of GM lesions with functional outcome highlights the serious implications GM lesions, in addition to WM lesions, have for prognosis, and the utility of structural MRI alone for quantifying lesion burden and planning therapy interventions.

  16. Automated, quantitative measures of grey and white matter lesion burden correlates with motor and cognitive function in children with unilateral cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagnozzi, Alex M; Dowson, Nicholas; Doecke, James; Fiori, Simona; Bradley, Andrew P; Boyd, Roslyn N; Rose, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    White and grey matter lesions are the most prevalent type of injury observable in the Magnetic Resonance Images (MRIs) of children with cerebral palsy (CP). Previous studies investigating the impact of lesions in children with CP have been qualitative, limited by the lack of automated segmentation approaches in this setting. As a result, the quantitative relationship between lesion burden has yet to be established. In this study, we perform automatic lesion segmentation on a large cohort of data (107 children with unilateral CP and 18 healthy children) with a new, validated method for segmenting both white matter (WM) and grey matter (GM) lesions. The method has better accuracy (94%) than the best current methods (73%), and only requires standard structural MRI sequences. Anatomical lesion burdens most predictive of clinical scores of motor, cognitive, visual and communicative function were identified using the Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection operator (LASSO). The improved segmentations enabled identification of significant correlations between regional lesion burden and clinical performance, which conform to known structure-function relationships. Model performance was validated in an independent test set, with significant correlations observed for both WM and GM regional lesion burden with motor function (p < 0.008), and between WM and GM lesions alone with cognitive and visual function respectively (p < 0.008). The significant correlation of GM lesions with functional outcome highlights the serious implications GM lesions, in addition to WM lesions, have for prognosis, and the utility of structural MRI alone for quantifying lesion burden and planning therapy interventions.

  17. Supplementation of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), vitamin D3 and uridine in combination with six weeks of cognitive and motor training in prepubescent children: a pilot study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Solvejg Lis; Ritterband-Rosenbaum, Anina; Voigt, Camilla B.

    2017-01-01

    Background Learning and memory have been shown to be influenced by combination of dietary supplements and exercise in animal models, but there is little available evidence from human subjects. The aim of this pilot study was to investigate the effect of combining a motor- and cognitive exercise...

  18. The role of the motor system in action naming in patients with neurodegenerative extrapyramidal syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotelli, Maria; Manenti, Rosa; Brambilla, Michela; Borroni, Barbara

    2018-03-01

    Previous studies of patients with brain damage have suggested a close relationship between aphasia and movement disorders. Neurodegenerative extrapyramidal syndromes associated with cognitive impairment provide an interesting model for studying the neural substrates of cognitive and motor symptoms. In this review, we focused on studies investigating language production abilities in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), Corticobasal Syndrome (CBS) and Progressive Supranuclear Palsy (PSP). According to some reports, these patients exhibit a reduction in performance in both action and object naming or verb production compared to healthy individuals. Furthermore, a disproportional impairment of action naming compared to object naming was systematically observed in patients with these disorders. The study of these clinical conditions offers the unique opportunity to examine the close link between linguistic features and motor characteristics of action. This particular pattern of language impairment may contribute to the debate on embodiment theory and on the involvement of the basal ganglia in language and in integrating language and movement. From a translational perspective, we suggest that language ability assessments are useful in the clinical work-up, along with neuropsychological and motor evaluations. Specific protocols should be developed in the near future to better characterize language deficits and to permit an early cognitive diagnosis. Moreover, the link between language deficits and motor impairment opens a new issue for treatment approaches. Treatment of one of these two symptoms may ameliorate the other, and treating both may produce a greater improvement in patients' global clinical conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Educational status influences cognitive-motor learning in older adults: going to university provides greater protection against aging than going to high school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Callil Voos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To investigate if middle-aged and older adults with a higher education would differ from those with an average education in cognitive-motor tasks involving lower limb function. Methods: A walking version of the Trail Making Test (Walking Executive Function Task, [WEFT] was used. Eighty volunteers (40: 50–65 years; 40: 66–80 years were subdivided into average (6–11years of education and higher education (12–17 years. They received two training sessions (session 1: eight repetitions, session 2: four repetitions, with a one week-interval between them. The Timed Up and Go (TUG test was performed before and after the training. Results: Volunteers with an average education showed longer times on the WEFT than those with a higher education. Older adults showed lower retention than middle-aged adults (p < 0.001. The TUG was faster after the WEFT training (p < 0.001. Conclusion: The impact of education was observed when locomotion was associated with cognitive tasks. Average education resulted in poorer performance and learning than higher education, mainly in older adults. Gait speed increased after training.

  20. Educational status influences cognitive-motor learning in older adults: going to university provides greater protection against aging than going to high school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voos, Mariana Callil; Piemonte, Maria Elisa Pimentel; Mansur, Letícia Lessa; Caromano, Fátima Aparecida; Brucki, Sonia Maria Dozzi; Valle, Luiz Eduardo Ribeiro do

    2017-12-01

    To investigate if middle-aged and older adults with a higher education would differ from those with an average education in cognitive-motor tasks involving lower limb function. A walking version of the Trail Making Test (Walking Executive Function Task, [WEFT]) was used. Eighty volunteers (40: 50-65 years; 40: 66-80 years) were subdivided into average (6-11years of education) and higher education (12-17 years). They received two training sessions (session 1: eight repetitions, session 2: four repetitions), with a one week-interval between them. The Timed Up and Go (TUG) test was performed before and after the training. Volunteers with an average education showed longer times on the WEFT than those with a higher education. Older adults showed lower retention than middle-aged adults (p education was observed when locomotion was associated with cognitive tasks. Average education resulted in poorer performance and learning than higher education, mainly in older adults. Gait speed increased after training.

  1. Motor Coordination and Executive Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Eva

    2012-01-01

    Since Piaget, the view that motor and cognitive development are interrelated has gained wide acceptance. However, empirical research on this issue is still rare. Few studies show a correlation of performance in cognitive and motor tasks in typically developing children. More specifically, Diamond A. (2000) hypothesizes an involvement of executive…

  2. Frequency and risk factor analysis of cognitive and anxiety-depressive disorders in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/motor neuron disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui F

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Fang Cui, Wenjia Zhu, Zhibin Zhou, Yuting Ren, Yifan Li, Mao Li, Yunyun Huo, Xusheng Huang Department of Neurology, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, People’s Republic of China Objectives: To examine the frequency and risk factors of cognitive and anxiety-depressive disorders in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/motor neuron disease (ALS/MND. Methods: This was an observational study of 100 ALS/MND patients treated at our hospital outpatient and inpatient departments between January 2009 and April 2010 and 100 matched healthy controls. Subjects were surveyed using Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE, Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS, and Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS. Patient neurological status was graded by the ALS Functional Rating Scale (ALSFRS. Multivariate linear regression was used to identify factors associated with the MMSE, SAS, SDS, and ALSFRS scores. Results: Patients had significantly lower MMSE scores than controls (P<0.05. MMSE score did not differ by sex or age (<50/≥50 years (P>0.05. Patients with higher educational level (college and above, shorter disease course (<2 years, and lower ALSFRS score (<20 had significantly higher MMSE scores (all P<0.05. Multivariate analysis revealed that higher education, shorter disease course, and lower ALSFRS score were independent predictors of better cognitive function (higher MMSE score. Patients had significantly higher mean SAS and SDS total scores than controls (both P<0.05, indicating higher subjective anxiety and depression. Female patients, patients with higher education, and those with higher ALSFRS scores had significantly higher SAS and SDS scores (all P<0.05. Age, occupation, diagnostic classification, disease duration, and disease awareness did not influence SAS or SDS scores. Multivariate analysis indicated that lower education and lower ALSFRS were protective factors against anxiety and depression. Conclusion: The frequency of anxiety

  3. Impacts of Perinatal Dioxin Exposure on Motor Coordination and Higher Cognitive Development in Vietnamese Preschool Children: A Five-Year Follow-Up.

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    Nghi Ngoc Tran

    Full Text Available Dioxin concentrations remain elevated in the environment and in humans residing near former US Air Force bases in South Vietnam. Our previous epidemiological studies showed adverse effects of dioxin exposure on neurodevelopment for the first 3 years of life. Subsequently, we extended the follow-up period and investigated the influence of perinatal dioxin exposure on neurodevelopment, including motor coordination and higher cognitive ability, in preschool children. Presently, we investigated 176 children in a hot spot of dioxin contamination who were followed up from birth until 5 years old. Perinatal dioxin exposure levels were estimated by measuring dioxin levels in maternal breast milk. Dioxin toxicity was evaluated using two indices; toxic equivalent (TEQ-polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDDs/Fs and concentration of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD. Coordinated movements, including manual dexterity, aiming and catching, and balance, were assessed using the Movement Assessment Battery for Children, Second Edition (Movement ABC-2. Cognitive ability was assessed using the nonverbal index (NVI of the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, Second Edition (KABC-II. In boys, total test and balance scores of Movement ABC-2 were significantly lower in the high TEQ- PCDDs/Fs group compared with the moderate and low exposure groups. NVI scores and the pattern reasoning subscale of the KABC-II indicating planning ability were also significantly lower in the high TCDD exposure group compared with the low exposure group of boys. However, in girls, no significant differences in Movement ABC-2 and KABC-II scores were found among the different TEQ-PCDDs/Fs and TCDD exposure groups. Furthermore, in high risk cases, five boys and one girl highly exposed to TEQ-PCDDs/Fs and TCDD had double the risk for difficulties in both neurodevelopmental skills. These results suggest differential impacts of TEQ-PCDDs/Fs and TCDD exposure on motor

