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  1. Cognitive and motor aging in female chimpanzees

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    Lacreuse, Agnès; Russell, Jamie L.; Hopkins, William D.; Herndon, James G.

    2013-01-01

    We present the first longitudinal data on cognitive and motor aging in the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes). Thirty-eight adult female chimpanzees (10–54 years old) were studied. The apes were tested longitudinally for 3 years in a modified Primate Cognition Test Battery (Herrmann et al., 2007, Science 317,1360–1366), which comprised 12 tests of physical and social cognition. The chimpanzees were also administered a fine motor task requiring them to remove a steel nut from rods of various complex...

  2. Naringin ameliorates cognitive deficits in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

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    Xianchu Liu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s:Previous research demonstrated that diabetes is one of the leading causes of learning and memory deficits. Naringin, a bioflavonoid isolated from grapefruits and oranges, has potent protective effects on streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic rats. Recently, the effects of naringin on learning and memory performances were monitored in many animal models of cognitive impairment. However, to date, no studies have investigated the ameliorative effects of naringin on diabetes-associated cognitive decline (DACD. In this study, we investigated the effects of naringin, using a STZ-injected rat model and explored its potential mechanism. Materials and Methods:Diabetic rats were treated with naringin (100 mg/kg/d for 7 days. The learning and memory function were assessed by Morris water maze test. The oxidative stress indicators [superoxide dismutase (SOD and malondialdehyde (MDA] and inflammatory cytokines (TNF-a, IL-1β, and IL-6 were measured in hippocampus using corresponding commercial kits. The mRNA and protein levels of PPARγ were evaluated by real time (RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. Results:The results showed that supplementation of naringin improved learning and memory performances compared with the STZ group. Moreover, naringin supplement dramatically increased SOD levels, reduced MDA levels, and alleviated TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 compared with the STZ group in the hippocampus. The pretreatment with naringin also significantly increased PPARγ expression. Conclusion: Our results showed that naringin may be a promising therapeutic agent for improving cognitive decline in DACD.

  3. Treadmill exercise ameliorates motor dysfunction through inhibition of Purkinje cell loss in cerebellum of valproic acid-induced autistic rats.

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    Cho, Han-Sam; Kim, Tae-Woon; Ji, Eun-Sang; Park, Hye-Sang; Shin, Mal-Soon; Baek, Seung-Soo

    2016-08-01

    Autism is a complex developmental disorder with impairments in social interaction, communication, repetitive behavior and motor skills. Exercise enhances cognitive function, ameliorates motor dysfunction, and provides protective profits against neurodegeneration. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of treadmill exercise on the motor coordination and Purkinje cell loss in relation with reactive astrocytes and microglial activation in the cerebellum using valproic acid (VPA)-induced autism rat model. On the 12th day of pregnancy, the pregnant rats in the VPA-exposed group received intraperitoneal injections of 600-mg/kg VPA. After birth, the rat pups were divided into four groups: the control group, the exercise group, the VPA-treated group, the VPA-treated and exercise group. The rat pups in the exercise groups were forced to run on a treadmill for 30 min once a day, 5 times a week for 4 weeks. In the present results, motor balance and coordination was disturbed by induction of autism, in contrast, treadmill exercise alleviated motor dysfunction in the autistic rats. Purkinje cell loss, reactive astrocytes, and microglial activation were occurred by induction of autism, in contrast, treadmill exercise enhanced survival rate of Purkinje neurons through inhibition of reactive astrocytes and microglia in the autistic rats. The present study showed that exercise may provide a potential therapeutic strategy for the alleviation of motor dysfunction in autistic patients. PMID:27656625

  4. Treadmill exercise ameliorates motor dysfunction through inhibition of Purkinje cell loss in cerebellum of valproic acid-induced autistic rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Han-Sam; Kim, Tae-Woon; Ji, Eun-Sang; Park, Hye-Sang; Shin, Mal-Soon; Baek, Seung-Soo

    2016-01-01

    Autism is a complex developmental disorder with impairments in social interaction, communication, repetitive behavior and motor skills. Exercise enhances cognitive function, ameliorates motor dysfunction, and provides protective profits against neurodegeneration. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of treadmill exercise on the motor coordination and Purkinje cell loss in relation with reactive astrocytes and microglial activation in the cerebellum using valproic acid (VPA)-induced autism rat model. On the 12th day of pregnancy, the pregnant rats in the VPA-exposed group received intraperitoneal injections of 600-mg/kg VPA. After birth, the rat pups were divided into four groups: the control group, the exercise group, the VPA-treated group, the VPA-treated and exercise group. The rat pups in the exercise groups were forced to run on a treadmill for 30 min once a day, 5 times a week for 4 weeks. In the present results, motor balance and coordination was disturbed by induction of autism, in contrast, treadmill exercise alleviated motor dysfunction in the autistic rats. Purkinje cell loss, reactive astrocytes, and microglial activation were occurred by induction of autism, in contrast, treadmill exercise enhanced survival rate of Purkinje neurons through inhibition of reactive astrocytes and microglia in the autistic rats. The present study showed that exercise may provide a potential therapeutic strategy for the alleviation of motor dysfunction in autistic patients.

  5. Motor Proficiency Predicts Cognitive Ability in Four-Year-Olds

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    Hernandez, Amanda Martinez; Caçola, Priscila

    2015-01-01

    Research has shown links between motor proficiency and cognition in school-age children, however, few have explored earlier ages. We aimed to determine the association between motor proficiency and cognitive ability in four-year-olds. Motor and cognitive skills were examined in 32 (15 males, 17 females) four-year-olds (±5.59 months) using the…

  6. Thinking, Walking, Talking: Integratory Motor and Cognitive Brain Function.

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    Leisman, Gerry; Moustafa, Ahmed A; Shafir, Tal

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we argue that motor and cognitive processes are functionally related and most likely share a similar evolutionary history. This is supported by clinical and neural data showing that some brain regions integrate both motor and cognitive functions. In addition, we also argue that cognitive processes coincide with complex motor output. Further, we also review data that support the converse notion that motor processes can contribute to cognitive function, as found by many rehabilitation and aerobic exercise training programs. Support is provided for motor and cognitive processes possessing dynamic bidirectional influences on each other. PMID:27252937

  7. Generalised cognitive motor interference in multiple sclerosis.

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    Learmonth, Y C; Pilutti, L A; Motl, R W

    2015-06-01

    Researchers have examined cognitive motor interference (CMI) for lower extremity function in MS, but have not examined this in the upper extremity. This study examined CMI for both lower and upper extremity motor tasks in persons with MS and without MS. Eighty-two persons walked on a GAITRite electronic walkway (velocity) and performed the nine-hole peg test (NHPT, seconds) without (single task) and with a cognitive challenge (dual task). The data were analysed with mixed-factor ANOVA and Pearson correlations. When comparing MS and controls, there were statistical significant and exceptionally large Task main effects on gait velocity (ηp(2)=.41; F1,60=55.78; p.450). CMI occurs in both the lower and upper extremities, and is comparable between persons with and without MS and across MS disability level. PMID:25957651

  8. Obesity Reduces Cognitive and Motor Functions across the Lifespan

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    Chuanming Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to a sedentary lifestyle, more and more people are becoming obese nowadays. In addition to health-related problems, obesity can also impair cognition and motor performance. Previous results have shown that obesity mainly affects cognition and motor behaviors through altering brain functions and musculoskeletal system, respectively. Many factors, such as insulin/leptin dysregulation and inflammation, mediate the effect of obesity and cognition and motor behaviors. Substantial evidence has suggested exercise to be an effective way to improve obesity and related cognitive and motor dysfunctions. This paper aims to discuss the association of obesity with cognition and motor behaviors and its underlying mechanisms. Following this, mechanisms of exercise to improve obesity-related dysfunctions are described. Finally, implications and future research direction are raised.

  9. Individually modifiable risk factors to ameliorate cognitive aging: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

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    Lehert, P; Villaseca, P; Hogervorst, E; Maki, P M; Henderson, V W

    2015-10-01

    A number of health and lifestyle factors are thought to contribute to cognitive decline associated with age but cannot be easily modified by the individual patient. We identified 12 individually modifiable interventions that can be implemented during midlife or later with the potential to ameliorate cognitive aging. For ten of these, we used PubMed databases for a systematic review of long-duration (at least 6 months), randomized, controlled trials in midlife and older adults without dementia or mild cognitive impairment with objective measures of neuropsychological performance. Using network meta-analysis, we performed a quantitative synthesis for global cognition (primary outcome) and episodic memory (secondary outcome). Of 1038 publications identified by our search strategy, 24 eligible trials were included in the network meta-analysis. Results suggested that the Mediterranean diet supplemented by olive oil and tai chi exercise may improve global cognition, and the Mediterranean diet plus olive oil and soy isoflavone supplements may improve memory. Effect sizes were no more than small (standardized mean differences 0.11-0.22). Cognitive training may have cognitive benefit as well. Most individually modifiable risk factors have not yet been adequately studied. We conclude that some interventions that can be self-initiated by healthy midlife and older adults may ameliorate cognitive aging. PMID:26361790

  10. Cognition and behavior in motor neuron disease

    OpenAIRE

    Raaphorst, J.

    2015-01-01

    Motor neuron disease (MND) is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive motor neuron loss, leading to weakness of the muscles of arms and legs, bulbar and respiratory muscles. Depending on the involvement of the lower and the upper motor neuron, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS; both lower and upper motor neuron affected) and progressive muscular atrophy (PMA; only lower motor neuron affected) are recognized. There is no cure, despite numerous pharmaceutical tria...

  11. Mesenchymal stem cell transplantation ameliorates motor function deterioration of spinocerebellar ataxia by rescuing cerebellar Purkinje cells

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    Ma Wei-Hsien

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA refers to a disease entity in which polyglutamine aggregates are over-produced in Purkinje cells (PCs of the cerebellum as well as other neurons in the central nervous system, and the formation of intracellular polyglutamine aggregates result in the loss of neurons as well as deterioration of motor functions. So far there is no effective neuroprotective treatment for this debilitating disease although numerous efforts have been made. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs possess multi-lineage differentiation potentials as well as immuno-modulatory properties, and are theoretically good candidates for SCA treatment. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether transplantation of human MSCs (hMSCs can rescue cerebellar PCs and ameliorate motor function deterioration in SCA in a pre-clinical animal model. Method Transgenic mice bearing poly-glutamine mutation in ataxin-2 gene (C57BL/6J SCA2 transgenic mice were serially transplanted with hMSCs intravenously or intracranially before and after the onset of motor function loss. Motor function of mice was evaluated by an accelerating protocol of rotarod test every 8 weeks. Immunohistochemical stain of whole brain sections was adopted to demonstrate the neuroprotective effect of hMSC transplantation on cerebellar PCs and engraftment of hMSCs into mice brain. Results Intravenous transplantation of hMSCs effectively improved rotarod performance of SCA2 transgenic mice and delayed the onset of motor function deterioration; while intracranial transplantation failed to achieve such neuroprotective effect. Immunohistochemistry revealed that intravenous transplantation was more effective in the preservation of the survival of cerebellar PCs and engraftment of hMSCs than intracranial injection, which was compatible to rotarod performance of transplanted mice. Conclusion Intravenous transplantation of hMSCs can indeed delay the onset as well as improve the motor

  12. Maternal Education Level Predicts Cognitive, Language, and Motor Outcome in Preterm Infants in the Second Year of Life.

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    Patra, Kousiki; Greene, Michelle M; Patel, Aloka L; Meier, Paula

    2016-07-01

    Objective To evaluate the relative impact of maternal education level (MEL) on cognitive, language, and motor outcomes at 20 months' corrected age (CA) in preterm infants. Study Design A total of 177 preterm infants born between 2008 and 2010 were tested at 20 months' CA using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development-III. Multiple regression analyses were done to determine the relative impact of MEL on cognitive, language, and motor scores. Results Infants born to mothers with high school MEL were 3.74 times more likely to have a subnormal motor index, while those born to mothers with some college and graduate school MEL had reduced odds (0.36 and 0.12, respectively) of having subnormal language index at 20 months. In linear regression, MEL was the strongest predictor of cognitive, language, and motor scores, and graduate school MEL was associated with increases in cognitive, motor, and language scores of 8.49, 8.23, and 15.74 points, respectively. Conclusions MEL is the most significant predictor of cognitive, language, and motor outcome at 20 months' CA in preterm infants. Further research is needed to evaluate if targeted interventions that focus on early childhood learning and parenting practices can ameliorate the impact of low MEL.

  13. Maternal Education Level Predicts Cognitive, Language, and Motor Outcome in Preterm Infants in the Second Year of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Kousiki; Greene, Michelle M; Patel, Aloka L; Meier, Paula

    2016-07-01

    Objective To evaluate the relative impact of maternal education level (MEL) on cognitive, language, and motor outcomes at 20 months' corrected age (CA) in preterm infants. Study Design A total of 177 preterm infants born between 2008 and 2010 were tested at 20 months' CA using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development-III. Multiple regression analyses were done to determine the relative impact of MEL on cognitive, language, and motor scores. Results Infants born to mothers with high school MEL were 3.74 times more likely to have a subnormal motor index, while those born to mothers with some college and graduate school MEL had reduced odds (0.36 and 0.12, respectively) of having subnormal language index at 20 months. In linear regression, MEL was the strongest predictor of cognitive, language, and motor scores, and graduate school MEL was associated with increases in cognitive, motor, and language scores of 8.49, 8.23, and 15.74 points, respectively. Conclusions MEL is the most significant predictor of cognitive, language, and motor outcome at 20 months' CA in preterm infants. Further research is needed to evaluate if targeted interventions that focus on early childhood learning and parenting practices can ameliorate the impact of low MEL. PMID:26890439

  14. An ecological approach to cognitive enhancement: complex motor training.

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    Moreau, David; Morrison, Alexandra B; Conway, Andrew R A

    2015-05-01

    Cognitive training has received a lot of attention recently, yielding findings that can be conflicting and controversial. In this paper, we present a novel approach to cognitive training based on complex motor activities. In a randomized controlled design, participants were assigned to one of three conditions: aerobic exercise, working memory training or designed sport--an intervention specifically tailored to include both physical and cognitive demands. After training for eight weeks, the designed sport group showed the largest gains in all cognitive measures, illustrating the efficacy of complex motor activities to enhance cognition. Designed sport training also revealed impressive health benefits, namely decreased heart rate and blood pressure. In this period of skepticism over the efficacy of computerized cognitive training, we discuss the potential of ecological interventions targeting both cognition and physical fitness, and propose some possible applications.

  15. Individual differences in motor timing and its relation to cognitive and fine motor skills.

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    Håvard Lorås

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the relationship between individual differences in timing movements at the level of milliseconds and performance on selected cognitive and fine motor skills. For this purpose, young adult participants (N = 100 performed a repetitive movement task paced by an auditory metronome at different rates. Psychometric measures included the digit-span and symbol search subtasks from the Wechsler battery as well as the Raven SPM. Fine motor skills were assessed with the Purdue Pegboard test. Motor timing performance was significantly related (mean r = .3 to cognitive measures, and explained both unique and shared variance with information-processing speed of Raven's scores. No significant relations were found between motor timing measures and fine motor skills. These results show that individual differences in cognitive and motor timing performance is to some extent dependent upon shared processing not associated with individual differences in manual dexterity.

  16. Learning style consistency across cognitive and motor settings.

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    Coker, C A

    1995-12-01

    23 athletes were asked to complete the Learning Styles Inventory first focusing on classroom learning, then on learning in their sport. Analysis indicated that learning styles shift across cognitive and motor settings. As a result, to ensure the validity of the results, giving respondents a particular focus when taking the inventory may be necessary. The development of an instrument designed strictly for motor skills might be helpful to assess successfully learners' profiles for motor skill acquisition.

  17. Relationships among cognitive function, fine motor speed and age in the rhesus monkey

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    Lacreuse, Agnès; Espinosa, Paola M.; Herndon, James G.

    2006-01-01

    Declines in fine motor skills and cognitive function are well known features of human aging. Yet, the relationship between age-related impairments in motor and cognitive function remains unclear. Rhesus monkeys, like humans, show marked decline in cognitive and fine motor function with age and are excellent models to investigate potential interactions between age-related declines in cognitive and motor functioning. We investigated the relationships among cognition, motor function and age in 3...

  18. Cannabidiol Prevents Motor and Cognitive Impairments Induced by Reserpine in Rats

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    Peres, Fernanda F.; Levin, Raquel; Suiama, Mayra A.; Diana, Mariana C.; Gouvêa, Douglas A.; Almeida, Valéria; Santos, Camila M.; Lungato, Lisandro; Zuardi, Antônio W.; Hallak, Jaime E. C.; Crippa, José A.; Vânia, D’Almeida; Silva, Regina H.; Abílio, Vanessa C.

    2016-01-01

    Cannabidiol (CBD) is a non-psychotomimetic compound from Cannabis sativa that presents antipsychotic, anxiolytic, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective effects. In Parkinson’s disease patients, CBD is able to attenuate the psychotic symptoms induced by L-DOPA and to improve quality of life. Repeated administration of reserpine in rodents induces motor impairments that are accompanied by cognitive deficits, and has been applied to model both tardive dyskinesia and Parkinson’s disease. The present study investigated whether CBD administration would attenuate reserpine-induced motor and cognitive impairments in rats. Male Wistar rats received four injections of CBD (0.5 or 5 mg/kg) or vehicle (days 2–5). On days 3 and 5, animals received also one injection of 1 mg/kg reserpine or vehicle. Locomotor activity, vacuous chewing movements, and catalepsy were assessed from day 1 to day 7. On days 8 and 9, we evaluated animals’ performance on the plus-maze discriminative avoidance task, for learning/memory assessment. CBD (0.5 and 5 mg/kg) attenuated the increase in catalepsy behavior and in oral movements – but not the decrease in locomotion – induced by reserpine. CBD (0.5 mg/kg) also ameliorated the reserpine-induced memory deficit in the discriminative avoidance task. Our data show that CBD is able to attenuate motor and cognitive impairments induced by reserpine, suggesting the use of this compound in the pharmacotherapy of Parkinson’s disease and tardive dyskinesia.

  19. Motor and cognitive growth following a Football Training Program

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    Marianna eAlesi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Football may be a physical and sport activities able to improve motor and cognitive growth in children. Therefore the aim of this study was to assess whether a Football Training Program taken over 6 months would improve motor and cognitive performances in children. Motor skills concerned coordinative skills, running and explosive legs strength. Cognitive abilities involved visual discrimination times and visual selective attention times.Forty-six children with chronological age of ~9.10 years, were divided into two groups: Group 1 (n=24 attended a Football Exercise Program and Group 2 (n=22 was composed of sedentary children.Their abilities were measured by a battery of tests including motor and cognitive tasks. Football Exercise Program resulted in improved running, coordination and explosive leg strength performances as well as shorter visual discrimination times in children regularly attending football courses compared with their sedentary peers. On the whole these results support the thesis that the improvement of motor and cognitive abilities is related not only to general physical activity but also to specific ability related to the ball. Football Exercise Programs is assumed to be a natural and enjoyable tool to enhance cognitive resources as well as promoting and encouraging the participation in sport activities from early development.

  20. Embodied cognitive flexibility and neuroplasticity following Quadrato Motor Training

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    Ben-Soussan, Tal D.; Berkovich-Ohana, Aviva; Piervincenzi, Claudia; Glicksohn, Joseph; Carducci, Filippo

    2015-01-01

    Quadrato Motor Training (QMT) is a whole-body movement contemplative practice aimed at increasing health and well-being. Previous research studying the effect of one QMT session suggested that one of its means for promoting health is by enhancing cognitive flexibility, an important dimension of creativity. Yet, little is known about the effect of a longer QMT practice on creativity, or the relative contribution of the cognitive and motor aspects of the training. Here, we continue this line of research in two inter-related studies, examining the effects of prolonged QMT. In the first, we investigated the effect of 4-weeks of daily QMT on creativity using the Alternate Uses (AUs) Task. In order to determine whether changes in creativity were driven by the cognitive or the motor aspects of the training, we used two control groups: Verbal Training (VT, identical cognitive training with verbal response) and Simple Motor Training (SMT, similar motor training with reduced choice requirements). Twenty-seven participants were randomly assigned to one of the groups. Following training, cognitive flexibility significantly increased in the QMT group, which was not the case for either the SMT or VT groups. In contrast to one QMT session, ideational fluency was also significantly increased. In the second study, we conducted a pilot longitudinal structural magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging (4-weeks QMT). We report gray matter volume and fractional anisotropy changes, in several regions, including the cerebellum, previously related to interoceptive accuracy. The anatomical changes were positively correlated with cognitive flexibility scores. Albeit the small sample size and preliminary nature of the findings, these results provide support for the hypothesized creativity-motor connection. The results are compared to other contemplative studies, and discussed in light of theoretical models integrating cognitive flexibility, embodiment and the motor system. PMID

  1. Motor interventions in children with severe or profound intellectual disabilities: motor, cognitive and social effects

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    Houwen, Suzanne; van der Putten, Annette; Vlaskamp, Carla

    2014-01-01

    Background: It is generally agreed that motor activity promotes motor, cognitive, and social development, but the specific benefits in children with severe or profound intellectual disabilities (S-PID) are as yet unknown. The aim of this study was to systematically review the evidence related to mot

  2. Cognitive-motor interference while grasping, lifting and holding objects.

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    Erwan Guillery

    Full Text Available In daily life, object manipulation is usually performed concurrently to the execution of cognitive tasks. The aim of the present study was to determine which aspects of precision grip require cognitive resources using a motor-cognitive dual-task paradigm. Eighteen healthy participants took part in the experiment, which comprised two conditions. In the first condition, participants performed a motor task without any concomitant cognitive task. They were instructed to grip, lift and hold an apparatus incorporating strain gauges allowing a continuous measurement of the force perpendicular to each contact surface (grip force, GF as well as the total tangential force applied on the object (load force, LF. In the second condition, participants performed the same motor task while concurrently performing a cognitive task consisting in a complex visual search combined with counting. In the dual-task condition, we found a significant increase in the duration of the preload phase (time between initial contact of the fingers with the apparatus and onset of the load force, as well as a significant increase of the grip force during the holding phase, indicating that the cognitive task interfered with the initial force scaling performed during the preload phase and the fine-tuning of grip force during the hold phase. These findings indicate that these aspects of precision grip require cognitive resources. In contrast, other aspects of the precision grip, such as the temporal coupling between grip and load forces, were not affected by the cognitive task, suggesting that they reflect more automatic processes. Taken together, our results suggest that assessing the dynamic and temporal parameters of precision grip in the context of a concurrent cognitive task may constitute a more ecological and better-suited tool to characterize motor dysfunction in patients.

  3. Cognitive and cognitive-motor interventions affecting physical functioning: A systematic review

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    Murer Kurt

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several types of cognitive or combined cognitive-motor intervention types that might influence physical functions have been proposed in the past: training of dual-tasking abilities, and improving cognitive function through behavioral interventions or the use of computer games. The objective of this systematic review was to examine the literature regarding the use of cognitive and cognitive-motor interventions to improve physical functioning in older adults or people with neurological impairments that are similar to cognitive impairments seen in aging. The aim was to identify potentially promising methods that might be used in future intervention type studies for older adults. Methods A systematic search was conducted for the Medline/Premedline, PsycINFO, CINAHL and EMBASE databases. The search was focused on older adults over the age of 65. To increase the number of articles for review, we also included those discussing adult patients with neurological impairments due to trauma, as these cognitive impairments are similar to those seen in the aging population. The search was restricted to English, German and French language literature without any limitation of publication date or restriction by study design. Cognitive or cognitive-motor interventions were defined as dual-tasking, virtual reality exercise, cognitive exercise, or a combination of these. Results 28 articles met our inclusion criteria. Three articles used an isolated cognitive rehabilitation intervention, seven articles used a dual-task intervention and 19 applied a computerized intervention. There is evidence to suggest that cognitive or motor-cognitive methods positively affects physical functioning, such as postural control, walking abilities and general functions of the upper and lower extremities, respectively. The majority of the included studies resulted in improvements of the assessed functional outcome measures. Conclusions The current evidence on the

  4. Brain Plasticity and Motor Practice in Cognitive Aging

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    Liuyang eCai

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available For more than two decades, there have been extensive studies of experience-based neural plasticity exploring effective applications of brain plasticity for cognitive and motor development. Research suggests that human brains continuously undergo structural reorganization and functional changes in response to stimulations or training. From a developmental point of view, the assumption of lifespan brain plasticity has been extended to older adults in terms of the benefits of cognitive training and physical therapy. To summarize recent developments, first, we introduce the concept of neural plasticity from a developmental perspective. Secondly, we note that motor learning often refers to deliberate practice and the resulting performance enhancement and adaptability. We discuss the close interplay between neural plasticity, motor learning and cognitive aging. Thirdly, we review research on motor skill acquisition in older adults with, and without, impairments relative to aging-related cognitive decline. Finally, to enhance future research and application, we highlight the implications of neural plasticity in skills learning and cognitive rehabilitation for the aging population.

  5. Brain plasticity and motor practice in cognitive aging

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    Cai, Liuyang; Chan, John S. Y.; Yan, Jin H.; Peng, Kaiping

    2014-01-01

    For more than two decades, there have been extensive studies of experience-based neural plasticity exploring effective applications of brain plasticity for cognitive and motor development. Research suggests that human brains continuously undergo structural reorganization and functional changes in response to stimulations or training. From a developmental point of view, the assumption of lifespan brain plasticity has been extended to older adults in terms of the benefits of cognitive training and physical therapy. To summarize recent developments, first, we introduce the concept of neural plasticity from a developmental perspective. Secondly, we note that motor learning often refers to deliberate practice and the resulting performance enhancement and adaptability. We discuss the close interplay between neural plasticity, motor learning and cognitive aging. Thirdly, we review research on motor skill acquisition in older adults with, and without, impairments relative to aging-related cognitive decline. Finally, to enhance future research and application, we highlight the implications of neural plasticity in skills learning and cognitive rehabilitation for the aging population. PMID:24653695

  6. Motor function and cognition : Aspects on gait and balance

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    Pettersson, Anna

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: Cognitive dysfunction and dementia are linked to physical disability and are the major cause of dependency and institutionalization in the elderly. Physical therapists deal with disability yet little clinical and research attention has been given to the physical disability experienced in people with cognitive dysfunction. Aim: The overall purpose with this thesis was to investigate and characterize motor function with special reference to gait and balance in ...

  7. Sequential motor skill: cognition, perception and action

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    Ruitenberg, M.F.L.

    2013-01-01

    Discrete movement sequences are assumed to be the building blocks of more complex sequential actions that are present in our everyday behavior. The studies presented in this dissertation address the (neuro)cognitive underpinnings of such movement sequences, in particular in relationship to the role

  8. Individual Differences in Motor Timing and Its Relation to Cognitive and Fine Motor Skills

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    Håvard Lorås; Ann-Katrin Stensdotter; Fredrik Öhberg; Hermundur Sigmundsson

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between individual differences in timing movements at the level of milliseconds and performance on selected cognitive and fine motor skills. For this purpose, young adult participants (N = 100) performed a repetitive movement task paced by an auditory metronome at different rates. Psychometric measures included the digit-span and symbol search subtasks from the Wechsler battery as well as the Raven SPM. Fine motor skills were assessed with the P...

  9. Non-invasive brain stimulation: enhancing motor and cognitive functions in healthy old subjects

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    Maximo Zimerman

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Healthy aging is accompanied by changes in cognitive and motor functions that result in impairment of activities of daily living. This process involves a number of modifications in the brain and is associated with metabolic, structural and physiological changes; some of these serving as adaptive responses to the functional declines. Up to date there are no universally accepted strategies to ameliorate declining functions in this population. An essential basis to develop such strategies is a better understanding of neuroplastic changes during healthy aging. In this context, non-invasive brain stimulation techniques, such as transcranial direct current or transcranial magnetic stimulation, provide an attractive option to modulate cortical neuronal assemblies, even with subsequent changes in neuroplasticity. Thus, in the present review we discuss the use of these techniques as a tool to study underlying cortical mechanisms during healthy aging and as an interventional strategy to enhance declining functions and learning abilities in aged subjects.

  10. Tinospora cordifolia ameliorates anxiety-like behavior and improves cognitive functions in acute sleep deprived rats

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    Rachana Mishra; Shaffi Manchanda; Muskan Gupta; Taranjeet Kaur; Vedangana Saini; Anuradha Sharma; Gurcharan Kaur

    2016-01-01

    Sleep deprivation (SD) leads to the spectrum of mood disorders like anxiety, cognitive dysfunctions and motor coordination impairment in many individuals. However, there is no effective pharmacological remedy to negate the effects of SD. The current study examined whether 50% ethanolic extract of Tinospora cordifolia (TCE) can attenuate these negative effects of SD. Three groups of adult Wistar female rats - (1) vehicle treated-sleep undisturbed (VUD), (2) vehicle treated-sleep deprived (VSD)...

  11. Tinospora cordifolia ameliorates anxiety-like behavior and improves cognitive functions in acute sleep deprived rats.

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    Mishra, Rachana; Manchanda, Shaffi; Gupta, Muskan; Kaur, Taranjeet; Saini, Vedangana; Sharma, Anuradha; Kaur, Gurcharan

    2016-01-01

    Sleep deprivation (SD) leads to the spectrum of mood disorders like anxiety, cognitive dysfunctions and motor coordination impairment in many individuals. However, there is no effective pharmacological remedy to negate the effects of SD. The current study examined whether 50% ethanolic extract of Tinospora cordifolia (TCE) can attenuate these negative effects of SD. Three groups of adult Wistar female rats - (1) vehicle treated-sleep undisturbed (VUD), (2) vehicle treated-sleep deprived (VSD) and (3) TCE treated-sleep deprived (TSD) animals were tested behaviorally for cognitive functions, anxiety and motor coordination. TSD animals showed improved behavioral response in EPM and NOR tests for anxiety and cognitive functions, respectively as compared to VSD animals. TCE pretreatment modulated the stress induced-expression of plasticity markers PSA-NCAM, NCAM and GAP-43 along with proteins involved in the maintenance of LTP i.e., CamKII-α and calcineurin (CaN) in hippocampus and PC regions of the brain. Interestingly, contrary to VSD animals, TSD animals showed downregulated expression of inflammatory markers such as CD11b/c, MHC-1 and cytokines along with inhibition of apoptotic markers. This data suggests that TCE alone or in combination with other memory enhancing agents may help in managing sleep deprivation associated stress and improving cognitive functions. PMID:27146164

  12. Effects of Gait and Cognitive Task Difficulty on Cognitive-Motor Interference in Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prudence Plummer-D'Amato

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although gait-related dual-task interference in aging is well established, the effect of gait and cognitive task difficulty on dual-task interference is poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of gait and cognitive task difficulty on cognitive-motor interference in aging. Fifteen older adults (72.1 years, SD 5.2 and 20 young adults (21.7 years, SD 1.6 performed three walking tasks of varying difficulty (self-selected speed, fast speed, and fast speed with obstacle crossing under single- and dual-task conditions. The cognitive tasks were the auditory Stroop task and the clock task. There was a significant Group × Gait Task × Cognitive Task interaction for the dual-task effect on gait speed. After adjusting for education, there were no significant effects of gait or cognitive task difficulty on the dual-task effects on cognitive task performance. The results of this study provide evidence that gait task difficulty influences dual-task effects on gait speed, especially in older adults. Moreover, the effects of gait task difficulty on dual-task interference appear to be influenced by the difficulty of the cognitive task. Education is an important factor influencing cognitive-motor interference effects on cognition, but not gait.

  13. Early-onset motor impairment and increased accumulation of phosphorylated α-synuclein in the motor cortex of normal aging mice are ameliorated by coenzyme Q.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kazuhide; Ohsawa, Ikuroh; Shirasawa, Takuji; Takahashi, Mayumi

    2016-08-01

    Brain mitochondrial function declines with age; however, the accompanying behavioral and histological alterations that are characteristic of Parkinson's disease (PD) are poorly understood. We found that the mitochondrial oxygen consumption rate (OCR) and coenzyme Q (CoQ) content were reduced in aged (15-month-old) male mice compared to those in young (6-month-old) male mice. Concomitantly, motor functions, including the rate of movement and exploratory and voluntary motor activities, were significantly reduced in the aged mice compared to the young mice. In the motor cortex of the aged mouse brain, the accumulation of α-synuclein (α-syn) phosphorylated at serine129 (Ser129) significantly increased, and the level of vesicular glutamate transporter 1 (VGluT1) decreased compared with that in the young mouse brain. The administration of exogenous water-soluble CoQ10 to aged mice via drinking water restored the mitochondrial OCR, motor function, and phosphorylated α-syn and VGluT1 levels in the motor cortex. These results suggest that early-onset motor impairment and the increased accumulation of Ser129-phosphorylated α-syn in the motor cortex are ameliorated by the exogenous administration of CoQ10. PMID:27143639

  14. Functional and Structural Brain Plasticity Enhanced by Motor and Cognitive Rehabilitation in Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Prosperini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rehabilitation is recognized to be important in ameliorating motor and cognitive functions, reducing disease burden, and improving quality of life in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS. In this systematic review, we summarize the existing evidences that motor and cognitive rehabilitation may enhance functional and structural brain plasticity in patients with MS, as assessed by means of the most advanced neuroimaging techniques, including diffusion tensor imaging and task-related and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. In most cases, the rehabilitation program was based on computer-assisted/video game exercises performed in either an outpatient or home setting. Despite their heterogeneity, all the included studies describe changes in white matter microarchitecture, in task-related activation, and/or in functional connectivity following both task-oriented and selective training. When explored, relevant correlation between improved function and MRI-detected brain changes was often found, supporting the hypothesis that training-induced brain plasticity is specifically linked to the trained domain. Small sample sizes, lack of randomization and/or an active control group, as well as missed relationship between MRI-detected changes and clinical performance, are the major drawbacks of the selected studies. Knowledge gaps in this field of research are also discussed to provide a framework for future investigations.

  15. Functional and Structural Brain Plasticity Enhanced by Motor and Cognitive Rehabilitation in Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosperini, Luca; Piattella, Maria Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Rehabilitation is recognized to be important in ameliorating motor and cognitive functions, reducing disease burden, and improving quality of life in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). In this systematic review, we summarize the existing evidences that motor and cognitive rehabilitation may enhance functional and structural brain plasticity in patients with MS, as assessed by means of the most advanced neuroimaging techniques, including diffusion tensor imaging and task-related and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In most cases, the rehabilitation program was based on computer-assisted/video game exercises performed in either an outpatient or home setting. Despite their heterogeneity, all the included studies describe changes in white matter microarchitecture, in task-related activation, and/or in functional connectivity following both task-oriented and selective training. When explored, relevant correlation between improved function and MRI-detected brain changes was often found, supporting the hypothesis that training-induced brain plasticity is specifically linked to the trained domain. Small sample sizes, lack of randomization and/or an active control group, as well as missed relationship between MRI-detected changes and clinical performance, are the major drawbacks of the selected studies. Knowledge gaps in this field of research are also discussed to provide a framework for future investigations. PMID:26064692

  16. Effects of Risperidone on Cognitive-Motor Performance and Motor Movements in Chronically Medicated Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aman, Michael G.; Hollway, Jill A.; Leone, Sarah; Masty, Jessica; Lindsay, Ronald; Nash, Patricia; Arnold, L. Eugene

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to explore the placebo-controlled effects of risperidone on cognitive-motor processes, dyskinetic movements, and behavior in children receiving maintenance risperidone therapy. Sixteen children aged 4-14 years with disruptive behavior were randomly assigned to drug order in a crossover study of risperidone and placebo for 2…

  17. Smart Soup, a traditional Chinese medicine formula, ameliorates amyloid pathology and related cognitive deficits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujun Hou

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that causes substantial public health care burdens. Intensive efforts have been made to find effective and safe disease-modifying treatment and symptomatic intervention alternatives against AD. Smart Soup (SS, a Chinese medicine formula composed of Rhizoma Acori Tatarinowii (AT, Poria cum Radix Pini (PRP and Radix Polygalae (RP, is a typical prescription against memory deficits. Here, we assessed the efficacy of SS against AD. Oral administration of SS ameliorated the cognitive impairment of AD transgenic mice, with reduced Aβ levels, retarded Aβ amyloidosis and reduced Aβ-induced gliosis and neuronal loss in the brains of AD mice. Consistently, SS treatment reduced amyloid-related locomotor dysfunctions and premature death of AD transgenic Drosophila. Mechanistic studies showed that RP reduced Aβ generation, whereas AT and PRP exerted neuroprotective effects against Aβ. Taken together, our study indicates that SS could be effective against AD, providing a practical therapeutic strategy against the disease.

  18. Cognitive-motor learning in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haaland, K Y; Harrington, D L; O'Brien, S; Hermanowicz, N

    1997-04-01

    Procedural learning deficits are common in Parkinson's disease (PD), but contradictory results have been reported in rotary pursuit learning. This article compared rotary pursuit learning in 2 nondemented PD groups and 2 normal control (NC) groups, using a between-subjects group design in which 3 rotation speeds were presented either randomly or in blocks. The pattern of learning differed between the randomized and the blocked conditions in the NC, but not in the PD groups. Learning was impaired in the PD group in the random condition only. Memory, visuospatial, or executive skills were not associated with the PD group's poorer learning in the randomized context. Results show that procedural learning deficits are not universal with basal ganglia abnormalities but rather depend on the specific cognitive requirements of the learning context. PMID:9110325

  19. Deliberate play and preparation jointly benefit motor and cognitive development: mediated and moderated effects

    OpenAIRE

    Caterina ePesce; Ilaria eMasci; Rosalba eMarchetti; Spyridoula eVazou; Arja eSääkslahti; Tomporowski, Phillip D.

    2016-01-01

    In light of the interrelation between motor and cognitive development and the predictive value of the former for the latter, the secular decline observed in motor coordination ability as early as preschool urges identification of interventions that may jointly impact motor and cognitive efficiency.The aim of this study was twofold. It (1) explored the outcomes of enriched physical education, centered on deliberate play and cognitively challenging variability of practice, on motor coordination...

  20. Deliberate Play and Preparation Jointly Benefit Motor and Cognitive Development: Mediated and Moderated Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Pesce, Caterina; Masci, Ilaria; Marchetti, Rosalba; Vazou, Spyridoula; Sääkslahti, Arja; Tomporowski, Phillip D.

    2016-01-01

    In light of the interrelation between motor and cognitive development and the predictive value of the former for the latter, the secular decline observed in motor coordination ability as early as preschool urges identification of interventions that may jointly impact motor and cognitive efficiency. The aim of this study was twofold. It (1) explored the outcomes of enriched physical education (PE), centered on deliberate play and cognitively challenging variability of practice, on motor coordi...

  1. The Development of Fine Motor Skills and its Relation to Cognitive Development in Young Children

    OpenAIRE

    Geng, Da; Zhang, Xingli; Shi, Jiannong

    2015-01-01

    Fine motor skills refer to any movement where an individual uses the small muscles or muscle areas of the hands and fingers; these movements serve to development of muscle while also improving the cognitive recognition of the object. Automatic fine motor skills can save limited attention resources for advanced cognition tasks as required by an individual; in the development of fine motor skills and cognition, the two abilities interact, some motor skills are the prerequisite for some cognitio...

  2. Neurocomputational models of motor and cognitive deficits in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiecki, Thomas V; Frank, Michael J

    2010-01-01

    We review the contributions of biologically constrained computational models to our understanding of motor and cognitive deficits in Parkinson's disease (PD). The loss of dopaminergic neurons innervating the striatum in PD, and the well-established role of dopamine (DA) in reinforcement learning (RL), enable neural network models of the basal ganglia (BG) to derive concrete and testable predictions. We focus in this review on one simple underlying principle - the notion that reduced DA increases activity and causes long-term potentiation in the indirect pathway of the BG. We show how this theory can provide a unified account of diverse and seemingly unrelated phenomena in PD including progressive motor degeneration as well as cognitive deficits in RL, decision making and working memory. DA replacement therapy and deep brain stimulation can alleviate some aspects of these impairments, but can actually introduce negative effects such as motor dyskinesias and cognitive impulsivity. We discuss these treatment effects in terms of modulation of specific mechanisms within the computational framework. In addition, we review neurocomputational interpretations of increased impulsivity in the face of response conflict in patients with deep-brain-stimulation. PMID:20696325

  3. Relationship between motor and cognitive development in children with developmental disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houwen, Suzanne; Visser, Linda; van der Putten, Annette; Vlaskamp, Carla

    2014-01-01

    Background: There is an emerging body of evidence showing that motor and cognitive development are intertwined. However, little is known about (early) motor, cognitive, and language development in children with developmental disabilities. The aims of this study were to examine motor development in c

  4. Dihydrotestosterone ameliorates degeneration in muscle, axons and motoneurons and improves motor function in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis model mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Eun Yoo

    Full Text Available Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is a lethal disease characterized by a progressive loss of motoneurons. The clinical symptoms include skeletal muscle weakness and atrophy, which impairs motor performance and eventually leads to respiratory failure. We tested whether dihydrotestosterone (DHT, which has both anabolic effects on muscle and neuroprotective effects on axons and motoneurons, can ameliorate clinical symptoms in ALS. A silastic tube containing DHT crystals was implanted subcutaneously in SOD1-G93A mice at early symptomatic age when decreases in body weight and grip-strength were observed as compared to wild-type mice. DHT-treated SOD1-G93A mice demonstrated ameliorated muscle atrophy and increased body weight, which was associated with stronger grip-strength. DHT treatment increased the expression of insulin-like growth factor-1 in muscle, which can exert myotrophic as well as neurotrophic effects through retrograde transport. DHT treatment attenuated neuromuscular junction denervation, and axonal and motoneuron loss. DHT-treated SOD1-G93A mice demonstrated improvement in motor behavior as assessed by rota-rod and gait analyses, and an increased lifespan. Application of DHT is a relatively simple and non-invasive procedure, which may be translated into therapy to improve the quality of life for ALS patients.

  5. Relations among motor, social, and cognitive skills in pre-kindergarten children with developmental disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Helyn; Carlson, Abby G; Curby, Timothy W; Winsler, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Despite the comorbidity between motor difficulties and certain disabilities, limited research has examined links between early motor, cognitive, and social skills in preschool-aged children with developmental disabilities. The present study examined the relative contributions of gross motor and fine motor skills to the prediction of improvements in children's cognitive and social skills among 2,027 pre-kindergarten children with developmental disabilities, including specific learning disorder, speech/language impairment, intellectual disability, and autism spectrum disorder. Results indicated that for pre-kindergarten children with developmental disabilities, fine motor skills, but not gross motor skills, were predictive of improvements in cognitive and social skills, even after controlling for demographic information and initial skill levels. Moreover, depending on the type of developmental disability, the pattern of prediction of gross motor and fine motor skills to improvements in children's cognitive and social skills differed. Implications are discussed.

  6. Relations among motor, social, and cognitive skills in pre-kindergarten children with developmental disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Helyn; Carlson, Abby G; Curby, Timothy W; Winsler, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Despite the comorbidity between motor difficulties and certain disabilities, limited research has examined links between early motor, cognitive, and social skills in preschool-aged children with developmental disabilities. The present study examined the relative contributions of gross motor and fine motor skills to the prediction of improvements in children's cognitive and social skills among 2,027 pre-kindergarten children with developmental disabilities, including specific learning disorder, speech/language impairment, intellectual disability, and autism spectrum disorder. Results indicated that for pre-kindergarten children with developmental disabilities, fine motor skills, but not gross motor skills, were predictive of improvements in cognitive and social skills, even after controlling for demographic information and initial skill levels. Moreover, depending on the type of developmental disability, the pattern of prediction of gross motor and fine motor skills to improvements in children's cognitive and social skills differed. Implications are discussed. PMID:26852279

  7. Minocycline ameliorates cognitive impairment induced by whole-brain irradiation: an animal study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been long recognized that cranial irradiation used for the treatment of primary and metastatic brain tumor often causes neurological side-effects such as intellectual impairment, memory loss and dementia, especially in children patients. Our previous study has demonstrated that whole-brain irradiation (WBI) can cause cognitive decline in rats. Minocycline is an antibiotic that has shown neuroprotective properties in a variety of experimental models of neurological diseases. However, whether minocycline can ameliorate cognitive impairment induced by ionizing radiation (IR) has not been tested. Thus this study aimed to demonstrate the potential implication of minocycline in the treatment of WBI-induced cognitive deficits by using a rat model. Sprague Dawley rats were cranial irradiated with electron beams delivered by a linear accelerator with a single dose of 20 Gy. Minocycline was administered via oral gavages directly into the stomach before and after irradiation. The open field test was used to assess the anxiety level of rats. The Morris water maze (MWM) was used to assess the spatial learning and memory of rats. The level of apoptosis in hippocampal neurons was measured using immunohistochemistry for caspase-3 and relative markers for mature neurons (NeuN) or for newborn neurons (Doublecortin (DCX)). Neurogenesis was determined by BrdU incorporation method. Neither WBI nor minocycline affected the locomotor activity and anxiety level of rats. However, compared with the sham-irradiated controls, WBI caused a significant loss of learning and memory manifest as longer latency to reach the hidden platform in the MWM task. Minocycline intervention significantly improved the memory retention of irradiated rats. Although minocycline did not rescue neurogenesis deficit caused by WBI 2 months post-IR, it did significantly decreased WBI-induced apoptosis in the DCX positive neurons, thereby resulting in less newborn neuron depletion 12 h after irradiation

  8. Deliberate Play and Preparation Jointly Benefit Motor and Cognitive Development: Mediated and Moderated Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Pesce, Caterina; Masci, Ilaria; Marchetti, Rosalba; Vazou, Spyridoula; Sääkslahti, Arja; Tomporowski, Phillip D.

    2016-01-01

    In light of the interrelation between motor and cognitive development and the predictive value of the former for the latter, the secular decline observed in motor coordination ability as early as preschool urges identification of interventions that may jointly impact motor and cognitive efficiency. The aim of this study was twofold. It (1) explored the outcomes of enriched physical education (PE), centered on deliberate play and cognitively challenging variability of practice, ...

  9. Ethanolic Extract of the Seed of Zizyphus jujuba var. spinosa Ameliorates Cognitive Impairment Induced by Cholinergic Blockade in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hyung Eun; Lee, So Young; Kim, Ju Sun; Park, Se Jin; Kim, Jong Min; Lee, Young Woo; Jung, Jun Man; Kim, Dong hyun; Shin, Bum Young; Jang, Dae Sik; Kang, Sam Sik; Ryu, Jong Hoon

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the effect of ethanolic extract of the seed of Zizyphus jujuba var. spinosa (EEZS) on cholinergic blockade-induced memory impairment in mice. Male ICR mice were treated with EEZS. The behavioral tests were conducted using the passive avoidance, the Y-maze, and the Morris water maze tasks. EEZS (100 or 200 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly ameliorated the scopolamine-induced cognitive impairment in our present behavioral tasks without changes of locomotor activit...

  10. Huperzine A Ameliorates Cognitive Deficits in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Yuan Mao

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to probe the effects of Huperzine A (HupA on diabetes-associated cognitive decline (DACD using a streptozotocin (STZ-injected rat model. Diabetic rats were treated with HupA (0.05 and 0.1 mg/kg for seven weeks. Memory functions were evaluated by the water maze test. Nissl staining was selected for detecting neuronal loss. Protein and mRNA levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF were analyzed by ELISA and real-time PCR, respectively. The activities of choline acetylase (ChAT, Acetylcholinesterase (AChE, malondialdehyde (MDA, superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px, catalase (CAT, NF-κB p65 unit, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and caspase-3 were measured using corresponding kits. After seven weeks, diabetic rats exhibited remarkable reductions in: body weight, percentage of time spent in target quadrant, number of times crossing the platform, ChAT and BDNF levels, SOD, GSH-Px and CAT accompanied with increases in neuronal damage, plasma glucose levels, escape latency, mean path length, AChE, MDA level as well as CAT, NF-κB p65 unit, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and caspase-3 in cerebral cortex and hippocampus. Supplementation with HupA significantly and dose-dependently reversed the corresponding values in diabetes. It is concluded that HupA ameliorates DACD via modulating BDNF, oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis.

  11. Cinnamomum loureirii Extract Inhibits Acetylcholinesterase Activity and Ameliorates Trimethyltin-Induced Cognitive Dysfunction in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Cho Rong; Choi, Soo Jung; Kwon, Yoon Kyung; Kim, Jae Kyeom; Kim, Youn-Jung; Park, Gwi Gun; Shin, Dong-Hoon

    2016-01-01

    The pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been linked to the deficiency of neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh) in the brain, and the main treatment strategy for improving AD symptoms is the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity. In the present study, we aimed to identify potent AChE inhibitors from Cinnamomum loureirii extract via bioassay-guided fractionation. We demonstrated that the most potent AChE inhibitor present in the C. loureirii extract was 2,4-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl)phenol. To confirm the antiamnesic effects of the ethanol extract of C. loureirii, mice were intraperitoneally injected with the neurotoxin trimethyltin (2.5 mg/kg) to induce cognitive dysfunction, and performance in the Y-maze and passive avoidance tests was assessed. Treatment with C. loureirii extract significantly improved performance in both behavioral tests, suggesting that this extract may be neuroprotective and therefore beneficial in preventing or ameliorating the degenerative processes of AD, potentially by restoring cholinergic function. PMID:27374288

  12. Motor cognition-motor semantics: action perception theory of cognition and communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulvermüller, Friedemann; Moseley, Rachel L; Egorova, Natalia; Shebani, Zubaida; Boulenger, Véronique

    2014-03-01

    A new perspective on cognition views cortical cell assemblies linking together knowledge about actions and perceptions not only as the vehicles of integrated action and perception processing but, furthermore, as a brain basis for a wide range of higher cortical functions, including attention, meaning and concepts, sequences, goals and intentions, and even communicative social interaction. This article explains mechanisms relevant to mechanistic action perception theory, points to concrete neuronal circuits in brains along with artificial neuronal network simulations, and summarizes recent brain imaging and other experimental data documenting the role of action perception circuits in cognition, language and communication.

  13. Repeated short-term daily exercise ameliorates oxidative cerebral damage and the resultant motor dysfunction after transient ischemia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamakawa, Michiru; Ishida, Akimasa; Tamakoshi, Keigo; Shimada, Haruka; Nakashima, Hiroki; Noguchi, Taiji; Toyokuni, Shinya; Ishida, Kazuto

    2013-07-01

    Long-term exercise prior to brain ischemia enhances the activities of antioxidant enzymes and leads to a significant reduction in brain damage and neurological deficits in rats subjected to transient middle cerebral artery occlusion. However, it has not been established whether relatively short-term exercise generates similar results following middle cerebral artery occlusion. We aimed to determine whether short-term exercise could reduce oxidative damage and prevent sensori-motor dysfunction. Male Wistar rats were subjected to perform daily exercise on a treadmill for 30 min at a speed of 15 m/min for 3 weeks, followed by a 90-min middle cerebral artery occlusion. Animals were assessed after middle cerebral artery occlusion for neurological deficits and sensori-motor function. Brain tissues were processed to evaluate infarct volume and oxidative damage. Oxidative stress was assessed using immunohistochemistry for 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal-modified proteins and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine. Antioxidant enzymes were evaluated using immunohistochemistry for thioredoxin and activity assay for superoxide dismutase. Exercise for 3 weeks decreased the severity of paralysis and impairment in forelimb motor coordination. Furthermore, exercise had effect on superoxide dismutase and reduced the infarct volume and the number of cells immunopositive for 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal-modified proteins and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine. Our results suggest that pre-conditioning treadmill exercise for 3 weeks is useful for ameliorating ischemia-induced brain injury. PMID:23874064

  14. Bee venom phospholipase A2 ameliorates motor dysfunction and modulates microglia activation in Parkinson's disease alpha-synuclein transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Minsook; Chung, Hwan-Suck; Lee, Chanju; Hyun Song, Joo; Shim, Insop; Kim, Youn-Sub; Bae, Hyunsu

    2016-01-01

    α-Synuclein (α-Syn) has a critical role in microglia-mediated neuroinflammation, which leads to the development of Parkinson's disease (PD). Recent studies have shown that bee venom (BV) has beneficial effects on PD symptoms in human patients or 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) toxin-induced PD mice. This study investigated whether treatment with BV-derived phospholipase A2 (bvPLA2) would improve the motor dysfunction and pathological features of PD in human A53T α-Syn mutant transgenic (A53T Tg) mice. The motor dysfunction of A53T Tg mice was assessed using the pole test. The levels of α-Syn, microglia and the M1/M2 phenotype in the spinal cord were evaluated by immunofluorescence. bvPLA2 treatment significantly ameliorated motor dysfunction in A53T Tg mice. In addition, bvPLA2 significantly reduced the expression of α-Syn, the activation and numbers of microglia, and the ratio of M1/M2 in A53T Tg mice. These results suggest that bvPLA2 could be a promising treatment option for PD. PMID:27388550

  15. Corpus callosum tissue loss and development of motor and global cognitive impairment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Kristian Steen; Garde, Ellen; Skimminge, Arnold;

    2011-01-01

    To examine the impact of corpus callosum (CC) tissue loss on the development of global cognitive and motor impairment in the elderly.......To examine the impact of corpus callosum (CC) tissue loss on the development of global cognitive and motor impairment in the elderly....

  16. Treadmill exercise improves motor coordination through ameliorating Purkinje cell loss in amyloid beta23-35-induced Alzheimer's disease rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae-Min; Shin, Mal-Soon; Ji, Eun-Sang; Kim, Tae-Woon; Cho, Han-Sam; Kim, Chang-Ju; Jang, Myung-Soo; Kim, Tae-Wook; Kim, Bo-Kyun; Kim, Dong-Hee

    2014-10-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a most common age-related neurodegenerative disease. AD is characterized by a progressive loss of neurons causing cognitive dysfunction. The cerebellum is closely associated with integration of movement, including motor coordination, control, and equilibrium. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of tread-mill exercise on the survival of Purkinje neurons in relation with reactive astrocyte in the cerebellum using Aβ25-35-induced AD rats. AD was induced by a bilateral intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of Aβ25-35. The rats in the exercise groups were forced to run on a motorized treadmill for 30 min once a day for 4 weeks, starting 2 days after Aβ25-35 injection. In the present results, ICV injection of Aβ25-35 deteriorated motor coordination and balance. The number of calbindin-positive cells in the cerebellar vermis was decreased and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression in the cerebellar vermis was increased in the Aβ25-35-induced AD rats. Treadmill exercise improved motor coordination and balance. Treadmill exercise increased the number of Purkinje neurons and suppressed GFAP expression in the cerebellar vermis. The present study demonstrated that treadmill exercises alleviated dysfunction of motor coordination and balance by reduction of Purkinje cell loss through suppressing reactive astrocytes in the cerebellum of AD rats. The present study provides the possibility that treadmill exercise might be an important therapeutic strategy for the symptom improvement of AD patients. PMID:25426461

  17. The Brewed Rice Vinegar Kurozu Increases HSPA1A Expression and Ameliorates Cognitive Dysfunction in Aged P8 Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroaki Kanouchi

    Full Text Available Kurozu is a traditional Japanese rice vinegar. During fermentation and aging of the Kurozu liquid in an earthenware jar over 1 year, a solid residue called Kurozu Moromi is produced. In the present study, we evaluated whether concentrated Kurozu or Kurozu Moromi could ameliorate cognitive dysfunction in the senescence-accelerated P8 mouse. Senescence-accelerated P8 mice were fed 0.25% (w/w concentrated Kurozu or 0.5% (w/w Kurozu Moromi for 4 or 25 weeks. Kurozu suppressed cognitive dysfunction and amyloid accumulation in the brain, while Kurozu Moromi showed a tendency to ameliorate cognitive dysfunction, but the effect was not significant. We hypothesize that concentrated Kurozu has an antioxidant effect; however, the level of lipid peroxidation in the brain did not differ in senescence-accelerated P8 mice. DNA microarray analysis indicated that concentrated Kurozu increased HSPA1A mRNA expression, a protein that prevents protein misfolding and aggregation. The increase in HSPA1A expression by Kurozu was confirmed using quantitative real-time PCR and immunoblotting methods. The suppression of amyloid accumulation by concentrated Kurozu may be associated with HSPA1A induction. However, concentrated Kurozu could not increase HSPA1A expression in mouse primary neurons, suggesting it may not directly affect neurons.

  18. Effect of aging and genetic variations on decision making, fine motor and cognitive skills

    OpenAIRE

    Bogaers, Lise

    2011-01-01

    Aging is associated with a decline in cognition and motor function. Several SNPs have been linked to neural and cognitive variation in healthy adults. Moreover, it is suggested that the effects of genetic variants are enhanced with human aging. The present study investigates whether aging and genetic variants, in this case the BDNF and COMT Val/Met polymorphisms, influence executive functioning, fine hand motor control and cognitive skills. Fifty-seven healthy volunteers were genotyped fo...

  19. The mirror neuron system: How cognitive functions emerge from motor organization

    OpenAIRE

    Fogassi, Leonardo

    2010-01-01

    International audience In the cortical motor system, matching between motor representations and sensory inputs allows the emergence of different types of cognitive abilities. One of these matching mechanisms is represented by monkey mirror neurons that activate both when a monkey executes a goal-related motor act and when it observes a similar motor act performed by another individual. The mirror neuron matching system that probably underlies action understanding has been demonstrated also...

  20. Exploring the cognitive and motor functions of the basal ganglia: an integrative review of computational cognitive neuroscience models

    OpenAIRE

    Sebastien Helie; Srinivasa Chakravarthy; Moustafa, Ahmed A.

    2013-01-01

    Many computational models of the basal ganglia have been proposed over the past twenty-five years. While computational neuroscience models have focused on closely matching the neurobiology of the basal ganglia, computational cognitive neuroscience models have focused on how the basal ganglia can be used to implement cognitive and motor functions. This review article focuses on computational cognitive neuroscience models of the basal ganglia and how they use the neuroanatomy of the basal gangl...

  1. Exendin-4 ameliorates motor neuron degeneration in cellular and animal models of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazhou Li

    Full Text Available Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is a devastating neurodegenerative disease characterized by a progressive loss of lower motor neurons in the spinal cord. The incretin hormone, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1, facilitates insulin signaling, and the long acting GLP-1 receptor agonist exendin-4 (Ex-4 is currently used as an anti-diabetic drug. GLP-1 receptors are widely expressed in the brain and spinal cord, and our prior studies have shown that Ex-4 is neuroprotective in several neurodegenerative disease rodent models, including stroke, Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease. Here we hypothesized that Ex-4 may provide neuroprotective activity in ALS, and hence characterized Ex-4 actions in both cell culture (NSC-19 neuroblastoma cells and in vivo (SOD1 G93A mutant mice models of ALS. Ex-4 proved to be neurotrophic in NSC-19 cells, elevating choline acetyltransferase (ChAT activity, as well as neuroprotective, protecting cells from hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress and staurosporine-induced apoptosis. Additionally, in both wild-type SOD1 and mutant SOD1 (G37R stably transfected NSC-19 cell lines, Ex-4 protected against trophic factor withdrawal-induced toxicity. To assess in vivo translation, SOD1 mutant mice were administered vehicle or Ex-4 at 6-weeks of age onwards to end-stage disease via subcutaneous osmotic pump to provide steady-state infusion. ALS mice treated with Ex-4 showed improved glucose tolerance and normalization of behavior, as assessed by running wheel, compared to control ALS mice. Furthermore, Ex-4 treatment attenuated neuronal cell death in the lumbar spinal cord; immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated the rescue of neuronal markers, such as ChAT, associated with motor neurons. Together, our results suggest that GLP-1 receptor agonists warrant further evaluation to assess whether their neuroprotective potential is of therapeutic relevance in ALS.

  2. Differences in motor and cognitive function in patients with Parkinson's disease with and without orthostatic hypotension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohler, Anna D; Zuzuárregui, José-Rafael P; Katz, Douglas I; Depiero, T Joy; Hehl, Christina L; Leonard, Alissa; Allen, Valerie; Dentino, Jill; Gardner, Maura; Phenix, Heidi; Saint-Hilaire, Marie; Ellis, Terry

    2012-05-01

    Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) often present with orthostatic hypotension (OH) as a result of the dysautonomia associated with the disease or as a side effect of the dopaminergic medications used to treat the disease. The purpose of this study was to investigate differences in motor and cognitive function in patients with PD with and without OH. Forty-four patients with a diagnosis of PD were evaluated and stratified by the presence of OH based on orthostatic blood pressure recordings. Both groups underwent assessments of motor and cognitive function. OH was present in 17 of 44 patients (39%) with PD. These patients with OH had significantly lower scores in gross motor, balance, and cognitive function (p < .05). No significant difference between groups was found in the finger tapping scores. These results suggest that patients with PD should be routinely screened for OH as it commonly occurs and may negatively impact gross motor, balance, and cognitive function. PMID:22191544

  3. The relationship between social and motor cognition in primary school age-children

    OpenAIRE

    Lorcan eKenny; Elisabeth eHill; Antonia eHamilton

    2016-01-01

    AbstractThere is increased interest in the relationship between motor skills and social skills in child development, with evidence that the mechanisms underlying these behaviors may be linked. We took a cognitive approach to this problem, and examined the relationship between four specific cognitive domains: theory of mind, motor skill, action understanding and imitation. Neuroimaging and adult research suggest that action understanding and imitation are closely linked, but are somewhat in...

  4. Motor Coordination Correlates with Academic Achievement and Cognitive Function in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, Valter R.; Ribeiro, Michelle L. Scipião; Melo, Thais; de Tarso Maciel-Pinheiro, Paulo; Guimarães, Thiago T.; Araújo, Narahyana B.; Ribeiro, Sidarta; Andréa C Deslandes

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between exercise and cognition is an important topic of research that only recently began to unravel. Here, we set out to investigate the relation between motor skills, cognitive function, and school performance in 45 students from 8 to 14 years of age. We used a cross-sectional design to evaluate motor coordination (Touch Test Disc), agility (Shuttle Run Speed—running back and forth), school performance (Academic Achievement Test), the Stroop test, and six sub-tests of the W...

