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Sample records for ameliorates diabetic symptoms

  1. Pluronic L-81 ameliorates diabetic symptoms in db/db mice through transcriptional regulation of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wo-Shing Au; Li-Wei Lu; Sidney Tam; Otis King Hung Ko; Billy KC Chow; Ming-Liang He; Samuel S Ng; Chung-Man Yeung; Ching-Chiu Liu; Hsiang-Fu Kung; Marie C Lin

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To test whether oral L-81 treatment could improve the condition of mice with diabetes and to investigate how L-81 regulates microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) activity in the liver.METHODS: Genetically diabetic (db /db ) mice were fed on chow supplemented with or without L-81 for 4 wk. The body weight, plasma glucose level, plasma lipid profile, and adipocyte volume of the db /db mice were assessed after treatment. Toxicity of L-81 was also evaluated. To understand the molecular mechanism,HepG2 cells were treated with L-81 and the effects on apolipoprotein B (apoB) secretion and mRNA level of the MTP gene were assessed. RESULTS: Treatment of db /db mice with L-81 significantly reduced and nearly normalized their body weight, hyperphagia and polydipsia. L-81 also markedly decreased the fasting plasma glucose level, improved glucose tolerance, and attenuated the elevated levels of plasma cholesterol and triglyceride. At the effective dosage, little toxicity was observed. Treatment of HepG2 cells with L-81 not only inhibited apoB secretion, but also significantly decreased the mRNA level of the MTP gene. Similar to the action of insulin, L-81 exerted its effect on the MTP promoter. CONCLUSION: L-81 represents a promising candidate in the development of a selective insulin-mimetic molecule and an anti-diabetic agent.

  2. Diabetes Complications and Depressive Symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deschênes, Sonya S; Burns, Rachel J; Pouwer, Frans

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Prospective studies testing the potential impact of diabetes complications on depression are limited. The present study examined the longitudinal associations between diabetes complications and the risk and recurrence/persistence of depressive symptoms. METHODS: Data were from...... a prospective community cohort telephone survey of adults with diabetes (N= 1,314). Diabetes complications and depressive symptoms were assessed via self-report (Diabetes Complications Index and Patient Health Questionnaire-9, respectively) at baseline and annually for 5 years. Statistical models adjusted...... for sociodemographic, lifestyle, and diabetes characteristics. RESULTS: The number of diabetes complications at baseline was positively associated with a greater risk of elevated depressive symptoms, with the highest risk found for those with 4-6 complications at baseline (RR= 2.73, 95% CI= [1.64, 4...

  3. Symptom scoring systems to diagnose distal polyneuropathy in diabetes : the Diabetic Neuropathy Symptom score

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, J.W.G.; Smit, A.J.; van Sonderen, E.; Groothoff, J.W.; Eisma, W.H.; Links, T.P.

    2002-01-01

    AIMS: To provide one of the diagnostic categories for distal diabetic polyneuro-pathy,several symptom scoring systems are available, which are often extensive andlack in validation. We validated a new four-item Diabetic Neuropathy Symptom (DNS) scorefor diagnosing distal diabetic polyneuropathy. MET

  4. Vanadium-enriched chickpea sprout ameliorated hyperglycemia and impaired memory in streptozotocin-induced diabetes rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xueqin; Zhang, Ling; Xia, Qing; Sun, Zhaofeng; Zhao, Xiaomin; Cai, Hongxin; Yang, Xiaoda; Xia, Zuoli; Tang, Yujing

    2008-10-01

    Vanadium compounds have been recognized for their hypoglycemic effects; however, potential short and long-term vanadium toxicity has slowed the acceptance for therapeutic use. In the present work, three batches of vanadium-enriched chickpea sprout (VCS) were prepared by incubating chickpea seeds in presence of 200, 100, and 50 microg/ml of sodium orthovanadate (SOV). The effects of oral administration of chickpea sprout (CS) and VCS food for 8 weeks on streptozotocin-induced (STZ) diabetic rats were investigated. Both CS and VCS food was found to ameliorate some hyperglycemic symptoms of the diabetic rats, i.e. improve lipid metabolism, decrease blood glucose level, prevent body weight loss, and reduce impairment of diabetic related spatial learning and memory. Serum insulin was substantially elevated in treated diabetic rats, which is probably one important reason for the hypoglycemic effect. Compared with CS alone, VCS100 food exhibited remarkably enhanced effectiveness in alleviating diabetes induced hyperglycemia and memory loss. Moreover, vanadium-enriched chickpeas appeared to abolish the vanadium induced toxicity associated with administration of this metal for diabetes during the 8-week study period. This study suggested further work of the vanadium speciation in CS and novel hypoglycemic mechanism for the antidiabetic activity of vanadium agents. Vanadium containing (VCS) food could be a dietary supplement for the diabetic status.

  5. What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Diabetic Heart Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Diabetic Heart Disease? Some people who have diabetic heart disease (DHD) ... when it's given right after symptoms occur. Coronary Heart Disease A common symptom of coronary heart disease (CHD) ...

  6. Red Cabbage (Brassica oleracea Ameliorates Diabetic Nephropathy in Rats

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    Hazem A. H. Kataya

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The protective action against oxidative stress of red cabbage (Brassica oleracea extract was investigated. Diabetes was induced in male Wistar rats using streptozotocin (60 mg/kg body weight. Throughout the experimental period (60 days, diabetic rats exhibited many symptoms including loss of body weight, hyperglycemia, polyuria, polydipsia, renal enlargement and renal dysfunction. Significant increase in malondialdehyde, a lipid peroxidation marker, was observed in diabetic kidney. This was accompanied by a significant increase in reduced glutathione and superoxide dismutase activity and a decrease in catalase activity and in the total antioxidant capacity of the kidneys. Daily oral ingestion (1 g/kg body weight of B. oleracea extract for 60 days reversed the adverse effect of diabetes in rats. B. oleracea extract lowered blood glucose levels and restored renal function and body weight loss. In addition, B. oleracea extract attenuated the adverse effect of diabetes on malondialdehyde, glutathione and superoxide dismutase activity as well as catalase activity and total antioxidant capacity of diabetic kidneys. In conclusion, the antioxidant and antihyperglycemic properties of B. oleracea extract may offer a potential therapeutic source for the treatment of diabetes.

  7. Diabetic factors associated with gastrointestinal symptoms in patients with type 2 diabetes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jeong; Hwan; Kim; Hyung; Seok; Park; Soon; Young; Ko; Sung; Noh; Hong; In-Kyung; Sung; Chan; Sub; Shim; Kee-Ho; Song; Dong-Lim; Kim; Sook; Kyung; Kim; Jeeyoung; Oh

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To determine whether gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms are more frequent in type 2 diabetic patients and to examine which diabetic factors are associated with the symptoms. METHODS: Consecutive subjects with diabetes and age-/gender-matched normal controls were recruited for this study. GI symptoms were assessed using a structured questionnaire divided into two GI symptomcategories (upper and lower GI symptoms), and consisting of 11 individual symptoms. In the diabetic patient group, diabetic complication...

  8. Catechin Treatment Ameliorates Diabetes and Its Complications in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azimi-Nezhad, Mohsen; Farkhondeh, Tahereh

    2017-01-01

    Context: Diabetes mellitus causes atherosclerosis and lipid abnormalities. Hypolipidemic and antioxidative properties of catechin (CTN) have been reported in several studies. Objective: This study assesses the possible protective effects of CTN against oxidative damage in the diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: The rats were divided into the control, untreated diabetic, and 3 CTN-treated diabetic groups (20, 40, and 80 mg/kg/d, intraperitoneal). The diabetic rats were induced by streptozotocin. Catechin was injected for 4 weeks. At the end of the experimental period, glucose, lipid profile, apoprotein A-I (apo A-I), apoprotein B (apo B), malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, and antioxidant enzymes including glutathione-S-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) activities were determined in serum. Statistical analyses were performed using the InStat 3.0 program. Results: Streptozotocin caused an elevation of glucose, MDA, triglycerides (TGs), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and apo B with reduction in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), apo A-I, SOD, CAT, and GST in the serum (P < .05). The findings showed that the significant elevation in the body weight, glucose, MDA, TG, TC, LDL-C, and apo B and reduction in HDL-C, apo A-I, SOD, CAT, and GST were ameliorated in the CTN-treated diabetic groups versus the untreated group, in a dose-dependent manner (P < .05). Conclusion: The present investigation proposes that CTN may ameliorate diabetes and its complications by modification of oxidative stress. PMID:28228702

  9. Clinical diagnosis of diabetic polyneuropathy with the diabetic neuropathy symptom and diabetic neuropathy examination scores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, J.W.; Lefrandt, J.D.; Links, T.P.; Smit, J.A.; Stewart, R.E.; van der Hoeven, J.H.; Hoogenberg, K.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE - To evaluate the discriminative power of the Diabetic Neuropathy Symptom (DNS) and Diabetic Neuropathy Examination (DNE) scores for diagnosing diabetic polyneuropathy (PNP), as well as their relation with cardiovascular autonomic function testing (cAFT) and electro-diagnostic studies (EDS

  10. Qigong ameliorates symptoms of chronic fatigue: a pilot uncontrolled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craske, Naropa J Mike; Turner, Warren; Zammit-Maempe, Joseph; Lee, Myeong Soo

    2009-06-01

    Traditional Chinese Medicine practitioners consider that chronic fatigue reflects a disharmony and depletion in the supply of qi in the body. Qigong is one of the traditional complementary interventions used to strengthen qi through self-practice, and to manage the state of qi to prevent and cure disease. The aim of this study is to assess whether qigong could be used to manage the symptoms of chronic fatigue. Eighteen Caucasian, British female participants were recruited, taught a qigong routine during weekly classes over 6 months, and asked to practice it daily for 15 min. Participants completed the core set of the RAND Medical Outcomes Study questionnaire (RAND MOS) and a sleep diary during the 2-week baseline control period, and at 3 and 6 months following the start of the trial. The qigong intervention resulted in significant changes in sleep rate score and in the following subscales of the RAND MOS: SF36 Vitality, Sleep Problems, Social Activity, Social Activity Limitation due to Health, Health Distress, Mental Health Index and Psychological Well-being. Qigong seems to improve factors related to chronic fatigue such as sleep, pain, mental attitude and general mobility after 3 and 6 months. Qigong's positive effects indicate that it represents a potentially safe method of treatment for chronic fatigued patients. However, we cannot completely discount the possible influence of placebo effects, and more objective clinical measures are needed to reproduce our findings with long-term follow-up in a randomized, controlled study involving a larger number of subjects.

  11. Qigong Ameliorates Symptoms of Chronic Fatigue: A Pilot Uncontrolled Study

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    Naropa J. Mike Craske

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional Chinese Medicine practitioners consider that chronic fatigue reflects a disharmony and depletion in the supply of qi in the body. Qigong is one of the traditional complementary interventions used to strengthen qi through self-practice, and to manage the state of qi to prevent and cure disease. The aim of this study is to assess whether qigong could be used to manage the symptoms of chronic fatigue. Eighteen Caucasian, British female participants were recruited, taught a qigong routine during weekly classes over 6 months, and asked to practice it daily for 15 min. Participants completed the core set of the RAND Medical Outcomes Study questionnaire (RAND MOS and a sleep diary during the 2-week baseline control period, and at 3 and 6 months following the start of the trial. The qigong intervention resulted in significant changes in sleep rate score and in the following subscales of the RAND MOS: SF36 Vitality, Sleep Problems, Social Activity, Social Activity Limitation due to Health, Health Distress, Mental Health Index and Psychological Well-being. Qigong seems to improve factors related to chronic fatigue such as sleep, pain, mental attitude and general mobility after 3 and 6 months. Qigong's positive effects indicate that it represents a potentially safe method of treatment for chronic fatigued patients. However, we cannot completely discount the possible influence of placebo effects, and more objective clinical measures are needed to reproduce our findings with long-term follow-up in a randomized, controlled study involving a larger number of subjects.

  12. Vulnerability of Gastric Mucosa in Diabetic Rats, Its Pathogenesis and Amelioration by Cuminum cyminum

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Various studies have indicated that peptic ulcers occurring during the course of diabetic state are more severe and often associated with complications such as gastrointestinal bleeding. This study is the first attempt to understand the pathogenesis of gastric ulcers occurring during the diabetic state considering alternate biochemical pathways using suitable markers and its amelioration by Cuminum cyminum. In this study, diabetic rats showed a progressive increase in the stomach advanced gly...

  13. Icariside II ameliorates diabetic nephropathy in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

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    Tian W

    2015-09-01

    II treatment could ameliorate diabetic nephropathy in STZ-induced diabetic rats by increasing endothelial cell contents, downregulating TGF-β/Smad/CTGF signaling pathway and oxidative stress level, and promoting cell proliferation both in kidney cortex and medulla. These beneficial effects appear to be mediated by its antioxidant capacity and recruitment of endogenous EdU+ progenitor cells into the kidney tissue. Keywords: diabetic nephropathy, icariside II, EdU, diabetes mellitus, label retaining progenitor cells  

  14. Correlates of Depressive Symptoms in Older Adults with Diabetes

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    LaRita C. Jones

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigators examined correlates of depressive symptoms within a sample of older adults with diabetes. Participants completed a structured telephone interview with measures including depressive symptoms, health conditions, cognitive function, and diabetes distress. Correlations and hierarchical linear regression models were utilized to examine bivariate and covariate-adjusted correlates of depressive symptoms. The sample included 246 community-dwelling adults with diabetes (≥65 years old. In bivariate analyses, African Americans, individuals with specific health issues (neuropathy, stroke, respiratory issues, arthritis, and cardiac issues, and those with higher levels of diabetes distress reported more depressive symptoms. Older age, higher education, more income, and better cognitive function were inversely associated with depressive symptoms. In the final covariate-adjusted regression model, stroke (B = .22, p<.001, cognitive function (B = −.14, p<.01, and higher levels of diabetes-related distress (B = .49, p<.001 each were uniquely associated with more depressive symptoms. Diabetes distress partially mediated the associations between cardiac issues and depressive symptoms and between cognitive function and depressive symptoms. Findings suggest that interventions targeted at helping older adults manage their diabetes-related distress and reducing the likelihood of experiencing additional health complications may reduce depressive symptoms within this population.

  15. Correlates of Depressive Symptoms in Older Adults with Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, LaRita C; Clay, Olivio J; Ovalle, Fernando; Cherrington, Andrea; Crowe, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Investigators examined correlates of depressive symptoms within a sample of older adults with diabetes. Participants completed a structured telephone interview with measures including depressive symptoms, health conditions, cognitive function, and diabetes distress. Correlations and hierarchical linear regression models were utilized to examine bivariate and covariate-adjusted correlates of depressive symptoms. The sample included 246 community-dwelling adults with diabetes (≥ 65 years old). In bivariate analyses, African Americans, individuals with specific health issues (neuropathy, stroke, respiratory issues, arthritis, and cardiac issues), and those with higher levels of diabetes distress reported more depressive symptoms. Older age, higher education, more income, and better cognitive function were inversely associated with depressive symptoms. In the final covariate-adjusted regression model, stroke (B = .22, p < .001), cognitive function (B = -.14, p < .01), and higher levels of diabetes-related distress (B = .49, p < .001) each were uniquely associated with more depressive symptoms. Diabetes distress partially mediated the associations between cardiac issues and depressive symptoms and between cognitive function and depressive symptoms. Findings suggest that interventions targeted at helping older adults manage their diabetes-related distress and reducing the likelihood of experiencing additional health complications may reduce depressive symptoms within this population.

  16. Combination of telmisartan with sildenafil ameliorate progression of diabetic nephropathy in streptozotocin-induced diabetic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Mahdy, Nageh Ahmed; El-Sayad, Magda El-Sayed; El-Kadem, Aya Hassan

    2016-07-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a leading cause of end-stage renal disease in the world. Several signaling pathways are involved in the pathogenesis of DN including elevation in level of angiotensin II, formation of advanced glycation end products (AGE), activation of protein kinase c (PKC), and lipid accumulation. These pathways activate one another mutually leading to oxidative stress, increasing expression of transforming growth factor beta-1(TGF-β 1) and release of interleukins and adhesion molecules, so the aim of this study is to interrupt more than pathogenic pathway to ameliorate the progression of DN. In the present study, white male rats (N=48) were divided into six groups (8 rats each), the first two groups served as normal control and a control vehicle group while the remaining four groups were rendered diabetic by a single intraperitoneal injection of Streptozotocin (STZ) and being left for 4 weeks to develop DN. Thereafter, the rats were divided into DN group, DN group receiving Telmisartan or Sildenafil or Telmisartan Sildenafil combination. After the specified treatment period, urine samples were collected (using metabolic cages) to measure proteinuria, animals were then euthanized, blood and tissue samples were collected for measurement of Blood glucose,BUN, S.Cr, LDL, NO, TGF-β1, IL-1β, AGEPs, and SOD. The combination therapy showed significant decrease in BUN, S.Cr,LDL, TGF-β1, IL-1β, Proteinuria and AGEPs and significant increase in SOD and NO. The findings showed that combination therapy was able to ameliorate DN and that the effects were superior to the single drugs alone.

  17. Ameliorative Potentials of Ginger (Z. officinale Roscoe) on Relative Organ Weights in Streptozotocin induced Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eleazu, C O; Iroaganachi, M; Okafor, P N; Ijeh, I I; Eleazu, K C

    2013-06-01

    The ameliorating potentials of ginger incorporated feed (10%) on the relative organ weights of Streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats was investigated. The experiment lasted for three weeks. Results show that administration of 10% ginger feed to the diabetic rats of group 3, resulted in a 29.81% decrease in their resulting hyperglycemia with a corresponding amelioration of elevated urinary protein, sugars, specific gravity as well as renal growth. In addition, administration of the ginger incorporated feeds to the diabetic rats of group 3, resulted in 9.88% increase in body weight with a corresponding 60.24% increase in growth compared with the non-diabetic rats administered standard rat pellets that had 6.21% increase in weight with a corresponding 60.14% increase in growth unlike the diabetic control rats that recorded 28.62% decrease in body weight with a corresponding 239.9% decrease in growth rates. Analysis of the chemical composition of the flour of the ginger incorporated feed indicated that it contained moderate amounts of moisture, crude fibre, alkaloids, saponins, tannins, Fe and Zn but considerable amounts of proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, ash, flavonoids, calcium, magnesium, potassium, phosphorous and energy value. There was no significant difference (P>0.05) in the liver and relative liver weights of the diabetic control rats and the diabetic -ginger treated rats. In addition, there were no significant differences in the kidney weights of the non-diabetic, diabetic control and diabetic treated rats (P>0.05) while there were significant differences in the relative kidney weights of the non-diabetic rats and the diabetic rats treated with ginger feeds (Pginger in the dietary management of diabetes mellitus could be a breakthrough in the search for novel plants that could prevent the development of diabetic glomerular hypertrophy.

  18. Bezafibrate ameliorates diabetes via reduced steatosis and improved hepatic insulin sensitivity in diabetic TallyHo mice

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    Andras Franko

    2017-03-01

    Conclusions: Our data showed that BEZ ameliorates diabetes probably via reduced steatosis, enhanced hepatic mitochondrial mass, improved metabolic flexibility and elevated hepatic insulin sensitivity in TallyHo mice, suggesting that BEZ treatment could be beneficial for patients with NAFLD and impaired glucose metabolism.

  19. Home-Based Diabetes Symptom Self-Management Education for Mexican Americans with Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Alexandra A.; Brown, Sharon A.; Horner, Sharon D.; Zuñiga, Julie; Arheart, Kristopher L.

    2015-01-01

    This pilot study evaluated an innovative diabetes symptom awareness and self-management educational program for Mexican Americans, a fast growing minority population experiencing a diabetes epidemic. Patients with diabetes need assistance interpreting and managing symptoms, which are often annoying and potentially life-threatening. A repeated…

  20. Amelioration of Auditory Response by DA9801 in Diabetic Mouse

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    Yeong Ro Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus (DM is a metabolic disease that involves disorders such as diabetic retinopathy, diabetic neuropathy, and diabetic hearing loss. Recently, neurotrophin has become a treatment target that has shown to be an attractive alternative in recovering auditory function altered by DM. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of DA9801, a mixture of Dioscorea nipponica and Dioscorea japonica extracts, in the auditory function damage produced in a STZ-induced diabetic model and to provide evidence of the mechanisms involved in enhancing these protective effects. We found a potential application of DA9801 on hearing impairment in the STZ-induced diabetic model, demonstrated by reducing the deterioration produced by DM in ABR threshold in response to clicks and normalizing wave I–IV latencies and Pa latencies in AMLR. We also show evidence that these effects might be elicited by inducing NGF related through Nr3c1 and Akt. Therefore, this result suggests that the neuroprotective effects of DA9801 on the auditory damage produced by DM may be affected by NGF increase resulting from Nr3c1 via Akt transformation.

  1. Autophagy ameliorates cognitive impairment through activation of PVT1 and apoptosis in diabetes mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhigui; Hao, Shuang; Yin, Hongqiang; Gao, Jing; Yang, Zhuo

    2016-05-15

    The underlying mechanisms of cognitive impairment in diabetes remain incompletely characterized. Here we show that the autophagic inhibition by 3-methyladenine (3-MA) aggravates cognitive impairment in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice, including exacerbation of anxiety-like behaviors and aggravation in spatial learning and memory, especially the spatial reversal memory. Further neuronal function identification confirmed that both long term potentiation (LTP) and depotentiation (DPT) were exacerbated by autophagic inhibition in diabetic mice, which indicating impairment of synaptic plasticity. However, no significant change of pair-pulse facilitation (PPF) was recorded in diabetic mice with autophagic suppression compared with the diabetic mice, which indicated that presynaptic function was not affected by autophagic inhibition in diabetes. Subsequent hippocampal neuronal cell death analysis showed that the apoptotic cell death, but not the regulated necrosis, significantly increased in autophagic suppression of diabetic mice. Finally, molecular mechanism that may lead to cell death was identified. The long non-coding RNA PVT1 (plasmacytoma variant translocation 1) expression was analyzed, and data revealed that PVT1 was decreased significantly by 3-MA in diabetes. These findings show that PVT1-mediated autophagy may protect hippocampal neurons from impairment of synaptic plasticity and apoptosis, and then ameliorates cognitive impairment in diabetes. These intriguing findings will help pave the way for exciting functional studies of autophagy in cognitive impairment and diabetes that may alter the existing paradigms.

  2. Dietary Consumption of Virgin Coconut Oil Ameliorates Lipid Profiles in Diabetic Rats

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    A. M. Akinnuga

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Virgin coconut oil (VCO is a saturated fat with promising antidiabetic properties but its ameliorative effect on lipid profiles in diabetics is rarely reported. Therefore, in this study, a total of fifteen (15 male rats weighing 200–250 g were divided into 3 experimental groups (n=5. Group I (control and Group II (diabetic control group were fed a normal rat chow while Group III (diabetic test group was fed a 10% VCO diet for 3 weeks. Group II and Group III were made diabetic by intraperitoneal injection of 150 mg/kg of alloxan. After 72 hours of injection, blood glucose was tested to confirm diabetes mellitus. After 3 weeks, the animals were sacrificed to collect blood samples for lipid profile analysis. The results showed a significant increase in concentrations of triglyceride, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein, and very low density lipoprotein and decrease in concentration of high density lipoprotein in Group II when compared to Group I. Also, the concentrations of triglyceride, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein, and very low density lipoprotein except high density lipoprotein significantly reduced in Group III when compared to Group II (P<0.01, 0.001. VCO consumption can be claimed to ameliorate lipid levels in diabetes mellitus.

  3. Insulin receptor isoform A ameliorates long-term glucose intolerance in diabetic mice.

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    Diaz-Castroverde, Sabela; Gómez-Hernández, Almudena; Fernández, Silvia; García-Gómez, Gema; Di Scala, Marianna; González-Aseguinolaza, Gloria; Fernández-Millán, Elisa; González-Rodríguez, Águeda; García-Bravo, María; Chambon, Pierre; Álvarez, Carmen; Perdomo, Liliana; Beneit, Nuria; Escribano, Oscar; Benito, Manuel

    2016-11-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a complex metabolic disease and its pathogenesis involves abnormalities in both peripheral insulin action and insulin secretion. Previous in vitro data showed that insulin receptor isoform A, but not B, favours basal glucose uptake through its specific association with endogenous GLUT1/2 in murine hepatocytes and beta cells. With this background, we hypothesized that hepatic expression of insulin receptor isoform A in a mouse model of type 2 diabetes could potentially increase the glucose uptake of these cells, decreasing the hyperglycaemia and therefore ameliorating the diabetic phenotype. To assure this hypothesis, we have developed recombinant adeno-associated viral vectors expressing insulin receptor isoform A (IRA) or isoform B (IRB) under the control of a hepatocyte--specific promoter. Our results demonstrate that in the long term, hepatic expression of IRA in diabetic mice is more efficient than IRB in ameliorating glucose intolerance. Consequently, it impairs the induction of compensatory mechanisms through beta cell hyperplasia and/or hypertrophy that finally lead to beta cell failure, reverting the diabetic phenotype in about 8 weeks. Our data suggest that long-term hepatic expression of IRA could be a promising therapeutic approach for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  4. Curcumin ameliorates gastrointestinal dysfunction and oxidative damage in diabetic rats

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    Nitin Indarchandji Kochar

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes is known to be associated with gastrointestinal complications characterized by nausea, vomiting, early satiety, bloating, and abdominal discomfort or pain commonly occurring in the advanced stages of the disease. Curcumin is the lipid-soluble antioxidant obtained from the rhizomes of Curcuma longa Linn, also known as turmeric. Curcumin targets multiple chemotherapeutic and oxidative stress pathways and has demonstrated safety and tolerability in humans, supporting its potential as a therapeutic agent; however, literature lacks conclusive evidence supporting its use as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of diabetes induced gastrointestinal complications. Hence, Curcumin was given in different doses to SD rats after 4 weeks of diabetic GI complication induction. At the end of 4 weeks, significant GI dysfunction characterized by weight loss, delayed gastric emptying and intestinal transit associated with reduction in antioxidant enzyme levels and increased lipid peroxidation was observed.  Upon treatment with Curcumin for further 4 weeks, reversal of GI dysfunction evidenced by restoration of body weight, GI emptying, intestinal transit, and restoration of antioxidant enzyme level and lipid peroxidation proves the beneficial role of Curcumin in diabetes induced GI complications due to its antioxidant potential.     

  5. NLRP3 gene silencing ameliorates diabetic cardiomyopathy in a type 2 diabetes rat model.

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    Beibei Luo

    Full Text Available Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3 inflammasome is associated with metabolic disorder and cell death, which are important triggers in diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM. We aimed to explore whether NLRP3 inflammasome activation contributes to DCM and the mechanism involved.Type 2 diabetic rat model was induced by high fat diet and low dose streptozotocin. The characteristics of type 2 DCM were evaluated by metabolic tests, echocardiography and histopathology. Gene silencing therapy was used to investigate the role of NLRP3 in the pathogenesis of DCM. High glucose treated H9c2 cardiomyocytes were used to determine the mechanism by which NLRP3 modulated the DCM. The cell death in vitro was detected by TUNEL and EthD-III staining. TXNIP-siRNA and pharmacological inhibitors of ROS and NF-kB were used to explore the mechanism of NLRP3 inflammasome activation.Diabetic rats showed severe metabolic disorder, cardiac inflammation, cell death, disorganized ultrastructure, fibrosis and excessive activation of NLRP3, apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain (ASC, pro-caspase-1, activated caspase-1 and mature interleukin-1β (IL-1β. Evidence for pyroptosis was found in vivo, and the caspase-1 dependent pyroptosis was found in vitro. Silencing of NLRP3 in vivo did not attenuate systemic metabolic disturbances. However, NLRP3 gene silencing therapy ameliorated cardiac inflammation, pyroptosis, fibrosis and cardiac function. Silencing of NLRP3 in H9c2 cardiomyocytes suppressed pyroptosis under high glucose. ROS inhibition markedly decreased nuclear factor-kB (NF-kB phosphorylation, thioredoxin interacting/inhibiting protein (TXNIP, NLRP3 inflammasome, and mature IL-1β in high glucose treated H9c2 cells. Inhibition of NF-kB reduced the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome. TXNIP-siRNA decreased the activation of caspase-1 and IL-1β.NLRP3 inflammasome contributed to the development of DCM. NF

  6. Hesperidin ameliorates streptozotocin and high fat diet induced diabetic nephropathy in rats

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    Dilpesh P. Jain

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study investigates protective effect of hesperidin on streptozotocin and high fat diet induced diabetic nephropathy in experimental type 2 diabetic rats. Methods: Sprague Dawley rats were fed with high fat emulsion and high fat diet for 2 weeks to induce glucose intolerance and then injected with streptozotocin (35 mg/kg, i.p.. Following 48 h of streptozotocin injection blood glucose level was estimated to confirm hyperglycemia. After 4 weeks of diabetes induction diabetic rats were orally treated with hesperidin (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight for 4 weeks. At the end of the treatment kidney functions, oxidative stress indices, biochemical estimations and histopathological examination were carried out to assess the efficacy of the treatment. Results: Diabetic rats exhibited significant rise in blood glucose level, altered kidney functions, oxidative stress and histological abnormalities compared to control rats. Hesperidin treatment significantly reduced the elevated levels of blood glucose, creatinine, urea nitrogen, total cholesterol and triglyceride when compared with diabetic control rats. Significant rise in renal hypertrophy, hyperfiltration, microalbuminuria as well as oxidative stress in the diabetic rats were effectively attenuated with hesperidin treatment, dose dependently. Moreover, basement membrane thickening and mesangial expansion observed in the kidney of diabetic rats restored near to normal structure. Conclusion: Results of the present study suggest that hesperidin ameliorate early diabetic nephropathy. [J Exp Integr Med 2014; 4(4.000: 261-267

  7. Total saponin of Dioscoreae hypoglaucae rhizoma ameliorates streptozotocin-induced diabetic nephropathy

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    Guo C

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Changrun Guo,1 Gang Ding,2 Wenzhe Huang,2 Zhenzhong Wang,2 Zhaoqing Meng,1,2 Wei Xiao2 1State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China; 2Jiangsu Kanion Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd, Lianyungang City, People’s Republic of China Background: Diabetic nephropathy has become the most common cause of morbidity and mortality in diabetic patients. Therefore, there is an urgent need for more effective and safer drugs for use in this condition.Purpose: The aims of this study were to investigate the ameliorative effects of total saponin of Dioscoreae hypoglaucae rhizoma (TSD on diabetic nephropathy and to explore the potential underlying mechanism(s.Methods: Rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes were orally treated with TSD at 40, 80, and 160 mg/kg/d for 12 weeks. At the end of the treatment, blood, urine, and kidneys were collected for biochemical and histological examination.Results: The results demonstrated that TSD significantly decreased the fasting blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, urinary protein, serum creatinine, and blood urea nitrogen levels in diabetic rats. The results of histological examinations showed that TSD ameliorated glomerular and tubular pathological changes in diabetic rats. Furthermore, TSD significantly prevented oxidative stress and reduced the renal levels of advanced glycation end products, transforming growth factor-β1, connective tissue growth factor, and tumor necrosis factor-α.Conclusion: This study demonstrated the renoprotective effects of TSD in experimental diabetic nephropathy via a number of different mechanisms. Keywords: total saponin of Dioscoreae hypoglaucae rhizoma, diabetic nephropathy, oxidative stress, AGEs, TGF-β1

  8. Diabetic Nephropathy Amelioration by a Low-Dose Sitagliptin in an Animal Model of Type 2 Diabetes (Zucker Diabetic Fatty Rat

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    Cristina Mega

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to assess the effect of chronic low-dose sitagliptin, a dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitor, on metabolic profile and on renal lesions aggravation in a rat model of type-2 diabetic nephropathy, the Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF rat. Diabetic and obese ZDF (fa/fa rats and their controls ZDF (+/+ were treated for 6 weeks with vehicle (control or sitagliptin (10 mg/kg/bw. Blood/serum glucose, HbA1c, insulin, Total-c, TGs, urea, and creatinine were assessed, as well as kidney glomerular and tubulointerstitial lesions (interstitial fibrosis/tubular atrophy, using a semiquantitative rating from 0 (absent/normal to 3 (severe and extensive damage. Vascular lesions were scored from 0–2. Sitagliptin in the diabetic rats promoted an amelioration of glycemia, HbA1c, Total-c, and TGs, accompanied by a partial prevention of insulinopenia. Furthermore, together with urea increment prevention, renal lesions were ameliorated in the diabetic rats, including glomerular, tubulointerstitial, and vascular lesions, accompanied by reduced lipid peroxidation. In conclusion, chronic low-dose sitagliptin treatment was able to ameliorate diabetic nephropathy, which might represent a key step forward in the management of T2DM and this serious complication.

  9. Diabetic nephropathy amelioration by a low-dose sitagliptin in an animal model of type 2 diabetes (Zucker diabetic fatty rat).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mega, Cristina; de Lemos, Edite Teixeira; Vala, Helena; Fernandes, Rosa; Oliveira, Jorge; Mascarenhas-Melo, Filipa; Teixeira, Frederico; Reis, Flávio

    2011-01-01

    This study was performed to assess the effect of chronic low-dose sitagliptin, a dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitor, on metabolic profile and on renal lesions aggravation in a rat model of type-2 diabetic nephropathy, the Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rat. Diabetic and obese ZDF (fa/fa) rats and their controls ZDF (+/+) were treated for 6 weeks with vehicle (control) or sitagliptin (10 mg/kg/bw). Blood/serum glucose, HbA1c, insulin, Total-c, TGs, urea, and creatinine were assessed, as well as kidney glomerular and tubulointerstitial lesions (interstitial fibrosis/tubular atrophy), using a semiquantitative rating from 0 (absent/normal) to 3 (severe and extensive damage). Vascular lesions were scored from 0-2. Sitagliptin in the diabetic rats promoted an amelioration of glycemia, HbA1c, Total-c, and TGs, accompanied by a partial prevention of insulinopenia. Furthermore, together with urea increment prevention, renal lesions were ameliorated in the diabetic rats, including glomerular, tubulointerstitial, and vascular lesions, accompanied by reduced lipid peroxidation. In conclusion, chronic low-dose sitagliptin treatment was able to ameliorate diabetic nephropathy, which might represent a key step forward in the management of T2DM and this serious complication.

  10. Curcumin Ameliorates Diabetic Nephropathy by Suppressing NLRP3 Inflammasome Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Nanchang; Liu, Wei; Cui, Xiangfei; Chen, Shuo; Wang, Ermin

    2017-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease, partly because of the lack of effective treatments for DN. Curcumin has been shown to exert strong antifibrotic effects in DN, but the underlying mechanisms are not well characterized. In this study, we sought to determine the effects of curcumin on diabetic renal disease in db/db mice and characterize the underlying mechanism of action. We administered curcumin to db/db mice for 16 weeks. In comparison to mock-treated db/db mice, curcumin-treated mice showed diminished renal hypertrophy, reduced mesangial matrix expansion, and a lower level of albuminuria. Furthermore, the upregulated protein and mRNA expressions of collagen IV and fibronectin in the renal cortices of the db/db mice were inhibited by curcumin treatment. Additionally, curcumin treatment was associated with significant reductions in mature interleukin-1β, cleaved caspase-1, and NLRP3 protein levels in the renal cortices of db/db mice as well as in HK-2 cells exposed to high glucose concentration. In summary, curcumin, a potent antifibrotic agent, is a promising treatment for DN, and its renoprotective effects appear to be mediated by the inhibition of NLRP3 inflammasome activity. PMID:28194406

  11. Ameliorative effect of ethanolic Gymnema sylvestre extract on diabetic cardiomyopathy against streptozotocin-induced diabetes in Wistar rats

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    Vinay Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes leads to a cardiomyopathy characterized by myocyte loss. Streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic cardiomyopathy is characterized by decreased left ventricular contractility and diminished ventricular compliance with marked abnormal systolic and diastolic function. Aim: The ameliorative effect of ethanolic Gymnema sylvestre extract (GSE was evaluated in diabetic cardiomyopathy against STZ-induced diabetes. Materials and Methods: Diabetes was induced by a single intravenous injection of (STZ, 45 mg/kg in male Wistar rats. Blood pressure, serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, glucose apolipoprotein B and lipids as well as heart weight, caspase-3, sodium potassium adenosine triphosphatase Na + K + ATPase, and DNA laddering were determined. Results and Conclusions: Administration of GSE (120 mg/kg/p.o. treatment significantly ( P < 0.01 reduced myocyte loss by suppressing the levels of cardiac caspase-3, DNA laddering; mean arterial blood pressure and heart rate as well as serum LDH, glucose, apolipoprotein B, and lipids levels. Further, it increased the heart weight and cardiac Na + K + ATPase activity in diabetic rats. The cardiomyopathy suppression is accompanied by decrease in cardiac caspase-3 levels, DNA laddering, blood pressures, serum LDH, apolipoprotein-B and glucose. Thus, this present study reports the anti-apoptotic potential of GSE in STZ-induced diabetic cardiomyopathy.

  12. [Copper compounds ameliorate cardiovasclur dysfunction and diabetes in animals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Hiromu

    2012-01-01

    Copper (Cu) is essential for our daily life and it is found at approximately 110 mg in human adults with the body weight of 70 kg, in which this metal occurs at 46 mg in the bone and 26 mg in the muscle. Although Cu exists in the brain (approximately 5 mg/kg), liver (6 mg/kg), kidney (13 mg/kg), erythrocytes (90 mg/L), bile (6 mg/L) and serum (120 mg/L), its organ-specific distribution is not yet known. In metalloenzymes such as oxidoreductases, Cu is abundantly found and greatly contributes in life functions. In addition, intracellular Cu transport system has been revealed in connection with iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) intracellular transport systems. In spite of such great contribution of Cu in life, no Cu-containing pharmaceutics have yet been known. Under such background, the author and his research group have tried to examine a possibility of Cu compounds as potential pharmaceutics. In the review, the following topics are concerned; (1) improvement of cardiovascular dysfunction in animals by di-nuclear Cu-asprinate complex on the basis of the results on its reactive oxygen scavenging (ROS) effect, (2) blood glucose-lowering effect of mono-nuclear Cu-picolinate complex in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type 1-like diabetic animals, based on the results on in vitro insulinomimetic activity, and (3) anti-diabetic effect of copper sulfate in animals with regard to the inhibition of α-glucosidase activity. These results suggest that copper ion and its complexes are possible seeds for developing Cu-containing pharmaceutics in the future.

  13. Vulnerability of Gastric Mucosa in Diabetic Rats, Its Pathogenesis and Amelioration by Cuminum cyminum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vador, N; Jagtap, Aarti G; Damle, Archana

    2012-09-01

    Various studies have indicated that peptic ulcers occurring during the course of diabetic state are more severe and often associated with complications such as gastrointestinal bleeding. This study is the first attempt to understand the pathogenesis of gastric ulcers occurring during the diabetic state considering alternate biochemical pathways using suitable markers and its amelioration by Cuminum cyminum. In this study, diabetic rats showed a progressive increase in the stomach advanced glycated end products formation, gastric mucosal tumour necrosis factor-α and Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances levels as compared to normal control (nondiabetic) rats. There was decrease in gastric mucosal content, antioxidant enzymes and cellular ATPase enzyme levels of diabetic gastric mucosa when compared to the normal control group. mRNA expression of epidermal growth factor was found to be significantly higher as compared to normal control animals. Further methanol extract of Cuminum cyminum treatment to diabetic animals caused a reduction in blood glucose, and ulcer score when compared to diabetic control rats. It significantly increased gastric mucus content, antioxidant status and cellular ATPase enzyme levels as compared to diabetic control animals. Methanol extract of Cuminum cyminum inhibited advanced glycated end products formation in vitro as well as in vivo.

  14. Vulnerability of gastric mucosa in diabetic rats, its pathogenesis and amelioration by Cuminum cyminum

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    N Vador

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Various studies have indicated that peptic ulcers occurring during the course of diabetic state are more severe and often associated with complications such as gastrointestinal bleeding. This study is the first attempt to understand the pathogenesis of gastric ulcers occurring during the diabetic state considering alternate biochemical pathways using suitable markers and its amelioration by Cuminum cyminum. In this study, diabetic rats showed a progressive increase in the stomach advanced glycated end products formation, gastric mucosal tumour necrosis factor-α and Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances levels as compared to normal control (nondiabetic rats. There was decrease in gastric mucosal content, antioxidant enzymes and cellular ATPase enzyme levels of diabetic gastric mucosa when compared to the normal control group. mRNA expression of epidermal growth factor was found to be significantly higher as compared to normal control animals. Further methanol extract of Cuminum cyminum treatment to diabetic animals caused a reduction in blood glucose, and ulcer score when compared to diabetic control rats. It significantly increased gastric mucus content, antioxidant status and cellular ATPase enzyme levels as compared to diabetic control animals. Methanol extract of Cuminum cyminum inhibited advanced glycated end products formation in vitro as well as in vivo.

  15. Nigerian Honey Ameliorates Hyperglycemia and Dyslipidemia in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erejuwa, Omotayo O; Nwobodo, Ndubuisi N; Akpan, Joseph L; Okorie, Ugochi A; Ezeonu, Chinonyelum T; Ezeokpo, Basil C; Nwadike, Kenneth I; Erhiano, Erhirhie; Abdul Wahab, Mohd S; Sulaiman, Siti A

    2016-02-24

    Diabetic dyslipidemia contributes to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Hence, its treatment is necessary to reduce cardiovascular events. Honey reduces hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia. The reproducibility of these beneficial effects and their generalization to honey samples of other geographical parts of the world remain controversial. Currently, data are limited and findings are inconclusive especially with evidence showing honey increased glycosylated hemoglobin in diabetic patients. It was hypothesized that this deteriorating effect might be due to administered high doses. This study investigated if Nigerian honey could ameliorate hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia. It also evaluated if high doses of honey could worsen glucose and lipid abnormalities. Honey (1.0, 2.0 or 3.0 g/kg) was administered to diabetic rats for three weeks. Honey (1.0 or 2.0 g/kg) significantly (p honey (3.0 g/kg) significantly (p honey using Nigerian honey. However, none of the doses deteriorated hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia.

  16. Rectal Sensitivity in Diabetes Patients with Symptoms of Gastroparesis

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    Eirik Søfteland

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In a clinical setting, diabetic autonomic complications (cardiac, gastrointestinal, urogenital, etc. are often handled as separate entities. We investigated rectal sensitivity to heat, mechanical distension, and electrical stimulations in 20 patients with diabetes and symptoms of gastroparesis, to evaluate the extent of visceral neuronal damage. Furthermore, to evaluate the relation between the nervous structures we examined gastric emptying and cardiac autonomic function with the hypothesis being an association between these. We found that 60% of patients had delayed gastric empting. Rectal hyposensitivity was a general finding as they tolerated 67% higher thermal, 42% more mechanical, and 33% higher electrical current intensity compared to healthy controls. In patients, most heart rate variability parameters were reduced; they reported significantly more gastrointestinal symptoms and a reduced quality of life in all SF-36 domains. Shortened RR interval correlated with reduced rectal temperature sensitivity, and gastric retention rate was negatively associated with symptoms of nausea and vomiting. To conclude, in these patients with signs and symptoms of diabetic gastroparesis, rectal sensitivity was reduced, and heart rate variability was impaired. Thus, we suggest regarding diabetic autonomic neuropathy as a diffuse disorder. Symptoms of widespread autonomic dysfunction and sensory disorders should be expected and treated in these patients.

  17. Targeting AGEs Signaling Ameliorates Central Nervous System Diabetic Complications in Rats

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    Mohamed Naguib Zakaria

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes is a chronic endocrine disorder associated with several complications as hypertension, advanced brain aging, and cognitive decline. Accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs is an important mechanism that mediates diabetic complications. Upon binding to their receptor (RAGE, AGEs mediate oxidative stress and/or cause cross-linking with proteins in blood vessels and brain tissues. The current investigation was designed to investigate the effect of agents that decrease AGEs signaling, perindopril which increases soluble RAGE (sRAGE and alagebrium which cleaves AGEs cross-links, compared to the standard antidiabetic drug, gliclazide, on the vascular and central nervous system (CNS complications in STZ-induced (50 mg/kg, IP diabetes in rats. Perindopril ameliorated the elevation in blood pressure seen in diabetic animals. In addition, both perindopril and alagebrium significantly inhibited memory decline (performance in the Y-maze, neuronal degeneration (Fluoro-Jade staining, AGEs accumulation in serum and brain, and brain oxidative stress (level of reduced glutathione and activities of catalase and malondialdehyde. These results suggest that blockade of AGEs signaling after diabetes induction in rats is effective in reducing diabetic CNS complications.

  18. Fluoxetine ameliorates symptoms of refractory chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Dan; WANG Ping; CHEN Jun; WANG Shuo; JIANG Hai

    2011-01-01

    Background Category Ⅲ chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) is a common syndrome of unclear etiology with significant impact on quality of life. Because the outcomes of multiple therapies for CP/CPPS have been far from approving, the possible psychological factors have been considered to play an important role in CP/CPPS.Based on this, we investigated the role of antidepressant drug (fluoxetine) in men with refractory CP/CPPS.Methods In this study, 42 men diagnosed with refractory CP/CPPS without response to standard therapy (include multiple antibiotic courses and a-blockers) were referred for fluoxetine therapy. All patients received fluoxetine (20 mg/d) for three months and were clinically evaluated before (baseline), and after 4, 8 and 12 weeks of therapy. The evaluation included a National Institutes of Health-chronic prostatitis symptom index (NIH-CPSI) and a Beck depression inventory (BDI) questionnaire. Moreover, the subjective global assessment (SGA) was assessed at the 4th, 8th and 12th week of therapy.Results Significant decreases were observed for total NIH-CPSI (28.55 to 9.29), NIH-CPSI pain (14.69 to 5.19),NIH-CPSI urinary (4.95 to 1.88 ), NIH-CPSI quality of life (8.83 to 2.20), and BDI (34.67 to 13.95) scores compared with baseline, all P values <0.05. Twenty-nine (69.05%) reported marked improvement on the subjective global assessment and 33 (78.57%) had a greater than 50% decrease in NIH-CPSI at the end of therapy (12th week). At the same time, the Pearson correlation coefficient analysis demonstrated a positive correlation between BDI score and each CPSI score. No adverse events were reported in this study.Conclusions Fluoxetine appears to be a safe and effective treatment in improving symptoms in, and the quality of life of, men with difficult CP/CPPS. Moreover, amelioration of difficult CP/CPPS-related symptoms could be related to a decrease in depressive symptoms.

  19. Amelioration of Diabetes and Painful Diabetic Neuropathy by Punica granatum L. Extract and Its Spray Dried Biopolymeric Dispersions

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    K. Raafat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. To evaluate the effect of Punica granatum (Pg rind extract and its spray dried biopolymeric dispersions with casein (F1 or chitosan (F2 against Diabetes mellitus (DM and diabetic neuropathy (DN. Methods. We measured the acute (6 h and subacute (8 days effect of various doses of Pg, F1, and F2 and the active compounds on alloxan-induced DM mouse model. We evaluated DN utilizing latency tests for longer period of time (8 weeks. In addition, the in vivo antioxidant activity was assessed utilizing serum catalase level. Results. The results proved that the highest dose levels of Pg extract, F1, F2 exerted remarkable hypoglycemic activity with 48, 52, and 40% drop in the mice glucose levels after 6 hours, respectively. The tested compounds also improved peripheral nerve function as observed from the latency tests. Bioguided fractionation suggested that gallic acid (GA was Pg main active ingredient responsible for its actions. Conclusion. Pg extract, F1, F2, and GA could be considered as a new therapeutic potential for the amelioration of diabetic neuropathic pain and the observed in vivo antioxidant potential may be involved in its antinociceptive effect. It is highly significant to pay attention to Pg and GA for amelioration and control of DM and its complications.

  20. Home-based diabetes symptom self-management education for Mexican Americans with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Alexandra A; Brown, Sharon A; Horner, Sharon D; Zuñiga, Julie; Arheart, Kristopher L

    2015-06-01

    This pilot study evaluated an innovative diabetes symptom awareness and self-management educational program for Mexican Americans, a fast growing minority population experiencing a diabetes epidemic. Patients with diabetes need assistance interpreting and managing symptoms, which are often annoying and potentially life-threatening. A repeated measures randomized controlled trial was conducted with 72 Mexican Americans aged 25-75 years with type 2 diabetes. Experimental condition participants received eight weekly, in-home, one-on-one educational and behavior modification sessions with a registered nurse focusing on symptom awareness, glucose self-testing and appropriate treatments, followed by eight biweekly support telephone sessions. Wait-listed control condition participants served as comparisons at three time points. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to evaluate the effects of the intervention between- and within groups on psychosocial, behavioral and clinical outcomes. Participants were predominantly female, middle-aged, moderately acculturated and in poor glycemic control. Experimental group participants (n = 39) significantly improved glycemic control, blood pressure, symptoms, knowledge, self-efficacy, empowerment and quality of life. Post intervention focus groups reported satisfaction with the symptom focus. Addressing symptoms led to clinical and psychosocial improvements. Symptoms seem to be an important motivator and a useful prompt to engage patients in diabetes self-management behaviors to relieve symptoms and prevent complications.

  1. Mesenchymal stem cells transplantation mildly ameliorates experimental diabetic nephropathy in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Hong; TIAN Hao-ming; LONG Yang; ZHANG Xiang-xun; ZHONG Li; DENG Li; CHEN Xiao-he; LI Xiu-qun

    2009-01-01

    Background Diabetic nephropathy is a common complication of diabetes mellitus.This study aimed to explore whether mesenchymal stem cells(MSCs)transplantation could attenuate diabetic nephropathy in experimental diabetic rats.Methods Sprague-Dawley rats received a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin(STZ)(60 mg/kg).Diabetic rats were randomized to four groups:diabetes control group(DC),ciclosporin A group(CsA),MSC group,and MSC+CsA group(MSCA).Bone marrow mesenchymal stern cells were cultured,identified and labeled by 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine(BrdU)in vitro.Then they were transplanted to diabetic rats via introcardiac infusion.Ciclosporin A was administered daily at 5 mg/kg.At 1,2,4,8 weeks after transplantation,random blood glucose,urine albumin/creatinine ratio(Alb/Cr),endogenous creatinine clearance rate and renal mass index were tested.Renal morphology and labeled cells were examined.Results Cultured MSCs expressed mesenchymal cell phenotype,and could be multidifferentiated to osteogenic and adipogenic cells.Labeled MSCs could be detected in the kidney of nephropathic rats,mainly in renal interstitium,but they did not propagate after engrafting in kidney.Over the course of the experiment,MSCA group showed a significant decrease in blood glucose compared with MSC group,CsA group and DC group(P<0.05,respectively).The Alb/Cr in MSCA group and MSC group were significantly lower than CsA group and DC group(P<0.05).And the Alb/Cr in MSCA group showed a significant decrease compared with MSC group(0.74 vs 0.84,P<0.05).There was a significant difference in renal mass index between the MSCA group and DC group(5.66 vs 6.37,P<0.05).No significant difference was found in creatinine clearance rate among 4 groups(P>0.05).Treatment with MSC+CsA significantly ameliorated the morphology of diabetic kidney.Conclusion MSC could mildly ameliorate diabetic nephropathy by decreasing blood glucose,Alb/Cr ratio and renal mass index.

  2. Brain changes in diabetes mellitus patients withgastrointestinal symptoms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a common disease and its prevalenceis increasing worldwide. In various studiesup to 30%-70% of patients present dysfunction andcomplications related to the gut. To date several clinicalstudies have demonstrated that autonomic nervoussystem neuropathy and generalized neuropathy ofthe central nervous system (CNS) may play a majorrole. This systematic review provides an overviewof the neurodegenerative changes that occur as aconsequence of diabetes with a focus on the CNSchanges and gastrointestinal (GI) dysfunction. Animalmodels where diabetes was induced experimentallysupport that the disease induces changes in CNS.Recent investigations with electroencephalographyand functional brain imaging in patients with diabetesconfirm these structural and functional brain changes.Encephalographic studies demonstrated that alteredinsular processing of sensory stimuli seems to be akey player in symptom generation. In fact one studyindicated that the more GI symptoms the patientsexperienced, the deeper the insular electrical sourcewas located. The electroencephalography was oftenused in combination with quantitative sensory testing mainly showing hyposensitivity to stimulation of GIorgans. Imaging studies on patients with diabetes andGI symptoms mainly showed microstructural changes,especially in brain areas involved in visceral sensoryprocessing. As the electrophysiological and imagingchanges were associated with GI and autonomicsymptoms they may represent a future therapeutictarget for treating diabetics either pharmacologically orwith neuromodulation.

  3. Mycophenolate mofetil ameliorates diabetic nephropathy through epithelial mesenchymal transition in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xiaoyan; Wang, Jie; Chang, Xiangdi; Zhen, Junhui; Zhou, Gengyin; Hu, Zhao

    2015-09-01

    Recent studies in animal models have revealed that mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) has certain protective effects against experimental diabetic nephropathy. The present study therefore aimed to investigate the hypothesis that diabetic nephropathy may be ameliorated by mycophenolate mofetil and benazepril treatment alone or in combination, and identify the potential underlying mechanisms in a rat model. Diabetes was induced in rats by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. Rats were subsequently treated with benazepril, MMF or a combination of the two drugs, and blood glucose, normalized kidney weight, urine protein and serum creatinine were determined. The pathological changes in renal tissue were also observed. In addition, indices of epithelial mesenchymal transition, including α‑smooth muscle actin (α‑SMA) and transforming growth factor (TGF)‑β1 expression, were examined. Normalized kidney weight, urine protein and serum creatinine levels were significantly improved in the diabetic rats treated with benazepril or mycophenolate mofetil, compared with those of rats in the untreated diabetic group. Pathological changes in the kidney were detected concurrently with increasing kidney weight and urinary albumin excretion, with a similar trend in variation among groups. In addition, the expression of epithelial mesenchymal transition indices, including α‑SMA and TGF‑β1, in the renal tubule interstitium were significantly decreased in the benazepril‑ and MMF‑treated groups compared with those of the diabetic group. As expected, the aforementioned indices were markedly lower in the benazepril and MMF combined treatment group than those in the single medication groups. These data suggested that MMF may have a protective role in diabetic nephropathy, and that the underlying mechanism may be partially dependent upon the suppression of the epithelial mesenchymal transition. Furthermore, the combination of benazepril and MMF conferred enhanced

  4. Treadmill exercise ameliorates symptoms of Alzheimer disease through suppressing microglial activation-induced apoptosis in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Seung-Soo; Kim, Sang-Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer disease (AD) is a most common form of dementia and eventually causes impairments of learning ability and memory function. In the present study, we investigated the effects of treadmill exercise on the symptoms of AD focusing on the microglial activation-induced apoptosis. AD was made by bilateral intracerebroventricular injection of streptozotocin. The rats in the exercise groups were made to run on a treadmill once a day for 30 min during 4 weeks. The distance and latency in the Morris water maze task and the latency in the step-down avoidance task were increased in the AD rats, in contrast, treadmill exercise shortened these parameters. The numbers of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling-positive and caspase-3-positive cells in the hippocampal dentate gyrus were decreased in the AD rats, in contrast, treadmill exercise suppressed these numbers. Expressions of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and cluster of differentiation molecule 11B (CD11b) in the hippocampal dentate gyrus were increased in the AD rats, in contrast, treadmill exercise suppressed GFAP and CD11b expressions. Bax expression was increased and Bcl-2 expression was decreased in the hippocampus of AD rats, in contrast, treadmill exercise decreased Bax expression and increased Bcl-2 expression. The present results demonstrated that treadmill exercise ameliorated AD-induced impairments of spatial learning ability and short-term memory through suppressing apoptosis. The antiapoptotic effect of treadmill exercise might be ascribed to the inhibitory effect of treadmill exercise on microglial activation. PMID:28119873

  5. Ethnic Minorities with Diabetes Differ in Depressive and Anxiety Symptoms and Diabetes-Distress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter van Loon, Bert Jan; Torensma, Bart; Snoek, Frank J.; Honig, Adriaan

    2017-01-01

    Objective. To determine the association between ethnicity, diabetes-distress, and depressive and anxiety symptoms in adult outpatients with diabetes. Research Design and Methods. Diabetes-distress (Problem Areas in Diabetes Scale, PAID5), depressive and anxiety symptoms (Extended Kessler-10, EK10), and quality of life (Short-Form 12, SF12) were assessed in an ethnic diverse diabetes outpatient population of a teaching hospital in Amsterdam. Descent of one's parents and self-classified ethnicity were obtained to define ethnicity. HbA1c, clinical data, and socioeconomic status were derived from the medical charts. Based on established cut-offs for PAID5- and EK10-scores, emotional distress was dichotomized for the purpose of logistic regression analyses. Results. Of 1007 consecutive patients approached, 575 participated. Forty-nine percent were of non-Dutch ethnicity and 24.7% had type 1 diabetes. Diabetes-distress was reported by 12.5% of the native Dutch patients and by 22.0%, 34.5%, and 42.6% of the Surinamese, Turkish, and Moroccan patients, respectively. Prevalence of depressive symptoms was 9.4% in native Dutch patients and 20.4%, 34.5%, and 27.3% in the other groups mentioned. Diabetes-distress and Moroccan origin were significantly associated (OR = 3.60, p clinical attention. Future research should elucidate explanatory factors and opportunities for tailored interventions. PMID:28373992

  6. Ameliorative effect of Morus alba leaves extract against developmental retinopathy in pups of diabetic and aluminum intoxicated pregnant albino rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hassan; El-Sayyed; Gamal; Badawy; Sobhy; Hassab; Elnabi; Ibrahim; El-Elaimy; Eman; Al; Shehari

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the possible ameliorative effect of crude water extract of Morus alba(M. alba) leaves on retinopathy of rat pups maternally subjected to diabetes and/or Al intoxication.Methods: Both control and experimental groups were subjected to certain integrated approaches, namely, biochemical assessments, light microscopic investigation, transmission electron microscopic investigation, single cell gel electrophoresis(comet assay) and determination of DNA fragmentation.Results: The retina of pups of diabetic and/or Al-intoxicated mothers exhibited abnormal alterations in retinal cell layers including retinal pigmented epithelium, photoreceptor inner segment and ganglion cells. Increased incidence of DNA fragmentation and apoptosis were evident in pups of diabetic and/or Al-intoxicated mothers. However, retina of pups maternally received M. alba extract plus diabetes or Al-intoxicated alone or in combination showed marked amelioration. Less degree of ameliorations was seen in retina of pups maternally subjected to combined treatment. Furthermore, application of crude water extract of M.alba resulted in amelioration of the alterations of maternal serum glucose as well as Al concentration.Conclusions: Based on the results of the present study, M. alba extract is effective against experimentally diabetic and Al-induced developmental retinopathy.

  7. Melatonin ameliorates metabolic risk factors, modulates apoptotic proteins, and protects the rat heart against diabetes-induced apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Ali H; El-Missiry, Mohamed A; Othman, Azza I

    2015-01-15

    The present study investigated the ability of melatonin in reducing metabolic risk factors and cardiac apoptosis induced by diabetes. Streptozotocin (60 mg/kg, i.p.) was injected into male rats, and after diabetic induction melatonin (10mg/kg i.g.) was administered orally for 21 days. Diabetic hearts showed increased number of apoptotic cells with downregulation of Bcl-2 and activation of p53 and CD95 as well as the caspases 9, 8 and 3. In addition, there was a significant decrease in insulin level, hyperglycemia, elevated HOMA-IR, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), total lipids, triglycerides, total cholesterol, low and very low-density lipoprotein and decreased high-density lipoprotein. These changes were coupled with a significant increase in the activities of creatin kinase-MB (CK-MB) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in the serum of the diabetic rats indicating myocardium injury. Oral administration of melatonin for 3 weeks after diabetes induction ameliorated the levels of hyperglycemia, insulin, HbA1c, lipids profile and HOMA-IR. The oral melatonin treatment of diabetic rats significantly decreased the number of apoptotic cells in the heart compared to diabetic rats. It enhanced Bcl-2 expression and blocked the activation of CD95 as well as caspases 9, 8 and 3. These changes were accompanied with significant improvement of CK-MB and LDH in the serum indicating the ameliorative effect of melatonin on myocardium injury. Melatonin effectively ameliorated diabetic myocardium injury, apoptosis, reduced the metabolic risk factors and modulated important steps in both extrinsic and intrinsic pathways of apoptosis. Thus, melatonin may be a promising pharmacological agent for ameliorating potential cardiomyopathy associated with diabetes.

  8. Huperzine A Ameliorates Cognitive Deficits in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Yuan Mao

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to probe the effects of Huperzine A (HupA on diabetes-associated cognitive decline (DACD using a streptozotocin (STZ-injected rat model. Diabetic rats were treated with HupA (0.05 and 0.1 mg/kg for seven weeks. Memory functions were evaluated by the water maze test. Nissl staining was selected for detecting neuronal loss. Protein and mRNA levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF were analyzed by ELISA and real-time PCR, respectively. The activities of choline acetylase (ChAT, Acetylcholinesterase (AChE, malondialdehyde (MDA, superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px, catalase (CAT, NF-κB p65 unit, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and caspase-3 were measured using corresponding kits. After seven weeks, diabetic rats exhibited remarkable reductions in: body weight, percentage of time spent in target quadrant, number of times crossing the platform, ChAT and BDNF levels, SOD, GSH-Px and CAT accompanied with increases in neuronal damage, plasma glucose levels, escape latency, mean path length, AChE, MDA level as well as CAT, NF-κB p65 unit, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and caspase-3 in cerebral cortex and hippocampus. Supplementation with HupA significantly and dose-dependently reversed the corresponding values in diabetes. It is concluded that HupA ameliorates DACD via modulating BDNF, oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis.

  9. Valsartan ameliorates podocyte loss in diabetic mice through the Notch pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Feng; Yao, Min; Cao, Yanping; Liu, Shuxia; Liu, Qingjuan; Duan, Huijun

    2016-05-01

    The Notch pathway is known to be linked to diabetic nephropathy (DN); however, its underlying mechanism was poorly understood. In the present study, we examined the effect of Valsartan, an angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonist, on the Notch pathway and podocyte loss in DN. Diabetes was induced in mice by an intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin and and this was followed by treatment with Valsartan. Levels of blood glucose, kidney weight and body weight, as well as proteinuria were measured. Samples of the kidneys were also histologically examined. The relative levels of Jagged1, Notch1, Notch intracellular domain 1 (NICD1), Hes family BHLH transcription factor 1 (Hes1) and Hes-related family BHLH transcription factor with YRPW motif 1 expression (Hey1) in the glomeruli were determined by immunohistochemical analysis, western blot analysis and RT-qPCR. The B-Cell CLL/Lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) and p53 pathways were examined by western blot analysis. Apoptosis and detachment of podocytes from the glomerular basement membrane were examined using a TUNEL assay, flow cytometric analysis and ELISA. The number of podocytes was quantified by measuring Wilms tumor-1 (WT-1) staining. We noted that the expression of Jagged1, Notch1, NICD1, Hes1 and Hey1 was increased in a time-dependent manner in the glomeruli of mice with streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes. Moreover, in diabetic mice, Valsartan significantly reduced kidney weight and proteinuria, and mitigated the pathogenic processes in the kidneys. Valsartan also inhibited the activation of Notch, Bcl-2 and p53 pathways and ameliorated podocyte loss in the glomeruli of mice with STZ-induced diabetes. Taken together, these findings indicated that Valsartan exerted a beneficial effect on reducing podocyte loss, which is associated with inhibition of Notch pathway activation in the glomeruli of diabetic mice.

  10. Carotid endarterectomy for ameliorating the symptoms of transient ischemic attack: A six-month postoperative follow-up

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Carotid endarterectomy has certain risks,but it has obvious effects on preventing the occurrence of stroke.OBJECTIVE:To identify the effects of carotid endarterectomy on ameliorating the clinical symptoms and physical signs of patients with cerebral ischemia.DESIGN:A follow-up study.SETTING:Union Hospital Affiliated to Tongji Medical College,Huazhong University of Science and Technology.PARTICIPANTS:Sixteen patients with carotid atherosclerotic stenosis accompanied by ischemic symptoms were selected from the Department of Vascular Surgery,Union Hospital Affiliated to Tongji Medical College,Huazhong University of Science and Technology from March 2005 to May 2007.There were 11 males and 5 females,aged from 40 to 81 years old with a mean age of 60 years old,and they were all clearly diagnosed by carotid color Doppler ultrasound.Informed consent was obtained from all the patients.The study was approved by the hospital ethical committee.METHODS:① All the 16 patients were performed with unilateral stripping of arteriosclerotic plaque and Carotid endarterectomy,and 6 of them with bilateral stenosis was operated on the side with more serious stenosis.② The clinical symptoms,physical signs before and after operation,and the operative complications were observed.③ The patients were followed up for 6 months postoperatively.The smoothness of carotid arteries was detected with color Doppler ultrasound.The degrees of satisfaction to the quality of living were evaluated.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:①Amelioration of clinical symptoms postoperatively;② Smoothness of carotid arteries postoperatively;③ Degrees of satisfaction to the quality of living;④ Postoperative complications.RESULTS:All the 16 patients were involved in the final analysis of results.① Amelioration of clinical symptoms and physical signs:The postoperative muscle strengths of 3 patients with stroke history were significantly ameliorated;For the 8 patients with TIA symptoms,and the symptoms

  11. Ameliorative effect of zinc oxide and silver nanoparticles on antioxidant system in the brain of diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohamed Afifi; Aaser Mohamed Abdelazim

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To test the ability of both zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) and silver nanoparticles (SNPs) to ameliorate the oxidative stress resulted from diabetes in diabetic rats. Methods: Fifty male albino rats were used; ten of them were served as control group and forty, as the experiment group, were injected with streptozotocin at the single intraperitoneal dose of 100 mg/kg. Then, the experiment group was subdivided into, diabetic, diabetic +ZnONPs, diabetic +SNPs and diabetic + insulin groups. The activities and mRNA expression levels of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase were determined in brain tissues. Malondialdehyde, total antioxidant capacity, zinc and silver concentrations were estimated in the brain tissues of all rats. Results:A significant increase in the activities and mRNA expression levels of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase was shown. Malondialdehyde levels were significantly decreased while there was a significant increase in the zinc, silver concentrations and total antioxidant capacity in brain ofZnONPs andSNPs treated rats, compared with diabetic or diabetic + insulin group and their control group. Conclusions:ZnONPs andSNPs can be used to ameliorate the oxidative stress in brain resulted from diabetes mellitus.

  12. Ameliorative effect of zinc oxide and silver nanoparticles on antioxidant system in the brain of diabetic rats简

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohamed; Afifi; Aaser; Mohamed; Abdelazim

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To test the ability of both zinc oxide nanoparticles(Zn ONPs) and silver nanoparticles(SNPs) to ameliorate the oxidative stress resulted from diabetes in diabetic rats.Methods: Fifty male albino rats were used; ten of them were served as control group and forty, as the experiment group, were injected with streptozotocin at the single intraperitoneal dose of 100 mg/kg. Then, the experiment group was subdivided into, diabetic,diabetic + Zn ONPs, diabetic + SNPs and diabetic + insulin groups. The activities and m RNA expression levels of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase were determined in brain tissues. Malondialdehyde, total antioxidant capacity, zinc and silver concentrations were estimated in the brain tissues of all rats.Results: A significant increase in the activities and m RNA expression levels of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase was shown.Malondialdehyde levels were significantly decreased while there was a significant increase in the zinc, silver concentrations and total antioxidant capacity in brain of Zn ONPs and SNPs treated rats, compared with diabetic or diabetic + insulin group and their control group.Conclusions: Zn ONPs and SNPs can be used to ameliorate the oxidative stress in brain resulted from diabetes mellitus.

  13. P2RX7 purinoceptor: a therapeutic target for ameliorating the symptoms of duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Sinadinos

    2015-10-01

    .038, diaphragm (p = 0.042, and heart muscles (p < 0.001. We show that the amelioration of symptoms was proportional to the extent of receptor depletion and that improvements were observed following administration of two P2RX7 antagonists (CK, p = 0.030 and p = 0.050 without any detectable side effects. However, approaches successful in animal models still need to be proved effective in clinical practice.These results are, to our knowledge, the first to establish that a single treatment can improve muscle function both short and long term and also correct cognitive impairment and bone loss in DMD model mice. The wide-ranging improvements reflect the convergence of P2RX7 ablation on multiple disease mechanisms affecting skeletal and cardiac muscles, inflammatory cells, brain, and bone. Given the impact of P2RX7 blockade in the DMD mouse model, this receptor is an attractive target for translational research: existing drugs with established safety records could potentially be repurposed for treatment of this lethal disease.