  4. Impacts of Perinatal Dioxin Exposure on Motor Coordination and Higher Cognitive Development in Vietnamese Preschool Children: A Five-Year Follow-Up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Nghi Ngoc; Pham, Tai The; Ozawa, Kyoko; Nishijo, Muneko; Nguyen, Anh Thi Nguyet; Tran, Tuong Quy; Hoang, Luong Van; Tran, Anh Hai; Phan, Vu Huy Anh; Nakai, Akio; Nishino, Yoshikazu; Nishijo, Hisao

    2016-01-01

    Dioxin concentrations remain elevated in the environment and in humans residing near former US Air Force bases in South Vietnam. Our previous epidemiological studies showed adverse effects of dioxin exposure on neurodevelopment for the first 3 years of life. Subsequently, we extended the follow-up period and investigated the influence of perinatal dioxin exposure on neurodevelopment, including motor coordination and higher cognitive ability, in preschool children. Presently, we investigated 176 children in a hot spot of dioxin contamination who were followed up from birth until 5 years old. Perinatal dioxin exposure levels were estimated by measuring dioxin levels in maternal breast milk. Dioxin toxicity was evaluated using two indices; toxic equivalent (TEQ)-polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDDs/Fs) and concentration of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). Coordinated movements, including manual dexterity, aiming and catching, and balance, were assessed using the Movement Assessment Battery for Children, Second Edition (Movement ABC-2). Cognitive ability was assessed using the nonverbal index (NVI) of the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, Second Edition (KABC-II). In boys, total test and balance scores of Movement ABC-2 were significantly lower in the high TEQ- PCDDs/Fs group compared with the moderate and low exposure groups. NVI scores and the pattern reasoning subscale of the KABC-II indicating planning ability were also significantly lower in the high TCDD exposure group compared with the low exposure group of boys. However, in girls, no significant differences in Movement ABC-2 and KABC-II scores were found among the different TEQ-PCDDs/Fs and TCDD exposure groups. Furthermore, in high risk cases, five boys and one girl highly exposed to TEQ-PCDDs/Fs and TCDD had double the risk for difficulties in both neurodevelopmental skills. These results suggest differential impacts of TEQ-PCDDs/Fs and TCDD exposure on motor coordination and

  5. Contribution of writing to reading: Dissociation between cognitive and motor process in the left dorsal premotor cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattamadilok, Chotiga; Ponz, Aurélie; Planton, Samuel; Bonnard, Mireille

    2016-04-01

    Functional brain imaging studies reported activation of the left dorsal premotor cortex (PMd), that is, a main area in the writing network, in reading tasks. However, it remains unclear whether this area is causally relevant for written stimulus recognition or its activation simply results from a passive coactivation of reading and writing networks. Here, we used chronometric paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to address this issue by disrupting the activity of the PMd, the so-called Exner's area, while participants performed a lexical decision task. Both words and pseudowords were presented in printed and handwritten characters. The latter was assumed to be closely associated with motor representations of handwriting gestures. We found that TMS over the PMd in relatively early time-windows, i.e., between 60 and 160 ms after the stimulus onset, increased reaction times to pseudoword without affecting word recognition. Interestingly, this result pattern was found for both printed and handwritten characters, that is, regardless of whether the characters evoked motor representations of writing actions. Our result showed that under some circumstances the activation of the PMd does not simply result from passive association between reading and writing networks but has a functional role in the reading process. At least, at an early stage of written stimuli recognition, this role seems to depend on a common sublexical and serial process underlying writing and pseudoword reading rather than on an implicit evocation of writing actions during reading as typically assumed. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Biflorin Ameliorates Memory Impairments Induced by Cholinergic Blockade in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Se Jin; Kim, Boseong; Ryu, Byeol; Kim, Eunji; Lee, Sunhee; Jang, Dae Sik; Ryu, Jong Hoon

    2017-01-01

    To examine the effect of biflorin, a component of Syzygium aromaticum, on memory deficit, we introduced a scopolamine-induced cognitive deficit mouse model. A single administration of biflorin increased latency time in the passive avoidance task, ameliorated alternation behavior in the Y-maze, and increased exploration time in the Morris water maze task, indicating the improvement of cognitive behaviors against cholinergic dysfunction. The biflorin-induced reverse of latency in the scopolamine-treated group was attenuated by MK-801, an NMDA receptor antagonist. Biflorin also enhanced cognitive function in a naïve mouse model. To understand the mechanism of biflorin for memory amelioration, we performed Western blot. Biflorin increased the activation of protein kinase C-ζ and its downstream signaling molecules in the hippocampus. These results suggest that biflorin ameliorates drug-induced memory impairment by modulation of protein kinase C-ζ signaling in mice, implying that biflorin could function as a possible therapeutic agent for the treatment of cognitive problems. PMID:27829270

  7. Cognitive and motor function after administration of hydrocodone bitartrate plus ibuprofen, ibuprofen alone, or placebo in healthy subjects with exercise-induced muscle damage: a randomized, repeated-dose, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, George J; Hartl, Tamara L; Duffany, Shannon; Smith, Stefanie F; VanHeest, Jaci L; Anderson, Jeffrey M; Hoffman, Jay R; Kraemer, William J; Maresh, Carl M

    2003-03-01

    Medications combining hydrocodone bitartrate and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents appear more beneficial than anti-inflammatory medications alone in treating pain and inflammation from acute soft tissue trauma, but opiate side effects may include sedation and impaired cognitive and motor performance. Performance on complex cognitive and motor tasks was evaluated in healthy subjects with exercise-induced muscle damage who were treated with a hydrocodone-ibuprofen combination, ibuprofen alone, or placebo. This double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, repeated-dose clinical trial compared the effects of hydrocodone bitartrate (7.5 mg) plus ibuprofen (200 mg), ibuprofen alone, and placebo on cognitive and motor function in 72 healthy college men. Muscle damage in the quadriceps of each subject's dominant leg was induced by an eccentric exercise protocol. Subjects took the study medication four times daily (every 4-6 h) for 5 days. Forty minutes after medication ingestion at the same time each day, subjects underwent tests of attention/concentration, motor performance, and reaction time. Four trained assessors rotated among subjects so that none tested the same participant on more than three occasions. Repeated measures analyses of covariance revealed no between-group differences on a complex memory and cognition task or complex reaction time. Subjects using hydrocodone bitartrate plus ibuprofen performed significantly less well on a simple tracking task and made significantly more errors on a simple reaction-time task than the other two groups. These deficits were found to be highly transitory and not related to confusion or fatigue. Hydrocodone plus ibuprofen was not associated with deterioration in complex cognition but was related to very transitory decrements in tasks involving simple hand-eye coordination.

  8. Two strategies for response to 14 °C cold-water immersion: is there a difference in the response of motor, cognitive, immune and stress markers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Brazaitis

    Full Text Available Here, we address the question of why some people have a greater chance of surviving and/or better resistance to cold-related-injuries in prolonged exposure to acute cold environments than do others, despite similar physical characteristics. The main aim of this study was to compare physiological and psychological reactions between people who exhibited fast cooling (FC; n = 20 or slow cooling (SC; n = 20 responses to cold water immersion. Individuals in whom the T(re decreased to a set point of 35.5 °C before the end of the 170-min cooling time were indicated as the FC group; individuals in whom the T(re did not decrease to the set point of 35.5 °C before the end of the 170-min cooling time were classified as the SC group. Cold stress was induced using intermittent immersion in bath water at 14 °C. Motor (spinal and supraspinal reflexes, voluntary and electrically induced skeletal muscle contraction force and cognitive (executive function, short term memory, short term spatial recognition performance, immune variables (neutrophils, leucocytes, lymphocytes, monocytes, IL-6, TNF-α, markers of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity (cortisol, corticosterone and autonomic nervous system activity (epinephrine, norepinephrine were monitored. The data obtained in this study suggest that the response of the FC group to cooling vs the SC group response was more likely an insulative-hypothermic response and that the SC vs the FC group displayed a metabolic-insulative response. The observations that an exposure time to 14 °C cold water--which was nearly twice as short (96-min vs 170-min with a greater rectal temperature decrease (35.5 °C vs 36.2 °C in the FC group compared with the SC group--induces similar responses of motor, cognitive, and blood stress markers were novel. The most important finding is that subjects with a lower cold-strain-index (SC group showed stimulation of some markers of innate immunity and suppression of markers of

  9. A cognitive-motor intervention using a dance video game to enhance foot placement accuracy and gait under dual task conditions in older adults: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pichierri Giuseppe

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Computer-based interventions have demonstrated consistent positive effects on various physical abilities in older adults. This study aims to compare two training groups that achieve similar amounts of strength and balance exercise where one group receives an intervention that includes additional dance video gaming. The aim is to investigate the different effects of the training programs on physical and psychological parameters in older adults. Methods Thirty-one participants (mean age ± SD: 86.2 ± 4.6 years, residents of two Swiss hostels for the aged, were randomly assigned to either the dance group (n = 15 or the control group (n = 16. The dance group absolved a twelve-week cognitive-motor exercise program twice weekly that comprised progressive strength and balance training supplemented with additional dance video gaming. The control group performed only the strength and balance exercises during this period. Outcome measures were foot placement accuracy, gait performance under single and dual task conditions, and falls efficacy. Results After the intervention between-group comparison revealed significant differences for gait velocity (U = 26, P = .041, r = .45 and for single support time (U = 24, P = .029, r = .48 during the fast walking dual task condition in favor of the dance group. No significant between-group differences were observed either in the foot placement accuracy test or in falls efficacy. Conclusions There was a significant interaction in favor of the dance video game group for improvements in step time. Significant improved fast walking performance under dual task conditions (velocity, double support time, step length was observed for the dance video game group only. These findings suggest that in older adults a cognitive-motor intervention may result in more improved gait under dual task conditions in comparison to a traditional strength and balance exercise program