  5. Acute effects of dietary constituents on motor skill and cognitive performance in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Lindsay B; Nuccio, Ryan P; Jeukendrup, Asker E

    2014-12-01

    Performance in many sports is at least partially dependent on motor control, coordination, decision-making, and other cognitive tasks. This review summarizes available evidence about the ingestion of selected nutrients or isolated compounds (dietary constituents) and potential acute effects on motor skill and/or cognitive performance in athletes. Dietary constituents discussed include branched-chain amino acids, caffeine, carbohydrate, cocoa flavanols, Gingko biloba, ginseng, guarana, Rhodiola rosea, sage, L-theanine, theobromine, and tyrosine. Although this is not an exhaustive list, these are perhaps the most researched dietary constituents. Caffeine and carbohydrate have the greatest number of published reports supporting their ability to enhance acute motor skill and cognitive performance in athletes. At this time, there is insufficient published evidence to substantiate the use of any other dietary constituents to benefit sports-related motor skill or cognitive performance. The optimal dose and timing of caffeine and carbohydrate intake promoting enhanced motor skill and cognitive performance remain to be identified. Valid, reliable, and sensitive batteries of motor skills and cognitive tests should be developed for use in future efficacy studies. PMID:25400063

  6. Calycosin ameliorates diabetes-induced cognitive impairments in rats by reducing oxidative stress via the PI3K/Akt/GSK-3β signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiang; Zhao, Linhui

    2016-04-29

    Diabetic encephalopathy is one of the most prevalent chronic complications of diabetes mellitus (DM), but there is currently no effective method of prevention nor proven therapeutic regimen for it. In this study, we investigated the effects of calycosin on cognitive behavior and the potential mechanism involved in streptozocin-induced diabetic rats. The effects of diabetes and calycosin treatment on spatial learning and memory were evaluated using the Morris Water Maze, passive avoidance and motor coordination tests. Histological analysis of the hippocampus cornu ammonis 1 (CA1) region was conducted in rats. The decreased expression of the synapsin (SYN) and postsynatptic density protein (PSD-95), as well as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in diabetic rats was measured by quantitative real-time PCR and western blot. Treatment with calycosin promoted a reduction in the expression of SYN, PSD-95 and BDNF. In addition, diabetic rats showed increased MDA levels, and decreased SOD levels and GSH-Px activities in the hippocampus, as well as increased AChE activity in the cerebral cortex; these changes were reversed by calycosin supplementation. Thus, the impairment of learning and memory in STZ-induced diabetic rats was alleviated by calycosin, and that the degree of alleviation was associated with oxidative stress. We also found that calycosin treatment significantly stimulated Akt phosphorylation and decreased GSK-3β and tau phosphorylation, and that these changes could be restored by the PI3K/Akt inhibitor LY294002. In conclusion, calycosin had a beneficial effect on the amelioration, prevention and treatment of diabetes-associated cognitive deficits, through its involvement in oxidative stress, synaptic function and the PI3K/Akt/GSK-3β pathway. PMID:26970304

  7. Nonverbal Cognition in Deaf Children Following Cochlear Implantation: Motor Sequencing Disturbances Mediate Language Delays

    OpenAIRE

    Conway, Christopher M.; Karpicke, Jennifer; Anaya, Esperanza M.; Henning, Shirley C.; Kronenberger, William G.; Pisoni, David B.

    2011-01-01

    We assessed profoundly deaf children with cochlear implants (CIs) (N = 24) and age-matched normal-hearing children (N = 31) on several nonverbal cognition measures: motor sequencing, tactile discrimination, response inhibition, visual-motor integration, and visual-spatial processing. The results revealed that the children with CIs showed disturbances solely on motor sequencing and that performance on this task was significantly correlated with scores on the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fun...

  8. Does early intervention in infants at high risk for a developmental motor disorder improve motor and cognitive development?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blauw-Hospers, C. H.; de Graaf-Peters, V. B.; Dirks, T.; Bos, A. F.; Hadders-Algra, M.

    2007-01-01

    Infants at high risk for developmental motor disorders are in general referred to early intervention (EI) services. It is a matter of debate to which extent El may facilitate outcome in various developmental domains. We reviewed the effects of El programmes aiming at promoting rnotor and cognitive d

  9. Relationship between Motor Symptoms, Cognition, and Demographic Characteristics in Treated Mild/Moderate Parkinson's Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay S Schneider

    Full Text Available Although Parkinson's disease (PD is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized primarily by motor symptoms, PD patients, at all stages of the disease, can experience cognitive dysfunction. However, the relationships between cognitive and motor symptoms and specific demographic characteristics are not well defined, particularly for patients who have progressed to requiring dopaminergic medication.To examine relationships between motor and cognitive symptoms and various demographic factors in mild to moderate, PD patients requiring anti-PD medication.Cognitive function was assessed in 94 subjects with a variety of neuropsychological tests during baseline evaluations as part of an experimental treatment study. Data were analyzed in relation to Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale motor scores and demographic variables.Of the UPDRS subscores analyzed, posture/balance/gait was associated with the highest number of adverse cognitive outcomes followed by speech/facial expression, bradykinesia, and rigidity. No associations were detected between any of the cognitive performance measures and tremor. Motor functioning assessed in the "off" condition correlated primarily with disease duration; neuropsychological performance in general was primarily related to age.In PD patients who have advanced to requiring anti-PD therapies, there are salient associations between axial signs and cognitive performance and in particular, with different aspects of visuospatial function suggesting involvement of similar circuits in these functions. Associations between executive functions and bradykinesia also suggest involvement similar circuits in these functions.

  10. The effect of caffeine on cognitive task performance and motor fatigue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Duinen, Hiske; Lorist, Monicque M.; Zijdewind, Inge

    2005-01-01

    Rationale: In everyday life, people are usually capable of performing two tasks simultaneously. However, in a previous study we showed that during a fatiguing motor task, cognitive performance declined progressively. There is extensive literature on the ( positive) effects of caffeine on cognitive a

  11. The Role of the Pediatric Cerebellum in Motor Functions, Cognition, and Behavior: A Clinical Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman, Michael S; Tsai, Peter

    2016-08-01

    This article discusses the contribution of the pediatric cerebellum to locomotion, ocular motor control, speech articulation, cognitive function, and behavior modulation. Hypotheses on cerebellar function are discussed. Clinical features in patients with cerebellar disorders are outlined. Cerebellar abnormalities in cognitive and behavioral disorders are detailed. PMID:27423796

  12. Methanol extract of Ficus platyphylla ameliorates seizure severity, cognitive deficit and neuronal cell loss in pentylenetetrazole-kindled mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chindo, Ben A; Schröder, Helmut; Becker, Axel

    2015-01-15

    Decoctions of Ficus plathyphylla are used in Nigeria's folk medicine to manage epilepsy for many years and their efficacies are widely acclaimed among the rural communities of Northern Nigeria. In this study, we examined the ameliorative effects of the standardized methanol extract of Ficus platyphylla (FP) stem bark on seizure severity, cognitive deficit and neuronal cell loss in pentylenetetrazole-kindled mice. The (35)S-GTPγS, glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid receptors binding properties of the extract were also evaluated. Male CD-1 mice were kindled with an initial subeffective dose of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ, 37.5mg/kg, i.p.) for a total of 13 convulsant injections and the treatment groups concurrently received FP (100 and 200mg/kg). Control animals received the same number of saline injections. Twenty-four h after kindling completion the animals' learning performance was tested in a two-way shuttle-box. The animals were challenged with another subeffective dose of PTZ (32.5mg/kg, i.p.) on day 7 after kindling completion. Animals were sacrificed a day after the challenged experiment and the brains were processed for histological investigation. FP ameliorates seizure severity, cognitive deficits and neuronal cell loss in PTZ kindled mice. Components of the extract showed affinity for GABAergic and glutamatergic receptors. Glutamate release was diminished and the (35)S-GTPγS binding assay revealed no intrinsic activity at glutamatergic receptors. Our results revealed that FP contains psychoactive secondary metabolites with anticonvulsant properties, thus supporting the isolation and development of the biologically active components of this medicinal plant as antiepileptic agents.

  13. Exploring the cognitive and motor functions of the basal ganglia: An integrative review of computational cognitive neuroscience models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastien eHelie

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Many computational models of the basal ganglia have been proposed over the past twenty-five years. While computational neuroscience models have focused on closely matching the neurobiology of the basal ganglia, computational cognitive neuroscience models have focused on how the basal ganglia can be used to implement cognitive and motor functions. This review article focuses on computational cognitive neuroscience models of the basal ganglia and how they use the neuroanatomy of the basal ganglia to account for cognitive and motor functions such as categorization, instrumental conditioning, probabilistic learning, working memory, sequence learning, automaticity, reaching, handwriting, and eye saccades. A total of 19 basal ganglia models accounting for one or more of these functions are reviewed and compared. The review concludes with a discussion of the limitations of existing computational cognitive neuroscience models of the basal ganglia and prescriptions for future modeling, including the need for computational models of the basal ganglia that can simultaneously account for cognitive and motor functions, and the need for a more complete specification of the role of the basal ganglia in behavioral functions.

  14. ASSESSMENT OF COGNITIVE AND MOTOR DEVELOPMENT IN 150 CHILDREN WITH REFRACTORY EPILEPSY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad MAHVELATI-SHAMSABADI

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available  ObjectiveNeuropsychological impairment is an important co-morbidity of chronic epilepsy. The aim of this study was to determine the state of the cognitive and motor development of patients with refractory epilepsy.Materials & Methods We studied 150 consecutive children with epilepsy who were referred to Mofid Children Hospital, a third level public referral University Hospital in Tehran, Iran, from October 2007 to October 2008. Refractory epilepsy was defined as therapeutic failure of three antiepileptic drugs which were used appropriately.Data regarding sex, age, age at which the first seizure occurred, microcphaly, muscle tonicity, EEG findings, kind of treatment for controlling seizures and cognitive and motor development delay were collected from medical records.Development delay was defined as delay in acquiring cognitive ability and motor skills for age according to the Denver Scale II.Results Of 150 patients 72% were younger than 2 years old and 56.7% were male. About 35.3% were microcephalic while 76% had normal muscular tonicity.Only 2.7% had normal EEGs. About 37.3% showed a good response to anticonvulsive drugs and became seizure free, 13.3% showed a relative response to anticonvulsants but 49.3% did not respond. In the present study, 68% had cognitive developmental delay and 60.7% suffering motor delay. There was a significant difference in response to treatment between patients with cognitive and motor development delay.Conclusion Cognitive developmental delay was more frequent in patients with refractory epilepsy, suggesting that early cognitive screening and introduvtion of rehabilitation programs are necessary for patients with refractory epilepsy.Keywords:Refractory epilepsy, cognition, motor development, children

  15. A systematic review of the effects of motor interventions to improve motor, cognitive, and/or social functioning in people with severe or profound intellectual disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houwen, Suzanne; van der Putten, Annette; Vlaskamp, Carla

    2014-01-01

    While if is generally agreed that motor activity promotes motor, cognitive, and social development, the specific benefits in people with severe or profound intellectual disabilities (S-PID) are as yet unknown. The aim of this study was to systematically review the evidence related to motor intervent

  16. Impact of a Community-Based Programme for Motor Development on Gross Motor Skills and Cognitive Function in Preschool Children from Disadvantaged Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, Catherine E.; Achmat, Masturah; Forbes, Jared; Lambert, Estelle V.

    2012-01-01

    The aims of the studies were to assess the impact of the Little Champs programme for motor development on (1) the gross motor skills, and (2) cognitive function of children in the programme. In study 1, 118 children from one Early Childhood Development Centre (ECDC) were tested using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2, and in study 2, 83…

  17. Lignans from Schisandra chinensis ameliorate cognition deficits and attenuate brain oxidative damage induced by D-galactose in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Tingxu; Shang, Lei; Wang, Mengshi; Zhang, Chenning; Zhao, Xu; Bi, Kaishun; Jia, Ying

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the neuroprotective effects of active compounds from Schisandra chinensis (Trucz.) Baill. (Magnoliaceae) against the D-galactose (D-gal)-induced neurotoxicity in rat. The Wistar rats were subcutaneously injected with D-gal (150 mg/(kg day)) for six weeks and orally administered with water extract or 95 % ethanol extract (partitioned with petroleum ether (PE), chloroform (CF), ethyl acetate (EA) and n-Butanol (NB), respectively) of the fruits of Schisandra chinensis simultaneously. The alteration of cognitive functions was assessed by using Morris water maze and Step-down type passive avoidance test. The results demonstrated that PE fraction was the most effective fraction to ameliorate cognitive deficits. Further biochemical examination indicated that PE could attenuate the activities decreasing of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), the total antioxidant (T-AOC) induced by D-gal, and maintain the normal levels of glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) in the serum, prefrontal cortex, striatum and hippocampus of the brain of related rat, selectively. Meanwhile, the compounds of PE fraction were also identified as mainly lignans, thus, these results suggest that lignans from the PE fraction of Schisandra chinensis represented a potential source of medicine for the treatment of the aging-associated neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:26847610

  18. Lignans from Schisandra chinensis ameliorate cognition deficits and attenuate brain oxidative damage induced by D-galactose in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Tingxu; Shang, Lei; Wang, Mengshi; Zhang, Chenning; Zhao, Xu; Bi, Kaishun; Jia, Ying

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the neuroprotective effects of active compounds from Schisandra chinensis (Trucz.) Baill. (Magnoliaceae) against the D-galactose (D-gal)-induced neurotoxicity in rat. The Wistar rats were subcutaneously injected with D-gal (150 mg/(kg day)) for six weeks and orally administered with water extract or 95 % ethanol extract (partitioned with petroleum ether (PE), chloroform (CF), ethyl acetate (EA) and n-Butanol (NB), respectively) of the fruits of Schisandra chinensis simultaneously. The alteration of cognitive functions was assessed by using Morris water maze and Step-down type passive avoidance test. The results demonstrated that PE fraction was the most effective fraction to ameliorate cognitive deficits. Further biochemical examination indicated that PE could attenuate the activities decreasing of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), the total antioxidant (T-AOC) induced by D-gal, and maintain the normal levels of glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) in the serum, prefrontal cortex, striatum and hippocampus of the brain of related rat, selectively. Meanwhile, the compounds of PE fraction were also identified as mainly lignans, thus, these results suggest that lignans from the PE fraction of Schisandra chinensis represented a potential source of medicine for the treatment of the aging-associated neurodegenerative diseases.

  19. Nicotine ameliorates schizophrenia-like cognitive deficits induced by maternal LPS exposure: a study in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uta Waterhouse

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Maternal exposure to infectious agents is a predisposing factor for schizophrenia with associated cognitive deficits in offspring. A high incidence of smoking in these individuals in adulthood might be, at least in part, due to the cognitive-enhancing effects of nicotine. Here, we have used prenatal exposure to maternal lipopolysaccharide (LPS, bacterial endotoxin at different time points as a model for cognitive deficits in schizophrenia to determine whether nicotine reverses any associated impairments. Pregnant rats were treated subcutaneously with LPS (0.5 mg/kg at one of three neurodevelopmental time periods [gestation days (GD 10-11, 15-16, 18-19]. Cognitive assessment in male offspring commenced in early adulthood [postnatal day (PND 60] and included: prepulse inhibition (PPI, latent inhibition (LI and delayed non-matching to sample (DNMTS. Following PND 100, daily nicotine injections (0.6 mg/kg, subcutaneously were administered, and animals were re-tested in the same tasks (PND 110. Only maternal LPS exposure early during fetal neurodevelopment (GD 10-11 resulted in deficits in all tests compared to animals that had been prenatally exposed to saline at the same gestational time point. Repeated nicotine treatment led to global (PPI and selective (LI improvements in performance. Early but not later prenatal LPS exposure induced consistent deficits in cognitive tests with relevance for schizophrenia. Nicotine reversed the LPS-induced deficits in selective attention (LI and induced a global enhancement of sensorimotor gating (PPI.

  20. Dual Motor-Cognitive Virtual Reality Training Impacts Dual-Task Performance in Freezing of Gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killane, Isabelle; Fearon, Conor; Newman, Louise; McDonnell, Conor; Waechter, Saskia M; Sons, Kristian; Lynch, Timothy; Reilly, Richard B

    2015-11-01

    Freezing of gait (FOG), an episodic gait disturbance characterized by the inability to generate effective stepping, occurs in more than half of Parkinson's disease patients. It is associated with both executive dysfunction and attention and becomes most evident during dual tasking (performing two tasks simultaneously). This study examined the effect of dual motor-cognitive virtual reality training on dual-task performance in FOG. Twenty community dwelling participants with Parkinson's disease (13 with FOG, 7 without FOG) participated in a pre-assessment, eight 20-minute intervention sessions, and a post-assessment. The intervention consisted of a virtual reality maze (DFKI, Germany) through which participants navigated by stepping-in-place on a balance board (Nintendo, Japan) under time pressure. This was combined with a cognitive task (Stroop test), which repeatedly divided participants' attention. The primary outcome measures were pre- and post-intervention differences in motor (stepping time, symmetry, rhythmicity) and cognitive (accuracy, reaction time) performance during single- and dual-tasks. Both assessments consisted of 1) a single cognitive task 2) a single motor task, and 3) a dual motor-cognitive task. Following the intervention, there was significant improvement in dual-task cognitive and motor parameters (stepping time and rhythmicity), dual-task effect for those with FOG and a noteworthy improvement in FOG episodes. These improvements were less significant for those without FOG. This is the first study to show benefit of a dual motor-cognitive approach on dual-task performance in FOG. Advances in such virtual reality interventions for home use could substantially improve the quality of life for patients who experience FOG. PMID:26394439

  1. The relationship between social and motor cognition in primary school age-children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorcan eKenny

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThere is increased interest in the relationship between motor skills and social skills in child development, with evidence that the mechanisms underlying these behaviors may be linked. We took a cognitive approach to this problem, and examined the relationship between four specific cognitive domains: theory of mind, motor skill, action understanding and imitation. Neuroimaging and adult research suggest that action understanding and imitation are closely linked, but are somewhat independent of theory of mind and low-level motor control. Here we test if a similar pattern is shown in child development. A sample of 101 primary school aged children with a wide ability range completed tests of IQ (Raven’s matrices, theory of mind, motor skill, action understanding and imitation. Parents reported on their children’s social, motor and attention performance as well as developmental concerns. The results showed that action understanding and imitation correlate, with the latter having a weak link to motor control. Theory of mind was independent of the other tasks. These results imply that independent cognitive processes for social interaction (theory of mind and for motor control can be identified in primary school age children, and challenge approaches that link all these domains together.

  2. Motor coordination correlates with academic achievement and cognitive function in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valter Rocha Fernandes

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between exercise and cognition is an important topic of research that only recently began to unravel. Here we set out to investigate the relation between motor skills, cognitive function and school performance in 45 students from 8 to 14 years of age. We used a cross-sectional design to evaluate motor coordination (Touch Test Disc, agility (Shuttle Run Speed - running back and forth, school performance (Academic Achievement Test, the Stroop test and 6 sub-tests of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-IV (WISC-IV. We found that the Touch Test Disc was the best predictor of school performance (R²=0.20. Significant correlations were also observed between motor coordination and several indices of cognitive function, such as the total score of the Academic Achievement Test (Spearman’s rho=0.536; p<=0.001, as well as two WISC-IV sub-tests: block design (R= -0.438;p=0.003 and cancellation (rho= -0.471; p=0.001. All the other cognitive variables pointed in the same direction, and even correlated with agility, but did not reach statistical significance. Altogether, the data indicate that visual motor coordination and visual selective attention, but not agility, may influence academic achievement and cognitive function. The results highlight the importance of investigating the correlation between physical skills and different aspects of cognition.

  3. Motor Coordination Correlates with Academic Achievement and Cognitive Function in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Valter R; Ribeiro, Michelle L Scipião; Melo, Thais; de Tarso Maciel-Pinheiro, Paulo; Guimarães, Thiago T; Araújo, Narahyana B; Ribeiro, Sidarta; Deslandes, Andréa C

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between exercise and cognition is an important topic of research that only recently began to unravel. Here, we set out to investigate the relation between motor skills, cognitive function, and school performance in 45 students from 8 to 14 years of age. We used a cross-sectional design to evaluate motor coordination (Touch Test Disc), agility (Shuttle Run Speed-running back and forth), school performance (Academic Achievement Test), the Stroop test, and six sub-tests of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-IV (WISC-IV). We found, that the Touch Test Disc was the best predictor of school performance (R (2) = 0.20). Significant correlations were also observed between motor coordination and several indices of cognitive function, such as the total score of the Academic Achievement Test (AAT; Spearman's rho = 0.536; p ≤ 0.001), as well as two WISC-IV sub-tests: block design (R = -0.438; p = 0.003) and cancelation (rho = -0.471; p = 0.001). All the other cognitive variables pointed in the same direction, and even correlated with agility, but did not reach statistical significance. Altogether, the data indicate that visual motor coordination and visual selective attention, but not agility, may influence academic achievement and cognitive function. The results highlight the importance of investigating the correlation between physical skills and different aspects of cognition. PMID:27014130

  4. Are Motor Inhibition and Cognitive Flexibility Dead Ends in ADHD?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rommelse, Nanda N. J.; Altink, Marieke E.; de Sonneville, Leo M. J.; Buschgens, Cathelijne J. M.; Buitelaar, Jan; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Sergeant, Joseph A.

    2007-01-01

    Executive dysfunction has been postulated as the core deficit in ADHD, although many deficits in lower order cognitive processes have also been identified. By obtaining an appropriate baseline of lower order cognitive functioning light may be shed on as to whether executive deficits result from problems in lower order and/or higher order cognitive…

  5. Enriched environment ameliorates depression-induced cognitive deficits and restores abnormal hippocampal synaptic plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahati, K; Bhagya, V; Christofer, T; Sneha, A; Shankaranarayana Rao, B S

    2016-10-01

    Severe depression compromises structural and functional integrity of the brain and results in impaired learning and memory, maladaptive synaptic plasticity as well as degenerative changes in the hippocampus and amygdala. The precise mechanisms underlying cognitive dysfunctions in depression remain largely unknown. On the other hand, enriched environment (EE) offers beneficial effects on cognitive functions, synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus. However, the effect of EE on endogenous depression associated cognitive dysfunction has not been explored. Accordingly, we have attempted to address this issue by investigating behavioural, structural and synaptic plasticity mechanisms in an animal model of endogenous depression after exposure to enriched environment. Our results demonstrate that depression is associated with impaired spatial learning and enhanced anxiety-like behaviour which is correlated with hypotrophy of the dentate gyrus and amygdalar hypertrophy. We also observed a gross reduction in the hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP). We report a complete behavioural recovery with reduced indices of anhedonia and behavioural despair, reduced anxiety-like behaviour and improved spatial learning along with a complete restoration of dentate gyrus and amygdalar volumes in depressive rats subjected to EE. Enrichment also facilitated CA3-Schaffer collateral LTP. Our study convincingly proves that depression-induces learning deficits and impairs hippocampal synaptic plasticity. It also highlights the role of environmental stimuli in restoring depression-induced cognitive deficits which might prove vital in outlining more effective strategies to treat major depressive disorders. PMID:27555234

  6. Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor Trichostatin A Ameliorated Endotoxin-Induced Neuroinflammation and Cognitive Dysfunction

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    Chung-Hsi Hsing

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Excessive production of cytokines by microglia may cause cognitive dysfunction and long-lasting behavioral changes. Activating the peripheral innate immune system stimulates cytokine secretion in the central nervous system, which modulates cognitive function. Histone deacetylases (HDACs modulate cytokine synthesis and release. Trichostatin A (TSA, an HDAC inhibitor, is documented to be anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective. We investigated whether TSA reduces lipopolysaccharide- (LPS- induced neuroinflammation and cognitive dysfunction. ICR mice were first intraperitoneally (i.p. injected with vehicle or TSA (0.3 mg/kg. One hour later, they were injected (i.p. with saline or Escherichia coli LPS (1 mg/kg. We analyzed the food and water intake, body weight loss, and sucrose preference of the injected mice and then determined the microglia activation and inflammatory cytokine expression in the brains of LPS-treated mice and LPS-treated BV-2 microglial cells. In the TSA-pretreated mice, microglial activation was lower, anhedonia did not occur, and LPS-induced cognitive dysfunction (anorexia, weight loss, and social withdrawal was attenuated. Moreover, mRNA expression of HDAC2, HDAC5, indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO, TNF-α, MCP-1, and IL-1β in the brain of LPS-challenged mice and in the LPS-treated BV-2 microglial cells was lower. TSA diminished LPS-induced inflammatory responses in the mouse brain and modulated the cytokine-associated changes in cognitive function, which might be specifically related to reducing HDAC2 and HDAC5 expression.

  7. Cognitive-behaviour therapy and skilled motor performance in adults with chronic tic disorder

    OpenAIRE

    O’Connor, Kieron P.; Lavoie, Marc E.; Stip, Emmanuel; Borgeat, François; Laverdure, Anick

    2008-01-01

    The first aim of the present study was to compare performance of people with tic disorders (TD) and controls on executive function and a range of skilled motor tests requiring complex performance, guided movements, hand co-ordination, and fine control of steadiness. The second aim was to investigate the effect of cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) on motor performance. A total of 55 patients with TD were recruited at baseline from participants in a behavioural management programme. A compariso...

  8. Safflower yellow ameliorates cognition deficits and reduces tau phosphorylation in APP/PS1 transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Ying-Ying; Zhai, Wei; Shi, Xiao-Meng; Zhang, Lu; Hu, Yan-Li

    2016-10-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common cause of dementia worldwide, is mainly characterized by the aggregated β-amyloid (Aβ) and hyperphosphorylated tau. Safflower yellow (SY) is a novel water extract of natural safflower and has been suggested to ameliorate memory deficits in several animal models of dementia. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect and mechanism of SY on deficits of learning and memory and hyperphosphorylation of tau in APP/PS1 double transgenic mice. APP/PS1 mice were administered with SY (10, 30, 100 mg/kg) by oral gavage for three months at the age of six months. The ability of learning and memory was investigated using the step-down test and Morris water maze test, and protein level in the brain was evaluated using western blot. Here, we found that SY treatment can improve spatial learning and memory ability, and reduce tau hyperphosphorylation at Ser199, Thr205, Ser396, Ser404 sites in APP/PS1 mice. In addition, the activity the of cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK-5) and glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β), major kinases involved in tau phosphorylation, was siginificantly decreased in APP/PS1 mice by SY treatment. These results support SY can serve as a promising multitarget neuronal therapeutic agent for the treatment of AD.

  9. Comparison of motor and cognitive performance of children attending public and private day care centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana M. Santos

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Given that environmental factors, such as the school environment, can influence child development, more attention should be paid to the development of children attending day care centers. OBJECTIVE: Todetermine whether there are differences in the gross motor, fine motor, or cognitive performances of children between 1 and3 years-old of similar socioeconomic status attending public and private day care centers full time. METHOD: Participants were divided into 2 groups, 1 of children attending public day care centers (69 children and another of children attending private day care centers (47 children. All children were healthy and regularly attended day care full time for over 4 months. To assess cognitive, gross and fine motor performance, the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development III was used. The Mann-Whitney test was used for comparative analyses between groups of children between 13 and 24 months, 25 and 41 months, and 13 and 41 months. RESULTS: Children in public day care centers exhibited lower scores on the cognitive development scale beginning at 13 months old. The fine and gross motor performance scores were lower in children over the age of 25 months attending public centers. Maternal education was not related to the performance of children in either group. CONCLUSION: The scores of cognitive performance as well as fine and gross motor performance of children of similar socioeconomic status who attend public day care centers are lower than children attending private daycare centers.

  10. Deliberate Play and Preparation Jointly Benefit Motor and Cognitive Development: Mediated and Moderated Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesce, Caterina; Masci, Ilaria; Marchetti, Rosalba; Vazou, Spyridoula; Sääkslahti, Arja; Tomporowski, Phillip D

    2016-01-01

    In light of the interrelation between motor and cognitive development and the predictive value of the former for the latter, the secular decline observed in motor coordination ability as early as preschool urges identification of interventions that may jointly impact motor and cognitive efficiency. The aim of this study was twofold. It (1) explored the outcomes of enriched physical education (PE), centered on deliberate play and cognitively challenging variability of practice, on motor coordination and cognitive processing; (2) examined whether motor coordination outcomes mediate intervention effects on children's cognition, while controlling for moderation by lifestyle factors as outdoor play habits and weight status. Four hundred and sixty children aged 5-10 years participated in a 6-month group randomized intervention in PE, with or without playful coordinative and cognitive enrichment. The weight status and spontaneous outdoor play habits of children (parental report of outdoor play) were evaluated at baseline. Before and after the intervention, motor developmental level (Movement Assessment Battery for Children) was evaluated in all children, who were then assessed either with a test of working memory (Random Number Generation task), or with a test of attention (from the Cognitive Assessment System). Children assigned to the 'enriched' intervention showed more pronounced improvements in all motor coordination assessments (manual dexterity, ball skills, static/dynamic balance). The beneficial effect on ball skills was amplified by the level of spontaneous outdoor play and weight status. Among indices of executive function and attention, only that of inhibition showed a differential effect of intervention type. Moderated mediation showed that the better outcome of the enriched PE on ball skills mediated the better inhibition outcome, but only when the enrichment intervention was paralleled by a medium-to-high level of outdoor play. Results suggest that

  11. Deliberate Play and Preparation Jointly Benefit Motor and Cognitive Development: Mediated and Moderated Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesce, Caterina; Masci, Ilaria; Marchetti, Rosalba; Vazou, Spyridoula; Sääkslahti, Arja; Tomporowski, Phillip D

    2016-01-01

    In light of the interrelation between motor and cognitive development and the predictive value of the former for the latter, the secular decline observed in motor coordination ability as early as preschool urges identification of interventions that may jointly impact motor and cognitive efficiency. The aim of this study was twofold. It (1) explored the outcomes of enriched physical education (PE), centered on deliberate play and cognitively challenging variability of practice, on motor coordination and cognitive processing; (2) examined whether motor coordination outcomes mediate intervention effects on children's cognition, while controlling for moderation by lifestyle factors as outdoor play habits and weight status. Four hundred and sixty children aged 5-10 years participated in a 6-month group randomized intervention in PE, with or without playful coordinative and cognitive enrichment. The weight status and spontaneous outdoor play habits of children (parental report of outdoor play) were evaluated at baseline. Before and after the intervention, motor developmental level (Movement Assessment Battery for Children) was evaluated in all children, who were then assessed either with a test of working memory (Random Number Generation task), or with a test of attention (from the Cognitive Assessment System). Children assigned to the 'enriched' intervention showed more pronounced improvements in all motor coordination assessments (manual dexterity, ball skills, static/dynamic balance). The beneficial effect on ball skills was amplified by the level of spontaneous outdoor play and weight status. Among indices of executive function and attention, only that of inhibition showed a differential effect of intervention type. Moderated mediation showed that the better outcome of the enriched PE on ball skills mediated the better inhibition outcome, but only when the enrichment intervention was paralleled by a medium-to-high level of outdoor play. Results suggest that

  12. Deliberate play and preparation jointly benefit motor and cognitive development: mediated and moderated effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caterina ePesce

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In light of the interrelation between motor and cognitive development and the predictive value of the former for the latter, the secular decline observed in motor coordination ability as early as preschool urges identification of interventions that may jointly impact motor and cognitive efficiency.The aim of this study was twofold. It (1 explored the outcomes of enriched physical education, centered on deliberate play and cognitively challenging variability of practice, on motor coordination and cognitive processing; (2 examined whether motor coordination outcomes mediate intervention effects on children’s cognition, while controlling for moderation by lifestyle factors as outdoor play habits and weight status. Four hundred and sixty children aged 5-10 years participated in a 6-month group randomized intervention in physical education, with or without playful coordinative and cognitive enrichment. The weight status and spontaneous outdoor play habits of children (parental report of outdoor play were evaluated at baseline. Before and after the intervention, motor developmental level (Movement Assessment Battery for Children was evaluated in all children, who were then assessed either with a test of working memory (Random Number Generation task, or with a test of attention (from the Cognitive Assessment System, CAS.Children assigned to the ‘enriched’ intervention showed more pronounced improvements in all motor coordination assessments (manual dexterity, ball skills, static/dynamic balance. The beneficial effect on ball skills was amplified by the level of spontaneous outdoor play and weight status. Among indices of executive function and attention, only that of inhibition showed a differential effect of intervention type. Moderated mediation showed that the better outcome of the enriched physical education on ball skills mediated the better inhibition outcome, but only when the enrichment intervention was paralleled by a medium

  13. Effects of polyprenols from pine needles of Pinus massoniana on ameliorating cognitive impairment in a D-galactose-induced mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cong; He, Ling; Yan, Ming; Zheng, Guang-yao; Liu, Xiao-yang

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive deficiency and oxidative stress have been well documented in aging and in neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease. In this study, we assessed the therapeutic effect of polyprenols on D-galactose-induced cognitive impairment in mice by testing on of behavioral and cognitive performance. In order to explore the possible role of polyprenols against D-galactose-induced oxidative damages, we assessed various biochemical indicators. Chronic administration of D-galactose (150 mg/kg·d, s.c.) for 7 weeks significantly impaired cognitive performance (both in step-through passive and active avoidance tests) and locomotor activity (in open-field test) and the ability of spatial learning and memory (in Morris water maze test) compared with the control group. The results revealed that polyprenols treatment for 2 weeks significantly ameliorated model mice's cognitive performance and oxidative defense. All groups of polyprenols enhanced the learning and memory ability in step-through passive and active avoidance tests, locomotor activity in open-field test, and the ability of spatial learning and memory in Morris water maze test. Furthermore, high and middle level of polyprenols significantly increased total antioxidative capacity (T-AOC), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), super oxide dismutase (SOD) activity, neprilysin (NEP), and β-site AβPP cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) expression, while nitric oxide (NO), nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity, malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration, and the level of Aβ1-42 and presenilin 1 (PS1) were decreased. Polyprenols have a significant relieving effect on learning, memory, and spontaneous activities in a D-galactose-induced mouse model and ameliorates cognitive impairment and biochemical dysfunction in mice. In summary, we have demonstrated that polyprenols may ameliorate memory and cognitive impairment via enhancing oxidative defense and affecting generation and dissimilation of Aβ-related enzymes, suggesting that

  14. Recurrent Moderate Hypoglycemia Ameliorates Brain Damage and Cognitive Dysfunction Induced by Severe Hypoglycemia

    OpenAIRE

    Puente, Erwin C.; Silverstein, Julie; Bree, Adam J.; Musikantow, Daniel R.; Wozniak, David F.; Maloney, Susan; Daphna-Iken, Dorit; Fisher, Simon J.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Although intensive glycemic control achieved with insulin therapy increases the incidence of both moderate and severe hypoglycemia, clinical reports of cognitive impairment due to severe hypoglycemia have been highly variable. It was hypothesized that recurrent moderate hypoglycemia preconditions the brain and protects against damage caused by severe hypoglycemia. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Nine-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to either 3 consecutive days of recurr...

  15. Exploring the cognitive and motor functions of the basal ganglia: an integrative review of computational cognitive neuroscience models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helie, Sebastien; Chakravarthy, Srinivasa; Moustafa, Ahmed A.

    2013-01-01

    Many computational models of the basal ganglia (BG) have been proposed over the past twenty-five years. While computational neuroscience models have focused on closely matching the neurobiology of the BG, computational cognitive neuroscience (CCN) models have focused on how the BG can be used to implement cognitive and motor functions. This review article focuses on CCN models of the BG and how they use the neuroanatomy of the BG to account for cognitive and motor functions such as categorization, instrumental conditioning, probabilistic learning, working memory, sequence learning, automaticity, reaching, handwriting, and eye saccades. A total of 19 BG models accounting for one or more of these functions are reviewed and compared. The review concludes with a discussion of the limitations of existing CCN models of the BG and prescriptions for future modeling, including the need for computational models of the BG that can simultaneously account for cognitive and motor functions, and the need for a more complete specification of the role of the BG in behavioral functions. PMID:24367325

  16. Salidroside ameliorates cognitive impairment in a d-galactose-induced rat model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jin; He, He; Jiang, Wenjiao; Chang, Xiayun; Zhu, Lingpeng; Luo, Fen; Zhou, Rui; Ma, Chunhua; Yan, Tianhua

    2015-10-15

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate possible preventive effects of salidroside (sal) on a rat model of Alzheimer's disease and to explore its possible mechanism. Sub-acute aging was induced in male SD rats by subcutaneous injection of d-gal (120mg/kg) for 42 days, and the rats were treated with sal (20, 40mg/kg) or normal saline for 28 days after 14 days of d-gal injection. Morris water maze (MWM) test and step-down passive avoidance test were conducted to evaluate the cognitive function of the rats. The levels of inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in hippocampus were assayed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to assess the anti-inflammatory effect of sal. Further, we estimated the expression levels of thioredoxin (Trx), thioredoxin interacting protein (Txnip/vitamin D3 up-regulated protein/thioredoxin binding protein-2), Bax, Bcl-2, caspase-9 and related-proteins of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathway by western blot assay. It showed that administration of sal significantly attenuated all the d-gal-induced changes in the hippocampus, including cognitive impairment and neuroinflammation. These analytical results provides evidence that sal can improve cognitive capacity by inhibiting neuroinflammation and affecting apoptosis-related proteins in hippocampus. PMID:26192909

  17. Amelioration of scopolamine induced cognitive dysfunction and oxidative stress by Inonotus obliquus - a medicinal mushroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giridharan, Vijayasree Vayalanellore; Thandavarayan, Rajarajan Amirthalingam; Konishi, Tetsuya

    2011-06-01

    The present study was aimed to investigate the cognitive enhancing and anti-oxidant activities of Inonotus obliquus (Chaga) against scopolamine-induced experimental amnesia. Methanolic extract of Chaga (MEC) at 50 and 100 mg kg (-1)doses were administered orally for 7 days to amnesic mice. Learning and memory was assessed by passive avoidance task (PAT) and Morris water maze (MWM) test. Tacrine (THA, 10 mg kg (-1), orally (p.o)) used as a reference drug. To elucidate the mechanism of the cognitive enhancing activity of MEC, the activities of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), anti-oxidant enzymes, the levels of acetylcholine (ACh) and nitrite of mice brain homogenates were evaluated. MEC treatment for 7 days significantly improved the learning and memory as measured by PAT and MWM paradigms. Further, MEC significantly reduced the oxidative-nitritive stress, as evidenced by a decrease in malondialdehyde and nitrite levels and restored the glutathione and superoxide dismutase levels in a dose dependent manner. In addition, MEC treatment significantly decreased the AChE activity in both the salt and detergent-soluble fraction of brain homogenates. Further, treatment with MEC restored the levels of ACh as did THA. Thus, the significant cognitive enhancement observed in mice after MEC administration is closely related to higher brain anti-oxidant properties and inhibition of AChE activity. These findings stress the critical impact of Chaga, a medicinal mushroom, on the higher brain functions like learning and memory. PMID:21779570

  18. Drinking hydrogen water ameliorated cognitive impairment in senescence-accelerated mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yeunhwa; Huang, Chien-Sheng; Inoue, Tota; Yamashita, Takenori; Ishida, Torao; Kang, Ki-Mun; Nakao, Atsunori

    2010-05-01

    Hydrogen has been reported to have neuron protective effects due to its antioxidant properties, but the effects of hydrogen on cognitive impairment due to senescence-related brain alterations and the underlying mechanisms have not been characterized. In this study, we investigated the efficacies of drinking hydrogen water for prevention of spatial memory decline and age-related brain alterations using senescence-accelerated prone mouse 8 (SAMP8), which exhibits early aging syndromes including declining learning ability and memory. However, treatment with hydrogen water for 30 days prevented age-related declines in cognitive ability seen in SAMP8 as assessed by a water maze test and was associated with increased brain serotonin levels and elevated serum antioxidant activity. In addition, drinking hydrogen water for 18 weeks inhibited neurodegeneration in hippocampus, while marked loss of neurons was noted in control, aged brains of mice receiving regular water. On the basis of our results, hydrogen water merits further investigation for possible therapeutic/preventative use for age-related cognitive disorders. PMID:20490324

  19. OJKO-project : Longitudinal study on the development of young children with a serious cognitive and motor developmental delay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schalen, Gertruud Henrike; Visser, Linda; van der Putten, Annette

    2015-01-01

    Recently, a longitudinal project on the development of children with a serious cognitive and motor developmental delay has started in Belgium and the Netherlands. The aims of this study are to evaluate the cognitive, motor, communicative and social-emotional abilities of young children with a severe

  20. The interrelationships between motor, cognitive, and language development in children with and without intellectual and developmental disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houwen, Suzanne; Visser, Linda; van der Putten, Annette; Vlaskamp, Carla

    2016-01-01

    It is generally agreed that cognitive and language development are dependent on the emergence of motor skills. As the literature on this issue concerning children with developmental disabilities is scarce, we examined the interrelationships between motor, cognitive, and language development in child

  1. OJKO-project: Longitudinal study on the development of young children with a serious cognitive and motor developmental delay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colla, Stephy; Van Keer, Ines; Schalen, Gertruud Henrike; van der Putten, Annette; Visser, Linda; Maes, Bea; Vlaskamp, Carla; van der Meulen, Bieuwe

    2015-01-01

    Recently, a longitudinal project on the development of children with a serious cognitive and motor developmental delay has started in Belgium and the Netherlands. The aims of this study are to evaluate the cognitive, motor, communicative and social-emotional abilities of young children with a severe

  2. Huperzine A Ameliorates Cognitive Deficits in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao-Yuan Mao; Dan-Feng Cao; Xi Li; Ji-Ye Yin; Zhi-Bin Wang; Ying Zhang; Chen-Xue Mao; Hong-Hao Zhou; Zhao-Qian Liu

    2014-01-01

    The present study was designed to probe the effects of Huperzine A (HupA) on diabetes-associated cognitive decline (DACD) using a streptozotocin (STZ)-injected rat model. Diabetic rats were treated with HupA (0.05 and 0.1 mg/kg) for seven weeks. Memory functions were evaluated by the water maze test. Nissl staining was selected for detecting neuronal loss. Protein and mRNA levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were analyzed by ELISA and real-time PCR, respectively. The activities...

  3. The Coumarin Derivative Osthole Stimulates Adult Neural Stem Cells, Promotes Neurogenesis in the Hippocampus, and Ameliorates Cognitive Impairment in APP/PS1 Transgenic Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Liang; Hu, Yu; Yao, Yingjia; Jiao, Yanan; Li, Shaoheng; Yang, Jingxian

    2015-01-01

    It is believed that neuronal death caused by abnormal deposition of amyloid-beta peptide is the major cause of the cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease. Adult neurogenesis plays a key role in the rescue of impaired neurons and amelioration of cognitive impairment. In the present study, we demonstrated that osthole, a natural coumarin derivative, was capable of promoting neuronal stem cell (NSC) survival and inducing NSC proliferation in vitro. In osthole-treated APP/PS1 transgenic mice, a significant improvement in learning and memory function was seen, which was associated with a significant increase in the number of new neurons (Ki67(+)/NF-M(+)) and a decrease in apoptotic cells in the hippocampal region of the brain. These observations suggested that osthole promoted NSC proliferation, supported neurogenesis, and thus efficiently rescued impaired neurons in the hippocampus and ameliorated cognitive impairment. We also found that osthole treatment activated the Notch pathway and upregulated the expression of self-renewal genes Notch 1 and Hes 1 mRNA in NSCs. However, when Notch activity was blocked by the γ-secretase inhibitor DAPT, the augmentation of Notch 1 and Hes 1 protein was ameliorated, and the proliferation-inducing effect of osthole was abolished, suggesting that the effects of osthole are at least in part mediated by activation of the Notch pathway. PMID:26328484

  4. Pistachio supplementation attenuates motor and cognition impairments induced by cisplatin or vincristine in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Golchin

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: We conclude that pistachio in the diet following anticancer drugs such as cisplatin and vincristine might have a protective effect against anticancer drug-induced disruptions in motor and cognitive function. However, further studies are needed to elucidate the exact mechanisms of this protective effect of pistachio.

  5. Motor, Emotional, and Cognitive Empathy in Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Conduct Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bons, Danielle; van den Broek, Egon; Scheepers, Floor; Herpers, Pierre; Rommelse, Nanda; Buitelaaar, Jan K.

    2013-01-01

    It is unclear which aspects of empathy are shared and which are uniquely affected in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and conduct disorder (CD) as are the neurobiological correlates of these empathy impairments. The aim of this systematic review is to describe the overlap and specificity of motor, emotional, and cognitive aspects of empathy in…

  6. Rehabilitation of stroke patients with apraxia: the role of additional cognitive and motor impairments.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heugten, C.M. van; Dekker, J.; Deelman, B.G.; Stehmann-Saris, J.C.; Kinebanian, A.

    2000-01-01

    PURPOSE: The present study investigated which additional cognitive and motor impairments were present in stroke patients with apraxia and which of these factors influenced the effects of treatment. METHOD: A group of 33 patients with apraxia were treated according to the guidelines of a therapy prog

  7. Rehabilitation of stroke patients with apraxia : the role of additional cognitive and motor impairments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Heugten, CM; Dekker, J; Deelman, BG; Stehmann-Saris, JC; Kinebanian, A

    2000-01-01

    Purpose : The present study investigated which additional cognitive and motor impairments were present in stroke patients with apraxia and which of these factors influenced the effects of treatment. Method: A group of 33 patients with apraxia were treated according to the guidelines of a therapy pro

  8. Arithmetic performance of children with cerebral palsy: The influence of cognitive and motor factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooijen, M. van; Verhoeven, L.T.W.; Smits, D.W.; Ketelaar, M.; Steenbergen, B.

    2012-01-01

    Children diagnosed with cerebral palsy (CP) often show difficulties in arithmetic compared to their typically developing peers. The present study explores whether cognitive and motor variables are related to arithmetic performance of a large group of primary school children with CP. More specificall

  9. Mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease: subtypes and motor characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sollinger, Ann B; Goldstein, Felicia C; Lah, James J; Levey, Allan I; Factor, Stewart A

    2010-03-01

    The aims of this project were to determine the risk factors for and clinical characteristics of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in Parkinson's disease (PD). We performed a retrospective record review of 72 non-demented PD patients (age: 57.79 +/- 10.57, duration of PD: 7.32 +/- 4.97) who completed a standardized neurological assessment, including a full neuropsychological battery, as part of their diagnostic work-up. Of these participants, 47.2% were cognitively normal and 52.8% met criteria for MCI. The majority of MCI patients had single domain MCI (23/38), the affected domains being memory (n = 9), executive function (n = 6), visuospatial skills (n = 6), and language (n = 2). The MCI group had longer duration of disease and higher postural instability and gait disorder subscale scores than the cognitively normal group. This report provides further support for use of the concept of MCI in PD research. There may be certain disease characteristics that could alert practitioners to the emergence of cognitive changes in patients. Future studies should focus on additional risk factors for MCI subtypes and their possible progression to frank dementia.

  10. Infant motor development and cognitive performance in early old age: the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poranen-Clark, Taina; von Bonsdorff, Mikaela B; Lahti, Jari; Räikkönen, Katri; Osmond, Clive; Rantanen, Taina; Kajantie, Eero; Eriksson, Johan G

    2015-06-01

    Motor development and cognitive development in childhood have been found to be fundamentally interrelated, but less is known about the association extending over the life course. The aim of this study was to examine the association between early motor development and cognitive performance in early old age. From men and women belonging to the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study, who were born between 1934 and 1944 and resided in Finland in 1971, 1279 participated in cognitive performance tests (CogState®, version 3.0.5) between 2001 and 2006 at an average age of 64.2 years (SD 3.0). Of these, age at first walking extracted from child welfare clinic records was available for 398 participants. Longer reaction times in cognitive tasks measuring simple reaction time (SRT), choice reaction time (CRT), working memory (WM), divided attention (DA), and associated learning (AL) indicated poorer cognitive performance. Adjustment was made for sex, age at testing, father's occupational status and own highest attained education, and occupation in adulthood. Average age of learning to walk was 12.2 months (SD 2.1). After adjusting for covariates, earlier attainment of learning to walk was associated with shorter reaction times in cognitive performance tasks (SRT 10.32 % per month, 95 % CI 0.48-21.12, p = 0.039; CRT 14.17 % per month, 95 % CI 3.75-25.63, p = 0.007; WM 15.14 % per month, 95 % CI 4.95-26.32, p = 0.003). People who learned to walk earlier had better cognitive performance in early old age. The earlier attainment of motor skills may track over to early old age and possibly reflect greater cognitive reserve in older age.

  11. Exendin-4 ameliorates traumatic brain injury-induced cognitive impairment in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine Eakin

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury represents a major public health issue that affects 1.7 million Americans each year and is a primary contributing factor (30.5% of all injury-related deaths in the United States. The occurrence of traumatic brain injury is likely underestimated and thus has been termed "a silent epidemic". Exendin-4 is a long-acting glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist approved for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus that not only effectively induces glucose-dependent insulin secretion to regulate blood glucose levels but also reduces apoptotic cell death of pancreatic β-cells. Accumulating evidence also supports a neurotrophic and neuroprotective role of glucagon-like peptide-1 in an array of cellular and animal neurodegeneration models. In this study, we evaluated the neuroprotective effects of Exendin-4 using a glutamate toxicity model in vitro and fluid percussion injury in vivo. We found neuroprotective effects of Exendin-4 both in vitro, using markers of cell death, and in vivo, using markers of cognitive function, as assessed by Morris Water Maze. In combination with the reported benefits of ex-4 in other TBI models, these data support repositioning of Exendin-4 as a potential treatment for traumatic brain injury.

  12. Robot assistance of motor learning: A neuro-cognitive perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuer, Herbert; Lüttgen, Jenna

    2015-09-01

    The last several years have seen a number of approaches to robot assistance of motor learning. Experimental studies have produced a range of findings from beneficial effects through null-effects to detrimental effects of robot assistance. In this review we seek an answer to the question under which conditions which outcomes should be expected. For this purpose we derive tentative predictions based on a classification of learning tasks in terms of the products of learning, the mechanisms involved, and the modulation of these mechanisms by robot assistance. Consistent with these predictions, the learning of dynamic features of trajectories is facilitated and the learning of kinematic and dynamic transformations is impeded by robotic guidance, whereas the learning of dynamic transformations can profit from robot assistance with error-amplifying forces. Deviating from the predictions, learning of spatial features of trajectories is impeded by haptic guidance, but can be facilitated by divergent force fields. The deviations point to the existence of additional effects of robot assistance beyond the modulation of learning mechanisms, e.g., the induction of a passive role of the motor system during practice with haptic guidance.

  13. Motor variability during sustained contractions increases with cognitive demand in older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marnie L Vanden Noven

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available To expose cortical involvement in age-related changes in motor performance, we compared steadiness (force fluctuations and fatigability of submaximal isometric contractions with the ankle dorsiflexor muscles in older and young adults and with varying levels of cognitive demand imposed. Sixteen young (20 ± 2 yr: 8 men, 8 women and 17 older adults (69 ±4 yr: 9 men, 8 women attended three sessions and performed a 40 s isometric contraction at 5% maximal voluntary contraction (MVC force followed by an isometric contraction at 30% MVC until task failure. The cognitive demand required during the submaximal contractions in each session differed as follows: 1 high-cognitive demand session where difficult mental math was imposed (counting backward by 13 from a 4-digit number; 2 low-cognitive demand session which involved simple mental math (counting backward by one; and 3 control session with no mental math. Anxiety was elevated during the high-cognitive demand session compared with other sessions for both age groups but more so for the older adults than young adults (p0.05, but the variability between sessions (standard deviation [SD] of 3 sessions was greater for older adults than young (2.02 ± 1.05 min vs. 1.25 ± 0.51 min, P<0.05. Thus, variability in lower limb motor performance for low and moderate force isometric tasks increased with age and was exacerbated when cognitive demand was imposed, and may be related to modulation of synergist and antagonist muscles and an altered neural strategy with age originating from central sources. These data have significant implications for cognitively demanding low-force motor tasks that are relevant to functional and ergonomic in an aging workforce.

  14. Improvement of gross motor and cognitive abilities by an exercise training program: three case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alesi M

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Marianna Alesi,1 Giuseppe Battaglia,2 Michele Roccella,1 Davide Testa,1 Antonio Palma,2 Annamaria Pepi1 1Department of Psychology, 2Department of Law, Social and Sport Science, University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy Background: This work examined the efficacy of an integrated exercise training program (coach and family in three children with Down syndrome to improve their motor and cognitive abilities, in particular reaction time and working memory. Methods: The integrated exercise training program was used in three children with Down syndrome, comprising two boys (M1, with a chronological age of 10.3 years and a mental age of 4.7 years; M2, with a chronological age of 14.6 years and a mental age of less than 4 years and one girl (F1, chronological age 14.0 years and a mental age of less than 4 years. Results: Improvements in gross motor ability scores were seen after the training period. Greater improvements in task reaction time were noted for both evaluation parameters, ie, time and omissions. Conclusion: There is a close interrelationship between motor and cognitive domains in individuals with atypical development. There is a need to plan intervention programs based on the simultaneous involvement of child and parents and aimed at promoting an active lifestyle in individuals with Down syndrome. Keywords: disability, Down syndrome, gross motor abilities, cognitive abilities, physical activity

  15. Effect of acute mild dehydration on cognitive-motor performance in golf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Mark F; Newell, Alex J; Baker, Mistrelle R

    2012-11-01

    Whether mild dehydration (-1 to 3% body mass change [ΔBM]) impairs neurophysiological function during sport-specific cognitive-motor performance has yet to be fully elucidated. To investigate this within a golfing context, 7 low-handicap players (age: 21 ± 1.1 years; mass: 76.1 ± 11.8 kg; stature: 1.77 ± 0.07 m; handicap: 3.0 ± 1.2) completed a golf-specific motor and cognitive performance task in a euhydrated condition (EC) and dehydrated condition (DC) (randomized counterbalanced design; 7-day interval). Dehydration was controlled using a previously effective 12-hour fluid restriction, monitored through ΔBM and urine color assessment (UCOL). Mild dehydration reduced the mean BM by 1.5 ± 0.5% (p = 0.01), with UCOL increasing from 2 (EC) to 4 (DC) (p = 0.02). Mild dehydration significantly impaired motor performance, expressed as shot distance (114.6 vs. 128.6 m; p performance, expressed as the mean error in distance judgment to target increased from 4.1 ± 3.0 m (EC) to 8.8 ± 4.7 m (DC) (p dehydration (-1 to 2% ΔBM) significantly impairs cognitive-motor task performance. This study is the first to show that mild dehydration can impair distance, accuracy, and distance judgment during golf performance.

  16. Treadmill exercise improves motor coordination through ameliorating Purkinje cell loss in amyloid beta23-35-induced Alzheimer’s disease rats

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jae-Min; Shin, Mal-Soon; Ji, Eun-Sang; Kim, Tae-Woon; Cho, Han-Sam; Kim, Chang-Ju; Jang, Myung-Soo; Kim, Tae-Wook; Kim, Bo-Kyun; Kim, Dong-Hee

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a most common age-related neurodegenerative disease. AD is characterized by a progressive loss of neurons causing cognitive dysfunction. The cerebellum is closely associated with integration of movement, including motor coordination, control, and equilibrium. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of tread-mill exercise on the survival of Purkinje neurons in relation with reactive astrocyte in the cerebellum using Aβ25–35–induced AD rats. AD was induced by a...

  17. Analysis of Brain Cognitive State for Arithmetic Task and Motor Task Using Electroencephalography Signal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Kalpana

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available To localize the brain dynamics for cognitive processes from EEG signature has been a challenging taskfrom last two decades. In this paper we explore the spatial-temporal correlations of brain electricalneuronal activity for cognitive task such as Arithmetic and Motor Task using 3D cortical distributionmethod. Ten healthy right handed volunteers participated in the experiment. EEG signal was acquiredduring resting state with eyes open and eyes closed; performing motor task and arithmetic calculations.The signal was then computed for three dimensional cortical distributions on realistic head model withMNI152 template using standardized low resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA. Thiswas followed by an appropriate standardization of the current density, producing images of electricneuronal activity without localization bias. Neuronal generators responsible for cognitive state such asArithmetic Task and Motor Task were localized. The result was correlated with the previous neuroimaging(fMRI study investigation. Hence our result directed that the neuronal activity from EEG signal can bedemonstrated in cortical level with good spatial resolution. 3D cortical distribution method, thus, may beused to obtain both spatial and temporal information from EEG signal and may prove to be a significanttechnique to investigate the cognitive functions in mental health and brain dysfunctions. Also, it may behelpful for brain/human computer interfacing.

  18. Intermittent hypoxia can aggravate motor neuronal loss and cognitive dysfunction in ALS mice.

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    Sung-Min Kim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Patients with ALS may be exposed to variable degrees of chronic intermittent hypoxia. However, all previous experimental studies on the effects of hypoxia in ALS have only used a sustained hypoxia model and it is possible that chronic intermittent hypoxia exerts effects via a different molecular mechanism from that of sustained hypoxia. No study has yet shown that hypoxia (either chronic intermittent or sustained can affect the loss of motor neurons or cognitive function in an in vivo model of ALS. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of chronic intermittent hypoxia on motor and cognitive function in ALS mice. METHODS: Sixteen ALS mice and 16 wild-type mice were divided into 2 groups and subjected to either chronic intermittent hypoxia or normoxia for 2 weeks. The effects of chronic intermittent hypoxia on ALS mice were evaluated using the rotarod, Y-maze, and wire-hanging tests. In addition, numbers of motor neurons in the ventral horn of the spinal cord were counted and western blot analyses were performed for markers of oxidative stress and inflammatory pathway activation. RESULTS: Compared to ALS mice kept in normoxic conditions, ALS mice that experienced chronic intermittent hypoxia had poorer motor learning on the rotarod test, poorer spatial memory on the Y-maze test, shorter wire hanging time, and fewer motor neurons in the ventral spinal cord. Compared to ALS-normoxic and wild-type mice, ALS mice that experienced chronic intermittent hypoxia had higher levels of oxidative stress and inflammation. CONCLUSIONS: Chronic intermittent hypoxia can aggravate motor neuronal death, neuromuscular weakness, and probably cognitive dysfunction in ALS mice. The generation of oxidative stress with activation of inflammatory pathways may be associated with this mechanism. Our study will provide insight into the association of hypoxia with disease progression, and in turn, the rationale for an early non-invasive ventilation treatment in

  19. Motor functioning, exploration, visuospatial cognition and language development in preschool children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellendoorn, Annika; Wijnroks, Lex; van Daalen, Emma; Dietz, Claudine; Buitelaar, Jan K; Leseman, Paul

    2015-04-01

    In order to understand typical and atypical developmental trajectories it is important to assess how strengths or weaknesses in one domain may be affecting performance in other domains. This study examined longitudinal relations between early fine motor functioning, visuospatial cognition, exploration, and language development in preschool children with ASD and children with other developmental delays/disorders. The ASD group included 63 children at T1 (Mage = 27.10 months, SD = 8.71) and 46 children at T2 (Mage = 45.85 months, SD = 7.16). The DD group consisted of 269 children at T1 (Mage = 17.99 months, SD = 5.59), and 121 children at T2 (Mag e= 43.51 months, SD = 3.81). A subgroup nested within the total sample was randomly selected and studied in-depth on exploratory behavior. This group consisted of 50 children, 21 children with ASD (Mage = 27.57, SD = 7.09) and 29 children with DD (Mage = 24.03 months, SD = 6.42). Fine motor functioning predicted language in both groups. Fine motor functioning was related to visuospatial cognition in both groups and related to object exploration, spatial exploration, and social orientation during exploration only in the ASD group. Visuospatial cognition and all exploration measures were related to both receptive and expressive language in both groups. The findings are in line with the embodied cognition theory, which suggests that cognition emerges from and is grounded in the bodily interactions of an agent with the environment. This study emphasizes the need for researchers and clinicians to consider cognition as emergent from multiple interacting systems.

  20. Correlation between the Quality of Attention and Cognitive Competence with Motor Action in Stroke Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Arsic

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It is considered that cognitive function and attention could affect walking, motion control, and proper conduct during the walk. To determine whether there is a difference in the quality of attention and cognitive ability in stroke patients and patients without neurological damage of similar age and education and to determine whether the connection of attention and cognition affects motor skills, the sample consisted of 50 stroke patients tested with hemiparesis, involved in the process of rehabilitation, and 50 persons, randomly chosen, without neurological damage. The survey used the following tests: Trail Making (TMT A B test for assessing the flexibility of attention; Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE for cognitive status; Functional Ambulation Category (FAC test to assess the functional status and parameters of walk: speed, frequency, and length of stride; STEP test for assessing the precision of movement and balance. With stroke patients, relationship between age and performance on the MMSE test was marginally significant. The ratio of performance to TMT A B test and years does not indicate statistical significance, while statistical significance between the MMSE test performance and education exists. In stroke patients, performance on MMSE test is correlated with the frequency and length of stride walk. The quality of cognitive function and attention is associated with motor skills but differs in stroke patients and people without neurological damage of similar age. The significance of this correlation can supplement research in neurorehabilitation, improve the quality of medical rehabilitation, and contribute to efficient recovery of these patients.

  1. The Relationship Between Balance Confidence and Cognitive Motor Interference in Individuals With Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wajda, Douglas A; Roeing, Kathleen L; McAuley, Edward; Motl, Robert W; Sosnoff, Jacob J

    2016-01-01

    Gait and cognitive impairments are compounded when performed simultaneously in individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS), and this is termed cognitive-motor interference (CMI). The authors examined whether CMI is related to balance confidence in individuals with MS. They hypothesized that individuals with low balance confidence would exhibit greater CMI possibly indicating a behavioral modification during dual task conditions. Thirty-four individuals with MS completed Activity-specific Balance Confidence (ABC) scale and a cognitive assessment as well as single and dual task walking trials at a comfortable pace. CMI was calculated as the percent change in walking velocity and cognitive task performance from single- to dual-task conditions and termed dual-task cost (DTC). A correlation analysis was performed to determine the relationships between DTCs of gait and cognitive performance and ABC scores. The correlation analysis revealed no significant association between ABC and DTC of walking velocity (p > .05). A significant relationship between balance confidence and DTCs of cognition was observed. The observed relationships suggest individuals with MS tend to alter their cognitive performance rather than manipulating their gait when confronted with a dual task. Overall, the findings partially support a behavioral explanation of CMI in individuals with MS. PMID:25988565

  2. Coenzyme Q10 enhances the anticonvulsant effect of phenytoin in pilocarpine-induced seizures in rats and ameliorates phenytoin-induced cognitive impairment and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawfik, Mona K

    2011-12-01

    Conventional antiepileptic drugs fail to adequately control seizures and predispose to cognitive impairment and oxidative stress with chronic usage in a significant proportion of patients with epilepsy. Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), an antioxidant compound, exhibits a wide range of therapeutic effects that are attributed to its potent antioxidant capacity. To evaluate the neuroprotective effects of CoQ10 in rats against the observed oxidative stress during seizures induced by pilocarpine, and to study its interactions with the conventional antiepileptic drug phenytoin, two experiments were performed. Experiment 1 was conducted to test the effect of phenytoin, CoQ10, or both on seizure severity and oxidative markers in the pilocarpine model of epilepsy. Experiment 2 was conducted to test the effect of 2 weeks of chronic treatment with phenytoin, CoQ10, or both on oxidative markers and behavioral tests in rats. Overall, CoQ10 reduced the severity of pilocarpine-induced seizures and the severity of oxidative stress. Moreover, it potentiated the antiepileptic effects afforded by phenytoin treatment, with the potential safety and efficacy in ameliorating oxidative stress and cognitive impairment caused by chronic phenytoin therapy. Our findings strongly suggest that CoQ10 can be considered a safe and effective adjuvant to phenytoin therapy in epilepsy both to ameliorate seizure severity and to protect against seizure-induced oxidative damage by reducing the cognitive impairment and oxidative stress associated with chronic use of phenytoin.

