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Sample records for ameliorates diabetic symptoms

  1. Chromium, selenium, and zinc multimineral enriched yeast supplementation ameliorates diabetes symptom in streptozocin-induced mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Bao, Wei; Jiang, Man; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Xiping; Liu, Liegang

    2012-05-01

    Chromium, selenium, and zinc malnutrition has been implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic mellitus. This study aims to investigate the effects of novel multiminerals-enriched yeast (MMEY) which are minerals supplementation containing elevated levels of chromium, selenium, and zinc simultaneously in a diabetic animal model. Streptozocin-induced diabetic male Balb/c mice (n = 80) were randomly divided into diabetes control group and three treatment groups. They were administrated oral gavages with low, medium, or high doses of MMEY, respectively. Meanwhile, healthy male Balb/c mice (n = 40) of the same body weight were randomly assigned into normal control group and high dose of MMEY control group. After 8 weeks duration of treatment, the animals were sacrificed by cervical dislocation. Serum glucose concentrations, lipid profiles, oxidative/antioxidant, and immunity status were determined. No significant adverse effects were observed in the high-dose MMEY control group. Treatment of the diabetic mice with medium- or high-dose MMEY significantly decreased serum glucose, triglyceride, total cholesterol, and malondialdehyde and increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, glutathione, and the activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase. In addition, MMEY ameliorated the pathological damage of the pancreatic islets, elevated the thymus or spleen coefficient, and increased the expressions of interleukin-2 and -4 in spleen lymphocytes compared with unsupplemented diabetic mice. In conclusion, these results indicate that supplemental MMEY inhibits hyperglycemia, abates oxidative stress, modulates disorders of lipid metabolism, and reduces the impairment of immune function in diabetic mice; especially notable are the protective effects of medium doses of MMEY on the islet cells of diabetic mice.

  2. Pluronic L-81 ameliorates diabetic symptoms in db/db mice through transcriptional regulation of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Wo-Shing; Lu, Li-Wei; Tam, Sidney; Ko, Otis King Hung; Chow, Billy KC; He, Ming-Liang; Ng, Samuel S; Yeung, Chung-Man; Liu, Ching-Chiu; Kung, Hsiang-Fu; Lin, Marie C

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To test whether oral L-81 treatment could improve the condition of mice with diabetes and to investigate how L-81 regulates microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) activity in the liver. METHODS: Genetically diabetic (db/db) mice were fed on chow supplemented with or without L-81 for 4 wk. The body weight, plasma glucose level, plasma lipid profile, and adipocyte volume of the db/db mice were assessed after treatment. Toxicity of L-81 was also evaluated. To understand the molecular mechanism, HepG2 cells were treated with L-81 and the effects on apolipoprotein B (apoB) secretion and mRNA level of the MTP gene were assessed. RESULTS: Treatment of db/db mice with L-81 significantly reduced and nearly normalized their body weight, hyperphagia and polydipsia. L-81 also markedly decreased the fasting plasma glucose level, improved glucose tolerance, and attenuated the elevated levels of plasma cholesterol and triglyceride. At the effective dosage, little toxicity was observed. Treatment of HepG2 cells with L-81 not only inhibited apoB secretion, but also significantly decreased the mRNA level of the MTP gene. Similar to the action of insulin, L-81 exerted its effect on the MTP promoter. CONCLUSION: L-81 represents a promising candidate in the development of a selective insulin-mimetic molecule and an anti-diabetic agent. PMID:19554651

  3. Doinseunggitang Ameliorates Endothelial Dysfunction in Diabetic Atherosclerosis

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    Jung Joo Yoon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis, a chronic and progressive disease characterized by vascular inflammation, is a leading cause of death in diabetes patients. Doinseunggitang (DYSGT, traditional prescription, has been used for promoting blood circulation to remove blood stasis. The aim of this study was to investigate the beneficial effects of DYSGT on endothelial dysfunction in diabetic atherosclerosis animal model. Apolipoprotein E knockout (ApoE KO mice fed on a Western diet were treated with DYSGT (200 mg/kg/day. DYSGT significantly lowered blood glucose level and glucose tolerance as well as systolic blood pressure. Metabolic parameter showed that DYSGT markedly decreased triglyceride and LDL-cholesterol levels. In the thoracic aorta, the impairment of vasorelaxation response to acetylcholine and atherosclerotic lesion was attenuated by DYSGT. Furthermore, DYSGT restored the reduction of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS expression, leading to the inhibition of intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1 and endothelin-1 (ET-1 expression. In conclusion, DYSGT improved the development of diabetic atherosclerosis via attenuation of the endothelial dysfunction, possibly by inhibiting ET-1, cell adhesion molecules, and lesion formation. Therefore, these results suggest that Korean traditional prescription Doinseunggitang may be useful in the treatment and prevention of diabetic vascular complications.

  4. Levetiracetam ameliorates ovarian function in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akman, Levent; Erbas, Oytun; Akdemir, Ali; Yavasoglu, Altug; Taskiran, Dilek; Kazandi, Mert

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus can adversely affect gonadal function. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the protective effects and mechanism of action of levetiracetam (LEV) on the ovaries in a streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes model in rats. Twenty-one adult female rats were assigned to three groups as control, diabetes group treated with 1 mL/kg/d saline (STZ + SP) and diabetes group treated with 600 mg/kg/d LEV (STZ + LEV). Following 4 weeks treatment, blood samples were collected for biochemical analysis and ovariectomy was performed for histopathological examination. Plasma anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH), glutathione and total anti-oxidant capacity values were significantly lower whereas lipid peroxides and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) values were significantly higher in STZ + SP group compared to control. LEV treatment successfully decreased lipid peroxidation and TGF-β levels, and also increased anti-oxidant parameters and AMH levels in diabetic rats. Saline-treated rats significantly displayed ovarian degeneration and decreased counts of follicles. However, treatment of diabetic rats with LEV effectively prevented the degenerative changes and follicle loss. Also, LEV suppressed ovarian nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kB) immunoexpression in diabetic rats. Taken together, we propose that LEV can ameliorate the adverse effects of diabetes on ovarian function via decreasing NF-kB expression and oxidative stress and increasing anti-oxidant status in rats.

  5. Insulin sensitizer prevents and ameliorates experimental type 1 diabetes.

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    Valitsky, Michael; Hoffman, Amnon; Unterman, Terry; Bar-Tana, Jacob

    2017-12-01

    Insulin-dependent type-1 diabetes (T1D) is driven by autoimmune β-cell failure, whereas systemic resistance to insulin is considered the hallmark of insulin-independent type-2 diabetes (T2D). In contrast to this canonical dichotomy, insulin resistance appears to precede the overt diabetic stage of T1D and predict its progression, implying that insulin sensitizers may change the course of T1D. However, previous attempts to ameliorate T1D in animal models or patients by insulin sensitizers have largely failed. Sensitization to insulin by MEthyl-substituted long-chain DICArboxylic acid (MEDICA) analogs in T2D animal models surpasses that of current insulin sensitizers, thus prompting our interest in probing MEDICA in the T1D context. MEDICA efficacy in modulating the course of T1D was verified in streptozotocin (STZ) diabetic rats and autoimmune nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice. MEDICA treatment normalizes overt diabetes in STZ diabetic rats when added on to subtherapeutic insulin, and prevents/delays autoimmune T1D in NOD mice. MEDICA treatment does not improve β-cell insulin content or insulitis score, but its efficacy is accounted for by pronounced total body sensitization to insulin. In conclusion, potent insulin sensitizers may counteract genetic predisposition to autoimmune T1D and amplify subtherapeutic insulin into an effective therapeutic measure for the treatment of overt T1D. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  6. Naringin ameliorates cognitive deficits in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

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    Xianchu Liu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s:Previous research demonstrated that diabetes is one of the leading causes of learning and memory deficits. Naringin, a bioflavonoid isolated from grapefruits and oranges, has potent protective effects on streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic rats. Recently, the effects of naringin on learning and memory performances were monitored in many animal models of cognitive impairment. However, to date, no studies have investigated the ameliorative effects of naringin on diabetes-associated cognitive decline (DACD. In this study, we investigated the effects of naringin, using a STZ-injected rat model and explored its potential mechanism. Materials and Methods:Diabetic rats were treated with naringin (100 mg/kg/d for 7 days. The learning and memory function were assessed by Morris water maze test. The oxidative stress indicators [superoxide dismutase (SOD and malondialdehyde (MDA] and inflammatory cytokines (TNF-a, IL-1β, and IL-6 were measured in hippocampus using corresponding commercial kits. The mRNA and protein levels of PPARγ were evaluated by real time (RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. Results:The results showed that supplementation of naringin improved learning and memory performances compared with the STZ group. Moreover, naringin supplement dramatically increased SOD levels, reduced MDA levels, and alleviated TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 compared with the STZ group in the hippocampus. The pretreatment with naringin also significantly increased PPARγ expression. Conclusion: Our results showed that naringin may be a promising therapeutic agent for improving cognitive decline in DACD.

  7. Gastrointestinal Symptoms in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To determine whether gastrointestinal symptoms are more frequent in persons with diabetes mellitus compared with age and sex-matched controls, and to assess the association of these symptoms with blood sugar control. Methods: Hospital-based case control study. Study was carried out in the diabetic clinic of ...

  8. Symptom scoring systems to diagnose distal polyneuropathy in diabetes : the Diabetic Neuropathy Symptom score

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, J.W.G.; Smit, A.J.; van Sonderen, E.; Groothoff, J.W.; Eisma, W.H.; Links, T.P.

    2002-01-01

    AIMS: To provide one of the diagnostic categories for distal diabetic polyneuro-pathy,several symptom scoring systems are available, which are often extensive andlack in validation. We validated a new four-item Diabetic Neuropathy Symptom (DNS) scorefor diagnosing distal diabetic polyneuropathy.

  9. Lipid abnormalities in streptozotocin-diabetes: Amelioration by Morus indica L. cv Suguna leaves

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    Andallu, B.; Vinay Kumar, A. V.; Varadacharyulu, N. Ch.

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To observe the influence of mulberry (Morus indica L. cv Suguna) leaves on lipid abnormalities in STZ-diabetic rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Treatment with dried mulberry leaf powder for a period of 8 weeks in hyperglycemic and hyperlipidemic STZ-diabetic rats. RESULTS: Mulberry leaves regulated fasting blood glucose, ameliorated the abnormalities in lipid profile as indicated by significant (P

  10. Moderate exercise ameliorates dysregulated hippocampal glycometabolism and memory function in a rat model of type 2 diabetes.

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    Shima, Takeru; Matsui, Takashi; Jesmin, Subrina; Okamoto, Masahiro; Soya, Mariko; Inoue, Koshiro; Liu, Yu-Fan; Torres-Aleman, Ignacio; McEwen, Bruce S; Soya, Hideaki

    2017-03-01

    Type 2 diabetes is likely to be an independent risk factor for hippocampal-based memory dysfunction, although this complication has yet to be investigated in detail. As dysregulated glycometabolism in peripheral tissues is a key symptom of type 2 diabetes, it is hypothesised that diabetes-mediated memory dysfunction is also caused by hippocampal glycometabolic dysfunction. If so, such dysfunction should also be ameliorated with moderate exercise by normalising hippocampal glycometabolism, since 4 weeks of moderate exercise enhances memory function and local hippocampal glycogen levels in normal animals. The hippocampal glycometabolism in OLETF rats (model of human type 2 diabetes) was assessed and, subsequently, the effects of exercise on memory function and hippocampal glycometabolism were investigated. OLETF rats, which have memory dysfunction, exhibited higher levels of glycogen in the hippocampus than did control rats, and breakdown of hippocampal glycogen with a single bout of exercise remained unimpaired. However, OLETF rats expressed lower levels of hippocampal monocarboxylate transporter 2 (MCT2, a transporter for lactate to neurons). Four weeks of moderate exercise improved spatial memory accompanied by further increase in hippocampal glycogen levels and restoration of MCT2 expression independent of neurotrophic factor and clinical symptoms in OLETF rats. Our findings are the first to describe detailed profiles of glycometabolism in the type 2 diabetic hippocampus and to show that 4 weeks of moderate exercise improves memory dysfunction in type 2 diabetes via amelioration of dysregulated hippocampal glycometabolism. Dysregulated hippocampal lactate-transport-related glycometabolism is a possible aetiology of type-2-diabetes-mediated memory dysfunction.

  11. Phoenix dactylifera seeds ameliorate early diabetic complications in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

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    Abdelaziz, Dalia H A; Ali, Sahar A; Mostafa, Mahmoud M A

    2015-06-01

    In Arabic folk medicine, the seeds of Phoenix dactylifera L. (Arecaceae) have been used to manage diabetes for many years. Few studies have reported the antidiabetic effect of P. dactylifera seeds; however, their effect on diabetic complications is still unexplored. The present study investigates the protective effect of P. dactylifera seeds against diabetic complications in rats. The aqueous suspension of P. dactylifera seeds (aqPDS) (1 g/kg/d) was orally administered to streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats for 4 weeks. The serum biochemical parameters were assessed spectrophotometrically. Furthermore, oxidative stress was examined in both liver and kidney tissues by assessment of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), nitric oxide (NO), reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione S-transferase, and catalase. Oral administration of aqPDS significantly ameliorated the elevated levels of glucose (248 ± 42 versus 508 ± 60 mg/dl), urea (32 ± 3.3 versus 48.3 ± 5.6 mg/dl), creatinine (2.2 ± 0.35 versus 3.8 ± 0.37 mg/dl), ALT (29.6 ± 3.9 versus 46.4 ± 5.9 IU/l), and AST (73.3 ± 13 versus 127.8 ± 18.7 IU/l) compared with the untreated diabetic rats. In addition to significant augmentation in the activities of antioxidant enzymes, there was reduction in TBARS and NO levels and improvement of histopathological architecture of the liver and kidney of diabetic rats. The aqPDS showed potential protective effects against early diabetic complications of both liver and kidney. This effect may be explained by the antioxidant and free radical scavenging capabilities of P. dactylifera seeds.

  12. Amelioration of renal lesions associated with diabetes by dietary curcumin in streptozotocin diabetic rats.

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    Suresh Babu, P; Srinivasan, K

    1998-04-01

    Curcumin, the coloring principle of the commonly used spice turmeric (Curcuma longa) was fed at 0.5% in the diet to streptozotocin-induced diabetic Wistar rats for 8 weeks. Renal damage was assessed by the amount of proteins excreted in the urine and the extent of leaching of renal tubular enzymes: NAG, LDH, AsAT, AlAT, alkaline and acid phosphatases. The integrity of kidney was assessed by measuring the activities of several key enzymes of the renal tissue: glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glucose-6-phosphatase, and LDH (Carbohydrate metabolism), aldose reductase and sorbitol dehydrogenase (polyol pathway), transaminases, ATPases and membrane PUFA/SFA ratio (membrane integrity). Data on enzymuria, albuminuria, activity of kidney ATPases and fatty acid composition of renal membranes in diabetic condition suggested that dietary curcumin brought about significant beneficial modulation of the progression of renal lesions in diabetes. These findings were also corroborated by histological examination of kidney sections. It is inferred that this beneficial ameliorating influence of dietary curcumin on diabetic nephropathy is possibly mediated through its ability to lower blood cholesterol levels.

  13. Qigong Ameliorates Symptoms of Chronic Fatigue: A Pilot Uncontrolled Study

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    Turner, Warren; Zammit-Maempe, Joseph; Lee, Myeong Soo

    2009-01-01

    Traditional Chinese Medicine practitioners consider that chronic fatigue reflects a disharmony and depletion in the supply of qi in the body. Qigong is one of the traditional complementary interventions used to strengthen qi through self-practice, and to manage the state of qi to prevent and cure disease. The aim of this study is to assess whether qigong could be used to manage the symptoms of chronic fatigue. Eighteen Caucasian, British female participants were recruited, taught a qigong routine during weekly classes over 6 months, and asked to practice it daily for 15 min. Participants completed the core set of the RAND Medical Outcomes Study questionnaire (RAND MOS) and a sleep diary during the 2-week baseline control period, and at 3 and 6 months following the start of the trial. The qigong intervention resulted in significant changes in sleep rate score and in the following subscales of the RAND MOS: SF36 Vitality, Sleep Problems, Social Activity, Social Activity Limitation due to Health, Health Distress, Mental Health Index and Psychological Well-being. Qigong seems to improve factors related to chronic fatigue such as sleep, pain, mental attitude and general mobility after 3 and 6 months. Qigong's positive effects indicate that it represents a potentially safe method of treatment for chronic fatigued patients. However, we cannot completely discount the possible influence of placebo effects, and more objective clinical measures are needed to reproduce our findings with long-term follow-up in a randomized, controlled study involving a larger number of subjects. PMID:18955297

  14. Flos Puerariae Extract Ameliorates Cognitive Impairment in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Mice

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    Zhong-he Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The effects of Flos Puerariae extract (FPE on cognitive impairment associated with diabetes were assessed in C57BL/6J mice. Methods. Experimental diabetic mice model was induced by one injection of 50 mg/kg streptozotocin (STZ for 5 days consecutively. FPE was orally administrated at the dosages of 50, 100, or 200 mg/kg/day, respectively. The learning and memory ability was assessed by Morris water maze test. Body weight, blood glucose, free fatty acid (FFA and total cholesterol (TCH in serum, malondialdehyde (MDA, superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px, and acetylcholinesterase (AChE activities in cerebral cortex and hippocampus were also measured. Results. Oral administration of FPE significantly improved cognitive deficits in STZ-induced diabetic mice. FPE treatment also maintained body weight and ameliorated hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia in diabetic mice. Additionally, decreased MDA level, enhanced CAT, and GSH-Px activities in cerebral cortex or hippocampus, as well as alleviated AChE activity in cerebral cortex, were found in diabetic mice supplemented with FPE. Conclusion. This study suggests that FPE ameliorates memory deficits in experimental diabetic mice, at least partly through the normalization of metabolic abnormalities, ameliorated oxidative stress, and AChE activity in brain.

  15. Bezafibrate ameliorates diabetes via reduced steatosis and improved hepatic insulin sensitivity in diabetic TallyHo mice

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    Andras Franko

    2017-03-01

    Conclusions: Our data showed that BEZ ameliorates diabetes probably via reduced steatosis, enhanced hepatic mitochondrial mass, improved metabolic flexibility and elevated hepatic insulin sensitivity in TallyHo mice, suggesting that BEZ treatment could be beneficial for patients with NAFLD and impaired glucose metabolism.

  16. Camel milk ameliorates hyperglycaemia and oxidative damage in type-1 diabetic experimental rats.

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    Meena, Sunita; Rajput, Yudhishthir S; Pandey, Amit K; Sharma, Rajan; Singh, Raghvendar

    2016-08-01

    This study was designed to assess anti-diabetic potential of goat, camel, cow and buffalo milk in streptozotocin (STZ) induced type 1 diabetic albino wistar rats. A total of 48 rats were taken for the study where one group was kept as non-diabetic control group (8 rats) while others (40 rats) were made diabetic by STZ (50 mg/kg of body weight) injection. Among diabetic rats, a control group (8 rats) was kept and referred as diabetic control whereas other four groups (8 rats each) of diabetic rats were fed on 50 ml of goat or camel or cow or buffalo milk for 4 weeks. All the rats (non-diabetic and diabetic) were maintained on standard diet for four weeks. STZ administration resulted in enhancement of glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein, HbA1c and reduction in high density lipoprotein in plasma and lowering of antioxidative enzymes (catalase, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase) activities in pancreas, kidney, liver and RBCs, coupled with enhanced levels of TBARS and protein carbonyls in pancreas, kidney, liver and plasma. OGTT carried out at the end of 4 week milk feeding indicated that all milks helped in early maintenance of glucose level. All milks reduced atherogenic index. In camel milk fed diabetic group, insulin concentration enhanced to level noted for non-diabetic control while goat, cow and buffalo milk failed to restore insulin level. HbA1c level was also restored only in camel milk fed diabetic group. The level of antioxidative enzymes (catalase, GPx and SOD) in pancreas enhanced in all milk fed groups. Camel milk and to a reasonable extent goat milk reduced formation of TBARS and PCs in tissues and blood. It can be concluded that camel milk ameliorates hyperglycaemia and oxidative damage in type-1 diabetic experimental rats. Further, only camel milk completely ameliorated oxidative damage in pancreas and normalised insulin level.

  17. Ameliorative effect of apelin on streptozotocin-induced diabetes and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Islam Ibrahim Hegab

    Aim: Apelin, an adipocyte-derived factor, exhibited a number of cardioprotective properties; however, its effect in diabetes which is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) needs to be further studied. So this work was designed to evaluate the effect of apelin on diabetes and its associated cardiac hyper-.

  18. Mycophenolate Mofetil Ameliorates Diabetic Nephropathy in db/db Mice

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    Jung-Woo Seo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic low-grade inflammation is an important factor in the pathogenesis of diabetic complication. Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF has an anti-inflammatory effect, inhibiting lymphocyte proliferation. Previous studies showed attenuation of diabetic nephropathy with MMF, but the underlying mechanisms were unclear. This study aimed to identify the effect of MMF on diabetic nephropathy and investigate its action mechanisms in type 2 diabetic mice model. Eight-week-old db/db and control mice (db/m mice received vehicle or MMF at a dose of 30 mg/kg/day for 12 weeks. MMF-treated diabetic mice showed decreased albuminuria, attenuated mesangial expansion, and profibrotic mRNA expressions despite the high glucose level. The number of infiltrated CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in the kidney was significantly decreased in MMF-treated db/db mice and it resulted in attenuating elevated intrarenal TNF-α and IL-17. The renal chemokines expression and macrophages infiltration were also attenuated by MMF treatment. The decreased expression of glomerular nephrin and WT1 was recovered with MMF treatment. MMF prevented the progression of diabetic nephropathy in db/db mice independent of glycemic control. These results suggest that the effects of MMF in diabetic nephropathy are mediated by CD4+ T cell regulation and related cytokines.

  19. Metformin ameliorates insulitis in STZ-induced diabetic mice

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    Guo-Jun Jiang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims Metformin is currently the most widely used first-line hypoglycemic agent for diabetes mellitus. Besides glucose-lowering action, there is increasingly interest in the potential anti-inflammatory action of this drug. In the present study, we investigated the actions of metformin on experimental insulitis using STZ-induced diabetic mice. Methods Mice with acute diabetes induced by STZ were administered metformin by gavage. Changes of blood glucose and body weight, and the daily amount of food and water intake were measured. Pancreatic tissues were collected for histologic analyses. Pathological assessment and immunohistochemistry analysis were used to determine the effect of metformin on insulitis. Inflammatory cytokines in the pancreas and insulin levels were measured through ELISA analysis. Results Metformin significantly reduced blood glucose levels and improved aberrant water intake behavior in experimental diabetic mice. No significant differences were observed in terms of body weight and food intake behavior in metformin-treated animals. In the STZ-induced model of diabetes, we found the appearance of pronounced insulitis. However, metformin administration reduced the severity of insulitis assessed by blind pathological scoring. In addition, metformin treatment improved insulin levels in experimental diabetic mice. ELISA assay revealed decreased levels of inflammatory response marker IL-1β and TNF-α in the pancreatic tissues following metformin treatment. Conclusion Metformin attenuated insulitis in the STZ-induced mice model of diabetes. This islet-protective effect might be partly correlated with the anti-inflammatory action of metformin.

  20. Amelioration of Auditory Response by DA9801 in Diabetic Mouse

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    Yeong Ro Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus (DM is a metabolic disease that involves disorders such as diabetic retinopathy, diabetic neuropathy, and diabetic hearing loss. Recently, neurotrophin has become a treatment target that has shown to be an attractive alternative in recovering auditory function altered by DM. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of DA9801, a mixture of Dioscorea nipponica and Dioscorea japonica extracts, in the auditory function damage produced in a STZ-induced diabetic model and to provide evidence of the mechanisms involved in enhancing these protective effects. We found a potential application of DA9801 on hearing impairment in the STZ-induced diabetic model, demonstrated by reducing the deterioration produced by DM in ABR threshold in response to clicks and normalizing wave I–IV latencies and Pa latencies in AMLR. We also show evidence that these effects might be elicited by inducing NGF related through Nr3c1 and Akt. Therefore, this result suggests that the neuroprotective effects of DA9801 on the auditory damage produced by DM may be affected by NGF increase resulting from Nr3c1 via Akt transformation.

  1. Clinical diagnosis of diabetic polyneuropathy with the diabetic neuropathy symptom and diabetic neuropathy examination scores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, J.W.; Lefrandt, J.D.; Links, T.P.; Smit, J.A.; Stewart, R.E.; van der Hoeven, J.H.; Hoogenberg, K.

    OBJECTIVE - To evaluate the discriminative power of the Diabetic Neuropathy Symptom (DNS) and Diabetic Neuropathy Examination (DNE) scores for diagnosing diabetic polyneuropathy (PNP), as well as their relation with cardiovascular autonomic function testing (cAFT) and electro-diagnostic studies

  2. Insulin receptor isoform A ameliorates long-term glucose intolerance in diabetic mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Castroverde, Sabela; Gómez-Hernández, Almudena; Fernández, Silvia; García-Gómez, Gema; Di Scala, Marianna; González-Aseguinolaza, Gloria; Fernández-Millán, Elisa; González-Rodríguez, Águeda; García-Bravo, María; Chambon, Pierre; Álvarez, Carmen; Perdomo, Liliana; Beneit, Nuria; Benito, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a complex metabolic disease and its pathogenesis involves abnormalities in both peripheral insulin action and insulin secretion. Previous in vitro data showed that insulin receptor isoform A, but not B, favours basal glucose uptake through its specific association with endogenous GLUT1/2 in murine hepatocytes and beta cells. With this background, we hypothesized that hepatic expression of insulin receptor isoform A in a mouse model of type 2 diabetes could potentially increase the glucose uptake of these cells, decreasing the hyperglycaemia and therefore ameliorating the diabetic phenotype. To assure this hypothesis, we have developed recombinant adeno-associated viral vectors expressing insulin receptor isoform A (IRA) or isoform B (IRB) under the control of a hepatocyte­-specific promoter. Our results demonstrate that in the long term, hepatic expression of IRA in diabetic mice is more efficient than IRB in ameliorating glucose intolerance. Consequently, it impairs the induction of compensatory mechanisms through beta cell hyperplasia and/or hypertrophy that finally lead to beta cell failure, reverting the diabetic phenotype in about 8 weeks. Our data suggest that long-term hepatic expression of IRA could be a promising therapeutic approach for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:27562101

  3. Administration of heme arginate ameliorates murine type 2 diabetes independently of heme oxygenase activity.

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    Abhijeet K Choudhary

    Full Text Available Amelioration of rodent type 2 diabetes by hemin has been linked to increased heme oxygenase (HO activity, however alternative mechanisms have recently been proposed for its anti-diabetic effect. We sought to determine the anti-diabetic efficacy of heme arginate (HA, a clinically licensed preparation of heme, and whether its predominant mode of action is via increased HO activity. Intravenous administration of HA reduced hyperglycemia in diabetic (db/db mice. Co-administration of the HO inhibitor stannous (IV mesoporphyrin IX dichloride (SM resulted unexpectedly in a further improvement in glycaemic control despite restoring HO activity to baseline levels. The anti-diabetic effects of HA±SM were associated with increased adiposity, increased serum adiponectin levels, reduced adipose tissue and islet inflammation and preservation of islet β-cell function. HO activity independent effects of HA on adipogenesis and β-cell inflammation were further confirmed in cell culture models using the 3T3-L1 pre-adipocyte and MIN6 β-cell lines, respectively. In conclusion, our work demonstrates that the heme component of HA ameliorates experimental type 2 diabetes by promoting metabolically favourable adipogenesis and preserving islet β-cell function, but this is not mediated via increased HO activity.

  4. Dietary Consumption of Virgin Coconut Oil Ameliorates Lipid Profiles in Diabetic Rats

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    A. M. Akinnuga

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Virgin coconut oil (VCO is a saturated fat with promising antidiabetic properties but its ameliorative effect on lipid profiles in diabetics is rarely reported. Therefore, in this study, a total of fifteen (15 male rats weighing 200–250 g were divided into 3 experimental groups (n=5. Group I (control and Group II (diabetic control group were fed a normal rat chow while Group III (diabetic test group was fed a 10% VCO diet for 3 weeks. Group II and Group III were made diabetic by intraperitoneal injection of 150 mg/kg of alloxan. After 72 hours of injection, blood glucose was tested to confirm diabetes mellitus. After 3 weeks, the animals were sacrificed to collect blood samples for lipid profile analysis. The results showed a significant increase in concentrations of triglyceride, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein, and very low density lipoprotein and decrease in concentration of high density lipoprotein in Group II when compared to Group I. Also, the concentrations of triglyceride, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein, and very low density lipoprotein except high density lipoprotein significantly reduced in Group III when compared to Group II (P<0.01, 0.001. VCO consumption can be claimed to ameliorate lipid levels in diabetes mellitus.

  5. Curcumin ameliorates gastrointestinal dysfunction and oxidative damage in diabetic rats

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    Nitin Indarchandji Kochar

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes is known to be associated with gastrointestinal complications characterized by nausea, vomiting, early satiety, bloating, and abdominal discomfort or pain commonly occurring in the advanced stages of the disease. Curcumin is the lipid-soluble antioxidant obtained from the rhizomes of Curcuma longa Linn, also known as turmeric. Curcumin targets multiple chemotherapeutic and oxidative stress pathways and has demonstrated safety and tolerability in humans, supporting its potential as a therapeutic agent; however, literature lacks conclusive evidence supporting its use as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of diabetes induced gastrointestinal complications. Hence, Curcumin was given in different doses to SD rats after 4 weeks of diabetic GI complication induction. At the end of 4 weeks, significant GI dysfunction characterized by weight loss, delayed gastric emptying and intestinal transit associated with reduction in antioxidant enzyme levels and increased lipid peroxidation was observed.  Upon treatment with Curcumin for further 4 weeks, reversal of GI dysfunction evidenced by restoration of body weight, GI emptying, intestinal transit, and restoration of antioxidant enzyme level and lipid peroxidation proves the beneficial role of Curcumin in diabetes induced GI complications due to its antioxidant potential.     

  6. Intraperitoneal administration of the globular adiponectin gene ameliorates diabetic nephropathy in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Fang; Liu, Ying-Hong; Liu, Fu-You; Peng, You-Ming; Tian, Jun-Wei

    2014-06-01

    The present study investigated the potential effects of the long-term expression of exogenous adiponectin (ADPN) on normal and diabetic kidneys. Type 2 diabetes mellitus models were induced by high-lipid and high-sucrose feeding plus intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. The recombinant plasmid pIRES2-EGFP-gAd, which is able to co-express globular ADPN (gAd) and enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP), was intraperitoneally injected into rat models mediated by Lipofectamine. In total, 32 Wistar rats were randomly assigned into four groups: the normal control group, the diabetes group, the diabetes group treated with pIRES2-EGFP-gAd and the diabetes group treated with pIRES2-EGFP. After 12 weeks, serum biochemistry and urine albumin levels were measured. The kidneys were collected to assess the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the renal pathological changes were observed by light microcopy. The protein expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and phosphorylated adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (p-AMPK) were determined by an immunohistochemical staining method and western blot analysis. Intraperitoneal injection of the human gAd gene via Lipofectamine resulted in abundant ADPN protein in the kidney. In the diabetic rats, the delivery of the exogenous gAd gene ameliorated the progression of diabetic nephropathy (DN). ADPN attenuated urine albumin excretion in the diabetic rats. ADPN also mitigated glomerular mesangial expansion, reduced the generation of ROS and prevented interstitial fibrosis. In addition, the expression of gAd inhibited the renal expression of TGF-β1, promoted the protein expression of eNOS and activated the opening of the AMPK signaling pathway in the renal tissues of the diabetic rats. Despite the effects of ADPN on DN being controversial, these observations indicate that the supplementation of ADPN is beneficial in ameliorating DN in rats.

  7. Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy for Coronary Artery Disease: Relationship of Symptom Amelioration and Ischemia Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youko Takakuwa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: The current management of coronary artery disease (CAD relies on three major therapeutic options, namely medication, percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI, and coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG. However, severe CAD that is not indicated for PCI or CABG still bears a poor prognosis due to the lack of effective treatments. In 2006, extracorporeal cardiac shock wave (SW therapy reported on human for the first time. This treatment resulted in better myocardial perfusion as evaluated by dipyridamole stress thallium scintigraphy, angina symptoms, and exercise tolerance. The aim of the present study was to investigate myocardial perfusion images and evaluate the relationship between the ischemia improvement and symptom amelioration by SW therapy. Methods: We treated ten patients (i.e., nine males and one female with cardiac SW therapy who had CAD but not indicated for PCI or CABG and aged 63–89 years old. After the SW therapy, all patients were followed up for three months to evaluate any amelioration of the myocardial ischemia based on symptoms, adenosine stress thallium scintigraphy, transthoracic echocardiography, and blood biochemical examinations. Results: The changes in various parameters were evaluated before and after cardiac SW therapy. The cardiac SW therapy resulted in a significant improvement in the symptoms as evaluated by the Canadian Cardiovascular Society [CCS] class score (P=0.016 and a tendency to improve in summed stress score (SSS (P=0.068. However, no significant improvement was observed in the summed rest score (SRS, summed difference score (SDS, left ventricular wall motion score index (LVWMSI, N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic, and troponin I. The difference of CCS class score (ΔCCS was significantly correlated with those of SSS (ΔSSS and SDS (ΔSDS (r=0.69, P=0.028 and r=0.70, P=0.025, respectively. There was no significant correlation between ΔCCS and other parameters. Furthermore, no significant

  8. Total saponin of Dioscoreae hypoglaucae rhizoma ameliorates streptozotocin-induced diabetic nephropathy

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    Guo C

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Changrun Guo,1 Gang Ding,2 Wenzhe Huang,2 Zhenzhong Wang,2 Zhaoqing Meng,1,2 Wei Xiao2 1State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China; 2Jiangsu Kanion Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd, Lianyungang City, People’s Republic of China Background: Diabetic nephropathy has become the most common cause of morbidity and mortality in diabetic patients. Therefore, there is an urgent need for more effective and safer drugs for use in this condition.Purpose: The aims of this study were to investigate the ameliorative effects of total saponin of Dioscoreae hypoglaucae rhizoma (TSD on diabetic nephropathy and to explore the potential underlying mechanism(s.Methods: Rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes were orally treated with TSD at 40, 80, and 160 mg/kg/d for 12 weeks. At the end of the treatment, blood, urine, and kidneys were collected for biochemical and histological examination.Results: The results demonstrated that TSD significantly decreased the fasting blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, urinary protein, serum creatinine, and blood urea nitrogen levels in diabetic rats. The results of histological examinations showed that TSD ameliorated glomerular and tubular pathological changes in diabetic rats. Furthermore, TSD significantly prevented oxidative stress and reduced the renal levels of advanced glycation end products, transforming growth factor-β1, connective tissue growth factor, and tumor necrosis factor-α.Conclusion: This study demonstrated the renoprotective effects of TSD in experimental diabetic nephropathy via a number of different mechanisms. Keywords: total saponin of Dioscoreae hypoglaucae rhizoma, diabetic nephropathy, oxidative stress, AGEs, TGF-β1

  9. Ameliorative effect of astaxanthin on endothelial dysfunction in streptozotocin-induced diabetes in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zi-Wen; Cai, Wei; Lin, Yun-Ling; Lin, Qing-Fei; Jiang, Qiong; Lin, Zhang; Chen, Liang-Long

    2011-01-01

    The present study was designed to examine whether astaxanthin (ASX, 3,3-dihydroxybeta, beta-carotene-4,4-dione, CAS 472-61-7), a dietary antioxidant carotenoid that is naturally present in algae, crustaceans, and fish, has a protective effect on endothelial dysfunction of aortas in diabetic rats and the possible molecular mechanism involved. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: control rats, diabetic rats, diabetic rats treated with ASX (10 mg/kg/d), and control rats treated with ASX. Type 1 diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ; 60 mg/ kg). STZ-induced diabetes in rats was complicated with excessive oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction, increased serum oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) and aortic malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, inhibited endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation to acetylcholine (ACh) and unaffected endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation to sodium nitroprusside (SNP). Simultaneously, lectin-like oxLDL receptor-i (LOX-1) expression was enhanced and endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase (eNOS) expression was reduced in the aortas of diabetic rats. ASX treatment could significantly decrease serum oxLDL and aortic MDA levels, attenuate blunted endothelium-dependent vasodilator responses to ACh, upregulate eNOS expression, and decrease LOX-1 expression. These results indicated that ASX could ameliorate diabetic endothelial dysfunction by inhibiting the ox-LDLLOX-1-eNOS pathway. Treatment with ASX might be clinically useful for diabetic complications associated with endothelial dysfunction.

  10. Portulaca oleracea Ameliorates Diabetic Vascular Inflammation and Endothelial Dysfunction in db/db Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, An Sook; Lee, Yun Jung; Lee, So Min; Yoon, Jung Joo; Kim, Jin Sook; Kang, Dae Gill; Lee, Ho Sub

    2012-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is associated with significantly accelerated rates of micro- and macrovascular complications such as diabetic vascular inflammation and endothelial dysfunction. In the present study, we investigated the protective effect of the aqueous extract of Portulaca oleracea L. (AP), an edible plant used as a folk medicine, on diabetic vascular complications. The db/db mice were treated with AP (300 mg/kg/day, p.o.) for 10 weeks, and AP treatment markedly lowered blood glucose, plasma triglyceride, plasma level of LDL-cholesterol, and systolic blood pressure in diabetic db/db mice. Furthermore, AP significantly increased plasma level of HDL-cholesterol and insulin level. The impairment of ACh- and SNP-induced vascular relaxation of aortic rings were ameliorated by AP treatment in diabetic db/db mice. This study also showed that overexpression of VCAM-1, ICAM-1, E-selectin, MMP-2, and ET-1 were observed in aortic tissues of untreated db/db mice, which were significantly suppressed by treatment with AP. We also found that the insulin immunoreactivity of the pancreatic islets remarkably increased in AP treated db/db mice compared with untreated db/db mice. Taken together, AP suppresses hyperglycemia and diabetic vascular inflammation, and prevents the development of diabetic endothelial dysfunction for the development of diabetes and its vascular complications. PMID:22474522

  11. Skeletal muscle PGC-1α modulates systemic ketone body homeostasis and ameliorates diabetic hyperketonemia in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Kristoffer; Albert, Verena; Cardel, Bettina; Salatino, Silvia; Handschin, Christoph

    2016-05-01

    Ketone bodies (KBs) are crucial energy substrates during states of low carbohydrate availability. However, an aberrant regulation of KB homeostasis can lead to complications such as diabetic ketoacidosis. Exercise and diabetes affect systemic KB homeostasis, but the regulation of KB metabolism is still enigmatic. In our study in mice with either knockout or overexpression of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator (PGC)-1α in skeletal muscle, PGC-1α regulated ketolytic gene transcription in muscle. Furthermore, KB homeostasis of these mice was investigated during withholding of food, exercise, and ketogenic diet feeding, and after streptozotocin injection. In response to these ketogenic stimuli, modulation of PGC-1α levels in muscle affected systemic KB homeostasis. Moreover, the data demonstrate that skeletal muscle PGC-1α is necessary for the enhanced ketolytic capacity in response to exercise training and overexpression of PGC-1α in muscle enhances systemic ketolytic capacity and is sufficient to ameliorate diabetic hyperketonemia in mice. In cultured myotubes, the transcription factor estrogen-related receptor-α was a partner of PGC-1α in the regulation of ketolytic gene transcription. These results demonstrate a central role of skeletal muscle PGC-1α in the transcriptional regulation of systemic ketolytic capacity.-Svensson, K., Albert, V., Cardel, B., Salatino, S., Handschin, C. Skeletal muscle PGC-1α modulates systemic ketone body homeostasis and ameliorates diabetic hyperketonemia in mice. © FASEB.

  12. Zanthoxylum alkylamides activate phosphorylated AMPK and ameliorate glycolipid metabolism in the streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Tingyuan; Zhu, Yuping; Kan, Jianquan

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of Zanthoxylum alkylamides on the glycolipid metabolism of rats with streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes. Diabetic rats were given daily oral treatments of 2, 4, or 8 mg/kg bw alkylamides for 28 days. Alkylamides significantly decreased fasting blood glucose and fructosamine content, as well as relieved organ enlargement caused by diabetes. The serum and liver triglyceride, malondialdehyde, and free fatty-acid contents of rats with STZ-induced diabetes were significantly reduced. Total cholesterol in the liver also significantly decreased. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR) and Western blot detected insignificantly increased (P > 0.05) mRNA expression levels of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in the skeletal muscle of diabetic rats. However, AMPK and p-AMPK (Thr172) protein expression levels significantly increased. The mRNA and protein expression levels of silencing information regulator 1 significantly increased. The mRNA expression levels of acetyl-CoA-carboxylase (ACC) and protein p-ACC (Ser79) also increased. The mRNA and protein expression levels of glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) were significantly upregulated in the skeletal muscle cell membranes of diabetic rats. Results indicated that alkylamides activated the AMPK-signaling pathway. Thus, inhibiting ACC activity reduced fatty-acid synthesis. The rapid translocation of GLUT4 mediated increased glucose transport rate and reduced blood glucose. Therefore, alkylamides can ameliorate glucose and lipid metabolism disorders in diabetic rats by activating the AMPK pathway.

  13. Nigerian Honey Ameliorates Hyperglycemia and Dyslipidemia in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erejuwa, Omotayo O; Nwobodo, Ndubuisi N; Akpan, Joseph L; Okorie, Ugochi A; Ezeonu, Chinonyelum T; Ezeokpo, Basil C; Nwadike, Kenneth I; Erhiano, Erhirhie; Abdul Wahab, Mohd S; Sulaiman, Siti A

    2016-02-24

    Diabetic dyslipidemia contributes to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Hence, its treatment is necessary to reduce cardiovascular events. Honey reduces hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia. The reproducibility of these beneficial effects and their generalization to honey samples of other geographical parts of the world remain controversial. Currently, data are limited and findings are inconclusive especially with evidence showing honey increased glycosylated hemoglobin in diabetic patients. It was hypothesized that this deteriorating effect might be due to administered high doses. This study investigated if Nigerian honey could ameliorate hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia. It also evaluated if high doses of honey could worsen glucose and lipid abnormalities. Honey (1.0, 2.0 or 3.0 g/kg) was administered to diabetic rats for three weeks. Honey (1.0 or 2.0 g/kg) significantly (p honey (3.0 g/kg) significantly (p honey using Nigerian honey. However, none of the doses deteriorated hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia.

  14. Gastrointestinal symptoms in diabetics in a tertiary health centre ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ten GI symptoms were studied, 6 symptoms were more common in the cases while heartburn was more common in controls. One GI symptom was reported in 25 % of cases compared with 17 % of the controls. Eight percent of the diabetics reported multiple GI symptoms compared with 1.8% of the controls (p=0.003). Type ...

  15. Targeting AGEs Signaling Ameliorates Central Nervous System Diabetic Complications in Rats

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    Mohamed Naguib Zakaria

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes is a chronic endocrine disorder associated with several complications as hypertension, advanced brain aging, and cognitive decline. Accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs is an important mechanism that mediates diabetic complications. Upon binding to their receptor (RAGE, AGEs mediate oxidative stress and/or cause cross-linking with proteins in blood vessels and brain tissues. The current investigation was designed to investigate the effect of agents that decrease AGEs signaling, perindopril which increases soluble RAGE (sRAGE and alagebrium which cleaves AGEs cross-links, compared to the standard antidiabetic drug, gliclazide, on the vascular and central nervous system (CNS complications in STZ-induced (50 mg/kg, IP diabetes in rats. Perindopril ameliorated the elevation in blood pressure seen in diabetic animals. In addition, both perindopril and alagebrium significantly inhibited memory decline (performance in the Y-maze, neuronal degeneration (Fluoro-Jade staining, AGEs accumulation in serum and brain, and brain oxidative stress (level of reduced glutathione and activities of catalase and malondialdehyde. These results suggest that blockade of AGEs signaling after diabetes induction in rats is effective in reducing diabetic CNS complications.

  16. Ghrelin ameliorates nerve growth factor Dysmetabolism and inflammation in STZ-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yuxing; Shen, Zhaoxing; Zhang, Dongling; Luo, Huiqiong; Chen, Jinliang; Sun, Yue; Xiao, Qian

    2017-06-01

    Diabetic encephalopathy is characterized by cognitive impairment and neuroinflammation, deficient neurotrophic support, and neuronal and synaptic loss. Ghrelin, a 28 amino acid peptide, is associated with neuromodulation and cognitive improvement, which has been considered as a potential protective agent for several neurodegenerative diseases. Here we sought to investigate the role of ghrelin in preventing diabetic-related neuropathology. We found that ghrelin attenuated astrocytic activation and reduced levels of interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. In addition, ghrelin inhibited p38 mitogen-associated protein kinase activation. The upregulation of nerve growth factor (NGF) precursor and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 and downregulation of mature NGF and MMP-7 in the diabetic brain were reversed by ghrelin. Treatment with ghrelin elevated synaptophysin expression and synaptic density in diabetic rats. Taken together, our results demonstrate that ghrelin ameliorates diabetes-related neurodegeneration by preventing NGF dysmetabolism and synaptic degeneration through regulating MMP levels as well as inhibiting neuroinflammation.

  17. Ameliorative effect of vanadium on oxidative stress in stomach tissue of diabetic rats

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    Tugba Yilmaz-Ozden

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Between their broad spectrum of action, vanadium compounds are shown to have insulin mimetic/enhancing effects. Increasing evidence in experimental and clinical studies suggests that oxidative stress plays a major role in the pathogenesis of diabetes and on the onset of diabetic complications. Thus, preventive therapy can alleviate the possible side effects of the disease. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of vanadyl sulfate supplementation on the antioxidant system in the stomach tissue of diabetic rats. Male Swiss albino rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: control; control+vanadyl sulfate; diabetic; diabetic+vanadyl sulfate. Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ; 65 mg/kg body weight. Vanadyl sulfate (100 mg/kg body weight was given daily by gavage for 60 days. At the last day of the experiment, stomach tissues were taken and homogenized to make a 10% (w/v homogenate. Catalase (CAT, superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione reductase (GR, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, glutathione-S-transferase (GST, myeloperoxidase (MPO, carbonic anhydrase (CA, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH activities were determined in the stomach tissue. CAT, SOD, GR, GPx, GST, CA, G6PD and LDH activities were increased in diabetic rats when compared to normal rats. Vanadium treatment significantly reduced the elevated activities of GR, GPx, GST compared with the diabetic group whereas the decreases in CAT, SOD, CA, G6PD and LDH activities were insignificant. No significant change was seen for MPO activity between the groups. It was concluded that vanadium could be used for its ameliorative effect against oxidative stress in diabetes.

  18. Ameliorative effect of vanadium on oxidative stress in stomach tissue of diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz-Ozden, Tugba; Kurt-Sirin, Ozlem; Tunali, Sevim; Akev, Nuriye; Can, Ayse; Yanardag, Refiye

    2014-05-01

    Between their broad spectrum of action, vanadium compounds are shown to have insulin mimetic/enhancing effects. Increasing evidence in experimental and clinical studies suggests that oxidative stress plays a major role in the pathogenesis of diabetes and on the onset of diabetic complications. Thus, preventive therapy can alleviate the possible side effects of the disease. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of vanadyl sulfate supplementation on the antioxidant system in the stomach tissue of diabetic rats. Male Swiss albino rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: control; control+vanadyl sulfate; diabetic; diabetic+vanadyl sulfate. Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ; 65 mg/kg body weight). Vanadyl sulfate (100 mg/kg body weight) was given daily by gavage for 60 days. At the last day of the experiment, stomach tissues were taken and homogenized to make a 10% (w/v) homogenate. Catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), myeloperoxidase (MPO), carbonic anhydrase (CA), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities were determined in the stomach tissue. CAT, SOD, GR, GPx, GST, CA, G6PD and LDH activities were increased in diabetic rats when compared to normal rats. Vanadium treatment significantly reduced the elevated activities of GR, GPx, GST compared with the diabetic group whereas the decreases in CAT, SOD, CA, G6PD and LDH activities were insignificant. No significant change was seen for MPO activity between the groups. It was concluded that vanadium could be used for its ameliorative effect against oxidative stress in diabetes.

  19. Tinospora cordifolia consumption ameliorates changes in kidney chondroitin sulphate/dermatan sulphate in diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joladarashi, Darukeshwara; Chilkunda, Nandini D; Salimath, Paramahans V

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes is known to alter kidney extracellular matrix (ECM) components. Chondroitin sulphate (CS)/dermatan sulphate (DS), an ECM component, which plays an essential role in kidney is altered during diabetes. The focus of this study has been to examine the effect of Tinospora cordifolia (TC) consumption, a potent plant widely used to treat diabetes, on kidney CS/DS. Experimentally induced diabetic rats were fed with diet containing TC at 2·5 and 5 % levels and the effect of it on kidney CS/DS was examined. The CS/DS content and CS:heparan sulphate ratio which was decreased during diabetic condition were ameliorated in TC-fed groups. Disaccharide composition analysis of CS/DS by HPLC showed that decreases in 'E' units and degree of sulphation were modulated in 5 % TC-fed groups. Apparent molecular weight of purified CS/DS from the control rat kidney was found to be 38 kDa which was decreased to 29 kDa in diabetic rat kidney. Rats in 5 % TC-fed groups showed chain length of 38 kDa akin to control rats. Expression of chondroitin 4-O-sulfotransferase-1, dermatan 4-O-sulfotransferase-1 and N-acetylgalactosamine 4 sulphate 6-O-sulfotransferase, enzymes involved in the synthesis of 'E' units which was reduced during diabetic condition, was significantly contained in the 5 % TC-fed group. Purified CS/DS from 5 % TC-fed group was able to bind higher amounts of ECM components, namely type IV collagen and laminin, when compared with untreated diabetic rats. The present results demonstrate that consumption of a diet containing TC at the 5 % level modulates changes in kidney CS/DS which were due to diabetes.

  20. Amelioration of Diabetes and Painful Diabetic Neuropathy by Punica granatum L. Extract and Its Spray Dried Biopolymeric Dispersions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raafat, K; Samy, W

    2014-01-01

    Aims. To evaluate the effect of Punica granatum (Pg) rind extract and its spray dried biopolymeric dispersions with casein (F1) or chitosan (F2) against Diabetes mellitus (DM) and diabetic neuropathy (DN). Methods. We measured the acute (6 h) and subacute (8 days) effect of various doses of Pg, F1, and F2 and the active compounds on alloxan-induced DM mouse model. We evaluated DN utilizing latency tests for longer period of time (8 weeks). In addition, the in vivo antioxidant activity was assessed utilizing serum catalase level. Results. The results proved that the highest dose levels of Pg extract, F1, F2 exerted remarkable hypoglycemic activity with 48, 52, and 40% drop in the mice glucose levels after 6 hours, respectively. The tested compounds also improved peripheral nerve function as observed from the latency tests. Bioguided fractionation suggested that gallic acid (GA) was Pg main active ingredient responsible for its actions. Conclusion. Pg extract, F1, F2, and GA could be considered as a new therapeutic potential for the amelioration of diabetic neuropathic pain and the observed in vivo antioxidant potential may be involved in its antinociceptive effect. It is highly significant to pay attention to Pg and GA for amelioration and control of DM and its complications.

  1. Amelioration of Diabetes and Painful Diabetic Neuropathy by Punica granatum L. Extract and Its Spray Dried Biopolymeric Dispersions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Raafat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. To evaluate the effect of Punica granatum (Pg rind extract and its spray dried biopolymeric dispersions with casein (F1 or chitosan (F2 against Diabetes mellitus (DM and diabetic neuropathy (DN. Methods. We measured the acute (6 h and subacute (8 days effect of various doses of Pg, F1, and F2 and the active compounds on alloxan-induced DM mouse model. We evaluated DN utilizing latency tests for longer period of time (8 weeks. In addition, the in vivo antioxidant activity was assessed utilizing serum catalase level. Results. The results proved that the highest dose levels of Pg extract, F1, F2 exerted remarkable hypoglycemic activity with 48, 52, and 40% drop in the mice glucose levels after 6 hours, respectively. The tested compounds also improved peripheral nerve function as observed from the latency tests. Bioguided fractionation suggested that gallic acid (GA was Pg main active ingredient responsible for its actions. Conclusion. Pg extract, F1, F2, and GA could be considered as a new therapeutic potential for the amelioration of diabetic neuropathic pain and the observed in vivo antioxidant potential may be involved in its antinociceptive effect. It is highly significant to pay attention to Pg and GA for amelioration and control of DM and its complications.

  2. Amelioration of Diabetes and Painful Diabetic Neuropathy by Punica granatum L. Extract and Its Spray Dried Biopolymeric Dispersions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raafat, K.; Samy, W.

    2014-01-01

    Aims. To evaluate the effect of Punica granatum (Pg) rind extract and its spray dried biopolymeric dispersions with casein (F1) or chitosan (F2) against Diabetes mellitus (DM) and diabetic neuropathy (DN). Methods. We measured the acute (6 h) and subacute (8 days) effect of various doses of Pg, F1, and F2 and the active compounds on alloxan-induced DM mouse model. We evaluated DN utilizing latency tests for longer period of time (8 weeks). In addition, the in vivo antioxidant activity was assessed utilizing serum catalase level. Results. The results proved that the highest dose levels of Pg extract, F1, F2 exerted remarkable hypoglycemic activity with 48, 52, and 40% drop in the mice glucose levels after 6 hours, respectively. The tested compounds also improved peripheral nerve function as observed from the latency tests. Bioguided fractionation suggested that gallic acid (GA) was Pg main active ingredient responsible for its actions. Conclusion. Pg extract, F1, F2, and GA could be considered as a new therapeutic potential for the amelioration of diabetic neuropathic pain and the observed in vivo antioxidant potential may be involved in its antinociceptive effect. It is highly significant to pay attention to Pg and GA for amelioration and control of DM and its complications. PMID:24982685

  3. Curcumin ameliorates skeletal muscle atrophy in type 1 diabetic mice by inhibiting protein ubiquitination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Taisuke; Takada, Shingo; Kinugawa, Shintaro; Tsutsui, Hiroyuki

    2015-09-01

    What is the central question of this study? We sought to examine whether curcumin could ameliorate skeletal muscle atrophy in diabetic mice by inhibiting protein ubiquitination, inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress. What is the main finding and its importance? We found that curcumin ameliorated skeletal muscle atrophy in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice by inhibiting protein ubiquitination without affecting protein synthesis. This favourable effect of curcumin was possibly due to the inhibition of inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress. Curcumin may be beneficial for the treatment of muscle atrophy in type 1 diabetes mellitus. Skeletal muscle atrophy develops in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM), especially in type 1 DM, which is associated with chronic inflammation. Curcumin, the active ingredient of turmeric, has various biological actions, including anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. We hypothesized that curcumin could ameliorate skeletal muscle atrophy in mice with streptozotocin-induced type 1 DM. C57BL/6 J mice were injected with streptozotocin (200 mg kg(-1) i.p.; DM group) or vehicle (control group). Each group of mice was randomly subdivided into two groups of 10 mice each and fed a diet with or without curcumin (1500 mg kg(-1) day(-1)) for 2 weeks. There were significant decreases in body weight, skeletal muscle weight and cellular cross-sectional area of the skeletal muscle in DM mice compared with control mice, and these changes were significantly attenuated in DM+Curcumin mice without affecting plasma glucose and insulin concentrations. Ubiquitination of protein was increased in skeletal muscle from DM mice and decreased in DM+Curcumin mice. Gene expressions of muscle-specific ubiquitin E3 ligase atrogin-1/MAFbx and MuRF1 were increased in DM and inhibited in DM+Curcumin mice. Moreover, nuclear factor-κB activation, concentrations of the inflammatory cytokines tumour necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β and oxidative

  4. Home-Based Diabetes Symptom Self-Management Education for Mexican Americans with Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Alexandra A.; Brown, Sharon A.; Horner, Sharon D.; Zuñiga, Julie; Arheart, Kristopher L.

    2015-01-01

    This pilot study evaluated an innovative diabetes symptom awareness and self-management educational program for Mexican Americans, a fast growing minority population experiencing a diabetes epidemic. Patients with diabetes need assistance interpreting and managing symptoms, which are often annoying and potentially life-threatening. A repeated…

  5. Huperzine A Ameliorates Cognitive Deficits in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Yuan Mao

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to probe the effects of Huperzine A (HupA on diabetes-associated cognitive decline (DACD using a streptozotocin (STZ-injected rat model. Diabetic rats were treated with HupA (0.05 and 0.1 mg/kg for seven weeks. Memory functions were evaluated by the water maze test. Nissl staining was selected for detecting neuronal loss. Protein and mRNA levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF were analyzed by ELISA and real-time PCR, respectively. The activities of choline acetylase (ChAT, Acetylcholinesterase (AChE, malondialdehyde (MDA, superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px, catalase (CAT, NF-κB p65 unit, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and caspase-3 were measured using corresponding kits. After seven weeks, diabetic rats exhibited remarkable reductions in: body weight, percentage of time spent in target quadrant, number of times crossing the platform, ChAT and BDNF levels, SOD, GSH-Px and CAT accompanied with increases in neuronal damage, plasma glucose levels, escape latency, mean path length, AChE, MDA level as well as CAT, NF-κB p65 unit, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and caspase-3 in cerebral cortex and hippocampus. Supplementation with HupA significantly and dose-dependently reversed the corresponding values in diabetes. It is concluded that HupA ameliorates DACD via modulating BDNF, oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis.

  6. Sulphate fertilization ameliorates long-term aluminum toxicity symptoms in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulff-Zottele, Cristian; Hesse, Holger; Fisahn, Joachim; Bromke, Mariusz; Vera-Villalobos, Hernán; Li, Yan; Frenzel, Falko; Giavalisco, Patrick; Ribera-Fonseca, Alejandra; Zunino, Ligia; Caruso, Immcolata; Stohmann, Evelyn; Mora, Maria de la Luz

    2014-10-01

    Effects of the oxanion sulphate on plant aluminum (Al(3+)) detoxification mechanisms are not well understood. Therefore, holistic physiological and biochemical modifications induced by progressively increased doses of sulphate fertilization in the presence of long-term Al(3+) stress were investigated in the aluminum sensitive perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L. cvJumbo). Plant growth inhibition induced by Al(3+) was decreased in response to increasing doses of sulphate supply. Aluminum concentrations measured in roots of perennial ryegrass by atomic absorption spectrometry declined significantly with increasing sulphate concentrations. In parallel, we determined a rise of sulphur in shoots and roots of perennial ryegrass. Inclusion of up to 360 μM of sulphate enhanced cysteine and glutathione biosynthesis in Al(3+) (1.07 μM) treated plants. This increase of thiol-containing compounds favored all modifications in the glutathione redox balance, declining lipid peroxidation, decreasing the activity of superoxide dismutase, and modifying the expression of proteins involved in the diminution of Al(3+) toxicity in roots. In particular, proteome analysis by 1D-SDS-PAGE and LC-MS/MS allowed to identify up (e.g. vacuolar proton ATPase, proteosome β subunit, etc) and down (Glyoxilase I, Ascorbate peroxidase, etc.) regulated proteins induced by Al(3+) toxicity symptoms in roots. Although, sulphate supply up to 480 μM caused a reduction in Al(3+) toxicity symptoms, it was not as efficient as compared to 360 μM sulphate fertilization. These results suggest that sulphate fertilization ameliorates Al(3+) toxicity responses in an intracellular specific manner within Lolium perenne. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Sildenafil ameliorates long term peripheral neuropathy in type II diabetic mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Wang

    Full Text Available Diabetic peripheral neuropathy is a common complication of long-standing diabetes mellitus. To mimic clinical trials in which patients with diabetes enrolled have advanced peripheral neuropathy, we investigated the effect of sildenafil, a specific inhibitor of phosphodiesterase type 5 enzyme, on long term peripheral neuropathy in middle aged male mice with type II diabetes. Treatment of diabetic mice (BKS.Cg-m+/+Leprdb/J, db/db at age 36 weeks with sildenafil significantly increased functional blood vessels and regional blood flow in the sciatic nerve, concurrently with augmentation of intra-epidermal nerve fiber density in the skin and myelinated axons in the sciatic nerve. Functional analysis showed that the sildenafil treatment considerably improved motor and sensory conduction velocities in the sciatic nerve and peripheral thermal stimulus sensitivity compared with the saline treatment. In vitro studies showed that mouse dermal endothelial cells (MDE cultured under high glucose levels exhibited significant down regulation of angiopoietin 1 (Ang1 expression and reduction of capillary-like tube formation, which were completely reversed by sildenafil. In addition, incubation of dorsal root ganglia (DRG neurons with conditioned medium harvested from MDE under high glucose levels suppressed neurite outgrowth, where as conditional medium harvested from MDE treated with sildenafil under high glucose levels did not inhibit neurite outgrowth of DRG neurons. Moreover, blockage of the Ang1 receptor, Tie2, with a neutralized antibody against Tie2 abolished the beneficial effect of sildenafil on tube formation and neurite outgrowth. Collectively, our data indicate that sildenafil has a therapeutic effect on long term peripheral neuropathy of middle aged diabetic mice and that improvement of neurovascular dysfunction by sildenafil likely contributes to the amelioration of nerve function. The Ang1/Tie2 signaling pathway may play an important role in these

  8. Ameliorative effect of the cinnamon oil from Cinnamomum zeylanicum upon early stage diabetic nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Awanish; Bhatti, Rajbir; Singh, Amarjit; Singh Ishar, Mohan Paul

    2010-03-01

    The current study was designed to evaluate the ameliorative effect of the cinnamon oil upon early stage diabetic nephropathy owing to its antioxidant and antidiabetic effect. Cinnamon oil was extracted by hydro-distillation of the dried inner bark of Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume. Further characterization of the extracted oil was carried out using IR, (1)H-NMR, and (13)C-NMR techniques. Early stage of diabetic nephropathy was induced by administration of alloxan (150 mg/kg, I. P.). Cinnamon oil was administered at varying doses (5, 10, 20 mg/kg; I. P.) while the level of fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein, urea, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, reduced glutathione, and catalase were determined. These parameters in cinnamon oil treated groups were compared with those of standard (glipizide; 10 mg/kg) and vehicle treated groups in order to investigate if cinnamon oil confers a significant protection against diabetic nephropathy. Histological studies of the kidney proved the protective effect of cinnamon oil by reducing the glomerular expansion, eradicating hyaline casts, and decreasing the tubular dilatations. Our results indicate that the volatile oil from cinnamon contains more than 98 % cinnamaldehyde and that it confers dose-dependent, significant protection against alloxan-induced renal damage, the maximum decrease in fasting blood glucose having been achieved at the dose of 20 mg/kg. (c) Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart . New York.

  9. Curcumin ameliorates hepatic fibrosis in type 2 diabetes mellitus – insights into its mechanisms of action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanska, B

    2012-01-01

    A wide variety of beneficial effects have been attributed to curcumin, a major polyphenol from the golden spice Curcuma longa known as turmeric, including amelioration of severe complications of type 2 diabetes such as hepatic fibrosis, retinopathy, neuropathy and nephropathy. In the present issue of BJP, Lin and colleagues reveal new mechanisms by which curcumin inhibits the activation of hepatic stellate cells in vitro, a hallmark of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and hepatic fibrogenesis associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus. They demonstrated that curcumin suppresses the advanced glycation end-products (AGEs)-mediated induction of the receptor for AGEs (RAGE) gene expression by increasing PPARγ activity and stimulating de novo synthesis of glutathione. As a result, downstream elements of RAGE-activated pathways are inhibited, which prevents oxidative stress, inflammation and hepatic stellate cell activation. This report suggests that curcumin may have potential as an anti-fibrotic agent in type 2 diabetes and opens the door to the evaluation of curcumin therapeutic effects in liver conditions of different aetiology and in other disorders linked to the impairment of PPARγ activity, such as obesity and atherosclerosis. LINKED ARTICLE This article is a commentary on Lin et al., pp. 2212–2227 of this issue. To view this paper visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1476-5381.2012.01910.x PMID:22452372

  10. Curcumin ameliorates hepatic fibrosis in type 2 diabetes mellitus - insights into its mechanisms of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanska, B

    2012-08-01

    A wide variety of beneficial effects have been attributed to curcumin, a major polyphenol from the golden spice Curcuma longa known as turmeric, including amelioration of severe complications of type 2 diabetes such as hepatic fibrosis, retinopathy, neuropathy and nephropathy. In the present issue of BJP, Lin and colleagues reveal new mechanisms by which curcumin inhibits the activation of hepatic stellate cells in vitro, a hallmark of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and hepatic fibrogenesis associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus. They demonstrated that curcumin suppresses the advanced glycation end-products (AGEs)-mediated induction of the receptor for AGEs (RAGE) gene expression by increasing PPARγ activity and stimulating de novo synthesis of glutathione. As a result, downstream elements of RAGE-activated pathways are inhibited, which prevents oxidative stress, inflammation and hepatic stellate cell activation. This report suggests that curcumin may have potential as an anti-fibrotic agent in type 2 diabetes and opens the door to the evaluation of curcumin therapeutic effects in liver conditions of different aetiology and in other disorders linked to the impairment of PPARγ activity, such as obesity and atherosclerosis. This article is a commentary on Lin et al., pp. 2212-2227 of this issue. To view this paper visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1476-5381.2012.01910.x. © 2012 The Author. British Journal of Pharmacology © 2012 The British Pharmacological Society.

  11. Treadmill exercise ameliorates symptoms of Alzheimer disease through suppressing microglial activation-induced apoptosis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Seung-Soo; Kim, Sang-Hoon

    2016-12-01

    Alzheimer disease (AD) is a most common form of dementia and eventually causes impairments of learning ability and memory function. In the present study, we investigated the effects of treadmill exercise on the symptoms of AD focusing on the microglial activation-induced apoptosis. AD was made by bilateral intracerebroventricular injection of streptozotocin. The rats in the exercise groups were made to run on a treadmill once a day for 30 min during 4 weeks. The distance and latency in the Morris water maze task and the latency in the step-down avoidance task were increased in the AD rats, in contrast, treadmill exercise shortened these parameters. The numbers of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling-positive and caspase-3-positive cells in the hippocampal dentate gyrus were decreased in the AD rats, in contrast, treadmill exercise suppressed these numbers. Expressions of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and cluster of differentiation molecule 11B (CD11b) in the hippocampal dentate gyrus were increased in the AD rats, in contrast, treadmill exercise suppressed GFAP and CD11b expressions. Bax expression was increased and Bcl-2 expression was decreased in the hippocampus of AD rats, in contrast, treadmill exercise decreased Bax expression and increased Bcl-2 expression. The present results demonstrated that treadmill exercise ameliorated AD-induced impairments of spatial learning ability and short-term memory through suppressing apoptosis. The antiapoptotic effect of treadmill exercise might be ascribed to the inhibitory effect of treadmill exercise on microglial activation.

  12. Depression symptoms are persistent in Type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitworth, Stephanie; Bruce, David; Starkstein, Sergio

    2017-01-01

    was associated with consistently higher BMI over time, but not with changes in HbA1c or self‐monitoring of blood glucose. Conclusions A subset of individuals with Type 2 diabetes is at risk of depression symptoms that remain elevated over time. Younger, overweight individuals with a history of depression may......Aims To describe the long‐term trajectories of depression symptom severity in people with Type 2 diabetes, and to identify predictors and associates of these trajectories. Methods A community‐dwelling cohort of 1201 individuals with Type 2 diabetes from the Fremantle Diabetes Study Phase II...... benefit from early and intensive depression management and ongoing follow‐up as part of routine Type 2 diabetes care....

  13. d-limonene ameliorates diabetes and its complications in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacanlı, Merve; Anlar, Hatice Gül; Aydın, Sevtap; Çal, Tuğbagül; Arı, Nuray; Ündeğer Bucurgat, Ülkü; Başaran, A Ahmet; Başaran, Nurşen

    2017-12-01

    It is known that diabetes causes some complications including alterations in lipid profile, hepatic enzyme levels but also it causes oxidative stress. Limonene, a major component of Citrus oils, has important health beneficial effects in lowering the level of oxidative stress due to its antioxidant activity. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of D-limonene on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes in Wistar albino rats. For this purpose, DNA damage was evaluated by alkaline comet assay. Changes in the activities of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx) and the levels of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), total glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA), insulin, total bilirubin and BCA protein, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), high density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), total cholesterol and triglyceride were also evaluated. D-limonene treatment was found to significantly decrease DNA damage, GR enzyme activities and MDA levels and significantly increase GSH levels and CAT, SOD and GSH-Px enzyme activities and altered lipid and liver enzyme parameters in diabetic rats. According to our results, it seems that D-limonene might have a role in the prevention of the complication of diabetes in rats. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Extract of Moringa oleifera leaves ameliorates streptozotocin-induced Diabetes mellitus in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassa, Hanan Dawood; Tohamy, Adel Fathy

    2014-06-01

    Medicinal plants attract growing interest in the therapeutic management of Diabetes mellitus. Moringa oleifera is a remarkably nutritious vegetable with several antioxidant properties. The present study assessed the possible antioxidant and antidiabetic effects of an aqueous extract of M. oleifera leaves in treating streptozotocin-induced diabetic albino rats. The antidiabetic effects of aqueous extract of M. oleifera leaves were assessed histomorphometrically, ultrastructurally and biochemically. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) was monitored and morphometric measurements of β-cells of islets of Langerhans (modified Gomori's stain) and collagen fibers (Mallory's trichrome stain) were performed. The antioxidant effects of M. oleifera leaves were determined by measuring the reduced glutathione and lipid peroxidation product, malondialdehyde, in pancreatic tissue. M. oleifera treatment significantly ameliorated the altered FPG (from 380% to 145%), reduced glutathione (from 22% to 73%) and malondialdehyde (from 385% to 186%) compared to control levels. The histopathological damage of islet cells was also markedly reversed. Morphometrically, M. oleifera significantly increased the areas of positive purple modified Gomori stained β-cells (from 60% to 91%) and decreased the area percentage of collagen fibers (from 199% to 120%) compared to control values. Experimental findings clearly indicate the potential benefits of using the aqueous extract of M. oleifera leaves as a potent antidiabetic treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Kalpaamruthaa ameliorates mitochondrial and metabolic alterations in diabetes mellitus induced cardiovascular damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latha, Raja; Shanthi, Palanivelu; Sachdanandam, Panchanadham

    2014-12-01

    Efficacy of Kalpaamruthaa on the activities of lipid and carbohydrate metabolic enzymes, electron transport chain complexes and mitochondrial ATPases were studied in heart and liver of experimental rats. Cardiovascular damage (CVD) was developed in 8 weeks after type 2 diabetes mellitus induction with high fat diet (2 weeks) and low dose of streptozotocin (2 × 35 mg/kg b.w. i.p. in 24 hr interval). In CVD-induced rats, the activities of total lipase, cholesterol ester hydrolase and cholesterol ester synthetase were increased, while lipoprotein lipase and lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase activities were decreased. The activities of lipid-metabolizing enzymes were altered by Kalpaamruthaa in CVD-induced rats towards normal. Kalpaamruthaa modulated the activities of glycolytic enzymes (hexokinase, phosphogluco-isomerase, aldolase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase), gluconeogenic enzymes (glucose-6-phosphatase and fructose-1, 6-bisphosphatase) and glycogenolytic enzyme (glycogen phosphorylase) along with increased glycogen content in the liver of CVD-induced rats. The activities of isocitrate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase, α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, Complexes and ATPases (Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase, Ca(2+)-ATPase and Mg(2+)-ATPase) were decreased in CVD-induced rats, which were ameliorated by the treatment with Kalpaamruthaa. This study ascertained the efficacy of Kalpaamruthaa for the treatment of CVD in diabetes through the modulation of metabolizing enzymes and mitochondrial dysfunction.