  10. The impact of nutritional status and longitudinal recovery of motor and cognitive milestones in internationally adopted children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyun; Bothe, Denise; Holsinger, Eva; Kirchner, H Lester; Olness, Karen; Mandalakas, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Internationally adopted children often arrive from institutional settings where they have experienced medical, nutritional and psychosocial deprivation. This study uses a validated research assessment tool to prospectively assess the impact of baseline (immediately post adoption) nutritional status on fifty-eight children as measured by weight-for-age, height-for-age, weight-for-height and head circumference-for-age z scores, as a determinant of cognitive (MDI) and psychomotor development (PDI) scores longitudinally. A statistical model was developed to allow for different ages at time of initial assessment as well as variable intervals between follow up visits. The study results show that both acute and chronic measures of malnutrition significantly affect baseline developmental status as well as the rate of improvement in both MDI and PDI scores. This study contributes to the body of literature with its prospective nature, unique statistical model for longitudinal evaluation, and use of a validated assessment tool to assess outcomes.

  11. Assessing the correlation between grey and white matter damage with motor and cognitive impairment in multiple sclerosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sbardella, Emilia; Petsas, Nikolaos; Tona, Francesca; Prosperini, Luca; Raz, Eytan; Pace, Gianvito; Pozzilli, Carlo; Pantano, Patrizia

    2013-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is characterized by demyelinating and degenerative processes within the central nervous system. Unlike conventional MRI,new advanced imaging techniques improve pathological specificity and better highlight the relationship between anatomical damage and clinical impairment. To investigate the relationship between clinical disability and both grey (GM) and white matter (WM) regional damage in MS patients. Thirty-six relapsing remitting-MS patients and 25 sex- and age-matched controls were enrolled. All patients were clinically evaluated by the Expanded Disability Status Scale and the Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite (MSFC) scale, which includes the 9-hole peg test (9HPT), the timed 25-feet walking test (T25FW) and the paced auditory serial addition test (PASAT). All subjects were imaged by a 3.0 T scanner: dual-echo fast spin-echo, 3DT1-weighted and diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI) sequences were acquired. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) analyses were run for regional GM and WM assessment, respectively. T2 lesion volumes were also calculated, by using a semi-automated technique. Brain volumetric assessment of GM and DTI measures revealed significant differences between patients and controls. In patients, different measures of WM damage correlated each-other (pdamage significantly correlated with clinical measures. In particular, VBM analysis revealed a significant correlation (pdamage are associated with functional impairment of upper-limb motion and cognition. The combined analysis of volumetric and DTI data may help to better understand structural alterations underlying physical and cognitive dysfunction in MS.

  12. Taurine Administration Recovers Motor and Learning Deficits in an Angelman Syndrome Mouse Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Guzzetti

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Angelman syndrome (AS, MIM 105830 is a rare neurodevelopmental disorder affecting 1:10–20,000 children. Patients show moderate to severe intellectual disability, ataxia and absence of speech. Studies on both post-mortem AS human brains and mouse models revealed dysfunctions in the extra synaptic gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA receptors implicated in the pathogenesis. Taurine is a free intracellular sulfur-containing amino acid, abundant in brain, considered an inhibiting neurotransmitter with neuroprotective properties. As taurine acts as an agonist of GABA-A receptors, we aimed at investigating whether it might ameliorate AS symptoms. Since mice weaning, we orally administered 1 g/kg/day taurine in water to Ube3a-deficient mice. To test the improvement of motor and cognitive skills, Rotarod, Novel Object Recognition and Open Field tests were assayed at 7, 14, 21 and 30 weeks, while biochemical tests and amino acid dosages were carried out, respectively, by Western-blot and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC on frozen whole brains. Treatment of Ube3am−/p+ mice with taurine significantly improved motor and learning skills and restored the levels of the post-synaptic PSD-95 and pERK1/2-ERK1/2 ratio to wild type values. No side effects of taurine were observed. Our study indicates taurine administration as a potential therapy to ameliorate motor deficits and learning difficulties in AS.

  13. Assessing the correlation between grey and white matter damage with motor and cognitive impairment in multiple sclerosis patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Sbardella

    damage are associated with functional impairment of upper-limb motion and cognition. The combined analysis of volumetric and DTI data may help to better understand structural alterations underlying physical and cognitive dysfunction in MS.

  14. Ketogenic Diet Improves Motor Performance but Not Cognition in Two Mouse Models of Alzheimer’s Pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownlow, Milene L.; Benner, Leif; D’Agostino, Dominic; Gordon, Marcia N.; Morgan, Dave

    2013-01-01

    Dietary manipulations are increasingly viewed as possible approaches to treating neurodegenerative diseases. Previous studies suggest that Alzheimer’s disease (AD) patients present an energy imbalance with brain hypometabolism and mitochondrial deficits. Ketogenic diets (KDs), widely investigated in the treatment and prevention of seizures, have been suggested to bypass metabolic deficits present in AD brain by providing ketone bodies as an alternative fuel to neurons. We investigated the effects of a ketogenic diet in two transgenic mouse lines. Five months old APP/PS1 (a model of amyloid deposition) and Tg4510 (a model of tau deposition) mice were offered either a ketogenic or a control (NIH-31) diet for 3 months. Body weight and food intake were monitored throughout the experiment, and blood was collected at 4 weeks and 4 months for ketone and glucose assessments. Both lines of transgenic mice weighed less than nontransgenic mice, yet, surprisingly, had elevated food intake. The ketogenic diet did not affect these differences in body weight or food consumption. Behavioral testing during the last two weeks of treatment found that mice offered KD performed significantly better on the rotarod compared to mice on the control diet independent of genotype. In the open field test, both transgenic mouse lines presented increased locomotor activity compared to nontransgenic, age-matched controls, and this effect was not influenced by KD. The radial arm water maze identified learning deficits in both transgenic lines with no significant differences between diets. Tissue measures of amyloid, tau, astroglial and microglial markers in transgenic lines showed no differences between animals fed the control or the ketogenic diet. These data suggest that ketogenic diets may play an important role in enhancing motor performance in mice, but have minimal impact on the phenotype of murine models of amyloid or tau deposition. PMID:24069439

  15. The neural exploitation hypothesis and its implications for an embodied approach to language and cognition: Insights from the study of action verbs processing and motor disorders in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallese, Vittorio; Cuccio, Valentina

    2018-03-01

    As it is widely known, Parkinson's disease is clinically characterized by motor disorders such as the loss of voluntary movement control, including resting tremor, postural instability, and bradykinesia (Bocanegra et al., 2015; Helmich, Hallett, Deuschl, Toni, & Bloem, 2012; Liu et al., 2006; Rosin, Topka, & Dichgans, 1997). In the last years, many empirical studies (e.g., Bocanegra et al., 2015; Spadacenta et al., 2012) have also shown that the processing of action verbs is selectively impaired in patients affected by this neurodegenerative disorder. In the light of these findings, it has been suggested that Parkinson disorder can be interpreted within an embodied cognition framework (e.g., Bocanegra et al., 2015). The central tenet of any embodied approach to language and cognition is that high order cognitive functions are grounded in the sensory-motor system. With regard to this point, Gallese (2008) proposed the neural exploitation hypothesis to account for, at the phylogenetic level, how key aspects of human language are underpinned by brain mechanisms originally evolved for sensory-motor integration. Glenberg and Gallese (2012) also applied the neural exploitation hypothesis to the ontogenetic level. On the basis of these premises, they developed a theory of language acquisition according to which, sensory-motor mechanisms provide a neurofunctional architecture for the acquisition of language, while retaining their original functions as well. The neural exploitation hypothesis is here applied to interpret the profile of patients affected by Parkinson's disease. It is suggested that action semantic impairments directly tap onto motor disorders. Finally, a discussion of what theory of language is needed to account for the interactions between language and movement disorders is presented. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Mechanism of Cerebralcare Granule® for Improving Cognitive Function in Resting-State Brain Functional Networks of Sub-healthy Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Li

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Cerebralcare Granule® (CG, a Chinese herbal medicine, has been used to ameliorate cognitive impairment induced by ischemia or mental disorders. The ability of CG to improve health status and cognitive function has drawn researchers' attention, but the relevant brain circuits that underlie the ameliorative effects of CG remain unclear. The present study aimed to explore the underlying neurobiological mechanisms of CG in ameliorating cognitive function in sub-healthy subjects using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Thirty sub-healthy participants were instructed to take one 2.5-g package of CG three times a day for 3 months. Clinical cognitive functions were assessed with the Chinese Revised Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-RC and Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS, and fMRI scans were performed at baseline and the end of intervention. Functional brain network data were analyzed by conventional network metrics (CNM and frequent subgraph mining (FSM. Then 21 other sub-healthy participants were enrolled as a blank control group of cognitive functional. We found that administrating CG can improve the full scale of intelligence quotient (FIQ and Memory Quotient (MQ scores. At the same time, following CG treatment, in CG group, the topological properties of functional brain networks were altered in various frontal, temporal, occipital cortex regions, and several subcortical brain regions, including essential components of the executive attention network, the salience network, and the sensory-motor network. The nodes involved in the FSM results were largely consistent with the CNM findings, and the changes in nodal metrics correlated with improved cognitive function. These findings indicate that CG can improve sub-healthy subjects' cognitive function through altering brain functional networks. These results provide a foundation for future studies of the potential physiological mechanism of CG.