  3. Cognitive alterations in motor imagery process after left hemispheric ischemic stroke.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Yan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Motor imagery training is a promising rehabilitation strategy for stroke patients. However, few studies had focused on the neural mechanisms in time course of its cognitive process. This study investigated the cognitive alterations after left hemispheric ischemic stroke during motor imagery task. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Eleven patients with ischemic stroke in left hemisphere and eleven age-matched control subjects participated in mental rotation task (MRT of hand pictures. Behavior performance, event-related potential (ERP and event-related (desynchronization (ERD/ERS in beta band were analyzed to investigate the cortical activation. We found that: (1 The response time increased with orientation angles in both groups, called "angle effect", however, stoke patients' responses were impaired with significantly longer response time and lower accuracy rate; (2 In early visual perceptual cognitive process, stroke patients showed hypo-activations in frontal and central brain areas in aspects of both P200 and ERD; (3 During mental rotation process, P300 amplitude in control subjects decreased while angle increased, called "amplitude modulation effect", which was not observed in stroke patients. Spatially, patients showed significant lateralization of P300 with activation only in contralesional (right parietal cortex while control subjects showed P300 in both parietal lobes. Stroke patients also showed an overall cortical hypo-activation of ERD during this sub-stage; (4 In the response sub-stage, control subjects showed higher ERD values with more activated cortical areas particularly in the right hemisphere while angle increased, named "angle effect", which was not observed in stroke patients. In addition, stroke patients showed significant lower ERD for affected hand (right response than that for unaffected hand. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Cortical activation was altered differently in each cognitive sub-stage of motor imagery after

  4. Rehabilitation of stroke patients with apraxia: the role of additional cognitive and motor impairments.

    OpenAIRE

    van Heugten, C.M.; Dekker, J; Deelman, B.G.; Stehmann-Saris, J.C.; Kinebanian, A.

    2000-01-01

    PURPOSE: The present study investigated which additional cognitive and motor impairments were present in stroke patients with apraxia and which of these factors influenced the effects of treatment. METHOD: A group of 33 patients with apraxia were treated according to the guidelines of a therapy programme based on teaching patients strategies to compensate for the presence of apraxia. Patients were treated at occupational therapy departments in general hospitals, rehabilitation centres and nur...

  5. Cognitive processes among skilled miniature golf players: effects of instructions on motor performance, concentration time, and perceived difficulty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäckman, L; Molander, B

    1991-01-01

    Highly skilled miniature golf players were examined on a simplified miniature golf task under different instructional conditions. Results indicated that requirements to attend to a variety of technical aspects of the game during preparation impaired motor performance, whereas providing players with those aspects of the game they reported thinking of did not affect motor performance. Data on concentration time and perceived difficulty indicated that increasing cognitive demands were associated with a decline in motor precision. The overall pattern of results was interpreted such that attention directed at technical aspects of the game interfered with the players' normal cognitive activity. Susceptibility to interference is a characteristic feature of controlled cognitive operations. Thus, the present results are consistent with the view that conscious cognitive activity may support motor behavior also at late stages of skill development.

  6. Effects of caffeine on the electrophysiological, cognitive and motor responses of the central nervous system

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    Deslandes A.C.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Caffeine is the most consumed psychoactive substance in the world. The effects of caffeine have been studied using cognitive and motor measures, quantitative electroencephalography (qEEG and event-related potentials. However, these methods are not usually employed in combination, a fact that impairs the interpretation of the results. The objective of the present study was to analyze changes in electrophysiological, cognitive and motor variables with the ingestion of caffeine, and to relate central to peripheral responses. For this purpose we recorded event-related potentials and eyes-closed, resting EEG, applied the Stroop test, and measured reaction time. Fifteen volunteers took caffeine (400 mg or placebo in a randomized, crossover, double-blind design. A significant reduction of alpha absolute power over the entire scalp and of P300 latency at the Fz electrode were observed after caffeine ingestion. These results are consistent with a stimulatory effect of caffeine, although there was no change in the attention (Stroop test or in reaction time. The qEEG seems to be the most sensitive index of the changes produced by caffeine in the central nervous system since it proved to be capable of detecting changes that were not evident in the tests of cognitive or motor performance.

  7. Motor, cognitive, and affective areas of the cerebral cortex influence the adrenal medulla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dum, Richard P; Levinthal, David J; Strick, Peter L

    2016-08-30

    Modern medicine has generally viewed the concept of "psychosomatic" disease with suspicion. This view arose partly because no neural networks were known for the mind, conceptually associated with the cerebral cortex, to influence autonomic and endocrine systems that control internal organs. Here, we used transneuronal transport of rabies virus to identify the areas of the primate cerebral cortex that communicate through multisynaptic connections with a major sympathetic effector, the adrenal medulla. We demonstrate that two broad networks in the cerebral cortex have access to the adrenal medulla. The larger network includes all of the cortical motor areas in the frontal lobe and portions of somatosensory cortex. A major component of this network originates from the supplementary motor area and the cingulate motor areas on the medial wall of the hemisphere. These cortical areas are involved in all aspects of skeletomotor control from response selection to motor preparation and movement execution. The second, smaller network originates in regions of medial prefrontal cortex, including a major contribution from pregenual and subgenual regions of anterior cingulate cortex. These cortical areas are involved in higher-order aspects of cognition and affect. These results indicate that specific multisynaptic circuits exist to link movement, cognition, and affect to the function of the adrenal medulla. This circuitry may mediate the effects of internal states like chronic stress and depression on organ function and, thus, provide a concrete neural substrate for some psychosomatic illness. PMID:27528671

  8. Morphological features of the neonatal brain support development of subsequent cognitive, language, and motor abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spann, Marisa N; Bansal, Ravi; Rosen, Tove S; Peterson, Bradley S

    2014-09-01

    Knowledge of the role of brain maturation in the development of cognitive abilities derives primarily from studies of school-age children to adults. Little is known about the morphological features of the neonatal brain that support the subsequent development of abilities in early childhood, when maturation of the brain and these abilities are the most dynamic. The goal of our study was to determine whether brain morphology during the neonatal period supports early cognitive development through 2 years of age. We correlated morphological features of the cerebral surface assessed using deformation-based measures (surface distances) of high-resolution MRI scans for 33 healthy neonates, scanned between the first to sixth week of postmenstrual life, with subsequent measures of their motor, language, and cognitive abilities at ages 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. We found that morphological features of the cerebral surface of the frontal, mesial prefrontal, temporal, and occipital regions correlated with subsequent motor scores, posterior parietal regions correlated with subsequent language scores, and temporal and occipital regions correlated with subsequent cognitive scores. Measures of the anterior and middle portions of the cingulate gyrus correlated with scores across all three domains of ability. Most of the significant findings were inverse correlations located bilaterally in the brain. The inverse correlations may suggest either that a more protracted morphological maturation or smaller local volumes of neonatal brain tissue supports better performance on measures of subsequent motor, language, and cognitive abilities throughout the first 2 years of postnatal life. The correlations of morphological measures of the cingulate with measures of performance across all domains of ability suggest that the cingulate supports a broad range of skills in infancy and early childhood, similar to its functions in older children and adults.

  9. The interrelationships between motor, cognitive, and language development in children with and without intellectual and developmental disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houwen, Suzanne; Visser, Linda; van der Putten, Annette; Vlaskamp, Carla

    2016-01-01

    It is generally agreed that cognitive and language development are dependent on the emergence of motor skills. As the literature on this issue concerning children with developmental disabilities is scarce, we examined the interrelationships between motor, cognitive, and language development in children with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) and compared them to those in children without IDD. In addition, we investigated whether these relationships differ between children with different levels of cognitive delay. Seventy-seven children with IDD (calendar age between 1;0 and 9;10 years; mean developmental age: 1;8 years) and 130 typically developing children (calendar age between 0;3 and 3;6 years; mean developmental age: 1;10 years) were tested with the Dutch Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition, which assesses development across three domains using five subscales: fine motor development, gross motor development (motor), cognition (cognitive), receptive communication, and expressive communication (language). Results showed that correlations between the motor, cognitive, and language domains were strong, namely .61 to .94 in children with IDD and weak to strong, namely .24 to .56 in children without IDD. Furthermore, the correlations showed a tendency to increase with the severity of IDD. It can be concluded that both fine and gross motor development are more strongly associated with cognition, and consequently language, in children with IDD than in children without IDD. The findings of this study emphasize the importance of early interventions that boost both motor and cognitive development, and suggest that such interventions will also enhance language development.

  10. The interrelationships between motor, cognitive, and language development in children with and without intellectual and developmental disabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Houwen, Suzanne; Visser, Linda; van der Putten, Annette; Vlaskamp, Carla

    2016-01-01

    It is generally agreed that cognitive and language development are dependent on the emergence of motor skills. As the literature on this issue concerning children with developmental disabilities is scarce, we examined the interrelationships between motor, cognitive, and language development in children with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) and compared them to those in children without IDD. In addition, we investigated whether these relationships differ between children with ...

  11. The interrelationships between motor, cognitive, and language development in children with and without intellectual and developmental disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houwen, Suzanne; Visser, Linda; van der Putten, Annette; Vlaskamp, Carla

    2016-01-01

    It is generally agreed that cognitive and language development are dependent on the emergence of motor skills. As the literature on this issue concerning children with developmental disabilities is scarce, we examined the interrelationships between motor, cognitive, and language development in children with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) and compared them to those in children without IDD. In addition, we investigated whether these relationships differ between children with different levels of cognitive delay. Seventy-seven children with IDD (calendar age between 1;0 and 9;10 years; mean developmental age: 1;8 years) and 130 typically developing children (calendar age between 0;3 and 3;6 years; mean developmental age: 1;10 years) were tested with the Dutch Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition, which assesses development across three domains using five subscales: fine motor development, gross motor development (motor), cognition (cognitive), receptive communication, and expressive communication (language). Results showed that correlations between the motor, cognitive, and language domains were strong, namely .61 to .94 in children with IDD and weak to strong, namely .24 to .56 in children without IDD. Furthermore, the correlations showed a tendency to increase with the severity of IDD. It can be concluded that both fine and gross motor development are more strongly associated with cognition, and consequently language, in children with IDD than in children without IDD. The findings of this study emphasize the importance of early interventions that boost both motor and cognitive development, and suggest that such interventions will also enhance language development. PMID:26851384

  12. Cognitive processing and motor execution in the lexical decision task: a developmental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Sascha; Verrel, Julius

    2014-04-01

    We investigated lexical decision making in children and adults by analyzing spatiotemporal characteristics of responses involving a hand movement. Children's and adults' movement trajectories were assessed in three tasks: a lexical decision task (LDT), a pointing task that involved minimal cognitive processing, and a symbol task requiring a simple binary decision. Cognitive interference on motor performance was quantified by analyzing movement characteristics in the LDT and symbol task relative to the pointing task. Across age groups, movements in the LDT were less smooth, slower, and more strongly curved to the opposite response option, and these interference effects decreased steadily with age. Older children showed stronger interference effects than did adults, even though their reaction times were similar to adults' performance. No comparable effects were found in the symbol task, indicating that task characteristics such as response mapping and decision selection alone are not able to explain the developmental differences observed in the LDT. Our results indicate substantial overlap between cognitive processing and motor execution in the LDT in children that is not captured by computational models of visual word recognition and cognitive development. PMID:24030472

  13. Motor and cognitive outcome at school age of children with surgically treated intestinal obstructions in the neonatal period

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsinga, Rachel M.; Roze, Elise; Van Braeckel, Koenraad N. J. A.; Hulscher, Jan B. F.; Bos, Arend F.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The motor and cognitive outcome at school age of newborn children with surgically treated intestinal obstructions is unknown. Physiological stress and anesthesia may potentially be harmful in the period of early brain development in newborn infants. Objective: To determine motor and cogn

  14. Varenicline improves motor and cognitive symptoms in early Huntington’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Ailsa L; Dysart, Jo; Tingle, Malcolm D; Russell, Bruce R; Kydd, Rob R; Finucane, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the effects of varenicline, a smoking cessation aid that acts as a nicotinic agonist, on cognitive function in patients with early clinical Huntington’s disease (HD) who were current smokers. Three gene-positive patients transitioning to symptomatic HD were evaluated using the Unified Huntington’s Disease Rating Scale part I and III (motor and behavioral subscales) at baseline and after 4 weeks of treatment. Cognitive function was assessed using a touch screen computer-based neurocognitive test battery (IntegNeuro®). Varenicline (1 mg twice daily) significantly improved performance in executive function and emotional recognition tasks. Our case reports describe no clinically significant adverse effects and suggest that varenicline improves aspects of cognitive function in patients with early HD. A randomized controlled study is now underway. PMID:27695336

  15. Enriched childhood experiences moderate age-related motor and cognitive decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzler, Megan J; Saucier, Deborah M; Metz, Gerlinde A

    2013-01-01

    Aging is associated with deterioration of skilled manual movement. Specifically, aging corresponds with increased reaction time, greater movement duration, segmentation of movement, increased movement variability, and reduced ability to adapt to external forces and inhibit previously learned sequences. Moreover, it is thought that decreased lateralization of neural function in older adults may point to increased neural recruitment as a compensatory response to deterioration of key frontal and intra-hemispheric networks, particularly of callosal structures. However, factors that mediate age-related motor decline are not well understood. Here we show that music training in childhood is associated with reduced age-related decline of bimanual and unimanual motor skills in a MIDI keyboard motor learning task. Compared to older adults without music training, older adults with more than a year of music training demonstrated proficient bimanual and unimanual movement, evidenced by enhanced speed and decreased movement errors. Further, this group demonstrated significantly better implicit learning in the weather prediction task, a non-motor task. The performance of older adults with music training in those tasks was comparable to young adults. Older adults, however, displayed greater verbal ability compared to young adults irrespective of a past history of music training. Our results indicate that music training early in life may reduce age-associated decline of neural motor and cognitive networks.

  16. Enriched Childhood Experiences Moderate Age-related Motor and Cognitive Decline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan J. Metzler

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Aging is associated with deterioration of skilled manual movement. Specifically, aging corresponds with increased reaction time, greater movement duration, segmentation of movement, increased movement variability, and reduced ability to adapt to external forces and inhibit previously learned sequences. Moreover, it is thought that decreased lateralization of neural function in older adults may point to increased neural recruitment as a compensatory response to deterioration of key frontal and intra-hemispheric networks, particularly of callosal structures. However, factors that mediate age-related motor decline are not well understood. Here we show that music training in childhood is associated with reduced age-related decline of bimanual and unimanual motor skills in a MIDI keyboard motor learning task. Compared to older adults without music training, older adults with more than a year of music training demonstrated proficient bimanual and unimanual movement, evidenced by enhanced speed and decreased movement errors. Further, this group demonstrated significantly better implicit learning in the weather prediction task, a non-motor task. The performance of older adults with music training in those tasks was comparable to young adults. Older adults, however, displayed greater verbal ability compared to young adults irrespective of a past history of music training. Our results indicate that music training early in life may reduce age-associated decline of neural motor and cognitive networks.

  17. Repeated short-term daily exercise ameliorates oxidative cerebral damage and the resultant motor dysfunction after transient ischemia in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Hamakawa, Michiru; Ishida, Akimasa; Tamakoshi, Keigo; Shimada, Haruka; Nakashima, Hiroki; Noguchi, Taiji; Toyokuni, Shinya; Ishida, Kazuto

    2013-01-01

    Long-term exercise prior to brain ischemia enhances the activities of antioxidant enzymes and leads to a significant reduction in brain damage and neurological deficits in rats subjected to transient middle cerebral artery occlusion. However, it has not been established whether relatively short-term exercise generates similar results following middle cerebral artery occlusion. We aimed to determine whether short-term exercise could reduce oxidative damage and prevent sensori-motor dysfunction...

  18. THE EFFICIENCY OF COMPLEX PROGRAMS, SUPERVISED USING A COGNITIVE AND MOTOR METHOD IN ALZHEIMER DEMETIA PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZIPPENFENING H.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Dementia is one of the most feared and devastating disease for the old aged, because of the sufferings it creates. It is estimated that their prevalence will soon reach epidemic proportions due to the population aging.[1] The goal of this study is to demonstrate the benefits of the involvement of the patients with Alzheimer's in cognitive and physical exercise training sessions, associated with multidisciplinary and complementary therapies, because they help delaying social exclusion and slow down the degradation of cognitive functions and their functional status. Material and methods. The research was done over a period of 8 months, involving two groups of patients, total of 52, of both sexes, with ages between 62-89 years old. All participants are already diagnosed and they are following a pharmacological treatment, depending on the disease stage. Group 1 is made of the institutionalized patients, benefiting from cognitive and motor multidisciplinary activities in a day center, and group 2 are non-participating patients, only following the drug therapy. During the study, the subjects participated in physical and cognitive training sessions, 2-3 times per week, which were combined with other therapies. We established the degree of disability and dependency, of mobility, the level of relating and participation - all by using the WHODAS,[2] questionnaire, then we studied the cognitive level by using the MMSE, [3] method, and we also tested the motor ability. Results. It has been proven that a high level of physical activity associated with cognitive training and supervised activities determine interest and creativity, slowing down physical and mental degradation. The group 1 has shown highly significant results (p = 0.0001 for both instruments for evaluation applied (WHODAS 2, MMES 1. The confidence interval is 95% in both tests, t = 6.0551, dt = 5 for WHODAS. With MMSE, the standard deviation is 4.48 for group 1 compared to 2.47 for group 2

  19. Cognitive demands of error processing associated with preparation and execution of a motor skill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Wing Kai; Masters, Richard S W; Maxwell, Jonathan P

    2010-12-01

    Maxwell et al. [Maxwell, J. P., Masters, R. S. W., Kerr, E., & Weedon, E. (2001). The implicit benefit of learning without errors. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 54A, 1049-1068. The implicit benefit of learning without errors. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 54A, 1049-1068] suggested that, following unsuccessful movements, the learner forms hypotheses about the probable causes of the error and the required movement adjustments necessary for its elimination. Hypothesis testing is an explicit process that places demands on cognitive resources. Demands on cognitive resources can be identified by measuring probe reaction times (PRT) and movement times. Lengthened PRT and movement times reflects increased cognitive demands. Thus, PRT and movement times should be longer following errors, relative to successful, movements. This hypothesis was tested using a motor skill (golf putting). Furthermore, the association between error processing and the preparation and execution phases of movement was examined. The data confirmed that cognitive demand is greater for trials following an error, relative to trials without an error. This effect was apparent throughout learning and in both the preparatory and execution phases of the movement. Cognitive effort also appeared to be higher during movement preparation, relative to movement execution. PMID:21074112

  20. Engaging cognitive circuits to promote motor recovery in degenerative disorders. exercise as a learning modality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakowec Michael W.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Exercise and physical activity are fundamental components of a lifestyle essential in maintaining a healthy brain. This is primarily due to the fact that the adult brain maintains a high degree of plasticity and activity is essential for homeostasis throughout life. Plasticity is not lost even in the context of a neurodegenerative disorder, but could be maladaptive thus promoting disease onset and progression. A major breakthrough in treating brain disorders such as Parkinson’s disease is to drive neuroplasticity in a direction to improve motor and cognitive dysfunction. The purpose of this short review is to present the evidence from our laboratories that supports neuroplasticity as a potential therapeutic target in treating brain disorders. We consider that the enhancement of motor recovery in both animal models of dopamine depletion and in patients with Parkinson’s disease is optimized when cognitive circuits are engaged; in other words, the brain is engaged in a learning modality. Therefore, we propose that to be effective in treating Parkinson’s disease, physical therapy must employ both skill-based exercise (to drive specific circuits and aerobic exercise (to drive the expression of molecules required to strengthen synaptic connections components to select those neuronal circuits, such as the corticostriatal pathway, necessary to restore proper motor and cognitive behaviors. In the wide spectrum of different forms of exercise, learning as the fundamental modality likely links interventions used to treat patients with Parkinson’s disease and may be necessary to drive beneficial neuroplasticity resulting in symptomatic improvement and possible disease modification.

  1. Rehabilitation after stroke: predictive power of Barthel Index versus a cognitive and a motor index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, A; Bentzen, L; Garde, B

    1995-01-01

    predicted was the need for special living facilities and support at discharge from a rehabilitation hospital, as well as six months later; 53 stroke patients with age median 68 years were included in this prospective study. It was shown that a combination of Barthel Index and CT50 had a stronger predictive......The aim of the present study was to investigate the predictive power of ratings of Barthel Index at Day 40 post stroke, compared with and/or combined with simultaneous ratings from a mobility scale (EG motor index) and a rather simple cognitive test scale (CT50). The parameter to be individually...

  2. Naringin ameliorates cognitive deficits via oxidative stress, proinflammatory factors and the PPARγ signaling pathway in a type 2 diabetic rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Zhonghua; Xu, Yinghui; Liang, Zhanhua; Li, Sheng; Wang, Jie; Wei, Yi; Dong, Bin

    2015-11-01

    Naringenin is a flavonoid polyphenolic compound, which facilitates the removal of free radicals, oxidative stress and inflammation. The present study aimed to obtain a better understanding of the effects of curcumin on the regulation of diabetes‑associated cognitive decline, and its underlying mechanisms. An experimental diabetes mellitus (DM) rat model was induced by streptozoticin (50 mg/kg). Following treatment with naringin (100 and 200 mg/kg) for 16 weeks, the body weight and blood glucose levels of the DM rats were measured. A morris water maze test was used to analyze the effects of naringin on the cognitive deficit of the DM rats. The levels of oxidative stress, proinflammatory factors, caspase‑3 and caspase‑9, and the protein expression of peroxisome proliferator‑activated receptor γ (PPARγ) were quantified in the DM rats using a commercially‑available kit and western blot assay, respectively. In addition, a GW9662 PPARγ inhibitor (0.3 mg/kg) was administered to the DM rats to determine whether PPARγ affected the effects of naringin on the cognitive deficit of the DM rats. The results demonstrated that naringin increased the body weight, blood glucose levels, and cognitive deficits of the DM rats. The levels of oxidative stress and proinflammatory factors in the naringin‑treated rats were significantly lower, compared with those of the DM rats. In addition, naringin activated the protein expression of PPARγ, and administration of the PPARγ inhibitor decreased the protein expression of PPARγ, and attenuated the effects of naringin on cognitive deficit. The results also demonstrated that naringin decreased the expression levels of caspase‑3 and caspase‑9 in the DM rats. These results suggested that naringin ameliorated cognitive deficits via oxidative stress, proinflammatory factors and the PPARγ signaling pathway in the type 2 diabetic rat model. Furthermore, oxidative stress, proinflammatory factors and PPARγ signaling may be

  3. Burdens of non-conformity: Motor execution reveals cognitive conflict during deliberate rule violations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfister, Roland; Wirth, Robert; Schwarz, Katharina A; Steinhauser, Marco; Kunde, Wilfried

    2016-02-01

    Rule compliance is pivotal for the regulation of social behavior. Still, humans deliberately violate rules at times - be it for personal reasons or for a higher good. Whereas previous research has studied the preconditions and consequences of rule violations, essentially nothing is known about the cognitive processes right at the moment a rule violation takes place. Here we show that merely labeling an action as rule violation induces substantial conflict between rule violation and compliance, as revealed by participants' bias towards rule-complying motor actions. Moreover, conflict that comes with violating a rule was much stronger than conflict that comes with following an alternative rule, even if both decisions result in the same observable behavior. These observations open a new theoretical perspective on rule violation behavior, shifting the focus toward the cognitive processes operating during the very act of rule violation.

  4. Cognitive and Neurophysiological Effects of Non-invasive Brain Stimulation in Stroke Patients after Motor Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Agata, Federico; Peila, Elena; Cicerale, Alessandro; Caglio, Marcella M; Caroppo, Paola; Vighetti, Sergio; Piedimonte, Alessandro; Minuto, Alice; Campagnoli, Marcello; Salatino, Adriana; Molo, Maria T; Mortara, Paolo; Pinessi, Lorenzo; Massazza, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the effectiveness of two specific Non-Invasive Brain Stimulation (NIBS) paradigms, the repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS), and transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS), in the upper limb rehabilitation of patients with stroke. Short and long term outcomes (after 3 and 6 months, respectively) were evaluated. We measured, at multiple time points, the manual dexterity using a validated clinical scale (ARAT), electroencephalography auditory event related potentials, and neuropsychological performances in patients with chronic stroke of middle severity. Thirty four patients were enrolled and randomized. The intervention group was treated with a NIBS protocol longer than usual, applying a second cycle of stimulation, after a washout period, using different techniques in the two cycles (rTMS/tDCS). We compared the results with a control group treated with sham stimulation. We split the data analysis into three studies. In this first study we examined if a cumulative effect was clinically visible. In the second study we compared the effects of the two techniques. In the third study we explored if patients with minor cognitive impairment have most benefit from the treatment and if cognitive and motor outcomes were correlated. We found that the impairment in some cognitive domains cannot be considered an exclusion criterion for rehabilitation with NIBS. ERP improved, related to cognitive and attentional processes after stimulation on the motor cortex, but transitorily. This effect could be linked to the restoration of hemispheric balance or by the effects of distant connections. In our study the effects of the two NIBS were comparable, with some advantages using tDCS vs. rTMS in stroke rehabilitation. Finally we found that more than one cycle (2-4 weeks), spaced out by washout periods, should be used, only in responder patients, to obtain clinical relevant results. PMID:27445730

  5. Motor and cognitive testing of bone marrow transplant patients after chemoradiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parth, P.; Dunlap, W. P.; Kennedy, R. S.; Ordy, J. M.; Lane, N. E.

    1989-01-01

    Assessment of cognitive and motor performance of bone marrow transplant patients prior to, during, and following intensive toxic chemoradiotherapy may provide an important adjunct to measures of physiological and medical status. The present study is an attempt to assess whether, as side-effects, these aggressive treatments result in cognitive performance deficits, and if so, whether such changes recover posttreatment. Measurement of cognitive ability in this situation presents special problems not encountered with one-time tests intended for healthy adults. Such tests must be sensitive to changes within a single individual, which emphasizes the crucial importance of high reliability, stability across repeated-measures, and resistance to confounding factors such as motivation and fatigue. The present research makes use of a microbased portable test battery developed to have reliable and sensitive tests which were adapted to study the special requirements of transplant patients who may suffer cognitive deficits as a result of treatment. The results showed slight but significant changes in neuropsychological capacity when compared to baseline levels and controls, particularly near the beginning of treatment. The sensitivity of the battery in detecting such subtle temporary changes is discussed in terms of past research showing effects of other stressors, such as stimulated high altitude and ingestion of alcohol, on these measures.

  6. Motor Skills and Exercise Capacity Are Associated with Objective Measures of Cognitive Functions and Academic Performance in Preadolescent Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Richard; Larsen, Malte Nejst; Dahn, Ida Marie; Andersen, Josefine Needham; Krause-Jensen, Matilde; Korup, Vibeke; Nielsen, Claus Malta; Wienecke, Jacob; Ritz, Christian; Krustrup, Peter; Lundbye-Jensen, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate associations between motor skills, exercise capacity and cognitive functions, and evaluate how they correlate to academic performance in mathematics and reading comprehension using standardised, objective tests. Methods This cross-sectional study included 423 Danish children (age: 9.29±0.35 years, 209 girls). Fine and gross motor skills were evaluated in a visuomotor accuracy-tracking task, and a whole-body coordination task, respectively. Exercise capacity was estimated from the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 1 children's test (YYIR1C). Selected tests from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) were used to assess different domains of cognitive functions, including sustained attention, spatial working memory, episodic and semantic memory, and processing speed. Linear mixed-effects models were used to investigate associations between these measures and the relationship with standard tests of academic performance in mathematics and reading comprehension. Results Both fine and gross motor skills were associated with better performance in all five tested cognitive domains (all P<0.001), whereas exercise capacity was only associated with better sustained attention (P<0.046) and spatial working memory (P<0.038). Fine and gross motor skills (all P<0.001), exercise capacity and cognitive functions such as working memory, episodic memory, sustained attention and processing speed were all associated with better performance in mathematics and reading comprehension. Conclusions The data demonstrate that fine and gross motor skills are positively correlated with several aspects of cognitive functions and with academic performance in both mathematics and reading comprehension. Moreover, exercise capacity was associated with academic performance and performance in some cognitive domains. Future interventions should investigate associations between changes in motor skills, exercise capacity, cognitive functions, and academic

  7. Effects of cognitive task on gait initiation in Parkinson disease: Evidence of motor prioritization?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joe R. Nocera, PhD

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available While much is known about the effects of dual tasking on cyclical and continuous motor performance (e.g., locomotion, there is a paucity of information on the effect of dual tasking on the initiation of movement. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of a concurrent cognitive task on gait initiation in three groups: patients with Parkinson disease, healthy older adults, and healthy young adults. We examined the anticipatory postural adjustment displacements and velocities during single-task gait initiation as well as two dual-task conditions: (1 0-back + gait initiation and (2 2-back + gait initiation. The Parkinson disease group exhibited less anticipatory postural adjustment displacement and velocity than their aged-matched healthy peers and young adults during the single- and dual-task gait initiation settings (p < 0.05. Of interest was the finding of no additional effect on anticipatory postural adjustment displacement or velocity of gait initiation during the dual-task conditions in any group, including the Parkinson disease group. More traditionally studied gait/balance dual-task paradigms have demonstrated both motor and cognitive decline. Therefore, our results may suggest a prioritization of more "intentional" movement task (e.g., gait initiation while dual tasking in Parkinson disease.

  8. Attention, cognition, and motor perseveration in adolescents at genetic risk for schizophrenia and control subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, H; Stolz-Born, G; Heinrich, H; Kornhuber, H H; Born, J

    1992-11-01

    Twenty-three offspring of schizophrenic parents (mean age = 12.1 years, SD = 3.2) and 61 adolescent control subjects (mean age = 12.3 years, SD = 3.3) were compared in their performance of the following psychometric tests: simple reaction times (RTs), warned RTs in a monomodal and cross-modal design, d2 concentration test, a motor perseveration test, and a cognitive performance measure (Wechsler Intelligence Scale). The results were validated in a second analysis in which a subgroup of the control subjects were matched to the high-risk subjects for the following characteristics: age, gender, education, and environmental background. Significant deficits were found in the high-risk group in tests that required sustained attention and information processing under high perceptual load (RT measures and d2 concentration test). Deficits were particularly prominent for the processing of visual stimuli; sensory incongruence might also have been a contributor to this deficit. The attentional dysfunction of high-risk subjects might explain their tendency to show less structured behavior and distractibility as reflected by their higher entropy scores in a motor perseveration test. Cognitive evaluation showed a significant deficit in the high-risk group, primarily as reflected in the verbal IQ score. PMID:1480678

  9. The neural correlates of motor intentional disorders in patients with subcortical vascular cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Geon Ha; Seo, Sang Won; Jung, Kihyo; Kwon, Oh-Hun; Kwon, Hunki; Kim, Jong Hun; Roh, Jee Hoon; Kim, Min-Jeong; Lee, Byung Hwa; Yoon, Doo Sang; Hwang, Jung Won; Lee, Jong Min; Jeong, Jee Hyang; You, Heecheon; Heilman, Kenneth M; Na, Duk L

    2016-01-01

    Subcortical vascular cognitive impairment (SVCI) refers to cognitive impairment associated with small vessel disease. Motor intentional disorders (MID) have been reported in patients with SVCI. However, there are no studies exploring the neuroanatomical regions related to MID in SVCI patients. The aim of this study, therefore, was to investigate the neural correlates of MID in SVCI patients. Thirty-one patients with SVCI as well as 10 healthy match control participants were included. A "Pinch-Grip" apparatus was used to quantify the force control capabilities of the index finger in four different movement phases including initiation, development, maintenance, and termination. All participants underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Topographical cortical areas and white matter tracts correlated with the performances of the four different movement phases were assessed by the surface-based morphometry and tract-based spatial statistics analyses. Poorer performance in the maintenance task was related to cortical thinning in bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal, orbitofrontal and parietal cortices, while poorer performance in the termination task was associated with the disruption of fronto-parietal cortical areas as well as the white matter tracts including splenium and association fibers such as superior longitudinal fasciculus. Our study demonstrates that cortical areas and underlying white matter tracts associated with fronto-parietal attentional system play an important role in motor impersistence and perseveration in SVCI patients. PMID:26514838

  10. Selective breeding for endurance running capacity affects cognitive but not motor learning in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikgren, Jan; Mertikas, Georgios G; Raussi, Pekka; Tirkkonen, Riina; Äyräväinen, Laura; Pelto-Huikko, Markku; Koch, Lauren G; Britton, Steven L; Kainulainen, Heikki

    2012-05-15

    The ability to utilize oxygen has been shown to affect a wide variety of physiological factors often considered beneficial for survival. As the ability to learn can be seen as one of the core factors of survival in mammals, we studied whether selective breeding for endurance running, an indication of aerobic capacity, also has an effect on learning. Rats selectively bred over 23 generations for their ability to perform forced treadmill running were trained in an appetitively motivated discrimination-reversal classical conditioning task, an alternating T-maze task followed by a rule change (from a shift-win to stay-win rule) and motor learning task. In the discrimination-reversal and T-maze tasks, the high-capacity runner (HCR) rats outperformed the low-capacity runner (LCR) rats, most notably in the phases requiring flexible cognition. In the Rotarod (motor-learning) task, the HCR animals were overall more agile but learned at a similar rate with the LCR group as a function of training. We conclude that the intrinsic ability to utilize oxygen is associated especially with tasks requiring plasticity of the brain structures implicated in flexible cognition.

  11. Effects of the dimeric PSD-95 inhibitor UCCB01-144 in mouse models of pain, cognition and motor function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen T., Jesper; Nasser, Arafat; Caballero-Puntiverio, Maitane;

    2016-01-01

    neuropathic pain. Potential cognitive effects of UCCB01-144 were examined using the social transmission of food preference (STFP) test and the V-maze test, and motor coordination was assessed with the rotarod test. UCCB01-144 (10 mg/kg) reversed CFA-induced mechanical hypersensitivity after 1 hour, and......NMDAR antagonism shows analgesic action in humans and animal pain models, but disrupts cognitive and motor functions. NMDAR-dependent NO production requires tethering of the NMDAR to neuronal NO synthase (nNOS) by the postsynaptic density protein-95 (PSD-95). Perturbing the NMDAR/PSD-95/n...... cognitive or motor functions. Here, we investigated the analgesic efficacy in the CFA model of UCCB01-144, a PSD-95 inhibitor with improved blood-brain-barrier permeability. To extend the comparison of UCCB01-125 and UCCB01-144, we also tested both compounds in the spared nerve injury (SNI) model of...

  12. Gaze-Contingent Motor Channelling, haptic constraints and associated cognitive demand for robotic MIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mylonas, George P; Kwok, Ka-Wai; James, David R C; Leff, Daniel; Orihuela-Espina, Felipe; Darzi, Ara; Yang, Guang-Zhong

    2012-04-01

    The success of MIS is coupled with an increasing demand on surgeons' manual dexterity and visuomotor coordination due to the complexity of instrument manipulations. The use of master-slave surgical robots has avoided many of the drawbacks of MIS, but at the same time, has increased the physical separation between the surgeon and the patient. Tissue deformation combined with restricted workspace and visibility of an already cluttered environment can raise critical issues related to surgical precision and safety. Reconnecting the essential visuomotor sensory feedback is important for the safe practice of robot-assisted MIS procedures. This paper introduces a novel gaze-contingent framework for real-time haptic feedback and virtual fixtures by transforming visual sensory information into physical constraints that can interact with the motor sensory channel. We demonstrate how motor tracking of deforming tissue can be made more effective and accurate through the concept of Gaze-Contingent Motor Channelling. The method is also extended to 3D by introducing the concept of Gaze-Contingent Haptic Constraints where eye gaze is used to dynamically prescribe and update safety boundaries during robot-assisted MIS without prior knowledge of the soft-tissue morphology. Initial validation results on both simulated and robot assisted phantom procedures demonstrate the potential clinical value of the technique. In order to assess the associated cognitive demand of the proposed concepts, functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy is used and preliminary results are discussed. PMID:20889367

  13. Time course of motor and cognitive functions after chronic cerebral ischemia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damodaran, Thenmoly; Hassan, Zurina; Navaratnam, Visweswaran; Muzaimi, Mustapha; Ng, Gandi; Müller, Christian P; Liao, Ping; Dringenberg, Hans C

    2014-12-15

    Cerebral ischemia is one of the leading causes of death and long-term disability in aging populations, due to the frequent occurrence of irreversible brain damage and subsequent loss of neuronal function which lead to cognitive impairment and some motor dysfunction. In the present study, the real time course of motor and cognitive functions were evaluated following the chronic cerebral ischemia induced by permanent, bilateral occlusion of the common carotid arteries (PBOCCA). Male Sprague Dawley rats (200-300g) were subjected to PBOCCA or sham-operated surgery and tested 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks following the ischemic insult. The results showed that PBOCCA significantly reduced step-through latency in a passive avoidance task at all time points when compared to the sham-operated group. PBOCCA rats also showed significant increase in escape latencies during training in the Morris water maze, as well as a reduction of the percentage of times spend in target quadrant of the maze at all time points following the occlusion. Importantly, there were no significant changes in locomotor activity between PBOCCA and sham-operated groups. The BDNF expression in the hippocampus was 29.3±3.1% and 40.1±2.6% on day 14 and 28 post PBOCCA, respectively compared to sham-operated group. Present data suggest that the PBOCCA procedure effectively induces behavioral, cognitive symptoms associated with cerebral ischemia and, consequently, provides a valuable model to study ischemia and related neurodegenerative disorder such as Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. PMID:25239606

  14. Reversing cognitive-motor impairments in Parkinson's disease patients using a computational modelling approach to deep brain stimulation programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankemolle, Anneke M M; Wu, Jennifer; Noecker, Angela M; Voelcker-Rehage, Claudia; Ho, Jason C; Vitek, Jerrold L; McIntyre, Cameron C; Alberts, Jay L

    2010-03-01

    Deep brain stimulation in the subthalamic nucleus is an effective and safe surgical procedure that has been shown to reduce the motor dysfunction of patients with advanced Parkinson's disease. Bilateral subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation, however, has been associated with declines in cognitive and cognitive-motor functioning. It has been hypothesized that spread of current to nonmotor areas of the subthalamic nucleus may be responsible for declines in cognitive and cognitive-motor functioning. The aim of this study was to assess the cognitive-motor performance in advanced Parkinson's disease patients with subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation parameters determined clinically (Clinical) to settings derived from a patient-specific computational model (Model). Data were collected from 10 patients with advanced Parkinson's disease bilaterally implanted with subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation systems. These patients were assessed off medication and under three deep brain stimulation conditions: Off, Clinical or Model based stimulation. Clinical stimulation parameters had been determined based on clinical evaluations and were stable for at least 6 months prior to study participation. Model-based parameters were selected to minimize the spread of current to nonmotor portions of the subthalamic nucleus using Cicerone Deep Brain Stimulation software. For each stimulation condition, participants performed a working memory (n-back task) and motor task (force tracking) under single- and dual-task settings. During the dual-task, participants performed the n-back and force-tracking tasks simultaneously. Clinical and Model parameters were equally effective in improving the Unified Parkinson's disease Rating Scale III scores relative to Off deep brain stimulation scores. Single-task working memory declines, in the 2-back condition, were significantly less under Model compared with Clinical deep brain stimulation settings. Under dual-task conditions, force

  15. Expressing gambling-related cognitive biases in motor behaviour: rolling dice to win prizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Matthew S M; Bowden-Jones, Henrietta; Rogers, Robert D

    2014-09-01

    Cognitive perspectives on gambling propose that biased thinking plays a significant role in sustaining gambling participation and, in vulnerable individuals, gambling problems. One prominent set of cognitive biases include illusions of control involving beliefs that it is possible to influence random gaming events. Sociologists have reported that (some) gamblers believe that it is possible to throw dice in different ways to achieve gaming outcomes (e.g., 'dice-setting' in craps). However, experimental demonstrations of these phenomena are lacking. Here, we asked regular gamblers to roll a computer-simulated, but fair, 6 sided die for monetary prizes. Gamblers allowed the die to roll for longer when attempting to win higher value bets, and when attempting to hit high winning numbers. This behaviour was exaggerated in gamblers motivated to keep gambling following the experience of almost-winning in gambling games. These results suggest that gambling cognitive biases find expression in the motor behaviour of rolling dice for monetary prizes, possibly reflecting embodied substrates.

  16. Expressing gambling-related cognitive biases in motor behaviour: rolling dice to win prizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Matthew S M; Bowden-Jones, Henrietta; Rogers, Robert D

    2014-09-01

    Cognitive perspectives on gambling propose that biased thinking plays a significant role in sustaining gambling participation and, in vulnerable individuals, gambling problems. One prominent set of cognitive biases include illusions of control involving beliefs that it is possible to influence random gaming events. Sociologists have reported that (some) gamblers believe that it is possible to throw dice in different ways to achieve gaming outcomes (e.g., 'dice-setting' in craps). However, experimental demonstrations of these phenomena are lacking. Here, we asked regular gamblers to roll a computer-simulated, but fair, 6 sided die for monetary prizes. Gamblers allowed the die to roll for longer when attempting to win higher value bets, and when attempting to hit high winning numbers. This behaviour was exaggerated in gamblers motivated to keep gambling following the experience of almost-winning in gambling games. These results suggest that gambling cognitive biases find expression in the motor behaviour of rolling dice for monetary prizes, possibly reflecting embodied substrates. PMID:23620161

  17. Defining the optimal window for cranial transplantation of human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cells to ameliorate radiation-induced cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Munjal M; Martirosian, Vahan; Christie, Lori-Ann; Riparip, Lara; Strnadel, Jan; Parihar, Vipan K; Limoli, Charles L

    2015-01-01

    Past preclinical studies have demonstrated the capability of using human stem cell transplantation in the irradiated brain to ameliorate radiation-induced cognitive dysfunction. Intrahippocampal transplantation of human embryonic stem cells and human neural stem cells (hNSCs) was found to functionally restore cognition in rats 1 and 4 months after cranial irradiation. To optimize the potential therapeutic benefits of human stem cell transplantation, we have further defined optimal transplantation windows for maximizing cognitive benefits after irradiation and used induced pluripotent stem cell-derived hNSCs (iPSC-hNSCs) that may eventually help minimize graft rejection in the host brain. For these studies, animals given an acute head-only dose of 10 Gy were grafted with iPSC-hNSCs at 2 days, 2 weeks, or 4 weeks following irradiation. Animals receiving stem cell grafts showed improved hippocampal spatial memory and contextual fear-conditioning performance compared with irradiated sham-surgery controls when analyzed 1 month after transplantation surgery. Importantly, superior performance was evident when stem cell grafting was delayed by 4 weeks following irradiation compared with animals grafted at earlier times. Analysis of the 4-week cohort showed that the surviving grafted cells migrated throughout the CA1 and CA3 subfields of the host hippocampus and differentiated into neuronal (∼39%) and astroglial (∼14%) subtypes. Furthermore, radiation-induced inflammation was significantly attenuated across multiple hippocampal subfields in animals receiving iPSC-hNSCs at 4 weeks after irradiation. These studies expand our prior findings to demonstrate that protracted stem cell grafting provides improved cognitive benefits following irradiation that are associated with reduced neuroinflammation.

  18. Hyperbaric Oxygen and Ginkgo Biloba Extract Ameliorate Cognitive and Memory Impairment via Nuclear Factor Kappa-B Pathway in Rat Model of Alzheimer's Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-Da Zhang; Li Ma; Li Zhang; Jian-Guo Dai; Li-Gong Chang; Pei-Lin Huang; Xiao-Qiang Tian

    2015-01-01

    Background: Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) and Ginkgo biloba extract (e.g., EGB 761) were shown to ameliorate cognitive and memory impairment in Alzheimer's disease (AD).However, the exact mechanism remains elusive.The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible mechanisms of HBO and EGB 761 via the function of nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-KB) pathway.Methods: AD rats were induced by injecting β-amyloid 25-35 into the hippocampus.All animals were divided into six groups: Normal,sham, AD model, HBO (2 atmosphere absolute;60 min/d), EGB 761 (20 mg·kg-1·d-1), and HBO/EGB 761 groups.Morris water maze tests were used to assess cognitive, and memory capacities of rats;TdT-mediated dUTP Nick-End Labeling staining and Western blotting were used to analyze apoptosis and NF-KB pathway-related proteins in hippocampus tissues.Results: Morris water maze tests revealed that EGB 761 and HBO significantly improved the cognitive and memory ability of AD rats.In addition, the protective effect of combinational therapy (HBO/EGB 761) was superior to either HBO or EGB 761 alone.In line, reduced apoptosis with NF-KB pathway activation was observed in hippocampus neurons treated by HBO and EGB 761.Conclusions: Our results suggested that HBO and EGB 761 improve cognitive and memory capacity in a rat model of AD.The protective effects are associated with the reduced apoptosis with NF-κB pathway activation in hippocampus neurons.

  19. A 9-Week Aerobic and Strength Training Program Improves Cognitive and Motor Function in Patients with Dementia : A Randomized, Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossers, Willem J. R.; van der Woude, Lucas H. V.; Boersma, Froukje; Hortobagyi, Tibor; Scherder, Erik J. A.; van Heuvelen, Marieke J. G.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To compare training and follow-up effects of combined aerobic and strength training versus aerobic-only training on cognitive and motor function in institutionalized patients with dementia and to explore whether improved motor function mediates improved cognitive function. Methods: Using

  20. The Effect of a Six-Month Dancing Program on Motor-Cognitive Dual-Task Performance in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamacher, Dennis; Hamacher, Daniel; Rehfeld, Kathrin; Hökelmann, Anita; Schega, Lutz

    2015-10-01

    Dancing is a complex sensorimotor activity involving physical and mental elements which have positive effects on cognitive functions and motor control. The present randomized controlled trial aims to analyze the effects of a dancing program on the performance on a motor-cognitive dual task. Data of 35 older adults, who were assigned to a dancing group or a health-related exercise group, are presented in the study. In pretest and posttest, we assessed cognitive performance and variability of minimum foot clearance, stride time, and stride length while walking. Regarding the cognitive performance and the stride-to-stride variability of minimum foot clearance, interaction effects have been found, indicating that dancing lowers gait variability to a higher extent than conventional health-related exercise. The data show that dancing improves minimum foot clearance variability and cognitive performance in a dual-task situation. Multi-task exercises (like dancing) might be a powerful tool to improve motor-cognitive dual-task performance. PMID:25642826

  1. Correlating fine motor function to cognitive competence in children with mental retardation An analysis of 42 cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoli Qu; Hong Yang; Hui Li; Bingpei Shi; Wei Shi; Dongdong Chen; Donghao Xu; Jing Miu

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In clinical practice, the degree of cognitive competence damage correlates to fine motor function deficits in children with psychomotor development retardation. Clear correlations between the two can help to develop and perform corresponding functional training for children with mental retardation (MR). OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to evaluate and analyze the correlation of fine motor function to cognitive competence in MR children using the Peabody Developmental Motor Scale-Fine Motor (PDMS-FM) and Symbolic Play Test. DESIGN: Scale evaluation and correlation analysis. SETTING: Children's Rehabilitation Center & Huajing District Hospital, Children's Hospital Affiliated to FudanUniversity.PARTICIPANTS: A total of 42 MR children, 28 males and 14 females, aged 14-69 months, were admitted to the Rehabilitation Center, Children's Hospital, Fudan University between June 2003 and April 2006, and were recruited for this study. All children corresponded to MR diagnosis criteria determined by Chinese Neurology and Psychiatry Society in 1989. Written informed consent for participating in the evaluation and for evaluated content was obtained from each child's guardian. METHODS: Subsequent to admission and prior to treatment, fine motor function of each MR child was evaluated using PDMS-FM (Chinese version). The scale captured 98 items that formed the grasping (Gr) and visual-motor integration (Vi) subtests. Cognitive competence was evaluated using the Symbolic Play Test (Chinese version), which captured four 6-item specific contents. The original score of each subtest was used to evaluate results for statistical analysis. Higher scores from the two evaluations indicated stronger abilities. Pearson correlation analysis was applied for analyzing data correlation. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Fine motor function was evaluated using PDMS-FM. Cognitive competence was measured using the Symbolic Play Test. Correlations between results from the two evaluations were

  2. Training cognitive control in older adults with the space fortress game: the role of training instructions and basic motor ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumen, Helena M; Gopher, Daniel; Steinerman, Joshua R; Stern, Yaakov

    2010-01-01

    This study examined if and how cognitively healthy older adults can learn to play a complex computer-based action game called the Space Fortress (SF) as a function of training instructions [Standard vs. Emphasis Change (EC); e.g., Gopher et al., 1989] and basic motor ability. A total of 35 cognitively healthy older adults completed a 3-month SF training program with three SF sessions weekly. Twelve 3-min games were played during each session. Basic motor ability was assessed with an aiming task, which required rapidly rotating a spaceship to shoot targets. Older adults showed improved performance on the SF task over time, but did not perform at the same level as younger adults. Unlike studies of younger adults, overall SF performance in older adults was greater following standard instructions than following EC instructions. However, this advantage was primarily due to collecting more bonus points and not - the primary goal of the game - shooting and destroying the fortress, which in contrast benefited from EC instructions. Basic motor ability was low and influenced many different aspects of SF game learning, often interacted with learning rate, and influenced overall SF performance. These findings show that older adults can be trained to deal with the complexity of the SF task but that overall SF performance, and the ability to capitalize on EC instructions, differs when a basic ability such as motor control is low. Hence, the development of this training program as a cognitive intervention that can potentially compensate for age-related cognitive decline should consider that basic motor ability can interact with the efficiency of training instructions that promote the use of cognitive control (e.g., EC instructions) - and the confluence between such basic abilities and higher-level cognitive control abilities should be further examined.

  3. 5-Lipoxygenase Activating Protein Reduction Ameliorates Cognitive Deficit, Synaptic Dysfunction, and Neuropathology in a Mouse Model of Alzheimer’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannopoulos, Phillip F.; Chu, Jin; Joshi, Yash B.; Sperow, Margaret; Li, Jin-Guo; Kirby, Lynn G.; Praticò, Domenico

    2013-01-01

    Background 5-lipoxygenase activating protein (FLAP) is abundantly present in the central nervous system. Although its function has been extensively interrogated in the context of peripheral inflammation, novel roles for this protein are emerging in the central nervous system. The objective of our study was to investigate the functional role that FLAP plays in a mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) with plaques and tangles (i.e., 3×Tg mice). Methods By implementing a genetic knockout of FLAP and pharmacologic inhibition with a FLAP inhibitor (MK-591), we evaluated the effect on the AD-like neuropathology, cognition, and synaptic plasticity in the 3×Tg mice. Results We show that reduction of FLAP leads to amelioration of cognition and memory along with the rescuing of synaptic dysfunction at an early age before the development of overt neuropathology. Genetic knockout and pharmacologic inhibition of FLAP also yielded an improvement in AD pathology through a reduction in Aβ via the γ-secretase pathway and a decrease in tau phosphorylation through the cdk5 pathway. Conclusions Our studies identify a novel functional role for FLAP in regulating memory and synaptic plasticity. They establish this protein at the crossroad of multiple pathways that ultimately contribute to the development of the entire AD-like phenotype, making it a viable therapeutic target with disease-modifying capacity for the treatment of this disease. PMID:23683389

  4. Motor skills and exercise capacity are associated with objective measures of cognitive functions and academic performance in preadolescent children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geertsen, Svend Sparre; Thomas, Richard; Larsen, Malte Nejst;

    2016-01-01

    the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) were used to assess different domains of cognitive functions, including sustained attention, spatial working memory, episodic and semantic memory, and processing speed. Linear mixed-effects models were used to investigate associations between...... sustained attention (Pcapacity and cognitive functions such as working memory, episodic memory, sustained attention and processing speed were all associated with better performance in mathematics and reading......OBJECTIVE: To investigate associations between motor skills, exercise capacity and cognitive functions, and evaluate how they correlate to academic performance in mathematics and reading comprehension using standardised, objective tests. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 423 Danish...

  5. Prenatal Exposure to Organohalogens, Including Brominated Flame Retardants, Influences Motor, Cognitive, and Behavioral Performance at School Age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roze, Elise; Meijer, Lisethe; Bakker, Attie; Van Braeckel, Koenraad N. J. A.; Sauer, Pieter J. J.; Bos, Arend F.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Organohalogen compounds (OHCs) are known to have neurotoxic effects on the developing brain. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the influence of prenatal exposure to OHCs, including brominated flame retardants, on motor, cognitive, and behavioral outcome in healthy children of school age. METHOD

  6. Effects of the dimeric PSD-95 inhibitor UCCB01-144 in mouse models of pain, cognition and motor function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Jesper T; Nasser, Arafat; Caballero-Puntiverio, Maitane;

    2016-01-01

    NMDAR antagonism shows analgesic action in humans and animal pain models, but disrupts cognitive and motor functions. NMDAR-dependent NO production requires tethering of the NMDAR to neuronal NO synthase (nNOS) by the postsynaptic density protein-95 (PSD-95). Perturbing the NMDAR/PSD-95/nNOS inte...

  7. The relationship between motor skills and cognitive skills in 4-16 year old typically developing children : A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Fels, Irene M. J.; te Wierike, Sanne C. M.; Hartman, Esther; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T.; Smith, Joanne; Visscher, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This review aims to give an overview of studies providing evidence for a relationship between motor and cognitive skills in typically developing children. Design: A systematic review. Methods: PubMed, Web of Science, and PsychINFO were searched for relevant articles. A total of 21 articl

  8. Motor, affective and cognitive empathy in adolescence : Interrelations between facial electromyography and self-reported trait and state measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Graaff, Jolien; Meeus, W; de Wied, Minet; van Boxtel, Anton; van Lier, Pol A C; Koot, Hans M.; Branje, Susan

    2016-01-01

    This study examined interrelations of trait and state empathy in an adolescent sample. Self-reported affective trait empathy and cognitive trait empathy were assessed during a home visit. During a test session at the university, motor empathy (facial electromyography), and self-reported affective an

  9. Diabetes reduces the cognitive function with the decrease of the visual perception and visual motor integration in male older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Hyo-Soon; Kim, Eunhwi; Suh, Soon-Rim; Kim, Mi-Han; Kim, Hong

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of diabetes on cognitive decline between the diabetes and non- diabetes patients and identified the associations between diabetes and cognitive function, visual perception (VP), and visual motor integration (VMI). Sixty elderly men (67.10± 1.65 yr) with and without diabetes (n= 30 in each group) who were surveyed by interview and questionnaire in South Korea were enrolled in this study. The score of Mini-Mental State Examination of Korean version (MMSE-KC), Motor-free Visual Perception Test-Vertical Format (MVPT-V), and Visual-Motor Integration 3rd Revision (VMI-3R) were assessed in all of the participants to evaluate cognitive function, VP, and VMI in each. The score of MMSE-KC in the diabetic group was significantly lower than that of the non-diabetes group (PVMI-3R scores than those in the non-diabetes group (PVMI. In conclusion, we propose that VP and VMI will be helpful to monitor the change of cognitive function in older adults with diabetes as part of the routine management of diabetes-induced cognitive declines. PMID:24282807

  10. Xanthoceras sorbifolia extracts ameliorate dendritic spine deficiency and cognitive decline via upregulation of BDNF expression in a rat model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yinjie; Xu, Jikai; Xu, Pu; Song, Shijie; Liu, Peng; Chi, Tianyan; Ji, Xuefei; Jin, Ge; Qiu, Shimeng; Hou, Yapeng; Zheng, Chen; Wang, Lili; Meng, Dali; Zou, Libo

    2016-08-26

    Xanthoceras sorbifolia, a traditional Chinese folk medicine with anti-inflammatory effects, has been used for a long time in China, especially in the Inner Mongolian area for the treatment of rheumatism. Inflammation is one of the main causes of Alzheimer's disease (AD). AD is characterized by aggregation of amyloid β-peptide (Aβ) plaques, neurofibrillary tangle formation, synaptic dysfunction and neuronal loss. To investigate whether Xanthoceras sorbifolia extracts (XSE) improve cognition and protect dendritic spines, we performed behavioral tests to investigate learning and memory in an Aβ25-35-induced dementia animal model of AD as well as Golgi staining to observe dendritic spine formation in CA1 pyramidal neurons and western blots to test the expression levels of PSD95, BDNF and downstream signaling pathways. Our results indicated that oral treatment with XSE significantly reduced cognitive impairments in behavioral tests (passive avoidance test, novel object recognition test, Y-maze test and Morris water maze test). Golgi staining results revealed that XSE ameliorated dendritic spine density deficits in CA1 pyramidal neurons in the hippocampus. Western blot analysis suggested that XSE upregulated PSD95, which is the major scaffolding protein in synapses. BDNF levels and the ratio of p-TrkB/TrkB increased, and the expression of the RhoA, a member of the Rho-GTPase family, and its downstream target protein ROCK2 decreased in the dementia animal model following treatment with XSE. Therefore, the cognition-improving effects of XSE probably resulted from dendritic spine protection effects through regulation of BDNF signaling pathways. PMID:27412235

  11. The developmental cognitive neuroscience of action: semantics, motor resonance and social processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ní Choisdealbha, Áine; Reid, Vincent

    2014-06-01

    The widespread use of EEG methods and the introduction of new brain imaging methods such as near-infrared spectroscopy have made cognitive neuroscience research with infants more feasible, resulting in an explosion of new findings. Among the long-established study of the neural correlates of face and speech perception in infancy, there has been an abundance of recent research on infant perception and production of action and concomitant neurocognitive development. In this review, three significant strands of developmental action research are discussed. The first strand focuses on the relationship of diverse social cognitive processes, including the perception of goals and animacy, and the development of precursors to theory of mind, to action perception. The second investigates the role of motor resonance and mirror systems in early action development. The third strand focuses on the extraction of meaning from action by infants and discusses how semantic processing of action emerges early in life. Although these strands of research are pursued separately, many of the findings from each strand inform all three theoretical frameworks. This review will evaluate the evidence for a synthesised account of infant action development.

  12. Acupuncture ameliorates cognitive impairment and hippocampus neuronal loss in experimental vascular dementia through Nrf2-mediated antioxidant response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xue-Rui; Shi, Guang-Xia; Yang, Jing-Wen; Yan, Chao-Qun; Lin, Li-Ting; Du, Si-Qi; Zhu, Wen; He, Tian; Zeng, Xiang-Hong; Xu, Qian; Liu, Cun-Zhi

    2015-12-01

    Emerging evidence suggests acupuncture could exert neuroprotection in the vascular dementia via anti-oxidative effects. However, the involvement of Nrf2, a master regulator of antioxidant defense, in acupuncture-induced neuroprotection in vascular dementia remains undetermined. The goal of our study was to investigate the contribution of Nrf2 in acupuncture and its effects on vascular dementia. Morris water maze and Nissl staining were used to assess the effect of acupuncture on cognitive function and hippocampal neurodegeneration in experimental vascular dementia. The distribution of Nrf2 in neurons in hippocampus, the protein expression of Nrf2 in both cytosol and nucleus, and the protein and mRNA levels of its downstream target genes NQO1 and HO-1 were detected by double immunofluorescent staining, Western blotting and realtime PCR analysis respectively. Cognitive function and microglia activation were measured in both wild-type and Nrf2 gene knockout mice after acupuncture treatment. We found that acupuncture could remarkably reverse the cognitive deficits, neuron cell loss, reactive oxygen species production, and decreased cerebral blood flow. It was notable that acupuncture enhanced nuclear translocation of Nrf2 in neurons and up-regulate the protein and mRNA levels of Nrf2 and its target genes HO-1 and NQO1. Moreover, acupuncture could significantly down-regulated the over-activation of microglia after common carotid artery occlusion surgery. However, the reversed cognitive deficits, neuron cell loss and microglia activation by acupuncture were abolished in Nrf2 gene knockout mice. In conclusion, these findings provide evidence that the neuroprotection of acupuncture in models of vascular dementia was via the Nrf2 activation and Nrf2-dependent microglia activation. PMID:26546103

  13. Task-specific effects of tDCS-induced cortical excitability changes on cognitive and motor sequence set shifting performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Leite

    Full Text Available In this study, we tested the effects of transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS on two set shifting tasks. Set shifting ability is defined as the capacity to switch between mental sets or actions and requires the activation of a distributed neural network. Thirty healthy subjects (fifteen per site received anodal, cathodal and sham stimulation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC or the primary motor cortex (M1. We measured set shifting in both cognitive and motor tasks. The results show that both anodal and cathodal single session tDCS can modulate cognitive and motor tasks. However, an interaction was found between task and type of stimulation as anodal tDCS of DLPFC and M1 was found to increase performance in the cognitive task, while cathodal tDCS of DLPFC and M1 had the opposite effect on the motor task. Additionally, tDCS effects seem to be most evident on the speed of changing sets, rather than on reducing the number of errors or increasing the efficacy of irrelevant set filtering.