  14. Melatonin ameliorates low-grade inflammation and oxidative stress in young Zucker diabetic fatty rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agil, Ahmad; Reiter, Russel J; Jiménez-Aranda, Aroa; Ibán-Arias, Ruth; Navarro-Alarcón, Miguel; Marchal, Juan Antonio; Adem, Abdu; Fernández-Vázquez, Gumersindo

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of melatonin on low-grade inflammation and oxidative stress in young male Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats, an experimental model of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). ZDF rats (n = 30) and lean littermates (ZL) (n = 30) were used. At 6 wk of age, both lean and fatty animals were subdivided into three groups, each composed of 10 rats: naive (N), vehicle treated (V), and melatonin treated (M) (10 mg/kg/day) for 6 wk. Vehicle and melatonin were added to the drinking water. Pro-inflammatory state was evaluated by plasma levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and C-reactive protein (CRP). Also, oxidative stress was assessed by plasma lipid peroxidation (LPO), both basal and after Fe(2+)/H2O2 inducement. ZDF rats exhibited higher levels of IL-6 (112.4 ± 1.5 pg/mL), TNF-α (11.0 ± 0.1 pg/mL) and CRP (828 ± 16.0 µg/mL) compared with lean rats (IL-6, 89.9 ± 1.0, P Melatonin lowered IL-6 (10%, P Melatonin improved basal LPO (15%, P melatonin administration ameliorates the pro-inflammatory state and oxidative stress, which underlie the development of insulin resistance and their consequences, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease.

  15. Oral supplementation with cholecalciferol 800 IU ameliorates albuminuria in Chinese type 2 diabetic patients with nephropathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Huang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Low vitamin D levels can be associated with albuminuria, and vitamin D analogs are effective anti-proteinuric agents. The aim of this study was to investigate differences in vitamin D levels between those with micro- and those with macroalbuminuria, and to determine whether low dose cholecalciferol increases vitamin D levels and ameliorates albuminuria. METHODS: Two studies were performed in which 25-OH vitamin D(3 (25(OHD(3 concentrations were determined by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay: 1 a cross-sectional study of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM (n = 481 and healthy controls (n = 78; and 2 a longitudinal study of T2DM patients with albuminuria treated with conventional doses, 800 IU, of cholecalciferol for 6 months (n = 22, and a control group (n = 24. RESULTS: 1 Cross-sectional study: Compared to controls and T2DM patients with normoalbuminuria, serum 25(OHD(3 concentrations were significantly lower in patients with macro-albuminuria, but not in those with micro-albuminuria. Serum 25(OHD(3 levels were independently correlated with microalbuminuria. 2 Longitudinal study: Cholecalciferol significantly decreased microalbuminuria in the early stages of treatment, in conjunction with an increase in serum 25(OHD(3 levels. CONCLUSIONS: Low vitamin D levels are common in type 2 diabetic patients with albuminuria, particularly in patients with macroalbuminuria, but not in those with microalbuminuria. Conventional doses of cholecalciferol may have antiproteinuric effects on Chinese type 2 diabetic patients with nephropathy.

  16. Ameliorative effect of the cinnamon oil from Cinnamomum zeylanicum upon early stage diabetic nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Awanish; Bhatti, Rajbir; Singh, Amarjit; Singh Ishar, Mohan Paul

    2010-03-01

    The current study was designed to evaluate the ameliorative effect of the cinnamon oil upon early stage diabetic nephropathy owing to its antioxidant and antidiabetic effect. Cinnamon oil was extracted by hydro-distillation of the dried inner bark of Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume. Further characterization of the extracted oil was carried out using IR, (1)H-NMR, and (13)C-NMR techniques. Early stage of diabetic nephropathy was induced by administration of alloxan (150 mg/kg, I. P.). Cinnamon oil was administered at varying doses (5, 10, 20 mg/kg; I. P.) while the level of fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein, urea, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, reduced glutathione, and catalase were determined. These parameters in cinnamon oil treated groups were compared with those of standard (glipizide; 10 mg/kg) and vehicle treated groups in order to investigate if cinnamon oil confers a significant protection against diabetic nephropathy. Histological studies of the kidney proved the protective effect of cinnamon oil by reducing the glomerular expansion, eradicating hyaline casts, and decreasing the tubular dilatations. Our results indicate that the volatile oil from cinnamon contains more than 98 % cinnamaldehyde and that it confers dose-dependent, significant protection against alloxan-induced renal damage, the maximum decrease in fasting blood glucose having been achieved at the dose of 20 mg/kg.

  17. A parasite-derived 68-mer peptide ameliorates autoimmune disease in murine models of Type 1 diabetes and multiple sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Maria E.; Greer, Judith; Dixit, Aakanksha; Alvarado, Raquel; McCauley-Winter, Padraig; To, Joyce; Tanaka, Akane; Hutchinson, Andrew T.; Robinson, Mark W.; Simpson, Ann M.; O’Brien, Bronwyn A.; Dalton, John P.; Donnelly, Sheila

    2016-01-01

    Helminth parasites secrete molecules that potently modulate the immune responses of their hosts and, therefore, have potential for the treatment of immune-mediated human diseases. FhHDM-1, a 68-mer peptide secreted by the helminth parasite Fasciola hepatica, ameliorated disease in two different murine models of autoimmunity, type 1 diabetes and relapsing-remitting immune-mediated demyelination. Unexpectedly, FhHDM-1 treatment did not affect the proliferation of auto-antigen specific T cells or their production of cytokines. However, in both conditions, the reduction in clinical symptoms was associated with the absence of immune cell infiltrates in the target organ (islets and the brain tissue). Furthermore, after parenteral administration, the FhHDM-1 peptide interacted with macrophages and reduced their capacity to secrete pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as TNF and IL-6. We propose this inhibition of innate pro-inflammatory immune responses, which are central to the initiation of autoimmunity in both diseases, prevented the trafficking of autoreactive lymphocytes from the periphery to the site of autoimmunity (as opposed to directly modulating their function per se), and thus prevented tissue destruction. The ability of FhHDM-1 to modulate macrophage function, combined with its efficacy in disease prevention in multiple models, suggests that FhHDM-1 has considerable potential as a treatment for autoimmune diseases. PMID:27883079

  18. Extract of Moringa oleifera leaves ameliorates streptozotocin-induced Diabetes mellitus in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassa, Hanan Dawood; Tohamy, Adel Fathy

    2014-06-01

    Medicinal plants attract growing interest in the therapeutic management of Diabetes mellitus. Moringa oleifera is a remarkably nutritious vegetable with several antioxidant properties. The present study assessed the possible antioxidant and antidiabetic effects of an aqueous extract of M. oleifera leaves in treating streptozotocin-induced diabetic albino rats. The antidiabetic effects of aqueous extract of M. oleifera leaves were assessed histomorphometrically, ultrastructurally and biochemically. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) was monitored and morphometric measurements of β-cells of islets of Langerhans (modified Gomori's stain) and collagen fibers (Mallory's trichrome stain) were performed. The antioxidant effects of M. oleifera leaves were determined by measuring the reduced glutathione and lipid peroxidation product, malondialdehyde, in pancreatic tissue. M. oleifera treatment significantly ameliorated the altered FPG (from 380% to 145%), reduced glutathione (from 22% to 73%) and malondialdehyde (from 385% to 186%) compared to control levels. The histopathological damage of islet cells was also markedly reversed. Morphometrically, M. oleifera significantly increased the areas of positive purple modified Gomori stained β-cells (from 60% to 91%) and decreased the area percentage of collagen fibers (from 199% to 120%) compared to control values. Experimental findings clearly indicate the potential benefits of using the aqueous extract of M. oleifera leaves as a potent antidiabetic treatment.

  19. Kalpaamruthaa ameliorates mitochondrial and metabolic alterations in diabetes mellitus induced cardiovascular damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latha, Raja; Shanthi, Palanivelu; Sachdanandam, Panchanadham

    2014-12-01

    Efficacy of Kalpaamruthaa on the activities of lipid and carbohydrate metabolic enzymes, electron transport chain complexes and mitochondrial ATPases were studied in heart and liver of experimental rats. Cardiovascular damage (CVD) was developed in 8 weeks after type 2 diabetes mellitus induction with high fat diet (2 weeks) and low dose of streptozotocin (2 × 35 mg/kg b.w. i.p. in 24 hr interval). In CVD-induced rats, the activities of total lipase, cholesterol ester hydrolase and cholesterol ester synthetase were increased, while lipoprotein lipase and lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase activities were decreased. The activities of lipid-metabolizing enzymes were altered by Kalpaamruthaa in CVD-induced rats towards normal. Kalpaamruthaa modulated the activities of glycolytic enzymes (hexokinase, phosphogluco-isomerase, aldolase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase), gluconeogenic enzymes (glucose-6-phosphatase and fructose-1, 6-bisphosphatase) and glycogenolytic enzyme (glycogen phosphorylase) along with increased glycogen content in the liver of CVD-induced rats. The activities of isocitrate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase, α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, Complexes and ATPases (Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase, Ca(2+)-ATPase and Mg(2+)-ATPase) were decreased in CVD-induced rats, which were ameliorated by the treatment with Kalpaamruthaa. This study ascertained the efficacy of Kalpaamruthaa for the treatment of CVD in diabetes through the modulation of metabolizing enzymes and mitochondrial dysfunction.

  20. Curcumin ameliorated diabetic neuropathy partially by inhibition of NADPH oxidase mediating oxidative stress in the spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei-Cheng; Zhang, Bin; Liao, Mei-Juan; Zhang, Wen-Xuan; He, Wan-You; Wang, Han-Bing; Yang, Cheng-Xiang

    2014-02-07

    Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidases are the main enzymes that produce oxidative stress, which plays an important role in painful diabetic neuropathy. Curcumin has been reported to exert an antinociceptive effect in a rat model of diabetic neuropathy by suppressing oxidative stress in the spinal cord. However, it remains unknown whether the mechanism by which curcumin ameliorates diabetic neuropathy can be attributed to spinal NADPH oxidases. This study was designed to determine the effect of curcumin on diabetic neuropathy and to investigate its precise mechanism in relation to NADPH oxidase-mediating oxidative stress in the spinal cord. Diabetic neuropathy was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats by intraperitoneal injection with 1% streptozotocin (STZ; 60 mg/kg). After the onset of diabetic neuropathy, a subset of the diabetic rats received daily intragastric administrations of curcumin (200mg/kg) or intraperitoneal injections of apocynin (2.5mg/kg) for 14 consecutive days, whereas other diabetic rats received equivalent volumes of normal saline (NS). STZ resulted in diabetic neuropathy with hyperglycemia and a lower paw withdrawal threshold (PWT), accompanied by elevations in the expression of the NADPH oxidase subunits p47(phox) and gp91(phox) and in the levels of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malondialdehyde (MDA) and a reduction in superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity (Pdiabetic neuropathy. In conclusion, curcumin attenuated neuropathic pain in diabetic rats, at least partly by inhibiting NADPH oxidase-mediating oxidative stress in the spinal cord.

  1. Ameliorative effects of ethanolic leaf extract of Azadirachta indica on renal histologic alterations in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oluwole Busayo, Akinola; Laura, Zatta; Olufunke Olubusola, Dosumu; Oluwafunmike Sharon, Akinola; Luciana, Dini; Ezekiel Ademola, Caxton-Martins

    2011-01-01

    We studied the effect of ethanolic leaf extract of Azadirachta indica (AIE) on the microanatomy of the kidney of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Thirty male Wistar rats (161-190 g) were randomly assigned to one of five treatment groups of six animals each: control, diabetic, diabetic + AIE, diabetic + metformin, AIE only. Diabetes was induced with a single intraperitoneal dose of streptozotocin (70 mg/kg body weight). AIE and metformin were administered orally for 50 days (50 d) at 500 mg/kg bw/d and 350 mg/kg bw/d, respectively. Blood glucose was estimated by glucose oxidase method; plasma urea and creatinine were assayed; and paraffin sections of the kidney were stained by periodic acid-Schiff technique. Untreated diabetic rats exhibited marked hyperglycemia. Renal histopathology of these animals showed features of diabetic nephropathy, with nodular glomerulosclerosis and vacuolation of proximal tubule cells (Armanni-Ebstein phenomenon). These feature were absent in the diabetic rats treated with AIE. Besides, plasma urea and creatinine were not significantly different from the control in this group (p > 0.05), in contrast to the untreated diabetic rats, where significant increases in these markers (p < 0.05). These findings showed that the leaf extract of Azadirachta indica ameliorates hyperglycemia and diabetic nephropathy in rats.

  2. Cardiac fibrosis and dysfunction in experimental diabetic cardiomyopathy are ameliorated by alpha-lipoic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Chun-jun

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alpha-lipoic acid (ALA, a naturally occurring compound, exerts powerful protective effects in various cardiovascular disease models. However, its role in protecting against diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM has not been elucidated. In this study, we have investigated the effects of ALA on cardiac dysfunction, mitochondrial oxidative stress (MOS, extracellular matrix (ECM remodeling and interrelated signaling pathways in a diabetic rat model. Methods Diabetes was induced in rats by I.V. injection of streptozotocin (STZ at 45 mg/kg. The animals were randomly divided into 4 groups: normal groups with or without ALA treatment, and diabetes groups with or without ALA treatment. All studies were carried out 11 weeks after induction of diabetes. Cardiac catheterization was performed to evaluate cardiac function. Mitochondrial oxidative biochemical parameters were measured by spectophotometeric assays. Extracellular matrix content (total collagen, type I and III collagen was assessed by staining with Sirius Red. Gelatinolytic activity of Pro- and active matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2 levels were analyzed by a zymogram. Cardiac fibroblasts differentiation to myofibroblasts was evaluated by Western blot measuring smooth muscle actin (α-SMA and transforming growth factor–β (TGF-β. Key components of underlying signaling pathways including the phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK, p38 MAPK and ERK were also assayed by Western blot. Results DCM was successfully induced by the injection of STZ as evidenced by abnormal heart mass and cardiac function, as well as the imbalance of ECM homeostasis. After administration of ALA, left ventricular dysfunction greatly improved; interstitial fibrosis also notably ameliorated indicated by decreased collagen deposition, ECM synthesis as well as enhanced ECM degradation. To further assess the underlying mechanism of improved DCM by ALA, redox status and cardiac remodeling associated

  3. Ameliorative properties of Iranian Trigonella foenum-graecum L. seeds and Punica granatum L. peel extracts in streptozotocin-induced experimental diabetic guinea pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabil Abdel Salam Ahmed Hasona

    2017-03-01

    Conclusions: The Iranian T. foenum-graecum seeds and P. granatum peel extracts are significantly potent in ameliorating diabetic condition induced by streptozotocin and improving various biochemical parameters in serum and liver of guinea pigs.

  4. Micronized Palmitoylethanolamide Reduces the Symptoms of Neuropathic Pain in Diabetic Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Chiara Schifilliti; Lelio Cucinotta; Viviana Fedele; Carmela Ingegnosi; Salvatore Luca; Carmelo Leotta

    2014-01-01

    The present study evaluated the effectiveness of micronized palmitoylethanolamide (PEA-m) treatment in reducing the painful symptoms experienced by diabetic patients with peripheral neuropathy. PEA-m, a fatty acid amide of the N-acylethanolamine family, was administered (300 mg twice daily) to 30 diabetic patients suffering from painful diabetic neuropathy. Before treatment start, after 30 and 60 days the following parameters were assessed: painful symptoms of diabetic peripheral neuropathy u...

  5. Protein kinase CK2α catalytic subunit ameliorates diabetic renal inflammatory fibrosis via NF-κB signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Junying; Chen, Zhiquan; Li, Jie; Chen, Qiuhong; Li, Jingyan; Gong, Wenyan; Huang, Jiani; Liu, Peiqing; Huang, Heqing

    2017-02-23

    Activation of casein kinase 2 (CK2) is closely linked to the body disturbance of carbohydrate metabolism and inflammatory reaction. The renal chronic inflammatory reaction in the setting of diabetes is one of the important hallmarks of diabetic renal fibrosis. However, it remains unknown whether CK2 influences the process of diabetic renal fibrosis. The current study is aimed to investigate if CK2α ameliorates renal inflammatory fibrosis in diabetes via NF-κB pathway. To explore potential regulatory mechanism of CK2α, the expression and activity of CK2α, which were studied by plasmid transfection, selective inhibitor, small-interfering RNA (siRNA) and adenovirus infection in vitro or in vivo, were analyzed by means of western blotting (WB), dual luciferase reporter assay and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). The following findings were observed: (1) Expression of CK2α was upregulated in kidneys of db/db and KKAy diabetic mice; (2) Inhibition of CK2α kinase activity or knockdown of CK2α protein expression suppressed high glucose-induced expressions of FN and ICAM-1 in glomerular mesangial cells (GMCs); (3) Inhibition of CK2α kinase activity or knockdown of CK2α protein expression not only restrained IκB degradation, but also suppressed HG-induced nuclear accumulation, transcriptional activity and DNA binding activity of NF-κB in GMCs; (4) Treatment of TBB or CK2α RNAi adenovirus infection ameliorated renal fibrosis in diabetic animals; (5) Treatment of TBB or CK2α RNAi adenovirus infection suppressed IκB degradation and NF-κB nuclear accumulation in glomeruli of diabetic animals. This study indicates the essential role of CK2α in regulating the diabetic renal pathological process of inflammatory fibrosis via NF-κB pathway, and inhibition of CK2α may serve as a promising therapeutic strategy for diabetic nephropathy.

  6. Ameliorating effect of eugenol on hyperglycemia by attenuating the key enzymes of glucose metabolism in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Subramani; Sathish, Gajendren; Jayanthi, Mahadevan; Muthukumaran, Jayachandran; Muruganathan, Udaiyar; Ramachandran, Vinayagam

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that diabetes mellitus is a serious health burden for both governments and healthcare providers. This study was hypothesized to evaluate the antihyperglycemic potential of eugenol by determine the activities of key enzymes of glucose metabolism in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced into male albino Wistar rats by intraperitoneal administration of STZ (40 mg/kg body weight (b.w.)). Eugenol was administered to diabetic rats intragastrically at 2.5, 5, and 10 mg/kg b.w. for 30 days. The dose 10 mg/kg b.w. significantly reduced the levels of blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and increased plasma insulin level. The altered activities of the key enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism such as hexokinase, pyruvate kinase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glucose-6-phosphatase, fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase, and liver marker enzymes (AST, ALT, and ALP), creatine kinase and blood urea nitrogen in serum and blood of diabetic rats were significantly reverted to near normal levels by the administration of eugenol. Further, eugenol administration to diabetic rats improved body weight and hepatic glycogen content demonstrated the antihyperglycemic potential of eugenol in diabetic rats. The present findings suggest that eugenol can potentially ameliorate key enzymes of glucose metabolism in experimental diabetes, and it is sensible to broaden the scale of use of eugenol in a trial to alleviate the adverse effects of diabetes.

  7. Diabetic Autonomic Neuropathy Affects Symptom Generation and Brain-Gut Axis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brock, Christina; Søfteland, Eirik; Gunterberg, Veronica

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVELong-term diabetes leads to severe peripheral, autonomous, and central neuropathy in combination with clinical gastrointestinal symptoms. The brain-gut axis thus expresses a neurophysiological profile, and heart rate variability (HRV) can be correlated with clinical gastrointestinal...... symptoms.RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODSFifteen healthy volunteers and 15 diabetic patients (12 with type 1 diabetes) with severe gastrointestinal symptoms and clinical suspicion of autonomic neuropathy were included. Psychophysics and evoked brain potentials were assessed after painful rectosigmoid...... autonomic neuropathy and peripheral nervous degeneration, as well as changes in dipole sources in diabetic patients with gastrointestinal symptoms. The findings may lead to improved treatment modalities targeting pharmacological neuroprotection or neuromodulation....

  8. Truncal Pruritus of Unknown Origin May Be a Symptom of Diabetic Polyneuropathy

    OpenAIRE

    Yamaoka, Hiroyuki; Sasaki, Hideyuki; Yamasaki, Hiroshi; Ogawa, Kenichi; Ohta, Takayuki; Furuta, Hiroto; Nishi, Masahiro; Nanjo, Kishio

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Our goal was to ascertain the prevalence of pruritus in diabetic and nondiabetic subjects and the relevance of symptoms, signs, and nerve functions of diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN) of pruritus. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A large-scale survey of 2,656 diabetic outpatients and 499 nondiabetic subjects was performed. In diabetic subjects, the relationship between pruritus and age, sex, diabetic duration, A1C, Achilles tendon reflex (ATR), and abnormal sensation in legs was evaluated. ...

  9. Stroke Symptoms With Absence of Recognized Stroke Are Associated With Cognitive Impairment and Depressive Symptoms in Older Adults With Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passler, Jesse S; Clay, Olivio J; Wadley, Virginia G; Ovalle, Fernando; Crowe, Michael

    2016-05-01

    Self-reported stroke symptoms may represent unrecognized cerebrovascular events leading to poorer cognitive and mental health. We examined relationships between stroke symptoms, cognitive impairment, and depressive symptoms in a high-risk sample: 247 adults aged ≥65 with diabetes. Stroke symptoms were assessed using the Questionnaire for Verifying Stroke-free Status, cognitive impairment was measured with the modified Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status, and depressive symptoms were measured using the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale. In 206 participants without history of stroke/transient ischemic attack, 27.7% reported stroke symptoms, with sudden loss of comprehension most frequently reported (11.7%). Having >1 versus 0 stroke symptoms was associated with greater odds of cognitive impairment (odds ratio = 3.04, 95% confidence interval 1.15-8.05) and more depressive symptoms (b= 2.60,P< .001) while controlling for age, race, gender, education, diabetes duration, diabetes severity, and cardiovascular comorbidities. Better recognition and treatment of cerebrovascular problems in older adults with diabetes may lead to improved cognition and mental health.

  10. A proton pump inhibitor, lansoprazole, ameliorates asthma symptoms in asthmatic patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Yasuo; Dobashi, Kunio; Kobayashi, Setsuo; Ohki, Ichiro; Tokushima, Masahiko; Kusano, Motoyasu; Kawamura, Osamu; Shimoyama, Yasuyuki; Utsugi, Mitsuyoshi; Sunaga, Noriaki; Ishizuka, Tamotsu; Mori, Masatomo

    2006-07-01

    Aspiration of acid to the airway causes airway inflammation, and acid stress to the airway caused by gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) has been known as a potential mechanism of deteriorated asthma symptoms. However, the efficacy of the acid suppressive drugs, H(2)-receptor blockers (H(2) blocker) and proton pump inhibitors, on asthma symptoms and pulmonary functions remains controversial. We therefore designed the randomized prospective study to determine the efficacy of an H(2) blocker (roxatidine, 150 mg/day) and a proton pump inhibitor (lansoprazole, 30 mg/day) on asthma symptoms of 30 asthmatic patients with GERD. These patients were divided in the two groups (15 patients for each group) and treated with either roxatidine or lansoprazole. The diagnosis of GERD was established by the method of Los Angeles classification including mucosal minimum change of Grade M and questionnaire for the diagnosis of reflux disease (QUEST) score. The efficacy of acid suppressive drugs was evaluated by peak expiratory flow (PEF), asthma control questionnaire (ACQ) that evaluates the improvement of asthma symptoms, and forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV(1.0)). Lansoprazole, but not roxatidine, significantly improved PEF and ACQ scores (p < 0.05) with the improved QUEST scores. However, these acid suppressive drugs did not change the pulmonary function of FEV(1.0) in asthmatic patients. In conclusion, treatment with a proton pump inhibitor, lansoprazole, appears to be useful in improvement of asthma symptoms in asthmatic patients with GERD.

  11. Reversal of the Symptoms of Diabetic Neuropathy through Correction of Vitamin D Deficiency in a Type 1 Diabetic Patient

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    David S. H. Bell

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with both type 1 and type 2 diabetes as well as both the microvascular and macrovascular complications of diabetes. Vitamin D deficiency has been shown to be more common in diabetic patients who have symptoms of distal symmetrical polyneuropathy. In addition, vitamin D deficiency has been associated with a lower pain threshold which increases when vitamin D deficiency is corrected. Herein, I describe a type 1 diabetic patient with neuropathic symptoms so severe that he could not work and for which he needed narcotics for pain management and whose symptoms improved dramatically with correction of the vitamin D deficiency. To my knowledge, this is the first report of an improvement in severe symptoms of diabetic neuropathy with correction of vitamin D deficiency in a single patient.

  12. Berberine ameliorates renal injury in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats by suppression of both oxidative stress and aldose reductase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Wei-hua; HUANG Wen-ge; CHEN Feng-ying; LIU Pei-qing; HEI Zi-qing; NIE Hong; TANG Fu-tian; HUANG He-qing; LI Xue-juan; DENG Yan-hui; CHEN Shao-rui; GUO Fen-fen

    2008-01-01

    Background Berberine is one of the main constituents of Coptidis rhizoma (CR) and Cortex phellodendri, In this study, we investigated the beneficial effects of berberine on renal function and its possible mechanisms in rats with diabetic nephropathy(DN). Methods Male Wistar rats were divided into three groups: normal, diabetic model, and berberine treatment groups. Rats in the diabetic model and berberine treatment groups were induced to diabetes by intraperitonal injection with streptozotocin(STZ). Glomerular area, glomerular volume, fasting blood glucose(FBG), blood urea nitrogen(BUN), serum creatinine (Cr)and urine protein for 24 hours(UP24h) were measured using commercially available kits. Meanwhile, the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), content of malondialdehyde (MDA) in serum, activity of aldose reductase (AR)and the expression of AR mRNA and protein in kidney were detected by different methods. Results The result showed that oral administration of berberine (200mg·kg-1·d-1) significantly ameliorated the ratio of kidney weight to body weight. Glomerular area, glomerular volume, FBG, BUN, Cr and UP24h were significantly decreased in the berberine treatment group compared with the diabetic model group(P<0.05). Berberine treatment significantly increased serum SOD activity and decreased the content of MDA compared with diabetic model group(P<0.05). AR activity as well as the expression of AR mRNA and protein in the kidney was markedly decreased in the berberine treatment group compared with diabetic model group (P<0.05). Conclusion These results suggested that berberine could ameliorate renal dysfunction in DN rats through controlling blood glucose, reduction of oxidative stress and inhibition of the activation of the polyol pathway.

  13. Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Like Cells Derived from Mouse Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Ameliorate Diabetic Polyneuropathy in Mice

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    Tatsuhito Himeno

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Although pathological involvements of diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN have been reported, no dependable treatment of DPN has been achieved. Recent studies have shown that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs ameliorate DPN. Here we demonstrate a differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs into MSC-like cells and investigate the therapeutic potential of the MSC-like cell transplantation on DPN. Research Design and Methods. For induction into MSC-like cells, GFP-expressing iPSCs were cultured with retinoic acid, followed by adherent culture for 4 months. The MSC-like cells, characterized with flow cytometry and RT-PCR analyses, were transplanted into muscles of streptozotocin-diabetic mice. Three weeks after the transplantation, neurophysiological functions were evaluated. Results. The MSC-like cells expressed MSC markers and angiogenic/neurotrophic factors. The transplanted cells resided in hindlimb muscles and peripheral nerves, and some transplanted cells expressed S100β in the nerves. Impairments of current perception thresholds, nerve conduction velocities, and plantar skin blood flow in the diabetic mice were ameliorated in limbs with the transplanted cells. The capillary number-to-muscle fiber ratios were increased in transplanted hindlimbs of diabetic mice. Conclusions. These results suggest that MSC-like cell transplantation might have therapeutic effects on DPN through secreting angiogenic/neurotrophic factors and differentiation to Schwann cell-like cells.

  14. Swietenia mahagony extract shows agonistic activity to PPARγ and gives ameliorative effects on diabetic db/db mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dan-dan LI; Xu SHEN; Hua-liang JIANG; Jun-hua CHEN; Qing CHEN; Guo-wei LI; Jing CHEN; Jian-min YUE; Min-li CHEN; Xiao-ping WANG; Jian-hua SHEN

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To search the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) agonists from Swietenia mahagony extract (SmE) and observe the possible ameliorative effects of SmE on diabetic db/db mice. Methods: The PPARγ agonistic activity of SmE was screened by yeast-two hybrid system. The blood glucose levels of diabetic db/db mice were measured using a blood glucose level monitor and the data were statistically analyzed by NDST8.8W software. Results: By using the clinical drug rosiglitazone as a positive control, it was found that the PPARγ agonistic activity of SmE at a concentration of 50 μg/L was approximately half that of 35.7 μg/L (0.1 μmol/L) of rosiglitazone. At the dose of 1000 mg/kg, SmE remark ably decreased the blood glucose concentration of db/db mice from (15.26±2.98) to (7.58±2.20) mmol/L, and reduced the blood glucose levels by 55.49% compared with the control group (P<0.01). Conclusion: SmE shows agonistic activity to PPARγ and can ameliorate the blood glucose levels of diabetic db/db mice. SmE may be thus used as a potential agent for diabetes therapy.

  15. Comparison of vitamin E, L-carnitine and melatonin in ameliorating carbon tetrachloride and diabetes induced hepatic oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaker, M E; Houssen, M E; Abo-Hashem, E M; Ibrahim, T M

    2009-09-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether treatments with vitamin E, L-carnitine and melatonin can protect against CCl(4) and diabetes-induced hepatic oxidative stress. Hepatic oxidative stress was performed in rats through 50% v/v carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) (1 ml/kg/3 days, i.p.), and through diabetes mellitus induced by streptozotocin (STZ) (40 mg/kg, i.p.). Vitamin E (100 mg/kg/day, i.p), L-carnitine (300 mg/kg/day, i.p.) and melatonin (10 mg/kg/day, i.p.) were injected for a period of 6 weeks. Thereafter, changes in serum glucose level, liver function tests, hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) content, hepatic reduced glutathione (GSH) content, hepatic superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and serum total antioxidant capacity (TAC) level were evaluated. In CCl(4)-induced liver fibrosis, the efficacy order was melatonin > L-carnitine > vitamin E, while in STZ-induced diabetes, the efficacy order was vitamin E > or = melatonin > L-carnitine. In conclusion, these data indicate that low dose of melatonin is more effective than high doses of vitamin E and L-carnitine in reducing hepatic oxidative stress induced by CCl(4) and diabetes. Moreover, the potent effect of vitamin E in ameliorating diabetes can be linked not only to the antioxidant actions, but also to the superior effect in reducing diabetes-induced hyperglycaemia. Meanwhile, potency of L-carnitine was nearly the same in CCl(4) and diabetes-induced liver damage.

  16. Palatable cafeteria diet ameliorates anxiety and depression-like symptoms following an adverse early environment.

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    Maniam, Jayanthi; Morris, Margaret J

    2010-06-01

    Early trauma contributes to psychosocial disorders later in life. An adverse early environment induced by maternal separation (MS) is known to alter behavioural and stress responses in rats. Palatable food dampens stress responses. We investigated the influence of palatable cafeteria high-fat diet (HFD) on behavioural responses following MS or non-handling (NH), versus 15min brief separation. After littering, Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to short separation, S15 (15min), prolonged separation, S180 (180min) daily from postnatal days 2 to 14 or were non-handled. Pups were assigned to HFD or chow at weaning. We assessed depression and anxiety-like behaviour with sucrose preference test (SPT) and elevated plus maze (EPM) respectively, and measured hypothalamic CRH and hippocampal glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expression. S180 rats showed increased anxiety-and depression-like behaviours, with increased plasma corticosterone, hypothalamic CRH, and reduced hippocampal GR expression versus S15 rats. Similar effects were observed across gender. These were normalized by provision of HFD, with greater beneficial effects in males. S15 showed no benefit of HFD. NH female rats had less adverse impacts; HFD had beneficial impact on behaviour in NH males. Thus behavioural deficits and gene expression changes induced by early life stress were ameliorated by HFD. These results highlight the important place of palatable food in reducing central stress responses supporting the therapeutic value of 'comfort food'.

  17. Pioglitazone ameliorates the lowered exercise capacity and impaired mitochondrial function of the skeletal muscle in type 2 diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Shingo; Hirabayashi, Kagami; Kinugawa, Shintaro; Yokota, Takashi; Matsushima, Shouji; Suga, Tadashi; Kadoguchi, Tomoyasu; Fukushima, Arata; Homma, Tsuneaki; Mizushima, Wataru; Masaki, Yoshihiro; Furihata, Takaaki; Katsuyama, Ryoichi; Okita, Koichi; Tsutsui, Hiroyuki

    2014-10-05

    We have reported that exercise capacity is reduced in high fat diet (HFD)-induced diabetic mice, and that this reduction is associated with impaired mitochondrial function in skeletal muscle (SKM). However, it remains to be clarified whether the treatment of diabetes ameliorates the reduced exercise capacity. Therefore, we examined whether an insulin-sensitizing drug, pioglitazone, could improve exercise capacity in HFD mice. C57BL/6J mice were fed a normal diet (ND) or HFD, then treated with or without pioglitazone (3 mg/kg/day) to yield the following 4 groups: ND+vehicle, ND+pioglitazone, HFD+vehicle, and HFD+pioglitazone (n=10 each). After 8 weeks, body weight, plasma glucose, and insulin in the HFD+vehicle were significantly increased compared to the ND+vehicle group. Pioglitazone normalized the insulin levels in HFD-fed mice, but did not affect the body weight or plasma glucose. Exercise capacity determined by treadmill tests was significantly reduced in the HFD+vehicle, and this reduction was almost completely ameliorated in HFD+pioglitazone mice. ADP-dependent mitochondrial respiration, complex I and III activities, and citrate synthase activity were significantly decreased in the SKM of the HFD+vehicle animals, and these decreases were also attenuated by pioglitazone. NAD(P)H oxidase activity was significantly increased in the HFD+vehicle compared with the ND+vehicle, and this increase was ameliorated in HFD+pioglitazone mice. Pioglitazone improved the exercise capacity in diabetic mice, which was due to the improvement in mitochondrial function and attenuation of oxidative stress in the SKM. Our data suggest that pioglitazone may be useful as an agent for the treatment of diabetes mellitus.

  18. Pioglitazone ameliorates memory deficits in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice by reducing brain β-amyloid through PPARY activation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-ping LIU; Tian-hua YAN; Li-ying JIANG; Wei HU; Meng HU; Chao WANG; Qian ZHANG

    2013-01-01

    Aim:To examine the effects of pioglitazone,a PPARY agonist,on memory performance and brain amyloidogenesis in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice.Methods:ICR male mice were injected with STZ (150 mg/kg,iv) to induce experimental diabetes.Pioglitazone (9 and 18 mg·kg1-d-1,po) was administered for 6 weeks.Passive avoidance and Morris water maze (MWM) tests were used to evaluate cognitive function.The blood glucose and serum insulin levels were detected using the glucose oxidase method and an ELISA assay,respectively.β-amyloid (Aβ),β-amyloid precursor protein (APP),β-amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1),NF-κB p65,the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) and PPARy in the brains were analyzed using Western blotting assays.Results:The STZ-induced diabetic mice characterized by hyperglycemia and hypoinsulinemia performed poorly in both the passive avoidance and MWM tests,accompanied by increased Aβ1-40/Aβ1-42,APP,BACE1,NF-κB p65 and RAGE levels and decreased PPARy level in the hippocampus and cortex.Chronic pioglitazone treatment significantly ameliorated the memory deficits of STZ-induced diabetic mice,and suppressed expression of APP,BACE1,RAGE and NF-κB p65,and activated PPARy in the hippocampus and cortex.However,pioglitazone did not significantly affect blood glucose and insulin levels.Conclusion:Pioglitazone ameliorates memory deficits in STZ-induced diabetic mice by reducing brain Aβ level via activation of PPARy,which is independent of its effects on blood glucose and insulin levels.The results suggest that pioglitazone may be used for treating the cognitive dysfunction in type 1 diabetes mellitus.

  19. Inhibition of Lipolysis Ameliorates Diabetic Phenotype in a Mouse Model of Obstructive Sleep Apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiszenstein, Martin; Shimoda, Larissa A; Koc, Michal; Seda, Ondrej; Polak, Jan

    2016-08-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, and type 2 diabetes. Causal mechanisms mediating this association are not well defined; however, augmented lipolysis in adipose might be involved. Here, we investigated the effect of acipimox treatment (lipolysis inhibitor) on glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in mice exposed to intermittent hypoxia (IH). C57BL6/J mice were exposed for 14 days to IH or control conditions. IH was created by decreasing the fraction of inspired oxygen from 20.9 to 6.5%, 60 times/h. Control exposure was air (fraction of inspired oxygen, 20.9%) delivered at an identical flow rate. Acipimox was provided in drinking water (0.5 g/ml) during exposures. After exposures, intraperitoneal insulin (0.5 IU/kg) and glucose (1 g/kg) tolerance tests were performed, and primary adipocytes were isolated for lipolysis experiments. IH elevated fasting glucose by 51% and worsened glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity by 33 and 102%, respectively. In parallel, IH increased spontaneous lipolysis by 264%, and reduced epididymal fat mass by 15% and adipocyte size by 8%. Acipimox treatment prevented IH-induced lipolysis and increased epididymal fat mass and adipocyte size by 19 and 10%, respectively. Acipimox fully prevented IH-induced impairments in fasting glycemia, glucose tolerance, and insulin sensitivity. For all reported results, P less than 0.05 was considered significant. Augmented lipolysis contributes to insulin resistance and glucose intolerance observed in mice exposed to IH. Acipimox treatment ameliorated the metabolic consequences of IH and might represent a novel treatment option for patients with obstructive sleep apnea.

  20. Depressive symptoms in youth with type 1 or type 2 diabetes: Results of the Pediatric Diabetes Consortium screening assessment of depression in diabetes study

    Science.gov (United States)

    To evaluate the frequency of depressive symptoms and the diagnosis and management of depression in youth with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) enrolled in the Pediatric Diabetes Consortium T1D and T2D registries. The Children's Depression Inventory (CDI) 2 Self-Report (Short) version ...

  1. Glutamic acid ameliorates estrogen deficiency-induced menopausal-like symptoms in ovariectomized mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Na-Ra; Kim, Hee-Yun; Yang, Woong Mo; Jeong, Hyun-Ja; Kim, Hyung-Min

    2015-09-01

    Some amino acids are considered alternative therapies for improving menopausal symptoms. Glutamic acid (GA), which is abundant in meats, fish, and protein-rich plant foods, is known to be a neurotransmitter or precursor of γ-aminobutyric acid. Although it is unclear if GA functions in menopausal symptoms, we hypothesized that GA would attenuate estrogen deficiency-induced menopausal symptoms. The objective to test our hypothesis was to examine an estrogenic effect of GA in ovariectomized (OVX) mice, estrogen receptor (ER)-positive human osteoblast-like MG-63 cells, and ER-positive human breast cancer MCF-7 cells. The results demonstrated that administration with GA to mice suppressed body weight gain and vaginal atrophy when compared with the OVX mice. A microcomputed tomographic analysis of the trabecular bone showed increases in bone mineral density, trabecular number, and connectivity density as well as a significant decrease in total porosity of the OVX mice treated with GA. In addition, GA increased serum levels of alkaline phosphatase and estrogen compared with the OVX mice. Furthermore, GA induced proliferation and increased ER-β messenger RNA (mRNA) expression, estrogen response element (ERE) activity, extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation, and alkaline phosphatase activity in MG-63 cells. In MCF-7 cells, GA also increased proliferation, Ki-67 mRNA expression, ER-β mRNA expression, and ERE activity. Estrogen response element activity increased by GA was inhibited by an estrogen antagonist. Taken together, our data demonstrated that GA has estrogenic and osteogenic activities in OVX mice, MG-63 cells, and MCF-7 cells.

  2. Curcumin ameliorates macrophage infiltration by inhibiting NF-κB activation and proinflammatory cytokines in streptozotocin induced-diabetic nephropathy

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    Suzuki Kenji

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic inflammation plays an important role in the progression of diabetic nephropathy (DN and that the infiltration of macrophages in glomerulus has been implicated in the development of glomerular injury. We hypothesized that the plant polyphenolic compound curcumin, which is known to exert potent anti-inflammatory effect, would ameliorate macrophage infiltration in streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic rats. Methods Diabetes was induced with STZ (55 mg/kg by intraperitoneal injection in rats. Three weeks after STZ injection, rats were divided into three groups, namely, control, diabetic, and diabetic treated with curcumin at 100 mg/kg/day, p.o., for 8 weeks. The rats were sacrificed 11 weeks after induction of diabetes. The excised kidney was used to assess macrophage infiltration and expression of various inflammatory markers. Results At 11 weeks after STZ injection, diabetic rats exhibited renal dysfunction, as evidenced by reduced creatinine clearance, increased blood glucose, blood urea nitrogen and proteinuria, along with marked reduction in the body weight. All of these abnormalities were significantly reversed by curcumin. Hyperglycemia induced the degradation of IκBα and NF-κB activation and as a result increased infiltration of macrophages (52% as well as increased proinflammatory cytokines: TNF-α and IL-1β. Curcumin treatment significantly reduced macrophage infiltration in the kidneys of diabetic rats, suppressed the expression of above proinflammatory cytokines and degradation of IκBα. In addition, curcumin treatment also markedly decreased ICAM-1, MCP-1 and TGF-β1 protein expression. Moreover, at nuclear level curcumin inhibited the NF-κB activity. Conclusion Our results suggested that curcumin treatment protect against the development of DN in rats by reducing macrophage infiltration through the inhibition of NF-κB activation in STZ-induced diabetic rats.

  3. Treatment with valproic acid ameliorates ADHD symptoms in fragile X syndrome boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrioli, Mariagiulia; Vernacotola, Silvia; Setini, Chiara; Bevilacqua, Francesca; Martinelli, Diego; Snape, Mike; Hutchison, Julie A; Di Raimo, Francesca Romana; Tabolacci, Elisabetta; Neri, Giovanni

    2010-06-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the leading cause of inherited mental retardation, due to expansion and methylation of the CGG sequence at the 5' UTR of the FMR1 gene. Around 90% of affected boys present with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), while this percentage is lower in FXS girls (35-47%). Treatment of these behavioral symptoms is critical for many families. In an attempt at identifying drugs capable of restoring the activity of the FMR1 gene, we investigated the use of valproic acid (VPA), a well-known antiepileptic drug, also used as a mood stabilizer and in migraine therapy. It is described as an inhibitor of histone deacetylase (HDAC) and, possibly, as a DNA demethylating agent. In an in vitro study we observed that treatment of lymphoblastoid cells from FXS patients with VPA caused a modest reactivation of FMR1 transcription and increased levels of histone acetylation, confirming the histone hyperacetylating effect, but not its putative DNA demethylating activity. On the basis of these findings, we decided to evaluate the in vivo efficacy of VPA on ADHD symptoms in FXS patients. We observed an improvement in the adaptive behavior, defined as the performance of daily activities required for personal and social competence, due to a significant reduction in hyperactivity after VPA treatment. This treatment could be considered as an alternative to that with stimulants, whose efficacy in patients with FXS needs to be confirmed by further studies.

  4. The association between diabetes and an episode of depressive symptoms in the 2002 World Health Survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mommersteeg, Paula M C; Herr, R; Pouwer, F

    2013-01-01

    AIMS: Depression is common in people with diabetes and increases the risk of poor health outcomes, including premature mortality. We explored the association between diabetes and an episode of depressive symptoms in a cross-sectional multinational study, which included a large number of low...... symptoms was assessed by self-report using an algorithm based on DSM-IV criteria. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated to quantify associations between diabetes and episodes of depressive symptoms in the entire sample and for countries aggregated into four continents: Africa, South...... with diabetes had increased odds of an episode of depressive symptoms compared with those without diabetes (adjusted odds ratio 2.36, 95% confidence interval 1.91-2.92). Similar associations were found in South America, Asia and Europe (odds ratio > 1.97), but not in Africa (odds ratio 0.86, 95% confidence...

  5. Differential associations between depressive symptoms and glycaemic control in outpatients with diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bot, M; Pouwer, F; De Jonge, P

    2013-01-01

    AIMS: Depression is common in people with diabetes, and related to higher HbA(1c) levels. Depression, however, is a heterogeneous construct that involves a variety of symptoms. As little is known about the associations of individual depressive symptoms with HbA(1c), we explored these associations...... in outpatients with diabetes. METHODS: The study was conducted in three tertiary diabetes clinics in the Netherlands. At baseline, the presence of the nine depressive symptoms that are listed in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition was assessed with the nine-item Patient....../retardation (β = 0.09, P = 0.04) were significantly related to higher HbA(1c) values at 1-year follow-up. Associations were more pronounced in Type 1 diabetes than in Type 2 diabetes. None of the depressive symptoms were related to change in HbA(1c) over time, except suicidal ideation. CONCLUSION: In people...

  6. Kaempferol ameliorates symptoms of metabolic syndrome by regulating activities of liver X receptor-β.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Minh-Hien; Jia, Yaoyao; Mok, Boram; Jun, Hee-jin; Hwang, Kwang-Yeon; Lee, Sung-Joon

    2015-08-01

    Kaempferol is a dietary flavonol previously shown to regulate cellular lipid and glucose metabolism. However, its molecular mechanisms of action and target proteins have remained elusive, probably due to the involvement of multiple proteins. This study investigated the molecular targets of kaempferol. Ligand binding of kaempferol to liver X receptors (LXRs) was quantified by time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer and surface plasmon resonance analyses. Kaempferol directly binds to and induces the transactivation of LXRs, with stronger specificity for the β-subtype (EC50 = 0.33 μM). The oral administration of kaempferol in apolipoprotein-E-deficient mice (150 mg/day/kg body weight) significantly reduced plasma glucose and increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and insulin sensitivity compared with the vehicle-fed control. Kaempferol also reduced plasma triglyceride concentrations and did not cause liver steatosis, a common side effect of potent LXR activation. In immunoblotting analysis, kaempferol reduced the nuclear accumulation of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 (SREBP-1). Our results show that the suppression of SREBP-1 activity and the selectivity for LXR-β over LXR-α by kaempferol contribute to the reductions of plasma and hepatic triglyceride concentrations in mice fed kaempferol. They also suggest that kaempferol activates LXR-β and suppresses SREBP-1 to enhance symptoms in metabolic syndrome.

  7. An Aqueous-Ethanol Extract of Liriope spicata var. prolifera Ameliorates Diabetic Nephropathy through Suppression of Renal Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-Jen Lu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The tuberous root of Liriope spicata var. prolifera (TRLS; Liliaceae family is valued for the ability to promote glucose homeostasis, and it may therefore be utilized as an adjuvant therapy in the control of diabetic complications. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of an aqueous ethanol extract from TRLS (TRLS-ext (100 or 200 mg kg−1 per day for eight weeks on rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetic nephropathy (DN. Renal dysfunction in diabetic rats was ameliorated by TRLS-ext as evidenced by reduced creatinine clearance, as well as increased blood urea nitrogen and proteinuria. Treatment with TRLS-ext was found to markedly improve histological architecture in the diabetic kidney. Hyperglycemia induced degradation of inhibitory kappa B and reduced nuclear factor kappa B activation, leading to increased infiltration of macrophages and increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis factor-α. All of the above abnormalities were reversed by TRLS-ext treatment, which also decreased the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and fibronectin in the diabetic kidneys. These findings provide a perspective on the renoprotective effects of TRLS-ext in DN.

  8. Identification of a Lactobacillus plantarum strain that ameliorates chronic inflammation and metabolic disorders in obese and type 2 diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toshimitsu, T; Mochizuki, J; Ikegami, S; Itou, H

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we identified a strain of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) that induces high levels of IL-10 production by immune cells, and evaluated the ability of the strain to suppress chronic inflammation and ameliorate metabolic disorders in in vitro and in vivo models. Among a collection of LAB strains, Lactobacillus plantarum strain OLL2712 (OLL2712) induced the highest levels of IL-10 production in mouse-derived dendritic cells and peritoneal macrophages. The anti-inflammatory effects of this strain were evaluated using a co-culture system comprising RAW 264.7 and 3T3-L1 cells. We also administered heat-killed OLL2712 to obese and type 2 diabetic KKAy mice for 3 wk to evaluate the in vivo effects of the strain. The OLL2712 significantly decreased the production of proinflammatory cytokines in vitro. Likewise, the administration of OLL2712 significantly suppressed proinflammatory cytokine levels in both the visceral adipose tissue and the serum of KKAy mice, and reduced serum triglyceride concentrations. The strain also alleviated oxidative stress and adrenaline levels in the serum of KKAy mice. On the other hand, Lactobacillus gasseri strain MEP222804 (a moderate IL-10 inducer) did not ameliorate the systemic inflammation and hyperlipidemia in KKAy mice. Our results suggest that treatment with strong IL-10-inducing LAB has the potential to ameliorate metabolic disorders by suppressing chronic inflammation in the host animal.

  9. Apigenin and naringenin regulate glucose and lipid metabolism, and ameliorate vascular dysfunction in type 2 diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Bei; Qin, Weiwei; Wu, Feihua; Wang, Shanshan; Pan, Cheng; Wang, Liying; Zeng, Biao; Ma, Shiping; Liang, Jingyu

    2016-02-15

    Vascular endothelial dysfunction is regarded as the initial step of vascular complications in diabetes mellitus. This study investigated the amelioration of apigenin and naringenin in type 2 diabetic (T2D) rats induced by high-fat diet and streptozotocin and explored the underlying mechanism. Apigenin or naringenin was intragastrically administered at 50 or 100mg/kg once a day for 6 weeks. Biochemical parameters including blood glucose, glycated serum protein, serum lipid, insulin, superoxide dismutase (SOD), malonaldehyde and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) were measured. Vascular reactivity in isolated thoracic aortic rings was examined. Pathological features of the thoracic aorta were further observed through optical microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Lastly, we evaluated their effects on insulin resistance of palmitic acid (PA)-induced endothelial cells. Compared with diabetic control group, apigenin and naringenin significantly decreased the levels of blood glucose, serum lipid, malonaldehyde, ICAM-1 and insulin resistance index, increased SOD activity and improved impaired glucose tolerance. Apigenin and naringenin restored phenylephrine-mediated contractions and acetylcholine or insulin-induced relaxations in aortic tissues. Furthermore, pathological damage in the thoracic aorta of apigenin and naringenin groups was more remissive than diabetic control group. In vitro, apigenin and naringenin inhibited NF-κB activation and ICAM-1 mRNA expression in PA-treated endothelial cells and improved nitric oxide production in the presence of insulin. In conclusion, both apigenin and naringenin can ameliorate glucose and lipid metabolism, as well as endothelial dysfunction in T2D rats at least in part by down-regulating oxidative stress and inflammation. In general, apigenin showed greater potency than naringenin equivalent.

  10. Breviscapine ameliorates hypertrophy of cardiomyocytes induced by high glucose in diabetic rats via the PKC signaling pathway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min WANG; Wen-bin ZHANG; Jun-hui ZHU; Guo-sheng FU; Bin-quan ZHOU

    2009-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the influence of breviscapine on high glucose-induced hypertrophy of cardiomyocytes and the relevant mechanism in vitro and in vivo.Methods: Cultured neonatal cardiomyocytes were divided into ⅰ) control; ⅱ) high glucose concentrations; ⅲ) high glucose+PKC inhibi-tor Ro-31-8220; ⅳ) high glucose+breviscapine; or ⅴ) high glucose+NF-κB inhibitor BAY11-7082. Cellular contraction frequency and volumes were measured; the expression of protein kinase C (PKC), NF-κB, TNF-α, and c-los were assessed by Western blot or reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Diabetic rats were induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin,and randomly divided into ⅰ) control rats; ⅱ) diabetic rats; or ⅲ) diabetic rats administered with breviscapine (10 or 25 mg·kg-1·d-1). After treatment with breviscapine for six weeks, the echocardiographic parameters were measured. All rats were then sacrificed and heart tissue was obtained for microscopy. The expression patterns of PKC, NF-κB, TNF-α, and c-los were measured by Western blot or RT-PCR.Results: Cardiomyocytes cultured in a high concentration of glucose showed an increased pulsatile frequency and cellular volume, as well as a higher expression of PKC, NF-κB, TNF-α, and c-fos compared with the control group. Breviscapine could partly prevent these changes. Diabetic rats showed relative cardiac hypertrophy and a higher expression of PKC, NF-κB, TNF-α, and c-los; treatment with breviscapine could ameliorate these changes in diabetic cardiomyopathy.Conclusion: Breviscapine prevented cardiac hypertrophy in diabetic rats by inhibiting the expression of PKC, which may have a protec-tive effect in the pathogenesis of diabetic cardiomyopathy via the PKC/NF-κB/C-fos signal transduction pathway.

  11. Atorvastatin ameliorates contrast medium-induced renal tubular cell apoptosis in diabetic rats via suppression of Rho-kinase pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jinzi; Zou, Wenbo; Cai, Wenqin; Chen, Xiuping; Wang, Fangbing; Li, Shuizhu; Ma, Wenwen; Cao, Yangming

    2014-01-15

    Contrast medium-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) remains a leading cause of iatrogenic, drug-induced acute renal failure. This study aimed to investigate the protective effects of atorvastatin against renal tubular cell apoptosis in diabetic rats and the related mechanisms. CI-AKI was induced by intravenous administration of iopromide (12ml/kg) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Atorvastatin (ATO) was administered intragastrically at the dose of 5, 10 and 30mg/kg/d in different groups, respectively, for 5 days before iopromide injection. Renal function parameters, kidney histology, renal tubular cell apoptosis, the expression of apoptosis regulatory proteins, caspase-3 and Rho-associated protein kinase 1 (ROCK-1), and the phosphorylation of myosin phosphatase target subunit -1 (MYPT-1), were determined. Atorvastatin was shown to notably ameliorate contrast medium induced medullary damage, restore renal function, and suppress renal tubular apoptosis. Meanwhile, atorvastatin up-regulated the expression of Bcl-2, down-regulated the expression of Bax, caspase-3 and ROCK-1, restored the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax, and suppressed the phosphorylation of MYPT-1 in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, atorvastatin pretreatment could dose-dependently ameliorate the development of CI-AKI, which was partly attributed to its suppression of renal tubular cell apoptosis by inhibiting the Rho/ROCK pathway.

  12. Coffee and caffeine ameliorate hyperglycemia, fatty liver, and inflammatory adipocytokine expression in spontaneously diabetic KK-Ay mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Rie; Kobayashi, Misato; Matsuda, Yuji; Ojika, Makoto; Shigeoka, Shigeru; Yamamoto, Yuko; Tou, Yoshie; Inoue, Takashi; Katagiri, Takao; Murai, Atsushi; Horio, Fumihiko

    2010-05-12

    Epidemiological surveys have demonstrated that habitual coffee consumption reduces the risk of type 2 diabetes. The aim of this work was to study the antidiabetic effect of coffee and caffeine in spontaneously diabetic KK-A(y) mice. KK-A(y) mice were given regular drinking water (controls) or 2-fold diluted coffee for 5 weeks. Coffee ingestion ameliorated the development of hyperglycemia and improved insulin sensitivity. White adipose tissue mRNA levels of inflammatory cytokines (MCP-1, IL-6, and TNFalpha), adipose tissue MCP-1 concentration, and serum IL-6 concentration in the coffee group were lower than the control group. Moreover, coffee ingestion improved the fatty liver. Caffeine ingestion as drinking water also caused an amelioration of hyperglycemia and an improvement of fatty liver. These results suggest that coffee exerts a suppressive effect on hyperglycemia by improving insulin sensitivity, partly due to reducing inflammatory cytokine expression and improving fatty liver. Moreover, caffeine may be one of the effective antidiabetic compounds in coffee.

  13. Patients’ Outcome Expectations Matter in Psychological Interventions for Patients with Diabetes and Comorbid Depressive Symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snippe, Evelien; Schroevers, Maya J.; Tovote, K. Annika; Sanderman, R.; Emmelkamp, Paul M.G.; Fleer, Joke

    2015-01-01

    This study examined whether patients’ expectations of treatment outcome predict treatment completion, homework compliance, and depressive symptom improvement in cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) and mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT). Study participants were patients with diabetes and comorbi

  14. Patients' Outcome Expectations Matter in Psychological Interventions for Patients with Diabetes and Comorbid Depressive Symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snippe, Evelien; Schroevers, Maya J.; Tovote, Annika; Sanderman, Robbert; Emmelkamp, Paul M. G.; Fleer, Joke

    2015-01-01

    This study examined whether patients' expectations of treatment outcome predict treatment completion, homework compliance, and depressive symptom improvement in cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) and mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT). Study participants were patients with diabetes and comorbi

  15. Ameliorative effect of dietary genistein on diabetes induced hyper-inflammation and oxidative stress during early stage of wound healing in alloxan induced diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eo, Hyeyoon; Lee, Hea-Ji; Lim, Yunsook

    2016-09-23

    Among the diabetic complications, diabetic foot ulcer due to delayed wound healing is one of the most significant clinical problems. Early inflammatory stage is important for better prognosis during wound healing. Thus, regulation of inflammatory response during early stage of wound healing is main target for complete cutaneous recovery. This study investigated the role of genistein supplementation in inflammation and oxidative stress, which are related to NLRP3 inflammasome, NFκB and Nrf2 activation, during cutaneous wound healing in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. Mice with diabetes with fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels > 250 mg/dl were fed diets with AIN-93G rodent diet containing 0%, 0.025% (LG) or 0.1% (HG) genistein. After 2 weeks of genistein supplementation, excisional wounds were made by biopsy punches (4 mm). Genistein supplementation improved fasting glucose levels and wound closure rate. Moreover, genistein supplementation restored NLRP3 inflammasome (NLRP3, ASC and caspase-1) at the basal level and ameliorated both inflammation (TNFα, iNOS, COX2 and NFκB) and antioxidant defense system (Nrf2, HO-1, GPx, and catalase) during early stage of wound healing in diabetic mice. Taken together, genistein supplementation would be a potential therapeutic nutrient in prevention and treatment of delayed wound healing by modulation of inflammation and oxidative stress during inflammatory stage.

  16. Ameliorative Effects of Vitamin C and Zinc in Alloxan-induced Diabetes and Oxidative Stress in Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.A. Dawud

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to evaluate the ameliorative effects of vitamin C and zinc on blood glucose levels and lipid peroxidation in Alloxan-induced diabetic Wistar rats. Diabetes was induced in animals by intraperitoneal injection of Alloxan monohydrate (150 mg/kg b w. Diabetic rats were randomly divided into three groups (n = 5: Rats in group I were given 1ml of distilled water and served as the control. Rats in group II and group III were administered 100 50 mg/kg b w of vitamin C and zinc respectively. The regimens were given once daily for seven days. Blood samples collected from the animals at the end of the treatment period and assayed for malonaldehyde (MDA as index of lipid peroxidation. The study showed that there was a significant (p0.05 was observed in the group that were administered 100 mg/kg b w of vitamin C when compared to the diabetic control group. The present study has shown that vitamin C and zinc had a beneficial effect on Alloxan induced hyperglycemia and oxidative stress as evidenced by decreased malondialdehyde (MDA concentration.

  17. Hypoglycemic effects of Zanthoxylum alkylamides by enhancing glucose metabolism and ameliorating pancreatic dysfunction in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Yuming; Ren, Ting; Zhang, Shiqi; Shirima, Gerald Gasper; Cheng, YaJiao; Liu, Xiong

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the hypoglycemic effect of Zanthoxylum alkylamides and explore the potential mechanism in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Diabetic rats were orally treated with 3, 6, and 9 mg per kg bw alkylamides daily for 28 days. As the alkylamide dose increased, the relative weights of the liver and kidney, fasting blood glucose, and fructosamine levels were significantly decreased. The alkylamides also significantly increased the body weight and improved the oral glucose tolerance of the rats. Likewise, the alkylamides significantly increased the levels of liver and muscle glycogen and plasma insulin. These substances further alleviated the histopathological changes in the pancreas of the diabetic rats. The beneficial effects of high-dose alkylamides showed a comparable activity to the anti-diabetic drug glibenclamide. Western blot and real-time PCR results revealed that the alkylamide treatment significantly decreased the expression levels of the key enzymes (phosphoenolpyruvate caboxykinase and glucose-6-phosphatase) involved in gluconeogenesis and increased the glycolysis enzyme (glucokinase) in the liver, and enhanced the expression levels of pancreatic duodenal homeobox-1, glucokinase, and glucose transporter 2 in the pancreas. In addition, it was also observed that the alkylamides, unlike glibenclamide, increased the transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 and decreased cannabinoid receptor 1 expressions in the liver and pancreas. Therefore, alkylamides can prevent STZ-induced hyperglycemia by altering the expression levels of the genes related to glucose metabolism and by ameliorating pancreatic dysfunction.

  18. Amelioration of pancreatic and renal derangements in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats by polyphenol extracts of Ginger (Zingiber officinale) rhizome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazeem, Mutiu Idowu; Akanji, Musbau Adewunmi; Yakubu, Musa Toyin

    2015-12-01

    Free and bound polyphenol extracts of Zingiber officinale rhizome were investigated for their antidiabetic potential in the pancreatic and renal tissues of diabetic rats at a dose of 500mg/kg body weight. Forty Wistar rats were completely randomized into five groups: A-E consisting of eight animals each. Group A (control) comprises normal healthy animals and were orally administered 1.0mL distilled water on a daily basis for 42 days while group B-E were made up of 50mg/kg streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Group C and D received 1.0mL 500mg/kg body weight free and bound polyphenol extracts respectively while group E received 1.0mL 0.6mg/kg of glibenclamide. Administration of the extracts to the diabetic rats significantly reduced (pdiabetic rats compared to the control groups. Therefore, polyphenols from Zingiber officinale could ameliorate diabetes-induced pancreatic and renal derangements in rats.

  19. Diabetes Distress and Depressive Symptoms: A Dyadic Investigation of Older Patients and Their Spouses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franks, Melissa M.; Lucas, Todd; Stephens, Mary Ann Parris; Rook, Karen S.; Gonzalez, Richard

    2010-01-01

    In this dyadic study, we examined diabetes distress experienced by male and female patients and their spouses (N = 185 couples), and its association with depressive symptoms using the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model. Diabetes-related distress reported by both patients and spouses was associated with each partner's own depressive symptoms…

  20. Which increases depressive symptoms in obese patients, hypertension or diabetes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakir Özgür Keskek

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Depression and obesity are common disorders. Obesity is also predictive of several chronic diseases like hypertension and diabetes. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare depression frequency of obese patients with hypertension or diabetes. Methods: Weight, height and body mass index (BMI were measured. The definition of obesity was a body mass index (weight (kg/height (m2 ≥30 kg/m2. Obese patients with hypertension or diabetes were documented. All participants had a Beck Depression Inventory (BDI evaluation. Results: A total of 389 subjects were included, of whom 100, 101, 92, 96 participants were healthy, obese, obese with hypertension, obese with diabetes, respectively. Beck Depression Inventory scores of obese patients, obese patients with hypertension or diabetes were higher compared to the control group. BDI scores of obese patients with diabetes were higher compared to obese and obese with hypertension subjects.

  1. Cocoa-rich diet ameliorates hepatic insulin resistance by modulating insulin signaling and glucose homeostasis in Zucker diabetic fatty rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordero-Herrera, Isabel; Martín, María Ángeles; Escrivá, Fernando; Álvarez, Carmen; Goya, Luis; Ramos, Sonia

    2015-07-01

    Insulin resistance is the primary characteristic of type 2 diabetes and results from insulin signaling defects. Cocoa has been shown to exert anti-diabetic effects by lowering glucose levels. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for this preventive activity and whether cocoa exerts potential beneficial effects on the insulin signaling pathway in the liver remain largely unknown. Thus, in this study, the potential anti-diabetic properties of cocoa on glucose homeostasis and insulin signaling were evaluated in type 2 diabetic Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats. Male ZDF rats were fed a control or cocoa-rich diet (10%), and Zucker lean animals received the control diet. ZDF rats supplemented with cocoa (ZDF-Co) showed a significant decrease in body weight gain, glucose and insulin levels, as well as an improved glucose tolerance and insulin resistance. Cocoa-rich diet further ameliorated the hepatic insulin resistance by abolishing the increased serine-phosphorylated levels of the insulin receptor substrate 1 and preventing the inactivation of the glycogen synthase kinase 3/glycogen synthase pathway in the liver of cocoa-fed ZDF rats. The anti-hyperglycemic effect of cocoa appeared to be at least mediated through the decreased levels of hepatic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and increased values of glucokinase and glucose transporter 2 in the liver of ZDF-Co rats. Moreover, cocoa-rich diet suppressed c-Jun N-terminal kinase and p38 activation caused by insulin resistance. These findings suggest that cocoa has the potential to alleviate both hyperglycemia and hepatic insulin resistance in type 2 diabetic ZDF rats.

  2. Fasudil hydrochloride hydrate, a Rho-kinase inhibitor, ameliorates hepatic fibrosis in rats with type 2 diabetes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Hong; Fang Caixia; Zhang Lihui; Deng Yonggui; Wang Mian; Meng Fengling

    2014-01-01

    Background Hyperglycemia may accelerate liver fibrosis.Currently,there is no effective treatment for liver fibrosis induced by type 2 diabetes.The study aim was to investigate whether RhoA/Rho kinase (ROCK) pathway is involved in liver fibrosis in the rats with type 2 diabetes and define the protective effects of fasudil on livers.Methods A rat model of type 2 diabetes was established by high fat diet combined with streptozotocin (30 mg/kg,intraperitoneal injection).Animals were randomly assigned to 3 groups:control rats,untreated diabetic rats that received vehicle and fasudil-treated diabetic rats that received ROCK inhibitor fasudil hydrochloride hydrate (10 mg/kg per day,intraperitoneal injection,for 14 weeks).The morphological features of liver were observed by HE staining.Accumulation of collagen in livers was determined by Masson staining and the measurement of hydroxyproline.The mRNA expression of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGFβ1),connective tissue growth factor (CTGF),type-Ⅰ,and type-Ⅲ procollagen was assessed with real-time polymerase chain reaction.The phosphorylation of myosin phosphatase target subunit-1 (MYPT1)and the protein levels of TGFβ1 and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) were evaluated by Western blotting.Results Compared with control rats,untreated diabetic rats showed higher values of collagen and hydroxyproline in livers (P <0.01),the phosphorylation of MYPT1 and the protein levels of TGFβ1 and α-SMA were increased (P <0.01),and the mRNA expression of TGFβ1,CTGF,type-Ⅰ,and type-Ⅲ procollagen was upregulated (P <0.01); compared with untreated diabetic rats,treatment with fasudil signifcantly reduced values of collagen and hydroxyproline (P <0.01),and decreased the phosphorylation of MYPT1 and the levels of TGFβ1 and α-SMA (P <0.01),concomitant with the downregulation of TGFβ1/CTGF,type-Ⅰ,and type-Ⅲ procollagen mRNA expression (P <0.01).Conclusions Fasudil ameliorates liver fibrosis in rats with type 2

  3. Abnormal echocardiography in patients with type 2 diabetes and relation to symptoms and clinical characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Peter Godsk; Jensen, Magnus T; Mogelvang, Rasmus;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We aimed to determine the prevalence of echocardiographic abnormalities and their relation to clinical characteristics and cardiac symptoms in a large, contemporary cohort of patients with type 2 diabetes. RESULTS: A total of 1030 patients with type 2 diabetes participated...... with abnormal echocardiography along with dyspnoea and characteristic chest pain (p characteristics had sufficient sensitivity and specificity to accurately identify patients with abnormal echocardiography. CONCLUSION: Echocardiographic abnormalities...... are very common in outpatients with type 2 diabetes, but neither cardiac symptoms nor clinical characteristics are effective to identify patients with echocardiographic abnormalities....

  4. Differential associations between depressive symptoms and glycaemic control in outpatients with diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bot, M.; Pouwer, F.; Jonge, P. de; Tack, C.J.J.; Geelhoed-Duijvestijn, P.H.; Snoek, F.J.

    2013-01-01

    AIMS: Depression is common in people with diabetes, and related to higher HbA(1c) levels. Depression, however, is a heterogeneous construct that involves a variety of symptoms. As little is known about the associations of individual depressive symptoms with HbA(1c) , we explored these associations i

  5. Depressive symptoms are associated with physical inactivity in patients with type 2 diabetes. The DIAZOB Primary Care Diabetes study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koopmans, Berber; Pouwer, Francois; de Bie, Robert A

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Depression is a common complication of type 2 diabetes, associated with poor disease outcomes such as impaired glycaemic control, cardiovascular disease and increased mortality. The mechanisms behind these associations are unclear. Depression might contribute to poor disease outcomes...... through decreased physical activity. OBJECTIVE: To test whether type 2 diabetes patients with elevated depression scores are more often physically inactive. METHODS: Demographic features, clinical factors, level of physical inactivity and depressive symptoms were assessed in 2646 primary care patients...... with type 2 diabetes. Sequential multiple logistic regression analyses [odds ratio, 95% confidence interval (CI)] were performed to test the association between depressive symptoms and physical inactivity. RESULTS: About 48% of the respondents were physically inactive. Elevated depressive symptoms were...