  16. Selective Chemical Inhibition of PGC-1α Gluconeogenic Activity Ameliorates Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharabi, Kfir; Lin, Hua; Tavares, Clint D J; Dominy, John E; Camporez, Joao Paulo; Perry, Rachel J; Schilling, Roger; Rines, Amy K; Lee, Jaemin; Hickey, Marc; Bennion, Melissa; Palmer, Michelle; Nag, Partha P; Bittker, Joshua A; Perez, José; Jedrychowski, Mark P; Ozcan, Umut; Gygi, Steve P; Kamenecka, Theodore M; Shulman, Gerald I; Schreiber, Stuart L; Griffin, Patrick R; Puigserver, Pere

    2017-03-23

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a worldwide epidemic with a medical need for additional targeted therapies. Suppression of hepatic glucose production (HGP) effectively ameliorates diabetes and can be exploited for its treatment. We hypothesized that targeting PGC-1α acetylation in the liver, a chemical modification known to inhibit hepatic gluconeogenesis, could be potentially used for treatment of T2D. Thus, we designed a high-throughput chemical screen platform to quantify PGC-1α acetylation in cells and identified small molecules that increase PGC-1α acetylation, suppress gluconeogenic gene expression, and reduce glucose production in hepatocytes. On the basis of potency and bioavailability, we selected a small molecule, SR-18292, that reduces blood glucose, strongly increases hepatic insulin sensitivity, and improves glucose homeostasis in dietary and genetic mouse models of T2D. These studies have important implications for understanding the regulatory mechanisms of glucose metabolism and treatment of T2D. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Are gastrointestinal symptoms related to diabetes mellitus and glycemic control?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Christian A; Uwaifo, Gabriel I

    2008-09-01

    Many patients with diabetes mellitus suffer from upper and lower GI symptoms. The reported prevalence of these symptoms varies among different ethnic groups/populations. The natural history of GI symptoms as well as their pathogenesis in patients with diabetes remains poorly understood, although it is known that gastric emptying is influenced by hyperglycemia, euglycemia, and hypoglycemia. Poor glycemic control over a long period of time can lead to neuropathy and damage the vagus nerve, resulting in diabetic gastroparesis whose signs and symptoms vary in the individual patient. Gastroparesis can further worsen glycemic control by adversely altering the pharmacokinetics of orally administered hypoglycemic agents as well as by altering the delivery of diet-derived calories to intestines from which absorption, subsequently, determines incipient blood glucose, and thus effectiveness of various injectable antidiabetics including various insulins and related insulin analogs. As GI symptoms may overlap with other disorders, including functional dyspepsia, irritable bowel syndrome, and depression, it is important to have such patients/patients with diabetes undergo standardized testing for measuring gastric emptying. Certain medications including metformin, amylin analogues (i.e. pramlintide), glucagon-like peptide 1 analogs (i.e. exenatide, liraglutide), anticholinergic agents, antidepressants, calcium-channel blockers, and others may contribute to GI symptoms observed in patients with diabetes. Given the global diabetes pandemic, it is of utmost importance to not only diagnose and treat present patients with diabetes mellitus and its comorbidities, but also to help prevent the development of further disease burden by educating children and adolescents about healthy lifestyle modifications (avoidance of overeating, portion control, healthy food choices, increased physical and reduced sedentary activity), as changing behavior in adulthood has proven to be notoriously

  18. Cardiac fibrosis and dysfunction in experimental diabetic cardiomyopathy are ameliorated by alpha-lipoic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Chun-jun

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alpha-lipoic acid (ALA, a naturally occurring compound, exerts powerful protective effects in various cardiovascular disease models. However, its role in protecting against diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM has not been elucidated. In this study, we have investigated the effects of ALA on cardiac dysfunction, mitochondrial oxidative stress (MOS, extracellular matrix (ECM remodeling and interrelated signaling pathways in a diabetic rat model. Methods Diabetes was induced in rats by I.V. injection of streptozotocin (STZ at 45 mg/kg. The animals were randomly divided into 4 groups: normal groups with or without ALA treatment, and diabetes groups with or without ALA treatment. All studies were carried out 11 weeks after induction of diabetes. Cardiac catheterization was performed to evaluate cardiac function. Mitochondrial oxidative biochemical parameters were measured by spectophotometeric assays. Extracellular matrix content (total collagen, type I and III collagen was assessed by staining with Sirius Red. Gelatinolytic activity of Pro- and active matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2 levels were analyzed by a zymogram. Cardiac fibroblasts differentiation to myofibroblasts was evaluated by Western blot measuring smooth muscle actin (α-SMA and transforming growth factor–β (TGF-β. Key components of underlying signaling pathways including the phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK, p38 MAPK and ERK were also assayed by Western blot. Results DCM was successfully induced by the injection of STZ as evidenced by abnormal heart mass and cardiac function, as well as the imbalance of ECM homeostasis. After administration of ALA, left ventricular dysfunction greatly improved; interstitial fibrosis also notably ameliorated indicated by decreased collagen deposition, ECM synthesis as well as enhanced ECM degradation. To further assess the underlying mechanism of improved DCM by ALA, redox status and cardiac remodeling associated

  19. P2RX7 purinoceptor: a therapeutic target for ameliorating the symptoms of duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Sinadinos

    2015-10-01

    .038, diaphragm (p = 0.042, and heart muscles (p < 0.001. We show that the amelioration of symptoms was proportional to the extent of receptor depletion and that improvements were observed following administration of two P2RX7 antagonists (CK, p = 0.030 and p = 0.050 without any detectable side effects. However, approaches successful in animal models still need to be proved effective in clinical practice.These results are, to our knowledge, the first to establish that a single treatment can improve muscle function both short and long term and also correct cognitive impairment and bone loss in DMD model mice. The wide-ranging improvements reflect the convergence of P2RX7 ablation on multiple disease mechanisms affecting skeletal and cardiac muscles, inflammatory cells, brain, and bone. Given the impact of P2RX7 blockade in the DMD mouse model, this receptor is an attractive target for translational research: existing drugs with established safety records could potentially be repurposed for treatment of this lethal disease.

  20. Melatonin supplementation plus exercise behavior ameliorate insulin resistance, hypertension and fatigue in a rat model of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md Mahbubur; Kwon, Han-Sol; Kim, Myung-Jin; Go, Hyeon-Kyu; Oak, Min-Ho; Kim, Do-Hyung

    2017-08-01

    The objective was to investigate the effects of melatonin and exercise on insulin resistance (IR), hypertension and fatigue syndrome in a rat model of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Rats were divided into 5 groups namely normal control (NC), T2DM control group (DC), diabetes plus exercise (DE), diabetes plus oral melatonin supplement (DM) and diabetes plus melatonin and exercise (DME) groups. Melatonin was administered orally 5mg/kg twice daily and 40min swimming/day 5days/week were regimented after diabetes induction. Blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, insulin, IR, serum leptin, lipid profiles, inflammatory cytokines, lipid peroxidation increased significantly (Pmelatonin ameliorated markedly hypertension, IR, biochemical alteration induced by diabetes and significantly increased exercise performance (PMelatonin supplementation in combination with exercise behavior may ameliorate IR, hypertension and exercise performance or fatigue possibly by improving antioxidative activities, hyperlipidemia, inflammatory cytokines via up-regulation of GLUT4, PGC-1 α and mitochondrial biogenesis in T2DM rats. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Ameliorative properties of Iranian Trigonella foenum-graecum L. seeds and Punica granatum L. peel extracts in streptozotocin-induced experimental diabetic guinea pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabil Abdel Salam Ahmed Hasona

    2017-03-01

    Conclusions: The Iranian T. foenum-graecum seeds and P. granatum peel extracts are significantly potent in ameliorating diabetic condition induced by streptozotocin and improving various biochemical parameters in serum and liver of guinea pigs.

  2. Brain changes in diabetes mellitus patients with gastrointestinal symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drewes, Anne M; Søfteland, Eirik; Dimcevski, Georg

    2016-01-01

    to stimulation of GI organs. Imaging studies on patients with diabetes and GI symptoms mainly showed microstructural changes, especially in brain areas involved in visceral sensory processing. As the electrophysiological and imaging changes were associated with GI and autonomic symptoms they may represent...... neuropathy of the central nervous system (CNS) may play a major role. This systematic review provides an overview of the neurodegenerative changes that occur as a consequence of diabetes with a focus on the CNS changes and gastrointestinal (GI) dysfunction. Animal models where diabetes was induced...... experimentally support that the disease induces changes in CNS. Recent investigations with electroencephalography and functional brain imaging in patients with diabetes confirm these structural and functional brain changes. Encephalographic studies demonstrated that altered insular processing of sensory stimuli...

  3. Social relations, depressive symptoms, and incident type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Karin Rosenkilde; Hulman, Adam; Witte, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Aims We examined whether social relations are associated with the risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and furthermore, whether social relations modify the association between depressive symptoms and incident T2DM. We hypothesized that the risk of developing T2DM would be lower...... for individuals with stronger social relations compared to those with weaker social relations, and that the association between depressive symptoms and incident T2DM would be attenuated for those with stronger social relations. Methods Non-diabetic participants (n = 7662) of the “English Longitudinal Study...... of developing T2DM; however, this effect is largely explained by known diabetes risk factors. No evidence was found that stronger social relations reduce the association between depressive symptoms and incident T2DM....

  4. Tear osmolarity and dry eye symptoms in diabetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuerst N

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Nicole Fuerst,1 Nicole Langelier,1 Mina Massaro-Giordano,1 Maxwell Pistilli,1 Kalliopi Stasi,1 Carrie Burns,2 Serena Cardillo,2 Vatinee Y Bunya1 1Department of Ophthalmology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 2Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA Purpose: To assess the relationship between tear osmolarity and dry eye symptoms in patients with diabetes. Patients and methods: Fifty patients with diabetes were enrolled. Demographic information and past medical history were recorded. Symptoms were assessed using the ocular surface disease index (OSDI. Tear osmolarity of each eye was measured with the TearLab® Osmolarity System. Results: The majority of the subjects were female (76%, African American (56%, and/or had a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes (82%. The mean ± standard deviation (SD for age was 54.6±13.4, and maximum tear osmolarity was 304.6±12.7 mOsm/L. Men had higher osmolarity than women (mean ± standard error (SE 311.8±4.0 mOsm/L versus 302.3±1.9 mOsm/L, P=0.02. Age, race, use of artificial tears, years of diabetes, and hemoglobin A1c did not have a statistically significant association with tear osmolarity. Longer duration of diabetes was associated with lower (less severe OSDI scores (r=-0.35, P=0.01. Higher tear osmolarity was associated with lower (less severe OSDI scores (r=-0.29, P=0.04. Conclusion: Approximately half of the diabetic subjects in our study had elevated tear osmolarity, and half of our population also reported symptoms consistent with dry eye disease. However, the two were slightly inversely related in that those with higher osmolarity reported fewer symptoms. Subjects with a longer duration of diabetes also reported fewer dry eye symptoms. Therefore, health care providers should be aware that patients who are most likely to have ocular surface disease, including those with

  5. Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Like Cells Derived from Mouse Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Ameliorate Diabetic Polyneuropathy in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Himeno, Tatsuhito; Kamiya, Hideki; Naruse, Keiko; Cheng, Zhao; Ito, Sachiko; Kondo, Masaki; Okawa, Tetsuji; Fujiya, Atsushi; Kato, Jiro; Suzuki, Hirohiko; Kito, Tetsutaro; Hamada, Yoji; Oiso, Yutaka; Isobe, Kenichi; Nakamura, Jiro

    2013-01-01

    Background. Although pathological involvements of diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN) have been reported, no dependable treatment of DPN has been achieved. Recent studies have shown that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) ameliorate DPN. Here we demonstrate a differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) into MSC-like cells and investigate the therapeutic potential of the MSC-like cell transplantation on DPN. Research Design and Methods. For induction into MSC-like cells, GFP-expressing iPSC...

  6. Amelioration of fatty liver index in patients with type 2 diabetes on ipragliflozin: an association with glucose-lowering effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takase, Takahiro; Nakamura, Akinobu; Miyoshi, Hideaki; Yamamoto, Chiho; Atsumi, Tatsuya

    2017-03-31

    In this study, we investigated the ameliorating effects of ipragliflozin on fatty liver in patients with type 2 diabetes. The factors that influenced the amelioration of fatty liver were also examined. Analysis included data of 21 Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes obtained from our prospective observational study. After obtaining patients' informed consent, once-daily ipragliflozin (50 mg/day) was given for 16 weeks. In addition to several clinical parameters, body composition was also compared before and after 16 weeks of treatment. The extent of fatty liver was estimated using a fatty liver index (FLI). After 16 weeks, FLI significantly decreased, from 70.1 ± 19.4 to 60.3 ± 25.5 (p = 0.0009) as well as levels of fasting plasma glucose (FPG), HbA1c, body weight, visceral adipose tissue (VAT), subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and fat mass. To reveal the factors influencing the FLI changes observed on ipragliflozin treatment, correlations between changes in FLI and several other measured parameters were examined. Changes in FPG (correlation coefficient = 0.4683, p = 0.0323) and HbA1c (correlation coefficient = 0.4383, p = 0.0469) showed significant positive correlations with changes in FLI. On the other hand, no correlations of changes in FLI were observed with body weight, VAT, SAT nor fat mass. In conclusion, ipragliflozin ameliorated FLI in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes. Improvement in FLI was associated with that of glucose intolerance.

  7. Integrated treatment ameliorates negative symptoms in first episode psychosis--results from the Danish OPUS trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, Anne Amalie Elgaard; Petersen, L; Jeppesen, P

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the effect of integrated treatment on negative, psychotic and disorganised symptoms in patients with first episode psychosis.......To investigate the effect of integrated treatment on negative, psychotic and disorganised symptoms in patients with first episode psychosis....

  8. Quercetin ameliorates oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis in the heart of streptozotocin-nicotinamide-induced adult male diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roslan, Josef; Giribabu, Nelli; Karim, Kamarulzaman; Salleh, Naguib

    2017-02-01

    Quercetin is known to possess beneficial effects in ameliorating diabetic complications, however the mechanisms underlying cardioprotective effect of this compound in diabetes is not fully revealed. In this study, quercetin effect on oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis in the heart in diabetes were investigated. Normal and streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced adult male diabetic rats received quercetin (10, 25 and 50mg/kg/bw) orally for 28days were anesthetized and hemodynamic parameters i.e. systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and heart rate (HR) were measured. Blood was collected for analyses of fasting glucose (FBG), insulin and cardiac injury marker levels (troponin-C, CK-MB and LDH). Following sacrificed, heart was harvested and histopathological changes were observed. Heart was subjected for analyses of oxidative stress marker i.e. lipid peroxidation and activity and expression levels of anti-oxidative enzymes i.e. SOD, CAT and GPx. Levels of inflammation in the heart were determined by measuring nuclear factor (p65-NF-κB), tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), interleukins (IL)-1β and IL-6 levels by using enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA). Distribution and expression levels of TNF-α and Ikk-β (inflammatory markers), caspase-3, caspase-9, Blc-2 and Bax (apoptosis markers) in the heart were identified by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting respectively. Administration of quercetin to diabetic rats caused significant decrease in FBG and cardiac injury marker levels with increased in insulin levels. In diabetic rat heart, lesser histopathological changes were observed with oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis levels markedly decreased. Quercetin could potentially be used to ameliorate myocardial damage due to oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis in diabetes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Like Cells Derived from Mouse Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Ameliorate Diabetic Polyneuropathy in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuhito Himeno

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Although pathological involvements of diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN have been reported, no dependable treatment of DPN has been achieved. Recent studies have shown that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs ameliorate DPN. Here we demonstrate a differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs into MSC-like cells and investigate the therapeutic potential of the MSC-like cell transplantation on DPN. Research Design and Methods. For induction into MSC-like cells, GFP-expressing iPSCs were cultured with retinoic acid, followed by adherent culture for 4 months. The MSC-like cells, characterized with flow cytometry and RT-PCR analyses, were transplanted into muscles of streptozotocin-diabetic mice. Three weeks after the transplantation, neurophysiological functions were evaluated. Results. The MSC-like cells expressed MSC markers and angiogenic/neurotrophic factors. The transplanted cells resided in hindlimb muscles and peripheral nerves, and some transplanted cells expressed S100β in the nerves. Impairments of current perception thresholds, nerve conduction velocities, and plantar skin blood flow in the diabetic mice were ameliorated in limbs with the transplanted cells. The capillary number-to-muscle fiber ratios were increased in transplanted hindlimbs of diabetic mice. Conclusions. These results suggest that MSC-like cell transplantation might have therapeutic effects on DPN through secreting angiogenic/neurotrophic factors and differentiation to Schwann cell-like cells.

  10. Mesenchymal stem cell-like cells derived from mouse induced pluripotent stem cells ameliorate diabetic polyneuropathy in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himeno, Tatsuhito; Kamiya, Hideki; Naruse, Keiko; Cheng, Zhao; Ito, Sachiko; Kondo, Masaki; Okawa, Tetsuji; Fujiya, Atsushi; Kato, Jiro; Suzuki, Hirohiko; Kito, Tetsutaro; Hamada, Yoji; Oiso, Yutaka; Isobe, Kenichi; Nakamura, Jiro

    2013-01-01

    Although pathological involvements of diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN) have been reported, no dependable treatment of DPN has been achieved. Recent studies have shown that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) ameliorate DPN. Here we demonstrate a differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) into MSC-like cells and investigate the therapeutic potential of the MSC-like cell transplantation on DPN. For induction into MSC-like cells, GFP-expressing iPSCs were cultured with retinoic acid, followed by adherent culture for 4 months. The MSC-like cells, characterized with flow cytometry and RT-PCR analyses, were transplanted into muscles of streptozotocin-diabetic mice. Three weeks after the transplantation, neurophysiological functions were evaluated. The MSC-like cells expressed MSC markers and angiogenic/neurotrophic factors. The transplanted cells resided in hindlimb muscles and peripheral nerves, and some transplanted cells expressed S100 β in the nerves. Impairments of current perception thresholds, nerve conduction velocities, and plantar skin blood flow in the diabetic mice were ameliorated in limbs with the transplanted cells. The capillary number-to-muscle fiber ratios were increased in transplanted hindlimbs of diabetic mice. These results suggest that MSC-like cell transplantation might have therapeutic effects on DPN through secreting angiogenic/neurotrophic factors and differentiation to Schwann cell-like cells.

  11. Chronic epigallocatechin-3-gallate ameliorates learning and memory deficits in diabetic rats via modulation of nitric oxide and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baluchnejadmojarad, Tourandokht; Roghani, Mehrdad

    2011-10-31

    Due to anti-diabetic and antioxidant activity of green tea epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and the existence of evidence for its beneficial effect on cognition and memory, this research study was conducted to evaluate, for the first time, the efficacy of chronic EGCG on alleviation of learning and memory deficits in streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into control, diabetic, EGCG-treated-control and -diabetic groups. EGCG was administered at a dose of 20 and 40 mg/kg/day for 7 weeks. Learning and memory was evaluated using Y maze, passive avoidance, and radial 8-arm maze (RAM) tests. Oxidative stress markers and involvement of nitric oxide system were also evaluated. Alternation score of the diabetic rats in Y maze was lower than that of control and a significant impairment was observed in retention and recall in passive avoidance test (pRAM task and EGCG (40 mg/kg) significantly ameliorated these changes (pmemory respectively. Meanwhile, increased levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitrite in diabetic rats significantly reduced due to EGCG treatment (pmemory deficits in STZ-diabetic rats through attenuation of oxidative stress and modulation of NO. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Berberine Ameliorates Diabetes-Associated Cognitive Decline through Modulation of Aberrant Inflammation Response and Insulin Signaling Pathway in DM Rats

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    Qingjie Chen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Memory-impairment was one of the common characteristics in patients with diabetes mellitus. The release of chronic inflammation mediators and insulin resistance in diabetic brain gave rise to the generation of toxic factor Aβ42 which was the marker of Alzheimer’s disease. In addition, the impairment of memory in diabetes mellitus was also correlated predominantly with uptake/metabolism of glucose in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC. Previously, anti-inflammation and hypoglycemic effects of berberine (BBr have been described in peripheral tissues. For better understanding the effects of BBr on cognitive action in diabetics, we investigated the functions of BBr involved in anti-inflammation and ameliorating insulin resistance in prefrontal cortex of diabetic rats.Methods: Intragastric administration of BBr (187.5 mg/Kg/d was used in diabetic rats. Fear-condition assay was applied for cognitive assessment, and relative protein expressions were detected by western-blot. The glucose uptake in prefrontal cortex of diabetic rats was tested by Positron-Emission Tomography imaging. The levels of inflammation mediators were determined by commercial ELISA kits.Results: The inflammation mediator release and insulin resistance in the mPFC of diabetic rats was inhibited by BBr. The activation of PI3K/Akt/mTOR and MAPK signaling pathway, as well as two novel isoforms PKCη and PKC and the translocation of NF-κB in neuron were also down-regulated by BBr; furthermore, the neuron specific glucose transporter GLUT3 was remarkably augmented by 2–3 times when compared with diabetic group; meanwhile, BBr also promoted glucose uptake in the brain. Additionally BBr decreased the expressions of amyloid precursor protein and BACE-1, and the production of oligomeric Aβ42. Finally, it accelerates the reinforcement of the information and ameliorates cognitive impairment.Conclusion: BBr inhibited the activation of inflammation pathway and insulin resistance

  13. Topical KINOSTAT™ ameliorates the clinical development and progression of cataracts in dogs with diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kador, Peter F; Webb, Terah R; Bras, Dineli; Ketring, Kerry; Wyman, Milton

    2010-11-01

    To determine whether topical administration of the aldose reductase inhibitor Kinostat™ can ameliorate the onset or progression of cataracts in dogs with naturally occurring diabetes mellitus (DM). A randomized, prospective, double-masked placebo control pilot study was conducted with 40 dogs newly diagnosed with DM with no or minimal lens changes. Twenty-eight dogs received Kinostat™ and 12 dogs received placebo. Owners administered the agent into both eyes three times daily for 1 year and compliance was monitored with log sheets. Complete ophthalmic examinations were performed on dilated eyes at the time of enrollment and 1, 2, 3, 6, and 12 months into treatment. Cataract severity was assessed on a scale of 0-3. At 12 months, full bloodwork, including HbA1C and blood Kinostat™ levels were performed. After 12 months of treatment, the cataract score in the placebo group significantly increased with seven dogs (14 eyes) developing mature cataracts, two dogs (4 eyes) developing cortical opacities, and one dog (2 eyes) developing equatorial vacuoles with mild punctate cortical opacities. In contrast, the cataract score in the Kinostat™ treated dogs was significantly less with seven developing anterior equatorial vacuoles, two developing incipient anterior cortical cataracts, and four developing mature cataracts. In fact, the cataract scores of the Kinostat™ group at 12 months did not significantly increase from the score at the time of enrollment. The HbA1C values between the two groups after 12 months of treatment were similar, and no blood levels of Kinostat™ were found in any enrolled dog. The onset and/or progression of cataracts in dogs with DM can be significantly delayed by topical administration of Kinostat™. © 2010 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  14. Posttraumatic stress symptoms in children diagnosed with type 1 diabetes

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    Şişmanlar Şahika G

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies consistently found remarkable rates of posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS in children with chronic diseases. But, only one study had searched PTSS in children with diabetes, until now. So, the present study aimed to examine incidence rate and predictors of PTSS in children with type 1 diabetes. Method PTSS were evaluated by Child Posttraumatic Stress Reaction Index in fifty four children with diabetes (aged between 8–18 years. This assessment was based on hypoglycaemia as the potential traumatic event. Children were also introduced a brief questionnaire about demographic and disease related information. Some other information was obtained from families, medical stuff and records. Among 54 children, forty two had complete information. Hence, to evaluate possible predictive factors related with PTSS, multiple regression analysis was conducted for 42 children. Results 18.5% of children were reported PTSS at severe or very severe level, and 51.9% were reported PTSS at moderate level or above. Multiple regression analyses were shown that child PTSS were not significantly related with possible predictive factors other than number of hypoglycaemic attacks for the last month. Conclusion The study results support that posttraumatic stress symptoms are not rarely seen in paediatric patients with diabetes, and even if not severe, hypoglycaemic attacks may be perceived as traumatic by the children with diabetes. But, because of some limitations, the results should be carefully interpreted.

  15. Ethnic Minorities with Diabetes Differ in Depressive and Anxiety Symptoms and Diabetes-Distress

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    Charlotte B. Schmidt

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine the association between ethnicity, diabetes-distress, and depressive and anxiety symptoms in adult outpatients with diabetes. Research Design and Methods. Diabetes-distress (Problem Areas in Diabetes Scale, PAID5, depressive and anxiety symptoms (Extended Kessler-10, EK10, and quality of life (Short-Form 12, SF12 were assessed in an ethnic diverse diabetes outpatient population of a teaching hospital in Amsterdam. Descent of one’s parents and self-classified ethnicity were obtained to define ethnicity. HbA1c, clinical data, and socioeconomic status were derived from the medical charts. Based on established cut-offs for PAID5- and EK10-scores, emotional distress was dichotomized for the purpose of logistic regression analyses. Results. Of 1007 consecutive patients approached, 575 participated. Forty-nine percent were of non-Dutch ethnicity and 24.7% had type 1 diabetes. Diabetes-distress was reported by 12.5% of the native Dutch patients and by 22.0%, 34.5%, and 42.6% of the Surinamese, Turkish, and Moroccan patients, respectively. Prevalence of depressive symptoms was 9.4% in native Dutch patients and 20.4%, 34.5%, and 27.3% in the other groups mentioned. Diabetes-distress and Moroccan origin were significantly associated (OR = 3.60, p<.01 as well as depressive symptoms and Turkish origin (OR = 4.23, p=.04. Conclusions. Different ethnic minorities with diabetes vary in their vulnerability for emotional distress, warranting clinical attention. Future research should elucidate explanatory factors and opportunities for tailored interventions.

  16. Ameliorating role of chromium ingestion on biochemical, histological and trigluconate disorders induced by diabetes and / or gamma irradiation in pregnant albino rats and their fetuses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RAMADAN, F.L.; REZK, R.G.

    2006-01-01

    Chromium is an essential trace element in human nutrition for the regulation of insulin action thereby influencing carbohydrate and lipid metabolism The aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of chromium intake on radiation-induced damage in diabetic mothers. Diabetes was induced in female rats by intraperitoneal injection of 150 mg/kg alloxan dissolved in saline. Pregnant diabetic mothers were received chromium (20 mg/kg) from the 1st up to the 19 th day of gestation. Meanwhile, pregnant diabetic rats were exposed to 0.3 Gy gamma radiation on the 6th and the 12 th day of gestation. Chromium treatment of diabetic mothers ameliorated radiation-induced damage, which was obvious by diminishing the increase of glucose, malonaldehyde (MDA), total cholesterol levels and by ameliorating the decrease of glutathione level in blood serum. In addition,chromium treatment ameliorated the radiation-induced changes in cholesterol levels of the fetuses. Moreover, chromium treatment led to the regeneration of the normal architecture of maternal hepatic cells and blood vessels. It could be concluded that chromium supplementation to diabetic mothers ameliorated the radiation-induced biochemical, histopathological and teratological disorders. Furthermore, the results obtained showed that chromium administration caused a significant protection to diabetic pregnant females against radiation-induced spontaneous abortion and embryo malformations

  17. Curcumin ameliorates macrophage infiltration by inhibiting NF-κB activation and proinflammatory cytokines in streptozotocin induced-diabetic nephropathy

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    Suzuki Kenji

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic inflammation plays an important role in the progression of diabetic nephropathy (DN and that the infiltration of macrophages in glomerulus has been implicated in the development of glomerular injury. We hypothesized that the plant polyphenolic compound curcumin, which is known to exert potent anti-inflammatory effect, would ameliorate macrophage infiltration in streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic rats. Methods Diabetes was induced with STZ (55 mg/kg by intraperitoneal injection in rats. Three weeks after STZ injection, rats were divided into three groups, namely, control, diabetic, and diabetic treated with curcumin at 100 mg/kg/day, p.o., for 8 weeks. The rats were sacrificed 11 weeks after induction of diabetes. The excised kidney was used to assess macrophage infiltration and expression of various inflammatory markers. Results At 11 weeks after STZ injection, diabetic rats exhibited renal dysfunction, as evidenced by reduced creatinine clearance, increased blood glucose, blood urea nitrogen and proteinuria, along with marked reduction in the body weight. All of these abnormalities were significantly reversed by curcumin. Hyperglycemia induced the degradation of IκBα and NF-κB activation and as a result increased infiltration of macrophages (52% as well as increased proinflammatory cytokines: TNF-α and IL-1β. Curcumin treatment significantly reduced macrophage infiltration in the kidneys of diabetic rats, suppressed the expression of above proinflammatory cytokines and degradation of IκBα. In addition, curcumin treatment also markedly decreased ICAM-1, MCP-1 and TGF-β1 protein expression. Moreover, at nuclear level curcumin inhibited the NF-κB activity. Conclusion Our results suggested that curcumin treatment protect against the development of DN in rats by reducing macrophage infiltration through the inhibition of NF-κB activation in STZ-induced diabetic rats.

  18. Flavonoid rich fraction of Punica granatum improves early diabetic nephropathy by ameliorating proteinuria and disturbed glucose homeostasis in experimental animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ankita, Patel; Deepti, Bandawane; Nilam, Mhetre

    2015-01-01

    Different parts of Punica granatum Linn. (Punicaceae) are traditionally used as renal protective agents in the Indian system of medicine. However, there is paucity of information regarding its role in diabetic nephropathy. The present study investigates the nephroprotective potential of flavonoid-rich fraction of P. granatum leaves in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced early diabetic nephropathy in experimental animals. Experimental diabetic nephropathy was induced in Wistar rats by single intraperitonial injection of STZ (65 mg/kg) dissolved in ice cold citrophosphate buffer (pH 4.3). After induction rats were divided into five groups (6 normal; 24 diabetic) and administered with glibenclamide (5 mg/kg) and three dose levels of flavonoid-rich fraction of P. granatum leaves (PGFF), i.e. 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg body weight/day for 28 d. Fasting blood glucose, lipid profile, serum albumin, serum total protein, serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN) glycosylated hemoglobin, and biomarkers of kidney oxidative stress were assessed at the end of the treatment period. Urine was analyzed for the measurement of total protein, albumin, and creatinine clearance. Kidney sections were subjected to histopathological study. Daily oral administration of variable dose levels of PGFF for 28 d normalized various biochemical, metabolic, and histopathological changes in the diabetic rats. PGFF significantly (p < 0.01 and p < 0.05) improved the glycemic status and renal function in diabetic rats as compared with diabetic control rats. The results of our study thus prove the protective effect of PGFF in early diabetic nephropathy by ameliorating proteinuria and disturbed glucose homeostasis in experimental animals.

  19. Palatable cafeteria diet ameliorates anxiety and depression-like symptoms following an adverse early environment.

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    Maniam, Jayanthi; Morris, Margaret J

    2010-06-01

    Early trauma contributes to psychosocial disorders later in life. An adverse early environment induced by maternal separation (MS) is known to alter behavioural and stress responses in rats. Palatable food dampens stress responses. We investigated the influence of palatable cafeteria high-fat diet (HFD) on behavioural responses following MS or non-handling (NH), versus 15min brief separation. After littering, Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to short separation, S15 (15min), prolonged separation, S180 (180min) daily from postnatal days 2 to 14 or were non-handled. Pups were assigned to HFD or chow at weaning. We assessed depression and anxiety-like behaviour with sucrose preference test (SPT) and elevated plus maze (EPM) respectively, and measured hypothalamic CRH and hippocampal glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expression. S180 rats showed increased anxiety-and depression-like behaviours, with increased plasma corticosterone, hypothalamic CRH, and reduced hippocampal GR expression versus S15 rats. Similar effects were observed across gender. These were normalized by provision of HFD, with greater beneficial effects in males. S15 showed no benefit of HFD. NH female rats had less adverse impacts; HFD had beneficial impact on behaviour in NH males. Thus behavioural deficits and gene expression changes induced by early life stress were ameliorated by HFD. These results highlight the important place of palatable food in reducing central stress responses supporting the therapeutic value of 'comfort food'. Crown Copyright 2009. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Parathyroidectomy Ameliorates Glucose and Blood Pressure Control in a Patient with Primary Hyperparathyroidism, Type 2 Diabetes, and Hypertension

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    Alok Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of parathyroidectomy on glucose control and hypertension is controversial. Here, we report a case of a patient with primary hyperparathyroidism, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and hypertension in whom parathyroidectomy ameliorated both glucose control and blood pressure. Once high serum calcium levels were noticed, ultrasonography of neck confirmed a well-defined oval hypoechoic mass posterior to the right lobe of the thyroid, confirmed by scintiscan. Parathyroidectomy resulted in improvement of blood pressure and blood glucose. We could stop insulin and antihypertensive medications. We conclude that in patients with type 2 diabetes with vague complaints like fatigue, body ache, and refractory hypertension, as a part of the diagnostic workup, clinicians should also check serum calcium levels and parathyroid hormone to rule out hyperparathyroidism. Correction of hyperparathyroidism may result in improvement of hypertension and glucose control.

  1. Oxyresveratrol Supplementation to C57bl/6 Mice Fed with a High-Fat Diet Ameliorates Obesity-Associated Symptoms.

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    Tan, Hui Yuan; Tse, Iris Mei Ying; Li, Edmund Tsze Shing; Wang, Mingfu

    2017-02-16

    Oxyresveratrol has been proven effective in inhibiting adipogenesis in a 3T3-L1 cell model. We investigated the preventive effect of oxyresveratrol supplementation on obesity development in high-fat diet-fed mice. Male C57bl/6 mice were randomly subjected to control (5% fat by weight, LF), high-fat (30% fat by weight, HF), and high-fat supplemented with 0.25% and 0.5% oxyresveratrol (OXY1 and OXY2, respectively) diet groups for eight weeks. Oxyresveratrol supplementation effectively alleviated obesity-associated symptoms such as insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, and hepatic steatosis in high-fat diet-fed mice. Compared to the high-fat diet group, oxyresveratrol supplementation suppressed expression of glucose-6-phosphatase, sterol regulatory element-binding proteins 1, fatty acid synthase and CCAAT/Enhancer-binding proteins α, and elevated AMP-activated protein kinase (α2-catalytic subunit) level in liver, upregulated insulin-dependent glucose transporter type 4 level in adipose tissue, and increased expression of insulin receptor substrate 1, insulin-dependent glucose transporter type 4, AMP-activated protein kinase α, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α, and sirtuin 1 in muscle to regulate lipid and glucose homeostasis in these tissues. This study demonstrated that oxyresveratrol supplementation effectively ameliorated obesity-associated symptoms in high-fat diet-fed mice, presumably attributed to mediating critical regulators involved in lipid and glucose homeostasis in liver, visceral fat, and muscle.

  2. Anti-IL-39 (IL-23p19/Ebi3) polyclonal antibodies ameliorate autoimmune symptoms in lupus-like mice

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    Wang, Xiaoqian; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Zhiding; Liu, Xiaoling; Zhu, Gaizhi; Han, Gencheng; Chen, Guojiang; Hou, Chunmei; Wang, Tianxiao; Shen, Beifen; Li, Yan; Xiao, He; Ma, Ning; Wang, Renxi

    2018-01-01

    The interleukin (IL)-12 family cytokines have been examined as therapeutic targets in the treatment of several autoimmune diseases. Our previous study showed that a novel IL-12 family cytokine, IL-39 (IL-23p19/Ebi3) mediates inflammation in lupus-like mice. In the present study, the effect of anti-mouse IL-39 polyclonal antibodies on autoimmune symptoms in lupus-like mice was investigated. Rabbit anti-mouse IL-39 polyclonal antibodies were produced by immunization with recombinant mouse IL-39, and purified using protein A chromatography. These antibodies were subsequently used to treat lupus-like mice. Flow cytometry, captured images, ELISA and H&E staining were used to determine the effect of anti-IL-39 polyclonal antibodies on inflammatory cells, autoantibody titers, proteinuria, infiltrating inflammatory cells and the structure of the glomerular region. The anti-IL-39 polyclonal antibodies effectively reduced the numbers of inflammatory cells, splenomegaly, autoantibody titers, proteinuria, infiltrating inflammatory cells, and restored the structure of the glomerular region in MRL/lpr mice. Taken together, these results suggested that anti-IL-39 polyclonal antibodies ameliorated autoimmune symptoms in lupus-like mice. Therefore, IL-39 may be used as a possible target for the treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus. PMID:29138852

  3. Insulin-Producing Cells Differentiated from Human Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells In Vitro Ameliorate Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Hyperglycemia.

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    Ying Xin

    Full Text Available The two major obstacles in the successful transplantation of islets for diabetes treatment are inadequate supply of insulin-producing tissue and immune rejection. Induction of the differentiation of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs into insulin-producing cells (IPCs for autologous transplantation may alleviate those limitations.hMSCs were isolated and induced to differentiate into IPCs through a three-stage differentiation protocol in a defined media with high glucose, nicotinamide, and exendin-4. The physiological characteristics and functions of IPCs were then evaluated. Next, about 3 × 10(6 differentiated cells were transplanted into the renal sub-capsular space of streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic nude mice. Graft survival and function were assessed by immunohistochemistry, TUNEL staining and measurements of blood glucose levels in the mice.The differentiated IPCs were characterized by Dithizone (DTZ positive staining, expression of pancreatic β-cell markers, and human insulin secretion in response to glucose stimulation. Moreover, 43% of the IPCs showed L-type Ca2+ channel activity and similar changes in intracellular Ca2+ in response to glucose stimulation as that seen in pancreatic β-cells in the process of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Transplantation of functional IPCs into the renal subcapsular space of STZ-induced diabetic nude mice ameliorated the hyperglycemia. Immunofluorescence staining revealed that transplanted IPCs sustainably expressed insulin, c-peptide, and PDX-1 without apparent apoptosis in vivo.IPCs derived from hMSCs in vitro can ameliorate STZ-induced diabetic hyperglycemia, which indicates that these hMSCs may be a promising approach to overcome the limitations of islet transplantation.

  4. Adipose-Derived Stem Cell-Derived Exosomes Ameliorate Erectile Dysfunction in a Rat Model of Type 2 Diabetes.

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    Chen, Fengzhi; Zhang, Haibo; Wang, Zhiqiang; Ding, Wei; Zeng, Qinyu; Liu, Wenbing; Huang, Can; He, Shuhua; Wei, Anyang

    2017-09-01

    The efficacy of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) in alleviating erectile dysfunction (ED) of diabetic rats has been demonstrated mainly through a paracrine effect. However, exosomes (EXOs), which are important bioactive substance vectors secreted by ADSCs, have never been associated with ED. To investigate the effect of ADSC-derived EXOs on erectile function in a type 2 diabetic ED rat model. EXOs were isolated from the supernatants of cultured ADSCs by ultracentrifugation. We constructed a type 2 diabetic rat model using a high-fat diet and low-dose streptozotocin administered by intraperitoneal injection. In total, 24 diabetic rats were randomly assigned to three groups and were treated with an intracavernous injection of ADSC-derived EXOs, ADSCs, or phosphate buffered saline. Another eight age-matched rats underwent sham operation and composed the normal control group. Intracavernous pressure and mean arterial pressure testing and histologic and western blot analyses were performed 4 weeks after the intracavernous injection. ADSC-derived EXOs and ADSCs administered by intracavernous injection led to an increase in the ratio of intracavernous pressure to mean arterial pressure compared with that for phosphate buffered saline treatment. Histologic and western blot analyses demonstrated an increased ratio of smooth muscle to collagen, increased expression of an endothelial marker (CD31), a smooth muscle marker (α-smooth muscle actin), and antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2 and decreased the expression of the apoptotic protein cleaved caspase-3 and apoptosis of endothelial and smooth muscle cells in the corpus cavernosum tissue after EXO or ADSC injection compared with values for the phosphate buffered saline treatment. The present results are expected to provide a scientific foundation for clinical application in the near future. Although the results demonstrated that intracavernous injection of ADSC-derived EXOs could ameliorate ED of diabetic rats, the optimum dose

  5. Relationship and variation of diabetes related symptoms, sleep disturbance and sleep-related impairment in adults with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Bingqian; Quinn, Laurie; Fritschi, Cynthia

    2018-03-01

    The objective of this study was to examine whether diabetes-related symptoms (e.g. fatigue, neuropathic pain, diabetes distress and depressive symptoms) were related to sleep disturbance and sleep-related impairment in adults with type 2 diabetes while controlling for potential covariates. In people with type 2 diabetes, sleep disturbance and sleep-related impairment are common and likely associated with diabetes-related symptoms. However, limited research has investigated the predictive ability of diabetes-related symptoms on sleep. A correlational, cross-sectional design was used. Data were collected at a large university in the Midwestern United States from September 2013-March 2014. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to examine the relationship of diabetes-related symptoms (fatigue, neuropathic pain, distress and depressive symptoms) to sleep disturbance and sleep-related impairment. The instruments included Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System instruments, Diabetes Symptom Checklist and Diabetes Distress Scale. In this study of adults with type 2 diabetes (N = 90; 52.2% female, mean age 57.4 years), gender, A1C, neuropathic pain and fatigue were significantly related to sleep disturbance when age, diabetes duration, depressive symptoms and distress were controlled. Those variables collectively explained 52% of the variation in sleep disturbance. Fatigue was significantly associated with sleep-related impairment when the same covariates were controlled. Findings suggested that diabetes-related symptoms, including neuropathic pain and fatigue, are strongly related to sleep disturbance and sleep-related impairment in adults with type 2 diabetes, underscoring the need to include detailed assessments of neuropathic pain and fatigue when evaluating sleep. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Ameliorative effect of riboflavin on hyperglycemia, oxidative stress and DNA damage in type-2 diabetic mice: Mechanistic and therapeutic strategies.

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    Alam, Md Maroof; Iqbal, Sarah; Naseem, Imrana

    2015-10-15

    Increasing evidence in both experimental and clinical studies suggests that oxidative stress play a major role in the pathogenesis of type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Abnormally high levels of free radicals and the simultaneous decline of antioxidant defence mechanisms can lead to damage of cellular organelles and enzymes. Riboflavin constitutes an essential nutrient for humans and is also an important food additive for animals. It is a precursor of flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) which serves as a coenzyme for several enzymes. The aim of this study was to observe the effects of illuminated and non-illuminated riboflavin in a diabetic mice model. The protocol included treatment of diabetic mice with illuminated RF and a control set without light. To our surprise, group receiving RF without light gave better results in a dose dependent manner. Significant amelioration of oxidative stress was observed with an increased glucose uptake in skeletal muscles and white adipose tissue. Histological studies showed recovery in the liver and kidney tissue injury. Cellular DNA damage was also recovered. Therefore, it is suggested that supplementation with dietary riboflavin might help in the reduction of diabetic complications. A possible mechanism of action is also proposed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Hypoglycemic effects of Zanthoxylum alkylamides by enhancing glucose metabolism and ameliorating pancreatic dysfunction in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Yuming; Ren, Ting; Zhang, Shiqi; Shirima, Gerald Gasper; Cheng, YaJiao; Liu, Xiong

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the hypoglycemic effect of Zanthoxylum alkylamides and explore the potential mechanism in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Diabetic rats were orally treated with 3, 6, and 9 mg per kg bw alkylamides daily for 28 days. As the alkylamide dose increased, the relative weights of the liver and kidney, fasting blood glucose, and fructosamine levels were significantly decreased. The alkylamides also significantly increased the body weight and improved the oral glucose tolerance of the rats. Likewise, the alkylamides significantly increased the levels of liver and muscle glycogen and plasma insulin. These substances further alleviated the histopathological changes in the pancreas of the diabetic rats. The beneficial effects of high-dose alkylamides showed a comparable activity to the anti-diabetic drug glibenclamide. Western blot and real-time PCR results revealed that the alkylamide treatment significantly decreased the expression levels of the key enzymes (phosphoenolpyruvate caboxykinase and glucose-6-phosphatase) involved in gluconeogenesis and increased the glycolysis enzyme (glucokinase) in the liver, and enhanced the expression levels of pancreatic duodenal homeobox-1, glucokinase, and glucose transporter 2 in the pancreas. In addition, it was also observed that the alkylamides, unlike glibenclamide, increased the transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 and decreased cannabinoid receptor 1 expressions in the liver and pancreas. Therefore, alkylamides can prevent STZ-induced hyperglycemia by altering the expression levels of the genes related to glucose metabolism and by ameliorating pancreatic dysfunction.

  8. Voluntary wheel running ameliorates symptoms of MK-801-induced schizophrenia in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Woon; Kang, Hyun-Sik; Park, Joon-Ki; Lee, Sam-Jun; Baek, Sang-Bin; Kim, Chang-Ju

    2014-12-01

    Schizophrenia is a chronic and severe mental disorder characterized by the disintegration of cognitive thought processes and emotional responses. Despite the precise cause of schizophrenia remains unclear, it is hypothesized that a dysregulation of the N‑methyl‑D‑aspartate (NMDA) receptor in the brain is a major contributing factor to its development. Brain‑derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a member of the neurotrophin family and is implicated in learning and memory processes. In the present study, we investigated in vivo the effects of voluntary wheel running on behavioral symptoms associated with NMDA receptor expression, using MK‑801‑induced schizophrenic mice. Abilify (aripiprazole), a drug used to treat human schizophrenia patients, was used as the positive control. For the assessment of behavioral symptoms affecting locomotion, social interaction and spatial working memory, the open‑field, social interaction and Morris water maze tests were conducted. For investigating the biochemical parameters, NMDA receptor expression in the hippocampal CA2‑3 regions and prefrontal cortex was detected by NMDA immunofluorescence and BDNF expression in the hippocampus was measured using western blot analysis. MK‑801 injection for 14 days induced schizophrenia‑like behavioral abnormalities with decreased expression of the NMDA receptor and BDNF in the brains of mice. The results indicated that free access to voluntary wheel running for 2 weeks alleviated schizophrenia‑like behavioral abnormalities and increased the expression of NMDA receptor and BDNF, comparable to the effects of aripiprazole treatment. In the present study, the results suggest that NMDA receptor hypofunctioning induced schizophrenia‑like behaviors, and that voluntary wheel running was effective in reducing these symptoms by increasing NMDA receptor and BDNF expression, resulting in an improvement of disease related behavioral deficits.

  9. Glutamic acid ameliorates estrogen deficiency-induced menopausal-like symptoms in ovariectomized mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Na-Ra; Kim, Hee-Yun; Yang, Woong Mo; Jeong, Hyun-Ja; Kim, Hyung-Min

    2015-09-01

    Some amino acids are considered alternative therapies for improving menopausal symptoms. Glutamic acid (GA), which is abundant in meats, fish, and protein-rich plant foods, is known to be a neurotransmitter or precursor of γ-aminobutyric acid. Although it is unclear if GA functions in menopausal symptoms, we hypothesized that GA would attenuate estrogen deficiency-induced menopausal symptoms. The objective to test our hypothesis was to examine an estrogenic effect of GA in ovariectomized (OVX) mice, estrogen receptor (ER)-positive human osteoblast-like MG-63 cells, and ER-positive human breast cancer MCF-7 cells. The results demonstrated that administration with GA to mice suppressed body weight gain and vaginal atrophy when compared with the OVX mice. A microcomputed tomographic analysis of the trabecular bone showed increases in bone mineral density, trabecular number, and connectivity density as well as a significant decrease in total porosity of the OVX mice treated with GA. In addition, GA increased serum levels of alkaline phosphatase and estrogen compared with the OVX mice. Furthermore, GA induced proliferation and increased ER-β messenger RNA (mRNA) expression, estrogen response element (ERE) activity, extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation, and alkaline phosphatase activity in MG-63 cells. In MCF-7 cells, GA also increased proliferation, Ki-67 mRNA expression, ER-β mRNA expression, and ERE activity. Estrogen response element activity increased by GA was inhibited by an estrogen antagonist. Taken together, our data demonstrated that GA has estrogenic and osteogenic activities in OVX mice, MG-63 cells, and MCF-7 cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. EVALUATION OF THE POSSIBLE ANTIOXIDANT EFFECTS OF NIGELLA SATIVA AND CURCUMA LONGA IN AMELIORATING DIABETIC NEPHROPATHY IN RATS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    OSMAN, N.N.; FARAG, M.F.S.; DARWISH, M.M

    2009-01-01

    Chronic hyperglycemia in diabetes leads to the overproduction of free radicals and the evidence is increasing because these radicals are responsible for the development of diabetic nephropathy. Diabetic nephropathy is an important microvascular complication and one of the main causes of end stage renal disease. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that combined treatment with Nigella sativa (NS) and Curcuma longa (CL) is more effective than each of them alone in improving renal function and oxidative stress in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.Diabetes was induced in male albino rats with a single intravenous injection of alloxan (150 mg/kg). Two weeks after alloxan injection, rats were divided into five groups; control, diabetic and diabetic rats received either NS (10ml/kg/day), or CL (80mg/kg/day) and their combination by gastric intubation for 4 weeks.Diabetic rats exhibited many symptoms including loss of body weight, hyperglycemia, polyuria, renal enlargement and renal dysfunction. Significant increase in TBARS (lipid peroxidation marker) was observed in diabetic kidney. This was accompanied by a significant decrease in GSH content, SOD and CAT activities in the kidneys. Daily oral ingestion of NS and/or CL extract for 4 weeks has attenuated the oxidative stress in the kidney and reversed the adverse effect of diabetes in rats by lowering blood glucose levels, increased plasma insulin and restored body weight loss and renal function.These results confirm the role of oxidative stress in the development of diabetic nephropathy and point to the possible anti-oxidative mechanism being responsible for the nephroprotective action of NS and CL.

  11. Diabetes-related symptom distress in association with glucose metabolism and comorbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adriaanse, Marcel C; Pouwer, Frans; Dekker, Jacqueline M

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the associations between diabetes-related symptom distress, glucose metabolism status, and comorbidities of type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This was a cross-sectional sample of 281 individuals with normal glucose metabolism (NGM......), 181 individuals with impaired glucose metabolism (IGM), and 107 subjects with type 2 diabetes. We used the revised type 2 Diabetes Symptom Checklist (DSC-R) to assess diabetes-related symptom distress. RESULTS: The total symptom distress score (range 0-100) was relatively low for diabetic subjects...... levels across all DSC-R domains. CONCLUSIONS: Worsening glucose metabolism is associated with increasing diabetes-related symptom distress. This relationship is attenuated by ischemic heart disease and particularly by depression....

  12. Kaempferol ameliorates symptoms of metabolic syndrome by regulating activities of liver X receptor-β.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Minh-Hien; Jia, Yaoyao; Mok, Boram; Jun, Hee-jin; Hwang, Kwang-Yeon; Lee, Sung-Joon

    2015-08-01

    Kaempferol is a dietary flavonol previously shown to regulate cellular lipid and glucose metabolism. However, its molecular mechanisms of action and target proteins have remained elusive, probably due to the involvement of multiple proteins. This study investigated the molecular targets of kaempferol. Ligand binding of kaempferol to liver X receptors (LXRs) was quantified by time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer and surface plasmon resonance analyses. Kaempferol directly binds to and induces the transactivation of LXRs, with stronger specificity for the β-subtype (EC50 = 0.33 μM). The oral administration of kaempferol in apolipoprotein-E-deficient mice (150 mg/day/kg body weight) significantly reduced plasma glucose and increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and insulin sensitivity compared with the vehicle-fed control. Kaempferol also reduced plasma triglyceride concentrations and did not cause liver steatosis, a common side effect of potent LXR activation. In immunoblotting analysis, kaempferol reduced the nuclear accumulation of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 (SREBP-1). Our results show that the suppression of SREBP-1 activity and the selectivity for LXR-β over LXR-α by kaempferol contribute to the reductions of plasma and hepatic triglyceride concentrations in mice fed kaempferol. They also suggest that kaempferol activates LXR-β and suppresses SREBP-1 to enhance symptoms in metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Phosphatidylserine Ameliorates Neurodegenerative Symptoms and Enhances Axonal Transport in a Mouse Model of Familial Dysautonomia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiran Naftelberg

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Familial Dysautonomia (FD is a neurodegenerative disease in which aberrant tissue-specific splicing of IKBKAP exon 20 leads to reduction of IKAP protein levels in neuronal tissues. Here we generated a conditional knockout (CKO mouse in which exon 20 of IKBKAP is deleted in the nervous system. The CKO FD mice exhibit developmental delays, sensory abnormalities, and less organized dorsal root ganglia (DRGs with attenuated axons compared to wild-type mice. Furthermore, the CKO FD DRGs show elevated HDAC6 levels, reduced acetylated α-tubulin, unstable microtubules, and impairment of axonal retrograde transport of nerve growth factor (NGF. These abnormalities in DRG properties underlie neuronal degeneration and FD symptoms. Phosphatidylserine treatment decreased HDAC6 levels and thus increased acetylation of α-tubulin. Further PS treatment resulted in recovery of axonal outgrowth and enhanced retrograde axonal transport by decreasing histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6 levels and thus increasing acetylation of α-tubulin levels. Thus, we have identified the molecular pathway that leads to neurodegeneration in FD and have demonstrated that phosphatidylserine treatment has the potential to slow progression of neurodegeneration.

  14. Tinospora cordifolia consumption ameliorates changes in kidney chondroitin sulphate/dermatan sulphate in diabetic rats

    OpenAIRE

    Joladarashi, Darukeshwara; Chilkunda, Nandini D.; Salimath, Paramahans V.

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes is known to alter kidney extracellular matrix (ECM) components. Chondroitin sulphate (CS)/dermatan sulphate (DS), an ECM component, which plays an essential role in kidney is altered during diabetes. The focus of this study has been to examine the effect of Tinospora cordifolia (TC) consumption, a potent plant widely used to treat diabetes, on kidney CS/DS. Experimentally induced diabetic rats were fed with diet containing TC at 2·5 and 5 % levels and the effect of it on kidney CS/DS...

  15. Abnormal nocturnal blood pressure fall in normotensive adolescents with insulin-dependent diabetes is ameliorated following glycemic improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.R.G. Ferreira

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available Lack of the physiological nocturnal fall in blood pressure (BP has been found in diabetics and it seems to be related to the presence of diabetic complications. The present study examined the changes in the nocturnal BP pattern of 8 normotensive insulin-dependent diabetic adolescents without nephropathy following improvement in glycemic control induced by an 8-day program of adequate diet and exercise. The same number of age- and sex-matched control subjects were studied. During the first and eighth nights of the program, BP was obtained by ambulatory BP monitoring. After a 10-min rest, 3 BP and heart rate (HR recordings were taken and the mean values were considered to represent their awake values. The monitor was programmed to cuff insufflation every 20 min from 10:00 p.m. to 7:00 a.m. The glycemic control of diabetics improved since glycemia (212.0 ± 91.5 to 140.2 ± 69.1 mg/dl, P<0.03, urine glucose (12.7 ± 11.8 to 8.6 ± 6.4 g/24 h, P = 0.08 and insulin dose (31.1 ± 7.7 to 16.1 ± 9.7 U/day, P<0.01 were reduced on the last day. The mean BP of control subjects markedly decreased during the sleeping hours of night 1 (92.3 ± 6.4 to 78.1 ± 5.0 mmHg, P<0.001 and night 8 (87.3 ± 6.7 to 76.9 ± 3.6 mmHg, P<0.001. Diabetic patients showed a slight decrease in mean BP during the first night. However, the fall in BP during the nocturnal period increased significantly on the eighth night. The average awake-sleep BP variation was significantly higher at the end of the study (4.2 vs 10.3%, P<0.05 and this ratio turned out to be similar to that found in the control group (10.3 vs 16.3%. HR variation also increased on the eighth night in the diabetics. Following the metabolic improvement obtained at the end of the period, the nocturnal BP variation of diabetics was close to the normal pattern. We suggest that amelioration of glycemic control may influence the awake-sleep BP and HR differences. This effect may be due at least in part to an attenuated

  16. Ameliorative properties of ethyl acetate fraction of Ceiba pentandra on serum glucose, hematological and biochemical parameters of diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Hadiza Lami

    2015-09-01

    standard drug and untreated groups. Total cholesterol, triglyceride increased and high density lipoprotein increased in all groups against the untreated group. Conclusions: Both doses of ethyl acetate fraction of Ceiba pentandra were able to reduce the blood glucose and ameliorate the hematological abnormalities associated with diabetes mellitus.

  17. Ameliorative effect of kaempferol, a flavonoid, on oxidative stress in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Numair, Khalid S; Chandramohan, Govindasamy; Veeramani, Chinnadurai; Alsaif, Mohammed A

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the protective effect of kaempferol against oxidative stress in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced in male, adult albino rats of the Wistar strain, by intraperitoneal administration of STZ (40 mg/kg body weight (BW)). Kaempferol (100 mg/kg BW) or glibenclamide (600 µg/kg BW) was administered orally once daily for 45 days to normal and STZ-induced diabetic rats. The STZ-induced diabetic rats showed significantly increased levels of plasma glucose, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, lipid hydroperoxides, and conjugated dienes in plasma, liver, kidney, and heart whereas they showed significantly decreased level of plasma insulin. The levels of non-enzymic antioxidants (vitamin C, vitamin E, reduced glutathione) in plasma, liver, kidney, and heart and the activities of enzymatic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione-S-transferase) in liver, kidney, and heart were significantly decreased in diabetic rats. Administration of kaempferol to diabetic rats was showed brought back in plasma glucose, insulin, lipid peroxidation products, enzymatic, and non-enzymatic antioxidants to near normal. The present study indicates that kaempferol has a good antioxidant property, as evidenced by its increase of antioxidant status and decrease of lipid peroxidation markers, thus providing protection from the risks of diabetic complications.

  18. Amelioration of Glomerulosclerosis by Satureja khozestanica Essential Oil in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Ahmadvand

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Satureja khuzestanica, an endemic plant of Iran, has been reported to be used traditionally to treat diabetes. We examined possible protective effect of Satureja khozestanica essential oil (SKE on glomerulosclerosis in alloxan-induced type 1 diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 30 Sprage-dawley male rats were divided into 3 groups randomly; group 1 as control, group 2 diabetic untreated, and group 3 treatments with SKE by 500 ppm in drinking water, respectively. Diabetes was induced in the second and third groups by alloxan injection subcutaneously. After 8 weeks, animals were anaesthetized; livers and kidneys were then removed immediately. Kidney paraffin sections were prepared and stained by periodic acid Schiff method. Glomerular volume and leukocyte infiltration were estimated by stereological rules and glomerular sclerosis was studied semi-quantitatively. Results: Flow treatment of diabetic animals with SKE could significantly inhibit glomerular hypertrophy (22% leukocyte infiltration (31% and glomerulosclerosis (20% in comparison with the diabetic untreated group. Conclusion: The findings showed that SKE alleviates loss of glomerular volume, leukocyte infiltration, and glomerulosclerosis and exerts beneficial effects on the lipid peroxidation in alloxan-induced type 1 diabetic rats.

  19. Curcumin, the active principle of turmeric (Curcuma longa), ameliorates diabetic nephropathy in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sameer; Kulkarni, Shrinivas K; Chopra, Kanwaljit

    2006-10-01

    Chronic hyperglycaemia in diabetes leads to the overproduction of free radicals and evidence is increasing that these contribute to the development of diabetic nephropathy. Among the spices, turmeric (Curcuma longa) is used as a flavouring and colouring agent in the indian diet every day and is known to possess anti-oxidant properties. The present study was designed to examine the effect of curcumin, a yellow pigment of turmeric, on renal function and oxidative stress in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of STZ (65 mg/kg) in rats. Four weeks after STZ injection, rats were divided into four groups, namely control rats, diabetic rats and diabetic rats treated with curcumin (15 and 30 mg/kg, p.o.) for 2 weeks. Renal function was assessed by creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine and urea clearance and urine albumin excretion. Oxidative stress was measured by renal malonaldehyde, reduced glutathione and the anti-oxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and catalase. Streptozotocin-injected rats showed significant increases in blood glucose, polyuria and a decrease in bodyweight compared with age-matched control rats. After 6 weeks, diabetic rats also exhibited renal dysfunction, as evidenced by reduced creatinine and urea clearance and proteinuria, along with a marked increase in oxidative stress, as determined by lipid peroxidation and activities of key anti-oxidant enzymes. Chronic treatment with curcumin significantly attenuated both renal dysfunction and oxidative stress in diabetic rats. These results provide confirmatory evidence of oxidative stress in diabetic nephropathy and point towards the possible anti-oxidative mechanism being responsible for the nephroprotective action of curcumin.

  20. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor ameliorates early renal injury through its anti-inflammatory action in a rat model of type 1 diabetes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodera, Ryo; Shikata, Kenichi; Takatsuka, Tetsuharu; Oda, Kaori; Miyamoto, Satoshi; Kajitani, Nobuo; Hirota, Daisho; Ono, Tetsuichiro; Usui, Hitomi Kataoka; Makino, Hirofumi

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: •DPP-4 inhibitor decreased urinary albumin excretion in a rat of type 1 diabetes. •DPP-4 inhibitor ameliorated histlogical changes of diabetic nephropathy. •DPP-4 inhibitor has reno-protective effects through anti-inflammatory action. •DPP-4 inhibitor is beneficial on diabetic nephropathy besides lowering blood glucose. -- Abstract: Introduction: Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors are incretin-based drugs in patients with type 2 diabetes. In our previous study, we showed that glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist has reno-protective effects through anti-inflammatory action. The mechanism of action of DPP-4 inhibitor is different from that of GLP-1 receptor agonists. It is not obvious whether DPP-4 inhibitor prevents the exacerbation of diabetic nephropathy through anti-inflammatory effects besides lowering blood glucose or not. The purpose of this study is to clarify the reno-protective effects of DPP-4 inhibitor through anti-inflammatory actions in the early diabetic nephropathy. Materials and methods: Five-week-old male Sprague–Dawley (SD) rats were divided into three groups; non-diabetes, diabetes and diabetes treated with DPP-4 inhibitor (PKF275-055; 3 mg/kg/day). PKF275-055 was administered orally for 8 weeks. Results: PKF275-055 increased the serum active GLP-1 concentration and the production of urinary cyclic AMP. PKF275-055 decreased urinary albumin excretion and ameliorated histological change of diabetic nephropathy. Macrophage infiltration was inhibited, and inflammatory molecules were down-regulated by PKF275-055 in the glomeruli. In addition, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activity was suppressed in the kidney. Conclusions: These results indicate that DPP-4 inhibitor, PKF275-055, have reno-protective effects through anti-inflammatory action in the early stage of diabetic nephropathy. The endogenous biological active GLP-1 might be beneficial on diabetic nephropathy besides lowering blood glucose

  1. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor ameliorates early renal injury through its anti-inflammatory action in a rat model of type 1 diabetes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kodera, Ryo, E-mail: kodera@cc.okayama-u.ac.jp [Center for Innovative Clinical Medicine, Okayama University Hospital, 2-5-1 Shikata-cho, Kita-ku, Okayama 700-8558 (Japan); Shikata, Kenichi [Center for Innovative Clinical Medicine, Okayama University Hospital, 2-5-1 Shikata-cho, Kita-ku, Okayama 700-8558 (Japan); Department of Medicine and Clinical Science, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2-5-1 Shikata-cho, Kita-ku, Okayama 700-8558 (Japan); Takatsuka, Tetsuharu; Oda, Kaori; Miyamoto, Satoshi; Kajitani, Nobuo; Hirota, Daisho; Ono, Tetsuichiro [Department of Medicine and Clinical Science, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2-5-1 Shikata-cho, Kita-ku, Okayama 700-8558 (Japan); Usui, Hitomi Kataoka [Department of Primary Care and Medical Education, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2-5-1 Shikata-cho, Kita-ku, Okayama 700-8558 (Japan); Makino, Hirofumi [Department of Medicine and Clinical Science, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2-5-1 Shikata-cho, Kita-ku, Okayama 700-8558 (Japan)

    2014-01-17

    Highlights: •DPP-4 inhibitor decreased urinary albumin excretion in a rat of type 1 diabetes. •DPP-4 inhibitor ameliorated histlogical changes of diabetic nephropathy. •DPP-4 inhibitor has reno-protective effects through anti-inflammatory action. •DPP-4 inhibitor is beneficial on diabetic nephropathy besides lowering blood glucose. -- Abstract: Introduction: Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors are incretin-based drugs in patients with type 2 diabetes. In our previous study, we showed that glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist has reno-protective effects through anti-inflammatory action. The mechanism of action of DPP-4 inhibitor is different from that of GLP-1 receptor agonists. It is not obvious whether DPP-4 inhibitor prevents the exacerbation of diabetic nephropathy through anti-inflammatory effects besides lowering blood glucose or not. The purpose of this study is to clarify the reno-protective effects of DPP-4 inhibitor through anti-inflammatory actions in the early diabetic nephropathy. Materials and methods: Five-week-old male Sprague–Dawley (SD) rats were divided into three groups; non-diabetes, diabetes and diabetes treated with DPP-4 inhibitor (PKF275-055; 3 mg/kg/day). PKF275-055 was administered orally for 8 weeks. Results: PKF275-055 increased the serum active GLP-1 concentration and the production of urinary cyclic AMP. PKF275-055 decreased urinary albumin excretion and ameliorated histological change of diabetic nephropathy. Macrophage infiltration was inhibited, and inflammatory molecules were down-regulated by PKF275-055 in the glomeruli. In addition, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activity was suppressed in the kidney. Conclusions: These results indicate that DPP-4 inhibitor, PKF275-055, have reno-protective effects through anti-inflammatory action in the early stage of diabetic nephropathy. The endogenous biological active GLP-1 might be beneficial on diabetic nephropathy besides lowering blood glucose.

  2. Functional food supplements to ameliorate the secondary complications in high fructose fed diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gite, S S; Yadav, S A; Nilegaonkar, S S; Agte, V V

    2017-05-24

    Functional foods are the most natural and safest source of health ingredients, providing health benefits beyond basic nutrition, and hence can be used as supplements for the prevention of secondary complications in diabetes. Persistent diabetes may cause glycation of various tissue proteins such as of those in lens, kidney, blood, and brain, which may further lead to the development of pathological conditions such as cataract and cardiovascular diseases. This study on adult rats was designed to assess if the functional food supplements A and B (proprietary blends of antioxidant rich plant materials) can reduce secondary complications such as cataract, dyslipidemia, and oxidative stress under severe diabetic conditions. After nine weeks of intervention of the supplements, it was found that the % HbA1c levels in the formulation group B significantly (p functional foods in the effective management of secondary complications associated with severe diabetic conditions.

  3. Amelioration of psychiatric symptoms through exposure to music individually adapted to brain rhythm disorders - a randomised clinical trial on the basis of fundamental research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Wolf; Haffelder, Günter; Schlotmann, Angelika; Schaefers, Andrea T U; Teuchert-Noodt, Gertraud

    2014-01-01

    This pilot study examined, whether long-term exposure of psychiatric patients to music that was individually adapted to brain rhythm disorders associated with psychoticism could act to ameliorate psychiatric symptoms. A total of 50 patients with various psychiatric diagnoses were randomised in a 1:1 ratio to listen to CDs containing either music adapted to brain rhythm anomalies associated with psychoticism - measured via a specific spectral analysis - or standard classical music. Participants were instructed to listen to the CDs over the next 18 months. Psychiatric symptoms in both groups were assessed at baseline and at 4, 8 and 18 months, using the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI). At 18 months, patients in the experimental group showed significantly decreased BSI scores compared to control patients. Intriguingly, this effect was not only seen for symptoms of psychoticism and paranoia but also for anxiety, phobic anxiety and somatisation. Exposure to the adapted music was effective in ameliorating psychotic, anxiety and phobic anxiety symptoms. Based on the theories of neuroplasticity and brain rhythms, it can be hypothesised that this intervention may be enhancing brain-rhythm synchronisation and plasticity in prefrontal-hippocampal circuits that are implicated in both psychosis/paranoia and anxiety/phobic anxiety.

  4. Prevalence of diabetes mellitus in patients with shoulder symptoms is low.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundtoft, Per Hviid; Kristensen, Anne Krogh; Gulaksen, Birthe Anette; Brandslund, Ivan; Vobbe, Jette Wessel; Sørensen, Lilli

    2013-10-01

    Patients with diabetes mellitus have a high risk of developing symptoms from their shoulder. The generally accepted theory is that high blood glucose levels cause excessive glycosylation and that the delay in diagnosing diabetes mellitus may influence the risk of acquiring a musculoskeletal disorder. The aim of the study was to determine whether there was a large percentage of undiagnosed diabetes mellitus in a population of patients with shoulder symptoms. The study population consisted of patients who were referred by their GP with shoulder symptoms. HbA1c level was measured, and height, weight, sex, age and diabetes status were registered. Patients with shoulder symptoms were compared to a group of patients who had been referred with knee symptoms and to the regional prevalence of unknown and diagnosed diabetes mellitus. A total of 221 patients with shoulder symptoms were included. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of unknown diabetes mellitus between the group of patients with shoulder symptoms and the group of patients with knee symptoms or the regional prevalence. There was a significantly higher prevalence of diagnosed diabetes mellitus in the group of patients with shoulder symptoms. The low prevalence of unknown diabetes mellitus we observed in this study may be owed to the fact that upper extremity disorder often occurs years after onset of diabetes, and for that reason patients have already been diagnosed when the extremity disorder is present. This study demonstrates a higher prevalence of diagnosed diabetes mellitus among patients with shoulder symptoms. It is important for physicians to be aware of this in the treatment of patients with shoulder symptoms.

  5. Glycemic control with ipragliflozin, a novel selective SGLT2 inhibitor, ameliorated endothelial dysfunction in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hotimah Masdan Salim

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Endothelial dysfunction caused by increased oxidative stress is a critical initiator of macro- and micro-vascular disease development in diabetic patients. Ipragliflozin, a selective sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2 inhibitor, offers a novel approach for the treatment of diabetes by enhancing urinary glucose excretion. The aim of the present study was to examine whether ipragliflozin attenuates endothelial dysfunction in diabetic mice.Methods: Eight-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were treated with streptozotocin (150 mg/kg by a single intraperitoneal injection to induce diabetes mellitus. At three days of injection, ipragliflozin (3 mg/kg/day was administered via gavage for 3 weeks. Vascular function was assessed by isometric tension recording. Human umbilical endothelial cells (HUVEC were used for in vitro experiments. RNA and protein expression were examined by quantitative RT-PCR (qPCR and western blot, respectively. Oxidative stress was determined by measuring urine 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG level.Results: Ipragliflozin administration significantly reduced blood glucose level (P<0.01 and attenuated the impairment of endothelial function in diabetic mice, as determined by acetylcholine-dependent vasodilation (P<0.001. Ipragliflozin did not alter metabolic parameters such as body weight and food intake. Ipragliflozin administration ameliorated impaired phosphorylation of Akt and eNOSSer1177 in the abdominal aorta and reduced reactive oxygen species generation as determined by urinary excretion of 8-OHdG in diabetic mice. Furthermore, qPCR analyses demonstrated that ipragliflozin decreased the expression of inflammatory molecules (e.g.; MCP-1, VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 in the abdominal aorta (P<0.05, respectively. In in vitro studies, incubation with methylglyoxal, one of the advanced glycation end products, significantly impaired phosphorylation of Akt and eNOSSer1177 (P<0.01, respectively and increased the expression of MCP-1

  6. Ipomoea batatas and Agarics blazei ameliorate diabetic disorders with therapeutic antioxidant potential in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    OpenAIRE

    Niwa, Atsuko; Tajiri, Takashi; Higashino, Hideaki

    2011-01-01

    Ipomoea batatas, Agaricus blazei and Smallanthus sonchifolius are known to favorably influence diabetes mellitus. To clarify their antidiabetic efficacy and hypoglycemic mechanisms, we treated streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats with daily oral feeding of powdered Ipomoea batatas (5 g kg−1 d−1), Agaricus blazei (1 g kg−1 d−1) or Smallanthus sonchifolius (4 g kg−1 d−1) for 2 months. Treatments with Ipomoea batatas or Agaricus blazei, but not Smallanthus sonchifolius, significantly suppressed ...