  17. Wheel running from a juvenile age delays onset of specific motor deficits but does not alter protein aggregate density in a mouse model of Huntington's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spires Tara L

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Huntington's disease (HD is a neurodegenerative disorder predominantly affecting the cerebral cortex and striatum. Transgenic mice (R6/1 line, expressing a CAG repeat encoding an expanded polyglutamine tract in the N-terminus of the huntingtin protein, closely model HD. We have previously shown that environmental enrichment of these HD mice delays the onset of motor deficits. Furthermore, wheel running initiated in adulthood ameliorates the rear-paw clasping motor sign, but not an accelerating rotarod deficit. Results We have now examined the effects of enhanced physical activity via wheel running, commenced at a juvenile age (4 weeks, with respect to the onset of various behavioral deficits and their neuropathological correlates in R6/1 HD mice. HD mice housed post-weaning with running wheels only, to enhance voluntary physical exercise, have delayed onset of a motor co-ordination deficit on the static horizontal rod, as well as rear-paw clasping, although the accelerating rotarod deficit remains unaffected. Both wheel running and environmental enrichment rescued HD-induced abnormal habituation of locomotor activity and exploratory behavior in the open field. We have found that neither environment enrichment nor wheel running ameliorates the shrinkage of the striatum and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC in HD mice, nor the overall decrease in brain weight, measured at 9 months of age. At this age, the density of ubiquitinated protein aggregates in the striatum and ACC is also not significantly ameliorated by environmental enrichment or wheel running. Conclusion These results indicate that enhanced voluntary physical activity, commenced at an early presymptomatic stage, contributes to the positive effects of environmental enrichment. However, sensory and cognitive stimulation, as well as motor stimulation not associated with running, may constitute major components of the therapeutic benefits associated with enrichment

  18. SMN is required for sensory-motor circuit function in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imlach, Wendy L.; Beck, Erin S.; Choi, Ben Jiwon; Lotti, Francesco; Pellizzoni, Livio; McCabe, Brian D.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a lethal human disease characterized by motor neuron dysfunction and muscle deterioration due to depletion of the ubiquitous Survival Motor Neuron (SMN) protein. Drosophila SMN mutants have reduced muscle size and defective locomotion, motor rhythm and motor neuron neurotransmission. Unexpectedly, restoration of SMN in either muscles or motor neurons did not alter these phenotypes. Instead, SMN must be expressed in proprioceptive neurons and interneurons in the motor circuit to non-autonomously correct defects in motor neurons and muscles. SMN depletion disrupts the motor system subsequent to circuit development and can be mimicked by the inhibition of motor network function. Furthermore, increasing motor circuit excitability by genetic or pharmacological inhibition of K+ channels can correct SMN-dependent phenotypes. These results establish sensory-motor circuit dysfunction as the origin of motor system deficits in this SMA model and suggest that enhancement of motor neural network activity could ameliorate the disease. PMID:23063130

  19. Low Motor Assessment : A Comparative Pilot Study with Young Children With and Without Motor Impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiter, S.A.J.; Nakken, H.; Van der Meulen, B.F.; Lunenborg, C.B.

    Most of the developmental instruments that measure cognitive development in children rely heavily on fine motor skills, especially for young children whose language skills are not yet well developed. This is problematic when evaluating the cognitive development of young children with motor

  20. IQ as moderator of terminal decline in perceptual and motor speed, spatial, and verbal ability: Testing the cognitive reserve hypothesis in a population-based sample followed from age 70 until death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorvaldsson, Valgeir; Skoog, Ingmar; Johansson, Boo

    2017-03-01

    Terminal decline (TD) refers to acceleration in within-person cognitive decline prior to death. The cognitive reserve hypothesis postulates that individuals with higher IQ are able to better tolerate age-related increase in brain pathologies. On average, they will exhibit a later onset of TD, but once they start to decline, their trajectory is steeper relative to those with lower IQ. We tested these predictions using data from initially nondemented individuals (n = 179) in the H70-study repeatedly measured at ages 70, 75, 79, 81, 85, 88, 90, 92, 95, 97, 99, and 100, or until death, on cognitive tests of perceptual-and-motor-speed and spatial and verbal ability. We quantified IQ using the Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices (RCPM) test administrated at age 70. We fitted random change point TD models to the data, within a Bayesian framework, conditioned on IQ, age of death, education, and sex. In line with predictions, we found that 1 additional standard deviation on the IQ scale was associated with a delay in onset of TD by 1.87 (95% highest density interval [HDI; 0.20, 4.08]) years on speed, 1.96 (95% HDI [0.15, 3.54]) years on verbal ability, but only 0.88 (95% HDI [-0.93, 3.49]) year on spatial ability. Higher IQ was associated with steeper rate of decline within the TD phase on measures of speed and verbal ability, whereas results on spatial ability were nonconclusive. Our findings provide partial support for the cognitive reserve hypothesis and demonstrate that IQ can be a significant moderator of cognitive change trajectories in old age. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Neuropharmacological Aspects of Cognitive Neurorehabilitation in Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Mula

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of CNS neuromodulators in cognitive neurorehabilitation can be related to two main issues: (1 the negative impact on cognition of drug categories prescribed for different neurologic symptoms, such as spasticity, extrapyramidal symptoms, or epileptic seizures; (2 their possible role in neuroprotection and amelioration of the cognitive status of the patient, especially attention and memory. This paper reviews different pharmacological aspects of cognitive neurorehabilitation in epilepsy.

  2. Dietary supplementation with fruit polyphenolics ameliorates age-related deficits in behavior and neuronal markers of inflammation and oxidative stress

    OpenAIRE

    Shukitt-Hale, Barbara; Galli, Rachel L.; Meterko, Vanessa; Carey, Amanda; Bielinski, Donna F.; McGhie, Tony; Joseph, James A.

    2005-01-01

    Dietary supplementation with fruit or vegetable extracts can ameliorate age-related declines in measures of learning, memory, motor performance, and neuronal signal transduction in a rat model. To date, blueberries have proved most effective at improving measures of motor performance, spatial learning and memory, and neuronal functioning in old rats. In an effort to further characterize the bioactive properties of fruits rich in color and correspondingly high in anthocyanins and other polyphe...

  3. A Potential Psychological Mechanism Linking Disaster-Related Prenatal Maternal Stress with Child Cognitive and Motor Development at 16 Months: The QF2011 Queensland Flood Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Katrina M.; Simcock, Gabrielle; Cobham, Vanessa; Kildea, Sue; Elgbeili, Guillaume; Laplante, David P.; King, Suzanne

    2017-01-01

    Fetal exposure to prenatal maternal stress can have lifelong consequences, with different types of maternal stress associated with different areas of child development. Fewer studies have focused on motor skills, even though they are strongly predictive of later development across a range of domains. Research on mechanisms of transmission has…

  4. Motor Neurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hounsgaard, Jorn

    2017-01-01

    Motor neurons translate synaptic input from widely distributed premotor networks into patterns of action potentials that orchestrate motor unit force and motor behavior. Intercalated between the CNS and muscles, motor neurons add to and adjust the final motor command. The identity and functional...... properties of this facility in the path from synaptic sites to the motor axon is reviewed with emphasis on voltage sensitive ion channels and regulatory metabotropic transmitter pathways. The catalog of the intrinsic response properties, their underlying mechanisms, and regulation obtained from motoneurons...... in in vitro preparations is far from complete. Nevertheless, a foundation has been provided for pursuing functional significance of intrinsic response properties in motoneurons in vivo during motor behavior at levels from molecules to systems....

  5. Guanfacine ameliorates hypobaric hypoxia induced spatial working memory deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauser, H; Sahu, S; Kumar, S; Panjwani, U

    2014-01-17

    Hypobaric hypoxia (HH) observed at high altitude causes mild cognitive impairment specifically affecting attention and working memory. Adrenergic dysregulation and neuronal damage in prefrontal cortex (PFC) has been implicated in hypoxia induced memory deficits. Optimal stimulation of alpha 2A adrenergic receptor in PFC facilitates the spatial working memory (SWM) under the conditions of adrenergic dysregulation. Therefore the present study was designed to test the efficacy of alpha 2A adrenergic agonist, Guanfacine (GFC), to restore HH induced SWM deficits and PFC neuronal damage. The rats were exposed to chronic HH equivalent to 25,000ft for 7days in an animal decompression chamber and received daily treatment of GFC at a dose of 1mg/kg body weight via the intramuscular route during the period of exposure. The cognitive performance was assessed by Delayed Alternation Task (DAT) using T-Maze and PFC neuronal damage was studied by apoptotic and neurodegenerative markers. Percentage of correct choice decreased significantly while perseverative errors showed a significant increase after 7days HH exposure, GFC significantly ameliorated the SWM deficits and perseveration. There was a marked and significant increase in chromatin condensation, DNA fragmentation, neuronal pyknosis and fluoro Jade positive cells in layer II of the medial PFC in hypoxia exposed group, administration of GFC significantly reduced the magnitude of these changes. Modulation of adrenergic mechanisms by GFC may serve as an effective countermeasure in amelioration of prefrontal deficits and neurodegenerative changes during HH. © 2013.