  14. Chronic α-Tocopherol Increases Central Monoamines Synthesis and Improves Cognitive and Motor Abilities in Old Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramis, Margarita R; Sarubbo, Fiorella; Terrasa, Juan L; Moranta, David; Aparicio, Sara; Miralles, Antonio; Esteban, Susana

    2016-04-01

    Limiting enzymes in the synthesis of brain monoamines seems to be susceptible to oxidative damage, one of the most important factors in aging. It has been suggested that the use of anti-oxidants can reduce the rate of free radical production related with aging and the associated damage. Therefore, this study aims to analyze the effects of the chronic treatments with the anti-oxidant α-tocopherol (vitamin E) on central monoamines (high-performance liquid chromatography [HPLC] analysis) mediating cognitive functions, as well as on the evaluation of memory and motor abilities in old rats measured by radial maze, Barnes maze, novel object recognition test, and rotarod test. Results show that α-tocopherol significantly increased in a dose- and/or time-dependent manner the synthesis rate and the levels of monoaminergic neurotransmitters (serotonin, dopamine, and noradrenaline) in the hippocampus and striatum, brain regions involved in memory processing and motor coordination. These positive neurochemical effects, largely due to an increased activity of the limiting enzymes in monoamines synthesis, tryptophan hydroxylase and tyrosine hydroxylase, were accompanied by an improvement in cognitive and motor abilities in old rats. Altogether these findings suggest that α-tocopherol exhibits neuroprotective actions in old rats; thus, diets with α-tocopherol might represent a promising strategy to mitigate or delay the cognitive and motor decline associate with aging and related-diseases. PMID:26414867

  15. The Effect of Hyperhomocysteinemia on Motor Symptoms, Cognitive Status, and Vascular Risk in Patients with Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocer, Bilge; Guven, Hayat; Conkbayir, Isik; Comoglu, Selim Selcuk; Delibas, Sennur

    2016-01-01

    Factors related with hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) and the impact of HHcy in Parkinson's disease (PD) are not well understood. We investigated the factors associated with increased levels of homocysteine (Hcy) and the relationship between HHcy and motor symptoms, cognitive status, and vascular risk in patients with Parkinson's disease. Among 60 patients (29 males, 48.3%) with PD, the stage of the disease, the severity of clinical symptoms, and the patients' cognitive status were measured using a modified Hoehn and Yahr Staging Scale (mHY), Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) II and III, and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), respectively. Patients were also noted for having dyskinesia and hallucinations. Serum vitamin B12, folic acid, and plasma Hcy levels were measured. Furthermore, the presence of vascular risk factors was recorded. Finally, we investigated carotid artery intima-media thickening and stenosis using colour Doppler ultrasonography as well as the presence of ischemic lesions using brain imaging techniques. Plasma Hcy levels were higher with advanced age and in males. In addition, there was an inverse relationship between Hcy and vitamin B12 levels. There was no correlation between HHcy and the stage of the disease, severity of motor symptoms, cognitive status as assessed by the MMSE, vascular risk factors, carotid artery atherosclerotic findings, and ischemic brain lesions. Plasma Hcy levels may rise due to several factors in PD. However, the resulting HHcy has no significant effect on the clinical picture in terms of motor features, cognitive status, and vascular diseases. PMID:27642535

  16. The Effect of Hyperhomocysteinemia on Motor Symptoms, Cognitive Status, and Vascular Risk in Patients with Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocer, Bilge; Guven, Hayat; Conkbayir, Isik; Comoglu, Selim Selcuk; Delibas, Sennur

    2016-01-01

    Factors related with hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) and the impact of HHcy in Parkinson's disease (PD) are not well understood. We investigated the factors associated with increased levels of homocysteine (Hcy) and the relationship between HHcy and motor symptoms, cognitive status, and vascular risk in patients with Parkinson's disease. Among 60 patients (29 males, 48.3%) with PD, the stage of the disease, the severity of clinical symptoms, and the patients' cognitive status were measured using a modified Hoehn and Yahr Staging Scale (mHY), Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) II and III, and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), respectively. Patients were also noted for having dyskinesia and hallucinations. Serum vitamin B12, folic acid, and plasma Hcy levels were measured. Furthermore, the presence of vascular risk factors was recorded. Finally, we investigated carotid artery intima-media thickening and stenosis using colour Doppler ultrasonography as well as the presence of ischemic lesions using brain imaging techniques. Plasma Hcy levels were higher with advanced age and in males. In addition, there was an inverse relationship between Hcy and vitamin B12 levels. There was no correlation between HHcy and the stage of the disease, severity of motor symptoms, cognitive status as assessed by the MMSE, vascular risk factors, carotid artery atherosclerotic findings, and ischemic brain lesions. Plasma Hcy levels may rise due to several factors in PD. However, the resulting HHcy has no significant effect on the clinical picture in terms of motor features, cognitive status, and vascular diseases.

  17. Total Lignans of Schisandra chinensis Ameliorates Aβ1-42-Induced Neurodegeneration with Cognitive Impairment in Mice and Primary Mouse Neuronal Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xu; Liu, Chunmei; Xu, Mengjie; Li, Xiaolong; Bi, Kaishun; Jia, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Lignan compounds extracted from Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill. have been reported to possess various biological activities, and have potential in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. This study was designed to investigate the effects of total lignans of Schisandra chinensis (TLS) on cognitive function and neurodegeneration in the model of AD induced by Aβ1-42 in vivo and in vitro. It was found that intragastric infusion with TLS (50 and 200 mg/kg) to Aβ1-42-induced mice significantly increased the number of avoidances in the shuttle-box test and swimming time in the target quadrant in the Morris water maze test. TLS at dose of 200 mg/kg significantly restored the activities of total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), as well as the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) both in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex in mice. Results of histopathological examination indicated that TLS noticeably ameliorated the neurodegeneration in the hippocampus in mice. On the other hand, TLS (100 μM) could protect the Aβ1-42-induced primary mouse neuronal cells by blocking the decrease of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), change the expressions of Bcl-2 (important regulator in the mitochondria apoptosis pathway). Moreover, TLS also decreased the activity of β-secretase 1 (BACE1), crucial protease contributes to the hydrolysis of amyloid precursor protein (APP), and inhibited the expression of JKN/p38, which involved in the MAPKs signaling pathways in both mice and primary mouse neuronal cells. In summary, TLS might protect against cognitive deficits and neurodegeneration by releasing the damage of oxidative stress, inhibiting the expression of BACE1 and the MAPKs inflammatory signaling pathways. PMID:27035824

  18. Total Lignans of Schisandra chinensis Ameliorates Aβ1-42-Induced Neurodegeneration with Cognitive Impairment in Mice and Primary Mouse Neuronal Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xu; Liu, Chunmei; Xu, Mengjie; Li, Xiaolong; Bi, Kaishun; Jia, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Lignan compounds extracted from Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill. have been reported to possess various biological activities, and have potential in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. This study was designed to investigate the effects of total lignans of Schisandra chinensis (TLS) on cognitive function and neurodegeneration in the model of AD induced by Aβ1-42 in vivo and in vitro. It was found that intragastric infusion with TLS (50 and 200 mg/kg) to Aβ1-42-induced mice significantly increased the number of avoidances in the shuttle-box test and swimming time in the target quadrant in the Morris water maze test. TLS at dose of 200 mg/kg significantly restored the activities of total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), as well as the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) both in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex in mice. Results of histopathological examination indicated that TLS noticeably ameliorated the neurodegeneration in the hippocampus in mice. On the other hand, TLS (100 μM) could protect the Aβ1-42-induced primary mouse neuronal cells by blocking the decrease of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), change the expressions of Bcl-2 (important regulator in the mitochondria apoptosis pathway). Moreover, TLS also decreased the activity of β-secretase 1 (BACE1), crucial protease contributes to the hydrolysis of amyloid precursor protein (APP), and inhibited the expression of JKN/p38, which involved in the MAPKs signaling pathways in both mice and primary mouse neuronal cells. In summary, TLS might protect against cognitive deficits and neurodegeneration by releasing the damage of oxidative stress, inhibiting the expression of BACE1 and the MAPKs inflammatory signaling pathways.

  19. Total Lignans of Schisandra chinensis Ameliorates Aβ1-42-Induced Neurodegeneration with Cognitive Impairment in Mice and Primary Mouse Neuronal Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Zhao

    Full Text Available Lignan compounds extracted from Schisandra chinensis (Turcz. Baill. have been reported to possess various biological activities, and have potential in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. This study was designed to investigate the effects of total lignans of Schisandra chinensis (TLS on cognitive function and neurodegeneration in the model of AD induced by Aβ1-42 in vivo and in vitro. It was found that intragastric infusion with TLS (50 and 200 mg/kg to Aβ1-42-induced mice significantly increased the number of avoidances in the shuttle-box test and swimming time in the target quadrant in the Morris water maze test. TLS at dose of 200 mg/kg significantly restored the activities of total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC, as well as the level of malondialdehyde (MDA both in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex in mice. Results of histopathological examination indicated that TLS noticeably ameliorated the neurodegeneration in the hippocampus in mice. On the other hand, TLS (100 μM could protect the Aβ1-42-induced primary mouse neuronal cells by blocking the decrease of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP, change the expressions of Bcl-2 (important regulator in the mitochondria apoptosis pathway. Moreover, TLS also decreased the activity of β-secretase 1 (BACE1, crucial protease contributes to the hydrolysis of amyloid precursor protein (APP, and inhibited the expression of JKN/p38, which involved in the MAPKs signaling pathways in both mice and primary mouse neuronal cells. In summary, TLS might protect against cognitive deficits and neurodegeneration by releasing the damage of oxidative stress, inhibiting the expression of BACE1 and the MAPKs inflammatory signaling pathways.

  20. A dual brain-targeting curcumin-loaded polymersomes ameliorated cognitive dysfunction in intrahippocampal amyloid-β1–42-injected mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Tingting; Sun, Zhiguo; Lu, Ying; Gao, Jie; Zou, Hao; Xie, Fangyuan; Zhang, Guoqing; Xu, Hao; Sun, Duxin; Yu, Yuan; Zhong, Yanqiang

    2016-01-01

    Due to the impermeability of the blood–brain barrier and the nonselective distribution of drugs in the brain, the therapeutic access to intractable neurological disorders is challenging. In this study, dual brain-targeting polymersomes (POs) functionalized by transferrin and Tet-1 peptide (Tf/Tet-1-POs) promoted the transportation of curcumin into the brain and provided neuroprotection. The modification of the ligands that bind to the surface of POs was revealed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis. The cell uptake of a coculture model of mouse brain capillary endothelial cells with neurons showed that the Tf/Tet-1-POs had significant transportation properties and possessed affinity for neurons. The pharmacokinetic analysis showed that the blood–brain barrier permeability–surface efficiency of the Tf/Tet-1-POs was 0.28 mL/h/g and that the brain tissue uptake rate (% ID/g) was 0.08, which were significant compared with the controls (P<0.05). The curcumin-encapsulated Tf/Tet-1-POs provided neuroprotection and ameliorated cognitive dysfunction in intrahippocampal amyloid-β1–42-injected mice. These results suggest that the dual brain-targeting POs are more capable of drug delivery to the brain that can be exploited as a multiple noninvasive vehicle for targeting therapeutics.

  1. Effect of a Kinderkinetics programme on components of children’s perceptual-motor and cognitive functioning

    OpenAIRE

    Pienaar, Anita Elizabeth; Smit, Adel; Van Rensburg, Esme

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this research was to determine the effect of a Kinderkinetics programme on components of children’s perceptual-motor and cognitive development. A pre-/post-test design with an intervention group and a control group was used. A sample of 40, 4- to 6-year-old pre-school children was selected and allocated to the two groups. The intervention group participated in a perceptual-motor programme while the control group received no intervention. The programme involved an hour session once ...

  2. A neurological model of sensory-motor problem solving with possible implications for higher-order cognition and instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Anton E.

    Grossberg's neural modeling principles of learning, perception, cognition, and motor control are presented as the basis for construction of a neurological model of sensory-motor problem solving. The pattern of problem solving is assumed to be universal, thus is sought in the higher-order shift from the child's use of an additive strategy to the adolescent's use of a proportions strategy to solve the Pouring Water Task (Suarez and Rhonheimer, 1974). Possible neurological principles involved in this shift and in the process of psychological equilibration are discussed as are possible educational implications.

  3. Automated ambulatory assessment of cognitive performance, environmental conditions, and motor activity during military operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Harris R.; Kramer, F. Matthew; Montain, Scott J.; Niro, Philip; Young, Andrew J.

    2005-05-01

    Until recently scientists had limited opportunities to study human cognitive performance in non-laboratory, fully ambulatory situations. Recently, advances in technology have made it possible to extend behavioral assessment to the field environment. One of the first devices to measure human behavior in the field was the wrist-worn actigraph. This device, now widely employed, can acquire minute-by-minute information on an individual"s level of motor activity. Actigraphs can, with reasonable accuracy, distinguish sleep from waking, the most critical and basic aspect of human behavior. However, rapid technologic advances have provided the opportunity to collect much more information from fully ambulatory humans. Our laboratory has developed a series of wrist-worn devices, which are not much larger then a watch, which can assess simple and choice reaction time, vigilance and memory. In addition, the devices can concurrently assess motor activity with much greater temporal resolution then the standard actigraph. Furthermore, they continuously monitor multiple environmental variables including temperature, humidity, sound and light. We have employed these monitors during training and simulated military operations to collect information that would typically be unavailable under such circumstances. In this paper we will describe various versions of the vigilance monitor and how each successive version extended the capabilities of the device. Samples of data from several studies are presented, included studies conducted in harsh field environments during simulated infantry assaults, a Marine Corps Officer training course and mechanized infantry (Stryker) operations. The monitors have been useful for documenting environmental conditions experienced by wearers, studying patterns of sleep and activity and examining the effects of nutritional manipulations on warfighter performance.

  4. Kaempferia parviflora extract ameliorates the cognitive impairments and the reduction in cell proliferation induced by valproic acid treatment in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welbat, Jariya Umka; Chaisawang, Pornthip; Chaijaroonkhanarak, Wunnee; Prachaney, Parichat; Pannangrong, Wanassanun; Sripanidkulchai, Bungorn; Wigmore, Peter

    2016-07-01

    Kaempferia parviflora is a herbal plant whose rhizomes are used in traditional medicine. Investigations of this plant have shown it to have antidepressant activity and to improve learning and memory in animal models. The aim of the present investigation was to determine whether K. parviflora could protect the brain from the impairments in cognition and hippocampal neurogenesis which are caused by valproic acid (VPA). Male Sprague Dawley rats (180-200g) were given once daily K. parviflora extract (100mg/kg) via oral gavage for 21 days. Rats received twice daily intraperitoneal injections of valproic acid (300mg/kg) from days 8 to 21 of the experiment. Spatial memory was tested using the novel object location (NOL) test five days after the end of treatment. Cell proliferation in the sub granular zone (SGZ) of the dentate gyrus was quantified by immunohistochemistry and levels of doublecortin (DCX) were determined by Western blotting. Co-treatment of VPA and K. parviflora prevented the cognitive decline and reduction in proliferating cells caused by VPA. Furthermore, co-treatment significantly increased DCX protein levels within the hippocampus. These findings demonstrate that K. parviflora is able to prevent the brain from VPA-induced the impairments of spatial memory and proliferating cells within the SGZ. PMID:27142346

  5. Motor and cognitive outcome after specific early lesions of the brain - a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hielkema, Tjitske; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to study motor and cognitive outcome in infants with severe early brain lesions and to evaluate effects of side of the lesion, sex, and social economic status on outcome. A literature search was performed using the databases Pubmed and Embase. Included studies involved infants with either cystic periventricular leukomalacia (cPVL), preterm, or term stroke (i.e. parenchymal lesion of the brain). Outcome was expressed as cerebral palsy (CP) and intellectual disability (mental retardation). Median prevalence rates of CP after cPVL, preterm, and term stroke were 86%, 71%, and 29% respectively; of intellectual disability 50%, 27%, and 33%. Most infants with cPVL developed bilateral CP, those with term stroke unilateral CP, whereas after preterm stroke bilateral and unilateral CP occurred equally often. Information on the effects of sex and social economic status on outcome after specific brain lesions was very limited. Our findings show that the risk for CP is high after cPVL, moderate after preterm stroke, and lowest after term stroke. The risk for intellectual disability after an early brain lesion is lower than that for CP. Predicting outcome at individual level remains difficult; new imaging techniques may improve predicting developmental trajectories. PMID:27027607

  6. Prenatal Exposure to Organohalogens, Including Brominated Flame Retardants, Influences Motor, Cognitive, and Behavioral Performance at School Age

    OpenAIRE

    Roze, Elise; Meijer, Lisethe; Bakker, Attie; Van Braeckel, Koenraad N. J. A.; Sauer, Pieter J. J.; Bos, Arend F

    2009-01-01

    Background Organohalogen compounds (OHCs) are known to have neurotoxic effects on the developing brain. Objective We investigated the influence of prenatal exposure to OHCs, including brominated flame retardants, on motor, cognitive, and behavioral outcome in healthy children of school age. Methods This study was part of the prospective Groningen infant COMPARE (Comparison of Exposure-Effect Pathways to Improve the Assessment of Human Health Risks of Complex Environmental Mixtures of Organoha...

  7. Ameliorative Effects of Acanthopanax trifoliatus on Cognitive and Emotional Deficits in Olfactory Bulbectomized Mice: An Animal Model of Depression and Cognitive Deficits

    OpenAIRE

    Sithisarn, Pongtip; Rojsanga, Piyanuch; Jarikasem, Siripen; Tanaka, Ken; Matsumoto, Kinzo

    2013-01-01

    Acanthopanax trifoliatus is a plant that has been traditionally used in Thailand as a vegetable and a tonic. This study investigated effects of the aqueous extract of its leaves (ATL) on cognitive and emotional deficits using an olfactory bulbectomized mouse (OBX) model. OBX mice were treated daily with ATL (250 and 500 mg/kg, p.o.) 3 days after OBX. Antidementia drug tacrine (2.5 mg/kg/day) and antidepressant drug imipramine (10 mg/kg/day) were given i.p. as reference drugs. OBX significantl...

  8. ESC-Derived Basal Forebrain Cholinergic Neurons Ameliorate the Cognitive Symptoms Associated with Alzheimer’s Disease in Mouse Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Yue

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Degeneration of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons (BFCNs is associated with cognitive impairments of Alzheimer’s disease (AD, implying that BFCNs hold potentials in exploring stem cell-based replacement therapy for AD. However, studies on derivation of BFCNs from embryonic stem cells (ESCs are limited, and the application of ESC-derived BFCNs remains to be determined. Here, we report on differentiation approaches for directing both mouse and human ESCs into mature BFCNs. These ESC-derived BFCNs exhibit features similar to those of their in vivo counterparts and acquire appropriate functional properties. After transplantation into the basal forebrain of AD model mice, ESC-derived BFCN progenitors predominantly differentiate into mature cholinergic neurons that functionally integrate into the endogenous basal forebrain cholinergic projection system. The AD mice grafted with mouse or human BFCNs exhibit improvements in learning and memory performances. Our findings suggest a promising perspective of ESC-derived BFCNs in the development of stem cell-based therapies for treatment of AD.

  9. Cognitive-motor integration deficits in young adult athletes following concussion

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Jeffrey A.; Dalecki, Marc; Hughes, Cindy; MacPherson, Alison K.; Sergio, Lauren E.

    2015-01-01

    Background The ability to perform visually-guided motor tasks requires the transformation of visual information into programmed motor outputs. When the guiding visual information does not align spatially with the motor output, the brain processes rules to integrate the information for an appropriate motor response. Here, we look at how performance on such tasks is affected in young adult athletes with concussion history. Methods Participants displaced a cursor from a central to peripheral tar...

  10. I Feel, Therefore, I am: The Insula and Its Role in Human Emotion, Cognition and the Sensory-Motor System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mani Pavuluri

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The insula is instrumental in integrating the emotional, cognitive, and sensory-motor systems. This manuscript lays a foundational framework for understanding the insula’s mechanistic role in moderating brain networks in illness and wellness. Methods: Reviewed here is the select literature on the brain anatomy and function relevant to the insula’s role in psychiatrically ill and normative populations. Results: The insula is a hub for moderating social cognition, empathy, reward-driven decision-making, arousal, reactivity to emotional stimuli, and somatic pain processing. Findings indicate a spectrum of increasing complexity in insular function – from receiving and interpreting sensorimotor sensations in the posterior insula to subjective perception of emotions in the anterior insula. The insula plays a key role at the interface of cognitive and emotional domains, functioning in concert with other brain regions that share common cytoarchitecture, such as the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and the anterior cingulate cortex. Pharmacotherapy and mindfulness-based interventions can alter insular activation. Conclusion: The insula serves as a receiver and interpreter of emotions in the context of cognitive and sensory-motor information. Therefore, insular function and connectivity may potentially be utilized as a biomarker for treatment selection and outcome.

  11. Motor development in 3-month-old healthy term-born infants is associated with cognitive and behavioural outcomes at early school age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hitzert, Marrit; Roze, Elise; Van Braeckel, Koenraad N. J. A.; Bos, Arend F.

    2014-01-01

    AIM To determine whether motor development at 3 months of age is associated with cognitive, motor, and behavioural outcomes in healthy children at early school age. METHOD In this cohort study, we included 74 term-born, healthy children (44 males, 30 females; median gestational age 40.1wks, range 38

  12. The Effect of Hyperhomocysteinemia on Motor Symptoms, Cognitive Status, and Vascular Risk in Patients with Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilge Kocer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Factors related with hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy and the impact of HHcy in Parkinson’s disease (PD are not well understood. We investigated the factors associated with increased levels of homocysteine (Hcy and the relationship between HHcy and motor symptoms, cognitive status, and vascular risk in patients with Parkinson’s disease. Among 60 patients (29 males, 48.3% with PD, the stage of the disease, the severity of clinical symptoms, and the patients’ cognitive status were measured using a modified Hoehn and Yahr Staging Scale (mHY, Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS II and III, and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE, respectively. Patients were also noted for having dyskinesia and hallucinations. Serum vitamin B12, folic acid, and plasma Hcy ​​levels were measured. Furthermore, the presence of vascular risk factors was recorded. Finally, we investigated carotid artery intima-media thickening and stenosis using colour Doppler ultrasonography as well as the presence of ischemic lesions using brain imaging techniques. Plasma Hcy ​​levels were higher with advanced age and in males. In addition, there was an inverse relationship between Hcy ​​and vitamin B12 levels. There was no correlation between HHcy and the stage of the disease, severity of motor symptoms, cognitive status as assessed by the MMSE, vascular risk factors, carotid artery atherosclerotic findings, and ischemic brain lesions. Plasma Hcy levels may rise due to several factors in PD. However, the resulting HHcy has no significant effect on the clinical picture in terms of motor features, cognitive status, and vascular diseases.

  13. Corpus callosum atrophy as a predictor of age-related cognitive and motor impairment: a 3-year follow-up of the LADIS study cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, C; Rostrup, E; Paulson, O B;

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this 3-year follow-up study was to investigate whether corpus callosum (CC) atrophy may predict future motor and cognitive impairment in an elderly population. On baseline MRI from 563 subjects with age-related white matter changes (ARWMC) from the Leukoaraiosis And DISability (LADIS......) study, the CC was segmented and subdivided into five anterior-posterior regions (CC1-CC5). Associations between the CC areas and decline in motor performance and cognitive functions over a 3-year period were analyzed. CC atrophy at baseline was significantly associated with impaired cognitive...

  14. Defining Optimal Aerobic Exercise Parameters to Affect Complex Motor and Cognitive Outcomes after Stroke: A Systematic Review and Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Mahmudul Hasan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although poststroke aerobic exercise (AE increases markers of neuroplasticity and protects perilesional tissue, the degree to which it enhances complex motor or cognitive outcomes is unknown. Previous research suggests that timing and dosage of exercise may be important. We synthesized data from clinical and animal studies in order to determine optimal AE training parameters and recovery outcomes for future research. Using predefined criteria, we included clinical trials of stroke of any type or duration and animal studies employing any established models of stroke. Of the 5,259 titles returned, 52 articles met our criteria, measuring the effects of AE on balance, lower extremity coordination, upper limb motor skills, learning, processing speed, memory, and executive function. We found that early-initiated low-to-moderate intensity AE improved locomotor coordination in rodents. In clinical trials, AE improved balance and lower limb coordination irrespective of intervention modality or parameter. In contrast, fine upper limb recovery was relatively resistant to AE. In terms of cognitive outcomes, poststroke AE in animals improved memory and learning, except when training was too intense. However, in clinical trials, combined training protocols more consistently improved cognition. We noted a paucity of studies examining the benefits of AE on recovery beyond cessation of the intervention.

  15. Defining Optimal Aerobic Exercise Parameters to Affect Complex Motor and Cognitive Outcomes after Stroke: A Systematic Review and Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, S M Mahmudul; Rancourt, Samantha N; Austin, Mark W; Ploughman, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Although poststroke aerobic exercise (AE) increases markers of neuroplasticity and protects perilesional tissue, the degree to which it enhances complex motor or cognitive outcomes is unknown. Previous research suggests that timing and dosage of exercise may be important. We synthesized data from clinical and animal studies in order to determine optimal AE training parameters and recovery outcomes for future research. Using predefined criteria, we included clinical trials of stroke of any type or duration and animal studies employing any established models of stroke. Of the 5,259 titles returned, 52 articles met our criteria, measuring the effects of AE on balance, lower extremity coordination, upper limb motor skills, learning, processing speed, memory, and executive function. We found that early-initiated low-to-moderate intensity AE improved locomotor coordination in rodents. In clinical trials, AE improved balance and lower limb coordination irrespective of intervention modality or parameter. In contrast, fine upper limb recovery was relatively resistant to AE. In terms of cognitive outcomes, poststroke AE in animals improved memory and learning, except when training was too intense. However, in clinical trials, combined training protocols more consistently improved cognition. We noted a paucity of studies examining the benefits of AE on recovery beyond cessation of the intervention. PMID:26881101

  16. D-amphetamine improves cognitive deficits and physical therapy promotes fine motor rehabilitation in a rat embolic stroke model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Rune Skovgaard; Overgaard, K; Hildebrandt-Eriksen, E S;

    2006-01-01

    -amph), 4) THERAPY (embolized, saline + physical therapy) and 5) D-AMPH + THERAPY (embolized, D-amph + physical therapy). Rats of the groups 4-5 underwent d-amph or saline treatment on days 1, 3, 5 and 7 after surgery and were re-trained for 1 h starting 60 min after each treatment. During this time, rats...... regarding gross motor performance. CONCLUSIONS: After embolization, physical therapy improved fine motor performance and D-amph accelerated rehabilitation of cognitive performance as observed in the rats of the THERAPY and D-AMPH groups. As a result of the administration of a high dose of D-amph, the rats...... of the D-AMPH + THERAPY combination group failed to engage in physical therapy during D-amph intoxication, thereby limiting any promotion of rehabilitation by combining physical therapy and D-amph....

  17. Effects of the dimeric PSD-95 inhibitor UCCB01-144 in mouse models of pain, cognition and motor function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreasen, Jesper T; Nasser, Arafat; Caballero-Puntiverio, Maitane; Sahlholt, Maj; Bach, Anders; Gynther, Mikko; Strømgaard, Kristian; Pickering, Darryl S

    2016-06-01

    NMDAR antagonism shows analgesic action in humans and animal pain models, but disrupts cognitive and motor functions. NMDAR-dependent NO production requires tethering of the NMDAR to neuronal NO synthase (nNOS) by the postsynaptic density protein-95 (PSD-95). Perturbing the NMDAR/PSD-95/nNOS interaction has therefore been proposed as an alternative analgesic mechanism. We recently reported that UCCB01-125, a dimeric PSD-95 inhibitor with limited blood-brain-barrier permeability, reduced mechanical hypersensitivity in the complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) inflammatory pain model, without disrupting cognitive or motor functions. Here, we investigated the analgesic efficacy in the CFA model of UCCB01-144, a PSD-95 inhibitor with improved blood-brain-barrier permeability. To extend the comparison of UCCB01-125 and UCCB01-144, we also tested both compounds in the spared nerve injury (SNI) model of neuropathic pain. Potential cognitive effects of UCCB01-144 were examined using the social transmission of food preference (STFP) test and the V-maze test, and motor coordination was assessed with the rotarod test. UCCB01-144 (10mg/kg) reversed CFA-induced mechanical hypersensitivity after 1h, and completely normalised sensitivity after 24h. In the SNI model, UCCB01-144 (30mg/kg) partially reversed hypersensitivity after 1h, but no effect was observed after 24h. UCCB01-125 did not affect SNI-induced hypersensitivity. Rotarod performance was unaffected by UCCB01-144, but 30mg/kg UCCB01-144 impaired performance in the STFP test. Collectively, UCCB01-144 reversed both CFA and SNI-induced hypersensitivity, but the efficacy in the SNI model was only transient. This suggests that enhanced BBB permeability of PSD-95 inhibitors improves the analgesic action in neuropathic pain states. PMID:27032314

  18. Walking in school-aged children in a dual-task paradigm is related to age but not to cognition, motor behavior, injuries, or psychosocial functioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priska eHagmann-von Arx

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Age-dependent gait characteristics and associations with cognition, motor behavior, injuries, and psychosocial functioning were investigated in 138 typically developing children aged 6.7 to 13.2 years (M =10.0 years. Gait velocity, normalized velocity, and variability were measured using the walkway system GAITRite without an additional task (single task and while performing a motor or cognitive task (dual task. Assessment of children’s cognition included tests for intelligence and executive functions; parents reported on their child’s motor behavior, injuries, and psychosocial functioning. Gait variability (an index of gait regularity decreased with increasing age in both single- and dual-task walking. Dual-task gait decrements were stronger when children walked in the motor compared to the cognitive dual-task condition and decreased with increasing age in both dual-task conditions. Gait alterations from single- to dual-task conditions were not related to children’s cognition, motor behavior, injuries, or psychosocial functioning.

  19. Stereotype threat and lift effects in motor task performance: the mediating role of somatic and cognitive anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurin, Raphael

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to replicate the stereotype threat and lift effects in a motor task in a neutral sex-typed activity, using somatic and cognitive anxiety as key mediators of these phenomena. It was hypothesized that an ingroup/outgroup social categorization based on gender would have distinctive effects for female and male participants. A total of 161 French physical education students were randomly assigned to three threat conditions--no threat, female threat, and male threat--thus leading to a 3 x 2 (threat by gender) design. The analyses revealed a stereotype lift effect on the performances for both male and female participants, as well as a stereotype threat effect only for female participants. They also indicated that somatic anxiety had a mediating effect on the performance of female participants targeted by a negative stereotype, but that it had a facilitating effect on their performance. The stereotype threat and lift effects on motor tasks were replicated in a neutral sex-typed activity and somatic anxiety seems to have a facilitating mediating effect of the relationships between the gender-conditions (control or female threat) interaction and free-throw performance. The model used to distinguish somatic and cognitive anxiety appeared to be a relevant means of explaining the stereotype threat and lift mechanisms.

  20. Cognitive dysfunction precedes the onset of motor symptoms in the MitoPark mouse model of Parkinson's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuhua Li

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD is a neurodegenerative disorder primarily characterized by progressive loss of dopamine neurons, leading to loss of motor coordination. However, PD is associated with a high rate of non-motor neuropsychiatric comorbities that often develop before the onset of movement symptoms. The MitoPark transgenic mouse model is the first to recapitulate the cardinal clinical features, namely progressive neurodegeneration and death of neurons, loss of motor function and therapeutic response to L-DOPA. To investigate whether MitoPark mice exhibit early onset of cognitive impairment, a non-motor neuropsychiatric comorbidity, we measured performance on a spatial learning and memory task before (∼8 weeks or after (∼20 weeks the onset of locomotor decline in MitoPark mice or in littermate controls. Consistent with previous studies, we established that a progressive loss of spontaneous locomotor activity began at 12 weeks of age, which was followed by progressive loss of body weight beginning at 16-20 weeks. Spatial learning and memory was measured using the Barnes Maze. By 20 weeks of age, MitoPark mice displayed a substantial reduction in overall locomotor activity that impaired their ability to perform the task. However, in the 8-week-old mice, locomotor activity was no different between genotypes, yet MitoPark mice took longer, traveled further and committed more errors than same age control mice, while learning to successfully navigate the maze. The modest between-day learning deficit of MitoPark mice was characterized by impaired within-day learning during the first two days of testing. No difference was observed between genotypes during probe trials conducted one or twelve days after the final acquisition test. Additionally, 8-week-old MitoPark mice exhibited impaired novel object recognition when compared to control mice. Together, these data establish that mild cognitive impairment precedes the loss of motor function in a novel

  1. Applications of nonlinear dynamic systems theory in developmental psychology: Motor and cognitive development

    OpenAIRE

    Metzger, Mary Ann

    1997-01-01

    Applications of nonlinear dynamical systems theory to psychology have led to recent advances in understanding neuromotor development and advances in theories of cognitive development. This article reviews published findings associated with a specific coherent and influential application from which a theory of adaptive, self-organized cognition has been derived and related to a theory of developmental dynamics of the neuromotor system. The review focuses on implications of two theories for q...

  2. The Effect of Somatosensory and Cognitive-motor Tasks on the Paretic Leg of Chronic Stroke Patients in the Standing Posture

    OpenAIRE

    Ju, Sung-kwang; Yoo, Won-gyu

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate how different standing surfaces alter somatosensory input and how postural control is affected by these changes during the performance of a dual task with a cognitive-motor aspect. [Subjects] The subjects were 20 chronic stroke patients: 18 males, 2 females. [Methods] COP total distance, sway velocity, and the weight load on the paretic leg were measured while subjects performed the following three tasks (somatosensory task, cognitive-mot...

  3. Training Cognitive Control in Older Adults with the Space Fortress Game: The Role of Training
    Instructions and Basic Motor Ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena M Blumen

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This study examined if and how cognitively-healthy older adults can learn to play a complex computer-based action game called the Space Fortress (SF as a function of training instructions (Standard vs. Emphasis Change (EC; e.g. Gopher, Weil & Siegel, 1989 and basic motor ability. A total of 35 cognitively-healthy older adults completed a 3-month SF training program with three SF sessions weekly. Twelve 3-minute games were played during each session. Basic motor ability was assessed with an aiming task, which required rapidly rotating a spaceship to shoot targets. Older adults showed improved performance on the SF task over time, but did not perform at the same level as younger adults. Unlike studies of younger adults, overall SF performance in older adults was greater following standard instructions than following EC instructions. However, this advantage was primarily due to collecting more bonus points and not – the primary goal of the game – shooting and destroying the fortress, which in contrast benefitted from EC instructions. Basic motor ability was low and influenced many different aspects of SF game learning, often interacted with learning rate, and influenced overall SF performance. These findings show that older adults can be trained to deal with the complexity of the SF task but that overall SF performance, and the ability to capitalize on EC instructions, differs when a basic ability such as motor control is low. Hence, the development of this training program as a cognitive intervention that can potentially compensate for age-related cognitive decline should consider that basic motor ability can interact with the efficiency of training instructions that promote the use of cognitive control (e.g. EC instructions – and the confluence between such basic abilities and higher-level cognitive control abilities should be further examined.

  4. Dual transplantation of human neural stem cells into cervical and lumbar cord ameliorates motor neuron disease in SOD1 transgenic rats

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Leyan; Shen, Peilin; Hazel, Thomas; Johe, Karl; Koliatsos, Vassilis E.

    2011-01-01

    Stem cells provide novel sources of cell therapies for motor neuron disease that have recently entered clinical trials. In the present study, we transplanted human neural stem cells (NSCs) into the ventral horn of both the lumbar (L4–L5) and cervical (C4–C5) protuberance of SOD G93A rats, in an effort to test the feasibility and general efficacy of a dual grafting paradigm addressing several muscle groups in the front limbs, hind limbs and the respiratory apparatus. Transplantation was done p...

  5. Effect of Dual-task Rehabilitative Training on Cognitive and Motor Function of Stroke Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Gye Yeop; Han, Mi Ran; Lee, Hong Gyun

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] To determine the effect of dual-task training with cognitive tasks on cognitive and walking ability after stroke. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty patients diagnosed with stroke participated in this study. All participants were receiving a traditional rehabilitation program 5 days a week. Dual-task and single-task training were additionally performed for 4 weeks, 3 days a week. The Stroop test, Timed Up and Go (TUG) test, 10-Meter Walk Test (10MWT), and Figure-of-8 Walk Test (F8WT) wer...

  6. The Power of Selected Cognitive, Social/Emotional, Physical Motor, and Language Tests in Predicting Development Levels of Mentally Handicapped Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBay, Michael J.; Anderson, Nels M.

    Results of the research reported in this paper suggest that the development of mentally handicapped preschool children may not be measurable in distinct cognitive, social/emotional, physical motor, and language areas. This research further indicates that a testing instrument designed to measure the generalized factors of intelligence and social…

  7. Corpus callosum atrophy as a predictor of age-related cognitive and motor impairment: a 3-year follow-up of the LADIS study cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, C; Rostrup, E; Paulson, O B;

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this 3-year follow-up study was to investigate whether corpus callosum (CC) atrophy may predict future motor and cognitive impairment in an elderly population. On baseline MRI from 563 subjects with age-related white matter changes (ARWMC) from the Leukoaraiosis And DISability (LADIS...

  8. Do cognitive models help in predicting the severity of posttraumatic stress disorder, phobia and depression after motor vehicle accidents? A prospective longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Ehring; A. Ehlers; E. Glucksman

    2008-01-01

    The study investigated the power of theoretically derived cognitive variables to predict posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), travel phobia, and depression following injury in a motor vehicle accident (MVA). MVA survivors (N 147) were assessed at the emergency department on the day of their acciden

  9. Effects of neonatal enteral glutamine supplementation on cognitive, motor and behavioural outcomes in very preterm and/or very low birth weight children at school age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kieviet, Jorrit F; Oosterlaan, Jaap; van Zwol, Annelies; Boehm, Guenther; Lafeber, Harrie N; van Elburg, Ruurd M

    2012-12-28

    In very preterm ( glutamine supplementation between day 3 and day 30 of life had neither beneficial nor detrimental effects on long-term cognitive, motor and behavioural outcomes of very preterm and/or VLBW children at school age, although visuomotor abilities were poorer in children that received glutamine.

  10. Drawings of very preterm-born children at 5 years of age: a first impression of cognitive and motor development?

    OpenAIRE

    Schepers, Sasja; Deković, Maja; Feltzer, Max; de Kleine, Martin; van Baar, Anneloes

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to examine differences in drawing skills between very preterm and term children, and to determine whether very preterm children’s cognitive and motor development is reflected in the draw-a-person test (DAP) at age 5. Seventy-two very preterm children (birth weight

  11. Group Cognitive Behavioral Treatment for PTSD: Treatment of Motor Vehicle Accident Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, J. Gayle; Coffey, Scott F.

    2005-01-01

    Individual cognitive behavioral therapies (CBT) are now considered the first-line treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD; Foa, Keane, & Friedman, 2000). As mental health reimbursement becomes more restricted, it is imperative that we adapt individual-format therapies for use in a small group format. Group therapies have a number of…

  12. Motor system hyperconnectivity in juvenile myoclonic epilepsy: a cognitive functional magnetic resonance imaging study

    OpenAIRE

    Vollmar, C.; O'Muircheartaigh, J.; Barker, G.J.; Symms, M.R.; Thompson, P.(Department of Physics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada); Kumari, V; Duncan, J.S.; Janz, D.; Richardson, M.P.; Koepp, M J.

    2011-01-01

    Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy is the most frequent idiopathic generalized epilepsy syndrome. It is characterized by predominant myoclonic jerks of upper limbs, often provoked by cognitive activities, and typically responsive to treatment with sodium valproate. Neurophysiological, neuropsychological and imaging studies in juvenile myoclonic epilepsy have consistently pointed towards subtle abnormalities in the medial frontal lobes. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging with an executive fr...

  13. Chotosan (Diaoteng San-induced improvement of cognitive deficits in senescence-accelerated mouse (SAMP8 involves the amelioration of angiogenic/neurotrophic factors and neuroplasticity systems in the brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanaka Ken

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chotosan (CTS, Diaoteng San, a Kampo medicine (ie Chinese medicine formula, is reportedly effective in the treatment of patients with cerebral ischemic insults. This study aims to evaluate the therapeutic potential of CTS in cognitive deficits and investigates the effects and molecular mechanism(s of CTS on learning and memory deficits and emotional abnormality in an animal aging model, namely 20-week-old senescence-accelerated prone mice (SAMP8, with and without a transient ischemic insult (T2VO. Methods Age-matched senescence-resistant inbred strain mice (SAMR1 were used as control. SAMP8 received T2VO (T2VO-SAMP8 or sham operation (sham-SAMP8 at day 0. These SAMP8 groups were administered CTS (750 mg/kg, p.o. or water daily for three weeks from day 3. Results Compared with the control group, both sham-SAMP8 and T2VO-SAMP8 groups exhibited cognitive deficits in the object discrimination and water maze tests and emotional abnormality in the elevated plus maze test. T2VO significantly exacerbated spatial cognitive deficits of SAMP8 elucidated by the water maze test. CTS administration ameliorated the cognitive deficits and emotional abnormality of sham- and T2VO-SAMP8 groups. Western blotting and immunohistochemical studies revealed a marked decrease in the levels of phosphorylated forms of neuroplasticity-related proteins, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor 1 (NMDAR1, Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII, cyclic AMP responsive element binding protein (CREB and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF in the frontal cortices of sham-SAMP8 and T2VO-SAMP8. Moreover, these animal groups showed significantly reduced levels of vasculogenesis/angiogenesis factors, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, VEGF receptor type 2 (VEGFR2, platelet-derived growth factor-A (PDGF-A and PDGF receptor α (PDGFRα. CTS treatment reversed the expression levels of these factors down-regulated in the brains of sham- and T2VO-SAMP8

  14. Assessment of lithium ingestion on cognition and some subset of motor skill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P D Shallie

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Patients taking lithium often report of difficulties in concentration, memory, learning, and attention. Laboratory tests of cognitive functions in healthy volunteers on chronic lithium demonstrate that disruptions in memory-learning processes are apparent at the time of memory retrieval. Aim : This study has attempted to evaluate the impact of lithium ingestion on cognition and some subset of sensory skill, by examining comparatively how lithium or a lithium / saline supplement either harms or helps the brain. Materials and Methods : Wistar Rats (male and female were housed in individual improvised cages. The rats were acclimatized for two weeks after which they were randomly grouped into three, namely, control, lithium-treated, and lithium with saline-treated groups, and treated for four weeks. The lithium-treated group received 40 mM lithium bicarbonate per kg of feed for the first one week, and the dosage was increased to 60mM per kg of feed for the rest of the three weeks. The lithium-saline group received saline solution in addition to lithium. The control group was given normal feed and water liberally for the period of the experiment. The rats were subjected to a cognitive test using the Barnes maze, assessments of negative geotaxis, cliff avoidance, and some neurotransmitters (acetylcholine and glutamate. The data were analyzed by Microsoft excel 2007. Results : This study shows that lithium ingestion is characterized by a significant ( P ≤ 0.05 decline in learning and memory as compared to the control. While the lithium-saline-treated animals exhibit enhanced cognitive ability. The subset of sensory activity was assessed; negative geotaxis and cliff avoidance were grossly compromised, thus lithium carbonate appeared to have definite negative effects on the psychsensory speed. Conclusion : In conclusion lithium should be co-administered with saline to counter the detrimental effects of lithium noticed in this study, which

  15. Recessive mutations in SPTBN2 implicate β-III spectrin in both cognitive and motor development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Lise

    Full Text Available β-III spectrin is present in the brain and is known to be important in the function of the cerebellum. Heterozygous mutations in SPTBN2, the gene encoding β-III spectrin, cause Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 5 (SCA5, an adult-onset, slowly progressive, autosomal-dominant pure cerebellar ataxia. SCA5 is sometimes known as "Lincoln ataxia," because the largest known family is descended from relatives of the United States President Abraham Lincoln. Using targeted capture and next-generation sequencing, we identified a homozygous stop codon in SPTBN2 in a consanguineous family in which childhood developmental ataxia co-segregates with cognitive impairment. The cognitive impairment could result from mutations in a second gene, but further analysis using whole-genome sequencing combined with SNP array analysis did not reveal any evidence of other mutations. We also examined a mouse knockout of β-III spectrin in which ataxia and progressive degeneration of cerebellar Purkinje cells has been previously reported and found morphological abnormalities in neurons from prefrontal cortex and deficits in object recognition tasks, consistent with the human cognitive phenotype. These data provide the first evidence that β-III spectrin plays an important role in cortical brain development and cognition, in addition to its function in the cerebellum; and we conclude that cognitive impairment is an integral part of this novel recessive ataxic syndrome, Spectrin-associated Autosomal Recessive Cerebellar Ataxia type 1 (SPARCA1. In addition, the identification of SPARCA1 and normal heterozygous carriers of the stop codon in SPTBN2 provides insights into the mechanism of molecular dominance in SCA5 and demonstrates that the cell-specific repertoire of spectrin subunits underlies a novel group of disorders, the neuronal spectrinopathies, which includes SCA5, SPARCA1, and a form of West syndrome.

  16. Pentosan polysulfate treatment ameliorates motor function with increased serum soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 in HTLV-1-associated neurologic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Tatsufumi; Satoh, Katsuya; Fukuda, Taku; Kinoshita, Ikuo; Nishiura, Yoshihiro; Nagasato, Kunihiko; Yamauchi, Atsushi; Kataoka, Yasufumi; Nakamura, Tadahiro; Sasaki, Hitoshi; Kumagai, Kenji; Niwa, Masami; Noguchi, Mitsuru; Nakamura, Hideki; Nishida, Noriyuki; Kawakami, Atsushi

    2014-06-01

    The main therapeutic strategy against human T lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I)-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) characterized by lower extremity motor dysfunction is immunomodulatory treatment, with drugs such as corticosteroid hormone and interferon-α, at present. However, there are many issues in long-term treatment with these drugs, such as insufficient effects and various side effects. We now urgently need to develop other therapeutic strategies. The heparinoid, pentosan polysulfate sodium (PPS), has been safely used in Europe for the past 50 years as a thrombosis prophylaxis and for the treatment of phlebitis. We conducted a clinical trial to test the effect of subcutaneous administration of PPS in 12 patients with HAM/TSP in an open-labeled design. There was a marked improvement in lower extremity motor function, based on reduced spasticity, such as a reduced time required for walking 10 m and descending a flight of stairs. There were no significant changes in HTLV-I proviral copy numbers in peripheral blood contrary to the inhibitory effect of PPS in vitro for intercellular spread of HTLV-I. However, serum soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule (sVCAM)-1 was significantly increased without significant changes of serum level of chemokines (CXCL10 and CCL2). There was a positive correlation between increased sVCAM-1and reduced time required for walking 10 m. PPS might induce neurological improvement by inhibition of chronic inflammation in the spinal cord, through blocking the adhesion cascade by increasing serum sVCAM-1, in addition to rheological improvement of the microcirculation. PPS has the potential to be a new therapeutic tool for HAM/TSP.

  17. Mutant glycyl-tRNA synthetase (Gars ameliorates SOD1(G93A motor neuron degeneration phenotype but has little affect on Loa dynein heavy chain mutant mice.

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    Gareth T Banks

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In humans, mutations in the enzyme glycyl-tRNA synthetase (GARS cause motor and sensory axon loss in the peripheral nervous system, and clinical phenotypes ranging from Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy to a severe infantile form of spinal muscular atrophy. GARS is ubiquitously expressed and may have functions in addition to its canonical role in protein synthesis through catalyzing the addition of glycine to cognate tRNAs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have recently described a new mouse model with a point mutation in the Gars gene resulting in a cysteine to arginine change at residue 201. Heterozygous Gars(C201R/+ mice have locomotor and sensory deficits. In an investigation of genetic mutations that lead to death of motor and sensory neurons, we have crossed the Gars(C201R/+ mice to two other mutants: the TgSOD1(G93A model of human amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and the Legs at odd angles mouse (Dync1h1(Loa which has a defect in the heavy chain of the dynein complex. We found the Dync1h1(Loa/+;Gars(C201R/+ double heterozygous mice are more impaired than either parent, and this is may be an additive effect of both mutations. Surprisingly, the Gars(C201R mutation significantly delayed disease onset in the SOD1(G93A;Gars(C201R/+ double heterozygous mutant mice and increased lifespan by 29% on the genetic background investigated. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings raise intriguing possibilities for the study of pathogenetic mechanisms in all three mouse mutant strains.

  18. Tandospirone, a 5-HT1A partial agonist, ameliorates aberrant lactate production in the prefrontal cortex of rats exposed to blockade of N-methy-D-aspartate receptors; Towards the therapeutics of cognitive impairment of schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi eUehara

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Rationale Augmentation therapy with serotonin-1A (5-HT1A receptor partial agonists has been suggested to improve cognitive deficits in patients with schizophrenia. Decreased activity of prefrontal cortex may provide a basis for cognitive deficits of the disease. Lactate plays a significant role in the supply of energy to the brain, and glutamatergic neurotransmission contributes to lactate production.Objectives and methods The purposes of this study were to examine the effect of repeated administration (once a daily for 4 days of tandospirone (0.05 and 5 mg/kg on brain energy metabolism, as represented by extracellular lactate concentration (eLAC in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC of young adult rats..Results Four-day treatment with MK-801, an NMDA-R antagonist, prolonged eLAC elevation induced by foot shock stress (FS. Co-administration with the high-dose tandospirone suppressed prolonged FS-induced eLAC elevation in rats receiving MK-801, whereas tandospirone by itself did not affected eLAC increment.Conclusions These results suggest that stimulation of 5-HT1A receptors ameliorates abnormalities of energy metabolism in the mPFC due to blockade of NMDA receptors. These findings provide a possible mechanism based on brain energy metabolism by which 5-HT1A agonism improve cognitive impairment in schizophrenia and related disorders.

  19. Resonant cholinergic dynamics in cognitive and motor decision-making:Attention, category learning, and choice in neocortex, superior colliculus, and optic tectum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen eGrossberg

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Freely behaving organisms need to rapidly calibrate their perceptual, cognitive, and motor decisions based on continuously changing environmental conditions. These plastic changes include sharpening or broadening of cognitive and motor attention and learning to match the behavioral demands that are imposed by changing environmental statistics. This article proposes that a shared circuit design for such flexible decision-making is used in specific cognitive and motor circuits, and that both types of circuits use acetylcholine to modulate choice selectivity. Such task-sensitive control is proposed to control thalamocortical choice of the critical features that are cognitively attended and that are incorporated through learning into prototypes of visual recognition categories. A cholinergically-modulated process of vigilance control determines if a recognition category and its attended features are abstract (low vigilance or concrete (high vigilance. Homologous neural mechanisms of cholinergic modulation are proposed to focus attention and learn a multimodal map within the deeper layers of superior colliculus. This map enables visual, auditory, and planned movement commands to compete for attention, leading to selection of a winning position that controls where the next saccadic eye movement will go. Such map learning may be viewed as a kind of attentive motor category learning. The article hereby explicates a link between attention, learning, and cholinergic modulation during decision making within both cognitive and motor systems. Homologs between the mammalian superior colliculus and the avian optic tectum lead to predictions about how multimodal map learning may occur in the avian brain and how such learning may be modulated by acetycholine.

  20. Resonant Cholinergic Dynamics in Cognitive and Motor Decision-Making: Attention, Category Learning, and Choice in Neocortex, Superior Colliculus, and Optic Tectum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossberg, Stephen; Palma, Jesse; Versace, Massimiliano

    2015-01-01

    Freely behaving organisms need to rapidly calibrate their perceptual, cognitive, and motor decisions based on continuously changing environmental conditions. These plastic changes include sharpening or broadening of cognitive and motor attention and learning to match the behavioral demands that are imposed by changing environmental statistics. This article proposes that a shared circuit design for such flexible decision-making is used in specific cognitive and motor circuits, and that both types of circuits use acetylcholine to modulate choice selectivity. Such task-sensitive control is proposed to control thalamocortical choice of the critical features that are cognitively attended and that are incorporated through learning into prototypes of visual recognition categories. A cholinergically-modulated process of vigilance control determines if a recognition category and its attended features are abstract (low vigilance) or concrete (high vigilance). Homologous neural mechanisms of cholinergic modulation are proposed to focus attention and learn a multimodal map within the deeper layers of superior colliculus. This map enables visual, auditory, and planned movement commands to compete for attention, leading to selection of a winning position that controls where the next saccadic eye movement will go. Such map learning may be viewed as a kind of attentive motor category learning. The article hereby explicates a link between attention, learning, and cholinergic modulation during decision making within both cognitive and motor systems. Homologs between the mammalian superior colliculus and the avian optic tectum lead to predictions about how multimodal map learning may occur in the mammalian and avian brain and how such learning may be modulated by acetycholine.

  1. Motor planning in Parkinson's disease patients experiencing freezing of gait: the influence of cognitive load when approaching obstacles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieruccini-Faria, Frederico; Jones, Jeffery A; Almeida, Quincy J

    2014-06-01

    Freezing of gait (FOG) in Parkinson's disease (PD) is typically assumed to be a pure motor deficit, although it is important to consider how an abrupt loss of gait automaticity might be associated with an overloaded central resource capacity. If resource capacity limits are a factor underlying FOG, then obstacle crossing may be particularly sensitive to dual task effects in eliciting FOG. Participants performed a dual task (auditory digit monitoring) in order to increase cognitive load during obstacle crossing. Forty-two non-demented participants (14 PD patients with FOG, 13 PD who do not freeze, and 14 age-matched healthy control participants) were required to walk and step over a horizontal obstacle set at 15% of the participants' height. Kinematic data were split into two phases of their approach: early (farthest away from the obstacle), and late (just prior to the obstacle). Interestingly, step length variability and step time variability increased when PD patients with FOG performed the dual task, but only in the late phase prior to the obstacle (i.e. when closest to the obstacle). Additionally, immediately after crossing, freezers landed the lead foot abnormally close to the obstacle regardless of dual task condition, and also contacted the obstacle more frequently (planning errors). Strength of the dual task effect was associated with low general cognitive status, declined executive function, and inappropriate spatial planning, but only in the PD-FOG group. This study is the first to demonstrate that cognitive load differentially impacts planning of the final steps needed to avoid an obstacle in PD patients with freezing, but not non-freezers or healthy controls, suggesting specific neural networks associated with FOG behaviours.

  2. Cognitive, perceptual and motor decline as predictors of risky street-crossing decisions in older pedestrians

    OpenAIRE

    LANGEVIN, S; DOMMES, A; CAVALLO, V; Oxley, J; Vienne, F.

    2011-01-01

    Older pedestrians are well known to be over-involved in road crashes compared to younger pedestrians. This study investigates the extent to which risky street-crossing decisions in older pedestrians can be explained by agerelated declines of cognitive, perceptual and physical abilities. Three age groups of participants (young, young-old, old-old) were evaluated in a street-crossing task and performed a series of functional tests. The results showed that agerelated slowing in walking speed as ...

  3. Effect Anticipation Affects Perceptual, Cognitive, and Motor Phases of Response Preparation: Evidence from an Event-Related Potential (ERP) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Neil R; Ziessler, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The anticipation of action effects is a basic process that can be observed even for key-pressing responses in a stimulus-response paradigm. In Ziessler et al.'s (2012) experiments participants first learned arbitrary effects of key-pressing responses. In the test phase an imperative stimulus determined the response, but participants withheld the response until a Go-stimulus appeared. Reaction times (RTs) were shorter if the Go-stimulus was compatible with the learned response effect. This is strong evidence that effect representations were activated during response planning. Here, we repeated the experiment using event-related potentials (ERPs), and we found that Go-stimulus locked ERPs depended on the compatibility relationship between the Go-stimulus and the response effect. In general, this supports the interpretation of the behavioral data. More specifically, differences in the ERPs between compatible and incompatible Go-stimuli were found for the early perceptual P1 component and the later frontal P2 component. P1 differences were found only in the second half of the experiment and for long stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs) between imperative stimulus and Go-stimulus, i.e., when the effect was fully anticipated and the perceptual system was prepared for the effect-compatible Go-stimulus. P2 amplitudes, likely associated with evaluation and conflict detection, were larger when Go-stimulus and effect were incompatible; presumably, incompatibility increased the difficulty of effect anticipation. Onset of response-locked lateralized readiness potentials (R-LRPs) occurred earlier under incompatible conditions indicating extended motor processing. Together, these results strongly suggest that effect anticipation affects all (i.e., perceptual, cognitive, and motor) phases of response preparation.

  4. Effect anticipation affects perceptual, cognitive, and motor phases of response preparation: evidence from an event-related potential (ERP study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Richard Harrison

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The anticipation of action effects is a basic process that can be observed even for key-pressing responses in a stimulus-response paradigm. In Ziessler, Nattkemper and Vogt’s (2012 experiments participants first learned arbitrary effects of key-pressing responses. In the test phase an imperative stimulus determined the response, but participants withheld the response until a Go-stimulus appeared. Reaction times were shorter if the Go-stimulus was compatible with the learned response effect. This is strong evidence that effect representations were activated during response planning. Here we repeated the experiment using event-related potentials (ERPs, and we found that Go-stimulus locked ERPs depended on the compatibility relationship between the Go-stimulus and the response effect. In general, this supports the interpretation of the behavioural data. More specifically, differences in the ERPs between compatible and incompatible Go-stimuli were found for the early perceptual P1 component and the later frontal P2 component. P1 differences were found only in the second half of the experiment and for long SOAs between imperative stimulus and Go-stimulus, i.e. when the effect was fully anticipated and the perceptual system was prepared for the effect-compatible Go-stimulus. P2 amplitudes, likely associated with evaluation and conflict detection, were larger when Go-stimulus and effect were incompatible; presumably, incompatibility increased the difficulty of effect anticipation. Onset of response-locked LRPs occurred earlier under incompatible conditions indicating extended motor processing. Together, these results strongly suggest that effect anticipation affects all (i.e. perceptual, cognitive, and motor phases of response preparation.

  5. Enhancing Fine Motor Skills of Wards with Special Needs Using Cluster Model of Cognition

    CERN Document Server

    Nair, T R Gopalakrishnan; Bukkambudhi, Ananda

    2010-01-01

    Technology offers great potential to overcome physical barriers of human race. This paper presents the methods of enhanced learning applicable to children having special needs using better human-computer interaction. The Audio-Visual (AV) effects that the graphic tools or animations help in achieving better learning, understanding, remembering and performance from such students. The 3L-R Cluster Program Model enable them to look into pictures and animated objects while listening to the related audio. It also motivates them to do the FMS development activities like drawing, coloring, tracing etc., certain types of games in the clustered model will help the children to improve concentration, thinking, reasoning, cognitive skills and the eye-to hand co-ordination. Here we introduced a novel cluster model along with the methodology described which provides an ample exposure to the effectiveness of the training. Classify the students with similar problems or disability and the associated curriculum of modified tea...

  6. From features to dimensions: Cognitive and motor development in pop-out search in children and young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna eGrubert

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In an experiment involving a total 124 participants, divided into eight age groups (6-, 8-, 10-, 12-, 14-, 16-, 18, and 20-year-olds the development of the processing components underlying visual search for pop-out targets was tracked. Participants indicated the presence or absence of color or orientation feature singleton targets. Observers also solved a detection task, in which they responded to the onset of search arrays. There were two main results. First, analyses of inter-trial effects revealed differences in the search strategies of the 6-year-old participants compared to older age groups. Participants older than eight years based target detection on feature-less dimensional salience signals (indicated by cross-trial RT costs in target dimension change relative to repetition trials, the 6-year-olds accessed the target feature to make a target present or absent decision (cross-trial RT costs in target feature change relative to feature repetition trials. The result agrees with predictions derived from the Dimension Weighting account and previous investigations of inter-trial effects in adult observers (Found & Müller, 1996; Müller et al., 1995. The results are also in line with theories of cognitive development suggesting that the ability to abstract specific visual features into feature categories is developed after the age seven years. Second, overall search RTs decreased with increasing age in a decelerated fashion. RT differences between consecutive age groups can be explained by sensory-motor maturation up to the age of ten years (as indicated by RTs in the onset detection task. Expedited RTs in older age groups (10-, vs. 12-year-olds; 14- vs. 16-year-olds, but also in the 6- vs. 8-year-olds, are due to the development of search-related (cognitive processes. Overall, the results suggest that the level of adult performance in visual search for pop-out targets is achieved by the age of sixteen.

  7. Neuroepidemiologic and Neurobehavioral Characteristics of Motoric Cognitive Risk Syndrome in an Old-Old Population: The Kurihara Project

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    Keiichi Kumai

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recently, the concept of motoric cognitive risk (MCR syndrome was proposed, where slow gait is considered a risk factor for conversion to dementia. Aim: To retrospectively investigate the characteristics of MCR among a population aged 75+ years, focusing on the aspects of epidemiology and neurobehavioral characteristics. Method: The participants were 590 residents aged 75+ years living in Kurihara who underwent MRI and neurobehavioral assessments including walking velocity. The prevalence of MCR and conversion to dementia (AD8 Dementia Screening Interview cutoff 2/8, together with the neurobehavioral characteristics of the MCR group, were analyzed. Results: The prevalence was 11.1%, and the conversion ratio in the MCR group was higher than that in the non-MCR group (OR = 1.38. The MCR group had lower scores on the executive function test as well as gait velocity. Conclusions: The MCR syndrome increases the rate of conversion to dementia, and both slow gait and lower scores in executive tests, which are ‘frontal-based' functions, are predictive of higher rates of conversion to dementia.

  8. Effects of sleep deprivation and exercise on cognitive, motor performance and mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Jonathon P R; McNaughton, Lars R; Polman, Remco C J

    2006-02-28

    This study examined the effect of 30 h of sleep deprivation and intermittent physical exercise, on both cognitive and psychomotor function as well subjective ratings of mood. Six subjects with the following physical characteristics participated in the study (Mean +/- S.D.): age 22 +/- 0.3 years, height 180 +/- 5 cm, body mass: 77 +/- 5 kg, VO2peak 44 +/- 5 ml kg(-1) min(-1). Three subjects engaged in normal sedentary activities while three others cycled on a cycle ergometer at 50% VO2peak for 20 min out of every 2 h during 30 h of sleep deprivation. One week later sleep deprivation was repeated with a cross over of subjects. Every 4 h, subjects completed simple and two-choice reaction time tasks at both rest and during exercise, a computerized tracking task, a number cancellation task, and an assessment of subjective mood state as measured by the POMS questionnaire. A 3 x 4 repeated measures ANOVA revealed that resting but not exercising reaction times were significantly slower with sleep deprivation. Sleep deprivation was also associated with significantly greater negative disturbances to subjective vigour, fatigue and depression assessed by the Profile of Mood States questionnaire. Compared to those who have been deprived of sleep alone, individuals that performed 5 h of intermittent moderate exercise during 30 h of sleep deprivation appeared to be more vulnerable to negative mood disturbances and impairment in reaction times. This could result in greater risk of accident due to a reduced capacity to respond quickly. PMID:16403541

  9. Ketogenic diet improves motor performance but not cognition in two mouse models of Alzheimer's pathology.

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    Milene L Brownlow

    Full Text Available Dietary manipulations are increasingly viewed as possible approaches to treating neurodegenerative diseases. Previous studies suggest that Alzheimer's disease (AD patients present an energy imbalance with brain hypometabolism and mitochondrial deficits. Ketogenic diets (KDs, widely investigated in the treatment and prevention of seizures, have been suggested to bypass metabolic deficits present in AD brain by providing ketone bodies as an alternative fuel to neurons. We investigated the effects of a ketogenic diet in two transgenic mouse lines. Five months old APP/PS1 (a model of amyloid deposition and Tg4510 (a model of tau deposition mice were offered either a ketogenic or a control (NIH-31 diet for 3 months. Body weight and food intake were monitored throughout the experiment, and blood was collected at 4 weeks and 4 months for ketone and glucose assessments. Both lines of transgenic mice weighed less than nontransgenic mice, yet, surprisingly, had elevated food intake. The ketogenic diet did not affect these differences in body weight or food consumption. Behavioral testing during the last two weeks of treatment found that mice offered KD performed significantly better on the rotarod compared to mice on the control diet independent of genotype. In the open field test, both transgenic mouse lines presented increased locomotor activity compared to nontransgenic, age-matched controls, and this effect was not influenced by KD. The radial arm water maze identified learning deficits in both transgenic lines with no significant differences between diets. Tissue measures of amyloid, tau, astroglial and microglial markers in transgenic lines showed no differences between animals fed the control or the ketogenic diet. These data suggest that ketogenic diets may play an important role in enhancing motor performance in mice, but have minimal impact on the phenotype of murine models of amyloid or tau deposition.