  7. Myocardial overexpression of adenine nucleotide translocase 1 ameliorates diabetic cardiomyopathy in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong; Ebermann, Linda; Sterner-Kock, Anja; Wika, Sylwia; Schultheiss, Heinz-Peter; Dörner, Andrea; Walther, Thomas

    2009-02-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic cardiomyopathy, a common complication of diabetes. Adenosine nucleotide translocase (ANT) translocates ADP/ATP across the inner mitochondrial membrane. Our study aimed to test the hypothesis that overexpression of ANT1 in cardiomyocytes has cardioprotective effects in diabetic cardiomyopathy induced by streptozotocin (STZ). Mice specifically overexpressing murine ANT1 in the heart were generated using alpha-myosin heavy chain promoter. Expression of ANT1 mRNA and protein in hearts was characterized by real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis. Five- to 6-month-old male transgenic mice and their age-matched wild-type littermates were subjected to type 1 diabetes induced by STZ. Six weeks later, haemodynamic measurement was performed to assess cardiac function. Ventricular mRNA expression of atrial natriuretic peptide, a molecular marker of heart failure, was characterized by RNase-protection assay. Both ANT1 mRNA and ANT1 protein were specifically overexpressed in the heart of transgenic mice. Heart weight was decreased and cardiac function was dramatically impaired in wild-type mice 6 weeks after induction of diabetes, but ANT1 overexpression prevented these significant changes. The mRNA expression level of atrial natriuretic peptide confirmed the haemodynamic findings, being upregulated in wild-type mice receiving STZ, but showing no statistical differences in ANT1 transgenic mice. Cardiomyocyte-restricted overexpression of ANT1 prevents the development of diabetic cardiomyopathy; therefore, accelerated ADP/ATP exchange could be a new promising target to treat diabetic cardiomyopathy.

  8. Germinated Waxy Black Rice Ameliorates Hyperglycemia and Dyslipidemia in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hye Won; Lim, Won-Chul; Lee, Jin-Kyu; Ho, Jin-Nyoung; Lim, Eun-Jeong; Cho, Hong-Yon

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the anti-diabetic effect of germinated waxy black rice (GWBR) using streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. In the diabetic rats, GWBR supplementation for 8 weeks reduced plasma blood glucose concentrations, improved glucose clearance and prevented diabetes-induced weight loss. Rats with STZ-induced diabetes who received GWBR supplementation exhibited decreased expression of sodium-dependent glucose transporter 1 (SGLT1) and glucose transporter (GLUT) 2 genes and proteins in the small intestine via decreases in hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF)-1α, HNF-1β, and HNF-4α, transcriptional factors that are involved in the regulation of SGLT1 and GLUT2, compared with the rats with STZ-induced diabetes that did not receive GWBR supplements. GWBR supplementation also enhanced the expression of GLUT4 and the genes and proteins involved in GLUT4 translocation, such as insulin receptor (IR) and insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1), and increased the phosphorylation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and protein kinase B (PKB, Akt) proteins in skeletal muscle. GWBR further increased glycogen synthase (GS) 1 by decreasing glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3β in skeletal muscle. Interestingly, GWBR recovered STZ-impaired pancreatic β-cells, resulting in increased insulin synthesis and secretion. In addition, GWBR reduced serum triglyceride, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, aspartate transferase and alanine transferase concentrations and increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations. Taken together, these findings suggest that GWBR could be a candidate for improving the diabetic condition by regulating glucose uptake in the intestine and muscle and regulating the secretion of insulin from the pancreas.

  9. Depressive symptoms in youth with type 1 or type 2 diabetes: Results of the Pediatric Diabetes Consortium screening assessment of depression in diabetes study

    Science.gov (United States)

    To evaluate the frequency of depressive symptoms and the diagnosis and management of depression in youth with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) enrolled in the Pediatric Diabetes Consortium T1D and T2D registries. The Children's Depression Inventory (CDI) 2 Self-Report (Short) version ...

  10. Prevalence of diabetes mellitus in patients with shoulder symptoms is low

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gundtoft, Per Hviid; Kristensen, Anne Krogh; Gulaksen, Birthe Anette

    2013-01-01

    Patients with diabetes mellitus have a high risk of developing symptoms from their shoulder. The generally accepted theory is that high blood glucose levels cause excessive glycosylation and that the delay in diagnosing diabetes mellitus may influence the risk of acquiring a musculoskeletal...... disorder. The aim of the study was to determine whether there was a large percentage of undiagnosed diabetes mellitus in a population of patients with shoulder symptoms....

  11. Methadone ameliorates multiple-low-dose streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetes in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amirshahrokhi, K.; Dehpour, A.R.; Hadjati, J.; Sotoudeh, M.; Ghazi-Khansari, M.

    2008-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease characterized by inflammation of pancreatic islets and destruction of β cells by the immune system. Opioids have been shown to modulate a number of immune functions, including T helper 1 (Th1) and T helper 2 (Th2) cytokines. The immunosuppressive effect of long-term administration of opioids has been demonstrated both in animal models and humans. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of methadone, a μ-opioid receptor agonist, on type 1 diabetes. Administration of multiple low doses of streptozotocin (STZ) (MLDS) (40mg/kg intraperitoneally for 5 consecutive days) to mice resulted in autoimmune diabetes. Mice were treated with methadone (10mg/kg/day subcutaneously) for 24days. Blood glucose, insulin and pancreatic cytokine levels were measured. Chronic methadone treatment significantly reduced hyperglycemia and incidence of diabetes, and restored pancreatic insulin secretion in the MLDS model. The protective effect of methadone can be overcome by pretreatment with naltrexone, an opioid receptor antagonist. Also, methadone treatment decreased the proinflammatory Th1 cytokines [interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α and interferon-γ] and increased anti-inflammatory Th2 cytokines (IL-4 and IL-10). Histopathological observations indicated that STZ-mediated destruction of β cells was attenuated by methadone treatment. It seems that methadone as an opioid agonist may have a protective effect against destruction of β cells and insulitis in the MLDS model of type 1 diabetes

  12. Affective symptoms and change in diabetes self-efficacy and glycaemic control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, S. M.; Amspoker, A. B.; Cully, J. A.; Ross, E. L.; Naik, A. D.

    2013-01-01

    Aims To examine the role of baseline depression, anxiety and stress symptoms on post-intervention diabetes self-efficacy and glycaemic control (HbA1c). Methods The current study analysed data from patients (n = 85) with treated but uncontrolled Type 2 diabetes who participated in a comparative effectiveness study of two diabetes self-management interventions. Hierarchical linear regression was used to examine the relationships between baseline affective symptoms and post-intervention diabetes self-efficacy and the moderating effects of baseline affective symptoms on the relationship between changes in diabetes self-efficacy and post-intervention HbA1c. Results Baseline depression was inversely associated with post-intervention diabetes self-efficacy (P = 0.0001) after adjusting for baseline characteristics including diabetes self-efficacy. In contrast, normal–mild levels of stress were associated with higher post-intervention diabetes self-efficacy (P = 0.04). Anxiety and stress symptoms significantly and independently moderated the relationship between changes in diabetes self-efficacy and post-intervention HbA1c (P = 0.02 and P = 0.03, respectively). Further evaluation of these interactions demonstrated that changes in diabetes self-efficacy were associated with lower post-intervention HbA1c, but only among those with higher baseline affective symptoms. Conclusions We found a moderating effect across affective symptoms on the relationship between diabetes self-efficacy changes and post-intervention HbA1c in the context of a self-management intervention. Results suggest that patients with poorly controlled diabetes who have higher levels of depression, anxiety and stress symptoms may derive greater benefits from self-management interventions known to improve diabetes self-efficacy. PMID:23350920

  13. Tempol ameliorates cardiac fibrosis in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats: role of oxidative stress in diabetic cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taye, Ashraf; Abouzied, Mekky M; Mohafez, Omar M M

    2013-12-01

    Long-standing diabetes is associated with increased oxidative stress and cardiac fibrosis. This, in turn, contributes to the progression of cardiomyopathy. The present study was sought to investigate whether the free radical scavenger, 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethyl piperidinoxyl (tempol) can protect against diabetic cardiomyopathy and to explore the specific underlying mechanism(s) in this setting. Diabetes was induced in rats by a single intraperitoneal injection dose of streptozotocin (50 mg/kg). These animals were treated with tempol (18 mg kg(-1) day(-1), orally) for 8 weeks. Our results showed significant increases in collagen IV and fibronectin protein levels and a marked decrease in matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) activity measured by gelatin-gel zymography alongside elevated cardiac transforming growth factor (TGF)-β level determined using ELISA or immunohistochemistry in cardiac tissues of diabetic rats compared with control. This was accompanied by an increased in the oxidative stress as evidenced by increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and decreased antioxidant enzyme capacity along with elevated lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine kinase (CK-MB) serum levels as compared with the control. Tempol treatment significantly corrected the changes in the cardiac extracellular matrix, TGF-β, ROS or serum LDH, CK-MB levels, and normalized MMP-2 activity along with preservation of cardiac tissues integrity of diabetic rats against damaging responses. Moreover, tempol normalized the elevated systolic blood pressure and improved some cardiac functions in diabetic rats. Collectively, our data suggest a potential protective role of tempol against diabetes-associated cardiac fibrosis in rats via reducing oxidative stress and extracellular matrix remodeling.

  14. Ipomoea batatas and Agarics blazei ameliorate diabetic disorders with therapeutic antioxidant potential in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

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    Niwa, Atsuko; Tajiri, Takashi; Higashino, Hideaki

    2011-05-01

    Ipomoea batatas, Agaricus blazei and Smallanthus sonchifolius are known to favorably influence diabetes mellitus. To clarify their antidiabetic efficacy and hypoglycemic mechanisms, we treated streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats with daily oral feeding of powdered Ipomoea batatas (5 g kg(-1) d(-1)), Agaricus blazei (1 g kg(-1) d(-1)) or Smallanthus sonchifolius (4 g kg(-1) d(-1)) for 2 months. Treatments with Ipomoea batatas or Agaricus blazei, but not Smallanthus sonchifolius, significantly suppressed the increases of fasting plasma glucose and hemoglobin A1c levels, and restored body weight loss during diabetes. Serum insulin levels after oral glucose administration tests increased along the treatments of Ipomoea batatas or Agaricus blazei. Moreover, Ipomoea batatas and Agaricus blazei reduced superoxide production from leukocytes and vascular homogenates, serum 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine, and vascular nitrotyrosine formation of diabetic rats to comparable levels of normal control animals. Stress- and inflammation-related p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase activity and tumor necrosis factor-α production of diabetic rats were significantly depressed by Ipomoea batatas administration. Histological examination also exhibited improvement of pancreatic β-cells mass after treatments with Ipomoea batatas or Agaricus blazei. These results suggest that hypoglycemic effects of Ipomoea batatas or Agaricus blazei result from their suppression of oxidative stress and proinflammatory cytokine production followed by improvement of pancreatic β-cells mass.

  15. Ipomoea batatas and Agarics blazei ameliorate diabetic disorders with therapeutic antioxidant potential in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niwa, Atsuko; Tajiri, Takashi; Higashino, Hideaki

    2011-01-01

    Ipomoea batatas, Agaricus blazei and Smallanthus sonchifolius are known to favorably influence diabetes mellitus. To clarify their antidiabetic efficacy and hypoglycemic mechanisms, we treated streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats with daily oral feeding of powdered Ipomoea batatas (5 g kg−1 d−1), Agaricus blazei (1 g kg−1 d−1) or Smallanthus sonchifolius (4 g kg−1 d−1) for 2 months. Treatments with Ipomoea batatas or Agaricus blazei, but not Smallanthus sonchifolius, significantly suppressed the increases of fasting plasma glucose and hemoglobin A1c levels, and restored body weight loss during diabetes. Serum insulin levels after oral glucose administration tests increased along the treatments of Ipomoea batatas or Agaricus blazei. Moreover, Ipomoea batatas and Agaricus blazei reduced superoxide production from leukocytes and vascular homogenates, serum 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine, and vascular nitrotyrosine formation of diabetic rats to comparable levels of normal control animals. Stress- and inflammation-related p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase activity and tumor necrosis factor-α production of diabetic rats were significantly depressed by Ipomoea batatas administration. Histological examination also exhibited improvement of pancreatic β-cells mass after treatments with Ipomoea batatas or Agaricus blazei. These results suggest that hypoglycemic effects of Ipomoea batatas or Agaricus blazei result from their suppression of oxidative stress and proinflammatory cytokine production followed by improvement of pancreatic β-cells mass. PMID:21562638

  16. Ameliorative effect of vanadium on oxidative stress in stomach tissue of diabetic rats

    OpenAIRE

    Tugba Yilmaz-Ozden; Ozlem Kurt-Sirin; Sevim Tunali; Nuriye Akev; Ayse Can; Refiye Yanardag

    2014-01-01

    Between their broad spectrum of action, vanadium compounds are shown to have insulin mimetic/enhancing effects. Increasing evidence in experimental and clinical studies suggests that oxidative stress plays a major role in the pathogenesis of diabetes and on the onset of diabetic complications. Thus, preventive therapy can alleviate the possible side effects of the disease. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of vanadyl sulfate supplementation on the antioxidant system i...

  17. Xylitol improves pancreatic islets morphology to ameliorate type 2 diabetes in rats: a dose response study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md Atiar; Islam, Md Shahdiul

    2014-07-01

    Xylitol has been reported as a potential antidiabetic sweetener in a number of recent studies; however, the most effective dietary dose and organ-specific effects are still unclear. Six-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 5 groups: normal control (NC), diabetic control (DBC), diabetic xylitol 2.5% (DXL2.5), diabetic xylitol 5.0% (DXL5), and diabetic xylitol 10.0% (DXL10). Diabetes was induced only in the animals in DBC and DXL groups and considered diabetic when their nonfasting blood glucose level was >300 mg/dL. The DXL groups were fed with 2.5%, 5.0%, and 10% xylitol solution, whereas the NC and DBC groups were supplied with normal drinking water. After 4-wk intervention, body weight, food and fluid intake, blood glucose, serum fructosamine, liver glycogen, serum alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, uric acid, creatinine, and most serum lipids were significantly decreased, and serum insulin concentration, glucose tolerance ability, and pancreatic islets morphology were significantly improved in the DXL10 group compared to the DBC group. The data of this study suggest that 10% xylitol has the better antidiabetic effects compared to 2.5% and 5.0% and it can be used as an excellent antidiabetic sweetener and food supplement in antidiabetic foods. Xylitol is widely used as a potential anticariogenic and sweetening agent in a number of oral care and food products when many of its health benefits are still unknown. Due to its similar sweetening power but lower calorific value (2.5 compared with 4 kcal) and lower glycemic index (13 compared with 65) compared to sucrose, recently it has been widely used as a sugar substitute particularly by overweight, obese, and diabetic patients in order to reduce their calorie intake from sucrose. However, the potential antidiabetic effects of xylitol have been discovered recently. The results of this study confirmed the effective dietary dose of xylitol for

  18. Cocos nucifera in combination with metformin for modulation of diabetic symptoms in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Ginpreet; Sankrityayan, Himanshu; Dixit, Deepashree; Jadhav, Priyanka

    2017-12-12

    Cocos nucifera, belonging to Arecaceae family, holds quite an importance in the Indian traditional medicinal system. C.nucifera inflorescence (CnI) has been reported in the literature to be useful in the treatment of diarrhoea, dysentery, diabetes, and dyspepsia. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the efficacy of CnI as an adjuvant with metformin in ameliorating Type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2-DM). To evaluate antidiabetic activity of CnI in combination with metformin in Streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced in male Wistar rats using streptozotocin (45 mg/kg; i.p.). Plasma glucose level (PGL) was estimated after 72 h of STZ injection. Ethanolic extract of CnI (250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg) per se and in combination with metformin (22.5 mg/kg) was administered orally once daily to rats for a period of 28 days. PGL level was estimated on 7 th , 14 th and 21 st day followed by Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT) and PGL both on the 28 th day of treatment. DPPH assay was performed to evaluate antioxidant activity of CnI extract. Extract of CnI (250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg alone and the combination of extract (250 mg/kg) along with metformin (22.5 mg/kg) significantly decreased PGL (p < 0.0001) on 7 th , 14 th , 21 st and 28 th days. Histopathological analysis of pancreatic tissue showed that treatment with CnI extract per se and in combination with metformin improved the damaged architecture of pancreas. The combination therapy of CnI and metformin produced a significant antidiabetic effect than that of the extract alone and provides a scientific rationale for their use in antidiabetic therapy as an adjuvant. Copyright © 2017 Transdisciplinary University, Bangalore and World Ayurveda Foundation. All rights reserved.

  19. Depressive Symptoms, Family Functioning and Quality of Life in Chinese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jikun; He, Ming; Zhao, Xudong

    2015-12-01

    Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus often have depression or depressive symptoms, impaired family functioning and poor quality of life. This study aimed to examine relationships among psychological variables, including depressive symptoms, family functioning and quality of life, for Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes and to explore the influencing factors on quality of life for these patients. In this cross-sectional study, 257 patients with type 2 diabetes and 259 nondiabetic community controls completed the Beck Depression Inventory, the Family Assessment Device, and the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire-Short Form. Patients with type 2 diabetes reported significant family impairment in the dimension of affective involvement compared with nondiabetic community controls (pFamily Assessment Device scores were negatively associated with quality of life scores among patients with type 2 diabetes. Age, depressive symptoms, duration of diabetes, communication, affective involvement and behavioural control were associated with quality of life in patients with type 2 diabetes. The results indicate that having type 2 diabetes was associated with some difficulties with family functioning and that poor family functioning was associated with a poorer quality of life. Additional factors, including older age, depressive symptoms, duration of diabetes, and some dimensions of family functioning, were found to be associated with quality of life in Chinese individuals with type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2015 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Ameliorative potentials of cocoyam (Colocasia esculenta L.) and unripe plantain (Musa paradisiaca L.) on the relative tissue weights of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eleazu, C O; Iroaganachi, M; Eleazu, K C

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the ameliorating potentials of cocoyam (Colocasia esculenta L.) and unripe plantain (Musa paradisiaca L.) incorporated feeds on the renal and liver growths of diabetic rats, induced with 55 and 65 mg/kg body weight of Streptozotocin. The blood glucose level of the rats was measured with a glucometer, the protein and glucose and specific gravity (SPGR) in the urine samples of the rats were measured using urine assay strips and urinometer respectively. The chemical composition and antioxidant screening of the test feeds were carried out using standard techniques. Administration of the test feeds for 21 days to the diabetic rats of groups 4 and 5, resulted in 58.75% and 38.13% decreases in hyperglycemia and amelioration of their elevated urinary protein, glucose, SPGR, and relative kidney weights. The diabetic rats administered cocoyam incorporated feeds, had 2.71% and 19.52% increases in weight and growth rates, the diabetic rats administered unripe plantain incorporated feeds had 5.12% and 29.52% decreases in weight and growth rates while the diabetic control rats had 28.69%, 29.46%, 248.9% and 250.14% decreases in weights and growth rates. The cocoyam incorporated feeds contained higher antioxidants, minerals and phytochemicals except alkaloids than unripe plantain feed. Cocoyam and unripe plantain could be useful in the management of diabetic nephropathy.

  1. Ameliorative Potentials of Cocoyam (Colocasia esculenta L. and Unripe Plantain (Musa paradisiaca L. on the Relative Tissue Weights of Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

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    C. O. Eleazu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To investigate the ameliorating potentials of cocoyam (Colocasia esculenta L. and unripe plantain (Musa paradisiaca L. incorporated feeds on the renal and liver growths of diabetic rats, induced with 55 and 65 mg/kg body weight of Streptozotocin. Method. The blood glucose level of the rats was measured with a glucometer, the protein and glucose and specific gravity (SPGR in the urine samples of the rats were measured using urine assay strips and urinometer respectively. The chemical composition and antioxidant screening of the test feeds were carried out using standard techniques. Results. Administration of the test feeds for 21 days to the diabetic rats of groups 4 and 5, resulted in 58.75% and 38.13% decreases in hyperglycemia and amelioration of their elevated urinary protein, glucose, SPGR, and relative kidney weights. The diabetic rats administered cocoyam incorporated feeds, had 2.71% and 19.52% increases in weight and growth rates, the diabetic rats administered unripe plantain incorporated feeds had 5.12% and 29.52% decreases in weight and growth rates while the diabetic control rats had 28.69%, 29.46%, 248.9% and 250.14% decreases in weights and growth rates. The cocoyam incorporated feeds contained higher antioxidants, minerals and phytochemicals except alkaloids than unripe plantain feed. Conclusion. Cocoyam and unripe plantain could be useful in the management of diabetic nephropathy.

  2. IGF-1R Inhibitor Ameliorates Diabetic Nephropathy with Suppressed HMGN1/TLR4 Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiali, Yu; Jingjing, Da; Rong, Dong; Yi, Sun; Yingjie, Nie; Fuxun, Yu; Lima, Zuo; Yan, Zha

    2018-01-30

    contribution of high mobility group nucleosome-binding protein 1 (HMGN1)/ Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) pathway in diabetic nephropathy (DN). And as an intervention of the potential mechanism above, the insulin growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) inhibitor was examined for its therapeutic effect in the diabetic mice. Male C57BL/6J mice were administered streptozotocin(STZ) to induce diabetes and thus divided into 5 groups: the untreated group (DN group), the benazepril-treated group (BEN-DN group), the insulin-treated group (INS-DN group) and the IGF-1R inhibitor-treated group (IGF-DN group). Immunohistochemistry and in situ hybrization were performed to detect the expression of HMGN1 and TLR4 in renal tissue. To evaluate the effect of IGF-1R inhibitor, levels of blood glucose and kidney/body weight (KW/BW) were measured. And morphological changes and mesangial matrix expansion in kidneys were also detected. Increased expression of HMGN1 and TLR4 in renal tissue of STZ-induced type1 diabetic mellitus (T1DM) mice models was observed. IGF-1R inhibitor attenuate the established nephropathy with reduced expression of TLR4 protein, as revealed by a decrease in mesangial index. IGF-1R inhibitor might have therapeutic potential in DN through inhibition of HMGN1/TLR4 pathway. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  3. Molecular Pathways Involved in the Amelioration of Myocardial Injury in Diabetic Rats by Kaempferol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchal, Kapil; Malik, Salma; Khan, Sana Irfan; Malhotra, Rajiv Kumar; Goyal, Sameer N; Bhatia, Jagriti; Ojha, Shreesh; Arya, Dharamvir Singh

    2017-05-15

    There is growing evidence that chronic hyperglycemia leads to the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) which exerts its effect via interaction with the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE). AGE-RAGE activation results in oxidative stress and inflammation. It is well known that this mechanism is involved in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease in diabetes. Kaempferol, a dietary flavonoid, is known to possess antioxidant, anti-apoptotic, and anti-inflammatory activities. However, little is known about the effect of kaempferol on myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury in diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced in male albino Wistar rats using streptozotocin (70 mg/kg; i.p.), and rats with glucose level >250 mg/dL were considered as diabetic. Diabetic rats were treated with vehicle (2 mL/kg; i.p.) and kaempferol (20 mg/kg; i.p.) daily for a period of 28 days and on the 28th day, ischemia was produced by one-stage ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery for 45 min followed by reperfusion for 60 min. After completion of surgery, rats were sacrificed and the heart tissue was processed for biochemical, morphological, and molecular studies. Kaempferol pretreatment significantly reduced hyperglycemia, maintained hemodynamic function, suppressed AGE-RAGE axis activation, normalized oxidative stress, and preserved morphological alterations. In addition, there was decreased level of inflammatory markers (tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and NF-κB), inhibition of active c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 proteins, and activation of Extracellular signal regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) a prosurvival kinase. Furthermore, it also attenuated apoptosis by reducing the expression of pro-apoptotic proteins (Bax and Caspase-3), Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) positive cells, and increasing the level of anti-apoptotic protein (Bcl-2). In conclusion, kaempferol attenuated

  4. Ramadan fasting ameliorates oxidative stress and improves glycemic control and lipid profile in diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shafei, Ahmad I

    2014-10-01

    The effects of Ramadan fasting on public health are important. The present study characterized the metabolic effects of Ramadan fasting and evaluated its influence on oxidative stress in diabetic patients. The current study was carried out in the city of Benha, Egypt, during the period from July 12, 2012 to October 4, 2012. This corresponds to 22 Shaban 1433 to 18 Dhul Al-Qi'dah 1433 in the Islamic Calendar. Two equal, sex- and age-matched groups (n = 40 each; age 55 ± 5 years) of non-diabetic subjects (ND group) and diabetic patients (D group) were recruited for this study. Parameters of glycemic control, lipid profile, and oxidative stress were measured pre-, during and post-fasting. Ramadan fasting reduced fasting blood glucose (FBG) insignificantly by 5.8% and significantly by 23.0% in the (ND) and (D) groups, respectively. Serum triglycerides (TG) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were lowered significantly by: TG (22.8, 22.1%), MDA (54.3, 46.6%), and total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoproteins (LDL) insignificantly by: TC: (4.7, 6.1%), LDL: (4.0, 5.1%), whereas high-density lipoproteins (HDL) were raised significantly by 6.7% and insignificantly by 2.2%, and blood glutathione (GSH) significantly by 52.6 and 59.4%, in the (ND) and (D) groups, respectively. At 6 weeks post-fasting FBG, TG, TC, HDL, and LDL returned to levels indistinguishable from their baseline values in both groups, while MDA was maintained significantly lower by (25.7, 22.7%), and GSH significantly higher by (26.3, 31.3%), in the (ND) and (D) groups, respectively. Ramadan fasting improves glycemic control and lipids profile and alleviates oxidative stress in diabetics.

  5. Unique relations between post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms and patient functioning in type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arigo, Danielle; Juth, Vanessa; Trief, Paula; Wallston, Kenneth; Ulbrecht, Jan; Smyth, Joshua M

    2017-08-01

    This study examined reported post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms in adults with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes who had no history of psychiatric diagnosis or treatment ( n = 184, M HbA1c  = 9.13%, standard deviation = 1.68). Participants reported moderate to severe intensity of post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms ( M = 19.17, SD = 17.58). Together, depressive and post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms accounted for 10-40 percent of the variance in type 2 diabetes outcomes; post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms were associated with elevated diabetes distress and more frequent exercise and self-blood glucose testing (unique R 2  ~ 3%). Post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms may be overlooked in type 2 diabetes among patients without formal psychiatric diagnoses, and warrant increased attention.

  6. Nicotinamide Riboside Ameliorates Hepatic Metaflammation by Modulating NLRP3 Inflammasome in a Rodent Model of Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hee Jae; Hong, Young-Shick; Jun, Woojin; Yang, Soo Jin

    2015-11-01

    Low-grade chronic inflammation (metaflammation) is a major contributing factor for the onset and development of metabolic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular disease. Nicotinamide riboside (NR), which is present in milk and beer, is a functional vitamin B3 having advantageous effects on metabolic regulation. However, the anti-inflammatory capacity of NR is unknown. This study evaluated whether NR modulates hepatic nucleotide binding and oligomerization domain-like receptor family, pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome. Male, 8-week-old KK/HlJ mice were allocated to the control or NR group. NR (100 mg/kg/day) or vehicle (phosphate-buffered saline) was administrated by an osmotic pump for 7 days. Glucose control, lipid profiles, NLRP3 inflammasome, and inflammation markers were analyzed, and structural and histological analyses were conducted. NR treatment did not affect body weight gain, food intake, and liver function. Glucose control based on the oral glucose tolerance test and levels of serum insulin and adiponectin was improved by NR treatment. Among tested lipid profiles, NR lowered the total cholesterol concentration in the liver. Histological and structural analysis by hematoxylin and eosin staining and transmission electron microscopy, respectively, showed that NR rescued the disrupted cellular integrity of the mitochondria and nucleus in the livers of obese and diabetic KK mice. In addition, NR treatment significantly improved hepatic proinflammatory markers, including tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-1. These ameliorations were accompanied by significant shifts of NLRP3 inflammasome components (NLRP3, ASC, and caspase1). These results demonstrate that NR attenuates hepatic metaflammation by modulating the NLRP3 inflammasome.

  7. Oral administration of angiotensin-(1-7) ameliorates type 2 diabetes in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Sérgio H S; Giani, Jorge F; Burghi, Valeria; Miquet, Johanna G; Qadri, Fatimunnisa; Braga, Janaina F; Todiras, Mihail; Kotnik, Katarina; Alenina, Natalia; Dominici, Fernando P; Santos, Robson A S; Bader, Michael

    2014-03-01

    Diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2) is a disease with increasing importance in modern societies and insufficient treatment options. Pharmacological stimulation of insulin signaling, which is blunted in DM2, is a promising approach to treat this disease. It has been shown that activation of the angiotensin (Ang)-(1-7)/Mas axis of the renin-angiotensin system leads to an improved glucose uptake. In this study, we intended to evaluate, whether this effect could be exploited therapeutically. We first confirmed that Ang-(1-7) improves insulin signaling and glucose uptake in vitro in cultured cardiomyocytes. We then evaluated the therapeutic effect of a newly developed hydro-xypropyl-β-cyclodextrin-based Ang-(1-7) nano-formulation in a novel transgenic rat model of inducible insulin resistance and DM2. The chronic administration of this compound prevented the marked elevation in blood glucose levels in these rats at a dose of 30 μg/kg, reversed the established hyperglycemic state at a dose of 100 μg/kg, and resulted in improved insulin sensitivity, reduced plasma insulin and decreased diabetic nephropathy. In conclusion, an oral Ang-(1-7) formulation reverses hyperglycemia and its consequences in an animal model of DM2 and represents a novel therapeutic option for the treatment of DM2 and other cardio-metabolic diseases. A novel rat model with inducible diabetes can be used to evaluate new therapies. Angiotensin-(1-7) is effective in an oral formulation packaged in cyclodextrine. Angiotensin-(1-7) is a promising antidiabetic drug.

  8. Moringa oleifera from Cambodia Ameliorates Oxidative Stress, Hyperglycemia, and Kidney Dysfunction in Type 2 Diabetic Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yujiao; Choi, Eun-Ju; Han, Weon Cheol; Oh, Mirae; Kim, Jin; Hwang, Ji-Young; Park, Pyo-Jam; Moon, Sang-Ho; Kim, Yon-Suk; Kim, Eun-Kyung

    2017-05-01

    Recent reports have shown the antidiabetic effect of Moringa oleifera from various parts of the world. However, M. oleifera from Cambodia has never determined. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the antidiabetic effect of M. oleifera extract from Cambodia. The leaf ethanolic extract contained flavonoids (31.90 mg/mL), polyphenols (53.03 mg/mL), lycopene (0.042 mg/mL), and ß-carotene (0.170 mg/mL), and possessed 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, hydrogen peroxide, and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities of 92.40, 99.25, and 83.57 TE/μM at 1 mg/mL, respectively. Db/db mice were orally administered the leaf extract (150 mg/kg/day) for 5 weeks. M. oleifera treatment significantly ameliorated the altered fasting plasma glucose (from 483 to 312 mg/dL), triglyceride (from 42.12 to 23.00 mg/dL), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (from 107.21 to 64.25 mg/dL) compared to control group, and increased the insulin levels from 946 ± 92 to 1678 ± 268 pg/mL. The histopathological damage and expression levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, cyclooxygenase-2, and inducible nitric oxide synthase in renal tissue decreased. These results indicate the potential antidiabetic benefits of M. oleifera ethanolic leaf extract.

  9. Gum Acacia Improves Renal Function and Ameliorates Systemic Inflammation, Oxidative and Nitrosative Stress in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes in Rats with Adenine-Induced Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Al Za’abi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The effect of treatment with gum acacia (GA, a prebiotic shown previously to ameliorate chronic kidney disease (CKD, in diabetic and non – diabetic rats with adenine – induced CKD has been investigated using several conventional and novel physiological, biochemical, and histopathological parameters. Methods: Diabetes mellitus was induced in rats by a single injection of streptozotocin (STZ. Diabetic and non – diabetic rats were randomly divided into several groups, and given either normal food or food mixed with adenine (0.25% w/w, for five weeks to induce CKD. Some of these groups were also concomitantly treated orally with GA in the drinking water (15% w/w. Results: Rats fed adenine alone exhibited physiological (decreased body weight, increased food and water intake and urine output, biochemical (increase in urinary albumin/creatinine ratio, plasma urea and, creatinine, indoxyl sulfate and phosphorus, inflammatory biomarkers (increased in neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, transforming growth factor beta -1, tumor necrosis factor alpha, adiponectin, cystatin C and interleukin-1β, oxidative biomarkers (8-isoprostane, 8 -hydroxy -2-deoxy guanosine, nitrosative stress biomarkers (nitrite and nitrate and histopathological (increase in tubular necrosis and fibrosis signs of CKD. STZ - induced diabetes alone worsened most of the renal function tests measured. Administration of adenine in STZ – diabetic rats further worsened the renal damage induced by adenine alone. GA significantly ameliorated the renal actions of adenine and STZ, given either singly or in combination, especially with regards to the histopathological damage. Conclusion: GA is a useful dietary agent in attenuating the progression of CKD in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes.

  10. The heme oxygenase system suppresses perirenal visceral adiposity, abates renal inflammation and ameliorates diabetic nephropathy in Zucker diabetic fatty rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndisang, Joseph Fomusi; Jadhav, Ashok; Mishra, Manish

    2014-01-01

    The growing incidence of chronic kidney disease remains a global health problem. Obesity is a major risk factor for type-2 diabetes and renal impairment. Perirenal adiposity, by virtue of its anatomical proximity to the kidneys may cause kidney disease through paracrine mechanisms that include increased production of inflammatory cytokines. Although heme-oxygenase (HO) is cytoprotective, its effects on perirenal adiposity and diabetic nephropathy in Zucker-diabetic fatty rats (ZDFs) remains largely unclear. Upregulating the HO-system with hemin normalised glycemia, reduced perirenal adiposity and suppressed several pro-inflammatory/oxidative mediators in perirenal fat including macrophage-inflammatory-protein-1α (MIP-1α), endothelin (ET-1), 8-isoprostane, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β. Furthermore, hemin reduced ED1, a marker of pro-inflammatory macrophage-M1-phenotype, but interestingly, enhanced markers associated with anti-inflammatory M2-phenotype such as ED2, CD206 and IL-10, suggesting that hemin selectively modulates macrophage polarization towards the anti-inflammatory M2-phenotype. These effects were accompanied by increased adiponectin, HO-1, HO-activity, atrial-natriuretic peptide (ANP), and its surrogate marker, urinary-cGMP. Furthermore, hemin reduced renal histological lesions and abated pro-fibrotic/extracellular-matrix proteins like collagen and fibronectin that deplete nephrin, an important transmembrane protein which forms the scaffolding of the podocyte slit-diaphragm allowing ions to filter but not massive excretion of proteins, hence proteinuria. Correspondingly, hemin increased nephrin expression in ZDFs, reduced markers of renal damage including, albuminuria/proteinuria, but increased creatinine-clearance, suggesting improved renal function. Conversely, the HO-blocker, stannous-mesoporphyrin nullified the hemin effects, aggravating glucose metabolism, and exacerbating renal injury and function. The hemin effects were less-pronounced in Zucker

  11. The heme oxygenase system suppresses perirenal visceral adiposity, abates renal inflammation and ameliorates diabetic nephropathy in Zucker diabetic fatty rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Fomusi Ndisang

    Full Text Available The growing incidence of chronic kidney disease remains a global health problem. Obesity is a major risk factor for type-2 diabetes and renal impairment. Perirenal adiposity, by virtue of its anatomical proximity to the kidneys may cause kidney disease through paracrine mechanisms that include increased production of inflammatory cytokines. Although heme-oxygenase (HO is cytoprotective, its effects on perirenal adiposity and diabetic nephropathy in Zucker-diabetic fatty rats (ZDFs remains largely unclear. Upregulating the HO-system with hemin normalised glycemia, reduced perirenal adiposity and suppressed several pro-inflammatory/oxidative mediators in perirenal fat including macrophage-inflammatory-protein-1α (MIP-1α, endothelin (ET-1, 8-isoprostane, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β. Furthermore, hemin reduced ED1, a marker of pro-inflammatory macrophage-M1-phenotype, but interestingly, enhanced markers associated with anti-inflammatory M2-phenotype such as ED2, CD206 and IL-10, suggesting that hemin selectively modulates macrophage polarization towards the anti-inflammatory M2-phenotype. These effects were accompanied by increased adiponectin, HO-1, HO-activity, atrial-natriuretic peptide (ANP, and its surrogate marker, urinary-cGMP. Furthermore, hemin reduced renal histological lesions and abated pro-fibrotic/extracellular-matrix proteins like collagen and fibronectin that deplete nephrin, an important transmembrane protein which forms the scaffolding of the podocyte slit-diaphragm allowing ions to filter but not massive excretion of proteins, hence proteinuria. Correspondingly, hemin increased nephrin expression in ZDFs, reduced markers of renal damage including, albuminuria/proteinuria, but increased creatinine-clearance, suggesting improved renal function. Conversely, the HO-blocker, stannous-mesoporphyrin nullified the hemin effects, aggravating glucose metabolism, and exacerbating renal injury and function. The hemin effects were less

  12. Chronic administration of atorvastatin could partially ameliorate erectile function in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Juhyun; Kwon, Oh Seong; Cho, Sung Yong; Paick, Jae-Seung; Kim, Soo Woong

    2017-01-01

    The efficacy of statins is related to the 'common soil' hypothesis, which proposes oxidative stress and inflammation as main pathophysiologic processes in the disease group of diabetes and endothelial dysfunction. This study evaluated the recovery of erectile function after administration of chronic statin alone in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes mellitus (DM) rats, focusing on the anti-oxidative effects and consequentially recuperated endothelial function. A total of 45 male Sprague-Dawley rats (8 weeks old) were divided into three groups (n = 15 each): an age-matched normal control group (Control group), an uncontrolled DM group (DM group), and a statin-treated group (Statin group). The rats in the DM and Statin group received an injection of STZ (60 mg/kg). Beginning 10 weeks after the establishment of DM, the Statin group received daily treatment with atorvastatin (10 mg/kg) via oral gavage for four weeks. After 14 weeks, the results of the experiment were evaluated. The ratios of intracavernosal pressure (ICP) to mean arterial pressure (MAP) were recorded with cavernosometry (20 Hz, 3 V, 0.2 msec for 30 seconds) before and after the intravenous administration of udenafil (1 mg/kg). Expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) was evaluated using cavernosal tissue. In addition, changes in RhoA translocation ratio and myosin phosphatase target subunit 1 (MYPT1) phosphorylation were evaluated with western blot. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were also analyzed as measurements of oxidative stress levels. The ICP/MAP and area under the curve (AUC)/MAP ratios of the Statin group were obviously superior to the DM group, but were not comparable to the Control group (P217). The RhoA translocation ratio was not significantly different among the groups (P = 0.668), whereas MYPT1 phosphorylation in the Statin group was significantly lower than in the DM group (P = 0.030), and similar to the Control group. Expression of α-SMA in the

  13. Patients' Outcome Expectations Matter in Psychological Interventions for Patients with Diabetes and Comorbid Depressive Symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snippe, Evelien; Schroevers, Maya J.; Tovote, Annika; Sanderman, Robbert; Emmelkamp, Paul M. G.; Fleer, Joke

    This study examined whether patients' expectations of treatment outcome predict treatment completion, homework compliance, and depressive symptom improvement in cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) and mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT). Study participants were patients with diabetes and

  14. Diabetic Autonomic Neuropathy Affects Symptom Generation and Brain-Gut Axis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brock, Christina; Søfteland, Eirik; Gunterberg, Veronica

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVELong-term diabetes leads to severe peripheral, autonomous, and central neuropathy in combination with clinical gastrointestinal symptoms. The brain-gut axis thus expresses a neurophysiological profile, and heart rate variability (HRV) can be correlated with clinical gastrointestinal...

  15. Positive Psychology Interventions Addressing Pleasure, Engagement, Meaning, Positive Relationships, and Accomplishment Increase Well-Being and Ameliorate Depressive Symptoms: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Online Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gander, Fabian; Proyer, René T; Ruch, Willibald

    2016-01-01

    Seligman (2002) suggested three paths to well-being, the pursuit of pleasure, the pursuit of meaning, and the pursuit of engagement, later adding two more, positive relationships and accomplishment, in his 2011 version. The contribution of these new components to well-being has yet to be addressed. In an online positive psychology intervention study, we randomly assigned 1624 adults aged 18-78 (M = 46.13; 79.2% women) to seven conditions. Participants wrote down three things they related to either one of the five components of Seligman's Well-Being theory (Conditions 1-5), all of the five components (Condition 6) or early childhood memories (placebo control condition). We assessed happiness (AHI) and depression (CES-D) before and after the intervention, and 1-, 3-, and 6 months afterwards. Additionally, we considered moderation effects of well-being levels at baseline. Results confirmed that all interventions were effective in increasing happiness and most ameliorated depressive symptoms. The interventions worked best for those in the middle-range of the well-being continuum. We conclude that interventions based on pleasure, engagement, meaning, positive relationships, and accomplishment are effective strategies for increasing well-being and ameliorating depressive symptoms and that positive psychology interventions are most effective for those people in the middle range of the well-being continuum.

  16. Positive Psychology Interventions Addressing Pleasure, Engagement, Meaning, Positive Relationships, and Accomplishment Increase Well-Being and Ameliorate Depressive Symptoms: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Online Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gander, Fabian; Proyer, René T.; Ruch, Willibald

    2016-01-01

    Seligman (2002) suggested three paths to well-being, the pursuit of pleasure, the pursuit of meaning, and the pursuit of engagement, later adding two more, positive relationships and accomplishment, in his 2011 version. The contribution of these new components to well-being has yet to be addressed. In an online positive psychology intervention study, we randomly assigned 1624 adults aged 18–78 (M = 46.13; 79.2% women) to seven conditions. Participants wrote down three things they related to either one of the five components of Seligman's Well-Being theory (Conditions 1–5), all of the five components (Condition 6) or early childhood memories (placebo control condition). We assessed happiness (AHI) and depression (CES-D) before and after the intervention, and 1-, 3-, and 6 months afterwards. Additionally, we considered moderation effects of well-being levels at baseline. Results confirmed that all interventions were effective in increasing happiness and most ameliorated depressive symptoms. The interventions worked best for those in the middle-range of the well-being continuum. We conclude that interventions based on pleasure, engagement, meaning, positive relationships, and accomplishment are effective strategies for increasing well-being and ameliorating depressive symptoms and that positive psychology interventions are most effective for those people in the middle range of the well-being continuum. PMID:27242600

  17. Replacing white rice with pre-germinated brown rice mildly ameliorates hyperglycemia and imbalance of adipocytokine levels in type 2 diabetes model rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torimitsu, Mariko; Nagase, Ryouhei; Yanagi, Megumi; Homma, Miyuki; Sasai, Yousuke; Ito, Yukihiko; Hayamizu, Kousuke; Nonaka, Shouta; Hosono, Takashi; Kise, Mitsuo; Seki, Taiichiro; Ariga, Toyohiko

    2010-01-01

    Pre-germinated brown rice (PR) has been developed industrially in order to enhance the nutritional functions of its source material, brown rice (BR). The present study was aimed at clarifying the effect of PR on the type 2 diabetes mellitus. We employed Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats as a model of type-2 diabetes mellitus. OLETF rats were fed on either PR or white rice (WR) from the age of 4 to 35 wk. Age-matched male Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO) rats as a non-diabetic control were also fed on WR. The HbA(1c) level in OLETF rats was significantly higher than that in LETO rats. However, the level was lower in PR-fed OLETF rats than in WR-fed OLETF rats. The plasma concentrations of TNF-α and PAI-1 in OLETF rats were higher than those in LETO rats. However, both elevated levels were decreased by the PR-feeding, but not by the WR-feeding. On the other hand, the plasma adiponectin concentration in OLETF rats was lower than that in LETO rats. The decrease in adiponectin level of OLETF rats was ameliorated by PR-feeding. The size of adipocytes in PR-fed OLETF rats was smaller than that in WR-fed OLETF rats. In summary, intake of PR instead of WR ameliorates both insulin resistance and imbalance of the levels of plasma adipocytokines leading to diabetic complications.

  18. Treadmill exercise ameliorates Alzheimer disease-associated memory loss through the Wnt signaling pathway in the streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae-Young; Jung, Sun-Young; Kim, Kijeong; Kim, Chang-Ju

    2016-08-01

    Diabetes mellitus is considered as a risk factor for Alzheimer disease. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the possibility whether treadmill exercise ameliorates Alzheimer disease-associated memory loss in the diabetes mellitus. For this study, the effects of treadmill exercise on short-term memory and spatial learning ability in relation with Wnt signaling pathway were evaluated using the streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of STZ. Step-down avoidance task and 8-arm radial maze test were performed for the memory function. Immunohistochemistry for 5-bro-mo-2'-deoxyridine (BrdU) and doublecortin (DCX) and Western blot for Wnt3 and glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) were conducted. The rats in the exercise groups were made to run on the treadmill for 30 min per one day, 5 times a week, during 12 weeks. In the present results, short-term memory and spatial learning ability were deteriorated by induction of diabetes. Treadmill exercise improved short-term memory and spatial learning ability in the diabetic rats. The numbers of BrdU-positive and DCX-positive cells in the hippocampal dentate gyrus were decreased by induction of diabetes. Treadmill exercise increased these numbers in the diabetic rats. Wnt3 expression in the hippocampus was decreased and GSK-3β expression in the hippocampus was increased by induction of diabetes. Treadmill exercise increased Wnt3 expression and suppressed GSK-3β expression in the diabetic rats. The present study suggests that treadmill exercise alleviates Alzheimer disease-associated memory loss by increasing neurogenesis through activating Wnt signaling pathway in the diabetic rats.

  19. Association of cognitive-emotional regulation strategies to depressive symptoms in type 2 diabetes patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocan, Andreia Ş; Iancu, Silvia Ş; Băban, Adriana S

    2018-03-01

    The present cross-sectional observational study aimed to investigate the relation between cognitive-emotional regulation strategies and depressive symptoms in type 2 diabetes patients in the context of sociodemographic and clinical factors, of diabetes distress, perception of illness consequences and previous depression. Multiple logistic regression was performed on the responses of 354 adults with type 2 diabetes (58.5% women; mean ± SD age: 61.14 ± 8.5 years; diabetes duration: 9.7 ± 6.4 years; BMI: 30.9 ± 5.3 kg/m2). Depressive symptoms were present in 16.9% and diabetes distress in 45.5%. Participants completed questionnaires on depression (BDI-II), cognitive-emotional regulation strategies (CERQ), diabetes distress (DDS), illness perceived consequences (IPQ-R). Of the cognitive-emotional strategies, lower positive reappraisal of diabetes (OR:0.49;CI:0.34-0.70) and increased catastrophizing (OR:2.08; CI:1.47-2.91) were found to increase the likelihood of experiencing depressive symptoms in the presence of higher diabetes distress (OR: 1.53; CI:1.07-2.19), increased negative perception of diabetes consequences (OR:2.02; CI:1.34-3.06) and the presence of previous depression (OR:4.18; CI:2.03-8.63). To our knowledge, this is the first study to report on cognitive-emotional regulation strategies in type 2 diabetes and provides evidence for the beneficial influence of positive reappraisal and adverse effect of catastrophizing on depressive symptoms in the context of diabetes distress, perceived consequences of diabetes and previous history of depression.

  20. Diabetes Distress and Depressive Symptoms: A Dyadic Investigation of Older Patients and Their Spouses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franks, Melissa M.; Lucas, Todd; Stephens, Mary Ann Parris; Rook, Karen S.; Gonzalez, Richard

    2010-01-01

    In this dyadic study, we examined diabetes distress experienced by male and female patients and their spouses (N = 185 couples), and its association with depressive symptoms using the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model. Diabetes-related distress reported by both patients and spouses was associated with each partner's own depressive symptoms…

  1. Symptoms and well-being in relation to glycemic control in type II diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Der Does, Ferdinand E.E.; De Neeling, J. Nico D.; Snoek, Frank J.; Kostense, Pieter J.; Grootenhuis, Peter A.; Bouter, Lex M.; Heine, Robert J.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE - To describe the cross-sectional relation between glycemic control and physical symptoms, emotional well-being, and general well-being in patients with type II diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - The study population consisted of 188 patients with type II diabetes between 40 and 75

  2. Which increases depressive symptoms in obese patients, hypertension or diabetes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakir Özgür Keskek

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Depression and obesity are common disorders. Obesity is also predictive of several chronic diseases like hypertension and diabetes. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare depression frequency of obese patients with hypertension or diabetes. Methods: Weight, height and body mass index (BMI were measured. The definition of obesity was a body mass index (weight (kg/height (m2 ≥30 kg/m2. Obese patients with hypertension or diabetes were documented. All participants had a Beck Depression Inventory (BDI evaluation. Results: A total of 389 subjects were included, of whom 100, 101, 92, 96 participants were healthy, obese, obese with hypertension, obese with diabetes, respectively. Beck Depression Inventory scores of obese patients, obese patients with hypertension or diabetes were higher compared to the control group. BDI scores of obese patients with diabetes were higher compared to obese and obese with hypertension subjects.

  3. Nitrosonifedipine ameliorates the progression of type 2 diabetic nephropathy by exerting antioxidative effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keisuke Ishizawa

    Full Text Available Diabetic nephropathy (DN is the major cause of end-stage renal failure. Oxidative stress is implicated in the pathogenesis of DN. Nitrosonifedipine (NO-NIF is a weak calcium channel blocker that is converted from nifedipine under light exposure. Recently, we reported that NO-NIF has potential as a novel antioxidant with radical scavenging abilities and has the capacity to treat vascular dysfunction by exerting an endothelial protective effect. In the present study, we extended these findings by evaluating the efficacy of NO-NIF against DN and by clarifying the mechanisms of its antioxidative effect. In a model of type 2 DN (established in KKAy mice, NO-NIF administration reduced albuminuria and proteinuria as well as glomerular expansion without affecting glucose metabolism or systolic blood pressure. NO-NIF also suppressed renal and systemic oxidative stress and decreased the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-1, a marker of endothelial cell injury, in the glomeruli of the KKAy mice. Similarly, NO-NIF reduced albuminuria, oxidative stress, and ICAM-1 expression in endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS knockout mice. Moreover, NO-NIF suppressed urinary angiotensinogen (AGT excretion and intrarenal AGT protein expression in proximal tubular cells in the KKAy mice. On the other hand, hyperglycemia-induced mitochondrial superoxide production was not attenuated by NO-NIF in cultured endothelial cells. These findings suggest that NO-NIF prevents the progression of type 2 DN associated with endothelial dysfunction through selective antioxidative effects.

  4. Reducing VEGF-B Signaling Ameliorates Renal Lipotoxicity and Protects against Diabetic Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkevall, Annelie; Mehlem, Annika; Palombo, Isolde; Heller Sahlgren, Benjamin; Ebarasi, Lwaki; He, Liqun; Ytterberg, A Jimmy; Olauson, Hannes; Axelsson, Jonas; Sundelin, Birgitta; Patrakka, Jaakko; Scotney, Pierre; Nash, Andrew; Eriksson, Ulf

    2017-03-07

    Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is the most common cause of severe renal disease, and few treatment options are available today that prevent the progressive loss of renal function. DKD is characterized by altered glomerular filtration and proteinuria. A common observation in DKD is the presence of renal steatosis, but the mechanism(s) underlying this observation and to what extent they contribute to disease progression are unknown. Vascular endothelial growth factor B (VEGF-B) controls muscle lipid accumulation through regulation of endothelial fatty acid transport. Here, we demonstrate in experimental mouse models of DKD that renal VEGF-B expression correlates with the severity of disease. Inhibiting VEGF-B signaling in DKD mouse models reduces renal lipotoxicity, re-sensitizes podocytes to insulin signaling, inhibits the development of DKD-associated pathologies, and prevents renal dysfunction. Further, we show that elevated VEGF-B levels are found in patients with DKD, suggesting that VEGF-B antagonism represents a novel approach to treat DKD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Taurine ameliorates hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia by reducing insulin resistance and leptin level in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima fatty (OLETF) rats with long-term diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Da Hee; Kim, Jung Yeon; Lee, Bong Gn; You, Jeong Soon; Chang, Kyung Ja; Chung, Hyunju; Yoo, Myung Chul; Yang, Hyung-In; Kang, Ja-Heon; Hwang, Yoo Chul; Ahn, Kue Jeong; Chung, Ho-Yeon

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to determine whether taurine supplementation improves metabolic disturbances and diabetic complications in an animal model for type 2 diabetes. We investigated whether taurine has therapeutic effects on glucose metabolism, lipid metabolism, and diabetic complications in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima fatty (OLETF) rats with long-term duration of diabetes. Fourteen 50-week-old OLETF rats with chronic diabetes were fed a diet supplemented with taurine (2%) or a non-supplemented control diet for 12 weeks. Taurine reduced blood glucose levels over 12 weeks, and improved OGTT outcomes at 6 weeks after taurine supplementation, in OLETF rats. Taurine significantly reduced insulin resistance but did not improve β-cell function or islet mass. After 12 weeks, taurine significantly decreased serum levels of lipids such as triglyceride, cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, and low density lipoprotein cholesterol. Taurine significantly reduced serum leptin, but not adiponectin levels. However, taurine had no therapeutic effect on damaged tissues. Taurine ameliorated hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia, at least in part, by improving insulin sensitivity and leptin modulation in OLETF rats with long-term diabetes. Additional study is needed to investigate whether taurine has the same beneficial effects in human diabetic patients. PMID:23114424

  6. Dracaena arborea leaf extract: A phytotherapeutic option for ameliorating oxidative stress-mediated endocrine and testicular disorders in alloxan-induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwaseyi Samson Ogunmodede

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore and exploit these anti-diabetic properties of the leaf extracts of Dracaena arborea by investigating its therapeutic effects on blood glucose regulation, testicular and endocrine disorders in alloxan (ALX-induced type-1 diabetic rats. Methods: Rats were divided into four groups of five animals each in a completely randomized trial and treated. ALX and then Dracaena arborea extracts (DAE at 100 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg/ day were administered to both normal (Group A and diabetic rats (Groups C and D and none to the diabetic control group (Group B for a period of 8 weeks. The serum level of glucose, follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone and free testosterone were estimated for all treated and control groups. Oxidative stress parameters such as superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, catalase, and malondialdehyde were also estimated from testicular cells of control, untreated diabetic and DAE-treated diabetic rats. Results: We observed a significant (P < 0.05 decrease in the serum glucose level as well as a drug-induced dose-dependent reduction in testosterone, follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone in the rats following type-1 diabetic conditions induction by ALX. There was a significant dose dependent response (P < 0.05 to treatment between the DAE-treated diabetic groups. Furthermore, a significant decrease (P < 0.05 in oxidative stress parameters was observed in testicular cells of diabetic rats post-treatment. Conclusions: These findings suggest that DAE is a potential beneficial phytotherapeutic agent that may be used in ameliorating hyperglycemic, endocrine and reproductive disorders in type-1 diabetic men.

  7. Differential associations between depressive symptoms and glycaemic control in outpatients with diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bot, M.; Pouwer, F.; de Jonge, P.; Tack, C. J.; Geelhoed-Duijvestijn, P. H. L. M.; Snoek, F. J.

    Aims Depression is common in people with diabetes, and related to higher HbA1c levels. Depression, however, is a heterogeneous construct that involves a variety of symptoms. As little is known about the associations of individual depressive symptoms with HbA1c, we explored these associations in

  8. Depressive symptoms in the first year from diagnosis of Type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skinner, T. C.; Carey, M. E.; Cradock, S.

    2010-01-01

    the Depression scale of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale after diagnosis and at 4, 8 and 12 months follow-up. Participants also completed the Problem Areas in Diabetes scale at 8 and 12 months follow-up. We present descriptive statistics on prevalence and persistence of depressive symptoms. Logistic......Aims To describe the course of depressive symptoms during the first year after diagnosis of Type 2 diabetes. Methods Post hoc analysis of data from a randomized controlled trial of self-management education for 824 individuals newly diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes. Participants completed...... regression is used to predict possible depression cases, and multiple regression to predict depressive symptomatology. Results The prevalence of depressive symptoms in individuals recently diagnosed with diabetes (18-22% over the year) was not significantly different from normative data for the general...

  9. The association between diabetes and an episode of depressive symptoms in the 2002 World Health Survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mommersteeg, Paula M C; Herr, R; Pouwer, F

    2013-01-01

    - and middle-income non-Western countries. METHODS: Data from 47 countries of the 2002 World Health Organization World Health Survey were used, including 231,797 adults (mean age 41 years, 53% female). Diabetes was assessed by self-report of diagnosis or treatment. The presence of an episode of depressive......AIMS: Depression is common in people with diabetes and increases the risk of poor health outcomes, including premature mortality. We explored the association between diabetes and an episode of depressive symptoms in a cross-sectional multinational study, which included a large number of low...... symptoms was assessed by self-report using an algorithm based on DSM-IV criteria. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated to quantify associations between diabetes and episodes of depressive symptoms in the entire sample and for countries aggregated into four continents: Africa, South...

  10. Aqueous Extract from Hibiscus sabdariffa Linnaeus Ameliorate Diabetic Nephropathy via Regulating Oxidative Status and Akt/Bad/14-3-3γ in an Experimental Animal Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shou-Chieh Wang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Several studies point out that oxidative stress maybe a major culprit in diabetic nephropathy. Aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (HSE has been demonstrated as having beneficial effects on anti-oxidation and lipid-lowering in experimental studies. This study aimed at investigating the effects of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. on diabetic nephropathy in streptozotocin induced type 1 diabetic rats. Our results show that HSE is capable of reducing lipid peroxidation, increasing catalase and glutathione activities significantly in diabetic kidney, and decreasing the plasma levels of triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein (LDL and increasing high-density lipoprotein (HDL value. In histological examination, HSE improves hyperglycemia-caused osmotic diuresis in renal proximal convoluted tubules (defined as hydropic change in diabetic rats. The study also reveals that up-regulation of Akt/Bad/14-3-3γ and NF-κB-mediated transcription might be involved. In conclusion, our results show that HSE possesses the potential effects to ameliorate diabetic nephropathy via improving oxidative status and regulating Akt/Bad/14-3-3γ signaling.

  11. Aqueous Extract from Hibiscus sabdariffa Linnaeus Ameliorate Diabetic Nephropathy via Regulating Oxidative Status and Akt/Bad/14-3-3γ in an Experimental Animal Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shou-Chieh; Lee, Shiow-Fen; Wang, Chau-Jong; Lee, Chao-Hsin; Lee, Wen-Chin; Lee, Huei-Jane

    2011-01-01

    Several studies point out that oxidative stress maybe a major culprit in diabetic nephropathy. Aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (HSE) has been demonstrated as having beneficial effects on anti-oxidation and lipid-lowering in experimental studies. This study aimed at investigating the effects of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. on diabetic nephropathy in streptozotocin induced type 1 diabetic rats. Our results show that HSE is capable of reducing lipid peroxidation, increasing catalase and glutathione activities significantly in diabetic kidney, and decreasing the plasma levels of triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and increasing high-density lipoprotein (HDL) value. In histological examination, HSE improves hyperglycemia-caused osmotic diuresis in renal proximal convoluted tubules (defined as hydropic change) in diabetic rats. The study also reveals that up-regulation of Akt/Bad/14-3-3γ and NF-κB-mediated transcription might be involved. In conclusion, our results show that HSE possesses the potential effects to ameliorate diabetic nephropathy via improving oxidative status and regulating Akt/Bad/14-3-3γ signaling. PMID:19965962

  12. Taurine Supplementation Improves Erectile Function in Rats with Streptozotocin-induced Type 1 Diabetes via Amelioration of Penile Fibrosis and Endothelial Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Yajun; Li, Mingchao; Wang, Tao; Yang, Jun; Rao, Ke; Wang, Shaogang; Yang, Weiming; Liu, Jihong; Ye, Zhangqun

    2016-05-01

    For patients with diabetes, erectile dysfunction (ED) is common and greatly affects quality of life. However, these patients often exhibit a poor response to first-line oral phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors. To investigate whether taurine, a sulfur-containing amino acid, affects diabetic ED (DED). Type 1 diabetes mellitus was induced in male rats by using streptozotocin. After 12 weeks, an apomorphine test was conducted to confirm DED. Only rats with DED were administered taurine or vehicle for 4 weeks. Age-matched nondiabetic rats were administered saline intraperitoneally for 4 weeks. Erectile function was evaluated by electrical stimulation of the cavernous nerve. Histologic and molecular alterations of the corpus cavernosum also were analyzed. Erectile function was significantly reduced in the diabetic rats compared with in the nondiabetic rats, and was improved in the diabetic rats treated with taurine. The corpus cavernosum of the rats with DED exhibited severe fibrosis and decreased smooth muscle content. Deposition of extracellular matrix proteins was increased in the diabetic rats, while expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase/cyclic guanosine monophosphate/nitric oxide pathway-related proteins was reduced. Taurine supplementation ameliorated erectile response as well as histologic and molecular alterations. Taurine supplementation improves erectile function in rats with DED probably by potential antifibrotic activity. This finding provides evidence for a potential new therapy for DED. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Enhanced Apoptosis of Monocytes from Complication-Free Juvenile-Onset Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 May Be Ameliorated by TNF-α Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Myśliwska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus type 1 is associated with an enhanced apoptosis of different cells and tissues, accelerating occurrence of diabetic microvascular complications. The aim of our study was to determine spontaneous apoptotic potential of the monocyte subsets in juvenile-onset complication-free diabetes mellitus type 1 and to compare them with the corresponding values of the healthy. Moreover, we wanted to assess effects of TNF-R1 blocking agents and those of general TNF-α blocker (Infliximab on spontaneous apoptosis of monocytes. Sixty randomly selected DM1 patients (14.5 ± 3.2 years and 30 healthy (13.5 ± 2.8 years volunteers were enrolled in the study. Our results indicate that three monocyte subsets are distinguishable in the groups of young diabetic patients and the healthy, similarly to in the blood of adults. DM1 patients were characterized by higher values of apoptotic monocytes than the healthy. The manipulation with drugs inhibiting TNF-R1 expression diminished the pool of CD16+ apoptotic monocytes. Infliximab reduced the apoptotic CD16− cells. In conclusion, diabetes mellitus type 1 is associated with greater apoptosis of three monocyte subsets which may contribute to the development of microvascular complications. TNF-α modifiers appear to ameliorate monocyte apoptosis. They may be useful for controlling excessive monocyte apoptosis in diabetic patients.

  14. Effects of exercise training on quality of life, symptoms of depression, symptoms of anxiety and emotional well-being in type 2 diabetes mellitus : A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, M.M.P.; van Dooren, F.E.; Pop, V.J.M.; Pouwer, F.

    2013-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis Psychological problems are relatively common in people with type 2 diabetes. It is unclear whether exercise training exerts an effect on quality of life, symptoms of depression, symptoms of anxiety and emotional well-being in people with type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to

  15. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor ameliorates early renal injury through its anti-inflammatory action in a rat model of type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodera, Ryo; Shikata, Kenichi; Takatsuka, Tetsuharu; Oda, Kaori; Miyamoto, Satoshi; Kajitani, Nobuo; Hirota, Daisho; Ono, Tetsuichiro; Usui, Hitomi Kataoka; Makino, Hirofumi

    2014-01-17

    Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors are incretin-based drugs in patients with type 2 diabetes. In our previous study, we showed that glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist has reno-protective effects through anti-inflammatory action. The mechanism of action of DPP-4 inhibitor is different from that of GLP-1 receptor agonists. It is not obvious whether DPP-4 inhibitor prevents the exacerbation of diabetic nephropathy through anti-inflammatory effects besides lowering blood glucose or not. The purpose of this study is to clarify the reno-protective effects of DPP-4 inhibitor through anti-inflammatory actions in the early diabetic nephropathy. Five-week-old male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were divided into three groups; non-diabetes, diabetes and diabetes treated with DPP-4 inhibitor (PKF275-055; 3 mg/kg/day). PKF275-055 was administered orally for 8 weeks. PKF275-055 increased the serum active GLP-1 concentration and the production of urinary cyclic AMP. PKF275-055 decreased urinary albumin excretion and ameliorated histological change of diabetic nephropathy. Macrophage infiltration was inhibited, and inflammatory molecules were down-regulated by PKF275-055 in the glomeruli. In addition, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activity was suppressed in the kidney. These results indicate that DPP-4 inhibitor, PKF275-055, have reno-protective effects through anti-inflammatory action in the early stage of diabetic nephropathy. The endogenous biological active GLP-1 might be beneficial on diabetic nephropathy besides lowering blood glucose. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Depressive Symptoms at Critical Times in Youth With Type 1 Diabetes: Following Type 1 Diabetes Diagnosis and Insulin Pump Initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Dayna E; Volkening, Lisa K; Pober, David M; Muir, Andrew B; Young-Hyman, Deborah L; Laffel, Lori M

    2018-02-01

    Depressive symptoms occur at various times during the life cycle in persons with type 1 diabetes. We investigated depressive symptoms prospectively in youth with new-onset type 1 diabetes and in those beginning pump therapy. Youth with type 1 diabetes (N = 96), ages 10-17 years, completed the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI) at baseline and at 1, 6, and 12 months after diabetes onset or pump start; scores ≥13 indicated clinical elevation. The change in depressive symptoms and the association between CDI score and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) level were assessed over 1 year. The new-onset group (n = 54) had an HbA1c level of 11.4% ± 2.5%. The pump group (n = 42) had a diabetes duration of 4.1 ± 3.4 years and an HbA1c level of 8.3% ± 1.3%. The baseline median CDI was 5.0 in both groups and remained low over time (ranging from 2.0 to 3.5). Most youth (new onset 72%, pump 81%) scored pump groups. Youth with elevated CDI in the first month after diagnosis or pump start were significantly more likely to have a CDI score of ≥13 at 6 or 12 months, supporting recommendations to screen for depressive symptoms because of persistence over time. Those with new-onset diabetes and depressive symptoms in the first month had higher HbA1c at 6 months; confirmatory research is needed. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. All rights reserved.

  17. Diabetes at work. Fatigue in relation to job characteristics, diabetes symptoms and self-management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijman, Iris

    2005-01-01

    The focus of this thesis is on employees with diabetes. Fatigue, work characteristics and diabetes self-management are core aspects. Diabetes may have many consequences in the working situation and is expected to become an even bigger health problem, because the number of people with diabetes is

  18. Silymarin Ameliorates Diabetes-Induced Proangiogenic Response in Brain Endothelial Cells through a GSK-3β Inhibition-Induced Reduction of VEGF Release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Alhusban

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus (DM is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Additionally, it was found to induce a dysfunctional angiogenic response in the brain that was attributed to oxidative stress. Milk thistle seed extract (silymarin has potent antioxidant properties, though its potential use in ameliorating diabetes-induced aberrant brain angiogenesis is unknown. Glycogen synthase kinase-3β is a regulator of angiogenesis that is upregulated by diabetes. Its involvement in diabetes-induced angiogenesis is unknown. To evaluate the potential of silymarin to ameliorate diabetes-induced aberrant angiogenesis, human brain endothelial cells (HBEC-5i were treated with 50 μg/mL advanced glycation end (AGE products in the presence or absence of silymarin (50, 100 μM. The angiogenic potential of HBEC-5i was evaluated in terms of migration and in vitro tube formation capacities. The involvement of GSK-3β was also evaluated. AGE significantly increased the migration and tube formation rates of HBEC-5i by about onefold (p=0.0001. Silymarin reduced AGE-induced migration in a dose-dependent manner where 50 μM reduced migration by about 50%, whereas the 100 μM completely inhibited AGE-induced migration. Similarly, silymarin 50 μg/mL blunted AGE-induced tube formation (p=0.001. This effect was mediated through a GSK-3β-dependent inhibition of VEGF release. In conclusion, silymarin inhibits AGE-induced aberrant angiogenesis in a GSK-3β-mediated inhibition of VEGF release.

  19. Psychological correlates of eating disorder symptoms and body image in adolescents with type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminsky, Laura A; Dewey, Deborah

    2013-12-01

    To examine eating disorder symptoms and body image in adolescents with type 1 diabetes and to investigate the associations among social support, self-esteem, health locus of control, eating disorder symptoms and body image. Forty-six adolescents with type 1 diabetes and 27 healthy comparison adolescents completed questionnaires. No significant differences were identified in eating disorder symptoms and body image between adolescents with type 1 diabetes and healthy comparison adolescents. Regression analyses were completed with the full sample of adolescents with type 1 diabetes and healthy comparison adolescents. Higher levels of social support and being male were associated with a more positive body image, less body dissatisfaction and a lower drive for thinness. A belief by the adolescents that parents or healthcare providers (i.e. external powerful others locus of control) were in control of their health was associated with a more positive body image and less body dissatisfaction. Higher self-esteem was associated with a greater drive for thinness and a higher level of body dissatisfaction. Social support, health locus of control and self-esteem appear to be important correlates of eating disorder symptoms and body image in adolescents with diabetes and their typically developing peers. Copyright © 2013 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Klotho gene delivery ameliorates renal hypertrophy and fibrosis in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats by suppressing the Rho-associated coiled-coil kinase signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Minghong; Luo, Yumei; Li, Yunkui; Yang, Qiuchen; Deng, Xiaoqin; Wu, Ping; Ma, Houxun

    2015-07-01

    The present study aimed to investigate whether klotho gene delivery attenuated renal hypertrophy and fibrosis in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. A recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) carrying mouse klotho full-length cDNA (rAAV.mKL), was constructed for in vivo investigation of klotho expression. Diabetes was induced in rats by a single tail vein injection of 60 mg/kg streptozotocin. Subsequently, the diabetic rats received an intravenous injection of rAAV.mKL, rAAV.green fluorescent protein (GFP) or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). The Sprague-Dawley rat group received PBS and served as the control group. After 12 weeks, all the rats were sacrificed and ELISA, immunohistochemical and histological analyses, fluorescence microscopy, semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blottin were performed. A single dose of rAAV.mKL was found to prevent the progression of renal hypertrophy and fibrosis for at least 12 weeks (duration of study). Klotho expression was suppressed in the diabetic rats, but was increased by rAAV.mKL delivery. rAAV.mKL significantly suppressed diabetes-induced renal hypertrophy and histopathological changes, reduced renal collagen fiber generation and decreased kidney hypertrophy index. In addition, rAAV.mKL decreased the protein expression levels of fibronectin and vimentin, while it downregulated the mRNA expression and activity of Rho-associated coiled-coil kinase (ROCK)I in the kidneys of the diabetic rats. These results indicated that klotho gene delivery ameliorated renal hypertrophy and fibrosis in diabetic rats, possibly by suppressing the ROCK signaling pathway. This may offer a novel approach for the long-term control and renoprotection of diabetes.

  1. Silymarin ameliorates expression of urotensin II (U-II) and its receptor (UTR) and attenuates toxic oxidative stress in the heart of rats with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, Rahimeh; Karimi, Jamshid; Khodadadi, Iraj; Tayebinia, Heidar; Kheiripour, Nejat; Hashemnia, Mohammad; Goli, Fatemeh

    2018-05-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Urotensin II ((U-II)) and its receptor (UTR) are involved in the progression of CVD through enhancement in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Since silymarin (SMN) is a natural agent with anti-diabetic effects, this study aimed to investigate the antioxidant potency of SMN on the expression of (U-II)/UTR system and oxidative stress status in the heart of type 2 diabetic rats. Thirty-six male Wistar rats were randomly divided into six groups (n = 6). Control and diabetic groups treated with or without SMN (60 and 120 mg/kg/day) for 2 months. Fasting blood sugar (FBS), insulin, lipid profile, creatine kinase-MB ((CK-MB)), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and markers of oxidative stress were measured by spectrophotometric methods while (U-II) and UTR gene expression was determined by qPCR method. SMN significantly reduced the FBS level, increased the concentration of insulin and improved HOMA-IR. SMN prevented diabetes-induced weight loss, and attenuated the increased levels of total oxidative status (TOS), malondialdehyde (MDA), and nitric oxide (NO). Diabetes-induced reduction of total thiol molecules content (TTM) was normalized to the normal level in SMN treated rats. SMN significantly modulated serum lipid profile, reduced the expression of (U-II) and UTR in the heart, and improved histopathological changes in the heart tissues. Therefore, the current study indicated that SMN ameliorated unpleasant diabetic characteristics via down-regulation of (U-II) and UTR gene expression and modulation of oxidative stress in the heart tissue of type 2 diabetic rats. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. L-carnitine ameliorated fatty liver in high-calorie diet/STZ-induced type 2 diabetic mice by improving mitochondrial function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Yunqiu

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are an increasing number of patients suffering from fatty liver caused by type 2 diabetes. We intended to study the preventive and therapeutic effect of L-carnitine (LC on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD in streptozotocin (STZ-induced type 2 diabetic mice and to explore its possible mechanism. Methods Thirty male Kungming mice were randomly divided into five groups: control group, diabetic group, pre-treatment group (125 mg/kg BW, low-dose (125 mg/kg BW therapeutic group and high-dose (250 mg/kg BW therapeutic group. The morphology of hepatocytes was observed by light and electron microscopy. LC and ALC (acetyl L-carnitine concentrations in the liver were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Moreover, liver weight, insulin levels and free fatty acid (FFA and triglyceride (TG levels in the liver and plasma were measured. Results Average liver LC and ALC levels were 33.7% and 20% lower, respectively, in diabetic mice compared to control mice (P Conclusion LC supplements ameliorated fatty liver in type 2 diabetic mice by increasing fatty acid oxidation and decreasing the LC/ALC ratio in the liver. Therefore, oral administration of LC protected mitochondrial function in liver.