  6. "Cognitive, emotion control, and motor performance of adolescents in the NCANDA study: Contributions from alcohol consumption, age, sex, ethnicity, and family history of addiction": Correction to Sullivan et al. (2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Reports an error in "Cognitive, emotion control, and motor performance of adolescents in the NCANDA study: Contributions from alcohol consumption, age, sex, ethnicity, and family history of addiction" by Edith V. Sullivan, Ty Brumback, Susan F. Tapert, Rosemary Fama, Devin Prouty, Sandra A. Brown, Kevin Cummins, Wesley K. Thompson, Ian M. Colrain, Fiona C. Baker, Michael D. De Bellis, Stephen R. Hooper, Duncan B. Clark, Tammy Chung, Bonnie J. Nagel, B. Nolan Nichols, Torsten Rohlfing, Weiwei Chu, Kilian M. Pohl and Adolf Pfefferbaum ( Neuropsychology , 2016[May], Vol 30[4], 449-473). A problem with a computation to invert speed scores is noted and explained in this correction. All statements indicating group differences in speed scores, as well as Table 5 and Figure 8A, have been corrected in the online version of this article. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2016-00613-001.) To investigate development of cognitive and motor functions in healthy adolescents and to explore whether hazardous drinking affects the normal developmental course of those functions. Participants were 831 adolescents recruited across 5 United States sites of the National Consortium on Alcohol and NeuroDevelopment in Adolescence 692 met criteria for no/low alcohol exposure, and 139 exceeded drinking thresholds. Cross-sectional, baseline data were collected with computerized and traditional neuropsychological tests assessing 8 functional domains expressed as composite scores. General additive modeling evaluated factors potentially modulating performance (age, sex, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and pubertal developmental stage). Older no/low-drinking participants achieved better scores than younger ones on 5 accuracy composites (general ability, abstraction, attention, emotion, and balance). Speeded responses for attention, motor speed, and general ability were sensitive to age and pubertal development. The exceeds-threshold group (accounting for age, sex

  7. Truncation of Ube3a-ATS unsilences paternal Ube3a and ameliorates behavioral defects in the Angelman syndrome mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Linyan; Person, Richard Erwin; Huang, Wei; Zhu, Ping Jun; Costa-Mattioli, Mauro; Beaudet, Arthur L

    2013-01-01

    Angelman syndrome (AS) is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder caused by maternal deficiency of the imprinted gene UBE3A. Individuals with AS suffer from intellectual disability, speech impairment, and motor dysfunction. Currently there is no cure for the disease. Here, we evaluated the phenotypic effect of activating the silenced paternal allele of Ube3a by depleting its antisense RNA Ube3a-ATS in mice. Premature termination of Ube3a-ATS by poly(A) cassette insertion activates expression of Ube3a from the paternal chromosome, and ameliorates many disease-related symptoms in the AS mouse model, including motor coordination defects, cognitive deficit, and impaired long-term potentiation. Studies on the imprinting mechanism of Ube3a revealed a pattern of biallelic transcription initiation with suppressed elongation of paternal Ube3a, implicating transcriptional collision between sense and antisense polymerases. These studies demonstrate the feasibility and utility of unsilencing the paternal copy of Ube3a via targeting Ube3a-ATS as a treatment for Angelman syndrome.

  8. Truncation of Ube3a-ATS Unsilences Paternal Ube3a and Ameliorates Behavioral Defects in the Angelman Syndrome Mouse Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Linyan; Person, Richard Erwin; Huang, Wei; Zhu, Ping Jun; Costa-Mattioli, Mauro; Beaudet, Arthur L.

    2013-01-01

    Angelman syndrome (AS) is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder caused by maternal deficiency of the imprinted gene UBE3A. Individuals with AS suffer from intellectual disability, speech impairment, and motor dysfunction. Currently there is no cure for the disease. Here, we evaluated the phenotypic effect of activating the silenced paternal allele of Ube3a by depleting its antisense RNA Ube3a-ATS in mice. Premature termination of Ube3a-ATS by poly(A) cassette insertion activates expression of Ube3a from the paternal chromosome, and ameliorates many disease-related symptoms in the AS mouse model, including motor coordination defects, cognitive deficit, and impaired long-term potentiation. Studies on the imprinting mechanism of Ube3a revealed a pattern of biallelic transcription initiation with suppressed elongation of paternal Ube3a, implicating transcriptional collision between sense and antisense polymerases. These studies demonstrate the feasibility and utility of unsilencing the paternal copy of Ube3a via targeting Ube3a-ATS as a treatment for Angelman syndrome. PMID:24385930

  9. Truncation of Ube3a-ATS unsilences paternal Ube3a and ameliorates behavioral defects in the Angelman syndrome mouse model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linyan Meng

    Full Text Available Angelman syndrome (AS is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder caused by maternal deficiency of the imprinted gene UBE3A. Individuals with AS suffer from intellectual disability, speech impairment, and motor dysfunction. Currently there is no cure for the disease. Here, we evaluated the phenotypic effect of activating the silenced paternal allele of Ube3a by depleting its antisense RNA Ube3a-ATS in mice. Premature termination of Ube3a-ATS by poly(A cassette insertion activates expression of Ube3a from the paternal chromosome, and ameliorates many disease-related symptoms in the AS mouse model, including motor coordination defects, cognitive deficit, and impaired long-term potentiation. Studies on the imprinting mechanism of Ube3a revealed a pattern of biallelic transcription initiation with suppressed elongation of paternal Ube3a, implicating transcriptional collision between sense and antisense polymerases. These studies demonstrate the feasibility and utility of unsilencing the paternal copy of Ube3a via targeting Ube3a-ATS as a treatment for Angelman syndrome.

  10. Motor speed predicts stability of cognitive deficits in both schizophrenic and bipolar I patients at one-year follow-up

    OpenAIRE

    Salazar-Fraile, J.; Balanza-Martinez, V.; Selva-Vera, G.; Martínez-Arán, Anabel, 1971-; Sanchez-Moreno, J.; Rubio, C.; Vieta i Pascual, Eduard, 1963-; Gomez-Beneyto, M.; Tabares-Seisdedos, Rafael

    2009-01-01

    Background: We examined whether motor speed assessed by the finger tapping test predicts generalized and specific stable deficits because of a common pathogenic process in bipolar and schizophrenic patients. Methods: One hundred and two patients underwent a battery of neuropsychological tests. Patients with a score of less than one standard deviation from their siblings', sample in two assessments with an interval of one year were defined as suffering from stable deficits because of a common ...

  11. Motor teams :

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Stochastic transitions between two species of motor yields Bidirectional motion. • Tuning of single-motor parameters. • No need to invoke a third “coordination complex”. Page 8. PNAS, 2009. 5.5 pN. 1.1 x 5 = 5.5 pN. Page 9. Kinesin motors have a problem working together. D istance (x) or. Force = Distance * K. TRAP ...

  12. Motor Starters

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    The power factor controller (PFC) was invented by a NASA engineer. It matches voltage with a motor's actual need by sensing shifts in the relationship between voltage and current flow. With the device, power can be trimmed as much as 65%. Intellinet adopted this technology and designed "soft start" and "load-responsive" control modes to start engines gradually and recycle voltage without reducing motor speed. Other features are lower motor heat and faster fault identification.

  13. An Extra X or Y Chromosome: Contrasting the Cognitive and Motor Phenotypes in Childhood in Boys with 47,XYY Syndrome or 47,XXY Klinefelter Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Judith L.; Zeger, Martha P. D.; Kushner, Harvey; Zinn, Andrew R.; Roeltgen, David P.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The goal of this study was to contrast the cognitive phenotypes in boys with 47,XYY (XYY) karyotype and boys with 47,XXY karyotype [Klinefelter syndrome, (KS)], who share an extra copy of the X-Y pseudoautosomal region but differ in their dosage of strictly sex-linked genes. Methods: Neuropsychological evaluation of general cognitive…

  14. Traumatic injury to the immature frontal lobe: A new murine model of long-term motor impairment in the absence of psychosocial or cognitive deficits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chien-Yi; Noble-Haeusslein, Linda J; Ferriero, Donna; Semple, Bridgette D

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury in children commonly involves the frontal lobes, and is associated with distinct structural and behavioral changes. Despite the clinical significance of injuries localized to this region during brain development, the mechanisms underlying secondary damage and long-term recovery are poorly understood. Here we have characterized the first model of unilateral focal traumatic injury to the developing frontal lobe. Male C57Bl/6J mice at postnatal day (p) 21, an age approximating a toddler-aged child, received a controlled cortical impact or sham surgery to the left frontal lobe and were euthanized 1 and 7 d later. A necrotic cavity and local inflammatory response were largely confined to the unilateral frontal lobe, dorsal corpus callosum and striatum anterior to Bregma. While cell death and accumulated beta-amyloid precursor protein were characteristic features of the peri-contusional motor cortex, corpus callosum, cingulum and dorsal striatum, underlying structures including the hippocampus showed no overt pathology. To determine the long-term functional consequences of injury at p21, two additional cohorts were subjected to a battery of behavioral tests in adolescence (p35-45) or adulthood (p70-80). In both cohorts, brain-injured mice showed normal levels of anxiety, sociability, spatial learning and memory. The signature phenotypic features were deficits in motor function and motor learning, coincident with a reduction in ipsilateral cortical brain volumes. Together, these findings demonstrate classic morphological features of a focal traumatic injury, including early cell death and axonal injury, and long-term volumetric loss of cortical volumes. The presence of deficits in sensorimotor function and coordination in the absence of abnormal findings related to anxiety, sociability and memory, likely reflect several variables including the unique location of the injury and the emergence of favorable compensatory mechanisms during subsequent

  15. Black ginseng extract ameliorates hypercholesterolemia in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn Saba

    2016-04-01

    Conclusion: Administration of BG extracts to Sprague Dawley rats fed with high-cholesterol diet ameliorated hypercholesterolemia, which was mediated via modulation of cholesterol-metabolizing marker genes. This data throw a light on BG's cardioprotective effects.