  6. Depletion of T lymphocytes ameliorates cardiac fibrosis in streptozotocin-induced diabetic cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Chowdhury S; Li, Zhao; Wang, Xiuqing; Jin, Zhu-Qiu

    2016-10-01

    T cell infiltration has been associated with increased coronary heart disease risk in patients with diabetes mellitus. Effect of modulation of T cell trafficking on diabetes-induced cardiac fibrosis has yet to be determined. Therefore, our aim was to investigate the circulatory T cell depletion-mediated cardioprotection in streptozotocin-induced diabetic cardiomyopathy. Fingolimod (FTY720), an immunomodulatory drug, was tested in wild-type (WT) C57BL/6 and recombination activating gene 1 (Rag1) knockout (KO) mice without mature lymphocytes in streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetic model. FTY720 (0.3mg/kg/day) was administered intraperitoneally daily for the first 4weeks with interim 3weeks then resumed for another 4weeks in 11weeks study period. T lymphocyte counts, cardiac histology, function, and fibrosis were examined in diabetic both WT and KO mice. FTY720 reduced both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells in diabetic WT mice. FTY720-treated diabetic WT mouse myocardium showed reduction in CD3 T cell infiltration and decreased expression of S1P1 and TGF-β1 in cardiac tissue. Fibrosis was reduced after FTY720 treatment in diabetic WT mice. Rag1 KO mice exhibited no CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells in the blood and CD3 T cells in the heart. Diabetic Rag1 KO mouse hearts appeared no fibrosis and exhibited preserved myocardial contractility. FTY720-induced antifibrosis was abolished in diabetic Rag1 KO mice. These findings demonstrate that chronic administration with FTY720 induces lymphopenia and protects diabetic hearts in WT mice whereas FTY720 increases cardiac fibrosis and myocardial dysfunction in diabetic Rag1 KO mice without mature lymphocytes.

  7. Hesperidin ameliorates streptozotocin and high fat diet induced diabetic nephropathy in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Dilpesh P Jain; Rahul S Somani

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The present study investigates protective effect of hesperidin on streptozotocin and high fat diet induced diabetic nephropathy in experimental type 2 diabetic rats. Methods: Sprague Dawley rats were fed with high fat emulsion and high fat diet for 2 weeks to induce glucose intolerance and then injected with streptozotocin (35 mg/kg, i.p.). Following 48 h of streptozotocin injection blood glucose level was estimated to confirm hyperglycemia. After 4 weeks of diabetes induction ...

  8. Brain changes in diabetes mellitus patients with gastrointestinal symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drewes, Anne M; Søfteland, Eirik; Dimcevski, Georg;

    2016-01-01

    neuropathy of the central nervous system (CNS) may play a major role. This systematic review provides an overview of the neurodegenerative changes that occur as a consequence of diabetes with a focus on the CNS changes and gastrointestinal (GI) dysfunction. Animal models where diabetes was induced......Diabetes mellitus is a common disease and its prevalence is increasing worldwide. In various studies up to 30%-70% of patients present dysfunction and complications related to the gut. To date several clinical studies have demonstrated that autonomic nervous system neuropathy and generalized...

  9. Ameliorative effect of melatonin against increased intestinal permeability in diabetic rats: possible involvement of MLCK-dependent MLC phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoping; Zou, Duobing; Tang, Songtao; Fan, Tingting; Su, Huan; Hu, Ruolei; Zhou, Qing; Gui, Shuyu; Zuo, Li; Wang, Yuan

    2016-05-01

    The increased intestinal permeability and functional impairment play an important role in type 2 diabetes (T2D), and melatonin may possess enteroprotection properties. Therefore, we used streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat model to investigate the regulation of intestinal permeability by melatonin. Rats were randomly divided into three groups, including control, diabetes mellitus (DM), and DM rats treated with melatonin. Melatonin was administered (10 mg/kg/day) by gavage for 24 weeks. The DM rats significantly increased the serum fasting blood glucose and lipid levels, which were alleviated by melatonin treatment. Importantly, the intestinal epithelial permeability was significantly increased in DM rats but was ameliorated following treatment with melatonin. These findings also indicated the expression of myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) and phosphorylation of MLC targeting subunit (MYPT) induced myosin light chain (MLC) phosphorylation level was markedly elevated in hyperglycemic and hyperlipidemic status. They were partly associated with down-regulated membrane type 1 and 2 (MT1 and MT2) expression, and up-regulated Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK) expression and increased extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation. However, the changes in target protein expression were reversed by melatonin. In conclusion, our results show melatonin beneficial effects on impaired intestinal epithelial permeability in T2D by suppressing ERK/MLCK- and ROCK/MCLP-dependent MLC phosphorylation.

  10. Amelioration of alloxan induced diabetes mellitus and oxidative stress in rats by oil of Eruca sativa seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Missiry, M A; El Gindy, A M

    2000-01-01

    Clinical research has confirmed the efficacy of several plant extracts in the modulation of oxidative stress associated with diabetes mellitus (DM). Oil of Eruca sativa seeds (ESS) is tried for prevention and treatment of DM induced experimentally by alloxan injection. A single dose of alloxan (100 mg/kg) produced a decrease in insulin level, hyperglycemia, elevated total lipids, triglycerides and cholesterol, decreased high-density lipoprotein and hepatic glycogen contents and elevated hepatic glucose-6-phosphatase activity. Concurrent with these changes, there was an increase in the concentration of malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxynonenal in the liver. This oxidative stress was related to a decreased glutathione (GSH) content and superoxide dismutase activity in the liver of alloxan-diabetic rats. ESS oil (0.06 ml/kg) on its own increased significantly hepatic GSH. Daily oral administration of ESS oil 2 weeks before or after diabetes induction ameliorated hyperglycemia, improved lipid profile, blunted the increase in malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxynonenal and stimulated the GSH production in the liver of alloxan-treated rats. We suggested that ESS oil could be used as antidiabetic complement in case of DM. This may be related to its antioxidative properties and to the increase in hepatic GSH.

  11. Associations Between Physical Activity and Depressive Symptoms by Weight Status Among Adults With Type 2 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Craike, Melinda J; Mosely, Kylie; Browne, Jessica L

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To examine associations between physical activity (PA) and depressive symptoms among adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (Type 2 DM), and whether associations varied according to weight status. METHODS: Diabetes MILES - Australia is a national survey of adults with diabetes, focused...... on behavioral and psychosocial issues. Data from 705 respondents with Type 2 DM were analyzed, including: demographic and clinical characteristics, PA (IPAQ-SF), depressive symptoms (PHQ-9), and BMI (self-reported height and weight). Data analysis was performed using ANCOVA. RESULTS: Respondents were aged 59...... with Type 2DM, however the amount of PA associated with fewer depressive symptoms varies according to weight status. Lower amounts of PA might be required for people who are obese to achieve meaningful reductions in depressive symptoms compared to those who are healthy weight or overweight. Further research...

  12. Dietary resistant maltodextrin ameliorates testicular function and spermatogenesis in streptozotocin-nicotinamide-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, C-Y; Hsu, Y-J; Chien, Y-W E; Cha, T-L; Tsao, C-W

    2016-05-01

    This study investigated the effect of resistant maltodextrin (RMD) on reproduction in streptozotocin (STZ)-nicotinamide-induced type 2 diabetic male rats. Forty male rats were induced with diabetes by a single intraperitoneal injection of STZ (50 mg kg(-1)) and nicotinamide (100 mg kg(-1)). Five groups were analysed in total: normal, diabetic rats without RMD, diabetic rats with RMD 1.2 g per 100 g diet (1×), with RMD 2.4 g per 100 g (2×), and with RMD 6.0 g per 100 g (5×). The groups of diabetic rats with the RMD supplement, compared to those without supplement, showed improved plasma glucose control, attenuated insulin resistance and recovery of testosterone level and spermatogenesis stage. The STZ-nicotinamide-induced diabetes mellitus (DM) caused a significant reduction in serum testosterone, testis androgen receptor (AR), steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD) protein, but a statistical recovery in each of these was observed in the 5× group. TUNEL-positive cells were observed in the diabetic without RMD group, and RMD treatment reduced apoptotic germ cells. The expression of Bax/Bcl2 was induced in the diabetic group and also significantly reduced in the 5× group. Dietary RMD may improve metabolic control in STZ-nicotinamide-induced diabetic rats and attenuate hyperglycaemia-related impaired male reproduction and testicular function.

  13. Coronary artery disease prevalence in diabetics type 2 without anginal symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Kotsalou

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of coronary artery disease (CAD in diabetics is extremely high. AIM: We studied the role of myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS and the incidence of CAD in asymptomatic diabetics comparing them to symptomatic ones, thus aiming to their best stratification into high and low risk category of CAD. Material and method: 78 diabetics type 2, mean age 62 years, which proceeded Cardiothoracic Department of NIMTS. Inclusion criteria were appropriate control of diabetes, of hypertention, no damage in organ-targets and absence of coronary intervention. We reported the risk factors for CAD, hereditary history, possible acute coronary syndrome referrals, or angina symptoms and medication and all diabetics were subjected in myocardial perfusion study. Results: Our study revealed the high prevalence (73% of CAD in asymptomatic diabetics included and statistically higher prevalence of CAD in male than in women ( p<0,01. Statistical correlation was reported between severity of ischemia findings and typical angina symptoms (p <0,05, duration of diabetes mellitus (DM (p=0,003, while type of therapy (p=0,37 and number of risk factors of CAD (p =0,23 were independent. Conclusions: MPS aids the detection of silent ischemia and diabetic autonomic neuropathy in DM patients, especially the asymptomatic ones, though DM is currently thought as a CAD equivalent independently of the presence of hypertension. Thus, MPS can help to early application of appropriate medication according to the recommendations of American Society of Diabetes.

  14. Sulodexide ameliorates early but not late kidney disease in models of radiation nephropathy and diabetic nephropathy

    OpenAIRE

    Rossini, Michele; Naito, Takashi; Yang, Haichun; Freeman, Michael; Donnert, Ellen; Ma, Li-Jun; Dunn, Stephen R.; Sharma, Kumar; Fogo, Agnes B.

    2010-01-01

    Background. Sulodexide is a glycosaminoglycan with anticoagulant and antithrombotic activities. Although sulodexide reduced albuminuria in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes, long-term effects on chronic renal injury are not established. We investigated sulodexide effects and mechanisms in a rat radiation nephropathy model and in the db/db mouse model of diabetic kidney disease.

  15. Diabetes at work. Fatigue in relation to job characteristics, diabetes symptoms and self-management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijman, Iris

    2005-01-01

    The focus of this thesis is on employees with diabetes. Fatigue, work characteristics and diabetes self-management are core aspects. Diabetes may have many consequences in the working situation and is expected to become an even bigger health problem, because the number of people with diabetes is gro

  16. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor ameliorates early renal injury through its anti-inflammatory action in a rat model of type 1 diabetes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kodera, Ryo, E-mail: kodera@cc.okayama-u.ac.jp [Center for Innovative Clinical Medicine, Okayama University Hospital, 2-5-1 Shikata-cho, Kita-ku, Okayama 700-8558 (Japan); Shikata, Kenichi [Center for Innovative Clinical Medicine, Okayama University Hospital, 2-5-1 Shikata-cho, Kita-ku, Okayama 700-8558 (Japan); Department of Medicine and Clinical Science, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2-5-1 Shikata-cho, Kita-ku, Okayama 700-8558 (Japan); Takatsuka, Tetsuharu; Oda, Kaori; Miyamoto, Satoshi; Kajitani, Nobuo; Hirota, Daisho; Ono, Tetsuichiro [Department of Medicine and Clinical Science, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2-5-1 Shikata-cho, Kita-ku, Okayama 700-8558 (Japan); Usui, Hitomi Kataoka [Department of Primary Care and Medical Education, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2-5-1 Shikata-cho, Kita-ku, Okayama 700-8558 (Japan); Makino, Hirofumi [Department of Medicine and Clinical Science, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2-5-1 Shikata-cho, Kita-ku, Okayama 700-8558 (Japan)

    2014-01-17

    Highlights: •DPP-4 inhibitor decreased urinary albumin excretion in a rat of type 1 diabetes. •DPP-4 inhibitor ameliorated histlogical changes of diabetic nephropathy. •DPP-4 inhibitor has reno-protective effects through anti-inflammatory action. •DPP-4 inhibitor is beneficial on diabetic nephropathy besides lowering blood glucose. -- Abstract: Introduction: Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors are incretin-based drugs in patients with type 2 diabetes. In our previous study, we showed that glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist has reno-protective effects through anti-inflammatory action. The mechanism of action of DPP-4 inhibitor is different from that of GLP-1 receptor agonists. It is not obvious whether DPP-4 inhibitor prevents the exacerbation of diabetic nephropathy through anti-inflammatory effects besides lowering blood glucose or not. The purpose of this study is to clarify the reno-protective effects of DPP-4 inhibitor through anti-inflammatory actions in the early diabetic nephropathy. Materials and methods: Five-week-old male Sprague–Dawley (SD) rats were divided into three groups; non-diabetes, diabetes and diabetes treated with DPP-4 inhibitor (PKF275-055; 3 mg/kg/day). PKF275-055 was administered orally for 8 weeks. Results: PKF275-055 increased the serum active GLP-1 concentration and the production of urinary cyclic AMP. PKF275-055 decreased urinary albumin excretion and ameliorated histological change of diabetic nephropathy. Macrophage infiltration was inhibited, and inflammatory molecules were down-regulated by PKF275-055 in the glomeruli. In addition, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activity was suppressed in the kidney. Conclusions: These results indicate that DPP-4 inhibitor, PKF275-055, have reno-protective effects through anti-inflammatory action in the early stage of diabetic nephropathy. The endogenous biological active GLP-1 might be beneficial on diabetic nephropathy besides lowering blood glucose.

  17. Abnormal nocturnal blood pressure fall in normotensive adolescents with insulin-dependent diabetes is ameliorated following glycemic improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.R.G. Ferreira

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available Lack of the physiological nocturnal fall in blood pressure (BP has been found in diabetics and it seems to be related to the presence of diabetic complications. The present study examined the changes in the nocturnal BP pattern of 8 normotensive insulin-dependent diabetic adolescents without nephropathy following improvement in glycemic control induced by an 8-day program of adequate diet and exercise. The same number of age- and sex-matched control subjects were studied. During the first and eighth nights of the program, BP was obtained by ambulatory BP monitoring. After a 10-min rest, 3 BP and heart rate (HR recordings were taken and the mean values were considered to represent their awake values. The monitor was programmed to cuff insufflation every 20 min from 10:00 p.m. to 7:00 a.m. The glycemic control of diabetics improved since glycemia (212.0 ± 91.5 to 140.2 ± 69.1 mg/dl, P<0.03, urine glucose (12.7 ± 11.8 to 8.6 ± 6.4 g/24 h, P = 0.08 and insulin dose (31.1 ± 7.7 to 16.1 ± 9.7 U/day, P<0.01 were reduced on the last day. The mean BP of control subjects markedly decreased during the sleeping hours of night 1 (92.3 ± 6.4 to 78.1 ± 5.0 mmHg, P<0.001 and night 8 (87.3 ± 6.7 to 76.9 ± 3.6 mmHg, P<0.001. Diabetic patients showed a slight decrease in mean BP during the first night. However, the fall in BP during the nocturnal period increased significantly on the eighth night. The average awake-sleep BP variation was significantly higher at the end of the study (4.2 vs 10.3%, P<0.05 and this ratio turned out to be similar to that found in the control group (10.3 vs 16.3%. HR variation also increased on the eighth night in the diabetics. Following the metabolic improvement obtained at the end of the period, the nocturnal BP variation of diabetics was close to the normal pattern. We suggest that amelioration of glycemic control may influence the awake-sleep BP and HR differences. This effect may be due at least in part to an attenuated

  18. A novel MitoNEET ligand, TT01001, improves diabetes and ameliorates mitochondrial function in db/db mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Takehiro; Yamamoto, Masashi; Amikura, Kazutoshi; Kato, Kozue; Serizawa, Takashi; Serizawa, Kanako; Akazawa, Daisuke; Aoki, Takumi; Kawai, Koji; Ogasawara, Emi; Hayashi, Jun-Ichi; Nakada, Kazuto; Kainoh, Mie

    2015-02-01

    The mitochondrial outer membrane protein mitoNEET is a binding protein of the insulin sensitizer pioglitazone (5-[[4-[2-(5-ethylpyridin-2-yl)ethoxy]phenyl]methyl]-1,3-thiazolidine-2,4-dione) and is considered a novel target for the treatment of type II diabetes. Several small-molecule compounds have been identified as mitoNEET ligands using structure-based design or virtual docking studies. However, there are no reports about their therapeutic potential in animal models. Recently, we synthesized a novel small molecule, TT01001 [ethyl-4-(3-(3,5-dichlorophenyl)thioureido)piperidine-1-carboxylate], designed on the basis of pioglitazone structure. In this study, we assessed the pharmacological properties of TT01001 in both in vitro and in vivo studies. We found that TT01001 bound to mitoNEET without peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ activation effect. In type II diabetes model db/db mice, TT01001 improved hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, and glucose intolerance, and its efficacy was equivalent to that of pioglitazone, without the pioglitazone-associated weight gain. Mitochondrial complex II + III activity of the skeletal muscle was significantly increased in db/db mice. We found that TT01001 significantly suppressed the elevated activity of the complex II + III. These results suggest that TT01001 improved type II diabetes without causing weight gain and ameliorated mitochondrial function of db/db mice. This is the first study that demonstrates the effects of a mitoNEET ligand on glucose metabolism and mitochondrial function in an animal disease model. These findings support targeting mitoNEET as a potential therapeutic approach for the treatment of type II diabetes.

  19. Chronic treatment with qiliqiangxin ameliorates aortic endothelial cell dysfunction in diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fei; Wu, Jia-Le; Fu, Guo-Sheng; Mou, Yun; Hu, Shen-Jiang

    2015-03-01

    Qiliqiangxin (QL), a traditional Chinese medicine, has been shown to be beneficial for chronic heart failure. However, whether QL can also improve endothelial cell function in diabetic rats remains unknown. Here, we investigated the effect of QL treatment on endothelial dysfunction by comparing the effect of QL to that of benazepril (Ben) in diabetic Sprague-Dawley rats for 8 weeks. Cardiac function was evaluated by echocardiography and catheterization. Assays for acetylcholine-induced, endothelium-dependent relaxation (EDR), sodium nitroprusside-induced endothelium-independent relaxation, serum nitric oxide (NO), and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) as well as histological analyses were performed to assess endothelial function. Diabetic rats showed significantly inhibited cardiac function and EDR, decreased expression of serum NO and phosphorylation at Ser(1177) on endothelial NOS (eNOS), and impaired endothelial integrity after 8 weeks. Chronic treatment for 8 weeks with either QL or Ben prevented the inhibition of cardiac function and EDR and the decrease in serum NO and eNOS phosphorylation caused by diabetes. Moreover, either QL or Ben suppressed inducible NOS (iNOS) protein levels as well as endothelial necrosis compared with the diabetic rats. Additionally, QL prevented the increase in angiotensin-converting enzyme 1 and angiotensin II receptor type 1 in diabetes. Thus, chronic administration of QL improved serum NO production, EDR, and endothelial integrity in diabetic rat aortas, possibly through balancing eNOS and iNOS activity and decreasing renin-angiotensin system expression.

  20. Amelioration of Glomerulosclerosis by Satureja khozestanica Essential Oil in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Ahmadvand

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Satureja khuzestanica, an endemic plant of Iran, has been reported to be used traditionally to treat diabetes. We examined possible protective effect of Satureja khozestanica essential oil (SKE on glomerulosclerosis in alloxan-induced type 1 diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 30 Sprage-dawley male rats were divided into 3 groups randomly; group 1 as control, group 2 diabetic untreated, and group 3 treatments with SKE by 500 ppm in drinking water, respectively. Diabetes was induced in the second and third groups by alloxan injection subcutaneously. After 8 weeks, animals were anaesthetized; livers and kidneys were then removed immediately. Kidney paraffin sections were prepared and stained by periodic acid Schiff method. Glomerular volume and leukocyte infiltration were estimated by stereological rules and glomerular sclerosis was studied semi-quantitatively. Results: Flow treatment of diabetic animals with SKE could significantly inhibit glomerular hypertrophy (22% leukocyte infiltration (31% and glomerulosclerosis (20% in comparison with the diabetic untreated group. Conclusion: The findings showed that SKE alleviates loss of glomerular volume, leukocyte infiltration, and glomerulosclerosis and exerts beneficial effects on the lipid peroxidation in alloxan-induced type 1 diabetic rats.

  1. Ethyl pyruvate ameliorates albuminuria and glomerular injury in the animal model of diabetic nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Kyung Don; Shin, Eun Kyoung; Cho, Eun Jin; Yoon, Hyun Bae; Kim, Hyo Sang; Kim, Hwajung; Yang, Jaeseok; Hwang, Young-Hwan; Ahn, Curie; Oh, Kook-Hwan

    2012-03-01

    Pyruvate is an endogenous antioxidant and anti-inflammatory substance. The present study was implemented to investigate the protective effect of ethyl pyruvate (EP) against the development and progression of diabetic nephropathy in an in vivo and in vitro model. Diabetic rats were prepared by injecting streptozotocin (65 mg/kg). Those that developed diabetes after 72 h were treated with EP (40 mg/kg) intraperitoneally. Diabetic rats without pyruvate treatment and nondiabetic rats were used for control. As an in vitro experiment, rat mesangial cells cultured primarily from Sprague-Dawley rats were treated in high-glucose (HG; 50 mM) or normal-glucose (NG; 5 mM) conditions and with or without pyruvate. Pyruvate-treated diabetic rats exhibited decreased albuminuria and attenuated NADPH-dependent reactive oxygen species generation. Immunohistochemistry showed reduced laminin, type IV collagen, and fibronectin deposition in the glomeruli compared with nontreated diabetic rats. Parallel changes were shown in tissue mRNA and protein expression levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, transforming growth factor-β1, laminin, fibronectin, and type IV collagen in the kidney. Concordantly, protective effects were also exhibited in the mesangial cell culture system. These findings suggest that pyruvate protects against kidney injury via NADPH oxidase inhibition. The present study established that activation of NADPH oxidase plays a crucial role in diabetes-induced oxidative stress, glomerular hypertrophy, and ECM molecule expression. Pyruvate exhibited a renoprotective effect in the progression of experimental diabetic nephropathy. Future research is warranted to investigate the protective mechanism of pyruvate more specifically in relation to NADPH oxidase in diabetic nephropathy.

  2. Melatonin intake since weaning ameliorates steroidogenic function and sperm motility of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, C F P; Gobbo, M G; Taboga, S R; Pinto-Fochi, M E; Góes, R M

    2016-05-01

    Melatonin may be used as an antioxidant in therapy against systemic sequelae caused by oxidative stress in diabetes. However, as melatonin has a major role in regulating reproductive activity, its consequence on reproductive parameters under diabetes needs to be better clarified. We have studied whether prior and concomitant treatment of juvenile Wistar rats with low doses of melatonin interferes in reproductive damage induced by experimental diabetes after 1 and 8 weeks. The consequences of melatonin administration since weaning on reproductive parameters of healthy rats at adulthood were also evaluated. Melatonin was provided in drinking water (10 μg/kg b.w./day) after weaning (5-week-old). Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin injection (4.5 mg/100 g b.w.) at 13-week-old rats, and rats were euthanized 1 and 8 weeks after disease onset. Diabetes decreased circulating testosterone levels (~35% to 1 week; ~62% to 2 months; p diabetes reduced the sperm reserve and led to atrophy of epididymal cauda. Both 1-week and 2-month diabetes impaired sperm motility, decreased the number of spermatozoa with progressive movement, and increased the number of immotile sperm. Melatonin intake reduced serum testosterone levels ~29% in healthy 14-week-old and ~23% in 21-week-old rats and reduced daily testicular sperm production ~26% in the latter disease stage, but did not interfere in sperm reserves and transit time for both experimental periods. Exogenous melatonin prevented the serum testosterone decrease and damage to sperm motility in diabetic rats and attenuated reduction in sperm counts and transit time induced by 1-week diabetes but did not avoid this decrease at 2-month diabetes. Low doses of melatonin administered prior to and during experimental diabetes attenuated damage to testicular steroidogenic activity and preserved sperm motility, but not sperm reserves in the rat. Our data indicated a differential action of melatonin in normoglycemic and hyperglycemic

  3. The impact of diabetes on neuropathic symptoms and receipt of chemotherapy among colorectal cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vissers, Pauline A J; Mols, Floortje; Thong, Melissa S Y;

    2015-01-01

    to clinical data from the population-based Eindhoven Cancer Registry. Diabetes status was self-reported and neuropathic symptoms were measured with the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer quality of life questionnaire-chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy 20 (EORTC QLQ-CIPN20......PURPOSE: This study assessed differences in neuropathic symptoms between colorectal cancer (CRC) patients with and without diabetes. Moreover, we aimed to explore whether neuropathic symptoms could be explained by the receipt of chemotherapy as it was previously shown that cancer patients...... with diabetes less often receive chemotherapy. METHODS: Data from a cross-sectional study among CRC patients (2-11 years after diagnosis) was used. Data were collected by the Patient Reported Outcomes Following Initial treatment and Long term Evaluation of Survivorship (PROFILES) registry which is linked...

  4. Therapeutic miR-21 Silencing Ameliorates Diabetic Kidney Disease in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kölling, Malte; Kaucsar, Tamas; Schauerte, Celina; Hübner, Anika; Dettling, Angela; Park, Joon-Keun; Busch, Martin; Wulff, Xaver; Meier, Matthias; Scherf, Kristian; Bukosza, Nóra; Szénási, Gábor; Godó, Mária; Sharma, Amit; Heuser, Michael; Hamar, Peter; Bang, Claudia; Haller, Hermann; Thum, Thomas; Lorenzen, Johan M

    2017-01-04

    Diabetic nephropathy is the main cause of end-stage renal disease. MicroRNAs are powerful regulators of the genome, and global expression profiling revealed miR-21 to be among the most highly regulated microRNAs in kidneys of mice with diabetic nephropathy. In kidney biopsies of diabetic patients, miR-21 correlated with tubulointerstitial injury. In situ PCR analysis showed a specific enrichment of miR-21 in glomerular cells. We identified cell division cycle 25a (Cdc25a) and cyclin-dependent kinase 6 (Cdk6) as novel miR-21 targets in mesangial cells. miR-21-mediated repression of Cdc25a and Cdk6 resulted in impaired cell cycle progression and subsequent mesangial cell hypertrophy. miR-21 increased podocyte motility by regulating phosphatase and tensin homolog (Pten). miR-21 antagonism in vitro and in vivo in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice decreased mesangial expansion, interstitial fibrosis, macrophage infiltration, podocyte loss, albuminuria, and fibrotic- and inflammatory gene expression. In conclusion, miR-21 antagonism rescued various functional and structural parameters in mice with diabetic nephropathy and, thus, might be a viable option in the treatment of patients with diabetic kidney disease.

  5. Effects of exercise training on quality of life, symptoms of depression, symptoms of anxiety and emotional well-being in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Heijden, M M P; van Dooren, Fleur E P; Pop, V J M

    2013-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Psychological problems are relatively common in people with type 2 diabetes. It is unclear whether exercise training exerts an effect on quality of life, symptoms of depression, symptoms of anxiety and emotional well-being in people with type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study...... with type 2 diabetes that evaluated the effect of exercise training on quality of life, symptoms of depression, symptoms of anxiety and/or emotional well-being compared with usual care. RESULTS: Of 1,261 retrieved articles, 20 RCTs were included with a total of 1,719 participants. Quality of life...... of depression. Emotional well-being was evaluated in four studies, which also showed conflicting results. Symptoms of anxiety were evaluated in one study, which showed a significant improvement. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: The effects of exercise training on psychological outcomes in people with type 2 diabetes...

  6. Activation of retinoid receptor-mediated signaling ameliorates diabetes-induced cardiac dysfunction in Zucker diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guleria, Rakeshwar S; Singh, Amar B; Nizamutdinova, Irina T; Souslova, Tatiana; Mohammad, Amin A; Kendall, Jonathan A; Baker, Kenneth M; Pan, Jing

    2013-04-01

    Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a significant contributor to the morbidity and mortality associated with diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Retinoids, through activation of retinoic acid receptor (RAR) and retinoid x receptor (RXR), have been linked to control glucose and lipid homeostasis, with effects on obesity and diabetes. However, the functional role of RAR and RXR in the development of DCM remains unclear. Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) and lean rats were treated with Am580 (RARα agonist) or LGD1069 (RXR agonist) for 16 weeks, and cardiac function and metabolic alterations were determined. Hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia and insulin resistance were observed in ZDF rats. Diabetic cardiomyopathy was characterized in ZDF rats by increased oxidative stress, apoptosis, fibrosis, inflammation, activation of MAP kinases and NF-κB signaling and diminished Akt phosphorylation, along with decreased glucose transport and increased cardiac lipid accumulation, and ultimately diastolic dysfunction. Am580 and LGD1069 attenuated diabetes-induced cardiac dysfunction and the pathological alterations, by improving glucose tolerance and insulin resistance; facilitating Akt activation and glucose utilization, and attenuating oxidative stress and interrelated MAP kinase and NF-κB signaling pathways. Am580 inhibited body weight gain, attenuated the increased cardiac fatty acid uptake, β-oxidation and lipid accumulation in the hearts of ZDF rats. However, LGD1069 promoted body weight gain, hyperlipidemia and cardiac lipid accumulation. In conclusion, our data suggest that activation of RAR and RXR may have therapeutic potential in the treatment of diabetic cardiomyopathy. However, further studies are necessary to clarify the role of RAR and RXR in the regulation of lipid metabolism and homeostasis.

  7. Ipomoea batatas and Agarics blazei ameliorate diabetic disorders with therapeutic antioxidant potential in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niwa, Atsuko; Tajiri, Takashi; Higashino, Hideaki

    2011-05-01

    Ipomoea batatas, Agaricus blazei and Smallanthus sonchifolius are known to favorably influence diabetes mellitus. To clarify their antidiabetic efficacy and hypoglycemic mechanisms, we treated streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats with daily oral feeding of powdered Ipomoea batatas (5 g kg(-1) d(-1)), Agaricus blazei (1 g kg(-1) d(-1)) or Smallanthus sonchifolius (4 g kg(-1) d(-1)) for 2 months. Treatments with Ipomoea batatas or Agaricus blazei, but not Smallanthus sonchifolius, significantly suppressed the increases of fasting plasma glucose and hemoglobin A1c levels, and restored body weight loss during diabetes. Serum insulin levels after oral glucose administration tests increased along the treatments of Ipomoea batatas or Agaricus blazei. Moreover, Ipomoea batatas and Agaricus blazei reduced superoxide production from leukocytes and vascular homogenates, serum 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine, and vascular nitrotyrosine formation of diabetic rats to comparable levels of normal control animals. Stress- and inflammation-related p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase activity and tumor necrosis factor-α production of diabetic rats were significantly depressed by Ipomoea batatas administration. Histological examination also exhibited improvement of pancreatic β-cells mass after treatments with Ipomoea batatas or Agaricus blazei. These results suggest that hypoglycemic effects of Ipomoea batatas or Agaricus blazei result from their suppression of oxidative stress and proinflammatory cytokine production followed by improvement of pancreatic β-cells mass.

  8. Ethanol extract of mango (Mangifera indica L.) peel inhibits α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities, and ameliorates diabetes related biochemical parameters in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats

    OpenAIRE

    Gondi, Mahendranath; U. J. S. Prasada Rao

    2015-01-01

    Peel is a major by-product during processing of mango fruit into pulp. Recent report indicates that the whole peel powder ameliorated diabetes. In the present study, ethanolic extract of mango peel was analysed for its bioactive compounds, evaluated for α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory properties, oral glucose tolerance test, antioxidant properties, plasma insulin level and biochemical parameters related to diabetes. In addition to gallic and protocatechuic acids, the extract also had c...

  9. Melatonin ameliorates myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury in type 1 diabetic rats by preserving mitochondrial function: role of AMPK-PGC-1α-SIRT3 signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Liming; Gong, Bing; Duan, Weixun; Fan, Chongxi; Zhang, Jian; Li, Zhi; Xue, Xiaodong; Xu, Yinli; Meng, Dandan; Li, Buying; Zhang, Meng; Bin Zhang; Jin, Zhenxiao; Yu, Shiqiang; Yang, Yang; Wang, Huishan

    2017-01-01

    Enhancing mitochondrial biogenesis and reducing mitochondrial oxidative stress have emerged as crucial therapeutic strategies to ameliorate diabetic myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (MI/R) injury. Melatonin has been reported to be a safe and potent cardioprotective agent. However, its role on mitochondrial biogenesis or reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in type 1 diabetic myocardium and the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. We hypothesize that melatonin ameliorates MI/R injury in type 1 diabetic rats by preserving mitochondrial function via AMPK-PGC-1α-SIRT3 signaling pathway. Both our in vivo and in vitro data showed that melatonin reduced MI/R injury by improving cardiac function, enhancing mitochondrial SOD activity, ATP production and oxidative phosphorylation complex (II, III and IV), reducing myocardial apoptosis and mitochondrial MDA, H2O2 generation. Importantly, melatonin also activated AMPK-PGC-1α-SIRT3 signaling and increased SOD2, NRF1 and TFAM expressions. However, these effects were abolished by Compound C (a specific AMPK signaling blocker) administration. Additionally, our cellular experiment showed that SIRT3 siRNA inhibited the cytoprotective effect of melatonin without affecting p-AMPK/AMPK ratio and PGC-1α expression. Taken together, we concluded that melatonin preserves mitochondrial function by reducing mitochondrial oxidative stress and enhancing its biogenesis, thus ameliorating MI/R injury in type 1 diabetic state. AMPK-PGC1α-SIRT3 axis plays an essential role in this process. PMID:28120943

  10. The Leaf of Diospyros kaki Thumb Ameliorates Renal Oxidative Damage in Mice with Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Myung-Sook; Jeong, Mi Ji; Park, Yong Bok; Kim, Sang Ryong; Jung, Un Ju

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic kidney disease is the most common and severe chronic complication of diabetes. The leaf of Diospyros kaki Thumb (persimmon) has been commonly used for herbal tea and medicinal purposes to treat a variety of conditions, including hypertension and atherosclerosis. However, the effect of persimmon leaf on kidney failure has not been investigated. This study aimed to examine the role of persimmon leaf in protecting the diabetes-associated kidney damage in a mouse model of type 2 diabetes. Mice were fed either a normal chow diet with or without powered persimmon leaf (5%, w/w) for 5 weeks. In addition to kidney morphology and blood markers of kidney function, we assessed levels of oxidative stress markers as well as antioxidant enzymes activities and mRNA expression in the kidney. Supplementation of the diet with powered persimmon leaf not only decreased the concentration of blood urea nitrogen in the plasma but also improved glomerular hypertrophy. Furthermore, the persimmon leaf significantly decreased the levels of hydrogen peroxide and lipid peroxide in the kidney. The activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase and the mRNA expression of their respective genes were also increased in the kidney of persimmon leaf-supplemented db/db mice. Taken together, these results suggest that supplementation with the persimmon leaf may have protective effects against type 2 diabetes-induced kidney dysfunction and oxidative stress. PMID:28078262

  11. Ameliorative Potentials of Cocoyam (Colocasia esculenta L. and Unripe Plantain (Musa paradisiaca L. on the Relative Tissue Weights of Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. O. Eleazu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To investigate the ameliorating potentials of cocoyam (Colocasia esculenta L. and unripe plantain (Musa paradisiaca L. incorporated feeds on the renal and liver growths of diabetic rats, induced with 55 and 65 mg/kg body weight of Streptozotocin. Method. The blood glucose level of the rats was measured with a glucometer, the protein and glucose and specific gravity (SPGR in the urine samples of the rats were measured using urine assay strips and urinometer respectively. The chemical composition and antioxidant screening of the test feeds were carried out using standard techniques. Results. Administration of the test feeds for 21 days to the diabetic rats of groups 4 and 5, resulted in 58.75% and 38.13% decreases in hyperglycemia and amelioration of their elevated urinary protein, glucose, SPGR, and relative kidney weights. The diabetic rats administered cocoyam incorporated feeds, had 2.71% and 19.52% increases in weight and growth rates, the diabetic rats administered unripe plantain incorporated feeds had 5.12% and 29.52% decreases in weight and growth rates while the diabetic control rats had 28.69%, 29.46%, 248.9% and 250.14% decreases in weights and growth rates. The cocoyam incorporated feeds contained higher antioxidants, minerals and phytochemicals except alkaloids than unripe plantain feed. Conclusion. Cocoyam and unripe plantain could be useful in the management of diabetic nephropathy.

  12. Sodium fusidate ameliorates the course of diabetes induced in mice by multiple low doses of streptozotocin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicoletti, F; Di Marco, R; Conget, I

    2000-01-01

    We studied the effects of the immunosuppressant sodium fusidate (fusidin) on murine immunoinflammatory diabetes mellitus (DM) induced by multiple low doses of streptozotocin (SZ). Fusidin was given by gavage to three strains of mice (C57KsJ, C57BL/6, CD1) at doses 10 or 100 mg/kg body weight every...

  13. Positive Psychology Interventions Addressing Pleasure, Engagement, Meaning, Positive Relationships, and Accomplishment Increase Well-Being and Ameliorate Depressive Symptoms: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Online Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gander, Fabian; Proyer, René T; Ruch, Willibald

    2016-01-01

    Seligman (2002) suggested three paths to well-being, the pursuit of pleasure, the pursuit of meaning, and the pursuit of engagement, later adding two more, positive relationships and accomplishment, in his 2011 version. The contribution of these new components to well-being has yet to be addressed. In an online positive psychology intervention study, we randomly assigned 1624 adults aged 18-78 (M = 46.13; 79.2% women) to seven conditions. Participants wrote down three things they related to either one of the five components of Seligman's Well-Being theory (Conditions 1-5), all of the five components (Condition 6) or early childhood memories (placebo control condition). We assessed happiness (AHI) and depression (CES-D) before and after the intervention, and 1-, 3-, and 6 months afterwards. Additionally, we considered moderation effects of well-being levels at baseline. Results confirmed that all interventions were effective in increasing happiness and most ameliorated depressive symptoms. The interventions worked best for those in the middle-range of the well-being continuum. We conclude that interventions based on pleasure, engagement, meaning, positive relationships, and accomplishment are effective strategies for increasing well-being and ameliorating depressive symptoms and that positive psychology interventions are most effective for those people in the middle range of the well-being continuum.

  14. Positive Psychology Interventions Addressing Pleasure, Engagement, Meaning, Positive Relationships, and Accomplishment Increase Well-Being and Ameliorate Depressive Symptoms: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Online Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gander, Fabian; Proyer, René T.; Ruch, Willibald

    2016-01-01

    Seligman (2002) suggested three paths to well-being, the pursuit of pleasure, the pursuit of meaning, and the pursuit of engagement, later adding two more, positive relationships and accomplishment, in his 2011 version. The contribution of these new components to well-being has yet to be addressed. In an online positive psychology intervention study, we randomly assigned 1624 adults aged 18–78 (M = 46.13; 79.2% women) to seven conditions. Participants wrote down three things they related to either one of the five components of Seligman's Well-Being theory (Conditions 1–5), all of the five components (Condition 6) or early childhood memories (placebo control condition). We assessed happiness (AHI) and depression (CES-D) before and after the intervention, and 1-, 3-, and 6 months afterwards. Additionally, we considered moderation effects of well-being levels at baseline. Results confirmed that all interventions were effective in increasing happiness and most ameliorated depressive symptoms. The interventions worked best for those in the middle-range of the well-being continuum. We conclude that interventions based on pleasure, engagement, meaning, positive relationships, and accomplishment are effective strategies for increasing well-being and ameliorating depressive symptoms and that positive psychology interventions are most effective for those people in the middle range of the well-being continuum. PMID:27242600

  15. Positive psychology interventions addressing pleasure, engagement, meaning, positive relationships, and accomplishment increase well-being and ameliorate depressive symptoms: A randomized, placebo-controlled online study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian eGander

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Seligman (2002 suggested three paths to well-being, the pursuit of pleasure, the pursuit of meaning, and the pursuit of engagement, later adding two more, positive relationships and accomplishment, in his 2011 version. The contribution of these new components to well-being has yet to be addressed.Method: In an online positive psychology intervention study, we randomly assigned 1,624 adults aged 18 to 78 (M = 46.13; 79.2% women to seven conditions. Participants wrote down three things they related to either one of the five components of Seligman’s Well-Being theory (Conditions 1-5, all of the five components (Condition 6 or early childhood memories (placebo control condition. We assessed happiness (AHI and depression (CES-D before and after the intervention, and 1-, 3-, and 6 months afterwards. Additionally, we considered moderation effects of well-being levels at baseline.Results: Results confirmed that all interventions were effective in increasing happiness and most ameliorated depressive symptoms. The interventions worked best for those in the middle-range of the well-being continuum. Conclusion: We conclude that interventions based on pleasure, engagement, meaning, positive relationships, and accomplishment are effective strategies for increasing well-being and ameliorating depressive symptoms and that positive psychology interventions are most effective for those people in the middle range of the well-being continuum.

  16. Plasma levels of thrombomodulin, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and fibrinogen in elderly, diabetic patients with depressive symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Background Diabetes, depression and aging have been associated with pro-inflammatory and prothrombotic state. Aim The aim of the study was to determine the plasma levels of thrombomodulin, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and fibrinogen in elderly diabetic patients with and without depressive symptoms and to examine factors (including thrombomodulin, PAI-1, fibrinogen levels) associated with depressive symptoms in elderly patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Methods A total of 276 T...

  17. Amelioration of streptozotocin-induced diabetic nephropathy by melatonin, quercetin, and resveratrol in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbe, H; Vardi, N; Esrefoglu, M; Ates, B; Yologlu, S; Taskapan, C

    2015-01-01

    The role of oxygen radicals are known for the pathogenesis of kidney damage. The aim of the present study was to investigate the antioxidative effects of melatonin, quercetin, and resveratrol on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic nephropathy in rats. A total of 35 male Wistar rats were divided into 5 groups as follows: control, diabetes mellitus (DM), DM + melatonin, DM + quercetin, and DM + resveratrol. All the injections started on the same day of single-dose STZ injection and continued for 30 days. At the end of this period, kidneys were removed and processed for routine histological procedures. Biochemical parameters and morphological changes were examined. In DM group, blood glucose levels were significantly increased, whereas body weights were decreased compared with the control group. Significant increases in blood urea nitrogen and tissue malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and decreases in superoxide dismutase and catalase activities were detected in DM group. Administration of melatonin, quercetin, and resveratrol significantly reduced these values. Melatonin was more efficient in reducing MDA levels than other antioxidants (p Melatonin, quercetin, and resveratrol significantly reduced these histopathological changes. Our results indicate that melatonin, quercetin, and resveratrol might be helpful in reducing diabetes-induced renal damage.

  18. Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Honor Become a Member En Español Type 1 Type 2 About Us Online Community Meal Planning Sign In Search: Search More Sites Search ≡ Are You At Risk? Diabetes Basics Living with Diabetes Food & Fitness In My ... Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy ...

  19. Diabetes and Depressive Symptoms in Korean Women: The Fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2010-2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Han Na; Chae, Hong Seok; Kim, Eung Soo

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between diabetes and depressive symptoms among Korean women. Methods We performed an analysis of data for 6,572 women aged 30 or over obtained from the Fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey conducted in 2010 to 2011. We examined the presence of depressive symptoms and the treatment of depression according to diabetes status. Results The presence of depressive symptoms was observed in 22.6% of subjects with diabetes. In the multiple logistic regression model, diabetes was associated with an increased risk of depressive symptoms (odds ratio [OR], 1.21; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20 to 1.21) but the treatment of depression among diabetics was less common (OR, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.54 to 0.55). Uncontrolled diabetes (glycosylated hemoglobin ≥ 7%) was associated with an increased risk of depressive symptoms (OR, 1.71; 95% CI, 1.69 to 1.73) among diabetics. Conclusion Physicians should manage individuals with diabetes in consideration of the presence of depressive symptoms, especially in those with uncontrolled diabetes. PMID:24921031

  20. Nicotinamide Riboside Ameliorates Hepatic Metaflammation by Modulating NLRP3 Inflammasome in a Rodent Model of Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hee Jae; Hong, Young-Shick; Jun, Woojin; Yang, Soo Jin

    2015-11-01

    Low-grade chronic inflammation (metaflammation) is a major contributing factor for the onset and development of metabolic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular disease. Nicotinamide riboside (NR), which is present in milk and beer, is a functional vitamin B3 having advantageous effects on metabolic regulation. However, the anti-inflammatory capacity of NR is unknown. This study evaluated whether NR modulates hepatic nucleotide binding and oligomerization domain-like receptor family, pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome. Male, 8-week-old KK/HlJ mice were allocated to the control or NR group. NR (100 mg/kg/day) or vehicle (phosphate-buffered saline) was administrated by an osmotic pump for 7 days. Glucose control, lipid profiles, NLRP3 inflammasome, and inflammation markers were analyzed, and structural and histological analyses were conducted. NR treatment did not affect body weight gain, food intake, and liver function. Glucose control based on the oral glucose tolerance test and levels of serum insulin and adiponectin was improved by NR treatment. Among tested lipid profiles, NR lowered the total cholesterol concentration in the liver. Histological and structural analysis by hematoxylin and eosin staining and transmission electron microscopy, respectively, showed that NR rescued the disrupted cellular integrity of the mitochondria and nucleus in the livers of obese and diabetic KK mice. In addition, NR treatment significantly improved hepatic proinflammatory markers, including tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-1. These ameliorations were accompanied by significant shifts of NLRP3 inflammasome components (NLRP3, ASC, and caspase1). These results demonstrate that NR attenuates hepatic metaflammation by modulating the NLRP3 inflammasome.

  1. Discovery of a novel class of targeted kinase inhibitors that blocks protein kinase C signaling and ameliorates retinal vascular leakage in a diabetic rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Stephan; Tran, Phong; Zhang, Qin; Zou, Aihua; Dinh, Dac; Jensen, Jordan; Zhou, Sue; Kang, Xiaolin; Zachwieja, Joseph; Lippincott, John; Liu, Kevin; Johnson, Sarah Ludlum; Scales, Stephanie; Yin, Chunfeng; Nukui, Seiji; Stoner, Chad; Prasanna, Ganesh; Lafontaine, Jennifer; Wells, Peter; Li, Hui

    2010-02-10

    Protein kinase C (PKC) family members such as PKCbetaII may become activated in the hyperglycemic state associated with diabetes. Preclinical and clinical data implicate aberrant PKC activity in the development of diabetic microvasculature abnormalities. Based on this potential etiological role for PKC in diabetic complications, several therapeutic PKC inhibitors have been investigated in clinical trials for the treatment of diabetic patients. In this report, we present the discovery and preclinical evaluation of a novel class of 3-amino-pyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrazole derivatives as inhibitors of PKC that are structurally distinct from the prototypical indolocarbazole and bisindolylmaleimide PKC inhibitors. From this pyrrolo-pyrazole series, several compounds were identified from biochemical assays as potent, ATP-competitive inhibitors of PKC activity with high specificity for PKC over other protein kinases. These compounds were also found to block PKC signaling activity in multiple cellular functional assays. PF-04577806, a representative from this series, inhibited PKC activity in retinal lysates from diabetic rats stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate. When orally administered, PF-04577806 showed good exposure in the retina of diabetic Long-Evans rats and ameliorated retinal vascular leakage in a streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat model. These novel PKC inhibitors represent a promising new class of targeted protein kinase inhibitors with potential as therapeutic agents for the treatment of patients with diabetic microvascular complications.

  2. The heme oxygenase system suppresses perirenal visceral adiposity, abates renal inflammation and ameliorates diabetic nephropathy in Zucker diabetic fatty rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Fomusi Ndisang

    Full Text Available The growing incidence of chronic kidney disease remains a global health problem. Obesity is a major risk factor for type-2 diabetes and renal impairment. Perirenal adiposity, by virtue of its anatomical proximity to the kidneys may cause kidney disease through paracrine mechanisms that include increased production of inflammatory cytokines. Although heme-oxygenase (HO is cytoprotective, its effects on perirenal adiposity and diabetic nephropathy in Zucker-diabetic fatty rats (ZDFs remains largely unclear. Upregulating the HO-system with hemin normalised glycemia, reduced perirenal adiposity and suppressed several pro-inflammatory/oxidative mediators in perirenal fat including macrophage-inflammatory-protein-1α (MIP-1α, endothelin (ET-1, 8-isoprostane, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β. Furthermore, hemin reduced ED1, a marker of pro-inflammatory macrophage-M1-phenotype, but interestingly, enhanced markers associated with anti-inflammatory M2-phenotype such as ED2, CD206 and IL-10, suggesting that hemin selectively modulates macrophage polarization towards the anti-inflammatory M2-phenotype. These effects were accompanied by increased adiponectin, HO-1, HO-activity, atrial-natriuretic peptide (ANP, and its surrogate marker, urinary-cGMP. Furthermore, hemin reduced renal histological lesions and abated pro-fibrotic/extracellular-matrix proteins like collagen and fibronectin that deplete nephrin, an important transmembrane protein which forms the scaffolding of the podocyte slit-diaphragm allowing ions to filter but not massive excretion of proteins, hence proteinuria. Correspondingly, hemin increased nephrin expression in ZDFs, reduced markers of renal damage including, albuminuria/proteinuria, but increased creatinine-clearance, suggesting improved renal function. Conversely, the HO-blocker, stannous-mesoporphyrin nullified the hemin effects, aggravating glucose metabolism, and exacerbating renal injury and function. The hemin effects were less

  3. The hepatoselective glucokinase activator PF-04991532 ameliorates hyperglycemia without causing hepatic steatosis in diabetic rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek M Erion

    Full Text Available Hyperglycemia resulting from type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is the main cause of diabetic complications such as retinopathy and neuropathy. A reduction in hyperglycemia has been shown to prevent these associated complications supporting the importance of glucose control. Glucokinase converts glucose to glucose-6-phosphate and determines glucose flux into the β-cells and hepatocytes. Since activation of glucokinase in β-cells is associated with increased risk of hypoglycemia, we hypothesized that selectively activating hepatic glucokinase would reduce fasting and postprandial glucose with minimal risk of hypoglycemia. Previous studies have shown that hepatic glucokinase overexpression is able to restore glucose homeostasis in diabetic models; however, these overexpression experiments have also revealed that excessive increases in hepatic glucokinase activity may also cause hepatosteatosis. Herein we sought to evaluate whether liver specific pharmacological activation of hepatic glucokinase is an effective strategy to reduce hyperglycemia without causing adverse hepatic lipids changes. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated a hepatoselective glucokinase activator, PF-04991532, in Goto-Kakizaki rats. In these studies, PF-04991532 reduced plasma glucose concentrations independent of changes in insulin concentrations in a dose-dependent manner both acutely and after 28 days of sub-chronic treatment. During a hyperglycemic clamp in Goto-Kakizaki rats, the glucose infusion rate was increased approximately 5-fold with PF-04991532. This increase in glucose infusion can be partially attributed to the 60% reduction in endogenous glucose production. While PF-04991532 induced dose-dependent increases in plasma triglyceride concentrations it had no effect on hepatic triglyceride concentrations in Goto-Kakizaki rats. Interestingly, PF-04991532 decreased intracellular AMP concentrations and increased hepatic futile cycling. These data suggest that

  4. The hepatoselective glucokinase activator PF-04991532 ameliorates hyperglycemia without causing hepatic steatosis in diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erion, Derek M; Lapworth, Amanda; Amor, Paul A; Bai, Guoyun; Vera, Nicholas B; Clark, Ronald W; Yan, Qingyun; Zhu, Yimin; Ross, Trenton T; Purkal, Julie; Gorgoglione, Matthew; Zhang, Guodong; Bonato, Vinicius; Baker, Levenia; Barucci, Nicole; D'Aquila, Theresa; Robertson, Alan; Aiello, Robert J; Yan, Jiangli; Trimmer, Jeff; Rolph, Timothy P; Pfefferkorn, Jeffrey A

    2014-01-01

    Hyperglycemia resulting from type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is the main cause of diabetic complications such as retinopathy and neuropathy. A reduction in hyperglycemia has been shown to prevent these associated complications supporting the importance of glucose control. Glucokinase converts glucose to glucose-6-phosphate and determines glucose flux into the β-cells and hepatocytes. Since activation of glucokinase in β-cells is associated with increased risk of hypoglycemia, we hypothesized that selectively activating hepatic glucokinase would reduce fasting and postprandial glucose with minimal risk of hypoglycemia. Previous studies have shown that hepatic glucokinase overexpression is able to restore glucose homeostasis in diabetic models; however, these overexpression experiments have also revealed that excessive increases in hepatic glucokinase activity may also cause hepatosteatosis. Herein we sought to evaluate whether liver specific pharmacological activation of hepatic glucokinase is an effective strategy to reduce hyperglycemia without causing adverse hepatic lipids changes. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated a hepatoselective glucokinase activator, PF-04991532, in Goto-Kakizaki rats. In these studies, PF-04991532 reduced plasma glucose concentrations independent of changes in insulin concentrations in a dose-dependent manner both acutely and after 28 days of sub-chronic treatment. During a hyperglycemic clamp in Goto-Kakizaki rats, the glucose infusion rate was increased approximately 5-fold with PF-04991532. This increase in glucose infusion can be partially attributed to the 60% reduction in endogenous glucose production. While PF-04991532 induced dose-dependent increases in plasma triglyceride concentrations it had no effect on hepatic triglyceride concentrations in Goto-Kakizaki rats. Interestingly, PF-04991532 decreased intracellular AMP concentrations and increased hepatic futile cycling. These data suggest that hepatoselective glucokinase

  5. Insulin receptor-overexpressing β-cells ameliorate hyperglycemia in diabetic rats through Wnt signaling activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi-Hyun Kim

    Full Text Available To investigate the therapeutic efficacy and mechanism of β-cells with insulin receptor (IR overexpression on diabetes mellitus (DM, rat insulinoma (INS-1 cells were engineered to stably express human insulin receptor (INS-IR cells, and subsequently transplanted into streptozotocin- induced diabetic rats. Compared with INS-1 cells, INS-IR cells showed improved β-cell function, including the increase in glucose utilization, calcium mobilization, and insulin secretion, and exhibited a higher rate of cell proliferation, and maintained lower levels of blood glucose in diabetic rats. These results were attributed to the increase of β-catenin/PPARγ complex bindings to peroxisome proliferator response elements in rat glucokinase (GK promoter and the prolongation of S-phase of cell cycle by cyclin D1. These events resulted from more rapid and higher phosphorylation levels of insulin-signaling intermediates, including insulin receptor substrate (IRS-1/IRS-2/phosphotylinositol 3 kinase/v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog (AKT 1, and the consequent enhancement of β-catenin nuclear translocation and Wnt responsive genes including GK and cyclin D1. Indeed, the higher functionality and proliferation shown in INS-IR cells were offset by β-catenin, cyclin D1, GK, AKT1, and IRS-2 gene depletion. In addition, the promotion of cell proliferation and insulin secretion by Wnt signaling activation was shown by 100 nM insulin treatment, and to a similar degree, was shown in INS-IR cells. In this regard, this study suggests that transferring INS-IR cells into diabetic animals is an effective and feasible DM treatment. Accordingly, the method might be a promising alternative strategy for treatment of DM given the adverse effects of insulin among patients, including the increased risk of modest weight gain and hypoglycemia. Additionally, this study demonstrates that the novel mechanism of cross-talk between insulin and Wnt signaling plays a primary role in

  6. [Prevalence of urinary tract symptoms in women with diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Rodríguez, Javier; Carbajal-Ramírez, Angélica; Meza-Vázquez, Héctor; Moreno-Palacios, Jorge; Serrano-Brambila, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: la diabetes mellitus (DM) conlleva un aumento de la ingesta de líquidos y del gasto urinario por el estado hiperosmolar al que induce a los que la padecen. El objetivo fue evaluar la prevalencia de síntomas urinarios en mujeres con DM, su impacto en la calidad de vida y su asociación con el tiempo de diagnóstico de DM, neuropatía y control glucémico. Métodos: en una cohorte de mujeres del programa DiabetIMSS evaluamos, de enero de 2011 a enero de 2013, sus antecedentes, neuropatía y síntomas urinarios, control glucémico e impacto en la calidad de vida mediante entrevista, medición de peso, exámenes paraclínicos y cuestionarios (ICIQ-SF, IPSS y QoL). Resultados: entrevistamos 169 mujeres con mediana de edad de 58 años (29-85) y mediana al diagnóstico de DM de 9 años (0.5-31). Presentaron síntomas urinarios 128 (75.7 %), principalmente incontinencia urinaria de esfuerzo y urgencia (45.3 y 40.6 %), síntomas obstructivos (25 %) e irritativos (10.1 %). Su impacto en la calidad de vida fue de leve a moderado (91.1 %). Presentaron neuropatía 154 (91.1 %), con un tiempo mayor de evolución en las pacientes sintomáticas (12 frente a 4.8 meses), igualmente prevalecieron los síntomas urinarios en aquellas con neuropatía de más de un año de evolución, p < 0.05. Conclusión: la prevalencia de síntomas urinarios en mujeres diabéticas es elevada, con el tiempo de evolución de neuropatía como único factor asociado. El tiempo de evolución de DM y una determinación de HbA1c no evidenciaron asociación significativa.

  7. Depression, anxiety and stress symptoms among diabetics in Malaysia: a cross sectional study in an urban primary care setting

    OpenAIRE

    Kaur, Gurpreet; Tee, Guat Hiong; Ariaratnam, Suthahar; Krishnapillai, Ambigga S; China, Karuthan

    2013-01-01

    Background Diabetes mellitus is a highly prevalent condition in Malaysia, increasing from 11.6% in 2006 to 15.2% in 2011 among individuals 18 years and above. Co-morbid depression in diabetics is associated with hyperglycemia, diabetic complications and increased health care costs. The aims of this study are to determine the prevalence and predictors of depression, anxiety and stress symptoms in Type II diabetics attending government primary care facilities in the urban area of Klang Valley, ...

  8. Investigating Factors Associated with Depressive Symptoms of Chronic Kidney Diseases in China with Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xu; Shen, Biyu; Wang, Xueqin

    2017-01-01

    Aim. To assess the depressive symptoms status of chronic kidney diseases in Nantong, China, with type 2 diabetes and to identify factors associated with depressive symptoms. Methods. In this cross-sectional analytic study, 210 type 2 diabetic patients were recruited from the Second Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the depression subscale of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HAD-D). The quality of life was measured with the RAND 36-Item Health Survey (SF-36). And the independent risk factors of depressive symptoms were assessed by using a stepwise forward model of logistic regression analysis. Results. The mean age of the study subjects was 57.66 years (SD: 11.68). Approximately 21.4% of subjects reported depressive symptoms (n = 45). Forward stepwise logistic regression analysis showed that female gender (P = 0.010), hypertension (P = 0.022), Stage IV (P = 0.003), and Stage V (P hypertension are at a marked increased risk of depressive symptoms. Providing optimal care for the psychological health of this population is vital.

  9. Helianthus annuus Leaf Ameliorates Postprandial Hyperglycaemia by Inhibiting Carbohydrate Hydrolyzing Enzymes Associated with Type-2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwafemi Adeleke Ojo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease. Decreasing postprandial hyperglycemia by retarding glucose absorption through inhibiting carbohydrates digesting enzymes (α-amylase and α-glucosidase is one of many approaches used for the management of this disease. This study was aimed at evaluating the normoglycaemic potential of Helianthus annuus leaf. Methods: The effect of the in vitro inhibitory of different extracts (acetone, ethyl acetate and hexane of the plant was assessed on the activities of diabetes-related enzymes (α-amylase and α-glucosidase. Results: The hexane extract of H. annuus leaf displayed the best inhibitory activity against α-amylase and α-glucosidase as indicated by the IC50 values (3.92 ± 0.02 mg mL-1 and (3.29 ± 0.12 mg mL-1, respectively. Lineweaver-Burk plot of inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase by this extract showed that it was competitive and non-competitive mode, respectively. Conclusion: H. annuus leaf possesses hypoglycaemic potential which may be due to the inhibition of pancreatic α-amylase and intestinal α-glucosidase.

  10. Clinical questionnaire study of oral health care and symptoms in diabetic vs. non-diabetic predialysis chronic kidney disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesterinen, Maarit; Ruokonen, Hellevi; Furuholm, Jussi; Honkanen, Eero; Meurman, Jukka H

    2012-04-01

    This paper aims to study oral symptoms (burning mouth sensation, xerostomia, dysphagia, and dysgeusia) and background characteristics among chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. The hypothesis was that patients experience oral discomfort and show interest towards dental care differently depending on the origin of their kidney disease. One hundred thirty-eight CKD patients at predialysis stage (94 men, 44 women, mean age 54 years) at the Helsinki University Central Hospital participated in the study. The patients were divided into a diabetic nephropathy group and a group of patients with other kidney diseases. The patients had a clinical oral examination and filled in a structured questionnaire. The data were analyzed and compared between the groups (SPSS for Windows version 15.0). T test was used for parameters normally distributed while binomial data were analyzed with cross-tabulations and chi-square test. Contrary to our study hypothesis, no statistically significant differences were seen in the questionnaire study between the diabetic vs. non-diabetic CKD patients in any other study parameter except in the use of medication (10 ± 2.3 vs. 8 ± 3.1 drugs daily, p diabetic, 48.2% in non-diabetic patients). No difference was seen in the frequency of oral discomfort among the different groups of predialysis patients investigated. Clinicians should be aware of nephropathy patients who frequently suffer from oral discomfort, particularly xerostomia.

  11. Effects of Rebamipide on Gastrointestinal Symptoms in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sejeong; Park, So Young; Kim, Yu Jin; Hong, Soo Min; Chon, Suk; Oh, Seungjoon; Woo, Jeong-taek; Kim, Sung-Woon; Kim, Young Seol

    2016-01-01

    Background Gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms are common in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Rebamipide is an effective gastric cytoprotective agent, but there are few data on its usefulness in T2DM. The aim of this study is to evaluate the improvement of GI symptoms after rebamipide treatment in patients with T2DM. Methods Patients with T2DM and atypical GI symptoms were enrolled. They took rebamipide (100 mg thrice daily) for 12 weeks and filled out the diabetes bowel symptom questionnaire (DBSQ) before and after rebamipide treatment. The DBSQ consisted of 10 questions assessing the severity of GI symptoms by a 1 to 6 scoring system. Changes in the DBSQ scores before and after rebamipide treatment were analyzed to evaluate any improvements of GI symptoms. Results A total of 107 patients were enrolled, and 84 patients completed the study. The mean age was 65.0±7.8, 26 patients were male (24.8%), the mean duration of T2DM was 14.71±9.12 years, and the mean glycosylated hemoglobin level was 6.97%±0.82%. The total DBSQ score was reduced significantly from 24.9±8.0 to 20.4±7.3 before and after rebamipide treatment (P<0.001). The DBSQ scores associated with reflux symptoms, indigestion, nausea or vomiting, abdominal bloating or distension, peptic ulcer, abdominal pain, and constipation were improved after rebamipide treatment (P<0.05). However, there were no significant changes in symptoms associated with irritable bowel syndrome, diarrhea, and anal incontinence. No severe adverse events were reported throughout the study. Conclusion Rebamipide treatment for 12 weeks improved atypical GI symptoms in patients with T2DM. PMID:27098506

  12. Chronic administration of atorvastatin could partially ameliorate erectile function in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Juhyun; Kwon, Oh Seong; Cho, Sung Yong; Paick, Jae-Seung; Kim, Soo Woong

    2017-01-01

    The efficacy of statins is related to the ‘common soil’ hypothesis, which proposes oxidative stress and inflammation as main pathophysiologic processes in the disease group of diabetes and endothelial dysfunction. This study evaluated the recovery of erectile function after administration of chronic statin alone in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes mellitus (DM) rats, focusing on the anti-oxidative effects and consequentially recuperated endothelial function. A total of 45 male Sprague-Dawley rats (8 weeks old) were divided into three groups (n = 15 each): an age-matched normal control group (Control group), an uncontrolled DM group (DM group), and a statin-treated group (Statin group). The rats in the DM and Statin group received an injection of STZ (60 mg/kg). Beginning 10 weeks after the establishment of DM, the Statin group received daily treatment with atorvastatin (10 mg/kg) via oral gavage for four weeks. After 14 weeks, the results of the experiment were evaluated. The ratios of intracavernosal pressure (ICP) to mean arterial pressure (MAP) were recorded with cavernosometry (20 Hz, 3 V, 0.2 msec for 30 seconds) before and after the intravenous administration of udenafil (1 mg/kg). Expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) was evaluated using cavernosal tissue. In addition, changes in RhoA translocation ratio and myosin phosphatase target subunit 1 (MYPT1) phosphorylation were evaluated with western blot. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were also analyzed as measurements of oxidative stress levels. The ICP/MAP and area under the curve (AUC)/MAP ratios of the Statin group were obviously superior to the DM group, but were not comparable to the Control group (PStatin group than in the DM group (P = 0.015), and was comparable to the Control group. In contrast, MDA levels were not considerably different among the groups (P = 0.217). The RhoA translocation ratio was not significantly different among the groups (P = 0

  13. Yi-Qi-Zeng-Min-Tang,a Chinese medicine,ameliorates insulin resistance in type 2 diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zeng Zhang; Hong-Li Xue; Yi Liu; Wen-Jian Wang

    2011-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the effects of the Chinese herbal decoction,Yi-Qi-Zeng-Min-Tang (YQZMT),on insulin resistance in type 2 diabetic rats. METHODS:Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into two dietary regiments by feeding either normal pellet diet (NPD) or high fat diet (HFD).Four weeks later,the HFD-fed rats were injected intraperitoneally with lowdose streptozotocin (STZ).Rats with non-fasting blood glucose level ≥ 16.67 mmol/L were considered type 2 diabetic and further divided into five subgroups:the type 2 diabetes model group,low-dose,medium-dose and high-dose YQZMT groups,and rosiglitazone group. Age-matched NPD-fed rats served as controls.YQZMT or rosiglitazone were administered for 8 wk.Intraperitoneal glucose and insulin tolerance tests were performed before and after the treatment to measure the glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity.Serum levels of biochemical parameters,adipocytokines,such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α),interleukin-6 (IL-6),as well as free fatty acids (FFAs),were also analyzed. RESULTS:There was significant elevation of insulin resistance and serum levels of fasting glucose (12.82 ± 1.08 mmol/L vs 3.60 ± 0.31 mmol/L,P < 0.01),insulin (7197.36 ± 253.89 pg/mL vs 4820.49 ± 326.89 pg/mL, P < 0.01),total cholesterol (TC) (8.40 ± 0.49 mmol/L vs 2.14 ± 0.06 mmol/L,P < 0.01),triglyceride (2.24 ± 0.12 mmol/L vs 0.78 ± 0.05 mmol/L,P < 0.01),low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) (7.84 ± 0.51 mmol/L vs 0.72 ± 0.04 mmol/L,P < 0.01) and decrease in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) (0.57 ± 0.03 mmol/L vs 1.27 ± 0.03 mmol/L,P < 0.01) in the low-dose STZ and high-fat diet induced type 2 diabetic group when compared with the control group. Administration of YQZMT induced dose- and timedependent changes in insulin resistance,glucose and lipid profile,and reduced levels of FFA,TNF-α and IL-6 in the type 2 diabetic rats.After the treatment, compared with the diabetic group,the insulin resistance was ameliorated in the

  14. Dracaena arborea leafextract:A phytotherapeutic option for ameliorating oxidative stress-mediated endocrine and testicular disorders in alloxan-induced diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Oluwaseyi Samson Ogunmodede; Saheed Oluwasina Oseni; Olumide Olaseni Adenmosun

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To explore and exploit these anti-diabetic properties of the leaf extracts of Dracaena arborea by investigating its therapeutic effects on blood glucose regulation, testicular and endocrine disorders in alloxan (ALX)-induced type-1 diabetic rats. Methods:Rats were divided into four groups of five animals each in a completely randomized trial and treated.ALX and thenDracaena arborea extracts (DAE) at 100 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg/day were administered to both normal (Group A) and diabetic rats (Groups C and D) and none to the diabetic control group (Group B) for a period of 8 weeks. The serum level of glucose, follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone and free testosterone were estimated for all treated and control groups. Oxidative stress parameters such as superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, catalase, and malondialdehyde were also estimated from testicular cells of control, untreated diabetic andDAE-treated diabetic rats. Results:We observed a significant (P Conclusions:These findings suggest thatDAE is a potential beneficial phytotherapeutic agent that may be used in ameliorating hyperglycemic, endocrine and reproductive disorders in type-1 diabetic men.