  3. Activation of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway by nicotine ameliorates lipopolysaccharide-induced preeclampsia-like symptoms in pregnant rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuanyuan; Yang, Jinying; Bao, Junjie; Li, Xiaolan; Ye, Aihua; Zhang, Guozheng; Liu, Huishu

    2017-01-01

    Preeclampsia (PE) exerts a more intense systemic inflammatory response than normal pregnancy. Recently, the role of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway (CAP) in regulating inflammation has been extensively studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of nicotine, a selective cholinergic agonist, on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced preeclampsia-like symptoms in pregnant rats and to determine the molecular mechanism underlying it. Rats were administered LPS (1.0 μg/kg) via tail vein injection on gestational day 14 to induce preeclampsia-like symptoms. Nicotine (1.0 mg/kg/d) and α-bungarotoxin (1.0 μg/kg/d) were injected subcutaneously into the rats from gestational day 14-19. Clinical symptoms were recorded. Serum and placentas were collected to determine cytokine levels using Luminex. The mRNA and protein expression levels of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) were determined using Real time-PCR and Western blot analysis. Immunohistochemistry was performed to determine the level of activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) in placentas. Nicotine significantly ameliorated LPS-induced preeclampsia-like symptoms in pregnant rats (P preeclampsia (P preeclampsia rats. Our findings suggest that the activation of α7nAChR by nicotine attenuates preeclampsia-like symptoms, and this protective effect is likely the result of the inhibition of inflammation via the NF-κB p65 pathway. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Momordica charantia extracts ameliorate insulin resistance by regulating the expression of SOCS-3 and JNK in type 2 diabetes mellitus rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chunyu; Yu, Hongyu; Xiao, Ying; Wang, Huijiao

    2017-12-01

    Momordica charantia L. (Cucurbitaceae) has long been widely used as a traditional remedy for diabetes mellitus in some countries. However, detailed antidiabetic mechanisms are largely unknown. This study clarified the ameliorating effects of M. charantia ethanol extracts (MCE) on the insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) rats. T2DM rat model was established by high-fat diet and streptozotocin (STZ) injection. Diabetic rats were randomized into five groups: the model control group (n = 8) (common diet), the high-fat diet metformin (50 mg/kg/d), and the three-dose MCE (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg/d) groups (n = 8 each). After 8  weeks, the fasting serum glucose, insulin, TNF-α, and IL-6 were measured, and the relevant factors of glucose and insulin were monitored by glycogen dyeing, RT-PCR, and western blot, respectively. The 8-week treatment of 400 mg/kg MCE significantly lowered body weight (330.1 versus 365.9 g), serum glucose (7.41 versus 16.63 mmol/L), insulin (12.06 versus 15.89 mIU/L), TNF-α (52.72 versus 81.83 ng/L), and IL-6 (104.81 versus 135.74 ng/L) in comparison with those of the diabetic control group (p < 0.05). It was the same for skeletal muscle glucose transporter 4 (GLUT-4) protein, and glycogen level, suppressor of cytokine signaling-3 (SOCS-3), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and Akt expression at both protein and mRNA levels in liver (p < 0.05). MCE can ameliorate insulin resistance in T2DM rats. This effect may be related to the regulation of mRNA and protein levels of SOCS-3 and JNK.

  5. Diabetes at work. Fatigue in relation to job characteristics, diabetes symptoms and self-management

    OpenAIRE

    Weijman, Iris

    2005-01-01

    The focus of this thesis is on employees with diabetes. Fatigue, work characteristics and diabetes self-management are core aspects. Diabetes may have many consequences in the working situation and is expected to become an even bigger health problem, because the number of people with diabetes is growing considerably. Employees with a chronic disease might be at a higher risk of developing fatigue compared to healthy employees, because on top of the regular demands of their job, they have to d...

  6. Lower urinary tract symptoms in women with diabetes mellitus: a current review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Rebecca; Hijaz, Adonis

    2014-10-01

    A literature review of the most current publications studying lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and findings in diabetic women was conducted including articles from January 2013 to April 2014. Current reports consistently note that aging and obesity are significantly associated with worsened LUTS in diabetic women. Glucosuria has variable effects on urodynamic parameters and LUTS, but has a significant association with urinary tract infection (UTI) and incontinence at clinically relevant numbers, such as HbA1C values. The presence of severe nocturia in diabetic patients warrants careful surveillance for cardiovascular risks given the significant association with mortality. Diabetics appear to be at higher risk for colonization with the virulent, extended-spectrum, β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella species in UTI. Novel therapies in glycemic control and for diabetic bladder dysfunction are undergoing animal model trials with encouraging results. The most promising of these includes stem cell therapy, although a need exists for human studies.

  7. Depression symptoms in people with diabetes attending outpatient podiatry clinics for the treatment of foot ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Sue; Nash, Toni; Ireland, Vanessa

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of depressive symptoms, diabetes self-management, and quality of life in people with diabetes and foot ulcers. Ulcer status, mortality and amputations were also assessed at six months follow-up. This was a cross-sectional survey of people attending outpatient podiatry clinics at a major tertiary referral hospital. Depressive symptoms were measured using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ). Diabetes self-care was assessed using the Summary of Diabetes Self Care Activities (SDSCA) measure. Health-related quality of life was measured using the physical component summary score (PCS) and the mental component summary score (MCS) of the SF-12. Of the 60 participants in the study 14 (23.3%) reported mild symptoms of depression (PHQ score 5-9) and 17 (28.3%) moderate to severe depressive symptoms (PHQ score > 9). Twenty-one (35%) met the criteria for previously recognized depression (on antidepressants and/or a diagnosis of depression in the last 12 months) and 17 (28.3%) for depression not previously recognized (PHQ > 4). Seventeen (28%) participants had been receiving antidepressant treatment for a median duration of 104 weeks (IQR 20, 494 weeks). Despite antidepressant treatment 12 participants (70.6% of those taking antidepressants) still reported moderate to severe depressive symptoms at the time of the study. Patients with PHQ scores > 4 reported poorer adherence to diabetes self-care activities including general diet, exercise, blood sugar monitoring and foot care when compared to those participants with PHQ scores  4 compared with no deaths and 2 amputations in participants with PHQ scores < 5. There was no association between depressive symptoms and ulcer healing or ulcer recurrence at the six-month follow-up. This study found a high prevalence of depressive symptoms both recognized and unrecognized in people with diabetes and foot ulcers. Depressive symptoms were associated with overall

  8. Canine Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 Ameliorates Hyperglycemia Associated with Inhibiting Hepatic Gluconeogenesis and Improving Pancreatic Beta-Cell Survival in Diabetic Mice and Dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Pengfei; Zhang, Yingjie; Jiang, Xinghao; Li, Junyan; Song, Liying; Khoso, Mir Hasson; Liu, Yunye; Wu, Qiang; Ren, Guiping; Li, Deshan

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a common endocrinopathy in dog. Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF-21) is a secreted protein, which is involved in glucose homeostasis. We speculate that the recombinant canine FGF-21 (cFGF-21) has the potential to become a powerful therapeutics to treat canine diabetes. The cFGF-21 gene was cloned and expressed in E. coli Rosetta (DE3). After purification, a cFGF-21 protein with the purity exceeding 95% was obtained. Mouse 3T3-L1 adipocytes and type 1 diabetic mice/dogs induced by STZ were used to examine the biological activity of cFGF-21 in vitro and in vivo, respectively. Results showed that cFGF-21 stimulated glucose uptake in adipocytes significantly in a dose-dependent manner, and reduced plasma glucose significantly in diabetic mice/dogs. After treatment with cFGF-21, the serum insulin level, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level and the expressions of the hepatic gluconeogenesis genes (glucose-6-phosphatase, G6Pase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, PCK) of the diabetic mice/dogs were attenuated significantly. In the mouse experiment, we also found that the phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and the expression of suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) were up-regulated significantly in the livers after treatment. Histopathological and immunohistochemical results showed that treatment with cFGF-21 promoted recovery of pancreatic islets from STZ-induced apoptosis. Besides, we also found that treatment with cFGF-21 protected liver against STZ or hyperglycemia induced damage and the mechanism of this action associated with inhibiting oxidative stress. In conclusion, cFGF-21 represents a promising candidate for canine diabetes therapeutics. The mechanism of cFGF-21 ameliorates hyperglycemia associated with inhibiting hepatic gluconeogenesis by regulation of STAT3 signal pathway and improving pancreatic beta-cell survival. PMID:27203422

  9. Canine Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 Ameliorates Hyperglycemia Associated with Inhibiting Hepatic Gluconeogenesis and Improving Pancreatic Beta-Cell Survival in Diabetic Mice and Dogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengfei Xu

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is a common endocrinopathy in dog. Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF-21 is a secreted protein, which is involved in glucose homeostasis. We speculate that the recombinant canine FGF-21 (cFGF-21 has the potential to become a powerful therapeutics to treat canine diabetes. The cFGF-21 gene was cloned and expressed in E. coli Rosetta (DE3. After purification, a cFGF-21 protein with the purity exceeding 95% was obtained. Mouse 3T3-L1 adipocytes and type 1 diabetic mice/dogs induced by STZ were used to examine the biological activity of cFGF-21 in vitro and in vivo, respectively. Results showed that cFGF-21 stimulated glucose uptake in adipocytes significantly in a dose-dependent manner, and reduced plasma glucose significantly in diabetic mice/dogs. After treatment with cFGF-21, the serum insulin level, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c level and the expressions of the hepatic gluconeogenesis genes (glucose-6-phosphatase, G6Pase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, PCK of the diabetic mice/dogs were attenuated significantly. In the mouse experiment, we also found that the phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3 and the expression of suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3 were up-regulated significantly in the livers after treatment. Histopathological and immunohistochemical results showed that treatment with cFGF-21 promoted recovery of pancreatic islets from STZ-induced apoptosis. Besides, we also found that treatment with cFGF-21 protected liver against STZ or hyperglycemia induced damage and the mechanism of this action associated with inhibiting oxidative stress. In conclusion, cFGF-21 represents a promising candidate for canine diabetes therapeutics. The mechanism of cFGF-21 ameliorates hyperglycemia associated with inhibiting hepatic gluconeogenesis by regulation of STAT3 signal pathway and improving pancreatic beta-cell survival.

  10. Canine Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 Ameliorates Hyperglycemia Associated with Inhibiting Hepatic Gluconeogenesis and Improving Pancreatic Beta-Cell Survival in Diabetic Mice and Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Pengfei; Zhang, Yingjie; Jiang, Xinghao; Li, Junyan; Song, Liying; Khoso, Mir Hasson; Liu, Yunye; Wu, Qiang; Ren, Guiping; Li, Deshan

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a common endocrinopathy in dog. Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF-21) is a secreted protein, which is involved in glucose homeostasis. We speculate that the recombinant canine FGF-21 (cFGF-21) has the potential to become a powerful therapeutics to treat canine diabetes. The cFGF-21 gene was cloned and expressed in E. coli Rosetta (DE3). After purification, a cFGF-21 protein with the purity exceeding 95% was obtained. Mouse 3T3-L1 adipocytes and type 1 diabetic mice/dogs induced by STZ were used to examine the biological activity of cFGF-21 in vitro and in vivo, respectively. Results showed that cFGF-21 stimulated glucose uptake in adipocytes significantly in a dose-dependent manner, and reduced plasma glucose significantly in diabetic mice/dogs. After treatment with cFGF-21, the serum insulin level, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level and the expressions of the hepatic gluconeogenesis genes (glucose-6-phosphatase, G6Pase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, PCK) of the diabetic mice/dogs were attenuated significantly. In the mouse experiment, we also found that the phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and the expression of suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) were up-regulated significantly in the livers after treatment. Histopathological and immunohistochemical results showed that treatment with cFGF-21 promoted recovery of pancreatic islets from STZ-induced apoptosis. Besides, we also found that treatment with cFGF-21 protected liver against STZ or hyperglycemia induced damage and the mechanism of this action associated with inhibiting oxidative stress. In conclusion, cFGF-21 represents a promising candidate for canine diabetes therapeutics. The mechanism of cFGF-21 ameliorates hyperglycemia associated with inhibiting hepatic gluconeogenesis by regulation of STAT3 signal pathway and improving pancreatic beta-cell survival.

  11. [Bone marrow stromal cells transfected with ciliary neurotrophic factor gene ameliorates the symptoms and inflammation in C57BL/6 mice with experimental allergic encephalomyelitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zheng-qi; Hu, Xue-qiang; Zhu, Can-sheng; Zheng, Xue-ping; Wan, Dun-jing; Liu, Ran-yi; Huang, Bi-jun; Huang, Wen-lin

    2009-12-01

    To investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of bone marrow stromal cells (MSCs) transfected with recombinant adenovirus-mediated ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) gene in C57BL/6 mice with experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE). An adenovirus vector containing CNTF gene Ad-CNTF-IRES-GFP was constructed and transfected in the MSCs (MSC-CNTF). After examination of CNTF expression, the transfected cells were transplanted in C57BL/6 mice with MOG 35-55-induced EAE, which were monitored for the changes in the symptoms scores. The levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), inteferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), interleukin-12P35 (IL-12P35), and IL-10 in the peripheral blood of the mice were detected, and the number of MSC-CNTF cells in the spleen and spinal cord was counted. CD3+ T cell infiltration and TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma expressions in the lesions were also observed after the cell transplantation. CNTF gene transfection resulted in significantly increased CNTF expression in the MSCs. The mice receiving MSC-CNTF transplantation exhibited significantly improved symptoms with shortened disease course and lessened disease severity. The cell transplantation also resulted in significantly decreased peripheral blood TNF-alpha levels, ameliorated CD3+T cell infiltrations and lowered TNF-alpha expression in the lesions, while the levels of IFN-gamma underwent no significant changes. Transplantation of CNTF gene-transfected MSCs results in decreased peripheral blood TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma levels and reduced inflammatory cells, CD3-positive cells and TNF-alpha expression in the lesion of EAE, therefore providing better effect than MSCs in relieving the symptoms of EAE in mice.

  12. Do Pre-Existing Diabetes Social Support or Depressive Symptoms Influence the Effectiveness of a Diabetes Management Intervention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosland, Ann-Marie; Kieffer, Edith; Spencer, Michael; Sinco, Brandy; Palmisano, Gloria; Valerio, Melissa; Nicklett, Emily; Heisler, Michele

    2015-01-01

    Objective Examine influences of diabetes-specific social support (D-SS) and depressive symptoms on glycemic control over time, among adults randomized to a diabetes self-management education and support (DSME/S) intervention or usual care. Methods Data were from 108 African-American and Latino participants in a six-month intervention trial. Multivariable linear regression models assessed associations between baseline D-SS from family and friends and depressive symptoms with changes in HbA1c. We then examined whether baseline D-SS or depression moderated intervention-associated effects on HbA1c. Results Higher baseline D-SS was associated with larger improvements in HbA1c (adjusted ΔHbA1c -0.39% for each +1-point D-SS, p=0.02), independent of intervention-associated HbA1c decreases. Baseline depressive symptoms had no significant association with subsequent HbA1c change. Neither D-SS nor depression moderated intervention-associated effects on HbA1c. Conclusions and Practice Implications Diabetes self-management education and support programs have potential to improve glycemic control for participants starting with varying levels of social support and depressive symptoms. Participants starting with more support for diabetes management from family and friends improved HbA1c significantly more over six months than those with less support, independent of additional significant DSME/S intervention-associated HbA1c improvements. Social support from family and friends may improve glycemic control in ways additive to DSME/S. PMID:26234800

  13. Symptoms of depression in people with impaired glucose metabolism or Type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adriaanse, M C; Dekker, J M; Heine, R. J.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the prevalence and risk factors of depressive symptoms, comparing subjects with normal glucose metabolism (NGM), impaired glucose metabolism (IGM) or Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Cross-sectional data from a population-based cohort study conducted.......28] and women with DM2 (OR = 3.18, 95% CI = 1.31 to 7.74). In men, depression was not associated with IGM (OR = 0.90, 95% CI = 0.32 to 2.57) and non-significantly more common in DM2 (OR = 2.04, 95% CI = 0.75 to 5.49). Adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors, cardiovascular disease and diabetes symptoms....... RESULTS: The prevalence of depressive symptoms in men with NGM, IGM and DM2 was 7.7, 7.0 and 15.0% (P = 0.19) and for women 7.7, 23.1 and 19.7% (P

  14. Sitagliptin–Moringa oleifera coadministration did not delay the progression nor ameliorated functional and morphological anomalies in alloxan-induced diabetic nephropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olurishe, Comfort Omoigemete; Kwanashie, Helen Ochuko; Zezi, Abdulkadiri Umar; Danjuma, Nuhu Mohammed; Mohammed, Bisalla

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Sitagliptin (ST) and Moringa oleifera (MO) Lam (Moringaceae) are used concomitantly by diabetic patients, with no study ascertaining for potential favorable or otherwise renal implications. We investigated the effect of coadministration of ST and MO leaf extract on functional and morphological biomarkers of alloxan-induced diabetic nephropathy (DN). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Diabetes was induced with a single dose of 150 mg/kg of alloxan intraperitoneally. Seven groups of eight rats per group were used, with Groups I, II, and VII as normal (NS), diabetic control (DC), and postprandial controls. Groups III, IV, V, and VI were diabetic rats on ST, MO, ST and MO (SM), for 42 days with 2 weeks delayed treatment in a postprandial hyperglycemic group (PPSM), respectively. Serum urea, albumin, electrolyte levels, lipid profile, and kidney tropism were determined in addition to histological examinations. RESULTS: There was a significant increase (P < 0.05) in kidney tropism comparing all drug-treated groups and DC to normal rats. Significant increases in serum urea were observed (P = 0.02) in DC, MO-treated, and SM-treated rats compared to normal rats and also in serum triglyceride (P < 0.05) in MO-treated and SM-treated rats compared to controls and other drug-treated groups. A mild reduction in severity of pathologic lesions was observed (glomerulosclerosis Grade 1) in SM-treated rats compared to a marked necrosis in DC (Grade 3). CONCLUSION: The coadministration of ST–MO did not delay the progression of functional anomalies and renal injury nor ameliorated the lesions associated with chronic DN in Wistar rats. PMID:29515277

  15. Effects of Berberine on Amelioration of Hyperglycemia and Oxidative Stress in High Glucose and High Fat Diet-Induced Diabetic Hamsters In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cong Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of berberine on amelioration of hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia and the mechanism involved in high glucose and high fat diet-induced diabetic hamsters. Golden hamsters fed with high glucose and high fat diet were medicated with metformin, simvastatin, and low or high dose of berberine (50 and 100 mg·kg−1 for 6 weeks. The results showed that the body weights were significantly lower in berberine-treated groups than control group. Histological analyses revealed that the treatment of berberine inhibited hepatic fat accumulation. Berberine significantly reduced plasma total cholesterol, triglyceride, free fatty acid, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, malondialdehyde, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance, and 8-isoprostane level but significantly increased plasma superoxide dismutase activity. Glucose and insulin levels were significantly reduced in metformin and berberine-treated groups. Glucose tolerance tests documented that berberine-treated mice were more glucose tolerant. Berberine treatment increased expression of skeletal muscle glucose transporter 4 mRNA and significantly decreased liver low density lipoprotein receptor mRNA expression. The study suggested that berberine was effective in lowering blood glucose and lipids levels, reducing the body weight, and alleviating the oxidative stress in diabetic hamsters, which might be beneficial in reducing the cardiovascular risk factors in diabetes.

  16. Clinical questionnaire study of oral health care and symptoms in diabetic vs. non-diabetic predialysis chronic kidney disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesterinen, Maarit; Ruokonen, Hellevi; Furuholm, Jussi; Honkanen, Eero; Meurman, Jukka H

    2012-04-01

    This paper aims to study oral symptoms (burning mouth sensation, xerostomia, dysphagia, and dysgeusia) and background characteristics among chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. The hypothesis was that patients experience oral discomfort and show interest towards dental care differently depending on the origin of their kidney disease. One hundred thirty-eight CKD patients at predialysis stage (94 men, 44 women, mean age 54 years) at the Helsinki University Central Hospital participated in the study. The patients were divided into a diabetic nephropathy group and a group of patients with other kidney diseases. The patients had a clinical oral examination and filled in a structured questionnaire. The data were analyzed and compared between the groups (SPSS for Windows version 15.0). T test was used for parameters normally distributed while binomial data were analyzed with cross-tabulations and chi-square test. Contrary to our study hypothesis, no statistically significant differences were seen in the questionnaire study between the diabetic vs. non-diabetic CKD patients in any other study parameter except in the use of medication (10 ± 2.3 vs. 8 ± 3.1 drugs daily, p patients investigated (41.7% in diabetic, 48.2% in non-diabetic patients). No difference was seen in the frequency of oral discomfort among the different groups of predialysis patients investigated. Clinicians should be aware of nephropathy patients who frequently suffer from oral discomfort, particularly xerostomia.

  17. MicroRNA-133b Ameliorates Allergic Inflammation and Symptom in Murine Model of Allergic Rhinitis by Targeting Nlrp3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Lifeng; Jiang, Li; Hu, Qi; Li, Yuru

    2017-01-01

    Emerging evidences indicate that post-transcriptional regulation by microRNAs is critical in allergic rhinitis (AR) pathogenesis. MircroRNA-133b (miR-133b) was recently suggested as a potential predictor of AR. However, the in vivo effect of miR-133b on AR is unclear. AR model was established in BALB/c mice by intraperitoneal sensitization and intranasal challenge with ovalbumin (OVA). MiR-133b agomir was then intranasally administrated to mice after OVA challenge for another 7 days. The symptom of nasal rubbing and sneezing were recorded after the last OVA challenge. Nasal mucosa tissues and serum were collected. MiR-133b expression, serum OVA-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) concentration, proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10 and IFN-γ) levels, and Nlrp3 inflammasome activation were measured by RT-PCR, ELISA, western blotting or immunohistochemistry, respectively. Histopathologic changes were evaluated using hematoxylin and eosin and Sirius red staining. The luciferase activity and protein expression of Nlrp3 were also determined. MiR-133b expression was significantly decreased in nasal mucosa of AR mice, which was restored by nasal administration with miR-133b agomir. Upregulation of miR-133b markedly reduced the concentration of OVA-specific IgE, the frequencies of nasal rubbing and sneezing, and the levels of cytokines (TNF-α, IL-4, IL-5 and IFN-γ). Levels of IL-4, IL-5, IL-10 and IFN-γ produced by cervical lymph node cells were significantly lowered in miR-133b agomir-treated mice. Moreover, miR-133b also appeared to strongly attenuate pathological alterations and eosinophils and mast cells infiltration in nasal mucosa. Notably, we demonstrated for the first time that miR-133b negatively regulated Nlrp3 expression through binding with the 3' untranslated region of Nlrp3. Consequently, infection of miR-133b in nasal mucosa remarkably suppressed the Nlrp3 inflammasome activation, as evidenced by reduced Nlrp3, Caspase-1, ASC, IL-18 and IL-1

  18. Dioscorea quinqueloba Ameliorates Oxazolone- and 2,4-Dinitrochlorobenzene-induced Atopic Dermatitis Symptoms in Murine Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonghwan Jegal

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Dioscorea quinqueloba has been used for food substances, as well as in herbal medicines for allergic diseases such as asthma. This study aimed to investigate the anti-atopic dermatitis (AD effects of the total extract of D. quinqueloba rhizomes and active fractionson murine oxazolone- and 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene-induced models of AD. Specific AD symptoms, such as erythema, ear swelling, and epidermis thickening, were significantly reduced in the oxazolone-mediated AD BALB/c mice upon topical application of D. quinqueloba rhizomes 95% EtOH extract (DQ. DQEA (D. quinqueloba rhizomes EtOAc fraction was beneficial for protecting the skin barrier against AD in DNCB-sensitized SKH-1 hairless mice. Decreased total serum IgE and IL-4 levels could be observed in atopic dorsal skin samples of the DQEA-treated group. On the basis of the phytochemical analysis, DQEA was found to contain dioscin and gracillin as its main compounds. Therapeutic applications with D. quinqueloba might be useful in the treatment of AD and related inflammatory skin diseases.

  19. Healing by Gentle Touch Ameliorates Stress and Other Symptoms in People Suffering with Mental Health Disorders or Psychological Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare Weze

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies on healing by gentle touch in clients with various illnesses indicated substantial improvements in psychological well-being, suggesting that this form of treatment might be helpful for people with impaired quality of mental health. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of healing by gentle touch in subjects with self-reported impairments in their psychological well-being or mental health. One hundred and forty-seven clients who identified themselves as having psychological problems received four treatment sessions. Pre- to post-treatment changes in psychological and physical functioning were assessed by self-completed questionnaires which included visual analogue scales (VAS and the EuroQoL (EQ-5D. Participants recorded reductions in stress, anxiety and depression scores and increases in relaxation and ability to cope scores (all P < 0.0004. Improvements were greatest in those with the most severe symptoms initially. This open study provides strong circumstantial evidence that healing by gentle touch is safe and effective in improving psychological well-being in participants with self-reported psychological problems, and also that it safely complements standard medical treatment. Controlled trials are warranted.

  20. Ameliorative Effect of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles on Antioxidants and Sperm Characteristics in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rat Testes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, Mohamed; Almaghrabi, Omar A.; Kadasa, Naif Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the impact of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) on the oxidative status and sperm characteristics in diabetic rat testicular tissue. Forty male albino rats were used in this study; 10 of them served as a control and 30 rats were injected with a single dose (100 mg/kg) of streptozotocin intraperitoneally. They were subdivided into diabetic, diabetic + ZnONPs (10 mg/kg B.W.), and diabetic and cotreated with ZnONPs + insulin groups. The sperm count and motility were assessed. The activity and mRNA expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GRD), and Glutathion-S-Transferase (GST) were determined in the testicular tissue. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels were estimated in the testicular tissue. Sperm count and motility increased in ZnONPs treated diabetic rats. A significant increase in the activity and mRNA expression of SOD, CAT, GPx, GRD, and GST was shown in ZnONPs treated diabetic rats. MDA significantly decreased, while GSH increased in testicular tissue of ZnONPs treated diabetic rats. It was concluded that ZnONPs either alone or in combination with insulin have the ability to increase the sperm count and motility and protect the testicular tissue against the oxidative stress induced by diabetes in rats. PMID:26581756

  1. Direct Angiotensin II Type 2 Receptor Stimulation Ameliorates Insulin Resistance in Type 2 Diabetes Mice with PPARγ Activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohshima, Kousei; Mogi, Masaki; Jing, Fei

    2012-01-01

    The role of angiotensin II type 2 (AT(2)) receptor stimulation in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance is still unclear. Therefore we examined the possibility that direct AT(2) receptor stimulation by compound 21 (C21) might contribute to possible insulin-sensitizing/anti-diabetic effects in type...... 2 diabetes (T2DM) with PPARγ activation, mainly focusing on adipose tissue....

  2. A Web-Based Public Health Intervention to Reduce Functional Impairment and Depressive Symptoms in Adults With Type 2 Diabetes (The SpringboarD Trial): Randomized Controlled Trial Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proudfoot, Judy; Clarke, Janine; Gunn, Jane; Fletcher, Susan; Sanatkar, Samineh; Wilhelm, Kay; Campbell, Lesley; Zwar, Nicholas; Harris, Mark; Lapsley, Helen; Hadzi-Pavlovic, Dusan; Christensen, Helen

    2017-08-03

    depressive symptoms. With the increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes and depression, a potentially scalable public health intervention could play a very large role in reducing unmet mental health need and ameliorating the personal and societal impact of illness comorbidity. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR) Number: ACTRN12615000931572; https://www.anzctr.org.au/Trial/Registration/TrialReview.aspx?id=368109 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/ 6rh3imVMh). ©Judy Proudfoot, Janine Clarke, Jane Gunn, Susan Fletcher, Samineh Sanatkar, Kay Wilhelm, Lesley Campbell, Nicholas Zwar, Mark Harris, Helen Lapsley, Dusan Hadzi-Pavlovic, Helen Christensen. Originally published in JMIR Research Protocols (http://www.researchprotocols.org), 03.08.2017.

  3. Association between Depressive Symptoms and Cognitive Function in Persons with Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia M Danna

    Full Text Available Depression and diabetes are independent risk factors for one another, and both are associated with increased risk of cognitive decline. Diabetes patients with lower cognitive function are more likely to suffer poorer health outcomes. However, the role of depression in cognitive decline among people with diabetes is not well understood. This systematic review assessed whether adults with comorbid diabetes and depression or depressive symptoms exhibit greater cognitive decline relative to individuals with diabetes alone. Searches were run in CINAHL, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and PubMed (MEDLINE with no time or language restrictions. Studies were eligible for inclusion if they were of any quantitative study design, included participants aged 18 years or older with diabetes mellitus of which some must have presented with current depression, and measured cognition as an outcome. The Cochrane Collaboration's Risk Of Bias In Non-randomized Studies-of Interventions tool was used for quality assessment of each study and its collected outcome. Fifteen articles were included in the final analysis. The high degree of heterogeneity in exposures, outcomes, and participant characteristics precluded a meta-analysis of any of the studies, and the risk of bias observed in these studies limits the strength of the evidence. Nonetheless, this review found the presence of comorbid depression was associated with poorer cognitive outcomes than for persons with diabetes alone. While large-scale preventive efforts must address epidemic levels of diabetes and its comorbidities, on the patient level healthcare professionals must be cognizant of the added difficulties that depression poses to patients and the extra support required to management diabetes in these cases. This systematic review is registered with the University of York Centre for Reviews and Dissemination under registration number 2015:CRD42015025122.

  4. Association between Depressive Symptoms and Cognitive Function in Persons with Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danna, Sofia M; Graham, Eva; Burns, Rachel J; Deschênes, Sonya S; Schmitz, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    Depression and diabetes are independent risk factors for one another, and both are associated with increased risk of cognitive decline. Diabetes patients with lower cognitive function are more likely to suffer poorer health outcomes. However, the role of depression in cognitive decline among people with diabetes is not well understood. This systematic review assessed whether adults with comorbid diabetes and depression or depressive symptoms exhibit greater cognitive decline relative to individuals with diabetes alone. Searches were run in CINAHL, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and PubMed (MEDLINE) with no time or language restrictions. Studies were eligible for inclusion if they were of any quantitative study design, included participants aged 18 years or older with diabetes mellitus of which some must have presented with current depression, and measured cognition as an outcome. The Cochrane Collaboration's Risk Of Bias In Non-randomized Studies-of Interventions tool was used for quality assessment of each study and its collected outcome. Fifteen articles were included in the final analysis. The high degree of heterogeneity in exposures, outcomes, and participant characteristics precluded a meta-analysis of any of the studies, and the risk of bias observed in these studies limits the strength of the evidence. Nonetheless, this review found the presence of comorbid depression was associated with poorer cognitive outcomes than for persons with diabetes alone. While large-scale preventive efforts must address epidemic levels of diabetes and its comorbidities, on the patient level healthcare professionals must be cognizant of the added difficulties that depression poses to patients and the extra support required to management diabetes in these cases. This systematic review is registered with the University of York Centre for Reviews and Dissemination under registration number 2015:CRD42015025122.

  5. Extract of Woodfordia fruticosa flowers ameliorates hyperglycemia, oxidative stress and improves β-cell function in streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arya, Aditya; Al-Obaidi, Mazen M Jamil; Karim, Rustini Binti; Taha, Hairin; Khan, Ataul Karim; Shahid, Nayiar; Sayem, Abu Sadat; Looi, Chung Yeng; Mustafa, Mohd Rais; Mohd, Mustafa Ali; Ali, Hapipah Mohd

    2015-12-04

    The art of Ayurveda and the traditional healing system in India have reflected the ethnomedicinal importance of the plant Woodfordia fruticosa Kurtz, which demonstrates its vast usage in the Ayurvedic preparations as well as in the management of diabetes by the traditional healers. The study aimed to ascertain the antidiabetic potential of W. fruticosa flower methanolic extract (WF) on Streptozotocin (STZ)-nicotinamide-induced diabetic rat model. Diabetes was induced in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats by STZ-nicotinamide and thereafter diabetic rats were treated with three different doses of WF (100, 200 and 400mg/kg body weight) respectively and glibenclamide as a positive control. Biochemical parameters such as blood glucose, serum insulin and C-peptide levels were measured with oxidative stress markers. Furthermore, histology of liver and pancreas was carried out to evaluate glycogen content and β-cell structures. Moreover, immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis were performed on kidney and pancreas tissues to determine renal Bcl-2, pancreatic insulin and glucose transporter (GLUT-2, 4) protein expression in all the experimental groups. The acute toxicity study showed non-toxic nature of all the three doses of WF. Further, studies on diabetic rats exhibited anti-hyperglycemic effects by upregulating serum insulin and C-peptide levels. Similarly, WF shown to ameliorate oxidative stress by downregulating LPO levels and augmenting the antioxidant enzyme (ABTS). Furthermore, histopathological analysis demonstrate recovery in the structural degeneration of β-cells mass of pancreas tissue with increase in the liver glycogen content of the diabetic rats. Interestingly, protective nature of the extract was further revealed by the immunohistochemical study result which displayed upregulation in the insulin and renal Bcl-2 expression, the anti apoptosis protein. Moreover, western blot result have shown slight alteration in the GLUT-2 and GLUT-4 protein expression with

  6. Ameliorative potential of S-allylcysteine: effect on lipid profile and changes in tissue fatty acid composition in experimental diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanan, Ganapathy; Ponmurugan, Ponnusamy

    2012-09-01

    Hyperlipidemia is an associated complication of diabetes mellitus. The association of hyperglycemia with an alteration of lipid parameters presents a major risk for cardiovascular complications in diabetes. The present study was designed to examine the antihyperlipidemic effect of S-allylcysteine (SAC) in STZ induced diabetic rats. The levels of blood glucose, cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), free fatty acids, phospholipids and fatty acid composition were estimated in the liver and kidneys of control and experimental groups of rats. Oral administration of SAC at a dose of 150 mg/kg bodyweight per day to STZ-induced diabetic rats for a period of 45 days resulted in a significant reduction in fasting blood glucose, TC, TG, free fatty acids, phospholipids, LDL-C, VLDL-C and elevation of HDL-C in comparison with diabetic control group. Oral administration of SAC to diabetic rats also decreased the concentrations of fatty acids, viz., palmitic, stearic (16:1), and oleic acid (18:1), whereas linolenic (18:3) and arachidonic acid (20:4) were elevated. The antihyperlipidemic effect of SAC was compared with glyclazide; a well-known antihyperglycemic drug. The result of the present study indicates that SAC showed an antihyperlipidemic effect in addition to its antidiabetic effect in experimental diabetes. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. A Cross-sectional Study of Depressive Symptoms and Diabetes Self-Care in African Americans and Hispanics/Latinos with Diabetes: The Role of Self-efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Rosalba; Ruggiero, Laurie; Prohaska, Thomas R.; Chavez, Noel; Boughton, Seth W.; Peacock, Nadine; Zhao, Weihan; Nouwen, Arie

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between depressive symptoms and diabetes self-care in African American and Hispanic/Latino patients with type 2 diabetes and whether the association (if any) is mediated by diabetes-related self-efficacy. Methods The sample included self-report baseline data of African American and Hispanic/Latino patients with type 2 diabetes aged ≥18 years enrolled in a diabetes self-management intervention study. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire. The Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities measured engagement in healthy eating, physical activity, blood glucose checking, foot care, and smoking. The Diabetes Empowerment Scale-Short Form assessed diabetes-related psychosocial self-efficacy. Indirect effects were examined using the Baron and Kenny regression technique and Sobel testing. Results Sample characteristics (n=250) were: Mean age of 53 years; 68% female; 54% African American; 74% with income Self-efficacy served a significant mediational role in the relation between depression and foot care among African Americans. Conclusions Self-efficacy mediated the relationship between depression and foot care in the African American group, but was not found to be a mediator of any self-care areas within the Hispanic/Latino group. In clinical practice, alleviation of depressive symptoms may improve self-care behavior adherence. Diabetes education may consider inclusion of components to build self-efficacy related to diabetes self-care, especially among African American patients. PMID:27324747

  8. Ameliorative potential of Vigna mungo seeds on hyperglycemia mediated oxidative stress and hyperlipidemia in STZ diabetic rats

    OpenAIRE

    Jangra Meenu; Sunil Sharma; Manoj Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Ethnomedicinally the seeds of Vigna mungo are used as cooling astringent, diet during fever, poultice for abscesses, soap alternative. The increased oxidative stress plays an important role in the etiology and pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus and its various complications. This study was designed to examine the effect of hydroalcoholic extract (VME) of V. mungo seeds on STZ-diabetic rats by measuring glycemia, lipid profile, and lipid peroxidation parameters (MDA, PCO, and GSH) and antioxida...

  9. The neurosurvival factor Humanin inhibits beta cell apoptosis via Stat3 activation and delays and ameliorates diabetes in NOD mice

    OpenAIRE

    Hoang, P. T.; Park, P.; Cobb, L. J.; Paharkova-Vatchkova, V.; Hakimi, M.; Cohen, P.; Lee, K.-W.

    2009-01-01

    Pancreatic beta cell apoptosis is important in the pathogenesis and potential treatment of Type 1 diabetes. We investigated whether Humanin, a recently described survival factor for neurons, could improve the survival of beta cells and delay or treat diabetes in the NOD model. Humanin reduced apoptosis induced by serum starvation in NIT-1 cells and decreased apoptosis induced by cytokine treatment. Humanin induced Stat3 and ERK phosphorylation over a 24 hour time course. Specific inhibition o...

  10. Activation of the EPOR-β common receptor complex by cibinetide ameliorates impaired wound healing in mice with genetic diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitto, Alessandra; Irrera, Natasha; Pizzino, Gabriele; Pallio, Giovanni; Mannino, Federica; Vaccaro, Mario; Arcoraci, Vincenzo; Aliquò, Federica; Minutoli, Letteria; Colonna, Michele R; Galeano, Maria Rosaria; Brines, Michael; De Ponte, Chiara; Collino, Massimo; Squadrito, Francesco; Altavilla, Domenica

    2018-02-01

    Diabetes is characterized by poor wound healing which currently lacks an efficacious treatment. The innate repair receptor (IRR) is a master regulator of tissue protection and repair which is expressed as a response injury or metabolic stress, including in diabetes. Activation of the IRR might provide benefit for diabetic wound healing. A specific IRR agonist cibinetide was administered in an incisional wound healing model performed mice with genetic diabetes (db + /db + ) and compared to the normal wild-type. Animals were treated daily with cibinetide (30μg/kg/s.c.) or vehicle and euthanized 3, 7, and 14days after the injury to quantitate vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), malondialdehyde (MAL), phospho-Akt (pAkt), phospho e-NOS (p-eNOS), and nitrite/nitrate content within the wound. Additional evaluations included quantification of skin histological change, angiogenesis, scar strength, and time to complete wound closure. Throughout the wound healing process diabetic animals treated with vehicle exhibited increased wound MAL with reduced VEGF, pAkt, peNOS and nitrite/nitrate, all associated with poor re-epitheliziation, angiogenesis, and wound breaking strength. Cibenitide administration significantly improved these abnormalities. The results suggest that cibinetide-mediated IRR activation may represent an interesting strategy to treat diabetes-associated wound healing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The neurosurvival factor Humanin inhibits beta cell apoptosis via Stat3 activation and delays and ameliorates diabetes in NOD mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, P. T.; Park, P.; Cobb, L. J.; Paharkova-Vatchkova, V.; Hakimi, M.; Cohen, P.; Lee, K.-W.

    2010-01-01

    Pancreatic beta cell apoptosis is important in the pathogenesis and potential treatment of Type 1 diabetes. We investigated whether Humanin, a recently described survival factor for neurons, could improve the survival of beta cells and delay or treat diabetes in the NOD model. Humanin reduced apoptosis induced by serum starvation in NIT-1 cells and decreased apoptosis induced by cytokine treatment. Humanin induced Stat3 and ERK phosphorylation over a 24 hour time course. Specific inhibition of Stat3 resulted in nullifying the protective effect of Humanin. Humanin normalized glucose tolerance in diabetic NOD mice treated for 6-weeks and their pancreata revealed decreased lymphocyte infiltration and severity. In addition, Humanin delayed/prevented the onset of diabetes in NOD mice treated for 20 weeks. In summary, Humanin treatment decreases cytokine-induced apoptosis in beta cells in vitro and improved glucose tolerance and onset of diabetes in NOD mice in vivo. This indicates that Humanin may be useful for islet protection and survival in a spectrum of diabetes-related therapeutics. PMID:19800083

  12. Symptoms of depression and anxiety in youth with type 1 diabetes: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchberger, Barbara; Huppertz, Hendrik; Krabbe, Laura; Lux, Beate; Mattivi, Jessica T; Siafarikas, Aris

    2016-08-01

    The interaction between psychosocial factors and type 1 diabetes is complex and screening for psychosocial risk factors from diagnosis of type 1 diabetes has been recommended. This is a systematic review and meta-analysis to address the following questions: (1) How prevalent are symptoms of depression and anxiety in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes? (2) Is there an association of symptoms of depression and anxiety with diabetes management and glycemic control? We searched EMBASE, MEDLINE, The Cochrane Library, and PsycINFO in April 2014 with an update in May 2015. When possible, data were pooled to estimate summary effects. 14 studies investigated symptoms of depression and anxiety in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes. The pooled prevalence of depressive symptoms was 30.04%, 95% CI [16.33; 43.74]. There were correlations between symptom levels and glycemic control as well as three-way interactions between HbA1c, blood glucose monitoring frequency or diabetes-specific stress and depression. Symptoms of anxiety were reported for up to 32% of patients. A negative impact on glycemic control was demonstrated. Our analyses confirmed a high prevalence of symptoms of depression and anxiety in youth with type 1 diabetes that potentially compromise diabetes management and glycemic control. In our opinion these findings support recommendations for early screening for psychological comorbidity and regular psychosocial assessment from diagnosis. Future prospective studies are warranted to further explore the interaction of symptoms of depression and anxiety with type 1 diabetes and develop evidence-based treatment models. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. High-Salt Intake Ameliorates Hyperglycemia and Insulin Resistance in WBN/Kob-Leprfa/fa Rats: A New Model of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiichi Takagi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available High-salt intake is a major risk factor for developing hypertension in type 2 diabetes mellitus, but its effects on glucose homeostasis are controversial. We previously found that high-salt intake induces severe hypertension in WBN/Kob diabetic fatty (WBKDF rats. In the present study, we examined the effects of a high-salt intake on glucose homeostasis in WBKDF rats. Male WBKDF rats and age-matched Wistar rats at 6 weeks of age were each divided into two groups and fed either a normal-sodium (NS, 0.26% diet or high-sodium (HS, 8% diet for 7 weeks. Systolic blood pressure and urine volume were increased in WBKDF-HS and Wistar-HS. Body weight gain and food consumption were comparable between NS and HS in both strains. Plasma and urine glucose levels were significantly increased in WBKDF-NS but not in WBKDF-HS. HOMA-IR in WBKDF-HS was significantly lower compared with that in WBKDF-NS. The high plasma adiponectin level in WBKDF-NS compared with that in Wistar-NS was further enhanced in WBKDF-HS. Glycogen deposits and fat droplets in the livers of WBKDF-HS were reduced compared with those of WBKDF-NS. The present study demonstrated that HS intake ameliorated hyperglycemia and insulin resistance in WBKDF rats, which may be due to increased plasma levels of adiponectin.

  14. Diabetes distress is more strongly associated with HbA1c than depressive symptoms in adolescents with type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagger, Virginia; Hendrieckx, Christel; Cameron, Fergus

    2018-01-01

    depressive symptoms (Patient Health Questionnaire for Adolescents: PHQA-8), diabetes distress (Problem Areas in Diabetes-Teen version: PAID-T), and self-reported socio-demographic and clinical variables, including their most recent HbA1c. Stepwise hierarchical multiple regression was conducted to examine...

  15. [Case of distal renal tubular acidosis complicated with renal diabetes insipidus, showing aggravation of symptoms with occurrence of diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hexing; Tomoda, Fumihiro; Koike, Tsutomu; Ohara, Maiko; Nakagawa, Taizo; Kagitani, Satoshi; Inoue, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    We report herein a 27-year-old male case of inherited distal renal tubular acidosis complicated with renal diabetes insipidus, the symptoms of which were aggravated by the occurrence of diabetes mellitus. At 2 months after birth, he was diagnosed as having inherited distal renal tubular acidosis and thereafter supplementation of both potassium and alkali was started to treat his hypokalemia and metabolic acidosis. At the age of 4 years, calcification of the bilateral renal medulla was detected by computed tomography. Subsequently his urinary volume gradually increased and polyuria of approximately 4 L/day persisted. At the age of 27 years, he became fond of sugar-sweetened drinks and also often forgot to take the medicine. He was admitted to our hospital due to polyuria of more than 10 L day, muscle weakness and gait disturbance. Laboratory tests disclosed worsening of both hypokalemia and metabolic acidosis in addition to severe hyperglycemia. It seemed likely that occurrence of diabetes mellitus and cessation of medications can induce osmotic diuresis and aggravate hypokalemia and metabolic acidosis. Consequently, severe dehydration, hypokalemia-induced damage of his urinary concentration ability and enhancement of the renin angiotensin system occurred and thereby possibly worsened his hypokalemia and metabolic acidosis. As normalization of hyperglycemia and metabolic acidosis might have exacerbated hypokalemia further, dehydration and hypokalemia were treated first. Following intensive treatment, these abnormalities were improved, but polyuria persisted. Elevated plasma antidiuretic hormone (12.0 pg/mL) and deficit of renal responses to antidiuretic hormone suggested that the polyuria was attributable to the preexisting renal diabetes insipidus possibly caused by bilateral renal medulla calcification. Thiazide diuretic or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were not effective for the treatment of diabetes insipidus in the present case.

  16. Effects of exercise training on quality of life, symptoms of depression, symptoms of anxiety and emotional well-being in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Heijden, M M P; van Dooren, F E P; Pop, V J M; Pouwer, F

    2013-06-01

    Psychological problems are relatively common in people with type 2 diabetes. It is unclear whether exercise training exerts an effect on quality of life, symptoms of depression, symptoms of anxiety and emotional well-being in people with type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review to assess the effects of exercise training on these outcomes in people with type 2 diabetes. MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Embase and ClinicalTrials.gov databases were searched. The review included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of at least 4 weeks' duration in people with type 2 diabetes that evaluated the effect of exercise training on quality of life, symptoms of depression, symptoms of anxiety and/or emotional well-being compared with usual care. Of 1,261 retrieved articles, 20 RCTs were included with a total of 1,719 participants. Quality of life was assessed in 16 studies. Between-group comparisons showed no significant results for aerobic training with the exception of one study, and mixed results for resistance and combined training. Symptoms of depression were assessed in four studies. In only one study did the intervention decrease symptoms of depression. Emotional well-being was evaluated in four studies, which also showed conflicting results. Symptoms of anxiety were evaluated in one study, which showed a significant improvement. The effects of exercise training on psychological outcomes in people with type 2 diabetes are conflicting. Therefore, there is a need for further high-quality RCTs in order to gain greater insight into the role of exercise training in people with type 2 diabetes.

  17. The Aqueous Extract of Portulaca Oleracea Ameliorates Neurobehavioral Dysfunction and Hyperglycemia Related to Streptozotocin-Diabetes Induced in Ovariectomized Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatemi Tabatabaei, Seyed Reza; Rashno, Masome; Ghaderi, Shahab; Askaripour, Majid

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common causes of neuropathy. Although antioxidant and antidiabetic effects of the aqueous extract of purslane (Portulaca oleracea) (AEOP) have been demonstrated before by other researchers, we did not find any study that assessed the psychobiological effects of AEOP in diabetes induced animals. Thirty ovariectomized (OVX) female Wistar rats were randomly divided into 3 groups of control, Dia and Dia+AEOP. The latter group was orally treated by 300 mg/kg of AEOP for 35 days. Dia and Dia+AEOP groups were made diabetic by IP injection of 60 mg/kg of streptozotocin (STZ). The psychobiological effects of AEOP were assessed by Morris water maze (MWM), elevated plus maze (EPM), forced swimming test (FST) and tail pinch stressor (TPS). AEOP significantly decreased hyperglycemia (p0.05). Diabetes significantly increased their non-functional masticatory activity in TPS (p≤0.001) while it was improved in Dia+AEOP group. We showed that AEOP has significant anxiolytic effects and it can improve spatial cognitive performance, locomotor deficit and stress in diabetic OVX rats. PMID:27642327

  18. Obesity and symptoms suggestive of gastroparesis in patients with type 2 diabetes and neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boaz, Mona; Kislov, Julia; Dickman, Ram; Wainstein, Julio

    2011-01-01

    Associated with neuropathy, symptoms suggestive of gastroparesis are common in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and include nausea, vomiting, bloating and early satiety. Gastric motor abnormalities have been reported in obese patients, and obesity is associated with T2DM. An association between obesity and gastroparesis symptoms in diabetic patients with neuropathy has not been investigated. In this nested case-control study, 161 patients with neuropathy were identified from within a cross-sectional survey of 380 T2DM patients. Of these, 134 (83.2%, "cases") had at least one cardinal symptom suggestive of gastroparesis. The remaining symptom-free subjects served as controls. Logistic and general linear modeling was used to assess associations between obesity and the presence and number of symptoms. Subjects were 66.6±10 years of age. Cases were significantly more likely than controls to be obese (89% vs. 77%, P=.04), female (55.6% vs. 33.3%) and hypertensive (90.2% vs. 63%, P=.001) and to report adherence to diet (87.4% vs. 66.7%, P=.007). In a logistic regression model including sex, hypertension, antiaggregant therapy, adherence to diet therapy and an obesity-by-sex interaction term, obesity emerged as a significant independent predictor of any cardinal symptom suggestive of gastroparesis (odds ratio 9.86, 95% confidence interval 1.4-69.2, P=.02). Obesity was also identified as a significant independent predictor of number of cardinal symptoms suggestive of gastroparesis in the general linear model. Obese subjects reported significantly more early satiety (61.5% vs. 35.2%, P=.001), fullness (63.7% vs. 40.8%, P=.004), bloating (70.3% vs. 49.3%, P=.006) and abdominal distention (71.4 vs. 50.7%, P=.007) than nonobese subjects. Further, obese subjects reported more cardinal symptoms suggestive of gastroparesis symptoms (4.2±2.4 vs. 3.1±2.5, P=.01). Obesity emerged as a significant independent predictor of cardinal symptoms suggestive of gastroparesis

  19. Maternal treatment with short-chain fatty acids modulates the intestinal microbiota and immunity and ameliorates type 1 diabetes in the offspring.

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    James C Needell

    Full Text Available We recently hypothesized that the intestinal microbiota and the innate immune system play key roles in the mechanism of Kilham Rat Virus-induced type 1 diabetes in the LEW1.WR1 rat. We used this animal model to test the hypothesis that maternal therapy with short-chain fatty acids can modulate the intestinal microbiota and reverse virus-induced proinflammatory responses and type 1 diabetes in rat offspring. We observed that administration of short-chain fatty acids to rat breeders via drinking water prior to pregnancy and further treatment of the offspring with short-chain fatty acids after weaning led to disease amelioration. In contrast, rats that were administered short-chain fatty acids beginning at weaning were not protected from type 1 diabetes. Short-chain fatty acid therapy exerted a profound effect on the intestinal microbiome in the offspring reflected by a reduction and an increase in the abundances of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes taxa, respectively, on day 5 post-infection, and reversed virus-induced alterations in certain bacterial taxa. Principal component analysis and permutation multivariate analysis of variance tests further revealed that short-chain fatty acids induce a distinct intestinal microbiota compared with uninfected animals or rats that receive the virus only. Short-chain fatty acids downregulated Kilham Rat Virus-induced proinflammatory responses in the intestine. Finally, short-chain fatty acids altered the B and T cell compartments in Peyer's patches. These data demonstrate that short-chain fatty acids can reshape the intestinal microbiota and prevent virus-induced islet autoimmunity and may therefore represent a useful therapeutic strategy for disease prevention.

  20. Maternal treatment with short-chain fatty acids modulates the intestinal microbiota and immunity and ameliorates type 1 diabetes in the offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Needell, James C; Ir, Diana; Robertson, Charles E; Kroehl, Miranda E; Frank, Daniel N; Zipris, Danny

    2017-01-01

    We recently hypothesized that the intestinal microbiota and the innate immune system play key roles in the mechanism of Kilham Rat Virus-induced type 1 diabetes in the LEW1.WR1 rat. We used this animal model to test the hypothesis that maternal therapy with short-chain fatty acids can modulate the intestinal microbiota and reverse virus-induced proinflammatory responses and type 1 diabetes in rat offspring. We observed that administration of short-chain fatty acids to rat breeders via drinking water prior to pregnancy and further treatment of the offspring with short-chain fatty acids after weaning led to disease amelioration. In contrast, rats that were administered short-chain fatty acids beginning at weaning were not protected from type 1 diabetes. Short-chain fatty acid therapy exerted a profound effect on the intestinal microbiome in the offspring reflected by a reduction and an increase in the abundances of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes taxa, respectively, on day 5 post-infection, and reversed virus-induced alterations in certain bacterial taxa. Principal component analysis and permutation multivariate analysis of variance tests further revealed that short-chain fatty acids induce a distinct intestinal microbiota compared with uninfected animals or rats that receive the virus only. Short-chain fatty acids downregulated Kilham Rat Virus-induced proinflammatory responses in the intestine. Finally, short-chain fatty acids altered the B and T cell compartments in Peyer's patches. These data demonstrate that short-chain fatty acids can reshape the intestinal microbiota and prevent virus-induced islet autoimmunity and may therefore represent a useful therapeutic strategy for disease prevention.

  1. A1M Ameliorates Preeclampsia-Like Symptoms in Placenta and Kidney Induced by Cell-Free Fetal Hemoglobin in Rabbit.

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    Åsa Nääv

    Full Text Available Preeclampsia is one of the most serious pregnancy-related diseases and clinically manifests as hypertension and proteinuria after 20 gestational weeks. The worldwide prevalence is 3-8% of pregnancies, making it the most common cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Preeclampsia lacks an effective therapy, and the only "cure" is delivery. We have previously shown that increased synthesis and accumulation of cell-free fetal hemoglobin (HbF in the placenta is important in the pathophysiology of preeclampsia. Extracellular hemoglobin (Hb and its metabolites induce oxidative stress, which may lead to acute renal failure and vascular dysfunction seen in preeclampsia. The human endogenous protein, α1-microglobulin (A1M, removes cell-free heme-groups and induces natural tissue repair mechanisms. Exogenously administered A1M has been shown to alleviate the effects of Hb-induced oxidative stress in rat kidneys. Here we attempted to establish an animal model mimicking the human symptoms at stage two of preeclampsia by administering species-specific cell-free HbF starting mid-gestation until term, and evaluated the therapeutic effect of A1M on the induced symptoms. Female pregnant rabbits received HbF infusions i.v. with or without A1M every second day from gestational day 20. The HbF-infused animals developed proteinuria and a significantly increased glomerular sieving coefficient in kidney that was ameliorated by co-administration of A1M. Transmission electron microscopy analysis of kidney and placenta showed both intracellular and extracellular tissue damages after HbF-treatment, while A1M co-administration resulted in a significant reduction of the structural and cellular changes. Neither of the HbF-treated animals displayed any changes in blood pressure during pregnancy. In conclusion, infusion of cell-free HbF in the pregnant rabbits induced tissue damage and organ failure similar to those seen in preeclampsia, and was restored by co

  2. A1M Ameliorates Preeclampsia-Like Symptoms in Placenta and Kidney Induced by Cell-Free Fetal Hemoglobin in Rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nääv, Åsa; Erlandsson, Lena; Axelsson, Josefin; Larsson, Irene; Johansson, Martin; Wester-Rosenlöf, Lena; Mörgelin, Matthias; Casslén, Vera; Gram, Magnus; Åkerström, Bo; Hansson, Stefan R

    2015-01-01

    Preeclampsia is one of the most serious pregnancy-related diseases and clinically manifests as hypertension and proteinuria after 20 gestational weeks. The worldwide prevalence is 3-8% of pregnancies, making it the most common cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Preeclampsia lacks an effective therapy, and the only "cure" is delivery. We have previously shown that increased synthesis and accumulation of cell-free fetal hemoglobin (HbF) in the placenta is important in the pathophysiology of preeclampsia. Extracellular hemoglobin (Hb) and its metabolites induce oxidative stress, which may lead to acute renal failure and vascular dysfunction seen in preeclampsia. The human endogenous protein, α1-microglobulin (A1M), removes cell-free heme-groups and induces natural tissue repair mechanisms. Exogenously administered A1M has been shown to alleviate the effects of Hb-induced oxidative stress in rat kidneys. Here we attempted to establish an animal model mimicking the human symptoms at stage two of preeclampsia by administering species-specific cell-free HbF starting mid-gestation until term, and evaluated the therapeutic effect of A1M on the induced symptoms. Female pregnant rabbits received HbF infusions i.v. with or without A1M every second day from gestational day 20. The HbF-infused animals developed proteinuria and a significantly increased glomerular sieving coefficient in kidney that was ameliorated by co-administration of A1M. Transmission electron microscopy analysis of kidney and placenta showed both intracellular and extracellular tissue damages after HbF-treatment, while A1M co-administration resulted in a significant reduction of the structural and cellular changes. Neither of the HbF-treated animals displayed any changes in blood pressure during pregnancy. In conclusion, infusion of cell-free HbF in the pregnant rabbits induced tissue damage and organ failure similar to those seen in preeclampsia, and was restored by co-administration of A

  3. The Comorbid Influence of High Depressive Symptoms and Diabetes on Mortality and Disability in Mexican Americans Aged 75 and Above

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    Brian Downer PhD

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To examine the individual and combined effects of depression and diabetes on mortality and disability over 6 years among Mexican Americans aged ≥75. Method: The final sample included 1,785 participants from the Hispanic Established Population for the Epidemiological Study of the Elderly. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate the hazard ratios for incidence for mortality and disability according to diabetes and depressive symptoms. Results: Diabetics were more likely to become activities of daily living (ADL disabled Hazard Ratio (HR = 1.44, 95% confidence interval [CI] = [1.18, 1.77] and deceased (HR = 1.47, 95% CI = [1.24, 1.74] compared with non-diabetics. Diabetics reporting high depressive symptomatology were more than two times as likely to become ADL disabled and deceased compared with diabetics not reporting high depressive symptoms. Participants with high depressive symptoms and taking insulin alone or both oral medications and insulin were at the greatest risk of disability (HR = 3.83, 95% CI = [1.66, 8.81]. Conclusion: Diabetes increases the risk of disability and mortality, especially among Mexican Americans with high depressive symptoms or who are taking insulin alone or both oral medications and insulin. Interventions that are able to reduce the prevalence of depression and diabetes are needed to limit the future burden of disability and mortality in this population.

  4. Chicory inulin ameliorates type 2 diabetes mellitus and suppresses JNK and MAPK pathways in vivo and in vitro.

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    Ning, Chong; Wang, Xiyao; Gao, Song; Mu, Jingjing; Wang, Yuehua; Liu, Suwen; Zhu, Jinyan; Meng, Xianjun

    2017-08-01

    Chicory inulin is a naturally occurring fructan that is conducive to glucose and lipid metabolism in patients with diabetes mellitus. This study aims to investigate the mechanism by which chicory inulin improves glucolipid metabolism in diabetic conditions. Rats were injected with streptozotocin and fed with high fat diet to induce diabetes, and then administrated with different doses of chicory inulin for 8 weeks. The glycometabolism and lipid metabolism parameters were determined, the activity of insulin receptor substrate (IRS) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways were examined by western blot. The effect of chicory inulin on glucose uptake of myoblast and hepatocyte were also measured in vitro. Data were analyzed by student's t-test or one-way analysis of variance followed by the Bonferroni post-hoc testing. The results showed that chicory inulin improved glucolipid metabolism, and it activated IRS but suppressed the MAPK pathways in vivo and in vitro. Our study demonstrates that chicory inulin, as a nutritional supplement, may be beneficial for the patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, and the metabolism-modulatory effect seems to be related with the inhibition of JNK and P38 MAPK pathways. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Depressive Symptoms in Women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: The LINDA-Brazil Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damé, Patrícia; Cherubini, Kadhija; Goveia, Pâmella; Pena, Geórgia; Galliano, Leony; Façanha, Cristina; Nunes, Maria Angélica

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the frequency and severity of depressive symptoms and their relationship with sociodemographic characteristics in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) who participated in the LINDA-Brazil study. We conducted cross-sectional analyses of 820 women with GDM who were receiving prenatal care in the public health system. We conducted structured interviews to obtain clinical and sociodemographic information and applied the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) to assess depressive symptoms. We classified the presence and severity of depressive symptoms using scores of ≥12 and ≥18, respectively. We used Poisson regression to estimate prevalence ratios (PR). Most of the women lived with a partner (88%), 50% were between 30 and 39 years old, 39% had finished high school, 39% had a family income of 1-2 minimum wages, and 47% were obese before their pregnancies. The presence of depressive symptoms was observed in 31% of the women, and severe depressive symptoms were observed in 10%; 8.3% reported self-harm intent. Lower parity and higher educational levels were associated with lower EPDS score. Depressive symptoms were common and frequently severe among women with GDM, indicating the need to consider this situation when treating such women, especially those who are more socially vulnerable. This trial is registered with NCT02327286, registered on 23 December 2014.

  6. Rhizoma Anemarrhenae extract ameliorates hyperglycemia and insulin resistance via activation of AMP-activated protein kinase in diabetic rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jun; Yang, Na; Zhang, Feng; Zhang, Chuan; Liang, Fengying; Xie, WeiFen; Chen, Wansheng

    2015-08-22

    Rhizoma Anemarrhenae has been used in Asian countries for thousands of years to treat diabetes. Insulin resistance (IR) is the primary cause responsible for type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to to assess the hypoglycemic and insulin sensitizing properties of Rhizoma Anemarrhenae extract (TFA) in animal models of insulin resistance and/or diabetes and to delineate modes of action. In-vivo studies were performed on STZ-induced diabetic mice and KK-Ay mice, the former of which were given the extract alone or in combination with insulin for 7 days, and the latter of which were given the extract for 8 consecutive weeks. Fasting blood glucose and serum insulin levels were measured. Pancreatic tissue sections were examined using transmission electron micrographs. Further, hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamping study was conducted in BCG vaccine-induced insulin resistance rats, and glucose infusion rate was examined. Mechanisms of action were investigated in 3T3-L1 and Hela cells using Western blot analysis. Our study showed that TFA enhanced the glucose-lowering effects of exogenous insulin administration in STZ-induced diabetic mice. Therapeutic administration of TFA significantly reduced fasting blood glucose, and serum insulin levels, and markedly increased the size and the number of insulin-producing beta cells in KK-Ay mice. Further, hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamping study showed that glucose infusion rate was significantly improved in TFA-treated BCG vaccine-induced insulin resistance rats. Study of mechanism of action revealed that TFA increased phosphorylation of AMPK and its downstream target, acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) in 3T3-L1 cells. It activates AMPK in a LKB1-independent manner, providing a unified explanation for the beneficial effects of TFA. This study that TFA mediates activation of AMPK and improves overall glucose and lipid metabolism in diabetic rodents, highlights the potential utility of TFA for the management of type 2 diabetes

  7. Protective potential of Averrhoa bilimbi fruits in ameliorating the hepatic key enzymes in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurup, Surya B; S, Mini

    2017-01-01

    Diabetes is a mutifactorial disease which leads to several complications. Currently available drug regimens for management of diabetes have certain drawbacks. Need for safer and effective medicines from natural sources having potent antidiabetic activity. Averrhoa bilimbi Linn. (Oxalidaceae) is a medicinal plant and is reported to possess hypoglycemic activity. To investigate the antidiabetic potential of Averrhoa bilimbi fruit extract in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced in male Sprague Dawley rats by single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ) (40mg/kg body weight). The diabetic rats were treated orally with ethyl acetate fraction of A. bilimbi fruits (ABE) (25mg/kg body weight) and metformin (100mg/kg body weight) by intragastric intubation for 60days. After 60days, the rats were sacrificed; blood, liver and pancreas were collected. Several indices such as blood glucose, plasma insulin, toxicity markers and the activities of carbohydrate-metabolizing enzymes were assayed. The phytochemicals present in the ABE was identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. ABE significantly (pdiabetic rats. ABE modulated the activities of carbohydrate-metabolizing enzymes, significantly increased the activities of hexokinase (59%) and pyruvate kinase (68%) and reduced the activities of glucose-6-phosphatase (32%) and fructose-1, 6-bisphosphatase (20%). The histological studies of the pancreas also supported our findings. The results were compared with metformin, a standard oral hypoglycemic drug. GC-MS analysis of ABE revealed the presence of 11 chemical constituents in the extract. ABE exerts its antidiabetic effect by promoting glucose metabolism via glycolysis and inhibiting hepatic endogenous glucose production via gluconeogenesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Maternal depressive symptoms predict adolescent healthcare utilization and charges in youth with type 1 diabetes (T1D).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Kyle M; Stewart, Sunita M; Wiebe, Deborah J; McConnel, Charles E; Hughes, Carroll W; White, Perrin C

    2013-09-01

    To examine whether maternal depressive symptoms predict diabetes-related health care utilization and charges in adolescents with Type 1 diabetes. Mothers of adolescents ages 11-18 with Type 1 diabetes completed the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale at enrollment and at 12-month follow-up. Demographic and disease-related variables, including HbA1c, were also assessed. Health care utilization data and charges for diabetes-related care (i.e., endocrine clinic visits, emergency room visits, and hospitalizations) for the period of 12 and 24 months following enrollment were assessed. Maternal depressive symptoms at enrollment predicted higher utilization/charges at 12- and 24-month follow-up, after controlling for demographic and disease-related variables and adolescent depressive symptoms. High maternal depressive symptoms at baseline were associated with $8,405 additional charges over the next 2 years. Adolescents of mothers with high depressive symptoms were twice as likely to have an emergency room visit and three times as likely to have a hospitalization. Maternal depressive symptoms are an independent predictor of health care utilization and charges in adolescents with Type 1 diabetes. Interventions aimed at identifying and treating depressive symptoms in mothers could not only enhance caregiver quality of life but could also be economically advantageous for payers and providers. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  9. Ethanol extract of mango (Mangifera indica L.) peel inhibits α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities, and ameliorates diabetes related biochemical parameters in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondi, Mahendranath; Prasada Rao, U J S

    2015-12-01

    Peel is a major by-product during processing of mango fruit into pulp. Recent report indicates that the whole peel powder ameliorated diabetes. In the present study, ethanolic extract of mango peel was analysed for its bioactive compounds, evaluated for α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory properties, oral glucose tolerance test, antioxidant properties, plasma insulin level and biochemical parameters related to diabetes. In addition to gallic and protocatechuic acids, the extract also had chlorogenic and ferulic acids, which were not reported earlier in mango peel extracts. The peel extract inhibited α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities, with IC50 values of 4.0 and 3.5 μg/ml. Ethanolic extract of peel showed better glucose utilization in oral glucose tolerance test. Treatment of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats with the extract decreased fasting blood glucose, fructosamine and glycated hemoglobin levels, and increased plasma insulin level. Peel extract treatment decreased malondialdehyde level, but increased the activities of antioxidant enzymes significantly in liver and kidney compared to diabetic rats. These beneficial effects were comparable to metformin, but better than gallic acid treated diabetic rats. The beneficial effects of peel extract may be through different mechanism like increased plasma insulin levels, decreased oxidative stress and inhibition of carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzyme activities by its bioactive compounds. Thus, results suggest that the peel extract can be a potential source of nutraceutical or can be used in functional foods and this is the first report on antidiabetic properties of mango peel extract.

  10. Prevalence and pattern of gastrointestinal symptoms in patients with diabetes mellitus

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    Hafiza Lona

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Gastrointestinal (GI disorders are contributor of increased morbidity and poor quality of life in individuals with diabetes mellitus (DM. Racial, nutritional and life style may influence GI disorders to a large extent. Thus, the burden of GI disorders and its determinants warrant investigation in individual population. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to explore the types of GI symptoms in Bangladeshi population with DM for more than 10 years of duration. Methodology: This observational study was conducted on patients with DM for more than 10 years of duration at the outpatient department of BIRDEM general hospital from July 2009 to June 2010. A total of 301 DM patients responded to self-reporting questionnaire (Bengali adaptation of Rome III diagnostic questionnaire. Then 91 participants were further studied for glycemic status, liver function, kidney function and basic defects of diabetes through homeostasis model assessment. Results: The median age of 301 study population was 55 years (range 25 to 84 years and the male female ratio was 1: 0.74. Out of 301 DM cases, 273 (90.7% had GI symptoms. Significantly (p<0.05 higher number of males (93.6% had GI symptoms compared to females (86.7%. Among the clinical conditions, unspecified functional bowel disorder (UFBD was present in 88.3% cases, followed by cyclic vomiting syndrome (38.1% and functional fecal incontinence (20.9%. Single GI symptom was present in 123 (45.1% cases while 32.6%, 12.5% and 9.9% had two, three and more than three GI symptoms respectively. No significant difference was found in any biochemical parameter between cases with and without GI symptoms. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed sex and residence as poor predictors of UFBD while other variables did not show any significant relation/risk to UFBD. Conclusion: A large proportion of patients with long duration of DM had GI symptoms. A comprehensive management of diabetes

  11. Diabetes induced testicular dysfunction amelioration by ethyl acetate fraction of hydromethanolic extract of root of Musa paradisiaca L. in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat

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    Kausik Chatterjee

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the diabetic therapeutic potentiality and antioxidative efficacy of ethyl acetate fraction of hydro-methanol (40:60 extract of root of Musa paradisiaca Lam. (Musaceae in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat. Methods: Streptozotocin-induced diabetic state was confirmed by decreased serum insulin level and carbohydrate metabolomics i.e. increased fasting blood glucose level, glycated hemoglobin level and diminished glycogen contents in liver and skeletal muscle. Reproductive homeostasis alteration in diabetes was evaluated by reproductive organo-somatic indices, sperm count, motility and histological analysis of testicular seminiferous tubule along with levels of serum testosterone, testicular cholesterol and seminal vesicular fructose assessment. Oxidative stress in primary and accessory sex organs, and in sperm pellet was assessed by measuring antioxidant enzyme activities along with quantification of free radicals products. Testicular pro-apoptotic Bax-毩 mRNA expression pattern was studied semi-quantitatively by PCR technique. Reverse phase HPLC fingerprinting was performed using methanol and acetonitrile as mobile phase. Results: Oral administration of ethyl acetate fraction at a dose of 20 mg/0.5 mL of distilled water/100 gm body weight twice daily to the diabetic rats for 28 days significantly recovered organo-somatic indices, protected reproductive activities, corrected oxidative stress markers and pro-apoptotic mRNA expression pattern, which were deviated in diabetes mellitus from control level without any type of toxicity. HPLC fingerprinting shows five completely resolved peaks at 毸 max 254 nm and 342 nm. Conclusions: It has a promising antihyperglycaemic and antioxidative activity for curing diabetes induced reproductive disorders in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat.

  12. Illness Perception and Depressive Symptoms among Persons with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: An Analytical Cross-Sectional Study in Clinical Settings in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Suira; Dhungana, Raja Ram; Subba, Usha Kiran

    2015-01-01

    Background. This study aimed to assess the relationship between illness perception and depressive symptoms among persons with diabetes. Method. This was an analytical cross-sectional study conducted among 379 type 2 diabetic patients from three major clinical settings of Kathmandu, Nepal. Results. The prevalence of depressive symptoms was 44.1% (95% CI: 39.1, 49.1). Females (p perception and depressive symptoms among diabetic patients. Study finding indicated that persons living with diabetes in Nepal need comprehensive diabetes education program for changing poor illness perception, which ultimately helps to prevent development of depressive symptoms.