  16. Motor teams :

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    . Switch. Welte et al, 1998, Gross et al, 2002. Motion of Lipid droplets in Drosophila embryos. Page 7. • Stochastic transitions between two species of motor yields Bidirectional motion. • Tuning of single-motor parameters. • No need to invoke a ...

  17. Human cognition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norman, D.A.

    1982-01-01

    The study of human cognition encompasses the study of all mental phenomena, from the receipt and interpretation of sensory information to the final control of the motor system in the performance of action. The cognitive scientist examines all intermediary processes, including thought, decision making, and memory and including the effects of motivation, states of arousal and stress, the study of language, and the effects of social factors. The field therefore ranges over an enormous territory, covering all that is known or that should be known about human behavior. It is not possible to summarize the current state of knowledge about cognition with any great confidence that we know the correct answer about any aspect of the work. Nontheless, models provide good characterizations of certain aspects of the data and situations. Even if these models should prove to be incorrect, they do provide good approximate descriptions of people's behavior in some situations, and these approximations will still apply even when the underlying theories have changed. A quick description is provided of models within a number of areas of human cognition and skill and some general theoretical frameworks with which to view human cognition. The frameworks are qualitative descriptions that provide a way to view the development of more detailed, quantitative models and, most important, a way of thinking about human performance and skill

  18. CREB Overexpression Ameliorates Age-related Behavioral and Biophysical Deficits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiao-Wen

    Age-related cognitive deficits are observed in both humans and animals. Yet, the molecular mechanisms underlying these deficits are not yet fully elucidated. In aged animals, a decrease in intrinsic excitability of pyramidal neurons from the CA1 sub-region of hippocampus is believed to contribute to age-related cognitive impairments, but the molecular mechanism(s) that modulate both these factors has yet to be identified. Increasing activity of the transcription factor cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) in young adult rodents has been shown to facilitate cognition, and increase intrinsic excitability of their neurons. However, how CREB changes with age, and how that impacts cognition in aged animals, is not clear. Therefore, we first systematically characterized age- and training-related changes in CREB levels in dorsal hippocampus. At a remote time point after undergoing behavioral training, levels of total CREB and activated CREB (phosphorylated at S133, pCREB) were measured in both young and aged rats. We found that pCREB, but not total CREB was significantly reduced in dorsal CA1 of aged rats. Importantly, levels of pCREB were found to be positively correlated with short-term spatial memory in both young and aged rats i.e. higher pCREB in dorsal CA1 was associated with better spatial memory. These findings indicate that an age-related deficit in CREB activity may contribute to the development of age-related cognitive deficits. However, it was still unclear if increasing CREB activity would be sufficient to ameliorate age-related cognitive, and biophysical deficits. To address this question, we virally overexpressed CREB in CA1, where we found the age-related deficit. Young and aged rats received control or CREB virus, and underwent water maze training. While control aged animals exhibited deficits in long-term spatial memory, aged animals with CREB overexpression performed at levels comparable to young animals. Concurrently, aged neurons

  19. Non-motor Symptoms of Parkinson's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyh-Gong Gabriel Hou

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In addition to the typical motor symptoms (resting tremor, cogwheel rigidity, bradykinesia, postural instability of Parkinson's disease (PD, non-motor symptoms are sources of considerable burden in people with PD, espe-cially in elderly patients. The usual non-motor symptoms include cognitive declines, psychiatric disturbances (depression, psychosis, impulse control, autonomic failures (gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, urinary, sexual ability, thermoregulation, sleep difficulties, and pain syndrome. This review article discusses the characteristics, pathophysiology, epidemiology, and management of these symptoms.

  20. Cognitive performance correlates with the degree of dopaminergic degeneration in the associative part of the striatum in non-demented Parkinson's patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kübler, Dorothee; Schroll, Henning; Buchert, Ralph; Kühn, Andrea A

    2017-09-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) patients show cognitive deficits that are relevant in terms of prognosis and quality of life. Degeneration of striatal dopaminergic afferents proceeds from dorsal/caudal to anterior/ventral and is discussed to account for some of these symptoms. Treatment with dopamine (DA) has differential effects on cognitive dysfunctions, improving some and worsening others. We hypothesized that cognitive performance during the dopaminergic OFF state correlates with DAT availability in the associative striatum. 16 PD patients underwent motor and cognitive examination ON and OFF DA. Global cognition was measured using the Montréal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) test and executive functioning using a Stroop test. Nigrostriatal dopaminergic innervation was characterized with [ 123 I]FP-CIT SPECT. A connectivity atlas of the striatum was used to assess DAT availability in functionally defined striatal subregions. Correlations between imaging data and behavioral data OFF medication were calculated. Correlations between DAT availability and MoCA performance in the dopaminergic OFF state was strongest in the associative part of the striatum (r = 0.674, p = 0.004). MoCA test performance did not differ between the ON and the OFF state. There was no correlation of DAT availability with Stroop performance in the OFF state but performance was significantly better during the ON state. Not only motor but also cognitive dysfunctions in PD are associated with striatal dopaminergic depletion. Cognitive decline in non-demented PD patients goes along with nigrostriatal degeneration, most pronounced in the associative subdivision of the striatum. In addition, the present findings suggest that executive dysfunctions are ameliorated by DA whereas global cognition is not improved by dopaminergic medication.

  1. Fucoidan Extracts Ameliorate Acute Colitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Ying Lean

    Full Text Available Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD, such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, are an important cause of morbidity and impact significantly on quality of life. Overall, current treatments do not sustain a long-term clinical remission and are associated with adverse effects, which highlight the need for new treatment options. Fucoidans are complex sulphated, fucose-rich polysaccharides, found in edible brown algae and are described as having multiple bioactivities including potent anti-inflammatory effects. Therefore, the therapeutic potential of two different fucoidan preparations, fucoidan-polyphenol complex (Maritech Synergy and depyrogenated fucoidan (DPF was evaluated in the dextran sulphate sodium (DSS mouse model of acute colitis. Mice were treated once daily over 7 days with fucoidans via oral (Synergy or DPF or intraperitoneal administration (DPF. Signs and severity of colitis were monitored daily before colons and spleens were collected for macroscopic evaluation, cytokine measurements and histology. Orally administered Synergy and DPF, but not intraperitoneal DPF treatment, significantly ameliorated symptoms of colitis based on retention of body weight, as well as reduced diarrhoea and faecal blood loss, compared to the untreated colitis group. Colon and spleen weight in mice treated with oral fucoidan was also significantly lower, indicating reduced inflammation and oedema. Histological examination of untreated colitis mice confirmed a massive loss of crypt architecture and goblet cells, infiltration of immune cells and oedema, while all aspects of this pathology were alleviated by oral fucoidan. Importantly, in this model, the macroscopic changes induced by oral fucoidan correlated significantly with substantially decreased production of at least 15 pro-inflammatory cytokines by the colon tissue. Overall, oral fucoidan preparations significantly reduce the inflammatory pathology associated with DSS-induced colitis and could

  2. Relationship between very low birth weight, environmental factors, and motor and cognitive development of children of 5 and 6 years old Relação entre muito baixo peso ao nascimento, fatores ambientais e o desenvolvimento motor e o cognitivo de crianças aos 5 e 6 anos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele E. Oliveira

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationships between birth weight, preterm birth, environmental factors and the motor and cognitive development of 5 to 6 year-old children. METHODS: A case control study in which the motor and cognitive performance, as well as the home environment of children aged 5-6 years, born pre-term and weighing OBJETIVO: Examinar as relações entre baixo peso ao nascimento, prematuridade, fatores ambientais e os desenvolvimentos motor e cognitivo de crianças aos 5 e 6 anos de idade. MÉTODOS: Estudo caso-controle no qual os desempenhos motor e cognitivo e o ambiente domiciliar de crianças com idade de 5-6 anos, nascidas pré-termo e com peso < 1.500 gramas, foram comparados com os de pares nascidos a termo e com peso adequado (PA. Foram utilizados os testes Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC, Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire (DCDQ, as provas de vocabulário e de cubos do Weschsler Intelligence Test for Children-III (WISC, o Swanson, Nolan and Pelham IV Scale (SNAP IV e o Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME. RESULTADOS: 50,54% das crianças nascidas com muito baixo peso (MBP foram a óbito, e 15,2% deste grupo desenvolveram sequelas severas. Os escores para os grupos de MBP e de PA foram: HOME 33,83±7,81(MBP, 39,61±8,75(PA; MABC 8,17±7,10(MBP, 3,06±3,80(PA; DCDQ 54,0±11,3(MBP, 63,0±7,5(PA; WISC Cubos 8,35±2,15(MBP, 10,57±2,25(PA; WISC Vocabulário 9,61±2,62(MBP, 13,48±2,45(PA; SNAP IV 4,04±4,95(MBP, 1,57±3,27(PA. Foram encontradas diferenças significativas entre os grupos, com melhor desempenho em todos os testes no grupo de PA. Os resultados dos testes motores e cognitivos tiveram correlação com o peso ao nascer (p<0,01 e com o HOME (p<0,05. CONCLUSÕES: Os resultados reforçaram as evidências de que crianças nascidas prematuras e de MBP são mais propensas a apresentar dificuldades motoras e cognitivas que seus pares nascidos a termo e de PA. Fatores ambientais

  3. “The Mind Is Its Own Place”: Amelioration of Claustrophobia in Semantic Dementia

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, Camilla N.; Downey, Laura E.; Golden, Hannah L.; Fletcher, Phillip D.; de Silva, Rajith; Cifelli, Alberto; Warren, Jason D.