  15. Increased prevalence of symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux diseases in type 2 diabetics with neuropathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiangbing Wang; CS Pitchumoni; Khushbu Chandrarana; Neha Shah

    2008-01-01

    AIM:To analyze the prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) related symptoms in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) and to find out the relationship between diabetic neuropathy and the prevalence of GERD symptoms.METHODS:In this prospective questionnaire study,150 consecutive type 2 diabetic patients attending the endocrine clinic were enrolled.A junior physician helped the patients to understand the questions.Patients were asked about the presence of five most frequent symptoms of GERD that included heartburn (at least 1/wk),regurgitation,chest pain,hoarseness of voice and chronic cough.Patients with past medical history of angina,COPD,asthma,cough due to ACEI or preexisting GERD prior to onset of diabetes and apparent psychiatric disorders were excluded from the survey.We further divided the patients into two groups based on presence or absence of peripheral neuropathy.Out of 150 patients,46 had neuropathy,whereas 104 patients did not have neuropathy.Data are expressed as mean±SD,and number of patients in each category and percentage of total patients in that group.Normal distributions between groups were compared with Student t test and the prevalence rates between groups were compared with Chi-square tests for significance.RESULTS:The average duration of diabetes were 12±9.2 years and the average HbAlc level of this group was 7.7% + 2.0%.The mean weight and BMI were 198 + 54 Ibs.and 32±7.2 kg/m2.Forty percent (61/150) patients reported having at least one of the symptoms of GERD and thirty percent (45/150) reported having heartburn at least once a week.The prevalence of GERD symptoms is higher in patients with neuropathy than patients without neuropathy (58.7% vs 32.7%,P<0.01).The prevalence of heartburn,chest pain and chronic cough are also higher in patients with neuropathy than in patients without neuropathy (43.5% vs 24%;10.9% vs 4.8%and 17.8% vs 6.7% respectively,P<0.05).CONCLUSION:The prevalence of GERD symptoms in type 2 DM is higher

  16. Depressive Symptom Clusters Differentially Predict Cardiovascular Hospitalization in People With Type 2 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nefs, Giesje; Pop, Victor Jozef Marie; Denollet, Johan;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Depression has been associated with the development of cardiovascular disease in people with type 2 diabetes. OBJECTIVE: We examined whether symptoms related to the 2 core features of depression--dysphoria and anhedonia--and anxiety were differentially associated with cardiovascular...... hospitalization and whether there were symptom-specific mechanisms (alcohol, smoking, physical activity, body mass index, glucose, cholesterol, and blood pressure) in play. METHOD: A total of 1465 people in Dutch primary care completed the Edinburgh Depression Scale in 2005 and were followed up until first...

  17. Symptoms of depression in people with impaired glucose metabolism or Type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adriaanse, M C; Dekker, J M; Heine, R. J.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the prevalence and risk factors of depressive symptoms, comparing subjects with normal glucose metabolism (NGM), impaired glucose metabolism (IGM) or Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Cross-sectional data from a population-based cohort study conducted...... among 550 residents (276 men and 274 women) of the Hoorn region, the Netherlands. Levels of depressive symptoms were measured using the Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D score > or = 16). Glucose metabolism status was determined by means of fasting and post-load glucose levels...

  18. Altered brain microstructure assessed by diffusion tensor imaging in patients with diabetes and gastrointestinal symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frøkjær, Jens Brøndum; Andersen, Lars Wiuff; Brock, Christina;

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE In patients with long-standing diabetes mellitus (DM), there is increasing evidence for abnormal processing of gastrointestinal sensations in the central nervous system. Using magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging, we characterized brain microstructure in areas involved in visceral...... sensory processing and correlated these findings to clinical parameters. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Twenty-six patients with DM and gastrointestinal symptoms and 23 healthy control subjects were studied in a 3T scanner. The apparent diffusion coefficient (i.e., diffusivity of water) and fractional...... dysfunction and therefore may be involved in the pathogenesis of gastrointestinal symptoms in DM patients....

  19. Dracaena arborea leaf extract: A phytotherapeutic option for ameliorating oxidative stress-mediated endocrine and testicular disorders in alloxan-induced diabetic rats

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    Oluwaseyi Samson Ogunmodede

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore and exploit these anti-diabetic properties of the leaf extracts of Dracaena arborea by investigating its therapeutic effects on blood glucose regulation, testicular and endocrine disorders in alloxan (ALX-induced type-1 diabetic rats. Methods: Rats were divided into four groups of five animals each in a completely randomized trial and treated. ALX and then Dracaena arborea extracts (DAE at 100 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg/ day were administered to both normal (Group A and diabetic rats (Groups C and D and none to the diabetic control group (Group B for a period of 8 weeks. The serum level of glucose, follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone and free testosterone were estimated for all treated and control groups. Oxidative stress parameters such as superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, catalase, and malondialdehyde were also estimated from testicular cells of control, untreated diabetic and DAE-treated diabetic rats. Results: We observed a significant (P < 0.05 decrease in the serum glucose level as well as a drug-induced dose-dependent reduction in testosterone, follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone in the rats following type-1 diabetic conditions induction by ALX. There was a significant dose dependent response (P < 0.05 to treatment between the DAE-treated diabetic groups. Furthermore, a significant decrease (P < 0.05 in oxidative stress parameters was observed in testicular cells of diabetic rats post-treatment. Conclusions: These findings suggest that DAE is a potential beneficial phytotherapeutic agent that may be used in ameliorating hyperglycemic, endocrine and reproductive disorders in type-1 diabetic men.

  20. Nitrosonifedipine ameliorates the progression of type 2 diabetic nephropathy by exerting antioxidative effects.

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    Keisuke Ishizawa

    Full Text Available Diabetic nephropathy (DN is the major cause of end-stage renal failure. Oxidative stress is implicated in the pathogenesis of DN. Nitrosonifedipine (NO-NIF is a weak calcium channel blocker that is converted from nifedipine under light exposure. Recently, we reported that NO-NIF has potential as a novel antioxidant with radical scavenging abilities and has the capacity to treat vascular dysfunction by exerting an endothelial protective effect. In the present study, we extended these findings by evaluating the efficacy of NO-NIF against DN and by clarifying the mechanisms of its antioxidative effect. In a model of type 2 DN (established in KKAy mice, NO-NIF administration reduced albuminuria and proteinuria as well as glomerular expansion without affecting glucose metabolism or systolic blood pressure. NO-NIF also suppressed renal and systemic oxidative stress and decreased the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-1, a marker of endothelial cell injury, in the glomeruli of the KKAy mice. Similarly, NO-NIF reduced albuminuria, oxidative stress, and ICAM-1 expression in endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS knockout mice. Moreover, NO-NIF suppressed urinary angiotensinogen (AGT excretion and intrarenal AGT protein expression in proximal tubular cells in the KKAy mice. On the other hand, hyperglycemia-induced mitochondrial superoxide production was not attenuated by NO-NIF in cultured endothelial cells. These findings suggest that NO-NIF prevents the progression of type 2 DN associated with endothelial dysfunction through selective antioxidative effects.

  1. Pancreatic Kininogenase Ameliorates Renal Fibrosis in Streptozotocin Induced-Diabetic Nephropathy Rat

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    Dan Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: We aimed to evaluate whether pancreatic kininogenase (PKase can relieve renal fibrosis and investigate its mechanisms in diabetic nephropathy (DN rats Methods: We established streptozotocin (STZ induced-DN rats. After treatment with PKase for 4 weeks, urinary weight, urinary protein content and blood glucose concentration were detected, and then renal histopathological changes were examined using Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E and Masson's thrchrome staining. In addition, the expressions of miR-433, transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1 and antizyme inhibitor 1 (Azin1 were detected by qRT-PCR and/or western blotting. Results: PKase reduced urinary weight, urinary protein contents and blood glucose concentrations. PKase treated DN rats exhibited less renal fibrosis than untreated DN rats (P P P Conclusions: PKase might not only inhibit the development of DN by reducing urinary weight, urinary protein content and blood glucose concentration in DN rats, but also relieve renal fibrosis in DN rats through inhibiting the expression of TGF-β1, and miR-433 and Azin1 might involve in this process.

  2. Nitrosonifedipine ameliorates the progression of type 2 diabetic nephropathy by exerting antioxidative effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizawa, Keisuke; Izawa-Ishizawa, Yuki; Yamano, Noriko; Urushihara, Maki; Sakurada, Takumi; Imanishi, Masaki; Fujii, Shoko; Nuno, Asami; Miyamoto, Licht; Kihira, Yoshitaka; Ikeda, Yasumasa; Kagami, Shoji; Kobori, Hiroyuki; Tsuchiya, Koichiro; Tamaki, Toshiaki

    2014-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the major cause of end-stage renal failure. Oxidative stress is implicated in the pathogenesis of DN. Nitrosonifedipine (NO-NIF) is a weak calcium channel blocker that is converted from nifedipine under light exposure. Recently, we reported that NO-NIF has potential as a novel antioxidant with radical scavenging abilities and has the capacity to treat vascular dysfunction by exerting an endothelial protective effect. In the present study, we extended these findings by evaluating the efficacy of NO-NIF against DN and by clarifying the mechanisms of its antioxidative effect. In a model of type 2 DN (established in KKAy mice), NO-NIF administration reduced albuminuria and proteinuria as well as glomerular expansion without affecting glucose metabolism or systolic blood pressure. NO-NIF also suppressed renal and systemic oxidative stress and decreased the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1, a marker of endothelial cell injury, in the glomeruli of the KKAy mice. Similarly, NO-NIF reduced albuminuria, oxidative stress, and ICAM-1 expression in endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) knockout mice. Moreover, NO-NIF suppressed urinary angiotensinogen (AGT) excretion and intrarenal AGT protein expression in proximal tubular cells in the KKAy mice. On the other hand, hyperglycemia-induced mitochondrial superoxide production was not attenuated by NO-NIF in cultured endothelial cells. These findings suggest that NO-NIF prevents the progression of type 2 DN associated with endothelial dysfunction through selective antioxidative effects.

  3. Diabetic Nephropathy Amelioration by a Low-Dose Sitagliptin in an Animal Model of Type 2 Diabetes (Zucker Diabetic Fatty Rat)

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina Mega; Edite Teixeira de Lemos; Helena Vala; Rosa Fernandes; Jorge Oliveira; Filipa Mascarenhas-Melo; Frederico Teixeira; Flávio Reis

    2011-01-01

    This study was performed to assess the effect of chronic low-dose sitagliptin, a dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitor, on metabolic profile and on renal lesions aggravation in a rat model of type-2 diabetic nephropathy, the Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rat. Diabetic and obese ZDF (fa/fa) rats and their controls ZDF (+/+) were treated for 6 weeks with vehicle (control) or sitagliptin (10 mg/kg/bw). Blood/serum glucose, HbA1c, insulin, Total-c, TGs, urea, and creatinine were assessed, as well as kid...

  4. Enhanced Apoptosis of Monocytes from Complication-Free Juvenile-Onset Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 May Be Ameliorated by TNF-α Inhibitors

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    Jolanta Myśliwska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus type 1 is associated with an enhanced apoptosis of different cells and tissues, accelerating occurrence of diabetic microvascular complications. The aim of our study was to determine spontaneous apoptotic potential of the monocyte subsets in juvenile-onset complication-free diabetes mellitus type 1 and to compare them with the corresponding values of the healthy. Moreover, we wanted to assess effects of TNF-R1 blocking agents and those of general TNF-α blocker (Infliximab on spontaneous apoptosis of monocytes. Sixty randomly selected DM1 patients (14.5 ± 3.2 years and 30 healthy (13.5 ± 2.8 years volunteers were enrolled in the study. Our results indicate that three monocyte subsets are distinguishable in the groups of young diabetic patients and the healthy, similarly to in the blood of adults. DM1 patients were characterized by higher values of apoptotic monocytes than the healthy. The manipulation with drugs inhibiting TNF-R1 expression diminished the pool of CD16+ apoptotic monocytes. Infliximab reduced the apoptotic CD16− cells. In conclusion, diabetes mellitus type 1 is associated with greater apoptosis of three monocyte subsets which may contribute to the development of microvascular complications. TNF-α modifiers appear to ameliorate monocyte apoptosis. They may be useful for controlling excessive monocyte apoptosis in diabetic patients.

  5. Aqueous Extract from Hibiscus sabdariffa Linnaeus Ameliorate Diabetic Nephropathy via Regulating Oxidative Status and Akt/Bad/14-3-3γ in an Experimental Animal Model

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    Shou-Chieh Wang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Several studies point out that oxidative stress maybe a major culprit in diabetic nephropathy. Aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (HSE has been demonstrated as having beneficial effects on anti-oxidation and lipid-lowering in experimental studies. This study aimed at investigating the effects of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. on diabetic nephropathy in streptozotocin induced type 1 diabetic rats. Our results show that HSE is capable of reducing lipid peroxidation, increasing catalase and glutathione activities significantly in diabetic kidney, and decreasing the plasma levels of triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein (LDL and increasing high-density lipoprotein (HDL value. In histological examination, HSE improves hyperglycemia-caused osmotic diuresis in renal proximal convoluted tubules (defined as hydropic change in diabetic rats. The study also reveals that up-regulation of Akt/Bad/14-3-3γ and NF-κB-mediated transcription might be involved. In conclusion, our results show that HSE possesses the potential effects to ameliorate diabetic nephropathy via improving oxidative status and regulating Akt/Bad/14-3-3γ signaling.

  6. Oral Administration of N-Acetyl-seryl-aspartyl-lysyl-proline Ameliorates Kidney Disease in Both Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetic Mice via a Therapeutic Regimen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitta, Kyoko; Shi, Sen; Nagai, Takako; Kanasaki, Megumi; Kitada, Munehiro; Srivastava, Swayam Prakash; Haneda, Masakazu; Kanasaki, Keizo; Koya, Daisuke

    2016-01-01

    Kidney fibrosis is the final common pathway of progressive kidney diseases including diabetic nephropathy. Here, we report that the endogenous antifibrotic peptide N-acetyl-seryl-aspartyl-lysyl-proline (AcSDKP), the substrate of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), is an orally available peptide drug used to cure kidney fibrosis in diabetic mice. We utilized two mouse models of diabetic nephropathy, streptozotocin- (STZ-) induced type 1 diabetic CD-1 mice and type 2 diabetic nephropathy model db/db mice. Intervention with the ACE inhibitor imidapril, oral AcSDKP, or imidapril + oral AcSDKP combination therapy increased urine AcSDKP levels. AcSDKP levels were significantly higher in the combination group compared to those of the other groups. AcSDKP oral administration, either AcSDKP alone or in addition to imidapril, ameliorated glomerulosclerosis and tubulointerstitial fibrosis. Plasma cystatin C levels were higher in both models, at euthanasia, and were restored by all the treatment groups. The levels of antifibrotic miRs, such as miR-29 or let-7, were suppressed in the kidneys of both models; all treatments, especially the combination of imidapril + oral AcSDKP, restored the antifibrotic miR levels to a normal value or even higher. AcSDKP may be an oral antifibrotic peptide drug that would be relevant to combating fibroproliferative kidney diseases such as diabetic nephropathy.

  7. An 'Importance' Map of Signs and Symptoms to Classify Diabetic Polyneuropathy: An Exploratory Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacco, Isabel C. N.; Suda, Eneida Yuri; Vigneron, Vincent; Sartor, Cristina Dallemole

    2015-01-01

    Aims/Hypothesis Early diagnosis of diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN) is critical for a good prognosis. We aimed to identify different groups of patients, based on the various common clinical signs and symptoms of DPN, that represent a progressive worsening of the disease before the onset of plantar ulceration or amputation. We also sought to identify the most important DPN-related variables that can discriminate between groups, thus representing the most informative variables for early detection. Methods In 193 diabetic patients, we assessed 16 DPN-related signs, symptoms, and foot characteristics, based on the literature and the International Consensus on the Diabetic Foot. We used multiple correspondence analysis and the Kohonen algorithm to group the variables into micro and macro-classes and to identify clusters of patients that represent different DPN conditions. Results Four distinct groups were observed. One group showed no indication of DPN. The remaining groups were characterized by a progressive loss of the vibration perception, without a worsening of symptoms or tactile perception. The 2 intermediate groups presented different aspects of DPN: one showed mostly DPN symptoms and the other showed the incipient vibration impairment, callus and crack formation, and foot arch alteration. The fourth group showed more severe foot and DPN conditions, including ulceration and amputation, absence of vibration and tactile perception (irrespective of how many compromised foot areas), and worse foot deformities and callus and crack formation. Conclusion Vibration perception was more informative than tactile sensitivity in discriminating early DPN onset because its impairment was evident in more groups. Symptoms and callus and cracks did not discriminate the severity status and should be interpreted in association with other clinical variables. Reconsideration of the current screening techniques is needed to clinically determine the early onset of neuropathy using tactile

  8. An 'Importance' Map of Signs and Symptoms to Classify Diabetic Polyneuropathy: An Exploratory Data Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel C N Sacco

    Full Text Available Early diagnosis of diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN is critical for a good prognosis. We aimed to identify different groups of patients, based on the various common clinical signs and symptoms of DPN, that represent a progressive worsening of the disease before the onset of plantar ulceration or amputation. We also sought to identify the most important DPN-related variables that can discriminate between groups, thus representing the most informative variables for early detection.In 193 diabetic patients, we assessed 16 DPN-related signs, symptoms, and foot characteristics, based on the literature and the International Consensus on the Diabetic Foot. We used multiple correspondence analysis and the Kohonen algorithm to group the variables into micro and macro-classes and to identify clusters of patients that represent different DPN conditions.Four distinct groups were observed. One group showed no indication of DPN. The remaining groups were characterized by a progressive loss of the vibration perception, without a worsening of symptoms or tactile perception. The 2 intermediate groups presented different aspects of DPN: one showed mostly DPN symptoms and the other showed the incipient vibration impairment, callus and crack formation, and foot arch alteration. The fourth group showed more severe foot and DPN conditions, including ulceration and amputation, absence of vibration and tactile perception (irrespective of how many compromised foot areas, and worse foot deformities and callus and crack formation.Vibration perception was more informative than tactile sensitivity in discriminating early DPN onset because its impairment was evident in more groups. Symptoms and callus and cracks did not discriminate the severity status and should be interpreted in association with other clinical variables. Reconsideration of the current screening techniques is needed to clinically determine the early onset of neuropathy using tactile perception.

  9. Male accessory gland inflammation prevalence in type 2 diabetic patients with symptoms possibly reflecting autonomic neuropathy

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    Rosita A Condorelli

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Male accessory gland inflammation or infection (MAGI is a potentially underdiagnosed complication of type 2 diabetes (DM2; specifically, we reported in a recent study that the frequency of MAGI was 43% among DM2 patients. In previous studies, we have demonstrated that diabetic autonomic neuropathy (DAN is associated with a peculiar ultrasound characterization of the seminal vesicles (SVs in DM2 patients. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the frequency of MAGI in two different categories of DM2 patients (i.e. patients with and without symptoms that possibly reflect DAN and the respective ultrasound characterizations. Sixty DM2 patients with a mean (± s.e.m. age of 42.0 ± 6.0 years (range: 34-47 years were classified according to the presence or the absence of symptoms that could possibly reflect DAN (group A: DM2 with symptoms possibly reflecting DAN, n = 28 patients and group B: DM2 without symptoms possibly reflecting DAN, n = 32 patients. The patients in Group A exhibited a significantly higher frequency of MAGI compared with those in group B patients (P < 0.05; moreover, the Group A patients exhibited a significantly higher frequency of ultrasound signs suggestive of vesiculitis (P < 0.05. Finally, the concentrations of lymphocytes but not the concentrations of the leukocytes in the semen were significantly higher (P < 0.05 in group A compared with group B.

  10. Ginger extracts influence the expression of IL-27 and IL-33 in the central nervous system in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and ameliorates the clinical symptoms of disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafarzadeh, A; Mohammadi-Kordkhayli, M; Ahangar-Parvin, R; Azizi, V; Khoramdel-Azad, H; Shamsizadeh, A; Ayoobi, A; Nemati, M; Hassan, Z M; Moazeni, S M; Khaksari, M

    2014-11-15

    The immunomodulatory effects of the IL-27 and IL-33 and the anti-inflammatory effects of ginger have been reported in some studies. The aim was to evaluate the effects of the ginger extract on the expression of IL-27 and IL-33 in a model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). In PBS-treated EAE mice the expression of IL-27 P28 was significantly lower whereas the expression of IL-33 was significantly higher than unimmunized control mice. In 200 and 300 mg/kg ginger-treated EAE groups the expression of IL-27 P28 and IL-27 EBI3 was significantly higher whereas the expression of IL-33 was significantly lower than PBS-treated EAE mice. The EAE clinical symptoms and the pathological scores were significantly lower in ginger-treated EAE groups. These results showed that the ginger extract modulates the expression of the IL-27 and IL-33 in the spinal cord of EAE mice and ameliorates the clinical symptoms of disease.

  11. [Case of distal renal tubular acidosis complicated with renal diabetes insipidus, showing aggravation of symptoms with occurrence of diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hexing; Tomoda, Fumihiro; Koike, Tsutomu; Ohara, Maiko; Nakagawa, Taizo; Kagitani, Satoshi; Inoue, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    We report herein a 27-year-old male case of inherited distal renal tubular acidosis complicated with renal diabetes insipidus, the symptoms of which were aggravated by the occurrence of diabetes mellitus. At 2 months after birth, he was diagnosed as having inherited distal renal tubular acidosis and thereafter supplementation of both potassium and alkali was started to treat his hypokalemia and metabolic acidosis. At the age of 4 years, calcification of the bilateral renal medulla was detected by computed tomography. Subsequently his urinary volume gradually increased and polyuria of approximately 4 L/day persisted. At the age of 27 years, he became fond of sugar-sweetened drinks and also often forgot to take the medicine. He was admitted to our hospital due to polyuria of more than 10 L day, muscle weakness and gait disturbance. Laboratory tests disclosed worsening of both hypokalemia and metabolic acidosis in addition to severe hyperglycemia. It seemed likely that occurrence of diabetes mellitus and cessation of medications can induce osmotic diuresis and aggravate hypokalemia and metabolic acidosis. Consequently, severe dehydration, hypokalemia-induced damage of his urinary concentration ability and enhancement of the renin angiotensin system occurred and thereby possibly worsened his hypokalemia and metabolic acidosis. As normalization of hyperglycemia and metabolic acidosis might have exacerbated hypokalemia further, dehydration and hypokalemia were treated first. Following intensive treatment, these abnormalities were improved, but polyuria persisted. Elevated plasma antidiuretic hormone (12.0 pg/mL) and deficit of renal responses to antidiuretic hormone suggested that the polyuria was attributable to the preexisting renal diabetes insipidus possibly caused by bilateral renal medulla calcification. Thiazide diuretic or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were not effective for the treatment of diabetes insipidus in the present case.

  12. Association of Rev-erbα in adipose tissues with Type 2 diabetes mellitus amelioration after gastric bypass surgery in Goto-Kakizaki rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Yan, Caifeng; Zhou, Xinrong; Qian, Bangguo; Li, Fuqiang; Sun, Yidan; Shi, Chen; Li, Bing; Saito, Shigeru; Horimoto, Katsuhisa; Zhou, Huarong

    2013-07-15

    We estimated the key molecules related to Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in adipose, liver, and muscle tissues, from nonobese diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats and their Wistar controls, by computationally analyzing the expression profiles in open source data. With the aid of information from previous reports, Rev-erbα in adipose tissue emerged as one of the most plausible candidates. Here, in animal models, including GK rats surgically treated to ameliorate T2DM, we examined the association of Rev-erbα in adipose tissue with T2DM progression. After analyses of the Rev-erbα mRNA expression in the adipose tissue of our animal models, we compared the Rev-erbα protein expression levels in the adipose, liver, and muscle tissues of GK and Wistar controls at the ages of 1 mo (M), 3M, and 6M. The Rev-erbα protein levels in adipose tissue showed a distinctive pattern, with the negative correlation of an increasing trend in GK rats, and a decreasing trend in Wistar rats during aging, from those in liver and muscle tissues. Moreover, dysregulation of the circadian Rev-erbα expression in the adipose tissue of 6-mo-old GK rats was also observed. In particular, we ameliorated T2DM in GK rats by gastric bypass surgery, and revealed that T2DM amelioration in diabetic GK rats was associated with improved circadian Rev-erbα expression, in a comparison between the surgically treated and untreated GK rats. The roles of Rev-erbα in adipose tissue were further investigated by observations of Rev-erbα-related molecules, with reference to previous reports.

  13. Klotho gene delivery ameliorates renal hypertrophy and fibrosis in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats by suppressing the Rho-associated coiled-coil kinase signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Minghong; Luo, Yumei; Li, Yunkui; Yang, Qiuchen; Deng, Xiaoqin; Wu, Ping; Ma, Houxun

    2015-07-01

    The present study aimed to investigate whether klotho gene delivery attenuated renal hypertrophy and fibrosis in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. A recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) carrying mouse klotho full-length cDNA (rAAV.mKL), was constructed for in vivo investigation of klotho expression. Diabetes was induced in rats by a single tail vein injection of 60 mg/kg streptozotocin. Subsequently, the diabetic rats received an intravenous injection of rAAV.mKL, rAAV.green fluorescent protein (GFP) or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). The Sprague-Dawley rat group received PBS and served as the control group. After 12 weeks, all the rats were sacrificed and ELISA, immunohistochemical and histological analyses, fluorescence microscopy, semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blottin were performed. A single dose of rAAV.mKL was found to prevent the progression of renal hypertrophy and fibrosis for at least 12 weeks (duration of study). Klotho expression was suppressed in the diabetic rats, but was increased by rAAV.mKL delivery. rAAV.mKL significantly suppressed diabetes-induced renal hypertrophy and histopathological changes, reduced renal collagen fiber generation and decreased kidney hypertrophy index. In addition, rAAV.mKL decreased the protein expression levels of fibronectin and vimentin, while it downregulated the mRNA expression and activity of Rho-associated coiled-coil kinase (ROCK)I in the kidneys of the diabetic rats. These results indicated that klotho gene delivery ameliorated renal hypertrophy and fibrosis in diabetic rats, possibly by suppressing the ROCK signaling pathway. This may offer a novel approach for the long-term control and renoprotection of diabetes.

  14. P2RX7 Purinoceptor::a therapeutic target for ameliorating the symptoms of Duchenne muscular dystrophy

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background Muscular dystrophies are inherited diseases in which the body’s muscles gradually weaken and waste away. The most common and severe muscular dystrophy—Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD)—also includes cognitive (thinking) and behavioral impairments and low bone density as well as chronic inflammation. DMD affects about 1 in 3,500 boys; girls can be carriers of DMD but rarely have any symptoms. At birth, boys who carry a mutation (genetic change) in the gene that make...

  15. L-carnitine ameliorated fatty liver in high-calorie diet/STZ-induced type 2 diabetic mice by improving mitochondrial function

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    Xia Yunqiu

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are an increasing number of patients suffering from fatty liver caused by type 2 diabetes. We intended to study the preventive and therapeutic effect of L-carnitine (LC on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD in streptozotocin (STZ-induced type 2 diabetic mice and to explore its possible mechanism. Methods Thirty male Kungming mice were randomly divided into five groups: control group, diabetic group, pre-treatment group (125 mg/kg BW, low-dose (125 mg/kg BW therapeutic group and high-dose (250 mg/kg BW therapeutic group. The morphology of hepatocytes was observed by light and electron microscopy. LC and ALC (acetyl L-carnitine concentrations in the liver were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Moreover, liver weight, insulin levels and free fatty acid (FFA and triglyceride (TG levels in the liver and plasma were measured. Results Average liver LC and ALC levels were 33.7% and 20% lower, respectively, in diabetic mice compared to control mice (P Conclusion LC supplements ameliorated fatty liver in type 2 diabetic mice by increasing fatty acid oxidation and decreasing the LC/ALC ratio in the liver. Therefore, oral administration of LC protected mitochondrial function in liver.

  16. C-C chemokine receptor 2 inhibitor ameliorates hepatic steatosis by improving ER stress and inflammation in a type 2 diabetic mouse model.

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    Hong-Min Kim

    Full Text Available Hepatic steatosis is the accumulation of excess fat in the liver. Recently, hepatic steatosis has become more important because it occurs in the patients with obesity, type 2 diabetes, and hyperlipidemia and is associated with endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress and insulin resistance. C-C chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2 inhibitor has been reported to improve inflammation and glucose intolerance in diabetes, but its mechanisms remained unknown in hepatic steatosis. We examined whether CCR2 inhibitor improves ER stress-induced hepatic steatosis in type 2 diabetic mice. In this study, db/db and db/m (n = 9 mice were fed CCR2 inhibitor (2 mg/kg/day for 9 weeks. In diabetic mice, CCR2 inhibitor decreased plasma and hepatic triglycerides levels and improved insulin sensitivity. Moreover, CCR2 inhibitor treatment decreased ER stress markers (e.g., BiP, ATF4, CHOP, and XBP-1 and inflammatory cytokines (e.g., TNFα, IL-6, and MCP-1 while increasing markers of mitochondrial biogenesis (e.g., PGC-1α, Tfam, and COX1 in the liver. We suggest that CCR2 inhibitor may ameliorate hepatic steatosis by reducing ER stress and inflammation in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  17. Ameliorating effect of Semecarpus anacardium Linn. nut milk extract on altered glucose metabolism in high fat diet STZ induced type 2 diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kaladevi Siddhi Vinayagam; Shanthi Palanivelu; Sachdanandam Panchanadham

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore the protective effect of the drug Semecarpus anacardium (S. anacardium) on altered glucose metabolism in diabetic rats. Methods: Type 2 diabetes mellitus was induced by feeding rats with high fat diet followed by single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ) (35 mg/kg b.w.). Seven days after STZ induction, diabetic rats received nut milk extract ofS. anacardium Linn. nut milk extract orally at a dosage of 200 mg/kg daily for 4 weeks. The effect of nut milk extract of S. anacardium on blood glucose, plasma insulin, glucose metabolising enzymes and GSK were studied. Results: Treatment with SA extract showed a significant reduction in blood glucose levels and increase in plasma insulin levels and also increase in HOMA - β and decrease in HOMA -IR. The drug significantly increased the activity of glycolytic enzymes and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity and increased the glycogen content in liver of diabetic rats while reducing the activities of gluconeogenic enzymes. The drug also effectively ameliorated the alterations in GSK-3 mRNA expression. Conclusions: Overall, the present study demonstrates the possible mechanism of glucose regulation of S. anacardium suggestive of its therapeutic potential for the management of diabetes mellitus.

  18. Depressive Symptoms, Emotion Dysregulation, and Bulimic Symptoms in Youth With Type 1 Diabetes: Varying Interactions at Diagnosis and During Transition to Insulin Pump Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young-Hyman, Deborah L; Peterson, Claire M; Fischer, Sarah; Markowitz, Jessica T; Muir, Andrew B; Laffel, Lori M

    2016-07-01

    This study evaluated the associations between depressive symptoms, emotion dysregulation and bulimic symptoms in youth with type 1 diabetes (T1D) in the context of the diagnosis and treatment of T1D. Study participants were 103 youth in 2 distinct groups: newly diagnosed (New) or transitioning to pump therapy (continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion [CSII]; "Pump"), who completed questionnaires regarding symptoms of depression, emotion dysregulation, and bulimia. Glycemic control (A1c), height, weight, and questionnaires were evaluated within 10 days of diagnosis (n = 58) or at education/clinic visit before starting insulin utilizing CSII (n = 45). In the newly diagnosed group, only depression accounted for significant variance in bulimia scores (β = .47, P symptoms and emotion dysregulation were associated with greater bulimic symptoms. Depressive symptoms and emotion dysregulation, an indicator of poor coping/behavioral control, could help explain adoption of disordered eating behaviors in youth with T1D who are transitioning to pump therapy.

  19. A Case of Severe Esophageal Intramural Pseudodiverticulosis Whose Symptoms Were Ameliorated by Oral Administration of Anti-Fungal Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Chiba

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Esophageal intramural pseudodiverticulosis (EIPD is a rare disease of unknown etiology that displays multiple pseudodiverticula radiologically, leading to benign esophageal stricture. Dysphagia, which sometimes slowly progresses, is the main symptom in the majority of cases. We here report a 59-year-old male EIPD patient who suffered from severe dysphagia. Radiography and endoscopy of this patient disclosed a severe constriction in the upper thoracic esophagus. Although we tried several endoscopic procedures including frequent endoscopic balloon dilatation (EBD, the effect was very limited and his dysphagia relapsed shortly after the treatments. During the procedures, we noticed some white, thick, creamy liquid emerging from the orifices of EIPD, and PAS staining of biopsy specimens revealed infection with Candida albicans. Hence, the patient was given anti-fungal medicine in addition to EBD. The additional treatment with anti-fungal medicine dramatically improved his symptoms and the esophageal constriction. This case suggests that anti-fungal treatment is an effective first-line therapy even against a severe form of esophageal constriction in EIPD.

  20. Behavioral Self-Regulation in Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes: Negative Affectivity and Blood Glucose Symptom Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiebe, Deborah J.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Adolescents who were more internally focused were more able to discern which symptoms actually covaried with blood glucose (BG) fluctuations; those with higher trait anxiety tended to misattribute non-diabetes-related symptoms to BG levels. Interactions suggested those who both attend to internal physical sensations and experience-heightened…

  1. The course of depressive symptoms in primary care patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nefs, Giesje; Pouwer, F; Denollet, J;

    2012-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The aim of the study was to examine the course (incidence, recurrence/persistence) of depressive symptoms in primary care patients with type 2 diabetes and to identify significant predictors of these different course patterns. METHODS: A cohort of 2,460 primary care patients...... with type 2 diabetes was assessed for demographic, clinical and psychological factors in 2005 and followed-up in 2007 and 2008. Depression was defined as a score of ≥ 12 on the Edinburgh Depression Scale. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to determine whether several depression......-course patterns could be predicted by means of demographics, medical co-morbidities and psychological factors. RESULTS: A total of 630 patients (26%) met the criterion for depression at one or more assessments. In the subgroup with no baseline depression, incident depression at follow-up was present in 14% (n...

  2. Depressive symptoms and all-cause mortality in people with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nefs, Giesje; Pop, Victor J M; Denollet, Johan

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Depression has been associated with increased all-cause mortality in people with type 2 diabetes. AIMS: To test whether anhedonia, dysphoria and anxiety are differentially associated with all-cause mortality and examine symptom-specific behavioural or pathophysiological mechanisms....... METHOD: A total of 1465 people completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale in 2005 and were followed until death or 31 December 2010. Cox regression analyses compared survival time for people with a low v. high baseline dysphoria/anhedonia/anxiety score and identified mediating mechanisms. RESULTS...

  3. Male accessory gland inlfammation prevalence in type2 diabetic patients with symptoms possibly relfecting autonomic neuropathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rosita A Condorelli; Enzo Vicari; Aldo E Calogero; Sandro La Vignera

    2014-01-01

    Male accessory gland inlfammation or infection(MAGI) is a potentially underdiagnosed complication of type2 diabetes(DM2);speciifcally, we reported in a recent study that the frequency of MAGI was 43% among DM2patients. In previous studies, we have demonstrated that diabetic autonomic neuropathy(DAN) is associated with a peculiar ultrasound characterization of the seminal vesicles(SVs) in DM2patients. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the frequency of MAGI in two different categories of DM2patients(i.e.patients with and without symptoms that possibly relfect DAN) and the respective ultrasound characterizations. Sixty DM2patients with a mean(± s.e.m.) age of 42.0±6.0years(range: 34–47years) were classiifed according to the presence or the absence of symptoms that could possibly relfect DAN(groupA: DM2 with symptoms possibly relfecting DAN,n=28patients and groupB: DM2 without symptoms possibly relfecting DAN,n=32patients). The patients in GroupA exhibited a signiifcantly higher frequency of MAGI compared with those in groupB patients(P<0.05); moreover, the GroupA patients exhibited a signiifcantly higher frequency of ultrasound signs suggestive of vesiculitis(P<0.05). Finally, the concentrations of lymphocytes but not the concentrations of the leukocytes in the semen were signiifcantly higher(P<0.05) in groupA compared with groupB.

  4. Canine Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 Ameliorates Hyperglycemia Associated with Inhibiting Hepatic Gluconeogenesis and Improving Pancreatic Beta-Cell Survival in Diabetic Mice and Dogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengfei Xu

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is a common endocrinopathy in dog. Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF-21 is a secreted protein, which is involved in glucose homeostasis. We speculate that the recombinant canine FGF-21 (cFGF-21 has the potential to become a powerful therapeutics to treat canine diabetes. The cFGF-21 gene was cloned and expressed in E. coli Rosetta (DE3. After purification, a cFGF-21 protein with the purity exceeding 95% was obtained. Mouse 3T3-L1 adipocytes and type 1 diabetic mice/dogs induced by STZ were used to examine the biological activity of cFGF-21 in vitro and in vivo, respectively. Results showed that cFGF-21 stimulated glucose uptake in adipocytes significantly in a dose-dependent manner, and reduced plasma glucose significantly in diabetic mice/dogs. After treatment with cFGF-21, the serum insulin level, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c level and the expressions of the hepatic gluconeogenesis genes (glucose-6-phosphatase, G6Pase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, PCK of the diabetic mice/dogs were attenuated significantly. In the mouse experiment, we also found that the phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3 and the expression of suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3 were up-regulated significantly in the livers after treatment. Histopathological and immunohistochemical results showed that treatment with cFGF-21 promoted recovery of pancreatic islets from STZ-induced apoptosis. Besides, we also found that treatment with cFGF-21 protected liver against STZ or hyperglycemia induced damage and the mechanism of this action associated with inhibiting oxidative stress. In conclusion, cFGF-21 represents a promising candidate for canine diabetes therapeutics. The mechanism of cFGF-21 ameliorates hyperglycemia associated with inhibiting hepatic gluconeogenesis by regulation of STAT3 signal pathway and improving pancreatic beta-cell survival.

  5. Ameliorative potentials of cocoyam (Colocasia esculenta L.) and unripe plantain (Musa paradisiacal L.) on renal and liver growth in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eleazu CO; Iroaganachi M; Eleazu KC

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the ameliorating potentials of cocoyam(Colocasia esculenta(C. esculenta)L.) and unripe plantain(Musa paradisiacae(M. paradisiacae)L.) incorporated feeds on renal and liver growth ofSTZ induced rats.Method:The blood glucose level of all the rats was measured with a glucometer, the protein and glucose levels in the urine samples of the rats were determined using urine assay strips while the specific gravity of the urine samples of all the rats was determined with a urinometer.The assay of the proximate, phytochemical, mineral composition as well as screening for antioxidant activity of the test feeds was carried out using standard techniques.Results:The administration of the test feeds to the diabetic rats in58.75% and38.13% decreases in their hyperglycemia with a corresponding amelioration of their elevated urinary protein, glucose, specific gravity as well as renal and kidney growths.Administration of the cocoyam incorporated feeds to the diabetic rats of group4, resulted in2.71% increase in body weight with a corresponding19.52% increase in growth rate unlike the diabetic rats of group 5, administered unripe plantain feed that had5.12% decrease in weight with a corresponding 29.52% decrease in growth rate but higher than the diabetic control rats that recorded28.69% and 29.46% decreases in body weights with a corresponding248.9% and250.14% decreases in growth rates.Analysis revealed that the test feeds contained low quantities of moisture but significant quantities of crude fibre, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, ash, alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, calcium, magnesium, potassium, iron, zinc, phosphorous as well as considerable amount of energy.In addition, the cocoyam incorporated feeds contained higher quantities of flavonoids, saponin, tannin,Ca,Mg,Fe,Zn,K,P, crude fibre as well as antioxidant activity but lower quantities of alkaloids than the unripe plantain feed.Conclusion:The use of cocoyam and unripe plantain flours in the

  6. Ameliorative effect of combination of benfotiamine and fenofibrate in diabetes-induced vascular endothelial dysfunction and nephropathy in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakumar, Pitchai; Chakkarwar, Vishal Arvind; Singh, Manjeet

    2009-01-01

    The study has been designed to investigate the effect of benfotiamine and fenofibrate in diabetes-induced experimental vascular endothelial dysfunction (VED) and nephropathy. The single administration of streptozotocin (STZ) (50 mg/kg, i.p.) produced diabetes, which was noted to develop VED and nephropathy in 8 weeks. The diabetes produced VED by attenuating acetylcholine-induced endothelium dependent relaxation, impairing the integrity of vascular endothelium, decreasing serum nitrite/nitrate concentration and increasing serum TBARS and aortic superoxide anion generation. Further, diabetes altered the lipid profile by increasing the serum cholesterol, triglycerides and decreasing the high density lipoprotein. The nephropathy was noted to be developed in the diabetic rat that was assessed in terms of increase in serum creatinine, blood urea, proteinuria, and glomerular damage. The benfotiamine (70 mg/kg, p.o.) and fenofibrate (32 mg/kg, p.o.) or lisinopril (1 mg/kg, p.o., a standard agent) treatments were started in diabetic rats after 1 week of STZ administration and continued for 7 weeks. The treatment with benfotiamine and fenofibrate either alone or in combination attenuated diabetes-induced VED and nephropathy. In addition, the combination of benfotiamine and fenofibrate was noted to be more effective in attenuating the diabetes-induced VED and nephropathy when compared to treatment with either drug alone or lisinopril. Treatment with fenofibrate normalizes the altered lipid profile in diabetic rats, whereas benfotiamine treatment has no effect on lipid alteration in diabetic rats. It may be concluded that diabetes-induced oxidative stress, lipids alteration, and consequent development of VED may be responsible for the induction of nephropathy in diabetic rats. Concurrent administration of benfotiamine and fenofibrate may provide synergistic benefits in preventing the development of diabetes-induced nephropathy by reducing the oxidative stress and lipid

  7. Quality of life, anxiety and depression symptoms in early and late pregnancy in women with pregestational diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Do, Nicoline C; Secher, Anna L; Cramon, Per

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to explore changes in health-related quality of life, anxiety and depression symptoms during pregnancy in women with pregestational diabetes. MATERIAL AND METHODS: An observational cohort study including 137 pregnant women with pregestational diabetes (110....... The HADS anxiety score improved slightly from 5.0 (3.3) to 4.5 (3.4) (p = 0.04) whereas the HADS depression score remained unchanged. The prevalence of women with HADS anxiety or depression score ≥8 did not change. CONCLUSIONS: Physical quality of life deteriorated whereas mental quality of life improved...... slightly during pregnancy in women with pregestational diabetes. A minor reduction in anxiety and stable depression symptoms was observed. The results on mental health are reassuring, considering the great demands that pregnancy places on women with pregestational diabetes....

  8. Melatonin ameliorates high fat diet-induced diabetes and stimulates glycogen synthesis via a PKCzeta-Akt-GSK3beta pathway in hepatic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shieh, Jiunn-Min; Wu, Hung-Tsung; Cheng, Kai-Chun; Cheng, Juei-Tang

    2009-11-01

    Low levels of melatonin in circulation had been reported to be related to the development of diabetes. Melatonin administration in animals increases hepatic glycogen content to lower blood glucose. However, the signaling pathway for these effects is still unclear. The present study shows that intraperitoneal injection of 10 mg/kg melatonin ameliorated glucose utilization and insulin sensitivity in high fat diet-induced diabetic mice with an increase in hepatic glycogen and improvement in liver steatosis. We used HepG2 cells to investigate the signaling pathways for the melatonin-stimulated hepatic glycogen increment. Treatment of HepG2 cells with 1 nm melatonin markedly increased glycogen synthesis which was blocked by the melatonin receptor antagonist luzindole. In addition, melatonin increased the phosphorylation of subcellular signals at the level of protein kinase C zeta (PKCzeta), Akt, and glycogen synthase kinase 3beta (GSK3beta) while the increase in glycogen synthesis induced by melatonin was inhibited by PKCzeta pseudo-peptide. However, 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) was not influenced by melatonin treatment. Taken together, melatonin improves glucose intolerance and insulin resistance in high fat diet-induced diabetic mice and stimulates glycogen synthesis via a PKCzeta-Akt-GSK3beta pathway in HepG2 cells.

  9. Effects of Berberine on Amelioration of Hyperglycemia and Oxidative Stress in High Glucose and High Fat Diet-Induced Diabetic Hamsters In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cong Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of berberine on amelioration of hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia and the mechanism involved in high glucose and high fat diet-induced diabetic hamsters. Golden hamsters fed with high glucose and high fat diet were medicated with metformin, simvastatin, and low or high dose of berberine (50 and 100 mg·kg−1 for 6 weeks. The results showed that the body weights were significantly lower in berberine-treated groups than control group. Histological analyses revealed that the treatment of berberine inhibited hepatic fat accumulation. Berberine significantly reduced plasma total cholesterol, triglyceride, free fatty acid, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, malondialdehyde, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance, and 8-isoprostane level but significantly increased plasma superoxide dismutase activity. Glucose and insulin levels were significantly reduced in metformin and berberine-treated groups. Glucose tolerance tests documented that berberine-treated mice were more glucose tolerant. Berberine treatment increased expression of skeletal muscle glucose transporter 4 mRNA and significantly decreased liver low density lipoprotein receptor mRNA expression. The study suggested that berberine was effective in lowering blood glucose and lipids levels, reducing the body weight, and alleviating the oxidative stress in diabetic hamsters, which might be beneficial in reducing the cardiovascular risk factors in diabetes.

  10. Amelioration of diabetes-induced neurobehavioral and neurochemical changes by melatonin and nicotinamide: implication of oxidative stress-PARP pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jangra, Ashok; Datusalia, Ashok Kumar; Khandwe, Shriya; Sharma, Shyam Sunder

    2013-12-01

    Diabetes associated hyperglycemia results in generation of reactive oxygen species which induces oxidative stress and initiate massive DNA damage leading to overactivation of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). In this study, we have elucidated the involvement of oxidative stress-PARP pathway using pharmacological interventions (melatonin, as an anti-oxidant and nicotinamide, as a PARP inhibitor) in diabetes-induced neurobehavioral and neurochemical alterations. Sprague-Dawley rats were rendered diabetic by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. Behavioral and cognitive deficits were assessed after 8weeks of diabetes induction using a functional observation battery, passive avoidance and rotarod test. Acetylcholinesterase activity was significantly decreased in hippocampus of diabetic rats as compared to control rats. Diabetic animals showed significant increase in malondialdehyde levels and reduction in NAD levels in hippocampus. Glutamate and GABA levels were also altered in hippocampus of the diabetic animals. Two week treatment with melatonin (3 and 10mg/kg) and nicotinamide (300 and 1000mg/kg) alone and in combination significantly improved the neurobehavioral parameters which were altered in diabetes. Neurotransmitter (glutamate and GABA) levels were improved by these interventions. Our results emphasize that simultaneous inhibition of oxidative stress-PARP overactivation cascade can be beneficial in treatment of diabetes associated CNS changes.

  11. Ameliorative Effect of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles on Antioxidants and Sperm Characteristics in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rat Testes

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed Afifi; Almaghrabi, Omar A.; Naif Mohammed Kadasa

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the impact of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) on the oxidative status and sperm characteristics in diabetic rat testicular tissue. Forty male albino rats were used in this study; 10 of them served as a control and 30 rats were injected with a single dose (100 mg/kg) of streptozotocin intraperitoneally. They were subdivided into diabetic, diabetic + ZnONPs (10 mg/kg B.W.), and diabetic and cotreated with ZnONPs + insulin groups. The sperm count and motility wer...

  12. A1M Ameliorates Preeclampsia-Like Symptoms in Placenta and Kidney Induced by Cell-Free Fetal Hemoglobin in Rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nääv, Åsa; Erlandsson, Lena; Axelsson, Josefin; Larsson, Irene; Johansson, Martin; Wester-Rosenlöf, Lena; Mörgelin, Matthias; Casslén, Vera; Gram, Magnus; Åkerström, Bo; Hansson, Stefan R

    2015-01-01

    Preeclampsia is one of the most serious pregnancy-related diseases and clinically manifests as hypertension and proteinuria after 20 gestational weeks. The worldwide prevalence is 3-8% of pregnancies, making it the most common cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Preeclampsia lacks an effective therapy, and the only "cure" is delivery. We have previously shown that increased synthesis and accumulation of cell-free fetal hemoglobin (HbF) in the placenta is important in the pathophysiology of preeclampsia. Extracellular hemoglobin (Hb) and its metabolites induce oxidative stress, which may lead to acute renal failure and vascular dysfunction seen in preeclampsia. The human endogenous protein, α1-microglobulin (A1M), removes cell-free heme-groups and induces natural tissue repair mechanisms. Exogenously administered A1M has been shown to alleviate the effects of Hb-induced oxidative stress in rat kidneys. Here we attempted to establish an animal model mimicking the human symptoms at stage two of preeclampsia by administering species-specific cell-free HbF starting mid-gestation until term, and evaluated the therapeutic effect of A1M on the induced symptoms. Female pregnant rabbits received HbF infusions i.v. with or without A1M every second day from gestational day 20. The HbF-infused animals developed proteinuria and a significantly increased glomerular sieving coefficient in kidney that was ameliorated by co-administration of A1M. Transmission electron microscopy analysis of kidney and placenta showed both intracellular and extracellular tissue damages after HbF-treatment, while A1M co-administration resulted in a significant reduction of the structural and cellular changes. Neither of the HbF-treated animals displayed any changes in blood pressure during pregnancy. In conclusion, infusion of cell-free HbF in the pregnant rabbits induced tissue damage and organ failure similar to those seen in preeclampsia, and was restored by co-administration of A

  13. Ameliorative Effect of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles on Antioxidants and Sperm Characteristics in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rat Testes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, Mohamed; Almaghrabi, Omar A.; Kadasa, Naif Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the impact of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) on the oxidative status and sperm characteristics in diabetic rat testicular tissue. Forty male albino rats were used in this study; 10 of them served as a control and 30 rats were injected with a single dose (100 mg/kg) of streptozotocin intraperitoneally. They were subdivided into diabetic, diabetic + ZnONPs (10 mg/kg B.W.), and diabetic and cotreated with ZnONPs + insulin groups. The sperm count and motility were assessed. The activity and mRNA expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GRD), and Glutathion-S-Transferase (GST) were determined in the testicular tissue. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels were estimated in the testicular tissue. Sperm count and motility increased in ZnONPs treated diabetic rats. A significant increase in the activity and mRNA expression of SOD, CAT, GPx, GRD, and GST was shown in ZnONPs treated diabetic rats. MDA significantly decreased, while GSH increased in testicular tissue of ZnONPs treated diabetic rats. It was concluded that ZnONPs either alone or in combination with insulin have the ability to increase the sperm count and motility and protect the testicular tissue against the oxidative stress induced by diabetes in rats. PMID:26581756

  14. Ameliorative Effect of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles on Antioxidants and Sperm Characteristics in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rat Testes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Afifi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the impact of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs on the oxidative status and sperm characteristics in diabetic rat testicular tissue. Forty male albino rats were used in this study; 10 of them served as a control and 30 rats were injected with a single dose (100 mg/kg of streptozotocin intraperitoneally. They were subdivided into diabetic, diabetic + ZnONPs (10 mg/kg B.W., and diabetic and cotreated with ZnONPs + insulin groups. The sperm count and motility were assessed. The activity and mRNA expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, glutathione reductase (GRD, and Glutathion-S-Transferase (GST were determined in the testicular tissue. Malondialdehyde (MDA and reduced glutathione (GSH levels were estimated in the testicular tissue. Sperm count and motility increased in ZnONPs treated diabetic rats. A significant increase in the activity and mRNA expression of SOD, CAT, GPx, GRD, and GST was shown in ZnONPs treated diabetic rats. MDA significantly decreased, while GSH increased in testicular tissue of ZnONPs treated diabetic rats. It was concluded that ZnONPs either alone or in combination with insulin have the ability to increase the sperm count and motility and protect the testicular tissue against the oxidative stress induced by diabetes in rats.

  15. Ameliorative Effect of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles on Antioxidants and Sperm Characteristics in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rat Testes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, Mohamed; Almaghrabi, Omar A; Kadasa, Naif Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the impact of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) on the oxidative status and sperm characteristics in diabetic rat testicular tissue. Forty male albino rats were used in this study; 10 of them served as a control and 30 rats were injected with a single dose (100 mg/kg) of streptozotocin intraperitoneally. They were subdivided into diabetic, diabetic + ZnONPs (10 mg/kg B.W.), and diabetic and cotreated with ZnONPs + insulin groups. The sperm count and motility were assessed. The activity and mRNA expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GRD), and Glutathion-S-Transferase (GST) were determined in the testicular tissue. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels were estimated in the testicular tissue. Sperm count and motility increased in ZnONPs treated diabetic rats. A significant increase in the activity and mRNA expression of SOD, CAT, GPx, GRD, and GST was shown in ZnONPs treated diabetic rats. MDA significantly decreased, while GSH increased in testicular tissue of ZnONPs treated diabetic rats. It was concluded that ZnONPs either alone or in combination with insulin have the ability to increase the sperm count and motility and protect the testicular tissue against the oxidative stress induced by diabetes in rats.

  16. Antioxidant treatment ameliorates experimental diabetes-induced depressive-like behaviour and reduces oxidative stress in brain and pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Réus, Gislaine Z; Dos Santos, Maria Augusta B; Abelaira, Helena M; Titus, Stephanie E; Carlessi, Anelise S; Matias, Beatriz I; Bruchchen, Livia; Florentino, Drielly; Vieira, Andriele; Petronilho, Fabricia; Ceretta, Luciane B; Zugno, Alexandra I; Quevedo, João

    2016-03-01

    Studies have shown a relationship between diabetes mellitus (DM) and the development of major depressive disorder. Alterations in oxidative stress are associated with the pathophysiology of both diabetes mellitus and major depressive disorder. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of antioxidants N-acetylcysteine and deferoxamine on behaviour and oxidative stress parameters in diabetic rats. To this aim, after induction of diabetes by a single dose of alloxan, Wistar rats were treated with N-acetylcysteine or deferoxamine for 14 days, and then depressive-like behaviour was evaluated. Oxidative stress parameters were assessed in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, amygdala, nucleus accumbens and pancreas. Diabetic rats displayed depressive-like behaviour, and treatment with N-acetylcysteine reversed this alteration. Carbonyl protein levels were increased in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and pancreas of diabetic rats, and both N-acetylcysteine and deferoxamine reversed these alterations. Lipid damage was increased in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, amygdala and pancreas; however, treatment with N-acetylcysteine or deferoxamine reversed lipid damage only in the hippocampus and pancreas. Superoxide dismutase activity was decreased in the amygdala, nucleus accumbens and pancreas of diabetic rats. In diabetic rats, there was a decrease in catalase enzyme activity in the prefrontal cortex, amygdala, nucleus accumbens and pancreas, but an increase in the hippocampus. Treatment with antioxidants did not have an effect on the activity of antioxidant enzymes. In conclusion, animal model of diabetes produced depressive-like behaviour and oxidative stress in the brain and periphery. Treatment with antioxidants could be a viable alternative to treat behavioural and biochemical alterations induced by diabetes.

  17. Rutin ameliorates diabetic neuropathy by lowering plasma glucose and decreasing oxidative stress via Nrf2 signaling pathway in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Ruifeng; Yang, Wenqing; Xue, Qiang; Gao, Liang; Huo, Junli; Ren, Dongqing; Chen, Xiaoyan

    2016-01-15

    Rutin exhibits antidiabetic, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, which makes rutin an attractive candidate for diabetic complications. The present study was designed to investigate the potential effect of rutin on diabetic neuropathy. After induction of diabetic neuropathy, rutin (5mg/kg, 25mg/kg and 50mg/kg) were daily given to the diabetic rats for 2 weeks. At the end of rutin administration, rutin produced a significant inhibition of mechanical hyperalgesia, thermal hyperalgesia and cold allodynia, as well as partial restoration of nerve conduction velocities in diabetic rats. Furthermore, rutin significantly increased Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activities in sciatic nerves and decreased caspase-3 expression in dorsal root ganglions (DRG). In addition, rutin significantly decreased plasma glucose, attenuated oxidative stress and neuroinflammation. Further studies showed that rutin significantly increased hydrogen sulfide (H2S) level, up-regulated the expression of nuclear factor-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in DRG. The evidences suggest the beneficial effect of rutin on diabetic neuropathy. Additionally, insulin (2 IU) and BG-12 (15mg/kg) were used to investigate the mechanisms underlying the beneficial effect of rutin on diabetic neuropathy. Insulin achieved lower plasma glucose and BG-12 achieved comparable Nrf2 expression than/to rutin (50mg/kg), respectively. In contrast, the beneficial effect of insulin and BG-12 was inferior to that of rutin (50mg/kg), suggesting that both lowered plasma glucose and Nrf2 signaling contribute to the beneficial effect of rutin on diabetic neuropathy. In conclusion, rutin produces significant protection in diabetic neuropathy, which makes it an attractive candidate for the treatment of diabetic neuropathy.

  18. Tripterygium Glycosides Tablet Ameliorates Renal Tubulointerstitial Fibrosis via the Toll-Like Receptor 4/Nuclear Factor Kappa B Signaling Pathway in High-Fat Diet Fed and Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ze-jun Ma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tripterygium glycosides tablet (TGT is a Chinese traditional medicine that has been shown to protect podocytes from injury and reduce the proteinuria. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of TGT on renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis and its potential mechanism in high-fat diet fed and STZ-induced diabetic rats. Rats were randomly divided into normal control rats (NC group, diabetic rats without drug treatment (DM group, and diabetic rats treated with TGT (1, 3, or 6 mg/kg/day, respectively for 8 weeks. The results showed that 24 h proteinuria and urinary N-acetyl-glucosaminidase (NAG in diabetic rats were decreased by TGT treatment without affecting blood glucose. Masson’s trichrome stains showed that apparent renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis was found in DM group, which was ameliorated by TGT treatment. The expression of α-SMA was significantly decreased, accompanied by increased expression of E-cadherin in TGT-treated rats, but not in untreated DM rats. Further studies showed that TGT administration markedly reduced expression of TLR4, NF-κB, IL-1β, and MCP-1 in TGT-treated diabetic rats. These results showed that TGT could ameliorate renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis, the mechanism which may be at least partly associated with the amelioration of EMT through suppression of the TLR4/NF-κB pathway.

  19. PARP inhibition ameliorates nephropathy in an animal model of type 2 diabetes: focus on oxidative stress, inflammation, and fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Esraa M; El-Maraghy, Nabila N; Ahmed, Ahmed F; Ali, Abdelmonim A; El-Bassossy, Hany M

    2017-02-21

    Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) enzyme contributes to nephropathy, a serious diabetic complication which may lead to end-stage renal disease. The study aims to investigate the effect of PARP over-activation on kidney functions in a type 2 diabetic rat model. The study also tests the therapeutic use of PARP inhibitors in diabetic nephropathy. Type 2 diabetes was induced in adult male rats by high-fructose/high-fat diet and low streptozotocin dose. Then, the PARP inhibitor 4-aminobenzamide (4-AB) was administered daily for 10 weeks. At the end, urine samples were collected to measure urine creatinine, albumin, and total proteins. PARP activity, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and nitrite content were measured in kidney tissue homogenate. Glucose, fructosamine, insulin, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) were measured in serum. Furthermore, histological studies, collagen deposition, and immunofluorescence of nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) and transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-β1) were carried out. PARP enzyme activity was significantly higher in the diabetic group and was significantly reduced by 4-AB administration. Diabetic animals had clear nephropathy indicated by proteinuria and increased albumin excretion rate (AER) which were significantly decreased by PARP inhibition. In addition, PARP inhibition increased creatinine clearance in diabetic animals and reduced renal TGF-β1 and glomerular fibrosis. Moreover, PARP inhibition alleviated the elevated serum TNF-α level, renal NFκB, nitrite, and the decrease in SOD activity in diabetic animals. However, PARP inhibition did not significantly affect neither hyperglycemia nor insulin sensitivity. PARP enzyme inhibition alleviates diabetic nephropathy through decreasing inflammation, oxidative stress, and renal fibrosis.

  20. Direct Angiotensin II Type 2 Receptor Stimulation Ameliorates Insulin Resistance in Type 2 Diabetes Mice with PPARγ Activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohshima, Kousei; Mogi, Masaki; Jing, Fei;

    2012-01-01

    The role of angiotensin II type 2 (AT(2)) receptor stimulation in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance is still unclear. Therefore we examined the possibility that direct AT(2) receptor stimulation by compound 21 (C21) might contribute to possible insulin-sensitizing/anti-diabetic effects in ty...... 2 diabetes (T2DM) with PPARγ activation, mainly focusing on adipose tissue.......The role of angiotensin II type 2 (AT(2)) receptor stimulation in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance is still unclear. Therefore we examined the possibility that direct AT(2) receptor stimulation by compound 21 (C21) might contribute to possible insulin-sensitizing/anti-diabetic effects in type...

  1. Effect of testosterone replacement treatment on constitutional and sexual symptoms in type 2 diabetic men: need for rules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fotios Dimitriadis

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In a recent publication, Gianatti and colleagues investigated the effect of testosterone treatment in obese, aging men with type 2 diabetes (T2D with mild to moderate symptoms, a modest reduction in testosterone levels, mild to moderate aging male symptoms, and erectile dysfunction. [1] The authors could not show any significant improvement in constitutional or sexual symptoms in this group of men. This randomized double-blind, parallel, and placebo-controlled trial among other critically emphasizes the increased testosterone prescriptions worldwide and together with other corroborating or contradictory studies awakes the need for guidelines in the androgen replacement treatment.

  2. Oral Supplementation of β-Carotene Significantly Ameliorates Testicular Oxidative Stress in the Streptozotocin-Diabetic Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thyagaraju BM

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Our recent findings have shown that the rat testis is subjected to significant oxidativestress during the early phase of diabetes induced by Streptozotocin (STZ. In the present study, wehave investigated whether oral supplementation of β-carotene (BC to pubertal rats would provideprotection against diabetes associated oxidative stress in testis and liver.Materials and Methods: Male (6 wk old rats were rendered diabetic by an acute dose ofStreptozotocin (60 mg/kg bw and were given oral BC supplements (20 mg/kg bw/d on alternatedays for 4 weeks. The modulatory potency of BC was assessed by determination of selectedmarkers of oxidative stress in testis and liver.Results: The testis of STZ-administered rats exhibited significantly elevated status of lipidperoxidation (cytosol and mitochondria and increased ROS production compared to the nondiabeticcontrols. Oral supplements of BC completely normalized the oxidative damage in testis.Further, STZ-induced depletion of reduced glutathione (GSH and elevated protein carbonylcontent in testis were also restored to normalcy. The protective effects of BC in testis were alsodiscernible in terms of restoration of activities of various antioxidant enzymes in diabetic rats.Furthermore, STZ-induced oxidative impairments in liver were also abrogated significantly by BCtreatment. STZ-induced perturbations in serum and testicular lipid profiles in diabetic rats were alsoattenuated by BC treatment.Conclusion: Collectively, our data indicate that oral supplementation of β- carotene can significantlymitigate the diabetes associated oxidative impairments in testis as well as in liver and suggest itsefficacy as a complementary therapeutic agent in the management of diabetes associated oxidativestress mediated complications.

  3. Ameliorative potential of Vigna mungo seeds on hyperglycemia mediated oxidative stress and hyperlipidemia in STZ diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jangra Meenu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethnomedicinally the seeds of Vigna mungo are used as cooling astringent, diet during fever, poultice for abscesses, soap alternative. The increased oxidative stress plays an important role in the etiology and pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus and its various complications. This study was designed to examine the effect of hydroalcoholic extract (VME of V. mungo seeds on STZ-diabetic rats by measuring glycemia, lipid profile, and lipid peroxidation parameters (MDA, PCO, and GSH and antioxidant enzymes activities (SOD, CAT, and GPx. The levels of glucose, TG, TC, MDA, and PCO were increased significantly whereas the levels of serum insulin, reduced glutathione (GSH, superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT and Glutathione peroxidise (GPx were decreased in STZ induced diabetic rats. Administration of VME (200 mg/kg bw and 400 mg/kg bw p.o. to diabetic rats for 28 days showed a significant decrease in serum glucose, TG, TC, MDA, and PCO. In addition, we also summarize here that the levels of serum insulin, superoxide dismutase, catalase, GPx, and reduced glutathione (GSH were increased in VME treated diabetic rats. The antioxidant and antihyperglycemic effect of VME was compared with glibenclamide, a well-known antioxidant and antihyperglycemic drug. The findings in this study suggest that the VME possesses a significant favourable effect on antioxidant defense system in addition to its antidiabetic effect. Nonetheless, this study provides evidence that could help explain how the traditional use of V. mungo has been successful in the treatment of various disorders in humans.

  4. 1,25(OH)2D3-mediated amelioration of aortic injury in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fengao; Liu, Ping; Zhang, Xin; Zhang, Qiuzi; Tang, Shaofang; Zhu, Mei; Qiu, Mingcai

    2013-12-01

    In this study, a single tail vein injection of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced rat model was employed to study the effects of 1,25(OH)2D3 supplementation, the active form of vitamin D, on diabetes-induced aortic injury. Aortas from different groups were assessed for histopathology, toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88), and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) p65 expression by hematoxylin and eosin staining, immunohistochemistry staining, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, and Western blot analysis. High-dose 1,25(OH)2D3 (0.3 μg/kg/day) significantly prevented diabetes-induced aortic pathological changes and collagen deposition and decreased the expression of TLR4, MyD88, and NF-κB at both mRNA and protein levels in the aorta of STZ-induced diabetic rats (P 2D3 (1 × 10(-7) mol/L) by 50 and 36 %, respectively. Similar effects of high-dose 1,25(OH)2D3 on the expression of MyD88 were observed. Our results indicate that vitamin D has protective effects on diabetes-induced aortic injury and attenuates the expressions of TLR4, MyD88, and NF-κB in diabetic rats.

  5. Tyrosol, a phenolic compound, ameliorates hyperglycemia by regulating key enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandramohan, Ramasamy; Pari, Leelavinothan; Rathinam, Ayyasamy; Sheikh, Bashir Ahmad

    2015-03-05

    The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of tyrosol, a phenolic compound, on the activities of key enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism in the control and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes mellitus was induced in rats by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (40 mg/kg body weight). Experimental rats were administered tyrosol 1 ml intra gastrically at the doses of 5, 10 and 20mg/kg body weight and glibenclamide 1 ml at a dose of 600 μg/kg body weight once a day for 45 days. At the end of the experimental period, diabetic control rats exhibited significant (ptyrosol to diabetic rats reversed all the above mentioned biochemical parameters to near normal in a dose dependent manner. Tyrosol at a dose of 20mg/kg body weight showed the highest significant effect than the other two doses. Immunohistochemical staining of pancreas revealed that tyrosol treated diabetic rats showed increased insulin immunoreactive β-cells, which confirmed the biochemical findings. The observed results were compared with glibenclamide, a standard oral hypoglycemic drug. The results of the present study suggest that tyrosol decreases hyperglycemia, by its antioxidant effect.

  6. Can garlic oil ameliorate diabetes-induced oxidative stress in a rat liver model? A correlated histological and biochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdultawab, Hanem Saad; Ayuob, Nasra N

    2013-09-01

    This study aimed to characterise the structural changes in liver of an alloxan-induced diabetic rat and to explain such changes in terms of the biochemical changes in free radicals and antioxidants. In addition, it aimed to determine the potential ability of garlic oil to alter these changes. The study groups were: control (n=12), alloxan-induced diabetic rats (n=10) and alloxan-induced diabetic rats treated with garlic oil (10 mg/kg body weight (n=10)). Markers of oxidative stress were assessed. Small pieces of the liver were processed for transmission electron microscopic study. Garlic oil caused a significant decrease in levels of LPO in plasma (0.26 vs 0.53), erythrocyte lysate (14.4 vs 24.8) and liver tissue homogenate (1.04 vs 2.08), whereas those of thiols were significantly elevated (1.2 vs 0.46), (24 vs 15) in plasma and erythrocyte lysate respectively. SOD activity and G-S-T activity were significantly elevated in erythrocyte lysate (5.7 vs 3.3) (377 vs 179) and liver homogenate (1.4 vs 0.5) (752 vs 623) respectively after garlic oil administration. Ultrastructural study of the liver confirmed the ability of garlic to retard lipid peroxidation of cellular membranes induced by oxidative stress associated with diabetes. Therefore, garlic could normalise oxidative stress in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

  7. Methanolic extract of Origanum vulgare ameliorates type 1 diabetes through antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vujicic, Milica; Nikolic, Ivana; Kontogianni, Vassiliki G; Saksida, Tamara; Charisiadis, Pantelis; Orescanin-Dusic, Zorana; Blagojevic, Dusko; Stosic-Grujicic, Stanislava; Tzakos, Andreas G; Stojanovic, Ivana

    2015-03-14

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D), an autoimmune inflammatory disorder, develops as a consequence of pancreatic β-cell destruction and results in hyperglycaemia. Since current T1D therapy mainly involves insulin replacement, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the therapeutic potential of Origanum vulgare L. ssp. hirtum (Greek oregano) leaf extract rich in biophenols for the treatment of T1D. The phytochemical profile of methanolic oregano extract (MOE) and aqueous oregano extract (AOE) was determined by liquid chromatography/electrospray ion-trap tandem MS (LC/DAD/ESI-MSn), while their main compounds were quantified by HPLC with diode array detection. After establishing their potent in vitro antioxidant activity, the extracts were administered to C57BL/6 mice treated with multiple low doses of streptozotocin for diabetes induction. While prophylactic AOE therapy had no impact on diabetes induction, MOE reduced diabetes incidence and preserved normal insulin secretion. In addition, MOE scavenged reactive oxygen and nitrogen species and, therefore, alleviated the need for the up-regulation of antioxidant enzymes. MOE treatment specifically attenuated the pro-inflammatory response mediated by T helper 17 cells and enhanced anti-inflammatory T helper 2 and T regulatory cells through the impact on specific signalling pathways and transcription factors. Importantly, MOE preserved β-cells from in vitro apoptosis via blockade of caspase 3. Finally, rosmarinic acid, a predominant compound in MOE, exhibited only partial protection from diabetes induction. In conclusion, acting as an antioxidant, immunomodulator and in an anti-apoptotic manner, MOE protected mice from diabetes development. Seemingly, there is more than one compound responsible for the beneficial effect of MOE.