  10. Different pathways of molecular pathophysiology underlie cognitive and motor tauopathy phenotypes in transgenic models for Alzheimer's disease and frontotemporal lobar degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melis, V; Zabke, C; Stamer, K; Magbagbeolu, M; Schwab, K; Marschall, P; Veh, R W; Bachmann, S; Deiana, S; Moreau, P-H; Davidson, K; Harrington, K A; Rickard, J E; Horsley, D; Garman, R; Mazurkiewicz, M; Niewiadomska, G; Wischik, C M; Harrington, C R; Riedel, G; Theuring, F

    2015-06-01

    A poorly understood feature of the tauopathies is their very different clinical presentations. The frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) spectrum is dominated by motor and emotional/psychiatric abnormalities, whereas cognitive and memory deficits are prominent in the early stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We report two novel mouse models overexpressing different human tau protein constructs. One is a full-length tau carrying a double mutation [P301S/G335D; line 66 (L66)] and the second is a truncated 3-repeat tau fragment which constitutes the bulk of the PHF core in AD corresponding to residues 296-390 fused with a signal sequence targeting it to the endoplasmic reticulum membrane (line 1; L1). L66 has abundant tau pathology widely distributed throughout the brain, with particularly high counts of affected neurons in hippocampus and entorhinal cortex. The pathology is neuroanatomically static and declines with age. Behaviourally, the model is devoid of a higher cognitive phenotype but presents with sensorimotor impairments and motor learning phenotypes. L1 displays a much weaker histopathological phenotype, but shows evidence of neuroanatomical spread and amplification with age that resembles the Braak staging of AD. Behaviourally, the model has minimal motor deficits but shows severe cognitive impairments affecting particularly the rodent equivalent of episodic memory which progresses with advancing age. In both models, tau aggregation can be dissociated from abnormal phosphorylation. The two models make possible the demonstration of two distinct but nevertheless convergent pathways of tau molecular pathogenesis. L1 appears to be useful for modelling the cognitive impairment of AD, whereas L66 appears to be more useful for modelling the motor features of the FTLD spectrum. Differences in clinical presentation of AD-like and FTLD syndromes are therefore likely to be inherent to the respective underlying tauopathy, and are not dependent on presence or absence

  11. Cognitive, Emotion Control, and Motor Performance of Adolescents in the NCANDA Study: Contributions From Alcohol Consumption, Age, Sex, Ethnicity, and Family History of Addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Sullivan, EV; Brumback, T.; Tapert, SF; Fama, R; Prouty, D; Brown, SA; Cummins, K; Thompson, WK; Colrain, IM; Baker, FC; De Bellis, MD; Hooper, SR; Clark, DB; Chung, T; Nagel, BJ

    2016-01-01

    © 2016 APA, all rights reserved). Objective: To investigate development of cognitive and motor functions in healthy adolescents and to explore whether hazardous drinking affects the normal developmental course of those functions. Method: Participants were 831 adolescents recruited across 5 United States sites of the National Consortium on Alcohol and NeuroDevelopment in Adolescence 692 met criteria for no/low alcohol exposure, and 139 exceeded drinking thresholds. Cross-sectional, baseline da...

  12. The effect of a cognitive-motor intervention on voluntary step execution under single and dual task conditions in older adults: a randomized controlled pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Pichierri G; Coppe A; Lorenzetti S; Murer K; de Bruin ED

    2012-01-01

    Giuseppe Pichierri,1 Amos Coppe,1 Silvio Lorenzetti,2 Kurt Murer,1 Eling D de Bruin11Institute of Human Movement Sciences and Sport, Department of Health Sciences and Technology, ETH Zurich, Switzerland; 2Institute for Biomechanics, Department of Health Sciences and Technology, ETH Zurich, SwitzerlandBackground: This randomized controlled pilot study aimed to explore whether a cognitive-motor exercise program that combines traditional physical exercise with dance video gaming can improve the ...

  13. The Impact of Drug Use on the Length of Hospitalization, Impaired Consciousness and Levels of Motor and Cognitive Independence in Patients with Traumatic Brain Injury

    OpenAIRE

    ghasem Salehpoor; Sajjad Rezaei

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to examine the effect of drug use on the length of hospitalization, impaired consciousness, levels of motor and cognitive independence in patients with traumatic brain injury. Method: A total of 185 patients with traumatic brain injury in the emergency, neurosurgery ward and ICU of Poursina Hospital was selected via purposive sampling. These participants who were within the age group 37.46 ± 17.42 years were divided into two groups, i.e. drug users (n = 35) ...

  14. Do cognitive models help in predicting the severity of posttraumatic stress disorder, phobia and depression after motor vehicle accidents? A prospective longitudinal study

    OpenAIRE

    Ehring, T.; Ehlers, A; Glucksman, E.

    2008-01-01

    The study investigated the power of theoretically derived cognitive variables to predict posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), travel phobia, and depression following injury in a motor vehicle accident (MVA). MVA survivors (N = 147) were assessed at the emergency department on the day of their accident and 2 weeks, 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months later. Diagnoses were established with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM–IV. Predictors included initial symptom severities; variables estab...

  15. The effect of a cognitive-motor intervention on voluntary step execution under single and dual task conditions in older adults: a randomized controlled pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pichierri G

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Giuseppe Pichierri,1 Amos Coppe,1 Silvio Lorenzetti,2 Kurt Murer,1 Eling D de Bruin11Institute of Human Movement Sciences and Sport, Department of Health Sciences and Technology, ETH Zurich, Switzerland; 2Institute for Biomechanics, Department of Health Sciences and Technology, ETH Zurich, SwitzerlandBackground: This randomized controlled pilot study aimed to explore whether a cognitive-motor exercise program that combines traditional physical exercise with dance video gaming can improve the voluntary stepping responses of older adults under attention demanding dual task conditions.Methods: Elderly subjects received twice weekly cognitive-motor exercise that included progressive strength and balance training supplemented by dance video gaming for 12 weeks (intervention group. The control group received no specific intervention. Voluntary step execution under single and dual task conditions was recorded at baseline and post intervention (Week 12.Results: After intervention between-group comparison revealed significant differences for initiation time of forward steps under dual task conditions (U = 9, P = 0.034, r = 0.55 and backward steps under dual task conditions (U = 10, P = 0.045, r = 0.52 in favor of the intervention group, showing altered stepping levels in the intervention group compared to the control group.Conclusion: A cognitive-motor intervention based on strength and balance exercises with additional dance video gaming is able to improve voluntary step execution under both single and dual task conditions in older adults.Keywords: fall prevention, exercise, dance, video game

  16. [Attachment and Cognitive and Motor Development in the First Years after Adoption: A Review of Studies on Internationally Adopted Children from China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juffer, Femmie; Finet, Chloe; Vermeer, Harriet; van den Dries, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Due to early-childhood adversity, adopted children often display delays in their cognitive and motor development and have problems developing secure attachment relationships with their adoptive parents. In this review we present the results of all available studies on the attachment and the cognitive and motor development of internationally adopted children from China in the first years after arriving in the adoptive family. Seven pertinent studies were found, based on five samples examined in the USA, Canada, and the Netherlands. Regarding cognitive and motor development (five studies) the adoptees showed a delayed development at arrival in the adoptive family. As soon as six months after arrival the adoptees were, on average, functioning within normal ranges, although their catch-up to non-adopted children was not yet complete. Two years after arrival the catch-up to non-adopted peers appeared to be complete. Regarding attachment (two studies) observations of attachment six and twelve months after adoption showed less secure and more disorganized attachment for the adopted children compared to the normative distribution of non-adopted children. Two years after adoption, observations of attachment confirmed a catch-up in secure attachment, but the adoptees still displayed more insecure disorganized attachment than children in the norm group.

  17. Impact of Melatonin on Motor, Cognitive and Neuroimaging Indices in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Roostaei

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A series of preclinical and clinical studies have shown the immunomodulatory effect of  melatonin, especially in the state of chronic inflammation. A double-blind, randomized, parallel-group, placebo-controlled clinical trial was designed to study the tolerability and efficacy of supplemental therapy with melatonin (3 mg/day in comparison to placebo in relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS patients receiving once weekly interferon beta. Patients were followed up for 12 months. Primary outcomes consisted of the number of relapses, change in Extended Disability Status Scale (EDSS, and the number and volume of new T2 and gadolinium-enhancing brain lesions. Secondary outcomes included change in performance on Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite (MSFC as well as change in fatigue and depression. The outcomes were evaluated every three months. Twenty-six patients (13 in each group were recruited in the study. All participants, except for one patient in the placebo group, completed the study. No patient reported serious adverse events. There was no significant difference either in primary or secondary outcomes between melatonin and placebo arm. However, a trend for beneficial effect was observed for melatonin on change in MSFC performance and the cognitive subscore of the Modified Fatigue Impact Scale (p=0.05 and 0.006, respectively, not corrected for multiple comparisons. We found no significant effect for treatment with melatonin on measures of clinical and functional disability and development of brain lesions in our small sample-size study. Studies with higher statistical power and longer follow up are needed to further evaluate the potential immunomodulatory effect of melatonin in RRMS treatment. 

  18. Perceptual-Cognitive Changes During Motor Learning: The Influence of Mental and Physical Practice on Mental Representation, Gaze Behavior, and Performance of a Complex Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Cornelia; Land, William M; Schack, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Despite the wealth of research on differences between experts and novices with respect to their perceptual-cognitive background (e.g., mental representations, gaze behavior), little is known about the change of these perceptual-cognitive components over the course of motor learning. In the present study, changes in one's mental representation, quiet eye behavior, and outcome performance were examined over the course of skill acquisition as it related to physical and mental practice. Novices (N = 45) were assigned to one of three conditions: physical practice, combined physical plus mental practice, and no practice. Participants in the practice groups trained on a golf putting task over the course of 3 days, either by repeatedly executing the putt, or by both executing and imaging the putt. Findings revealed improvements in putting performance across both practice conditions. Regarding the perceptual-cognitive changes, participants practicing mentally and physically revealed longer quiet eye durations as well as more elaborate representation structures in comparison to the control group, while this was not the case for participants who underwent physical practice only. Thus, in the present study, combined mental and physical practice led to both formation of mental representations in long-term memory and longer quiet eye durations. Interestingly, the length of the quiet eye directly related to the degree of elaborateness of the underlying mental representation, supporting the notion that the quiet eye reflects cognitive processing. This study is the first to show that the quiet eye becomes longer in novices practicing a motor action. Moreover, the findings of the present study suggest that perceptual and cognitive adaptations co-occur over the course of motor learning. PMID:26779089

  19. Over the hill at 24: persistent age-related cognitive-motor decline in reaction times in an ecologically valid video game task begins in early adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Joseph J; Blair, Mark R; Henrey, Andrew J

    2014-01-01

    Typically studies of the effects of aging on cognitive-motor performance emphasize changes in elderly populations. Although some research is directly concerned with when age-related decline actually begins, studies are often based on relatively simple reaction time tasks, making it impossible to gauge the impact of experience in compensating for this decline in a real world task. The present study investigates age-related changes in cognitive motor performance through adolescence and adulthood in a complex real world task, the real-time strategy video game StarCraft 2. In this paper we analyze the influence of age on performance using a dataset of 3,305 players, aged 16-44, collected by Thompson, Blair, Chen & Henrey [1]. Using a piecewise regression analysis, we find that age-related slowing of within-game, self-initiated response times begins at 24 years of age. We find no evidence for the common belief expertise should attenuate domain-specific cognitive decline. Domain-specific response time declines appear to persist regardless of skill level. A second analysis of dual-task performance finds no evidence of a corresponding age-related decline. Finally, an exploratory analyses of other age-related differences suggests that older participants may have been compensating for a loss in response speed through the use of game mechanics that reduce cognitive load.

  20. Over the Hill at 24: Persistent Age-Related Cognitive-Motor Decline in Reaction Times in an Ecologically Valid Video Game Task Begins in Early Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Joseph J.; Blair, Mark R.; Henrey, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    Typically studies of the effects of aging on cognitive-motor performance emphasize changes in elderly populations. Although some research is directly concerned with when age-related decline actually begins, studies are often based on relatively simple reaction time tasks, making it impossible to gauge the impact of experience in compensating for this decline in a real world task. The present study investigates age-related changes in cognitive motor performance through adolescence and adulthood in a complex real world task, the real-time strategy video game StarCraft 2. In this paper we analyze the influence of age on performance using a dataset of 3,305 players, aged 16-44, collected by Thompson, Blair, Chen & Henrey [1]. Using a piecewise regression analysis, we find that age-related slowing of within-game, self-initiated response times begins at 24 years of age. We find no evidence for the common belief expertise should attenuate domain-specific cognitive decline. Domain-specific response time declines appear to persist regardless of skill level. A second analysis of dual-task performance finds no evidence of a corresponding age-related decline. Finally, an exploratory analyses of other age-related differences suggests that older participants may have been compensating for a loss in response speed through the use of game mechanics that reduce cognitive load. PMID:24718593

  1. Over the hill at 24: persistent age-related cognitive-motor decline in reaction times in an ecologically valid video game task begins in early adulthood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph J Thompson

    Full Text Available Typically studies of the effects of aging on cognitive-motor performance emphasize changes in elderly populations. Although some research is directly concerned with when age-related decline actually begins, studies are often based on relatively simple reaction time tasks, making it impossible to gauge the impact of experience in compensating for this decline in a real world task. The present study investigates age-related changes in cognitive motor performance through adolescence and adulthood in a complex real world task, the real-time strategy video game StarCraft 2. In this paper we analyze the influence of age on performance using a dataset of 3,305 players, aged 16-44, collected by Thompson, Blair, Chen & Henrey [1]. Using a piecewise regression analysis, we find that age-related slowing of within-game, self-initiated response times begins at 24 years of age. We find no evidence for the common belief expertise should attenuate domain-specific cognitive decline. Domain-specific response time declines appear to persist regardless of skill level. A second analysis of dual-task performance finds no evidence of a corresponding age-related decline. Finally, an exploratory analyses of other age-related differences suggests that older participants may have been compensating for a loss in response speed through the use of game mechanics that reduce cognitive load.

  2. Mangiferin ameliorates aluminium chloride-induced cognitive dysfunction via alleviation of hippocampal oxido-nitrosative stress, proinflammatory cytokines and acetylcholinesterase level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasbe, Prajapati; Jangra, Ashok; Lahkar, Mangala

    2015-01-01

    Mangiferin is a phytochemical primarily present in the stem, leaves and bark of Mangifera indica. It offers neuroprotection mainly through inhibition of oxidative stress, and decreasing proinflammatory cytokines level in the brain. Aluminium has been reported to cause oxidative stress-associated damage in the brain. In the present investigation, protective effect of mangiferin against aluminium chloride (AlCl3)-induced neurotoxicity and cognitive impairment was studied in male Swiss albino mice. AlCl3 (100 mg/kg) was administered once daily through oral gavage for 42 days. Mangiferin (20 and 40 mg/kg, p.o.) was given to mice for last 21 days of the study. We found cognitive dysfunction in AlCl3-treated group, which was assessed by Morris water maze test, and novel object recognition test. AlCl3-treated group showed elevated level of oxidative stress markers, proinflammatory cytokines level and lowered hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) content. Mangiferin (40 mg/kg) prevented the cognitive deficits, hippocampal BDNF depletion, and biochemical anomalies induced by AlCl3-treatment. In conclusion, our data demonstrated that mangiferin offers neuroprotection in AlCl3-induced neurotoxicity and it may be a potential therapeutic approach in the treatment of oxido-nitrosative stress and inflammation-associated neurotoxicity.

  3. The NCAM-derived P2 peptide facilitates recovery of cognitive and motor function and ameliorates neuropathology following traumatic brain injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klementiev, B; Novikova, T; Korshunova, Irina;

    2008-01-01

    The neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) plays a crucial role during development and regeneration of the nervous system, mediating neuronal differentiation, survival and plasticity. Moreover, NCAM regulates learning and memory. A peptide termed P2, corresponding to a 12-amino-acid sequence...

  4. Validation of a Computerized, Game-based Assessment Strategy to Measure Training Effects on Motor-Cognitive Functions in People With Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemke, Nele; Werner, Christian; Hauer, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Background Exergames often used for training purpose can also be applied to create assessments based on quantitative data derived from the game. A number of studies relate to these use functionalities developing specific assessment tasks by using the game software and provided good data on psychometric properties. However, (1) assessments often include tasks other than the original game task used for training and therefore relate to similar but not to identical or integrated performances trained, (2) people with diagnosed dementia have insufficiently been addressed in validation studies, and (3) studies did commonly not present validation data such as sensitivity to change, although this is a paramount objective for validation to evaluate responsiveness in intervention studies. Objective Specific assessment parameters have been developed using quantitative data directly derived from the data stream during the game task of a training device (Physiomat). The aim of this study was to present data on construct validity, test–retest reliability, sensitivity to change, and feasibility of this internal assessment approach, which allows the quantification of Physiomat training effects on motor-cognitive functions in 105 multimorbid patients with mild-to-moderate dementia (mean age 82.7±5.9). Methods Physiomat assessment includes various tasks at different complexity levels demanding balance and cognitive abilities. For construct validity, motor-cognitive Physiomat assessment tasks were compared with established motor and cognitive tests using Spearman’s rank correlations (rs). For test–retest reliability, we used intra-class correlations (ICC3,1) and focused on all Physiomat tasks. Sensitivity to change of trained Physiomat tasks was tested using Wilcoxon statistic and standardized response means (SRMs). Completion rate and time were calculated for feasibility. Results Analyses have mostly shown moderate-to-high correlations between established motor as well as

  5. Quercetin ameliorates ischemia/reperfusion-induced cognitive deficits by inhibiting ASK1/JNK3/caspase-3 by enhancing the Akt signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Bing; Yang, Miaomiao; Qi, Xiaoyan; Shen, Xin; Chen, Xing; Zhang, Fayong

    2016-09-01

    Cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) is a major cause of severe disability and death all worldwide. However, therapeutic options to minimize the detrimental effects of cerebral I/R injury are limited. Recent research has demonstrated that quercetin mediates neuroprotective effects associated with the activation of the Akt signaling pathway in the cerebral I/R brain. Therefore, the aim of this study was to further investigate the mechanisms of cognitive deficits induced by cerebral I/R injury and the effects of quercetin on these mechanisms. First, we assessed anxiety-like behavioral and cognitive impairment using the open field test and the Morris water maze test, respectively. Next, we examined the severity of apoptosis by staining hippocampal neurons by the Cresyl violet method. Third, we used western blot analysis to investigate the expression of total and phosphorylated Akt, ASK1, JNK3, c-Jun and caspase-3 after I/R injury. Our results revealed that mice subjected to bilateral common carotid occlusion exhibited severe anxiety-like behavior, learning and memory impairment, cell damage and apoptosis. These severe effects were attenuated by administration of quercetin. Further, western blot analysis revealed that quercetin increased p-Akt expression and decreased p-ASK1, p-JNK3 and cleaved caspase-3 expression after cerebral I/R injury and led to inhibition of neuronal apoptosis. Conversely, treatment with LY294002 (a selective inhibitor of Akt1) reversed the effects of quercetin. In conclusion, these findings highlight the important role of quercetin in protecting against cognitive deficits and inhibiting neuronal apoptosis via the Akt signaling pathway. We believe that quercetin might prove to be a useful therapeutic component in treating cerebral I/R diseases in the near future. PMID:27450812

  6. Cognitive loading affects motor awareness and movement kinematics but not locomotor trajectories during goal-directed walking in a virtual reality environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Alan Kannape

    Full Text Available The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of cognitive loading on movement kinematics and trajectory formation during goal-directed walking in a virtual reality (VR environment. The secondary objective was to measure how participants corrected their trajectories for perturbed feedback and how participants' awareness of such perturbations changed under cognitive loading. We asked 14 healthy young adults to walk towards four different target locations in a VR environment while their movements were tracked and played back in real-time on a large projection screen. In 75% of all trials we introduced angular deviations of ±5° to ±30° between the veridical walking trajectory and the visual feedback. Participants performed a second experimental block under cognitive load (serial-7 subtraction, counter-balanced across participants. We measured walking kinematics (joint-angles, velocity profiles and motor performance (end-point-compensation, trajectory-deviations. Motor awareness was determined by asking participants to rate the veracity of the feedback after every trial. In-line with previous findings in natural settings, participants displayed stereotypical walking trajectories in a VR environment. Our results extend these findings as they demonstrate that taxing cognitive resources did not affect trajectory formation and deviations although it interfered with the participants' movement kinematics, in particular walking velocity. Additionally, we report that motor awareness was selectively impaired by the secondary task in trials with high perceptual uncertainty. Compared with data on eye and arm movements our findings lend support to the hypothesis that the central nervous system (CNS uses common mechanisms to govern goal-directed movements, including locomotion. We discuss our results with respect to the use of VR methods in gait control and rehabilitation.

  7. Activation of Sigma-1 receptor ameliorates anxiety-like behavior and cognitive impairments in a rat model of post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Li-Li; Peng, Jun-Bo; Fu, Chang-Hai; Cao, Dong; Li, Dan; Tong, Lei; Wang, Zhen-Yu

    2016-09-15

    Among learning and memory processes, fear memories are crucial in some psychiatric disorders like post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Accumulating evidence shows that the sigma-1 receptor (Sig-1R) has comprehensive involvement in cognitive impairment and neuroprotective effects. It has also been reported that BDNF appears to enhance extinction of fear in anxiety disorders via the MAPK signaling cascade. However, it remains unclear whether BDNF-TrkB-MAPK pathway may be mechanistically involved in the therapeutic effect of sigma-1 receptor in the development of PTSD. To address this question, rats were subjected to a classical single-prolonged stress procedure (SPS) and kept undisturbed for 7 days. After that, rats were re-stressed by re-exposure to the forced swim component of SPS (RSPS). Behavior tests were subsequently performed to assess anxiety and cognitive impairments. Furthermore, we analyzed the expression of BDNF and the phosphorylation of TrkB and three MAPK pathways, namely, the ERK, JNK and p38. We found that the levels of BDNF and p-TrkB were increased following the RSPS procedure, which were reversed by the administration of PRE-084. Meanwhile, among the three MAPK signaling pathways, only the p-ERK expression was increased following the RSPS procedure. Collectively, our results indicate that BDNF-TrkB-ERK signaling pathway may be involved in the activation of sigma-1 receptor to yield therapeutic benefits for PTSD. PMID:27275520

  8. Common Cognitive Deficits in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Autism: Working Memory and Visual-Motor Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englund, Julia A.; Decker, Scott L.; Allen, Ryan A.; Roberts, Alycia M.

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive deficits in working memory (WM) are characteristic features of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and autism. However, few studies have investigated cognitive deficits using a wide range of cognitive measures. We compared children with ADHD ("n" = 49) and autism ("n" = 33) with a demographically matched…

  9. Chronic Treatment with Squid Phosphatidylserine Activates Glucose Uptake and Ameliorates TMT-Induced Cognitive Deficit in Rats via Activation of Cholinergic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Jung Park

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the effects of squid phosphatidylserine (Squid-PS on the learning and memory function and the neural activity in rats with TMT-induced memory deficits. The rats were administered saline or squid derived Squid-PS (Squid-PS 50 mg kg−1, p.o. daily for 21 days. The cognitive improving efficacy of Squid-PS on the amnesic rats, which was induced by TMT, was investigated by assessing the passive avoidance task and by performing choline acetyltransferase (ChAT and acetylcholinesterase (AchE immunohistochemistry. 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose and performed a positron emission tomography (PET scan was also performed. In the passive avoidance test, the control group which were injected with TMT showed a markedly lower latency time than the non-treated normal group (P<0.05. However, treatment of Squid-PS significantly recovered the impairment of memory compared to the control group (P<0.05. Consistent with the behavioral data, Squid-PS significantly alleviated the loss of ChAT immunoreactive neurons in the hippocampal CA3 compared to that of the control group (P<0.01. Also, Squid-PS significantly increased the AchE positive neurons in the hippocampal CA1 and CA3. In the PET analysis, Squid-PS treatment increased the glucose uptake more than twofold in the frontal lobe and the hippocampus (P<0.05, resp.. These results suggest that Squid-PS may be useful for improving the cognitive function via regulation of cholinergic enzyme activity and neural activity.

  10. High-fat-diet-induced weight gain ameliorates bone loss without exacerbating AβPP processing and cognition in female APP/PS1 mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunhua ePeng

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is negatively correlated with body mass, whereas both osteoporosis and weight loss occur at higher incidence during the progression of Alzheimer’s disease (AD than the age-matched non-dementia individuals. Given that there is no evidence that overweight associated with AD-type cognitive dysfunction, we hypothesized that moderate weight gain might have a protective effect on the bone loss in AD without exacerbating cognitive dysfunction. In the present study, feeding a high-fat-diet (HFD, 45% calorie from fat to female APP/PS1 transgenic mice, an AD animal model, induced weight gain. The bone mineral density, microarchitecture, and biomechanical properties of the femurs were then evaluated. The results showed that the middle-aged female APP/PS1 transgenic mice were susceptible to osteoporosis of the femoral bones and that weight gain significantly enhanced bone mass and mechanical properties. Notably, HFD was not detrimental to brain insulin signaling and AβPP processing, as well as to exploration ability and working, learning and memory performance of the transgenic mice measured by T maze and water maze, compared with the mice fed a normal fat diet (10% calorie from fat. In addition, the circulating levels of leptin but not estradiol were remarkably elevated in HFD-treated mice. These results suggest that a body weight gain induced by the HFD feeding regimen significantly improved bone mass in female APP/PS1 mice with no detriments to exploration ability and spatial memory, most likely via the action of elevated circulating leptin.

  11. Purple Sweet Potato Color Ameliorates Cognition Deficits and Attenuates Oxidative Damage and Inflammation in Aging Mouse Brain Induced by D-Galactose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qun Shan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Purple sweet potato color (PSPC, a naturally occurring anthocyanin, has a powerful antioxidant activity in vitro and in vivo. This study explores whether PSPC has the neuroprotective effect on the aging mouse brain induced by D-galactose (D-gal. The mice administrated with PSPC (100 mg/kg.day, 4 weeks, from 9th week via oral gavage showed significantly improved behavior performance in the open field and passive avoidance test compared with D-gal-treated mice (500 mg/kg.day, 8 weeks. We further investigate the mechanism involved in neuroprotective effects of PSPC on mouse brain. Interestingly, we found, PSPC decreased the expression level of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2, inhibited nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB, increased the activity of copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn-SOD and catalase (CAT, and reduced the content of malondialdehyde (MDA, respectively. Our data suggested that PSPC attenuated D-gal-induced cognitive impairment partly via enhancing the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory capacity.

  12. Associations between fine and gross motor skills, aerobic fitness, cognition and academic performance in 7-8 years old Danish children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Rune Rasmussen; Beck, Mikkel Malling; Geertsen, Svend Sparre;

    Purpose: The current literature is concentrated around the positive effects of aerobic fitness (AF) on performance in cognitive tests (CP) and academic performance (AP) (reviewed in Hillman 2008). However, motor skills (MS) are often overlooked in this equation, and studies evaluating both AF...... and MS and their relationship to CP and AP are presently lacking. Thus, the purpose of this baseline-association study was to investigate the relationship between MS, AF, CP and AP in children. Method: 166 1st grade children (72 girls, mean age 7.5 years +/-0.31) from the Copenhagen area had their AF...

  13. Effects of treadmill training on cognitive and motor features of patients with mild to moderate Parkinson’s disease: a pilot, single-blind, randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picelli, Alessandro; Varalta, Valentina; Melotti, Camilla; Zatezalo, Vanja; Fonte, Cristina; Amato, Stefania; Saltuari, Leopold; Santamato, Andrea; Fiore, Pietro; Smania, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Summary The aim of this pilot randomized controlled trial was to evaluate the effects of treadmill training on cognitive and motor performance in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD). Seventeen persons with mild to moderate PD were enrolled. Nine patients were allocated to the Intervention group and received twelve 45-minute sessions of treadmill training: one session a day, three days a week, for four consecutive weeks. Eight patients were allocated to the Control group; these patients did not undergo physical training but were required to have regular social interactions, following a specific lifestyle program. All the patients were evaluated at baseline and one month later. The primary outcome measures were the Frontal Assessment Battery-Italian version (FAB-it) and the 6-minute walking test (6MWT). At the one-month evaluation significant differences were found between the groups in their performance on the FAB-it (p=0.005) and the 6MWT (p=0.018). Our findings support the hypothesis that treadmill training might effectively improve cognitive and motor features in patients with PD. PMID:27027891

  14. Performance of Male and Female C57BL/6J Mice on Motor and Cognitive Tasks Commonly Used in Pre-Clinical Traumatic Brain Injury Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Laura B; Fu, Amanda H; McCabe, Joseph T

    2016-05-01

    To date, clinical trials have failed to find an effective therapy for victims of traumatic brain injury (TBI) who live with motor, cognitive, and psychiatric complaints. Pre-clinical investigators are now encouraged to include male and female subjects in all translational research, which is of particular interest in the field of neurotrauma given that circulating female hormones (progesterone and estrogen) have been demonstrated to exert neuroprotective effects. To determine whether behavior of male and female C57BL6/J mice is differentially impaired by TBI, male and cycling female mice were injured by controlled cortical impact and tested for several weeks with functional assessments commonly employed in pre-clinical research. We found that cognitive and motor impairments post-TBI, as measured by the Morris water maze (MWM) and rotarod, respectively, were largely equivalent in male and female animals. However, spatial working memory, assessed by the y-maze, was poorer in female mice. Female mice were generally more active, as evidenced by greater distance traveled in the first exposure to the open field, greater distance in the y-maze, and faster swimming speeds in the MWM. Statistical analysis showed that variability in all behavioral data was no greater in cycling female mice than it was in male mice. These data all suggest that with careful selection of tests, procedures, and measurements, both sexes can be included in translational TBI research without concern for effect of hormones on functional impairments or behavioral variability. PMID:25951234

  15. Edinburgh Motor Assessment (EMAS)

    OpenAIRE

    Bak, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Edinburgh Motor Assessment (EMAS) is a brief motor screening test, specifically designed for assessment of patients with dementia, aphasia and other cognitive disorders. It focuses, therefore, on those motor symptoms, which are known to occur in association with these diseases, such as extrapyramidal, amyotrophic, and cerebellar features as well as complex cognitive‐motor phenomena such as apraxia. EMAS has been developed by a team of neurologists and psychiatrists at the ...

  16. Neural Stem Cells Rescue Cognitive and Motor Dysfunction in a Transgenic Model of Dementia with Lewy Bodies through a BDNF-Dependent Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie R.S. Goldberg

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Accumulation of α-synuclein (α-syn into insoluble aggregates occurs in several related disorders collectively referred to as synucleinopathies. To date, studies have used neural stem cells (NSCs to examine questions about α-syn propagation, but have overlooked the therapeutic potential of NSC transplantation to modulate cognition in disorders such as dementia with Lewy bodies or Parkinson’s disease dementia. Here, we show that striatal transplantation of NSCs into aged α-syn transgenic mice significantly improves performance in multiple cognitive and motor domains. This recovery is associated with NSC expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, which restores depleted levels and modulates dopaminergic and glutamatergic systems. Most importantly, transplantation of BDNF-depleted NSCs fails to improve behavior, whereas AAV-mediated BDNF delivery mimics the benefits of NSC transplantation, supporting a critical role for this neurotrophin in functional improvement. Thus, NSC transplantation could offer a promising approach to treat the understudied yet devastating cognitive components of many synucleinopathies.

  17. Correlation between Motor Cortex Excitability Changes and Cognitive Impairment in Vascular Depression: Pathophysiological Insights from a Longitudinal TMS Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Pennisi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS highlighted functional changes in dementia, whereas there are few data in patients with vascular cognitive impairment-no dementia (VCI-ND. Similarly, little is known about the neurophysiological impact of vascular depression (VD on deterioration of cognitive functions. We test whether depression might affect not only cognition but also specific cortical circuits in subcortical vascular disease. Methods. Sixteen VCI-ND and 11 VD patients, age-matched with 15 controls, underwent a clinical-cognitive, neuroimaging, and TMS assessment. After approximately two years, all participants were prospectively reevaluated. Results. At baseline, a significant more pronounced intracortical facilitation (ICF was found in VCI-ND patients. Reevaluation revealed an increase of the global excitability in both VCI-ND and VD subjects. At follow-up, the ICF of VCI-ND becomes similar to the other groups. Only VD patients showed cognitive deterioration. Conclusions. Unlike VD, the hyperfacilitation found at baseline in VCI-ND patients suggests enhanced glutamatergic neurotransmission that might contribute to the preservation of cognitive functioning. The hyperexcitability observed at follow-up in both groups of patients also indicates functional changes in glutamatergic neurotransmission. The mechanisms enhancing the risk of dementia in VD might be related either to subcortical vascular lesions or to the lack of compensatory functional cortical changes.

  18. Correlation between Motor Cortex Excitability Changes and Cognitive Impairment in Vascular Depression: Pathophysiological Insights from a Longitudinal TMS Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennisi, Manuela; Lanza, Giuseppe; Cantone, Mariagiovanna; Ricceri, Riccardo; Spampinato, Concetto; Pennisi, Giovanni; Di Lazzaro, Vincenzo; Bella, Rita

    2016-01-01

    Background. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) highlighted functional changes in dementia, whereas there are few data in patients with vascular cognitive impairment-no dementia (VCI-ND). Similarly, little is known about the neurophysiological impact of vascular depression (VD) on deterioration of cognitive functions. We test whether depression might affect not only cognition but also specific cortical circuits in subcortical vascular disease. Methods. Sixteen VCI-ND and 11 VD patients, age-matched with 15 controls, underwent a clinical-cognitive, neuroimaging, and TMS assessment. After approximately two years, all participants were prospectively reevaluated. Results. At baseline, a significant more pronounced intracortical facilitation (ICF) was found in VCI-ND patients. Reevaluation revealed an increase of the global excitability in both VCI-ND and VD subjects. At follow-up, the ICF of VCI-ND becomes similar to the other groups. Only VD patients showed cognitive deterioration. Conclusions. Unlike VD, the hyperfacilitation found at baseline in VCI-ND patients suggests enhanced glutamatergic neurotransmission that might contribute to the preservation of cognitive functioning. The hyperexcitability observed at follow-up in both groups of patients also indicates functional changes in glutamatergic neurotransmission. The mechanisms enhancing the risk of dementia in VD might be related either to subcortical vascular lesions or to the lack of compensatory functional cortical changes. PMID:27525127

  19. Motor phenotype of decline in cognitive performance among community-dwellers without dementia: population-based study and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Beauchet

    .30;0.65] and dementia (effect size  = 1.06 [95% CI: 0.40;1.72]. CONCLUSION: Higher STV appears to be a motor phenotype of cognitive decline.

  20. A fMRI Study of Motor Simulation on Cognitive Judgment%认知判断中手部动作模拟的fMRI研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王轲娜; 钟元; 曲方炳; 叶浩生

    2014-01-01

    该研究采用功能磁共振成像技术,考察不同条件下进行工具认知判断时手部姿势对认知判断的影响及动作模拟的神经机制。实验发现:手部姿势存在显著的主效应,冲突手部姿势条件下反应时最慢,且冲突手部姿势条件下与不冲突手部姿势条件下、自然状态条件下反应时存在显著差异,自然状态条件与不冲突手部姿势条件下反应时不存在显著差异。另外,fMRI成像结果发现,额中回、额下回、顶下小叶以及辅助运动区在自然状态下有显著激活,表明个体在进行认知判断过程中有动作模拟过程;海马结构、扣带回及楔前叶等与记忆有关的脑区有显著激活,表明身体经验在认知过程的作用。总的研究表明,不同的手部姿势状态对认知判断有不同影响,冲突手部姿势会对动作模拟产生干扰作用,手部动作模拟的神经机制主要涉及镜像神经元区,且在认知判断时存在具身效应。%By applying the functional magnetic resonance imaging( fMRI)techinques,we explored the effects of motor simulation on cog-nitive judgment and its neuromechanism while performing cognitive tasks. Participants made laterality judgments on pictures of daily graspable tools under different hand conditions:with nothing in hand,grasping ball with left hand and grasping ball with right hand. Be-havioral results revealed that there was a main effect for hands postures:the RTs under incompatible hand condition were the slowest compared with natural and compatible hand condition. There was no significant difference on RTs between natural and incompatible hand condition. Imaging results suggested that there were significant activations in the middle frontal gyrus,inferior frontal gyrus,inferior parietal lobule and supplementary motor area under natural hand condition,which suggested that there existed a motor simulation process when participants performed the

  1. Cognitive Processing Therapy for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Secondary to a Motor Vehicle Accident: A Single-Subject Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galovski, Tara E.; Resick, Patricia A.

    2008-01-01

    Motor vehicle accidents (MVAs) are fairly common occurrences in all developed countries. Although only a small percentage of total MVAs result in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), the high base rate in the population has resulted in the estimation that MVAs are the leading cause of PTSD in the United States. Occupations that require…

  2. Automated, quantitative measures of grey and white matter lesion burden correlates with motor and cognitive function in children with unilateral cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex M. Pagnozzi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available White and grey matter lesions are the most prevalent type of injury observable in the Magnetic Resonance Images (MRIs of children with cerebral palsy (CP. Previous studies investigating the impact of lesions in children with CP have been qualitative, limited by the lack of automated segmentation approaches in this setting. As a result, the quantitative relationship between lesion burden has yet to be established. In this study, we perform automatic lesion segmentation on a large cohort of data (107 children with unilateral CP and 18 healthy children with a new, validated method for segmenting both white matter (WM and grey matter (GM lesions. The method has better accuracy (94% than the best current methods (73%, and only requires standard structural MRI sequences. Anatomical lesion burdens most predictive of clinical scores of motor, cognitive, visual and communicative function were identified using the Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection operator (LASSO. The improved segmentations enabled identification of significant correlations between regional lesion burden and clinical performance, which conform to known structure-function relationships. Model performance was validated in an independent test set, with significant correlations observed for both WM and GM regional lesion burden with motor function (p < 0.008, and between WM and GM lesions alone with cognitive and visual function respectively (p < 0.008. The significant correlation of GM lesions with functional outcome highlights the serious implications GM lesions, in addition to WM lesions, have for prognosis, and the utility of structural MRI alone for quantifying lesion burden and planning therapy interventions.

  3. Automated, quantitative measures of grey and white matter lesion burden correlates with motor and cognitive function in children with unilateral cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagnozzi, Alex M; Dowson, Nicholas; Doecke, James; Fiori, Simona; Bradley, Andrew P; Boyd, Roslyn N; Rose, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    White and grey matter lesions are the most prevalent type of injury observable in the Magnetic Resonance Images (MRIs) of children with cerebral palsy (CP). Previous studies investigating the impact of lesions in children with CP have been qualitative, limited by the lack of automated segmentation approaches in this setting. As a result, the quantitative relationship between lesion burden has yet to be established. In this study, we perform automatic lesion segmentation on a large cohort of data (107 children with unilateral CP and 18 healthy children) with a new, validated method for segmenting both white matter (WM) and grey matter (GM) lesions. The method has better accuracy (94%) than the best current methods (73%), and only requires standard structural MRI sequences. Anatomical lesion burdens most predictive of clinical scores of motor, cognitive, visual and communicative function were identified using the Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection operator (LASSO). The improved segmentations enabled identification of significant correlations between regional lesion burden and clinical performance, which conform to known structure-function relationships. Model performance was validated in an independent test set, with significant correlations observed for both WM and GM regional lesion burden with motor function (p < 0.008), and between WM and GM lesions alone with cognitive and visual function respectively (p < 0.008). The significant correlation of GM lesions with functional outcome highlights the serious implications GM lesions, in addition to WM lesions, have for prognosis, and the utility of structural MRI alone for quantifying lesion burden and planning therapy interventions. PMID:27330975

  4. Motor and cognitive deficits due to permanent cerebral hypoperfusion/ischemia improve by pomegranate seed extract in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajipour, Somayeh; Sarkaki, Alireza; Mohammad, Seyed; Mansouri, Taghi; Pilevarian, Asghar; RafieiRad, Maryam

    2014-08-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of two weeks oral administration of Pomegranate Seed Extract (PGSE) on active avoidance memory and motor coordination activities after permanent bilateral common carotid arteries occlusion (2CCAO) in male adult rats. Adult male albino rats of Wistar strain (250 ± 20 g, 3-4 months) were used. Animals were divided into eight groups with 10 in each: (1) Sham operated (Sh); (2) Ischemic (I); (3) Ischemic received 100 mg kg(-1) PGSE, orally (I+E100); (4) Ischemic received 200 mg kg(-1) PGSE, orally (I+E200); (5) Ischemic received 400 mg kg(-1) PGSE, orally (I+E400); (6) Ischemic received 800 mg kg(-1) PGSE, orally (I+ E800); (7) Ischemic received 2 mL kg(-1) normal saline, orally (I+Veh); (8) Sham operated received 400 mg kg(-1) PGSE, orally (Sh+E400). In order to make 2CCAO an animal Cerebral Hypoperfusion Ischemia (CHI) model, carotid arteries were ligatured and then bilaterally cut. To evaluate active avoidance task, Correct Response Percentages (CRP) was measured by Y-maze apparatus and motor coordination activity was evaluated using standard behavioral tests by rotarod apparatus in all the rats. It was found that memory. Memory and motor coordination activities were significantly impaired in the rats after CHI (p coordination in the rats with 2CCAO (p coordination, which was most likely related at least in some part to its antioxidative and free radical scavenging actions. PMID:26031017

  5. Impacts of Perinatal Dioxin Exposure on Motor Coordination and Higher Cognitive Development in Vietnamese Preschool Children: A Five-Year Follow-Up.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nghi Ngoc Tran

    Full Text Available Dioxin concentrations remain elevated in the environment and in humans residing near former US Air Force bases in South Vietnam. Our previous epidemiological studies showed adverse effects of dioxin exposure on neurodevelopment for the first 3 years of life. Subsequently, we extended the follow-up period and investigated the influence of perinatal dioxin exposure on neurodevelopment, including motor coordination and higher cognitive ability, in preschool children. Presently, we investigated 176 children in a hot spot of dioxin contamination who were followed up from birth until 5 years old. Perinatal dioxin exposure levels were estimated by measuring dioxin levels in maternal breast milk. Dioxin toxicity was evaluated using two indices; toxic equivalent (TEQ-polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDDs/Fs and concentration of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD. Coordinated movements, including manual dexterity, aiming and catching, and balance, were assessed using the Movement Assessment Battery for Children, Second Edition (Movement ABC-2. Cognitive ability was assessed using the nonverbal index (NVI of the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, Second Edition (KABC-II. In boys, total test and balance scores of Movement ABC-2 were significantly lower in the high TEQ- PCDDs/Fs group compared with the moderate and low exposure groups. NVI scores and the pattern reasoning subscale of the KABC-II indicating planning ability were also significantly lower in the high TCDD exposure group compared with the low exposure group of boys. However, in girls, no significant differences in Movement ABC-2 and KABC-II scores were found among the different TEQ-PCDDs/Fs and TCDD exposure groups. Furthermore, in high risk cases, five boys and one girl highly exposed to TEQ-PCDDs/Fs and TCDD had double the risk for difficulties in both neurodevelopmental skills. These results suggest differential impacts of TEQ-PCDDs/Fs and TCDD exposure on motor

  6. Long-term post-stroke changes include myelin loss, specific deficits in sensory and motor behaviors and complex cognitive impairment detected using active place avoidance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Zhou

    Full Text Available Persistent neurobehavioral deficits and brain changes need validation for brain restoration. Two hours middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO or sham surgery was performed in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Neurobehavioral and cognitive deficits were measured over 10 weeks included: (1 sensory, motor, beam balance, reflex/abnormal responses, hindlimb placement, forepaw foot fault and cylinder placement tests, and (2 complex active place avoidance learning (APA and simple passive avoidance retention (PA. Electroretinogram (ERG, hemispheric loss (infarction, hippocampus CA1 neuronal loss and myelin (Luxol Fast Blue staining in several fiber tracts were also measured. In comparison to Sham surgery, tMCAO surgery produced significant deficits in all behavioral tests except reflex/abnormal responses. Acute, short lived deficits following tMCAO were observed for forelimb foot fault and forelimb cylinder placement. Persistent, sustained deficits for the whole 10 weeks were exhibited for motor (p<0.001, sensory (p<0.001, beam balance performance (p<0.01 and hindlimb placement behavior (p<0.01. tMCAO produced much greater and prolonged cognitive deficits in APA learning (maximum on last trial of 604±83% change, p<0.05 but only a small, comparative effect on PA retention. Hemispheric loss/atrophy was measured 10 weeks after tMCAO and cross-validated by two methods (e.g., almost identical % ischemic hemispheric loss of 33.4±3.5% for H&E and of 34.2±3.5% for TTC staining. No visual dysfunction by ERG and no hippocampus neuronal loss were detected after tMCAO. Fiber tract damage measured by Luxol Fast Blue myelin staining intensity was significant (p<0.01 in the external capsule and striatum but not in corpus callosum and anterior commissure. In summary, persistent neurobehavioral deficits were validated as important endpoints for stroke restorative research in the future. Fiber myelin loss appears to contribute to these long term behavioral dysfunctions and

  7. Impacts of Perinatal Dioxin Exposure on Motor Coordination and Higher Cognitive Development in Vietnamese Preschool Children: A Five-Year Follow-Up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Nghi Ngoc; Pham, Tai The; Ozawa, Kyoko; Nishijo, Muneko; Nguyen, Anh Thi Nguyet; Tran, Tuong Quy; Hoang, Luong Van; Tran, Anh Hai; Phan, Vu Huy Anh; Nakai, Akio; Nishino, Yoshikazu; Nishijo, Hisao

    2016-01-01

    Dioxin concentrations remain elevated in the environment and in humans residing near former US Air Force bases in South Vietnam. Our previous epidemiological studies showed adverse effects of dioxin exposure on neurodevelopment for the first 3 years of life. Subsequently, we extended the follow-up period and investigated the influence of perinatal dioxin exposure on neurodevelopment, including motor coordination and higher cognitive ability, in preschool children. Presently, we investigated 176 children in a hot spot of dioxin contamination who were followed up from birth until 5 years old. Perinatal dioxin exposure levels were estimated by measuring dioxin levels in maternal breast milk. Dioxin toxicity was evaluated using two indices; toxic equivalent (TEQ)-polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDDs/Fs) and concentration of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). Coordinated movements, including manual dexterity, aiming and catching, and balance, were assessed using the Movement Assessment Battery for Children, Second Edition (Movement ABC-2). Cognitive ability was assessed using the nonverbal index (NVI) of the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, Second Edition (KABC-II). In boys, total test and balance scores of Movement ABC-2 were significantly lower in the high TEQ- PCDDs/Fs group compared with the moderate and low exposure groups. NVI scores and the pattern reasoning subscale of the KABC-II indicating planning ability were also significantly lower in the high TCDD exposure group compared with the low exposure group of boys. However, in girls, no significant differences in Movement ABC-2 and KABC-II scores were found among the different TEQ-PCDDs/Fs and TCDD exposure groups. Furthermore, in high risk cases, five boys and one girl highly exposed to TEQ-PCDDs/Fs and TCDD had double the risk for difficulties in both neurodevelopmental skills. These results suggest differential impacts of TEQ-PCDDs/Fs and TCDD exposure on motor coordination and

  8. Novel Food Supplement "CP1" Improves Motor Deficit, Cognitive Function, and Neurodegeneration in Animal Model of Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wattanathorn, Jintanaporn; Sutalangka, Chatchada

    2016-08-01

    Based on pivotal roles of oxidative stress, dopaminergic and cholinergic systems on the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease (PD), the searching for functional food for patients attacked with PD from Cyperus rotundus and Zingiber officinale, the substances possessing antioxidant activity, and the suppression effects on monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) have been considered. In this study, we aimed to determine the effect of the combined extract of C. rotundus and Z. officinale (CP1) to improve motor and memory deficits, neurodegeneration, oxidative stress, and functions of both cholinergic and dopaminergic systems in the animal model of PD induced by 6-hydroxydopamine hydrochloride (6-OHDA). Male Wistar rats, weighing 180-220 g, were induced unilateral lesion at right substantia nigra by 6-OHDA and were orally given CP1 at doses of 100, 200, and 300 mg/kg body weight for 14 days after 6-OHDA injection. The results showed that the 6-OHDA rats treated with CP1 increased spatial memory, but decreased neurodegeneration, malondialdehyde level, and AChE activity in hippocampus. The decreased motor disorder and neurodegeneration in substantia nigra together with the enhanced catalase activity, but decreased MAO-B activity in striatum, were also observed. The memory enhancing effect of CP1 might occur through the improved oxidative stress and the enhanced cholinergic function, whereas the effect to improve motor disorder of CP1 might occur through the enhanced dopaminergic function in striatum by decreasing the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons and the suppression of MAO-B. Therefore, CP1 is the potential functional food against PD. However, further researches in clinical trial and drug interactions are essential.

  9. Motor Coordination and Executive Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Eva

    2012-01-01

    Since Piaget, the view that motor and cognitive development are interrelated has gained wide acceptance. However, empirical research on this issue is still rare. Few studies show a correlation of performance in cognitive and motor tasks in typically developing children. More specifically, Diamond A. (2000) hypothesizes an involvement of executive…

  10. Contribution of writing to reading: Dissociation between cognitive and motor process in the left dorsal premotor cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattamadilok, Chotiga; Ponz, Aurélie; Planton, Samuel; Bonnard, Mireille

    2016-04-01

    Functional brain imaging studies reported activation of the left dorsal premotor cortex (PMd), that is, a main area in the writing network, in reading tasks. However, it remains unclear whether this area is causally relevant for written stimulus recognition or its activation simply results from a passive coactivation of reading and writing networks. Here, we used chronometric paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to address this issue by disrupting the activity of the PMd, the so-called Exner's area, while participants performed a lexical decision task. Both words and pseudowords were presented in printed and handwritten characters. The latter was assumed to be closely associated with motor representations of handwriting gestures. We found that TMS over the PMd in relatively early time-windows, i.e., between 60 and 160 ms after the stimulus onset, increased reaction times to pseudoword without affecting word recognition. Interestingly, this result pattern was found for both printed and handwritten characters, that is, regardless of whether the characters evoked motor representations of writing actions. Our result showed that under some circumstances the activation of the PMd does not simply result from passive association between reading and writing networks but has a functional role in the reading process. At least, at an early stage of written stimuli recognition, this role seems to depend on a common sublexical and serial process underlying writing and pseudoword reading rather than on an implicit evocation of writing actions during reading as typically assumed.

  11. Quantitative Assessment of the Training Improvement in a Motor-Cognitive Task by Using EEG, ECG and EOG Signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghini, Gianluca; Aricò, Pietro; Graziani, Ilenia; Salinari, Serenella; Sun, Yu; Taya, Fumihiko; Bezerianos, Anastatios; Thakor, Nitish V; Babiloni, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    Generally, the training evaluation methods consist in experts supervision and qualitative check of the operator's skills improvement by asking them to perform specific tasks and by verifying the final performance. The aim of this work is to find out if it is possible to obtain quantitative information about the degree of the learning process throughout the training period by analyzing neuro-physiological signals, such as the electroencephalogram, the electrocardiogram and the electrooculogram. In fact, it is well known that such signals correlate with a variety of cognitive processes, e.g. attention, information processing, and working memory. A group of 10 subjects have been asked to train daily with the NASA multi-attribute-task-battery. During such training period the neuro-physiological, behavioral and subjective data have been collected. In particular, the neuro-physiological signals have been recorded on the first (T1), on the third (T3) and on the last training day (T5), while the behavioral and subjective data have been collected every day. Finally, all these data have been compared for a complete overview of the learning process and its relations with the neuro-physiological parameters. It has been shown how the integration of brain activity, in the theta and alpha frequency bands, with the autonomic parameters of heart rate and eyeblink rate could be used as metric for the evaluation of the learning progress, as well as the final training level reached by the subjects, in terms of request of cognitive resources. PMID:25609212

  12. The Development of Fine Motor Skills and its Relation to Cognitive Development in Young Children%儿童早期精细动作技能与认知发展的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿达; 张兴利; 施建农

    2015-01-01

    精细动作技能指个体主要凭借手以及手指等部位的小肌肉或小肌肉群而产生的运动,它可以为个体提供认知经验,丰富认知对象,进而促进个体对事物本质的认识。当个体需要将认知资源-注意在两个或多个任务之间进行分配时,熟练的精细动作可以节省注意资源,为高级的认知任务更好地服务;精细动作与认知在发展中不断相互促进,有些动作是某些认知习得或认知练习的先决条件;精细动作技能可以预测小学低年级的学业成绩,尤其是阅读和数学成绩。精细动作技能和认知发展的关系具有大脑神经发育基础,它们在某种程度上共享相同的脑区,如小脑和前额叶。因此,某些认知损伤的病症可以通过精细动作的训练而得到改善和治疗。%Fine motor skills refer to any movement where an individual uses the small muscles or muscle areas of the hands and fingers; these movements serve to development of muscle while also improving the cognitive recognition of the object. Automatic fine motor skills can save limited attention resources for advanced cognition tasks as required by an individual; in the development of fine motor skills and cognition, the two abilities interact, some motor skills are the prerequisite for some cognition and the practice of cognition. Fine motor skills also can predict the academic performance of young students. The two abilities are inter-related because they share common areas of the brain: the prefrontal lobe and the cerebellum. As a result, some cognition disorders could be treated through fine motor skill training and exercises.

  13. Clinical observation of ameliorating motor function in 332 cases with Duchenne muscular dystrophies by autologous bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells transplantation%自体骨髓间充质干细胞移植改善进行性肌营养不良症患者运动功能的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许忆峰; 杨晓凤; 吴雁翔; 王红梅; 张轶斌; 吕乃武; 单鸿; 崔激平; 周金旭

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether treatment with autologous bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells transplantation can ameliorate the motor function in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophies.Method Following the agreement of Ethics Committee of the 463 Hospital of Chinese PLA , a total of 332 cases with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) (all were male) , aged 6-18 years , with the course of disease of 2-18 years were enrolled from the Department of Cell treatment Center of the 463 Hospital of Chinese PLA from December 2007 to May 2009. Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor ( G-CSF) was injected subcutaneously , and bone marrow was collected 4 days later.Bone marrow mononuclear cells were isolated and cultured for 10-14 davs by Percoll gradient centrifugation. Cell suspension [ (2-3) x 1010/L] was prepared and transplanted into all over the body by intravenous injection and intramuscular injection in the four extremities. The amount of mononuclear cells was ( 1.99 ±1.18) x 108 and the amount of mesenchymal cells was (1.77 ± 0.84) x 108. Result Twelve months after transplantation, the improvement rates of bare-handed muscle force and activities of daily living (ADL) were 46.1% and 81.8% respectively. Motor function was ameliorated by 70.8%. Conclusion Transplantation of autologous bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells treated for DMD can enhance the hare-handed muscle force and activities of daily living and ameliorate motor function.%目的:探讨自体骨髓间充质干细胞移植临床治疗进行性肌营养不良症能否改善患者运动功能.方法:经解放军第四六三医院伦理委员会同意,纳入2007年12月至2009年5月在细胞治疗中心住院的具有完整随访资料的杜氏型肌营养不良症患者332例,均为男性,年龄6~18岁,平均(9.4±6.1)岁;病程2~ 18年,平均(6.9±5.7)年.患者皮下注射粒细胞集落刺激因子,动员4 d后采集骨髓,Percoll梯度离心培养骨髓单个核细胞10~14 d.配制浓度为(2

  14. Two strategies for response to 14 °C cold-water immersion: is there a difference in the response of motor, cognitive, immune and stress markers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Brazaitis

    Full Text Available Here, we address the question of why some people have a greater chance of surviving and/or better resistance to cold-related-injuries in prolonged exposure to acute cold environments than do others, despite similar physical characteristics. The main aim of this study was to compare physiological and psychological reactions between people who exhibited fast cooling (FC; n = 20 or slow cooling (SC; n = 20 responses to cold water immersion. Individuals in whom the T(re decreased to a set point of 35.5 °C before the end of the 170-min cooling time were indicated as the FC group; individuals in whom the T(re did not decrease to the set point of 35.5 °C before the end of the 170-min cooling time were classified as the SC group. Cold stress was induced using intermittent immersion in bath water at 14 °C. Motor (spinal and supraspinal reflexes, voluntary and electrically induced skeletal muscle contraction force and cognitive (executive function, short term memory, short term spatial recognition performance, immune variables (neutrophils, leucocytes, lymphocytes, monocytes, IL-6, TNF-α, markers of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity (cortisol, corticosterone and autonomic nervous system activity (epinephrine, norepinephrine were monitored. The data obtained in this study suggest that the response of the FC group to cooling vs the SC group response was more likely an insulative-hypothermic response and that the SC vs the FC group displayed a metabolic-insulative response. The observations that an exposure time to 14 °C cold water--which was nearly twice as short (96-min vs 170-min with a greater rectal temperature decrease (35.5 °C vs 36.2 °C in the FC group compared with the SC group--induces similar responses of motor, cognitive, and blood stress markers were novel. The most important finding is that subjects with a lower cold-strain-index (SC group showed stimulation of some markers of innate immunity and suppression of markers of

  15. A cognitive-motor intervention using a dance video game to enhance foot placement accuracy and gait under dual task conditions in older adults: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pichierri Giuseppe

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Computer-based interventions have demonstrated consistent positive effects on various physical abilities in older adults. This study aims to compare two training groups that achieve similar amounts of strength and balance exercise where one group receives an intervention that includes additional dance video gaming. The aim is to investigate the different effects of the training programs on physical and psychological parameters in older adults. Methods Thirty-one participants (mean age ± SD: 86.2 ± 4.6 years, residents of two Swiss hostels for the aged, were randomly assigned to either the dance group (n = 15 or the control group (n = 16. The dance group absolved a twelve-week cognitive-motor exercise program twice weekly that comprised progressive strength and balance training supplemented with additional dance video gaming. The control group performed only the strength and balance exercises during this period. Outcome measures were foot placement accuracy, gait performance under single and dual task conditions, and falls efficacy. Results After the intervention between-group comparison revealed significant differences for gait velocity (U = 26, P = .041, r = .45 and for single support time (U = 24, P = .029, r = .48 during the fast walking dual task condition in favor of the dance group. No significant between-group differences were observed either in the foot placement accuracy test or in falls efficacy. Conclusions There was a significant interaction in favor of the dance video game group for improvements in step time. Significant improved fast walking performance under dual task conditions (velocity, double support time, step length was observed for the dance video game group only. These findings suggest that in older adults a cognitive-motor intervention may result in more improved gait under dual task conditions in comparison to a traditional strength and balance exercise program

  16. Impact of dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on cognition, motor skills and hippocampal neurogenesis in developing C57BL/6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Carola I F; Zerbi, Valerio; Mutsaers, Martina P C; de Jong, Bas S W; Wiesmann, Maximilian; Arnoldussen, Ilse A C; Geenen, Bram; Heerschap, Arend; Muskiet, Frits A J; Jouni, Zeina E; van Tol, Eric A F; Gross, Gabriele; Homberg, Judith R; Berg, Brian M; Kiliaan, Amanda J

    2015-01-01

    Maternal intake of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) is critical during perinatal development of the brain. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is the most abundant n-3 PUFA in the brain and influences neuronal membrane function and neuroprotection. The present study aims to assess the effect of dietary n-3 PUFA availability during the gestational and postnatal period on cognition, brain metabolism and neurohistology in C57BL/6J mice. Female wild-type C57BL/6J mice at day 0 of gestation were randomly assigned to either an n-3 PUFA deficient diet (0.05% of total fatty acids) or an n-3 PUFA adequate diet (3.83% of total fatty acids) containing preformed DHA and its precursor α-linolenic acid. Male offspring remained on diet and performed cognitive tests during puberty and adulthood. In adulthood, animals underwent (31)P magnetic resonance spectroscopy to assess brain energy metabolites. Thereafter, biochemical and immunohistochemical analyses were performed assessing inflammation, neurogenesis and synaptic plasticity. Compared to the n-3 PUFA deficient group, pubertal n-3 PUFA adequate fed mice demonstrated increased motor coordination. Adult n-3 PUFA adequate fed mice exhibited increased exploratory behavior, sensorimotor integration and spatial memory, while neurogenesis in the hippocampus was decreased. Selected brain regions of n-3 PUFA adequate fed mice contained significantly lower levels of arachidonic acid and higher levels of DHA and dihomo-γ-linolenic acid. Our data suggest that dietary n-3 PUFA can modify neural maturation and enhance brain functioning in healthy C57BL/6J mice. This indicates that availability of n-3 PUFA in infant diet during early development may have a significant impact on brain development. PMID:25444517

  17. Organizing motor imageries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanakawa, Takashi

    2016-03-01

    Over the last few decades, motor imagery has attracted the attention of researchers as a prototypical example of 'embodied cognition' and also as a basis for neuro-rehabilitation and brain-machine interfaces. The current definition of motor imagery is widely accepted, but it is important to note that various abilities rather than a single cognitive entity are dealt with under a single term. Here, motor imagery has been characterized based on four factors: (1) motor control, (2) explicitness, (3) sensory modalities, and (4) agency. Sorting out these factors characterizing motor imagery may explain some discrepancies and variability in the findings from previous studies and will help to optimize a study design in accordance with the purpose of each study in the future. PMID:26602980

  18. Effects of a rapid-resisted elliptical training program on motor, cognitive and neurobehavioral functioning in adults with chronic traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiano, Diane L; Zampieri, Cristiane; Ge, Jie; Acevedo, Ana; Dsurney, John

    2016-08-01

    This small clinical trial utilized a novel rehabilitation strategy, rapid-resisted elliptical training, in an effort to increase motor, and thereby cognitive, processing speed in ambulatory individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI). As an initial step, multimodal functional abilities were quantified and compared in 12 ambulatory adults with and 12 without TBI. After the baseline assessment, the group with TBI participated in an intensive 8-week daily exercise program using an elliptical trainer and was reassessed after completion and at an 8-week follow-up. The focus of training was on achieving a fast movement speed, and once the target was reached, resistance to motion was increased in small increments to increase intensity of muscle activation. Primary outcomes were: High-Level Mobility Assessment Tool (HiMAT), instrumented balance tests, dual-task (DT) performance and neurobehavioral questionnaires. The group with TBI had poorer movement excursion during balance tests and poorer dual-task (DT) performance. After training, balance reaction times improved and were correlated with gains in the HiMAT and DT. Sleep quality also improved and was correlated with improved depression and learning. This study illustrates how brain injury can affect multiple linked aspects of functioning and provides preliminary evidence that intensive rapid-resisted training has specific positive effects on dynamic balance and more generalized effects on sleep quality in TBI. PMID:27025506

  19. Effects of a rapid-resisted elliptical training program on motor, cognitive and neurobehavioral functioning in adults with chronic traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiano, Diane L; Zampieri, Cristiane; Ge, Jie; Acevedo, Ana; Dsurney, John

    2016-08-01

    This small clinical trial utilized a novel rehabilitation strategy, rapid-resisted elliptical training, in an effort to increase motor, and thereby cognitive, processing speed in ambulatory individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI). As an initial step, multimodal functional abilities were quantified and compared in 12 ambulatory adults with and 12 without TBI. After the baseline assessment, the group with TBI participated in an intensive 8-week daily exercise program using an elliptical trainer and was reassessed after completion and at an 8-week follow-up. The focus of training was on achieving a fast movement speed, and once the target was reached, resistance to motion was increased in small increments to increase intensity of muscle activation. Primary outcomes were: High-Level Mobility Assessment Tool (HiMAT), instrumented balance tests, dual-task (DT) performance and neurobehavioral questionnaires. The group with TBI had poorer movement excursion during balance tests and poorer dual-task (DT) performance. After training, balance reaction times improved and were correlated with gains in the HiMAT and DT. Sleep quality also improved and was correlated with improved depression and learning. This study illustrates how brain injury can affect multiple linked aspects of functioning and provides preliminary evidence that intensive rapid-resisted training has specific positive effects on dynamic balance and more generalized effects on sleep quality in TBI.