    2014-01-01

    Phobias are among the few intensely fearful experiences we regularly have in our everyday lives, yet the brain basis of phobic responses remains incompletely understood. Here we describe the case of a 71-year-old patient with a typical clinicoanatomical syndrome of semantic dementia led by selective (predominantly right-sided) temporal lobe atrophy, who showed striking amelioration of previously disabling claustrophobia following onset of her cognitive syndrome. We interpret our patient's new...

  4. Motor heuristics and embodied choices: how to choose and act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raab, Markus

    2017-08-01

    Human performance requires choosing what to do and how to do it. The goal of this theoretical contribution is to advance understanding of how the motor and cognitive components of choices are intertwined. From a holistic perspective I extend simple heuristics that have been tested in cognitive tasks to motor tasks, coining the term motor heuristics. Similarly I extend the concept of embodied cognition, that has been tested in simple sensorimotor processes changing decisions, to complex sport behavior coining the term embodied choices. Thus both motor heuristics and embodied choices explain complex behavior such as studied in sport and exercise psychology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Application of stepping motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-10-01

    This book is divided into three parts, which is about practical using of stepping motor. The first part has six chapters. The contents of the first part are about stepping motor, classification of stepping motor, basic theory og stepping motor, characteristic and basic words, types and characteristic of stepping motor in hybrid type and basic control of stepping motor. The second part deals with application of stepping motor with hardware of stepping motor control, stepping motor control by microcomputer and software of stepping motor control. The last part mentions choice of stepping motor system, examples of stepping motor, measurement of stepping motor and practical cases of application of stepping motor.

  6. Understanding social motor coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, R C; Fitzpatrick, Paula; Caron, Robert; Mergeche, Joanna

    2011-10-01

    Recently there has been much interest in social coordination of motor movements, or as it is referred to by some researchers, joint action. This paper reviews the cognitive perspective's common coding/mirror neuron theory of joint action, describes some of its limitations and then presents the behavioral dynamics perspective as an alternative way of understanding social motor coordination. In particular, behavioral dynamics' ability to explain the temporal coordination of interacting individuals is detailed. Two experiments are then described that demonstrate how dynamical processes of synchronization are apparent in the coordination underlying everyday joint actions such as martial art exercises, hand-clapping games, and conversations. The import of this evidence is that emergent dynamic patterns such as synchronization are the behavioral order that any neural substrate supporting joint action (e.g., mirror systems) would have to sustain. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Rehabilitation training using complex motor learning rescues deficits in eyeblink classical conditioning in female rats induced by binge-like neonatal alcohol exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Jennifer L; Klintsova, Anna Y; Greenough, William T; Goodlett, Charles R

    2013-09-01

    Effective treatments for the behavioral and cognitive deficits in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are lacking, and translational approaches using animal models can help develop rational interventions. One such model, binge-like alcohol exposure in neonatal rats during the period of brain development comparable with that of the human third trimester, causes structural and functional damage to the cerebellum and disrupts cerebellar-dependent eyeblink classical conditioning. The eyeblink conditioning deficits first demonstrated in this rat model predicted the similar deficits subsequently demonstrated in children with FASD. The current study extends this translational approach by testing the hypothesis that rehabilitation training involving 20 days of training on traversal of an obstacle course (complex motor learning) would ameliorate the deficits on classical conditioning of eyeblink responses produced by the neonatal alcohol exposure. We have previously shown that this training stimulates cerebellar synaptic plasticity and improves alcohol-induced deficits on motor coordination tasks. The current studies found that rehabilitation training significantly attenuated alcohol-induced deficits in acquisition of eyeblink conditioning in females but not in males. These results are consistent with normalization of cerebellar-dependent learning, at least in alcohol-exposed females. These findings extend previous studies in this model suggesting that rehabilitation of adolescents with FASD using training with complex motor learning tasks could be effective in ameliorating functional impairments associated with cerebellar damage. Eyeblink classical conditioning deficits are now well documented in children with FASD and could serve as an evaluation measure to continue to develop therapeutic interventions such as complex motor learning. Copyright © 2013 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  8. Melatonin pretreatment prevents isoflurane-induced cognitive dysfunction by modulating sleep-wake rhythm in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Tianjiao; Cui, Yin; Chu, Shuaishuai; Song, Jia; Qian, Yue; Ma, Zhengliang; Gu, Xiaoping

    2016-03-01

    Sleep plays an important role in memory processing. However, its role in anesthesia-induced cognitive dysfunction was not revealed. Our study sought to investigate the connection between the cognition decline and sleep-wake rhythm disorders after long-term isoflurane anesthesia in mice. Also, we examined the effect of exogenous melatonin pretreatment on both cognitive function and circadian rhythm. Furthermore, we discussed whether NR2B (N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor 2B subunit)-CREB (cAMP-response element binding protein) signaling pathway was involved in this course. 2-month-old male C57/BL-6J mice were submitted to long-term anesthesia using 1% isoflurane from CT (Circadian Time) 14 to CT20. Melatonin pretreatment were conducted before anesthesia for 7 Days. Intellicage for mice and Mini-Mitter were applied to monitor spatial memory and gross motor activity which can reflect cognition and sleep-wake rhythm. Messenger RNA and protein expression of right hippocampus NR2B and CREB were examined by RT-PCR and Western blot. 6h isoflurane anesthesia led to impaired spatial memory from Day 3 to Day 10 in mice accompanied by the disruption of sleep-wake rhythm. Meanwhile, the hippocampus CREB and NR2B expression declined in step. Melatonin pretreatment ameliorated disturbed sleep-wake cycle, improved isoflurane-induced cognitive dysfunction, and reversed the down-regulation of CREB and NR2B expression. Our data demonstrate that sleep-wake rhythm is involved in the isoflurane-induced cognition impairment and pretreatment of melatonin has a positive effect on circadian normalization and cognition reversal. Also, NR2B-CREB signaling pathway has a critical role in this process. This study provides us a new strategy for anesthesia-induced cognitive dysfunction therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Attentional Demands on Motor-Respiratory Coordination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessler, Eric E.; Amazeen, Polemnia G.

    2009-01-01

    Athletic performance requires the pacing of breathing with exercise, known as motor-respiratory coordination (MRC). In this study, we added cognitive and physical constraints while participants intentionally controlled their breathing locations during rhythmic arm movement. This is the first study to examine a cognitive constraint on MRC.…

  10. Unawareness of motor phenoconversion in Huntington disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCusker, Elizabeth A; Gunn, David G; Epping, Eric A; Loy, Clement T; Radford, Kylie; Griffith, Jane; Mills, James A; Long, Jeffrey D; Paulsen, Jane S

    2013-09-24

    To determine whether Huntington disease (HD) mutation carriers have motor symptoms (complaints) when definite motor onset (motor phenoconversion) is diagnosed and document differences between the groups with and without unawareness of motor signs. We analyzed data from 550 HD mutation carriers participating in the multicenter PREDICT-HD Study followed through the HD prodrome. Data analysis included demographics, the Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale (UHDRS) and the Participant HD History of symptoms, self-report of progression, and cognitive, behavioral, and imaging measures. Unawareness was identified when no motor symptoms were self-reported but when definite motor HD was diagnosed. Of 38 (6.91%) with onset of motor HD, almost half (18/38 = 47.36%) had no motor symptoms despite signs of disease on the UHDRS motor rating and consistent with unawareness. A group with motor symptoms and signs was similar on a range of measures to the unaware group. Those with unawareness of HD signs reported less depression. Patients with symptoms had more striatal atrophy on imaging measures. Only half of the patients with newly diagnosed motor HD had motor symptoms. Unaware patients were less likely to be depressed. Self-report of symptoms may be inaccurate in HD at the earliest stage.

  11. Apraxia and motor dysfunction in corticobasal syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrell, James R; Hornberger, Michael; Vucic, Steve; Kiernan, Matthew C; Hodges, John R

    2014-01-01

    Corticobasal syndrome (CBS) is characterized by multifaceted motor system dysfunction and cognitive disturbance; distinctive clinical features include limb apraxia and visuospatial dysfunction. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has been used to study motor system dysfunction in CBS, but the relationship of TMS parameters to clinical features has not been studied. The present study explored several hypotheses; firstly, that limb apraxia may be partly due to visuospatial impairment in CBS. Secondly, that motor system dysfunction can be demonstrated in CBS, using threshold-tracking TMS, and is linked to limb apraxia. Finally, that atrophy of the primary motor cortex, studied using voxel-based morphometry analysis (VBM), is associated with motor system dysfunction and limb apraxia in CBS. Imitation of meaningful and meaningless hand gestures was graded to assess limb apraxia, while cognitive performance was assessed using the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination - Revised (ACE-R), with particular emphasis placed on the visuospatial subtask. Patients underwent TMS, to assess cortical function, and VBM. In total, 17 patients with CBS (7 male, 10 female; mean age 64.4+/- 6.6 years) were studied and compared to 17 matched control subjects. Of the CBS patients, 23.5% had a relatively inexcitable motor cortex, with evidence of cortical dysfunction in the remaining 76.5% patients. Reduced resting motor threshold, and visuospatial performance, correlated with limb apraxia. Patients with a resting motor threshold apraxia correlated with atrophy of the pre-motor and parietal cortices. Cortical dysfunction appears to underlie the core clinical features of CBS, and is associated with atrophy of the primary motor and pre-motor cortices, as well as the thalamus, while apraxia correlates with pre-motor and parietal atrophy.