  8. Genetic Disruption of Protein Kinase STK25 Ameliorates Metabolic Defects in a Diet-Induced Type 2 Diabetes Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amrutkar, Manoj; Cansby, Emmelie; Chursa, Urszula;

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the molecular networks controlling ectopic lipid deposition, glucose tolerance, and insulin sensitivity is essential to identifying new pharmacological approaches to treat type 2 diabetes. We recently identified serine/threonine protein kinase 25 (STK25) as a negative regulator...... to the metabolic phenotype of Stk25 transgenic mice, reinforcing the validity of the results. The findings suggest that STK25 deficiency protects against the metabolic consequences of chronic exposure to dietary lipids and highlight the potential of STK25 antagonists for the treatment of type 2 diabetes....

  9. Ethanol extract of mango (Mangifera indica L.) peel inhibits α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities, and ameliorates diabetes related biochemical parameters in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondi, Mahendranath; Prasada Rao, U J S

    2015-12-01

    Peel is a major by-product during processing of mango fruit into pulp. Recent report indicates that the whole peel powder ameliorated diabetes. In the present study, ethanolic extract of mango peel was analysed for its bioactive compounds, evaluated for α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory properties, oral glucose tolerance test, antioxidant properties, plasma insulin level and biochemical parameters related to diabetes. In addition to gallic and protocatechuic acids, the extract also had chlorogenic and ferulic acids, which were not reported earlier in mango peel extracts. The peel extract inhibited α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities, with IC50 values of 4.0 and 3.5 μg/ml. Ethanolic extract of peel showed better glucose utilization in oral glucose tolerance test. Treatment of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats with the extract decreased fasting blood glucose, fructosamine and glycated hemoglobin levels, and increased plasma insulin level. Peel extract treatment decreased malondialdehyde level, but increased the activities of antioxidant enzymes significantly in liver and kidney compared to diabetic rats. These beneficial effects were comparable to metformin, but better than gallic acid treated diabetic rats. The beneficial effects of peel extract may be through different mechanism like increased plasma insulin levels, decreased oxidative stress and inhibition of carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzyme activities by its bioactive compounds. Thus, results suggest that the peel extract can be a potential source of nutraceutical or can be used in functional foods and this is the first report on antidiabetic properties of mango peel extract.

  10. Huangqi Guizhi Wuwu Decoction for treating diabetic peripheral neuropathy: a meta-analysis of 16 randomized controlled trials

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    Bing Pang

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: HGWWD treatment improves diabetic neurologic symptoms and ameliorates nerve conduction velocities. Our study suggests that HGWWD may have significant therapeutic efficacy for the treatment of diabetic peripheral neuropathy. However, the methodological quality of the randomized controlled trials was generally low. Larger and better-designed randomized controlled trials are required to more reliably assess the clinical effectiveness of HGWWD.

  11. Skin electrodes transduced signals to the bladder resulting in ameliorated hypomotility in a rabbit model of diabetes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinmin Wang; Qirui Fu; Qingmei Zhang; Ping Xu; Lin Cao; Meng Xue; Wei Wang

    2012-01-01

    Electric signals from a chest skin electrode can be conducted to the heart and activate contraction. In the present study, normal and diabetic rabbits were stimulated by skin electrode on the abnormal bladder projection area using three levels of exporting voltage (5.84 V, 8.00 V, and 11.00 V). Results demonstrated significantly attenuated electric signals from both groups, in particular the diabetes group. The skin electrode signals were conducted to the bladders, and all vesical signals increased according to strength of stimulating signals from the skin electrode. However, vesical signals from diabetic rabbits were less than those from normal rabbits at the same stimulating strength of exporting voltage. Vesical pressures from the two groups increased along with increased vesical signals, but vesical pressure was less those from diabetic rabbits than in normal rabbits (basic status and different stimulating levels). Linear correlation analysis showed a significantly positive correlation between vesical pressure and signal. These results demonstrated that electric signals from skin electrodes resulted in increased vesical pressure, and vesical pressure increased along with stimulation strength.

  12. Berberine ameliorates experimental diabetes-induced renal inflammation and fibronectin by inhibiting the activation of RhoA/ROCK signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xi; Chang, Xiuting; Chen, Lei; Huang, Kaipeng; Huang, Juan; Wang, Shaogui; Shen, Xiaoyan; Liu, Peiqing; Huang, Heqing

    2013-12-05

    The accumulation of glomerular extracellular matrix proteins, especially fibronectin (FN), is a critical pathological characteristic of diabetic renal fibrosis. Inflammation mediated by nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy (DN). RhoA/ROCK signaling is responsible for FN accumulation and NF-κB activation. Berberine (BBR) treatment significantly inhibited renal inflammation and thus improved renal damage in diabetes. Here, we study whether BBR inhibits FN accumulation and NF-κB activation by inhibiting RhoA/ROCK signaling and the underlying mechanisms involved. Results showed that BBR effectively inhibited RhoA/ROCK signaling activation in diabetic rat kidneys and high glucose-induced glomerular mesangial cells (GMCs) and simultaneously down-regulated NF-κB activity, which was accompanied by reduced intercellular adhesionmolecule-1, transforming growth factor-beta 1 and FN overproduction. Furthermore, we observed that BBR abrogated high glucose-mediated reactive oxygen species generation in GMCs. BBR and N-acetylcysteine inhibited RhoA/ROCK signaling activation in high glucose-exposed GMCs. Collectively, our data suggest that the renoprotective effect of BBR on DN partly depends on RhoA/ROCK inhibition. The anti-oxidative stress effect of BBR is responsible for RhoA/ROCK inhibition in DN.

  13. Amelioration of altered antioxidant status and membrane linked functions by vanadium and Trigonella in alloxan diabetic rat brains

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mohammad Rizwan Siddiqui; Asia Taha; K Moorthy; Mohd Ejaz Hussain; S F Basir; Najma Zaheer Baquer

    2005-09-01

    Trigonella foenum graecum seed powder (TSP) and sodium orthovanadate (SOV) have been reported to have antidiabetic effects. However, SOV exerts hypoglycemic effects at relatively high doses with several toxic effects. We used low doses of vanadate in combination with TSP and evaluated their antidiabetic effects on antioxidant enzymes and membrane-linked functions in diabetic rat brains. In rats, diabetes was induced by alloxan monohydrate (15 mg/100 g body wt.) and they were treated with 2 IU insulin, 0.6 mg/ml SOV, 5% TSP and a combination of 0.2 mg/ml SOV with 5% TSP for 21 days. Blood glucose levels, activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), Na+/K+ ATPase, membrane lipid peroxidation and fluidity were determined in different fractions of whole brain after 21 days of treatment. Diabetic rats showed high blood glucose ( < 0.001), decreased activities of SOD, catalase and Na+/K+ ATPase ( < 0.01, < 0.001 and < 0.01), increased levels of GPx and MDA ( < 0.01 and < 0.001) and decreased membrane fluidity ( < 0.01). Treatment with different antidiabetic compounds restored the above-altered parameters. Combined dose of Trigonella and vanadate was found to be the most effective treatment in normalizing these alterations. Lower doses of vanadate could be used in combination with TSP to effectively counter diabetic alterations without any toxic effects.

  14. Mesenchymal stem cell therapy ameliorates diabetic nephropathy via the paracrine effect of renal trophic factors including exosomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaishi, Kanna; Mizue, Yuka; Chikenji, Takako; Otani, Miho; Nakano, Masako; Konari, Naoto; Fujimiya, Mineko

    2016-01-01

    Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have contributed to the improvement of diabetic nephropathy (DN); however, the actual mediator of this effect and its role has not been characterized thoroughly. We investigated the effects of MSC therapy on DN, focusing on the paracrine effect of renal trophic factors, including exosomes secreted by MSCs. MSCs and MSC-conditioned medium (MSC-CM) as renal trophic factors were administered in parallel to high-fat diet (HFD)-induced type 2 diabetic mice and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced insulin-deficient diabetic mice. Both therapies showed approximately equivalent curative effects, as each inhibited the exacerbation of albuminuria. They also suppressed the excessive infiltration of BMDCs into the kidney by regulating the expression of the adhesion molecule ICAM-1. Proinflammatory cytokine expression (e.g., TNF-α) and fibrosis in tubular interstitium were inhibited. TGF-β1 expression was down-regulated and tight junction protein expression (e.g., ZO-1) was maintained, which sequentially suppressed the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition of tubular epithelial cells (TECs). Exosomes purified from MSC-CM exerted an anti-apoptotic effect and protected tight junction structure in TECs. The increase of glomerular mesangium substrate was inhibited in HFD-diabetic mice. MSC therapy is a promising tool to prevent DN via the paracrine effect of renal trophic factors including exosomes due to its multifactorial action. PMID:27721418

  15. Parthenolide, an NF-κB Inhibitor Ameliorates Diabetes-Induced Behavioural Deficit, Neurotransmitter Imbalance and Neuroinflammation in Type 2 Diabetes Rat Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khare, Pragyanshu; Datusalia, Ashok K; Sharma, Shyam S

    2017-03-01

    Diabetes is associated with behavioural and neurochemical alterations. In this manuscript, we are reporting the beneficial effects of parthenolide, an NF-κB inhibitor on behavioural and neurochemical deficits in type 2 diabetic rat model. Diabetes was induced by high-fat diet followed by low dose of streptozotocin (35 mg/kg). Elevated plus maze, open-field, MWM and passive avoidance test paradigm were used to assess behavioural and cognitive deficits. Three-week treatment of parthenolide (0.25 and 0.50 mg/kg; i.p.) attenuated diabetes-induced alteration in cognitive function in Morris water maze and passive avoidance test. Anxiety-like behaviour was also reduced by parthenolide treatment. Moreover, TNF-α and IL-6 levels were significantly decreased in cortex and hippocampus of parthenolide-treated rats. Three-week parthenolide treatment also toned down the alteration of GABA and glutamate homoeostasis. Results of this study corroborate the involvement of neuroinflammation in the development of behavioural and neurochemical deficits in diabetic animals and point towards the therapeutic potential of parthenolide in diabetes-induced alteration of learning, memory and anxiety behaviour.

  16. Ameliorative Effect of Saffron Aqueous Extract on Hyperglycemia, Hyperlipidemia, and Oxidative Stress on Diabetic Encephalopathy in Streptozotocin Induced Experimental Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Samarghandian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic encephalopathy is one of the severe complications in patients with diabetes mellitus. Findings indicate that saffron extract has antioxidant properties but its underlying beneficial effects on diabetic encephalopathy were unclear. In the present study, the protective activities of saffron were evaluated in diabetic encephalopathy. Saffron at 40 and 80 mg/kg significantly increased body weight and serum TNF-α and decreased blood glucose levels, glycosylated serum proteins, and serum advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs levels. Furthermore, significant increase in HDL and decrease (P<0.05 in cholesterol, triglyceride, and LDL were observed after 28 days of treatment. At the end of experiments, the hippocampus tissue was used for determination of glutathione content (GSH, superoxide dismutase (SOD, and catalase (CAT activities. Furthermore, saffron significantly increased GSH, SOD, and CAT but remarkably decreased cognitive deficit, serum TNF-α, and induced nitric oxide synthase (iNOS activity in hippocampus tissue. Our findings indicated that saffron extract may reduce hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia risk and also reduce the oxidative stress in diabetic encephalopathy rats. This study suggested that saffron extract might be a promising candidate for the improvement of chemically induced diabetes and its complications.

  17. Prevalence and Clinical Correlators of Undiagnosed Significant Depressive Symptoms Among Individuals with Type 2 Diabetes In A Mediterranean Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolau, J; Simó, R; Sanchís, P; Ayala, L; Fortuny, R; Rivera, R; Masmiquel, L

    2016-11-01

    Objective: To determine the frequency and clinical parameters, of clinically significant depressive symptoms among a type 2 diabetes (T2DM) sample from a Mediterranean area without an established diagnosis of depressive disorder (DD). Methods: 320 subjects with T2DM were recruited randomly from Primary-Care settings and the Endocrine Department from a tertiary center in Mallorca (Spain). 91 healthy individuals matched by age, gender and BMI were used as controls. All participating patients graded by the presence of DD by using the "Beck Depression Inventory" (BDI), considering pathological a cut-off score equal or greater than 16. Results: 27.2% T2DM subjects had significant symptoms of DD compared with 12.1% in the control group (pdepressive symptoms are more prevalent among Mediterranean T2DM subjects than in general population. Main clinical correlators of significant depressive symptoms are gender, marital status and BMI.

  18. Amelioration of Diabetic Mouse Nephropathy by Catalpol Correlates with Down-Regulation of Grb10 Expression and Activation of Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 Receptor Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shasha; Deng, Huacong; Zhang, Qunzhou; Xie, Jing; Zeng, Hui; Jin, Xiaolong; Ling, Zixi; Shan, Qiaoyun; Liu, Momo; Ma, Yuefei; Tang, Juan; Wei, Qianping

    2016-01-01

    Growth factor receptor-bound protein 10 (Grb10) is an adaptor protein that can negatively regulate the insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R). The IGF1-1R pathway is critical for cell growth and apoptosis and has been implicated in kidney diseases; however, it is still unknown whether Grb10 expression is up-regulated and plays a role in diabetic nephropathy. Catalpol, a major active ingredient of a traditional Chinese medicine, Rehmannia, has been reported to possess anti-inflammatory and anti-aging activities and then used to treat diabetes. Herein, we aimed to assess the therapeutic effect of catalpol on a mouse model diabetic nephropathy and the potential role of Grb10 in the pathogenesis of this diabetes-associated complication. Our results showed that catalpol treatment improved diabetes-associated impaired renal functions and ameliorated pathological changes in kidneys of diabetic mice. We also found that Grb10 expression was significantly elevated in kidneys of diabetic mice as compared with that in non-diabetic mice, while treatment with catalpol significantly abrogated the elevated Grb10 expression in diabetic kidneys. On the contrary, IGF-1 mRNA levels and IGF-1R phosphorylation were significantly higher in kidneys of catalpol-treated diabetic mice than those in non-treated diabetic mice. Our results suggest that elevated Grb10 expression may play an important role in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy through suppressing IGF-1/IGF-1R signaling pathway, which might be a potential molecular target of catalpol for the treatment of this diabetic complication. PMID:26986757

  19. Amelioration of Diabetic Mouse Nephropathy by Catalpol Correlates with Down-Regulation of Grb10 Expression and Activation of Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 Receptor Signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shasha Yang

    Full Text Available Growth factor receptor-bound protein 10 (Grb10 is an adaptor protein that can negatively regulate the insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R. The IGF1-1R pathway is critical for cell growth and apoptosis and has been implicated in kidney diseases; however, it is still unknown whether Grb10 expression is up-regulated and plays a role in diabetic nephropathy. Catalpol, a major active ingredient of a traditional Chinese medicine, Rehmannia, has been reported to possess anti-inflammatory and anti-aging activities and then used to treat diabetes. Herein, we aimed to assess the therapeutic effect of catalpol on a mouse model diabetic nephropathy and the potential role of Grb10 in the pathogenesis of this diabetes-associated complication. Our results showed that catalpol treatment improved diabetes-associated impaired renal functions and ameliorated pathological changes in kidneys of diabetic mice. We also found that Grb10 expression was significantly elevated in kidneys of diabetic mice as compared with that in non-diabetic mice, while treatment with catalpol significantly abrogated the elevated Grb10 expression in diabetic kidneys. On the contrary, IGF-1 mRNA levels and IGF-1R phosphorylation were significantly higher in kidneys of catalpol-treated diabetic mice than those in non-treated diabetic mice. Our results suggest that elevated Grb10 expression may play an important role in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy through suppressing IGF-1/IGF-1R signaling pathway, which might be a potential molecular target of catalpol for the treatment of this diabetic complication.

  20. Amelioration of Diabetic Mouse Nephropathy by Catalpol Correlates with Down-Regulation of Grb10 Expression and Activation of Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 Receptor Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shasha; Deng, Huacong; Zhang, Qunzhou; Xie, Jing; Zeng, Hui; Jin, Xiaolong; Ling, Zixi; Shan, Qiaoyun; Liu, Momo; Ma, Yuefei; Tang, Juan; Wei, Qianping

    2016-01-01

    Growth factor receptor-bound protein 10 (Grb10) is an adaptor protein that can negatively regulate the insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R). The IGF1-1R pathway is critical for cell growth and apoptosis and has been implicated in kidney diseases; however, it is still unknown whether Grb10 expression is up-regulated and plays a role in diabetic nephropathy. Catalpol, a major active ingredient of a traditional Chinese medicine, Rehmannia, has been reported to possess anti-inflammatory and anti-aging activities and then used to treat diabetes. Herein, we aimed to assess the therapeutic effect of catalpol on a mouse model diabetic nephropathy and the potential role of Grb10 in the pathogenesis of this diabetes-associated complication. Our results showed that catalpol treatment improved diabetes-associated impaired renal functions and ameliorated pathological changes in kidneys of diabetic mice. We also found that Grb10 expression was significantly elevated in kidneys of diabetic mice as compared with that in non-diabetic mice, while treatment with catalpol significantly abrogated the elevated Grb10 expression in diabetic kidneys. On the contrary, IGF-1 mRNA levels and IGF-1R phosphorylation were significantly higher in kidneys of catalpol-treated diabetic mice than those in non-treated diabetic mice. Our results suggest that elevated Grb10 expression may play an important role in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy through suppressing IGF-1/IGF-1R signaling pathway, which might be a potential molecular target of catalpol for the treatment of this diabetic complication.

  1. THE ROLE OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY IN THE PRIMARY PREVENTION OF TYPE 2 DIABETES VIA THE AMELIORATION OF INSULIN RESISTANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ash C. Routen

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes is the most common endocrine disease in our society, affecting around 5% of Western populations, whilst showing a steady rise in prevalence. The complications that arise from the disease are known to cause morbidity and mortality, and are associated with long-term damage, dysfunction, and failure of variousorgans. These complications include atherosclerosis in the micro and macro vasculature, kidney dysfunction, nerve problems, hypertension; and eye problems such as retinopathy. Epidemiological evidence suggests regular physical activity improves insulin sensitivity. This review presents the case for physical activity as a tool ofprimary prevention, in the population of non-diabetics and high risk individuals (IFG & IGT, in reference to obesity related insulin resistance. Cross-sectional, prospective cohort and randomised control trials clearly show that moderate-intensity physical activity can improve insulin sensitivity; this can be improved further byundertaking vigorous-intensity physical activity.

  2. Islet-like cell aggregates generated from human adipose tissue derived stem cells ameliorate experimental diabetes in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikash Chandra

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus is caused by auto immune destruction of insulin producing beta cells in the pancreas. Currently available treatments include transplantation of isolated islets from donor pancreas to the patient. However, this method is limited by inadequate means of immuno-suppression to prevent islet rejection and importantly, limited supply of islets for transplantation. Autologous adult stem cells are now considered for cell replacement therapy in diabetes as it has the potential to generate neo-islets which are genetically part of the treated individual. Adopting methods of islet encapsulation in immuno-isolatory devices would eliminate the need for immuno-suppressants. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present study we explore the potential of human adipose tissue derived adult stem cells (h-ASCs to differentiate into functional islet like cell aggregates (ICAs. Our stage specific differentiation protocol permit the conversion of mesodermic h-ASCs to definitive endoderm (Hnf3β, TCF2 and Sox17 and to PDX1, Ngn3, NeuroD, Pax4 positive pancreatic endoderm which further matures in vitro to secrete insulin. These ICAs are shown to produce human C-peptide in a glucose dependent manner exhibiting in-vitro functionality. Transplantation of mature ICAs, packed in immuno-isolatory biocompatible capsules to STZ induced diabetic mice restored near normoglycemia within 3-4 weeks. The detection of human C-peptide, 1155±165 pM in blood serum of experimental mice demonstrate the efficacy of our differentiation approach. CONCLUSIONS: h-ASC is an ideal population of personal stem cells for cell replacement therapy, given that they are abundant, easily available and autologous in origin. Our findings present evidence that h-ASCs could be induced to differentiate into physiologically competent functional islet like cell aggregates, which may provide as a source of alternative islets for cell replacement therapy in type 1 diabetes.

  3. Correction of Diabetic Hyperglycemia and Amelioration of Metabolic Anomalies by Minicircle DNA Mediated Glucose-Dependent Hepatic Insulin Production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tausif Alam

    Full Text Available Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM is caused by immune destruction of insulin-producing pancreatic β-cells. Commonly used insulin injection therapy does not provide a dynamic blood glucose control to prevent long-term systemic T1DM-associated damages. Donor shortage and the limited long-term success of islet transplants have stimulated the development of novel therapies for T1DM. Gene therapy-based glucose-regulated hepatic insulin production is a promising strategy to treat T1DM. We have developed gene constructs which cause glucose-concentration-dependent human insulin production in liver cells. A novel set of human insulin expression constructs containing a combination of elements to improve gene transcription, mRNA processing, and translation efficiency were generated as minicircle DNA preparations that lack bacterial and viral DNA. Hepatocytes transduced with the new constructs, ex vivo, produced large amounts of glucose-inducible human insulin. In vivo, insulin minicircle DNA (TA1m treated streptozotocin (STZ-diabetic rats demonstrated euglycemia when fasted or fed, ad libitum. Weight loss due to uncontrolled hyperglycemia was reversed in insulin gene treated diabetic rats to normal rate of weight gain, lasting ∼1 month. Intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGT demonstrated in vivo glucose-responsive changes in insulin levels to correct hyperglycemia within 45 minutes. A single TA1m treatment raised serum albumin levels in diabetic rats to normal and significantly reduced hypertriglyceridemia and hypercholesterolemia. Elevated serum levels of aspartate transaminase, alanine aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase were restored to normal or greatly reduced in treated rats, indicating normalization of liver function. Non-viral insulin minicircle DNA-based TA1m mediated glucose-dependent insulin production in liver may represent a safe and promising approach to treat T1DM.

  4. Pterocarpan-enriched soy leaf extract ameliorates insulin sensitivity and pancreatic β-cell proliferation in type 2 diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Un-Hee; Yoon, Jeong-Hyun; Li, Hua; Kang, Ji-Hyun; Ji, Hyeon-Seon; Park, Ki Hun; Shin, Dong-Ha; Park, Ho-Yong; Jeong, Tae-Sook

    2014-11-13

    In Korea, soy (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) leaves are eaten as a seasonal vegetable or pickled in soy sauce. Ethyl acetate extracts of soy leaves (EASL) are enriched in pterocarpans and have potent α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. This study investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying the anti-diabetic effect of EASL in C57BL/6J mice with high-fat diet (HFD)-induced type 2 diabetes. Mice were randomly divided into normal diet (ND), HFD (60 kcal% fat diet), EASL (HFD with 0.56% (wt/wt) EASL), and Pinitol (HFD with 0.15% (wt/wt) pinitol) groups. Weight gain and abdominal fat accumulation were significantly suppressed by EASL. Levels of plasma glucose, HbA1c, and insulin in the EASL group were significantly lower than those of the HFD group, and the pancreatic islet of the EASL group had greater size than those of the HFD group. EASL group up-regulated neurogenin 3 (Ngn3), paired box 4 (Pax4), and v-maf musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene homolog A (MafA), which are markers of pancreatic cell development, as well as insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1), IRS2, and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4), which are related to insulin sensitivity. Furthermore, EASL suppressed genes involved in hepatic gluconeogenesis and steatosis. These results suggest that EASL improves plasma glucose and insulin levels in mice with HDF-induced type 2 diabetes by regulating β-cell proliferation and insulin sensitivity.

  5. Psoralea corylifolia L. Seed Extract Ameliorates Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes in Mice by Inhibition of Oxidative Stress

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    Eunhui Seo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic beta-cell death is known to be the cause of deficient insulin production in diabetes mellitus. Oxidative stress is one of the major causes of beta-cell death. In this study, we investigated the effects of Psoralea corylifolia L. seed (PCS extract on beta-cell death. Oral administration of PCS extract resulted in a significant improvement of hyperglycemia in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. PCS extract treatment improved glucose tolerance and increased serum insulin levels. To study the mechanisms involved, we investigated the effects of PCS extract on H2O2-induced apoptosis in INS-1 cells. Treatment with PCS extract inhibited cell death. PCS extract treatment decreased reactive oxygen species level and activated antioxidative enzymes. Among the major components of PCS extract, psoralen and isopsoralen (coumarins, but not bakuchiol, showed preventive effects against H2O2-induced beta-cell death. These findings indicate that PCS extract may be a potential pharmacological agent to protect against pancreatic beta-cell damage caused by oxidative stress associated with diabetes.

  6. Pterocarpan-Enriched Soy Leaf Extract Ameliorates Insulin Sensitivity and Pancreatic β-Cell Proliferation in Type 2 Diabetic Mice

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    Un-Hee Kim

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In Korea, soy (Glycine max (L. Merr. leaves are eaten as a seasonal vegetable or pickled in soy sauce. Ethyl acetate extracts of soy leaves (EASL are enriched in pterocarpans and have potent α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. This study investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying the anti-diabetic effect of EASL in C57BL/6J mice with high-fat diet (HFD-induced type 2 diabetes. Mice were randomly divided into normal diet (ND, HFD (60 kcal% fat diet, EASL (HFD with 0.56% (wt/wt EASL, and Pinitol (HFD with 0.15% (wt/wt pinitol groups. Weight gain and abdominal fat accumulation were significantly suppressed by EASL. Levels of plasma glucose, HbA1c, and insulin in the EASL group were significantly lower than those of the HFD group, and the pancreatic islet of the EASL group had greater size than those of the HFD group. EASL group up-regulated neurogenin 3 (Ngn3, paired box 4 (Pax4, and v-maf musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene homolog A (MafA, which are markers of pancreatic cell development, as well as insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1, IRS2, and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4, which are related to insulin sensitivity. Furthermore, EASL suppressed genes involved in hepatic gluconeogenesis and steatosis. These results suggest that EASL improves plasma glucose and insulin levels in mice with HDF-induced type 2 diabetes by regulating β-cell proliferation and insulin sensitivity.

  7. Reduction of reactive oxygen species ameliorates metabolism-secretion coupling in islets of diabetic GK rats by suppressing lactate overproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Mayumi; Fujimoto, Shimpei; Sato, Yuichi; Nishi, Yuichi; Mukai, Eri; Yamano, Gen; Sato, Hiroki; Tahara, Yumiko; Ogura, Kasane; Nagashima, Kazuaki; Inagaki, Nobuya

    2013-06-01

    We previously demonstrated that impaired glucose-induced insulin secretion (IS) and ATP elevation in islets of Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats, a nonobese model of diabetes, were significantly restored by 30-60-min suppression of endogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS) overproduction. In this study, we investigated the effect of a longer (12 h) suppression of ROS on metabolism-secretion coupling in β-cells by exposure to tempol, a superoxide (O2(-)) dismutase mimic, plus ebselen, a glutathione peroxidase mimic (TE treatment). In GK islets, both H2O2 and O2(-) were sufficiently reduced and glucose-induced IS and ATP elevation were improved by TE treatment. Glucose oxidation, an indicator of Krebs cycle velocity, also was improved by TE treatment at high glucose, whereas glucokinase activity, which determines glycolytic velocity, was not affected. Lactate production was markedly increased in GK islets, and TE treatment reduced lactate production and protein expression of lactate dehydrogenase and hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF1α). These results indicate that the Warburg-like effect, which is characteristic of aerobic metabolism in cancer cells by which lactate is overproduced with reduced linking to mitochondria metabolism, plays an important role in impaired metabolism-secretion coupling in diabetic β-cells and suggest that ROS reduction can improve mitochondrial metabolism by suppressing lactate overproduction through the inhibition of HIF1α stabilization.

  8. Killer Treg cells ameliorate inflammatory insulitis in non-obese diabetic mice through local and systemic immunomodulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminitz, Ayelet; Yolcu, Esma S; Mizrahi, Keren; Shirwan, Haval; Askenasy, Nadir

    2013-08-01

    Treg cells endowed with enhanced killing activity through decoration with Fas-ligand (FasL) protein (killer Treg) have been effective in delay of hyperglycemia in prediabetic non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice. In this study, we assessed the therapeutic efficacy of these cells, harvested from age-matched euglycemic NOD donors, on the course of disease in new-onset diabetics. One dose of 4 × 10(6) killer Treg cells stabilized blood glucose associated with increased insulin levels in 5 of 9 mice and partially reversed the severity of islet inflammation, whereas naive Treg cells did not modulate the course of disease significantly. Killer Treg cells were shown to operate through induction of cell apoptosis within the pancreatic lymph nodes, resulting in reduced efficiency of adoptive disease transfer to NOD/SCID recipients. A second mechanism of action consisted of increased fractions of CD4(+)CD25(-)FoxP3(+) T cells in the pancreas and all lymphoid organs. Immunomodulation with FasL rather than Treg cells enhanced the expression of CD25 and FoxP3 in the thymus, suggesting a possible contribution of thymic output to prolonged stabilization of the glucose levels. Autologous Treg cells evolve as excellent vehicles for targeted delivery of FasL as an immunomodulatory protein, which delete pathogenic cells at the site of inflammation and induce systemic dominance of suppressor subsets.

  9. Risk for high depressive symptoms in diagnosed and previously undetected diabetes: 5-year follow-up results of the Heinz Nixdorf Recall study.

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    Andrea Icks

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the risk for the development of high depressive symptoms in study participants with diagnosed and previously undetected diabetes mellitus compared to those without diabetes in a prospective population-based cohort study in Germany. METHODS: We estimated the 5-year cumulative incidence of high depressive symptoms in participants without high depressive symptoms at baseline (n = 3,633, 51.4% men, mean age (SD 59.1 (7.6 years, 7.0% diagnosed diabetes, 5.3% previously undetected diabetes from the population-based Heinz Nixdorf Recall study. Diabetes was assessed by self-report, medication, and blood glucose. High depressive symptoms were assessed using CES-D. We calculated odds ratios and their corresponding 95% confidence interval, using multiple logistic regression analyses. RESULT: Cumulative 5-year incidences (95% CI of high depressive symptoms in participants with diagnosed, undetected, and without diabetes were 7.1 (4.2-10.9, 4.1 (1.8-8.0, and 6.5 (5.6-7.4, respectively. The age-sex-adjusted OR for developing high depressive symptoms was 1.22 (0.74-2.03 in participants with diagnosed compared to those without diabetes, and 1.00 (0.59-1.68 after adjustment for BMI, physical activity, education, stroke, and myocardial infarction. The age-sex adjusted OR for developing high depressive symptoms in participants with previously undetected diabetes compared to those without diabetes was 0.72; 0.35-1.48; and fully adjusted 0.62; 0.30-1.30. CONCLUSION: We found no significant associations, maybe due to low power. However, our results are in line with a recent meta-analysis suggesting that risk of developing high depressive symptoms in patients with diagnosed diabetes may be moderately higher than in those without diabetes, and that comorbidity may explain in part this association. In participants with previously undetected diabetes, this first longitudinal study indicates that the risk is not

  10. Risk for High Depressive Symptoms in Diagnosed and Previously Undetected Diabetes: 5-Year Follow-Up Results of the Heinz Nixdorf Recall Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Icks, Andrea; Albers, Bernd; Haastert, Burkhard; Pechlivanis, Sonali; Pundt, Noreen; Slomiany, Uta; Erbel, Raimund; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Kruse, Johannes; Kulzer, Bernd; Nowotny, Bettina; Herder, Christian; Giani, Guido; Moebus, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to determine the risk for the development of high depressive symptoms in study participants with diagnosed and previously undetected diabetes mellitus compared to those without diabetes in a prospective population-based cohort study in Germany. Methods We estimated the 5-year cumulative incidence of high depressive symptoms in participants without high depressive symptoms at baseline (n = 3,633, 51.4% men, mean age (SD) 59.1 (7.6) years, 7.0% diagnosed diabetes, 5.3% previously undetected diabetes) from the population-based Heinz Nixdorf Recall study. Diabetes was assessed by self-report, medication, and blood glucose. High depressive symptoms were assessed using CES-D. We calculated odds ratios and their corresponding 95% confidence interval, using multiple logistic regression analyses. Result Cumulative 5-year incidences (95% CI) of high depressive symptoms in participants with diagnosed, undetected, and without diabetes were 7.1 (4.2–10.9), 4.1 (1.8–8.0), and 6.5 (5.6–7.4), respectively. The age-sex-adjusted OR for developing high depressive symptoms was 1.22 (0.74–2.03) in participants with diagnosed compared to those without diabetes, and 1.00 (0.59–1.68) after adjustment for BMI, physical activity, education, stroke, and myocardial infarction. The age-sex adjusted OR for developing high depressive symptoms in participants with previously undetected diabetes compared to those without diabetes was 0.72; 0.35–1.48; and fully adjusted 0.62; 0.30–1.30. Conclusion We found no significant associations, maybe due to low power. However, our results are in line with a recent meta-analysis suggesting that risk of developing high depressive symptoms in patients with diagnosed diabetes may be moderately higher than in those without diabetes, and that comorbidity may explain in part this association. In participants with previously undetected diabetes, this first longitudinal study indicates that the risk is not

  11. Symptoms of depression and diabetes-specific emotional distress are associated with a negative appraisal of insulin therapy in insulin-naive patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus. A study from the European Depression in Diabetes [EDID] Research Consortium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Makine, C.; Karsidag, C.; Kadioglu, P.; Ilkova, H.; Karsidag, K.; Skovlund, S.E.; Snoek, F.J.; Pouwer, F.

    2009-01-01

    Aims: A meta-analysis concluded that depression is associated with poor glycaemic control in Type 2 diabetes (DM2). In DM2 patients with deteriorating glycaemic control, the initiation of insulin therapy is often postponed. The aim of the present study was to determine whether symptoms of depression

  12. Freqüência de sintomas digestivos em pacientes brasileiros com Diabetes Mellitus Digestive symptoms in Brazilian patients with Diabetes Mellitus

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    L.E. DE A. TRONCON

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Sintomas sugestivos do comprometimento do tubo digestivo são comuns em pacientes diabéticos, mas estudos comparando as freqüências destes sintomas com as da população geral são escassos e não existem trabalhos dessa natureza com diabéticos brasileiros. OBJETIVO: Determinar as freqüências de diferentes sintomas digestivos em amostra não selecionada de pacientes diabéticos, em comparação às encontradas em pessoas da comunidade. MÉTODOS: A ocorrência de 13 diferentes sintomas digestivos foi investigada por meio da aplicação de um questionário padronizado, especificamente estruturado, em 153 diabéticos dos tipos 1 e 2 e em 50 pessoas aparentemente sadias, tomadas como controles. RESULTADOS: A freqüência de diabéticos com pelo menos um sintoma digestivo foi significativamente superior à verificada no grupo controle (70% vs 36%, p = 0,01. Freqüências elevadas de plenitude gástrica (30% vs 36%, pirose (30% vs 34% e de constipação (17% vs 12%, foram observadas tanto entre os diabéticos como nos controles. No entanto, somente a freqüência de um único sintoma, a disfagia, foi significativamente maior entre os diabéticos, em relação ao grupo controle (13% vs 2%, p = 0,02. CONCLUSÃO: Estes resultados indicam que a freqüência de sintomas digestivos em diabéticos, apesar de elevada, não difere da verificada na população geral, exceto para a disfagia. As freqüências dos diferentes sintomas estiveram próximas das faixas relatadas em estudos do hemisfério Norte, o que não apóia a hipótese de que fatores inerentes ao meio afetam a ocorrência de queixas digestivas em diabéticos.PURPOSE: To determine the frequencies of digestive symptoms in an unselected sample of Brazilian diabetics, in comparison to those verified in the general population. METHODS: The frequencies of 13 digestive symptoms were determined in 153 type 1 and type 2 diabetics and in 50 apparently healthy controls, utilizing a structured

  13. Ameliorative Effect of Active Principle Isolated from Seeds of Eugenia jambolana on Carbohydrate Metabolism in Experimental Diabetes

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    Suman Bala Sharma

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the antidiabetic activity of LH II purified from ethanolic seed extract of Eugenia jambolana in alloxan-induced mild diabetic (MD and severely diabetic (SD rabbits. Ethanolic extract upon chromatographic purification yielded partially purified hypoglycemic principle (SIII which on further purification by sephadex LH 20 yielded pharmacological active compound LH II. Homogeneity of LH II was tested by HPLC. Phytochemical investigation of LH II by various structural spectra showed the presence of saturated fatty acid, Δ5 lipid and presence of sterol. LH II was administered orally at a dose of 10 mg kg−1 body weight to MD and SD. LH II resulted, significant fall in FBG at 90 min (21.2% MD: 28.6% SD, 7th day (35.6% MD and 15th day (59.6% SD. Glycosylated hemoglobin was significantly decreased (50.5% in SD after 15 days treatment (Tt. Plasma insulin levels were significantly increased (P <  .001. In vitro studies with pancreatic islets showed 3-fold increase in insulin levels as compared to untreated animals. LH II also showed extrapancreatic effect by significantly increasing (P <  .001 the activity of key enzymes of glycolysis and significantly decreasing (P <  .001 the activity of key enzymes of gluconeogenesis. Liver and muscle glycogen content were increased by 36.6 and 30% for MD, and 52 and 47% for SD, respectively. Thus, the present study demonstrates that LH II possesses potent antidiabetic activity and it is effective in both MD and SD rabbits.

  14. Severe Type 2 Diabetes Induces Reversible Modifications of Endothelial Progenitor Cells Which are Ameliorate by Glycemic Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pascale, Maria Rosaria; Bruzzese, Giuseppe; Crimi, Ettore; Grimaldi, Vincenzo; Liguori, Antonio; Brongo, Sergio; Barbieri, Michelangela; Picascia, Antonietta; Schiano, Concetta; Sommese, Linda; Ferrara, Nicola; Paolisso, Giuseppe; Napoli, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Background Circulating endothelial progenitors cells (EPCs) play a critical role in neovascularization and endothelial repair. There is a growing evidence that hyperglycemia related to Diabetes Mellitus (DM) decreases EPC number and function so promoting vascular complications. Aim of the Study This study investigated whether an intensive glycemic control regimen in Type 2 DM can increase the number of EPCs and restores their function. Methods Sixty-two patients with Type 2 DM were studied. Patients were tested at baseline and after 3 months of an intensive regimen of glycemic control. The Type 2 DM group was compared to control group of subjects without diabetes. Patients with Type 2 DM (mean age 58.2±5.4 years, 25.6% women, disease duration of 15.4±6.3 years) had a baseline HgA1c of 8.7±0.5% and lower EPC levels (CD34+/KDR+) in comparison to healthy controls (p<0.01). Results The intensive glycemic control regimen (HgA1c decreased to 6.2±0.3%) was coupled with a significant increase of EPC levels (mean of 18%, p<0.04 vs. baseline) and number of EPCs CFUs (p<0.05 vs. baseline). Conclusion This study confirms that number and bioactivity of EPCs are reduced in patients with Type 2 DM and, most importantly, that the intensive glycemic control in Type 2 DM promotes EPC improvement both in their number and in bioactivity. PMID:27426095

  15. Extract of Ginkgo Biloba Ameliorates Streptozotocin-Induced Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus and High-Fat Diet-Induced Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Mice.

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    Rhee, Ki-Jong; Lee, Chang Gun; Kim, Sung Woo; Gim, Dong-Hyeon; Kim, Hyun-Cheol; Jung, Bae Dong

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is caused by either destruction of pancreatic β-cells (type 1 DM) or unresponsiveness to insulin (type 2 DM). Conventional therapies for diabetes mellitus have been developed but still needs improvement. Many diabetic patients have complemented conventional therapy with alternative methods including oral supplementation of natural products. In this study, we assessed whether Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb) 761 could provide beneficial effects in the streptozotocin-induced type 1 DM and high-fat diet-induced type 2 DM murine model system. For the type 1 DM model, streptozotocin-induced mice were orally administered EGb 761 for 10 days prior to streptozotocin injection and then again administered EGb 761 for an additional 10 days. Streptozotocin-treated mice administered EGb 761 exhibited lower blood triglyceride levels, lower blood glucose levels and higher blood insulin levels compared to streptozotocin-treated mice. Furthermore, liver LPL and liver PPAR-α were increased whereas IL-1β and TNF-α were decreased in streptozotocin-injected mice treated with EGb 761 compared to mice injected with streptozotocin alone. For the type 2 DM model, mice were given high-fat diet for 60 days and then orally administered EGb 761 every other day for 80 days. We found that mice given a high-fat diet and EGb 761 showed decreased blood triglyceride levels, increased liver LPL, increased liver PPAR-α and decreased body weight compared to mice given high-fat diet alone. These results suggest that EGb 761 can exert protective effects in both type 1 and type 2 DM murine models.

  16. Prevalence of depressive symptoms in school aged children with type 1 diabetes – a questionnaire study.

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    Joanna Sendela

    2015-10-01

    Depressive symptoms were observed in 1 out of 12 T1D children in a primary school and in 1 out of 5 teenagers. Depressive symptoms may affect metabolic control and quality of life. Therefore, early detection and treatment of depressive symptoms in T1D school children is needed.

  17. Anti-diabetes drug pioglitazone ameliorates synaptic defects in AD transgenic mice by inhibiting cyclin-dependent kinase5 activity.

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    Jinan Chen

    Full Text Available Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5 is a serine/threonine kinase that is activated by the neuron specific activators p35/p39 and plays many important roles in neuronal development. However, aberrant activation of Cdk5 is believed to be associated with the pathogenesis of several neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD and Parkinson's disease (PD. Here in the present study, enhanced Cdk5 activity was observed in mouse models of AD; whereas soluble amyloid-β oligomers (Aβ, which contribute to synaptic failures during AD pathogenesis, induced Cdk5 hyperactivation in cultured hippocampal neurons. Inhibition of Cdk5 activity by pharmacological or genetic approaches reversed dendritic spine loss caused by soluble amyloid-β oligomers (Aβ treatment. Interestingly, we found that the anti-diabetes drug pioglitazone could inhibit Cdk5 activity by decreasing p35 protein level. More importantly, pioglitazone treatment corrected long-term potentiation (LTP deficit caused by Aβ exposure in cultured slices and pioglitazone administration rescued impaired LTP and spatial memory in AD mouse models. Taken together, our study describes an unanticipated role of pioglitazone in alleviating AD and reveals a potential therapeutic drug for AD curing.

  18. Augmentation of antipsychotics with glycine may ameliorate depressive and extrapyramidal symptoms in schizophrenic patients – a preliminary 10-week open-label study

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    Strzelecki, Dominik

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The objective of this study was to analyze the changes in depressive and extrapyramidal symptomatology during glycine augmentation of antipsychotic treatment in patients with schizophrenia.Materials and methods. Twenty-nine schizophrenic patients (ICD-10 with predominant negative symptoms in stable mental state participated in a 10-week open-label prospective study. Patients received stable doses of antipsychotic drugs for at least 3 months before glycine application. During the next 6 weeks patients received augmentation of antipsychotic treatment with glycine (up to 60 g per day. The first and last two weeks of observation were used to assess stability of mental state. Symptom severity was assessed using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS, the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS, and the Simpson-Angus Extrapyramidal Symptom Rating Scale (SASResults. In the studied group after 6 weeks of administration of glycine a significant improvement in depressive symptoms (reduced scores by 25.8% in HDRS, p <0.001 and reduced scoring in mood symptoms of PANSS were observed. In SAS a reduction of extrapyramidal symptoms’ severity (p <0.05 was also noted. Two weeks after the glycine augmentation the symptom severity in the HDRS, PANSS, and SAS remained at similar levels.Conclusions. Glycine augmentation of antipsychotic treatment may reduce the severity of depressive and extrapyramidal symptoms. Glycine use was safe and well tolerated.

  19. Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms as Predictors of All-Cause Mortality among People with Insulin-Naïve Type 2 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Marjolein M; Nefs, Giesje; Tell, Grethe S

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To examine whether elevated anxiety and/or depressive symptoms are related to all-cause mortality in people with Type 2 diabetes, not using insulin. METHODS: 948 participants in the community-wide Nord-Trøndelag Health Survey conducted during 1995-97 completed the Hospital Anxiety...... and Depression Scale with subscales of anxiety (HADS-A) and depression (HADS-D). Elevated symptoms were defined as HADS-A or HADS-D ≥8. Participants with type 2 diabetes, not using insulin, were followed until November 21, 2012 or death. Cox regression analyses were used to estimate associations between baseline...... elevated anxiety symptoms, elevated depressive symptoms and mortality, adjusting for sociodemographic factors, HbA1c, cardiovascular disease and microvascular complications. RESULTS: At baseline, 8% (n = 77/948) reported elevated anxiety symptoms, 9% (n = 87/948) elevated depressive symptoms and 10% (n...

  20. D-Saccharic acid 1,4-lactone protects diabetic rat kidney by ameliorating hyperglycemia-mediated oxidative stress and renal inflammatory cytokines via NF-κB and PKC signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharya, Semantee [Department of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Jadavpur University, 188, Raja S C Mullick Road, Kolkata 700 032 (India); Manna, Prasenjit [Division of Molecular Medicine, Bose Institute, P-1/12, CIT Scheme VII M, Kolkata-700054 (India); Gachhui, Ratan [Department of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Jadavpur University, 188, Raja S C Mullick Road, Kolkata 700 032 (India); Sil, Parames C., E-mail: parames@bosemain.boseinst.ac.in [Division of Molecular Medicine, Bose Institute, P-1/12, CIT Scheme VII M, Kolkata-700054 (India)

    2013-02-15

    Increasing evidence suggests that oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy (DN) and this can be attenuated by antioxidants. D-Saccharic acid 1,4-lactone (DSL) is known for its detoxifying and antioxidant properties. Our early investigation showed that DSL can ameliorate alloxan (ALX) induced diabetes mellitus and oxidative stress in rats by inhibiting pancreatic β-cell apoptosis. In the present study we, therefore, investigated the protective role of DSL against renal injury in ALX induced diabetic rats. ALX exposure (at a dose of 120 mg/kg body weight, i. p., once) elevated the blood glucose level, serum markers related to renal injury, the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and disturbed the intra-cellular antioxidant machineries. Oral administration of DSL (80 mg/kg body weight) restored all these alterations close to normal. In addition, DSL could also normalize the aldose reductase activity which was found to increase in the diabetic rats. Investigating the mechanism of its protective activity, we observed the activation of different isoforms of PKC along with the accumulation of matrix proteins like collagen and fibronectin. The diabetic rats also showed nuclear translocation of NF-κB and increase in the concentration of inflammatory cytokines in the renal tissue. The activation of mitochondria dependent apoptotic pathway was observed in the diabetic rat kidneys. However, treatment of diabetic rats with DSL counteracted all these changes. These findings, for the first time, demonstrated that DSL could ameliorate renal dysfunction in diabetic rats by suppressing the oxidative stress related signalling pathways. - Highlights: ► Sustained hyperglycemia and oxidative stress lead to diabetic renal injury. ► D-saccharic acid 1,4-lactone prevents renal damage in alloxan-induced diabetes. ► It restores intra-cellular antioxidant machineries and kidney apoptosis. ► DSL reduces hyperglycemia-mediated oxidative stress

  1. RU486 (mifepristone) ameliorates cognitive dysfunction and reverses the down-regulation of astrocytic N-myc downstream-regulated gene 2 in streptozotocin-induced type-1 diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Z-F; Wang, W; Niu, L; Kou, Z-Z; Zhu, C; Wang, W; Zhao, X-H; Luo, D-S; Zhang, T; Zhang, F-X; Liu, X-Z; Wu, S-X; Li, Y-Q

    2011-09-08

    Diabetic cognitive dysfunction (DCD), usually accompanied with chronically elevated glucocorticoids and hippocampal astrocytic alterations, is one of the most serious complications in patients with type-1 diabetes. However, the role for chronically elevated glucocorticoids and hippocampal astrocytic activations in DCD remains to be elucidated, and it is not clear whether astrocytic N-myc downstream-regulated gene 2 (NDRG2, involved in cell differentiation and development) participated in DCD. In the present study, three months after streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type-1 diabetes onset, rats showed cognitive impairments in Morris water maze test as well as elevated corticosterone level. Diabetic rats also presented down-regulation of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, a key indicator of astrocytic reactivity) and NDRG2 in hippocampus revealed by immunohistochemistry staining, real-time PCR and Western blot. Moreover, the diabetic cognitive impairments were ameliorated by 9-day glucocorticoids receptor (GR) blockade with RU486, and the down-regulation of hippocampal NDRG2 and GFAP in diabetic animals was also attenuated by 9-day GR blockade. These results suggest that glucocorticoids-GR system is crucial for DCD, and that astrocytic reactivity and NDRG2 are involved in these processes. Thus, inhibiting GR activation in the hippocampus may be a novel therapeutic strategy for treating DCD.

  2. Illness Perception and Depressive Symptoms among Persons with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: An Analytical Cross-Sectional Study in Clinical Settings in Nepal

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    Suira Joshi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This study aimed to assess the relationship between illness perception and depressive symptoms among persons with diabetes. Method. This was an analytical cross-sectional study conducted among 379 type 2 diabetic patients from three major clinical settings of Kathmandu, Nepal. Results. The prevalence of depressive symptoms was 44.1% (95% CI: 39.1, 49.1. Females (p<0.01, homemakers (p<0.01, 61–70 age group (p=0.01, those without formal education (p<0.01, and people with lower social status (p<0.01 had significantly higher proportion of depressive symptoms than the others. Multivariable analysis identified age (β=0.036, p=0.016, mode of treatment (β=0.9, p=0.047, no formal educational level (β=1.959, p=0.01, emotional representation (β=0.214, p<0.001, identity (β=0.196, p<0.001, illness coherence (β=-0.109, p=0.007, and consequences (β=0.093, p=0.049 as significant predictors of depressive symptoms. Conclusion. Our study demonstrated a strong relationship between illness perception and depressive symptoms among diabetic patients. Study finding indicated that persons living with diabetes in Nepal need comprehensive diabetes education program for changing poor illness perception, which ultimately helps to prevent development of depressive symptoms.

  3. Hypovitaminosis D is associated with lower urinary tract symptoms and benign prostate hyperplasia in type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caretta, N; Vigili de Kreutzenberg, S; Valente, U; Guarneri, G; Pizzol, D; Ferlin, A; Avogaro, A; Foresta, C

    2015-11-01

    Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) may develop more commonly in men with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). LUTS are often associated with benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH), in general population. An association between LUTS and hypovitaminosis D, and between hypovitaminosis D and type 2 diabetes (T2DM), has also been suggested. Thus, we aim to evaluate possible relationships between hypovitaminosis D, LUTS, and BPH in T2DM men. In this prospective observational study, 67 T2DM males (57.9 ± 9.28 years) underwent medical history collection, International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) questionnaire, that allows the identification and grading of LUTS, physical examination, biochemical/hormonal blood tests (fasting plasma glucose, glycated haemoglobin, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, creatinine, LH, total testosterone, estradiol (E2 ), 25-OH-vitamin D, PTH, calcium, phosphate, and PSA) and ultrasound transrectal prostate examination. Subdividing patients into three groups, on the base of 25-OH-vitamin D concentration (sufficiency ≥50; insufficiency >25 hypovitaminosis D remained an independent predictor of both IPSS and prostate volume. In conclusion, we showed, for the first time, an association between 25-OH-vitamin D deficiency, LUTS, and BPH in T2DM men.

  4. Inhibition of human high-affinity copper importer Ctr1 orthologous in the nervous system of Drosophila ameliorates Aβ42-induced Alzheimer's disease-like symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Minglin; Fan, Qiangwang; Wang, Lei; Zheng, Yajun; Xiao, Guiran; Wang, Xiaoxi; Wang, Wei; Zhong, Yi; Zhou, Bing

    2013-11-01

    Disruption of copper homeostasis has been implicated in Alzheimer's disease (AD) during the last 2 decades; however, whether copper is a friend or a foe is controversial. Within a genetically tractable Drosophila AD model, we manipulated the expression of human high-affinity copper importer orthologous in Drosophila to explore the in vivo roles of copper ions in the development of AD. We found that inhibition of Ctr1C expression by RNAi in Aβ-expressing flies significantly reduced copper accumulation in the brains of the flies as well as ameliorating neurodegeneration, enhancing climbing ability, and prolonging lifespan. Interestingly, Ctr1C inhibition led to a significant increase in higher-molecular-weight Aβ42 forms in brain lysates, whereas it was accompanied by a trend of decreased expression of amyloid-β degradation proteases (including NEP1-3 and IDE) with age and reduced Cu-Aβ interaction-induced oxidative stress in Ctr1C RNAi flies. Similar results were obtained from inhibiting another copper importer Ctr1B and overexpressing a copper exporter DmATP7 in the nervous system of AD flies. These results imply that copper may play a causative role in developing AD, as either Aβ oligomers or aggregates were less toxic in a reduced copper environment or one with less copper binding. Early manipulation of brain copper uptake can have a great effect on Aβ pathology.

  5. The symptoms of depression and anxiety in patients with diabetic foot treated with hyperbaric oxygen - preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koźmin-Burzyńska Agnieszka

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess the level of anxiety and depressiveness in patients who had qualified for hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT for the treatment of ulcerative lesions in the lower limbs, occurring as a result of diabetic foot syndrome (DFS,. A total of 50 patients with type 2 diabetes and diabetic foot syndrome were enrolled to the study. All patients have received 30 sessions of HBOT. During the therapy blood glucose was measured and photographic documentation was carried out. All patients underwent the following procedures: medical history and socioeconomic interview, psychiatric examination, self-report and objective psychometric tests to measure anxiety and depressiveness. Based on the obtained results, we reported that patients with a greater degree of tissue damage had higher levels of depressive symptoms in the self-report tests as well as in the objective evaluation of the investigator. In terms of location of ulcerative lesions - the level of depressiveness was greater when the affected area included toes, and the level of anxiety was increased when it concerned the heel. Regarding other parameters, statistically significant correlations were not observed.

  6. A lower prevalence of atopy symptoms in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meerwaldt, R; Odink, RJ; Landaeta, R; Aarts, F; Brunekreef, B; Gerritsen, J; Van Aalderen, WMC; Hoekstra, MO

    2002-01-01

    Background The Th1/Th 2 concept is a model to understand the pathophysiology of certain diseases. Atopic diseases (asthma, eczema and hayfever) are characterized by a chronic inflammatory reaction that is dominated by Th 2 cells, and type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) is Th1 cell dominated. Because it is

  7. Altering endoplasmic reticulum stress in a model of blast-induced traumatic brain injury controls cellular fate and ameliorates neuropsychiatric symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aric Flint Logsdon

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Neuronal injury following blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI increases the risk for neuropsychiatric disorders, yet the pathophysiology remains poorly understood. Blood-brain-barrier (BBB disruption, endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress, and apoptosis have all been implicated in bTBI. Microvessel compromise is a primary effect of bTBI and is postulated to cause subcellular secondary effects such as ER stress. What remains unclear is how these secondary effects progress to personality disorders in humans exposed to head trauma. To investigate this we exposed male rats to a clinically relevant bTBI model we have recently developed. The study examined initial BBB disruption using Evan’s blue, ER stress mechanisms, apoptosis and impulsive-like behavior measured with elevated plus maze (EPM. Large BBB openings were observed immediately following bTBI, and persisted for at least 6 h. Data showed increased mRNA abundance of stress response genes at 3 h, with subsequent increases in the ER stress markers C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP and growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible protein 34 (GADD34 at 24 h. Caspase-12 and Caspase-3 were both cleaved at 24 h following bTBI. The ER stress inhibitor, salubrinal (SAL, was administered (1mg/kg i.p. to investigate its’ effects on neuronal injury and impulsive-like behavior associated with bTBI. SAL reduced CHOP protein expression, and diminished Caspase-3 cleavage, suggesting apoptosis attenuation. Interestingly, SAL also ameliorated impulsive-like behavior indicative of head trauma. These results suggest SAL plays a role in apoptosis regulation and the pathology of chronic disease. These observations provide evidence that bTBI involves ER stress and that the UPR is a promising molecular target for the attenuation of neuronal injury.

  8. Symptoms of Eating Disorders and Depression in Emerging Adults with Early-Onset, Long-Duration Type 1 Diabetes and Their Association with Metabolic Control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Bächle

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the prevalence of and association between symptoms of eating disorders and depression in female and male emerging adults with early-onset, long-duration type 1 diabetes and investigated how these symptoms are associated with metabolic control.In a nationwide population-based survey, 211 type 1 diabetes patients aged 18-21 years completed standardized questionnaires, including the SCOFF questionnaire for eating disorder symptoms and the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9 for symptoms of depression and severity of depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 score. Multiple linear and logistic regression models were used to analyze the association between eating disorder and depressive symptoms and their associations with HbA1c.A total of 30.2% of the women and 9.5% of the men were screening positive for eating disorders. The mean PHQ-9 score (standard deviation was 5.3 (4.4 among women and 3.9 (3.6 among men. Screening positive for an eating disorder was associated with more severe depressive symptoms among women (βwomen 3.8, p<0.001. However, neither eating disorder symptoms nor severity of depressive symptoms were associated with HbA1c among women, while HbA1c increased with the severity of depressive symptoms among men (βmen 0.14, p=0.006.Because of the high prevalence of eating disorder and depressive symptoms, their interrelationship, and their associations with metabolic control, particularly among men, regular mental health screening is recommended for young adults with type 1 diabetes.

  9. Type 2 Diabetes: What You Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Us Home Health Information Diabetes English English Español Diabetes Diabetes is a disease that occurs when your ... Diabetes Preventing Diabetes after Pregnancy More Diabetes Topics Diabetes Basics What is Diabetes? Symptoms & Causes of Diabetes ...

  10. Ameliorative potentials of cocoyam (Colocasia esculenta L. and unripe plantain (Musa paradisiacal L. on renal and liver growth in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CO Eleazu

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: The use of cocoyam and unripe plantain flours in the dietary management of diabetes mellitus could be a breakthrough in the search for plants that could prevent the development of diabetic nephropathy.

  11. D-saccharic acid-1,4-lactone ameliorates alloxan-induced diabetes mellitus and oxidative stress in rats through inhibiting pancreatic beta-cells from apoptosis via mitochondrial dependent pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharya, Semantee [Department of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Jadavpur University, 188, Raja S C Mullick Road, Kolkata 700 032 (India); Manna, Prasenjit [Division of Molecular Medicine, Bose Institute, P-1/12, CIT Scheme VII M, Kolkata-700054 (India); Gachhui, Ratan [Department of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Jadavpur University, 188, Raja S C Mullick Road, Kolkata 700 032 (India); Sil, Parames C., E-mail: parames@bosemain.boseinst.ac.in [Division of Molecular Medicine, Bose Institute, P-1/12, CIT Scheme VII M, Kolkata-700054 (India)

    2011-12-15

    Oxidative stress plays a vital role in diabetic complications. To suppress the oxidative stress mediated damage in diabetic pathophysiology, a special focus has been given on naturally occurring antioxidants present in normal diet. D-saccharic acid 1,4-lactone (DSL), a derivative of D-glucaric acid, is present in many dietary plants and is known for its detoxifying and antioxidant properties. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the beneficial role of DSL against alloxan (ALX) induced diabetes in the pancreas tissue of Swiss albino rats. A dose-dependent study for DSL (20-120 mg/kg body weight) was carried out to find the effective dose of the compound in ALX-induced diabetic rats. ALX exposure elevated the blood glucose, glycosylated Hb, decreased the plasma insulin and disturbed the intra-cellular antioxidant machineries whereas oral administration of DSL at a dose of 80 mg/kg body weight restored these alterations close to normal. Investigating the mechanism of the protective activity of DSL we observed that it prevented the pancreatic {beta}-cell apoptosis via mitochondria-dependent pathway. Results showed decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, enhanced cytochrome c release in the cytosol and reciprocal regulation of Bcl-2 family proteins in the diabetic rats. These events were also found to be associated with increased level of Apaf-1, caspase 9, and caspase 3 that ultimately led to pancreatic {beta}-cell apoptosis. DSL treatment, however, counteracted these changes. In conclusion, DSL possesses the capability of ameliorating the oxidative stress in ALX-induced diabetes and thus could be a promising approach in lessening diabetic complications. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Oxidative stress is suggested as a key event in the pathogenesis of diabetes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer D-saccharic acid 1,4-lactone (DSL) reduces the alloxan-induced diabetes mellitus. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DSL normalizes cellular antioxidant machineries

  12. Correlates of Depressive Symptoms in Urban Youth at Risk for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaser, Sarah S.; Holl, Marita G.; Jefferson, Vanessa; Grey, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    Background: Rates of overweight in youth have increased at an alarming rate, particularly in minority youth, and depressive symptoms may affect the ability of youth to engage in healthy lifestyle behaviors to manage weight and reduce their risk for health problems. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between depressive…

  13. Extracorporeal Cardiac Shock Wave Therapy Ameliorates Clinical Symptoms and Improves Regional Myocardial Blood Flow in a Patient with Severe Coronary Artery Disease and Refractory Angina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Prinz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Different therapeutic options are being used for chronic coronary artery disease (CAD. We report about a 51-year-old female with CAD and refractory angina pectoris despite maximally tolerated medical therapy and after both percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI and coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG. The patient received cardiac shock wave therapy (CSWT over a period of 6 month. There was no arrhythmia during or after treatment; enzyme levels were normal at all times. PET imaging showed a substantial improvement of myocardial stress perfusion. Since the patient reported that she now was fully capable to deal with her everyday life, further treatment options were postponed. Our case report suggests that ultrasound-guided CSWT is able to improve symptoms and perfusion in ischemic myocardium.

  14. Diabetes insipidus as the first symptom caused by lung cancer metastasis to the pituitary glands: Clinical presentations, diagnosis, and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J F Mao

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Central diabetes insipidus (CDI, secondary to pituitary metastatic lesions, is uncommon; however, lung and breast cancer are the commonest malignancies to have metastases to the pituitary. Early management of systemic chemotherapy and pituitary irradiation might improve the prognosis of patients. Aims : To investigate the clinical features, diagnosis, and management of CDI caused by lung cancer metastasis to the pituitary glands. Materials and Methods : We retrospectively reviewed 10 patients who had CDI as their first symptom before their lung cancers were diagnosed. Their clinical presentations, anterior pituitary gland function, sellar magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, management, and prognosis were described. Settings and Design : This retrospective cross-sectional clinical study was conducted in a medical college hospital. Results : The patient′s mean age was 58.6±7.8 years. Diabetes insipidus was the main complaint when they were referred to our hospital. MRI revealed specific dumbbell-shaped masses in the sella turcica in five patients. In seven patients whose hormones were measured, the levels of hormones from adenohypophysis were abnormally low in six patients. The main treatments included surgery, systemic chemotherapy, and sellar irradiation. Although nine patients had poor prognoses, one patient has survived for more than 3 years, suggesting benefit from early diagnosis and treatment. Conclusions : New-onset CDI might be the only symptom presented by the patients with pituitary metastasis (PM from lung cancer. Dumbbell-shaped sellar masses in MRI are prone to the diagnosis of PM. A thorough examination for primary cancer should be carried out in these aged and elderly patients.

  15. Can Bacteriotherapy Using Commercially Available Probiotics, Prebiotics, and Organic Acids Ameliorate the Symptoms Associated With Runting-Stunting Syndrome in Broiler Chickens?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundt, E; Collett, S R; Berghaus, R; Pedroso, A A; Lee, M D; Maurer, J J

    2015-06-01

    Runting-stunting syndrome (RSS) in poultry has been known for more than 40 years, but the precise etiology remains unknown and a licensed vaccine is consequently not currently available. In order to mitigate the symptoms associated with RSS, a series of experiments was performed to investigate whether a combined bacteriotherapeutic treatment consisting of probiotics, prebiotics, and organic acids could influence the outcome of this disease. Initially two groups of commercial broiler chickens were either left uninoculated or inoculated with filtrate from homogenized intestines of RSS-affected broiler chickens. One group from each of these two challenge groups was treated, with a bacteriotherapeutic regimen. After 12 days chickens were euthanatized, the body weight was measured, and duodenal lesions were enumerated. Five consecutive broiler chicken flocks were then raised either on litter from RSS-affected birds or on fresh wood shavings. Treatment had no beneficial effect on the number and severity of intestinal lesions. There appeared to be a significant build-up of RSS agent(s) in poultry litter, with each consecutive flock placement, independent of bacteriotherapeutic treatment, as more individuals exhibited intestinal lesions on built-up litter in RSS-affected houses (28.9% vs. 44%). While treatment did not appear to consistently reduce intestinal lesions, it did significantly improve the mean body weights (Phealth and body weight in broiler chickens.

  16. "In a situation of rescuing life" : meanings given to diabetes symptoms and care-seeking practices among adults in Southeastern Tanzania: a qualitative inquiry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metta, Emmy; Bailey, Ajay; Kessy, Flora; Geubbels, Eveline; Hutter, Inge; Haisma, Hinke

    2015-01-01

    Background: Diabetes mellitus is an emerging public health problem in Tanzania. For the community and the health system to respond adequately to this problem, it is important that we understand the meanings given to its symptoms, and the care-seeking practices of individuals. Methods: To explore col

  17. Symptoms of emotional, behavioral, and social difficulties in the Danish population of children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes – results of a national survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Lene Juel; Birkebæk, Niels; Mose, Anne;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of psychological difficulties in Danish children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes using both child/adolescent and caregiver reports, and to investigate associations between these symptoms and metabolic control, adherence, and quality of life. RESEARCH DESIGN...... AND METHOD: A total of 786 children and adolescents (8-17 years) recruited through the Danish Registry of Childhood Diabetes completed subscales of the Beck's Youth Inventories (BYI-Y), while 910 caregivers completed the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). The participants also completed...... questionnaires assessing adherence and quality of life. BYI-Y and SDQ responses were compared with results from normative samples. RESULTS: Children with diabetes generally reported a lower level of symptoms of depression and anxiety, while older adolescents in most cases were comparable to the normative samples...

  18. Aqueous Extract from Hibiscus sabdariffa Linnaeus Ameliorate Diabetic Nephropathy via Regulating Oxidative Status and Akt/Bad/14-3-3 γ in an Experimental Animal Model

    OpenAIRE

    Shou-Chieh Wang; Shiow-Fen Lee; Chau-Jong Wang; Chao-Hsin Lee; Wen-Chin Lee; Huei-Jane Lee

    2011-01-01

    Several studies point out that oxidative stress maybe a major culprit in diabetic nephropathy. Aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (HSE) has been demonstrated as having beneficial effects on anti-oxidation and lipid-lowering in experimental studies. This study aimed at investigating the effects of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. on diabetic nephropathy in streptozotocin induced type 1 diabetic rats. Our results show that HSE is capable of reducing lipid peroxidation, increasing catalase and glut...

  19. Combination of active components of Xiexin decoction ameliorates renal fibrosis through the inhibition of NF-κB and TGF-β1/Smad pathways in db/db diabetic mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Sheng Wu

    Full Text Available Xiexin decoction, a herbal therapeutic agent commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine, is recognized for its beneficial effects on diabetic nephropathy exerted through the combined action of multiple components, including Rhizoma Coptidis alkaloids (A, Radix et Rhizoma Rhei polysaccharides (P, and Radix Scutellaria flavones (F. Our previous studies have shown that a combination of A, P, and F (APF exhibits renoprotective effects against diabetic nephropathy. This study was aimed at determining the effects of APF on renal fibrosis in diabetic nephropathy and elucidating the underlying molecular mechanisms. To evaluate the effects of APF, in vivo, db/db diabetic mice were orally administered a low or high dose of APF (300 or 600 mg/kg, respectively once a day for 8 weeks. We evaluated the blood and urine indices of metabolic and renal function, renal tissue histopathology, renal inflammation, and fibrosis. APF treatment significantly ameliorated glucose and lipid metabolism dysfunction, decreased urinary albumin excretion, normalized creatinine clearance, and reduced the morphological changes in renal tissue. Additionally, APF administration in db/db diabetic mice reduced the elevated levels of renal inflammation mediators such as intercellular adhesion molecule-1, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, and active nuclear factor κB (NF-κB. APF treatment also reduced type I and IV collagen, transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1, and TGF-β1 type II receptor expression levels, and decreased the phosphorylation of Smad2/3 in the kidneys of db/db diabetic mice. These results suggest that APF reduces renal fibrosis in diabetic nephropathy through the NF-κB and TGF-β1/Smad signaling pathways. In vitro, APF treatment reduced cell proliferation and protein expression of α-smooth muscle actin, collagen I, TGF-β1 and NF-κB in mesangial cells cultured with high glucose concentrations. Our findings indicate

  20. Diabetes-specific emotional distress mediates the association between depressive symptoms and glycaemic control in Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Bastelaar, Kim M P; Pouwer, F; Geelhoed-Duijvestijn, P H L M

    2010-01-01

    the relation between depression and glycaemic control and not differently for both disease types. Post-hoc analyses revealed that patients depressed and distressed by their diabetes were in significantly poorer glycaemic control relative to those not depressed nor distressed (HbA(1c) 8.7 +/- 1.7 vs. 7.6 +/- 1......OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether diabetes-specific emotional distress mediates the relationship between depression and glycaemic control in patients with Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Data were derived from the baseline assessment of a depression in diabetes screening...... and diabetes-specific emotional distress respectively. Linear regression was performed to examine the mediating effect of diabetes-distress. RESULTS: Complete data were available for 627 outpatients with Type 1 (n = 280) and Type 2 (n = 347) diabetes. Analyses showed that diabetes-distress mediated...