  13. Ameliorative Effect of Saffron Aqueous Extract on Hyperglycemia, Hyperlipidemia, and Oxidative Stress on Diabetic Encephalopathy in Streptozotocin Induced Experimental Diabetes Mellitus

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    Saeed Samarghandian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic encephalopathy is one of the severe complications in patients with diabetes mellitus. Findings indicate that saffron extract has antioxidant properties but its underlying beneficial effects on diabetic encephalopathy were unclear. In the present study, the protective activities of saffron were evaluated in diabetic encephalopathy. Saffron at 40 and 80 mg/kg significantly increased body weight and serum TNF-α and decreased blood glucose levels, glycosylated serum proteins, and serum advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs levels. Furthermore, significant increase in HDL and decrease (P<0.05 in cholesterol, triglyceride, and LDL were observed after 28 days of treatment. At the end of experiments, the hippocampus tissue was used for determination of glutathione content (GSH, superoxide dismutase (SOD, and catalase (CAT activities. Furthermore, saffron significantly increased GSH, SOD, and CAT but remarkably decreased cognitive deficit, serum TNF-α, and induced nitric oxide synthase (iNOS activity in hippocampus tissue. Our findings indicated that saffron extract may reduce hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia risk and also reduce the oxidative stress in diabetic encephalopathy rats. This study suggested that saffron extract might be a promising candidate for the improvement of chemically induced diabetes and its complications.

  14. The neurosurvival factor Humanin inhibits beta-cell apoptosis via signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 activation and delays and ameliorates diabetes in nonobese diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Phuong T; Park, Patricia; Cobb, Laura J; Paharkova-Vatchkova, Valdislava; Hakimi, Michael; Cohen, Pinchas; Lee, Kuk-Wha

    2010-03-01

    Pancreatic beta-cell apoptosis is important in the pathogenesis and potential treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus. We investigated whether Humanin, a recently described survival factor for neurons, could improve the survival of beta-cells and delay or treat diabetes in the nonobese diabetic (NOD) model. Humanin reduced apoptosis induced by serum starvation in NIT-1 cells and decreased apoptosis induced by cytokine treatment. Humanin induced signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation over a 24-hour time course. Specific inhibition of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 resulted in nullifying the protective effect of Humanin. Humanin normalized glucose tolerance in NOD mice treated for 6 weeks, and their pancreata revealed decreased lymphocyte infiltration and severity. In addition, Humanin delayed/prevented the onset of diabetes in NOD mice treated for 20 weeks. In summary, Humanin treatment decreases cytokine-induced apoptosis in beta-cells in vitro and improved glucose tolerance and onset of diabetes in NOD mice in vivo. This indicates that Humanin may be useful for islet protection and survival in a spectrum of diabetes-related therapeutics. (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Eating Disorders and Disordered Eating Symptoms in Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toni, Giada; Berioli, Maria Giulia; Cerquiglini, Laura; Ceccarini, Giulia; Grohmann, Ursula; Principi, Nicola; Esposito, Susanna

    2017-08-19

    Eating problems in adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1D) can be divided into two groups. The first includes the diagnosed eating disorders (EDs), i.e., diseases specifically identified by defined signs and symptoms for which a degree of severity has been established, such as anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge-eating disorder, pica, and rumination. The second is the group of disordered eating symptoms (DES), which include behaviors such as dieting for weight loss, binge eating, self-induced vomiting, excessive exercise, and laxative or diuretic use; these behaviors cannot be categorized as complete diseases, and, although apparently mild, they must be closely evaluated because they can evolve into true EDs. In this review, present knowledge about the clinical relevance of EDs and DES and the possible preventive and therapeutic measures used to reduce their impact on the course of T1D will be discussed. As adolescents with diabetes are at higher risk of eating disturbances and consequently for higher rates of disease complications, care providers should pay attention to clinical warning signs that raise suspicion of disturbed eating to refer these patients early to an expert in nutrition and mental health disorders. To ensure the best care for adolescents with T1D, diabetes teams should be multidisciplinary and include a pediatric diabetologist, a skilled nurse, a dietician, and a psychologist.

  16. p13 overexpression in pancreatic β-cells ameliorates type 2 diabetes in high-fat-fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashi, Shintaro; Katagi, Kazuhiko; Shintani, Norihito; Ikeda, Kazuya; Sugimoto, Yukihiko; Tsuchiya, Soken; Inoue, Naoki; Tanaka, Shota; Koumoto, Mai; Kasai, Atsushi; Nakazawa, Takanobu; Hayata-Takano, Atsuko; Hamagami, Ken-Ichi; Tomimoto, Shuhei; Yoshida, Takuya; Ohkubo, Tadayasu; Nagayasu, Kazuki; Ago, Yukio; Onaka, Yusuke; Hashimoto, Ryota; Ichikawa, Atsushi; Baba, Akemichi; Hashimoto, Hitoshi

    2015-06-12

    We examined the pancreatic function of p13 encoded by 1110001J03Rik, whose expression is decreased in pancreatic islets in high-fat-fed diabetic mice, by generating transgenic mice overexpressing p13 (p13-Tg) in pancreatic β-cells. p13-Tg mice showed normal basal glucose metabolism; however, under high-fat feeding, these animals showed augmented glucose-induced first-phase and total insulin secretion, improved glucose disposal, greater islet area and increased mitotic insulin-positive cells. In addition, high-fat diet-induced 4-hydroxynonenal immunoreactivity, a reliable marker and causative agent of lipid peroxidative stress, was significantly decreased in p13-Tg mouse islets. These results indicate that p13 is a novel pancreatic factor exerting multiple beneficial effects against type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. THE ROLE OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY IN THE PRIMARY PREVENTION OF TYPE 2 DIABETES VIA THE AMELIORATION OF INSULIN RESISTANCE

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    Ash C. Routen

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes is the most common endocrine disease in our society, affecting around 5% of Western populations, whilst showing a steady rise in prevalence. The complications that arise from the disease are known to cause morbidity and mortality, and are associated with long-term damage, dysfunction, and failure of variousorgans. These complications include atherosclerosis in the micro and macro vasculature, kidney dysfunction, nerve problems, hypertension; and eye problems such as retinopathy. Epidemiological evidence suggests regular physical activity improves insulin sensitivity. This review presents the case for physical activity as a tool ofprimary prevention, in the population of non-diabetics and high risk individuals (IFG & IGT, in reference to obesity related insulin resistance. Cross-sectional, prospective cohort and randomised control trials clearly show that moderate-intensity physical activity can improve insulin sensitivity; this can be improved further byundertaking vigorous-intensity physical activity.

  18. Correction of Diabetic Hyperglycemia and Amelioration of Metabolic Anomalies by Minicircle DNA Mediated Glucose-Dependent Hepatic Insulin Production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tausif Alam

    Full Text Available Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM is caused by immune destruction of insulin-producing pancreatic β-cells. Commonly used insulin injection therapy does not provide a dynamic blood glucose control to prevent long-term systemic T1DM-associated damages. Donor shortage and the limited long-term success of islet transplants have stimulated the development of novel therapies for T1DM. Gene therapy-based glucose-regulated hepatic insulin production is a promising strategy to treat T1DM. We have developed gene constructs which cause glucose-concentration-dependent human insulin production in liver cells. A novel set of human insulin expression constructs containing a combination of elements to improve gene transcription, mRNA processing, and translation efficiency were generated as minicircle DNA preparations that lack bacterial and viral DNA. Hepatocytes transduced with the new constructs, ex vivo, produced large amounts of glucose-inducible human insulin. In vivo, insulin minicircle DNA (TA1m treated streptozotocin (STZ-diabetic rats demonstrated euglycemia when fasted or fed, ad libitum. Weight loss due to uncontrolled hyperglycemia was reversed in insulin gene treated diabetic rats to normal rate of weight gain, lasting ∼1 month. Intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGT demonstrated in vivo glucose-responsive changes in insulin levels to correct hyperglycemia within 45 minutes. A single TA1m treatment raised serum albumin levels in diabetic rats to normal and significantly reduced hypertriglyceridemia and hypercholesterolemia. Elevated serum levels of aspartate transaminase, alanine aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase were restored to normal or greatly reduced in treated rats, indicating normalization of liver function. Non-viral insulin minicircle DNA-based TA1m mediated glucose-dependent insulin production in liver may represent a safe and promising approach to treat T1DM.

  19. Islet-like cell aggregates generated from human adipose tissue derived stem cells ameliorate experimental diabetes in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikash Chandra

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus is caused by auto immune destruction of insulin producing beta cells in the pancreas. Currently available treatments include transplantation of isolated islets from donor pancreas to the patient. However, this method is limited by inadequate means of immuno-suppression to prevent islet rejection and importantly, limited supply of islets for transplantation. Autologous adult stem cells are now considered for cell replacement therapy in diabetes as it has the potential to generate neo-islets which are genetically part of the treated individual. Adopting methods of islet encapsulation in immuno-isolatory devices would eliminate the need for immuno-suppressants. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present study we explore the potential of human adipose tissue derived adult stem cells (h-ASCs to differentiate into functional islet like cell aggregates (ICAs. Our stage specific differentiation protocol permit the conversion of mesodermic h-ASCs to definitive endoderm (Hnf3β, TCF2 and Sox17 and to PDX1, Ngn3, NeuroD, Pax4 positive pancreatic endoderm which further matures in vitro to secrete insulin. These ICAs are shown to produce human C-peptide in a glucose dependent manner exhibiting in-vitro functionality. Transplantation of mature ICAs, packed in immuno-isolatory biocompatible capsules to STZ induced diabetic mice restored near normoglycemia within 3-4 weeks. The detection of human C-peptide, 1155±165 pM in blood serum of experimental mice demonstrate the efficacy of our differentiation approach. CONCLUSIONS: h-ASC is an ideal population of personal stem cells for cell replacement therapy, given that they are abundant, easily available and autologous in origin. Our findings present evidence that h-ASCs could be induced to differentiate into physiologically competent functional islet like cell aggregates, which may provide as a source of alternative islets for cell replacement therapy in type 1 diabetes.

  20. Nutraceutical potential of Aerva lanata (L.) Juss. ex Schult ameliorates secondary complications in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riya, M P; Antu, K A; Pal, S; Srivastava, A K; Sharma, S; Raghu, K G

    2014-09-01

    Nutraceuticals provide health benefits beyond their basic nutrition by modulating a number of biochemical pathways. They are derived from natural products and have gained recognition worldwide as an adjuvant or therapy in the treatment of metabolic disorders such as diabetes. Although the regulation of blood glucose with drugs and insulin greatly reduces the incidence of secondary complications, the need for long-term treatment raises issues of tolerance and affordability. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to explore the nutraceutical potential of Aerva lanata, a herb widely used for its culinary and therapeutic potential in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Treatment with 70% ethanolic extract (ALE) at 500 mg per kg b.w per day for 21 days significantly improved the fasting blood glucose (120.33 ± 1.99 mg dL(-1)), insulin level (9.81 ± 0.38 mU L(-1)), HbA1c (7.3 ± 0.36%) and glycogen content in the liver (35.33 ± 1.38 mg g(-1) protein) and muscle (7.67 ± 0.11 mg g(-1) protein) compared to diabetic controls. The extract also showed a significant decrease in blood glucose by 47.29% towards the end of 2 h in oral glucose tolerance test on Day 21. Its therapeutic potential could be partly attributable to the presence of flavonoids, tannins and terpenes (alpha amyrin, betulin and beta sitosterol) along with micronutrients such as potassium, magnesium, calcium and zinc. Hence, we suggest the suitability of Aerva lanata as a nutraceutical for diabetic patients.

  1. Behavioral Self-Regulation in Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes: Negative Affectivity and Blood Glucose Symptom Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiebe, Deborah J.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Adolescents who were more internally focused were more able to discern which symptoms actually covaried with blood glucose (BG) fluctuations; those with higher trait anxiety tended to misattribute non-diabetes-related symptoms to BG levels. Interactions suggested those who both attend to internal physical sensations and experience-heightened…

  2. 7,8-Dihydroxyflavone ameliorates high-glucose induced diabetic apoptosis in human retinal pigment epithelial cells by activating TrkB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaoyi; Liu, Qiuhong; Wang, Xiaochuan; Liu, Hong; Wang, Yan

    2018-01-01

    In diabetic retinopathy, prolonged high-level blood glucose induced significant impairments among various retinal tissues, including retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells. In an in vitro model of human RPE cells, we evaluated whether 7,8-Dihydroxyflavone (DHF) may effectively prevent high glucose-induced diabetic apoptosis among human RPE cells. ARPE-19 cells, a Human RPE cell line, were treated with d-glucose (50 mM) to induce apoptosis in vitro. Prior to glucose, ARPE-19 cells were pre-incubated with various concentrations of DHF. The effect of DHF on d-glucose-induced apoptosis was examined by TUNEL assay, in a concentration-dependent manner. The biological effects of DHF on Caspase-9 (Casp-9) and TrkB signaling pathways in d-glucose-injured ARPE-19 cells were evaluated by qRT-PCR and western blot (WB) assays. A TrkB antagonist, K252a, was also applied in DHF and d-glucose treated ARPE-19 cells. Possible effect of K252a blocking TrkB signaling pathway, thus reversing DHF-modulated apoptosis prevention was also examined by TUNEL and WB assays. DHF ameliorated d-glucose-induced diabetic apoptosis in ARPE-19 cells. Apoptotic factor Casp-9, at both mRNA and protein levels, were drastically inhibited by DHF in d-glucose-injured ARPE-19 cells. Also, DHF activated TrkB signaling pathway through phosphorylation. K252a dramatically reversed the preventive effect of DHF on d-glucose-induced apoptosis in ARPE-19 cells. Further investigation showed that K252a functioned through de-activating or de-phosphorylating TrkB signaling pathway. This work demonstrates that DHF, through activation of TrkB signaling pathway, has a preventive function in d-glucose-induced apoptosis in PRE cells in diabetic retinopathy. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. An aqueous extract of Portulaca oleracea ameliorates diabetic nephropathy through suppression of renal fibrosis and inflammation in diabetic db/db mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, An Sook; Lee, Yun Jung; Lee, So Min; Yoon, Jung Joo; Kim, Jin Sook; Kang, Dae Gill; Lee, Ho Sub

    2012-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy is one of the most common microvascular complications of diabetes and the leading cause of end-stage renal disease. In the present study, we investigated the renoprotective effect of the aqueous extract of Portulaca oleracea (AP) on diabetic nephropathy accelerated by renal fibrosis and inflammation in type 2 diabetic db/db mice. The mice were treated with AP (300 mg/kg/day, p.o.) for ten weeks to examine the long-term effects on diabetic nephropathy and renal dysfunction. We found that AP treatment markedly lowered blood glucose to 412 ± 11.4 mg/dl and plasma creatinine level to 2.3 ± 0.8 mg/dl compared to db/db mice (p < 0.05, p < 0.01, respectively). This study also showed that treatment with AP significantly decreased water intake and urine volume in diabetic db/db mice (p < 0.05). In immunohistological study, the renal expression of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), advanced glycation end products (AGE), and intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 markedly increased in the renal cortex of untreated db/db mice (p < 0.01). In contrast, AP treatment significantly reduced these expressions to 50 ± 2.1%, 48 ± 2.8%, 61 ± 1.1%, respectively (p < 0.01). Furthermore, NF-κB p65 activation in renal tissues markedly increased in untreated db/db mice, which was significantly suppressed by AP treatment. Taken together, these findings suggest that AP attenuates diabetic nephropathy through inhibition of renal fibrosis and inflammation in db/db mice.

  4. Association between gestational diabetes and perinatal depressive symptoms: evidence from a Greek cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, Pinelopi; Spyropoulou, Areti C; Kalogerakis, Zacharias; Vousoura, Eleni; Moraitou, Martha; Zervas, Iannis M

    2017-09-01

    Aim The aim of the present study was to assess the association of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) with prenatal and postnatal depressive symptoms in a sample of pregnant women in Greece. Earlier research supports a relationship between depression and diabetes, but only a few studies have examined the relationship between GDM and perinatal depressive symptomatology. A total of 117 women in their third trimester of pregnancy participated in the study. Demographic and obstetric history data were recorded during women's third trimester of pregnancy. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the validated Greek version of the Edinburg Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) at two time points: on the third trimester of pregnancy and on the first week postpartum. Findings Prevalence of GDM was 14.5%. Probable diagnosis of depression occurred for 12% of the sample during the antenatal assessment and 15.1% in the postpartum assessment. In the first week postpartum, women with GDM had significantly higher postpartum (but no antenatal) EPDS scores compared with the non-GDM cohort. In conclusion, GDM appears to be associated with depressive symptoms in the first week postpartum. Clinical implications and recommendations for future research are discussed, emphasizing the importance of closely monitoring women with GDM who seem more vulnerable to developing depressive symptomatology during the postnatal period.

  5. Associations between Depression and Diabetes in the Community: Do Symptom Dimensions Matter? Results from the Gutenberg Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiltink, Jörg; Michal, Matthias; Wild, Philipp S.; Schneider, Astrid; König, Jochem; Blettner, Maria; Münzel, Thomas; Schulz, Andreas; Weber, Matthias; Fottner, Christian; Pfeiffer, Norbert; Lackner, Karl; Beutel, Manfred E.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives While a bidirectional relationship between diabetes and depression has been established, there is little knowledge if the associations are due to somatic-affective or cognitive-affective dimensions of depression. Research Design and Methods In a population-based, representative survey of 15.010 participants we therefore studied the associations of the two dimensions of depression with diabetes and health care utilization among depressed and diabetic participants. Depression was assessed by the Patient Health Questionnaire PHQ-9. Results We found a linear and consistent association between the intensity of depression and the presence of diabetes increasing from 6.9% in no or minimal depression to 7.6% in mild, 9% in moderate and 10.5% in severe depression. There was a strong positive association between somatic-affective symptoms but not with cognitive-affective symptoms and diabetes. Depression and diabetes were both independently related to somatic health care utilisation. Conclusions Diabetes and depression are associated, and the association is primarily driven by the somatic-affective component of depression. The main limitation of our study pertains to the cross-sectional data acquisition. Further longitudinal work on the relationship of obesity and diabetes should differentiate the somatic and the cognitive symptoms of depression. PMID:25127227

  6. Associations between depression and diabetes in the community: do symptom dimensions matter? Results from the Gutenberg Health Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg Wiltink

    Full Text Available While a bidirectional relationship between diabetes and depression has been established, there is little knowledge if the associations are due to somatic-affective or cognitive-affective dimensions of depression.In a population-based, representative survey of 15.010 participants we therefore studied the associations of the two dimensions of depression with diabetes and health care utilization among depressed and diabetic participants. Depression was assessed by the Patient Health Questionnaire PHQ-9.We found a linear and consistent association between the intensity of depression and the presence of diabetes increasing from 6.9% in no or minimal depression to 7.6% in mild, 9% in moderate and 10.5% in severe depression. There was a strong positive association between somatic-affective symptoms but not with cognitive-affective symptoms and diabetes. Depression and diabetes were both independently related to somatic health care utilisation.Diabetes and depression are associated, and the association is primarily driven by the somatic-affective component of depression. The main limitation of our study pertains to the cross-sectional data acquisition. Further longitudinal work on the relationship of obesity and diabetes should differentiate the somatic and the cognitive symptoms of depression.

  7. Support vector regression correlates single-sweep evoked brain potentials to gastrointestinal symptoms in diabetes mellitus patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graversen, C; Frokjaer, J B; Brock, Christina

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a multi-factorial and complex disease causing autonomic neuropathy and gastrointestinal symptoms in some patients. The neural mechanisms behind these symptoms are poorly understood, but it is believed that both peripheral and central mechanisms are involved. To gain furt...... approach to study central mechanisms in diabetes mellitus, and may provide a future application for a clinical tool to optimize treatment in individual patients.......Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a multi-factorial and complex disease causing autonomic neuropathy and gastrointestinal symptoms in some patients. The neural mechanisms behind these symptoms are poorly understood, but it is believed that both peripheral and central mechanisms are involved. To gain...... further knowledge of the central mechanisms, the aim of this study was to identify biomarkers for the altered brain activity in type-1 DM patients compared to healthy volunteers (HV), and to correlate the obtained biomarkers to clinical patient scores. The study included 14 DM patients and 15 HV...

  8. Curcumin ameliorates diabetic nephropathy by inhibiting the activation of the SphK1-S1P signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Juan; Huang, Kaipeng; Lan, Tian; Xie, Xi; Shen, Xiaoyan; Liu, Peiqing; Huang, Heqing

    2013-01-30

    Curcumin, a major polyphenol from the golden spice Curcuma longa commonly known as turmeric, has been recently discovered to have renoprotective effects on diabetic nephropathy (DN). However, the mechanisms underlying these effects remain unclear. We previously demonstrated that the sphingosine kinase 1-sphingosine 1-phosphate (SphK1-S1P) signaling pathway plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of DN. This study aims to investigate whether the renoprotective effects of curcumin on DN are associated with its inhibitory effects on the SphK1-S1P signaling pathway. Our results demonstrated that the expression and activity of SphK1 and the production of S1P were significantly down-regulated by curcumin in diabetic rat kidneys and glomerular mesangial cells (GMCs) exposed to high glucose (HG). Simultaneously, SphK1-S1P-mediated fibronectin (FN) and transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1) overproduction were inhibited. In addition, curcumin dose dependently reduced SphK1 expression and activity in GMCs transfected with SphK(WT) and significantly suppressed the increase in SphK1-mediated FN levels. Furthermore, curcumin inhibited the DNA-binding activity of activator protein 1 (AP-1), and c-Jun small interference RNA (c-Jun-siRNA) reversed the HG-induced up-regulation of SphK1. These findings suggested that down-regulation of the SphK1-S1P pathway is probably a novel mechanism by which curcumin improves the progression of DN. Inhibiting AP-1 activation is one of the therapeutic targets of curcumin to modulate the SphK1-S1P signaling pathway, thereby preventing diabetic renal fibrosis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Chronic Co-Administration of Sepiapterin and L-Citrulline Ameliorates Diabetic Cardiomyopathy and Myocardial Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Obese Type 2 Diabetic Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgardt, Shelley L; Paterson, Mark; Leucker, Thorsten M; Fang, Juan; Zhang, David X; Bosnjak, Zeljko J; Warltier, David C; Kersten, Judy R; Ge, Zhi-Dong

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic heart disease is associated with tetrahydrobiopterin oxidation and high arginase activity, leading to endothelial nitric oxide synthase dysfunction. Sepiapterin (SEP) is a tetrahydrobiopterin precursor, and L-citrulline (L-Cit) is converted to endothelial nitric oxide synthase substrate, L-arginine. Whether SEP and L-Cit are effective at reducing diabetic heart disease is not known. The present study examined the effects of SEP and L-Cit on diabetic cardiomyopathy and ischemia/reperfusion injury in obese type 2 diabetic mice. Db/db and C57BLKS/J mice at 6 to 8 weeks of age received vehicle, SEP, or L-Cit orally alone or in combination for 8 weeks. Cardiac function was evaluated with echocardiography. Db/db mice displayed hyperglycemia, obesity, and normal blood pressure and cardiac function compared with C57BLKS/J mice at 6 to 8 weeks of age. After vehicle treatment for 8 weeks, db/db mice had reduced ejection fraction, mitral E/A ratio, endothelium-dependent relaxation of coronary arteries, tetrahydrobiopterin concentrations, ratio of endothelial nitric oxide synthase dimers/monomers, and nitric oxide levels compared with vehicle-treated C57BLKS/J mice. These detrimental effects of diabetes mellitus were abrogated by co-administration of SEP and L-Cit. Myocardial infarct size was increased, and coronary flow rate and ± dP/dt were decreased during reperfusion in vehicle-treated db/db mice subjected to ischemia/reperfusion injury compared with control mice. Co-administration of SEP and L-Cit decreased infarct size and improved coronary flow rate and cardiac function in both C57BLKS/J and db/db mice. Co-administration of SEP and L-Cit limits diabetic cardiomyopathy and ischemia/reperfusion injury in db/db mice through a tetrahydrobiopterin/endothelial nitric oxide synthase/nitric oxide pathway. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  10. Myoinositol ameliorates high-fat diet and streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats through promoting insulin receptor signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antony, Poovathumkal James; Gandhi, Gopalsamy Rajiv; Stalin, Antony; Balakrishna, Kedike; Toppo, Erenius; Sivasankaran, Kuppusamy; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah

    2017-04-01

    Mimosa pudica Linn. (Mimosaceae) has been traditionally used for the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in India. The present study evaluates the therapeutic efficacy of myoinositol (25 and 50mg/kg) isolated from M. pudica stem methanol extract in Triton WR-1339 induced hyperlipidemic and high-fat diet (HFD) fed-streptozotocin (STZ)-induced insulin-resistant diabetic rats. Lipid biomarkers, fasting blood glucose (FBG), changes in body weight, food and water intakes, plasma insulin, HOMA-IR, oral glucose tolerance, intraperitoneal insulin tolerance, urea, creatinine, marker enzymes of liver function, β-cell function and the expression levels of insulin receptor-induced signaling molecules were studied. Molecular-docking was also carried out to determine the possible interactions of myoinositol into the active sites of insulin-induced signaling markers. In addition, histology of liver, pancreas, kidney, heart and adipose tissues were also performed. In Triton WR-1339 induced hyperlipidemic rats, myoinositol (25 and 50mg/kg) exhibited significant reductions in total cholesterol: 37.5% and 59.73%, triglycerides: 57.75% and 80.14% and LDL-c: 81.44% and 101.75% respectively. HFD fed-STZ receiving myoinositol (25 and 50mg/kg) showed significant reductions in fasting blood glucose: 55.68% and 56.48%, plasma insulin level: 25.45% and 27.06% when compared with diabetic control. It significantly normalized the hyperglycemia induced biochemical abnormalities in insulin-resistant diabetic rats. Furthermore, it demonstrated cytoprotective effects besides increase in the intensity of positive reaction for insulin in pancreas. Myoinositol enhanced the level of PPARγ expression in the adipose tissue of treated rats when compared with rats that did not receive drug treatment; also, it significantly upregulated GLUT4 and IR signaling molecules. Myoinositol had predicted the interactions within the active sites of PPARγ, GLUT4 and IR. These findings suggested that

  11. A Cross-sectional Study of Depressive Symptoms and Diabetes Self-care in African Americans and Hispanics/Latinos With Diabetes: The Role of Self-efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Rosalba; Ruggiero, Laurie; Prohaska, Thomas R; Chavez, Noel; Boughton, Seth W; Peacock, Nadine; Zhao, Weihan; Nouwen, Arie

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between depressive symptoms and diabetes self-care in African American and Hispanic/Latino patients with type 2 diabetes and whether the association, if any, is mediated by diabetes-related self-efficacy. The sample included self-report baseline data of African American and Hispanic/Latino patients with type 2 diabetes who were aged ≥18 years and enrolled in a diabetes self-management intervention study. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire. The Summary of Diabetes Self-care Activities measured engagement in healthy eating, physical activity, blood glucose checking, foot care, and smoking. The Diabetes Empowerment Scale-Short Form assessed diabetes-related psychosocial self-efficacy. Indirect effects were examined with the Baron and Kenny regression technique and Sobel testing. Sample characteristics (n = 250) were as follows: mean age of 53 years, 68% women, 54% African American, and 74% with income Self-efficacy served a significant mediational role in the relation between depression and foot care among African Americans. Self-efficacy mediated the relationship between depression and foot care in the African American group but was not found to be a mediator of any self-care areas within the Hispanic/Latino group. In clinical practice, alleviation of depressive symptoms may improve self-care behavior adherence. Diabetes education may consider inclusion of components to build self-efficacy related to diabetes self-care, especially among African American patients. © 2016 The Author(s).

  12. The course of depressive symptoms in primary care patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nefs, Giesje; Pouwer, F; Denollet, J

    2012-01-01

    incident depression during a 2.5 year period. Once present, depression often becomes a chronic/recurrent condition in this group. In order to identify patients who are vulnerable to depression, clinicians can use questionnaire data and/or information about the history of depression.......AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The aim of the study was to examine the course (incidence, recurrence/persistence) of depressive symptoms in primary care patients with type 2 diabetes and to identify significant predictors of these different course patterns. METHODS: A cohort of 2,460 primary care patients...

  13. Depressive symptoms and all-cause mortality in people with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nefs, Giesje; Pop, Victor J M; Denollet, Johan

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Depression has been associated with increased all-cause mortality in people with type 2 diabetes. AIMS: To test whether anhedonia, dysphoria and anxiety are differentially associated with all-cause mortality and examine symptom-specific behavioural or pathophysiological mechanisms....... METHOD: A total of 1465 people completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale in 2005 and were followed until death or 31 December 2010. Cox regression analyses compared survival time for people with a low v. high baseline dysphoria/anhedonia/anxiety score and identified mediating mechanisms. RESULTS...

  14. Central IKK2 inhibition ameliorates air pollution mediated hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism dysfunction in mice with type II diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qing; Zhang, Guoqing; Chen, Rucheng; Li, Ran; Wang, Huanhuan; Jiang, Apei; Li, Zhenwei; Kong, Liya; Fonken, Laura K; Rajagopalan, Sanjay; Sun, Qinghua; Liu, Cuiqing

    2018-04-09

    Previous studies supported a role of hypothalamic inflammation in fine ambient particulate matter (PM2.5) exposure-mediated diabetes development. We therefore investigated the effects of PM2.5 exposure on insulin resistance and the disorders of hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism via hypothalamic inflammation. KKAy mice, a genetically susceptible model of Type II diabetes mellitus, were administered intra-cerebroventricularly with IKK2 inhibitor (IMD-0354) and were exposed to either concentrated PM2.5 or filtered air (FA) for four weeks simultaneously via a versatile aerosol concentration exposure system. At the end of the exposure, fasting blood glucose and serum insulin were evaluated before epididymal adipose tissue and liver were collected, flow cytometry, quantitative PCR and Western blot were performed at euthanasia. We observed that intra-cerebroventricular administration of IMD-0354 attenuated insulin resistance, inhibited macrophage polarization to M1 phenotype in epididymal adipose tissue in response to PM2.5 exposure. Although the treatment did not affect hepatic inflammation or endoplasmic reticulum stress, it inhibited the expression of the enzymes for gluconeogenesis and lipogenesis in the liver. Therefore, our current finding indicates an important role of hypothalamic inflammation in PM2.5 exposure-mediated hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism disorder.

  15. Ethyl acetate fraction of Aframomum melegueta fruit ameliorates pancreatic β-cell dysfunction and major diabetes-related parameters in a type 2 diabetes model of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Aminu; Koorbanally, Neil Anthony; Islam, Md Shahidul

    2015-12-04

    In West Africa, various preparations of the fruit, seed and leaf of Aframomum melegueta K. Schum. are reputably used for the management of diabetes mellitus (DM) and other metabolic disorders. The present study evaluated the anti-diabetic effects of A. melegueta ethyl acetate fraction (AMEF) from fruit ethanolic extract in a type 2 diabetes (T2D) model of rats. T2D was induced in rats by feeding a 10% fructose solution ad libitum for two weeks followed by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (40 mg/kg body weight) and the animals were orally treated with 150 or 300 mg/kg body weight (bw) of the AMEF once daily for four weeks. At the end of the intervention, diabetic untreated animals showed significantly higher serum glucose, serum fructosamine, LDH, CK-MB, serum lipids, liver glycogen, insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), AI, CRI and lower serum insulin, pancreatic β-cell function (HOMA- β) and glucose tolerance ability compared to the normal animals. Histopathological examination of their pancreas revealed corresponding pathological changes in the islets and β-cells. These alterations were reverted to near-normal after the treatment of AMEF at 150 and 300 mg/kg bw when, the effects were more pronounced at 300 mg/kg bw compared to the 150 mg/kg bw. The results of our study suggest that AMEF treatment at 300 mg/kg bw showed potent anti-diabetic effect in a T2D model of rats. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Genetic Disruption of Protein Kinase STK25 Ameliorates Metabolic Defects in a Diet-Induced Type 2 Diabetes Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amrutkar, Manoj; Cansby, Emmelie; Chursa, Urszula

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the molecular networks controlling ectopic lipid deposition, glucose tolerance, and insulin sensitivity is essential to identifying new pharmacological approaches to treat type 2 diabetes. We recently identified serine/threonine protein kinase 25 (STK25) as a negative regulator...... of glucose and insulin homeostasis based on observations in myoblasts with acute depletion of STK25 and in STK25-overexpressing transgenic mice. Here, we challenged Stk25 knockout mice and wild-type littermates with a high-fat diet and showed that STK25 deficiency suppressed development of hyperglycemia...... and hyperinsulinemia, improved systemic glucose tolerance, reduced hepatic gluconeogenesis, and increased insulin sensitivity. Stk25−/− mice were protected from diet-induced liver steatosis accompanied by decreased protein levels of acetyl-CoA carboxylase, a key regulator of both lipid oxidation and synthesis. Lipid...

  17. The Association Between Fasting C-peptide and Gastrointestinal Symptoms of Gastroparesis in Type 2 Diabetic Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yun; Zhang, Honghong; Zhang, Minxia; Li, Wenya; Wang, Jinhua; Hu, Ji

    2017-04-30

    The relationship between C-peptide levels and gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms in type 2 diabetic patients is not clear. The purpose of this study is to examine the association between fasting C-peptide and GI symptoms of gastroparesis in type 2 diabetic patients. We recruited 333 type 2 diabetic patients into the present study. All patients filled out questionnaires of gastroparesis cardinal symptom index (GCSI) to evaluate GI symptoms. Hospital anxiety and depression scale were adopted to define anxiety and depression. Patients with GCSI scores ≥ 1.9 were regarded as having symptoms of gastroparesis. In our study, 71 (21.3%) type 2 diabetic patients had GCSI scores ≥ 1.9. In comparison to patients with scores fasting c-peptide levels (1.49 ng/mL vs 1.94 ng/mL, P fasting C-peptide was still significantly associated with symptoms of gastroparesis (odds ratio, 0.67; 95% confidence intervals, 0.48-0.94; P = 0.021), even after adjustments for age, sex, body mass index, HbA1c, current smoking and drinking status, anxiety, and depression. Furthermore, linear regressions showed that fasting C-peptide was independently and negatively related to GCSI scores (standardized regression coefficient, -0.29; P fasting C-peptide levels independent of depression and anxiety status.

  18. Quality of life, anxiety and depression symptoms in early and late pregnancy in women with pregestational diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Nicoline C; Secher, Anna L; Cramon, Per; Ringholm, Lene; Watt, Torquil; Damm, Peter; Mathiesen, Elisabeth R

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to explore changes in health-related quality of life, anxiety and depression symptoms during pregnancy in women with pregestational diabetes. An observational cohort study including 137 pregnant women with pregestational diabetes (110 with type 1 and 27 with type 2). To evaluate changes from early to late pregnancy, the internationally validated questionnaires 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) were completed at 8 and 33 gestational weeks. From early to late pregnancy, the SF-36 scales Physical Function, Role Physical, Bodily Pain and Physical Component Summary worsened (p quality of life deteriorated whereas mental quality of life improved slightly during pregnancy in women with pregestational diabetes. A minor reduction in anxiety and stable depression symptoms was observed. The results on mental health are reassuring, considering the great demands that pregnancy places on women with pregestational diabetes. © 2016 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  19. The Aqueous Extract of Gynura divaricata (L. DC. Improves Glucose and Lipid Metabolism and Ameliorates Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinnan Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is a chronic disease characterized by hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia caused by impaired insulin secretion and resistance of the peripheral tissues. A major pathogenesis of T2DM is obesity-associated insulin resistance. Gynura divaricata (L. DC. (GD is a natural plant and has been reported to have numerous health-promoting effects on both animals and humans. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the regulatory mechanism of GD improving glucose and lipid metabolism in an obesity animal model induced by high-fat and high-sugar diet in combination with low dose of streptozocin and an insulin-resistant HepG2 cell model induced by dexamethasone. The study showed that the water extract of GD (GD extract A could significantly reduce fasting serum glucose, reverse dyslipidemia and pancreatic damage, and regulate the body weight of mice. We also found that GD extract A had low toxicity in vivo and in vitro. Furthermore, GD extract A may increase glucose consumption in insulin-resistant HepG2 cells, markedly inhibit NF-κB activation, and decrease the impairment in signaling molecules of insulin pathway, such as IRS-1, AKT, and GLUT1. Overall, the results indicate that GD extract A is a promising candidate for the prevention and treatment of T2DM.

  20. High prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux symptoms in type 2 diabetics with hypoadiponectinemia and metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirata Ayumu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD has been increasing worldwide. Abdominal obesity or visceral fat accumulation rather than simple obesity is associated with GERD. Previous reports demonstrated the association between GERD and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Signification of visceral fat accumulation and adiponectin in T2DM patients with GERD remains unclear. The present study investigated the relationships between GERD symptoms, visceral fat accumulation and adiponectin in subjects with T2DM. Findings The study (ADMIT study subjects were 66 Japanese T2DM outpatients, who answered the questionnaire regarding GERD symptoms in Frequency Scale for the Symptoms of GERD (FSSG, and were measured visceral fat area by bioelectrical impedance analysis. Patients with FSSG scores of more than 8 were considered as positive. The prevalence of FSSG score ≥ 8 and average FSSG score in T2DM subjects with the metabolic syndrome (Mets were significantly higher compared to those without Mets. The prevalence of FSSG score ≥ 8 and average FSSG score in T2DM subjects with low levels of serum adiponectin were significantly higher compared to those with high levels of serum adiponectin. Moreover, the combination of Mets and hypoadiponectinemia had a multiplicative effect on GERD symptom score (p = 0.047. Conclusions Our study showed that the coexistence of MetS and low levels of serum adiponectin was associated with the higher prevalence of FSSG score ≥ 8 and the higher scores of GERD symptom in subjects with T2DM. Trial Registration UMIN 000002271.

  1. Inter-relationship between visual symptoms, activity limitation and psychological functioning in patients with diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenwick, Eva K; Cheng, Grand H-L; Man, Ryan E K; Khadka, Jyoti; Rees, Gwyn; Wong, Tien Y; Pesudovs, Konrad; Lamoureux, Ecosse Luc

    2017-09-19

    We explored the direct and indirect impact of restrictions in daily living activities on the relationship between perceived visual symptoms associated with diabetic retinopathy (DR) and psychological functioning. In this prospective, cross-sectional study, 514 tertiary patients with DR (mean age±SD, 60.4±12.6 years; 64% male) answered questions related to nine domains of DR-specific quality of life. These were classified into the following predictor, mediating and outcome variables: visual symptoms (predictor variable); activity limitation, driving, lighting, social restriction, inconvenience, mobility (mediating variables); and emotional distress and concerns (outcome variables). Direct and indirect relationships between study variables were assessed using path analysis, using interval-level person measures derived from Rasch analyses of the study questionnaires. We found no direct effect of DR-related visual symptoms on emotional distress or concerns. Rather, the association between visual symptoms and emotional distress was mediated (all plimitation (indirect effect=0.13) and social restriction (indirect effect=0.11). Similarly, the relationship between DR-related visual symptoms and concerns was mediated by inconvenience (indirect effect=0.36) and social restriction (indirect effect=0.11). Lighting and driving did not have a mediating role. The link between vision and psychological functioning outcomes such as emotional distress and concern is complex in patients with DR and mediated by limitations in daily living activities and social factors. Interventions to enhance daily functioning and social interaction may be effective in reducing emotional distress associated with DR-related vision impairment. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  2. Extract of Ginkgo Biloba Ameliorates Streptozotocin-Induced Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus and High-Fat Diet-Induced Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Ki-Jong; Lee, Chang Gun; Kim, Sung Woo; Gim, Dong-Hyeon; Kim, Hyun-Cheol; Jung, Bae Dong

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is caused by either destruction of pancreatic β-cells (type 1 DM) or unresponsiveness to insulin (type 2 DM). Conventional therapies for diabetes mellitus have been developed but still needs improvement. Many diabetic patients have complemented conventional therapy with alternative methods including oral supplementation of natural products. In this study, we assessed whether Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb) 761 could provide beneficial effects in the streptozotocin-induced type 1 DM and high-fat diet-induced type 2 DM murine model system. For the type 1 DM model, streptozotocin-induced mice were orally administered EGb 761 for 10 days prior to streptozotocin injection and then again administered EGb 761 for an additional 10 days. Streptozotocin-treated mice administered EGb 761 exhibited lower blood triglyceride levels, lower blood glucose levels and higher blood insulin levels compared to streptozotocin-treated mice. Furthermore, liver LPL and liver PPAR-α were increased whereas IL-1β and TNF-α were decreased in streptozotocin-injected mice treated with EGb 761 compared to mice injected with streptozotocin alone. For the type 2 DM model, mice were given high-fat diet for 60 days and then orally administered EGb 761 every other day for 80 days. We found that mice given a high-fat diet and EGb 761 showed decreased blood triglyceride levels, increased liver LPL, increased liver PPAR-α and decreased body weight compared to mice given high-fat diet alone. These results suggest that EGb 761 can exert protective effects in both type 1 and type 2 DM murine models.

  3. The Relation Between Depressive Symptoms and Self-Care in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 in Kosovo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sopjani, Idriz; Vehapi, Shemsedin; Gorani, Daut; Imeri, Miradije; Vitoja, Sidita; Tahiri, Shqipe

    2016-12-01

    The depression is a significant problem in patients with diabetes. This research is the first of it's kind conducted in the Republic of Kosovo to determine the prevalence of depression diagnosed in people with diabetes mellitus type 2 (DMT2) and interrelation between depressive symptoms and behavior of diabetes self-care (glucose monitoring, exercise, diet, and self- health care). Research was conducted in the University Clinical Center of Kosovo (UCCK), in Pristine. The sample consisted of 200 individuals. Data collection was done through structured questionnaires. HANDS (Harvard Department of Psychiatry / National Depression Screening Day Scale) questionnaire was used to assess depressive symptoms and DSMQ (The Diabetes Self-Management Questionnaire) was used to assess self-care behavior. Data analysis was run through SSPS program, version 21. The results showed that the prevalence of depression in diabetic patients was 66.5% in Kosovo. Being a woman, a resident of rural areas or with low level of education, there were significant predictors and were associated with increased chance of developing the symptoms of major depression. Significant relations were found between major depression and physical activity (p<0.05). While between major depression and management of blood glucose level, dietary control and self health care, no significant correlation was found. This paper concluded the involvement of psychological aspect in health care plan for diabetics, in order to reduce the number of individuals affected by depression, to diagnose and to treat these individuals for a better quality of life.

  4. D-Saccharic acid 1,4-lactone protects diabetic rat kidney by ameliorating hyperglycemia-mediated oxidative stress and renal inflammatory cytokines via NF-κB and PKC signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharya, Semantee [Department of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Jadavpur University, 188, Raja S C Mullick Road, Kolkata 700 032 (India); Manna, Prasenjit [Division of Molecular Medicine, Bose Institute, P-1/12, CIT Scheme VII M, Kolkata-700054 (India); Gachhui, Ratan [Department of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Jadavpur University, 188, Raja S C Mullick Road, Kolkata 700 032 (India); Sil, Parames C., E-mail: parames@bosemain.boseinst.ac.in [Division of Molecular Medicine, Bose Institute, P-1/12, CIT Scheme VII M, Kolkata-700054 (India)

    2013-02-15

    Increasing evidence suggests that oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy (DN) and this can be attenuated by antioxidants. D-Saccharic acid 1,4-lactone (DSL) is known for its detoxifying and antioxidant properties. Our early investigation showed that DSL can ameliorate alloxan (ALX) induced diabetes mellitus and oxidative stress in rats by inhibiting pancreatic β-cell apoptosis. In the present study we, therefore, investigated the protective role of DSL against renal injury in ALX induced diabetic rats. ALX exposure (at a dose of 120 mg/kg body weight, i. p., once) elevated the blood glucose level, serum markers related to renal injury, the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and disturbed the intra-cellular antioxidant machineries. Oral administration of DSL (80 mg/kg body weight) restored all these alterations close to normal. In addition, DSL could also normalize the aldose reductase activity which was found to increase in the diabetic rats. Investigating the mechanism of its protective activity, we observed the activation of different isoforms of PKC along with the accumulation of matrix proteins like collagen and fibronectin. The diabetic rats also showed nuclear translocation of NF-κB and increase in the concentration of inflammatory cytokines in the renal tissue. The activation of mitochondria dependent apoptotic pathway was observed in the diabetic rat kidneys. However, treatment of diabetic rats with DSL counteracted all these changes. These findings, for the first time, demonstrated that DSL could ameliorate renal dysfunction in diabetic rats by suppressing the oxidative stress related signalling pathways. - Highlights: ► Sustained hyperglycemia and oxidative stress lead to diabetic renal injury. ► D-saccharic acid 1,4-lactone prevents renal damage in alloxan-induced diabetes. ► It restores intra-cellular antioxidant machineries and kidney apoptosis. ► DSL reduces hyperglycemia-mediated oxidative stress

  5. Risk factors associated with depressive symptoms in caregivers of children with type 1 diabetes or cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Kimberly A; Johnson, Suzanne Bennett; Barker, David; Quittner, Alexandra L; Deeb, Larry C; Geller, David E; Gondor, Magdalen; Silverstein, Janet H

    2010-09-01

    Evaluate depressive symptoms in caregivers of children with type 1 diabetes (T1D) or cystic fibrosis (CF) and identify associated risk factors. A total of 195 caregivers completed demographic, stress, and depressive symptoms questionnaires. Children's health status was obtained from medical records. Approximately 33% of caregivers reported elevated symptoms of depression (i.e., exceeded clinical cutoff of 16 on the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale). For caregivers of children with T1D, elevations were associated with less caregiver education, more family stress, older child age, and worse glycemic control. For caregivers of children with CF, more family stress and lack of employment outside of the home were associated with elevated depressive symptoms. Many caregivers of children with T1D or CF experience depressive symptoms, although risk factors may differ in these two populations. Screening of caregiver depressive symptoms as part of routine clinic visits may provide opportunities for needed intervention.

  6. Characteristics of Residual Symptoms After Laminoplasty in Diabetic Patients With Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machino, Masaaki; Imagama, Shiro; Ando, Kei; Kobayashi, Kazuyoshi; Hida, Tetsuro; Ito, Kenyu; Tsushima, Mikito; Matsumoto, Akiyuki; Tanaka, Satoshi; Morozumi, Masayoshi; Ito, Keigo; Kato, Fumihiko; Nishida, Yoshihiro; Ishiguro, Naoki

    2017-06-15

    A prospective cohort study. The purpose of this study was to compare cervical laminoplasty outcomes between diabetic and nondiabetic patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM), and to characterize residual symptoms of diabetic patients. Diabetes is one of the most frequent comorbidities in CSM patients. However, no report has elucidated residual symptoms following surgery in diabetic patients with CSM. .: A total of 505 consecutive patients with CSM (331 males, 189 females; mean age, 66.6 years; age range, 41-91 years; >1-year follow up after laminoplasty) were enrolled and divided into diabetic group (n = 105) and nondiabetic group (n = 400). The Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA) scores and recovery rate (RR) of each function were compared between the groups. To quantitatively assess performance, the 10-s grip and release (G&R) test and the 10-s step test were evaluated. There was no significant difference in the mean RRs of upper extremity motor function between diabetic and nondiabetic patients (59.2% vs. 60.5%, respectively; P = 0.789). The RR of lower extremity motor function was lower in the diabetic group than in the nondiabetic group (36.1% vs. 43.4%, respectively; P = 0.047); the RR of upper extremity sensory function also was lower (36.8% vs. 49.6%, respectively; P = 0.006). However, the mean RRs of sensory functions of lower extremities were 59.7% (diabetic) and 59.2% (nondiabetic) (P = 0.953). There was no significant difference in the mean RRs of trunk sensory function between the groups (69.3% vs. 74.1%, respectively; P = 0.303). The mean RRs of urinary bladder function were 42.1% (diabetic) and 53.7% (nondiabetic) (P = 0.035). The preoperative mean number of the 10-s step test was lower in the diabetic group than in the nondiabetic group, and the postoperative mean number also was significantly lower in the diabetic group. Gait disturbance, hand numbness, and bladder dysfunction after surgery persisted

  7. Efficacy of a web-based intervention with mobile phone support in treating depressive symptoms in adults with type 1 and type 2 diabetes: a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nobis, Stephanie; Lehr, Dirk; Ebert, David Daniel; Baumeister, Harald; Snoek, Frank; Riper, Heleen; Berking, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Depression is common in diabetes and linked to adverse health outcomes. This study evaluated the efficacy of a guided web-based intervention in reducing depression in adults with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. A total of 260 participants with diabetes and elevated depressive symptoms (Center for

  8. Islet Cell Associated Autoantibodies and C-Peptide Levels in Patients with Diabetes and Symptoms of Gastroparesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siraj, Elias S; Homko, Carol; Wilson, Laura A; May, Patrick; Rao, Ajay D; Calles, Jorge; Farrugia, Gianrico; Hasler, William L; Koch, Kenneth L; Nguyen, Linda; Snape, William J; Abell, Thomas L; Sarosiek, Irene; McCallum, Richard W; Pasricha, Pankaj J; Clarke, John; Tonascia, James; Hamilton, Frank; Parkman, Henry P

    2018-01-01

    Individuals with diabetes are at increased risk for complications, including gastroparesis. Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is an autoimmune disorder resulting in decreased beta-cell function. Glutamic acid decarboxylase-65 antibody (GADA) is the most commonly used test to assess autoimmunity while C-peptide level is used to assess beta-cell function. Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), who are GADA positive, are labeled latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA). To characterize patients with T1 and T2DM who have symptoms of gastroparesis using GADA and C-peptide levels and to look for association with the presence of gastroparesis and its symptom severity. 113 T1DM and 90 T2DM patients with symptoms suggestive of gastroparesis were studied. Symptom severity was assessed using Gastroparesis Cardinal Symptom Index (GCSI). Serum samples were analyzed for GADA and C-peptide. Delayed gastric emptying was present in 91 (81%) of T1DM and 60 (67%) of T2DM patients ( p  = 0.04). GADA was present in 13% of T2DM subjects [10% in delayed gastric emptying and 20% in normal gastric emptying ( p  = 0.2)]. Gastric retention and GCSI scores were mostly similar in GADA positive and negative T2DM patients. GADA was present in 45% of T1DM subjects [46% in delayed gastric emptying and 41% in normal gastric emptying ( p  = 0.81)]. Low C-peptide levels were seen in 79% T1DM patients and 8% T2DM. All seven T2DM patients with low C-peptide were taking insulin compared to 52% of T2DM with normal C-peptide. GADA was present in 13% while low C-peptide was seen in 8% of our T2DM patients with symptoms of gastroparesis. Neither did correlate with degree of delayed gastric emptying or symptom severity. NCT01696747.

  9. Bilateral sudden sensorineural deafness with vertigo as the sole presenting symptoms of diabetes mellitus — a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Misra, Vilas; Agarwal, C. G.; Bhatia, Naresh; Shukla, G. K.

    2010-01-01

    This Paper reports a late uncontrolled diabetic presenting to an otolaryngologist with sudden severe sensorineural hearing loss of immediate origin with vertigo and tinnitus as the symptoms. Appropriate investigative and treatment measure resulted in deterioration of hearing in the right ear and mild improvement of hearing in the left ear, with no recovery of imbalance.

  10. Bilateral sudden sensorineural deafness with vertigo as the sole presenting symptoms of diabetes mellitus - a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Vilas; Agarwal, C G; Bhatia, Naresh; Shukla, G K

    2010-06-01

    This Paper reports a late uncontrolled diabetic presenting to an otolaryngologist with sudden severe sensorineural hearing loss of immediate origin with vertigo and tinnitus as the symptoms. Appropriate investigative and treatment measure resulted in deterioration of hearing in the right ear and mild improvement of hearing in the left ear, with no recovery of imbalance.

  11. Methods for assessing diabetic polyneuropathy : validity and reproducibility of the measurement of sensory symptom severity and nerve function tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valk, G D; Grootenhuis, P A; van Eijk, J T; Bouter, L M; Bertelsmann, F W

    The usefulness of sensory symptoms in the assessment of diabetic polyneuropathy is unclear. In the present study, we studied the hypothesis that pain is associated with small nerve fibre function, and that sensory alteration is associated with large nerve fibre function. In addition, we assessed the

  12. Methods for assessing diabetic polyneuropathy: validity and reproducibility of the measurement of sensory symptom severity and nerve function tests.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valk, G.D.; Grootenhuis, P.A.; van Eijk, J.T.M.; Bouter, L.M.; Bertelsmann, F.W.

    2000-01-01

    The usefulness of sensory symptoms in the assessment of diabetic polyneuropathy is unclear. In the present study, we studied the hypothesis that pain is associated with small nerve fibre function, and that sensory alteration is associated with large nerve fibre function. In addition, we assessed the

  13. A small particle size diet reduces upper gastrointestinal symptoms in patients with diabetic gastroparesis: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olausson, Eva A; Störsrud, Stine; Grundin, Håkan; Isaksson, Mats; Attvall, Stig; Simrén, Magnus

    2014-03-01

    Gastroparesis is a well-known complication to diabetes mellitus (DM). Dietary advice is considered to be of importance to reduce gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms in patients with diabetic gastroparesis, but no randomized controlled trials exist. Our aim was to compare GI symptoms in insulin treated DM subjects with gastroparesis eating a diet with small particle size ("intervention diet") with the recommended diet for DM ("control diet"). 56 subjects with insulin treated DM and gastroparesis were randomized to the intervention diet or the control diet. The patients received dietary advice by a dietitian at 7 occasions during 20 weeks. GI symptom severity, nutrient intake and glycemic control were measured before and after the intervention. A significantly greater reduction of the severity of the key gastroparetic symptoms-nausea/vomiting (P=0.01), postprandial fullness (P=0.02) and bloating (P=0.006)-were seen in patients who received the intervention diet compared with the control diet, and this was also true for regurgitation/heartburn (P=0.02), but not for abdominal pain. Anxiety was reduced after the intervention diet, but not after the control diet, whereas no effect on depression or quality of life was noted in any of the groups. A higher fat intake in the intervention group was noted, but otherwise no differences in body weight, HbA1c or nutrient intake were seen. A small particle diet improves the key symptoms of gastroparesis in patients with diabetes mellitus. (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01557296).

  14. Effects of Functional Disability and Depressive Symptoms on Mortality in Older Mexican-American Adults with Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutambudzi, Miriam; Chen, Nai-Wei; Markides, Kyriakos S; Al Snih, Soham

    2016-11-01

    To examine the effect of co-occurring depressive symptoms and functional disability on mortality in older Mexican-American adults with diabetes mellitus. Longitudinal cohort study. Hispanic Established Populations for the Epidemiological Study of the Elderly (HEPESE) survey conducted in the southwestern United States (Texas, Colorado, Arizona, New Mexico, California). Community-dwelling Mexican Americans with self-reported diabetes mellitus participating in the HEPESE survey (N = 624). Functional disability was assessed using a modified version of the Katz activity of daily living scale. Depressive symptoms were measured using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Mortality was determined by examining death certificates and reports from relatives. Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were used to examine the hazard of mortality as a function of co-occurring depressive symptoms and functional disability. Over a 9.2-year follow-up, 391 participants died. Co-occurring high depressive symptoms and functional disability increased the risk of mortality (hazard ratio (HR) = 3.02, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.11-4.34). Risk was greater in men (HR = 8.11, 95% CI = 4.34-16.31) than women (HR = 2.21, 95% CI = 1.42-3.43). Co-occurring depressive symptoms and functional disability in older Mexican-American adults with diabetes mellitus increases mortality risk, especially in men. These findings have important implications for research, practice, and public health interventions. © 2016, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2016, The American Geriatrics Society.

  15. Insomnia symptoms as a cause of type 2 diabetes Incidence: a 20 year cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Michael J; Espie, Colin A; Popham, Frank; Robertson, Tony; Benzeval, Michaela

    2017-03-16

    Insomnia symptoms are associated with type 2 diabetes incidence but are also associated with a range of potential time-varying covariates which may confound and/or mediate associations. We aimed to assess whether cumulative exposure to insomnia symptoms has a causal effect on type 2 diabetes incidence. A prospective cohort study in the West of Scotland, following respondents for 20 years from age 36. 996 respondents were free of diabetes at baseline and had valid data from up to four follow-up visits. Type 2 diabetes was assessed at the final visit by self-report, taking diabetic medication, or blood-test (HbA 1c  ≥ 6.5% or 48 mmol/mol). Effects of cumulative insomnia exposure on type 2 diabetes incidence were estimated with traditional regression and marginal structural models, adjusting for time-dependent confounding (smoking, diet, physical inactivity, obesity, heavy drinking, psychiatric distress) as well as for gender and baseline occupational class. Traditional regression yielded an odds ratio (OR) of 1.34 (95% CI: 1.06-1.70) for type 2 diabetes incidence for each additional survey wave in which insomnia was reported. Marginal structural models adjusted for prior covariates (assuming concurrently measured covariates were potential mediators), reduced this OR to 1.20 (95% CI: 0.98-1.46), and when concurrent covariates were also included (viewing them as potential confounders) this dropped further to 1.08 (95% CI: 0.85-1.37). The association between cumulative experience of insomnia and type 2 diabetes incidence appeared confounded. Evidence for a residual causal effect depended on assumptions as to whether concurrently measured covariates were confounders or mediators.

  16. Depression, anxiety and stress symptoms among diabetics in Malaysia: a cross sectional study in an urban primary care setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Gurpreet; Tee, Guat Hiong; Ariaratnam, Suthahar; Krishnapillai, Ambigga S; China, Karuthan

    2013-05-27

    Diabetes mellitus is a highly prevalent condition in Malaysia, increasing from 11.6% in 2006 to 15.2% in 2011 among individuals 18 years and above. Co-morbid depression in diabetics is associated with hyperglycemia, diabetic complications and increased health care costs. The aims of this study are to determine the prevalence and predictors of depression, anxiety and stress symptoms in Type II diabetics attending government primary care facilities in the urban area of Klang Valley, Malaysia. The study was cross sectional in design and carried out in 12 randomly selected primary care government clinics in the Klang Valley, Malaysia. A total of 2508 eligible consenting respondents participated in the study. The Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS) 21 questionnaire was used to measure depression, anxiety and stress symptoms. Data was analyzed using the SPSS version 16 software using both descriptive and inferential statistics. The prevalence of depression, anxiety and stress symptoms among Type II diabetics were 11.5%, 30.5% and 12.5% respectively. Using multiple logistic regression, females, Asian Indians, marital status (never married, divorced/widowed/separated), a family history of psychiatric illness, less than 2 years duration of diabetes and current alcohol consumption were found to be significant predictors of depression. For anxiety, unemployment, housewives, HbA1c level of more than 8.5%, a family history of psychiatric illness, life events and lack of physical activity were independent risk factors. Stress was significantly associated with females, HbA1c level of more than 8.5%, presence of co-morbidity, a family history of psychiatric illness, life events and current alcohol consumption. For depression (adjusted OR 2.8, 95% CI 1.1; 7.0), anxiety (adjusted OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.1;5.5) and stress (adjusted OR 4.2, 95% CI 1.8; 9.8), a family history of psychiatric illness was the strongest predictor. We found the prevalence of depression, anxiety and stress

  17. Diallyl trisulfide ameliorates myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury by reducing oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated apoptosis in type 1 diabetic rats: role of SIRT1 activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Liming; Li, Shu; Tang, Xinlong; Li, Zhi; Zhang, Jian; Xue, Xiaodong; Han, Jinsong; Liu, Yu; Zhang, Yuji; Zhang, Yong; Xu, Yinli; Yang, Yang; Wang, Huishan

    2017-07-01

    Diallyl trisulfide (DATS) protects against apoptosis during myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (MI/R) injury in diabetic state, although the underlying mechanisms remain poorly defined. Previously, we and others demonstrated that silent information regulator 1 (SIRT1) activation inhibited oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress during MI/R injury. We hypothesize that DATS reduces diabetic MI/R injury by activating SIRT1 signaling. Streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type 1 diabetic rats were subjected to MI/R surgery with or without perioperative administration of DATS (40 mg/kg). We found that DATS treatment markedly improved left ventricular systolic pressure and the first derivative of left ventricular pressure, reduced myocardial infarct size as well as serum creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase activities. Furthermore, the myocardial apoptosis was also suppressed by DATS as evidenced by reduced apoptotic index and cleaved caspase-3 expression. However, these effects were abolished by EX527 (the inhibitor of SIRT1 signaling, 5 mg/kg). We further found that DATS effectively upregulated SIRT1 expression and its nuclear distribution. Additionally, PERK/eIF2α/ATF4/CHOP-mediated ER stress-induced apoptosis was suppressed by DATS treatment. Moreover, DATS significantly activated Nrf-2/HO-1 antioxidant signaling pathway, thus reducing Nox-2/4 expressions. However, the ameliorative effects of DATS on oxidative stress and ER stress-mediated myocardial apoptosis were inhibited by EX527 administration. Taken together, these data suggest that perioperative DATS treatment effectively ameliorates MI/R injury in type 1 diabetic setting by enhancing cardiac SIRT1 signaling. SIRT1 activation not only upregulated Nrf-2/HO-1-mediated antioxidant signaling pathway but also suppressed PERK/eIF2α/ATF4/CHOP-mediated ER stress level, thus reducing myocardial apoptosis and eventually preserving cardiac function.

  18. Improved serotonergic neurotransmission by genistein pretreatment regulates symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phadnis, Pradeep; Dey Sarkar, Purnima; Rajput, Mithun Singh

    2018-03-21

    Initial evidences have shown that diabetes mellitus occurs concomitantly with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) symptomatology. Serotonergic psychiatric therapy posits that serotonin is a central character in the management of OCD. Hence, it is worth investigating novel chemical entities affecting the serotonergic system for targeting OCD. An isoflavonoid phytoestrogen, genistein, has been recognized as of great pharmacological value especially for protecting neurodegeneration, depression (serotonin regulation), and diabetes. The effectiveness of genistein pretreatment on the symptoms of OCD in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice is investigated in this study. We also evaluate the probable involvement of the serotonergic system. Groups of diabetic mice were treated with genistein at the dose of 5.0 and 10.0 mg/kg (intraperitoneal, twice daily, 14 days), and symptoms of OCD were assessed by the marble-burying behavior, in comparison with the standard drug fluoxetine. Neurochemical assessment of the serotonergic ratio 5-hydroxyindole-3-methoxyphenylacetic acid/5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HIAA/5-HT) in the cortical region of the brain was performed using HPLC (high-pressure liquid chromatography). Chronic treatment with genistein significantly recovered [F(6, 35)=53.00, pdragged it [F(6, 35)=35.75, p<0.0001, R2=0.8597] toward the respective control. Genistein supplementation might be a potential therapeutic line for the management and/or prevention of diabetes-associated OCD symptomatology.

  19. Psychological trauma symptoms and Type 2 diabetes prevalence, glucose control, and treatment modality among American Indians in the Strong Heart Family Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Michelle M; Gonzales, Kelly L; Calhoun, Darren; Beals, Janette; Muller, Clemma Jacobsen; Goldberg, Jack; Nelson, Lonnie; Welty, Thomas K; Howard, Barbara V

    2013-01-01

    The aims of this paper are to examine the relationship between psychological trauma symptoms and Type 2 diabetes prevalence, glucose control, and treatment modality among 3776 American Indians in Phase V of the Strong Heart Family Study. This cross-sectional analysis measured psychological trauma symptoms using the National Anxiety Disorder Screening Day instrument, diabetes by American Diabetes Association criteria, and treatment modality by four categories: no medication, oral medication only, insulin only, or both oral medication and insulin. We used binary logistic regression to evaluate the association between psychological trauma symptoms and diabetes prevalence. We used ordinary least squares regression to evaluate the association between psychological trauma symptoms and glucose control. We used binary logistic regression to model the association of psychological trauma symptoms with treatment modality. Neither diabetes prevalence (22%-31%; p=0.19) nor control (8.0-8.6; p=0.25) varied significantly by psychological trauma symptoms categories. However, diabetes treatment modality was associated with psychological trauma symptoms categories, as people with greater burden used either no medication, or both oral and insulin medications (odds ratio=3.1, ppsychological trauma symptoms suggests future research investigate patient and provider treatment decision making. © 2013.

  20. Ameliorative potentials of cocoyam (Colocasia esculenta L. and unripe plantain (Musa paradisiacal L. on renal and liver growth in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CO Eleazu

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: The use of cocoyam and unripe plantain flours in the dietary management of diabetes mellitus could be a breakthrough in the search for plants that could prevent the development of diabetic nephropathy.

  1. Symptoms of depression in people with impaired glucose metabolism or Type 2 diabetes mellitus: The Hoorn Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriaanse, M C; Dekker, J M; Heine, R J; Snoek, F J; Beekman, A J; Stehouwer, C D; Bouter, L M; Nijpels, G; Pouwer, F

    2008-07-01

    To study the prevalence and risk factors of depressive symptoms, comparing subjects with normal glucose metabolism (NGM), impaired glucose metabolism (IGM) or Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2). Cross-sectional data from a population-based cohort study conducted among 550 residents (276 men and 274 women) of the Hoorn region, the Netherlands. Levels of depressive symptoms were measured using the Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D score > or = 16). Glucose metabolism status was determined by means of fasting and post-load glucose levels. The prevalence of depressive symptoms in men with NGM, IGM and DM2 was 7.7, 7.0 and 15.0% (P = 0.19) and for women 7.7, 23.1 and 19.7% (P women with IGM [odds ratio (OR) = 3.60, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.57 to 8.28] and women with DM2 (OR = 3.18, 95% CI = 1.31 to 7.74). In men, depression was not associated with IGM (OR = 0.90, 95% CI = 0.32 to 2.57) and non-significantly more common in DM2 (OR = 2.04, 95% CI = 0.75 to 5.49). Adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors, cardiovascular disease and diabetes symptoms reduced the strength of these associations. Depressive symptoms are more common in women with IGM, but not men. Adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors, cardiovascular disease and diabetes symptoms partially attenuated these associations, suggesting that these variables could be intermediate factors.

  2. D-saccharic acid-1,4-lactone ameliorates alloxan-induced diabetes mellitus and oxidative stress in rats through inhibiting pancreatic beta-cells from apoptosis via mitochondrial dependent pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, Semantee; Manna, Prasenjit; Gachhui, Ratan; Sil, Parames C.

    2011-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays a vital role in diabetic complications. To suppress the oxidative stress mediated damage in diabetic pathophysiology, a special focus has been given on naturally occurring antioxidants present in normal diet. D-saccharic acid 1,4-lactone (DSL), a derivative of D-glucaric acid, is present in many dietary plants and is known for its detoxifying and antioxidant properties. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the beneficial role of DSL against alloxan (ALX) induced diabetes in the pancreas tissue of Swiss albino rats. A dose-dependent study for DSL (20–120 mg/kg body weight) was carried out to find the effective dose of the compound in ALX-induced diabetic rats. ALX exposure elevated the blood glucose, glycosylated Hb, decreased the plasma insulin and disturbed the intra-cellular antioxidant machineries whereas oral administration of DSL at a dose of 80 mg/kg body weight restored these alterations close to normal. Investigating the mechanism of the protective activity of DSL we observed that it prevented the pancreatic β-cell apoptosis via mitochondria-dependent pathway. Results showed decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, enhanced cytochrome c release in the cytosol and reciprocal regulation of Bcl-2 family proteins in the diabetic rats. These events were also found to be associated with increased level of Apaf-1, caspase 9, and caspase 3 that ultimately led to pancreatic β-cell apoptosis. DSL treatment, however, counteracted these changes. In conclusion, DSL possesses the capability of ameliorating the oxidative stress in ALX-induced diabetes and thus could be a promising approach in lessening diabetic complications. Highlights: ► Oxidative stress is suggested as a key event in the pathogenesis of diabetes. ► D-saccharic acid 1,4-lactone (DSL) reduces the alloxan-induced diabetes mellitus. ► DSL normalizes cellular antioxidant machineries disturbed due to alloxan toxicity. ► DSL inhibits pancreatic β-cells apoptosis

  3. D-saccharic acid-1,4-lactone ameliorates alloxan-induced diabetes mellitus and oxidative stress in rats through inhibiting pancreatic beta-cells from apoptosis via mitochondrial dependent pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharya, Semantee [Department of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Jadavpur University, 188, Raja S C Mullick Road, Kolkata 700 032 (India); Manna, Prasenjit [Division of Molecular Medicine, Bose Institute, P-1/12, CIT Scheme VII M, Kolkata-700054 (India); Gachhui, Ratan [Department of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Jadavpur University, 188, Raja S C Mullick Road, Kolkata 700 032 (India); Sil, Parames C., E-mail: parames@bosemain.boseinst.ac.in [Division of Molecular Medicine, Bose Institute, P-1/12, CIT Scheme VII M, Kolkata-700054 (India)

    2011-12-15

    Oxidative stress plays a vital role in diabetic complications. To suppress the oxidative stress mediated damage in diabetic pathophysiology, a special focus has been given on naturally occurring antioxidants present in normal diet. D-saccharic acid 1,4-lactone (DSL), a derivative of D-glucaric acid, is present in many dietary plants and is known for its detoxifying and antioxidant properties. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the beneficial role of DSL against alloxan (ALX) induced diabetes in the pancreas tissue of Swiss albino rats. A dose-dependent study for DSL (20-120 mg/kg body weight) was carried out to find the effective dose of the compound in ALX-induced diabetic rats. ALX exposure elevated the blood glucose, glycosylated Hb, decreased the plasma insulin and disturbed the intra-cellular antioxidant machineries whereas oral administration of DSL at a dose of 80 mg/kg body weight restored these alterations close to normal. Investigating the mechanism of the protective activity of DSL we observed that it prevented the pancreatic {beta}-cell apoptosis via mitochondria-dependent pathway. Results showed decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, enhanced cytochrome c release in the cytosol and reciprocal regulation of Bcl-2 family proteins in the diabetic rats. These events were also found to be associated with increased level of Apaf-1, caspase 9, and caspase 3 that ultimately led to pancreatic {beta}-cell apoptosis. DSL treatment, however, counteracted these changes. In conclusion, DSL possesses the capability of ameliorating the oxidative stress in ALX-induced diabetes and thus could be a promising approach in lessening diabetic complications. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Oxidative stress is suggested as a key event in the pathogenesis of diabetes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer D-saccharic acid 1,4-lactone (DSL) reduces the alloxan-induced diabetes mellitus. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DSL normalizes cellular antioxidant machineries

  4. Depressive symptoms are associated with physical inactivity in patients with type 2 diabetes. The DIAZOB Primary Care Diabetes study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koopmans, Berber; Pouwer, Francois; de Bie, Robert A

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Depression is a common complication of type 2 diabetes, associated with poor disease outcomes such as impaired glycaemic control, cardiovascular disease and increased mortality. The mechanisms behind these associations are unclear. Depression might contribute to poor disease outcomes ...

  5. Altering endoplasmic reticulum stress in a model of blast-induced traumatic brain injury controls cellular fate and ameliorates neuropsychiatric symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aric Flint Logsdon

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Neuronal injury following blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI increases the risk for neuropsychiatric disorders, yet the pathophysiology remains poorly understood. Blood-brain-barrier (BBB disruption, endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress, and apoptosis have all been implicated in bTBI. Microvessel compromise is a primary effect of bTBI and is postulated to cause subcellular secondary effects such as ER stress. What remains unclear is how these secondary effects progress to personality disorders in humans exposed to head trauma. To investigate this we exposed male rats to a clinically relevant bTBI model we have recently developed. The study examined initial BBB disruption using Evan’s blue, ER stress mechanisms, apoptosis and impulsive-like behavior measured with elevated plus maze (EPM. Large BBB openings were observed immediately following bTBI, and persisted for at least 6 h. Data showed increased mRNA abundance of stress response genes at 3 h, with subsequent increases in the ER stress markers C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP and growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible protein 34 (GADD34 at 24 h. Caspase-12 and Caspase-3 were both cleaved at 24 h following bTBI. The ER stress inhibitor, salubrinal (SAL, was administered (1mg/kg i.p. to investigate its’ effects on neuronal injury and impulsive-like behavior associated with bTBI. SAL reduced CHOP protein expression, and diminished Caspase-3 cleavage, suggesting apoptosis attenuation. Interestingly, SAL also ameliorated impulsive-like behavior indicative of head trauma. These results suggest SAL plays a role in apoptosis regulation and the pathology of chronic disease. These observations provide evidence that bTBI involves ER stress and that the UPR is a promising molecular target for the attenuation of neuronal injury.