  12. ANTIOXIDANTS AMELIORATION OF ARSENICAL-INDUCED EFFECTS IN VIVO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antioxidant amelioration of arsenical-induced effects in vivo. ES Hunter and EH Rogers. Reproductive Toxicology Division, NHEERL, US EPA, RTP, NC. Antioxidants have been reported to ameliorate the effects of many developmental toxicants. We tested the hypothesis that oxi...

  13. 27 CFR 24.178 - Amelioration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Amelioration. 24.178 Section 24.178 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT..., during and after fermentation. The fixed acid level of the juice is determined prior to fermentation and...

  14. Ameliorative effects of selenium and zinc

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methidathion-induced hematological, biochemical and hepatohistological alterations in rat: Ameliorative effects of selenium and zinc. ... In contrast, reduced glutathione level (GSH), and the activities of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and the glutathione peroxidase (GPx) content of hepatic tissue decreased ...

  15. Ameliorative effect of Lentinus squarrosulus mycomeat against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ameliorative effect of Lentinus squarrosulus mycomeat against Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection using albino rat as animal model. ... The increasing awareness of inherent therapeutic and prophylactic benefits of some higher fungi and their products has been the recent trend for improving a healthy vigour. Mycomeat is a ...

  16. Amelioration of radiation nephropathy by acetylsalicylic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheij, M.; Stewart, F. A.; Oussoren, Y.; Weening, J. J.; Dewit, L.

    1995-01-01

    This investigation was carried out to assess the amelioration by two antithrombotic drugs of radiation nephropathy in mice. Mouse kidneys were given split-dose irradiation to total doses between 17 and 22 Gy. A first group of animals was given acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) in drinking water, a second

  17. THE MOTOR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard Nielsen, Anders

    2011-01-01

    MOTOR is the first assignment that students at Unit 1a of the School of Architecture are introduced to. The purpose of the assignment is to shake up the students and their preconceptions of what architec- ture is. This is done by introducing them to a working method that al- lows them to develop ...

  18. THE MOTOR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard Nielsen, Anders

    2011-01-01

    MOTOR is the first assignment that students at Unit 1a of the School of Architecture are introduced to. The purpose of the assignment is to shake up the students and their preconceptions of what architec- ture is. This is done by introducing them to a working method that al- lows them to develop...

  19. Motor learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolpert, Daniel M; Flanagan, J Randall

    2010-06-08

    Although learning a motor skill, such as a tennis stroke, feels like a unitary experience, researchers who study motor control and learning break the processes involved into a number of interacting components. These components can be organized into four main groups. First, skilled performance requires the effective and efficient gathering of sensory information, such as deciding where and when to direct one's gaze around the court, and thus an important component of skill acquisition involves learning how best to extract task-relevant information. Second, the performer must learn key features of the task such as the geometry and mechanics of the tennis racket and ball, the properties of the court surface, and how the wind affects the ball's flight. Third, the player needs to set up different classes of control that include predictive and reactive control mechanisms that generate appropriate motor commands to achieve the task goals, as well as compliance control that specifies, for example, the stiffness with which the arm holds the racket. Finally, the successful performer can learn higher-level skills such as anticipating and countering the opponent's strategy and making effective decisions about shot selection. In this Primer we shall consider these components of motor learning using as an example how we learn to play tennis. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Motor learning and working memory in children born preterm: a systematic review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongbloed-Pereboom, M.; Janssen, A.J.W.M.; Steenbergen, B.; Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, M.W.G.

    2012-01-01

    Children born preterm have a higher risk for developing motor, cognitive, and behavioral problems. Motor problems can occur in combination with working memory problems, and working memory is important for explicit learning of motor skills. The relation between motor learning and working memory has

  1. Motor learning and working memory in children born preterm: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongbloed-Pereboom, M.; Janssen, A.J.W.M.; Steenbergen, B.; Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, M.W.G.

    2012-01-01

    Children born preterm have a higher risk for developing motor, cognitive, and behavioral problems. Motor problems can occur in combination with working memory problems, and working memory is important for explicit learning of motor skills. The relation between motor learning and working memory has

  2. Individual Differences in Language Development: Relationship with Motor Skill at 21 Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcock, Katherine J.; Krawczyk, Kirsty

    2010-01-01

    Language development has long been associated with motor development, particularly manual gesture. We examined a variety of motor abilities--manual gesture including symbolic, meaningless and sequential memory, oral motor control, gross and fine motor control--in 129 children aged 21 months. Language abilities were assessed and cognitive and…

  3. Association between gross-motor and executive function depends on age and motor task complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spedden, Meaghan Elizabeth; Malling, Anne Sofie B; Andersen, Ken Kjøller

    2017-01-01

    The objective was to examine associations between motor and executive function across the adult lifespan and to investigate the role of motor complexity in these associations. Young, middle-aged and older adults (n = 82; 19-83y) performed two gross-motor tasks with different levels of complexity...... and a Stroop-like computer task. Performance was decreased in older adults. The association between motor and cognitive performance was significant for older adults in the complex motor task (p = 0.03, rs = -0.41), whereas no significant associations were found for young or middle-aged groups, suggesting...... that the link between gross-motor and executive function emerges with age and depends on motor complexity....

  4. Cognitive retraining in traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diya Nangia

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI is often associated with cognitive impairments. The psychological sequelae of cognitive deficits and emotional problems contribute significantly to the disability in the patient and to the distress of the family. The study aimed to develop a cognitive retraining programme to enhance cognitive functioning in TBI. 25 years old male presenting with history of left temporal hemorrhagic contusion with cerebral edema underwent 2 months of a cognitive retaining programme, addressing executive functions impairment. A single case experimental design with pre- and post-assessment was adopted to evaluate changes in the patient in response to the intervention. Improvements were found in cognitive functioning, and in symptom reduction and behaviour. The 2 months hospital based cognitive retraining programme was found to be efficacious in ameliorating symptoms and improving cognitive, social and occupational functioning post traumatic brain injury.

  5. Jidosha's Motors

    OpenAIRE

    Shirakawa Okuma, Rosely; Calderón Orejuela, Javier

    2016-01-01

    La tesis narra la situación de una empresa concesionaria de vehículos nuevos, Jidosha's Motors, perteneciente a una corporación japonesa que cuenta con una cultura muy arraigada de ética y de cumplimiento. Se plantean respuestas, se identifican problemas y sus alternativas de solución para una toma adecuada de decisiones por parte de los directivos, siguiendo una estructura de análisis de situaciones de negocios (ASN). Tesis

  6. The frontotemporal dementia-motor neuron disease continuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrell, James R; Halliday, Glenda M; Kril, Jillian J; Ittner, Lars M; Götz, Jürgen; Kiernan, Matthew C; Hodges, John R

    2016-08-27

    Early reports of cognitive and behavioural deficits in motor neuron disease might have been overlooked initially, but the concept of a frontotemporal dementia-motor neuron disease continuum has emerged during the past decade. Frontotemporal dementia-motor neuron disease is now recognised as an important dementia syndrome, which presents substantial challenges for diagnosis and management. Frontotemporal dementia, motor neuron disease, and frontotemporal dementia-motor neuron disease are characterised by overlapping patterns of TAR DNA binding protein (TDP-43) pathology, while the chromosome 9 open reading frame 72 (C9orf72) repeat expansion is common across the disease spectrum. Indeed, the C9orf72 repeat expansion provides important clues to disease pathogenesis and suggests potential therapeutic targets. Variable diagnostic criteria identify motor, cognitive, and behavioural deficits, but further refinement is needed to define the clinical syndromes encountered in frontotemporal dementia-motor neuron disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Motor Control and Aging: Links to Age-Related Brain Structural, Functional, and Biochemical Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Seidler, Rachael D.; Bernard, Jessica A.; Burutolu, Taritonye B.; Fling, Brett W.; Gordon, Mark T.; Gwin, Joseph T.; Kwak, Youngbin; Lipps, David B.

    2009-01-01

    Although connections between cognitive deficits and age-associated brain differences have been elucidated, relationships with motor performance are less well understood. Here, we broadly review age-related brain differences and motor deficits in older adults in addition to cognition-action theories. Age-related atrophy of the motor cortical regions and corpus callosum may precipitate or coincide with motor declines such as balance and gait deficits, coordination deficits, and movement slowing...

  8. A 24-Week Multi-Modality Exercise Program Improves Executive Control in Older Adults with a Self-Reported Cognitive Complaint: Evidence from the Antisaccade Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Matthew; Shellington, Erin; Titheridge, Sam; Gill, Dawn P; Petrella, Robert J

    2017-01-01

    Exercise programs involving aerobic and resistance training (i.e., multiple-modality) have shown promise in improving cognition and executive control in older adults at risk, or experiencing, cognitive decline. It is, however, unclear whether cognitive training within a multiple-modality program elicits an additive benefit to executive/cognitive processes. This is an important question to resolve in order to identify optimal training programs that delay, or ameliorate, executive deficits in persons at risk for further cognitive decline. In the present study, individuals with a self-r