  20. On the Nature of Extraversion: Variation in Conditioned Contextual Activation of Dopamine-Facilitated Affective, Cognitive, and Motor Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard allen Depue

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Research supports an association between extraversion and dopamine (DA functioning. DA facilitates incentive motivation and the conditioning and incentive encoding of contexts that predict reward. Therefore, we assessed whether extraversion is related to the efficacy of acquiring conditioned contextual facilitation of three processes that are dependent on DA: motor velocity, positive affect, and visuospatial working memory. We exposed high and low extraverts to three days of association of drug reward (methylphenidate, MP with a particular laboratory context (Paired group, a test day of conditioning, and three days of extinction in the same laboratory. A Placebo group and an Unpaired group (that had MP in a different laboratory context served as controls. Conditioned contextual facilitation was assessed by (i presenting video clips that varied in their pairing with drug and laboratory context and in inherent incentive value, and (ii measuring increases from day 1 to Test day on the three processes above. Results showed acquisition of conditioned contextual facilitation across all measures to video clips that had been paired with drug and laboratory context in the Paired high extraverts, but no conditioning in the Paired low extraverts (nor in either of the control groups. Increases in the Paired high extraverts were correlated across the three measures. Also, conditioned facilitation was evident on the first day of extinction in Paired high extraverts, despite the absence of the unconditioned effects of MP. By the last day of extinction, responding returned to day 1 levels. The findings suggest that extraversion is associated with variation in the acquisition of contexts that predict reward. Over time, this variation may lead to differences in the breadth of networks of conditioned contexts. Thus, individual differences in extraversion may be maintained by activation of differentially encoded central representations of incentive contexts that

  1. AMELIORATIVE EFFECTS OF TINOSPORA CORDIFOLIA IN SCIATICA PAIN INDUCED RATS

    OpenAIRE

    Thaakur Santhrani; Yaidikar Lavanya

    2012-01-01

    The present study was aimed at investigating the ameliorative effect of Tinospora cordifolia in sciatic nerve root Ligation -induced sciatica pain in rats. Adult male albino rats weighing 130-150gm were used for the study, and were divided into seven groups and ligation was performed on left sciatic nerve in group II to group VII. Tail cold-hyperalgesia, motor co-ordination tests, foot deformity, and total calcium levels were estimated to assess the extent of sciatica. Superoxide dismutase ...

  2. miR-196a Ameliorates Cytotoxicity and Cellular Phenotype in Transgenic Huntington's Disease Monkey Neural Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunkanjanawan, Tanut; Carter, Richard L; Prucha, Melinda S; Yang, Jinjing; Parnpai, Rangsun; Chan, Anthony W S

    2016-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is an inherited neurodegenerative disorder caused by the expansion of polyglutamine (polyQ) tract that leads to motor, cognitive and psychiatric impairment. Currently there is no cure for HD. A transgenic HD nonhuman primate (HD-NHP) model was developed with progressive development of clinical and pathological features similar to human HD, which suggested the potential preclinical application of the HD-NHP model. Elevated expression of miR-196a was observed in both HD-NHP and human HD brains. Cytotoxicity and apoptosis were ameliorated by the overexpression of miR-196a in HD-NHP neural progenitor cells (HD-NPCs) and differentiated neural cells (HD-NCs). The expression of apoptosis related gene was also down regulated. Mitochondrial morphology and activity were improved as indicated by mitotracker staining and the upregulation of CBP and PGC-1α in HD-NPCs overexpressing miR-196a. Here we demonstrated the amelioration of HD cellular phenotypes in HD-NPCs and HD-NCs overexpressing miR-196a. Our results also suggested the regulatory role of miR-196a in HD pathogenesis that may hold the key for understanding molecular regulation in HD and developing novel therapeutics. PMID:27631085

  3. miR-196a Ameliorates Cytotoxicity and Cellular Phenotype in Transgenic Huntington’s Disease Monkey Neural Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Richard L.; Prucha, Melinda S.; Yang, Jinjing; Parnpai, Rangsun; Chan, Anthony W. S.

    2016-01-01

    Huntington’s disease (HD) is an inherited neurodegenerative disorder caused by the expansion of polyglutamine (polyQ) tract that leads to motor, cognitive and psychiatric impairment. Currently there is no cure for HD. A transgenic HD nonhuman primate (HD-NHP) model was developed with progressive development of clinical and pathological features similar to human HD, which suggested the potential preclinical application of the HD-NHP model. Elevated expression of miR-196a was observed in both HD-NHP and human HD brains. Cytotoxicity and apoptosis were ameliorated by the overexpression of miR-196a in HD-NHP neural progenitor cells (HD-NPCs) and differentiated neural cells (HD-NCs). The expression of apoptosis related gene was also down regulated. Mitochondrial morphology and activity were improved as indicated by mitotracker staining and the upregulation of CBP and PGC-1α in HD-NPCs overexpressing miR-196a. Here we demonstrated the amelioration of HD cellular phenotypes in HD-NPCs and HD-NCs overexpressing miR-196a. Our results also suggested the regulatory role of miR-196a in HD pathogenesis that may hold the key for understanding molecular regulation in HD and developing novel therapeutics. PMID:27631085

  4. Pomegranate Supplementation Improves Affective and Motor Behavior in Mice after Radiation Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa S. Dulcich

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, NASA has plans for extended space travel, and previous research indicates that space radiation can have negative effects on cognitive skills as well as physical and mental health. With long-term space travel, astronauts will be exposed to greater radiation levels. Research shows that an antioxidant-enriched diet may offer some protection against the cellular effects of radiation and may provide significant neuroprotection from the effects of radiation-induced cognitive and behavioral skill deficits. Ninety-six C57BL/6 mice (48 pomegranate fed and 48 control were irradiated with proton radiation (2 Gy, and two-month postradiation behaviors were assessed using a battery of behavioral tests to measure cognitive and motor functions. Proton irradiation was associated with depression-like behaviors in the tail suspension test, but this effect was ameliorated by the pomegranate diet. Males, in general, displayed worse coordination and balance than females on the rotarod task, and the pomegranate diet ameliorated this effect. Overall, it appears that proton irradiation, which may be encountered in space, may induce a different pattern of behavioral deficits in males than females and that a pomegranate diet may confer protection against some of those effects.

  5. Pomegranate supplementation improves affective and motor behavior in mice after radiation exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulcich, Melissa S; Hartman, Richard E

    2013-01-01

    Currently, NASA has plans for extended space travel, and previous research indicates that space radiation can have negative effects on cognitive skills as well as physical and mental health. With long-term space travel, astronauts will be exposed to greater radiation levels. Research shows that an antioxidant-enriched diet may offer some protection against the cellular effects of radiation and may provide significant neuroprotection from the effects of radiation-induced cognitive and behavioral skill deficits. Ninety-six C57BL/6 mice (48 pomegranate fed and 48 control) were irradiated with proton radiation (2 Gy), and two-month postradiation behaviors were assessed using a battery of behavioral tests to measure cognitive and motor functions. Proton irradiation was associated with depression-like behaviors in the tail suspension test, but this effect was ameliorated by the pomegranate diet. Males, in general, displayed worse coordination and balance than females on the rotarod task, and the pomegranate diet ameliorated this effect. Overall, it appears that proton irradiation, which may be encountered in space, may induce a different pattern of behavioral deficits in males than females and that a pomegranate diet may confer protection against some of those effects. PMID:23662154

  6. Low Motor Assessment: A Comparative Pilot Study with Young Children With and Without Motor Impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiter, Selma Anne José; Nakken, Han; van der Meulen, Bieuwe F.; Lunenborg, Carolien B.

    2009-01-01

    Most of the developmental instruments that measure cognitive development in children rely heavily on fine motor skills, especially for young children whose language skills are not yet well developed. This is problematic when evaluating the cognitive development of young children with motor impairment. The purpose of this study is to assess the need for a Low Motor adapation of a standardized instrument when testing children with motor impairment. To accomplish this, we have adapted the proced...

  7. Terminal decline in motor function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Robert S; Segawa, Eisuke; Buchman, Aron S; Boyle, Patricia A; Hizel, Loren P; Bennett, David A

    2012-12-01

    The study aim was to test the hypothesis that motor function undergoes accelerated decline proximate to death. As part of a longitudinal clinical-pathologic study, 124 older Roman Catholic nuns, priests, and monks completed at least 7 annual clinical evaluations, died, and underwent brain autopsy and uniform neuropathologic examination. Each evaluation included administration of 11 motor tests and 19 cognitive tests from which global measures of motor and cognitive function were derived. The global motor measure (baseline M = 0.82, SD = 0.21) declined a mean 0.024 unit per year (95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.032, -0.016) until a mean of 2.46 years (95% CI: -2.870, -2.108) before death when rate of decline increased nearly fivefold to -0.117 unit per year (95% CI: -0.140, -0.097). The global cognitive measure (baseline M = 0.07, SD = 0.45) declined a mean of 0.027-unit per year (95% CI: -0.041, -0.014) until a mean of 2.76 years (95% CI: -3.157, -2.372) before death when rate of decline increased more than 13-fold to -0.371 unit per year (95% CI: -0.443, -0.306). Onset of terminal motor decline was highly correlated with onset of terminal cognitive decline (r = .94, 95% CI: 0.81, 0.99), but rates of motor and cognitive change were not strongly correlated (preterminal r = .20, 95% CI: -0.05, 0.38; terminal r = .34, 95% CI: 0.03, 0.62). Higher level of plaques and tangles was associated with earlier onset of terminal decline in motor function, but no pathologic measures were associated with rate of preterminal or terminal motor decline. The results demonstrate that motor and cognitive functions both undergo a period of accelerated decline in the last few years of life. PMID:22612603

  8. Laminar Cortical Dynamics of Cognitive and Motor Working Memory, Sequence Learning and Performance: Toward a Unified Theory of How the Cerebral Cortex Works

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossberg, Stephen; Pearson, Lance R.

    2008-01-01

    How does the brain carry out working memory storage, categorization, and voluntary performance of event sequences? The LIST PARSE neural model proposes an answer that unifies the explanation of cognitive, neurophysiological, and anatomical data. It quantitatively simulates human cognitive data about immediate serial recall and free recall, and…

  9. Neuropharmacological Aspects of Cognitive Neurorehabilitation in Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Mula

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of CNS neuromodulators in cognitive neurorehabilitation can be related to two main issues: (1 the negative impact on cognition of drug categories prescribed for different neurologic symptoms, such as spasticity, extrapyramidal symptoms, or epileptic seizures; (2 their possible role in neuroprotection and amelioration of the cognitive status of the patient, especially attention and memory. This paper reviews different pharmacological aspects of cognitive neurorehabilitation in epilepsy.

  10. A new comparator account of auditory verbal hallucination: how motor cognition can plausibly contribute to the sense of agency for inner speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren eSwiney

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The comparator account holds that processes of motor prediction contribute to the sense of agency by attenuating incoming sensory information and that disruptions to this process contribute to misattributions of agency in schizophrenia. Over the last 25 years this simple and powerful model has gained widespread support not only as it relates to bodily actions but also as an account of misattributions of agency for inner speech, potentially explaining the etiology of auditory verbal hallucination (AVH. In this paper we provide a detailed analysis of the traditional comparator account for inner speech, pointing out serious problems with the specification of inner speech on which it is based and highlighting inconsistencies in the interpretation of the electrophysiological evidence commonly cited in its favor. In light of these analyses we propose a new comparator account of misattributed inner speech. The new account follows leading models of motor imagery in proposing that inner speech is not attenuated by motor prediction, but rather derived directly from it. We describe how failures of motor prediction would therefore directly affect the phenomenology of inner speech as well as triggering a mismatch in the comparison between motor prediction and motor intention, contributing to abnormal feelings of agency. We argue that the new account fits with the emerging phenomenological evidence that AVH are both distinct from ordinary inner speech and heterogeneous. Finally, we explore the possibility that the new comparator account may extend to explain disruptions across a range of imagistic modalities, and outline avenues for future research.

  11. Wheel running from a juvenile age delays onset of specific motor deficits but does not alter protein aggregate density in a mouse model of Huntington's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spires Tara L

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Huntington's disease (HD is a neurodegenerative disorder predominantly affecting the cerebral cortex and striatum. Transgenic mice (R6/1 line, expressing a CAG repeat encoding an expanded polyglutamine tract in the N-terminus of the huntingtin protein, closely model HD. We have previously shown that environmental enrichment of these HD mice delays the onset of motor deficits. Furthermore, wheel running initiated in adulthood ameliorates the rear-paw clasping motor sign, but not an accelerating rotarod deficit. Results We have now examined the effects of enhanced physical activity via wheel running, commenced at a juvenile age (4 weeks, with respect to the onset of various behavioral deficits and their neuropathological correlates in R6/1 HD mice. HD mice housed post-weaning with running wheels only, to enhance voluntary physical exercise, have delayed onset of a motor co-ordination deficit on the static horizontal rod, as well as rear-paw clasping, although the accelerating rotarod deficit remains unaffected. Both wheel running and environmental enrichment rescued HD-induced abnormal habituation of locomotor activity and exploratory behavior in the open field. We have found that neither environment enrichment nor wheel running ameliorates the shrinkage of the striatum and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC in HD mice, nor the overall decrease in brain weight, measured at 9 months of age. At this age, the density of ubiquitinated protein aggregates in the striatum and ACC is also not significantly ameliorated by environmental enrichment or wheel running. Conclusion These results indicate that enhanced voluntary physical activity, commenced at an early presymptomatic stage, contributes to the positive effects of environmental enrichment. However, sensory and cognitive stimulation, as well as motor stimulation not associated with running, may constitute major components of the therapeutic benefits associated with enrichment

  12. Cognitive Impairment Involving Social Cognition in SPG4 Hereditary Spastic Paraplegia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludivine Chamard

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To describe cognitive assessment including social cognition in SPG4 patients. Methods. We reported a series of nine patients with SPG4 mutation with an extensive neuropsychological examination including social cognition assessment. Results. None of our patients presented with mental retardation or dementia. All presented with mild cognitive impairment with a high frequency of attention deficit (100%, executive disorders (89%, and social cognition impairment (78%. An asymptomatic patient for motor skills presented with the same cognitive profile. No correlation was found in this small sample between cognitive impairment and motor impairment, age at disease onset, or disease duration. Conclusions. SPG4 phenotypes share some cognitive features of frontotemporal lobar degeneration and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Cognitive disorders including executive disorders and social cognition impairment are frequent in SPG4 patients and might sometimes occur before motor disorders. Therefore, cognitive functions including social cognition should be systematically assessed in order to improve the clinical management of this population.

  13. Low Motor Assessment : A Comparative Pilot Study with Young Children With and Without Motor Impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiter, Selma Anne Jose; Nakken, Han; van der Meulen, Bieuwe F.; Lunenborg, Carolien B.

    2010-01-01

    Most of the developmental instruments that measure cognitive development in children rely heavily on fine motor skills, especially for young children whose language skills are not yet well developed. This is problematic when evaluating the cognitive development of young children with motor impairmen

  14. De novo mutations in the motor domain of KIF1A cause cognitive impairment, spastic paraparesis, axonal neuropathy, and cerebellar atrophy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, Jae Ran; Srour, Myriam; Kim, Doyoun; Hamdan, Fadi F.; Lim, So Hee; Brunel-Guitton, Catherine; Décarie, Jean Claude; Rossignol, Elsa; Mitchell, Grant A.; Schreiber, Allison; Moran, Rocio; Van Haren, Keith; Richardson, Randal; Nicolai, Joost; Oberndorff, Karin M E J; Wagner, Justin D.; Boycott, Kym M.; Rahikkala, Elisa; Junna, Nella; Tyynismaa, Henna; Cuppen, Inge; Verbeek, Nienke E.; Stumpel, Connie T R M; Willemsen, Michel A.; de Munnik, Sonja A.; Rouleau, Guy A.; Kim, Eunjoon; Kamsteeg, Erik Jan; Kleefstra, Tjitske; Michaud, Jacques L.

    2015-01-01

    KIF1A is a neuron-specific motor protein that plays important roles in cargo transport along neurites. Recessive mutations in KIF1A were previously described in families with spastic paraparesis or sensory and autonomic neuropathy type-2. Here, we report 11 heterozygous de novo missense mutations (p

  15. Human cognition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of human cognition encompasses the study of all mental phenomena, from the receipt and interpretation of sensory information to the final control of the motor system in the performance of action. The cognitive scientist examines all intermediary processes, including thought, decision making, and memory and including the effects of motivation, states of arousal and stress, the study of language, and the effects of social factors. The field therefore ranges over an enormous territory, covering all that is known or that should be known about human behavior. It is not possible to summarize the current state of knowledge about cognition with any great confidence that we know the correct answer about any aspect of the work. Nontheless, models provide good characterizations of certain aspects of the data and situations. Even if these models should prove to be incorrect, they do provide good approximate descriptions of people's behavior in some situations, and these approximations will still apply even when the underlying theories have changed. A quick description is provided of models within a number of areas of human cognition and skill and some general theoretical frameworks with which to view human cognition. The frameworks are qualitative descriptions that provide a way to view the development of more detailed, quantitative models and, most important, a way of thinking about human performance and skill

  16. AMELIORATIVE EFFECTS OF TINOSPORA CORDIFOLIA IN SCIATICA PAIN INDUCED RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaakur Santhrani

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed at investigating the ameliorative effect of Tinospora cordifolia in sciatic nerve root Ligation -induced sciatica pain in rats. Adult male albino rats weighing 130-150gm were used for the study, and were divided into seven groups and ligation was performed on left sciatic nerve in group II to group VII. Tail cold-hyperalgesia, motor co-ordination tests, foot deformity, and total calcium levels were estimated to assess the extent of sciatica. Superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, and lipid peroxide (LPO levels were estimated to evaluate the extent of oxidative stress. The alcoholic and aqueous extract of Tinospora cordifolia was administered at a dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg/p.o for 15 days. Tinospora cordifolia attenuated sciatic nerve root Ligation-induced motor in-coordination, foot deformity, tail cold hyperalgesia, reversed ligation-induced alterations in lipid peroxides, total calcium, superoxide dismutase, catalase levels in a dose-dependent manner. Ameliorative effects of Tinospora cordifolia in ligation-induced sciatica may be due to its foot deformity, antioxidant, and calcium attenuating actions.

  17. An Extra X or Y Chromosome: Contrasting the Cognitive and Motor Phenotypes in Childhood in Boys with 47,XYY Syndrome or 47,XXY Klinefelter Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Judith L.; Zeger, Martha P. D.; Kushner, Harvey; Zinn, Andrew R.; Roeltgen, David P.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The goal of this study was to contrast the cognitive phenotypes in boys with 47,XYY (XYY) karyotype and boys with 47,XXY karyotype [Klinefelter syndrome, (KS)], who share an extra copy of the X-Y pseudoautosomal region but differ in their dosage of strictly sex-linked genes. Methods: Neuropsychological evaluation of general cognitive…

  18. The hypoxia imaging agent CuII(atsm) is neuroprotective and improves motor and cognitive functions in multiple animal models of Parkinson’s disease

    OpenAIRE

    Hung, Lin W.; Victor L Villemagne; Cheng, Lesley; Nicki A. Sherratt; Ayton, Scott; White, Anthony R.; Peter J Crouch; Lim, SinChun; Leong, Su Ling; Wilkins, Simon; George, Jessica; Blaine R. Roberts; Chi L L Pham; Liu, Xiang(Research Center for Hadron and CSR Physics, Lanzhou University and Institute of Modern Physics of CAS, 730000, Lanzhou , China); Chiu, Francis C. K.

    2012-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a progressive, chronic disease characterized by dyskinesia, rigidity, instability, and tremors. The disease is defined by the presence of Lewy bodies, which primarily consist of aggregated α-synuclein protein, and is accompanied by the loss of monoaminergic neurons. Current therapeutic strategies only give symptomatic relief of motor impairment and do not address the underlying neurodegeneration. Hence, we have identified CuII(atsm) as a potential therapeutic for P...

  19. “Meta-motor”and Meta-cognition on assimilate models of motor learning process%“元动作”及其元认知——论动作的学习过程及其同化模式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许崇高

    2001-01-01

    依据学习的元认知理论,论述了“元动作”概念提出的意义及其应用价值,用元动作概念区分了动作的结构与层次。并借鉴认知结构同化理论,深入地分析了动作技能学习过程中存在的不同模式。笔者认为,提高元动作学习水平、改善动作协调能力、提高动作的自我监控能力和选择适合的教学与学习策略是提高动作学习效率的有效途径。%According to the meta-cognition theory of learning, a discussion have been made about the meaningful and useful value to set up a new conception-“meta-motor”,and motor-skills have been divided into structures and levels with “meta-motor”conception.It has been deeply analyzed for models in motor skill learning process by the cognition structure assimilate theory. Author consider that promoting meta-motor learning level. improving motor coordination and motor learning self-supervise benefits control ability and choosing appropriate teaching-learning tactics have benefits for promoting motor learning efficiency.

  20. A study investigating the acute dose-response effects of 13 mg and 17 mg Delta 9- tetrahydrocannabinol on cognitive-motor skills, subjective and autonomic measures in regular users of marijuana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, A; Brickner, O; Lerman, H; Greemland, M; Bloch, M; Lester, H; Chisin, R; Sarne, Y; Mechoulam, R; Bar-Hamburger, R; Freedman, N; Even-Sapir, E

    2008-06-01

    Heavy use of marijuana is claimed to damage critical skills related to short-term memory, visual scanning and attention. Motor skills and driving safety may be compromised by the acute effects of marijuana. The aim of this study was to investigate the acute effects of 13 mg and 17 mg Delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) on skills important for coordinated movement and driving and on subjective and autonomic measures in regular users of marijuana. Fourteen regular users of marijuana were enrolled. Each subject was tested on two separate days. On each test day, subjects smoked two low-nicotine cigarettes, one with and the other without THC. Seventeen mg THC was included in the cigarette on one test day and 13 mg on the other day. The sequence of cigarette types was unknown to the subject. During smoking, heart rate and blood pressure were monitored, and the subjects performed a virtual reality maze task requiring attention and motor coordination, followed by 3 other cognitive tasks (Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), a "gambling" task and estimation of time and distance from an approaching car). After smoking a cigarette with 17 mg THC, regular marijuana users hit the walls more often on the virtual maze task than after smoking cigarettes without THC; this effect was not seen in patients after they smoked cigarettes with 13 mg THC. Performance in the WCST was affected with 17 mg THC and to a lesser extent with the use of 13 mg THC. Decision making in the gambling task was affected after smoking cigarettes with 17 mg THC, but not with 13 m THC. Smoking cigarettes with 13 and 17 mg THC increased subjective ratings of pleasure and satisfaction, drug "effect" and drug "high". These findings imply that smoking of 17 mg THC results in impairment of cognitive-motor skills that could be important for coordinated movement and driving, whereas the lower dose of 13 mg THC appears to cause less impairment of such skills in regular users of marijuana. PMID:18635724

  1. Development of General Cerebellar Cognitive Module Used for Robot Motor Control%用于机器人运动控制的通用小脑认知模块的构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张少白; 周宁宁

    2012-01-01

    The researches on cerebellar model and sensory-motor system have gradually become an important direction in the field of robot technology. But it is not an ideal method to construct a special cerebellar model for every control task. Base on motor control theory,this paper has developed a general cerebellar cognitive module (GCCM) incorporating all major cell types and connections. GCCM learns to produce a desired output for a given context. As such its function is determined by how its inputs and outputs are connected in the system that it is embedded in. As a result, the GCCM can be used for different sensori-motor coordination control tasks in robot system. The simulation results show that the embedded cerebellar model allows stable and robust control of fast reaching movements if it combines detection of the trajectory errors at the spinal cord level with memory traces in the cerebellum.%用具有神经生理学性质的小脑模型实现对机器人系统各种不同感觉协调运动的控制,这是当前机器人控制领域的一个研究热点.但针对一种控制任务就要构建一种对应的小脑模型,这种方式效率很不理想.文中以运动控制为基础,构建了一种包括所有主要细胞类型及其连接的通用小脑认知模块(General Cerebellum Cognitive Module,GCCM).对给定的背景知识,GCCM能够通过学习生成理想输出,因而,可用于各种不同的机器人感觉运动控制任务.仿真实验证明,通过将脊髓层次上的轨迹误差检测与小脑中的记忆轨迹结合起来,嵌入的GCCM控制系统能对快速手臂延伸运动进行精确的鲁棒控制.

  2. Guanfacine ameliorates hypobaric hypoxia induced spatial working memory deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauser, H; Sahu, S; Kumar, S; Panjwani, U

    2014-01-17

    Hypobaric hypoxia (HH) observed at high altitude causes mild cognitive impairment specifically affecting attention and working memory. Adrenergic dysregulation and neuronal damage in prefrontal cortex (PFC) has been implicated in hypoxia induced memory deficits. Optimal stimulation of alpha 2A adrenergic receptor in PFC facilitates the spatial working memory (SWM) under the conditions of adrenergic dysregulation. Therefore the present study was designed to test the efficacy of alpha 2A adrenergic agonist, Guanfacine (GFC), to restore HH induced SWM deficits and PFC neuronal damage. The rats were exposed to chronic HH equivalent to 25,000ft for 7days in an animal decompression chamber and received daily treatment of GFC at a dose of 1mg/kg body weight via the intramuscular route during the period of exposure. The cognitive performance was assessed by Delayed Alternation Task (DAT) using T-Maze and PFC neuronal damage was studied by apoptotic and neurodegenerative markers. Percentage of correct choice decreased significantly while perseverative errors showed a significant increase after 7days HH exposure, GFC significantly ameliorated the SWM deficits and perseveration. There was a marked and significant increase in chromatin condensation, DNA fragmentation, neuronal pyknosis and fluoro Jade positive cells in layer II of the medial PFC in hypoxia exposed group, administration of GFC significantly reduced the magnitude of these changes. Modulation of adrenergic mechanisms by GFC may serve as an effective countermeasure in amelioration of prefrontal deficits and neurodegenerative changes during HH. PMID:24184415

  3. Infant Motor Assessment, Long-Term Clinical Outcome, Quantitative Cerebral MRI and Cognitive Training in Children Born Preterm with Very Low Birth Weight

    OpenAIRE

    Grunewaldt, Kristine Hermansen

    2014-01-01

    The preterm birth incidence and survival rates have been increasing over the last few decades due to advances in obstetric care and neonatal treatment. Despite this, the number of preterm children that develop severe neuroimpairments or more subtle difficulties within cognition, attention, behavioral and every day skills are still high. Perinatal brain injury, including diffuse and focal white matter necrosis and grey matter injury is the most common cause of the neuroimpairments in preterm c...

  4. Truncation of Ube3a-ATS unsilences paternal Ube3a and ameliorates behavioral defects in the Angelman syndrome mouse model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linyan Meng

    Full Text Available Angelman syndrome (AS is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder caused by maternal deficiency of the imprinted gene UBE3A. Individuals with AS suffer from intellectual disability, speech impairment, and motor dysfunction. Currently there is no cure for the disease. Here, we evaluated the phenotypic effect of activating the silenced paternal allele of Ube3a by depleting its antisense RNA Ube3a-ATS in mice. Premature termination of Ube3a-ATS by poly(A cassette insertion activates expression of Ube3a from the paternal chromosome, and ameliorates many disease-related symptoms in the AS mouse model, including motor coordination defects, cognitive deficit, and impaired long-term potentiation. Studies on the imprinting mechanism of Ube3a revealed a pattern of biallelic transcription initiation with suppressed elongation of paternal Ube3a, implicating transcriptional collision between sense and antisense polymerases. These studies demonstrate the feasibility and utility of unsilencing the paternal copy of Ube3a via targeting Ube3a-ATS as a treatment for Angelman syndrome.

  5. Motor neglect.

    OpenAIRE

    Laplane, D.; Degos, J D

    1983-01-01

    Motor neglect is characterised by an underutilisation of one side, without defects of strength, reflexes or sensibility. Twenty cases of frontal, parietal and thalamic lesions causing motor neglect, but all without sensory neglect, are reported. It is proposed that the cerebral structures involved in motor neglect are the same as those for sensory neglect and for the preparation of movement. As in sensory neglect, the multiplicity of the structures concerned suggests that this interconnection...

  6. Withholding a Reward-driven Action: Studies of the Rise and Fall of Motor Activation and the Effect of Cognitive Depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Scott M; Aron, Adam R

    2016-02-01

    Controlling an inappropriate response tendency in the face of a reward-predicting stimulus likely depends on the strength of the reward-driven activation, the strength of a putative top-down control process, and their relative timing. We developed a rewarded go/no-go paradigm to investigate such dynamics. Participants made rapid responses (on go trials) to high versus low reward-predicting stimuli and sometimes had to withhold responding (on no-go trials) in the face of the same stimuli. Behaviorally, for high versus low reward stimuli, responses were faster on go trials, and there were more errors of commission on no-go trials. We used single-pulse TMS to map out the corticospinal excitability dynamics, especially on no-go trials where control is needed. For successful no-go trials, there was an early rise in motor activation that was then sharply reduced beneath baseline. This activation-reduction pattern was more pronounced for high- versus low-reward trials and in individuals with greater motivational drive for reward. A follow-on experiment showed that, when participants were fatigued by an effortful task, they made more errors on no-go trials for high versus low reward stimuli. Together, these studies show that, when a response is inappropriate, reward-predicting stimuli induce early motor activation, followed by a top-down effortful control process (which we interpret as response suppression) that depends on the strength of the preceding activation. Our findings provide novel information about the activation-suppression dynamics during control over reward-driven actions, and they illustrate how fatigue or depletion leads to control failures in the face of reward.

  7. Study protocol: a randomised controlled trial of the effects of a multi-modal exercise program on cognition and physical functioning in older women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaughan Sue

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intervention studies testing the efficacy of cardiorespiratory exercise have shown some promise in terms of improving cognitive function in later life. Recent developments suggest that a multi-modal exercise intervention that includes motor as well as physical training and requires sustained attention and concentration, may better elicit the actual potency of exercise to enhance cognitive performance. This study will test the effect of a multi-modal exercise program, for older women, on cognitive and physical functioning. Methods/design This randomised controlled trial involves community dwelling women, without cognitive impairment, aged 65–75 years. Participants are randomised to exercise intervention or non-exercise control groups, for 16 weeks. The intervention consists of twice weekly, 60 minute, exercise classes incorporating aerobic, strength, balance, flexibility, co-ordination and agility training. Primary outcomes are measures of cognitive function and secondary outcomes include physical functioning and a neurocognitive biomarker (brain derived neurotrophic factor. Measures are taken at baseline and 16 weeks later and qualitative data related to the experience and acceptability of the program are collected from a sub-sample of the intervention group. Discussion If this randomised controlled trial demonstrates that multimodal exercise (that includes motor fitness training can improve cognitive performance in later life, the benefits will be two-fold. First, an inexpensive, effective strategy will have been developed that could ameliorate the increased prevalence of age-related cognitive impairment predicted to accompany population ageing. Second, more robust evidence will have been provided about the mechanisms that link exercise to cognitive improvement allowing future research to be better focused and potentially more productive. Trial registration Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trial Registration Number

  8. Amelioration of behavioral abnormalities in BH(4-deficient mice by dietary supplementation of tyrosine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Su Kwak

    Full Text Available This study reports an amelioration of abnormal motor behaviors in tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4-deficient Spr (-/- mice by the dietary supplementation of tyrosine. Since BH4 is an essential cofactor for the conversion of phenylalanine into tyrosine as well as the synthesis of dopamine neurotransmitter within the central nervous system, the levels of tyrosine and dopamine were severely reduced in brains of BH4-deficient Spr (-/- mice. We found that Spr (-/- mice display variable 'open-field' behaviors, impaired motor functions on the 'rotating rod', and dystonic 'hind-limb clasping'. In this study, we report that these aberrant motor deficits displayed by Spr (-/- mice were ameliorated by the therapeutic tyrosine diet for 10 days. This study also suggests that dopamine deficiency in brains of Spr (-/- mice may not be the biological feature of aberrant motor behaviors associated with BH4 deficiency. Brain levels of dopamine (DA and its metabolites in Spr (-/- mice were not substantially increased by the dietary tyrosine therapy. However, we found that mTORC1 activity severely suppressed in brains of Spr (-/- mice fed a normal diet was restored 10 days after feeding the mice the tyrosine diet. The present study proposes that brain mTORC1 signaling pathway is one of the potential targets in understanding abnormal motor behaviors associated with BH4-deficiency.

  9. Attentional Demands on Motor-Respiratory Coordination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessler, Eric E.; Amazeen, Polemnia G.

    2009-01-01

    Athletic performance requires the pacing of breathing with exercise, known as motor-respiratory coordination (MRC). In this study, we added cognitive and physical constraints while participants intentionally controlled their breathing locations during rhythmic arm movement. This is the first study to examine a cognitive constraint on MRC.…

  10. Apraxia and motor dysfunction in corticobasal syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James R Burrell

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Corticobasal syndrome (CBS is characterized by multifaceted motor system dysfunction and cognitive disturbance; distinctive clinical features include limb apraxia and visuospatial dysfunction. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS has been used to study motor system dysfunction in CBS, but the relationship of TMS parameters to clinical features has not been studied. The present study explored several hypotheses; firstly, that limb apraxia may be partly due to visuospatial impairment in CBS. Secondly, that motor system dysfunction can be demonstrated in CBS, using threshold-tracking TMS, and is linked to limb apraxia. Finally, that atrophy of the primary motor cortex, studied using voxel-based morphometry analysis (VBM, is associated with motor system dysfunction and limb apraxia in CBS. METHODS: Imitation of meaningful and meaningless hand gestures was graded to assess limb apraxia, while cognitive performance was assessed using the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination - Revised (ACE-R, with particular emphasis placed on the visuospatial subtask. Patients underwent TMS, to assess cortical function, and VBM. RESULTS: In total, 17 patients with CBS (7 male, 10 female; mean age 64.4+/- 6.6 years were studied and compared to 17 matched control subjects. Of the CBS patients, 23.5% had a relatively inexcitable motor cortex, with evidence of cortical dysfunction in the remaining 76.5% patients. Reduced resting motor threshold, and visuospatial performance, correlated with limb apraxia. Patients with a resting motor threshold <50% performed significantly worse on the visuospatial sub-task of the ACE-R than other CBS patients. Cortical function correlated with atrophy of the primary and pre-motor cortices, and the thalamus, while apraxia correlated with atrophy of the pre-motor and parietal cortices. CONCLUSIONS: Cortical dysfunction appears to underlie the core clinical features of CBS, and is associated with atrophy of the primary motor and

  11. Understanding social motor coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, R C; Fitzpatrick, Paula; Caron, Robert; Mergeche, Joanna

    2011-10-01

    Recently there has been much interest in social coordination of motor movements, or as it is referred to by some researchers, joint action. This paper reviews the cognitive perspective's common coding/mirror neuron theory of joint action, describes some of its limitations and then presents the behavioral dynamics perspective as an alternative way of understanding social motor coordination. In particular, behavioral dynamics' ability to explain the temporal coordination of interacting individuals is detailed. Two experiments are then described that demonstrate how dynamical processes of synchronization are apparent in the coordination underlying everyday joint actions such as martial art exercises, hand-clapping games, and conversations. The import of this evidence is that emergent dynamic patterns such as synchronization are the behavioral order that any neural substrate supporting joint action (e.g., mirror systems) would have to sustain.

  12. Sex Differences in Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairweather, Hugh

    1976-01-01

    Sex differences in cognitive skills, grouped into motor, spatial and linguistic areas, are assessed in relation to current theories of cerebral lateralization. Few convincing sex differences exist, either overall, or in interactions with functional localization. Qualifying criteria include age, birth order, culture, sex of experimenter and sex…

  13. Closing the gap between clinic and cage: sensori-motor and cognitive behavioural testing regimens in neurotoxin-induced animal models of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pienaar, Ilse S; Lu, Bingwei; Schallert, Timothy

    2012-11-01

    Animal models that make use of chemical toxins to adversely affect the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway of rodents and primates have contributed significantly towards the development of symptomatic therapies for Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. Although their use in developing neuro-therapeutic and -regenerative compounds remains to be ascertained, toxin-based mammalian and a range of non-mammalian models of PD are important tools in the identification and validation of candidate biomarkers for earlier diagnosis, as well as in the development of novel treatments that are currently working their way into the clinic. Toxin models of PD have and continue to be important models to use for understanding the consequences of nigrostriatal dopamine cell loss. Functional assessment of these models is also a critical component for eventual translational success. Sensitive behavioural testing regimens for assessing the extent of dysfunction exhibited in the toxin models, the degree of protection or improvement afforded by potential treatment modalities, and the correlation of these findings with what is observed clinically in PD patients, ultimately determines whether a potential treatment moves to clinical trials. Here, we review existing published work that describes the use of such behavioural outcome measures associated with toxin models of parkinsonism. In particular, we focus on tests assessing sensorimotor and cognitive function, both of which are significantly and progressively impaired in PD. PMID:22910679

  14. Motor homopolar

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Mostramos la construcción de un modelo de motor homopolar, uno de los más antiguos tipos de motores eléctricos. Se caracterizan porque el campo magnético del imán mantiene siempre la misma polaridad (de ahí su nombre, del griego homos, igual), de modo que, cuando una corriente eléctrica atraviesa el campo magnético, aparece una fuerza que hace girar los elementos no fijados mecánicamente. En el sencillísimo motor homopolar colgado (Schlichting y Ucke 2004), el imán puede girar ...

  15. Lithium ameliorates phenotypic deficits in a mouse model of fragile X syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Zhong-hua; Chuang, De-Maw; Smith, Carolyn Beebe

    2010-01-01

    As our understanding of the underlying defects in fragile X syndrome (FXS) increases so does the potential for development of treatments aimed at modulating the defects and ameliorating the constellation of symptoms seen in patients. Symptoms of FXS include cognitive disability, hyperactivity, autistic behavior, seizures and learning deficits. Lithium is a drug used clinically to treat bipolar disorder, and it has been used to treat mood dysregulation in individuals with FXS. We examined whet...

  16. Development of motor, cognition and language in children with congenital heart disease%先天性心脏病患儿运动、认知及言语发育情况

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨晓颜; 孙锟; 杜青; 陈笋; 周璇; 白凯; 沈加; 杨玲; 邓巍巍

    2015-01-01

    加强对CHD患儿的运动、认知、言语发育的评估与康复.%Objective To investigate the development in motor,cognition and language of children with congenital heart disease(CHD),and to guide the functional rehabilitation of children with CHD.Methods Peabody developmental scales-2 (PDMS-2) was used to evaluate the gross and fine motor development in 113 children with CHD (age:0-6 years old),and Gesell was used to evaluate their cognition and language development.The gross motor quotient (GMQ),fine motor quotient (FMQ),total motor quotient (TMQ),adaptability developmental quotient (DQ) and language DQ,personal-social DQ of the children were analyzed.According to the diagnosis of the children with CHD,children were divided into 5 groups:atrial septal defect,ventricular septal defect,pulmonary stenosis,patent ductus arteriosus,and other CHD.The differences in the growth indexes among groups were compared,and the difference between the male and the female children was compared.Results Of 113 children with CHD,3.5 % (4 cases) children had very poor gross motor function,11.5% (13 cases) poor,29.2% (33 cases) lower middle,and 55.8% (63 cases) medium.Fine motor function:1.8 % (2 cases) children had very poor function,4.4% (5 cases) poor,16.8 % (19 cases)lower middle,66.4% (75 cases) medium,and 10.6% (12 cases) upper middle.Total motor function:3.5% (4 cases)children had poor motor function,7.1% (8 cases) poor,15.9% (18 cases) lower middle,and 73.5% (83 cases) medium.The abnormal rate was 15.9% (18 cases),16.8% (19 cases),10.6% (12 cases) in adaptive,language and personal-social with Gesell separately,and 15.9 % (18 cases),15.9% (18 cases),and 19.5 % (22 cases) of CHD children at the edge level separately.GMQ,FMQ,TMQ in the children with other type of CHD were lower than those in the other 4 groups (atrial septal defect,ventricular septal defect,pulmonary stenosis,patent ductus arteriosus),and the differences were

  17. Application of stepping motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book is divided into three parts, which is about practical using of stepping motor. The first part has six chapters. The contents of the first part are about stepping motor, classification of stepping motor, basic theory og stepping motor, characteristic and basic words, types and characteristic of stepping motor in hybrid type and basic control of stepping motor. The second part deals with application of stepping motor with hardware of stepping motor control, stepping motor control by microcomputer and software of stepping motor control. The last part mentions choice of stepping motor system, examples of stepping motor, measurement of stepping motor and practical cases of application of stepping motor.

  18. Affect of mood and cognitive function on motor function in patients with acute cerebral infarction%情绪和认知功能对早期脑梗死患者运动功能影响的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱菊清; 冯子平; 杨旭东; 伯丹花; 陈世兵

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the relationship between motor dysfunction with cognitive function and mood among patients with a-cute cerebral infarction. Methods:Collected 78 cases patients with cerebral infarction, use upper limb function assessment table (DASH), 10m walking speed, Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), Self -Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS), Self -Rating Depression Scale ( SDS) to assess;comparison of patients with diffusion tensor imaging ( DTI) parameters:fractional anisotropy ( FA) values, and the ap-parent diffusion coefficient ( ADC) and FA index, ADC index, then correlation analysis and assessment of cognitive and emotional.Re-sults:DASH score and 10m walking speed had no correlation with MoCA, SAS, SDS scores (P>0.05);FA values in the ipsilateral and contralateral handers were negatively correlated (P<0.05) with SDS sorce.Conclusion:Cerebral infarction movement disorders might have no correlation with mood and cognitive function, while the infarct-induced defects in patients with neural networks should be associ-ated with emotions.%目的:研究脑梗死患者早期运动功能障碍与认知功能和情绪之间的关系。方法:收集自2011年5月~2014年5月于我院就诊的脑梗死患者78例,用上肢功能评定表( DASH)、10m步行速度、认知评估量表( MoCA)、焦虑自评量表( SAS)、抑郁自评量表( SDS)进行评定;比较患者弥散张量成像( DTI)相关参数:各向异性分数( FA)值、表观扩散系数( ADC)和FA指数、ADC指数,并与认知和情绪评估结果进行相关性分析。结果:DASH评分和10m步行速度与MoCA、SAS、SDS评分无相关性( P>0.05);患侧和健侧内囊后肢的FA值均与SDS评分呈负相关(P<0.05)。结论:脑梗死患者早期运动障碍与情绪和认知功能无相关性,而梗死灶所致的神经网络缺损则与情绪相关。

  19. Individual Differences in Language Development: Relationship with Motor Skill at 21 Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcock, Katherine J.; Krawczyk, Kirsty

    2010-01-01

    Language development has long been associated with motor development, particularly manual gesture. We examined a variety of motor abilities--manual gesture including symbolic, meaningless and sequential memory, oral motor control, gross and fine motor control--in 129 children aged 21 months. Language abilities were assessed and cognitive and…

  20. Motor learning and working memory in children born preterm: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongbloed-Pereboom, M.; Janssen, A.J.W.M.; Steenbergen, Bert; Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, M.W.G.

    2012-01-01

    Children born preterm have a higher risk for developing motor, cognitive, and behavioral problems. Motor problems can occur in combination with working memory problems, and working memory is important for explicit learning of motor skills. The relation between motor learning and working memory has n

  1. Motor learning and working memory in children born preterm: a systematic review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongbloed-Pereboom, M.; Janssen, A.J.W.M.; Steenbergen, B.; Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, M.W.G.

    2012-01-01

    Children born preterm have a higher risk for developing motor, cognitive, and behavioral problems. Motor problems can occur in combination with working memory problems, and working memory is important for explicit learning of motor skills. The relation between motor learning and working memory has n

  2. Motor assessment in pediatric neuropsychology: relationships to executive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaheen, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    Executive function often refers to control behaviors such as "initiating," "sustaining," "inhibiting," and "switching." These mechanisms contribute to regulation of thinking and emotion but can be observed most clearly in the motor system. Neuropsychology has been influenced by "top-down" models of cognitive control that emerged from information-processing theories of cognition. In fact, neural models provide evidence that control processes are highly interactive within the cortico-striatal-cerebellar circuits. Cognition unfolds in response to motor-driven adaptation, and evidence exists for similar firing of brain cells and circuits during "imagined action" as in actual motor behavior. The motor system develops early and yet is not routinely assessed in neuropsychological evaluation of children with neurodevelopmental disorders. This article reviews some of the approaches to motor assessment that have sensitivity to neurodevelopmental disorders, and advocates for inclusion of motor assessment, particularly in evaluating control processes independent of culture, language, and other confounders.

  3. Neural Plastic Effects of Cognitive Training on Aging Brain

    OpenAIRE

    Leung, Natalie T. Y.; Tam, Helena M. K.; Leung W. Chu; Kwok, Timothy C. Y.; Felix Chan; Lam, Linda C. W.; Jean Woo; Lee, Tatia M. C.

    2015-01-01

    Increasing research has evidenced that our brain retains a capacity to change in response to experience until late adulthood. This implies that cognitive training can possibly ameliorate age-associated cognitive decline by inducing training-specific neural plastic changes at both neural and behavioral levels. This longitudinal study examined the behavioral effects of a systematic thirteen-week cognitive training program on attention and working memory of older adults who were at risk of cogni...

  4. THE MOTOR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard Nielsen, Anders

    2011-01-01

    MOTOR is the first assignment that students at Unit 1a of the School of Architecture are introduced to. The purpose of the assignment is to shake up the students and their preconceptions of what architec- ture is. This is done by introducing them to a working method that al- lows them to develop...

  5. Motor Magnates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ISABEL DING

    2008-01-01

    @@ The automotive industry is often seen as a man's world. Wang Fengying (王风英) begs to differ. The 38-year-old has presided over Great Wall Motors (长城汽车), the leading pick-up truck and Sport Utility Vehicle(SUV) manufacturer in China for the past five years.

  6. Motor radiculopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Afsha; Camilleri, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    A 48-year-old immunosuppressed woman presented to a rheumatology follow-up clinic after suffering from herpes zoster infection. She had manifestations of foot drop 3 months after the initial infection. She was diagnosed with motor radiculopathy following herpes zoster infection that was effectively managed by physiotherapy and amitriptyline.

  7. LINGO-1 antibody ameliorates myelin impairment and spatial memory deficits in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jun-Jun; Ren, Qing-Guo; Xu, Lin; Zhang, Zhi-Jun

    2015-09-18

    More than 50% of multiple sclerosis patients develop cognitive impairment. However, the underlying mechanisms are still unclear, and there is no effective treatment. LINGO-1 (LRR and Ig domain containing NOGO receptor interacting protein 1) has been identified as an inhibitor of oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelination. Using the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mouse model, we assessed cognitive function at early and late stages of EAE, determined brain expression of myelin basic protein (MBP) and investigated whether the LINGO-1 antibody could restore deficits in learning and memory and ameliorate any loss of MBP. We found that deficits in learning and memory occurred in late EAE and identified decreased expression of MBP in the parahippocampal cortex (PHC) and fimbria-fornix. Moreover, the LINGO-1 antibody significantly improved learning and memory in EAE and partially restored MBP in PHC. Furthermore, the LINGO-1 antibody activated the AKT/mTOR signaling pathway regulating myelin growth. Our results suggest that demyelination in the PHC and fimbria-fornix might contribute to cognitive deficits and the LINGO-1 antibody could ameliorate these deficits by promoting myelin growth in the PHC. Our research demonstrates that LINGO-1 antagonism may be an effective approach to the treatment of the cognitive impairment of multiple sclerosis patients.

  8. Exercise Training and Cognitive Rehabilitation: A Symbiotic Approach for Rehabilitating Walking and Cognitive Functions in Multiple Sclerosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motl, Robert W; Sandroff, Brian M; DeLuca, John

    2016-07-01

    The current review develops a rationale and framework for examining the independent and combined effects of exercise training and cognitive rehabilitation on walking and cognitive functions in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS). To do so, we first review evidence for improvements in walking and cognitive outcomes with exercise training and cognitive rehabilitation in MS. We then review evidence regarding cognitive-motor coupling and possible cross-modality transfer effects of exercise training and cognitive rehabilitation. We lastly present a macro-level framework for considering mechanisms that might explain improvements in walking and cognitive dysfunction with exercise and cognitive rehabilitation individually and combined in MS. We conclude that researchers should consider examining the effects of exercise training and cognitive rehabilitation on walking, cognition, and cognitive-motor interactions in MS and the possible physiological and central mechanisms for improving these functions. PMID:27261483

  9. Advanced Motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knoth, Edward A.; Chelluri, Bhanumathi; Schumaker, Edward J.

    2012-12-14

    Project Summary Transportation energy usage is predicted to increase substantially by 2020. Hybrid vehicles and fuel cell powered vehicles are destined to become more prominent as fuel prices rise with the demand. Hybrid and fuel cell vehicle platforms are both dependent on high performance electric motors. Electric motors for transportation duty will require sizeable low-speed torque to accelerate the vehicle. As motor speed increases, the torque requirement decreases which results in a nearly constant power motor output. Interior permanent magnet synchronous motors (IPMSM) are well suited for this duty. , , These rotor geometries are configured in straight lines and semi circular arc shapes. These designs are of limited configurations because of the lack of availability of permanent magnets of any other shapes at present. We propose to fabricate rotors via a novel processing approach where we start with magnet powders and compact them into a net shape rotor in a single step. Using this approach, widely different rotor designs can be implemented for efficiency. The current limitation on magnet shape and thickness will be eliminated. This is accomplished by co-filling magnet and soft iron powders at specified locations in intricate shapes using specially designed dies and automatic powder filling station. The process fundamentals for accomplishing occurred under a previous Applied Technology Program titled, “Motors and Generators for the 21st Century”. New efficient motor designs that are not currently possible (or cost prohibitive) can be accomplished by this approach. Such an approach to

  10. 27 CFR 24.178 - Amelioration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Amelioration. 24.178 Section 24.178 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... is calculated as tartaric acid for grapes, malic acid for apples, and citric acid for other...

  11. 低危晚期早产儿学龄前期认知和视觉运动整和能力研究%Cognitive and visual-motor integration performance in low-risk late preterm preschoolers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯菁菁; 徐秀; 郭书娟; 王卫平

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] To investigate low-risk late preterm preschoolers' cognitive and visual-motor integration performance and compare them to normal children. [Methods] Participants were 31 late preterm and 38 normal children who were 4 to 6 years old and were free from major disability. They were evaluated using the Chinese population adaptation of the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (WPPSI) and Berry visual-motor integration kit (VMI). [Results] The mean scores of VIQ, PIQ and FIQ in preterm and full-term group were 97 + 21, 107+15, 102 + 18; 112+15, 128 + 12, 122±11 respectively. Compared with normal children,the preterm preschoolers had significantly lower level in the tests of verbal, performance and overall intelligence quotients (Pcognition capability still have poorer cognitive ability compared with the normal children. Moreover, they are at risk of defect in visual-spatial perception and higher-functional verbal capability. Detection specific visual perceptual and verbal dysfunction before school age, even in children with a low risk of mental and neurological problems could provide specific rehabilitative strategies to prevent learning and/or behavioral problems.%目的 探究学龄前期低危晚期早产儿认知发育状态和视觉-运动整合能力,比较其与同龄正常儿童的差异,为实施针对性干预方案提供依据 方法 以上海-Wechsler学前及初学儿童智能测验量表和中国修订Beery视

  12. Cognitive change in Parkinson's disease

    OpenAIRE

    Schmand, B.A.; Ridderinkhof, K.R.; Bie, de, R.W.; Broeders, M

    2015-01-01

    In 1817, James Parkinson published his essay on the shaking palsy; a disease now well-known as Parkinson’s disease. In his essay, Parkinson described the characteristic motor features of PD. Nowadays however, it is recognized that PD is more than a pure motor disease, is also accompanied by cognitive impairment. Despite an increase of prognostic longitudinal studies that focus on the course of cognitive change in PD in the past decennia, much remains unclear about the pattern and profile of c...

  13. Complex Motor Learning in Four-Year-Olds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leithwood, K. A.; Fowler, W.

    1971-01-01

    The effects of 4 months of gymnostic training upon complex and simple gross motor abilities and general cognitive and psychosocial functioning in 4-year-olds were compared with the effects of music training and no treatment. (WY)

  14. Towards a vygotskyan cognitive robotics: the role of language as a cognitive tool

    OpenAIRE

    Mirolli, Marco; Parisi, Domenico

    2011-01-01

    Cognitive Robotics can be defined as the study of cognitive phenomena by their modeling in physical artifacts such as robots. This is a very lively and fascinating field which has already given fundamental contributions to our understanding of natural cognition. Nonetheless, robotics has to date addressed mainly very basic, low-level cognitive phenomena like sensory-motor coordination, perception, and navigation, and it is not clear how the current approach might scale up to explain high-leve...

  15. Six months of dance intervention enhances postural, sensorimotor, and cognitive performance in elderly without affecting cardio-respiratory functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan-ChristophKattenstroth

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available During aging, sensorimotor, cognitive and physical performance decline, but can improve by training and exercise indicating that age-related changes are treatable. Dancing is increasingly used as an intervention because it combines many diverse features making it a promising neuroplasticity-inducing tool. We here investigated the effects of a 6-months dance class (1 h/week on a group of healthy elderly individuals compared to a matched control group. We performed a broad assessment covering cognition, intelligence, attention, reaction time, motor, tactile, and postural performance, as well as subjective well-being and cardio-respiratory performance. After 6 months, in the control group no changes, or further degradation of performance was found. In the dance group, beneficial effects were found for dance-related parameters such as posture and reaction times, but also for cognitive, tactile, motor performance, and subjective well-being. These effects developed without alterations in the cardio-respiratory performance. Correlation of baseline performance with the improvement following intervention revealed that those individuals, who benefitted most from the intervention, were those who showed the lowest performance prior to the intervention. Our findings corroborate previous observations that dancing evokes widespread positive effects. The pre-post design used in the present study implies that the efficacy of dance is most likely not based on a selection bias of particularly gifted individuals. The lack of changes of cardio-respiratory fitness indicates that even moderate levels of physical activity can in combination with rich sensorimotor, cognitive, social, and emotional challenges act to ameliorate a wide spectrum of age-related decline.

  16. Six months of dance intervention enhances postural, sensorimotor, and cognitive performance in elderly without affecting cardio-respiratory functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kattenstroth, Jan-Christoph; Kalisch, Tobias; Holt, Stephan; Tegenthoff, Martin; Dinse, Hubert R

    2013-01-01

    During aging, sensorimotor, cognitive and physical performance decline, but can improve by training and exercise indicating that age-related changes are treatable. Dancing is increasingly used as an intervention because it combines many diverse features making it a promising neuroplasticity-inducing tool. We here investigated the effects of a 6-month dance class (1 h/week) on a group of healthy elderly individuals compared to a matched control group (CG). We performed a broad assessment covering cognition, intelligence, attention, reaction time, motor, tactile, and postural performance, as well as subjective well-being and cardio-respiratory performance. After 6 months, in the CG no changes, or further degradation of performance was found. In the dance group, beneficial effects were found for dance-related parameters such as posture and reaction times, but also for cognitive, tactile, motor performance, and subjective well-being. These effects developed without alterations in the cardio-respiratory performance. Correlation of baseline performance with the improvement following intervention revealed that those individuals, who benefitted most from the intervention, were those who showed the lowest performance prior to the intervention. Our findings corroborate previous observations that dancing evokes widespread positive effects. The pre-post design used in the present study implies that the efficacy of dance is most likely not based on a selection bias of particularly gifted individuals. The lack of changes of cardio-respiratory fitness indicates that even moderate levels of physical activity can in combination with rich sensorimotor, cognitive, social, and emotional challenges act to ameliorate a wide spectrum of age-related decline.

  17. Cerebellar Development and Plasticity: Perspectives for Motor Coordination Strategies, for Motor Skills, and for Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. D. Swinny

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of the mammalian cerebellum ranges from motor coordination, sensory-motor integration, motor learning, and timing to nonmotor functions such as cognition. In terms of motor function, the development of the cerebellum is of particular interest because animal studies show that the development of the cerebellar cortical circuitry closely parallels motor coordination. Ultrastructural analysis of the morphological development of the cerebellar circuitry, coupled with the temporal and spatial identification of the neurochemical substrates expressed during development, will help to elucidate their roles in the establishment of the cerebellar circuitry and hence motor activity. Furthermore, the convenience of a number of naturally occurring mouse mutations has allowed a functional dissection of the various cellular elements that make up the cerebellar circuitry. This understanding will also help in the approach to possible therapies of pathologies arising during development because tile cerebellum is especially prone to such perturbation because of its late development.

  18. 左归丸和巴氯芬联用对脑瘫鼠运动认知的影响%Effect of combined application of Zuoguiwan and Baclofen on motor and cognition of rats with cerebral palsy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玲; 焦银香; 张菡; 李静; 李红霞

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of the combined application of Zuoguiwan and Baclofen on motor coordination ability and cognitive function of newborn rats with cerebral palsy ( CP) and to study its possible mechanism.Methods SD rats were randomly divided into sham-operated group, CP model without treatment group, CP model with Zuoguiwan group, CP model with Baclofen group, and CP model with Zuoguiwan combined with Baclofen group.Neurobehavioral indexes were detected in each group before treatment, 7, 14, 21 and 28 day treatment, and 7 day after treatment, respectively.TNF-αand NOS in serum, and MDA and SOD in brain tissue of rats were measured in each group 7 day after treatment.Results Compared with CP model without treatment group, muscle tension reduced significantly and the time of going through the balance reduced in Baclofen group and Zuoguiwan combined with Baclofen group after having taken the drugs for 14 days (t value was 4.603, 5.590, 6.337 and 5.575, respectively, all P0.05).Conclusion Compared with single drug therapy, combined application of Zuoguiwan and Baclofen can improve motor more obviously, and it may improve the cognition function of rats by protecting neurocyte and repairing neuron.%目的:探讨左归丸和巴氯芬联用对新生脑瘫大鼠运动协调能力和认知能力的影响,并研究其可能的机制。方法随机将SD大鼠分为假手术组、脑瘫( CP)模型未给药组、CP模型左归丸组、CP模型巴氯芬组以及CP模型左归丸+巴氯芬联用组。分别于药物处理前,处理7、14、21、28天及治疗结束后7天时分别测定各组大鼠神经行为学指标,治疗结束后7天后测定血清中肿瘤坏死因子( TNF-α),一氧化氮合酶( NOS)和脑组织中丙二醛( MDA)、超氧化物歧化酶( SOD)的变化。结果巴氯芬治疗组和联用组在服药14天后与同期CP模型未给药组比较肌张力显著降低(t值分别为4.603、5.590,均P<0

  19. Brain microvascular endothelial cell transplantation ameliorates ischemic white matter damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puentes, Sandra; Kurachi, Masashi; Shibasaki, Koji; Naruse, Masae; Yoshimoto, Yuhei; Mikuni, Masahiko; Imai, Hideaki; Ishizaki, Yasuki

    2012-08-21

    Ischemic insults affecting the internal capsule result in sensory-motor disabilities which adversely affect the patient's life. Cerebral endothelial cells have been reported to exert a protective effect against brain damage, so the transplantation of healthy endothelial cells might have a beneficial effect on the outcome of ischemic brain damage. In this study, endothelin-1 (ET-1) was injected into the rat internal capsule to induce lacunar infarction. Seven days after ET-1 injection, microvascular endothelial cells (MVECs) were transplanted into the internal capsule. Meningeal cells or 0.2% bovine serum albumin-Hank's balanced salt solution were injected as controls. Two weeks later, the footprint test and histochemical analysis were performed. We found that MVEC transplantation improved the behavioral outcome based on recovery of hind-limb rotation angle (P<0.01) and induced remyelination (P<0.01) compared with the control groups. Also the inflammatory response was repressed by MVEC transplantation, judging from fewer ED-1-positive activated microglial cells in the MVEC-transplanted group than in the other groups. Elucidation of the mechanisms by which MVECs ameliorate ischemic damage of the white matter may provide important information for the development of effective therapies for white matter ischemia. PMID:22771710

  20. Language and motor speech skills in children with cerebral palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pirila, Sija; van der Meere, Jaap; Pentikainen, Taina; Ruusu-Niemi, Pirjo; Korpela, Raija; Kilpinen, Jenni; Nieminen, Pirkko; Ruusu-Niemin, P; Kilpinen, R

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate associations between the severity of motor limitations, cognitive difficulties, language and motor speech problems in children with cerebral palsy. Also, the predictive power of neonatal cranial ultrasound findings on later outcome was investigated. For this p

  1. Visual-Motor Skills as a Predictor of Written Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiello-Cloutier, Mary

    This study investigated the relationship between the Developmental Test of Visual Motor Integration-Revised (VMI-R) and written expression skills of 54 students (grades 2 to 7) with learning disabilities. Data analysis compared cognitive ability; visual motor skills; achievement in reading, math, and written language; teacher rating of written…

  2. Language and Motor Speech Skills in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirila, Silja; van der Meere, Jaap; Pentikainen, Taina; Ruusu-Niemi, Pirjo; Korpela, Raija; Kilpinen, Jenni; Nieminen, Pirkko

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate associations between the severity of motor limitations, cognitive difficulties, language and motor speech problems in children with cerebral palsy. Also, the predictive power of neonatal cranial ultrasound findings on later outcome was investigated. For this purpose, 36 children (age range 1 year 10 months…

  3. Linguistic Correlates of Asymmetric Motor Symptom Severity in Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtgraves, Thomas; McNamara, Patrick; Cappaert, Kevin; Durso, Raymond

    2010-01-01

    Asymmetric motor severity is common in Parkinson's Disease (PD) and provides a method for examining the neurobiologic mechanisms underlying cognitive and linguistic deficits associated with the disorder. In the present research, PD participants (N = 31) were assessed in terms of the asymmetry of their motor symptoms. Interviews with the…

  4. Fetal Brain Behavior and Cognitive Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, R.

    2000-01-01

    Presents information on prenatal brain development, detailing the functions controlled by the medulla, pons, and midbrain, and the implications for cognitive development. Concludes that fetal cognitive motor activity, including auditory discrimination, orienting, the wake-sleep cycle, fetal heart rate accelerations, and defensive reactions,…

  5. Neuronal dysfunction with aging and its amelioration

    OpenAIRE

    Ando, Susumu

    2012-01-01

    The author focused on the functional decline of synapses in the brain with aging to understand the underlying mechanisms and to ameliorate the deficits. The first attempt was to unravel the neuronal functions of gangliosides so that gangliosides could be used for enhancing synaptic activity. The second attempt was to elicit the neuronal plasticity in aged animals through enriched environmental stimulation and nutritional intervention. Environmental stimuli were revealed neurochemically and mo...