  6. Risk for high depressive symptoms in diagnosed and previously undetected diabetes: 5-year follow-up results of the Heinz Nixdorf Recall study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Icks

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the risk for the development of high depressive symptoms in study participants with diagnosed and previously undetected diabetes mellitus compared to those without diabetes in a prospective population-based cohort study in Germany. METHODS: We estimated the 5-year cumulative incidence of high depressive symptoms in participants without high depressive symptoms at baseline (n = 3,633, 51.4% men, mean age (SD 59.1 (7.6 years, 7.0% diagnosed diabetes, 5.3% previously undetected diabetes from the population-based Heinz Nixdorf Recall study. Diabetes was assessed by self-report, medication, and blood glucose. High depressive symptoms were assessed using CES-D. We calculated odds ratios and their corresponding 95% confidence interval, using multiple logistic regression analyses. RESULT: Cumulative 5-year incidences (95% CI of high depressive symptoms in participants with diagnosed, undetected, and without diabetes were 7.1 (4.2-10.9, 4.1 (1.8-8.0, and 6.5 (5.6-7.4, respectively. The age-sex-adjusted OR for developing high depressive symptoms was 1.22 (0.74-2.03 in participants with diagnosed compared to those without diabetes, and 1.00 (0.59-1.68 after adjustment for BMI, physical activity, education, stroke, and myocardial infarction. The age-sex adjusted OR for developing high depressive symptoms in participants with previously undetected diabetes compared to those without diabetes was 0.72; 0.35-1.48; and fully adjusted 0.62; 0.30-1.30. CONCLUSION: We found no significant associations, maybe due to low power. However, our results are in line with a recent meta-analysis suggesting that risk of developing high depressive symptoms in patients with diagnosed diabetes may be moderately higher than in those without diabetes, and that comorbidity may explain in part this association. In participants with previously undetected diabetes, this first longitudinal study indicates that the risk is not

  7. Freqüência de sintomas digestivos em pacientes brasileiros com Diabetes Mellitus Digestive symptoms in Brazilian patients with Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.E. DE A. TRONCON

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Sintomas sugestivos do comprometimento do tubo digestivo são comuns em pacientes diabéticos, mas estudos comparando as freqüências destes sintomas com as da população geral são escassos e não existem trabalhos dessa natureza com diabéticos brasileiros. OBJETIVO: Determinar as freqüências de diferentes sintomas digestivos em amostra não selecionada de pacientes diabéticos, em comparação às encontradas em pessoas da comunidade. MÉTODOS: A ocorrência de 13 diferentes sintomas digestivos foi investigada por meio da aplicação de um questionário padronizado, especificamente estruturado, em 153 diabéticos dos tipos 1 e 2 e em 50 pessoas aparentemente sadias, tomadas como controles. RESULTADOS: A freqüência de diabéticos com pelo menos um sintoma digestivo foi significativamente superior à verificada no grupo controle (70% vs 36%, p = 0,01. Freqüências elevadas de plenitude gástrica (30% vs 36%, pirose (30% vs 34% e de constipação (17% vs 12%, foram observadas tanto entre os diabéticos como nos controles. No entanto, somente a freqüência de um único sintoma, a disfagia, foi significativamente maior entre os diabéticos, em relação ao grupo controle (13% vs 2%, p = 0,02. CONCLUSÃO: Estes resultados indicam que a freqüência de sintomas digestivos em diabéticos, apesar de elevada, não difere da verificada na população geral, exceto para a disfagia. As freqüências dos diferentes sintomas estiveram próximas das faixas relatadas em estudos do hemisfério Norte, o que não apóia a hipótese de que fatores inerentes ao meio afetam a ocorrência de queixas digestivas em diabéticos.PURPOSE: To determine the frequencies of digestive symptoms in an unselected sample of Brazilian diabetics, in comparison to those verified in the general population. METHODS: The frequencies of 13 digestive symptoms were determined in 153 type 1 and type 2 diabetics and in 50 apparently healthy controls, utilizing a structured

  8. The effects of intradermal botulinum toxin type a injections on pain symptoms of patients with diabetic neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Ghasemi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Considering the dramatic increasing rate of diabetes and consequently its related complications, most importantly diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN, challenges regarding proper treatment of DPN and its effect on the quality-of-life and care of diabetic patients, the aim of this current study is to evaluate the effect of intradermal botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A injections on pain symptoms of patients with diabetic neuropathic pain. Materials and Methods: In this randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial study, diabetic patients aged <70 years with neuropathic pain in both feet were enrolled. Diabetic neuropathy (DN in selected patients was diagnosed using DN4 questionnaire and nerve conduction velocity examinations. They randomized in two intervention (BTX-A injection/100 unit, N = 20 and placebo groups (normal saline injection, N = 20. The outcome of injection on diabetic neuropathic pain was assessed using neuropathy pain scale (NPS and visual analog scale (VAS score and compared in two studied groups. Results: There was no significant difference in DN4, NPS and VAS scales of studied population after intervention in the placebo group. Intradermal injection of BTX-A reduced NPS scores for all items except cold sensation (P = 0.05. It reduced DN4 scores for electric shocks, burning, pins and needles and brushing (P < 0.05. According to VAS scale 30% and 0% of patients in intervention and placebo groups have no pain after intervention (P = 0.01. Conclusion: Intradermal injection of BTX-A is a well-tolerated agent that has a significant effect on DPN pain.

  9. Glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonist ameliorates the insulin resistance function of islet β cells via the activation of PDX-1/JAK signaling transduction in C57/BL6 mice with high-fat diet-induced diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Tao; Zhang, Hongtao; Li, Sheyu; Tian, Haoming

    2017-04-01

    Long-term exposure to a high-fat diet (HFD) causes glucotoxicity and lipotoxicity in islet β cells and leads to the development of metabolic dysfunctions. Reductions in pancreatic and duodenal homeobox-1 (PDX-1) expression have been shown to induce type 2 diabetes mellitus by causing impairments to islet β cells. Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) treatment reduces endogenous insulin resistance in HFD-induced type 2 diabetes mellitus. In the present study, the underlying mechanism by which GLP-1 exerts its function in type 2 diabetes mellitus was investigated. The effect of liraglutide (GLP-1 receptor agonist) administration on glucose tolerance, insulin release, and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide level was detected in a HFD-induced diabetes C57/BL6 mouse model. Moreover, the role of liraglutide administration on the activity of PDX-1 was quantified to demonstrate the association between the two indicators. The results showed that administration of liraglutide could ameliorate the impairments to β cells due to HFD consumption. Liraglutide restored the insulin capacity and stimulated glucose disposal by improving the function and increasing the number of islet β cells. Furthermore, the hyperplasia and redundant function of islet α cells were inhibited by liraglutide treatment as well. At the molecular level, administration of liraglutide induced the expression of PDX-1, MafA, p-JAK2 and p-Stat3 in HFD model to relatively normal levels. It was suggested that the effect of liraglutide-induced activation of GLP-1 was exerted via activation of PDX-1 rather than its function in decreasing body weight. The study demonstrated that GLP-1 played an essential role in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  10. The association between diabetes and an episode of depressive symptoms in the 2002 World Health Survey : an analysis of 231 797 individuals from 47 countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mommersteeg, P.M.C.; Herr, R.; Pouwer, F.; Holt, R.I.G.; Loerbroks, A.

    2013-01-01

    Aims Depression is common in people with diabetes and increases the risk of poor health outcomes, including premature mortality. We explored the association between diabetes and an episode of depressive symptoms in a cross-sectional multinational study, which included a large number of low- and

  11. Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester (Propolis Extract) Ameliorates Insulin Resistance by Inhibiting JNK and NF-κB Inflammatory Pathways in Diabetic Mice and HepG2 Cell Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Jiarui; Chang, Yaning; Li, Yujia; Zhou, Yingjun; Qin, Jiawen; Sun, Zhen; Li, Haibin

    2017-10-18

    Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), extracted from propolis, was evaluated for the ameliorative effects on insulin resistance and the mechanisms were identified, using non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) model mice and insulin resistance (IR) model cells. After 5 weeks of CAPE supplementation, insulin sensitivity, hyperlipidemia, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPAR-α) levels were improved in mice. Proinflammatory cytokines in serum and the expressions of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) mRNA in tissues were markedly downregulated from CAPE-treated mice. In vitro, CAPE supplement significantly improved glucose consumption, glucose uptake, glycogen content, and oxidative stress and decreased expression of glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) mRNA in cells. Both in vivo and in vitro, CAPE enhanced p-Akt (Ser473) and p-insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1 (Tyr612), but inhibited p-JNK (Thr183/Tyr185), p-NF-κB p65 (Ser536), and nuclear translocation of p-NF-κB p65 (Ser536). In summary, CAPE can ameliorate insulin resistance through modulation of JNK and NF-κB signaling pathway in mice and HepG2 cells.

  12. Relations of Depressive Symptoms and Antidepressant Use to Body Mass Index and Selected Biomarkers for Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, Raji; Pagoto, Sherry L.; Schneider, Kristin L.; Hébert, James R.; Phillips, Lawrence S.; Goveas, Joseph S.; Culver, Annie L.; Olendzki, Barbara C.; Beck, James; Smoller, Jordan W.; Sepavich, Deidre M.; Ockene, Judith K.; Uebelacker, Lisa; Zorn, Martha; Liu, Simin

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated whether depressive symptoms and antidepressant use are associated with biomarkers for glucose dysregulation and inflammation, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference. Methods. Postmenopausal women were recruited into the Women’s Health Initiative from 1993 to 1998, and data were collected at regular intervals through 2005. We used multiple linear regression models to examine whether depressive symptoms and antidepressant use are associated with BMI, waist circumference, and biomarkers. Results. Analysis of data from 71 809 women who completed all relevant baseline and year 3 assessments showed that both elevated depressive symptoms and antidepressant use were significantly associated with higher BMI and waist circumference. Among 1950 women, elevated depressive symptoms were significantly associated with increased insulin levels and measures of insulin resistance. Analyses of baseline data from 2242 women showed that both elevated depressive symptoms and antidepressant use were associated with higher C-reactive protein levels. Conclusions. Monitoring body habitus and other biomarkers among women with elevated depression symptoms or taking antidepressant medication may be prudent to prevent diabetes and cardiovascular disease. PMID:23763394

  13. Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) and aerobic exercise training (AET) increased plasma BDNF and ameliorated depressive symptoms in patients suffering from major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Iraj; Hosseini, Seyed Mohammad; Haghighi, Mohammad; Jahangard, Leila; Bajoghli, Hafez; Gerber, Markus; Pühse, Uwe; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Brand, Serge

    2016-05-01

    To treat patients suffering from major depressive disorder (MDD), research has focused on electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) and aerobic exercise training (AET). Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) seems to be key in MDD. The aims of the present study were therefore two-fold, to investigate in a three-arm interventional study the differential effects of ECT, ECT plus AET, and AET alone in patients suffering from TR-MDD on 1. depressive symptoms and 2. plasma BDNF (pBDNF). 60 patients with MDD (mean age: 31 years; 31.6% female patients) were randomly assigned either to the ECT, ECT + AET, or AET condition. The AET condition consisted of treadmill exercise for 45 min, three times a week. Both depression severity and pBDNF levels were assessed at baseline and 4 weeks later. All patients were further treated with an SSRI standard medication. pBDNF levels increased over time in all three study conditions, though, highest increase was observed in the ECT + EAT condition, and lowest increase was observed in the AET condition. Depressive symptoms decreased in all three conditions over time, though, strongest decrease was observed in the ECT + AET condition. The combination of ECT + AET led to significantly greater remission rates than in either the ECT or AET alone conditions. BDNF levels were not associated with symptoms of depression. The pattern of results suggests that ECT, AET and particularly their combination are promising directions for the treatment of patients suffering from MDD, and that it remains unclear to what extent pBDNF is key and a reliable biomarker for MDD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Electroconvulsive therapy and aerobic exercise training increased BDNF and ameliorated depressive symptoms in patients suffering from treatment-resistant major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Iraj; Hosseini, Seyed Mohammad; Haghighi, Mohammad; Jahangard, Leila; Bajoghli, Hafez; Gerber, Markus; Pühse, Uwe; Kirov, Roumen; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Brand, Serge

    2014-10-01

    To treat patients suffering from treatment-resistant major depressive disorder (TR-MDD), research has focused on electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) and aerobic exercise training (AET). Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) seems to be key in MDD. The aims of the present study were therefore two-fold, to investigate in a three-arm interventional study the differential effects of ECT, ECT plus AET, and AET alone in patients suffering from TR-MDD on 1. depressive symptoms and 2. 60 patients with TR-MDD (mean age: 31 years; 31.6% female patients) were randomly assigned either to the ECT, ECT + AET, or AET condition. The AET condition consisted of treadmill exercise for 30 min, three times a week. Both depression severity and BDNF levels were assessed at baseline and 4 weeks later. All patients were further treated with an SSRI standard medication. BDNF levels increased over time in all three study conditions. After completion of the intervention program, the ECT group showed significantly higher BDNF levels compared to the ECT + AET and the AET conditions. Depressive symptoms decreased in all three conditions over time. The combination of ECT + AET led to a significantly greater decrease than in either the ECT or AET alone conditions. BDNF levels were not associated with symptoms of depression. The pattern of results suggests that ECT, AET and particularly their combination are promising directions for treatment patients suffering from TR-MDD, and that it remains unclear to what extent BDNF is key and a reliable biomarker for TR-MDD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Combination of active components of Xiexin decoction ameliorates renal fibrosis through the inhibition of NF-κB and TGF-β1/Smad pathways in db/db diabetic mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Sheng Wu

    Full Text Available Xiexin decoction, a herbal therapeutic agent commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine, is recognized for its beneficial effects on diabetic nephropathy exerted through the combined action of multiple components, including Rhizoma Coptidis alkaloids (A, Radix et Rhizoma Rhei polysaccharides (P, and Radix Scutellaria flavones (F. Our previous studies have shown that a combination of A, P, and F (APF exhibits renoprotective effects against diabetic nephropathy. This study was aimed at determining the effects of APF on renal fibrosis in diabetic nephropathy and elucidating the underlying molecular mechanisms. To evaluate the effects of APF, in vivo, db/db diabetic mice were orally administered a low or high dose of APF (300 or 600 mg/kg, respectively once a day for 8 weeks. We evaluated the blood and urine indices of metabolic and renal function, renal tissue histopathology, renal inflammation, and fibrosis. APF treatment significantly ameliorated glucose and lipid metabolism dysfunction, decreased urinary albumin excretion, normalized creatinine clearance, and reduced the morphological changes in renal tissue. Additionally, APF administration in db/db diabetic mice reduced the elevated levels of renal inflammation mediators such as intercellular adhesion molecule-1, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, and active nuclear factor κB (NF-κB. APF treatment also reduced type I and IV collagen, transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1, and TGF-β1 type II receptor expression levels, and decreased the phosphorylation of Smad2/3 in the kidneys of db/db diabetic mice. These results suggest that APF reduces renal fibrosis in diabetic nephropathy through the NF-κB and TGF-β1/Smad signaling pathways. In vitro, APF treatment reduced cell proliferation and protein expression of α-smooth muscle actin, collagen I, TGF-β1 and NF-κB in mesangial cells cultured with high glucose concentrations. Our findings indicate

  16. Efficacy of a web-based intervention with mobile phone support in treating depressive symptoms in adults with type 1 and type 2 diabetes: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobis, Stephanie; Lehr, Dirk; Ebert, David Daniel; Baumeister, Harald; Snoek, Frank; Riper, Heleen; Berking, Matthias

    2015-05-01

    Depression is common in diabetes and linked to adverse health outcomes. This study evaluated the efficacy of a guided web-based intervention in reducing depression in adults with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. A total of 260 participants with diabetes and elevated depressive symptoms (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale [CES-D ≥23]) were randomly assigned to the GET.ON Mood Enhancer Diabetes (a guided self-help intervention, n = 130) or a brief online unguided psychoeducation program for depression (n = 130). The primary outcome was depressive symptoms severity (CES-D). The secondary outcomes included diabetes-specific emotional distress (Problem Areas in Diabetes [PAID] scale) and participant satisfaction (adaption CSQ-8). Data were collected at baseline and 2 months after randomization. To identify differences in outcome between the groups, we used analyses of covariance with the baseline CES-D score as covariate on both intent-to-treat (ITT) and per-protocol (PP) basis. Compared with the control group, the intervention group showed significantly less depressive symptom severity at posttreatment based on ITT (d = 0.89) and PP analyses (d = 1.00). The intervention participants displayed a significantly larger reduction in diabetes-specific emotional distress (d = 0.58, ITT). The intervention appeared to be acceptable to the participants; 95% (n = 121) would recommend the training to a friend with diabetes in need of psychological help. A guided, web-based intervention to reduce depression in adults with type 1 and type 2 diabetes is effective in reducing both depressive symptoms and diabetes-specific emotional distress. © 2015 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  17. Mobile Phone and Web-based Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Depressive Symptoms and Mental Health Comorbidities in People Living With Diabetes: Results of a Feasibility Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Janine; Proudfoot, Judith; Ma, Howard

    2016-05-31

    Depression is often comorbid with diabetes; however, undertreatment of depressive symptoms in people affected is common. We studied preliminary acceptability and effectiveness of a fully automated, mobile phone, and web-based public health intervention, myCompass, for reducing depressive symptoms and improving mental health comorbidities in people with diabetes. In this single-group feasibility study, 89 volunteers with type 1 (n=34) or type 2 (n=55) diabetes and at least mild depressive symptoms used myCompass for 7 weeks. Web-based measures of depressive and anxious symptoms, functional impairment, diabetes-specific variables, and user satisfaction were completed at baseline, postintervention, and 3-month follow-up. Retention rates were 54% (n=48) at postintervention and 36% (n=32) at follow-up. Depressive symptoms were significantly improved at postintervention (Pdepression and comorbid mental health problems in people with diabetes. The program is broadly available, free to use, and may benefit patients with diabetes who do not access services and/or wish to manage their mental health themselves. Replication of these findings in a controlled study is warranted.

  18. Time of Day When Type 1 Diabetes Patients With Eating Disorder Symptoms Most Commonly Restrict Insulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merwin, Rhonda M; Moskovich, Ashley A; Honeycutt, Lisa K; Lane, James D; Feinglos, Mark; Surwit, Richard S; Zucker, Nancy L; Dmitrieva, Natalia O; Babyak, Michael A; Batchelder, Heather; Mooney, Jan

    Restricting insulin to lose weight is a significant problem in the clinical management of type 1 diabetes (T1D). Little is known about this behavior or how to effectively intervene. Identifying when insulin restriction occurs could allow clinicians to target typical high-risk times or formulate hypotheses regarding factors that influence this behavior. The current study investigated the frequency of insulin restriction by time of day. Fifty-nine adults with T1D and eating disorder symptoms completed 72 hours of real-time reporting of eating and insulin dosing with continuous glucose monitoring. We used a generalized estimating equation model to test the global hypothesis that frequency of insulin restriction (defined as not taking enough insulin to cover food consumed) varied by time of day, and examined frequency of insulin restriction by hour. We also examined whether patterns of insulin restriction for 72 hours corresponded with patients' interview reports of insulin restriction for the past 28 days. Frequency of insulin restriction varied as a function of time (p = .016). Insulin restriction was the least likely in the morning hours (6:00-8:59 AM), averaging 6% of the meals/snacks consumed. Insulin restriction was more common in the late afternoon (3:00-5:59 PM), peaking at 29%. Insulin was restricted for 32% of the meals/snacks eaten overnight (excluding for hypoglycemia); however, overnight eating was rare. Insulin restriction was associated with higher 120-minute postprandial blood glucose (difference = 44.4 mg/dL, 95% confidence interval = 22.7-68.5, p < .001) and overall poorer metabolic control (r = 0.43-0.62, p's < .01). Patients reported restricting insulin for a greater percentage of meals and snacks for the past 28 days than during the 72 hour real-time assessment; however, the reports were correlated (Spearman's ρ = 0.46, p < .001) and accounted for similar variance in HbA1c (34% versus 35%, respectively). Findings suggest that insulin restriction

  19. Two year reduction in sleep apnea symptoms and associated diabetes incidence after weight loss in severe obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunstein, Ronald R; Stenlöf, Kaj; Hedner, Jan A; Peltonen, Markku; Karason, Kristjan; Sjöström, Lars

    2007-06-01

    To evaluate the effect of bariatric surgery on sleep apnea symptoms and obesity-associated morbidity in patients with severe obesity. Prospective study. University hospitals and community centers in Sweden. We investigated the influence of weight loss surgery (n=1729) on sleep apnea symptoms and obesity-related morbidity using a conservatively treated group (n=1748) as a control. Baseline BMI in surgical group (42.2+/-4.4 kg/m(2)) and control group (40.1+/-4.6 kg/m(2)) changed -9.7+/-5 kg/m(2) and 0+/-3 kg/m(2), respectively, at 2-year follow-up. In the surgery group, there was a marked improvement in all obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) symptoms compared with the control group (P sleep apnea symptoms at 2 years. Despite adjustment for weight change and baseline central obesity, subjects reporting loss of OSA symptoms had a lower 2-year incidence of diabetes and hypertriglyceridemia. Improvement in OSA in patients losing weight may provide health benefits in addition to weight loss alone.

  20. Chronic treatment with taurine ameliorates diabetes-induced dysfunction of nitric oxide-mediated neurogenic and endothelium-dependent corpus cavernosum relaxation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalaklioglu, Selvinaz; Kuscu, Nilay; Celik-Ozenci, Ciler; Bayram, Zeliha; Nacitarhan, Cahit; Ozdem, Sadi Satilmis

    2014-08-01

    This study was aimed to examine the effect of chronic taurine treatment on corpus cavernosum dysfunction in diabetic rats and to investigate possible underlying mechanisms. Thirty male rats were randomized to three groups of 10 each, including control, diabetic, and taurine-treated diabetic. Diabetes was induced in rats by streptozotocin (STZ, single intraperitoneal dose of 50 mg/kg body weight). Taurine was administered orally for 12 weeks (1% w/v in drinking water) from the day on which STZ was injected. At the end of the 12th week, strips of corpus cavernosum were suspended in an organ bath system for functional studies. Nitric oxide (NO)-mediated endothelium-dependent and neurogenic corpus cavernosum relaxation were evaluated by acetylcholine (ACh, 0.1-100 μm) and electrical field stimulation (EFS, 30 V, 5 ms, 2-32 Hz), respectively. The expressions of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), phosphorylated eNOS (p-eNOS) (Ser-1177), neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), NADPH oxidase subunit gp91(phox) , Rho A, and Rho kinase in corpus cavernosum were semi-quantitatively assessed by immunohistochemistry. Induction of diabetes resulted in significant inhibition of NO-mediated endothelium-dependent and neurogenic corpus cavernosum relaxation. Furthermore, eNOS, p-eNOS, and nNOS expressions decreased significantly in diabetic rats compared to controls, while gp91(phox) , RhoA and Rho kinase expressions increased significantly. The diminished relaxation response to ACh and EFS as well as diabetes-related changes in expressions of these proteins in corpus cavernosum of diabetic rats was significantly improved by taurine. Taurine treatment improves NO-mediated relaxations of corpus cavernosum in diabetic rats probably by inhibiting NADPH oxidase/Rho kinase pathways. © 2013 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Two Year Reduction In Sleep Apnea Symptoms and Associated Diabetes Incidence After Weight Loss In Severe Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunstein, Ronald R.; Stenlöf, Kaj; Hedner, Jan A.; Peltonen, Markku; Karason, Kristjan; Sjöström, Lars

    2007-01-01

    Study Objectives: To evaluate the effect of bariatric surgery on sleep apnea symptoms and obesity-associated morbidity in patients with severe obesity. Design: Prospective study. Setting: University hospitals and community centers in Sweden. Intervention: We investigated the influence of weight loss surgery (n=1729) on sleep apnea symptoms and obesity-related morbidity using a conservatively treated group (n=1748) as a control. Measurements and Results: Baseline BMI in surgical group (42.2±4.4 kg/m2) and control group (40.1±4.6 kg/m2) changed −9.7±5 kg/m2 and 0±3 kg/m2, respectively, at 2-year follow-up. In the surgery group, there was a marked improvement in all obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) symptoms compared with the control group (P <0.001). Persistence of snoring (21.6 vs 65.5%, adjusted OR 0.14, 95% CI 0.10–0.19) and apnea (27.9 vs 71.3%, adjusted OR 0.16, 95% CI 0.10–0.23) were much less in the surgery group compared with controls. Compared with subjects with no observed apnea at follow-up (n=2453), subjects who continued to have or developed observed apnea (n=404) had a higher incidence of diabetes (adjusted OR 2.03, 95% CI 1.19–3.47) and hypertriglyceridemia (adjusted OR 1.86, 95% CI 1.07–3.25) but not hypertension (adjusted OR 1.09, 95% CI 0.65–1.83) or hypercholesterolemia (adjusted OR 0.91, 95% CI 0.53–1.58). Conclusion: Bariatric surgery results in a marked improvement in sleep apnea symptoms at 2 years. Despite adjustment for weight change and baseline central obesity, subjects reporting loss of OSA symptoms had a lower 2-year incidence of diabetes and hypertriglyceridemia. Improvement in OSA in patients losing weight may provide health benefits in addition to weight loss alone. Citation: Grunstein RR; Stenlöf KS; Hedner JA et al. Two year reduction in sleep apnea symptoms and associated diabetes incidence after weight loss in severe obesity. SLEEP 2007;30(6):703-710. PMID:17580591

  2. Illness Perception and Depressive Symptoms among Persons with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: An Analytical Cross-Sectional Study in Clinical Settings in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suira Joshi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This study aimed to assess the relationship between illness perception and depressive symptoms among persons with diabetes. Method. This was an analytical cross-sectional study conducted among 379 type 2 diabetic patients from three major clinical settings of Kathmandu, Nepal. Results. The prevalence of depressive symptoms was 44.1% (95% CI: 39.1, 49.1. Females (p<0.01, homemakers (p<0.01, 61–70 age group (p=0.01, those without formal education (p<0.01, and people with lower social status (p<0.01 had significantly higher proportion of depressive symptoms than the others. Multivariable analysis identified age (β=0.036, p=0.016, mode of treatment (β=0.9, p=0.047, no formal educational level (β=1.959, p=0.01, emotional representation (β=0.214, p<0.001, identity (β=0.196, p<0.001, illness coherence (β=-0.109, p=0.007, and consequences (β=0.093, p=0.049 as significant predictors of depressive symptoms. Conclusion. Our study demonstrated a strong relationship between illness perception and depressive symptoms among diabetic patients. Study finding indicated that persons living with diabetes in Nepal need comprehensive diabetes education program for changing poor illness perception, which ultimately helps to prevent development of depressive symptoms.

  3. Self-Efficacy and Hemoglobin A1C Among Adults With Serious Mental Illness and Type 2 Diabetes: The Roles of Cognitive Functioning and Psychiatric Symptom Severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wykes, Thomas L; Lee, Aaron A; McKibbin, Christine L; Laurent, Sean M

    2016-04-01

    Self-efficacy is a core element of diabetes self-care and a primary target of diabetes interventions. Adults with serious mental illness (SMI) are twice as likely as adults among the general population to have Type 2 diabetes. This population faces substantial barriers (i.e., cognitive impairment, psychiatric symptoms) to optimal diabetes self-care, but the relationship of these barriers to both self-efficacy and glycemic control (hemoglobin A1C [A1C]) is not clearly understood. Data collected from adult participants with SMI (i.e., schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, bipolar disorder) and Type 2 diabetes (n = 92) were used to examine the moderating effects of cognitive functioning and psychiatric symptoms (i.e., positive and negative symptoms) on the association between self-efficacy and A1C. The relationship between self-efficacy and A1C was moderated by cognitive functioning (B = -4.03, standard error = 1.54, p = .011). Greater self-efficacy was associated with better glycemic control when cognitive functioning was high, but worse control when functioning was low. The relationship between self-efficacy and A1C was moderated by negative symptom severity (B = 6.88, standard error = 3.34, p = .043). Higher self-efficacy was associated with poorer glycemic control only when negative symptom severity was high. Positive symptoms did not interact with self-efficacy to predict A1C. These results suggest that adults with SMI and low cognitive function or high negative symptom severity may misperceive their ability to manage their diabetes. They may benefit from efforts, including care management and monitoring, cognitive remediation, and skill training, to identify and correct inaccurate diabetes self-efficacy.

  4. Rutin suppresses human-amylin/hIAPP misfolding and oligomer formation in-vitro, and ameliorates diabetes and its impacts in human-amylin/hIAPP transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitken, Jacqueline F; Loomes, Kerry M; Riba-Garcia, Isabel; Unwin, Richard D; Prijic, Gordana; Phillips, Ashley S; Phillips, Anthony R J; Wu, Donghai; Poppitt, Sally D; Ding, Ke; Barran, Perdita E; Dowsey, Andrew W; Cooper, Garth J S

    2017-01-22

    Pancreatic islet β-cells secrete the hormones insulin and amylin, and defective β-cell function plays a central role in the pathogenesis of type-2 diabetes (T2D). Human amylin (hA, also termed hIAPP) misfolds and forms amyloid aggregates whereas orthologous mouse amylin does neither. Furthermore, hA elicits apoptosis in cultured β-cells and β-cell death in ex-vivo islets. In addition, hA-transgenic mice that selectively express hA in their β-cells, manifest β-cell apoptosis and progressive islet damage that leads to diabetes closely resembling that in patients with T2D. Aggregation of hA is thus linked to the causation of diabetes. We employed time-dependent thioflavin-T spectroscopy and ion-mobility mass spectrometry to screen potential suppressors of hA misfolding for anti-diabetic activity. We identified the dietary flavonol rutin as an inhibitor of hA-misfolding and measured its anti-diabetic efficacy in hA-transgenic mice. In vitro, rutin bound hA, suppressed misfolding, disaggregated oligomers and reverted hA-conformation towards the physiological. In hA-transgenic mice, measurements of glucose, fluid-intake, and body-weight showed that rutin-treatment slowed diabetes-progression by lowering of rates of elevation in blood glucose (P = 0.030), retarding deterioration from symptomatic diabetes to death (P = 0.014) and stabilizing body-weight (P mice (P = 0.011) by a median of 69 days compared with vehicle-treated control-diabetic hA-transgenic mice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Intradialytic aerobic exercise training ameliorates symptoms of restless legs syndrome and improves functional capacity in patients on hemodialysis: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakkas, Giorgos K; Hadjigeorgiou, Georgios M; Karatzaferi, Christina; Maridaki, Maria D; Giannaki, Christoforos D; Mertens, Peter R; Rountas, Christos; Vlychou, Marianna; Liakopoulos, Vassilios; Stefanidis, Ioannis

    2008-01-01

    We present the first study on the influence of exercise training on restless legs syndrome (RLS) in patients on hemodialysis (HD). Restless legs syndrome has been treated pharmacologically with satisfactory results; however, side effects and rebound phenomena have been reported. Intradialytic exercise training effectively counteracts uremia-induced catabolism; nevertheless, it remains unknown whether patients with RLS undergoing HD benefit from such programs. The aims of the current study were to evaluate the effect of 16-weeks aerobic exercise training in the severity of RLS and in the functional capacity and the quality of life of patients with RLS on HD. Fourteen patients on HD (four female, mean age 59 +/- 16 years) with untreated RLS were assigned, according to their will, to either the exercise group (Ex-group, n = 7), and participated in a 16-week supervised intradialytic aerobic exercise training, or to the control group (Con-group, n = 7), and continued usual activities. Primary aim was to compare the International RLS (IRLS) study group rating scale, functional ability, and quality of life in baseline and the end of the 16 weeks. Exercise training reduced IRLS score by 42% (p = 0.02). Furthermore, it significantly improved indices of functional ability (p = 0.02), exercise capacity (p = 0.01), quality of life (p = 0.03), and sleep quality (p = 0.01). In the Con-group no changes were observed. In conclusion, aerobic exercise training is safe and efficacious in reducing RLS symptoms and improving quality of life in patients with RLS on HD.

  6. Lactobacillus rhamnosus NCDC17 ameliorates type-2 diabetes by improving gut function, oxidative stress and inflammation in high-fat-diet fed and streptozotocintreated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S; Sharma, R K; Malhotra, S; Pothuraju, R; Shandilya, U K

    2017-04-26

    Restoration of dysbiosed gut microbiota through probiotic may have profound effect on type 2 diabetes. In the present study, rats were fed high fat diet (HFD) for 3 weeks and injected with low dose streptozotocin to induce type 2 diabetes. Diabetic rats were then fed Lactobacillus rhamnosus NCDC 17 and L. rhamnosus GG with HFD for six weeks. L. rhamnosus NCDC 17 improved oral glucose tolerance test, biochemical parameters (fasting blood glucose, plasma insulin, glycosylated haemoglobin, free fatty acids, triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol), oxidative stress (thiobarbituric acid reactive substance and activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase in blood and liver), bifidobacteria and lactobacilli in cecum, expression of glucagon like peptide-1 producing genes in cecum, and adiponection in epididymal fat, while decreased propionate proportions (%) in caecum, and expression of tumour necrosis factor-α and interlukin-6 in epididymal fat of diabetic rats as compared to diabetes control group. These findings offered a base for the use of L. rhamnosus NCDC 17 for the improvement and early treatment of type 2 diabetes.

  7. The sympathetic skin response in diabetic neuropathy and its relationship to autonomic symptoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Moallem, Mansour A.; Zaidan, Radwan M.; Alkali, Nura H.

    2008-01-01

    Objective was to examine the utility of the sympathetic skin response (SSR) as a measure of impaired autonomic function among diabetic patients in Saudi Arabia. In this case-control study, baseline SSR was obtained from 18 healthy subjects, followed by nerve conduction studies and SSR testing on a consecutive cohort of 50 diabetic patients with peripheral neuropathy. The SSR in diabetic patients was compared between those with autonomic neuropathy and those without autonomic neuropathy. This study was conducted at the King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, from June 2006 to June 2007. The SSR was present in all healthy subjects and in 32 diabetic patients. Among 16 patients with autonomic neuropathy, the SSR was absent in 14 and present in 2, while 4 of 34 patients lacking evidence of autonomic neuropathy had absent SSR. Using Fisher's exact test, we found a strong association between absent SSR and autonomic neuropathy (p<0.001), however, not with age or duration of diabetes mellitus. As a diagnostic test of autonomic neuropathy, the SSR had a sensitivity of 87.5%, a specificity of 88.2%, a positive predictive value of 77.8%, and a negative predictive value of 93.7%. Absence of the SSR is a reliable indicator of autonomic neuropathy among patients with diabetes mellitus in Saudi Arabia. (author)

  8. Taurine exerts hypoglycemic effect in alloxan-induced diabetic rats, improves insulin-mediated glucose transport signaling pathway in heart and ameliorates cardiac oxidative stress and apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Joydeep; Vasan, Vandana; Sil, Parames C.

    2012-01-01

    Hyperlipidemia, inflammation and altered antioxidant profiles are the usual complications in diabetes mellitus. In the present study, we investigated the therapeutic potential of taurine in diabetes associated cardiac complications using a rat model. Rats were made diabetic by alloxan (ALX) (single i.p. dose of 120 mg/kg body weight) and left untreated or treated with taurine (1% w/v, orally, in water) for three weeks either from the day of ALX exposure or after the onset of diabetes. Animals were euthanized after three weeks. ALX-induced diabetes decreased body weight, increased glucose level, decreased insulin content, enhanced the levels of cardiac damage markers and altered lipid profile in the plasma. Moreover, it increased oxidative stress (decreased antioxidant enzyme activities and GSH/GSSG ratio, increased xanthine oxidase enzyme activity, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation and ROS generation) and enhanced the proinflammatory cytokines levels, activity of myeloperoxidase and nuclear translocation of NFκB in the cardiac tissue of the experimental animals. Taurine treatment could, however, result to a decrease in the elevated blood glucose and proinflammatory cytokine levels, diabetes-evoked oxidative stress, lipid profiles and NFκB translocation. In addition, taurine increased GLUT 4 translocation to the cardiac membrane by enhanced phosphorylation of IR and IRS1 at tyrosine and Akt at serine residue in the heart. Results also suggest that taurine could protect cardiac tissue from ALX induced apoptosis via the regulation of Bcl2 family and caspase 9/3 proteins. Taken together, taurine supplementation in regular diet could play a beneficial role in regulating diabetes and its associated complications in the heart. Highlights: ► Taurine controls blood glucose via protection of pancreatic β cells in diabetic rat. ► Taurine controls blood glucose via increasing the insulin level in diabetic rat. ► Taurine improves cardiac AKT/GLUT4 signaling

  9. Taurine exerts hypoglycemic effect in alloxan-induced diabetic rats, improves insulin-mediated glucose transport signaling pathway in heart and ameliorates cardiac oxidative stress and apoptosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Joydeep; Vasan, Vandana; Sil, Parames C., E-mail: parames@bosemain.boseinst.ac.in

    2012-01-15

    Hyperlipidemia, inflammation and altered antioxidant profiles are the usual complications in diabetes mellitus. In the present study, we investigated the therapeutic potential of taurine in diabetes associated cardiac complications using a rat model. Rats were made diabetic by alloxan (ALX) (single i.p. dose of 120 mg/kg body weight) and left untreated or treated with taurine (1% w/v, orally, in water) for three weeks either from the day of ALX exposure or after the onset of diabetes. Animals were euthanized after three weeks. ALX-induced diabetes decreased body weight, increased glucose level, decreased insulin content, enhanced the levels of cardiac damage markers and altered lipid profile in the plasma. Moreover, it increased oxidative stress (decreased antioxidant enzyme activities and GSH/GSSG ratio, increased xanthine oxidase enzyme activity, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation and ROS generation) and enhanced the proinflammatory cytokines levels, activity of myeloperoxidase and nuclear translocation of NFκB in the cardiac tissue of the experimental animals. Taurine treatment could, however, result to a decrease in the elevated blood glucose and proinflammatory cytokine levels, diabetes-evoked oxidative stress, lipid profiles and NFκB translocation. In addition, taurine increased GLUT 4 translocation to the cardiac membrane by enhanced phosphorylation of IR and IRS1 at tyrosine and Akt at serine residue in the heart. Results also suggest that taurine could protect cardiac tissue from ALX induced apoptosis via the regulation of Bcl2 family and caspase 9/3 proteins. Taken together, taurine supplementation in regular diet could play a beneficial role in regulating diabetes and its associated complications in the heart. Highlights: ► Taurine controls blood glucose via protection of pancreatic β cells in diabetic rat. ► Taurine controls blood glucose via increasing the insulin level in diabetic rat. ► Taurine improves cardiac AKT/GLUT4 signaling

  10. Ameliorating effect of anti-Alzheimer’s drugs on the bidirectional association between type 2 diabetes mellitus and Alzheimer’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgharabawy, Rehab M; AL-Najjar, Amal H

    2017-01-01

    Mild to severe forms of nervous system damage were exhibited by approximately 60–70% of diabetics. It is important to understand the association between type 2 diabetes mellitus and Alzheimer’s disease. The aim of the present work is to understand the bidirectional association between type 2 diabetes and Alzheimer’s disease pathogenesis, that was monitored by glycaemic status, lipid profile, amyloid beta 40 and 42 (Aβ40 and Aβ42), C-reactive protein, total creatine kinase, total lactate dehydrogenase, D-dimer and magnesium measurements, to assess the association between theses biochemical markers and each other, to estimate the possibility of utilizing the amyloid beta as biochemical marker of T2D in Alzheimer's patients, and to evaluate the effect of piracetam and memantine drugs on diabetes mellitus. This study involved 120 subjects divided into 20 healthy control (group I), 20 diabetic patients (group II), 20 Alzheimer’s patients (group III), 20 diabetic Alzheimer's patients with symptomatic treatment (group IV), 20 diabetic Alzheimer's patients treated with memantine (group V), and 20 diabetic Alzheimer's patients treated with piracetam (group VI). The demographic characteristics, diabetic index, and lipid profile were monitored. Plasma amyloid beta 40 and amyloid beta 42, C-reactive protein, total creatine kinase, total lactate dehydrogenase, D-dimer, and magnesium were assayed. The levels of amyloid beta 40 and amyloid beta 42 were significantly elevated in diabetic Alzheimer's patients with symptomatic treatment (group IV) compared to group II (by 50.5 and 7.5 fold, respectively) and group III (by 25.4 and 2.8 fold, respectively). In groups II, III, IV, V and VI, significant and positive associations were monitored between insulin and amyloid beta 40, amyloid beta 42, C-reactive protein, total creatine kinase, and D-dimer. Diabetic markers were significantly decreased in diabetic Alzheimer’s patients treated with anti-Alzheimer’s drugs

  11. A dyadic multiple mediation model of patient and spouse stressors predicting patient dietary and exercise adherence via depression symptoms and diabetes self-efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jared R; Novak, Joshua R; Johnson, Matthew D; Deitz, Sharon L; Walker, Ann; Wilcox, Allison; Lewis, Virginia L; Robbins, David C

    2016-12-01

    Using dyadic data from 117 married couples in which one partner was diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes, the purpose of this study was to determine whether a number of specific patient and spouse stressors (chronic life stress, diabetes-specific stress, and physical health stress in the form of the number of comorbidities) were associated with Type 2 diabetes patients' dietary and exercise adherence through two potentially modifiable patient and spouse factors-depression symptoms and diabetes self-efficacy. We found that patient and spouse stressors, particularly patient and spouse diabetes stress and the number of patient comorbidities, were related to patient dietary and exercise adherence through patient depression symptoms and both patient and spouse diabetes self-efficacy. These conclusions were strengthened by incorporating a number of relevant control variables in our models and by testing four alternative models which supported our proposed model. These results are important because they provide further evidence of the significant role spouses' play in managing diabetes and they provide diabetes educators and clinicians with specific targets for intervention programming.

  12. Examination of Psychosocial and Physiological Risk for Bulimic Symptoms in Youth With Type 1 Diabetes Transitioning to an Insulin Pump: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Claire M; Young-Hyman, Deborah; Fischer, Sarah; Markowitz, Jessica T; Muir, Andrew B; Laffel, Lori M

    2018-01-01

    This study tested hypotheses drawn from a risk model positing that psychosocial risk plus disease-related and treatment factors contribute to bulimic symptoms in youth with type 1 diabetes (T1D) transitioning to an insulin pump. The goal of this study was to examine whether disease-related factors, particularly disease- and treatment-based disruption in hunger and satiety, contribute to report of bulimic symptoms in youth with T1D after accounting for psychosocial risk factors. 43 youth (ages 10-17, 54% female) with established T1D were recruited before transition from multiple daily injections to insulin-pump therapy from three tertiary pediatric diabetes centers. Participants completed measures of bulimic symptoms, depressive symptoms dietary restraint, and the Diabetes Treatment and Satiety Scale, a diabetes-specific questionnaire assessing hunger and satiety cues and eating behavior in response to blood glucose levels and treatment. Hierarchical multiple regression was used to assess contributions of psychosocial and disease-based risk to report of bulimic symptoms. After assessing the contributions of body mass index, body image dissatisfaction, and dietary restraint, a significant 2-way interaction emerged between depression and diabetes-related uncontrollable hunger related to bulimic symptoms (β = 1.82, p psychosocial risk, disease- and treatment-based hunger and satiety dysregulation appear to be important factors contributing to report of bulimic symptoms in youth with T1D. These preliminary findings have significant treatment implications for bulimic symptoms in youth with T1D. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  13. Andrographolide ameliorates diabetic nephropathy by attenuating hyperglycemia-mediated renal oxidative stress and inflammation via Akt/NF-κB pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xiaoqian; Li, Changzheng; Ou, Yitao; Li, Ning; Yuan, Kai; Yang, Guizhi; Chen, Xiaoyan; Yang, Zhicheng; Liu, Bing; Cheung, Wai W; Wang, Lijing; Huang, Ren; Lan, Tian

    2016-12-05

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is characterized by proliferation of mesangial cells, mesangial hypertrophy and extracellular matrix (ECM) accumulation. Our recent study found that andrographolide inhibited high glucose-induced mesangial cell proliferation and fibronectin expression through inhibition of AP-1 pathway. However, whether andrographolide has reno-protective roles in DN has not been fully elucidated. Here, we studied the pharmacological effects of andrographolide against the progression of DN and high glucose-induced mesangial dysfunction. Diabetes was induced in C57BL/6 mice by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ). After 1 weeks after STZ injection, normal diet was substituted with a high-fat diet (HFD). Diabetic mice were intraperitoneal injected with andrographolide (2 mg/kg, twice a week). After 8 weeks, functional and histological analyses were carried out. Parallel experiments uncovering the molecular mechanism by which andrographolide prevents from DN was performed in mesangial cells. Andrographolide inhibited the increases in fasting blood glucose, triglyceride, kidney/body weight ratio, blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine and 24-h albuminuria in diabetic mice. Andrographolide also prevented renal hypertrophy and ECM accumulation. Furthermore, andrographolide markedly attenuated NOX1 expression, ROS production and pro-inflammatory cytokines as well. Additionally, andrographolide inhibited Akt/NF-κB signaling pathway. These results demonstrate that andrographolide is protective against the progression of experimental DN by inhibiting renal oxidative stress, inflammation and fibrosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Betulinic acid ameliorates experimental diabetic-induced renal inflammation and fibrosis via inhibiting the activation of NF-κB signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shaogui; Yang, Zhiying; Xiong, Fengxiao; Chen, Cheng; Chao, Xiaojuan; Huang, Junying; Huang, Heqing

    2016-10-15

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the leading cause of end-stage renal failure and is characterized by excessive deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins such as fibronectin (FN), in the glomerular mesangium and tubulointerstitium. Betulinic acid (BA), a pentacyclic triterpene derived from the bark of the white birch tree, has been demonstrated to have many pharmacological activities. However, the effect of BA on DN has not been fully elucidated. To explore the possible anti-inflammatory effects of BA and their underlying mechanisms, we used streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat kidneys and high glucose-treated glomerular mesangial cells. Our study showed BA could inhibit the degradation of IκBα and the activity of NF-κB in diabetic rat kidneys and high glucose-induced mesangial cells, resulting in reduction of FN expression. In addition, BA suppressed the DNA binding activity and transcriptional activity of NF-κB in high glucose-induced glomerular mesangial cells (GMCs). Furthermore, BA enhanced the interaction between IκBα and β-arrestin2 in mesangial cells. Taken together, our data suggest BA inhibits NF-κB activation through stabilizing NF-κB inhibitory protein IκBα, thereby preventing diabetic renal fibrosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Ameliorative Effect of Hexane Extract of Phalaris canariensis on High Fat Diet-Induced Obese and Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Martha Perez Gutierrez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is one of the major factors to increase various disorders like diabetes. The present paper emphasizes study related to the antiobesity effect of Phalaris canariensis seeds hexane extract (Al-H in high-fat diet- (HFD- induced obese CD1 mice and in streptozotocin-induced mild diabetic (MD and severely diabetic (SD mice.AL-H was orally administered to MD and SD mice at a dose of 400 mg/kg once a day for 30 days, and a set of biochemical parameters were studied: glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, lipid peroxidation, liver and muscle glycogen, ALP, SGOT, SGPT, glucose-6-phosphatase, glucokinase, hexokinase, SOD, CAT, GSH, GPX activities, and the effect on insulin level. HS-H significantly reduced the intake of food and water and body weight loss as well as levels of blood glucose, serum cholesterol, triglyceride, lipoprotein, oxidative stress, showed a protective hepatic effect, and increased HDL-cholesterol, serum insulin in diabetic mice. The mice fed on the high-fat diet and treated with AL-H showed inhibitory activity on the lipid metabolism decreasing body weight and weight of the liver and visceral adipose tissues and cholesterol and triglycerides in the liver. We conclude that AL-H can efficiently reduce serum glucose and inhibit insulin resistance, lipid abnormalities, and oxidative stress in MD and SD mice. Our results demonstrate an antiobesity effect reducing lipid droplet accumulation in the liver, indicating that its therapeutic properties may be due to the interaction plant components soluble in the hexane extract, with any of the multiple targets involved in obesity and diabetes pathogenesis.

  16. Treatment of depression in type 2 diabetic patients: effects on depressive symptoms, quality of life and metabolic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolau, Joana; Rivera, Rosmeri; Francés, Carla; Chacártegui, Begoña; Masmiquel, Lluís

    2013-08-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) almost doubles the risk of comorbid depression, with lifetime prevalence up to 29%. Recognition and treatment of depression in T2DM are important because of its association with hyperglycemia, diabetic complications and poor quality of life (QoL). However, although currently available medical therapy for depression is effective in reducing depressive symptoms, it does not consistently improve HbA1c levels. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of antidepressant therapy on depressive symptoms, health-related QoL and metabolic control in T2DM. 48 T2DM (47.8% males, age 59.8 ± 11.1, T2DM duration 9.5 ± 6.5 years) who had a major depressive disorder diagnosed with a Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) test score greater than 16 and confirmed with a structured interview, were prescribed citalopram 20mg once daily. 10 out of 48 refused the prescription and were used as controls. BDI score, BMI, HbA1c and the Spanish version of the SF-36 Health Survey were recorded baseline and after 6 months of treatment. Sociodemographic characteristics, complications related to T2DM and comorbidities were also recorded. No differences in baseline characteristics were observed between the two groups. When compared with the untreated group (n=10), patients treated with citalopram (n=38) showed significant improvements in BDI score and in almost all areas of quality of life, except in general health and bodily pain. No differences in HbA1c, waist circumference or BMI were found. Treating depressive symptoms with medical therapy in T2DM is associated with improvements in QoL and depression, but with no improvement in metabolic control or weight. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Gender Differences in Lay Knowledge of Type 2 Diabetes Symptoms Among Community-dwelling Caucasian, Latino, Filipino, and Korean Adults - DiLH Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Fukuoka, Yoshimi; Bender, Melinda S.; Choi, JiWon; Gonzalez, Prisila; Arai, Shoshana

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to explore gender differences in lay knowledge of type 2 diabetes symptoms among community-dwelling Caucasian, Latino, Filipino, and Korean Americans. A cross-sectional survey was administered to a convenience sample of 904 adults (172 Ca ucasians, 248 Latinos, 234 Koreans, and 250 Filipinos) without diabetes at community events, community clinics, churches, and online in the San Francisco Bay Area and San Diego from August to December 2013. Participants ...

  18. Symptoms of Eating Disorders and Depression in Emerging Adults with Early-Onset, Long-Duration Type 1 Diabetes and Their Association with Metabolic Control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Bächle

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the prevalence of and association between symptoms of eating disorders and depression in female and male emerging adults with early-onset, long-duration type 1 diabetes and investigated how these symptoms are associated with metabolic control.In a nationwide population-based survey, 211 type 1 diabetes patients aged 18-21 years completed standardized questionnaires, including the SCOFF questionnaire for eating disorder symptoms and the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9 for symptoms of depression and severity of depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 score. Multiple linear and logistic regression models were used to analyze the association between eating disorder and depressive symptoms and their associations with HbA1c.A total of 30.2% of the women and 9.5% of the men were screening positive for eating disorders. The mean PHQ-9 score (standard deviation was 5.3 (4.4 among women and 3.9 (3.6 among men. Screening positive for an eating disorder was associated with more severe depressive symptoms among women (βwomen 3.8, p<0.001. However, neither eating disorder symptoms nor severity of depressive symptoms were associated with HbA1c among women, while HbA1c increased with the severity of depressive symptoms among men (βmen 0.14, p=0.006.Because of the high prevalence of eating disorder and depressive symptoms, their interrelationship, and their associations with metabolic control, particularly among men, regular mental health screening is recommended for young adults with type 1 diabetes.

  19. Symptoms of Eating Disorders and Depression in Emerging Adults with Early-Onset, Long-Duration Type 1 Diabetes and Their Association with Metabolic Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bächle, Christina; Lange, Karin; Stahl-Pehe, Anna; Castillo, Katty; Scheuing, Nicole; Holl, Reinhard W; Giani, Guido; Rosenbauer, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    This study analyzed the prevalence of and association between symptoms of eating disorders and depression in female and male emerging adults with early-onset, long-duration type 1 diabetes and investigated how these symptoms are associated with metabolic control. In a nationwide population-based survey, 211 type 1 diabetes patients aged 18-21 years completed standardized questionnaires, including the SCOFF questionnaire for eating disorder symptoms and the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) for symptoms of depression and severity of depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 score). Multiple linear and logistic regression models were used to analyze the association between eating disorder and depressive symptoms and their associations with HbA1c. A total of 30.2% of the women and 9.5% of the men were screening positive for eating disorders. The mean PHQ-9 score (standard deviation) was 5.3 (4.4) among women and 3.9 (3.6) among men. Screening positive for an eating disorder was associated with more severe depressive symptoms among women (βwomen 3.8, peating disorder symptoms nor severity of depressive symptoms were associated with HbA1c among women, while HbA1c increased with the severity of depressive symptoms among men (βmen 0.14, p=0.006). Because of the high prevalence of eating disorder and depressive symptoms, their interrelationship, and their associations with metabolic control, particularly among men, regular mental health screening is recommended for young adults with type 1 diabetes.

  20. Metformin ameliorates diabetes but does not normalize the decreased GLUT 4 content in skeletal muscle of obese (fa/fa) Zucker rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Handberg, A; Kayser, L; Høyer, P E

    1993-01-01

    resistance in skeletal muscle of these animals. After 4 weeks of treatment with metformin, weight gain was not affected in either the diabetic (fa/fa) rats or the lean (Fa/-) rats. Improvement of glucose homeostasis by metformin was not associated with normalization of the GLUT 4 expression in the skeletal......We studied the expression of the glucose transporter GLUT 4 in the soleus and red gastrocnemius muscles from obese, diabetic (fa/fa) Zucker rats compared to their lean littermates (Fa/-), with and without treatment with the antidiabetic drug metformin. In the untreated groups of rats, the GLUT 4...... content in a crude membrane fraction of both the soleus and the red gastrocnemius muscles were significantly lower in the obese (fa/fa) rats (3.46 +/- 0.28 vs. 6.04 +/- 0.41, p muscle from...

  1. Nigella sativa improves glycemic control and ameliorates oxidative stress in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: placebo controlled participant blinded clinical trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huda Kaatabi

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress plays an important role in pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus and its complications. Our previous study has shown glucose lowering effect produced by 3 months supplementation of Nigella sativa (NS in combination with oral hypoglycemic drugs among type 2 diabetics. This study explored the long term glucose lowering effect (over one year of NS in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus on oral hypoglycemic drugs and to study its effect on redox status of such patients.114 type 2 diabetic patients on standard oral hypoglycemic drugs were assigned into 2 groups by convenience. The control group (n = 57 received activated charcoal as placebo and NS group (n = 57 received 2g NS, daily, for one year in addition to their standard medications. Fasting blood glucose (FBG, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c, C- peptide, total antioxidant capacity (TAC, superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS at the baseline, and every 3 months thereafter were determined. Insulin resistance and β-cell activity were calculated using HOMA 2 calculator.Comparison between the two groups showed a significant drop in FBG (from 180 ± 5.75 to 180 ± 5.59 in control Vs from 195 ± 6.57 to 172 ± 5.83 in NS group, HbA1c (from 8.2 ± 0.12 to 8.5 ± 0.14 in control VS from 8.6 ± 0.13 to 8.2 ± 0.14 in NS group, and TBARS (from 48.3 ± 6.89 to 52.9 ± 5.82 in control VS from 54.1 ± 4.64 to 41.9 ± 3.16 in NS group, in addition to a significant elevation in TAC, SOD and glutathione in NS patients compared to controls. In NS group, insulin resistance was significantly lower, while β-cell activity was significantly higher than the baseline values during the whole treatment period.Long term supplementation with Nigella sativa improves glucose homeostasis and enhances antioxidant defense system in type 2 diabetic patients treated with oral hypoglycemic drugs.Clinical Trials Registry-India (CTRI CTRI/2013/06/003781.

  2. Nigella sativa Improves Glycemic Control and Ameliorates Oxidative Stress in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Placebo Controlled Participant Blinded Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaatabi, Huda; Bamosa, Abdullah Omar; Badar, Ahmed; Al-Elq, Abdulmohsen; Abou-Hozaifa, Bodour; Lebda, Fatma; Al-Khadra, Akram; Al-Almaie, Sameeh

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective Oxidative stress plays an important role in pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus and its complications. Our previous study has shown glucose lowering effect produced by 3 months supplementation of Nigella sativa (NS) in combination with oral hypoglycemic drugs among type 2 diabetics. This study explored the long term glucose lowering effect (over one year) of NS in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus on oral hypoglycemic drugs and to study its effect on redox status of such patients. Methods 114 type 2 diabetic patients on standard oral hypoglycemic drugs were assigned into 2 groups by convenience. The control group (n = 57) received activated charcoal as placebo and NS group (n = 57) received 2g NS, daily, for one year in addition to their standard medications. Fasting blood glucose (FBG), glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), C- peptide, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) at the baseline, and every 3 months thereafter were determined. Insulin resistance and β-cell activity were calculated using HOMA 2 calculator. Results Comparison between the two groups showed a significant drop in FBG (from 180±5.75 to 180±5.59 in control Vs from 195±6.57 to 172 ±5.83 in NS group), HbA1c (from 8.2±0.12 to 8.5±0.14 in control VS from 8.6±0.13 to 8.2±0.14 in NS group), and TBARS (from 48.3±6.89 to 52.9 ±5.82 in control VS from 54.1±4.64 to 41.9 ±3.16 in NS group), in addition to a significant elevation in TAC, SOD and glutathione in NS patients compared to controls. In NS group, insulin resistance was significantly lower, while β-cell activity was significantly higher than the baseline values during the whole treatment period. Conclusion Long term supplementation with Nigella sativa improves glucose homeostasis and enhances antioxidant defense system in type 2 diabetic patients treated with oral hypoglycemic drugs. Trial Registration

  3. Altered brain microstructure assessed by diffusion tensor imaging in patients with diabetes and gastrointestinal symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frøkjær, Jens Brøndum; Andersen, Lars Wiuff; Brock, Christina

    2013-01-01

    sensory processing and correlated these findings to clinical parameters. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Twenty-six patients with DM and gastrointestinal symptoms and 23 healthy control subjects were studied in a 3T scanner. The apparent diffusion coefficient (i.e., diffusivity of water) and fractional...

  4. Agmatine ameliorates type 2 diabetes induced-Alzheimer's disease-like alterations in high-fat diet-fed mice via reactivation of blunted insulin signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Somang; Kim, Chul-Hoon; Jung, Hosung; Kim, Eosu; Song, Ho-Taek; Lee, Jong Eun

    2017-02-01

    The risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is higher in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Previous studies in high-fat diet-induced AD animal models have shown that brain insulin resistance in these animals leads to the accumulation of amyloid beta (Aβ) and the reduction in GSK-3β phosphorylation, which promotes tau phosphorylation to cause AD. No therapeutic treatments that target AD in T2DM patients have yet been discovered. Agmatine, a primary amine derived from l-arginine, has exhibited anti-diabetic effects in diabetic animals. The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of agmatine to treat AD induced by brain insulin resistance. ICR mice were fed a 60% high-fat diet for 12 weeks and received one injection of streptozotocin (100 mg/kg/ip) 4 weeks into the diet. After the 12-week diet, the mice were treated with agmatine (100 mg/kg/ip) for 2 weeks. Behaviour tests were conducted prior to sacrifice. Brain expression levels of the insulin signal molecules p-IRS-1, p-Akt, and p-GSK-3β and the accumulation of Aβ and p-tau were evaluated. Agmatine administration rescued the reduction in insulin signalling, which in turn reduced the accumulation of Aβ and p-tau in the brain. Furthermore, agmatine treatment also reduced cognitive decline. Agmatine attenuated the occurrence of AD in T2DM mice via the activation of the blunted insulin signal. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Short term exercise induces PGC-1α, ameliorates inflammation and increases mitochondrial membrane proteins but fails to increase respiratory enzymes in aging diabetic hearts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Botta

    Full Text Available PGC-1α, a transcriptional coactivator, controls inflammation and mitochondrial gene expression in insulin-sensitive tissues following exercise intervention. However, attributing such effects to PGC-1α is counfounded by exercise-induced fluctuations in blood glucose, insulin or bodyweight in diabetic patients. The goal of this study was to investigate the role of PGC-1α on inflammation and mitochondrial protein expressions in aging db/db mice hearts, independent of changes in glycemic parameters. In 8-month-old db/db mice hearts with diabetes lasting over 22 weeks, short-term, moderate-intensity exercise upregulated PGC-1α without altering body weight or glycemic parameters. Nonetheless, such a regimen lowered both cardiac (macrophage infiltration, iNOS and TNFα and systemic (circulating chemokines and cytokines inflammation. Curiously, such an anti-inflammatory effect was also linked to attenuated expression of downstream transcription factors of PGC-1α such as NRF-1 and several respiratory genes. Such mismatch between PGC-1α and its downstream targets was associated with elevated mitochondrial membrane proteins like Tom70 but a concurrent reduction in oxidative phosphorylation protein expressions in exercised db/db hearts. As mitochondrial oxidative stress was predominant in these hearts, in support of our in vivo data, increasing concentrations of H2O2 dose-dependently increased PGC-1α expression while inhibiting expression of inflammatory genes and downstream transcription factors in H9c2 cardiomyocytes in vitro. We conclude that short-term exercise-induced oxidative stress may be key in attenuating cardiac inflammatory genes and impairing PGC-1α mediated gene transcription of downstream transcription factors in type 2 diabetic hearts at an advanced age.

  6. Wfs1- deficient rats develop primary symptoms of Wolfram syndrome: insulin-dependent diabetes, optic nerve atrophy and medullary degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaas, Mario; Seppa, Kadri; Reimets, Riin; Jagomäe, Toomas; Toots, Maarja; Koppel, Tuuliki; Vallisoo, Tuuli; Nigul, Mait; Heinla, Indrek; Meier, Riho; Kaasik, Allen; Piirsoo, Andres; Hickey, Miriam A; Terasmaa, Anton; Vasar, Eero

    2017-08-31

    Wolfram syndrome (WS) is a rare autosomal-recessive disorder that is caused by mutations in the WFS1 gene and is characterized by juvenile-onset diabetes, optic atrophy, hearing loss and a number of other complications. Here, we describe the creation and phenotype of Wfs1 mutant rats, in which exon 5 of the Wfs1 gene is deleted, resulting in a loss of 27 amino acids from the WFS1 protein sequence. These Wfs1-ex5-KO232 rats show progressive glucose intolerance, which culminates in the development of diabetes mellitus, glycosuria, hyperglycaemia and severe body weight loss by 12 months of age. Beta cell mass is reduced in older mutant rats, which is accompanied by decreased glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from 3 months of age. Medullary volume is decreased in older Wfs1-ex5-KO232 rats, with the largest decreases at the level of the inferior olive. Finally, older Wfs1-ex5-KO232 rats show retinal gliosis and optic nerve atrophy at 15 months of age. Electron microscopy revealed axonal degeneration and disorganization of the myelin in the optic nerves of older Wfs1-ex5-KO232 rats. The phenotype of Wfs1-ex5-KO232 rats indicates that they have the core symptoms of WS. Therefore, we present a novel rat model of WS.

  7. Amelioration of Metabolic Syndrome-Associated Cognitive Impairments in Mice via a Reduction in Dietary Fat Content or Infusion of Non-Diabetic Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lance A. Johnson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity, metabolic syndrome (MetS and type 2 diabetes (T2D are associated with decreased cognitive function. While weight loss and T2D remission result in improvements in metabolism and vascular function, it is less clear if these benefits extend to cognitive performance. Here, we highlight the malleable nature of MetS-associated cognitive dysfunction using a mouse model of high fat diet (HFD-induced MetS. While learning and memory was generally unaffected in mice with type 1 diabetes (T1D, multiple cognitive impairments were associated with MetS, including deficits in novel object recognition, cued fear memory, and spatial learning and memory. However, a brief reduction in dietary fat content in chronic HFD-fed mice led to a complete rescue of cognitive function. Cerebral blood volume (CBV, a measure of vascular perfusion, was decreased during MetS, was associated with long term memory, and recovered following the intervention. Finally, repeated infusion of plasma collected from age-matched, low fat diet-fed mice improved memory in HFD mice, and was associated with a distinct metabolic profile. Thus, the cognitive dysfunction accompanying MetS appears to be amenable to treatment, related to cerebrovascular function, and mitigated by systemic factors.

  8. Polyphenol-rich ethyl acetate fraction isolated from Molineria latifolia ameliorates insulin resistance in experimental diabetic rats via IRS1/AKT activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, Der Jiun; Adamu, Hadiza Altine; Imam, Mustapha Umar; Ithnin, Hairuszah; Ismail, Maznah

    2018-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) isolated from Molineria latifolia rhizome as dietary interventions for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and its underlying molecular mechanisms in vivo. Experimental rats were induced by high fat diet feeding coupled with combined exposure to streptozotocin and nicotinamide. Treatment with EAF improved glucose tolerance and lipid profiles, but the insulin secretion was unaltered. Gene expression analyses on insulin/adipocytokine signalling-related genes demonstrated tissue-specific transcriptional responses. In skeletal muscle and liver tissues, Socs1, Tnf and Mapk8 showed consistent transcript regulation. Furthermore, hepatic translational analyses revealed sensitization on proximal insulin signalling, with reduced expression of IRS1 serine phosphorylation, increased IRS1 tyrosine phosphorylation and increased phospho-AKT (Ser473). The present findings suggested that EAF exerted its effect by modulating insulin signalling, potentially via IRS1/AKT activation. The pharmacological attributes of EAF may implicate its potential therapeutic applications for diabetes management. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.. All rights reserved.

  9. The prevalence of depressive symptoms in a white European and South Asian population with impaired glucose regulation and screen-detected Type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aujla, N.; Skinner, T. C.; Khunti, K.

    2010-01-01

    Aims To compare the identification of prevalent depressive symptoms by the World Health Organization-5 Wellbeing Index (WHO-5) and Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) for South Asian and white European people, male and female, attending a diabetes screening programme, and ...

  10. Total and free testosterone concentrations are strongly influenced by age and central obesity in men with type 1 and type 2 diabetes but correlate weakly with symptoms of androgen deficiency and diabetes-related quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Mousumi; Hampton, David; Newcombe, Robert G; Rees, D Aled

    2012-05-01

    Testosterone levels are commonly lowered in men with diabetes, but it is unclear how these relate to symptoms of hypogonadism and quality of life. We sought to investigate the relationship between testosterone levels, symptoms of androgen deficiency, erectile function and quality of life in men with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Cross-sectional study of 115 men with type 2 diabetes, 93 men with type 1 diabetes and 121 healthy controls. Total, bioavailable and free testosterone levels were measured or calculated by Vermuelen's formula. Quality of life and symptom scores were assessed by the Audit of Diabetes Dependent Quality of Life (ADDQoL), androgen deficiency in the aging male (ADAM) and International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) questionnaires. Forty-five and sixty-one per cent of men with type 2 diabetes had low total and calculated free testosterone (CFT) levels, respectively. Total testosterone (TT) levels were not lowered in men with type 1 diabetes, but 32% had low CFT. After adjustment for age and waist circumference, only CFT in men with type 2 diabetes (-0·037 nm, 95% CI -0·075 to -0·0003, P = 0.048) remained lowered compared with controls. CFT correlated weakly with ADAM (r = -0·26, 95% CI -0.42 to -0·08, P = 0·006), IIEF (r = 0.19, 95% CI 0.01-0.37, P = 0.042) and ADDQoL (r = 0.21, 95% CI 0·03 to 0·38, P = 0·022) scores in men with type 2, but not type 1 diabetes. Age exerted the predominant effect on erectile function in both groups, in a model incorporating age, testosterone level and complications. Testosterone levels are strongly affected by age and central obesity in men with type 1 and type 2 diabetes but correlate weakly with symptoms of androgen deficiency and erectile function. Testosterone levels do not appear to be a major determinant of quality of life in patients with diabetes. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Symptoms of emotional, behavioral, and social difficulties in the Danish population of children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes – results of a national survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Lene Juel; Birkebæk, Niels; Mose, Anne

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of psychological difficulties in Danish children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes using both child/adolescent and caregiver reports, and to investigate associations between these symptoms and metabolic control, adherence, and quality of life. RESEARCH DESIGN...... the prevalence observed in the norm sample--particularly with regard to older boys. Both BYI-Y and SDQ responses were significantly correlated with HbA1c, adherence, and quality of life. CONCLUSIONS: This study finds Danish children and adolescents with diabetes to report lower or comparable levels of emotional...... difficulties compared to norms, while caregiver reports are less positive. The results therefore support the value of a multi-informant approach to the assessment of symptoms of psychological difficulty in girls and boys with diabetes....

  12. Protocatechuic Acid, a Phenolic from Sansevieria roxburghiana Leaves, Suppresses Diabetic Cardiomyopathy via Stimulating Glucose Metabolism, Ameliorating Oxidative Stress, and Inhibiting Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niloy Bhattacharjee

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Persistent hyperglycemia, impairment of redox status and establishment of inflammatory pathophysiology integrally play important role in the pathogenesis of diabetic cardiomyopathy (DC. Present study examined the therapeutic potential of protocatechuic acid isolated from the Sansevieria roxburghiana rhizomes against DC employing rodent model of type 2 diabetes (T2D. T2D was induced by high fat diet + a low-single dose of streptozotocin (35 mg/kg, i.p.. T2D rats exhibited significantly (p < 0.01 high fasting blood glucose level. Alteration in serum lipid profile (p < 0.01 and increased levels of lactate dehydrogenase (p < 0.01 and creatine kinase (p < 0.01 in the sera of T2D rats revealed the occurrence of hyperlipidemia and diabetic pathophysiology. A significantly (p < 0.01 high levels of serum C-reactive protein and pro-inflammatory mediators revealed the establishment of inflammatory occurrence in T2D rats. Besides, significantly high levels of troponins in the sera revealed the establishment of cardiac dysfunctions in T2D rats. However, protocatechuic acid (50 and 100 mg/kg, p.o. treatment could significantly reverse the changes in serum biochemical parameters related to cardiac dysfunctions. Molecular mechanism studies demonstrated impairment of signaling cascade, IRS1/PI3K/Akt/AMPK/p 38/GLUT4, in glucose metabolism in the skeletal muscle of T2D rats. Significant (p < 0.01 activation of polyol pathway, enhanced production of AGEs, oxidative stress and up-regulation of inflammatory signaling cascades (PKC/NF-κB/PARP were observed in the myocardial tissue of T2D rats. However, protocatechuic acid (50 and 100 mg/kg, p.o. treatment could significantly (p < 0.05–0.01 stimulate glucose metabolism in skeletal muscle, regulated glycemic and lipid status, reduced the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and restored the myocardial physiology in T2D rats near to normalcy. Histological assessments were also in agreement with the above findings

  13. Metformin ameliorates diabetes but does not normalize the decreased GLUT 4 content in skeletal muscle of obese (fa/fa) Zucker rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Handberg, A; Kayser, L; Høyer, P E

    1993-01-01

    We studied the expression of the glucose transporter GLUT 4 in the soleus and red gastrocnemius muscles from obese, diabetic (fa/fa) Zucker rats compared to their lean littermates (Fa/-), with and without treatment with the antidiabetic drug metformin. In the untreated groups of rats, the GLUT 4...... content in a crude membrane fraction of both the soleus and the red gastrocnemius muscles were significantly lower in the obese (fa/fa) rats (3.46 +/- 0.28 vs. 6.04 +/- 0.41, p GLUT 4 expression in soleus muscle from...... the same rats were confirmed by quantitative immunofluorescence microscopy, and the results were significantly correlated with the results obtained from quantitative immunoblotting (rho = 0.70, p GLUT 4 in fa/fa rats could contribute to the well-established insulin...