  1. Diabetes-specific emotional distress mediates the association between depressive symptoms and glycaemic control in Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastelaar, K.M. van; Pouwer, F.; Geelhoed-Duijvestijn, P.H.; Tack, C.J.J.; Bazelmans, E.; Beekman, A.T.; Heine, R.J.; Snoek, F.J.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether diabetes-specific emotional distress mediates the relationship between depression and glycaemic control in patients with Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Data were derived from the baseline assessment of a depression in diabetes screening st

  2. Gestational diabetes - self-care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pregnancy - gestational diabetes; Prenatal care - gestational diabetes ... Gestational diabetes is high blood sugar (glucose) that happens during pregnancy. There are no symptoms in most cases. But ...

  3. Taurine exerts hypoglycemic effect in alloxan-induced diabetic rats, improves insulin-mediated glucose transport signaling pathway in heart and ameliorates cardiac oxidative stress and apoptosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Joydeep; Vasan, Vandana; Sil, Parames C., E-mail: parames@bosemain.boseinst.ac.in

    2012-01-15

    Hyperlipidemia, inflammation and altered antioxidant profiles are the usual complications in diabetes mellitus. In the present study, we investigated the therapeutic potential of taurine in diabetes associated cardiac complications using a rat model. Rats were made diabetic by alloxan (ALX) (single i.p. dose of 120 mg/kg body weight) and left untreated or treated with taurine (1% w/v, orally, in water) for three weeks either from the day of ALX exposure or after the onset of diabetes. Animals were euthanized after three weeks. ALX-induced diabetes decreased body weight, increased glucose level, decreased insulin content, enhanced the levels of cardiac damage markers and altered lipid profile in the plasma. Moreover, it increased oxidative stress (decreased antioxidant enzyme activities and GSH/GSSG ratio, increased xanthine oxidase enzyme activity, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation and ROS generation) and enhanced the proinflammatory cytokines levels, activity of myeloperoxidase and nuclear translocation of NFκB in the cardiac tissue of the experimental animals. Taurine treatment could, however, result to a decrease in the elevated blood glucose and proinflammatory cytokine levels, diabetes-evoked oxidative stress, lipid profiles and NFκB translocation. In addition, taurine increased GLUT 4 translocation to the cardiac membrane by enhanced phosphorylation of IR and IRS1 at tyrosine and Akt at serine residue in the heart. Results also suggest that taurine could protect cardiac tissue from ALX induced apoptosis via the regulation of Bcl2 family and caspase 9/3 proteins. Taken together, taurine supplementation in regular diet could play a beneficial role in regulating diabetes and its associated complications in the heart. Highlights: ► Taurine controls blood glucose via protection of pancreatic β cells in diabetic rat. ► Taurine controls blood glucose via increasing the insulin level in diabetic rat. ► Taurine improves cardiac AKT/GLUT4 signaling

  4. Modulation of glucose metabolism by balanced deep-sea water ameliorates hyperglycemia and pancreatic function in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung Geun Ha

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effects of balanced deep-sea water (BDSW on hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance in streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic mice. BDSW was prepared by mixing DSW mineral extracts and desalinated water to yield a final hardness of 1000-4000 ppm. Male ICR mice were assigned to 6 groups; mice in each group were given tap water (normal and STZ diabetic groups or STZ with BDSW of varying hardness (0, 1000, 2000, and 4000 ppm for 4 weeks. The STZ with BDSW group exhibited lowered fasting plasma glucose levels than the STZ-induced diabetic group. Oral glucose tolerance tests showed that BDSW improves impaired glucose tolerance in STZ-induced diabetic mice. Histopathological evaluation of the pancreas showed that BDSW restores the morphology of the pancreatic islets of Langerhans and increases the secretion of insulin in STZ-induced diabetic mice. Quantitative real-time PCR assay revealed that the expression of hepatic genes involved in gluconeogenesis, glucose oxidation, and glycogenolysis was suppressed, while the expression of the genes involved in glucose uptake, β-oxidation, and glucose oxidation in muscle were increased in the STZ with BDSW group. BDSW stimulated PI3-K, AMPK, and mTOR pathway-mediated glucose uptake in C2C12 myotubes. BDSW increased AMPK phosphorylation in C2C12 myotubes and improved impaired AMPK phosphorylation in the muscles of STZ-induced diabetic mice. Taken together, these results suggest that BDSW is a potential anti-diabetic agent, owing to its ability to suppress hyperglycemia and improve glucose intolerance by modulating glucose metabolism, recovering pancreatic islets of Langerhans and increasing glucose uptake.

  5. [Diabetic neuropathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechleitner, Monika; Abrahamian, Heidemarie; Francesconi, Claudia; Kofler, Markus

    2016-04-01

    These are the guidelines for diagnosis and treatment of diabetic neuropathy. This diabetic late complication comprises a number of mono- and polyneuropathies, plexopathies, radiculopathies and autonomic neuropathy. The position statement summarizes characteristic clinical symptoms and techniques for diagnostic assessment of diabetic neuropathy. Recommendations for the therapeutic management of diabetic neuropathy, especially for the control of pain in sensorimotor neuropathy, are provided.

  6. Severe stunting in blackgram caused by the Mungbean yellow mosaic virus (MYMV) KA27 DNA B component is ameliorated by co-infection or post-infection with the KA22 DNA B: MYMV nuclear shuttle protein is the symptom determinant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Nagrani; Parameswari, Chidambaram; Veluthambi, Karuppannan

    2011-04-01

    Mungbean yellow mosaic virus-[India:Vigna] (MYMV-[IN:Vig]), a blackgram isolate of MYMV, has five variable and infective DNA B components of which KA22 and KA27 DNA Bs share only 72% nucleotide sequence identity between them. Agroinoculation of blackgram with partial dimers of DNA A and KA27 DNA B caused severe stunting and an inordinate delay in flowering. Interestingly, co-agroinoculation of KA27+KA22 DNA B components along with DNA A ameliorated severe stunting, rescued from the delay in flowering and caused the appearance of yellow mosaic symptom characteristic of KA22 DNA B. Post-agroinoculation of KA27 DNA B-infected blackgram plants with KA22 DNA B also resulted in the amelioration from severe stunting and in the alleviation from the delay in flowering. Alleviation from KA27 DNA B-type of symptom by co-infection or post-infection with KA22 DNA B did not result in a corresponding reduction in KA27 DNA B levels. Swapping of KA27 DNA B with the nuclear shuttle protein gene (NSP) of KA22 DNA B abolished severe stunting and caused the appearance of mild yellow symptom, suggesting that the NSP is the major symptom determinant in MYMV DNA B.

  7. Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Paul

    2003-01-01

    Derbyshire general practitioner Stuart Bootle has had diabetes for 20 years. He speaks to Paul Smith, who has type 1 diabetes himself, about the trials and tribulations of being on the receiving end of NHS care

  8. Moringa oleifera leaf extract ameliorates alloxan-induced diabetes in rats by regeneration of β cells and reduction of pyruvate carboxylase expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El Latif, Amira; El Bialy, Badr El Said; Mahboub, Hamada Dahi; Abd Eldaim, Mabrouk Attia

    2014-10-01

    Moringa oleifera Lam. contains many active ingredients with nutritional and medicinal values. It is commonly used in folk medicine as an antidiabetic agent. The present study was designed to investigate how an aqueous extract from the leaves of M. oleifera reveals hypoglycemia in diabetic rats. M. oleifera leaf extract counteracted the alloxan-induced diabetic effects in rats as it normalized the elevated serum levels of glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, and malondialdehyde, and normalized mRNA expression of the gluconeogenic enzyme pyruvate carboxylase in hepatic tissues. It also increased live body weight gain and normalized the reduced mRNA expression of fatty acid synthase in the liver of diabetic rats. Moreover, it restored the normal histological structure of the liver and pancreas damaged by alloxan in diabetic rats. This study revealed that the aqueous extract of M. oleifera leaves possesses potent hypoglycemic effects through the normalization of elevated hepatic pyruvate carboxylase enzyme and regeneration of damaged hepatocytes and pancreatic β cells via its antioxidant properties.

  9. Ameliorative Effect of Hexane Extract of Phalaris canariensis on High Fat Diet-Induced Obese and Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez Gutierrez, Rosa Martha; Madrigales Ahuatzi, Diana; Horcacitas, Maria del Carmen; Garcia Baez, Efren; Cruz Victoria, Teresa; Mota-Flores, Jose Maria

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is one of the major factors to increase various disorders like diabetes. The present paper emphasizes study related to the antiobesity effect of Phalaris canariensis seeds hexane extract (Al-H) in high-fat diet- (HFD-) induced obese CD1 mice and in streptozotocin-induced mild diabetic (MD) and severely diabetic (SD) mice.AL-H was orally administered to MD and SD mice at a dose of 400 mg/kg once a day for 30 days, and a set of biochemical parameters were studied: glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, lipid peroxidation, liver and muscle glycogen, ALP, SGOT, SGPT, glucose-6-phosphatase, glucokinase, hexokinase, SOD, CAT, GSH, GPX activities, and the effect on insulin level. HS-H significantly reduced the intake of food and water and body weight loss as well as levels of blood glucose, serum cholesterol, triglyceride, lipoprotein, oxidative stress, showed a protective hepatic effect, and increased HDL-cholesterol, serum insulin in diabetic mice. The mice fed on the high-fat diet and treated with AL-H showed inhibitory activity on the lipid metabolism decreasing body weight and weight of the liver and visceral adipose tissues and cholesterol and triglycerides in the liver. We conclude that AL-H can efficiently reduce serum glucose and inhibit insulin resistance, lipid abnormalities, and oxidative stress in MD and SD mice. Our results demonstrate an antiobesity effect reducing lipid droplet accumulation in the liver, indicating that its therapeutic properties may be due to the interaction plant components soluble in the hexane extract, with any of the multiple targets involved in obesity and diabetes pathogenesis. PMID:24523819

  10. Ameliorative Effect of Hexane Extract of Phalaris canariensis on High Fat Diet-Induced Obese and Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Martha Perez Gutierrez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is one of the major factors to increase various disorders like diabetes. The present paper emphasizes study related to the antiobesity effect of Phalaris canariensis seeds hexane extract (Al-H in high-fat diet- (HFD- induced obese CD1 mice and in streptozotocin-induced mild diabetic (MD and severely diabetic (SD mice.AL-H was orally administered to MD and SD mice at a dose of 400 mg/kg once a day for 30 days, and a set of biochemical parameters were studied: glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, lipid peroxidation, liver and muscle glycogen, ALP, SGOT, SGPT, glucose-6-phosphatase, glucokinase, hexokinase, SOD, CAT, GSH, GPX activities, and the effect on insulin level. HS-H significantly reduced the intake of food and water and body weight loss as well as levels of blood glucose, serum cholesterol, triglyceride, lipoprotein, oxidative stress, showed a protective hepatic effect, and increased HDL-cholesterol, serum insulin in diabetic mice. The mice fed on the high-fat diet and treated with AL-H showed inhibitory activity on the lipid metabolism decreasing body weight and weight of the liver and visceral adipose tissues and cholesterol and triglycerides in the liver. We conclude that AL-H can efficiently reduce serum glucose and inhibit insulin resistance, lipid abnormalities, and oxidative stress in MD and SD mice. Our results demonstrate an antiobesity effect reducing lipid droplet accumulation in the liver, indicating that its therapeutic properties may be due to the interaction plant components soluble in the hexane extract, with any of the multiple targets involved in obesity and diabetes pathogenesis.

  11. Depressive Symptoms, Age at Diagnosis and A Clinically Defined Metabolic Syndrome as Independent Correlates of Glycemic Control in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Andreoulakis

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The findings concerning the association of metabolic syndrome (MetS and depression with glycemic control are controversial. Recently, age at type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM diagnosis has attracted particular attention but the relevant findings are limited. This study aimed to further assess the association between age at T2DM diagnosis, depressive symptoms and MetS with glycemic control in T2DM patients. Methods: In 116 T2DM patients we assessed disease-related and MetS-related variables as well as depressive symptom severity (Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale - CES-D. Glycemic control, as assessed by glycated hemoglobin (HBA1c levels, was the dependent variable. Results: Suboptimal HBA1c levels, i.e. 7% (53 mmol/mol or higher, were found in 35.3% of the patients. Elevated CES-D scores indicative of clinically relevant depressive symptoms (CES-D?16 or possible major depression (CES-D>23 where found in 31.9% and 11.2% of the patients, respectively. Younger age at T2DM diagnosis (p=0.004, greater treatment intensity (p=0.009, higher levels of depressive symptoms (p=0.011 and the presence of a clinically defined MetS (p=0.012 were the variables independently associated with glycemic control in multiple regression analysis after adjusting for sex, education, marital status, family history of diabetes and disease duration. Conclusion: In T2DM patients, the linear association found between depressive symptom severity and glycemic control points to the need of depressive symptoms being timely addressed. Younger age at T2DM onset may also be an important correlate of suboptimal glycemic control, independent of disease duration. Finally, classification of MetS in T2DM by clinical severity might help delineate its impact on glycemic control.

  12. Abnormality of peripheral nerve conduction velocity associated with illness course, symptoms and fasting blood glucose in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Suijing Cui; Jinhua Qiu; Weiliang Luo

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It has shown that abnormality of peripheral nerve conduction velocity during onset of diabetes mellitus is not related to age and sex, but to symptoms, illness course and level of fasting blood glucose.OBJECTIVE: To measure correlation of abnormality of peripheral nerve conduction velocity with various illness courses, symptoms and levels of fasting blood glucose of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.DESIGN: Case analysis.SETTING: Department of Neurology, Central People's Hospital of Huizhou.PARTICIPANTS: A total of 128 patients who were diagnosed as type 2 diabetes mellitus were selected from Central People's Hospital of Huizhou from September 2001 to October 2005. There were 75 males and 53 females aged 32-83 years and the illness course ranged from 1 month to 20 years.METHODS: All 128 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus received neuro-electrophysiological study and their clinical data were retrospectively analyzed to measure peripheral nerve conduction velocity and fasting blood glucose so as to investigate the correlation of peripheral nerve conduction velocity with clinical symptoms,illness course and levels of fasting blood glucose.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Correlation of peripheral nerve conduction velocity with clinical symptoms, illness course and levels of fasting blood glucose.RESULTS: All 128 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus were involved in the final analysis. ① Among 128patients, 114 patients had abnormality of peripheral nerve conduction velocity; 110 patients had clinical symptoms, including 102 patients having abnormality of peripheral nerve conduction velocity; 18 patients did not have clinical symptoms, including 12 patients having abnormality of peripheral nerve conduction velocity.There were significant differences between them (x2=8.275, P=0.04). ② Among 128 patients, illness course of 75 patients was equal to or less than 5 years, including 27 patients having abnormality of peripheral nerve conduction velocity

  13. Gallic acid ameliorates renal functions by inhibiting the activation of p38 MAPK in experimentally induced type 2 diabetic rats and cultured rat proximal tubular epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahad, Amjid; Ahsan, Haseeb; Mujeeb, Mohd; Siddiqui, Waseem Ahmad

    2015-10-05

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in diabetic patients that accounts for about 40% of deaths in type 2 diabetes. p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK), a serine-threonine kinase, plays an important role in tissue inflammation and is known to be activated under conditions of oxidative stress and hyperglycemia. The role of p38 MAPK has been demonstrated in DN, and its inhibition has been suggested as an alternative approach in the treatment of DN. In the present study, we investigated the nephroprotective effects of an anti-inflammatory phenolic compound, gallic acid (GA, 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid), in high fat diet/streptozotocin (HFD/STZ) induce type 2 diabetic wistar albino rats. GA (25 mg/kgbw and 50 mg/kgbw, p.o.) treatment for 16 weeks post induction of diabetes led to a significant reduction in the levels of blood glucose, HbA1c, serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen and proteinuria as well as a significant reduction in the levels of creatinine clearance. GA significantly inhibited the renal p38 MAPK and nuclear factor kappa B (N-κB) activation as well as significantly reduced the levels of renal transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) and fibronectin. Treatment with GA resulted in a significant reduction in the serum levels of proinflammatory cytokines viz. interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β), IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). Moreover, GA significantly lowered renal pathology and attenuated renal oxidative stress. In cultured rat NRK 52E proximal tubular epithelial cells, GA treatment inhibited high glucose induced activation of p38 MAPK and NF-κB as well as suppressed proinflammatory cytokine synthesis. The results of the present study provide in vivo and in vitro evidences that the p38 MAPK pathway plays an important role in the pathogenesis of DN, and GA attenuates the p38 MAPK-mediated renal dysfunction in HFD/STZ induced type 2 diabetic rats.

  14. Chikusetsu Saponin IVa Ameliorates Cerebral Ischemia Reperfusion Injury in Diabetic Mice via Adiponectin-Mediated AMPK/GSK-3β Pathway In Vivo and In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Jialin; Yin, Ying; Cui, Jia; Yan, Jiajia; Zhu, Yanrong; Guan, Yue; Wei, Guo; Weng, Yan; Wu, Xiaoxiao; Guo, Chao; Wang, Yanhua; Xi, Miaomiao; Wen, Aidong

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus substantially increases the risk of stroke and enhances brain's vulnerability to ischemia insult. In a previous study, Chikusetsu saponin IVa (CHS) pretreatment was proved to protect the brain from cerebral ischemic in normal stroke models. Whether CHS could attenuate cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in diabetic mice and the possible underlying mechanism are still unrevealed. Male C57BL/6 mice were injected streptozotocin to induce diabetes. After that, the mice were pretreated with CHS for 1 month, and then, focal cerebral ischemia was induced following 24-h reperfusion. The neurobehavioral scores, infarction volumes, and some cytokines in the brain were measured. Apoptosis was analyzed by caspase-3, Bax, and Bcl-2 expression. Downstream molecules of adiponectin (APN) were investigated by Western blotting. The results showed that CHS reduced infarct size, improved neurological outcomes, and inhibited cell injury after I/R. In addition, CHS pretreatment increased APN level and enhanced neuronal AdipoR1, adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK-3β) expression in a concentration-dependent manner in diabetic mice, and these effects were abolished by APN knockout (KO). In vitro test, CHS treatment also alleviated PC12 cell injury and apoptosis, evidenced by reduced tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), malondialdehyde (MDA) and caspase-3 expression, and Bax/Bcl-2 ratio in I/R injured cells. Moreover, CHS enhanced AdipoR1, AMPK, and GSK-3β expression in a concentration-dependent manner. Likewise, short interfering RNA (sinRNA) knockdown of liver kinase B1 (LKB1), an upstream kinase of AMPK, reduced the ability of CHS in protecting cells from I/R injury. Furthermore, this LKB1-dependent cellular protection resulted from AdipoR1 and APN activation, as supported by the experiment using sinRNA knockdown of AdipoR1 and APN. Thus, CHS protected brain I/R in diabetes through AMPK

  15. Nigella sativa improves glycemic control and ameliorates oxidative stress in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: placebo controlled participant blinded clinical trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huda Kaatabi

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress plays an important role in pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus and its complications. Our previous study has shown glucose lowering effect produced by 3 months supplementation of Nigella sativa (NS in combination with oral hypoglycemic drugs among type 2 diabetics. This study explored the long term glucose lowering effect (over one year of NS in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus on oral hypoglycemic drugs and to study its effect on redox status of such patients.114 type 2 diabetic patients on standard oral hypoglycemic drugs were assigned into 2 groups by convenience. The control group (n = 57 received activated charcoal as placebo and NS group (n = 57 received 2g NS, daily, for one year in addition to their standard medications. Fasting blood glucose (FBG, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c, C- peptide, total antioxidant capacity (TAC, superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS at the baseline, and every 3 months thereafter were determined. Insulin resistance and β-cell activity were calculated using HOMA 2 calculator.Comparison between the two groups showed a significant drop in FBG (from 180 ± 5.75 to 180 ± 5.59 in control Vs from 195 ± 6.57 to 172 ± 5.83 in NS group, HbA1c (from 8.2 ± 0.12 to 8.5 ± 0.14 in control VS from 8.6 ± 0.13 to 8.2 ± 0.14 in NS group, and TBARS (from 48.3 ± 6.89 to 52.9 ± 5.82 in control VS from 54.1 ± 4.64 to 41.9 ± 3.16 in NS group, in addition to a significant elevation in TAC, SOD and glutathione in NS patients compared to controls. In NS group, insulin resistance was significantly lower, while β-cell activity was significantly higher than the baseline values during the whole treatment period.Long term supplementation with Nigella sativa improves glucose homeostasis and enhances antioxidant defense system in type 2 diabetic patients treated with oral hypoglycemic drugs.Clinical Trials Registry-India (CTRI CTRI/2013/06/003781.

  16. In Vivo Anti-Diabetic Activity of the Ethanolic Crude Extract of Sorbus decora C.K.Schneid. (Rosacea: A Medicinal Plant Used by Canadian James Bay Cree Nations to Treat Symptoms Related to Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose Vianna

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of potential anti-diabetic plants were identified through an ethnobotanical survey of the traditional pharmacopeia of the Cree of Eeyou Istchee (CEI—Northeastern Canada used against symptoms of diabetes and their biological activity assessed by in vitro bioassays. Among these, Sorbus decora C.K.Schneid. (Rosacea ranked highly and increased the transport of glucose in skeletal muscle cells in culture. The present study thus aimed at confirming the antidiabetic potential of S. decora in in vivo models of insulin resistance and diabetes, notably the streptozotocin Type 1 diabetic rat (STZ, the genetic KK-Ay Type 2 diabetic mouse and the rat rendered insulin resistant with 10% glucose water consumption for 6 weeks. Sorbus decora ethanolic crude extract (SDEE was administered orally (200 mg kg-1 and compared to metformin (150 or 500 mg kg-1. The intragastric (i.g. gavage of SDEE transiently decreased glycemia in STZ rats in a bi-phasic manner but the effect was cumulative over several days. In KK-Ay mice, SDEE incorporated in food (0.12% decreased glycemia by 15% within 1 week as compared to vehicle controls. In pre-diabetic insulin-resistant rats, SDEE fed daily by i.g. gavage for 2 weeks significantly decreased the slight hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia, without affecting sugar water intake. Using the HOMA insulin resistance parameter, the effect of SDEE was equivalent to that of metformin. In conclusion, the ethanolic crude extract of S. decora demonstrates both anti-hyperglycemic and insulin-sensitizing activity in vivo, thereby confirming anti-diabetic potential and validating CEI traditional medicine.

  17. Tiliroside, a glycosidic flavonoid, ameliorates obesity-induced metabolic disorders via activation of adiponectin signaling followed by enhancement of fatty acid oxidation in liver and skeletal muscle in obese-diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Tsuyoshi; Teraminami, Aki; Lee, Joo-Young; Ohyama, Kana; Funakoshi, Kozue; Kim, Young-Il; Hirai, Shizuka; Uemura, Taku; Yu, Rina; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Kawada, Teruo

    2012-07-01

    Tiliroside contained in several dietary plants, such as rose hips, strawberry and raspberry, is a glycosidic flavonoid and possesses anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anticarcinogenic and hepatoprotective activities. Recently, it has been reported that the administration of tiliroside significantly inhibited body weight gain and visceral fat accumulation in normal mice. In this study, we evaluated the effects of tiliroside on obesity-induced metabolic disorders in obese-diabetic KK-A(y) mice. In KK-A(y) mice, the administration of tiliroside (100 mg/kg body weight/day) for 21 days failed to suppress body weight gain and visceral fat accumulation. Although tiliroside did not affect oxygen consumption, respiratory exchange ratio was significantly decreased in mice treated with tiliroside. In the analysis of metabolic characteristics, it was shown that plasma insulin, free fatty acid and triglyceride levels were decreased, and plasma adiponectin levels were increased in mice administered tiliroside. The messenger RNA expression levels of hepatic adiponectin receptor (AdipoR)-1 and AdipoR2 and skeletal muscular AdipoR1 were up-regulated by tiliroside treatment. Furthermore, it was indicated that tiliroside treatment activated AMP-activated protein kinase in both the liver and skeletal muscle and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α in the liver. Finally, tiliroside inhibited obesity-induced hepatic and muscular triglyceride accumulation. These findings suggest that tiliroside enhances fatty acid oxidation via the enhancement adiponectin signaling associated with the activation of both AMP-activated protein kinase and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α and ameliorates obesity-induced metabolic disorders, such as hyperinsulinemia and hyperlipidemia, although it does not suppress body weight gain and visceral fat accumulation in obese-diabetic model mice.

  18. Effects of a Multicomponent Life-Style Intervention on Weight, Glycemic Control, Depressive Symptoms, and Renal Function in Low-Income, Minority Patients With Type 2 Diabetes: Results of the Community Approach to Lifestyle Modification for Diabetes Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncrieft, Ashley E.; Llabre, Maria M.; McCalla, Judith Rey; Gutt, Miriam; Mendez, Armando J.; Gellman, Marc D.; Goldberg, Ronald B.; Schneiderman, Neil

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective Few interventions have combined life-style and psychosocial approaches in the context of Type 2 diabetes management. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a multicomponent behavioral intervention on weight, glycemic control, renal function, and depressive symptoms in a sample of overweight/obese adults with Type 2 diabetes and marked depressive symptoms. Methods A sample of 111 adults with Type 2 diabetes were randomly assigned to a 1-year intervention (n = 57) or usual care (n = 54) in a parallel groups design. Primary outcomes included weight, glycosylated hemoglobin, and Beck Depression Inventory II score. Estimated glomerular filtration rate served as a secondary outcome. All measures were assessed at baseline and 6 and 12 months after randomization by assessors blind to randomization. Latent growth modeling was used to examine intervention effects on each outcome. Results The intervention resulted in decreased weight (mean [M] = 0.322 kg, standard error [SE] = 0.124 kg, p = .010) and glycosylated hemoglobin (M = 0.066%, SE = 0.028%, p = .017), and Beck Depression Inventory II scores (M = 1.009, SE = 0.226, p < .001), and improved estimated glomerular filtration rate (M = 0.742 ml·min−1·1.73 m−2, SE = 0.318 ml·min−1·1.73 m−2, p = .020) each month during the first 6 months relative to usual care. Conclusions Multicomponent behavioral interventions targeting weight loss and depressive symptoms as well as diet and physical activity are efficacious in the management of Type 2 diabetes. Trial Registration: This study is registered at Clinicaltrials.gov ID: NCT01739205. PMID:27359176

  19. Short term exercise induces PGC-1α, ameliorates inflammation and increases mitochondrial membrane proteins but fails to increase respiratory enzymes in aging diabetic hearts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Botta

    Full Text Available PGC-1α, a transcriptional coactivator, controls inflammation and mitochondrial gene expression in insulin-sensitive tissues following exercise intervention. However, attributing such effects to PGC-1α is counfounded by exercise-induced fluctuations in blood glucose, insulin or bodyweight in diabetic patients. The goal of this study was to investigate the role of PGC-1α on inflammation and mitochondrial protein expressions in aging db/db mice hearts, independent of changes in glycemic parameters. In 8-month-old db/db mice hearts with diabetes lasting over 22 weeks, short-term, moderate-intensity exercise upregulated PGC-1α without altering body weight or glycemic parameters. Nonetheless, such a regimen lowered both cardiac (macrophage infiltration, iNOS and TNFα and systemic (circulating chemokines and cytokines inflammation. Curiously, such an anti-inflammatory effect was also linked to attenuated expression of downstream transcription factors of PGC-1α such as NRF-1 and several respiratory genes. Such mismatch between PGC-1α and its downstream targets was associated with elevated mitochondrial membrane proteins like Tom70 but a concurrent reduction in oxidative phosphorylation protein expressions in exercised db/db hearts. As mitochondrial oxidative stress was predominant in these hearts, in support of our in vivo data, increasing concentrations of H2O2 dose-dependently increased PGC-1α expression while inhibiting expression of inflammatory genes and downstream transcription factors in H9c2 cardiomyocytes in vitro. We conclude that short-term exercise-induced oxidative stress may be key in attenuating cardiac inflammatory genes and impairing PGC-1α mediated gene transcription of downstream transcription factors in type 2 diabetic hearts at an advanced age.

  20. Fresh pomegranate juice ameliorates insulin resistance, enhances β-cell function, and decreases fasting serum glucose in type 2 diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banihani, S A; Makahleh, S M; El-Akawi, Z; Al-Fashtaki, R A; Khabour, O F; Gharibeh, M Y; Saadah, N A; Al-Hashimi, F H; Al-Khasieb, N J

    2014-10-01

    Although the effects of pomegranate juice (PJ) on type 2 diabetic (T2D) conditions have been reported, a clinical study focusing on the short-term effects on different diabetic variables is still needed. We hypothesized that PJ consumption by T2D patients could reduce their insulin-resistant state and decrease their fasting serum glucose (FSG) levels, 3 hours after juice ingestion. This study demonstrated the direct effect of fresh PJ on FSG and insulin levels in T2D patients. Blood samples from 85 participants with type 2 diabetes were collected after a 12-hour fast, then 1 and 3 hours after administration of 1.5 mL of PJ, per kg body weight. Serum glucose was measured based on standard methods using the BS-200 Chemistry Analyzer (Shenzhen Mindray Bio-Medical Electronics Co Ltd, Shenzhen, China). Commercially available immunoassay kits were used to measure human insulin. Generally, the results demonstrated decreased FSG, increased β-cell function, and decreased insulin resistance among T2D participants, 3 hours after PJ administration (P < .05). This hypoglycemic response depended on initial FSG levels, as participants with lower FSG levels (7.1-8.7 mmol/L) demonstrated a greater hypoglycemic response (P < .05) compared with those who had higher FSG levels (8.8-15.8 mmol/L). The effect of PJ was also not affected by the sex of the patient and was less potent in elderly patients. In conclusion, this work offers some encouragement for T2D patients regarding PJ consumption as an additional contribution to control glucose levels.

  1. Amelioration of Metabolic Syndrome-Associated Cognitive Impairments in Mice via a Reduction in Dietary Fat Content or Infusion of Non-Diabetic Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lance A. Johnson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity, metabolic syndrome (MetS and type 2 diabetes (T2D are associated with decreased cognitive function. While weight loss and T2D remission result in improvements in metabolism and vascular function, it is less clear if these benefits extend to cognitive performance. Here, we highlight the malleable nature of MetS-associated cognitive dysfunction using a mouse model of high fat diet (HFD-induced MetS. While learning and memory was generally unaffected in mice with type 1 diabetes (T1D, multiple cognitive impairments were associated with MetS, including deficits in novel object recognition, cued fear memory, and spatial learning and memory. However, a brief reduction in dietary fat content in chronic HFD-fed mice led to a complete rescue of cognitive function. Cerebral blood volume (CBV, a measure of vascular perfusion, was decreased during MetS, was associated with long term memory, and recovered following the intervention. Finally, repeated infusion of plasma collected from age-matched, low fat diet-fed mice improved memory in HFD mice, and was associated with a distinct metabolic profile. Thus, the cognitive dysfunction accompanying MetS appears to be amenable to treatment, related to cerebrovascular function, and mitigated by systemic factors.

  2. Amelioration of Metabolic Syndrome-Associated Cognitive Impairments in Mice via a Reduction in Dietary Fat Content or Infusion of Non-Diabetic Plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Lance A; Zuloaga, Kristen L; Kugelman, Tara L; Mader, Kevin S; Morré, Jeff T; Zuloaga, Damian G; Weber, Sydney; Marzulla, Tessa; Mulford, Amelia; Button, Dana; Lindner, Jonathan R; Alkayed, Nabil J; Stevens, Jan F; Raber, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    Obesity, metabolic syndrome (MetS) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) are associated with decreased cognitive function. While weight loss and T2D remission result in improvements in metabolism and vascular function, it is less clear if these benefits extend to cognitive performance. Here, we highlight the malleable nature of MetS-associated cognitive dysfunction using a mouse model of high fat diet (HFD)-induced MetS. While learning and memory was generally unaffected in mice with type 1 diabetes (T1D), multiple cognitive impairments were associated with MetS, including deficits in novel object recognition, cued fear memory, and spatial learning and memory. However, a brief reduction in dietary fat content in chronic HFD-fed mice led to a complete rescue of cognitive function. Cerebral blood volume (CBV), a measure of vascular perfusion, was decreased during MetS, was associated with long term memory, and recovered following the intervention. Finally, repeated infusion of plasma collected from age-matched, low fat diet-fed mice improved memory in HFD mice, and was associated with a distinct metabolic profile. Thus, the cognitive dysfunction accompanying MetS appears to be amenable to treatment, related to cerebrovascular function, and mitigated by systemic factors.

  3. Acute exercise reduces insulin resistance-induced TRB3 expression and amelioration of the hepatic production of glucose in the liver of diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Athos F; Ropelle, Eduardo R; Pauli, José R; Cintra, Dennys E; Frederico, Marisa J S; Pinho, Ricardo A; Velloso, Lício A; De Souza, Cláudio T

    2009-10-01

    TRB3 (a mammalian homolog of Drosophila) is emerging as an important player in the regulation of insulin signaling. TRB3 can directly bind to Ser/Thr protein kinase Akt, the major downstream kinase of insulin signaling. Conversely, physical exercise has been linked to improved glucose homeostasis and enhanced insulin sensitivity; however, the molecular mechanisms by which exercise improves glucose homeostasis, particularly in the hepatic tissue, are only partially known. Here, we demonstrate that acute exercise reduces fasting glucose in two models diabetic mice. Western blot analysis showed that 8 h after a swimming protocol, TRB3 expression was reduced in the hepatic tissue from diet-induced obesity (Swiss) and leptin-deficient (ob/ob) mice, when compared with respective control groups at rest. In parallel, there was an increase in insulin responsiveness in the canonical insulin-signaling pathway in hepatic tissue from DIO and ob/ob mice after exercise. In addition, the PEPCK expression was reduced in the liver after the exercise protocol, suggesting that acute exercise diminished hepatic glucose production through insulin-signaling restoration. Thus, these results provide new insights into the mechanism by which physical activity improves glucose homeostasis in type 2 diabetes.

  4. Xylobiose, an Alternative Sweetener, Ameliorates Diabetes-Related Metabolic Changes by Regulating Hepatic Lipogenesis and miR-122a/33a in db/db Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Eunjin; Lim, Ji Ye; Kim, Eunju; Kim, Yoo-Sun; Shin, Jae-Ho; Seok, Pu Reum; Jung, Sangwon; Yoo, Sang-Ho; Kim, Yuri

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is a major public health concern worldwide. Xylobiose (XB) consists of two molecules of d-xylose and is a major disaccharide in xylooligosaccharides that are used as prebiotics. We hypothesized that XB could regulate diabetes-related metabolic and genetic changes via microRNA expression in db/db mice. For six weeks, C57BL/KsJ-db/db mice received 5% XB as part of the total sucrose content of their diet. XB supplementation improved glucose tolerance with reduced levels of OGTT AUC, fasting blood glucose, HbA1c, insulin, and HOMA-IR. Furthermore, XB supplementation decreased the levels of total triglycerides, total cholesterol, and LDL-C. The expression levels of miR-122a and miR-33a were higher and lower in the XB group, respectively. In the liver, expressions of the lipogenic genes, including, fatty acid synthase (FAS), peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ (PPARγ), sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1C (SREBP-1C), sterol regulatory element-binding protein-2 (SREBP-2), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), HMG-CoA reductase (HMGCR), ATP-binding cassette transporter G5/G8 (ABCG5/8), cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase (CYP7A1), and sterol 12-alpha-hydroxylase (CYP8B1), as well as oxidative stress markers, including superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), and catalase, were also regulated by XB supplementation. XB supplementation inhibited the mRNA expressions levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, interleukin (IL)-6, and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, as well as phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase/stress activated protein kinase (JNK/SAPK), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), and extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2). These data demonstrate that XB exhibits anti-diabetic, hypolipogenic, and anti-inflammatory effects via regulation of the miR-122a/33a axis in db/db mice. PMID:27929393

  5. Xylobiose, an Alternative Sweetener, Ameliorates Diabetes-Related Metabolic Changes by Regulating Hepatic Lipogenesis and miR-122a/33a in db/db Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunjin Lim

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes is a major public health concern worldwide. Xylobiose (XB consists of two molecules of d-xylose and is a major disaccharide in xylooligosaccharides that are used as prebiotics. We hypothesized that XB could regulate diabetes-related metabolic and genetic changes via microRNA expression in db/db mice. For six weeks, C57BL/KsJ-db/db mice received 5% XB as part of the total sucrose content of their diet. XB supplementation improved glucose tolerance with reduced levels of OGTT AUC, fasting blood glucose, HbA1c, insulin, and HOMA-IR. Furthermore, XB supplementation decreased the levels of total triglycerides, total cholesterol, and LDL-C. The expression levels of miR-122a and miR-33a were higher and lower in the XB group, respectively. In the liver, expressions of the lipogenic genes, including, fatty acid synthase (FAS, peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ (PPARγ, sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1C (SREBP-1C, sterol regulatory element-binding protein-2 (SREBP-2, acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC, HMG-CoA reductase (HMGCR, ATP-binding cassette transporter G5/G8 (ABCG5/8, cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase (CYP7A1, and sterol 12-alpha-hydroxylase (CYP8B1, as well as oxidative stress markers, including superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1, superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2, glutathione peroxidase (GPX, and catalase, were also regulated by XB supplementation. XB supplementation inhibited the mRNA expressions levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, interleukin (IL-1β, interleukin (IL-6, and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1, as well as phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase/stress activated protein kinase (JNK/SAPK, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK, and extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2. These data demonstrate that XB exhibits anti-diabetic, hypolipogenic, and anti-inflammatory effects via regulation of the miR-122a/33a axis in db/db mice.

  6. Metformin ameliorates diabetes but does not normalize the decreased GLUT 4 content in skeletal muscle of obese (fa/fa) Zucker rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Handberg, A; Kayser, L; Høyer, P E

    1993-01-01

    We studied the expression of the glucose transporter GLUT 4 in the soleus and red gastrocnemius muscles from obese, diabetic (fa/fa) Zucker rats compared to their lean littermates (Fa/-), with and without treatment with the antidiabetic drug metformin. In the untreated groups of rats, the GLUT 4...... content in a crude membrane fraction of both the soleus and the red gastrocnemius muscles were significantly lower in the obese (fa/fa) rats (3.46 +/- 0.28 vs. 6.04 +/- 0.41, p GLUT 4 expression in soleus muscle from...... the same rats were confirmed by quantitative immunofluorescence microscopy, and the results were significantly correlated with the results obtained from quantitative immunoblotting (rho = 0.70, p GLUT 4 in fa/fa rats could contribute to the well-established insulin...

  7. Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomberk, Gwen

    2009-01-01

    Pancreatologists have often divided research of the pancreas based upon the origin of the function or disease, namely the endocrine or exocrine pancreas. In fact, as a result, many of our meetings and conferences have followed separate paths. Interestingly, among patients with chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer, both disorders of the exocrine pancreas, diabetes is common. However, the clinical features of the diabetes associated with these two differ. Peripheral insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia are the predominant diabetic traits in pancreatic cancer, while reduced islet cell mass and impaired insulin secretion are observed more often in chronic pancreatitis. The causal relationship between diabetes and pancreatic cancer remains an intriguing but unanswered question. Since diabetes often precedes pancreatic cancer, it is regarded as a potential risk factor for malignancy. On the other hand, there remains the possibility that pancreatic cancer secretes diabetogenic factors. Regardless of how the science ultimately illuminates this issue, there is increasing interest in utilizing screening for diabetes to aid early detection of pancreatic tumor lesions. Therefore, in this issue of Pancreatology and the Web, we explore the topic of diabetes to keep us alert to this very important association, even if we study diseases of the exocrine pancreas.

  8. Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, Peter; Mathiesen, Elisabeth R

    2015-01-01

    For >30 years, insulin has been the drug of choice for the medical treatment of gestational diabetes mellitus. However, the use of oral hypoglycaemic agents has increased during the past 1–2 decades, so a recent comparison of treatment with glibenclamide, metformin or insulin in women with gestat......For >30 years, insulin has been the drug of choice for the medical treatment of gestational diabetes mellitus. However, the use of oral hypoglycaemic agents has increased during the past 1–2 decades, so a recent comparison of treatment with glibenclamide, metformin or insulin in women...... with gestational diabetes mellitus is highly relevant....

  9. Type D personality and diabetes predict the onset of depressive symptoms in patients after percutaneous coronary intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne S.; Ong, Andrew T L; Sonnenschein, Karel

    2006-01-01

    Depression is common in cardiac patients and has been associated with adverse clinical outcome. However, little is known about predictors of the onset of depressive symptoms. We examined predictors of the onset of depressive symptoms at 12 months post-percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in p...

  10. Diabetes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — These datasets provide de-identified insurance data for diabetes. The data is provided by three managed care organizations in Allegheny County (Gateway Health Plan,...

  11. Connexin-Based Therapeutics and Tissue Engineering Approaches to the Amelioration of Chronic Pancreatitis and Type I Diabetes: Construction and Characterization of a Novel Prevascularized Bioartificial Pancreas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Matthew Rhett

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Total pancreatectomy and islet autotransplantation is a cutting-edge technique to treat chronic pancreatitis and postoperative diabetes. A major obstacle has been low islet cell survival due largely to the innate inflammatory response. Connexin43 (Cx43 channels play a key role in early inflammation and have proven to be viable therapeutic targets. Even if cell death due to early inflammation is avoided, insufficient vascularization is a primary obstacle to maintaining the viability of implanted cells. We have invented technologies targeting the inflammatory response and poor vascularization: a Cx43 mimetic peptide that inhibits inflammation and a novel prevascularized tissue engineered construct. We combined these technologies with isolated islets to create a prevascularized bioartificial pancreas that is resistant to the innate inflammatory response. Immunoconfocal microscopy showed that constructs containing islets express insulin and possess a vascular network similar to constructs without islets. Glucose stimulated islet-containing constructs displayed reduced insulin secretion compared to islets alone. However, labeling for insulin post-glucose stimulation revealed that the constructs expressed abundant levels of insulin. This discrepancy was found to be due to the expression of insulin degrading enzyme. These results suggest that the prevascularized bioartificial pancreas is potentially a tool for improving long-term islet cell survival in vivo.

  12. Associations of Symptoms of Anxiety and Depression with Diabetes and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Older People with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, C. F.; Hermans, H.; Evenhuis, H. M.; Echteld, M. A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Depression, anxiety, diabetes and cardiovascular risk factors are frequent health problems among older people with intellectual disability (ID). These conditions may be bidirectionally related. Depression and anxiety may have biological effects causing glucose intolerance, fat accumulation and also lifestyle changes causing metabolic…

  13. Support vector regression correlates single-sweep evoked brain potentials to gastrointestinal symptoms in diabetes mellitus patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graversen, C; Frokjaer, J B; Brock, Christina

    2012-01-01

    performance of 86.2% (P=0.01) was obtained by applying a majority voting scheme to the 5 best performing channels. The biomarker was identified as decreased theta band activity. The regression value was correlated to symptoms reported by the patients (P=0.04). The methodology is an improvement of the present...

  14. Selenium acts as an insulin-like molecule for the down-regulation of diabetic symptoms via endoplasmic reticulum stress and insulin signalling proteins in diabetes-induced non-obese diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Daeyoun; Seo, Sujin; Kim, Yongkyu; Kim, Chuelkyu; Shim, Sunbo; Jee, Seungwan; Lee, Suhae; Jang, Mikyong; Kim, Minsun; Yim, Suyoun; Lee, Sang-Koo; Kang, Byeongcheol; Jang, Insurk; Cho, Jungsik

    2007-06-01

    To investigate whether selenium (Sel) treatment would impact on the onset of diabetes,we examined serum biochemical components including glucose and insulin,endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and insulin signalling proteins, hepatic C/EBP-homologous protein (CHOP) expression and DNA fragmentation in diabetic and non- diabetic conditions of non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice. We conclude that (i) Sel treatment induced insulin-like effects in lowering serum glucose level in Sel-treated NOD mice, (ii) Sel-treated mice had significantly decreased serum biochemical components associated with liver damage and lipid metabolism, (iii) Sel treatment led to the activation of the ER stress signal through the phosphorylation of JNK and eIF2 protein and insulin signal mechanisms through the phosphorylation of Akt and PI3 kinase, and (iv) Sel-treated mice were significantly relieved apoptosis of liver tissues indicated by DNA fragmentation assay in the diabetic NOD group. These results suggest that Sel compounds not only serve as insulin-like molecules for the downregulation of glucose level and the incidence of liver damage, but may also have the potential for the development of new drugs for the relief of diabetes by activating the ER stress and insulin signalling pathways.

  15. Diabetic peripheral neuropathy: current perspective and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Randhir; Kishore, Lalit; Kaur, Navpreet

    2014-02-01

    Diabetic neuropathy is a heterogeneous group of disorders with extremely complex pathophysiology and affects both somatic and autonomic components of the nervous system. Neuropathy is the most common chronic complication of diabetes mellitus. Metabolic disruptions in the peripheral nervous system, including altered protein kinase C activity, and increased polyol pathway activity in neurons and Schwann cells resulting from hyperglycemia plays a key role in the development of diabetic neuropathy. These pathways are related to the metabolic and/or redox state of the cell and are the major source of damage. Activation of these metabolic pathways leads to oxidative stress, which is a mediator of hyperglycemia induced cell injury and a unifying theme for all mechanisms of diabetic neuropathy. The therapeutic intervention of these metabolic pathways is capable of ameliorating diabetic neuropathy but therapeutics which target one particular mechanism may have a limited success. Available therapeutic approaches are based upon the agents that modulate pathogenetic mechanisms (glycemic control) and relieve the symptoms of diabetic neuropathy. This review emphasizes the pathogenesis, presently available therapeutic approaches and future directions for the management of diabetic neuropathy.

  16. Discrepancy between sensitization to inhaled allergens and respiratory symptoms in pediatric patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosca, Maria Angela; Villa, Elisa; Silvestri, Michela; D'Annunzio, Giuseppe; Pistorio, Angela; Aicardi, Marco; Minicucci, Laura; Lorini, Renata; Rossi, Giovanni A

    2009-06-01

    According to the 'Th(1)/Th(2) paradigm', children with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) should have a lower risk of developing allergic sensitization and, because of the involvement of insulin in modulating airway inflammation, different frequency or severity in allergy-related respiratory manifestations. This article aims at evaluating the frequency and type of allergic sensitization and its respiratory manifestation, asthma and/or rhinitis, in a group of pediatric patients with T1DM. Patients (112) with T1DM, 7.8-16.9 yr of age (63 males and 49 females) were evaluated. Skin prick test (SPT) reactivity to the most common classes of aeroallergens were performed and compared with data obtained in 709 school-aged children. The frequency of sensitization was not different in the T1DM and in the control subjects (43.7% and 40.8%, respectively; p = 0.55), with similar proportions of individuals sensitized to one allergen (32.7% and 38.1%, respectively; p = 0.47). In both groups, sensitization to house dust mite allergens was the most frequently detected (69.4% and 65.4%, respectively; p = 0.59), with a higher proportions of individuals sensitized to Graminae (+Cynodon dactylon; p asthma', i.e., asthma episodes during life (14.3% and 16.5%, respectively: p = 0.55), also when sensitized and non-sensitized subjects were evaluated separately (p = 0.12 and p = 1.00, respectively). However, no T1DM patient had 'actual asthma', i.e., asthma episodes in the last year, vs. 5.8% of the individuals in the control group (p = 0.009), the difference being mostly ascribed to sensitized subjects (p = 0.012). Finally, out of the 16 T1DM patients with 'lifetime asthma', 15 had mild intermittent disease and only one mild persistent disease. T1DM does not seem to play a downregulating role on the development of allergic sensitization to aeroallergens, but may lower the frequency or the severity of its clinical manifestations at respiratory level.

  17. Symptom profiles of subsyndromal depression in disease clusters of diabetes, excess weight, and progressive cerebrovascular conditions: a promising new type of finding from a reliable innovation to estimate exhaustively specified multiple indicators–multiple causes (MIMIC models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francoeur RB

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Richard B Francoeur School of Social Work, Adelphi University, Garden City, NY, USA Abstract: Addressing subsyndromal depression in cerebrovascular conditions, diabetes, and obesity reduces morbidity and risk of major depression. However, depression may be masked because self-reported symptoms may not reveal dysphoric (sad mood. In this study, the first wave (2,812 elders from the New Haven Epidemiological Study of the Elderly (EPESE was used. These population-weighted data combined a stratified, systematic, clustered random sample from independent residences and a census of senior housing. Physical conditions included progressive cerebrovascular disease (CVD; hypertension, silent CVD, stroke, and vascular cognitive impairment [VCI] and co-occurring excess weight and/or diabetes. These conditions and interactions (clusters simultaneously predicted 20 depression items and a latent trait of depression in participants with subsyndromal (including subthreshold depression (11≤ Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale [CES-D] score ≤27. The option for maximum likelihood estimation with standard errors that are robust to non-normality and non-independence in complex random samples (MLR in Mplus and an innovation created by the author were used for estimating unbiased effects from latent trait models with exhaustive specification. Symptom profiles reveal masked depression in 1 older males, related to the metabolic syndrome (hypertension–overweight–diabetes; silent CVD–overweight; and silent CVD–diabetes and 2 older females or the full sample, related to several diabetes and/or overweight clusters that involve stroke or VCI. Several other disease clusters are equivocal regarding masked depression; a couple do emphasize dysphoric mood. Replicating findings could identify subgroups for cost-effective screening of subsyndromal depression. Keywords: depression, diabetes, overweight, cerebrovascular disease, hypertension, metabolic

  18. Prevalence of myocardial ischaemia as assessed with myocardial perfusion scintigraphy in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 and mild anginal symptoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiersma, Jacobijne J.; Trip, Mieke D.; Piek, Jan J.; Tijssen, Jan G.P. [Academic Medical Center, Department of Cardiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Verberne, Hein J.; Eck-Smit, Berthe L.F. van [Academic Medical Center Amsterdam, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Holt, Wik L. ten [Amstelland Hospital, Department of Cardiology, Amstelveen (Netherlands)

    2006-12-15

    To determine the prevalence and predictors of reversible myocardial perfusion defects, indicative of myocardial ischaemia, in patients with mild, stable anginal complaints [Canadian Cardiovascular Society classification (CCS) I-II/IV] and diabetes mellitus type 2 (T2DM). A total of 329 patients with T2DM and stable, mild anginal symptoms (CCS I-II/IV) underwent myocardial perfusion scintigraphy. Perfusion images were assessed using a five-point (semi)-quantitative scoring system according to a 17-segment myocardial model. One-hundred and fifty-six (47%) patients showed reversible myocardial perfusion defects defined as a summed difference score of {>=}3. Male gender [odds ratio (OR) 2.28, 95% CI 1.4-3.71, p=0.001], previous myocardial infarction (MI) without revascularisation (OR 3.04, 95% CI 1.28-7.24, p=0.01), and the use of two or more classes of anti-anginal medication (OR 2.36, 95% CI 1.48-3.76, p<0.001) were independent predictors for the presence of reversible defects. By contrast, lipid-lowering therapy reduced the possibility of reversible perfusion defects (OR 0.56, 95% CI 0.33-0.95, p=0.03). Approximately half of the patients with mild, stable angina pectoris and T2DM showed evidence of myocardial ischaemia. Male gender, previous MI and the use of anti-anginal medication were positive predictors and lipid-lowering therapy was a negative predictor for the results of the scintigraphic stress test. (orig.)

  19. Fucoidan Extracts Ameliorate Acute Colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lean, Qi Ying; Eri, Rajaraman D; Fitton, J Helen; Patel, Rahul P; Gueven, Nuri

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, are an important cause of morbidity and impact significantly on quality of life. Overall, current treatments do not sustain a long-term clinical remission and are associated with adverse effects, which highlight the need for new treatment options. Fucoidans are complex sulphated, fucose-rich polysaccharides, found in edible brown algae and are described as having multiple bioactivities including potent anti-inflammatory effects. Therefore, the therapeutic potential of two different fucoidan preparations, fucoidan-polyphenol complex (Maritech Synergy) and depyrogenated fucoidan (DPF) was evaluated in the dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) mouse model of acute colitis. Mice were treated once daily over 7 days with fucoidans via oral (Synergy or DPF) or intraperitoneal administration (DPF). Signs and severity of colitis were monitored daily before colons and spleens were collected for macroscopic evaluation, cytokine measurements and histology. Orally administered Synergy and DPF, but not intraperitoneal DPF treatment, significantly ameliorated symptoms of colitis based on retention of body weight, as well as reduced diarrhoea and faecal blood loss, compared to the untreated colitis group. Colon and spleen weight in mice treated with oral fucoidan was also significantly lower, indicating reduced inflammation and oedema. Histological examination of untreated colitis mice confirmed a massive loss of crypt architecture and goblet cells, infiltration of immune cells and oedema, while all aspects of this pathology were alleviated by oral fucoidan. Importantly, in this model, the macroscopic changes induced by oral fucoidan correlated significantly with substantially decreased production of at least 15 pro-inflammatory cytokines by the colon tissue. Overall, oral fucoidan preparations significantly reduce the inflammatory pathology associated with DSS-induced colitis and could therefore represent

  20. Symptom profiles of subsyndromal depression in disease clusters of diabetes, excess weight, and progressive cerebrovascular conditions: a promising new type of finding from a reliable innovation to estimate exhaustively specified multiple indicators–multiple causes (MIMIC) models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francoeur, Richard B

    2016-01-01

    Addressing subsyndromal depression in cerebrovascular conditions, diabetes, and obesity reduces morbidity and risk of major depression. However, depression may be masked because self-reported symptoms may not reveal dysphoric (sad) mood. In this study, the first wave (2,812 elders) from the New Haven Epidemiological Study of the Elderly (EPESE) was used. These population-weighted data combined a stratified, systematic, clustered random sample from independent residences and a census of senior housing. Physical conditions included progressive cerebrovascular disease (CVD; hypertension, silent CVD, stroke, and vascular cognitive impairment [VCI]) and co-occurring excess weight and/or diabetes. These conditions and interactions (clusters) simultaneously predicted 20 depression items and a latent trait of depression in participants with subsyndromal (including subthreshold) depression (11≤ Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale [CES-D] score ≤27). The option for maximum likelihood estimation with standard errors that are robust to non-normality and non-independence in complex random samples (MLR) in Mplus and an innovation created by the author were used for estimating unbiased effects from latent trait models with exhaustive specification. Symptom profiles reveal masked depression in 1) older males, related to the metabolic syndrome (hypertension–overweight–diabetes; silent CVD–overweight; and silent CVD–diabetes) and 2) older females or the full sample, related to several diabetes and/or overweight clusters that involve stroke or VCI. Several other disease clusters are equivocal regarding masked depression; a couple do emphasize dysphoric mood. Replicating findings could identify subgroups for cost-effective screening of subsyndromal depression. PMID:28003768

  1. [Diabetes insipidus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krysiak, Robert; Handzlik-Orlik, Gabriela; Okopień, Bogusław

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes insipidus is an uncommon disorder of water-electrolyte balance characterized by the excretion of abnormally large volumes of diluted urine (polyuria) and increased fluid intake (polydipsia). The disease may result from the insufficient production of vasopressin, its increased degradation, an impaired response of kidneys to vasopressin, or may be secondary to excessive water intake. Patients with severe and uncompensated symptoms may develop marked dehydration, neurologic symptoms and encephalopathy, and therefore diabetes insipidus can be a life-threatening condition if not properly diagnosed and managed. Patients with diabetes insipidus require treatment with desmopressin or drugs increasing sensitivity of the distal nephron to vasopressin, but this treatment may be confusing because of the disorder's variable pathophysiology and side-effects of pharmacotherapy. This review summarizes the current knowledge on different aspects of the pathophysiology, classification, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and management of diabetes insipidus. The reader is also provided with some practical recommendations on dealing with patients suffering from this disease.

  2. Improvement in Depressive Symptoms Is Associated with Reduced Oxidative Damage and Inflammatory Response in Type 2 Diabetic Patients with Subsyndromal Depression: The Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing Psychoeducation, Physical Exercise, and Enhanced Treatment as Usual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijana Vučić Lovrenčić

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. To examine one-year changes in oxidative damage and inflammation level in type 2 diabetic patients undergoing behavioral treatment for subsyndromal depression. Materials and Methods. A randomized controlled comparison of psychoeducation (A, physical exercise (B, and enhanced treatment as usual (C was performed in 209 eligible subjects in a tertiary diabetes care setting. Depressive symptoms (primary outcome and selected biomarkers of oxidative damage and inflammation (secondary outcomes were assessed at baseline and six- and twelve-month follow-up. Results. Out of the 74, 67, and 68 patients randomised into groups A, B, and C, respectively, 201 completed the interventions, and 179 were analysed. Participants in all three groups equally improved in depressive symptoms from baseline to one-year follow-up (repeated measures ANOVA; F=12.51, p<0.0001, η2=0.07. Urinary 8-oxo-deoxyguanosine (u-8-oxodG decreased (F=10.66, p<0.0001, η2=0.06, as did sialic acid and leukocytes (F=84.57, η2=0.32 and F=12.61, η2=0.07, resp.; p<0.0001, while uric acid increased (F=12.53, p<0.0001, η2=0.07 in all subjects during one year. Improvement of depressive symptoms at 6 months significantly predicted one-year reduction in u-8-oxodG (β=0.15, p=0.044. Conclusion. Simple behavioral interventions are capable not only of alleviating depressive symptoms, but also of reducing the intensity of damaging oxidative/inflammatory processes in type 2 diabetic patients with subsyndromal depression. This trial is registered with ISRCTN05673017.

  3. Improvement in Depressive Symptoms Is Associated with Reduced Oxidative Damage and Inflammatory Response in Type 2 Diabetic Patients with Subsyndromal Depression: The Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing Psychoeducation, Physical Exercise, and Enhanced Treatment as Usual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vučić Lovrenčić, Marijana; Pibernik-Okanović, Mirjana; Šekerija, Mario; Prašek, Manja; Ajduković, Dea; Kos, Jadranka; Hermanns, Norbert

    2015-01-01

    Aims. To examine one-year changes in oxidative damage and inflammation level in type 2 diabetic patients undergoing behavioral treatment for subsyndromal depression. Materials and Methods. A randomized controlled comparison of psychoeducation (A), physical exercise (B), and enhanced treatment as usual (C) was performed in 209 eligible subjects in a tertiary diabetes care setting. Depressive symptoms (primary outcome) and selected biomarkers of oxidative damage and inflammation (secondary outcomes) were assessed at baseline and six- and twelve-month follow-up. Results. Out of the 74, 67, and 68 patients randomised into groups A, B, and C, respectively, 201 completed the interventions, and 179 were analysed. Participants in all three groups equally improved in depressive symptoms from baseline to one-year follow-up (repeated measures ANOVA; F = 12.51, p < 0.0001, η2 = 0.07). Urinary 8-oxo-deoxyguanosine (u-8-oxodG) decreased (F = 10.66, p < 0.0001, η2 = 0.06), as did sialic acid and leukocytes (F = 84.57, η2 = 0.32 and F = 12.61, η2 = 0.07, resp.; p < 0.0001), while uric acid increased (F = 12.53, p < 0.0001, η2 = 0.07) in all subjects during one year. Improvement of depressive symptoms at 6 months significantly predicted one-year reduction in u-8-oxodG (β = 0.15, p = 0.044). Conclusion. Simple behavioral interventions are capable not only of alleviating depressive symptoms, but also of reducing the intensity of damaging oxidative/inflammatory processes in type 2 diabetic patients with subsyndromal depression. This trial is registered with ISRCTN05673017. PMID:26347775

  4. The characteristic of risperidone in ameliorating the psychological and behavioral symptoms of patients with dementia%利醅酮改善痴呆患者心理及行为症状的特点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李海林; 沈伟; 叶勤; 刘阳; 吴瑞枝; 陆蓉

    2004-01-01

    目的:评价利醅酮治疗痴呆患者心理和行为症状(psychologicai and behavioral symptoms of dementia,BPSD)疗效与安全性.方法:应用利醅酮治疗南京医科大学脑科医院老年精神科阿尔茨海默病(Alzheimer disease,AD)(n=25)、混合性痴呆(mixed dementia,MD)(n=22)、血管性痴呆(vascular dementia,VD)(n=19),1.5 mg/d,治疗6周.于治疗前后采用AD行为症状评定量表(BEHAVE-AD)、Cohen-Masfield激惹性问卷(CMAI)评定痴呆患者BPSD,采用副反应量表(TESS)评价副反应.结果:利醅酮治疗后痴呆患者的偏执与妄想观念(65%)、幻觉(2/3)、攻击行为的发生率(38%)显著低于治疗前,差异有显著性(x2=5.41,227.39,61.88;P均<0.05);治疗后攻击行为(32%)、语言攻击(30%)及总的激惹的发生率(64%)明显下降,与治疗前比较,差异有显著性(x2=40.22,52.30,31.69;P均<0.05).利醅酮治疗后痴呆患者的偏执与妄想观念、幻觉、行为紊乱,攻击行为、日夜节律紊乱,焦虑与恐惧的严重程度较治疗前明显减轻,差异有显著性(t=3.00~11.46,P均<0.05);治疗后痴呆患者的总的激惹、攻击行为、语言攻击、乱走、无目的游荡,试图出走的严重程度明显减轻,与治疗前比较,差异有显著性(t=3.45~8.79,P<0.05).利醅酮治疗的副作用主要为轻度嗜睡,肌强直,震颤(10/66).结论:利醅酮能有效改善痴呆患者的心理与行为症状,且副作用轻微.

  5. 1,2,3,4,6 Penta-O-galloyl-β-d-glucose, a bioactivity guided isolated compound from Mangifera indica inhibits 11β-HSD-1 and ameliorates high fat diet-induced diabetes in C57BL/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, C G; Viswanatha, G L; Savinay, G; Rajendra, C E; Halemani, Praveen D

    2013-03-15

    Methanolic leaf extract of Mangifera indica (MEMI) was subjected to bioactivity guided fractionation in order to identify the active antidiabetic constituent. 32 fractions were evaluated for possible 11β-HSD-1 inhibition activity under in vitro conditions. The EA-7/8-9/10-4 fraction was evolved as a most potent fraction among all the fractions and it was identified as well known gallotannin compound 1,2,3,4,6 penta-O-galloyl-β-d-glucose (PGG) by spectral analysis. Based on these results the PGG was further evaluated in ex vivo 11β-HSD-1 inhibition assay and high fat diet (HFD)-induced diabetes in male C57BL/6 mice. Single dose (10, 25, 50 and 100mg/kg) of PGG and carbenoxolone (CBX) have dose dependently inhibited the 11β-HSD-1 activity in liver and adipose tissue. Furthermore, HFD appraisal to male C57BL/6 mice caused severe hyperglycemia, hypertriglyceridemia, elevated levels of plasma corticosterone and insulin, increased liver and white adipose mass with increase in body weight was observed compare to normal control. Also, oral glucose tolerance was significantly impaired compare to normal control. Interestingly, post-treatment with PGG for 21 days had alleviated the HFD-induced biochemical alterations and improved oral glucose tolerance compare to HFD-control. In conclusion, the PGG isolated from MEMI inhibits 11β-HSD-1 activity and ameliorates HFD-induced diabetes in male C57BL/6 mice.

  6. Diabetes and Sexual and Urologic Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease, & Other Dental Problems Diabetes & Sexual & Urologic Problems Diabetes & Sexual & Urologic Problems Troublesome bladder symptoms and changes ... early onset of these sexual and urologic problems. Diabetes and Sexual Problems Both men and women with ...

  7. Major Risk Factors for Heart Disease: Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 9 pounds are also more likely to develop type2 diabetes later in life. Symptoms of diabetes may ... glucose (blood sugar) levels will help to prevent complications. Because diabetes is so strongly linked with heart disease, managing ...

  8. Recognizing Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bowel habits. Learn More About Pain in IBS Symptoms Won’t Stop Everyone suffers from bowel changes ... They can be constant or keep coming back. Symptoms Change Some or all of IBS symptoms can ...

  9. Astragaloside IV ameliorates renal injury in db/db mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Huili; Wang, Wenjing; Han, Pengxun; Shao, Mumin; Song, Gaofeng; Du, Heng; Yi, Tiegang; Li, Shunmin

    2016-09-01

    Diabetic nephropathy is a lethal complication of diabetes mellitus and a major type of chronic kidney disease. Dysregulation of the Akt pathway and its downstream cascades, including mTOR, NFκB, and Erk1/2, play a critical role in the development of diabetic nephropathy. Astragaloside IV is a major component of Huangqi and exerts renal protection in a mouse model of type 1 diabetes. The current study was undertaken to investigate the protective effects of diet supplementation of AS-IV on renal injury in db/db mice, a type 2 diabetic mouse model. Results showed that administration of AS-IV reduced albuminuria, ameliorated changes in the glomerular and tubular pathology, and decreased urinary NAG, NGAL, and TGF-β1 in db/db mice. AS-IV also attenuated the diabetes-related activation of Akt/mTOR, NFκB, and Erk1/2 signaling pathways without causing any detectable hepatotoxicity. Collectively, these findings showed AS-IV to be beneficial to type 2 diabetic nephropathy, which might be associated with the inhibition of Akt/mTOR, NFκB and Erk1/2 signaling pathways.

  10. Diabetic autonomic neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Roy

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is the commonest cause of an autonomic neuropathy in the developed world. Diabetic autonomic neuropathy causes a constellation of symptoms and signs affecting cardiovascular, urogenital, gastrointestinal, pupillomotor, thermoregulatory, and sudomotor systems. Several discrete syndromes associated with diabetes cause autonomic dysfunction. The most prevalent of these are: generalized diabetic autonomic neuropathy, autonomic neuropathy associated with the prediabetic state, treatment-induced painful and autonomic neuropathy, and transient hypoglycemia-associated autonomic neuropathy. These autonomic manifestations of diabetes are responsible for the most troublesome and disabling features of diabetic peripheral neuropathy and result in a significant proportion of the mortality and morbidity associated with the disease.

  11. Diabetic retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Moreno

    Full Text Available This paper describes the importance of diabetic retinopathy in the loss of visual function. We exposed the most important risk factors, such as diabetes duration, poor metabolic control, pregnancy, puberty, hypertension, poor control of blood lipids, renal disease, and sleep apnea syndrome. We describe the pathogenesis of the disease, small retinal vessel microangiopathies which produce extravasation, edema and ischemia phenomena. We put special emphasis on the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and its pathogenic importance. They are also described the main clinical symptoms as microaneurysms, intraretinal hemorrhages, hard and soft exudates, intraretinal microvascular abnormalities (IRMA, venous disorders, formation of new vessels and diabetic macular edema (the latter being the most common cause of vision loss. Finally we describe the latest diagnostic techniques and eye treatment, with special emphasis on obesity surgery importance as more important preventive factor to eliminate the predisposing and precipitating disease symptoms.

  12. Menopausal symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Rymer, Janice; Morris, Edward P.

    2011-01-01

    In the UK, the median age for onset of menopausal symptoms is 45.5 to 47.5 years. Symptoms associated with the menopause include vasomotor symptoms, sleeplessness, mood changes, reduced energy levels, loss of libido, vaginal dryness, and urinary symptoms.Many symptoms, such as hot flushes, are temporary, but those resulting from reduced hormone levels, such as genital atrophy, may be permanent.

  13. Metformin and Diabetic Kidney Disease: A Mini-Review on Recent Findings

    OpenAIRE

    Nasri, Hamid; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud

    2014-01-01

    Metformin, an oral anti-diabetic agent in the biguanide class is a widely prescribed drug to treat high blood glucose in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Metformin has three different roles, including blood glucose regulatory effect, protection of kidney tubular cell by acting as an effective antioxidant and finally ameliorative effect on diabetic kidney disease through saving the podocytes. Therefore, diabetic patients may benefit from all of these three distinct ameliorative effects.