  6. Rehabilitation of poststroke cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigaki, Cheryl L; Frey, Scott H; Barrett, A M

    2014-11-01

    Given the increasing rates of stroke and our aging population, it is critical that we continue to foster innovation in stroke rehabilitation. Although there is evidence supporting cognitive rehabilitation in stroke, the set of cognitive domains effectively addressed to date represents only a small subset of the problems experienced by stroke survivors. Further, a gap remains between investigational treatments and our evolving theories of brain function. These limitations present opportunities for improving the functional impact of stroke rehabilitation. The authors use a case example to encourage the reader to consider the evidence base for cognitive rehabilitation in stroke, focusing on four domains critical to daily life function: (1) speech and language, (2) functional memory, (3) executive function and skilled learned purposive movements, and (4) spatial-motor systems. Ultimately, they attempt to draw neuroscience and practice closer together by using translational reasoning to suggest possible new avenues for treating these disorders. PMID:25520021

  7. Contingent Involuntary Motoric Inhibition: The Involuntary Inhibition of a Motor Response Contingent on Top-Down Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Brian A.; Folk, Charles L.

    2012-01-01

    Effective motor control involves both the execution of appropriate responses and the inhibition of inappropriate responses that are evoked by response-associated stimuli. The inhibition of a motor response has traditionally been characterized as either a voluntary act of cognitive control or a low-level perceptual bias arising from processes such…

  8. Motor and non-motor correlates of olfactory dysfunction in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berendse, Henk W; Roos, Dareia S; Raijmakers, Pieter; Doty, Richard L

    2011-11-15

    Hyposmia is highly prevalent in the motor phase of Parkinson's disease (PD) and is an established pre-motor sign of PD that may precede the onset of motor symptoms by as long as 5 years. The data presented here are part of an ongoing study to determine the relationship of the olfactory deficit in PD with both motor and non-motor features of the disease. The study population so far includes 96 patients with a clinical diagnosis of PD (UK PD Society Brain Bank criteria; mean age 64.9 years; mean disease duration 4.8 years). Olfactory testing was performed using the 40-item UPSIT. We analyzed the relationship between UPSIT scores and measures of motor (disease duration, stage and severity) and non-motor (cognitive function, depression, anxiety and sleep) function. In 60 PD patients, [(123)I]FP-CIT SPECT scans were available to assess the relationship between UPSIT scores and striatal dopamine transporter (DAT) binding. Preliminary analyses revealed correlations of the olfactory deficit in PD with both motor and non-motor features, as well as with striatal DAT binding. These data suggest that the olfactory deficit in PD is not stationary by the time the motor phase is entered, but continues to progress over time. Hyposmia may therefore be useful as a marker of disease progression, at least in the early disease stages. PMID:21705022

  9. Role of Early Parenting and Motor Skills on Development in Children with Spina Bifida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomax-Bream, Laura E.; Taylor, Heather B.; Landry, Susan H.; Barnes, Marcia A.; Fletcher, Jack M.; Swank, Paul

    2007-01-01

    The impact of parenting and motor skills on the development of cognitive, language, and daily living skills was examined in 165 children (91 with spina bifida, SB), from 6-36 months of age. Motor scores significantly influenced cognitive, language, and daily living skills. Higher quality parenting was associated with higher levels of development…

  10. Phenomenological and neuropsychological profile across motor variants of delirium in a palliative care unit

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Leonard, Maeve

    2011-01-01

    Studies using composite measurement of cognition suggest that cognitive performance is similar across motor variants of delirium. The authors assessed neuropsychological and symptom profiles in 100 consecutive cases of DSM-IV delirium allocated to motor subtypes in a palliative-care unit: Hypoactive (N=33), Hyperactive (N=18), Mixed (N=26), and No-Alteration motor groups (N=23). The Mixed group had more severe delirium, with highest scores for DRS-R-98 sleep-wake cycle disturbance, hallucinations, delusions, and language abnormalities. Neither the total Cognitive Test for Delirium nor its five neuropsychological domains differed across Hyperactive, Mixed, and Hypoactive motor groups. Most patients (70%) with no motor alteration had DRS-R-98 scores in the mild or subsyndromal range even though they met DSM-IV criteria. Motor variants in delirium have similar cognitive profiles, but mixed cases differ in expression of several noncognitive features.

  11. THE MOTOR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard Nielsen, Anders

    2011-01-01

    MOTOR is the first assignment that students at Unit 1a of the School of Architecture are introduced to. The purpose of the assignment is to shake up the students and their preconceptions of what architec- ture is. This is done by introducing them to a working method that al- lows them to develop...... architecture that resides beyond their own imag- inative capabilities. In other words the core aim of the assignment is to equip students with an understand- ing that architecture can be devel- oped through a predetermined ge- neric process and that through this process opportunities exist to devel- op...... something original and genuine that decisively challenges the limits of the field of architecture. This un- derstanding is important if students are to avoid mimicking an existing world of imagery in architecture or fragments of it. The point of departure for the MO- TOR assignment is that a car engine...

  12. Introduction to the special topic embodied and grounded cognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Borghi (Anna); D. Pecher (Diane)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction: In the last 10–15 years, the embodied and grounded (E and G) cognition approach has become widespread in all fields related to cognitive (neuro) science, and a lot of evidence has been collected. The approach proposes that cognitive activity is grounded in sensory–motor pro

  13. Motor Neuron Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS Motor Neuron Diseases Fact Sheet See a list of all ... can I get more information? What are motor neuron diseases? The motor neuron diseases (MNDs) are a ...

  14. Oral Methylphenidate Alleviates the Fine Motor Dysfunction Caused by Chronic Postnatal Manganese Exposure in Adult Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Beaudin, Stéphane A.; Strupp, Barbara J.; Lasley, Stephen M.; Fornal, Casimir A.; Mandal, Shyamali; Smith, Donald R

    2015-01-01

    Developmental manganese (Mn) exposure is associated with motor dysfunction in children and animal models, but little is known about the underlying neurochemical mechanisms or the potential for amelioration by pharmacotherapy. We investigated whether methylphenidate (MPH) alleviates fine motor dysfunction due to chronic postnatal Mn exposure, and whether Mn exposure impairs brain extracellular dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE) in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and striatum in adult animals. R...

  15. Grounded cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsalou, Lawrence W

    2008-01-01

    Grounded cognition rejects traditional views that cognition is computation on amodal symbols in a modular system, independent of the brain's modal systems for perception, action, and introspection. Instead, grounded cognition proposes that modal simulations, bodily states, and situated action underlie cognition. Accumulating behavioral and neural evidence supporting this view is reviewed from research on perception, memory, knowledge, language, thought, social cognition, and development. Theories of grounded cognition are also reviewed, as are origins of the area and common misperceptions of it. Theoretical, empirical, and methodological issues are raised whose future treatment is likely to affect the growth and impact of grounded cognition.

  16. Juggling with the brain - thought and action in the human motor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfensteller, Uta

    2009-01-01

    Empirical findings from various research fields indicate that cognitive and motor processes are far less dissimilar than previously thought. The present chapter takes a neuroscientific perspective and offers evidence for similarities between cognition and action focusing on three key players of the classical motor system: the primary motor cortex, the cerebellum, and the premotor cortex. Briefly, although movement execution is apparently supported in part by the same cerebral resources engaged in cognitive processes, the three brain regions reviewed here are differentially engaged in more or less action-bound cognitive processes. PMID:19477347

  17. Emergence of Cognition from Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzsáki, György; Peyrache, Adrien; Kubie, John

    2014-01-01

    Theories of brain function have evolved through multiple stages. The first proposition was that brain networks support a set of reflex responses, with current sensory inputs producing immediate motor outputs. The behaviorist paradigm suggested that actions can always be explained as a response to immediate external cues. In response to these views, the cognitive paradigm argued that behavior cannot be understood simply as input-output functions because the hidden layers of brain generate unpredictability. The central processing was termed "cognition." Here we propose a neuroscience-based model of cognition. Our core hypothesis is that cognition depends on internal models of the animal and its world, where internally generated sequences can serve to perform "what if" scenarios and anticipate the possible consequences of alternative actions without actually testing them, and aid in the decisions of overt actions. We support our hypotheses by several examples of recent experimental findings and show how externally guided cell assembly sequences become internalized to support cognitive functions.

  18. Motor Skills, Attention and Academic Achievements. An Intervention Study in School Years 1-3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ericsson, Ingegerd

    2008-01-01

    The aim was to study effects of an extension of physical education and motor training on motor skills, attention and cognition during a period of three years. The study has two intervention groups (n = 152) that have physical activity and motor training one lesson every school day and one control group (n = 99) that has the school's ordinary…

  19. The aging memory: Modulating epigenetic modifications to improve cognitive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Rosalina

    2016-09-01

    Age-related cognitive decline is a major concern in society. Here, I discuss recent evidence that shows an age-related modulation of gene transcription by epigenetic modifications. Epigenetic modifications, such as histone acetylation, is unbalanced in aging, with an increase in histone deacetylation, that limits the expression of plasticity-related genes. By modifying the balance towards histone acetylation, histone deacetylase inhibitors present a new pharmacological approach to ameliorate age-related cognitive deficits.

  20. Minor neurological dysfunction and cognition in 9-year-olds born at term

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kikkert, Hedwig K; de Jong, Corina; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In children with developmental disorders, motor problems often co-occur with cognitive difficulties. Associations between specific cognitive deficits underlying learning problems and minor neurological dysfunction (MND) are still unknown. AIMS: To assess associations between specific typ

  1. Visuo-motor coordination deficits and motor impairments in Parkinson's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivka Inzelberg

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Visuo-motor coordination (VMC requires normal cognitive executive functionality, an ability to transform visual inputs into movement plans and motor-execution skills, all of which are known to be impaired in Parkinson's disease (PD. Not surprisingly, a VMC deficit in PD is well documented. Still, it is not known how this deficit relates to motor symptoms that are assessed routinely in the neurological clinic. Such relationship should reveal how particular motor dysfunctions combine with cognitive and sensory-motor impairments to produce a complex behavioral disability. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Thirty nine early/moderate PD patients were routinely evaluated, including motor Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS based assessment, A VMC testing battery in which the subjects had to track a target moving on screen along 3 different paths, and to freely trace these paths followed. Detailed kinematic analysis of tracking/tracing performance was done. Statistical analysis of the correlations between measures depicting various aspects of VMC control and UPDRS items was performed. The VMC measures which correlated most strongly with clinical symptoms represent the ability to organize tracking movements and program their direction, rather than measures representing motor-execution skills of the hand. The strong correlations of these VMC measures with total UPDRS score were weakened when the UPDRS hand-motor part was considered specifically, and were insignificant in relation to tremor of the hand. In contrast, all correlations of VMC measures with the gait/posture part of the UPDRS were found to be strongest. CONCLUSIONS: Our apparently counterintuitive findings suggest that the VMC deficit pertains more strongly to a PD related change in cognitive-executive control, than to a reduction in motor capabilities. The recently demonstrated relationship between gait/posture impairment and a cognitive decline, as found in PD, concords with this

  2. High efficiency motors; Motores de alta eficiencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uranga Favela, Ivan Jaime [Energia Controlada de Mexico, S. A. de C. V., Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1992-12-31

    This paper is a technical-financial study of the high efficiency and super-premium motors. As it is widely known, more than 60% of the electrical energy generated in the country is used for the operation of motors, in industry as well as in commerce. Therefore the importance that the motors have in the efficient energy use. [Espanol] El presente trabajo es un estudio tecnico-financiero de los motores de alta eficiencia y los motores super premium. Como es ampliamente conocido, mas del 60% de la energia electrica generada en el pais, es utilizada para accionar motores, dentro de la industria y el comercio. De alli la importancia que los motores tienen en el uso eficiente de la energia.

  3. Short-term peripheral nerve stimulation ameliorates axonal dysfunction after spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Michael; Kiernan, Matthew C; Macefield, Vaughan G; Lee, Bonne B; Lin, Cindy S-Y

    2015-05-01

    There is accumulating evidence that peripheral motor axons deteriorate following spinal cord injury (SCI). Secondary axonal dysfunction can exacerbate muscle atrophy, contribute to peripheral neuropathies and neuropathic pain, and lead to further functional impairment. In an attempt to ameliorate the adverse downstream effects that developed following SCI, we investigated the effects of a short-term peripheral nerve stimulation (PNS) program on motor axonal excitability in 22 SCI patients. Axonal excitability studies were undertaken in the median and common peroneal nerves (CPN) bilaterally before and after a 6-wk unilateral PNS program. PNS was delivered percutaneously over the median nerve at the wrist and CPN around the fibular head, and the compound muscle action potential (CMAP) from the abductor pollicis brevis and tibialis anterior was recorded. Stimulus intensity was above motor threshold, and pulses (450 μs) were delivered at 100 Hz with a 2-s on/off cycle for 30 min 5 days/wk. SCI patients had consistently high thresholds with a reduced CMAP consistent with axonal loss; in some patients the peripheral nerves were completely inexcitable. Nerve excitability studies revealed profound changes in membrane potential, with a "fanned-in" appearance in threshold electrotonus, consistent with membrane depolarization, and significantly reduced superexcitability during the recovery cycle. These membrane dysfunctions were ameliorated after 6 wk of PNS, which produced a significant hyperpolarizing effect. The contralateral, nonstimulated nerves remained depolarized. Short-term PNS reversed axonal dysfunction following SCI, may provide an opportunity to prevent chronic changes in axonal and muscular function, and may improve rehabilitation outcomes. PMID:25787956

  4. Fine Motor Activities Program to Promote Fine Motor Skills in a Case Study of Down's Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lersilp, Suchitporn; Putthinoi, Supawadee; Panyo, Kewalin

    2016-01-01

    Children with Down's syndrome have developmental delays, particularly regarding cognitive and motor development. Fine motor skill problems are related to motor development. They have impact on occupational performances in school-age children with Down's syndrome because they relate to participation in school activities, such as grasping, writing, and carrying out self-care duties. This study aimed to develop a fine motor activities program and to examine the efficiency of the program that promoted fine motor skills in a case study of Down's syndrome. The case study subject was an 8 -year-old male called Kai, who had Down's syndrome. He was a first grader in a regular school that provided classrooms for students with special needs. This study used the fine motor activities program with assessment tools, which included 3 subtests of the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency, second edition (BOT-2) that applied to Upper-limb coordination, Fine motor precision and Manual dexterity; as well as the In-hand Manipulation Checklist, and Jamar Hand Dynamometer Grip Test. The fine motor activities program was implemented separately and consisted of 3 sessions of 45 activities per week for 5 weeks, with each session taking 45 minutes. The results showed obvious improvement of fine motor skills, including bilateral hand coordination, hand prehension, manual dexterity, in-hand manipulation, and hand muscle strength. This positive result was an example of a fine motor intervention program designed and developed for therapists and related service providers in choosing activities that enhance fine motor skills in children with Down's syndrome. PMID:27357876

  5. 长时程深部脑刺激外侧苍白球对转基因Huntington病大鼠认知和运动的影响%COGNITIVE AND MOTOR OUTCOME AFTER LONG-TERM GLOBUS PALLIDUS EXTERNA DEEP BRAIN STIMULATION TO TRANSGENIC HUNTINGTON'S DISEASE RAT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹春燕; Yasin Temel; Arjan Blokland; Veerle Visser-Vandewalle; Harry W. M. Steinbusch; 陈生弟; 刘振国

    2006-01-01

    我们研究了深部脑刺激(deep brain stimulation,DBS)对转基因Huntington病大鼠认知能力和运动功能的影响.实验结果表明:电极植入手术能改善Huntington病大鼠的认知能力,例如:在选择反应时间实验(choice reaction time task,CRTtask)中,反应准确率增加,偏倚率减少.但对不同基因型大鼠,改善程度相同.在对大鼠外侧苍白球部(GPe)进行长时间深部脑刺激后,反应准确率增加,不同基因型大鼠的增加幅度有所不同.另外,深部脑刺激后,CRT实验中的运动时间和反应时间并没有变化.但是纯合子大鼠的舞蹈样运动明显改善.本研究结果表明深部脑刺激转基因Huntington病大鼠的GPe能明显改善其认知能力和运动功能,这预示着DBS在Huntington病的治疗中将有很大的应用前景.%In this study, we treated transgenic Huntington's disease (tgHD) model rat with deep brain stimulation (DBS) and evaluated the cognitive and motor outcome. The results showed that the surgery of implanting electrode improved cognition, increased correct rate and decreased response bias in choice reaction time (CRT) task, with similar extent on various genotypes. After long-term DBS to globus pallidus externa( GPe), correct rate was enhanced. The enhancement was genotype related. Additionally, the motor time and reaction time in CRT task reflecting the movement initiation kept the same value, but the chorea-form movement of homozygous rats was rectified prominently after the treatment of DBS. The present results demonstrated that the operation of long-term DBS to globus pallidus externa can improve the cognition and motor outcome of tgHD rats, which implied DBS operation might shed light on HD patients in the future.

  6. Means for limiting and ameliorating electrode shorting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konynenburg, R.A. van; Farmer, J.C.

    1999-11-09

    A fuse and filter arrangement is described for limiting and ameliorating electrode shorting in capacitive deionization water purification systems utilizing carbon aerogel, for example. This arrangement limits and ameliorates the effects of conducting particles or debonded carbon aerogel in shorting the electrodes of a system such as a capacitive deionization water purification system. This is important because of the small interelectrode spacing and the finite possibility of debonding or fragmentation of carbon aerogel in a large system. The fuse and filter arrangement electrically protect the entire system from shutting down if a single pair of electrodes is shorted and mechanically prevents a conducting particle from migrating through the electrode stack, shorting a series of electrode pairs in sequence. It also limits the amount of energy released in a shorting event. The arrangement consists of a set of circuit breakers or fuses with one fuse or breaker in the power line connected to one electrode of each electrode pair and a set of screens of filters in the water flow channels between each set of electrode pairs.

  7. Means for limiting and ameliorating electrode shorting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Konynenburg, Richard A. (Livermore, CA); Farmer, Joseph C. (Tracy, CA)

    1999-01-01

    A fuse and filter arrangement for limiting and ameliorating electrode shorting in capacitive deionization water purification systems utilizing carbon aerogel, for example. This arrangement limits and ameliorates the effects of conducting particles or debonded carbon aerogel in shorting the electrodes of a system such as a capacitive deionization water purification system. This is important because of the small interelectrode spacing and the finite possibility of debonding or fragmentation of carbon aerogel in a large system. The fuse and filter arrangement electrically protect the entire system from shutting down if a single pair of electrodes is shorted and mechanically prevents a conducting particle from migrating through the electrode stack, shorting a series of electrode pairs in sequence. It also limits the amount of energy released in a shorting event. The arrangement consists of a set of circuit breakers or fuses with one fuse or breaker in the power line connected to one electrode of each electrode pair and a set of screens of filters in the water flow channels between each set of electrode pairs.

  8. Acetylcholinesterase inhibition ameliorates deficits in motivational drive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinowich Keri

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Apathy is frequently observed in numerous neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's, as well as neuropsychiatric disorders including schizophrenia. Apathy is defined as a lack of motivation characterized by diminished goal-oriented behavior and self-initiated activity. This study evaluated a chronic restraint stress (CRS protocol in modeling apathetic behavior, and determined whether administration of an anticholinesterase had utility in attenuating CRS-induced phenotypes. Methods We assessed behavior as well as regional neuronal activity patterns using FosB immunohistochemistry after exposure to CRS for 6 h/d for a minimum of 21 d. Based on our FosB findings and recent clinical trials, we administered an anticholinesterase to evaluate attenuation of CRS-induced phenotypes. Results CRS resulted in behaviors that reflect motivational loss and diminished emotional responsiveness. CRS-exposed mice showed differences in FosB accumulation, including changes in the cholinergic basal forebrain system. Facilitating cholinergic signaling ameliorated CRS-induced deficits in initiation and motivational drive and rescued immediate early gene activation in the medial septum and nucleus accumbens. Conclusions Some CRS protocols may be useful for studying deficits in motivation and apathetic behavior. Amelioration of CRS-induced behaviors with an anticholinesterase supports a role for the cholinergic system in remediation of deficits in motivational drive.

  9. Non-motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poewe, W

    2008-04-01

    Although still considered a paradigmatic movement disorder, Parkinson's disease (PD) is associated with a broad spectrum of non-motor symptoms. These include disorders of mood and affect with apathy, anhedonia and depression, cognitive dysfunction and hallucinosis, as well as complex behavioural disorders. Sensory dysfunction with hyposmia or pain is almost universal, as are disturbances of sleep-wake cycle regulation. Autonomic dysfunction including orthostatic hypotension, urogenital dysfunction and constipation is also present to some degree in a majority of patients. Whilst overall non-motor symptoms become increasingly prevalent with advancing disease, many of them can also antedate the first occurrence of motor signs - most notably depression, hyposmia or rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder (RBD). Although exact clinicopathological correlations for most of these non-motor features are still poorly understood, the occurrence of constipation, RBD or hyposmia prior to the onset of clinically overt motor dysfunction would appear consistent with the ascending hypothesis of PD pathology proposed by Braak and colleagues. Screening these early non-motor features might, therefore, be one approach towards early 'preclinical' diagnosis of PD. This review article provides an overview of the clinical spectrum of non-motor symptoms in PD together with a brief review of treatment options. PMID:18353132

  10. Impairments of social motor coordination in schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Varlet

    Full Text Available It has been demonstrated that motor coordination of interacting people plays a crucial role in the success of social exchanges. Abnormal movements have been reported during interpersonal interactions of patients suffering from schizophrenia and a motor coordination breakdown could explain this social interaction deficit, which is one of the main and earliest features of the illness. Using the dynamical systems framework, the goal of the current study was (i to investigate whether social motor coordination is impaired in schizophrenia and (ii to determine the underlying perceptual or cognitive processes that may be affected. We examined intentional and unintentional social motor coordination in participants oscillating hand-held pendulums from the wrist. The control group consisted of twenty healthy participant pairs while the experimental group consisted of twenty participant pairs that included one participant suffering from schizophrenia. The results showed that unintentional social motor coordination was preserved while intentional social motor coordination was impaired. In intentional coordination, the schizophrenia group displayed coordination patterns that had lower stability and in which the patient never led the coordination. A coupled oscillator model suggests that the schizophrenia group coordination pattern was due to a decrease in the amount of available information together with a delay in information transmission. Our study thus identified relational motor signatures of schizophrenia and opens new perspectives for detecting the illness and improving social interactions of patients.

  11. Analysis and significance on cognition characters of auditory P300 in children with motor development disorder%运动发育异常儿童听觉认知电位P300特征分析及意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张新安

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the cognitive characters and clinical value of auditory P300 potentials in children with motor development disorder. Methods Thirty children with motor development disorder (observed group) and 30 health subjects (control group) were enrolled, P300 test was performed by the 32-channel event related potential neuroscan, the latency, amplitude, waveform and topography were analyzed. Results Compared to the control group, the latencies of P300 were significantly longer, the amplitudes were significantly lower, the incidences of abnormal waveform and topography were significantly higher in part brain area( P < 0.05, 0.01 ). Conclusions There are typically cognition characteristic of auditory P300 in children with motor development disorder, P300 test can be taken as a reference index in physiologic, pathologic and curative effect observation for the motor development clinically.%目的 探讨运动发育异常儿童听觉认知电位P300特征及其临床应用价值.方法 选择30例运动发育异常儿童(观察组)及30例健康儿童(对照组),采用32导事件相关电位仪进行P300潜伏期、波幅、波形及地形图分布分析.结果 与对照组比较,观察组不同脑部分区P300潜伏期延长、波幅降低、波形及地形图分布异常发生率高(P<0.05、0.01).结论 运动发育异常儿童听觉认知电位P300特征存在典型变化,临床可将其作为此类儿童运动发育生理病理及疗效观察的参考指标.

  12. COGNITIVE FATIGUE FACILITATES PROCEDURAL SEQUENCE LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo eBorragán

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Enhanced procedural learning has been evidenced in conditions where cognitive control is diminished, including hypnosis, disruption of prefrontal activity and non-optimal time of the day. Another condition depleting the availability of controlled resources is cognitive fatigue. We tested the hypothesis that cognitive fatigue, eventually leading to diminished cognitive control, facilitates procedural sequence learning. In a two-day experiment, twenty-three young healthy adults were administered a serial reaction time task (SRTT following the induction of high or low levels of cognitive fatigue, in a counterbalanced order. Cognitive fatigue was induced using the Time load Dual-back (TloadDback paradigm, a dual working memory task that allows tailoring cognitive load levels to the individual's optimal performance capacity. In line with our hypothesis, reaction times in the SRTT were faster in the high- than in the low-level fatigue condition, and performance improvement showed more of a benefit from the sequential components than from motor. Altogether, our results suggest a paradoxical, facilitating impact of cognitive fatigue on procedural motor sequence learning. We propose that facilitated learning in the high-level fatigue condition stems from a reduction in the cognitive resources devoted to cognitive control processes that normally oppose automatic procedural acquisition mechanisms.

  13. Cognitive Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Cognitive Problems? Page reviewed by Dr. Joash Lazarus, NPF Movement Disorders Fellow, Department of Neurology at ... What Are the Alternative Treatments for Cognitive Problems? Anxiety Hallucinations/Delusions Speech and Swallowing Problems Vision Changes ...

  14. Cognitive ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchins, Edwin

    2010-10-01

    Cognitive ecology is the study of cognitive phenomena in context. In particular, it points to the web of mutual dependence among the elements of a cognitive ecosystem. At least three fields were taking a deeply ecological approach to cognition 30 years ago: Gibson's ecological psychology, Bateson's ecology of mind, and Soviet cultural-historical activity theory. The ideas developed in those projects have now found a place in modern views of embodied, situated, distributed cognition. As cognitive theory continues to shift from units of analysis defined by inherent properties of the elements to units defined in terms of dynamic patterns of correlation across elements, the study of cognitive ecosystems will become an increasingly important part of cognitive science.

  15. Motor Priming in Neurorehabilitation

    OpenAIRE

    Stoykov, Mary Ellen; Madhavan, Sangeetha

    2015-01-01

    Priming is a type of implicit learning wherein a stimulus prompts a change in behavior. Priming has been long studied in the field of psychology. More recently, rehabilitation researchers have studied motor priming as a possible way to facilitate motor learning. For example, priming of the motor cortex is associated with changes in neuroplasticity that are associated with improvements in motor performance. Of the numerous motor priming paradigms under investigation, only a few ...

  16. Increased reward in ankle robotics training enhances motor control and cortical efficiency in stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Ronald N. Goodman, PhD; Jeremy C. Rietschel, PhD; Brian C. Jung, BS; Richard F. Macko, MD; Larry W. Forrester, PhD

    2014-01-01

    Robotics is rapidly emerging as a viable approach to enhance motor recovery after disabling stroke. Current principles of cognitive motor learning recognize a positive relationship between reward and motor learning. Yet no prior studies have established explicitly whether reward improves the rate or efficacy of robotics-assisted rehabilitation or produces neurophysiologic adaptations associated with motor learning. We conducted a 3 wk, 9-session clinical pilot with 10 people with chronic hemi...

  17. Cognitive Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Kyle M.; Helton, William S; Wiggins, Mark W.

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive engineering is the application of cognitive psychology and related disciplines to the design and operation of human–machine systems. Cognitive engineering combines both detailed and close study of the human worker in the actual work context and the study of the worker in more controlled environments. Cognitive engineering combines multiple methods and perspectives to achieve the goal of improved system performance. Given the origins of experimental psychology itself in issues regard...

  18. Repetitive training for ameliorating upper limbs spasm of hemiplegic patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Zhu; Lin Liu; Weiqun Song

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND:The main aim of rehabilitation is to ameliorate motor function and use the damaged limbs in the activities of daily living.Several factors are needed in the self-recovery of the patients,and the most important one is to reduce spasm.Some mechanical repetitive movements can affect and change the excitability of motor neurons.OBJECTIVE:To observe the effect of repetitive training on ameliorating spasm of upper limbs of hemiplegic patients.DESIGN:A self-controlled observation before and after training.SETTING:Department of Rehabilitation,Xuanwu Hospital of Capital Medical University.PARTICI PANTS: Seven hemiplegic patients induced by brain injury were selected from the Department of Rehabilitation,Xuanwu Hospital,Capital Medical University from March to June in 2005.Inclusive criteria:①Agreed and able to participate in the 30-minute training of hand function; ②Without disturbance of understanding.The patients with aphasia or apraxia,manifestation of shoulder pain,and severe neurological or mental defects.For the 7 patients,the Rivermead motor assessment(RMA)scores ranged 0-10 points,the Rivermead mobility index(RMI)ranged 1-3,and modified Ashworth scale(MAS)was grade 2-4.Their horizontal extension of shoulder joint was 0°-30°,anteflextion was 0°-50°,internal rotation was 50°-90°,external rotation was 0°-10°:and the elbow joint could extend for 15°-135°.METHODS:The viva 2 serial MOTOmed exerciser(Reck Company,Germany)was used.There were three phases of A-B-A.①The phase A lasted for 1 week.The patient sat on a chair facting to the MOTOmed screen.and did the circumduction of upper limbs forwardly,30 minutes a day and 5 days a week.②The phase B lasted for 3 weeks.The training consisted of forward circumduction of upper limbs for 15 minutes.followed by backward ones for 15 minutes and 5-minute rest.③The training in the phase A was performed again for 2 weeks.The extensions of upper limbs were recorded at phase A,the extension and flexion of

  19. Use of Coffee Pulp and Minerals for Natural Soil Ameliorant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pujiyanto Pujiyanto

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available In coffee plantation, solid waste of coffee pulp is usually collected as heap nearby processing facilities for several months prior being used as compost. The practice is leading to the formation of odor and liquid which contaminate the environment. Experiments to evaluate the effect of natural soil ameliorant derived from coffee pulp and minerals were conducted at The Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute in Jember, East Java. The experiments were intended to optimize the use of coffee pulp to support farming sustainability and minimize negative impacts of solid waste disposal originated from coffee cherry processing. Prior to applications, coffee pulp was hulled to organic paste. The paste was then mixed with 10% minerals (b/b. Composition of the minerals was 50% zeolite and 50% rock phosphate powder. The ameliorant was characterized for their physical and chemical properties. Agronomic tests were conducted on coffee and cocoa seedling. The experiments were arranged according to Randomized Completely Design with 2 factors, consisted of natural ameliorant and inorganic fertilizer respectively. Natural ameliorant derived from coffee pulp was applied at 6 levels: 0, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 g dry ameliorant/seedling of 3 kg soil, equivalent to 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5% (b/b of ameliorant respectively. Inorganic fertilizer was applied at 2 levels: 0 and 2 g fertilizer/application of N-P-K compound fertilizer of 15-15-15 respectively. The inorganic fertilizer was applied 4 times during nursery of coffee and cocoa. The result of the experiment indicated that coffee pulp may be used as natural soil ameliorant. Composition of ameliorant of 90% coffee pulp and 10% of minerals has good physical and chemical characteristics for soil amelioration. The composition has high water holding capacity; cations exchange capacity, organic carbon and phosphorus contents which are favorable to increase soil capacity to support plant growth. Application of

  20. Cognitive and functional impairment in patients suffering from stroke: the importance of cognitive assessment for Occupational Therapy intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Andressa de Oliveira Ferro; Ana Elizabeth dos Santos Lins; Euclides Maurício Trindade Filho

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: Introduction: Stroke (CVA) can generate motor, sensory and cognitive development deficits, affecting the individual’s performance in daily activities. Changes in any cognitive area can affect the individual’s occupational engagement. Objective: To evaluate the cognitive and functional capacity in patients suffering from stroke, showing the importance of cognitive assessment for occupational therapy intervention. Method: A comparative study with cross-sectional sampling of 44 subject...

  1. Efectos de un programa cognitivo-motriz sobre la función ejecutiva en una muestra de personas mayores. [Effects of a cognitive-motor programme on executive function in a sample of elderly people].

    OpenAIRE

    Rafael E. Reigal; Antonio Hernández-Mendo

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse the impact of a cognitive stimulation and physical activity integrated programme, over a period of twenty weeks, on several variables linked to the executive function construct, compared with other physical activity program without additional cognitive stimulation. The participants were 57 women from Malaga City, Spain, whose age ranged between 65 and 69 years old (M = 66.07; SD = 1.31). A pre-post test design was applied to two random groups. One of t...

  2. Computational Grounded Cognition: A New Alliance between Grounded Cognition and Computational Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni ePezzulo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Grounded theories assume that there is no central module for cognition. According to this view, all cognitive phenomena, including those considered the province of amodal cognition such as reasoning, numeric and language processing, are ultimately grounded in (and emerge from a variety of bodily, affective, perceptual and motor processes. The development and expression of cognition is constrained by the embodiment of cognitive agents and various contextual factors (physical and social in which they are immersed. The grounded framework has received numerous empirical confirmations. Still, there are very few explicit computational models that implement grounding in sensory, motor and affective processes as intrinsic to cognition, and demonstrate that grounded theories can mechanistically implement higher cognitive abilities. We propose a new alliance between grounded cognition and computational modeling towards a novel multidisciplinary enterprise: Computational Grounded Cognition. We clarify the defining features of this novel approach and emphasize the importance of using the methodology of Cognitive Robotics, which permits simultaneous consideration of multiple aspects of grounding, embodiment, and situatedness, showing how they constrain the development and expression of cognition.

  3. A single bout of exercise improves motor memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Roig

    Full Text Available Regular physical activity has a positive impact on cognition and brain function. Here we investigated if a single bout of exercise can improve motor memory and motor skill learning. We also explored if the timing of the exercise bout in relation to the timing of practice has any impact on the acquisition and retention of a motor skill. Forty-eight young subjects were randomly allocated into three groups, which practiced a visuomotor accuracy-tracking task either before or after a bout of intense cycling or after rest. Motor skill acquisition was assessed during practice and retention was measured 1 hour, 24 hours and 7 days after practice. Differences among groups in the rate of motor skill acquisition were not significant. In contrast, both exercise groups showed a significantly better retention of the motor skill 24 hours and 7 days after practice. Furthermore, compared to the subjects that exercised before practice, the subjects that exercised after practice showed a better retention of the motor skill 7 days after practice. These findings indicate that one bout of intense exercise performed immediately before or after practicing a motor task is sufficient to improve the long-term retention of a motor skill. The positive effects of acute exercise on motor memory are maximized when exercise is performed immediately after practice, during the early stages of memory consolidation. Thus, the timing of exercise in relation to practice is possibly an important factor regulating the effects of acute exercise on long-term motor memory.

  4. Single Phase Permanent Magnet Low Speed Synchronous Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Lianxue

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to acquire a better cognition to the single phase permanent magnet low speed synchronous motor and validate the correctness of the motor mathematical model, the performances of the motor are tested with the single phase permanent magnet low speed synchronous motor whose type is 70TDY4, the corresponding simulations are done too. The resistance and the inductance of the single phase permanent magnet low speed synchronous motor are measured. According to the data of experiments and simulations, the static characteristics of the single phase permanent magnet low speed synchronous motor with the changes of the phase shift resistance and the phase shift capacitance are analysed, the results of experiments and simulations prove the correctness of the mathematics model.

  5. A single bout of exercise improves motor memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roig, Marc; Skriver, Kasper Christen; Lundbye-Jensen, Jesper;

    2012-01-01

    Regular physical activity has a positive impact on cognition and brain function. Here we investigated if a single bout of exercise can improve motor memory and motor skill learning. We also explored if the timing of the exercise bout in relation to the timing of practice has any impact...... 1 hour, 24 hours and 7 days after practice. Differences among groups in the rate of motor skill acquisition were not significant. In contrast, both exercise groups showed a significantly better retention of the motor skill 24 hours and 7 days after practice. Furthermore, compared to the subjects...... that exercised before practice, the subjects that exercised after practice showed a better retention of the motor skill 7 days after practice. These findings indicate that one bout of intense exercise performed immediately before or after practicing a motor task is sufficient to improve the long-term retention...

  6. Electric motor handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Chalmers, B J

    2013-01-01

    Electric Motor Handbook aims to give practical knowledge in a wide range of capacities such as plant design, equipment specification, commissioning, operation and maintenance. The book covers topics such as the modeling of steady-state motor performance; polyphase induction, synchronous, and a.c. commutator motors; ambient conditions, enclosures, cooling and loss dissipation; and electrical supply systems and motor drives. Also covered are topics such as variable-speed drives and motor control; materials and motor components; insulation types, systems, and techniques; and the installation, sit

  7. Directed flux motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Andrew (Inventor); Punnoose, Andrew (Inventor); Strausser, Katherine (Inventor); Parikh, Neil (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A directed flux motor described utilizes the directed magnetic flux of at least one magnet through ferrous material to drive different planetary gear sets to achieve capabilities in six actuated shafts that are grouped three to a side of the motor. The flux motor also utilizes an interwoven magnet configuration which reduces the overall size of the motor. The motor allows for simple changes to modify the torque to speed ratio of the gearing contained within the motor as well as simple configurations for any number of output shafts up to six. The changes allow for improved manufacturability and reliability within the design.

  8. Handbook on linear motor application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book guides the application for Linear motor. It lists classification and speciality of Linear Motor, terms of linear-induction motor, principle of the Motor, types on one-side linear-induction motor, bilateral linear-induction motor, linear-DC Motor on basic of the motor, linear-DC Motor for moving-coil type, linear-DC motor for permanent-magnet moving type, linear-DC motor for electricity non-utility type, linear-pulse motor for variable motor, linear-pulse motor for permanent magneto type, linear-vibration actuator, linear-vibration actuator for moving-coil type, linear synchronous motor, linear electromagnetic motor, linear electromagnetic solenoid, technical organization and magnetic levitation and linear motor and sensor.

  9. Chemical basis for minimal cognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanczyc, Martin; Ikegami, Takashi

    We have developed a simple chemical system capable of self-movement in order to study the chemical-molecular origins of movement, perception and cognition. The system consists simply of an oil droplet in an aqueous environment. The aqueous phase contains a surfactant that modulates the interfacial......-movement. Different from the mere physicalchemical process, any life system preserves its own identity and consistency with respect to the environment. This homeostasis, rooted on the sensory motor couplings, will organize minimal cognition (see also, Ikegami , T. et al., 2008, BioSys., 91, p.388 ]...

  10. Ellagic acid improves hyperalgesia and cognitive deficiency in 6-hydroxidopamine induced rat model of Parkinson’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Dolatshahi

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: 6-OHDA can induce oxidative stress and can disrupt the neural mechanisms underlying proper integration of painful stimuli and cognitive processes in MFB-lesioned rats. Consequently, nigrostriatal pathway can play possible role in nociception and cognition. EA, a natural antioxidant, has neuroprotective effect on this pathway and can ameliorate this defect and be considered in PD management.

  11. Cognitive and speech-language performance in children with ataxia telangiectasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vinck, Anja; Verhagen, Mijke M. M.; van Gerven, Marjo; de Groot, Imelda J. M.; Weemaes, Corry M. R.; Maassen, Ben A. M.; Willemsen, Michel A. A. P.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To describe cognitive and speech-language functioning of patients with ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) in relation to their deteriorating (oculo)motor function. Design: Observational case series. Methods: Cognitive functioning, language, speech and oral-motor functioning were examined in eigh

  12. Cognitive Performance in College Women Throughout the Menstrual Cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Fred Gustavo Manrique-Abril; José Leonardo Cely Andrade; Javier Antonio Castillo López

    2008-01-01

    To determine whether fluctuations of estrogen levels across the menstrual cycle influence cognitive performance, 13 university women between 20 and 23 years old were tested in four cognitive tasks; verbal memory, visuospatial ability, short term memory and visuo-motor coordination, three times across a menstrual cycle. Radioimmunoassay tests were performed in order to determine the hormonal state. Significant differences were not found in visuo-spatial ability and visuo-motor coordination per...

  13. Chronic motor tic disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic vocal tic disorder; Tic - chronic motor tic disorder ... Chronic motor tic disorder is more common than Tourette syndrome . Chronic tics may be forms of Tourette syndrome. Tics usually start ...

  14. Fine motor control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... figure out the child's developmental age. Children develop fine motor skills over time, by practicing and being taught. To have fine motor control, children need: Awareness and planning Coordination ...

  15. Non-motor symptoms in an Indian cohort of Parkinson′s disease patients and correlation of progression of non-motor symptoms with motor worsening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amruta Ravan

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion and Results: This was a cross-sectional, single-center, open-label, one point in time evaluation study conducted from 2009 to 2011. It validated the NMSS scale in an Indian population. The study has profiled the prevalence and pattern of NMS in an Indian cohort of PD patients. Comparison of NMS scale scores with the Unified PD Rating Scale motor scores demonstrated a correlation between non-motor and motor symptoms in the disease progression, particularly of manifestations related to the cognitive decline, memory disturbances, urinary incontinence and smell.

  16. Neuropsychological profile in early Parkinson′s disease: Comparison between patients with right side onset versus left side onset of motor symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Sikandar Adwani; Ravi Yadav; Keshav Kumar; Chandra, S. R.; Pramod Kumar Pal

    2016-01-01

    Aims: Though impaired cognition in Parkinson's disease (PD) is well known, data in early PD is sparse. This study was designed to assess the cognitive profile in patients with early PD (motor symptoms

  17. Effects of acute aerobic exercise on motor response inhibition: An ERP study using the stop-signal task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Heng Chu

    2015-03-01

    Conclusion: Acute exercise has a selective and beneficial effect on cognitive function, specifically affecting the motor response inhibition aspect of executive function. Furthermore, acute exercise predominately impacts later stages of information processing during motor response inhibition, which may lead to an increase in attentional resource allocation and confer the ability to successfully withhold a response to achieve motor response inhibition.

  18. CONSOLIDATION OF MOTOR MEMORY

    OpenAIRE

    Krakauer, John W.; Shadmehr, Reza

    2005-01-01

    A question of great recent interest is whether motor memory consolidates in a manner analogous to declarative memories, with the formation of a memory that progresses over time from a fragile state, susceptible to interference by a lesion or a conflicting motor task, to a stabilized state, resistant to such interference. Here, we first review studies that examine the anatomical basis for motor consolidation: evidence implicates cerebellar circuitry for two types of associative motor learning,...

  19. Electrophysiological correlates of motor sequence learning

    OpenAIRE

    Beaulieu, Christelle; Bourassa, Marie-Ève; brisson, benoit; Jolicoeur, Pierre; de Beaumont, Louis

    2014-01-01

    Background The Error-related negativity (ERN) is a component of the event-related brain potentials elicited by error commission. The ERN is thought to reflect cognitive control processes aiming to improve performance. As previous studies showed a modulation of the ERN amplitude throughout the execution of a learning task, this study aims to follow the ERN amplitude changes from early to late learning blocks in relation with concomitant motor sequence learning using a serial reaction time (SRT...

  20. Embodied cognition and mirror neurons: a critical assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caramazza, Alfonso; Anzellotti, Stefano; Strnad, Lukas; Lingnau, Angelika

    2014-01-01

    According to embodied cognition theories, higher cognitive abilities depend on the reenactment of sensory and motor representations. In the first part of this review, we critically analyze the central claims of embodied theories and argue that the existing behavioral and neuroimaging data do not allow investigators to discriminate between embodied cognition and classical cognitive accounts, which assume that conceptual representations are amodal and symbolic. In the second part, we review the main claims and the core electrophysiological findings typically cited in support of the mirror neuron theory of action understanding, one of the most influential examples of embodied cognition theories. In the final part, we analyze the claim that mirror neurons subserve action understanding by mapping visual representations of observed actions on motor representations, trying to clarify in what sense the representations carried by these neurons can be claimed motor.

  1. Cognitive Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Kimball, Miles S.

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive Economics is the economics of what is in people’s minds. It is a vibrant area of research (much of it within Behavioral Economics, Labor Economics and the Economics of Education) that brings into play novel types of data—especially novel types of survey data. Such data highlight the importance of heterogeneity across individuals and highlight thorny issues for Welfare Economics. A key theme of Cognitive Economics is finite cognition (often misleadingly called “bounded rationality”),...

  2. Visual cognition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinker, S.

    1985-01-01

    This book consists of essays covering issues in visual cognition presenting experimental techniques from cognitive psychology, methods of modeling cognitive processes on computers from artificial intelligence, and methods of studying brain organization from neuropsychology. Topics considered include: parts of recognition; visual routines; upward direction; mental rotation, and discrimination of left and right turns in maps; individual differences in mental imagery, computational analysis and the neurological basis of mental imagery: componental analysis.

  3. Cognitive remission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bortolato, Beatrice; Miskowiak, Kamilla W; Köhler, Cristiano A;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cognitive dysfunction in major depressive disorder (MDD) encompasses several domains, including but not limited to executive function, verbal memory, and attention. Furthermore, cognitive dysfunction is a frequent residual manifestation in depression and may persist during the remitted...... antidepressant, has significant precognitive effects in MDD unrelated to mood improvement. Lisdexamfetamine dimesylate was shown to alleviate executive dysfunction in an RCT of adults after full or partial remission of MDD. Preliminary evidence also indicates that erythropoietin may alleviate cognitive...

  4. Motor Neurons that Multitask

    OpenAIRE

    Goulding, Martyn

    2012-01-01

    Animals use a form of sensory feedback termed proprioception to monitor their body position and modify the motor programs that control movement. In this issue of Neuron, Wen et al. (2012) provide evidence that a subset of motor neurons function as proprioceptors in C. elegans, where B-type motor neurons sense body curvature to control the bending movements that drive forward locomotion.

  5. Quantum motor and future

    CERN Document Server

    Fateev, Evgeny G

    2013-01-01

    In a popular language, the possibilities of the Casimir expulsion effect are presented, which can be the basis of quantum motors. Such motors can be in the form of a special multilayer thin film with periodic and complex nanosized structures. Quantum motors of the type of the Casimir platforms can be the base of transportation, energy and many other systems in the future.

  6. [Dementia with motor and language disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frédéric, Assal; Ghika, Joseph

    2016-04-20

    Memory is not the only core diagnostic criteria in Alzheimer's disease and many dementias are characterized by other cognitive deficits. Moreover dementias are often associated with multiple and complex motor signs. The first part of this reviewcovers parkinsonism in diffuse Lewy Body Disease and other neurodegenerative diseases, corticobasal syndrome, or motor deficit in the motoneurone disease-frontotemporal dementia spectrum. In the second part, primary progressive aphasia and its three variants including basic clinical evaluation are described. These complex clinical syndromes involving motor and language systems are important for the clinical practice since they are part of diagnostic criteria of several neurodegenerative diseases and can be considered as phenotypical markers of neurodegeneration. PMID:27276720

  7. Cognitive Flexibility in Primary Dystonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Florian; Seer, Caroline; Dengler, Reinhard; Dressler, Dirk; Kopp, Bruno

    2016-07-01

    Objectives Although primary dystonia is typically characterized as a movement disorder, it is also associated with cognitive alterations in the domain of executive functioning which may arise from changes in cortico-basal ganglia circuits. Specifically, in comparison to healthy controls, patients with dystonia show deficits in neuropsychological tests of cognitive flexibility. However, it is unclear whether cognitive inflexibility is caused by the pathomechanisms underlying primary dystonia or by confounding factors such as depression or symptom-related distraction.Methods The present study aimed to eliminate these confounds by examining cognitive flexibility in dystonia patients and in patients with similar motor symptoms but without a comparable central pathophysiology. Eighteen patients with primary blepharospasm, a common form of dystonia affecting the muscles around the eyes, and 19 patients with hemifacial spasm, a facial nerve disorder causing similar eyelid spasms, completed a computerized version of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (cWCST). The two groups were further compared on tests of global cognitive functioning, psychiatric symptoms, health status, and impulsiveness. Results Blepharospasm patients committed significantly more errors on the cWCST than patients with hemifacial spasm. Group differences were most pronounced with regard to integration errors, a measure of rule-inference processes on the cWCST. Integration errors were also associated with impulsiveness in patients with blepharospasm. Conclusions Primary blepharospasm is related to deficits in cognitive flexibility, even when blepharospasm patients are compared with patients who suffer from motor symptoms of non-dystonic origin. Our results support the possibility that cognitive inflexibility results from the specific pathophysiological processes underlying primary dystonia. (JINS, 2016, 22, 662-670). PMID:27333537

  8. Cognition assessment using the NIH Toolbox

    OpenAIRE

    Weintraub, Sandra; Dikmen, Sureyya S.; Heaton, Robert K.; Tulsky, David S.; Zelazo, Philip D.; Bauer, Patricia J.; Carlozzi, Noelle E.; Slotkin, Jerry; Blitz, David; Wallner-Allen, Kathleen; Fox, Nathan A.; Beaumont, Jennifer L.; Mungas, Dan; Nowinski, Cindy J.; Richler, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Cognition is 1 of 4 domains measured by the NIH Toolbox for the Assessment of Neurological and Behavioral Function (NIH-TB), and complements modules testing motor function, sensation, and emotion. On the basis of expert panels, the cognition subdomains identified as most important for health, success in school and work, and independence in daily functioning were Executive Function, Episodic Memory, Language, Processing Speed, Working Memory, and Attention. Seven measures were designed to tap ...

  9. Sensory motor mechanisms unify psychology: the embodiment of culture

    OpenAIRE

    Soliman, Tamer; Gibson, Alison; Glenberg, Arthur M.

    2013-01-01

    Sensorimotor mechanisms can unify explanations at cognitive, social, and cultural levels. As an example, we review how anticipated motor effort is used by individuals and groups to judge distance: the greater the anticipated effort the greater the perceived distance. Anticipated motor effort can also be used to understand cultural differences. People with interdependent self- construals interact almost exclusively with in-group members, and hence there is little opportunity to tune their sens...

  10. Constraining theories of embodied cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markman, Arthur B; Brendl, C Miguel

    2005-01-01

    Influences of perceptual and motor activity on evaluation have led to theories of embodied cognition suggesting that putatively complex judgments can be carried out using only perceptual and motor representations. We present an experiment that revisited a movement-compatibility effect in which people are faster to respond to positive words by pulling a lever than by pushing a lever and are faster to respond to negative words by pushing than by pulling. We demonstrate that the compatibility effect depends on people's representation of their selves in space rather than on their physical location. These data suggest that accounting for embodied phenomena requires understanding the complex interplay between perceptual and motor representations and people's representations of their selves in space.

  11. Cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransmayr, Gerhard

    2015-12-01

    Parkinson's disease is the second most frequent neurodegenerative disorder. There is significantly elevated risk of cognitive decline and associated neuropsychiatric symptoms. Dementia may develop insidiously several years after manifestation of Parkinson motor symptoms (dementia associated with Parkinson's disease; Parkinson's disease dementia) or in close temporal relationship (within one year) after onset of motor symptoms (Dementia with Lewy bodies). There are clinical, pathophysiological and therapeutic similarities between these two conditions. Men are more frequently affected than women. Risk factor or indicators are advanced age at disease onset, disease duration, rigidity, akinesia and posture and gait impairment and falls as opposed to tremor dominance, and associated neuropsychiatric symptoms (depression, apathy, hallucinosis, delirium). Dementia is treatable with cholinesterase inhibitors (rivastigmine, donepezil), memantine, and adjustment of the pharmacological regimen of parkinsonian motor symptoms. Concomitant autonomic nervous system symptoms and neuropsychiatric complications warrant early clinical awareness and are accessible to pharmacological therapy. PMID:26609664

  12. Cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransmayr, Gerhard

    2015-12-01

    Parkinson's disease is the second most frequent neurodegenerative disorder. There is significantly elevated risk of cognitive decline and associated neuropsychiatric symptoms. Dementia may develop insidiously several years after manifestation of Parkinson motor symptoms (dementia associated with Parkinson's disease; Parkinson's disease dementia) or in close temporal relationship (within one year) after onset of motor symptoms (Dementia with Lewy bodies). There are clinical, pathophysiological and therapeutic similarities between these two conditions. Men are more frequently affected than women. Risk factor or indicators are advanced age at disease onset, disease duration, rigidity, akinesia and posture and gait impairment and falls as opposed to tremor dominance, and associated neuropsychiatric symptoms (depression, apathy, hallucinosis, delirium). Dementia is treatable with cholinesterase inhibitors (rivastigmine, donepezil), memantine, and adjustment of the pharmacological regimen of parkinsonian motor symptoms. Concomitant autonomic nervous system symptoms and neuropsychiatric complications warrant early clinical awareness and are accessible to pharmacological therapy.

  13. Constraining theories of embodied cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markman, Arthur B; Brendl, C Miguel

    2005-01-01

    Influences of perceptual and motor activity on evaluation have led to theories of embodied cognition suggesting that putatively complex judgments can be carried out using only perceptual and motor representations. We present an experiment that revisited a movement-compatibility effect in which people are faster to respond to positive words by pulling a lever than by pushing a lever and are faster to respond to negative words by pushing than by pulling. We demonstrate that the compatibility effect depends on people's representation of their selves in space rather than on their physical location. These data suggest that accounting for embodied phenomena requires understanding the complex interplay between perceptual and motor representations and people's representations of their selves in space. PMID:15660844

  14. Optimal Control Strategy for Marine Ssp Podded Propulsion Motor Based on Strong Tracking-Epf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Wenlong

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at the non-linearity of state equation and observation equation of SSP (Siemen Schottel Propulsor propulsion motor, an improved particle filter algorithm based on strong tracking extent Kalman filter (ST-EKF was presented, and it was imported into the marine SSP propulsion motor control system. The strong tracking filter was used to update particles in the new algorithm and produce importance densities. As a result, the problems of particle degeneracy and sample impoverishment were ameliorated, the propulsion motor states and the rotor resistance were estimated simultaneously using strong track filter (STF, and the tracking ability of marine SSP propulsion motor control system was improved. Simulation result shown that the improved EPF algorithm was not only improving the prediction accuracy of the motor states and the rotor resistance, but also it can satisfy the requirement of navigation in harbor. It had the better accuracy than EPF algorithm.

  15. Solid propellant motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafer, J. I.; Marsh, H. E., Jr. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A case bonded end burning solid propellant rocket motor is described. A propellant with sufficiently low modulus to avoid chamber buckling on cooling from cure and sufficiently high elongation to sustain the stresses induced without cracking is used. The propellant is zone cured within the motor case at high pressures equal to or approaching the pressure at which the motor will operate during combustion. A solid propellant motor with a burning time long enough that its spacecraft would be limited to a maximum acceleration of less than 1 g is provided by one version of the case bonded end burning solid propellant motor of the invention.

  16. Motor/generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickam, Christopher Dale

    2008-05-13

    A motor/generator is provided for connecting between a transmission input shaft and an output shaft of a prime mover. The motor/generator may include a motor/generator housing, a stator mounted to the motor/generator housing, a rotor mounted at least partially within the motor/generator housing and rotatable about a rotor rotation axis, and a transmission-shaft coupler drivingly coupled to the rotor. The transmission-shaft coupler may include a clamp, which may include a base attached to the rotor and a plurality of adjustable jaws.

  17. Induction motor control design

    CERN Document Server

    Marino, Riccardo; Verrelli, Cristiano M

    2010-01-01

    ""Nonlinear and Adaptive Control Design for Induction Motors"" is a unified exposition of the most important steps and concerns in the design of estimation and control algorithms for induction motors. A single notation and modern nonlinear control terminology is used to make the book accessible to readers who are not experts in electric motors at the same time as giving a more theoretical control viewpoint to those who are. In order to increase readability, the book concentrates on the induction motor, eschewing the much more complex and less-well-understood control of asynchronous motors. The

  18. Amelioration of safety management in infrastructure projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. Gopinath S.Mohite

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Accidents are a major public health concern, resulting in an estimated 1.2 million deaths and 50 million injuries worldwide each year specifically, the relationships between drivers' characteristics and road accidents are not fully understood. Many factors are involved in the accident occurrence at construction site. Some important elements that create a significant portion of accidents include: safety management error, poor training programs, human element, act of god, outdated procedure and no clear monitoring policy. Although some of these items are inevitable, but the occurrence of the largest part can be prevented. Therefore, for ameliorating the safety in a project each of these items should be analyzed and a practical approach introduced. In general, near miss, incident and accident are three dependent levels that mainly lead to injury. Risk and hazard are allocated in first level which means near miss, therefore, no on-time identification of hazard and risk causes to create incident and preventing accident in incident stage is unavoidable.

  19. Riboflavin ameliorates cisplatin induced toxicities under photoillumination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iftekhar Hassan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cisplatin is an effective anticancer drug that elicits many side effects mainly due to induction of oxidative and nitrosative stresses during prolonged chemotherapy. The severity of these side effects consequently restricts its clinical use under long term treatment. Riboflavin is an essential vitamin used in various metabolic redox reactions in the form of flavin adenine dinucleotide and flavin mononucleotide. Besides, it has excellent photosensitizing property that can be used to ameliorate these toxicities in mice under photodynamic therapy. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Riboflavin, cisplatin and their combinations were given to the separate groups of mice under photoilluminated condition under specific treatment regime. Their kidney and liver were excised for comet assay and histopathological studies. Furthermore, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy of riboflavin-cisplatin combination in vitro was also conducted to investigate any possible interaction between the two compounds. Their comet assay and histopathological examination revealed that riboflavin in combination with cisplatin was able to protect the tissues from cisplatin induced toxicities and damages. Moreover, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy analysis of the combination indicated a strong molecular interaction among their constituent groups that may be assigned for the protective effect of the combination in the treated animals. CONCLUSION: Inclusion of riboflavin diminishes cisplatin induced toxicities which may possibly make the cisplatin-riboflavin combination, an effective treatment strategy under chemoradiotherapy in pronouncing its antineoplastic activity and sensitivity towards the cancer cells as compared to cisplatin alone.

  20. 1,2-Dilinoleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine ameliorates age-related spatial memory deterioration by preventing neuronal cell death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaguchi Takahiro

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accumulating evidence has pointed that a variety of lipids could exert their beneficial actions against dementia including Alzheimer disease and age-related cognitive decline via diverse signaling pathways. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress-induced neuronal apoptosis, on the other hand, is a critical factor for pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer disease and Parkinson disease, senile dementia, and ischemic neuronal damage. The present study examined the effects of 1,2-dilinoleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (DLPhtEtn, a phospholipid, on ER stress-induced neuronal death and age-related cognitive disorders. Methods PC-12 cell viability was assayed before and after treatment with amyloid-β1-40 peptide or thapsigargin in the presence and absence of DLPhtEtn. A series of behavioral tests were performed for senescence-accelerated mouse-prone 8 (SAMP8 mice after 7-month oral administration with polyethylene glycol (PEG or DLPhtEtn and then, the number of hippocampal neurons was counted. Results Amyloid-β1-40 peptide or thapsigargin is capable of causing ER stress-induced apoptosis. DLPhtEtn (30 μM significantly inhibited PC-12 cell death induced by amyloid-β1-40 peptide or thapsigargin. In the water maze test, oral administration with DLPhtEtn (1 mg/kg for 7 months (three times a week significantly shortened the prolonged retention latency for SAMP8 mice. In contrast, DLPhtEtn had no effect on the acquisition and retention latencies in both the open field test and the passive avoidance test for SAMP8 mice. Oral administration with DLPhtEtn (1 mg/kg for 7 months prevented a decrease in the number of hippocampal neurons for SAMP8 mice. Conclusion The results of the present study show that DLPhtEtn ameliorates age-related spatial memory decline without affecting motor activities or fear memory, possibly by protecting hippocampal neuronal death. DLPhtEtn, thus, might exert its beneficial action against

  1. Motor degradation prediction methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, J.R.; Kelly, J.F.; Delzingaro, M.J.

    1996-12-01

    Motor Operated Valve (MOV) squirrel cage AC motor rotors are susceptible to degradation under certain conditions. Premature failure can result due to high humidity/temperature environments, high running load conditions, extended periods at locked rotor conditions (i.e. > 15 seconds) or exceeding the motor`s duty cycle by frequent starts or multiple valve stroking. Exposure to high heat and moisture due to packing leaks, pressure seal ring leakage or other causes can significantly accelerate the degradation. ComEd and Liberty Technologies have worked together to provide and validate a non-intrusive method using motor power diagnostics to evaluate MOV rotor condition and predict failure. These techniques have provided a quick, low radiation dose method to evaluate inaccessible motors, identify degradation and allow scheduled replacement of motors prior to catastrophic failures.