  14. Short-term selective alleviation of glucotoxicity and lipotoxicity ameliorates the suppressed expression of key β-cell factors under diabetic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimo, Naoki [Department of Metabolic Medicine, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka, 565-0871 (Japan); Matsuoka, Taka-aki, E-mail: matsuoka@endmet.med.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Metabolic Medicine, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka, 565-0871 (Japan); Miyatsuka, Takeshi [Department of Metabolic Medicine, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka, 565-0871 (Japan); Department of Metabolism and Endocrinology, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-1-1 Hongo, Bunky-ku, Tokyo, 113-8421 (Japan); Takebe, Satomi; Tochino, Yoshihiro; Takahara, Mitsuyoshi [Department of Metabolic Medicine, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka, 565-0871 (Japan); Kaneto, Hideaki [Division of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Kawasaki Medical School, 577 Matsushima, Kurashiki-city, Okayama, 701-0192 (Japan); Shimomura, Iichiro [Department of Metabolic Medicine, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka, 565-0871 (Japan)

    2015-11-27

    Alleviation of hyperglycaemia and hyperlipidemia improves pancreatic β-cell function in type 2 diabetes. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are still not well clarified. In this study, we aimed to elucidate how the expression alterations of key β-cell factors are altered by the short-term selective alleviation of glucotoxicity or lipotoxicity. We treated db/db mice for one week with empagliflozin and/or bezafibrate to alleviate glucotoxicity and/or liptotoxicity, respectively. The gene expression levels of Pdx1 and Mafa, and their potential targets, insulin 1, Slc2a2, and Glp1r, were higher in the islets of empagliflozin-treated mice, and levels of insulin 2 were higher in mice treated with both reagents, than in untreated mice. Moreover, compared to the pretreatment levels, Mafa and insulin 1 expression increased in empagliflozin-treated mice, and Slc2a2 increased in combination-treated mice. In addition, empagliflozin treatment enhanced β-cell proliferation assessed by Ki-67 immunostaining. Our date clearly demonstrated that the one-week selective alleviation of glucotoxicity led to the better expression levels of the key β-cell factors critical for β-cell function over pretreatment levels, and that the alleviation of lipotoxicity along with glucotoxicity augmented the favorable effects under diabetic conditions. - Highlights: • One-week selective reduction of gluco- and lipo-toxicity in db/db mice was performed. • Selective glucotoxicity reduction increases key pancreatic β-cell factors expression. • Selective glucotoxicity reduction improves β-cell factors over pretreatment levels. • Selective glucotoxicity reduction turns β-cell mass toward increase. • Lipotoxicity reduction has additive effects on glucotoxicity reduction.

  15. Type 2 diabetes, depressive symptoms and trajectories of cognitive decline in a national sample of community-dwellers: A prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panayotes Demakakos

    Full Text Available We examined the individual and synergistic effects of type 2 diabetes and elevated depressive symptoms on memory and executive function trajectories over 10 and eight years of follow-up, respectively. Our sample comprised 10,524 community-dwellers aged ≥50 years in 2002-03 from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. With respect to memory (word recall, participants with either diabetes or elevated depressive symptoms recalled significantly fewer words compared with those free of these conditions (reference category, but more words compared with those with both conditions. There was a significant acceleration in the rate of memory decline in participants aged 50-64 years with both conditions (-0.27, 95% CI, -0.45 to -0.08, per study wave, which was not observed in those with either condition or aged ≥65 years. With respect to executive function (animal naming, participants aged ≥65 years with diabetes or those with elevated depressive symptoms named significantly fewer animals compared with the reference category, while those with both conditions named fewer animals compared with any other category. The rate of executive function decline was significantly greater in participants with both conditions (-0.54, 95% CI, -0.99 to -0.10; and -0.71, 95% CI, -1.16 to -0.27, per study wave, for those aged 50-64 and ≥65 years, respectively, but not in participants with either condition. Diabetes and elevated depressive symptoms are inversely associated with memory and executive function, but, individually, do not accelerate cognitive decline. The co-occurrence of diabetes and elevated depressive symptoms significantly accelerates cognitive decline over time, especially among those aged 50-64 years.

  16. Depressive symptoms prior to and following insulin initiation in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: Prevalence, risk factors and effect on physician resource utilisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzida, Grzegorz; Karnieli, Eddy; Svendsen, Anne Louise; Sølje, Kristine Steensen; Hermanns, Norbert

    2015-10-01

    To study the frequency and intensity of depressive symptoms and associations with physician resource utilisation following insulin initiation in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. SOLVE was a 24-week observational study. In this sub-analysis of data from Poland, depressive symptoms were evaluated using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ)-9. PHQ-9 was completed by 942 of 1169 patients (80.6%) at baseline, and 751 (64.2%) at both baseline and final (24-week) visit. PHQ-9 scores indicated depressive symptoms in 45.6% (n=430) at baseline, and 27.2% (n=223) at final visit. Mean PHQ-9 change was -2.38 [95% CI -2.73, -2.02], pdiabetes and associated with increased healthcare utilisation, reinforcing the need for holistic interdisciplinary management approaches. Copyright © 2015 Primary Care Diabetes Europe. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Diabetes-specific emotional distress mediates the association between depressive symptoms and glycaemic control in Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Bastelaar, Kim M P; Pouwer, F; Geelhoed-Duijvestijn, P H L M

    2010-01-01

    study carried out in three tertiary diabetes clinics in the Netherlands. Most recent glycated haemoglobin (HbA(1c)) measurement was obtained from medical records. The Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) and Problem Areas in Diabetes scale (PAID) were used to measure depression...... and glycaemic control, diabetes-specific emotional distress appears to be an important mediator. Addressing diabetes-specific emotional problems as part of depression treatment in diabetes patients may help improve glycaemic outcomes.......OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether diabetes-specific emotional distress mediates the relationship between depression and glycaemic control in patients with Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Data were derived from the baseline assessment of a depression in diabetes screening...

  18. Consequences of Comorbidity of Elevated Stress and/or Depressive Symptoms and Incident Cardiovascular Outcomes in Diabetes: Results From the REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Doyle M; Kirian, Kari; Howard, George; Howard, Virginia; Yuan, Ya; Muntner, Paul; Kissela, Brett; Redmond, Nicole; Judd, Suzanne E; Safford, Monika M

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of comorbid depressive symptoms and/or stress on adverse cardiovascular (CV) outcomes in individuals with diabetes compared with those without diabetes. Investigators examined the relationship between baseline depressive symptoms and/or stress in adults with and without diabetes and physician-adjudicated incident CV outcomes including stroke, myocardial infarction/acute coronary heart disease, and CV death over a median follow-up of 5.95 years in the national REGARDS cohort study. Subjects included 22,003 adults (4,090 with diabetes) (mean age 64 years, 58% female, 42% black, and 56% living in the southeastern "Stroke Belt"). Elevated stress and/or depressive symptoms were more common in subjects with diabetes (36.8% vs. 29.5%; P stress or depressive symptoms was associated with a significantly increased incidence of stroke (HR 1.57 [95% CI 1.05, 2.33] vs. 1.01 [0.79, 1.30]) and CV death (1.53 [1.08, 2.17] vs. 1.12 [0.90, 1.38]) in subjects with diabetes but not in those without diabetes. The combination of both elevated stress and depressive symptoms in subjects with diabetes was associated with a higher incidence of CV death (2.15 [1.33, 3.47]) than either behavioral comorbidity alone (1.53 [1.08, 2.17]) and higher than in those with both elevated stress and depressive symptoms but without diabetes (1.27 [0.86, 1.88]). Comorbid stress and/or depressive symptoms are common in individuals with diabetes and together are associated with progressively increased risks for adverse CV outcomes. © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  19. Acupuncture Treatment of Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy in an American Indian Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Bailey

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN develops in 30% of type 2 diabetes patients, increases the risk for foot ulcers and amputation, and is a significant source of disability and medical costs. Treatment remains challenging, propelling research to focus on therapeutic methods that aim to improve blood circulation or ameliorate oxidative stress that drives development of DPN. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of acupuncture treatment for DPN symptoms and lower extremity arterial circulation in people with type 2 diabetes. Twenty-five patients seen at a Southern California Tribal Health Center who reported a threshold level of diabetic neuropathy symptoms in the lower extremities during the previous 4 weeks received acupuncture treatment once per week over a 10-week period between 2011 and 2013. The Neuropathy Total Symptom Scale (NTSS-6, Neuropathy Disability Score (NDS, and laser Doppler fluxmetry (LDF were used for assessment at baseline and 10 weeks. A total of 19 of 25 study participants completed the study and reported a significant reduction in the NTSS symptoms of aching pain, burning pain, prickling sensation, numbness, and allodynia. Lancinating pain did not decrease significantly. LDF measures improved but not significantly. Acupuncture may effectively ameliorate selected DPN symptoms in these American Indian patients.

  20. Cognitive performance, symptoms and counter-regulation during hypoglycaemia in patients with type 1 diabetes and high or low renin-angiotensin system activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høi-Hansen, Thomas; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Ulrik; Andersen, Rikke Due; Kristensen, Peter Lommer; Thomsen, Carsten; Kjaer, Troels; Høgenhaven, Hans; Smed, Annelise; Holst, Jens Juul; Dela, Flemming; Boomsma, Frans; Thorsteinsson, Birger

    2009-12-01

    High basal renin-angiotensin system (RAS) activity is associated with increased risk of severe hypoglycaemia in type 1 diabetes. We tested whether this might be explained by more pronounced cognitive dysfunction during hypoglycaemia in patients with high RAS activity than in patients with low RAS activity. Nine patients with type 1 diabetes and high and nine with low RAS activity were subjected to hypoglycaemia and euglycaemia in a cross-over study using an intravenous insulin infusion protocol. Cognitive function, electroencephalography, auditory evoked potentials and hypoglycaemic symptoms were recorded. At a hypoglycaemic nadir of 2.2 (SD 0.3) mmol/L the high RAS group displayed significant deterioration in cognitive performance during hypoglycaemia in the three most complex reaction time tasks. In the low RAS group, hypoglycaemia led to cognitive dysfunction in only one reaction time task. The high RAS group reported lower symptom scores during hypoglycaemia than the low RAS group, suggesting poorer hypoglycaemia awareness. High RAS activity is associated with increased cognitive dysfunction and blunted symptoms during mild hypoglycaemia compared to low RAS activity. This may explain why high RAS activity is a risk factor for severe hypoglycaemia in type 1 diabetes.

  1. Pilot randomized controlled trial of a mindfulness-based group intervention in adolescent girls at risk for type 2 diabetes with depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shomaker, Lauren B; Bruggink, Stephanie; Pivarunas, Bernadette; Skoranski, Amanda; Foss, Jillian; Chaffin, Ella; Dalager, Stephanie; Annameier, Shelly; Quaglia, Jordan; Brown, Kirk Warren; Broderick, Patricia; Bell, Christopher

    2017-06-01

    (1) Evaluate feasibility and acceptability of a mindfulness-based group in adolescent girls at-risk for type 2 diabetes (T2D) with depressive symptoms, and (2) compare efficacy of a mindfulness-based versus cognitive-behavioral group for decreasing depressive symptoms and improving insulin resistance. Parallel-group, randomized controlled pilot trial conducted at a university. Thirty-three girls 12-17y with overweight/obesity, family history of diabetes, and elevated depressive symptoms were randomized to a six-week mindfulness-based (n=17) or cognitive-behavioral program (n=16). Both interventions included six, one-hour weekly group sessions. The mindfulness-based program included guided mindfulness awareness practices. The cognitive-behavioral program involved cognitive restructuring and behavioral activation. Adolescents were evaluated at baseline, post-intervention, and six-months. Feasibility/acceptability were measured by attendance and program ratings. Depressive symptoms were assessed by validated survey. Insulin resistance was determined from fasting insulin and glucose, and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry was used to assess body composition. Most adolescents attended ≥80% sessions (mindfulness: 92% versus cognitive-behavioral: 87%, p=1.00). Acceptability ratings were strong. At post-treatment and six-months, adolescents in the mindfulness condition had greater decreases in depressive symptoms than adolescents in the cognitive-behavioral condition (psmindfulness-based intervention also had greater decreases in insulin resistance and fasting insulin at post-treatment, adjusting for fat mass and other covariates (psmindfulness-based intervention shows feasibility and acceptability in girls at-risk for T2D with depressive symptoms. Compared to a cognitive-behavioral program, after the intervention, adolescents who received mindfulness showed greater reductions in depressive symptoms and better insulin resistance. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02218138

  2. Removal of a high-fat diet, but not voluntary exercise, reverses obesity and diabetic-like symptoms in male C57BL/6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzidis, Aikaterini; Hicks, Jasmin A; Gelineau, Rachel R; Arruda, Nicole L; Monteiro De Pina, Isabella; O'Connell, Karyn E; Seggio, Joseph A

    2017-01-01

    Both the consumption of high-fat diets and exercise are known to produce alterations in metabolism and behavior. This study focuses on the effects of a change to a low-fat diet from a high-fat diet and voluntary exercise on obesity, type-2 diabetic-like symptoms, and locomotor behavior in male C57BL/6J mice. Mice were initially given either a high-fat diet or regular chow, along with a cage with a running-wheel to mimic exercise, or one without, to determine to what extend exercise affects these symptoms. Then half of the mice given a high-fat diet were switched to regular chow to ascertain if the switch in diet would improve type-2 diabetic-like and obesity symptoms. Wheel-running alone produced an improvement in insulin in mice continuously fed a high-fat diet (p=0.006), but running-wheels did not produce any further improvements in mice with regular chow replacement (p=0.999) or in controls (p=0.996). Replacement of a high-fat diet with regular chow led to physiological improvements in insulin (p=0.012) and leptin (p obesity (p symptoms and related conditions more so than exercise alone.

  3. Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, Peter; Mathiesen, Elisabeth R

    2015-01-01

    For >30 years, insulin has been the drug of choice for the medical treatment of gestational diabetes mellitus. However, the use of oral hypoglycaemic agents has increased during the past 1–2 decades, so a recent comparison of treatment with glibenclamide, metformin or insulin in women with gestat......For >30 years, insulin has been the drug of choice for the medical treatment of gestational diabetes mellitus. However, the use of oral hypoglycaemic agents has increased during the past 1–2 decades, so a recent comparison of treatment with glibenclamide, metformin or insulin in women...... with gestational diabetes mellitus is highly relevant....

  4. What I Need to Know about Gestational Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diabetes? Type 1 Diabetes Type 2 Diabetes Prediabetes & Insulin Resistance Gestational Diabetes Definition & Facts Symptoms & Causes Tests & Diagnosis Management & Treatment Prevention After Your Baby is Born Monogenic ...

  5. Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... including: Blurry vision Excess thirst Fatigue Frequent urination Hunger Weight loss Because type 2 diabetes develops slowly, ... must be authorized in writing by ADAM Health Solutions. About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Get ...

  6. Diabetes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — These datasets provide de-identified insurance data for diabetes. The data is provided by three managed care organizations in Allegheny County (Gateway Health Plan,...

  7. In Vivo Anti-Diabetic Activity of the Ethanolic Crude Extract of Sorbus decora C.K.Schneid. (Rosacea: A Medicinal Plant Used by Canadian James Bay Cree Nations to Treat Symptoms Related to Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose Vianna

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of potential anti-diabetic plants were identified through an ethnobotanical survey of the traditional pharmacopeia of the Cree of Eeyou Istchee (CEI—Northeastern Canada used against symptoms of diabetes and their biological activity assessed by in vitro bioassays. Among these, Sorbus decora C.K.Schneid. (Rosacea ranked highly and increased the transport of glucose in skeletal muscle cells in culture. The present study thus aimed at confirming the antidiabetic potential of S. decora in in vivo models of insulin resistance and diabetes, notably the streptozotocin Type 1 diabetic rat (STZ, the genetic KK-Ay Type 2 diabetic mouse and the rat rendered insulin resistant with 10% glucose water consumption for 6 weeks. Sorbus decora ethanolic crude extract (SDEE was administered orally (200 mg kg-1 and compared to metformin (150 or 500 mg kg-1. The intragastric (i.g. gavage of SDEE transiently decreased glycemia in STZ rats in a bi-phasic manner but the effect was cumulative over several days. In KK-Ay mice, SDEE incorporated in food (0.12% decreased glycemia by 15% within 1 week as compared to vehicle controls. In pre-diabetic insulin-resistant rats, SDEE fed daily by i.g. gavage for 2 weeks significantly decreased the slight hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia, without affecting sugar water intake. Using the HOMA insulin resistance parameter, the effect of SDEE was equivalent to that of metformin. In conclusion, the ethanolic crude extract of S. decora demonstrates both anti-hyperglycemic and insulin-sensitizing activity in vivo, thereby confirming anti-diabetic potential and validating CEI traditional medicine.

  8. Relationships between dyspeptic symptoms and gastrointestinal motility in patients with type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jebbink, H. J.; Bravenboer, B.; Akkermans, L. M.; vanBerge-Henegouwen, G. P.; Smout, A. J.

    1993-01-01

    Reports on motor abnormalities in Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus are inconsistent. In 20 Type 1 diabetic patients and in 11 control subjects antroduodenojejunal manometry was performed under euglycaemic conditions in order to examine the prevalence of gastric and small intestinal motor

  9. Effect of interventions for major depressive disorder and significant depressive symptoms in patients with diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Feltz-Cornelis, Christina M; Nuyen, Jasper; Stoop, Corinne; Chan, Juliana; Jacobson, Alan M; Katon, Wayne; Snoek, Frank; Sartorius, Norman

    2010-01-01

    Comorbid depression in diabetes is highly prevalent, negatively impacting well-being and diabetes control. How depression in diabetes is best treated is unknown. This systematic review and meta-analysis aims to establish the effectiveness of existing anti-depressant therapies in diabetes. PubMed, Psycinfo, Embase and Cochrane library. Study eligibility criteria, participants, interventions: randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the outcome of treatment by psychotherapy, pharmacotherapy or collaborative care of depression in persons with Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes mellitus. risk of bias assessment; data extraction. Synthesis methods: data synthesis, random model meta analysis and publication bias analysis. Meta analysis of 14 RCTs with a total of 1724 patients show that treatment is effective in terms of reduction of depressive symptoms: -0.512; 95% CI -0.633 to -0.390. The combined effect of all interventions on clinical impact is moderate, -0.370; 95% CI -0.470 to -0.271; it is large for psychotherapeutic interventions that are often combined with diabetes self management: -0.581; 95% CI -0.770 to -0.391, n=310 and moderate for pharmacological treatment: -0.467; 95% CI -0.665 to -0.270, n=281. Delivery of collaborative care, which provided a stepped care intervention with a choice of starting with psychotherapy or pharmacotherapy, to a primary care population, yielded an effect size of -0.292; 95% CI -0.429 to -0.155, n=1133; indicating the effect size that can be attained on a population scale. Pharmacotherapy and collaborative care aimed at and succeeded in the reduction of depressive symptoms but, apart from sertraline, had no effect on glycemic control. amongst others, the number of RCTs is small. The treatment of depression in people with diabetes is a necessary step, but improvement of the general medical condition including glycemic control is likely to require simultaneous attention to both conditions. Further research is needed. Copyright 2010

  10. Tetradecyl 2,3-Dihydroxybenzoate Improves the Symptoms of Diabetic Mice by Modulation of Insulin and Adiponectin Signaling Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan Xiang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tetradecyl 2,3-dihydroxybenzoate (ABG-001 derived from Chinese medicine, gentiana regescens Franch is a leading compound with NGF mimic effect, it can induce neurite outgrowth of PC12 cells via the IGF-1/PI3K/ERK signaling pathway. Thus, we inferred that this compound had anti-diabetic effect and used streptozocin (STZ-induced diabetic mice to indicate it.Methods: ABG-001 was synthesized with 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid and tetradecyl alcohol under certain reaction conditions. STZ-induced diabetic mice were used to investigate anti-diabetic effect. Oral glucose tolerance test, insulin tolerance test, RT-PCR, Western blot, ELISA assays and histological section were performed to do the analysis of action mechanism.Results: ABG-001 showed anti-diabetic effect in STZ-induced diabetic mice. In diabetic mice, the anti-diabetic effect of ABG-001 at a dose of 20 mg/kg was equal with metformin at a dose of 140 mg/kg. Moreover, glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity were significantly improved on diabetic mice. The plasma insulin, adiponectin and leptin were notably increased, whereas glucagon remarkably decreased. The gene expressions of adiponectin and leptin in adipose tissue, glucose transporter 4 and adiponectin receptor 1 in liver and gastrocnemius, ADR2 in hypothalamus and pancreas were obviously increased.Conclusion: ABG-001 exerts antidiabetic effects via modulation of insulin and adiponectin signaling pathways. This new type of molecule could be a promising drug candidate for treatment of diabetes.

  11. Cognitive performance, symptoms and counter-regulation during hypoglycaemia in patients with type 1 diabetes and high or low renin-angiotensin system activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høi-Hansen, Thomas; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Ulrik; Andersen, Rikke Due

    2009-01-01

    potentials and hypoglycaemic symptoms were recorded. RESULTS: At a hypoglycaemic nadir of 2.2 (SD 0.3) mmol/L the high RAS group displayed significant deterioration in cognitive performance during hypoglycaemia in the three most complex reaction time tasks. In the low RAS group, hypoglycaemia led......INTRODUCTION: High basal renin-angiotensin system (RAS) activity is associated with increased risk of severe hypoglycaemia in type 1 diabetes. We tested whether this might be explained by more pronounced cognitive dysfunction during hypoglycaemia in patients with high RAS activity than in patients...... with low RAS activity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Nine patients with type 1 diabetes and high and nine with low RAS activity were subjected to hypoglycaemia and euglycaemia in a cross-over study using an intravenous insulin infusion protocol. Cognitive function, electroencephalography, auditory evoked...

  12. Prolonged high fat diet ingestion, obesity, and type 2 diabetes symptoms correlate with phenotypic plasticity in myenteric neurons and nerve damage in the mouse duodenum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenkamp-Strahm, Chloe M; Nyavor, Yvonne E A; Kappmeyer, Adam J; Horton, Sarah; Gericke, Martin; Balemba, Onesmo B

    2015-08-01

    Symptoms of diabetic gastrointestinal dysmotility indicate neuropathy of the enteric nervous system. Long-standing diabetic enteric neuropathy has not been fully characterized, however. We used prolonged high fat diet ingestion (20 weeks) in a mouse model to mimic human obese and type 2 diabetic conditions, and analyzed changes seen in neurons of the duodenal myenteric plexus. Ganglionic and neuronal size, number of neurons per ganglionic area, density indices of neuronal phenotypes (immunoreactive nerve cell bodies and varicosities per ganglion or tissue area) and nerve injury were measured. Findings were compared with results previously seen in mice fed the same diet for 8 weeks. Compared to mice fed standard chow, those on a prolonged high fat diet had smaller ganglionic and cell soma areas. Myenteric VIP- and ChAT-immunoreactive density indices were also reduced. Myenteric nerve fibers were markedly swollen and cytoskeletal protein networks were disrupted. The number of nNOS nerve cell bodies per ganglia was increased, contrary to the reduction previously seen after 8 weeks, but the density index of nNOS varicosities was reduced. Mice fed high fat and standard chow diets experienced an age-related reduction in total neurons, with bias towards neurons of sensory phenotype. Meanwhile, ageing was associated with an increase in excitatory neuronal markers. Collectively, these results support a notion that nerve damage underlies diabetic symptoms of dysmotility, and reveals adaptive ENS responses to the prolonged ingestion of a high fat diet. This highlights a need to mechanistically study long-term diet-induced nerve damage and age-related impacts on the ENS.

  13. Depressive Symptoms Are Negatively Associated with Glucose Testing and Eating Meals on Time among Individuals with Diabetes in Zambia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hapunda, Given; Abubakar, Amina; Pouwer, Frans

    2017-01-01

    and adult patients. Regression analysis indicated that there was no association between total diabetes self-care and the depression total score. However, depression was associated with poor glucose testing and not eating meals on time by patients with diabetes. CONCLUSION: Some variance on poor self......-care was explained by demographic characteristics, specifically age, body mass index, and to some extent, socioeconomic status. Recognition and successful treatment of depression in patients with diabetes might help to optimize self-care behaviors, especially glucose testing and eating meals on time. However...

  14. Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and your cardiovascular system. Common symptoms include: Extreme hunger. Extreme thirst. Frequent urination. Unexplained weight loss. Fatigue ... Your Health Resources Healthcare Management End-of-Life Issues Insurance & Bills Self Care Working With Your Doctor ...

  15. Type D personality and diabetes predict the onset of depressive symptoms in patients after percutaneous coronary intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne S.; Ong, Andrew T L; Sonnenschein, Karel

    2006-01-01

    Depression is common in cardiac patients and has been associated with adverse clinical outcome. However, little is known about predictors of the onset of depressive symptoms. We examined predictors of the onset of depressive symptoms at 12 months post-percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in p...

  16. Fucoidan Extracts Ameliorate Acute Colitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Ying Lean

    Full Text Available Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD, such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, are an important cause of morbidity and impact significantly on quality of life. Overall, current treatments do not sustain a long-term clinical remission and are associated with adverse effects, which highlight the need for new treatment options. Fucoidans are complex sulphated, fucose-rich polysaccharides, found in edible brown algae and are described as having multiple bioactivities including potent anti-inflammatory effects. Therefore, the therapeutic potential of two different fucoidan preparations, fucoidan-polyphenol complex (Maritech Synergy and depyrogenated fucoidan (DPF was evaluated in the dextran sulphate sodium (DSS mouse model of acute colitis. Mice were treated once daily over 7 days with fucoidans via oral (Synergy or DPF or intraperitoneal administration (DPF. Signs and severity of colitis were monitored daily before colons and spleens were collected for macroscopic evaluation, cytokine measurements and histology. Orally administered Synergy and DPF, but not intraperitoneal DPF treatment, significantly ameliorated symptoms of colitis based on retention of body weight, as well as reduced diarrhoea and faecal blood loss, compared to the untreated colitis group. Colon and spleen weight in mice treated with oral fucoidan was also significantly lower, indicating reduced inflammation and oedema. Histological examination of untreated colitis mice confirmed a massive loss of crypt architecture and goblet cells, infiltration of immune cells and oedema, while all aspects of this pathology were alleviated by oral fucoidan. Importantly, in this model, the macroscopic changes induced by oral fucoidan correlated significantly with substantially decreased production of at least 15 pro-inflammatory cytokines by the colon tissue. Overall, oral fucoidan preparations significantly reduce the inflammatory pathology associated with DSS-induced colitis and could

  17. Depressive Symptoms Are Negatively Associated with Glucose Testing and Eating Meals on Time among Individuals with Diabetes in Zambia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hapunda, Given; Abubakar, Amina; Pouwer, Frans; van de Vijver, Fons

    2017-01-01

    Background: Depression is an established risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and mortality among individuals living with diabetes, and impaired self-care behaviors may play a mediating role. In Africa, this association is not very well known. In this study, we examined the associations between

  18. Associations of Symptoms of Anxiety and Depression with Diabetes and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Older People with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, C. F.; Hermans, H.; Evenhuis, H. M.; Echteld, M. A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Depression, anxiety, diabetes and cardiovascular risk factors are frequent health problems among older people with intellectual disability (ID). These conditions may be bidirectionally related. Depression and anxiety may have biological effects causing glucose intolerance, fat accumulation and also lifestyle changes causing metabolic…

  19. Cardioprotective effects of curcumin against diabetes and nicotine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    induced oxidative stress. This brought in mind to investigate the probability of the crcumin ability to ameliorate the combined diabetes and smoking induced oxidative stress caused DCM. Materials and Methods: Diabetic rats were administered ...

  20. Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms as Predictors of All-Cause Mortality among People with Insulin-Naïve Type 2 Diabetes: 17-Year Follow-Up of the Second Nord-Trøndelag Health Survey (HUNT2, Norway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjolein M Iversen

    Full Text Available To examine whether elevated anxiety and/or depressive symptoms are related to all-cause mortality in people with Type 2 diabetes, not using insulin.948 participants in the community-wide Nord-Trøndelag Health Survey conducted during 1995-97 completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale with subscales of anxiety (HADS-A and depression (HADS-D. Elevated symptoms were defined as HADS-A or HADS-D ≥8. Participants with type 2 diabetes, not using insulin, were followed until November 21, 2012 or death. Cox regression analyses were used to estimate associations between baseline elevated anxiety symptoms, elevated depressive symptoms and mortality, adjusting for sociodemographic factors, HbA1c, cardiovascular disease and microvascular complications.At baseline, 8% (n = 77/948 reported elevated anxiety symptoms, 9% (n = 87/948 elevated depressive symptoms and 10% (n = 93/948 reported both. After a mean follow-up of 12 years (SD 5.1, range 0-17, 541 participants (57% had died. Participants with elevated anxiety symptoms only had a decreased mortality risk (unadjusted HR 0.66, 95% CI 0.46-0.96. Adjustment for HbA1c attenuated this relation (HR 0.73, 95% CI 0.50-1.07. Those with elevated depression symptoms alone had an increased mortality risk (fully adjusted model HR 1.39, 95% CI 1.05-1.84. Having both elevated anxiety and depressive symptoms was not associated with increased mortality risk (adjusted HR 1.30, 95% CI 0.96-1.74.Elevated depressive symptoms were associated with excess mortality risk in people with Type 2 diabetes not using insulin. No significant association with mortality was found among people with elevated anxiety symptoms. Having both elevated anxiety and depressive symptoms was not associated with mortality. The hypothesis that elevated levels of anxiety symptoms leads to behavior that counteracts the adverse health effects of Type 2 diabetes needs further investigation.

  1. Antioxidant activity in medicinal plants associated with the symptoms of diabetes mellitus used by the indigenous peoples of the North American boreal forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCune, Letitia M; Johns, Timothy

    2002-10-01

    Thirty-five plant species were selected from the published literature as traditionally used by the Indigenous Peoples of the boreal forest in Canada for three or more symptoms of diabetes or its complications. Antioxidant activities in methanolic extracts support the contribution of these traditional medicines in a lifestyle historically low in the incidence of diabetes. In a DPPH assay of free radical scavenging activity 89% of the methanol extracts had activity significantly greater than common modern dietary components, 14% were statistically equal to ascorbic acid and 23% had activities similar to green tea and a Trolox positive control. Superoxides produced with an NBT/xanthine oxidase assay found scavenging was significantly higher in 29% of the species as compared with the modern dietary components and Trolox. The methanol extracts of Rhus hirta, Quercus alba and Cornus stolonifera performed similarly to green tea's in this assay. Assessment of peroxyl radical scavenging using a DCF/AAPH assay showed 60% of the plant extracts statistically similar to Trolox while R. hirta and Solidago canadensis extracts were greater than green tea, ascorbic acid and Trolox. The majority of the species (63 and 97%, respectively) had scavenging activities similar to ascorbic acid in the superoxide and peroxyl radical scavenging assays.

  2. Symptoms of depression and diabetes-specific emotional distress are associated with a negative appraisal of insulin therapy in insulin-naïve patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus. A study from the European Depression in Diabetes [EDID] Research Consortium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makine, Ceylan; Karşidağ, C; Kadioğlu, P

    2009-01-01

    -report questionnaire was used to obtain demographic and clinical data. Main instruments were the Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, (CES-D), the Problem Areas In Diabetes scale (PAID) and the Insulin Treatment Appraisal Scale (ITAS). RESULTS: Analysis of variance revealed that patients with a higher......AIMS: A meta-analysis concluded that depression is associated with poor glycaemic control in Type 2 diabetes (DM2). In DM2 patients with deteriorating glycaemic control, the initiation of insulin therapy is often postponed. The aim of the present study was to determine whether symptoms...... of depression and diabetes-specific emotional distress are associated with a more negative appraisal of insulin therapy. METHODS: We collected cross-sectional data in two outpatient university clinics in Istanbul, Turkey. The study sample consisted of 154 insulin-naïve patients with DM2. A self...

  3. Comparative study: Oral mucosal lesions, signs and symptoms in diabetes mellitus patients with end stage renal disease with analogous findings in diabetes mellitus patients with non-end stage renal disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balasubramani Senthil

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study is to compare oral signs, symptoms and oral lesions type and prevalence, in end stage renal disease (ESRD with non-end stage renal disease (NESRD in diabetes mellitus (DM patients. Methodology: Two groups of DM patients were studied, Group 1 includes 100 patients with ESRD, who were under hemodialysis therapy, and Group 2 includes100 patients with NESRD whose serum creatinine level is <2.0 mg/dl. The DM status and other laboratory investigations were recorded, with the patients consent and thorough oral examination was performed and the findings were recorded. All the data were entered into Microsoft Excel sheets. Statistical analysis including Pearson's correlation analysis, Chi-square test, and t-test were done using SPSS software SYSTAT version 7.0. Results: On thorough clinical examination, the prevalence of oral lesions was found to be higher in ESRD patients. The most common lesions such as saburral tongue (P ≤ 0.002, petechiae/ecchymoses (P ≤ 0.000, pale mucosa (P ≤ 0.000, stomatitis medicamentosa (P ≤ 0.043 fissured tongue, smooth tongue, candidiasis, dry and fissured lips, angular cheilitis, uremic stomatitis, signs such as uremic fetor (P ≤ 0.000, xerostomia and symptoms like burning tongue, unpleasant taste are noted. Conclusion: The high prevalence of uremic fetor, saburral tongue, pale mucosa, and petechiae/ecchymoses in ESRD patient group can be considered as a possible sign of undiagnosed advanced stage of renal disease in other diabetic patients.

  4. Glucose and cholesterol stabilization in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with depressive and anxiety symptoms by problem-solving therapy in primary care centers in Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villamil-Salcedo, Valerio; Vargas-Terrez, Blanca E; Caraveo-Anduaga, Jorge; González-Olvera, Jorge; Díaz-Anzaldúa, Adriana; Cortés-Sotres, José; Pérez-Ávila, Magdalena

    2018-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to determine if the problem-solving therapy (PST) helps control metabolic variables in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) who show depressive and anxiety symptoms. T2DM is a chronic-degenerative multifactorial disease. It is considered one of the main public health problems in the world, and it represents an important social and economic burden. It is frequently associated with major depression and anxiety disorders, which are related with high glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) concentrations and poor metabolic control. We initially included 123 patients diagnosed with T2DM from five primary care centers (PCC) in Mexico City. HbA1c, central glucose, and lipid profile were measured in each patient. In addition, the Kessler psychological distress scale (K-10), the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Beck Anxiety Inventory were applied at the beginning and, to those who continued, at the end of the PST, as well as four months later. Findings In total, 36 patients completed the PST and the follow-up. There was a significant decrease in depressive and anxiety symptoms (P<0.001), as well as in total cholesterol (P=0.002), HbA1c (P=0.05), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) (P=0.022). The PST helps reduce depressive and anxiety symptoms and may help stabilize glucose and cholesterol up to four months. Further studies on this area are recommended. If our findings are confirmed, the PST could help improve the quality of life of thousands of individuals with psychiatric-metabolic co-morbidity who only visit PCC.

  5. Affect school and script analysis versus basic body awareness therapy in the treatment of psychological symptoms in patients with diabetes and high HbA1c concentrations: two study protocols for two randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melin, Eva O; Svensson, Ralph; Gustavsson, Sven-Åke; Winberg, Agneta; Denward-Olah, Ewa; Landin-Olsson, Mona; Thulesius, Hans O

    2016-04-27

    Depression is linked with alexithymia, anxiety, high HbA1c concentrations, disturbances of cortisol secretion, increased prevalence of diabetes complications and all-cause mortality. The psycho-educational method 'affect school with script analysis' and the mind-body therapy 'basic body awareness treatment' will be trialled in patients with diabetes, high HbA1c concentrations and psychological symptoms. The primary outcome measure is change in symptoms of depression. Secondary outcome measures are changes in HbA1c concentrations, midnight salivary cortisol concentration, symptoms of alexithymia, anxiety, self-image measures, use of antidepressants, incidence of diabetes complications and mortality. Two studies will be performed. Study I is an open-labeled parallel-group study with a two-arm randomized controlled trial design. Patients are randomized to either affect school with script analysis or to basic body awareness treatment. According to power calculations, 64 persons are required in each intervention arm at the last follow-up session. Patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes were recruited from one hospital diabetes outpatient clinic in 2009. The trial will be completed in 2016. Study II is a multicentre open-labeled parallel-group three-arm randomized controlled trial. Patients will be randomized to affect school with script analysis, to basic body awareness treatment, or to treatment as usual. Power calculations show that 70 persons are required in each arm at the last follow-up session. Patients with type 2 diabetes will be recruited from primary care. This study will start in 2016 and finish in 2023. For both studies, the inclusion criteria are: HbA1c concentration ≥62.5 mmol/mol; depression, alexithymia, anxiety or a negative self-image; age 18-59 years; and diabetes duration ≥1 year. The exclusion criteria are pregnancy, severe comorbidities, cognitive deficiencies or inadequate Swedish. Depression, anxiety, alexithymia and self-image are assessed

  6. Improvement in Depressive Symptoms Is Associated with Reduced Oxidative Damage and Inflammatory Response in Type 2 Diabetic Patients with Subsyndromal Depression: The Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing Psychoeducation, Physical Exercise, and Enhanced Treatment as Usual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vučić Lovrenčić, Marijana; Pibernik-Okanović, Mirjana; Šekerija, Mario; Prašek, Manja; Ajduković, Dea; Kos, Jadranka; Hermanns, Norbert

    2015-01-01

    Aims. To examine one-year changes in oxidative damage and inflammation level in type 2 diabetic patients undergoing behavioral treatment for subsyndromal depression. Materials and Methods. A randomized controlled comparison of psychoeducation (A), physical exercise (B), and enhanced treatment as usual (C) was performed in 209 eligible subjects in a tertiary diabetes care setting. Depressive symptoms (primary outcome) and selected biomarkers of oxidative damage and inflammation (secondary outcomes) were assessed at baseline and six- and twelve-month follow-up. Results. Out of the 74, 67, and 68 patients randomised into groups A, B, and C, respectively, 201 completed the interventions, and 179 were analysed. Participants in all three groups equally improved in depressive symptoms from baseline to one-year follow-up (repeated measures ANOVA; F = 12.51, p depressive symptoms at 6 months significantly predicted one-year reduction in u-8-oxodG (β = 0.15, p = 0.044). Conclusion. Simple behavioral interventions are capable not only of alleviating depressive symptoms, but also of reducing the intensity of damaging oxidative/inflammatory processes in type 2 diabetic patients with subsyndromal depression. This trial is registered with ISRCTN05673017. PMID:26347775

  7. 1,2,3,4,6 Penta-O-galloyl-β-d-glucose, a bioactivity guided isolated compound from Mangifera indica inhibits 11β-HSD-1 and ameliorates high fat diet-induced diabetes in C57BL/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, C G; Viswanatha, G L; Savinay, G; Rajendra, C E; Halemani, Praveen D

    2013-03-15

    Methanolic leaf extract of Mangifera indica (MEMI) was subjected to bioactivity guided fractionation in order to identify the active antidiabetic constituent. 32 fractions were evaluated for possible 11β-HSD-1 inhibition activity under in vitro conditions. The EA-7/8-9/10-4 fraction was evolved as a most potent fraction among all the fractions and it was identified as well known gallotannin compound 1,2,3,4,6 penta-O-galloyl-β-d-glucose (PGG) by spectral analysis. Based on these results the PGG was further evaluated in ex vivo 11β-HSD-1 inhibition assay and high fat diet (HFD)-induced diabetes in male C57BL/6 mice. Single dose (10, 25, 50 and 100mg/kg) of PGG and carbenoxolone (CBX) have dose dependently inhibited the 11β-HSD-1 activity in liver and adipose tissue. Furthermore, HFD appraisal to male C57BL/6 mice caused severe hyperglycemia, hypertriglyceridemia, elevated levels of plasma corticosterone and insulin, increased liver and white adipose mass with increase in body weight was observed compare to normal control. Also, oral glucose tolerance was significantly impaired compare to normal control. Interestingly, post-treatment with PGG for 21 days had alleviated the HFD-induced biochemical alterations and improved oral glucose tolerance compare to HFD-control. In conclusion, the PGG isolated from MEMI inhibits 11β-HSD-1 activity and ameliorates HFD-induced diabetes in male C57BL/6 mice. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Efficacy of a web-based intervention with mobile phone support in treating depressive symptoms in adults with type 1 and type 2 diabetes: a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nobis, S.; Lehr, D.; Ebert, D.D.; Baumeister, H.; Snoek, F.J.; Riper, H.; Berking, M.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Depression is common in diabetes and linked to adverse health outcomes. This study evaluated the efficacy of a guided web-based intervention in reducing depression in adults with type 1 and type 2 diabetes.

  9. [Diabetes insipidus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krysiak, Robert; Handzlik-Orlik, Gabriela; Okopień, Bogusław

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes insipidus is an uncommon disorder of water-electrolyte balance characterized by the excretion of abnormally large volumes of diluted urine (polyuria) and increased fluid intake (polydipsia). The disease may result from the insufficient production of vasopressin, its increased degradation, an impaired response of kidneys to vasopressin, or may be secondary to excessive water intake. Patients with severe and uncompensated symptoms may develop marked dehydration, neurologic symptoms and encephalopathy, and therefore diabetes insipidus can be a life-threatening condition if not properly diagnosed and managed. Patients with diabetes insipidus require treatment with desmopressin or drugs increasing sensitivity of the distal nephron to vasopressin, but this treatment may be confusing because of the disorder's variable pathophysiology and side-effects of pharmacotherapy. This review summarizes the current knowledge on different aspects of the pathophysiology, classification, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and management of diabetes insipidus. The reader is also provided with some practical recommendations on dealing with patients suffering from this disease.

  10. Efficacy of a web-based intervention with mobile phone support in treating depressive symptoms in adults with type 1 and type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nobis, Stephanie; Lehr, Dirk; Ebert, David D aniel

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Depression is common in diabetes and linked to adverse health outcomes. This study evaluated the efficacy of a guided web-based intervention in reducing depression in adults with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A total of 260 participants with diabetes and elev...

  11. Person-centred counselling to ameliorate symptoms of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The cost of hiring registered psychologists is likely to be prohibitive, indicating the need for lesser trained professional or lay counsellors. Lay counselling services are already available for AIDS patients who receive antiretroviral therapy, where problems relating to mental health and treatment adherence are significant.

  12. Person-centred counselling to ameliorate symptoms of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results suggest that psychological counselling may be helpful to medical patients. Conclusions: While counselling interventions may be well placed in public health settings from the perspective of treatment efficacy, it is necessary to temper this recommendation with an understanding of the barriers to implementing ...

  13. Symptom profiles of subsyndromal depression in disease clusters of diabetes, excess weight, and progressive cerebrovascular conditions: a promising new type of finding from a reliable innovation to estimate exhaustively specified multiple indicators–multiple causes (MIMIC models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francoeur RB

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Richard B Francoeur School of Social Work, Adelphi University, Garden City, NY, USA Abstract: Addressing subsyndromal depression in cerebrovascular conditions, diabetes, and obesity reduces morbidity and risk of major depression. However, depression may be masked because self-reported symptoms may not reveal dysphoric (sad mood. In this study, the first wave (2,812 elders from the New Haven Epidemiological Study of the Elderly (EPESE was used. These population-weighted data combined a stratified, systematic, clustered random sample from independent residences and a census of senior housing. Physical conditions included progressive cerebrovascular disease (CVD; hypertension, silent CVD, stroke, and vascular cognitive impairment [VCI] and co-occurring excess weight and/or diabetes. These conditions and interactions (clusters simultaneously predicted 20 depression items and a latent trait of depression in participants with subsyndromal (including subthreshold depression (11≤ Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale [CES-D] score ≤27. The option for maximum likelihood estimation with standard errors that are robust to non-normality and non-independence in complex random samples (MLR in Mplus and an innovation created by the author were used for estimating unbiased effects from latent trait models with exhaustive specification. Symptom profiles reveal masked depression in 1 older males, related to the metabolic syndrome (hypertension–overweight–diabetes; silent CVD–overweight; and silent CVD–diabetes and 2 older females or the full sample, related to several diabetes and/or overweight clusters that involve stroke or VCI. Several other disease clusters are equivocal regarding masked depression; a couple do emphasize dysphoric mood. Replicating findings could identify subgroups for cost-effective screening of subsyndromal depression. Keywords: depression, diabetes, overweight, cerebrovascular disease, hypertension, metabolic

  14. Diabetes and Sexual and Urologic Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease, & Other Dental Problems Diabetes & Sexual & Urologic Problems Diabetes & Sexual & Urologic Problems Troublesome bladder symptoms and changes ... early onset of these sexual and urologic problems. Diabetes and Sexual Problems Both men and women with ...

  15. Effects of curcumin on TTX-R sodium currents of dorsal root ganglion neurons in type 2 diabetic rats with diabetic neuropathic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Bo; Shen, Lu-Lu; Shi, Xiao-Ting; Gong, Yong-Sheng; Fan, Xiao-Fang; Li, Jun; Cao, Hong

    2015-09-25

    Type 2 diabetic mellitus (T2DM) has reached pandemic status and shows no signs of abatement. Diabetic neuropathic pain (DNP) is generally considered to be one of the most common complications of T2DM, which is also recognized as one of the most difficult types of pain to treat. As one kind of peripheral neuropathic pain, DNP manifests typical chronic neuralgia symptoms, including hyperalgesia, allodynia, autotomy, and so on. The injured dorsal root ganglion (DRG) is considered as the first stage of the sensory pathway impairment, whose neurons display increased frequency of action potential generation and increased spontaneous activities. These are mainly due to the changed properties of voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) and the increased sodium currents, especially TTX-R sodium currents. Curcumin, one of the most important phytochemicals from turmeric, has been demonstrated to effectively prevent and/or ameliorate diabetic mellitus and its complications including DNP. The present study demonstrates that the TTX-R sodium currents of small-sized DRG neurons isolated from DNP rats are significantly increased. Such abnormality can be efficaciously ameliorated by curcumin. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Renal Biopsy in Type 2 Diabetic Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinel, Eugenia; Agraz, Irene; Ibernon, Meritxell; Ramos, Natalia; Fort, Joan; Serón, Daniel

    2015-05-18

    The majority of diabetic patients with renal involvement are not biopsied. Studies evaluating histological findings in renal biopsies performed in diabetic patients have shown that approximately one third of the cases will show pure diabetic nephropathy, one third a non-diabetic condition and another third will show diabetic nephropathy with a superimposed disease. Early diagnosis of treatable non-diabetic diseases in diabetic patients is important to ameliorate renal prognosis. The publication of the International Consensus Document for the classification of type 1 and type 2 diabetes has provided common criteria for the classification of diabetic nephropathy and its utility to stratify risk for renal failure has already been demonstrated in different retrospective studies. The availability of new drugs with the potential to modify the natural history of diabetic nephropathy has raised the question whether renal biopsies may allow a better design of clinical trials aimed to delay the progression of chronic kidney disease in diabetic patients.

  17. Risk of self-reported symptoms or diagnosis of active tuberculosis in relationship to low body mass index, diabetes and their co-occurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, L; Andrews, J R; Basu, S; Goldhaber-Fiebert, J D

    2016-10-01

    Globally, tuberculosis prevalence has declined, but its risk factors have varied across place and time - low body mass index (BMI) has persisted while diabetes has increased. Using India's National Family Health Survey (NFHS), wave 3 and World Health Survey (WHS) data, we examined their relationships to support projection of future trends and targeted control efforts. Multivariate logistic regressions at the individual level with and without diabetes/BMI interactions assessed the relationship between tuberculosis, diabetes and low BMI and the importance of risk factor co-occurrence. Population-level analyses examined how tuberculosis incidence and prevalence varied with diabetes/low BMI co-occurrence. In NFHS, diabetic individuals had higher predicted tuberculosis risks (diabetic vs. non-diabetic: 2.50% vs. 0.63% at low BMI; 0.81% vs. 0.20% at normal BMI; 0.37% vs. 0.09% at high BMI), which were not significantly different when modelled independently or allowing for risk modification with diabetes/low BMI co-occurrence. WHS findings were generally consistent. Population-level analysis found that diabetes/low BMI co-occurrence may be associated with elevated tuberculosis risk, although its predicted effect on tuberculosis incidence/prevalence was generally ≤0.2 percentage points and not robustly statistically significant. Concerns about the additional elevation of tuberculosis risk from diabetes/low BMI co-occurrence and hence the need to coordinate tuberculosis control efforts around the nexus of co-occurring diabetes and low BMI may be premature. However, study findings robustly support the importance of individually targeting low BMI and diabetes as part of ongoing tuberculosis control efforts. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. RETRACTED: Polysaccharide from Angelica sinensis ameliorates high-fat diet and STZ-induced hepatic oxidative stress and inflammation in diabetic mice by activating the Sirt1-AMPK pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kaiping; Tang, Zhuohong; Wang, Jinglin; Cao, Peng; Li, Qiang; Shui, Weizhi; Wang, Hongjing; Zheng, Ziming; Zhang, Yu

    2017-05-01

    This article has been retracted: please see Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal (https://www.elsevier.com/about/our-business/policies/article-withdrawal). This article has been retracted at the request of the Editor-in-Chief because of duplication of data already published in the following paper in Food & Function: “Protective effects of Angelica sinensis polysaccharide against hyperglycemia and liver injury in multiple low-dose streptozotocin-induced type 2 diabetic BALB/c mice” by Wang K et al. in Food Funct 2016; 7; 4889-4897. The following data are the same in both papers: 1 The results of liver slices of oil red O staining in JNB Figure 1 are the same as Figure 6 in Food & Function. 2 JNB Figures 1 A and B are the same as Figure 7 B in the paper in Food & Function. 3 JNB Table 1 is the same as data presented in Figures 6 A-D and parts of Figure 3 A in the paper in Food & Function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Administration of a Decoction of Sucrose- and Polysaccharide-Rich Radix Astragali (Huang Qi Ameliorated Insulin Resistance and Fatty Liver but Affected Beta-Cell Function in Type 2 Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Chen Juan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The current investigation attempted to confirm the beneficial actions of a chemically characterized Radix Astragali decoction (AM-W against type 2 diabetic (T2D Sprague-Dawley (SD rats. Using a case/control design, after 2 months of treatment with AM-W (500 mg/kg, daily i.p. in T2D rats therapeutic outcomes were compared. Sucrose and Astragalus polysaccharides (ASPs were shown to exist in nearly equal proportions in AM-W. Body weight loss, an improvement in insulin sensitivity, and an attenuation of fatty liver after AM-W administration in T2D rats were evident. Surprisingly, blood sugar, beta-cell function, and glucose tolerance in T2D rats did not improve with AM-W treatment. Further investigation indicated the deleterious effects of the addition of sucrose (100 and 500 μg/mL and APSs (500 μg/mL on glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and viability, respectively. In conclusion, a proper administration dosage and a reduction in the sucrose content are keys to maximizing the merits of this herb.

  20. Improvement in Depressive Symptoms Is Associated with Reduced Oxidative Damage and Inflammatory Response in Type 2 Diabetic Patients with Subsyndromal Depression: The Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing Psychoeducation, Physical Exercise, and Enhanced Treatment as Usual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijana Vučić Lovrenčić

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. To examine one-year changes in oxidative damage and inflammation level in type 2 diabetic patients undergoing behavioral treatment for subsyndromal depression. Materials and Methods. A randomized controlled comparison of psychoeducation (A, physical exercise (B, and enhanced treatment as usual (C was performed in 209 eligible subjects in a tertiary diabetes care setting. Depressive symptoms (primary outcome and selected biomarkers of oxidative damage and inflammation (secondary outcomes were assessed at baseline and six- and twelve-month follow-up. Results. Out of the 74, 67, and 68 patients randomised into groups A, B, and C, respectively, 201 completed the interventions, and 179 were analysed. Participants in all three groups equally improved in depressive symptoms from baseline to one-year follow-up (repeated measures ANOVA; F=12.51, p<0.0001, η2=0.07. Urinary 8-oxo-deoxyguanosine (u-8-oxodG decreased (F=10.66, p<0.0001, η2=0.06, as did sialic acid and leukocytes (F=84.57, η2=0.32 and F=12.61, η2=0.07, resp.; p<0.0001, while uric acid increased (F=12.53, p<0.0001, η2=0.07 in all subjects during one year. Improvement of depressive symptoms at 6 months significantly predicted one-year reduction in u-8-oxodG (β=0.15, p=0.044. Conclusion. Simple behavioral interventions are capable not only of alleviating depressive symptoms, but also of reducing the intensity of damaging oxidative/inflammatory processes in type 2 diabetic patients with subsyndromal depression. This trial is registered with ISRCTN05673017.

  1. Efficacy and cost-effectiveness of a web-based intervention with mobile phone support to treat depressive symptoms in adults with diabetes mellitus type 1 and type 2: design of a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobis, Stephanie; Lehr, Dirk; Ebert, David Daniel; Berking, Matthias; Heber, Elena; Baumeister, Harald; Becker, Annette; Snoek, Frank; Riper, Heleen

    2013-11-15

    A diagnosis of diabetes mellitus types 1 or 2 doubles the odds of a comorbid depressive disorder. The combined diseases have a wide range of adverse outcomes, such as a lower quality of life, poorer diabetes outcomes and increased healthcare utilisation. Diabetes patients with depression can be treated effectively with psychotherapy, but access to psychological care is limited. In this study we will examine the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of a newly developed web-based intervention (GET.ON Mood Enhancer Diabetes) for people with diabetes and comorbid depressive symptoms. A two-arm randomised controlled trial will be conducted. Adults with diabetes (type 1 or type 2) with increased depression scores (> 22 on the German version of the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D)) will be included. Eligible participants will be recruited through advertisement in diabetes patient journals and via a large-scale German health insurance company. The participants will be randomly assigned to either a 6-week minimally guided web-based self-help program or an online psychoeducation program on depression. The study will include 260 participants, which will enable us to detect a statistically significant difference with a group effect size of d = 0.35 at a power of 80% and a significance level of p = 0.05. The primary outcome measure will be the level of depression as assessed by the CES-D. The secondary outcome measures will be: diabetes-specific emotional distress, glycaemic control, self-management behaviour and the participants' satisfaction with the intervention. Online self-assessments will be collected at baseline and after a 2 months period, with additional follow-up measurements 6 and 12 months after randomisation. The data will be analysed on an intention-to-treat basis and per protocol. In addition, we will conduct an economic evaluation from a societal perspective. If this intervention is shown to be cost-effective, it has considerable potential

  2. Recognizing Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for IBS Signs and Symptoms Overview Recognizing Symptoms Diagnosis of IBS Pain in IBS IBS with Constipation Constipated Diarrhea IBS ... for IBS Signs and Symptoms Overview Recognizing Symptoms Diagnosis of IBS Pain in IBS IBS with Constipation Constipated Diarrhea IBS ...

  3. Nrg4 promotes fuel oxidation and a healthy adipokine profile to ameliorate diet-induced metabolic disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhimin Chen

    2017-08-01

    Conclusions: Nrg4 exerts pleiotropic beneficial effects on energy balance and glucose and lipid metabolism to ameliorate obesity-associated metabolic disorders. Biologic therapeutics based on Nrg4 may improve both type 2 diabetes and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD in patients.

  4. Longitudinal Study of Depressive Symptoms and Progression of Insulin Resistance in Youth at Risk for Adult Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shomaker, Lauren B.; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Stern, Elizabeth A.; Miller, Rachel; Zocca, Jaclyn M.; Field, Sara E.; Yanovski, Susan Z.; Hubbard, Van S.; Yanovski, Jack A.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to determine whether having childhood depressive symptoms is a risk factor that prospectively predicts impairment in glucose homeostasis. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A non–treatment-seeking sample of 115 children (aged 5–13 years), oversampled for being at risk for adult obesity, was assessed at baseline and again ~6 years later. Children self-reported depressive symptoms using the Children’s Depression Inventory at baseline. Insulin resistance was assessed at baseline and follow-up with the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR). RESULTS Children’s depressive symptoms were a significant predictor of follow-up HOMA-IR, fasting insulin, and fasting glucose in models accounting for baseline HOMA-IR, insulin, or glucose values; sex; race; baseline age; baseline BMI; change in BMI at follow-up; family history of type 2 diabetes; and time in the study (P symptoms in youth ameliorates later development of insulin resistance and lessens the risk of type 2 diabetes. PMID:21911779

  5. Black ginseng extract ameliorates hypercholesterolemia in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn Saba

    2016-04-01

    Conclusion: Administration of BG extracts to Sprague Dawley rats fed with high-cholesterol diet ameliorated hypercholesterolemia, which was mediated via modulation of cholesterol-metabolizing marker genes. This data throw a light on BG's cardioprotective effects.

  6. Gemigliptin ameliorates Western-diet-induced metabolic syndrome in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seung Hee; Leem, Jaechan; Park, Sungmi; Lee, Chong-Kee; Park, Keun-Gyu; Lee, In-Kyu

    2017-02-01

    Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitors are widely used antihyperglycemic agents for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Recently, increasing attention has been focused on the pleiotropic actions of DPP-4 inhibitors. The aim of the present study was to examine whether gemigliptin, a recently developed DPP-4 inhibitor, could ameliorate features of metabolic syndrome. Mice were fed a Western diet (WD) for 12 weeks and were subsequently divided into 2 groups: mice fed a WD diet alone or mice fed a WD diet supplemented with gemigliptin for an additional 4 weeks. Gemigliptin treatment attenuated WD-induced body mass gain, hypercholesterolemia, adipocyte hypertrophy, and macrophage infiltration into adipose tissue, which were accompanied by an increased expression of uncoupling protein 1 in subcutaneous fat. These events contributed to improved insulin sensitivity, as assessed by the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance and intraperitoneal insulin tolerance test. Furthermore, gemigliptin reduced WD-induced hepatic triglyceride accumulation via inhibition of de novo lipogenesis and activation of fatty acid oxidation, which was accompanied by AMP-dependent protein kinase activation. Gemigliptin ameliorated WD-induced hepatic inflammation and fibrosis through suppression of oxidative stress. These results suggest that DPP-4 inhibitors may represent promising therapeutic agents for metabolic syndrome beyond their current role as antihyperglycemic agents.

  7. β-glycosphingolipids ameliorated non-alcoholic steatohepatitis in the Psammomys obesus model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zigmond E

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Ehud Zigmond,1,* Oshrat Tayer-Shifman,1,* Gadi Lalazar,1 Ami Ben Ya'acov,1 Sarah Weksler-Zangen,2 David Shasha,1 Miriam Sklair-Levy,3 Lidya Zolotarov,1 Zvi Shalev,1 Rony Kalman,2 Ehud Ziv,2 Itamar Raz,2 Yaron Ilan1 1Liver Unit, 2Diabetes Unit, 3Department of Radiology, Hebrew University-Hadassah Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel *These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Liver steatosis is a common characteristic of obesity and type 2 diabetes, and fatty liver disease is increasingly recognized as a major health burden. Accumulating evidence suggests that β-glycosphingolipids play an important role in insulin sensitivity and thus could affect hepatic steatosis. To determine the effect associated with β-glycosphingolipid-mediated amelioration of liver injury, seven groups of Psammomys obesus on a high-energy diet were studied. Animals were treated with daily injections of β-glucosylceramide, β-lactosylceramide, or a combination of both. β-glycosphingolipids ameliorated the hepatic injury manifested by decreased liver enzymes, liver weight, and hepatic fat, and improved liver histology. Administration of both β-glucosylceramide and β-lactosylceramide also decreased interferon (IFN-γ serum levels. These effects were associated with improved serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels. These data suggest that β-glycosphingolipids ameliorate liver injury in an animal model of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.Keywords: NAFLD, glycolipids, STAT, NASH, insulin resistance, diabetes

  8. Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms as Predictors of All-Cause Mortality among People with Insulin-Naïve Type 2 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Marjolein M; Nefs, Giesje; Tell, Grethe S

    2016-01-01

    .50-1.07). Those with elevated depression symptoms alone had an increased mortality risk (fully adjusted model HR 1.39, 95% CI 1.05-1.84). Having both elevated anxiety and depressive symptoms was not associated with increased mortality risk (adjusted HR 1.30, 95% CI 0.96-1.74). CONCLUSIONS: Elevated depressive...

  9. A comparative study of the antidiabetic effects exerted by live and dead multi-strain probiotics in the type 2 diabetes model of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiangfei; Xu, Qi; Jiang, Tian; Fang, Shuguang; Wang, Gang; Zhao, Jianxin; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Wei

    2016-12-07

    Type 2 diabetes is a metabolic syndrome characterized by insulin resistance and relative insulin deficiency. In this study, the anti-diabetic effects of live and dead multi-strain probiotics were explored and compared in a high-fat and streptozotocin-induced model of type 2 diabetes in mice. Either live or dead probiotics were daily administered orally to the mice over 10 weeks. Both live and dead multi-strain probiotics reduced HbA1C and leptin levels, improved glucose tolerance, and protected against the impairment of the pancreas, while the live probiotic showed a greater ability to reduce fasting and postprandial blood glucose levels. In addition, the live multi-strain probiotic exerted the beneficial effect of ameliorating insulin resistance. This effect was associated with the gut microbiota, butyrate production, and the inflammatory response, and was more effective for the live probiotic than the dead probiotic. These findings showed that the viable probiotic more effectively relieved hypoglycemic symptoms in the host by ameliorating insulin resistance. Furthermore, a pathway related to insulin resistance, i.e., the gut microbiota-butyrate-inflammatory axis, provided a promising rationale for further research into preventing or treating type 2 diabetes.

  10. Cardiac autonomic neuropathy in patients with diabetes and no symptoms of coronary artery disease: comparison of {sup 123}I-metaiodobenzylguanidine myocardial scintigraphy and heart rate variability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholte, Arthur J.H.A.; Schuijf, Joanne D.; Delgado, Victoria; Kok, Jurriaan A.; Bus, Mieke T.J.; Maan, Arie C.; Wall, Ernst E. van der; Bax, Jeroen J. [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Cardiology, Albinusdreef 2, PO Box 9600, Leiden (Netherlands); Stokkel, Marcel P.; Dibbets-Schneider, Petra [Leiden University Medical Center, Nuclear Medicine, Leiden (Netherlands); Kharagitsingh, Antje V. [Medisch Centrum Haaglanden, Department of Internal Medicine, The Hague (Netherlands)

    2010-09-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of cardiac autonomic neuropathy (CAN) in a cohort of patients with type 2 diabetes, truly asymptomatic for coronary artery disease (CAD), using heart rate variability (HRV) and {sup 123}I-metaiodobenzylguanidine ({sup 123}I-mIBG) myocardial scintigraphy. The study group comprised 88 patients with type 2 diabetes prospectively recruited from an outpatient diabetes clinic. In all patients myocardial perfusion scintigraphy, CAN by HRV and {sup 123}I-mIBG myocardial scintigraphy were performed. Two or more abnormal tests were defined as CAN-positive (ECG-based CAN) and one or fewer as CAN-negative. CAN assessed by {sup 123}I-mIBG scintigraphy was defined as abnormal if the heart-to-mediastinum ratio was <1.8, the washout rate was >25%, or the total defect score was >13. The prevalence of CAN in patients asymptomatic for CAD with type 2 diabetes and normal myocardial perfusion assessed by HRV and {sup 123}I-mIBG scintigraphy was respectively, 27% and 58%. Furthermore, in almost half of patients with normal HRV, {sup 123}I-mIBG scintigraphy showed CAN. The current study revealed a high prevalence of CAN in patients with type 2 diabetes. Secondly, disagreement between HRV and {sup 123}I-mIBG scintigraphy for the assessment of CAN was observed. (orig.)

  11. Lutein protects dopaminergic neurons against MPTP-induced apoptotic death and motor dysfunction by ameliorating mitochondrial disruption and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nataraj, Jagatheesan; Manivasagam, Thamilarasan; Thenmozhi, Arokiasamy Justin; Essa, Musthafa Mohammed

    2016-07-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress-mediated apoptosis plays an important role in various neurodegenerative diseases including Huntington's disease, Parkinson's disease (PD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). 1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), the most widely used neurotoxin mimics the symptoms of PD by inhibiting mitochondrial complex I that stimulates excessive intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and finally leads to mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis. Lutein, a carotenoid of xanthophyll family, is found abundantly in leafy green vegetables such as spinach, kale and in egg yolk, animal fat and human eye retinal macula. Increasing evidence indicates that lutein has offers benefits against neuronal damages during diabetic retinopathy, ischemia and AD by virtue of its mitochondrial protective, antioxidant and anti-apoptotic properties. Male C57BL/6 mice (23-26 g) were randomized and grouped in to Control, MPTP, and Lutein treated groups. Lutein significantly reversed the loss of nigral dopaminergic neurons by increasing the striatal dopamine level in mice. Moreover, lutein-ameliorated MPTP induced mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress and motor abnormalities. In addition, lutein repressed the MPTP-induced neuronal damage/apoptosis by inhibiting the activation of pro-apoptotic markers (Bax, caspases-3, 8 and 9) and enhancing anti-apoptotic marker (Bcl-2) expressions. Our current results revealed that lutein possessed protection on dopaminergic neurons by enhancing antioxidant defense and diminishing mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptotic death, suggesting the potential benefits of lutein for PD treatment.

  12. Hypoglycemic activities of lyophilized powder of Gynura divaricata by improving antioxidant potential and insulin signaling in type 2 diabetic mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing-Qing Xu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus is a serious disease affecting about 5% of people worldwide. Although several studies have indicated hypoglycemic activities of Gynura divaricata (GD, the mechanisms by which GD improves the symptoms of diabetes remain unclear. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the potential hypoglycemic effects of GD. Design: The leaves and stems of GD were prepared and lyophilized into a powder, which was added to the diet of mice with type 2 diabetes induced by a high-fat diet in combination with streptozotocin for 4 weeks. During this period, fasting blood glucose (FBG levels and body weight of mice were measured. In addition, at the end of the experiment, a series of assays was performed. Results: GD administration effectively alleviates insulin resistance and induces a decrease in FBG by 59.54% in 1.2% (L GD-treated diabetic group and 56.13% in 4.8% (H GD-treated diabetic group after 4 weeks, respectively, relative to diabetic model mice. The antioxidant capacity was improved by increasing the activities of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px and total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD by 64.87% and 53.42% in treatment group H, compared to diabetic model mice, while GD treatment induced a significant decrease in malondialdehyde (MDA level by 50% in treatment group L, compared to the level in diabetic model mice. Furthermore, glucose metabolism was ameliorated by the increased glycogen synthesis in the livers of diabetic mice. In addition, we also demonstrated that the messenger RNA (mRNA and protein expression levels of AKT, PI3K and PDK-1, which are involved in insulin signaling, were significantly increased. Conclusions: Oral administration of the GD-lyophilized powder has been effectively hypoglycemic, which is done by activating insulin signaling and improving antioxidant capacity in mice with type 2 diabetes.

  13. Beneficial effects of banana (Musa sp. var. elakki bale) flower and pseudostem on hyperglycemia and advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaskar, Jamuna J; Shobha, Mysore S; Sambaiah, Kari; Salimath, Paramahans V

    2011-09-01

    Diabetes is a chronic health problem and major cause of death in most of the countries. Diet management plays an important role in controlling diabetes and its complications along with insulin and drugs. We have examined the effect of banana (Musa sp. var. elakki bale) flower and pseudostem on hyperglycemia and advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Our results indicated that banana flower and pseudostem have low glycemic index and have a high content of dietary fiber and antioxidants. Diabetic symptoms like hyperglycemia, polyuria, polyphagia, polydipsia, urine sugar, and body weight were ameliorated in banana flower- and pseudostem-treated rats. Increased glomerular filtration rate in the diabetic group (5.1 ± 0.22 ml/min) was decreased in banana flower-fed (2.5 ± 0.37 ml/min) and pseudostem-fed (3.0 ± 0.45 ml/min) groups and were significant at P banana flower- and pseudostem-fed groups, it was reduced to 9.21 ± 0.32 and 9.29 ± 0.24 μg/mg protein, respectively, and were significant at P banana flower and pseudostem have anti-diabetic and anti-AGEs properties and are beneficial as food supplements for diabetics.

  14. Development and reach of a web-based cognitive behavioural therapy programme to reduce symptoms of depression and diabetes-specific distress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Bastelaar, Kim M P; Cuijpers, Pim; Pouwer, François

    2011-01-01

    -lesson intervention ("www.diabetergestemd.nl"), with minimal guidance by coaches. In the framework of a randomised trial, the intervention attracted serious interest of 540 patients. After screening, 255 depressed diabetes patients were enrolled. Less than half had a history of depression treatment; 80...

  15. Individual mindfulness-based cognitive therapy and cognitive behavior therapy for treating depressive symptoms in patients with diabetes: results of a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tovote, K.A.; Fleer, J.; Snippe, E.; Peeters, A.C.T.M.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.; Sanderman, R.; Links, T.P.; Schroevers, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Depression is a common comorbidity of diabetes, undesirably affecting patients’ physical and mental functioning. Psychological interventions are effective treatments for depression in the general population as well as in patients with a chronic disease. The aim of this study was to assess

  16. Individual Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy and Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Treating Depressive Symptoms in Patients With Diabetes: Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tovote, K. Annika; Fleer, Joke; Snippe, Evelien; Peeters, Anita C.T.M.; Emmelkamp, Paul M.G.; Sanderman, Robbert; Links, Thera P.; Schroevers, Maya J.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Depression is a common comorbidity of diabetes, undesirably affecting patients’ physical and mental functioning. Psychological interventions are effective treatments for depression in the general population as well as in patients with a chronic disease. The aim of this study was to assess

  17. Plague Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Healthcare Professionals Clinicians Public Health Officials Veterinarians Prevention History of Plague Resources FAQ Symptoms Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Plague symptoms depend on how ...

  18. Tropical Diabetic Hand Syndrome

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    [2,3] Tropical diabetic hand syndrome is a terminology used to describe a specific acute symptom complex found in diabetic patients in the tropics.[1-4] The syndrome comprises can rapidly progress to synergistic gangrene (Meleney's gangrene), affecting the entire limb and extending to the superficial fascia that can result in ...

  19. Diabetic Nerve Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... vessels that bring oxygen to your nerves. Damaged nerves may stop sending messages, or may send messages slowly or at the wrong times. This damage is called diabetic neuropathy. Over half of people with diabetes get it. Symptoms may include Numbness in your ...

  20. Diabetes knowledge among Greek Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulimeneas, Dimitrios; Grammatikopoulou, Maria G; Bougioukli, Vasiliki; Iosifidou, Parthena; Vasiloglou, Maria F; Gerama, Maria-Assimina; Mitsos, Dimitrios; Chrysanthakopoulou, Ioanna; Tsigga, Maria; Kazakos, Kyriakos

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes knowledge has been shown to improve glycemic control and associate with several demographic parameters. In Greece, a country with high obesity rates, disease knowledge has never been evaluated in diabetic patients. This cross sectional study aimed to assess diabetes knowledge and its associations between social and demographic parameters, among Greek type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. One hundred fifty nine patients with T2DM were recruited from an urban and a rural clinic in Greece. Diabetes knowledge was assessed with the Brief Diabetes Knowledge Test (DKT). Basic anthropometry was performed. Data regarding glycemic control and sociodemographic characteristics were collected from the patients' medical files. Greek T2DM patients demonstrated poor disease knowledge (mean DKT score 8.3±2.2/14.0 and mean DKT as a percent of correct answers 59.6±15.8%). No differences were observed between sex, place of residence, or glycemic control, among subjects. Patients with higher education demonstrated greater diabetes knowledge. Simple obesity with concurrent central obesity or suboptimal glycemic control decreased diabetes knowledge among participants. Additionally, waist circumference was inversely correlated to diabetes knowledge. Based on the DKT, Greek patients exhibit poor diabetes knowledge. This study provides evidence for the need for better diabetes education in order to ameliorate disease outcome. Copyright © 2016 SEEN. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Diabetes HealthSense: Resources for Living Well

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... can occur if diabetes is not managed properly. People living with diabetes share their stories about hyperglycemia ... low blood sugar, is a common problem for people living with diabetes. Learn more about the symptoms, ...

  2. Exenatide with Metformin Ameliorated Visceral Adiposity and Insulin Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Du

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. To study the effectiveness of exenatide with metformin and sequential treatment with exenatide and glargine added to metformin and their influence on insulin sensitivity and adipose distribution. Methods. 20 newly diagnosed obese type 2 diabetic patients were enrolled, and 2-month washout treatment of metformin, 6-month exenatide treatment, and 6-month glargine treatment were administrated sequentially accompanied with previous metformin. Glucolipid metabolic parameters were compared among groups. Adipose distribution was quantified with computerized tomography according to anatomy, dividing into visceral adipose tissue (VAT and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT, adding up to total adipose tissue (TAT. Results. The 6-month exenatide treatment dramatically ameliorated the glucose and lipid profile, improved insulin sensitivity, and mainly decreased VAT and also the ratio of VAT/SAT (RVS. The following 6-month glargine treatment increased VAT. The whole 12-month sequential treatment with exenatide and glargine added to metformin basically improved the insulin sensitivity and glucolipid control though VAT rebounded at the end, however without deteriorating the other parameters. Conclusion. Exenatide is an ideal treatment for obese type 2 diabetic patients in the aspect of adipose tissue distribution. Sequential treatment of exenatide and glargine could be an alternative for low-income patients who cannot afford GLP-1 agonist for long time. This trial is registered with ChiCTR-OOC-17013679.