  14. Metformin and diabetic kidney disease: a mini-review on recent findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasri, Hamid; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud

    2014-10-01

    Metformin, an oral anti-diabetic agent in the biguanide class is a widely prescribed drug to treat high blood glucose in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Metformin has three different roles, including blood glucose regulatory effect, protection of kidney tubular cell by acting as an effective antioxidant and finally ameliorative effect on diabetic kidney disease through saving the podocytes. Therefore, diabetic patients may benefit from all of these three distinct ameliorative effects.

  15. The Characteristics Analysis of the Non-motor Symptoms of Parkinson Disease Complicated with ;Diabetes%帕金森病合并糖尿病患者的非运动症状特点分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳秉宏; 范磊; 刘星亮; 潘妍婷

    2016-01-01

    目的:分析帕金森病( PD)合并糖尿病患者的非运动症状( NMS)特点。方法选择2013年6月至2015年9月河北北方学院附属第一医院神经内科收治的 PD 患者114例为研究对象,其中合并糖尿病患者60例,非糖尿病患者54例,详细记录患者的临床资料,采用多种 PD评估量表,包括PD统一评定量表(UPDRS-Ⅰ)、汉密尔顿抑郁量表(HAMD)、汉密尔顿焦虑量表(HAMA)、简易精神状态量表(MMSE)、匹茨堡睡眠质量指数量表(PSQI)、PD自主神经症状量表(SCOPA-AUT)分析其非运动症状(自主神经功能紊乱、神经精神症状、睡眠障碍和感觉症状)的临床特点及发生率。结果PD 合并糖尿病组患者的 Hoehn-Yahr 分级显著高于 PD 非糖尿病组患者[(3.06±0.92)级比(2.74±0.59)级],差异有统计学意义(P =0.031)。 PD 合并糖尿病组患者的5项非运动症状量表评分包括 UPDRS-Ⅰ、HAMD、HAMA、PSQI、SCOPA-AUT,显著高于 PD 非糖尿病组患者[(5.07±2.18)分比(2.96±1.47)分,(14.65±4.88)分比(7.29±5.06)分,(16.43±6.11)分比(8.02±3.44)分,(9.07±3.37)分比(6.81±4.68)分,(39.52±8.65)分比(31.61±6.17)分],差异有统计学意义(P<0.01)。 PD合并糖尿病组患者的MMSE评分与PD非糖尿病组患者[(23.57±4.34)分比(21.63±6.36)分],差异无统计学意义(P=0.058)。 PD合并糖尿病组自主神经功能紊乱发生率显著高于PD非糖尿病组[73.33%(44/60)比55.56%(30/54)](P<0.05)。结论 PD患者存在不同程度的自主神经功能障碍、神经精神症状、睡眠障碍和感觉症状四种非运动症状,糖尿病病史对患者的PD严重程度、非运动症状的发生率及生活质量均有影响。%Objective To analyze the characteristic of non-motor symptoms ( NMS) of Parkinson dis-ease( PD) patients complicated with diabetes

  16. Cardiac autonomic neuropathy in patients with diabetes and no symptoms of coronary artery disease: comparison of {sup 123}I-metaiodobenzylguanidine myocardial scintigraphy and heart rate variability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholte, Arthur J.H.A.; Schuijf, Joanne D.; Delgado, Victoria; Kok, Jurriaan A.; Bus, Mieke T.J.; Maan, Arie C.; Wall, Ernst E. van der; Bax, Jeroen J. [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Cardiology, Albinusdreef 2, PO Box 9600, Leiden (Netherlands); Stokkel, Marcel P.; Dibbets-Schneider, Petra [Leiden University Medical Center, Nuclear Medicine, Leiden (Netherlands); Kharagitsingh, Antje V. [Medisch Centrum Haaglanden, Department of Internal Medicine, The Hague (Netherlands)

    2010-09-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of cardiac autonomic neuropathy (CAN) in a cohort of patients with type 2 diabetes, truly asymptomatic for coronary artery disease (CAD), using heart rate variability (HRV) and {sup 123}I-metaiodobenzylguanidine ({sup 123}I-mIBG) myocardial scintigraphy. The study group comprised 88 patients with type 2 diabetes prospectively recruited from an outpatient diabetes clinic. In all patients myocardial perfusion scintigraphy, CAN by HRV and {sup 123}I-mIBG myocardial scintigraphy were performed. Two or more abnormal tests were defined as CAN-positive (ECG-based CAN) and one or fewer as CAN-negative. CAN assessed by {sup 123}I-mIBG scintigraphy was defined as abnormal if the heart-to-mediastinum ratio was <1.8, the washout rate was >25%, or the total defect score was >13. The prevalence of CAN in patients asymptomatic for CAD with type 2 diabetes and normal myocardial perfusion assessed by HRV and {sup 123}I-mIBG scintigraphy was respectively, 27% and 58%. Furthermore, in almost half of patients with normal HRV, {sup 123}I-mIBG scintigraphy showed CAN. The current study revealed a high prevalence of CAN in patients with type 2 diabetes. Secondly, disagreement between HRV and {sup 123}I-mIBG scintigraphy for the assessment of CAN was observed. (orig.)

  17. Renal Biopsy in Type 2 Diabetic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Espinel

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The majority of diabetic patients with renal involvement are not biopsied. Studies evaluating histological findings in renal biopsies performed in diabetic patients have shown that approximately one third of the cases will show pure diabetic nephropathy, one third a non-diabetic condition and another third will show diabetic nephropathy with a superimposed disease. Early diagnosis of treatable non-diabetic diseases in diabetic patients is important to ameliorate renal prognosis. The publication of the International Consensus Document for the classification of type 1 and type 2 diabetes has provided common criteria for the classification of diabetic nephropathy and its utility to stratify risk for renal failure has already been demonstrated in different retrospective studies. The availability of new drugs with the potential to modify the natural history of diabetic nephropathy has raised the question whether renal biopsies may allow a better design of clinical trials aimed to delay the progression of chronic kidney disease in diabetic patients.

  18. 2型糖尿病同病异证微量元素水平差异研究%Research of different levels of microelement in different symptoms of type 2 diabetes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江伟; 聂容荣

    2014-01-01

    目的:观察不同2型糖尿病证型患者血清微量元素锌、钙、铁、铜、镁含量变化。方法分别采集30例健康对照组和500例不同证型2型糖尿病患者肘静脉血各5 ml,离心后取其全部血清,用血清多元素分析仪,用火焰法检测五种微量元素(锌、钙、铁、铜、镁)含量。结果2型糖尿病患者可分为痰湿中阻型、阴虚内热型、气阴两虚型、气滞血瘀型、阴阳两虚型五种中医证型,分别将锌、钙、铁、铜、镁的含量与健康对照组比较,结果显示:各证型糖尿病患者较健康对照组微量元素,铁、铜、钙含量升高,锌、镁含量降低,差异有统计学意义(P0.05),但上述元素差异变化有逐渐增加的趋势。结论不同证型的糖尿病患者,应使体内各种元素保持正常含量和比值,患者体内元素含量过高或者过低,应采取平衡处理措施。了解不同证型糖尿病患者血清元素含量变化,对糖尿病的临床治疗有一定价值。%Objective To observe the change of serum microelements, such as zinc, calcium, iron, copper, magnesium, in patients of type 2 diabetes with different symptoms. Methods Blood samples of 5 ml of elbow venous blood were taken from health group of 30 cases and 500 patients of type 2 diabetes with different symptoms. After centrifugation, all the serums were analyzed by serum element analyzer. And five microelements (zinc, calcium, iron, copper, magnesium) levels were detected by flame method. Results There were five syndrome patterns of type 2 diabetes in traditional Chinese medicine, and the patterns were syndrome with phlegm-damp and centre-resistance, syndrome with internal heat and Yin deficiency, syndrome with Qi-Yin deficiency, syndrome with Qi depression and blood stasis, and syndrome with Yin-Yang deficiency. The comparisons of microelements level between the patients and the health group showed that the level of calcium, iron, and copper were increased in patients

  19. Development and reach of a web-based cognitive behavioural therapy programme to reduce symptoms of depression and diabetes-specific distress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Bastelaar, Kim M P; Cuijpers, Pim; Pouwer, François

    2011-01-01

    -lesson intervention ("www.diabetergestemd.nl"), with minimal guidance by coaches. In the framework of a randomised trial, the intervention attracted serious interest of 540 patients. After screening, 255 depressed diabetes patients were enrolled. Less than half had a history of depression treatment; 80...

  20. Individual Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy and Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Treating Depressive Symptoms in Patients With Diabetes: Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tovote, K. Annika; Fleer, Joke; Snippe, Evelien; Peeters, Anita C.T.M.; Emmelkamp, Paul M.G.; Sanderman, Robbert; Links, Thera P.; Schroevers, Maya J.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Depression is a common comorbidity of diabetes, undesirably affecting patients’ physical and mental functioning. Psychological interventions are effective treatments for depression in the general population as well as in patients with a chronic disease. The aim of this study was to assess

  1. Individual mindfulness-based cognitive therapy and cognitive behavior therapy for treating depressive symptoms in patients with diabetes: results of a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tovote, K.A.; Fleer, J.; Snippe, E.; Peeters, A.C.T.M.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.; Sanderman, R.; Links, T.P.; Schroevers, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Depression is a common comorbidity of diabetes, undesirably affecting patients’ physical and mental functioning. Psychological interventions are effective treatments for depression in the general population as well as in patients with a chronic disease. The aim of this study was to assess

  2. ENOblock, a unique small molecule inhibitor of the non-glycolytic functions of enolase, alleviates the symptoms of type 2 diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Haaglim; Um, JungIn; Lee, Ji-Hyung; Kim, Woong-Hee; Kang, Wan Seok; Kim, So Hun; Ha, Hyung-Ho; Kim, Yong-Chul; Ahn, Young-Keun; Jung, Da-Woon; Williams, Darren R.

    2017-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) significantly impacts on human health and patient numbers are predicted to rise. Discovering novel drugs and targets for treating T2DM is a research priority. In this study, we investigated targeting of the glycolysis enzyme, enolase, using the small molecule ENOblock, which binds enolase and modulates its non-glycolytic ‘moonlighting’ functions. In insulin-responsive cells ENOblock induced enolase nuclear translocation, where this enzyme acts as a transcriptional repressor. In a mammalian model of T2DM, ENOblock treatment reduced hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia. Liver and kidney tissue of ENOblock-treated mice showed down-regulation of known enolase target genes and reduced enolase enzyme activity. Indicators of secondary diabetic complications, such as tissue apoptosis, inflammatory markers and fibrosis were inhibited by ENOblock treatment. Compared to the well-characterized anti-diabetes drug, rosiglitazone, ENOblock produced greater beneficial effects on lipid homeostasis, fibrosis, inflammatory markers, nephrotoxicity and cardiac hypertrophy. ENOblock treatment was associated with the down-regulation of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1, which are known to produce anti-diabetic effects. In summary, these findings indicate that ENOblock has potential for therapeutic development to treat T2DM. Previously considered as a ‘boring’ housekeeping gene, these results also implicate enolase as a novel drug target for T2DM. PMID:28272459

  3. Cognitive performance, symptoms and counter-regulation during hypoglycaemia in patients with type 1 diabetes and high or low renin-angiotensin system activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høi-Hansen, Thomas; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Ulrik; Andersen, Rikke Due;

    2009-01-01

    with low RAS activity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Nine patients with type 1 diabetes and high and nine with low RAS activity were subjected to hypoglycaemia and euglycaemia in a cross-over study using an intravenous insulin infusion protocol. Cognitive function, electroencephalography, auditory evoked...

  4. Baroreceptor sensitivity and diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowaiye, Olumide Olatubosun; Jankowska, Ewa Anita; Ponikowska, Beata

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a disease of increasing incidence and prevalence. Arterial baroreceptors are stretch-sensitive receptors, which in a reflex manner are involved in the homeostatic control of arterial blood pressure. Diabetic subjects have depressed baroreflex sensitivity (BRS), although the exact pathomechanisms are unclear. In this review, we discuss the features, clinicaland prognostic implications of reduced BRS for diabetic patients and the potential involvement of cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy and atherosclerosis. Finally, we demonstrate evidence on interventions (e.g. pioglitazone, alpha-lipoic acid, leptin, fluvastatin, physicaltraining etc.) which could improve BRS and ameliorate cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction in diabetic patients.

  5. DPP-4 inhibition with alogliptin on top of angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockade ameliorates albuminuria via up-regulation of SDF-1α in type 2 diabetic patients with incipient nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Hiroki; Taniai, Hisanori; Murayama, Hiroko; Ohshiro, Haruyo; Hayashi, Hikaru; Sato, Seiko; Kikuchi, Nyuko; Komatsu, Taiga; Komatsu, Koga; Komatsu, Kanji; Narita, Takuma; Yamada, Yuichiro

    2014-01-01

    Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor is a new class of anti-diabetic drug which exerts its glucose-lowering action by suppressing the degradation of a gut incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). To elucidate whether treatment with stronger DPP-4 inhibitor on top of angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker (ARB) provides greater renal protective effects, we performed a crossover study with two DPP-4 inhibitors, sitagliptin and alogliptin, in twelve type 2 diabetic patients with incipient nephropathy taking ARBs. This study consisted of three treatment periods: sitagliptin 50 mg/day for 4 weeks (first period), alogliptin 25 mg/day for 4 weeks (second period), and sitagliptin 50 mg/day for 4 weeks (third period). Significant changes in body mass index, blood pressure, serum lipids, serum creatinine, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and HbA1c were not observed among the three treatment periods. Reduced urinary levels of albumin and an oxidative stress marker 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), increased urinary cAMP levels, and elevated plasma levels of stromal cell-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α) which is a physiological substrate of DPP-4 were observed after the switch from sitagliptin to a stronger DPP-4 inhibitor alogliptin. Given a large body of evidence indicating anti-oxidative action of cAMP and up-regulation of cellular cAMP production by SDF-1α, the present results suggest that more powerful DPP-4 inhibition on top of angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockade would offer additional protection against early-stage diabetic nephropathy beyond that attributed to glycemic control, via reduction of renal oxidative stress by SDF-1α-cAMP pathway activation.

  6. Anthrax: Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... EID Journal Articles Anthrax-Related MMWRs Medscape Commentaries Symptoms Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... cause severe illness and even death. Cutaneous anthrax symptoms can include: A group of small blisters or ...

  7. Acute Abdomen as the First Symptom of Diabetes:Misdiagnosis Analysis%以急腹症为首发表现的糖尿病误诊分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭静霞; 任巧华; 王欣; 苏白玉

    2014-01-01

    Objective To analyze the clinical features, reasons for misdiagnosis and precautionary measures in pa-tients with acute abdomen as the first symptom of diabetes. Methods Clinical data of 9 patients with acute abdomen as the first symptom of diabetes in our hospital was retrospectively analyzed. Results The misdiagnosis rate in the group was 22.5% and the misdiagnosis time was from 3 hours to 2 days. 3 cases with bellyache and vomiting up, whose upright abdomi-nal X-ray showed liquid-air interface in intestinal canal were misdiagnosed as acute intestinal obstruction;3 patients had diar-rhea and white blood cell in stool routine test, and were misdiagnosed as acute enteritis;2 cases had hypogastralgia, leukocy-tosis and a fever, and were misdiagnosed as acute appendicitis;1 case had hematuria increased amylase and unclear head of pancreas showed in abdominal color Doppler ultrasound, and was misdiagnosed as acute pancreatitis. It was ineffective for all the 9 patients treated as misdiagnosis disease. After being asked about medical history carefully, checked with blood glucose, urine glucose, urine ketone and blood gas analysis, they were diagnosed as diabetic ketoacidosis. After treated accordingly, 9 cases were all discharged with symptoms improvement. Conclusion The diabetes patients with acute abdomen as the first symptom and indeterminate medical history may be misdiagnosed easily. It can avoid misdiagnosis and missed treatments, if we reinforce the knowledge of diabetes and complications, ask medical history carefully and have the relevant laboratory tests in time.%目的:探讨以急腹症为首发表现的糖尿病的临床特点、误诊原因及防范措施。方法回顾性分析我院收治的以急腹症为首发表现误诊的糖尿病9例的临床资料。结果本组误诊率22.5%,误诊时间3 h~2 d。3例因腹痛、呕吐行腹部立位X线检查示肠管内有气液平误诊为急性肠梗阻;3例因腹泻、便常规有白

  8. Somatic Symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eliasen, Marie; Kreiner, Svend; Ebstrup, Jeanette F

    2016-01-01

    ) the associations between the symptoms, and 3) the associations between the somatic symptoms, self-perceived health and limitations due to physical health accounting for the co-occurrence of symptoms. Information on 19 somatic symptoms, self-perceived health and limitations due to physical health was achieved from...... a population-based questionnaire survey of 36,163 randomly selected adults in the Capital Region of Denmark in 2006/07. Chain graph models were used to transparently identify and describe the associations between symptoms, self-perceived health and limitations due to physical health. In total, 94...... all strongly directly associated with both of the outcomes (γ>0.30). Chest pain was strongly associated with self-perceived health, and other musculoskeletal symptoms and urinary retention were strongly associated with limitations due to physical health. Other symptoms were either moderate...

  9. Intervention of early diabetic peripheral neuropathy with no symptoms%无周围神经症状的早期糖尿病周围神经病的干预研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张斌; 林洁; 顾春江; 吴勤花; 陈燕; 王爱红; 瞿剑峰; 殷勇; 于海芙

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To explore the effect of the prognosis of early intervention to the patients of early diabetic peripheral neuropathy with no symptoms. Methods:100 patients of type 2 diabeties mellitus with no symptoms whose nerve conduction velocities had been abnormal were divided randomly into intervention group and control group. 50 cases in the intervention group were treated with nerve nutritions .while 50 cases in the control group were observed. Results: The cases who were found clinical symptoms and signs in the intervention group were fewer than that in the control group . A significant difference of NCV was observed in the intervention group between pre-intervention and after intervention,and was also observed between the intervention group and the control group. Conclusion: Active intervention to the patients of early diabetic peripheral neuropathy with no symptoms may reverse the hurt of peripheral nerves.%目的:探讨早期干预对无周围神经症状的早期糖尿病周围神经病预后的影响.方法:选择100例无周围神经症状但神经传导速度测定已有异常的2型糖尿病患者,将其随机分为干预组与对照组各50例,干预组予神经营养剂甲钴铵、VitB1等治疗,对照组予随访.结果:干预后观察干预组出现临床症状、体征例数明显少于对照组,干预组神经传导速度前后比较有明显差异,且与对照组比较也有明显差异.结论:对无周围神经症状的早期糖尿病周围神经病积极干预可能逆转周围神经损害.

  10. Perindopril treatment in streptozotocin induced diabetic nephropaty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trojacanec, J; Zafirov, D; Labacevski, N; Jakjovski, K; Zdravkovski, P; Trojacanec, P; Petrusevska, G

    2013-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is one of the most common causes of terminal stadium damage to the kidneys. The angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) represents a significant risk factor for the progression of DN. ACE inhibitors are medications of particular interest knowing the role of angiotensin II in the development of DN. This study aimed to examine the effects of ACE inhibitor treatment perindopril (PER), administered to rats with streptozotocin (STZ) induced DN, that developed albuminuria, renal hypertrophy and mild glomerulussclerosis. DN was induced by a STZ (60 mg/kg ip) single injection to normotensive Wistar rats. The administration of STZ caused diabetes mellitus (DM) with symptoms and signs of DN including poor general condition, body-weight loss, kidney weight increase as well as increased values of BUN and serum creatinine, accompanied by increased diuresis as well as distinct albuminuria. The majority of these symptoms were manifested 4 weeks after, and even more distinctly 8 and 12 weeks after administering STZ. The perindopril treatment (6 mg/kg BW), starting 4 weeks after administering STZ, resulted in a significant improvement of all symptoms and signs of DN, significantly lowering the values of BUN and serum creatinine, albuminuria and diuresis. The histopathological examination of the renal samples at 8 and 12 weeks after the beginning of the study have shown that perindopril significantly lowers the progression of glomerulopathy, and significantly improves the glomerulosclerotic index, as well as the progression of renal histological abnormalities induced with STZ. Thus perindopril treatment ameliorates STZ-induced nephropathic changes in DM rats.

  11. Cerebral antioxidant enzyme increase associated with learning deficit in type 2 diabetes rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suge, Rie; Shimazu, Tomokazu; Hasegawa, Hajime; Inoue, Ikuo; Hayashibe, Hidemasa; Nagasaka, Hironori; Araki, Nobuo; Katayama, Shigehiro; Nomura, Masahiko; Watanabe, Shu-Ichi

    2012-10-24

    In this study, we examined alterations in the enzymatic antioxidant defenses associated with learning deficits induced by type 2 diabetes, and studied the effects of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ agonist pioglitazone on these learning deficits. Learning ability was assessed by visual discrimination tasks in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats, as a model of spontaneous type 2 diabetes. Levels of the antioxidant enzymes glutathione peroxidase (GPx), Cu(2+)-Zn(2+) superoxide dismutase (CuZn-SOD) and manganese SOD were measured in the cortex, hippocampus and striatum. Half the rats received oral pioglitazone (20mg/kg/day) from the early stage of diabetes (22 weeks old) to 27 weeks old. OLETF rats showed learning deficits compared with control, Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO) rats. GPx levels in the cortex and hippocampus were increased in OLETF rats compared with LETO rats, with an inverse correlation between GPx in the hippocampus and learning score. CuZn-SOD levels were also increased in the hippocampus in OLETF rats. Pioglitazone reduced blood glucose and increased serum adiponectin levels, but had no effect on learning tasks or antioxidant enzymes, except for CuZn-SOD. These results suggest that an oxidative imbalance reflected by increased brain antioxidant enzymes plays an important role in the development of learning deficits in type 2 diabetes. Early pioglitazone administration partly ameliorated diabetic symptoms, but was unable to completely recover cerebral oxidative imbalance and functions. These results suggest that diabetes-induced brain impairment, which results in learning deficits, may have occurred before the appearance of the symptoms of overt diabetes.

  12. Amelioration by chicory seed extract of diabetes- and oleic acid-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)/non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) via modulation of PPARα and SREBP-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziamajidi, Nasrin; Khaghani, Shahnaz; Hassanzadeh, Gholamreza; Vardasbi, Safura; Ahmadian, Shahram; Nowrouzi, Azin; Ghaffari, Seyed Mahmood; Abdirad, Afshin

    2013-08-01

    We evaluated the effect of chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) seed extract (CI) on hepatic steatosis caused by early and late stage diabetes in rats (in vivo), and induced in HepG2 cells (in vitro) by BSA-oleic acid complex (OA). Different dosages of CI (1.25, 2.5 and 5 mg/ml) were applied along with OA (1 mM) to HepG2 cells, simultaneously and non-simultaneously; and without OA to ordinary non-steatotic cells. Cellular lipid accumulation and glycerol release, and hepatic triglyceride (TG) content were measured. The expression levels of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) were determined. Liver samples were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E). Significant histological damage (steatosis-inflammation-fibrosis) to the cells and tissues and down-regulation of SREBP-1c and PPARα genes that followed steatosis induction were prevented by CI in simultaneous treatment. In non-simultaneous treatment, CI up-regulated the expression of both genes and restored the normal levels of the corresponding proteins; with a greater stimulating effect on PPARα, CI acted as a PPARα agonist. CI released glycerol from HepG2 cells, and targeted the first and the second hit phases of hepatic steatosis. A preliminary attempt to characterize CI showed caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, and chicoric acid, among the constituents.

  13. Hypoglycemic activities of lyophilized powder of Gynura divaricata by improving antioxidant potential and insulin signaling in type 2 diabetic mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing-Qing Xu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus is a serious disease affecting about 5% of people worldwide. Although several studies have indicated hypoglycemic activities of Gynura divaricata (GD, the mechanisms by which GD improves the symptoms of diabetes remain unclear. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the potential hypoglycemic effects of GD. Design: The leaves and stems of GD were prepared and lyophilized into a powder, which was added to the diet of mice with type 2 diabetes induced by a high-fat diet in combination with streptozotocin for 4 weeks. During this period, fasting blood glucose (FBG levels and body weight of mice were measured. In addition, at the end of the experiment, a series of assays was performed. Results: GD administration effectively alleviates insulin resistance and induces a decrease in FBG by 59.54% in 1.2% (L GD-treated diabetic group and 56.13% in 4.8% (H GD-treated diabetic group after 4 weeks, respectively, relative to diabetic model mice. The antioxidant capacity was improved by increasing the activities of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px and total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD by 64.87% and 53.42% in treatment group H, compared to diabetic model mice, while GD treatment induced a significant decrease in malondialdehyde (MDA level by 50% in treatment group L, compared to the level in diabetic model mice. Furthermore, glucose metabolism was ameliorated by the increased glycogen synthesis in the livers of diabetic mice. In addition, we also demonstrated that the messenger RNA (mRNA and protein expression levels of AKT, PI3K and PDK-1, which are involved in insulin signaling, were significantly increased. Conclusions: Oral administration of the GD-lyophilized powder has been effectively hypoglycemic, which is done by activating insulin signaling and improving antioxidant capacity in mice with type 2 diabetes.

  14. Depressive symptoms and type 2 diabetes mellitus in outpatients of an Armed Forces hospital in Lima, Peru, 2012: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Urrutia-Aliano

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Resumen INTRODUCCIÓN Los pacientes con diabetes mellitus tipo 2 son más propensos a una baja calidad de vida, discapacidad e incluso muerte. También, tienen una mayor predisposición a la depresión en comparación con los pacientes no diabéticos; así como una evolución favorable producto de la evaluación e intervención de su salud mental. OBJETIVOS El objetivo de este estudio fue explorar la presencia de síntomas depresivos en una población ambulatoria con diagnóstico de diabetes mellitus tipo 2 y filiación militar. También examinar los factores asociados a la presencia de síntomas depresivos. MÉTODOS Realizamos un estudio transversal en 108 personas con diabetes mellitus tipo 2, durante enero de 2012 en una muestra ambulatoria de un hospital de las fuerzas armadas. Los síntomas depresivos se evaluaron con el test autoaplicado de Zung. Usamos la prueba de Chi-cuadrado para examinar las asociaciones entre síntomas depresivos y los factores asociados de interés. Usamos modelos lineales generalizados crudos y ajustados para estimar las Razones de Prevalencia (RP de la asociación entre las características clínicas y sociodemográficas con la presencia de síntomas depresivos. RESULTADOS La prevalencia de sintomatología depresiva fue de 56,5% (intervalo de confianza 95%: 46,6-66,0%. El análisis bivariado mostró como significativa la asociación entre la presencia de síntomas depresivos con las variables: sexo, edad y complicaciones clínicas de la diabetes. En los análisis ajustados, la retinopatía diabética [RP: 1,3; intervalo de confianza 95%: 1,1-1,7], y la neuropatía diabética [RP: 1,4; intervalo de confianza 95%: 1,1-1,7] se asociaron a una mayor presencia de síntomas depresivos luego de considerar el sexo de los participantes. CONCLUSIONES Observamos una elevada presencia de síntomas depresivos en la población de estudio, especialmente en los pacientes geriátricos o del sexo femenino. También en aquellos con

  15. 间歇低氧干预对实验性糖尿病大鼠病症的影响%Effects of Intermittent Hypoxia on the Symptom in Experimental Diabetic Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周燚; 李良鸣; 姚鑫; 石家瑾

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To study the effect of hypoxia on the blood glucose and symptom in experimental diabetic rats. METHODS The model was established by long-term diet high sugar and fat food, lower dose (30mg/kg body weight) of the streptozocin (STZ) treated rats. They were randomly divided into model control group and hypoxia interfering group. Model control group lived under normal environment while hypoxia interfering group exposed to hypoxia for an hour per day in hypoxic tent (oxygen concentration 15.4% ?0.2%), six days a week for four weeks. RESULTS (1) The rats had the typical symptoms of diabetic. (2) Compared with the rats in Model control group, the ones in hypoxia interfering group had a non-significantly higher fasting blood glucose (FPG) (P > 0.05) and a decreased food intake (P < 0.05) as well as decreased weight (P < 0.05) after four-week intervention period. But there was no significant difference in the drinking, the fat Index, the insulin sensibility index (ISI) and the insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) between the two groups. CONCLUSION Four-week hypoxia interfering had no improvement to the diabetic symptoms in experimental diabetic rats apparently, in contrast it can result in a quick decrease in weight and an ascendant trend in FPG.%目的 探索低氧干预对实验性糖尿病大鼠血糖及其病症的影响.方法 采用长期高糖高脂膳食加小剂量链脲佐菌素(STZ)的方法建立糖尿病大鼠模型,将复制成功的模型大鼠随机分为模型对照组与低氧干预组.模型对照组在常氧环境下正常生活,低氧干预组大鼠每天在低氧帐篷内低氧暴露1h(O2浓度15.4%±0.2%)、每周休息1d、共干预4周.结果 (1)糖尿病大鼠出现了典型的“三多一少”特征.(2)通过4周实验干预,低氧干预组大鼠血糖稍高于模型对照组(P>0.05)、摄食量明显低于模型对照组(P<0.05)、体重下降显著大于模型对照组(P<0.05)、肥胖指数、饮水量、胰岛素敏感指

  16. Treatment resistant hyperemesis gravidarum in a patient with type 1 diabetes mellitus: neonatal withdrawal symptoms after successful antiemetic therapy with mirtazapine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzer, V; Heep, A; Gembruch, U; Rohde, A

    2008-01-01

    Here we present the case of a 30-year-old woman with type I diabetes mellitus, preeclampsia and treatment resistant persistent hyperemesis gravidarum in her 25th week of gestation who was successfully treated with the antidepressant mirtazapine (Remergil). Nausea and vomiting resolved within 5 days. After discharge from the hospital in 28 weeks of gestation and discontinuation of the medication on her own initiative a relapse occurred, once again with good response to mirtazapine. The drug was continued until birth. At 34 + 0 weeks a cesarean section was performed due to fetal growth restriction and deteriorating preeclampsia. During the second and fourth day postnatal age the child temporarily developed hyperarousal which could be explained by mirtazapine withdrawal.

  17. Depressive symptoms and type 2 diabetes mellitus in outpatients of an Armed Forces hospital in Lima, Peru, 2012: a cross-sectional study.

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    El texto completo de este trabajo no está disponible en el Repositorio Académico UPC por restricciones de la casa editorial donde ha sido publicado. Revisión por pares INTRODUCCIÓN: Los pacientes con diabetes mellitus tipo 2 son más propensos a una baja calidad de vida, discapacidad e incluso muerte. También, tienen una mayor predisposición a la depresión en comparación con los pacientes no diabéticos; así como una evolución favorable producto de la evaluación e intervención de su sa...

  18. Plantas medicinais utilizadas por idosos com diagnóstico de Diabetes mellitus no tratamento dos sintomas da doença Medicinal plants used by elderly people with Diabetes mellitus in the treatment of the disease symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Feijó

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo investigar as plantas medicinais utilizadas por idosos assistidos em uma Unidade Básica de Saúde de Pelotas-RS, com diagnóstico de Diabetes mellitus, como terapia complementar no tratamento dos sintomas da doença. Caracterizou-se por pesquisa qualitativa, realizada em julho de 2009, no município de Pelotas-RS. Foram entrevistados 18 idosos com idade entre 60 e 77 anos, sendo 14 do sexo feminino. Os participantes citaram 20 plantas medicinais utilizadas como terapia complementar no tratamento do Diabetes mellitus. Entre estas, as mais citadas utilizadas para diminuir os níveis de glicose no sangue foram Sphagneticola trilobata, Bauhinia spp. e Syzygium cumini, sendo que para as duas últimas há comprovação científica do efeito hipoglicemiante. A infusão foi a forma de preparo predominante. Considera-se importante a realização de estudos farmacológicos que investiguem os efeitos das plantas utilizadas pela população, a fim de que o uso proporcione os benefícios desejados e não cause danos à saúde.This study aimed to investigate medicinal plants used as complementary therapy by the elderly with diabetes mellitus, assisted by a Health Basic Unit in Pelotas (RS, Brazil. This qualitative research was conducted in July 2009. Eighteen 60 to 77 years old elderly (14 of them female were interviewed. The participants identified 20 medicinal plants used as complementary therapies in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Among these, the most used ones to reduce the levels of glucose in the blood were Sphagneticola trilobata, Bauhinia spp. and Syzygium cumini. For the last two plants, there are scientific proofs of hypoglycemic effects. The infusion was the predominant form of preparation. Studies to investigate the pharmacological effects of plants used by the population have become very important, for providing scientific information on their possible health benefits and side effects.

  19. Diabetic peripheral neuropathy: should a chaperone accompany our therapeutic approach?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Kevin L; Li, Chengyuan; Dobrowsky, Rick T

    2012-10-01

    Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is a common complication of diabetes that is associated with axonal atrophy, demyelination, blunted regenerative potential, and loss of peripheral nerve fibers. The development and progression of DPN is due in large part to hyperglycemia but is also affected by insulin deficiency and dyslipidemia. Although numerous biochemical mechanisms contribute to DPN, increased oxidative/nitrosative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction seem intimately associated with nerve dysfunction and diminished regenerative capacity. Despite advances in understanding the etiology of DPN, few approved therapies exist for the pharmacological management of painful or insensate DPN. Therefore, identifying novel therapeutic strategies remains paramount. Because DPN does not develop with either temporal or biochemical uniformity, its therapeutic management may benefit from a multifaceted approach that inhibits pathogenic mechanisms, manages inflammation, and increases cytoprotective responses. Finally, exercise has long been recognized as a part of the therapeutic management of diabetes, and exercise can delay and/or prevent the development of painful DPN. This review presents an overview of existing therapies that target both causal and symptomatic features of DPN and discusses the role of up-regulating cytoprotective pathways via modulating molecular chaperones. Overall, it may be unrealistic to expect that a single pharmacologic entity will suffice to ameliorate the multiple symptoms of human DPN. Thus, combinatorial therapies that target causal mechanisms and enhance endogenous reparative capacity may enhance nerve function and improve regeneration in DPN if they converge to decrease oxidative stress, improve mitochondrial bioenergetics, and increase response to trophic factors.

  20. Pomegranate: a fruit that ameliorates metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medjakovic, Svjetlana; Jungbauer, Alois

    2013-01-01

    Pomegranate is an ancient fruit that is still part of the diet in the Mediterranean area, the Middle East, and India. Health-promoting effects have long been attributed to this fruit. Modern research corroborates the use of pomegranate as a folk remedy for diabetes and metabolic syndrome, and is responsible for a new evaluation of nutritional and pharmaceutical aspects of pomegranate in the general public. In the last decade, industry and agricultural production have been adapted to meet higher market demands for pomegranate. In vivo and in vitro studies have demonstrated that pomegranate exerts hypoglycaemic effects, including increased insulin sensitivity, inhibition of α-glucosidase, and impact on glucose transporter type 4 function, but is also responsible for a reduction of total cholesterol, and the improvement of blood lipid profiles, as well as anti-inflammatory effects through the modulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor pathways. These effects may also explain how pomegranate-derived compounds function in the amelioration of adverse health effects caused by metabolic syndrome. Pomegranate contains polyphenols such as ellagitannins and anthocyanins, as well as phenolic acids, fatty acids and a variety of volatile compounds. Ellagitannins are some of the most prevalent compounds present in pomegranate, and may be responsible for certain benevolent characteristics associated with pomegranate. A brief overview of rising health problems due to obesity will be provided, followed by characterisation of the biological activity, bioavailability, and safety of pomegranate and pomegranate-derived compounds. Although the fruit is consumed in many countries, epidemiological and clinical studies are unavailable. Additional research is necessary to corroborate the promise of current in vivo and in vitro findings.

  1. Losartan ameliorates dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa and uncovers new disease mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyström, Alexander; Thriene, Kerstin; Mittapalli, Venugopal; Kern, Johannes S; Kiritsi, Dimitra; Dengjel, Jörn; Bruckner-Tuderman, Leena

    2015-07-20

    Genetic loss of collagen VII causes recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (RDEB)-a severe skin fragility disorder associated with lifelong blistering and disabling progressive soft tissue fibrosis. Causative therapies for this complex disorder face major hurdles, and clinical implementation remains elusive. Here, we report an alternative evidence-based approach to ameliorate fibrosis and relieve symptoms in RDEB. Based on the findings that TGF-β activity is elevated in injured RDEB skin, we targeted TGF-β activity with losartan in a preclinical setting. Long-term treatment of RDEB mice efficiently reduced TGF-β signaling in chronically injured forepaws and halted fibrosis and subsequent fusion of the digits. In addition, proteomics analysis of losartan- vs. vehicle-treated RDEB skin uncovered changes in multiple proteins related to tissue inflammation. In line with this, losartan reduced inflammation and diminished TNF-α and IL-6 expression in injured forepaws. Collectively, the data argue that RDEB fibrosis is a consequence of a cascade encompassing tissue damage, TGF-β-mediated inflammation, and matrix remodeling. Inhibition of TGF-β activity limits these unwanted outcomes and thereby substantially ameliorates long-term symptoms.

  2. Construct Validity of Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R and General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28 in Patients with Drug Addiction and Diabetes, and Normal Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl ARDAKANI

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Given that validity is the baseline of psychological assessments, there is a need to provide evidence-based data for construct validity of such scales to advance the clinicians for evaluating psychiatric morbidity in psychiatric and psychosomatic setting.Methods: This comparative cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the construct validity of the Malaysian version of the GHQ-28 and the SCL-90-R. The sample comprised 660 individuals including diabetics, drug dependents, and normal population. The research scales were administered to the participants. Convergent and discriminant validity of both scales were investigated by Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA using AMOS. The Pearson correlation coefficient was utilized to obtain the relationship between the two scales. Results: The internal consistency of the GHQ-28 and SCL-90-R were highly acceptable, and confirmatory factor analysis confirmed the convergent validity of both scales. The results of this study revealed that the construct validity of GHQ-28 was acceptable, whereas discriminant validity of SCL-90-R was not adequate. According to Pearson correlation coefficient the relationships between three common subscales of the GHQ-28 and SCL-90-R were significantly positive; somatization (r=0.671, P<0.01, Anxiety (r=0.728, P<0.01, and Depression (r=0.660, P <0.01.Conclusions: This study replicated the construct of the Malaysian version of GHQ-28, yet failed to support the nine-factor structure of the SCL-90-R. Therefore, multidimensionality of the SCL-90-R as clinical purposes is questionable, and it may be a better unitary measure for assessing and screening mental disorders. Further research need to be carried out to prove this finding.Keywords: SCL-90-R, GHQ-28, Construct validity, Mental health

  3. Depressão e diabetes mellitus Depression and diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renério Fráguas

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O diabetes mellitus possui elevada prevalência, acometendo cerca de 7% da população brasileira. Em torno de 20% a 30% dos pacientes com diabetes apresentam depressão. A depressão pode atuar como um fator de risco para o desenvolvimento do diabetes, piorar seus sintomas e interferir com o autocuidado dos pacientes. Quando não tratada adequadamente, a depressão nesses pacientes tende a evoluir com elevada taxa de recorrência. Entre os tratamentos disponíveis, encontramos na literatura um benefício da psicoterapia, cognitiva ou cognitivo-comportamental, para melhora dos sintomas depressivos, mas sem evidência de um benefício no controle glicêmico. Os antidepressivos tricíclicos, em especial os com maior ação noradrenérgica, e os inibidores da monoaminoxidase (IMAOs tendem a aumentar os níveis glicêmicos. A bupropiona não interfere na glicemia e há evidências de que os inibidores seletivos de recaptura de serotonina (ISRS melhoram os níveis glicêmicos e podem reduzir a taxa de recaídas, mostrando-se boas opções de tratamento farmacológico. A eletroconvulsoterapia também é uma estratégia interessante para esses pacientes, recomendando-se, no entanto, monitorização da glicemia. Não foram encontrados estudos significativos sobre os demais antidepressivos disponíveis para comercialização.Diabetes mellitus has an estimated prevalence of 7% among Brazilian population. Around 20% to 30% of these patients have a depressive disorder. Depression can work as risk factor to the development of diabetes, can worse its symptoms and interfere with self-care. When not adequately treated, depressive disorder in these patients tends to have high rates of recurrence. Among the available treatments literature shows a benefit of psychotherapy, mainly cognitive or cognitive-behavioral, in ameliorating depressive symptoms, but without impact on glycaemic control. Tryciclic antidepressants, especially those with more noradrenergic

  4. Symptoms, syndrome types and therapeutic principles in medical records of diabetes differentiated and treated by Professor LV Ren-he%吕仁和辨治糖尿病医案症状、证候和治则解析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖永华; 王世东; 李靖; 高菁; 赵进喜; 吕仁和

    2011-01-01

    目的 通过对吕仁和治疗糖尿病医案中医辨证要素的统计分析,总结吕仁和教授分期辨治糖尿病的学术思想.方法 128例经吕仁和教授诊治的糖尿病医案,经过“解析和标引”预处理,借助“中医医案数据库”的统计分析功能,将医案分成脾瘅期、消渴期、消瘅期三期,分别统计分析其症状体征、证候和治则.结果 脾瘅期症状以倦怠乏力、口干最突出,气阴两虚证可能在脾瘅期较为常见.消渴期黄苔出现几率最高,瘀血阻络证居证候统计的第2位,提示热证与血瘀证均是消渴期常见的重要标实证候,肝肾阴虚和气阴亏虚是消渴期常见的本虚证型,吕仁和教授既往总结的脾肾阳虚证相对少见.消瘅期症状以倦怠乏力、腰酸痛、目昏较常见,提示肝肾两虚在此期尤为明显,湿热、痰饮、瘀血在消瘅期普遍存在,彼此胶结,共同酿成“浊毒”;证候统计显示瘀血阻络证居首位,与前两期的证候统计结果相比,表明随着病程进展,瘀血阻络证出现频次明显增加,符合吕仁和教授的“微型癥瘕”病理假说;治则的统计结果与吕仁和教授认识的此期“气血阴阳俱虚、浊毒内停”的证候特点相吻合.结论 糖尿病三期医案的症状、证候和治则分析内在吻合度良好,且与吕仁和教授糖尿病分期理论相符合.%Objective To sum up the academic thought of Professor LV Ren-he's in differentiation and treatment of diabetes at stages through the statistical analysis on the factors of TCM syndrome differentiation of diabetes in cases treated by Professor LV Ren-he. Methods The diabetic cases treated by Professor LV Ren-he ( n - 128) were classified into Pidan stage, Xiaoke stage and Xiaodan stage based on the statistical function of TCM Medical Record Database after the pretreatment with resolution and indexing. The symptoms, signs, syndromes and therapeutic principles were analysed respectively

  5. β-glycosphingolipids ameliorated non-alcoholic steatohepatitis in the Psammomys obesus model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zigmond E

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Ehud Zigmond,1,* Oshrat Tayer-Shifman,1,* Gadi Lalazar,1 Ami Ben Ya'acov,1 Sarah Weksler-Zangen,2 David Shasha,1 Miriam Sklair-Levy,3 Lidya Zolotarov,1 Zvi Shalev,1 Rony Kalman,2 Ehud Ziv,2 Itamar Raz,2 Yaron Ilan1 1Liver Unit, 2Diabetes Unit, 3Department of Radiology, Hebrew University-Hadassah Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel *These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Liver steatosis is a common characteristic of obesity and type 2 diabetes, and fatty liver disease is increasingly recognized as a major health burden. Accumulating evidence suggests that β-glycosphingolipids play an important role in insulin sensitivity and thus could affect hepatic steatosis. To determine the effect associated with β-glycosphingolipid-mediated amelioration of liver injury, seven groups of Psammomys obesus on a high-energy diet were studied. Animals were treated with daily injections of β-glucosylceramide, β-lactosylceramide, or a combination of both. β-glycosphingolipids ameliorated the hepatic injury manifested by decreased liver enzymes, liver weight, and hepatic fat, and improved liver histology. Administration of both β-glucosylceramide and β-lactosylceramide also decreased interferon (IFN-γ serum levels. These effects were associated with improved serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels. These data suggest that β-glycosphingolipids ameliorate liver injury in an animal model of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.Keywords: NAFLD, glycolipids, STAT, NASH, insulin resistance, diabetes

  6. Impact of Diabetes and Peripheral Arterial Occlusive Disease on the Functional Microcirculation at the Plantar Foot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Kabbani, MD

    2013-10-01

    Conclusions: Functional microcirculation at the plantar foot differs between healthy subjects and patients suffering from diabetes or PAOD of the same age. Patients with either diabetes or PAOD demonstrate deteriorated cutaneous oxygen saturation with equivalent blood perfusion at the plantar foot. More clinical studies have to be conducted to evaluate therapeutical methods that might ameliorate cutaneous oxygen saturation within diabetic foot disease and PAOD.

  7. Diabetes - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - diabetes ... The following sites provide further information on diabetes: American Diabetes Association -- www.diabetes.org Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation International -- www.jdrf.org National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion -- ...

  8. Diabetic Retinopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease > Facts About Diabetic Eye Disease Facts About Diabetic Eye Disease Points to Remember Diabetic eye disease ... existing therapies for different patient groups. What is diabetic eye disease? Diabetic eye disease can affect many ...

  9. Prevalence and Characteristics of Painful Diabetic Neuropathy in a Large Community-Based Diabetic Population in the U.K.

    OpenAIRE

    Abbott, Caroline A; Malik, Rayaz A; van Ross, Ernest R.E.; Kulkarni, Jai; Boulton, Andrew J.M.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess, in the general diabetic population, 1) the prevalence of painful neuropathic symptoms; 2) the relationship between symptoms and clinical severity of neuropathy; and 3) the role of diabetes type, sex, and ethnicity in painful neuropathy. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Observational study of a large cohort of diabetic patients receiving community-based health care in northwest England (n = 15,692). Painful diabetic neuropathy (PDN) was assessed using neuropathy symptom score (...

  10. Ghrelin reverses experimental diabetic neuropathy in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyoraku, Itaru; Shiomi, Kazutaka [Division of Neurology, Respirology, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Miyazaki, Kiyotake, Miyazaki 889-1692 (Japan); Kangawa, Kenji [Department of Biochemistry, National Cardiovascular Center Research Institute, Osaka 565-8565 (Japan); Nakazato, Masamitsu, E-mail: nakazato@med.miyazaki-u.ac.jp [Division of Neurology, Respirology, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Miyazaki, Kiyotake, Miyazaki 889-1692 (Japan)

    2009-11-20

    Ghrelin, an acylated peptide produced in the stomach, increases food intake and growth hormone secretion, suppresses inflammation and oxidative stress, and promotes cell survival and proliferation. We investigated the pharmacological potential of ghrelin in the treatment of polyneuropathy in uncontrolled streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes in mice. Ghrelin or desacyl-ghrelin was administered daily for 4 weeks after STZ-induced diabetic polyneuropathy had developed. Ghrelin administration did not alter food intake, body weight gain, blood glucose levels, or plasma insulin levels when compared with mice given saline or desacyl-ghrelin administration. Ghrelin administration ameliorated reductions in motor and sensory nerve conduction velocities in diabetic mice and normalized their temperature sensation and plasma concentrations of 8-isoprostaglandin {alpha}, an oxidative stress marker. Desacyl-ghrelin failed to have any effect. Ghrelin administration in a mouse model of diabetes ameliorated polyneuropathy. Thus, ghrelin's effects represent a novel therapeutic paradigm for the treatment of this otherwise intractable disorder.

  11. Diabetes and cervical myelopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houten, John K; Lenart, Christopher

    2016-05-01

    Diabetes may affect the typical physical findings associated with cervical spondylotic myelopathy, as coexisting diabetic neuropathy may dampen expected hyperreflexia and also produce non-dermatomal extremity numbness. Most large studies of surgically treated diabetic patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy have focused upon infection rates rather than exploring any differences in the presenting physical signs. We conducted a retrospective study of the pattern of presenting neurological signs and symptoms and of the clinical outcomes in 438 patients surgically treated for cervical spondylotic myelopathy, 79 of whom had diabetes. Compared with non-diabetic patients, those with diabetes were slightly older and had lower preoperative modified Japanese Orthopaedic Association (mJOA) scores. Those with diabetes also had a significantly higher incidence of hyporeflexia and a higher incidence of a positive Babinski sign, but there was no difference in the appearance of the Hoffman sign. The magnitude of mJOA improvement after surgery was comparable. We conclude that diabetes may alter the typical signs and symptoms of cervical spondylotic myelopathy and suggest that knowledge of the differences may aid in securing a prompt and accurate diagnosis.

  12. Antinociceptive effects of fisetin against diabetic neuropathic pain in mice: Engagement of antioxidant mechanisms and spinal GABAA receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xin; Li, Xin-Lin; Liu, Xin; Wang, Chuang; Zhou, Dong-Sheng; Ma, Qing; Zhou, Wen-Hua; Hu, Zhen-Yu

    2015-12-01

    Peripheral painful neuropathy is one of the most common complications in diabetes and necessitates improved treatment. Fisetin, a naturally occurring flavonoid, has been reported to exert antidepressant-like effect in previous studies. As antidepressant drugs are employed clinically to treat neuropathic pain, this work aimed to investigate whether fisetin possess beneficial effect on diabetic neuropathic pain and explore the mechanism(s). We subjected mice to diabetes by a single intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of streptozotocin (200mg/kg), and von Frey test or Hargreaves test was used to assess mechanical allodynia or thermal hyperalgesia, respectively. Chronic treatment of diabetic mice with fisetin not only ameliorated the established symptoms of thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia, but also arrested the development of neuropathic pain when given at low doses. Although chronic fisetin administration did not impact on the symptom of hyperglycemia in diabetic mice, it reduced exacerbated oxidative stress in tissues of spinal cord, dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and sciatic verve. Furthermore, the analgesic actions of fisetin were abolished by repetitive co-treatment with the reactive oxygen species (ROS) donor tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BOOH), but potentiated by the ROS scavenger phenyl-N-tert-butylnitrone (PBN). Finally, acute blockade of spinal GABAA receptors by bicuculline totally counteracted such fisetin analgesia. These findings indicate that chronic fisetin treatment can delay or correct neuropathic hyperalgesia and allodynia in mice with type 1 diabetes. Mechanistically, the present fisetin analgesia may be associated with its antioxidant activity, and spinal GABAA receptors are likely rendered as downstream targets.

  13. Symptoms of depression and diabetes-specific emotional distress are associated with a negative appraisal of insulin therapy in insulin-naïve patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus. A study from the European Depression in Diabetes [EDID] Research Consortium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makine, Ceylan; Karşidağ, C; Kadioğlu, P

    2009-01-01

    of depression and diabetes-specific emotional distress are associated with a more negative appraisal of insulin therapy. METHODS: We collected cross-sectional data in two outpatient university clinics in Istanbul, Turkey. The study sample consisted of 154 insulin-naïve patients with DM2. A self...... diabetes patients, higher levels of depression and diabetes-distress tend to be associated with more negative beliefs about insulin. Whether these negative attitudes translate into postponing initiation of insulin therapy needs to be tested in longitudinal research....

  14. 糖尿病合并急性心肌梗死临床特征分析%Analysis of Clinical Symptoms about Diabetes Mellitus Combined with Acute Myocardial Infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王尚珍; 刘鹏

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨2型糖尿病(Type 2 diabetes mellitus,T2DM)合并急性心肌梗死(Acute myocardial infarction,AMI)患者的临床特征,明确危险因素及预后.方法 98例AMI患者分为2型糖尿病合并急性心肌梗死(T2DM+AMI)组和非2型糖尿病急性心肌梗死(NT2DM+AMI)组,对比分析两组患者的临床特征及血生化检查结果.结果 (1) T2DM+AMI组发病年龄较NT2DM+AMI明显提前,女性占患者总数百分比高于NT2DM+AMI;(2)T2DM+AMI组无痛性心肌梗死发生率高(27.1%)、并发症多、预后差;(3)T2DM+AMI组患者高甘油三脂血症、低高密度脂蛋白血症患者明显高于NT2DM+AMI组.结论 重视女性糖尿病患者的血脂异常,警惕糖尿病合并急性心肌梗死的不典型表现,提高急性心肌梗死的诊治水平.%Objective To discuss the clinical symptoms of T2DM and AMI, know risk factors and prognosis. Methods 98 cases of AMI patients were divided to two groups according to whether T2DM.Comparing two groups of patients with clinical features and blood biochem istry test results.Results (1)Age of onset of T2DM + AMI group was significantly earlier than NT2DM + AMI,and Percentage of women was higher than NT2DM + AMI.(2) The incidence of painless myocardial infarction of T2DM + AMI group was high (27.1%), much complications, and poor prognosis.(3) The numbet of patients in T2DM + AMI group with hypertrigly ceridemia and low high-density lipoprotein hematic disease were significantly more than in NT2DM + AMI group. Conclusion Pay attention to dy slipidem ia of women diabetes patients, alertnot the typical perform ance of DM + AMI.Improve the level of diagnosis and treatment of acute myocardial infarction.

  15. Renoprotective effect of aged garlic extract in streptozotocin- induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T M Shiju

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: From our results, we conclude that aged garlic extract has the ability to ameliorate kidney damage in diabetic rats and the renoprotective effect of AGE may be attributed to its anti-glycation and hypolipidemic activities.

  16. Management of diabetes mellitus in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawal, Muili

    Diabetes is a global health problem, with a challenging epidemiology. It is one of the major health problems affecting countries around the world, particularly the UK (World Health Organization [WHO], 2006; Department of Health [DH], 2006b). It is also a growing public health threat in the US (Mokdad et al, 2001). As a result, diabetes has become an important public health issue, prompting the WHO and International Diabetes Federation (IDF) to adopt the theme 'Diabetes for Everyone' for World Diabetes Day 2006. In 2007, on World Diabetes Day, the United Nations also launched its 'Living with Diabetes at School' campaign, in response to the growing diabetes 'epidemics' (Diabetes UK, 2007). This article provides an overview of diabetes mellitus and its acute- and long-term management, including definition, aetiology, pathophysiology, classification, signs, symptoms and complications. The role of the nurse in providing patient-centred care for people with diabetes is emphasized.

  17. 妊娠期糖尿病产妇的血液HBA1c水平与产妇不良症状发生率关系的研究%Gestational Diabetes HBA1c level in Maternal blood and Maternal Research of Relationship Between the Incidence of Adverse Symptoms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李国杰

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨妊娠期糖尿病产妇的血液HBA1c水平与产妇不良症状发生率的关系。方法选取该院2012年3月-2013年3月收治的妊娠期糖尿病产妇18例为观察组,另选取同期18例健康产妇为对照组,测定产妇的HBAlc水平,记录其不良症状发生率,以此分析产妇血液HBA1c水平与不良症状发生率的关系。结果观察组产妇妊娠28周和妊娠末期血液HBA1c水平均高于对照组产妇,且妊娠期糖尿病产妇的血液HBA1c水平呈正相关(P<0.05)。结论妊娠期糖尿病产妇的血液HBA1c水平与不良症状发生率呈正相关,对HBA1c水平进行控制可降低妊娠期糖尿病产妇的不良症状。%Objective To study the gestational diabetes HBA1c level in maternal blood relationship with the incidence of maternal adverse symptoms. Methods From March 2012 to March 2012 were 18 cases of gestational diabetes women as the observation group, the other 18 cases of healthy women during the same period as control group, determination of maternal HBAlc level, record the prevalence of adverse symptoms and to analyze the relationship between maternal blood HBA1c levels and the incidence of adverse symptoms. Results Observation group 28 weeks of gestation and late gestation maternal maternal blood HBA1c levels were higher than control group, and gestational diabetes HBA1c level in maternal blood was positively correlated (P<0.05). Conclusion The gestational diabetes HBA1c level in maternal blood was positively correlated with the incidence of adverse symptoms, to control HBA1c level can reduce the adverse symptoms of gestational diabetes women.

  18. Management of diabetes insipidus in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garima Mishra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes Insipidus (DI is a heterogeneous clinical syndrome of disturbance in water balance, characterized by polyuria (urine output > 4 ml/kg/hr, polydypsia (water intake > 2 L/m 2 /d and failure to thrive. In children, Nephrogenic DI (NDI is more common than Central DI (CDI, and is often acquired. The signs and symptoms vary with etiology, age at presentation and mode of onset. Neonates and infants with NDI are severely affected and difficult to treat. Diagnosis is based on the presence of high plasma osmolality and low urinary osmolality with significant water diuresis. Water deprivation test with vasopressin challenge, though has limitations, is done to differentiate NDI and CDI and diagnose their partial forms. Measurement of urinary aquaporin 2 and serum copeptin levels are being studied and show promising diagnostic potential. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI pituitary helps in the etiological diagnosis of CDI, absence of posterior pituitary bright signal being the pathognomic sign. If pituitary stalk thickening of < 2 mm is present, these children need to be monitored for evolving lesion. Neonates and young infants are better managed with fluids alone. Older children with CDI are treated with desmopressin. The oral form is safe, highly effective, with more flexibility of dosing and has largely replaced the intranasal form. In NDI besides treatment of the underlying cause, use of high calorie low solute diet and drugs to ameliorate water excretion (thiazide, amelioride, indomethacin are useful. Children with NDI however well treated, remain short and have mental retardation on follow up.

  19. Management of diabetes insipidus in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Garima; Chandrashekhar, Sudha Rao

    2011-09-01

    Diabetes Insipidus (DI) is a heterogeneous clinical syndrome of disturbance in water balance, characterized by polyuria (urine output > 4 ml/kg/hr), polydypsia (water intake > 2 L/m(2)/d) and failure to thrive. In children, Nephrogenic DI (NDI) is more common than Central DI (CDI), and is often acquired. The signs and symptoms vary with etiology, age at presentation and mode of onset. Neonates and infants with NDI are severely affected and difficult to treat. Diagnosis is based on the presence of high plasma osmolality and low urinary osmolality with significant water diuresis. Water deprivation test with vasopressin challenge, though has limitations, is done to differentiate NDI and CDI and diagnose their partial forms. Measurement of urinary aquaporin 2 and serum copeptin levels are being studied and show promising diagnostic potential. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) pituitary helps in the etiological diagnosis of CDI, absence of posterior pituitary bright signal being the pathognomic sign. If pituitary stalk thickening of diet and drugs to ameliorate water excretion (thiazide, amelioride, indomethacin) are useful. Children with NDI however well treated, remain short and have mental retardation on follow up.

  20. 2型糖尿病、糖尿病肾病患者幽门螺杆菌感染及胃黏膜病变发病率临床研究%Investigation on the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection and the incidence of gastric mucosal lesions in type 2 diabetes mellitus and diabetic kidney disease patients with dyspepsia symptoms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟晓琴; 周飞; 刘丽秋

    2016-01-01

    DM和 DKD 患者胃黏膜病变类型与非糖尿病患者无差异。%Objective To investigate the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection and the incidence of gastric mucosal lesions in type 2 diabetes mellitus(DM)and diabetic kidney disease(DKD)patients with dyspepsia symptoms.Methods A total of 241 type 2 diabetic patients and 69 non -diabetic subjects with dyspeptic symptoms were enrolled in the study.Gastroduodenal lesions were observed by gastrointestinal endoscopy and the presence of Helicobacter pylori infection was identified by rapid urease test and serum IgG antibodies to Helicobacter pylori.Urine albumin excretion rate(UAE)at 24 hours was measured in all subjects.According to the urinary albumin excretion rate,patients were classified into diabetes mellitus group(DMgroup,with UAE 300mg/24h).Estimated glomerular filtration rate were above 60mL·min -1 ·(1.73m2 )-1 in the three groups of patients.The 69 cases of non -diabetic subjects were used as the control group.Results The prevalence of H pylori infection in the DKD group[145 /72(62.5%)]and the DKD group 2[34 /53(64.15%)]were significantly higher than those in the control group[28 /65(43.1%)](χ2 =3.901,P =0.04;χ2 =4.223,P =0.03)and the DM group [27 /63 (42.9%)](χ2 =4.104,P =0.04;χ2 =5.116,P =0.03).No significant differences of H.pylori prevalence were detected between the DKD groups(χ2 =1.304,P =0.29)as well as the DMgroup and the control group (χ2 =0.723,P =0.40).Gastroscopy results showed that the incidence of normal endoscopic performance in the DMgroup was higher than that of the control group(57.1% vs.38.5%,χ2 =4.612,P =0.03).There were no significant differences between the control group and DM group,DKD1 group and DKD2 group in the incidence of gastric mucosal lesions (Superficial gastritis:χ2 =1.206,0.912,0.707;erosive gastritis:χ2 =1.422,1.836 0.870;duodenal ulcer:χ2 =243.1, 1.716,2.233;gastric ulcer:χ2 =1.440,0.971,1.322 and esophagitis:χ2 =2.116,2.318,2.488,all P >0

  1. Biomechanical Remodeling of the Diabetic Gastrointestinal Tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Jingbo; Liao, Donghua; Yang, Jian

    2010-01-01

    Gastrointestinal tract sensory-motor abnormalities are common in patients with diabetes mellitus with symptoms arising from the whole GI tract. Common complaints include dysphasia, early satiety, reflux, constipation, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. The pathogenesis of GI symptoms...... in diabetes mellitus is complex in nature, multi-factorial (motor dysfunction, autonomic neuropathy, glycemic control, psychological factors, etc.) and is not well understood. Histologically, many studies have demonstrated prominent proliferation of different GI wall layers during diabetes. During the past...

  2. Effect of a polyherbal formulation cream on diabetic neuropathic pain among patients with type 2 diabetes - A pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Vijay Viswanathan; Seena Rajsekar; Bamila Selvaraj; Satyavani Kumpatla

    2016-01-01

    Background & objectives: Painful diabetic neuropathy is a common complication of diabetes and can severely limit patients′ daily functions. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the safety and effect of using a polyherbal formulation in reducing the symptoms of diabetic neuropathic pain in comparison with placebo among patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods: A total of 50 (M:F = 33:17) consecutive type 2 diabetes patients with painful diabetic neuropathy were enrolled in this study....

  3. Efficacy and cost-effectiveness of a web-based intervention with mobile phone support to treat depressive symptoms in adults with diabetes mellitus type 1 and type 2: design of a randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Nobis, Stephanie; Lehr, Dirk; Ebert, David Daniel; Berking, Matthias; Heber, Elena; Baumeister, Harald; Becker, Annette; Snoek, Frank; Riper, Heleen

    2013-01-01

    Background A diagnosis of diabetes mellitus types 1 or 2 doubles the odds of a comorbid depressive disorder. The combined diseases have a wide range of adverse outcomes, such as a lower quality of life, poorer diabetes outcomes and increased healthcare utilisation. Diabetes patients with depression can be treated effectively with psychotherapy, but access to psychological care is limited. In this study we will examine the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of a newly developed web-based interven...

  4. Dendritic cells and macrophages in insulin dependent diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Jansen (Annemarie)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractThe onset of diabetes mellitus is characterized by various symptoms, all the result of a disturbed glucose metabolism. The main symptoms are thirst and polydypsia, polyuria, glucosuria, and weight loss. The faster the onset of diabetes, the more prominent these symptoms will be. The dist

  5. The Adenosinergic System in Diabetic Retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Vindeirinho

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The neurodegenerative and inflammatory environment that is prevalent in the diabetic eye is a key player in the development and progression of diabetic retinopathy. The adenosinergic system is widely regarded as a significant modulator of neurotransmission and the inflammatory response, through the actions of the four types of adenosine receptors (A1R, A2AR, A2BR, and A3R, and thus could be revealed as a potential player in the events unfolding in the early stages of diabetic retinopathy. Herein, we review the studies that explore the impact of diabetic conditions on the retinal adenosinergic system, as well as the role of the said system in ameliorating or exacerbating those conditions. The experimental results described suggest that this system is heavily affected by diabetic conditions and that the modulation of its components could reveal potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of diabetic retinopathy, particularly in the early stages of the disease.

  6. Women and Diabetes -- Diabetes Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Audience For Women Women's Health Topics Women and Diabetes - Diabetes Medicines Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... 1-800-332-1088 to request a form. Diabetes Medicines The different kinds of diabetes medicines are ...

  7. Huangqi Guizhi Wuwu Decoction for treating diabetic peripheral neuropathy:a meta-analysis of 16 randomized controlled trials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bing Pang; Tian-yu Zhao; Lin-hua Zhao; Fang Wan; Ru Ye; Qiang Zhou; Feng Tian; Xiao-lin Tong

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:This meta-analysis was performed to systematically assess the efifcacy and safety of the Chinese herbal medicine Huangqi Guizhi Wuwu Decoction (HGWWD) for treating diabetic peripheral neuropathy. DATA SOURCES:Six electronic databases, including the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE database, Chinese Biomedical Database, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure Database, Chinese Science and Technique Journals Database, and the Wanfang Database, were search ed on the internet for randomized controlled trials published up until 1 December 2015. The search terms included“Chinese herbal medi-cine”,“diabetic peripheral neuropathy”and“randomized controlled trials”in Chinese and in English. DATA SELECTION:We included randomized controlled trials using HGWWD/modified HGWWD for the treatment group, without restriction for the control group. We assessed literature quality in accordance with the Cochrane Review Handbook. A random or a ifxed effects model was used to analyze outcomes using RevMan 5.2 software. OUTCOME MEASURES:The primary outcomes were changes in symptoms and nerve conduction velocities. The secondary outcomes were fasting blood glucose and hemorheological indexes. RESULTS:Sixteen randomized controlled trials, with a total of 1,173 patients, were included. Meta-analysis revealed that the efifcacy of HGWWD for diabetic peripheral neuropathy was signiifcantly superior compared with the control treatment (i.e., control group) (risk ratio=0.36, 95%conifdence interval (CI):0.29–0.46, Z=8.33, P CONCLUSION:HGWWD treatment improves diabetic neurologic symptoms and ameliorates nerve conduction velocities. Our study suggests that HGWWD may have signiifcant therapeutic efifcacy for the treatment of diabetic peripheral neuropathy. However, the meth-odological quality of the randomized controlled trials was generally low. Larger and better-designed randomized controlled trials are required to more reliably assess the clinical effectiveness of HGWWD.

  8. New Generation Antidepressants in Painful Diabetic Neuropathy

    OpenAIRE

    Gutiérrez-Álvarez, Ángela-María; Carlos B. Moreno

    2011-01-01

    The incidence of diabetic neuropathy increases with the duration of diabetes and the degree of hyperglycaemia. Pain is one of the most common and incapacitating symptoms of diabetic neuropathy and its pharmacological control is complex. The effectiveness of antidepressive agents has been described in different types of neuropathic pain, but their effectiveness, when used as analgesics in painful diabetic neuropathy, still remains controversial. Objective: To review the possible role of new-ge...

  9. The Comorbidity of Diabetes Mellitus and Depression

    OpenAIRE

    Katon, Wayne J.

    2008-01-01

    Several factors, including sedentary lifestyle, obesity, and an aging population, contribute to epidemic rates of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Depression frequently occurs comorbidly with diabetes although it is unrecognized and untreated in approximately two thirds of patients with both conditions. The course of depression in patients with both diabetes and depression is chronic and severe. Up to 80% of patients with diabetes and depression will experience a relapse of depressive symptoms over ...

  10. Multiple Myeloma Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Center Finder Home » About Multiple Myeloma » Symptoms Multiple Myeloma Symptoms Multiple myeloma symptoms may vary by ... to be managed or prevented. The most common multiple myeloma symptoms may include: Bone pain or bone ...

  11. General IC Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... IC Symptoms of IC General IC Symptoms General IC Symptoms Symptoms of interstitial cystitis (IC) differ from ... news and events. Please leave this field empty Interstitial Cystitis Association 7918 Jones Branch Drive, Suite 300 McLean, ...

  12. Symptoms of Acoustic Neuroma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Programs & Services Search ANAUSA.org Connect with us! Symptoms of Acoustic Neuroma Each heading slides to reveal more information. Early Symptoms Early Symptoms Early symptoms are easily overlooked, thus making diagnosis ...

  13. Management of diabetic gastroparesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badr M Aljarallah

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Symptoms suggestive of gastroparesis occur in 5% to 12% of patients with diabetes. Such a complication can affect both prognosis and management of the diabetes; therefore, practicing clinicians are challenged by the complex management of such cases. Gastroparesis is a disorder characterized by a delay in gastric emptying after a meal in the absence of a mechanical gastric outlet obstruction. This article is an evidence-based overview of current management strategies for diabetic gastroparesis. The cardinal symptoms of diabetic gastroparesis are nausea and vomiting. Gastroesophageal scintiscanning at 15-minute intervals for 4 hours after food intake is considered the gold standard for measuring gastric emptying. Retention of more than 10% of the meal after 4 hours is considered an abnormal result, for which a multidisciplinary management approach is required. Treatment should be tailored according to the severity of gastroparesis, and 25% to 68% of symptoms are controlled by prokinetic agents. Commonly prescribed prokinetics include metoclopramide, domperidone, and erythromycin. In addition, gastric electrical stimulation has been shown to improve symptoms, reduce hospitalizations, reduce the need for nutritional support, and improve quality of life in several open-label studies.