  2. Piezoelectric Motors, an Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Spanner

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Piezoelectric motors are used in many industrial and commercial applications. Various piezoelectric motors are available in the market. All of the piezoelectric motors use the inverse piezoelectric effect, where microscopically small oscillatory motions are converted into continuous or stepping rotary or linear motions. Methods of obtaining long moving distance have various drive and functional principles that make these motors categorized into three groups: resonance-drive (piezoelectric ultrasonic motors, inertia-drive, and piezo-walk-drive. In this review, a comprehensive summary of piezoelectric motors, with their classification from initial idea to recent progress, is presented. This review also includes some of the industrial and commercial applications of piezoelectric motors that are presently available in the market as actuators.

  3. Neuroplasticity & Motor Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Lundbye

    is a measure of our ability to form and store a motor memory of the task. However, the initial memory of the task is labile and may be subject to interference. During and following motor learning plastic changes occur within the central nervous system. On one hand these changes are driven by motor practice......, on the other hand the changes underlie the formation of motor memory and the retention of improved motor performance. During motor learning changes may occur at many different levels within the central nervous system dependent on the type of task and training. Here, we demonstrate different studies from our......Practice of a new motor task is usually associated with an improvement in performance. Indeed, if we stop practicing and return the next day to the same task, we find that our performance has been maintained and may even be better than it was at the start of the first day. This improvement...

  4. Lokomat training in vascular dementia: motor improvement and beyond!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrò, Rocco Salvatore; De Luca, Rosaria; Leo, Antonino; Balletta, Tina; Marra, Angela; Bramanti, Placido

    2015-12-01

    Vascular dementia (VaD) is a general term describing problems with reasoning, planning, judgment, memory, and other thought processes caused by brain damage from impaired blood flow to the brain. Cognitive rehabilitation and physical therapy are the mainstays of dementia treatment, although often ineffective because of the scarce collaboration of the patients. However, emerging data suggest that physical activity may reduce the risk of cognitive impairment, mainly VaD, in older people living independently. Herein, we describe a 72-year-old male affected by VaD, in which traditional cognitive training in addition to intensive gait robotic rehabilitation (by using Lokomat device) led to a significant improvement in the motor and cognitive function. This promising finding may be related either to the intensive and repetitive aerobic exercises or to the task-oriented training with computerized visual feedback, which can be considered as a relevant tool to increase patients' motor output, involvement, and motivation during robotic training. PMID:25762160

  5. Effects of simultaneously performed cognitive and physical training in older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Theill, Nathan; Schumacher,Vera; Adelsberger, Rolf; Martin, Mike; Jäncke, Lutz

    2013-01-01

    Background While many studies confirm the positive effect of cognitive and physical training on cognitive performance of older adults, only little is known about the effects of simultaneously performed cognitive and physical training. In the current study, older adults simultaneously performed a verbal working memory and a cardiovascular training to improve cognitive and motor-cognitive dual task performance. Twenty training sessions of 30 minutes each were conducted over a period of ten week...

  6. Effects of simultaneously performed cognitive and physical training in older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Theill, Nathan; Schumacher,Vera; Adelsberger, Rolf; Martin, Mike; Jäncke, Lutz

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: While many studies confirm the positive effect of cognitive and physical training on cognitive performance of older adults, only little is known about the effects of simultaneously performed cognitive and physical training. In the current study, older adults simultaneously performed a verbal working memory and a cardiovascular training to improve cognitive and motor-cognitive dual task performance. Twenty training sessions of 30 minutes each were conducted over a period of ten wee...

  7. Efficacy of a Multimodal Cognitive Rehabilitation Including Psychomotor and Endurance Training in Parkinson's Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Reuter, I.; Mehnert, S.; Sammer, G.; Oechsner, M.; Engelhardt, M.

    2012-01-01

    Mild cognitive impairment, especially executive dysfunction might occur early in the course of Parkinson's disease. Cognitive training is thought to improve cognitive performance. However, transfer of improvements achieved in paper and pencil tests into daily life has been difficult. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether a multimodal cognitive rehabilitation programme including physical exercises might be more successful than cognitive training programmes without motor train...

  8. Bacopa monniera leaf extract ameliorates hypobaric hypoxia induced spatial memory impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hota, Sunil Kumar; Barhwal, Kalpana; Baitharu, Iswar; Prasad, Dipti; Singh, Shashi Bala; Ilavazhagan, Govindasamy

    2009-04-01

    Hypobaric hypoxia induced memory impairment has been attributed to several factors including increased oxidative stress, depleted mitochondrial bioenergetics, altered neurotransmission and apoptosis. This multifactorial response of the brain to hypobaric hypoxia limits the use of therapeutic agents that target individual pathways for ameliorating hypobaric hypoxia induced memory impairment. The present study aimed at exploring the therapeutic potential of a bacoside rich leaf extract of Bacopa monniera in improving the memory functions in hypobaric conditions. The learning ability was evaluated in male Sprague Dawley rats along with memory retrieval following exposure to hypobaric conditions simulating an altitude of 25,000 ft for different durations. The effect of bacoside administration on apoptosis, cytochrome c oxidase activity, ATP levels, and oxidative stress markers and on plasma corticosterone levels was investigated. Expression of NR1 subunit of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors, neuronal cell adhesion molecules and was also studied along with CREB phosphorylation to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of bacoside action. Bacoside administration was seen to enhance learning ability in rats along with augmentation in memory retrieval and prevention of dendritic atrophy following hypoxic exposure. In addition, it decreased oxidative stress, plasma corticosterone levels and neuronal degeneration. Bacoside administration also increased cytochrome c oxidase activity along with a concomitant increase in ATP levels. Hence, administration of bacosides could be a useful therapeutic strategy in ameliorating hypobaric hypoxia induced cognitive dysfunctions and other related neurological disorders.

  9. Visual cognition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinker, S.

    1985-01-01

    This collection of research papers on visual cognition first appeared as a special issue of Cognition: International Journal of Cognitive Science. The study of visual cognition has seen enormous progress in the past decade, bringing important advances in our understanding of shape perception, visual imagery, and mental maps. Many of these discoveries are the result of converging investigations in different areas, such as cognitive and perceptual psychology, artificial intelligence, and neuropsychology. This volume is intended to highlight a sample of work at the cutting edge of this research area for the benefit of students and researchers in a variety of disciplines. The tutorial introduction that begins the volume is designed to help the nonspecialist reader bridge the gap between the contemporary research reported here and earlier textbook introductions or literature reviews.

  10. Geometric Form Drawing: A Perceptual-Motor Approach to Preventive Remediation (The Steiner Approach)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogletree, Earl J.

    1975-01-01

    Provided is a rationale for geometric form drawing developed by Rudolf Steiner as a tool to develop motor coordination, perceptual skills, and cognition for mentally retarded and perceptually handicapped children. (Author/CL)

  11. Current insights in the development of children’s motor imagery ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffie eSpruijt

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the last two decades, the number of studies on motor imagery in children has witnessed a large expansion. Most studies used the hand laterality judgment paradigm or the mental chronometry paradigm to examine motor imagery ability. The main objective of the current review is to collate these studies to provide a more comprehensive insight in children’s motor imagery development and its age of onset. Motor imagery is a form of motor cognition and aligns with forward (or predictive models of motor control. Studying age-related differences in motor imagery ability in children therefore provides insight in underlying processes of motor development during childhood. Another motivation for studying age-related differences in motor imagery is that in order to effectively apply motor imagery training in children (with motor impairments, it is pertinent to first establish the age at which children are actually able to perform motor imagery.Overall, performance in the imagery tasks develops between 5 and 12 years of age. The age of motor imagery onset, however, remains equivocal, as some studies indicate that children of 5 to 7 years old can already enlist motor imagery in an implicit motor imagery task, whereas other studies using explicit instructions revealed that children do not use motor imagery before the age of 10. From the findings of the current study, we can conclude that motor imagery training is potentially a feasible method for paediatric rehabilitation in children from 5 years on. We suggest that younger children are most likely to benefit from motor imagery training that is presented in an implicit way. Action observation training might be a beneficial adjunct to implicit motor imagery training. From 10 years of age, more explicit forms of motor imagery training can be effectively used.

  12. Perceptual and cognitive spatial learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedford, F L

    1993-06-01

    Ss were taught novel mappings between visual space and motor space with either a variant on a prism adaptation paradigm (Experiments 1 and 2) or a nonperceptual cognitive task (Experiments 3 and 4). First, discrimination training specified that 1 visual location required a new pointing response but another location did not. This led to unusual generalization unlike typical generalization decrement. Second, training at 9 locations specified that 1 location required a new response but that the remaining 8 did not. This simple isolation mapping was unlearnable and instead a flat function fit through all of space. In contrast, for the cognitive paradigm, not only was isolation of one region of space easily learned, it was the preferred pattern of generalization. Implications for perceptual learning, as well as the qualitative distinctions between perceptual and cognitive learning, are discussed.

  13. Cognitive Performance and Cognitive Style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Journal of Behavioral Development, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Investigates (1) the relationships between cognitive performance and cognitive styles and predictive possibilities and (2) performance differences by sex, school, grade, and income in 92 Indian adolescents. Assessment measures included Liquid Conservation, Islands, Goat-Lion, Hanoi-Tower, Rabbits (Piagetian); Block Design (WISC-R); Paper Cutting…

  14. Functional brain imaging of cognitive status in Parkinson's disease

    OpenAIRE

    Ekman, Urban

    2014-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is next to Alzheimer’s disease (AD) the second most common neurodegenerative disease. PD has traditionally been characterised as a motor disorder, but more recent research has revealed that cognitive impairments are frequent. Cognitive impairments in executive functions, attention, and working memory with reliance on dopaminergic transmission, are often described as dominating the cognitive profile in early-phase PD. However, although knowledge about the neuropatholog...

  15. On the cognitive nature of speech sound systems

    OpenAIRE

    Schwartz, Jean-Luc; Moulin-Frier, Clément; Oudeyer, Pierre-Yves

    2015-01-01

    International audience During the last 50 years, the question of the cognitive nature of phonological units has followed the rhythm of the persistent debate between auditory and motor theories of speech communication. Though recent advances in cognitive neuroscience and cognitive psychology have largely renewed this debate, a consensus is still out of reach, and the true nature of speech units in the human brain remains elusive.A dimension of importance in this debate is a systemic one: sp...

  16. Motor degradation prediction methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motor Operated Valve (MOV) squirrel cage AC motor rotors are susceptible to degradation under certain conditions. Premature failure can result due to high humidity/temperature environments, high running load conditions, extended periods at locked rotor conditions (i.e. > 15 seconds) or exceeding the motor's duty cycle by frequent starts or multiple valve stroking. Exposure to high heat and moisture due to packing leaks, pressure seal ring leakage or other causes can significantly accelerate the degradation. ComEd and Liberty Technologies have worked together to provide and validate a non-intrusive method using motor power diagnostics to evaluate MOV rotor condition and predict failure. These techniques have provided a quick, low radiation dose method to evaluate inaccessible motors, identify degradation and allow scheduled replacement of motors prior to catastrophic failures

  17. Motor Axon Pathfinding

    OpenAIRE

    Bonanomi, Dario; Pfaff, Samuel L

    2010-01-01

    Motor neurons are functionally related, but represent a diverse collection of cells that show strict preferences for specific axon pathways during embryonic development. In this article, we describe the ligands and receptors that guide motor axons as they extend toward their peripheral muscle targets. Motor neurons share similar guidance molecules with many other neuronal types, thus one challenge in the field of axon guidance has been to understand how the vast complexity of brain connection...

  18. Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices as a Measure of Cognitive Functioning in Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pueyo, R.; Junque, C.; Vendrell, P.; Narberhaus, A.; Segarra, D.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Cognitive dysfunction is frequent in Cerebral Palsy (CP). CP motor impairment and associated speech deficits often hinder cognitive assessment, with the result being that not all CP studies consider cognitive dysfunction. Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices is a simple, rapid test which can be used in persons with severe motor…

  19. Cognitive Neuropsychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starrfelt, Randi

    2012-01-01

    are disproportionally impaired in one task or domain compared to another. In many cases data for normal performance has not been referred to or reported. This has resulted in several theories of cognitive functioning in different domains such as language, visual perception, and memory, specifying a number of different...... in patients’ test performance can inform theories of (normal) cognitive function. In four talks, this symposium will present and discuss methods for investigating impairment patterns in neuropsychological patients: 1) a talk on basic assumptions and statistical methods in single case methodology; 2) a talk......Traditionally, studies in cognitive neuropsychology have reported single cases or small groups of patients with seemingly selective impairments of specific cognitive processes or modules. Many studies, particularly older ones, have used simple and coarse tasks to show that patients...

  20. On the Relationship between Motor Performance and Executive Functioning in Children with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, E.; Houwen, S.; Scherder, E.; Visscher, C.

    2010-01-01

    Background: It has been suggested that children with intellectual disabilities (ID) have motor problems and higher-order cognitive deficits. The aim of this study was to examine the motor skills and executive functions in school-age children with borderline and mild ID. The second aim was to investigate the relationship between the two performance…

  1. Cryogenic Electric Motor Tested

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Gerald V.

    2004-01-01

    Technology for pollution-free "electric flight" is being evaluated in a number of NASA Glenn Research Center programs. One approach is to drive propulsive fans or propellers with electric motors powered by fuel cells running on hydrogen. For large transport aircraft, conventional electric motors are far too heavy to be feasible. However, since hydrogen fuel would almost surely be carried as liquid, a propulsive electric motor could be cooled to near liquid hydrogen temperature (-423 F) by using the fuel for cooling before it goes to the fuel cells. Motor windings could be either superconducting or high purity normal copper or aluminum. The electrical resistance of pure metals can drop to 1/100th or less of their room-temperature resistance at liquid hydrogen temperature. In either case, super or normal, much higher current density is possible in motor windings. This leads to more compact motors that are projected to produce 20 hp/lb or more in large sizes, in comparison to on the order of 2 hp/lb for large conventional motors. High power density is the major goal. To support cryogenic motor development, we have designed and built in-house a small motor (7-in. outside diameter) for operation in liquid nitrogen.

  2. Control motor brushless sensorless

    OpenAIRE

    Solchaga Pérez de Lazárraga, Gonzalo

    2015-01-01

    El proyecto consiste en la creación de un circuito capaz de controlar la velocidad de un motor brushless sensorless. Este tipo de motores eléctricos tienen como característica que no tienen escobillas para cambiar la polaridad del bobinado de su interior y tampoco precisan de un sensor que indique que ha realizado una vuelta. Los motores brushless que son controlados por este tipo de circuitos son específicos para aeronaves no tripuladas y requieren un diseño diferente a un motor brushless pe...

  3. Cognitive Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Larsen, Jan

    2008-01-01

    The tutorial will discuss the definition of cognitive systems as the possibilities to extend the current systems engineering paradigm in order to perceive, learn, reason and interact robustly in open-ended changing environments. I will also address cognitive systems in a historical perspective and its relation and potential over current artificial intelligence architectures. Machine learning models that learn from data and previous knowledge will play an increasingly important role in all lev...

  4. [Premature birth and cognitive functioning in adolescence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubetzky, O; Weitzman, A; Gilat, I; Tyano, S

    1999-11-01

    Premature infants are considered a high-risk population for developing cognitive dysfunction. Studies have indicated lower cognitive performance among elementary school children born prematurely. We focused on cognitive functioning of such adolescents. This age was chosen because of its critical importance in the development of the individual. 50 adolescents aged 14-16 years born prematurely were compared with 50 born at full-term and matched for gender, age and socioeconomic status. All subjects attended regular schools and did not suffer severe neurological disorders. Cognitive functioning was measured by the Bender-Visual Motor Gestalt Test and by 3 subtests from the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (revised WISC-R test). Results revealed that prematurely born adolescents scored lower than those born at term on all measures of cognitive performance. The results are discussed in terms of their developmental meaning and of therapy for the prematurely born. PMID:11419040

  5. Sensory and Motor Processes Involved in Semantic Processing of Concrete Words

    OpenAIRE

    Takamura, Masahiro

    2012-01-01

    How a semantic representation is represented in human brain is an important problem in cognitive psychology. Although some previous studies suggested that semantic processing is related to sensory or motor processes, they have not shown clear evidence that the sensory and motor processes contribute to semantic processing per se. In the present study, I examined the effects of visual and motor dual tasks on the semantic processing of animal names, tool names, and abstract words. In order to su...

  6. Motor, linguistic, personal and social aspects of children with Down syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Amanda Tragueta FERREIRA-VASQUES; LAMÔNICA, Dionísia Aparecida Cusin

    2015-01-01

    AbstractA global developmental delay is expected from Down syndrome, affecting motor, cognitive, linguistic and personal-social skills. However, not always these delays are proportional; different conditions occur due to several intrinsic and extrinsic variables that must be controlled to form groups of greater homogeneity.Objective To enhance personal-social, fine motor-adaptive, gross motor and linguistic skills among children with Down syndrome and compare them with typically developing ch...

  7. Zinc Deficiency in Humans and its Amelioration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yashbir Singh Shivay

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Zinc (Zn deficiency in humans has recently received considerable attention. Global mortality in children under 5 years of age in 2004 due to Zn deficiency was estimated at 4,53,207 as against 6,66,771 for vitamin A deficiency; 20,854 for iron deficiency and 3,619 for iodine deficiency. In humans 2800-3000 proteins contain Zn prosthetic group and Zn is an integral component of zinc finger prints that regulate DNA transcription. Zinc is a Type-2 nutrient, which means that its concentration in blood does not decrease in proportion of the Zn deficiency. Adverse effects of Zn deficiency vary with age: low weight gain, diarrhoea, aneroxia and neurobehavioral disturbances are observed in infants, while skin changes and dwarfism are frequent in toddlers and adolescents. Common manifestations of Zn deficiency among elderly include hypogeusia, chronic non-healing ulcers and recurrent infections.Ameliorative measures of Zn deficiency in humans can be classified in two groups, namely, nutraceutical and biofortification of food grains. Nutraceutical interventions include pharmaceutical supplements, dietary supplements and dietary diversification, while biofortification of food grains can be achieved by genetic modification (GM of crops or by agronomic techniques that include soil or/and foliar fertilization of crops.The major disadvantage of nutraceutical approaches is that the major beneficiaries are urban people and the poor rural masses that need adequate Zn nutrition most are left out. Genetic biofortification of food grains requires large amounts of funds and a fairly long-period of time. Further, a large number of countries have not yet accepted genetically modified (GM foods. On the other hand agronomic biofortification of food grains yields immediate effects and rural and urban people are equally benefitted. Our studies have shown that Zn concentration in cereals (rice, wheat etc and pulses can be considerably increased by soil or/and foliar

  8. Evidence for a motor and a non-motor domain in the human dentate nucleus--an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küper, M; Dimitrova, A; Thürling, M; Maderwald, S; Roths, J; Elles, H G; Gizewski, E R; Ladd, M E; Diedrichsen, J; Timmann, D

    2011-02-14

    Dum and Strick (J. Neurophysiol. 2003; 89, 634-639) proposed a division of the cerebellar dentate nucleus into a "motor" and "non-motor" area based on anatomical data in the monkey. We asked the question whether motor and non-motor domains of the dentate can be found in humans using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Therefore dentate activation was compared in motor and cognitive tasks. Young, healthy participants were tested in a 1.5 T MRI scanner. Data from 13 participants were included in the final analysis. A block design was used for the experimental conditions. Finger tapping of different complexities served as motor tasks, while cognitive testing included a verbal working memory and a visuospatial task. To further confirm motor-related dentate activation, a simple finger movement task was tested in a supplementary experiment using ultra-highfield (7 T) fMRI in 23 participants. For image processing, a recently developed region of interest (ROI) driven normalization method of the deep cerebellar nuclei was used. Dorso-rostral dentate nucleus activation was associated with motor function, whereas cognitive tasks led to prominent activation of the caudal nucleus. The visuospatial task evoked activity bilaterally in the caudal dentate nucleus, whereas verbal working memory led to activation predominantly in the right caudal dentate. These findings are consistent with Dum and Strick's anatomical findings in the monkey. PMID:21081171

  9. Sensory-Motor Rehabilitation in Rett Syndrome: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzamiglio, Maria Rosa; Nasti, Marianna; Piccardi, Laura; Zotti, Antonella; Vitturini, Claudio; Spitoni, Grazia; Nanni, Maria Vittoria; Guariglia, Cecilia; Morelli, Daniela

    2008-01-01

    Rett syndrome (RS) is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder that mostly affects females. It is characterized by a regression of motor, cognitive, linguistic, and social abilities and by an inappropriate and stereotypical use of the hands. The purpose of the current study was to explore the possibility of rehabilitating purposeful use of the hands…

  10. Applying Serious Games to Motor Learning in Sport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiemeyer, Josef; Schneider, Philipp

    2012-01-01

    Considering the wide use of Serious Games in application fields like cognitive learning, health education and rehabilitation and the recent developments of sensor and interface technology it is surprising that applications to motor learning in sport are rare. The aim of this study is to examine whether a specific learning effect can be elicited by…

  11. Offloading Cognition onto Cognitive Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Dror, Itiel

    2008-01-01

    "Cognizing" (i.e., thinking, understanding, knowing, and having the capacity to do what cognizers can do) is a mental state. Systems without mental states, such as cognitive technology, can sometimes also do some of what cognizers can do, but that does not make them cognizers. Cognitive technology allows cognizers to offload some of the functions they would otherwise have had to execute with their own brains and bodies alone; it also extends cognizers' performance powers beyond those of brains and bodies alone. Language itself is a form of cognitive technology that allows cognizers to offload some of their brain functions onto the brains of other cognizers. Language also extends cognizers' individual and joint performance powers, distributing the load through interactive and collaborative cognition. Reading, writing, print, telecommunications and computing further extend cognizers' capacities. And now the web, with its distributed network of cognizers, digital databases and sofware agents, has become the Cogn...

  12. Short-term exercise in aged Tg2576 mice alters neuroinflammation and improves cognition

    OpenAIRE

    Parachikova, A.; Nichol, K.E.; Cotman, C W

    2008-01-01

    Exercise is a treatment paradigm that can ameliorate cognitive dysfunction in Alzheimer disease (AD) and AD mouse models. Since exercise is also known to alter the peripheral immune response, one potential mechanism for the cognitive improvement following exercise may be by modulating the inflammatory repertoire in the central nervous system. We investigated the effects of voluntary exercise in the Tg2576 mouse model of AD at a time-point at which pathology has already developed. Inflammatory...

  13. Do Nimble Hands Make for Nimble Lexicons? Fine Motor Skills Predict Knowledge of Embodied Vocabulary Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suggate, Sebastian P.; Stoeger, Heidrun

    2014-01-01

    Theories and research in embodied cognition postulate that cognition grounded in action enjoys a processing advantage. Extending this theory to the study of how fine motor skills (FMS) link to vocabulary development in preschool children, the authors investigated FMS and vocabulary in 76 preschoolers. Building on previous research, they…

  14. MISR Motor Data V003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This file contains the output for the Level 1A Motor data (Suggested Usage: MISR SCF processing needs the MISR motor data samples for the analysis of motor...

  15. The effect of aerobic exercise of middle intensity on cognitive and motor functions of patients with Alzheimer's disease%中等强度有氧运动对阿尔茨海默病患者认知和运动功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王石艳; 朱奕; 张勤; 范亚蓓; 孙建国; 吴婷; 王彤

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effects of aerobic exercise of middle intensity on cognitive and motor functions of elderly people with Alzheimer's disease (AD).Methods Forty-eight patients with AD were studied.The subjects were randomly divided into a treatment group and a control group.The subjects in treatment group were treated with cycle ergometer exercise for 3 months.The control group accepted dementia education.All the patients performed the mini-mental state examination (MMSE) and Alzheimer's disease assessment scale-cognitive subscale (ADAS-Cog) at the beginning and after 3 months of treatment.Results Forty-one participants completed the whole treatment and observation program.After treatment,the scores of MMSE and ADAS-Cog improved significantly more in treatment group than those in control group (P < 0.05).Conclusion Middle intensity of aerobic exercise can improve cognitive and motor function in patients with AD.%目的 探讨中等强度的有氧运动对于阿尔茨海默病(AD)患者功能改善的干预作用.方法 将AD患者48例按随机数字表法分为有氧运动组和对照组,每组24例.有氧运动组采用踩功率车运动;对照组只接受宣传教育,未参与有氧运动.有氧运动组于治疗前和治疗3个月后(治疗后)进行运动能力和认知功能的评估,对照组在上述时间点仅进行认知功能的评估.结果 治疗前,2组患者间的简易精神状态评分(MMSE)和阿尔茨海默病评定量表认知部分(ADAS-Cog)总分组间比较,差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05).治疗后,有氧运动组患者MMSE和ADAS-Cog总分分别为(21.10±4.17)分、(19.57±11.38)分,分别与组内治疗前和对照组治疗后比较,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 中等强度的有氧运动可以改善AD患者认知和运动功能.

  16. Sensory-motor problems in Autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline eWhyatt

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite being largely characterised as a social and cognitive disorder, strong evidence indicates the presence of significant sensory-motor problems in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD. This paper outlines our progression from initial, broad assessment using the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (M-ABC2 to subsequent targeted kinematic assessment. In particular, pronounced ASD impairment seen in the broad categories of manual dexterity and ball skills was found to be routed in specific difficulties on isolated tasks, which were translated into focused experimental assessment. Kinematic results from both subsequent studies highlight impaired use of perception-action coupling to guide, adapt and tailor movement to task demands, resulting in inflexible and rigid motor profiles. In particular difficulties with the use of temporal adaption are shown, with hyperdexterity witnessed in ballistic movement profiles, often at the cost of spatial accuracy and task performance. By linearly progressing from the use of a standardised assessment tool to targeted kinematic assessment, clear and defined links are drawn between measureable difficulties and underlying sensory-motor assessment. Results are specifically viewed in-light of perception-action coupling and its role in early infant development suggesting that rather than being secondary level impairment, sensory-motor problems may be fundamental in the progression of ASD. This logical and systematic process thus allows a further understanding into the potential route of observable motor problems in ASD; a vital step if underlying motor problems are to be considered a fundamental aspect of autism and allow a route of non-invasive preliminary diagnosis.

  17. Cognitive linguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Vyvyan

    2012-03-01

    Cognitive linguistics is one of the fastest growing and influential perspectives on the nature of language, the mind, and their relationship with sociophysical (embodied) experience. It is a broad theoretical and methodological enterprise, rather than a single, closely articulated theory. Its primary commitments are outlined. These are the Cognitive Commitment-a commitment to providing a characterization of language that accords with what is known about the mind and brain from other disciplines-and the Generalization Commitment-which represents a dedication to characterizing general principles that apply to all aspects of human language. The article also outlines the assumptions and worldview which arises from these commitments, as represented in the work of leading cognitive linguists. WIREs Cogn Sci 2012, 3:129-141. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1163 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  18. Strength-balance supplemented with computerized cognitive training to improve dual task gait and divided attention in older adults: a multicenter randomized-controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    van het Reve, Eva; de Bruin, Eling D

    2014-01-01

    Background Exercise interventions often do not combine physical and cognitive training. However, this combination is assumed to be more beneficial in improving walking and cognitive functioning compared to isolated cognitive or physical training. Methods A multicenter parallel randomized controlled trial was conducted to compare a motor to a cognitive-motor exercise program. A total of 182 eligible residents of homes-for-the-aged (n = 159) or elderly living in the vicinity of the homes (n = 2...

  19. Cognitive fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilkey, Roderick; Kilts, Clint

    2007-11-01

    Recent neuroscientific research shows that the health of your brain isn't, as experts once thought, just the product of childhood experiences and genetics; it reflects your adult choices and experiences as well. Professors Gilkey and Kilts of Emory University's medical and business schools explain how you can strengthen your brain's anatomy, neural networks, and cognitive abilities, and prevent functions such as memory from deteriorating as you age. The brain's alertness is the result of what the authors call cognitive fitness -a state of optimized ability to reason, remember, learn, plan, and adapt. Certain attitudes, lifestyle choices, and exercises enhance cognitive fitness. Mental workouts are the key. Brain-imaging studies indicate that acquiring expertise in areas as diverse as playing a cello, juggling, speaking a foreign language, and driving a taxicab expands your neural systems and makes them more communicative. In other words, you can alter the physical makeup of your brain by learning new skills. The more cognitively fit you are, the better equipped you are to make decisions, solve problems, and deal with stress and change. Cognitive fitness will help you be more open to new ideas and alternative perspectives. It will give you the capacity to change your behavior and realize your goals. You can delay senescence for years and even enjoy a second career. Drawing from the rapidly expanding body of neuroscience research as well as from well-established research in psychology and other mental health fields, the authors have identified four steps you can take to become cognitively fit: understand how experience makes the brain grow, work hard at play, search for patterns, and seek novelty and innovation. Together these steps capture some of the key opportunities for maintaining an engaged, creative brain. PMID:18159786

  20. Cognitive representation of human action: theory, applications, and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian eSeegelke

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this perspective article, we propose a cognitive architecture model of human action that stresses the importance of cognitive representations stored in long-term memory (LTM as reference structures underlying and guiding voluntary motor performance. We introduce an experimental approach to ascertain cognitive representation structures, and provide evidence from a variety of different studies, ranging from basic research in manual action to application-oriented research such as athlete performance and rehabilitation. As results from these studies strongly support the presence of functional links between cognitive and motor processes, we regard this approach as a suitable and valuable tool for a variety of different disciplines related to cognition and movement. We conclude this article by highlighting current advances in ongoing research projects aimed at improving interaction capabilities in technical systems, particularly for rehabilitation and everyday support of the elderly, and outline future research directions.

  1. Improve Motor System Efficiency for a Broad Range of Motors with MotorMaster+ International

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2005-05-01

    Available at no charge, MotorMaster+ International is designed to support motor systems improvement planning at industrial facilities by identifying the most cost-effective choice when deciding to repair or replace older motor models.

  2. Sleep, Cognition and Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Verna R; Buxton, William G; Avidan, Alon Y

    2015-12-01

    The older patient population is growing rapidly around the world and in the USA. Almost half of seniors over age 65 who live at home are dissatisfied with their sleep, and nearly two-thirds of those residing in nursing home facilities suffer from sleep disorders. Chronic and pervasive sleep complaints and disturbances are frequently associated with excessive daytime sleepiness and may result in impaired cognition, diminished intellect, poor memory, confusion, and psychomotor retardation all of which may be misinterpreted as dementia. The key sleep disorders impacting patients with dementia include insomnia, hypersomnolence, circadian rhythm misalignment, sleep disordered breathing, motor disturbances of sleep such as periodic leg movement disorder of sleep and restless leg syndrome, and parasomnias, mostly in the form of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD). RBD is a pre-clinical marker for a class of neurodegenerative diseases, the "synucleinopathies", and requires formal polysomnographic evaluation. Untreated sleep disorders may exacerbate cognitive and behavioral symptoms in patients with dementia and are a source of considerable stress for bed partners and family members. When left untreated, sleep disturbances may also increase the risk of injury at night, compromise health-related quality of life, and precipitate and accelerate social and economic burdens for caregivers. PMID:26478197

  3. Sleep, Cognition and Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Verna R; Buxton, William G; Avidan, Alon Y

    2015-12-01

    The older patient population is growing rapidly around the world and in the USA. Almost half of seniors over age 65 who live at home are dissatisfied with their sleep, and nearly two-thirds of those residing in nursing home facilities suffer from sleep disorders. Chronic and pervasive sleep complaints and disturbances are frequently associated with excessive daytime sleepiness and may result in impaired cognition, diminished intellect, poor memory, confusion, and psychomotor retardation all of which may be misinterpreted as dementia. The key sleep disorders impacting patients with dementia include insomnia, hypersomnolence, circadian rhythm misalignment, sleep disordered breathing, motor disturbances of sleep such as periodic leg movement disorder of sleep and restless leg syndrome, and parasomnias, mostly in the form of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD). RBD is a pre-clinical marker for a class of neurodegenerative diseases, the "synucleinopathies", and requires formal polysomnographic evaluation. Untreated sleep disorders may exacerbate cognitive and behavioral symptoms in patients with dementia and are a source of considerable stress for bed partners and family members. When left untreated, sleep disturbances may also increase the risk of injury at night, compromise health-related quality of life, and precipitate and accelerate social and economic burdens for caregivers.

  4. Bone mineral density, adiposity and cognitive functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid R Sohrabi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive decline and dementia due to Alzheimer’s disease have been associated with genetic, lifestyle, and environmental factors. A number of potentially modifiable risk factors should be taken into account when preventive or ameliorative interventions targeting dementia and its preclinical stages are investigated. Bone mineral density (BMD and body composition are two such potentially modifiable risk factors, and their association with cognitive decline was investigated in this study. 164 participants, aged 34 to 87 years old (62.78±9.27, were recruited for this longitudinal study and underwent cognitive and clinical examinations at baseline and after three years. Blood samples were collected for apolipoprotein E (APOE genotyping and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA was conducted at the same day as cognitive assessment. Using hierarchical regression analysis, we found that BMD and lean body mass, as measured using DXA were significant predictors of episodic memory. Age, gender, APOE status and premorbid IQ were controlled for. Specifically, the List A learning from California Verbal Learning Test was significantly associated with BMD and lean mass both at baseline and at follow up assessment. Our findings indicate that there is a significant association between BMD and lean body mass and episodic verbal learning. While the involvement of modifiable lifestyle factors in human cognitive function has been examined in different studies, there is a need for further research to understand the potential underlying mechanisms.

  5. Bone mineral density, adiposity, and cognitive functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohrabi, Hamid R; Bates, Kristyn A; Weinborn, Michael; Bucks, Romola S; Rainey-Smith, Stephanie R; Rodrigues, Mark A; Bird, Sabine M; Brown, Belinda M; Beilby, John; Howard, Matthew; Criddle, Arthur; Wraith, Megan; Taddei, Kevin; Martins, Georgia; Paton, Athena; Shah, Tejal; Dhaliwal, Satvinder S; Mehta, Pankaj D; Foster, Jonathan K; Martins, Ian J; Lautenschlager, Nicola T; Mastaglia, Francis; Laws, Simon M; Martins, Ralph N

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive decline and dementia due to Alzheimer's disease (AD) have been associated with genetic, lifestyle, and environmental factors. A number of potentially modifiable risk factors should be taken into account when preventive or ameliorative interventions targeting dementia and its preclinical stages are investigated. Bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition are two such potentially modifiable risk factors, and their association with cognitive decline was investigated in this study. 164 participants, aged 34-87 years old (62.78 ± 9.27), were recruited for this longitudinal study and underwent cognitive and clinical examinations at baseline and after 3 years. Blood samples were collected for apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotyping and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was conducted at the same day as cognitive assessment. Using hierarchical regression analysis, we found that BMD and lean body mass, as measured using DXA were significant predictors of episodic memory. Age, gender, APOE status, and premorbid IQ were controlled for. Specifically, the List A learning from California Verbal Learning Test was significantly associated with BMD and lean mass both at baseline and at follow up assessment. Our findings indicate that there is a significant association between BMD and lean body mass and episodic verbal learning. While the involvement of modifiable lifestyle factors in human cognitive function has been examined in different studies, there is a need for further research to understand the potential underlying mechanisms. PMID:25741279

  6. The effect of multidisciplinary rehabilitation on brain structure and cognition in Huntington's disease: an exploratory study

    OpenAIRE

    Cruickshank, Travis M.; Thompson, Jennifer A.; Domínguez D, Juan F.; Reyes, Alvaro P; Bynevelt, Mike; Georgiou-Karistianis, Nellie; Roger A Barker; Ziman, Mel R

    2015-01-01

    Background There is a wealth of evidence detailing gray matter degeneration and loss of cognitive function over time in individuals with Huntington's disease (HD). Efforts to attenuate disease-related brain and cognitive changes have been unsuccessful to date. Multidisciplinary rehabilitation, comprising motor and cognitive intervention, has been shown to positively impact on functional capacity, depression, quality of life and some aspects of cognition in individuals with HD. This explorator...

  7. Moral Cognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schleim, Stephan; Clausen, Jens; Levy, Neil

    2015-01-01

    Research on moral cognition is a growing and heavily multidisciplinary field. This section contains chapters addressing foundational psychological, neuroscientific, and philosophical issues of research on moral decision-making. Further- more, beyond summarizing the state of the art of their respecti

  8. A self-organized internal models architecture for coding sensory-motor schemes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esaú eEscobar Juárez

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive robotics research draws inspiration from theories and models on cognition, as conceived by neuroscience or cognitive psychology, to investigate biologically plausible computational models in artificial agents. In this field, the theoretical framework of Grounded Cognition provides epistemological and methodological grounds for the computational modeling of cognition. It has been stressed in the literature that textit{simulation}, textit{prediction}, and textit{multi-modal integration} are key aspects of cognition and that computational architectures capable of putting them into play in a biologically plausible way are a necessity.Research in this direction has brought extensive empirical evidencesuggesting that textit{Internal Models} are suitable mechanisms forsensory-motor integration. However, current Internal Models architectures show several drawbacks, mainly due to the lack of a unified substrate allowing for a true sensory-motor integration space, enabling flexible and scalable ways to model cognition under the embodiment hypothesis constraints.We propose the Self-Organized Internal ModelsArchitecture (SOIMA, a computational cognitive architecture coded by means of a network of self-organized maps, implementing coupled internal models that allow modeling multi-modal sensory-motor schemes. Our approach addresses integrally the issues of current implementations of Internal Models.We discuss the design and features of the architecture, and provide empirical results on a humanoid robot that demonstrate the benefits and potentialities of the SOIMA concept for studying cognition in artificial agents.

  9. Education and risk of incident dementia during the premotor and motor phases of essential tremor (NEDICES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benito-León, Julián; Contador, Israel; Louis, Elan D; Cosentino, Stephanie; Bermejo-Pareja, Félix

    2016-08-01

    Individuals with late-onset essential tremor (ET) (e.g., older adults) seem to have an increased prevalence of mild cognitive impairment and dementia, and a higher risk of incident dementia. It is well-known that education has a protective role against dementia in individuals without a pre-existing neurologic disorder, but evidence regarding the maintenance of this effect during the premotor and motor phases of ET is unknown. Our aim was to determine the influence of education on the risk of dementia in a population-based cohort of ET patients and controls. In a prospective study (Neurological Disorders in Central Spain), participants ≥65 years old were evaluated twice: at baseline (1994-1995) and at follow-up (1997-1998). There were 3 groups: premotor (i.e., participants first diagnosed with incident ET at follow-up), prevalent ET (i.e., participants diagnosed with ET at baseline and at follow-up), and controls. Participants were stratified into lower education (≤primary studies) versus higher education (≥secondary studies) categories. Dementia risk was estimated using Cox proportional-hazards models (higher education control group = reference category). Among the participants, 3878 had a mean duration of follow-up of 3.2 years. Eight (16.7%) of 48 lower education premotor ET patients developed incident dementia versus 1 (3.3%) of 30 higher education premotor ET patients, 9 (7.1%) of 126 lower education prevalent ET patients, 7 (8.8%) of 80 higher education prevalent ET patients, and 92 (4.9%) of 1892 lower education controls (P higher education controls, the adjusted hazard ratios for incident dementia were 5.84 (lower education premotor ET, P higher education premotor ET, P = 0.76); 2.13 (lower education prevalent ET, P = 0.04); 2.79 (higher education prevalent ET, P = 0.01); and 1.66 (lower education controls, P = 0.01). Our results suggest that a higher educational attainment may ameliorate the risk of incident dementia during the premotor phase of

  10. Concurrent TMS to the primary motor cortex augments slow motor learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayana, Shalini; Zhang, Wei; Rogers, William; Strickland, Casey; Franklin, Crystal; Lancaster, Jack L; Fox, Peter T

    2014-01-15

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has shown promise as a treatment tool, with one FDA approved use. While TMS alone is able to up- (or down-) regulate a targeted neural system, we argue that TMS applied as an adjuvant is more effective for repetitive physical, behavioral and cognitive therapies, that is, therapies which are designed to alter the network properties of neural systems through Hebbian learning. We tested this hypothesis in the context of a slow motor learning paradigm. Healthy right-handed individuals were assigned to receive 5 Hz TMS (TMS group) or sham TMS (sham group) to the right primary motor cortex (M1) as they performed daily motor practice of a digit sequence task with their non-dominant hand for 4 weeks. Resting cerebral blood flow (CBF) was measured by H2(15)O PET at baseline and after 4 weeks of practice. Sequence performance was measured daily as the number of correct sequences performed, and modeled using a hyperbolic function. Sequence performance increased significantly at 4 weeks relative to baseline in both groups. The TMS group had a significant additional improvement in performance, specifically, in the rate of skill acquisition. In both groups, an improvement in sequence timing and transfer of skills to non-trained motor domains was also found. Compared to the sham group, the TMS group demonstrated increases in resting CBF specifically in regions known to mediate skill learning namely, the M1, cingulate cortex, putamen, hippocampus, and cerebellum. These results indicate that TMS applied concomitantly augments behavioral effects of motor practice, with corresponding neural plasticity in motor sequence learning network. These findings are the first demonstration of the behavioral and neural enhancing effects of TMS on slow motor practice and have direct application in neurorehabilitation where TMS could be applied in conjunction with physical therapy.

  11. Designing urban parks that ameliorate the effects of climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, R.D.; Vanos, J.; Kenny, N.; Lenzholzer, S.

    2015-01-01

    Many inhabitants of cities throughout the world suffer from health problems and discomfort that are caused by overheating of urban areas, and there is compelling evidence that these problems will be exacerbated by global climate change. Most cities are not designed to ameliorate these effects althou

  12. Glycine preconditioning to ameliorate pulmonary ischemia reperfusion injury in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sommer, Sebastian-Patrick; Sommer, Stefanie; Sinha, Bhanu; Leyh, Rainer G.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the impact of glycine (Gly) preconditioning on ischemia reperfusion (IR)-induced pulmonary mitochondrial injury to research the previously, in pig lungs, demonstrated Gly-dependent amelioration of pulmonary IR injury. IR injury was induced in rat lungs by 30 min pulmonary hilum c

  13. Antibiotics can ameliorate circulatory complications of liver cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Bjørn Stæhr; Schaffalitzky de Muckadell, Ove B

    2011-01-01

    . This review focuses on how broad spectrum antibiotics can ameliorate the haemodynamic consequences of bacterial translocation. It is possible that the use of broad spectrum antibiotics in the future may be used to prevent other complications of liver cirrhosis than spontaneous bacterial peritonitis...

  14. The Cognitive Side of M1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasino, Barbara; Gremese, Michele

    2016-01-01

    The primary motor cortex (M1) is traditionally implicated in voluntary movement control. In order to test the hypothesis that there is a functional topography of M1 activation in studies where it has been implicated in higher cognitive tasks we performed activation-likelihood-estimation (ALE) meta-analyses of functional neuroimaging experiments reporting M1 activation in relation to six cognitive functional categories for which there was a sufficient number of studies to include, namely motor imagery, working memory, mental rotation, social/emotion/empathy, language, and auditory processing. The six categories activated different sub-sectors of M1, either bilaterally or lateralized to one hemisphere. Notably, the activations found in the M1 of the left or right hemisphere detected in our study were unlikely due to button presses. In fact, all contrasts were selected in order to eliminate M1 activation due to activity related to the finger button press. In addition, we identified the M1 sub-region of Area 4a commonly activated by 4/6 categories, namely motor imagery and working memory, emotion/empathy, and language. Overall, our findings lend support to the idea that there is a functional topography of M1 activation in studies where it has been found activated in higher cognitive tasks and that the left Area 4a can be involved in a number of cognitive processes, likely as a product of implicit mental simulation processing. PMID:27378891

  15. Sentential context modulates the involvement of the motor cortex in action language processing: an FMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuil, Karen D I; Smits, Marion; Zwaan, Rolf A

    2013-01-01

    Theories of embodied cognition propose that language comprehension is based on perceptual and motor processes. More specifically, it is hypothesized that neurons processing verbs describing bodily actions, and those that process the corresponding physical actions, fire simultaneously during action verb learning. Thus the concept and motor activation become strongly linked. According to this view, the language-induced activation of the neural substrates for action is automatic. By contrast, a weak view of embodied cognition proposes that activation of these motor regions is modulated by context. In recent studies it was found that action verbs in literal sentences activate the motor system, while mixed results were observed for action verbs in non-literal sentences. Thus, whether the recruitment of motor regions is automatic or context dependent remains a question. We investigated functional magnetic resonance imaging activation in response to non-literal and literal sentences including arm and leg related actions. The sentence structure was such that the action verb was the last word in the subordinate clause. Thus, the constraining context was presented well before the verb. Region of interest analyses showed that action verbs in literal context engage the motor regions to a greater extent than non-literal action verbs. There was no evidence for a semantic somatotopic organization of the motor cortex. Taken together, these results indicate that during comprehension, the degree to which motor regions are recruited is context dependent, supporting the weak view of embodied cognition.

  16. System and method for motor parameter estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luhrs, Bin; Yan, Ting

    2014-03-18

    A system and method for determining unknown values of certain motor parameters includes a motor input device connectable to an electric motor having associated therewith values for known motor parameters and an unknown value of at least one motor parameter. The motor input device includes a processing unit that receives a first input from the electric motor comprising values for the known motor parameters for the electric motor and receive a second input comprising motor data on a plurality of reference motors, including values for motor parameters corresponding to the known motor parameters of the electric motor and values for motor parameters corresponding to the at least one unknown motor parameter value of the electric motor. The processor determines the unknown value of the at least one motor parameter from the first input and the second input and determines a motor management strategy for the electric motor based thereon.

  17. Motor Vehicle Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... these crashes is one part of motor vehicle safety. Here are some things you can do to ... speed or drive aggressively Don't drive impaired Safety also involves being aware of others. Share the ...

  18. Congenital Ocular Motor Apraxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The clinical and neuroradiological findings, and long-term intellectual prognosis in 10 patients (4 boys and 6 girls with congenital ocular motor apraxia (COMA are reviewed by researchers at Tottori University, Yonago, Japan.

  19. Partial motor status epilepticus

    OpenAIRE

    Gilberto Rebello de Mattos; José C. Rollemberg Filho

    1992-01-01

    We report the case of a young female patient with photosensitive primary epilepsy who presented partial motor status epilepticus provoked by the act of shutting the eyes. Clinical, EEG and neuroimage data are presented and discussed.

  20. Congenital Ocular Motor Apraxia

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    2007-01-01

    The clinical and neuroradiological findings, and long-term intellectual prognosis in 10 patients (4 boys and 6 girls) with congenital ocular motor apraxia (COMA) are reviewed by researchers at Tottori University, Yonago, Japan.

  1. Nonautistic Motor Stereotypies

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    2008-01-01

    Clinical features and long-term outcomes of 100 children (62 boys and 35 girls) with motor stereotypies were evaluated by review of records and telephone interviews at Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD.

  2. A humanin derivative reduces amyloid beta accumulation and ameliorates memory deficit in triple transgenic mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takako Niikura

    Full Text Available Humanin (HN, a 24-residue peptide, was identified as a novel neuroprotective factor and shows anti-cell death activity against a wide spectrum of Alzheimer's disease (AD-related cytotoxicities, including exposure to amyloid beta (Abeta, in vitro. We previously demonstrated that the injection of S14G-HN, a highly potent HN derivative, into brain ameliorated memory loss in an Abeta-injection mouse model. To fully understand HN's functions under AD-associated pathological conditions, we examined the effect of S14G-HN on triple transgenic mice harboring APP(swe, tau(P310L, and PS-1(M146V that show the age-dependent development of multiple pathologies relating to AD. After 3 months of intranasal treatment, behavioral analyses showed that S14G-HN ameliorated cognitive impairment in male mice. Moreover, ELISA and immunohistochemical analyses showed that Abeta levels in brains were markedly lower in S14G-HN-treated male and female mice than in vehicle control mice. We also found the expression level of neprilysin, an Abeta degrading enzyme, in the outer molecular layer of hippocampal formation was increased in S14G-HN-treated mouse brains. NEP activity was also elevated by S14G-HN treatment in vitro. These findings suggest that decreased Abeta level in these mice is at least partly attributed to S14G-HN-induced increase of neprilysin level. Although HN was identified as an anti-neuronal death factor, these results indicate that HN may also have a therapeutic effect on amyloid accumulation in AD.

  3. Heritability of motor control and motor learning

    OpenAIRE

    Missitzi, Julia; Gentner, Reinhard; Misitzi, Angelica; Geladas, Nickos; Politis, Panagiotis; Klissouras, Vassilis; Classen, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to elucidate the relative contribution of genes and environment on individual differences in motor control and acquisition of a force control task, in view of recent association studies showing that several candidate polymorphisms may have an effect on them. Forty‐four healthy female twins performed brisk isometric abductions with their right thumb. Force was recorded by a transducer and fed back to the subject on a computer screen. The task was to place the...

  4. Chemical basis for minimal cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanczyc, Martin M; Ikegami, Takashi

    2010-01-01

    We have developed a simple chemical system capable of self-movement in order to study the physicochemical origins of movement. We propose how this system may be useful in the study of minimal perception and cognition. The system consists simply of an oil droplet in an aqueous environment. A chemical reaction within the oil droplet induces an instability, the symmetry of the oil droplet breaks, and the droplet begins to move through the aqueous phase. The complement of physical phenomena that is then generated indicates the presence of feedback cycles that, as will be argued, form the basis for self-regulation, homeostasis, and perhaps an extended form of autopoiesis. We discuss the result that simple chemical systems are capable of sensory-motor coupling and possess a homeodynamic state from which cognitive processes may emerge. PMID:20586578

  5. Development of motor control

    OpenAIRE

    Schellekens, Johannes Maria Hubertus

    1985-01-01

    In this thesis, the results of a series of investigations into the barrier function of human skin are presented. In these investigations, the barrier function was assessed by water vapour loss measurements of the skin using a method based on gradient estimation. The aim of this thesis is to study the role and efficiency of motor control and anticipation processes in the development of children with and without disturbances in the motor system. Chapter I is a general introduction to the subjec...

  6. Congenital ocular motor apraxia

    OpenAIRE

    Carrasquinho, S; Teixeira, S.; Cadete, A; Bernardo, M.; Pêgo, P; Prieto, I.

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: Congenital ocular motor apraxia is a rare disease characterized by defective or absent voluntary and optically induced horizontal saccadic movements. Jerky head movements or thrusts on attempted lateral gaze are a compensatory sign. Most affected children have delayed motor and speech development. Cases associated with systemic diseases, neurologic maldevelopment, metabolic deficits, and chromosomal abnormalities have been described. METHODS: Case report and review of the scienti...

  7. Motor neurone disease

    OpenAIRE

    Talbot, K.

    2002-01-01

    Motor neurone disease (MND), or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), is a neurodegenerative disorder of unknown aetiology. Progressive motor weakness and bulbar dysfunction lead to premature death, usually from respiratory failure. Confirming the diagnosis may initially be difficult until the full clinical features are manifest. For all forms of the disease there is a significant differential diagnosis to consider, including treatable conditions, and therefore specialist neurological opinion ...

  8. Symmetric Brownian motor

    OpenAIRE

    Gomez-Marin, A.; Sancho, J. M.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we present a model of a symmetric Brownian motor (SBM) which changes the sign of its velocity when the temperature gradient is inverted. The velocity, external work and efficiency are studied as a function of the temperatures of the baths and other relevant parameters. The motor shows a current reversal when another parameter (a phase shift) is varied. Analytical predictions and results from numerical simulations are performed and agree very well. Generic properties of this type...

  9. Multifocal motor neuropathy

    OpenAIRE

    Thy P Nguyen; Vinay Chaudhry

    2011-01-01

    Multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN) is a unique disorder characterized by slowly progressive, asymmetric, distal and upper limb predominant weakness without significant sensory abnormalities. Electrophysiology is crucial to the diagnosis, revealing the hallmark partial conduction block. MMN is considered immune mediated due to the association with anti-GM1 antibodies and the response to immunomodulatory treatment. It is paramount to recognize MMN from other motor neuronopathies or peripheral ne...

  10. Starter Motor Protection

    OpenAIRE

    Gerhardsson, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Starter motors are sensitive for overheating. By estimating the temperature and preventing cranking in time, there is an option to avoid the dangerous temperatures. The truck manufacturer Scania CV AB proposed a master thesis that should evaluate the need of an overheating protection for the starter motor. The aim is to evaluate any positive effects of implementing an algorithm that can estimate the brush temperature instead of using the available time constrain, which allows 35 seconds of cr...

  11. Reciprocal modulation of cognitive and emotional aspects in pianistic performances.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia K Kodama Higuchi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: High level piano performance requires complex integration of perceptual, motor, cognitive and emotive skills. Observations in psychology and neuroscience studies have suggested reciprocal inhibitory modulation of the cognition by emotion and emotion by cognition. However, it is still unclear how cognitive states may influence the pianistic performance. The aim of the present study is to verify the influence of cognitive and affective attention in the piano performances. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Nine pianists were instructed to play the same piece of music, firstly focusing only on cognitive aspects of musical structure (cognitive performances, and secondly, paying attention solely on affective aspects (affective performances. Audio files from pianistic performances were examined using a computational model that retrieves nine specific musical features (descriptors--loudness, articulation, brightness, harmonic complexity, event detection, key clarity, mode detection, pulse clarity and repetition. In addition, the number of volunteers' errors in the recording sessions was counted. Comments from pianists about their thoughts during performances were also evaluated. The analyses of audio files throughout musical descriptors indicated that the affective performances have more: agogics, legatos, pianos phrasing, and less perception of event density when compared to the cognitive ones. Error analysis demonstrated that volunteers misplayed more left hand notes in the cognitive performances than in the affective ones. Volunteers also played more wrong notes in affective than in cognitive performances. These results correspond to the volunteers' comments that in the affective performances, the cognitive aspects of piano execution are inhibited, whereas in the cognitive performances, the expressiveness is inhibited. CONCLUSIONS: Therefore, the present results indicate that attention to the emotional aspects of performance enhances expressiveness

  12. Small-molecule TrkB receptor agonists improve motor function and extend survival in a mouse model of Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Mali; Peng, Qi; Liu, Xia; Jin, Jing; Hou, Zhipeng; Zhang, Jiangyang; Mori, Susumu; Ross, Christopher A; Ye, Keqiang; Duan, Wenzhen

    2013-06-15

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease characterized by abnormal motor coordination, cognitive decline and psychiatric disorders. This disease is caused by an expanded CAG trinucleotide repeat in the gene encoding the protein huntingtin. Reduced levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the brain, which results from transcriptional inhibition and axonal transport deficits mediated by mutant huntingtin, have been suggested as critical factors underlying selective neurodegeneration in both HD patients and HD mouse models. BDNF activates its high-affinity receptor TrkB and promotes neuronal survival; restoring BDNF signaling is thus of particular therapeutic interest. In the present study, we evaluated the ability of a small-molecule TrkB agonist 7,8-dihydroxyflavone (7,8-DHF) and its synthetic derivative 4'-dimethylamino-7,8- dihydroxyflavone (4'-DMA-7,8-DHF) to protect neurons in the well-characterized N171-82Q HD mouse model. We found that chronic administration of 7, 8-DHF (5 mg/kg) or 4'-DMA-7,8-DHF (1 mg/kg) significantly improved motor deficits, ameliorated brain atrophy and extended survival in these N171-82Q HD mice. Moreover, 4'-DMA-7,8-DHF preserved DARPP32 levels in the striatum and rescued mutant huntingtin-induced impairment of neurogenesis in the N171-82Q HD mice. These data highlight consideration of TrkB as a therapeutic target in HD and suggest that small-molecule TrkB agonists that penetrate the brain have high potential to be further tested in clinical trials of HD.

  13. Sentential context modulates the involvement of the motor cortex in action language processing: An fMRI study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.D.I. Schuil (Karen); M. Smits (Marion); R.A. Zwaan (Rolf)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractTheories of embodied cognition propose that language comprehension is based on perceptual and motor processes. More specifically, it is hypothesized that neurons processing verbs describing bodily actions, and those that process the corresponding physical actions, fire simultaneously dur

  14. Time models and cognitive processes: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michail eManiadakis

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The sense of time is an essential capacity of humans, with a major role in many of the cognitive processes expressed in our daily lifes. So far, in cognitive science and robotics research, mental capacities have been investigated in a theoretical and modelling framework that largely neglects the flow of time. Only recently there has been a small but constantly increasing interest in the temporal aspects of cognition, integrating time into a range of different models of perceptuo-motor capacities. The current paper aims to review existing works in the field and suggest directions for fruitful future work. This is particularly important for the newly developed field of artificial temporal cognition that is expected to significantly contribute in the development of sophisticated artificial agents seamlessly integrated into human societies.

  15. Potential of Cognitive Computing and Cognitive Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, Ahmed K.

    2014-11-01

    Cognitive computing and cognitive technologies are game changers for future engineering systems, as well as for engineering practice and training. They are major drivers for knowledge automation work, and the creation of cognitive products with higher levels of intelligence than current smart products. This paper gives a brief review of cognitive computing and some of the cognitive engineering systems activities. The potential of cognitive technologies is outlined, along with a brief description of future cognitive environments, incorporating cognitive assistants - specialized proactive intelligent software agents designed to follow and interact with humans and other cognitive assistants across the environments. The cognitive assistants engage, individually or collectively, with humans through a combination of adaptive multimodal interfaces, and advanced visualization and navigation techniques. The realization of future cognitive environments requires the development of a cognitive innovation ecosystem for the engineering workforce. The continuously expanding major components of the ecosystem include integrated knowledge discovery and exploitation facilities (incorporating predictive and prescriptive big data analytics); novel cognitive modeling and visual simulation facilities; cognitive multimodal interfaces; and cognitive mobile and wearable devices. The ecosystem will provide timely, engaging, personalized / collaborative, learning and effective decision making. It will stimulate creativity and innovation, and prepare the participants to work in future cognitive enterprises and develop new cognitive products of increasing complexity. http://www.aee.odu.edu/cognitivecomp

  16. Electric vehicle motors and controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secunde, R. R.

    1981-01-01

    Improved and advanced components being developed include electronically commutated permanent magnet motors of both drum and disk configuration, an unconventional brush commutated motor, and ac induction motors and various controllers. Test results on developmental motors, controllers, and combinations thereof indicate that efficiencies of 90% and higher for individual components, and 80% to 90% for motor/controller combinations can be obtained at rated power. The simplicity of the developmental motors and the potential for ultimately low cost electronics indicate that one or more of these approaches to electric vehicle propulsion may eventually displace presently used controllers and brush commutated dc motors.

  17. Markov Process of Muscle Motors

    CERN Document Server

    Kondratiev, Yu; Pirogov, S

    2007-01-01

    We study a Markov random process describing a muscle molecular motor behavior. Every motor is either bound up with a thin filament or unbound. In the bound state the motor creates a force proportional to its displacement from the neutral position. In both states the motor spend an exponential time depending on the state. The thin filament moves at its velocity proportional to average of all displacements of all motors. We assume that the time which a motor stays at the bound state does not depend on its displacement. Then one can find an exact solution of a non-linear equation appearing in the limit of infinite number of the motors.

  18. The role of 5-HT7 receptor antagonism in the amelioration of MK-801-induced learning and memory deficits by the novel atypical antipsychotic drug lurasidone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horisawa, Tomoko; Nishikawa, Hiroyuki; Toma, Satoko; Ikeda, Atsushi; Horiguchi, Masakuni; Ono, Michiko; Ishiyama, Takeo; Taiji, Mutsuo

    2013-05-01

    Lurasidone is a novel atypical antipsychotic with high affinity for dopamine D2, serotonin 5-HT7 and 5-HT2A receptors. We previously reported that lurasidone and the selective 5-HT7 receptor antagonist, SB-656104-A improved learning and memory deficits induced by MK-801, an N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, in the rat passive avoidance test. In this study, we first examined the role of the 5-HT7 receptor antagonistic activity of lurasidone in its pro-cognitive effect to ameliorate MK-801-induced deficits in the rat passive avoidance test. The 5-HT7 receptor agonist, AS19, (2S)-(+)-5-(1,3,5-trimethylpyrazol-4-yl)-2-(dimethylamino) tetralin, (3 mg/kg, s.c.) completely blocked the attenuating effects of lurasidone (3 mg/kg, p.o.), highlighting the importance of 5-HT7 receptor antagonism in the pro-cognitive effect of lurasidone. AS19 (3 mg/kg, s.c.) also blocked the ameliorating effect of SB-656104-A (10 mg/kg, i.p.) in the same experimental paradigm. To further extend our observation, we next tested whether 5-HT7 receptor antagonism still led to the amelioration of MK-801-induced deficits when combined with D2 and 5-HT2A receptor antagonists, and found that SB-656104-A (10 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly ameliorated MK-801-induced deficits even in the presence of the D2 receptor antagonist raclopride (0.1 mg/kg, s.c.) and 5-HT2A receptor antagonist ketanserin (1 mg/kg, s.c.). Taken together, these results suggest that the 5-HT7 receptor antagonistic activity of lurasidone plays an important role in its effectiveness against MK-801-induced deficits, and may contribute to its pharmacological actions in patients with schizophrenia.

  19. Shape memory alloy based motor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S V Sharma; M M Nayak; N S Dinesh

    2008-10-01

    Design and characterization of a new shape memory alloy wire based Poly Phase Motor has been reported in this paper. The motor can be used either in stepping mode or in servo mode of operation. Each phase of the motor consists of an SMA wire with a spring in series. The principle of operation of the poly phase motor is presented. The motor resembles a stepper motor in its functioning though the actuation principles are different and hence has been characterized similar to a stepper motor. The motor can be actuated in either direction with different phase sequencing methods, which are presented in this work. The motor is modelled and simulated and the results of simulations and experiments are presented. The experimental model of the motor is of dimension 150 mm square, 20 mm thick and uses SMA wire of 0·4 mm diameter and 125 mm of length in each phase.

  20. Cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosgrove, Jeremy; Alty, Jane Elizabeth; Jamieson, Stuart

    2015-04-01

    Cognitive impairment is a significant non-motor symptom of Parkinson's disease (PD). Longitudinal cohort studies have demonstrated that approximately 50% of those with PD develop dementia after 10 years, increasing to over 80% after 20 years. Deficits in cognition can be identified at the time of PD diagnosis in some patients and this mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI) has been studied extensively over the last decade. Although PD-MCI is a risk factor for developing Parkinson's disease dementia there is evidence to suggest that PD-MCI might consist of distinct subtypes with different pathophysiologies and prognoses. The major pathological correlate of Parkinson's disease dementia is Lewy body deposition in the limbic system and neocortex although Alzheimer's related pathology is also an important contributor. Pathological damage causes alteration to neurotransmitter systems within the brain, producing behavioural change. Management of cognitive impairment in PD requires a multidisciplinary approach and accurate communication with patients and relatives is essential. PMID:25814509