  3. Impact of Diabetes and Peripheral Arterial Occlusive Disease on the Functional Microcirculation at the Plantar Foot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Kabbani, MD

    2013-10-01

    Conclusions: Functional microcirculation at the plantar foot differs between healthy subjects and patients suffering from diabetes or PAOD of the same age. Patients with either diabetes or PAOD demonstrate deteriorated cutaneous oxygen saturation with equivalent blood perfusion at the plantar foot. More clinical studies have to be conducted to evaluate therapeutical methods that might ameliorate cutaneous oxygen saturation within diabetic foot disease and PAOD.

  4. ANTIOXIDANTS AMELIORATION OF ARSENICAL-INDUCED EFFECTS IN VIVO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antioxidant amelioration of arsenical-induced effects in vivo. ES Hunter and EH Rogers. Reproductive Toxicology Division, NHEERL, US EPA, RTP, NC. Antioxidants have been reported to ameliorate the effects of many developmental toxicants. We tested the hypothesis that oxi...

  5. Ghrelin reverses experimental diabetic neuropathy in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyoraku, Itaru; Shiomi, Kazutaka [Division of Neurology, Respirology, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Miyazaki, Kiyotake, Miyazaki 889-1692 (Japan); Kangawa, Kenji [Department of Biochemistry, National Cardiovascular Center Research Institute, Osaka 565-8565 (Japan); Nakazato, Masamitsu, E-mail: nakazato@med.miyazaki-u.ac.jp [Division of Neurology, Respirology, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Miyazaki, Kiyotake, Miyazaki 889-1692 (Japan)

    2009-11-20

    Ghrelin, an acylated peptide produced in the stomach, increases food intake and growth hormone secretion, suppresses inflammation and oxidative stress, and promotes cell survival and proliferation. We investigated the pharmacological potential of ghrelin in the treatment of polyneuropathy in uncontrolled streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes in mice. Ghrelin or desacyl-ghrelin was administered daily for 4 weeks after STZ-induced diabetic polyneuropathy had developed. Ghrelin administration did not alter food intake, body weight gain, blood glucose levels, or plasma insulin levels when compared with mice given saline or desacyl-ghrelin administration. Ghrelin administration ameliorated reductions in motor and sensory nerve conduction velocities in diabetic mice and normalized their temperature sensation and plasma concentrations of 8-isoprostaglandin {alpha}, an oxidative stress marker. Desacyl-ghrelin failed to have any effect. Ghrelin administration in a mouse model of diabetes ameliorated polyneuropathy. Thus, ghrelin's effects represent a novel therapeutic paradigm for the treatment of this otherwise intractable disorder.

  6. 27 CFR 24.178 - Amelioration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Amelioration. 24.178 Section 24.178 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT..., during and after fermentation. The fixed acid level of the juice is determined prior to fermentation and...

  7. Ameliorative effects of selenium and zinc

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methidathion-induced hematological, biochemical and hepatohistological alterations in rat: Ameliorative effects of selenium and zinc. ... In contrast, reduced glutathione level (GSH), and the activities of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and the glutathione peroxidase (GPx) content of hepatic tissue decreased ...

  8. Ameliorative effect of Lentinus squarrosulus mycomeat against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ameliorative effect of Lentinus squarrosulus mycomeat against Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection using albino rat as animal model. ... The increasing awareness of inherent therapeutic and prophylactic benefits of some higher fungi and their products has been the recent trend for improving a healthy vigour. Mycomeat is a ...

  9. Amelioration of radiation nephropathy by acetylsalicylic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheij, M.; Stewart, F. A.; Oussoren, Y.; Weening, J. J.; Dewit, L.

    1995-01-01

    This investigation was carried out to assess the amelioration by two antithrombotic drugs of radiation nephropathy in mice. Mouse kidneys were given split-dose irradiation to total doses between 17 and 22 Gy. A first group of animals was given acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) in drinking water, a second

  10. Depressão e diabetes mellitus Depression and diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renério Fráguas

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O diabetes mellitus possui elevada prevalência, acometendo cerca de 7% da população brasileira. Em torno de 20% a 30% dos pacientes com diabetes apresentam depressão. A depressão pode atuar como um fator de risco para o desenvolvimento do diabetes, piorar seus sintomas e interferir com o autocuidado dos pacientes. Quando não tratada adequadamente, a depressão nesses pacientes tende a evoluir com elevada taxa de recorrência. Entre os tratamentos disponíveis, encontramos na literatura um benefício da psicoterapia, cognitiva ou cognitivo-comportamental, para melhora dos sintomas depressivos, mas sem evidência de um benefício no controle glicêmico. Os antidepressivos tricíclicos, em especial os com maior ação noradrenérgica, e os inibidores da monoaminoxidase (IMAOs tendem a aumentar os níveis glicêmicos. A bupropiona não interfere na glicemia e há evidências de que os inibidores seletivos de recaptura de serotonina (ISRS melhoram os níveis glicêmicos e podem reduzir a taxa de recaídas, mostrando-se boas opções de tratamento farmacológico. A eletroconvulsoterapia também é uma estratégia interessante para esses pacientes, recomendando-se, no entanto, monitorização da glicemia. Não foram encontrados estudos significativos sobre os demais antidepressivos disponíveis para comercialização.Diabetes mellitus has an estimated prevalence of 7% among Brazilian population. Around 20% to 30% of these patients have a depressive disorder. Depression can work as risk factor to the development of diabetes, can worse its symptoms and interfere with self-care. When not adequately treated, depressive disorder in these patients tends to have high rates of recurrence. Among the available treatments literature shows a benefit of psychotherapy, mainly cognitive or cognitive-behavioral, in ameliorating depressive symptoms, but without impact on glycaemic control. Tryciclic antidepressants, especially those with more noradrenergic

  11. Eye Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevention News Ask an Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye Symptoms This symptoms list is for general reference ... Y Z A-Z A B Blood in Eye Bloodshot Eye Blurriness Burning Eyes C Crusty Eyelid ...

  12. Depressive symptoms and type 2 diabetes mellitus in outpatients of an Armed Forces hospital in Lima, Peru, 2012: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Urrutia-Aliano

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Resumen INTRODUCCIÓN Los pacientes con diabetes mellitus tipo 2 son más propensos a una baja calidad de vida, discapacidad e incluso muerte. También, tienen una mayor predisposición a la depresión en comparación con los pacientes no diabéticos; así como una evolución favorable producto de la evaluación e intervención de su salud mental. OBJETIVOS El objetivo de este estudio fue explorar la presencia de síntomas depresivos en una población ambulatoria con diagnóstico de diabetes mellitus tipo 2 y filiación militar. También examinar los factores asociados a la presencia de síntomas depresivos. MÉTODOS Realizamos un estudio transversal en 108 personas con diabetes mellitus tipo 2, durante enero de 2012 en una muestra ambulatoria de un hospital de las fuerzas armadas. Los síntomas depresivos se evaluaron con el test autoaplicado de Zung. Usamos la prueba de Chi-cuadrado para examinar las asociaciones entre síntomas depresivos y los factores asociados de interés. Usamos modelos lineales generalizados crudos y ajustados para estimar las Razones de Prevalencia (RP de la asociación entre las características clínicas y sociodemográficas con la presencia de síntomas depresivos. RESULTADOS La prevalencia de sintomatología depresiva fue de 56,5% (intervalo de confianza 95%: 46,6-66,0%. El análisis bivariado mostró como significativa la asociación entre la presencia de síntomas depresivos con las variables: sexo, edad y complicaciones clínicas de la diabetes. En los análisis ajustados, la retinopatía diabética [RP: 1,3; intervalo de confianza 95%: 1,1-1,7], y la neuropatía diabética [RP: 1,4; intervalo de confianza 95%: 1,1-1,7] se asociaron a una mayor presencia de síntomas depresivos luego de considerar el sexo de los participantes. CONCLUSIONES Observamos una elevada presencia de síntomas depresivos en la población de estudio, especialmente en los pacientes geriátricos o del sexo femenino. También en aquellos con

  13. Diabetes HealthSense: Resources for Living Well

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Hyperglycemia and Diabetes 2 Hyperglycemia, or high blood sugar, can occur if diabetes is not managed properly. People living with diabetes ... Hypoglycemia and Diabetes 4 Hypoglycemia, or ... problem for people living with diabetes. Learn more about the symptoms, triggers, and treatment ...

  14. Plantas medicinais utilizadas por idosos com diagnóstico de Diabetes mellitus no tratamento dos sintomas da doença Medicinal plants used by elderly people with Diabetes mellitus in the treatment of the disease symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Feijó

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo investigar as plantas medicinais utilizadas por idosos assistidos em uma Unidade Básica de Saúde de Pelotas-RS, com diagnóstico de Diabetes mellitus, como terapia complementar no tratamento dos sintomas da doença. Caracterizou-se por pesquisa qualitativa, realizada em julho de 2009, no município de Pelotas-RS. Foram entrevistados 18 idosos com idade entre 60 e 77 anos, sendo 14 do sexo feminino. Os participantes citaram 20 plantas medicinais utilizadas como terapia complementar no tratamento do Diabetes mellitus. Entre estas, as mais citadas utilizadas para diminuir os níveis de glicose no sangue foram Sphagneticola trilobata, Bauhinia spp. e Syzygium cumini, sendo que para as duas últimas há comprovação científica do efeito hipoglicemiante. A infusão foi a forma de preparo predominante. Considera-se importante a realização de estudos farmacológicos que investiguem os efeitos das plantas utilizadas pela população, a fim de que o uso proporcione os benefícios desejados e não cause danos à saúde.This study aimed to investigate medicinal plants used as complementary therapy by the elderly with diabetes mellitus, assisted by a Health Basic Unit in Pelotas (RS, Brazil. This qualitative research was conducted in July 2009. Eighteen 60 to 77 years old elderly (14 of them female were interviewed. The participants identified 20 medicinal plants used as complementary therapies in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Among these, the most used ones to reduce the levels of glucose in the blood were Sphagneticola trilobata, Bauhinia spp. and Syzygium cumini. For the last two plants, there are scientific proofs of hypoglycemic effects. The infusion was the predominant form of preparation. Studies to investigate the pharmacological effects of plants used by the population have become very important, for providing scientific information on their possible health benefits and side effects.

  15. Anti-diabetic effect of dietary mango (Mangifera indica L.) peel in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondi, Mahendranath; Basha, Shaik Akbar; Bhaskar, Jamuna J; Salimath, Paramahans V; Rao, Ummiti J S Prasada

    2015-03-30

    In the present study, the composition of mango peel powder (MPP) collected from the mango pulp industry was determined and the effect of MPP on ameliorating diabetes and its associated complications was studied. Mango peel was rich in polyphenols, carotenoids and dietary fibre. Peel extract contained various bioactive compounds and was found to be rich in soluble dietary fibre. Peel extract exhibited antioxidant properties and protected against DNA damage. Therefore, the effect of peel on ameliorating diabetes was investigated in a rat model of diabetes. A significant increase in urine sugar, urine volume, fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides and low density lipoprotein, and decrease in high density lipoprotein were observed in the rats; however, these parameters were ameliorated in diabetic rats fed with diet supplemented with mango peel at 5% and 10% levels in basal diet. Treatment of diabetic rats with MPP increased antioxidant enzyme activities and decreased lipid peroxidation in plasma, kidney and liver compared to untreated diabetic rats. Glomerular filtration rate and microalbuminuria levels were ameliorated in MPP treated diabetic group. Mango peel, a by-product, can be used as an ingredient in functional and therapeutic foods. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Diabetes - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - diabetes ... The following sites provide further information on diabetes: American Diabetes Association -- www.diabetes.org Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation International -- www.jdrf.org National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion -- ...

  17. Impact of leisure-time physical activity on glycemic control and cardiovascular risk factors in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: the Fukuoka Diabetes Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaizu, Shinako; Kishimoto, Hiro; Iwase, Masanori; Fujii, Hiroki; Ohkuma, Toshiaki; Ide, Hitoshi; Jodai, Tamaki; Kikuchi, Yohei; Idewaki, Yasuhiro; Hirakawa, Yoichiro; Nakamura, Udai; Kitazono, Takanari

    2014-01-01

    The effects of leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) on glycemia and cardiovascular risk factors are not fully understood in Asian type 2 diabetic patients, who are typically non-obese. We studied associations between LTPA and glycemia and cardiovascular risk factors in Japanese type 2 diabetic patients. A total of 4,870 Japanese type 2 diabetic patients aged ≥ 20 years were divided into eight groups according to their LTPA. We investigated associations between the amount and intensity levels of physical activity (PA) and glycemic control, insulin sensitivity, cardiovascular risk factors, and low-grade systemic inflammation in a cross-sectional study. LTPA was dose-dependently associated with body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), fasting plasma glucose, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, high sensitivity C-reactive protein, and prevalence of metabolic syndrome, but not with blood pressure, low density lipoprotein cholesterol or adiponectin. The amount of PA required to lower HbA1c was greater than that required to improve cardiovascular risk factors. LTPA was inversely associated with HbA1c in non-obese participants but not in obese participants after multivariate adjustments for age, sex, duration of diabetes, current smoking, current drinking, energy intake, cardiovascular diseases, depressive symptoms, and treatment of diabetes. Higher-intensity LTPA, not lower-intensity LTPA was associated with HbA1c after multivariate adjustments with further adjustment including BMI. LTPA was dose-dependently associated with better glycemic control and amelioration of some cardiovascular risk factors in Japanese type 2 diabetic patients. In addition, increased higher-intensity LTPA may be appropriate for glycemic control.

  18. Impact of leisure-time physical activity on glycemic control and cardiovascular risk factors in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: the Fukuoka Diabetes Registry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinako Kaizu

    Full Text Available AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The effects of leisure-time physical activity (LTPA on glycemia and cardiovascular risk factors are not fully understood in Asian type 2 diabetic patients, who are typically non-obese. We studied associations between LTPA and glycemia and cardiovascular risk factors in Japanese type 2 diabetic patients. METHODS: A total of 4,870 Japanese type 2 diabetic patients aged ≥ 20 years were divided into eight groups according to their LTPA. We investigated associations between the amount and intensity levels of physical activity (PA and glycemic control, insulin sensitivity, cardiovascular risk factors, and low-grade systemic inflammation in a cross-sectional study. RESULTS: LTPA was dose-dependently associated with body mass index (BMI, waist circumference, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c, fasting plasma glucose, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, high sensitivity C-reactive protein, and prevalence of metabolic syndrome, but not with blood pressure, low density lipoprotein cholesterol or adiponectin. The amount of PA required to lower HbA1c was greater than that required to improve cardiovascular risk factors. LTPA was inversely associated with HbA1c in non-obese participants but not in obese participants after multivariate adjustments for age, sex, duration of diabetes, current smoking, current drinking, energy intake, cardiovascular diseases, depressive symptoms, and treatment of diabetes. Higher-intensity LTPA, not lower-intensity LTPA was associated with HbA1c after multivariate adjustments with further adjustment including BMI. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: LTPA was dose-dependently associated with better glycemic control and amelioration of some cardiovascular risk factors in Japanese type 2 diabetic patients. In addition, increased higher-intensity LTPA may be appropriate for glycemic control.

  19. Biomechanical Remodeling of the Diabetic Gastrointestinal Tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Jingbo; Liao, Donghua; Yang, Jian

    2010-01-01

    Gastrointestinal tract sensory-motor abnormalities are common in patients with diabetes mellitus with symptoms arising from the whole GI tract. Common complaints include dysphasia, early satiety, reflux, constipation, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. The pathogenesis of GI symptoms...

  20. Antinociceptive effects of fisetin against diabetic neuropathic pain in mice: Engagement of antioxidant mechanisms and spinal GABAA receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xin; Li, Xin-Lin; Liu, Xin; Wang, Chuang; Zhou, Dong-Sheng; Ma, Qing; Zhou, Wen-Hua; Hu, Zhen-Yu

    2015-12-01

    Peripheral painful neuropathy is one of the most common complications in diabetes and necessitates improved treatment. Fisetin, a naturally occurring flavonoid, has been reported to exert antidepressant-like effect in previous studies. As antidepressant drugs are employed clinically to treat neuropathic pain, this work aimed to investigate whether fisetin possess beneficial effect on diabetic neuropathic pain and explore the mechanism(s). We subjected mice to diabetes by a single intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of streptozotocin (200mg/kg), and von Frey test or Hargreaves test was used to assess mechanical allodynia or thermal hyperalgesia, respectively. Chronic treatment of diabetic mice with fisetin not only ameliorated the established symptoms of thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia, but also arrested the development of neuropathic pain when given at low doses. Although chronic fisetin administration did not impact on the symptom of hyperglycemia in diabetic mice, it reduced exacerbated oxidative stress in tissues of spinal cord, dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and sciatic verve. Furthermore, the analgesic actions of fisetin were abolished by repetitive co-treatment with the reactive oxygen species (ROS) donor tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BOOH), but potentiated by the ROS scavenger phenyl-N-tert-butylnitrone (PBN). Finally, acute blockade of spinal GABAA receptors by bicuculline totally counteracted such fisetin analgesia. These findings indicate that chronic fisetin treatment can delay or correct neuropathic hyperalgesia and allodynia in mice with type 1 diabetes. Mechanistically, the present fisetin analgesia may be associated with its antioxidant activity, and spinal GABAA receptors are likely rendered as downstream targets. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparison of Dry Eye Parameters between Diabetics and Non-Diabetics in District of Kuantan, Pahang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljarousha, Mohammed; Badarudin, Noor Ezailina; Che Azemin, Mohd Zulfaezal

    2016-05-01

    Diabetes may affect the human body's systems and organs, including the eye. Diabetic retinopathy is the 5th leading cause of blindness globally. Diabetic subjects demonstrated dry eye symptoms that were also supported by the low values of the clinical tests. This study aimed to compare the dry eye symptoms and signs between diabetics and non-diabetics and tear functions between diabetic subjects with and without dry eye. This retrospective study was based on the observation of 643 medical files. Using a convenience sampling method, 88 subjects were found to report diabetes mellitus. The information extracted from the files included: date of first examination, age at first visit, gender, past ocular history, systemic disease, symptoms of dry eye disease and details of clinical diagnostic signs. Non-contact lens wearers were excluded. A group of 88, age and gender matched, control subjects were included for this comparison study. The percentage of dry eye symptoms was higher in diabetic subjects (15.9%) compared with non-diabetic subjects (13.6%; p<0.001). The percentage of dry eye symptoms was also higher in diabetics with dry eye (63%) than in diabetics without dry eye (36.9%; p<0.001). Tear break up time was significantly different between diabetics and non-diabetics (p<0.001) and between diabetics with and without dry eye (p=0.046). The corneal staining was significantly different between diabetic subjects with and without dry eye (p=0.028). Dry eye symptoms were significantly associated with diabetics. Tear break up time was significantly shorter in diabetics with dry eye compared to diabetics without dry eye.

  2. The Adenosinergic System in Diabetic Retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Vindeirinho

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The neurodegenerative and inflammatory environment that is prevalent in the diabetic eye is a key player in the development and progression of diabetic retinopathy. The adenosinergic system is widely regarded as a significant modulator of neurotransmission and the inflammatory response, through the actions of the four types of adenosine receptors (A1R, A2AR, A2BR, and A3R, and thus could be revealed as a potential player in the events unfolding in the early stages of diabetic retinopathy. Herein, we review the studies that explore the impact of diabetic conditions on the retinal adenosinergic system, as well as the role of the said system in ameliorating or exacerbating those conditions. The experimental results described suggest that this system is heavily affected by diabetic conditions and that the modulation of its components could reveal potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of diabetic retinopathy, particularly in the early stages of the disease.

  3. Construct Validity of Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R) and General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28) in Patients with Drug Addiction and Diabetes, and Normal Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardakani, Abolfazl; Seghatoleslam, Tahereh; Habil, Hussain; Jameei, Fahimeh; Rashid, Rusdi; Zahirodin, Alireza; Motlaq, Farid; Masjidi Arani, Abbas

    2016-04-01

    Given that validity is the baseline of psychological assessments, there is a need to provide evidence-based data for construct validity of such scales to advance the clinicians for evaluating psychiatric morbidity in psychiatric and psychosomatic setting. This comparative cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the construct validity of the Malaysian version of the GHQ-28 and the SCL-90-R. The sample comprised 660 individuals including diabetics, drug dependents, and normal population. The research scales were administered to the participants. Convergent and discriminant validity of both scales were investigated by Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) using AMOS. The Pearson correlation coefficient was utilized to obtain the relationship between the two scales. The internal consistency of the GHQ-28 and SCL-90-R were highly acceptable, and confirmatory factor analysis confirmed the convergent validity of both scales. The results of this study revealed that the construct validity of GHQ-28 was acceptable, whereas discriminant validity of SCL-90-R was not adequate. According to Pearson correlation coefficient the relationships between three common subscales of the GHQ-28 and SCL-90-R were significantly positive; somatization (r=0.671, P<0.01), Anxiety (r=0.728, P<0.01), and Depression (r=0.660, P <0.01). This study replicated the construct of the Malaysian version of GHQ-28, yet failed to support the nine-factor structure of the SCL-90-R. Therefore, multidimensionality of the SCL-90-R as clinical purposes is questionable, and it may be a better unitary measure for assessing and screening mental disorders. Further research need to be carried out to prove this finding.

  4. Effects of testosterone treatment on glucose metabolism and symptoms in men with type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossmann, Mathis; Hoermann, Rudolf; Wittert, Gary; Yeap, Bu B

    2015-09-01

    The effects of testosterone treatment on glucose metabolism and other outcomes in men with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and/or the metabolic syndrome are controversial. To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of placebo-controlled double-blind randomized controlled clinical trials (RCT) of testosterone treatment in men with T2D and/or the metabolic syndrome. A systematic search of RCTs was conducted using Medline, Embase and the Cochrane Register of controlled trials from inception to July 2014 followed by a manual review of the literature. Eligible studies were published placebo-controlled double-blind RCTs published in English. Two reviewers independently selected studies, determined study quality and extracted outcome and descriptive data. Of the 112 identified studies, seven RCTs including 833 men were eligible for the meta-analysis. In studies using a simple linear equation to calculate the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA1), testosterone treatment modestly improved insulin resistance, compared to placebo, pooled mean difference (MD) -1·58 [-2·25, -0·91], P treatment effect was nonsignificant for RCTs using a more stringent computer-based equation (HOMA2), MD -0·19 [-0·86, 0·49], P = 0·58). Testosterone treatment did not improve glycaemic (HbA1c) control, MD -0·15 [-0·39, 0·10], P = 0·25, or constitutional symptoms, Aging Male Symptom score, MD -2·49 [-5·81, 0·83], P = 0·14). This meta-analysis does not support the routine use of testosterone treatment in men with T2D and/or the metabolic syndrome without classical hypogonadism. Additional studies are needed to determine whether hormonal interventions are warranted in selected men with T2D and/or the metabolic syndrome. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Treatment of diabetic neuropathy in the lower limb: Signs and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is defined as 'the presence of symptoms and/or signs of peripheral nerve dysfunction in people with diabetes after exclusion of other causes: the diagnosis cannot be made without a clinical examination'. In fact, many of these symptoms and signs may precede the onset of diabetes.

  6. Side Effects of HIV Medicines: HIV and Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... insulin causes glucose to build up in the blood. In type 2 diabetes, the body can't produce enough insulin or ... insulin ( insulin resistance ). Insulin resistance leads to high blood glucose levels, which can result in type 2 diabetes. What are the symptoms of diabetes? The symptoms ...

  7. Presenting Symptoms of Pituitary Apoplexy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyrgelis, Efstratios-Stylianos; Mavridis, Ioannis; Meliou, Maria

    2018-01-01

    The classical term "pituitary apoplexy" (PA) describes a clinical syndrome usually characterized by abrupt onset of headache accompanied by neurologic and/or endocrinologic deterioration due to sudden expansion of a mass within the sella turcica as a result of hemorrhage or infarction within a pituitary tumor and adjacent pituitary gland. PA is a medical emergency and a difficult diagnosis to establish. Thus this article reviews the presenting symptoms of PA patients to help clinicians recognize or at least suspect this critical condition early on. PA commonly occurs in the setting of a preexisting adenoma, and several patients are unaware of its existence prior to the onset of apoplexy symptoms, which are mainly of a neurologic, ophthalmologic, and endocrinologic nature. Neurologic symptoms include sudden-onset severe headache and other symptoms of subarachnoid hemorrhage, symptoms from compression of the cavernous sinus contents, nausea/vomiting, impaired consciousness, and symptoms of meningeal irritation. Ophthalmologic symptoms include visual field defects, visual loss, diplopia, and ophthalmoplegia. Endocrinologic disturbances include pituitary adenoma symptoms, cortisol deficiency, panhypopituitarism, diabetes insipidus, and syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone. Magnetic resonance imaging is the imaging method of choice to aid the PA diagnosis. Its differential diagnoses include cerebrovascular accidents, infectious diseases, and other causes of endocrinologic imbalance. Transsphenoidal surgery is the treatment of choice, especially if there are associated visual abnormalities and ophthalmoplegia. Clinicians should be aware of the presenting symptoms because early diagnosis may reduce the morbidity and mortality of this neurosurgical emergency. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Lactobacillus casei CCFM419 attenuates type 2 diabetes via a gut microbiota dependent mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gang; Li, Xiangfei; Zhao, Jianxin; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Wei

    2017-09-20

    Probiotics, as dietary supplements, transmit their major effects through the regulation of gut microbiota. According to a previous study, one possible mechanism of Lactobacillus casei CCFM419 protection against diabetes may involve gut flora. To test this hypothesis, high fat and streptozotocin-induced C57BL/6J mice were fed L. casei CCFM419 at 10 8 , 10 9 , and 10 10 colony forming units (CFU). Compared to untreated mice, 10 9 CFU of L. casei CCFM419 attenuated several symptoms of diabetes, including fasting blood glucose, postprandial blood glucose, glucose intolerance, and insulin resistance. In addition, this CFU level also decreased the levels of the inflammatory markers tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 and increased intestinal glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) levels, which are associated with the production of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs). The 16S rRNA gene sequencing of fecal samples demonstrated that 10 9 CFU of L. casei CCFM419 dramatically increased the abundance of Bacteroidetes and decreased the proportion of Firmicutes at the phylum level, and enriched Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus, and SCFA-producing bacteria, including Allobaculum and Bacteroides. These findings suggested that L. casei CCFM419 modified the gut flora-SCFA-inflammation/GLP-1 mechanism to ameliorate type 2 diabetes.

  9. Houttuynia cordata Facilitates Metformin on Ameliorating Insulin Resistance Associated with Gut Microbiota Alteration in OLETF Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing-Hua; Bose, Shambhunath; Lim, Soo-Kyoung; Ansari, AbuZar; Chin, Young-Won; Choi, Han Seok; Kim, Hojun

    2017-09-22

    Metformin and Houttuynia cordata are representative anti-diabetic therapeutics in western and oriental medicine, respectively. The current study examined the synergistic anti-diabetic effect of Houttuynia cordata extraction (HCE) and metformin combination in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats. Fecal microbiota were analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and real-time PCR. Combining HCE + metformin resulted in significantly ameliorated glucose tolerance (oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT))-the same as metformin alone. Particularly, results of the insulin tolerance test (ITT) showed that combining HCE + metformin dramatically improved insulin sensitivity as compared to metformin treatment alone. Both fecal and serum endotoxin, as well as cytokines (tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and interleukin 6 (IL-6)) were significantly ameliorated by HCE + metformin compared to metformin alone. Meanwhile, the activation of AMPK (adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase) by metformin was distinctly enhanced by HCE. Both of HCE and metformin evidently changed the gut microbiota composition, causing the alteration of bacterial metabolite, like short-chain fatty acids. H. cordata , together with metformin, exerts intensive sensibilization to insulin; the corresponding mechanisms are associated with alleviation of endotoxemia via regulation of gut microbiota, particularly Roseburia , Akkermansia , and Gram-negative bacterium.

  10. Do antioxidant vitamins ameliorate the beneficial effects of exercise training on insulin sensitivity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavie, Carl J; Milani, Jenna N

    2011-01-01

    Exercise training has numerous health benefits, and in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome, it can improve insulin sensitivity and glucose control. A recent publication suggests that antioxidant vitamins (C and E) block these effects on blood glucose. This investigation was undertaken to determine whether antioxidant vitamins ameliorate the beneficial effects of cardiac rehabilitation and exercise training (CRET) on insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). We assessed CHD risk factors, including clinical indices of glucose metabolism, and evaluated the effects of exercise training in 315 patients with CHD with diabetes mellitus and/or metabolic syndrome before and after a 3-month program of CRET. Patients were divided into 2 groups based on self-reported antioxidant vitamin (vitamins C and E) consumption. Both groups, 113 patients (36%) consuming vitamins (Vits group) and 202 patients (64%) who reported no vitamin use (no-Vits group) were statistically similar at baseline. Following CRET, patients improved exercise capacity (10%, P vitamin E and 500 mg of vitamin C) do not ameliorate the health benefits of exercise training, including fasting blood glucose, in CHD patients

  11. Nerve damage from diabetes - self-care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000326.htm Nerve damage from diabetes - self-care To use the sharing features on ... or at other unusual times. Treating and Preventing Nerve Damage from Diabetes Treating diabetic neuropathy can make some symptoms of ...

  12. Rotavirus Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Rotavirus Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Rotavirus Home About Rotavirus Symptoms Transmission Prevention Treatment Photos ...

  13. Diphtheria Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search The CDC Diphtheria Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Diphtheria Home About Diphtheria Causes and Transmission Symptoms Complications ...

  14. Efficacy and cost-effectiveness of a web-based intervention with mobile phone support to treat depressive symptoms in adults with diabetes mellitus type 1 and type 2: design of a randomised controlled trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nobis, S.; Lehr, D.; Ebert, D.D.; Berking, M.; Heber, E.; Baumeister, H.; Becker, A.; Snoek, F.; Riper, H.

    2013-01-01

    Background: A diagnosis of diabetes mellitus types 1 or 2 doubles the odds of a comorbid depressive disorder. The combined diseases have a wide range of adverse outcomes, such as a lower quality of life, poorer diabetes outcomes and increased healthcare utilisation. Diabetes patients with depression

  15. Action on diabetic macular oedema: achieving optimal patient management in treating visual impairment due to diabetic eye disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, R; Scanlon, P H; Evans, M; Ghanchi, F; Yang, Y; Silvestri, G; Freeman, M; Maisey, A; Napier, J

    2017-05-01

    This paper identifies best practice recommendations for managing diabetes and sight-threatening diabetic eye disease. The authors provide an update for ophthalmologists and allied healthcare professionals on key aspects of diabetes management, supported by a review of the pertinent literature, and recommend practice principles for optimal patient management in treating visual impairment due to diabetic eye disease. In people with diabetes, early optimal glycaemic control reduces the long-term risk of both microvascular and macrovascular complications. The authors propose more can and should be done to maximise metabolic control, promote appropriate behavioural modifications and encourage timely treatment intensification when indicated to ameliorate diabetes-related complications. All people with diabetes should be screened for sight-threatening diabetic retinopathy promptly and regularly. It is shown that attitudes towards treatment adherence in diabetic macular oedema appear to mirror patients' views and health behaviours towards the management of their own diabetes. Awareness of diabetic macular oedema remains low among people with diabetes, who need access to education early in their disease about how to manage their diabetes to delay progression and possibly avoid eye-related complications. Ophthalmologists and allied healthcare professionals play a vital role in multidisciplinary diabetes management and establishment of dedicated diabetic macular oedema clinics is proposed. A broader understanding of the role of the diabetes specialist nurse may strengthen the case for comprehensive integrated care in ophthalmic practice. The recommendations are based on round table presentations and discussions held in London, UK, September 2016.

  16. Antioxidant Strategies in the Management of Diabetic Neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayodeji Babatunde Oyenihi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic hyperglycaemia (an abnormally high glucose concentration in the blood resulting from defects in insulin secretion/action, or both, is the major hallmark of diabetes in which it is known to be involved in the progression of the condition to different complications that include diabetic neuropathy. Diabetic neuropathy (diabetes-induced nerve damage is the most common diabetic complication and can be devastating because it can lead to disability. There is an increasing body of evidence associating diabetic neuropathy with oxidative stress. Oxidative stress results from the production of oxygen free radicals in the body in excess of its ability to eliminate them by antioxidant activity. Antioxidants have different mechanisms and sites of actions by which they exert their biochemical effects and ameliorate nerve dysfunction in diabetes by acting directly against oxidative damage. This review will examine different strategies for managing diabetic neuropathy which rely on exogenous antioxidants.

  17. Women and Diabetes -- Diabetes Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Audience For Women Women's Health Topics Women and Diabetes - Diabetes Medicines Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... 1-800-332-1088 to request a form. Diabetes Medicines The different kinds of diabetes medicines are ...

  18. Blonanserin, an antipsychotic and dopamine D₂/D₃receptor antagonist, and ameliorated alcohol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaki, Manabu; Ujike, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Blonanserin (BNS) is used for treatment of both positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia in Japan and Korea. Because BNS has weak α1 receptor blocking activities and is almost devoid of histamine H1 and muscarinic M1 antagonist activity, BNS is better tolerated than other atypical antipsychotics. A high degree of D₃ receptor blockage is reported to be predictive of drug abuse and alcoholism, and BNS has strong D₃ receptor antagonism. Thus, BNS may be useful in the treatment of alcoholism. We present a case in which BNS ameliorated alcohol dependence.

  19. Acetylcholinesterase inhibition ameliorates deficits in motivational drive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinowich Keri

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Apathy is frequently observed in numerous neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's, as well as neuropsychiatric disorders including schizophrenia. Apathy is defined as a lack of motivation characterized by diminished goal-oriented behavior and self-initiated activity. This study evaluated a chronic restraint stress (CRS protocol in modeling apathetic behavior, and determined whether administration of an anticholinesterase had utility in attenuating CRS-induced phenotypes. Methods We assessed behavior as well as regional neuronal activity patterns using FosB immunohistochemistry after exposure to CRS for 6 h/d for a minimum of 21 d. Based on our FosB findings and recent clinical trials, we administered an anticholinesterase to evaluate attenuation of CRS-induced phenotypes. Results CRS resulted in behaviors that reflect motivational loss and diminished emotional responsiveness. CRS-exposed mice showed differences in FosB accumulation, including changes in the cholinergic basal forebrain system. Facilitating cholinergic signaling ameliorated CRS-induced deficits in initiation and motivational drive and rescued immediate early gene activation in the medial septum and nucleus accumbens. Conclusions Some CRS protocols may be useful for studying deficits in motivation and apathetic behavior. Amelioration of CRS-induced behaviors with an anticholinesterase supports a role for the cholinergic system in remediation of deficits in motivational drive.

  20. Cacao polyphenols ameliorate autoimmune myocarditis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zempo, Hirofumi; Suzuki, Jun-ichi; Watanabe, Ryo; Wakayama, Kouji; Kumagai, Hidetoshi; Ikeda, Yuichi; Akazawa, Hiroshi; Komuro, Issei; Isobe, Mitsuaki

    2016-04-01

    Myocarditis is a clinically severe disease; however, no effective treatment has been established. The aim of this study was to determine whether cacao bean (Theobroma cacao) polyphenols ameliorate autoimmune myocarditis. We used an experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM) model in Balb/c mice. Mice with induced EAM were treated with a cacao polyphenol extract (CPE, n=12) or vehicle (n=12). On day 21, hearts were harvested and analyzed. Elevated heart weight to body weight and fibrotic area ratios as well as high cardiac cell infiltration were observed in the vehicle-treated EAM mice. However, these increases were significantly suppressed in the CPE-treated mice. Reverse transcriptase-PCR revealed that mRNA expressions of interleukin (Il)-1β, Il-6, E-selectin, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and collagen type 1 were lower in the CPE group compared with the vehicle group. The mRNA expressions of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-oxidase (Nox)2 and Nox4 were increased in the vehicle-treated EAM hearts, although CPE treatment did not significantly suppress the transcription levels. However, compared with vehicle treatment of EAM hearts, CPE treatment significantly suppressed hydrogen peroxide concentrations. Cardiac myeloperoxidase activity, the intensity of dihydroethidium staining and the phosphorylation of nuclear factor-κB p65 were also lower in the CPE group compared with the vehicle group. Our data suggest that CPE ameliorates EAM in mice. CPE is a promising dietary supplement to suppress cardiovascular inflammation and oxidative stress.

  1. Dendritic cells and macrophages in insulin dependent diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Jansen (Annemarie)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractThe onset of diabetes mellitus is characterized by various symptoms, all the result of a disturbed glucose metabolism. The main symptoms are thirst and polydypsia, polyuria, glucosuria, and weight loss. The faster the onset of diabetes, the more prominent these symptoms will be. The

  2. PULMONARY TUBERCULOMAS IN DIABETES PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. G. Komissаrovа

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available 59 destructive pulmonary tuberculosis patients were examined. 27 of them suffered from tuberculosis with concurrent type 1 diabetes, and 21 had type 2 diabetes. The comparison group included 11 tuberculosis patients with no diabetes. It was found out that tuberculomas in case of concurrent diabetes (both type 1 and type 2 differed from the ones in the patients with no diabetes. The patients with concurrent diabetes more often had multiple tuberculomas, unlike the patients without it. And the intensity of the disease was much higher in tuberculosis patients with this concurrent condition. It was confirmed by the destruction in tuberculomas and a positive result of sputum test, as the more intensive intoxication symptoms and abnormalities in the general blood count. Analysis of rates of systemic inflammation response also proved the higher intensity of the disease in case of tuberculomas in the patients with concurrent diabetes which was documented by the confidently higher level of acute phase reactants.

  3. Appraisal Of Quality Of Life Of Diabetic Patients, Including Life ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Appraisal Of Quality Of Life Of Diabetic Patients, Including Life Expectancy. ... of long-term complications, development of short-term complications, and physical symptoms and lifestyle changes resulting from the demands of the diabetic ... Key words: Type 2 Diabetes, quality of life, life expectancy, diabetic complications.

  4. The performance of maize crop during acid amelioration with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tanzania Journal of Science ... This study evaluated acid ameliorative potential and their effects on maize growth of four organic residues namely wild spikenard, cordia, cowpea and pigeon peas ... The finding suggests different acid ameliorating potential of residues, pigeon peas and cordia being the most effective.

  5. Use of Coffee Pulp and Minerals for Natural Soil Ameliorant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pujiyanto Pujiyanto

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available In coffee plantation, solid waste of coffee pulp is usually collected as heap nearby processing facilities for several months prior being used as compost. The practice is leading to the formation of odor and liquid which contaminate the environment. Experiments to evaluate the effect of natural soil ameliorant derived from coffee pulp and minerals were conducted at The Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute in Jember, East Java. The experiments were intended to optimize the use of coffee pulp to support farming sustainability and minimize negative impacts of solid waste disposal originated from coffee cherry processing. Prior to applications, coffee pulp was hulled to organic paste. The paste was then mixed with 10% minerals (b/b. Composition of the minerals was 50% zeolite and 50% rock phosphate powder. The ameliorant was characterized for their physical and chemical properties. Agronomic tests were conducted on coffee and cocoa seedling. The experiments were arranged according to Randomized Completely Design with 2 factors, consisted of natural ameliorant and inorganic fertilizer respectively. Natural ameliorant derived from coffee pulp was applied at 6 levels: 0, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 g dry ameliorant/seedling of 3 kg soil, equivalent to 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5% (b/b of ameliorant respectively. Inorganic fertilizer was applied at 2 levels: 0 and 2 g fertilizer/application of N-P-K compound fertilizer of 15-15-15 respectively. The inorganic fertilizer was applied 4 times during nursery of coffee and cocoa. The result of the experiment indicated that coffee pulp may be used as natural soil ameliorant. Composition of ameliorant of 90% coffee pulp and 10% of minerals has good physical and chemical characteristics for soil amelioration. The composition has high water holding capacity; cations exchange capacity, organic carbon and phosphorus contents which are favorable to increase soil capacity to support plant growth. Application of

  6. Predictors of Comorbid Eating Disorders and Diabetes in People with Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Cynthia; Aimé, Annie; Bélanger, Claude

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this study was to identify psychosocial predictors of comorbid eating disorders (EDs) in individuals with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. In this cross-sectional study, 140 people with diabetes answered an online survey covering sociodemographic information, body esteem, restrictive eating, medication omission, coping styles and depressive symptoms. Participants were recruited through advertisements on more than 100 websites, including forums, community organizations and Facebook groups focusing on either diabetes or EDs. Recruitment took place in Canada, Europe, Australia and the United States. On average, EDs developed after diabetes diagnoses in participants with type 1 diabetes but prior to diabetes diagnosis in participants with type 2 diabetes. In type 1 diabetes, avoidance coping styles and depressive symptoms predicted an additional diagnosis of EDs. Co-occurring EDs and type 2 diabetes were predicted by body mass indexes and task-oriented coping strategies. Variables potentially influencing the development of EDs in people with diabetes differ according to the type of diabetes, body mass indexes, coping styles and depressive symptoms; they should be more systematically evaluated and closely monitored. In the context of diabetes management, prevention strategies for ED onset based on increased knowledge of the risk factors associated with EDs are necessary and could help decrease the risk for the health complications of diabetes. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. New Generation Antidepressants in Painful Diabetic Neuropathy

    OpenAIRE

    Gutiérrez-Álvarez, Ángela-María; Moreno, Carlos B

    2011-01-01

    The incidence of diabetic neuropathy increases with the duration of diabetes and the degree of hyperglycaemia. Pain is one of the most common and incapacitating symptoms of diabetic neuropathy and its pharmacological control is complex. The effectiveness of antidepressive agents has been described in different types of neuropathic pain, but their effectiveness, when used as analgesics in painful diabetic neuropathy, still remains controversial. Objective: To review the possible role of new-ge...

  8. Diabetes HealthSense: Resources for Living Well

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a common problem for people living with diabetes. Learn more about the symptoms, triggers, and treatment methods ... be challenging and stressful, but it is possible. Learn about how other people living with diabetes cope ...

  9. Diabetes HealthSense: Resources for Living Well

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... E-MAIL UPDATES External Link Disclaimer National Diabetes Education Program HealthSense Home Make a Plan Articles About ... Learn more about the symptoms, triggers, and treatment methods from others living with diabetes. Heart Disease and ...

  10. Transplantation of dental pulp stem cells improves long-term diabetic polyneuropathy together with improvement of nerve morphometrical evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Omi, Maiko; Hata, Masaki; Nakamura, Nobuhisa; Miyabe, Megumi; Ozawa, Shogo; Nukada, Hitoshi; Tsukamoto, Masami; Sango, Kazunori; Himeno, Tatsuhito; Kamiya, Hideki; Nakamura, Jiro; Takebe, Jun; Matsubara, Tatsuaki; Naruse, Keiko

    2017-01-01

    Background Although previous reports have revealed the therapeutic potential of stem cell transplantation in diabetic polyneuropathy, the effects of cell transplantation on long-term diabetic polyneuropathy have not been investigated. In this study, we investigated whether the transplantation of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) ameliorated long-term diabetic polyneuropathy in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Methods Forty-eight weeks after STZ injection, we transplanted DPSCs into th...

  11. Diabetes and oral health: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ship, Jonathan A

    2003-10-01

    Diabetes is a common disease with concomitant oral manifestations that impact dental care. The purpose of this review is to summarize the prevalence, signs, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment of diabetes, as well as dental treatment considerations for the patient with diabetes. Safely managing the patient with diabetes requires effective communication among multiple health care providers. Dentists must be familiar with techniques to diagnose, treat and prevent stomatological disorders in patients with diabetes. Dental practitioners will be treating more patients with diabetes in the future, and this article provides an overview of the systemic and oral aspects of the disease that impact dental treatment.

  12. Neuromuscular complications of diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bril, Vera

    2014-06-01

    control painful symptoms of diabetic sensorimotor polyneuropathy.

  13. Diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Nessim Dayan, Edgard; Fundación Valle de Lili

    1996-01-01

    ¿Qué es la diabetes?/¿Cuantos tipos o formas de diabetes existen?/¿Cuáles son los síntomas de la diabetes?/¿cuál es la causa de la diabetes?/¿Quién tiene mayor riesgo de desarrollar diabetes?/¿Cómo se diagnostica la diabetes?/¿Cuál es el tratamiento de la diabetes?/¿Cuándo y cómo se controlan los niveles de glicemia?/¿Cuáles son las complicaciones de la diabetes?/Recomendaciones actuales y futuro de la diabetes.

  14. Diabetic Retinopathy Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sivakumar

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic retinopathy is one of the common complications of diabetes. Unfortunately, in many cases the patient is not aware of any symptoms until it is too late for effective treatment. Through analysis of evoked potential response of the retina, the optical nerve, and the optical brain center, a way will be paved for early diagnosis of diabetic retinopathy and prognosis during the treatment process. In this paper, we present an artificial-neural-network-based method to classify diabetic retinopathy subjects according to changes in visual evoked potential spectral components and an anatomically realistic computer model of the human eye under normal and retinopathy conditions in a virtual environment using 3D Max Studio and Windows Movie Maker.

  15. Gastric bypass surgery reveals independency of obesity and diabetes melitus type 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenger, Mogens; Hansen, Dorte Lindqvist; Worm, Dorte

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery is widely applied to ameliorate morbid obesity, including diabetes in people with type 2 diabetes. The latter vanish a few days after surgery for many, but not in all patients before any weight reduction has occurred. The explanation for this change...... in metabolic status is poorly understood, but the observation may suggest that the fate obesity and diabetes is only partly linked after surgery. METHODS: The trajectories of weight reduction measured as reduced body mass index (BMI) in 741obese subjects with and without diabetes were evaluated. Evaluation...... was performed on three groups: 1) subjects that were non-diabetic before and after surgery; 2) subjects that were diabetics before surgery but non-diabetics after surgery; and 3) subjects that were diabetics before surgery and remained diabetics after surgery. The diabetic state was established at HbA1c above...

  16. Brittle diabetes: Psychopathology and personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelizza, Lorenzo; Pupo, Simona

    The term "brittle" is used to describe an uncommon subgroup of patients with type I diabetes whose lives are disrupted by severe glycaemic instability with repeated and prolonged hospitalization. Psychosocial problems are the major perceived underlying causes of brittle diabetes. Aim of this study is a systematic psychopathological and personological assessment of patients with brittle diabetes in comparison with subjects without brittle diabetes, using specific parameters of general psychopathology and personality disorders following the multi-axial format of the current DSM-IV-TR (Diagnostic and Statistical manual of Mental Disorders - IV Edition - Text Revised) diagnostic criteria for mental disorders. Patients comprised 42 subjects with brittle diabetes and a case-control group of 42 subjects with stable diabetes, matched for age, gender, years of education, and diabetes duration. General psychopathology and the DSM-IV-TR personality disorders were assessed using the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R) and the Structured Clinical Interview for axis II personality Disorders (SCID-II). The comparison for SCL-90-R parameters revealed no differences in all primary symptom dimensions and in the three global distress indices between the two groups. However, patients with brittle diabetes showed higher percentages in borderline, histrionic, and narcissistic personality disorder. In this study, patients with brittle diabetes show no differences in terms of global severity of psychopathological distress and specific symptoms of axis I DSM-IV-TR psychiatric diagnoses in comparison with subjects without brittle diabetes. Differently, individuals with brittle diabetes are more frequently affected by specific DSM-IV-TR cluster B personality disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Diabetes Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diabetes means your blood glucose, or blood sugar, levels are too high. If you can't control your diabetes with wise food choices and physical activity, you may need diabetes medicines. The kind of medicine you take depends ...

  18. Diabetic ketoacidosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a life-threatening problem that affects people with diabetes . It occurs when the body ... pubmed/29222370 . Pasquel FJ, Umpierrez GE. Hyperglycemic crises: diabetic ketoacidosis and hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state. In: Jameson JL, De ...

  19. Bis(quercetinato)oxovanadium IV Reverses Metabolic Changes in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Shukla, Ruchi; Padhye, Subhash; Modak, Manisha; Ghaskadbi, Saroj S.; Bhonde, Ramesh R.

    2007-01-01

    Organic vanadium compounds offer several advantages in the treatment of diabetes, yet they are impractical to use because of known side effects. In order to ameliorate the side effects of vanadium, we conjugated it with quercetin to form bis(quercetinato)oxovanadium IV (BQOV). This study evaluates the effect of BQOV treatment on carbohydrate metabolism and overall oxidative stress in streptozotocin-induced (STZ) diabetic mice. Administration of BQOV orally to diabetic mice for 3 weeks led to ...

  20. Improvement for Amelioration Inventory Model with Weibull Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han-Wen Tuan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Most inventory models dealt with deteriorated items. On the contrary, just a few papers considered inventory systems under amelioration environment. We study an amelioration inventory model with Weibull distribution. However, there are some questionable results in the amelioration paper. We will first point out those questionable results in the previous paper that did not derive the optimal solution and then provide some improvements. We will provide a rigorous analytical work for different cases dependent on the size of the shape parameter. We present a detailed numerical example for different ranges of the sharp parameter to illustrate that our solution method attains the optimal solution. We developed a new amelioration model and then provided a detailed analyzed procedure to find the optimal solution. Our findings will help researchers develop their new inventory models.

  1. Riboflavin ameliorates cisplatin induced toxicities under photoillumination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iftekhar Hassan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cisplatin is an effective anticancer drug that elicits many side effects mainly due to induction of oxidative and nitrosative stresses during prolonged chemotherapy. The severity of these side effects consequently restricts its clinical use under long term treatment. Riboflavin is an essential vitamin used in various metabolic redox reactions in the form of flavin adenine dinucleotide and flavin mononucleotide. Besides, it has excellent photosensitizing property that can be used to ameliorate these toxicities in mice under photodynamic therapy. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Riboflavin, cisplatin and their combinations were given to the separate groups of mice under photoilluminated condition under specific treatment regime. Their kidney and liver were excised for comet assay and histopathological studies. Furthermore, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy of riboflavin-cisplatin combination in vitro was also conducted to investigate any possible interaction between the two compounds. Their comet assay and histopathological examination revealed that riboflavin in combination with cisplatin was able to protect the tissues from cisplatin induced toxicities and damages. Moreover, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy analysis of the combination indicated a strong molecular interaction among their constituent groups that may be assigned for the protective effect of the combination in the treated animals. CONCLUSION: Inclusion of riboflavin diminishes cisplatin induced toxicities which may possibly make the cisplatin-riboflavin combination, an effective treatment strategy under chemoradiotherapy in pronouncing its antineoplastic activity and sensitivity towards the cancer cells as compared to cisplatin alone.

  2. Diabetes - eye care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 26696680 . Read More Diabetes and eye disease High blood pressure Type 1 diabetes Type 2 diabetes Patient Instructions Diabetes and exercise Diabetes - keeping active Diabetes - low blood sugar - self-care Diabetes - preventing heart attack and ...

  3. Motion sickness amelioration induced by prism spectacles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vente, P. Eric M; Bos, Jelte E.; De Wit, Gert

    1998-01-01

    A side effect of the prescription of prism glasses according to the principle of Utermohlen to improve mechanical reading skills of certain types of learning disabled children was the alleviation of car sickness. Besides a decrease in reported symptoms after prescription of these glasses, the effect

  4. Motion sickness amelioration induced by prism spectacles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vente, P.E.M.; Bos, J.E.; Wit, G. de

    1998-01-01

    A side effect of the prescription of prism glasses according to the principle of Utermöhlen to improve mechanical reading skills of certain types of learning disabled children, was the alleviation of car sickness. Besides a decrease in reported symptoms after prescription of these glasses, the

  5. Diabetes and alpha lipoic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Issy eLaher

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is a multi-faceted metabolic disorder where there is increased oxidative stress that contributes to the pathogenesis of this debilitating disease. This has prompted several investigations into the use of antioxidants as a complementary therapeutic approach. Alpha lipoic acid, a naturally occurring dithiol compound which plays an essential role in mitochondrial bioenergetic reactions, has gained considerable attention as an antioxidant for use in managing diabetic complications. Lipoic acid quenches reactive oxygen species, chelates metal ions, and reduces the oxidized forms of other antioxidants such as vitamin C, vitamin E and glutathione. It also boosts antioxidant defense system through Nrf2-mediated antioxidant gene expression and by modulation of peroxisome proliferator activated receptors-regulated genes. ALA inhibits nuclear factor kappa B and activates AMPK in skeletal muscles, which in turn have a plethora of metabolic consequences. These diverse actions suggest that a lipoic acid acts by multiple mechanisms, many of which have only been uncovered recently. In this review we briefly summarize the known biochemical properties of lipoic acid and then discussed the oxidative mechanisms implicated in diabetic complications and the mechanisms by which lipoic acid may ameliorate these reactions. The findings of some of the clinical trials in which lipoic acid administration has been tested in diabetic patients during the last 10 years are summarized. It appears that the clearest benefit of lipoic acid supplementation is in patients with diabetic neuropathy.

  6. diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehraban Falahati

    2016-09-01

    candiduria and female gender, high FBS and urine glucose, uncontrolled diabetes (HbA1c ≥8, and acidic urine pH (P<0.05. Conclusion: Considering the high incidence rate of candiduria in diabetic patients, control of diabetes, predisposing factors, and causal relationships between diabetes and candiduria should be highlighted.

  7. Knowledge of diabetic complications in patients with diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullah, F.; Afridi, A.K.; Rahim, F.; Ashfaq, M.; Khan, S.

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of diabetes mellitus has risen exponentially over the last three decades, with resultant increase in morbidity and mortality mainly due to its complications. Limited data is available regarding the awareness and knowledge about these complications in our population. This study was carried out to evaluate the knowledge of diabetic complications in patients with diabetes mellitus. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in the Medical B Unit of Department of Medicine Khyber Teaching Hospital, Peshawar. All admitted diabetic patients above 15 years of age with duration of diabetes mellitus more than one year were included. Results: Out of the 96 patients questioned, 58 were females and 38 were males. Mean age was 53.29 ± 10.821 years while the mean duration of diabetes mellitus was 9.75 ± 7.729 years. Of the total 76 (79.1%) of the patients were illiterate; 36 (37.50%) had good, 24 (25%) had average and 36 (37.50%) had poor knowledge about diabetic complications. Males and university graduate patients had slightly better knowledge. Between 50-60% patients were aware of different cardiac complications of diabetes mellitus. Awareness regarding other complications was foot ulcer/gangrene 70 (72.91%), poor wound healing 68 (70.83%), stroke 54 (56.25%), renal diseases 64 (66.66%), eye diseases 53 (55.20%), gastroparesis and other gastrointestinal problems 45 (46.87%), diabetic ketoacidosis 55 (57.29%), hypoglycaemia 50 (52.08%), lipid abnormalities 26 (27.08%) and symptoms of diabetic neuropathy ranging from 47-65%. Conclusions: Majority of diabetic patients are unaware of diabetic complications. Therefore, hospital and community based awareness programs should be launched to decrease the morbidity and mortality associated with diabetes mellitus. (author)

  8. Black ginseng extract ameliorates hypercholesterolemia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saba, Evelyn; Jeon, Bo Ra; Jeong, Da-Hye; Lee, Kija; Goo, Youn-Kyoung; Kim, Seung-Hyung; Sung, Chang-Keun; Roh, Seong-Soo; Kim, Sung Dae; Kim, Hyun-Kyoung; Rhee, Man-Hee

    2016-04-01

    Ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer) is a well-characterized medicinal herb listed in the classic oriental herbal dictionary as "Shin-nong-bon-cho-kyung." Ginseng has diverse pharmacologic and therapeutic properties. Black ginseng (BG, Ginseng Radix nigra) is produced by repeatedly steaming fresh ginseng nine times. Studies of BG have shown that prolonged heat treatment enhances the antioxidant activity with increased radical scavenging activity. Several recent studies have showed the effects of BG on increased lipid profiles in mice. In this study report the effects of water and ethanol extracts of BG on hypercholesterolemia in rats. To our knowledge, this is the first time such an effect has been reported. Experiments were conducted on male Sprague Dawley rats fed with a high-cholesterol diet supplemented with the water and ethanol extracts of BG (200 mg/kg). Their blood cholesterol levels, serum white blood cell levels, and cholesterol-metabolizing marker genes messenger RNA (mRNA) expression were determined. Liver and adipose tissues were histologically analyzed. We found that BG extracts efficiently reduced the total serum cholesterol levels, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels with increased food efficiency ratio and increased number of neutrophil cells. It also attenuated the key genes responsible for lipogenesis, that is, acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA) acetyltransferase 2, 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase, and sterol regulatory element-binding protein 2, at the mRNA level inside liver cells. Furthermore, the BG extract also reduced the accumulation of fat in adipose tissues, and inhibited the neutral fat content in liver cells stained with hematoxylin and eosin and oil red O. Administration of BG extracts to Sprague Dawley rats fed with high-cholesterol diet ameliorated hypercholesterolemia, which was mediated via modulation of cholesterol-metabolizing marker genes. This data throw a light on BG's cardioprotective effects.

  9. Adiponectin ameliorates hyperglycemia-induced cardiac hypertrophy and dysfunction by concomitantly activating Nrf2 and Brg1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haobo; Yao, Weifeng; Irwin, Michael G; Wang, Tingting; Wang, Shuang; Zhang, Liangqing; Xia, Zhengyuan

    2015-07-01

    Hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress is implicated in the development of cardiomyopathy in diabetes that is associated with reduced adiponectin (APN) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). Brahma-related gene 1 (Brg1) assists nuclear factor-erythroid-2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) to activate HO-1 to increase myocardial antioxidant capacity in response to oxidative stress. We hypothesized that reduced adiponectin (APN) impairs HO-1 induction which contributes to the development of diabetic cardiomyopathy, and that supplementation of APN may ameliorate diabetic cardiomyopathy by activating HO-1 through Nrf2 and Brg1 in diabetes. Control (C) and streptozotocin-induced diabetic (D) rats were untreated or treated with APN adenovirus (1×10(9) pfu) 3 weeks after diabetes induction and examined and terminated 1 week afterward. Rat left ventricular functions were assessed by a pressure-volume conductance system, before the rat hearts were removed to perform histological and biochemical assays. Four weeks after diabetes induction, D rats developed cardiac hypertrophy evidenced as increased ratio of heart weight to body weight, elevated myocardial collagen I content, and larger cardiomyocyte cross-sectional area (all Psupplementation of recombined globular APN (gAd, 2μg/mL) reversed HG-induced reductions of HO-1, Brg1, and nuclear Nrf2 protein expression and attenuated cellular oxidative stress, myocyte size, and apoptotic cells. Inhibition of HO-1 by ZnPP (10μM) or small interfering RNA (siRNA) canceled all the above gAd beneficial effects. Moreover, inhibition of Nrf2 (either by the Nrf2 inhibitor luteolin or siRNA) or Brg1 (by siRNA) canceled gAd-induced HO-1 induction and cellular protection in CMs and in H9C2 cells incubated with HG. In summary, our present study demonstrated that APN reduced cardiac oxidative stress, ameliorated cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, and prevented left ventricular dysfunction in diabetes by concomitantly activating Nrf2 and Brg1 to facilitate HO-1 induction

  10. Diagnosis dan Kelasifikasi Diabetes Mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad H. Asdie, Ahmad H. Asdie

    2015-01-01

    This paper presented the main recommendations for the definition and classification.of diabetes mellitus and of impaired glucose intolerance in non-pregnant adults.Diabetes mellitus is not a disease in the classical sense but is more probably a syndrome best characterized as a state of chronic hyperglycemia of various etiology. It may present with acute symptoms that include polyuria, polydipsia and unexplained weight loss and these can progress to life threatening ketoacidosis or hyperosmola...

  11. Mesenchymal stem cells in diabetes treatment: progress and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu CHENG

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes is a chronic metabolic disorder caused by relative or absolute insulin deficient or reduced sensitivity of target cells to insulin. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs are adult stem cells with multiple differentiation potential, self-renewable and immunoregulatory properties. Accumulating evidences from clinic or animal experiments recent years showed that MSCs infusion could ameliorate hyperglycemia in diabetes. The research progress of MSCs in diabetes treatment is summarized and a corresponding perspective is herewith proposed in present paper. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2016.07.16

  12. Management of diabetic complications: a chemical constituents based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Randhir; Kaur, Navpreet; Kishore, Lalit; Gupta, Girish Kumar

    2013-10-28

    Long term hyperglycemia leads to development of complications associated with diabetes. Diabetic complications are now a global health problem without effective therapeutic approach. Hyperglycemia and oxidative stress are important components for the development of diabetic complications. Over the past few decades, herbal medicines have attracted much attention as potential therapeutic agents in the prevention and treatment of diabetic complications due to their multiple targets and less toxic side effects. This review aims to assess the current available knowledge of medicinal herbs for attenuation and management of diabetic complications and their underlying mechanisms. Bibliographic investigation was carried out by scrutinizing classical text books and peer reviewed papers, consulting worldwide accepted scientific databases (SCOPUS, PUBMED, SCIELO, NISCAIR, Google Scholar) to retrieve available published literature. The inclusion criteria for the selection of plants were based upon all medicinal herbs and their active compounds with attributed potentials in relieving diabetic complications. Moreover, plants which have potential effect in ameliorating oxidative stress in diabetic animals have been included. Overall, 238 articles were reviewed for plant literature and out of the reviewed literature, 127 articles were selected for the study. Various medicinal plants/plant extracts containing flavonoids, alkaloids, phenolic compounds, terpenoids, saponins and phytosterol type chemical constituents were found to be effective in the management of diabetic complications. This effect might be attributed to amelioration of persistent hyperglycemia, oxidative stress and modulation of various metabolic pathways involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications. Screening chemical candidate from herbal medicine might be a promising approach for new drug discovery to treat the diabetic complications. There is still a dire need to explore the mechanism of action of

  13. Salvianolic Acid B Ameliorates Hyperglycemia and Dyslipidemia in db/db Mice through the AMPK Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Qing Huang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Salvianolic acid B (Sal B, a major polyphenolic compound of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, has been shown to possess potential antidiabetic activities. However, the action mechanism of SalB in type 2 diabetes has not been investigated extensively. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of Sal B on diabetes-related metabolic changes in a spontaneous model of type 2 diabetes, as well as its potential molecular mechanism. Methods: Male C57BL/KsJ-db/db mice were orally treated with Sal B (50 and 100 mg/kg or metformin (positive drug, 300 mg/kg for 6 weeks. Results: Both doses of Sal B significantly decreased fasting blood glucose, serum insulin, triglyceride and free fatty acid levels, reduced hepatic gluconeogenic gene expression and improved insulin intolerance in db/db mice. High dose Sal B also significantly improved glucose intolerance, increased hepatic glycolytic gene expression and muscle glycogen content, and ameliorated histopathological alterations of pancreas, similar to metformin. Sal B treatment resulted in increased phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase (p-AMPK protein expression in skeletal muscle and liver, increased glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4 and glycogen synthase protein expressions in skeletal muscle, and increased peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα and phosphorylated acetyl CoA carboxylase (p-ACC protein expressions in liver. Conclusion: Our data suggest that Sal B displays beneficial effects in the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes at least in part via modulation of the AMPK pathway.

  14. Rasagiline ameliorates olfactory deficits in an alpha-synuclein mouse model of Parkinson's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Géraldine H Petit

    Full Text Available Impaired olfaction is an early pre-motor symptom of Parkinson's disease. The neuropathology underlying olfactory dysfunction in Parkinson's disease is unknown, however α-synuclein accumulation/aggregation and altered neurogenesis might play a role. We characterized olfactory deficits in a transgenic mouse model of Parkinson's disease expressing human wild-type α-synuclein under the control of the mouse α-synuclein promoter. Preliminary clinical observations suggest that rasagiline, a monoamine oxidase-B inhibitor, improves olfaction in Parkinson's disease. We therefore examined whether rasagiline ameliorates olfactory deficits in this Parkinson's disease model and investigated the role of olfactory bulb neurogenesis. α-Synuclein mice were progressively impaired in their ability to detect odors, to discriminate between odors, and exhibited alterations in short-term olfactory memory. Rasagiline treatment rescued odor detection and odor discrimination abilities. However, rasagiline did not affect short-term olfactory memory. Finally, olfactory changes were not coupled to alterations in olfactory bulb neurogenesis. We conclude that rasagiline reverses select olfactory deficits in a transgenic mouse model of Parkinson's disease. The findings correlate with preliminary clinical observations suggesting that rasagiline ameliorates olfactory deficits in Parkinson's disease.

  15. Rasagiline ameliorates olfactory deficits in an alpha-synuclein mouse model of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Géraldine H; Berkovich, Elijahu; Hickery, Mark; Kallunki, Pekka; Fog, Karina; Fitzer-Attas, Cheryl; Brundin, Patrik

    2013-01-01

    Impaired olfaction is an early pre-motor symptom of Parkinson's disease. The neuropathology underlying olfactory dysfunction in Parkinson's disease is unknown, however α-synuclein accumulation/aggregation and altered neurogenesis might play a role. We characterized olfactory deficits in a transgenic mouse model of Parkinson's disease expressing human wild-type α-synuclein under the control of the mouse α-synuclein promoter. Preliminary clinical observations suggest that rasagiline, a monoamine oxidase-B inhibitor, improves olfaction in Parkinson's disease. We therefore examined whether rasagiline ameliorates olfactory deficits in this Parkinson's disease model and investigated the role of olfactory bulb neurogenesis. α-Synuclein mice were progressively impaired in their ability to detect odors, to discriminate between odors, and exhibited alterations in short-term olfactory memory. Rasagiline treatment rescued odor detection and odor discrimination abilities. However, rasagiline did not affect short-term olfactory memory. Finally, olfactory changes were not coupled to alterations in olfactory bulb neurogenesis. We conclude that rasagiline reverses select olfactory deficits in a transgenic mouse model of Parkinson's disease. The findings correlate with preliminary clinical observations suggesting that rasagiline ameliorates olfactory deficits in Parkinson's disease.

  16. Butyrate inhibits interleukin-17 and generates Tregs to ameliorate colorectal colitis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mingming; Zhou, Qian; Dorfman, Robert G; Huang, Xiaoli; Fan, Tingting; Zhang, Hao; Zhang, Jun; Yu, Chenggong

    2016-07-30

    Butyrate is an energy source for colonocytes that is formed by bacterial fermentation of dietary fiber in the colon and that exerts broad anti-inflammatory activities. Although the administration of butyrate improves homeostasis in patients and ameliorates IBD (Inflammatory Bowel Disease)-related lesions and symptoms, the anti-inflammatory mechanisms of butyrate still remain unclear. To explore the impact of butyrate on Treg (Regulatory T cell)/Th17 (T helper 17 cell) differentiation and colitis in rats. The effect of butyrate on the expression of markers related to both Tregs and Th17 cells were determined in human monocytes as well as a rat model of colitis induced by 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid. Rats were treated with butyrate in vivo, whereas the rat splenocytes and human monocytes were treated in vitro. We found that butyrate administration increased peripheral blood Treg cell levels as well as plasma levels of anti-Th17 cytokines (IL-10 and IL-12). Butyrate administration further suppressed IL-17 levels in both plasma and colonic mucosa, and ameliorated colonic colitis lesions in rats. This promotion of Treg activity and inhibition of IL-17 release was also observed in human venous monocytes and rat splenocytes in vitro. Our results suggest that butyrate plays a key role in regulating the Treg/Th17 balance and ultimately protects the colon mucosa against the development of IBD.

  17. Amelioration of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in Lewis rats treated with fucoidan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Heechul; Moon, Changjong; Park, Eun-jin; Jee, Youngheun; Ahn, Meejung; Wie, Myung Bok; Shin, Taekyun

    2010-03-01

    We examined whether fucoidan affected the clinical symptoms of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in rats. EAE was induced in Lewis rats that were immunized with guinea-pig myelin basic protein (MBP) and complete Freund's adjuvant. Fucoidan (50 mg/kg, daily) was administered to rats with EAE intraperitoneally, either in the EAE induction phase from either 1 day before immunization to day 7 post-immunization (PI), or the effector phase from day 8 to 14 PI, to test which phase of rat EAE is affected by fucoidan treatment.The onset, severity and duration of EAE paralysis in the fucoidan-treated group in the days 8-14 PI-treated rats, but not in days -1-7 PI-treated rats, were significantly delayed, suppressed and reduced, respectively, compared with the vehicle-treated controls. Treatment with fucoidan reduced the encephalitogenic response and TNF-alpha production during EAE. Moreover, the clinical amelioration coincided with decreased infiltration of inflammatory cells in the EAE-affected spinal cord. The ameliorative effect of fucoidan on clinical paralysis in EAE-affected rats may be mediated, in part, by the suppression of the autoreactive T cell response and inflammatory cytokine production. (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Diagnosis of diabetic kidney disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Frederik; Rossing, Peter

    2018-01-01

    Approximately 20% to 40% of patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus develop diabetic kidney disease. This is a clinical syndrome characterized by persistent albuminuria (> 300 mg/24 h, or > 300 mg/g creatinine), a relentless decline in glomerular filtration rate (GFR), raised arterial......). Untreated microalbuminuria will gradually worsen, reaching clinical proteinuria or severely increased albuminuria (albuminuria grade A3) over 5 to 15 years. The GFR then begins to decline, and without treatment, end-stage renal failure is likely to result in 5 to 7 years. Although albuminuria is the first...... sign of diabetic nephropathy, the first symptom is usually peripheral edema, which occurs at a very late stage. Regular, systematic screening for diabetic kidney disease is needed in order to identify patients at risk of or with presymptomatic diabetic kidney disease. Annual monitoring of urinary...

  19. Zinc Deficiency in Humans and its Amelioration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yashbir Singh Shivay

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Zinc (Zn deficiency in humans has recently received considerable attention. Global mortality in children under 5 years of age in 2004 due to Zn deficiency was estimated at 4,53,207 as against 6,66,771 for vitamin A deficiency; 20,854 for iron deficiency and 3,619 for iodine deficiency. In humans 2800-3000 proteins contain Zn prosthetic group and Zn is an integral component of zinc finger prints that regulate DNA transcription. Zinc is a Type-2 nutrient, which means that its concentration in blood does not decrease in proportion of the Zn deficiency. Adverse effects of Zn deficiency vary with age: low weight gain, diarrhoea, aneroxia and neurobehavioral disturbances are observed in infants, while skin changes and dwarfism are frequent in toddlers and adolescents. Common manifestations of Zn deficiency among elderly include hypogeusia, chronic non-healing ulcers and recurrent infections.Ameliorative measures of Zn deficiency in humans can be classified in two groups, namely, nutraceutical and biofortification of food grains. Nutraceutical interventions include pharmaceutical supplements, dietary supplements and dietary diversification, while biofortification of food grains can be achieved by genetic modification (GM of crops or by agronomic techniques that include soil or/and foliar fertilization of crops.The major disadvantage of nutraceutical approaches is that the major beneficiaries are urban people and the poor rural masses that need adequate Zn nutrition most are left out. Genetic biofortification of food grains requires large amounts of funds and a fairly long-period of time. Further, a large number of countries have not yet accepted genetically modified (GM foods. On the other hand agronomic biofortification of food grains yields immediate effects and rural and urban people are equally benefitted. Our studies have shown that Zn concentration in cereals (rice, wheat etc and pulses can be considerably increased by soil or/and foliar

  20. Tropical diabetic hand syndrome: prevention through education

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-06-28

    Jun 28, 2011 ... “Tropical diabetic hand syndrome” (TDHS) is a term used to describe a specific acute symptom complex found in patients with diabetes in the tropics, usually following minor trauma to the hand, and is associated with a progressive synergistic form of gangrene.1 The syndrome features a localised fulminant ...

  1. MANAGEMENT OF DIABETES IN THE ELDERLY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    diabetes remain the same for all age groups.6 It is also noteworthy that the renal threshold for glucose rises with age; therefore glycosuria may not develop until the blood glucose concentration is markedly raised. The clinical presentation of diabetes in the elderly may be insidious or atypical, and vague symptoms such as ...

  2. New Approaches to Planning Diabetic Diets Workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimmel, Georgia

    Instructional materials are provided for a workshop to enable participants to educate patients and food service staff regarding diabetic diets, incorporating current therapeutic recommendations and allowing variation and flexibility. Representative topics are facts about diabetes mellitus, high risk groups, symptoms, treatment and goals of diet…

  3. Tropical diabetic hand syndrome: prevention through education ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tropical diabetic hand syndrome describes an acute symptom complex found in patients with diabetes in the tropics, usually following minor trauma to the hand. Two different ... Education remains the most important preventive tool in underdeveloped countries, and