  14. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells ameliorate inflammatory factor-induced dysfunction of INS-1 cells on chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yu; Yao, Zhina; Lin, Peng; Hou, Xinguo; Chen, Li

    2014-05-01

    Using a microfluidic chip, we have investigated whether bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) could ameliorate IL-1β/IFN-γ-induced dysfunction of INS-1 cells. BM-MSCs were obtained from diabetes mellitus patients and their cell surface antigen expression profiles were analyzed by flow cytometric. INS-1 cells were cocultured with BM-MSCs on a microfluidic chip with persistent perfusion of medium containing 1 ng/mL IL-1β and 2.5 U/mL IFN-γ for 72 h. BM-MSCs could partially rescue INS-1 cells from cytokine-induced dysfunction and ameliorate the expression of insulin and PDX-1 gene in INS-1 cells. Thus BM-MSCs can be viewed as a promising stem cell source to depress inflammatory factor-induced dysfunction of pancreatic β cells in diabetic patients.

  15. Could antibiotics be stopped after symptoms disappear in patients with diabetic foot infection?%糖尿病足感染患者感染症状消失后能否停用抗生素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙幸幸; 王鹏华; 张靖航; 侯小丽; 赵荣亚; 李喜文

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the impact of continuation or discontinuation of antibiotics on recurrence and clinical outcomes in patients with diabetic foot with varying severity of ischemia and infection when clinical signs have resolved. Methods Hospitalized patients with diabetic foot infection (DFI)were selected from March 2010 to August 2012. When the infectious symptoms disappeared after antibiotic treatment, the patients were divided into continuation group (group A) and discontinuation group (group B) with random number table. Recurrences of infection within 2 weeks and outcomes in 6 months were observed. Two sample t⁃test was used between group comparisons. Recurrent infection rates were analyzed using chi⁃square test. Relative risk analysis was applied to explore the correlation between recurrent infection and antibiotics usage and differences in clinical outcome between groups. Results A total of 184 patients in group A(male/female: 131/53)and 191 patients in group B(male/female: 137/54) completed the follow⁃up periods. Among patients with mild infection, recurrence rate in group B was higher than that in group A in patients with severe ischemia(odds ratio(OR)=3.792,95%confidence interval(CI) 1.090-13.185,P<0.05), but no differences were found between those with mild/moderate ischemia. Recurrence rate of infection in group B was higher than that in group A regardless of severity of ischemia (2.917(1.078-7.889), 3.516(1.375-8.994),all P<0.05)in patients with moderate/severe infection. No differences were found between the two groups in patients with sole neuropathy independent of infection severity. After follow⁃up of 6 months, no differences were found in clinical outcomes between the two groups. However, compared with group B, group A had higher healing rate (73.3%(74/101) vs 48.3%(42/87)), and lower amputation rate and death rate in patients with moderate/severe infection. Conclusions It is suggested to stop antibiotics in mild infection patients

  16. 27 CFR 24.178 - Amelioration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Amelioration. 24.178 Section 24.178 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... is calculated as tartaric acid for grapes, malic acid for apples, and citric acid for other...

  17. Diabetic Retinopathy Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivakumar R.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic retinopathy is one of the common complications of diabetes. Unfortunately, in many cases the patient is not aware of any symptoms until it is too late for effective treatment. Through analysis of evoked potential response of the retina, the optical nerve, and the optical brain center, a way will be paved for early diagnosis of diabetic retinopathy and prognosis during the treatment process. In this paper, we present an artificial-neural-network-based method to classify diabetic retinopathy subjects according to changes in visual evoked potential spectral components and an anatomically realistic computer model of the human eye under normal and retinopathy conditions in a virtual environment using 3D Max Studio and Windows Movie Maker.

  18. Diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Nessim Dayan, Edgard; Fundación Valle de Lili

    1996-01-01

    ¿Qué es la diabetes?/¿Cuantos tipos o formas de diabetes existen?/¿Cuáles son los síntomas de la diabetes?/¿cuál es la causa de la diabetes?/¿Quién tiene mayor riesgo de desarrollar diabetes?/¿Cómo se diagnostica la diabetes?/¿Cuál es el tratamiento de la diabetes?/¿Cuándo y cómo se controlan los niveles de glicemia?/¿Cuáles son las complicaciones de la diabetes?/Recomendaciones actuales y futuro de la diabetes.

  19. Brittle diabetes: Psychopathology and personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelizza, Lorenzo; Pupo, Simona

    The term "brittle" is used to describe an uncommon subgroup of patients with type I diabetes whose lives are disrupted by severe glycaemic instability with repeated and prolonged hospitalization. Psychosocial problems are the major perceived underlying causes of brittle diabetes. Aim of this study is a systematic psychopathological and personological assessment of patients with brittle diabetes in comparison with subjects without brittle diabetes, using specific parameters of general psychopathology and personality disorders following the multi-axial format of the current DSM-IV-TR (Diagnostic and Statistical manual of Mental Disorders - IV Edition - Text Revised) diagnostic criteria for mental disorders. Patients comprised 42 subjects with brittle diabetes and a case-control group of 42 subjects with stable diabetes, matched for age, gender, years of education, and diabetes duration. General psychopathology and the DSM-IV-TR personality disorders were assessed using the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R) and the Structured Clinical Interview for axis II personality Disorders (SCID-II). The comparison for SCL-90-R parameters revealed no differences in all primary symptom dimensions and in the three global distress indices between the two groups. However, patients with brittle diabetes showed higher percentages in borderline, histrionic, and narcissistic personality disorder. In this study, patients with brittle diabetes show no differences in terms of global severity of psychopathological distress and specific symptoms of axis I DSM-IV-TR psychiatric diagnoses in comparison with subjects without brittle diabetes. Differently, individuals with brittle diabetes are more frequently affected by specific DSM-IV-TR cluster B personality disorders.

  20. Diabetic Nephropathy without Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia López-Revuelta

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic nephropathy without diabetes (DNND, previously known as idiopathic nodular glomerulosclerosis, is an uncommon entity and thus rarely suspected; diagnosis is histological once diabetes is discarded. In this study we describe two new cases of DNND and review the literature. We analyzed all the individualized data of previous publications except one series of attached data. DNND appears to be favored by recognized cardiovascular risk factors. However, in contrast with diabetes, apparently no factor alone has been demonstrated to be sufficient to develop DNND. Other factors not considered as genetic and environmental factors could play a role or interact. The most plausible hypothesis for the occurrence of DNND would be a special form of atherosclerotic or metabolic glomerulopathy than can occur with or without diabetes. The clinical spectrum of cardiovascular risk factors and histological findings support this theory, with hypertension as one of the characteristic clinical features.

  1. Diabetic bladder dysfunction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guiming Liu; Firouz Daneshgari

    2014-01-01

    Objective To review studies on diabetic bladder dysfunction (DBD),a common and bothersome complication of diabetes mellitus.Data sources We performed a search of the English literature through PubMed.The key words used were "diabetes" and "bladder dysfunction" or "cystopathy".Our own data and perspective are included in the discussion.Study selection Studies containing data relevant to DBD were selected.Because of the limited length of this article,we also referenced reviews that contain comprehensive amalgamations of relevant literature.Results The classic symptoms of DBD are decreased bladder sensation,increased bladder capacity,and impaired bladder emptying with resultant elevated post-void residual urine.However,recent clinical and experimental evidence indicate a strong presence of storage problems such as urge incontinence in diabetes.Recent studies of DBD in animal models of type 1 diabetes have revealed temporal effects of diabetes,causing an early phase of compensatory bladder function and a later phase of decompensated bladder function.The pathophysiology of DBD is multifactorial,including disturbances of the detrusor,urothelium,autonomic nerves,and urethra.Polyuria and hyperglycemia play important but distinctive roles in induction of bladder dysfunction in type 1 diabetes.Polyuria causes significant bladder hypertrophy in the early stage of diabetes,whereas oxidative stress in the bladder caused by chronic hyperglycemia may play an important role in the late stage failure of bladder function.Conclusions DBD includes time-dependent and mixed manifestations.The pathological alterations include muscle,nerve,and urothelium.Polyuria and hyperglycemia independently contribute to the pathogenesis of DBD.Treatments for DBD are limited.Future clinical studies on DBD in type 1 and type 2 diabetes should be investigated separately.Animal studies of DBD in type 2 diabetes are needed,from the natural history to mechanisms.Further understanding of the molecular

  2. Pancreatoprotective effects of Geniotrigona thoracica stingless bee honey in streptozotocin-nicotinamide-induced male diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Muhammad Shakir Abdul; Giribabu, Nelli; Rao, Pasupuleti Visweswara; Salleh, Naguib

    2017-02-17

    Stingless bee honey (SLBH) has been claimed to possess multiple health benefits. Its anti-diabetic properties are however unknown. In this study, ability of SLBH from Geniotrigona thoracica stingless bee species in ameliorating pancreatic damage and in maintaining metabolic profiles were investigated in diabetic condition.

  3. Gastric bypass surgery reveals independency of obesity and diabetes melitus type 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenger, Mogens; Hansen, Dorte Lindqvist; Worm, Dorte

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery is widely applied to ameliorate morbid obesity, including diabetes in people with type 2 diabetes. The latter vanish a few days after surgery for many, but not in all patients before any weight reduction has occurred. The explanation for this change in...

  4. Lycopene powers the inhibition of glycation-induced diabetic nephropathy: a novel approach to halt the AGE-RAGE axis menace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabrez, Shams; Al-Shali, Khalid Zaki; Ahmad, Saheem

    2015-01-01

    There are accumulating evidences suggesting that interaction between advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and their receptors (RAGEs) induces oxidative stress and subsequently encourages inflammatory reactions, thereby resulting in progressive alteration in renal architecture and function. Interventions that reduce the tissue burden of AGEs have yielded significant positive results in inhibiting the progression of diabetic complications such as diabetic nephropathy. Lycopene, a carotenoid, plays an important role in protection against oxidative stress and hence might prove an efficient antiglycating agent. Current study investigates the effect of lycopene in downregulating the menace caused by ribose-induced glycation both in vitro and in vivo. We observed that treatment with lycopene decelerated the ribose induced AGE formation in HK-2 cells and in rat kidneys thereby downregulating the expression RAGE. HK-2 cells with decreased levels of RAGE showed a decline in nuclear factor κB (NFκB) and matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP 2) expressions. Administration of ribose not only induced hyperglycemia in Wistar rats but also developed diabetic nephropathy (DN). However, lycopene was found effective in relieving the biochemical symptoms of DN. Thus lycopene provides protection against development of diabetic nephropathy and ameliorates renal function by halting AGE-RAGE axis.

  5. The Protective Effect of Beraprost Sodium on Diabetic Nephropathy by Inhibiting Inflammation and p38 MAPK Signaling Pathway in High-Fat Diet/Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Li Peng; Jie Li; Yixing Xu; Yangtian Wang; Hong Du; Jiaqing Shao; Zhimin Liu

    2016-01-01

    Background. p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) plays a crucial role in regulating signaling pathways implicated in inflammatory processes leading to diabetic nephropathy (DN). This study aimed to examine p38 MAPK activation in DN and determine whether beraprost sodium (BPS) ameliorates DN by inhibiting inflammation and p38 MAPK signaling pathway in diabetic rats. Methods. Forty male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into the normal control group, type 2 diabetic group, a...

  6. Glaucoma: Symptoms, Diagnosis & Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Glaucoma Symptoms, Treatment and Research Past Issues / Spring 2015 Table ... without any pain. Photo courtesy of NEI Glaucoma Symptoms At first, open-angle glaucoma has no symptoms. ...

  7. Symptoms and Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Differential Disorders Frequently Asked Questions Glossary Downloadable Publications Symptoms and Diagnosis If you are new to dystonia, it can ... be accounted for: ► The age at which the symptoms started. The age at which symptoms begin is ...

  8. Correlates of Physician Visits Among Children and Adolescents in West Texas: Effects Of Hyperglycemia Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif, Ahmed A.; Venati, Girikumar; Borders, Tyrone F.; Rohrer, James E.

    2004-01-01

    Health care services use by children varies tremendously. Because of the increasing prevalence of diabetes in children and adolescents, one of the major concerns is access to physician care among children with diabetes and diabetes symptoms. This population-based cross-sectional study examines correlates of physician visit among children and…

  9. Calcium ameliorates diarrhea in immune compromised children

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Sam X.; Bai, Harrison X.; Gonzalez-Peralta, Regino; Mistry, Pramod K.; Gorelick, Fred S.

    2013-01-01

    Treatment of infectious diarrheas remains a challenge, particularly in immunocompromised patients in whom infections usually persist and resultant diarrhea is often severe and protracted. Children with infectious diarrhea who become dehydrated are normally treated with oral or intravenous rehydration therapy. Although rehydration therapy can replace the loss of fluid, it does not ameliorate diarrhea. Thus, over the past decades, there has been continuous effort to search for ways to safely st...

  10. Treatment of diabetes mellitus-associated neuropathy with vitamin E and Eve primrose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthonia Okeoghene Ogbera

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this report was to assess the efficacy and safety of a combination of vitamin E, an antioxidant, and Eve Primrose in the management of painful diabetes mellitus (DM neuropathy. Materials and Methods: This was an interventional study that evaluated the efficacy and safety of a combination of vitamin E and Eve Primrose in the management of DM neuropathy. The study was conducted at the Diabetic Centre of the Lagos State University Teaching Hospital, Ikeja. Eighty individuals with type 2 DM who had painful neuropathy were recruited for this study, which took place for a duration of 1 year. The study subjects underwent clinical and biochemical assessment at baseline and were given vitamin E in a dose of 400 mg in combination with Eve Primrose in doses ranging 500-1000 mg/day. They were afterward assessed for relief of symptoms and possible untoward effects after 2 weeks and, thereafter, monthly for 3 months. The main outcome measure was amelioration of symptoms of neuropathy . Results: The mean age and age range of the study subjects were 58.2 years and 37-70 years, respectively. A total of 70 patients (88% of the study population reported relief from neuropathic pains. Clinical parameters were comparable between the responders and non-responders. One characteristic feature of the non-responders was that they all had vibration perception threshold of ≥25 mV, which was indicative of severe neuropathy. Conclusion: The combination of vitamin E and Eve Primrose is beneficial in the management of mild to moderate diabetic neuropathy.

  11. Diabetic neuropathy part 1: overview and symmetric phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasnoor, Mamatha; Dimachkie, Mazen M; Kluding, Patricia; Barohn, Richard J

    2013-05-01

    Diabetes is the most common cause of neuropathy in United States and neuropathies are the most common complication of diabetes mellitus, affecting up to 50% of patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Symptoms usually include numbness, tingling, pain, and weakness. Dizziness with postural changes can be seen with autonomic neuropathy. Metabolic, vascular, and immune theories have been proposed for the pathogenesis of diabetic neuropathy. Axonal damage and segmental demyelination can be seen with diabetic neuropathies. Management of diabetic neuropathy should begin at the initial diagnosis of diabetes and mainly requires tight and stable glycemic control.

  12. Can sharing experiences in groups reduce the burden of living with diabetes, regardless of glycaemic control?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due-Christensen, Mette; Zoffmann, Vibeke; Hommel, Eva

    2012-01-01

    included patients with Type 1 diabetes aged ≥ 21 years, having been diagnosed ≥ 1 year earlier. Primary outcome was diabetes-related distress (using the Problem Areas in Diabetes scale). Secondary outcomes were psychological distress and depressive symptoms (Symptom Check List -90-R/Global Severity Index...

  13. Can sharing experiences in groups reduce the burden of living with diabetes, regardless of glycaemic control?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due-Christensen, Mette; Zoffmann, Vibeke; Hommel, Eva

    2012-01-01

    included patients with Type 1 diabetes aged = 21 years, having been diagnosed = 1 year earlier. Primary outcome was diabetes-related distress (using the Problem Areas in Diabetes scale). Secondary outcomes were psychological distress and depressive symptoms (Symptom Check List -90-R/Global Severity Index...

  14. Associations between depressive symptoms and insulin resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adriaanse, M C; Dekker, J M; Nijpels, G

    2006-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The association between depression and insulin resistance has been investigated in only a few studies, with contradictory results reported. The aim of this study was to determine whether the association between symptoms of depression and insulin resistance varies across glucose...... established type 2 diabetes mellitus. Main outcome measures were insulin resistance defined by the homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and symptoms of depression using the Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). RESULTS: In the total sample, we found a weak.......942). The association between depressive symptoms and insulin resistance was similar for men and women. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: We found only weak associations between depressive symptoms and insulin resistance, which did not differ among different glucose metabolism subgroups or between men and women....

  15. Factors Related to Perceived Diabetes Control Are Not Related to Actual Glucose Control for Minority Patients With Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAndrew, Lisa M.; Horowitz, Carol R.; Lancaster, Kristie J.; Leventhal, Howard

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine variables associated with perceived diabetes control compared with an objective measure of glucose control (A1C). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Beliefs about diabetes were assessed among 334 individuals with diabetes living in a primarily low-income, minority, urban neighborhood. Regression analyses tested associations between disease beliefs and both participants' perceptions of control and actual control (A1C). RESULTS Poorer perceived diabetes control was associated with perceiving a greater impact of diabetes, greater depressive symptoms, not following a diabetic diet, A1C, and a trend toward less exercise. Variables associated with better actual control (A1C) included higher BMI, older age, and not using insulin. CONCLUSIONS Patients' perceptions of their diabetes control are informed by subjective diabetes cues (e.g., perceived impact of diabetes and adherence to a diabetic diet), which are not related to A1C. Clinicians should take into account what cues patients are using to assess their diabetes control. PMID:20067972

  16. Bushen Yisui Capsule ameliorates axonal injury in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ling Fang; Lei Wang; Qi Zheng; Tao Yang; Hui Zhao; Qiuxia Zhang; Kangning Li; Li Zhou; Haiyang Gong; Yongping Fan

    2013-01-01

    A preliminary clinical study by our group demonstrated Bushen Yisui Capsule (formerly cal ed Er-huang Formula) in combination with conventional therapy is an effective prescription for the treat-ment of multiple sclerosis. However, its effect on axonal injury during early multiple sclerosis re-mains unclear. In this study, a MOG 35-55-immunized C57BL/6 mouse model of experimental au-toimmune encephalomyelitis was intragastrical y administered Bushen Yisui Capsule. The results showed that Bushen Yisui Capsule effectively improved clinical symptoms and neurological function of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. In addition, amyloid precursor protein expression was down-regulated and microtubule-associated protein 2 was up-regulated. Experimental findings indicate that the disease-preventive mechanism of Bushen Yisui Capsule in experimental autoim-mune encephalomyelitis was mediated by amelioration of axonal damage and promotion of rege-neration. But the effects of the high-dose Bushen Yisui Capsule group was not better than that of the medium-dose and low-dose Bushen Yisui Capsule group in preventing neurological dysfunction.

  17. Matrine ameliorates spontaneously developed colitis in interleukin-10-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Cong; Xu, Zheng; Gai, Renhua; Huang, Kehe

    2016-07-01

    Interleukin-10 (IL-10)-deficient mice spontaneously develop T cell-mediated colitis. Previous reports have shown that Matrine may reduce the symptoms of acute colitis induced by trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS). However, whether Matrine impacts chronic colitis remains unknown. In this study, we investigated whether Matrine could limit the symptoms of spontaneously developed colitis and its potential molecular mechanisms. IL-10 deficient mice were given Matrine or a PBS control by oral gavage daily for 4weeks and were euthanized at week 2 or week 4. We measured body weight, colon length and weight, and histological scores. We also evaluated the spontaneous secretion of IL-12/23p40, IFN-γ and IL-17 in colon explant cultures as well as IFN-γ and IL-17 secretion in unseparated mesenteric lymph node (MLN) cells, and assessed IFN-γ, IL-17, IL-1β and IL-6 mRNA expression in colon tissue. In addition, we analyzed the proportions of CD4-positive and CD8-positive cells in unseparated MLN cells. Our results show that Matrine-treated mice exhibited better body weight recovery than controls and that histological scores and spontaneously secreted IL-12/23p40, IFN-γ and IL-17 in colon tissue were significantly decreased in treated mice compared with controls. The proportion of CD4-positive cells of MLNs in treated mice was significantly smaller than that in controls at week 4. Both cytokine production and mRNA expression of IFN-γ and IL-17 were significantly reduced in treated mice compared with controls. Taken together, our results indicate that Matrine may ameliorate spontaneously developed chronic colitis and could be considered as a therapeutic alternative for chronic colitis.

  18. New Approaches to Planning Diabetic Diets Workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimmel, Georgia

    Instructional materials are provided for a workshop to enable participants to educate patients and food service staff regarding diabetic diets, incorporating current therapeutic recommendations and allowing variation and flexibility. Representative topics are facts about diabetes mellitus, high risk groups, symptoms, treatment and goals of diet…

  19. Guidelines for the Child with Diabetes in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maryland State Dept. of Health and Mental Hygiene, Baltimore.

    These guidelines are intended to aid Maryland teachers in managing the child with diabetes in the classroom. After a brief description of juvenile onset diabetes, information is provided on signs and symptoms of diabetes, general management, recognition and treatment of hypoglycemia, treatment, other recommendations, recognition and treatment of…

  20. Breviscapine attenuatted contrast medium-induced nephropathy via PKC/Akt/MAPK signalling in diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wenbin; Li, Zhengwei; Zhao, Wei; Chen, Hao; Wu, Youyang; Wang, Yi; Shen, Zhida; He, Jialin; Chen, Shengyu; Zhang, Jiefang; Fu, Guosheng

    2016-01-01

    Contrast medium-induced nephropathy (CIN) remains a major cause of iatrogenic, drug-induced renal injury. Recent studies reveal that Breviscapine can ameliorate diabetic nephropathy in mice. Yet it remains unknown if Breviscapine could reduce CIN in diabetic mice. In this study, male C57/BL6J mice were randomly divided into 7 groups: control, diabetes mellitus, CIN, diabetes mellitus+CIN, diabetes mellitus+Breviscapine, CIN+Breviscapine and diabetes mellitus+CIN+Breviscapine. Model of CIN was induced by tail intravenous administration of iopromide and model of diabetes mellitus was induced by Streptozotocin intraperitoneally. Breviscapine was administered intragastrically for 4 weeks. Renal function parameters, kidney histology, markers of renal fibrosis, phosphorylation of protein kinase C/Akt/mitogen activated protein kinases were measured by western blot. We found out that diabetes mellitus aggravated CIN damage. Renal histological analysis showed Breviscapine reduced of renal fibrosis and tubular damage. Breviscapine was also shown markedly to ameliorate CIN fibrotic markers expression, reduced proteinuria and serum creatinine. Furthermore, Breviscapine decreased phosphorylation of PKCβII, Akt, JNK1/2 and p38. Therefore, Breviscapine treatment could ameliorate the development of CIN in diabetic mice, which was partly attributed to its suppression of renal fibrosis via phosphorylation of PKCβII/Akt/JNK1/2/p38 signalling.

  1. Mucosal Administration of Collagen V Ameliorates the Atherosclerotic Plaque Burden by Inducing Interleukin 35-dependent Tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Arick C; Huang, Guorui; Jankowska-Gan, Ewa; Massoudi, Dawiyat; Kernien, John F; Vignali, Dario A; Sullivan, Jeremy A; Wilkes, David S; Burlingham, William J; Greenspan, Daniel S

    2016-02-12

    We have shown previously that collagen V (col(V)) autoimmunity is a consistent feature of atherosclerosis in human coronary artery disease and in the Apoe(-/-) mouse model. We have also shown sensitization of Apoe(-/-) mice with col(V) to markedly increase the atherosclerotic burden, providing evidence of a causative role for col(V) autoimmunity in atherosclerotic pathogenesis. Here we sought to determine whether induction of immune tolerance to col(V) might ameliorate atherosclerosis, providing further evidence for a causal role for col(V) autoimmunity in atherogenesis and providing insights into the potential for immunomodulatory therapeutic interventions. Mucosal inoculation successfully induced immune tolerance to col(V) with an accompanying reduction in plaque burden in Ldlr(-/-) mice on a high-cholesterol diet. The results therefore demonstrate that inoculation with col(V) can successfully ameliorate the atherosclerotic burden, suggesting novel approaches for therapeutic interventions. Surprisingly, tolerance and reduced atherosclerotic burden were both dependent on the recently described IL-35 and not on IL-10, the immunosuppressive cytokine usually studied in the context of induced tolerance and amelioration of atherosclerotic symptoms. In addition to the above, using recombinant protein fragments, we were able to localize two epitopes of the α1(V) chain involved in col(V) autoimmunity in atherosclerotic Ldlr(-/-) mice, suggesting future courses of experimentation for the characterization of such epitopes.

  2. The amelioration effect of tranexamic acid in wrinkles induced by skin dryness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiramoto, Keiichi; Sugiyama, Daijiro; Takahashi, Yumi; Mafune, Eiichi

    2016-05-01

    Tranexamic acid (trans-4-aminomethylcyclohexanecarboxylic acid) is a medical amino acid widely used as an anti-inflammatory and a whitening agent. This study examined the effect of tranexamic acid administration in wrinkle formation following skin dryness. We administered tranexamic acid (750mg/kg/day) orally for 20 consecutive days to Naruto Research Institute Otsuka Atrichia (NOA) mice, which naturally develop skin dryness. In these NOA mice, deterioration of transepidermal water loss (TEWL), generation of wrinkles, decrease of collagen type I, and increases in mast cell proliferation and tryptase and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-1) release were observed. However, these symptoms were improved by tranexamic acid treatment. Moreover, the increase in the β-endorphin level in the blood and the expression of μ-opioid receptor on the surface of fibroblasts increased by tranexamic acid treatment. In addition, when the fibroblasts induced by tranexamic acid treatment were removed, the amelioration effect by tranexamic acid treatment was halved. On the other hand, tranexamic acid treated NOA mice and mast cell removal in tranexamic acid treated NOA mice did not result in changes in the wrinkle amelioration effect. Additionally, the amelioration effect of mast cell deficient NOA mice was half that of tranexamic acid treated NOA mice. These results indicate that tranexamic acid decreased the proliferation of mast cells and increases the proliferation of fibroblasts, subsequently improving wrinkles caused by skin dryness.

  3. Evaluation and Prevention of Diabetic Neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pajouhi M

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetic neuropathy is an incapacitating disease that afflicts almost 50 percent of patients with diabetes. A late finding in type 1 diabetes, diabetic neuropathy can be an early finding in non insulin-dependent diabetes. Diabetic neuropathies are divided primarily into two groups, sensorimotor and autonomic. Patients may acquire only one type of diabetic neuropathy or may present with combinations of neuropathies, such as autonomic neuropathy or distal symmetric polyneuropathy, the latter of which the most common form. Motor deficits, orthostatic hypotension, silent cardiac ischemia, hyperhidrosis, vasomotor instability, gastroparesis, bladder dysfunction, and sexual dysfunction can also result from diabetic neuropathy. Strict control of blood sugar, combined with proper daily foot care, is essential to avoid the complications of this disorder. With the potential to afflict any part of the nervous system, diabetic neuropathy should be suspected in all patients with type 2 diabetes as well as patients who have had type 1 diabetes for over five years. Although some patients with diabetic neuropathy notice few symptoms, upon physical examination mild to moderately severe sensory loss may be noted by the physician. Idiopathic neuropathy has been known to precede the onset of type 2 diabetes.

  4. Overexpression of Mafb in podocytes protects against diabetic nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morito, Naoki; Yoh, Keigyou; Ojima, Masami; Okamura, Midori; Nakamura, Megumi; Hamada, Michito; Shimohata, Homare; Moriguchi, Takashi; Yamagata, Kunihiro; Takahashi, Satoru

    2014-11-01

    We previously showed that the transcription factor Mafb is essential for podocyte differentiation and foot process formation. Podocytes are susceptible to injury in diabetes, and this injury leads to progression of diabetic nephropathy. In this study, we generated transgenic mice that overexpress Mafb in podocytes using the nephrin promoter/enhancer. To examine a potential pathogenetic role for Mafb in diabetic nephropathy, Mafb transgenic mice were treated with either streptozotocin or saline solution. Diabetic nephropathy was assessed by renal histology and biochemical analyses of urine and serum. Podocyte-specific overexpression of Mafb had no effect on body weight or blood glucose levels in either diabetic or control mice. Notably, albuminuria and changes in BUN levels and renal histology observed in diabetic wild-type animals were ameliorated in diabetic Mafb transgenic mice. Moreover, hyperglycemia-induced downregulation of Nephrin was mitigated in diabetic Mafb transgenic mice, and reporter assay results suggested that Mafb regulates Nephrin directly. Mafb transgenic glomeruli also overexpressed glutathione peroxidase, an antioxidative stress enzyme, and levels of the oxidative stress marker 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine decreased in the urine of diabetic Mafb transgenic mice. Finally, Notch2 expression increased in diabetic glomeruli, and this effect was enhanced in diabetic Mafb transgenic glomeruli. These data indicate Mafb has a protective role in diabetic nephropathy through regulation of slit diaphragm proteins, antioxidative enzymes, and Notch pathways in podocytes and suggest that Mafb could be a therapeutic target.

  5. [Diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahdi, M; Gerdes, V E A; Hoekstra, J B L; Meesters, E W

    2012-02-01

    Currently there are over 740,000 patients with diabetes mellitus in the Netherlands, and this number will increase further in the coming years. Approximately 90% of patients has type 2 diabetes, a metabolic disorder that is often associated with obesity, hypertension and increased cholesterol levels. Treatment of diabetes mellitus is essential to reduce the risk of severe complications with irreversible organ damage in the long-term. Gingivitis and periodontitis are more common in patients with diabetes mellitus and are now also considered as complications of diabetes. Collaboration among healthcare professionals is important for effective diabetes care.

  6. Acetylcholinesterase inhibition ameliorates deficits in motivational drive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinowich Keri

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Apathy is frequently observed in numerous neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's, as well as neuropsychiatric disorders including schizophrenia. Apathy is defined as a lack of motivation characterized by diminished goal-oriented behavior and self-initiated activity. This study evaluated a chronic restraint stress (CRS protocol in modeling apathetic behavior, and determined whether administration of an anticholinesterase had utility in attenuating CRS-induced phenotypes. Methods We assessed behavior as well as regional neuronal activity patterns using FosB immunohistochemistry after exposure to CRS for 6 h/d for a minimum of 21 d. Based on our FosB findings and recent clinical trials, we administered an anticholinesterase to evaluate attenuation of CRS-induced phenotypes. Results CRS resulted in behaviors that reflect motivational loss and diminished emotional responsiveness. CRS-exposed mice showed differences in FosB accumulation, including changes in the cholinergic basal forebrain system. Facilitating cholinergic signaling ameliorated CRS-induced deficits in initiation and motivational drive and rescued immediate early gene activation in the medial septum and nucleus accumbens. Conclusions Some CRS protocols may be useful for studying deficits in motivation and apathetic behavior. Amelioration of CRS-induced behaviors with an anticholinesterase supports a role for the cholinergic system in remediation of deficits in motivational drive.

  7. Cacao polyphenols ameliorate autoimmune myocarditis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zempo, Hirofumi; Suzuki, Jun-ichi; Watanabe, Ryo; Wakayama, Kouji; Kumagai, Hidetoshi; Ikeda, Yuichi; Akazawa, Hiroshi; Komuro, Issei; Isobe, Mitsuaki

    2016-04-01

    Myocarditis is a clinically severe disease; however, no effective treatment has been established. The aim of this study was to determine whether cacao bean (Theobroma cacao) polyphenols ameliorate autoimmune myocarditis. We used an experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM) model in Balb/c mice. Mice with induced EAM were treated with a cacao polyphenol extract (CPE, n=12) or vehicle (n=12). On day 21, hearts were harvested and analyzed. Elevated heart weight to body weight and fibrotic area ratios as well as high cardiac cell infiltration were observed in the vehicle-treated EAM mice. However, these increases were significantly suppressed in the CPE-treated mice. Reverse transcriptase-PCR revealed that mRNA expressions of interleukin (Il)-1β, Il-6, E-selectin, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and collagen type 1 were lower in the CPE group compared with the vehicle group. The mRNA expressions of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-oxidase (Nox)2 and Nox4 were increased in the vehicle-treated EAM hearts, although CPE treatment did not significantly suppress the transcription levels. However, compared with vehicle treatment of EAM hearts, CPE treatment significantly suppressed hydrogen peroxide concentrations. Cardiac myeloperoxidase activity, the intensity of dihydroethidium staining and the phosphorylation of nuclear factor-κB p65 were also lower in the CPE group compared with the vehicle group. Our data suggest that CPE ameliorates EAM in mice. CPE is a promising dietary supplement to suppress cardiovascular inflammation and oxidative stress.

  8. L-Carnitine Supplementation Improves the Behavioral Symptoms in Autistic Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahmy, Sarah Farid; El-hamamsy, Manal H.; Zaki, Osama K.; Badary, Osama A.

    2013-01-01

    L-Carnitine was proposed as a potential treatment for patients diagnosed with autism to ameliorate the behavioral symptoms associated with the disease. Thirty children diagnosed with autism were randomly assigned to receive (100 mg/kg bodyweight/day) of liquid L-carnitine (n = 16) or placebo (n = 14) for 6 months. Measurements included changes in…

  9. Diet mimicking fasting promotes regeneration and reduces autoimmunity and multiple sclerosis symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    In Young Choi; Laura Piccio; Patra Childress; Bryan Bollman; Arko Ghosh; Sebastian Brandhorst; Jorge Suarez; Andreas Michalsen; Anne H. Cross; Todd E. Morgan; Min Wei; Friedemann Paul; Markus Bock; Valter D. Longo

    2016-01-01

    Dietary interventions have not been effective in the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS). Here, we show that periodic 3-day cycles of a fasting mimicking diet (FMD) are effective in ameliorating demyelination and symptoms in a murine experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model. The FMD reduced clinical severity in all mice and completely reversed symptoms in 20% of animals. These improvements were associated with increased corticosterone levels and regulatory T (Treg) cell numbers ...

  10. Antidiabetic effect of Sida cordata in alloxan induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Naseer Ali; Khan, Muhammad Rashid

    2014-01-01

    Medicinal plants are efficient ameliorator of oxidative stress associated with diabetes mellitus. In this study, ethyl acetate fraction (SCEE) of Sida cordata was investigated for scientific validation of its folk use in diabetes. Antidiabetic effect of SCEE was confirmed by antihyperglycemic activity in normal glucose loaded and diabetic glucose loaded animals as well as normal off feed animals. Confirmation of antidiabetic activity and toxicity ameliorative role of S. cordata was investigated in a chronic multiple dose treatment study of fifteen days. A single dose of alloxan (120 mg/kg) produced a decrease in insulin level, hyperglycemia, elevated total lipids, triglycerides, and cholesterol and decreased the high-density lipoproteins. Concurrent with these changes, there was an increase in the concentration of lipid peroxidation (TBARS), H2O2, and nitrite in pancreas, liver, and testis. This oxidative stress was related to a decrease in glutathione content (GSH) and antioxidant enzymes. Administration of SCEE for 15 days after diabetes induction ameliorated hyperglycemia, restored lipid profile, blunted the increase in TBARS, H2O2, and nitrite content, and stimulated the GSH production in the organs of alloxan-treated rats. We suggested that SCEE could be used as antidiabetic component in case of diabetes mellitus. This may be related to its antioxidative properties.

  11. Mesenchymal stem cells in diabetes treatment: progress and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu CHENG

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes is a chronic metabolic disorder caused by relative or absolute insulin deficient or reduced sensitivity of target cells to insulin. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs are adult stem cells with multiple differentiation potential, self-renewable and immunoregulatory properties. Accumulating evidences from clinic or animal experiments recent years showed that MSCs infusion could ameliorate hyperglycemia in diabetes. The research progress of MSCs in diabetes treatment is summarized and a corresponding perspective is herewith proposed in present paper. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2016.07.16

  12. [Orthopaedic neurological diseases in patient with diabetes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natsume, Tadahiro; Hirata, Hitoshi

    2014-02-01

    Individuals with diabetes are at a greater risk for microvascular complications, such as retinopathy, neuropathy, and nephropathy, than are individuals without diabetes. Diabetic neuropathies are complex heterogeneous disorders that include both focal neuropathies and diffuse polyneuropathy. Entrapment neuropathy is an example of a focal neuropathy, while distal symmetric polyneuropathy is the most common type of diffuse polyneuropathy. Entrapment neuropathies are highly prevalent in the diabetic population, but they develop insidiously and progressively, making it difficult to determine their true prevalence. Entrapment neuropathies are suspected to be a more common complication of diabetes than is polyneuropathy. For example, carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS)-one of the most common entrapment neuropathies encountered in patients with diabetes-results from median nerve compression, and has been shown to occur three times more frequently in a diabetic population than in a normal healthy population. Entrapment neuropathies should be actively screened for in patients showing the signs and symptoms of neuropathy, because such patients may require surgical treatment.

  13. Prostate Cancer Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patient Support Guides Why no symptoms? Because prostate cancer hardly ever starts in the most convenient part of the prostate for symptoms to occur, near the urethra (the tube that carries urine through the prostate ...

  14. Gout: Symptoms, Diagnosis & Treament

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Javascript on. Feature: Detecting and Treating Gout Gout: Symptoms, Diagnosis & Treament Past Issues / Winter 2012 Table of Contents ... Gout may be difficult to diagnose because the symptoms can be vague and could be from other ...

  15. Pertussis Signs & Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Kids with Infectious Diseases (PKIDs) Signs and Symptoms Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... not for as long as 3 weeks. Early Symptoms In those who have been vaccinated: In most ...

  16. PTSD: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Feature PTSD Symptoms, Diagnosis , Treatment Past Issues / Winter 2009 Table of Contents ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Symptoms As with mild traumatic brain injury (TBI), PTSD ...

  17. Preventing Diabetes Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... heart. Kidney Disease Diabetic kidney disease, also called diabetic nephropathy, is kidney disease caused by diabetes. You can ... diabetes. Sleep apnea also can make diabetes worse. Treatment for sleep apnea can help. Previous: Diabetes Diet, ...

  18. Diabetes Complications

    Science.gov (United States)

    If you have diabetes, your blood glucose, or blood sugar, levels are too high. Over time, this can cause problems with other body ... as your kidneys, nerves, feet, and eyes. Having diabetes can also put you at a higher risk ...

  19. Diabetes Insipidus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diabetes insipidus (DI) causes frequent urination. You become extremely thirsty, so you drink. Then you urinate. This ... is almost all water. DI is different from diabetes mellitus (DM), which involves insulin problems and high ...

  20. Diabetic Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Emergencies A-Z Share this! Home » Emergency 101 Diabetic Emergencies It is estimated that more than 20 ... they have it. The best way to prevent diabetic emergencies is to effectively manage the disease through ...

  1. Diabetic ketoacidosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000320.htm Diabetic ketoacidosis To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Diabetic ketoacidosis is a life-threatening problem that affects ...

  2. Diabetes Myths

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More ... us get closer to curing diabetes and better treatments for those living with diabetes. Other Ways to ...

  3. Diabetes Superfoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More ... us get closer to curing diabetes and better treatments for those living with diabetes. Other Ways to ...

  4. Diabetic Neuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... result in double vision, a drooping eyelid, or dizziness. Diabetes can also affect the autonomic nerves that ... result in double vision, a drooping eyelid, or dizziness. Diabetes can also affect the autonomic nerves that ...

  5. 脑电生物反馈治疗糖尿病抑郁焦虑状态及对糖代谢的影响%Effects of Electroencephalographic Biofeedback Therapy on Depression Anxiety Symptoms and Glucose Metabolism in Type 2 Diabetes Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李超; 张家春

    2014-01-01

    目的:研究脑电生物反馈治疗对2型糖尿病伴焦虑、抑郁状态患者的疗效及对糖代谢的影响。方法明确诊断的2型糖尿病焦虑、抑郁状态患者40例,随机分为研究组和对照组。应用焦虑、抑郁自评量表进行测评,观察治疗前后焦虑、抑郁及糖化血红蛋白(HbAlc)的变化。研究组应用脑电生物反馈治疗仪进行脑电生物反馈疗法(25min/次,2~3次/w,连续12w)并联合常规药物治疗。对照组单独使用常规药物治疗。结果研究组经脑电生物反馈联合常规药物治疗后抑郁、焦虑得到明显改善(P<0.05),HbAIc下降更为明显(P<0.05)。结论对2型糖尿病焦虑、抑郁状态患者给予脑电生物反馈联合常规药物治疗可明显改善抑郁、焦虑症状及糖代谢紊乱的控制。%Objective To study the ef ects of electroencephalographic biofeedback therapy on depression and anxiety symptoms and glucose metabolism in type 2 diabetes patients. Methods 40 patients diagnosed as type 2 diabetes in our hospital,were randomly divided into a control group (given routine drug treatment)and a study group(given routine drug treatment plus electroencephalographic biofeedback therapy).Self-Rating depression scale (SDS)and Self-Rating anxiety scale (SAS)were used to assess the mental symptoms.HbAlc was determined to show the ef ect of treatments on sugar metabolis. Treated with electroencephalographic biofeedback therapy(25minutes,2~3 times per week, 12 weeks continuously)and routine drug treatment in study group;in control group only with routine drug treatment. Results The depression and anxiety symptoms got evidently improved in the study group(P<0.05). The lowering of HbAlc was more marked in the study group than in the control group(P<0.05). Conclusions The treating on depression and anxiety symptoms in type 2 diabetes patients with electroencephalographic biofeedback therapy associated with routine drug can help both to improve these

  6. 康复新外敷治疗糖尿病足部溃疡%External application of Kang Fu Xin in diabetic foot ulcer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡梅

    2012-01-01

      Objective: To study the effect of external application of Kang Fu Xin in diabetic foot ulcer. Methods: Choosed 79 patients of diabetic foot ulcer to divide into two groups with controling the blood sugar, anti-infection, and improve circulation. The study group were treated with external application of Kang Fu Xin in 40 cases, and controled group were treateed with common drug changing. Conclusion: Kang Fu Xin could improve diabetic foot ulcer to coalescence to ameliorate clinical symptoms.%  目的研究康复新治疗糖尿病足部溃疡的疗效。方法在良好控制血糖、抗感染、改善微循环等综合治疗基础之上,将79例糖尿病足患者随机分2组,治疗组40例采用康复新外敷创面;对照组39例采用常规换药。结论康复新疗效由于常规换药,能有效促进糖尿病足部溃疡的愈合,明显改善患者的临床症状。

  7. Pancreatic Stem/Progenitor Cells for the Treatment of Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Patients with type 1 diabetes, and most patients with type 2 diabetes, have associated hyperglycemia due to the absence or reduction of insulin production by pancreatic β-cells. Surgical resection of the pancreas may also cause insulin-dependent diabetes depending on the size of the remaining pancreas. Insulin therapy has greatly improved the quality of life of diabetic patients, but this method is inaccurate and requires lifelong treatment that only mitigates the symptoms. The successes achi...

  8. Effects of streptozotocin diabetes on antigen-induced airway inflammation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Asthma and diabetes mellitus are common diseases and the concurrence is correspondingly expected to occur commonly. Several studies,1,2 however, indicate that the incidence of asthma in diabetic patients is less than that in the residual population. In the same individual, clinical asthma appears to be less severe when diabetes is superimposed.3 In addition, the onset of the diabetic state is accompanied by diminution of symptoms of previously existing bronchial asthma.

  9. Understanding medical symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malterud, Kirsti; Guassora, Ann Dorrit Kristiane; Graungaard, Anette Hauskov

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to present a conceptual review and analysis of symptom understanding. Subjective bodily sensations occur abundantly in the normal population and dialogues about symptoms take place in a broad range of contexts, not only in the doctor’s office. Our review of symptom unde...

  10. Symptoms of Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Informed Cancer Home What Are the Symptoms of Ovarian Cancer? Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Gynecologic cancer symptoms diaries Ovarian cancer may cause the following signs and symptoms— Vaginal ...

  11. Psychiatric symptoms as pathogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Hout, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    Disorders are typically seen as the causes of their symptoms. This makes sense in many fields of medicine, but not in psychiatry where symptoms constitute disorders: the notion that mental disorders cause symptoms is a tautology. Biological psychiatry tries to circumvent this logical fallacy by tryi

  12. Initial Symptoms of ALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research In Your Community Advocate Get Involved Donate Symptoms and Diagnosis En español Symptoms The initial symptoms of ALS can be quite ... the eyes and bladder are generally not affected. Diagnosis ALS is a difficult disease to diagnose. There ...

  13. Use of Coffee Pulp and Minerals for Natural Soil Ameliorant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pujiyanto Pujiyanto

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available In coffee plantation, solid waste of coffee pulp is usually collected as heap nearby processing facilities for several months prior being used as compost. The practice is leading to the formation of odor and liquid which contaminate the environment. Experiments to evaluate the effect of natural soil ameliorant derived from coffee pulp and minerals were conducted at The Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute in Jember, East Java. The experiments were intended to optimize the use of coffee pulp to support farming sustainability and minimize negative impacts of solid waste disposal originated from coffee cherry processing. Prior to applications, coffee pulp was hulled to organic paste. The paste was then mixed with 10% minerals (b/b. Composition of the minerals was 50% zeolite and 50% rock phosphate powder. The ameliorant was characterized for their physical and chemical properties. Agronomic tests were conducted on coffee and cocoa seedling. The experiments were arranged according to Randomized Completely Design with 2 factors, consisted of natural ameliorant and inorganic fertilizer respectively. Natural ameliorant derived from coffee pulp was applied at 6 levels: 0, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 g dry ameliorant/seedling of 3 kg soil, equivalent to 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5% (b/b of ameliorant respectively. Inorganic fertilizer was applied at 2 levels: 0 and 2 g fertilizer/application of N-P-K compound fertilizer of 15-15-15 respectively. The inorganic fertilizer was applied 4 times during nursery of coffee and cocoa. The result of the experiment indicated that coffee pulp may be used as natural soil ameliorant. Composition of ameliorant of 90% coffee pulp and 10% of minerals has good physical and chemical characteristics for soil amelioration. The composition has high water holding capacity; cations exchange capacity, organic carbon and phosphorus contents which are favorable to increase soil capacity to support plant growth. Application of

  14. Monogenic Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... form of monogenic diabetes? • What type of monogenic diabetes does my child (or do I) have? • What are the treatment options? • What are the advantages and disadvantages of each treatment option? • Should I see a diabetes educator? • Should I see an endocrinologist? Resources • Find- ...

  15. Diabetes insipidus - nephrogenic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus; Acquired nephrogenic diabetes insipidus; Congenital diabetes insipidus; NDI ... of very dilute urine. NDI is rare. Congenital diabetes insipidus is present at birth. It is a ...

  16. Melatonin improves spatial navigation memory in male diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farrin Babaei-Balderlou

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of melatonin as an antioxidant on spatial navigation memory in male diabetic rats. Thirty-two male white Wistar rats weighing 200 ± 20 g were divided into four groups, randomly: control, melatonin, diabetic and melatonin-treated diabetic. Experimental diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of 50 mg kg-1 streptozotocin. Melatonin was injected (10 mg kg-1 day-1, ip for 2 weeks after 21 days of diabetes induction. At the end of administration period, the spatial navigation memory of rats was evaluated by cross-arm maze. In this study lipid peroxidation levels, glutathione-peroxidase and catalase activities were measured in hippocampus. Diabetes caused to significant decrease in alternation percent in the cross-arm maze, as a spatial memory index, compared to the control group (p < 0.05, whereas administration of melatonin prevented the spatial memory deficit in diabetic rats. Also melatonin injection significantly increased the spatial memory in intact animals compared to the control group (p < 0.05. Assessment of hippocampus homogenates indicated an increase in lipid peroxidation levels and a decrease in GSH-Px and CAT activities in the diabetic group compared to the control animals, while melatonin administration ameliorated these indices in diabetic rats. In conclusion, diabetes induction leads to debilitation of spatial navigation memory in rats, and the melatonin treatment improves the memory presumably through the reduction of oxidative stress in hippocampus of diabetic rats.

  17. Ameliorated GA approach for base station planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Andong; Sun, Hongyue; Wu, Xiaomin

    2011-10-01

    In this paper, we aim at locating base station (BS) rationally to satisfy the most customs by using the least BSs. An ameliorated GA is proposed to search for the optimum solution. In the algorithm, we mesh the area to be planned according to least overlap length derived from coverage radius, bring into isometric grid encoding method to represent BS distribution as well as its number and develop select, crossover and mutation operators to serve our unique necessity. We also construct our comprehensive object function after synthesizing coverage ratio, overlap ratio, population and geographical conditions. Finally, after importing an electronic map of the area to be planned, a recommended strategy draft would be exported correspondingly. We eventually import HongKong, China to simulate and yield a satisfactory solution.

  18. γ-Hydroxybutyrate (Xyrem) ameliorates clinical symptoms and neuropathology in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Christian; Mathis, Chantal; Leva, Géraldine; Patte-Mensah, Christine; Cassel, Jean-Christophe; Maitre, Michel; Mensah-Nyagan, Ayikoe G

    2015-02-01

    The chronic decrease of brain amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides is an emerging therapeutic for Alzheimer's disease, but no such treatment has achieved clinical validation yet. In vivo, some brain proteases, including neprilysin, possess the ability of degrading Aβ and experimental data suggest their exploitation in strategies to reduce cerebral Aβ concentration. Previous studies have shown that pharmacologic doses of gamma-hydroxybutyrate (sodium oxybate or Xyrem) induce histone deacetylases (HDACs) inhibition and neprilysin gene expression. Here, we demonstrate that brain neprilysin overexpression induced in vivo by repeated gamma-hydroxybutyrate autoadministration reduces cerebral Aβ contents and prevents cognitive deficits in APPSWE mice. Oral gamma-hydroxybutyrate also counteracted phosphoramidon-induced brain neprilysin inhibition and Aβ accumulation. HDACs activities in SH-SY5Y cells were inhibited by gamma-hydroxybutyrate which did not affect amyloid peptide precursor intracellular domain. Together, our results suggest that gamma-hydroxybutyrate, acting via HDAC inhibition, upregulates neprilysin to reduce Aβ level and related memory deficits. Because gamma-hydroxybutyrate doses used herein are clinically relevant, our data suggest that chronic oral administration of gamma-hydroxybutyrate or its analogs may be considered for strategies against presymptomatic or established Alzheimer's disease.

  19. Kaempferol, a dietary flavonoid, ameliorates acute inflammatory and nociceptive symptoms in gastritis, pancreatitis, and abdominal pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Shi Hyoung; Park, Jae Gwang; Sung, Gi-Ho; Yang, Sungjae; Yang, Woo Seok; Kim, Eunji; Kim, Jun Ho; Ha, Van Thai; Kim, Han Gyung; Yi, Young-Su; Kim, Ji Hye; Baek, Kwang-Soo; Sung, Nak Yoon; Lee, Mi-nam; Kim, Jong-Hoon; Cho, Jae Youl

    2015-07-01

    Kaempferol (KF) is the most abundant polyphenol in tea, fruits, vegetables, and beans. However, little is known about its in vivo anti-inflammatory efficacy and mechanisms of action. To study these, several acute mouse inflammatory and nociceptive models, including gastritis, pancreatitis, and abdominal pain were employed. Kaempferol was shown to attenuate the expansion of inflammatory lesions seen in ethanol (EtOH)/HCl- and aspirin-induced gastritis, LPS/caerulein (CA) triggered pancreatitis, and acetic acid-induced writhing.

  20. Positive Prehabilitative Effect of Intense Treadmill Exercise for Ameliorating Cancer Cachexia Symptoms in a Mouse Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jee, Hyunseok; Chang, Ji-Eun; Yang, Eun Joo

    2016-01-01

    Due to the importance of exercise in prehabilitation, we conducted this study to understand the effects of different exercise intensities on cancer-related cachexia. Forty adult male CDF1 mice were randomly divided into a non-cancer control group (N=10, NC), cancer control group (N=10, CC), cancer with moderate exercise group (N=10, ME, 70% maxHR), and cancer with intense exercise group (N=10, SE, 90% maxHR) for obtaining data such as tissue weight and body weight changes, quality of life (QoL) indicators, and levels of cytokines and a muscle homeostasis regulatory protein. We verified that mouse colonic carcinoma cancer cells metastasized based on our observation that the weight of CC group lungs was almost 87% greater than NC group lungs. Survival rates of SE, NC, ME, and CC groups were 100%, 100%, 80%, and 50%, respectively (p<0.01). Other results such as tissue and body weight changes, QoL indicators, and protein analyses also supported our hypothesis that the SE group had improved survival compared to CC and ME groups (p<0.05 and p<0.01, respectively). Our results suggest that exercise, especially intense exercise, improves QoL and survival rate and prevents muscle atrophy. These data suggest that exercise is an optimal prehabilitation choice to alleviate the negative impacts of cancer cachexia. PMID:27994677

  1. Effects of Osteopathic Manipulative Treatment on Diabetic Gastroparesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Ravenswaay, Valerie J; Hain, Simeon J; Grasso, Sierra; Shubrook, Jay H

    2015-07-01

    As the number of diagnoses of diabetes mellitis continues to increase, so does the incidence of diabetic complications, such as gastroparesis. The current case report examines the effect of osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT) on the symptoms of diabetic gastroparesis in a patient with type 1 diabetes mellitus. After a prescribed regimen of OMT, the patient's Gastroparesis Cardinal Symptom Index score improved from 13 to 8, and his hospitalization stays decreased from once every 6 to 8 weeks to once in 6 months. After 6 sessions of OMT, the patient experienced a reduction in and subsequent relief of diabetic gastroparesis symptoms and improved quality of life. The role of OMT needs to be further investigated as a cost-effective adjunctive treatment for patients with diabetic gastroparesis.

  2. Diabetic retinopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wong, Tien Y; Cheung, Chui Ming Gemmy; Larsen, Michael;

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a common complication of diabetes mellitus and is a major cause of vision loss in middle-aged and elderly people. One-third of people with diabetes have DR. Severe stages of DR include proliferative DR, caused by the abnormal growth of new retinal blood vessels......, and diabetic macular oedema, in which there is exudation and oedema in the central part of the retina. DR is strongly associated with a prolonged duration of diabetes, hyperglycaemia and hypertension. It is traditionally regarded as a microvascular disease, but retinal neurodegeneration is also involved...... (VEGF). Optimal control of blood glucose and blood pressure in individuals with diabetes remains the cornerstone for preventing the development and arresting the progression of DR. Anti-VEGF therapy is currently indicated for diabetic macular oedema associated with vision loss, whereas laser...

  3. Perceptions of diabetes in rural areas of Eastern Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizeus Rutebemberwa

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: People diagnosed with diabetes mellitus are increasing in sub-Saharan Africa and prompt care seeking depends on perceptions of the illness. Objective: The objective was to explore perceptions of diabetes in rural areas.Method: We conducted a qualitative, explorative and descriptive study in rural eastern Uganda. Eight focus group discussions with community members were conducted. Community members were presented with a story about a person with diabetes symptoms and their perceptions of the diagnosis and treatment elicited. Four focus group discussions with people with diabetes and seven key informant interviews with health workers were conducted. Respondents were asked how the community interpreted symptoms of diabetes, its causes and whether it was curable. Manifest content analysis was used.Results: Some respondents thought people with diabetes symptoms had HIV or were bewitched. Causes of diabetes mentioned included consuming too much fatty food. Some respondents thought diabetes is transmitted through air, sharing utensils with or sitting close to people with diabetes. Some respondents thought that diabetes could heal fast whilst others thought it was incurable. Conclusion: Misdiagnosis may cause delay in seeking proper care. Preventive programmes could build on people’s thinking that too much fatty food causes diabetes to promote diets with less fat. The perception of diabetes as a contagious disease leads to stigmatisation and affects treatment seeking. Seeing diabetes as curable could create patient expectations that may not be fulfilled in the management of diabetes. Rural communities would benefit from campaigns creating awareness of prevention, symptoms, diagnosis and management of diabetes.

  4. Perceptions of diabetes in rural areas of Eastern Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizeus Rutebemberwa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: People diagnosed with diabetes mellitus are increasing in sub-Saharan Africa and prompt care seeking depends on perceptions of the illness. Objective: The objective was to explore perceptions of diabetes in rural areas. Method: We conducted a qualitative, explorative and descriptive study in rural eastern Uganda. Eight focus group discussions with community members were conducted. Community members were presented with a story about a person with diabetes symptoms and their perceptions of the diagnosis and treatment elicited. Four focus group discussions with people with diabetes and seven key informant interviews with health workers were conducted. Respondents were asked how the community interpreted symptoms of diabetes, its causes and whether it was curable. Manifest content analysis was used. Results: Some respondents thought people with diabetes symptoms had HIV or were bewitched. Causes of diabetes mentioned included consuming too much fatty food. Some respondents thought diabetes is transmitted through air, sharing utensils with or sitting close to people with diabetes. Some respondents thought that diabetes could heal fast whilst others thought it was incurable. Conclusion: Misdiagnosis may cause delay in seeking proper care. Preventive programmes could build on people’s thinking that too much fatty food causes diabetes to promote diets with less fat. The perception of diabetes as a contagious disease leads to stigmatisation and affects treatment seeking. Seeing diabetes as curable could create patient expectations that may not be fulfilled in the management of diabetes. Rural communities would benefit from campaigns creating awareness of prevention, symptoms, diagnosis and management of diabetes.

  5. Prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus in women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Joon Ho; Kwak, Soo Heon; Jang, Hak C.

    2017-01-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), defined as any degree of glucose intolerance with onset or first recognition during pregnancy, is characterized by underlying maternal defects in the β-cell response to insulin during pregnancy. Women with a previous history of GDM have a greater than 7-fold higher risk of developing postpartum diabetes compared with women without GDM. Various risk factors for postpartum diabetes have been identified, including maternal age, glucose levels in pregnancy, family history of diabetes, pre-pregnancy and postpartum body mass index, dietary patterns, physical activity, and breastfeeding. Genetic studies revealed that GDM shares common genetic variants with type 2 diabetes. A number of lifestyle interventional trials that aimed to ameliorate modifiable risk factors, including diet, exercise, and breastfeeding, succeeded in reducing the incidence of postpartum diabetes, weight retention, and other obesity-related morbidities. The present review summarizes the findings of previous studies on the incidence and risk factors of postpartum diabetes and discusses recent lifestyle interventional trials that attempted to prevent postpartum diabetes. PMID:28049284

  6. 经络操运动管理对社区老年2型糖尿病患者血糖和自我症状的影响%Effect of meridian exercises on blood glucose and clinical symptoms of community elderly type 2 diabetic patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈雅娟; 祝亚男; 沈勤; 叶会玲; 陈国伶

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of meridian exercises on blood glucose and clinical symptoms of community elderly type 2 diabetic patients.Methods Sixty elderly patients with type 2diabetes mellitus (T2DM) were selected from two communities from February to September in 2012.Thirty participants from one community received meridian excise-based group sport management (experiment group),the other 30 subjects from another community got meridian excise-based individual sport management (control group).Before and after the intervention,blood glucose and self-report symptoms were assessed.Results At baseline and after the intervention,there was statistically significant difference of postprandial blood glucose and self-symptom score between the two groups (t values were-5.954,-2.900,-4.214 and-3.798,respectively; all P<0.05).After the intervention,experiment group showed statistically significant difference in self-assessment of symptom score from the control group (t=-5.484,P<0.05).Conclusion Meridian exercises can efficiently improve diabetic patients' postprandial blood glucose and clinical symptons.%目的 探讨不同的经络操运动管理对社区老年2型糖尿病患者血糖和自我症状的影响.方法 于2012年2月至9月,将经过统一经络操运动培训的2个社区(各30例)的老年2型糖尿病患者,以社区为单位采取整组抽签的方式选取1个社区为试验组,采用经络操群组运动管理,另1个社区为对照组,采用经络操个体运动管理.以运动管理前后的空腹血糖、餐后血糖、糖化血红蛋白、自我症状评价得分为评价依据.结果 经过6个月的运动干预,两组的餐后血糖、自我症状评价得分与干预前比较差异有统计学意义(t=-5.954、-2.900;t=-4.214、-3.798,P<0.05),空腹血糖、糖化血红蛋白与干预前比较差异无统计学意义(t=0.288、-0.495;t=-1.149、-0.774,P>0.05);试验组运动管理后的自我症状评价得分与对照组比

  7. Salivary Output in Type 2 Diabetic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Radhika

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes Mellitus (DM is a common but complex metabolic disorder affecting various systems in the body. Oral cavity is no exception as this chronic condition exerts a huge impact on oral health. Salivary dysfunction has been reported to be a frequent oral complication in Type 2 diabetics which in turn leads to an array of oral complications because oral health is to a greater extent dependent on the quality and quantity of saliva. Aim: The aim of the present study was to evaluate and compare the salivary flow rate and prevalence of subjective symptoms of xerostomia in diabetics and non-diabetics. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 100 type 2 diabetic patients and 50 non-diabetic subjects. Random non-fasting plasma glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin levels were used to determine the diabetic status of the individuals. Unstimulated saliva was collected using “Spit technique”. Stimulated saliva was collected using 2% citric acid. Unstimulated and Stimulated Salivary Flow Rate (USFR and SSFR was calculated for every patient and expressed as ml/min. Xerostomia was evaluated using a multi-item inventory comprising 19 questions. Results: In our study, both whole unstimulated and stimulated salivary flow rates were decreased in diabetics compared to non-diabetics and this difference was statistically significant (p = 0.000. A greater percentage of diabetic patients perceived xerostomia symptoms compared to non-diabetics. Conclusion: Type 2 diabetics have higher prevalence of xerostomia and significantly reduced salivary flow rate compared to non-diabetics. Alterations in salivary flow create an imbalance in the homeostasis of oral environment leading to spectrum of oral ailments in these individuals

  8. Exercise Ameliorates High Fat Diet Induced Cardiac Dysfunction by Increasing Interleukin 10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varun eKesherwani

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence suggests that a sedentary lifestyle and a high fat diet (HFD leads to cardiomyopathy. Moderate exercise ameliorates cardiac dysfunction, however underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. Increased inflammation due to induction of pro-inflammatory cytokine such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α and attenuation of anti-inflammatory cytokine such as interleukin10 (IL-10 contributes to cardiac dysfunction in obese and diabetics. We hypothesized that exercise training ameliorates HFD- induced cardiac dysfunction by mitigating obesity and inflammation through upregulation of IL-10 and downregulation of TNF-α. To test this hypothesis, eight week old, female C57BL/6J mice were fed with HFD and exercised (swimming 1hr/day for 5 days/week for eight weeks. The four treatment groups: normal diet (ND, HFD, HFD + exercise (HFD + Ex and ND + Ex were analyzed for mean body weight, blood glucose level, TNF-α, IL-10, cardiac fibrosis by Masson Trichrome, and cardiac dysfunction by echocardiography. Mean body weights were increased in HFD but comparatively less in HFD + Ex. The level of TNF-α was elevated and IL-10 was downregulated in HFD but ameliorated in HFD + Ex. Cardiac fibrosis increased in HFD and was attenuated by exercise in the HFD + Ex group. The percentage ejection fraction and fractional shortening were decreased in HFD but comparatively increased in HFD + Ex. There was no difference between ND and ND + Ex for the above parameters except an increase in IL-10 level following exercise. Based on these results, we conclude that exercise mitigates HFD- induced cardiomyopathy by decreasing obesity, inducing IL-10, and reducing TNF-α in mice.

  9. Development of diabetes mellitus associated with quetiapine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanasawa, Hideki; Sako, Akahito; Mitsutsuka, Tomohiko; Nonogaki, Kaori; Kondo, Tadayuki; Mishima, Shuichi; Uju, Yoriyasu; Ito, Toshihiko; Enomoto, Tetsuro; Hayakawa, Tatsuro; Yanai, Hidekatsu

    2017-01-01

    Abstract We aimed to describe the characteristics and clinical course of patients who developed diabetes associated with the use of quetiapine. This study included patients who received quetiapine for over a month between April 2008 and November 2013, and were diagnosed as having new-onset diabetes after initiation of quetiapine. We excluded patients who developed diabetes more than 1 year after discontinuation of quetiapine. We identified new-onset diabetes by hemoglobin A1c or prescriptions of antidiabetic drugs. Among 1688 patients who received quetiapine, hemoglobin A1c had been measured in 595 (35.2%) patients at least once during the observation period, and 33 (2.0%) patients had received hypoglycemic drugs. Eighteen (1.1%) patients were considered to have developed new-onset diabetes associated with quetiapine after a median of 1.6 years following initiation of quetiapine. Median (interquartile range) age was 54.5 (29.8) years, 8 patients were male, and median (interquartile range) duration of mental illness was 15.3 (13.8) years. Median hemoglobin A1c and body mass index (BMI) were 7.1 (1.4) % and 28.4 (7.0) kg/m2, respectively. Seventeen patients had dyslipidemia when diabetes was discovered. All of these discontinued quetiapine within 3 months after the diagnosis of diabetes, and the diabetes in 4 patients had ameliorated without hypoglycemic drugs. Of 13 patients who had received either oral hypoglycemic drugs or insulin, 2 patients achieved well-controlled hemoglobin A1c without hypoglycemic drugs, and 10 patients had hemoglobin A1c 5.0% to 7.7% with the continued use of hypoglycemic drugs. We demonstrated that almost all patients who developed quetiapine-associated diabetes had dyslipidemia and increased BMI. There was no life-threatening hyperglycemia and diabetes was ameliorated just by discontinuation of quetiapine in several patients. The monitoring of metabolic parameters during antipsychotic treatment is important to diagnose and treat diabetes

  10. Hyperglycemia, oxidative stress, liver damage and dysfunction in alloxan-induced diabetic rat are prevented by Spirulina supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargouri, Manel; Magné, Christian; El Feki, Abdelfattah

    2016-11-01

    Medicinal plants have long been used against life-threatening diseases including diabetes, with more or less success. Some of these plants have been shown to possess antioxidant activities, which could help improving diabetes inconveniences. In that context, we investigated the effects of spirulina supplementation on alloxan-induced diabetic rats, hypothesizing that co-administration of spirulina with rat diet could ameliorate diabetes complications and provide as benefits as the common antidiabetic insulin. Following alloxan treatment, male Wistar rats were fed daily with 5% spirulina-enriched diet or treated with insulin (0.5 IU/rat) for 21 days. Both spirulina and insulin treatments of diabetic rats resulted in a significant reduction in fasting blood glucose and an increase of glycogen level. Spirulina supplementation also impeded loss of body weight and ameliorated hepatic toxicity indices, i.e. alkaline phosphatases and transaminases activities, bilirubin levels and lipid peroxidation. Besides, triglycerides, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels decreased in the serum. Moreover, diabetic rats fed with spirulina exhibited sig changes in antioxidant enzyme activities in the liver (ie, decrease in superoxide dismutase and increase in catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities). The beneficial effects of spirulina or insulin were confirmed by histological study of the liver of diabetic rats. Overall, this study indicates that treatment with spirulina decreased hyperglycemia and oxidative stress in diabetic rats, this amelioration being even more pronounced than that provided by insulin injection. Therefore, administration of this alga would be very helpful in the prevention of diabetic complications.

  11. Exogenous kallikrein protects against diabetic nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenjuan; Yang, Yeping; Liu, Yemei; Lu, Xiaolan; Guo, Shizhe; Wu, Meng; Wang, Meng; Yan, Linling; Wang, Qinghua; Zhao, Xiaolong; Tong, Xian; Hu, Ji; Li, Yiming; Hu, Renming; Stanton, Robert C; Zhang, Zhaoyun

    2016-11-01

    The kallikrein-kinin system has been shown to be involved in the development of diabetic nephropathy, but specific mechanisms are not fully understood. Here, we determined the renal-protective role of exogenous pancreatic kallikrein in diabetic mice and studied potential mechanisms in db/db type 2 diabetic and streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetic mice. After the onset of diabetes, mice were treated with either pancreatic kallikrein (db/db+kallikrein, streptozotocin+kallikrein) or saline (db/db+saline, streptozotocin+saline) for 16 weeks, while another group of streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice received the same treatment after onset of albuminuria (streptozotocin'+kallikrein, streptozotocin'+saline). Db/m littermates or wild type mice were used as non-diabetic controls. Pancreatic kallikrein had no effects on body weight, blood glucose and blood pressure, but significantly reduced albuminuria among all three groups. Pathological analysis showed that exogenous kallikrein decreased the thickness of the glomerular basement membrane, protected against the effacement of foot process, the loss of endothelial fenestrae, and prevented the loss of podocytes in diabetic mice. Renal fibrosis, inflammation and oxidative stress were reduced in kallikrein-treated mice compared to diabetic controls. The expression of kininogen1, tissue kallikrein, kinin B1 and B2 receptors were all increased in the kallikrein-treated compared to saline-treated mice. Thus, exogenous pancreatic kallikrein both prevented and ameliorated diabetic nephropathy, which may be mediated by activating the kallikrein-kinin system.

  12. Preventive Effect of Boiogito on Metabolic Disorders in the TSOD Mouse, a Model of Spontaneous Obese Type II Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsutomu Shimada

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available “Boiogito” is a Kampo preparation which has been used since ancient times in patients with obesity of the “asthenic constitution” type, so-called “watery obesity”, and its effect has been recognized clinically. In this study, we investigated the anti-obesity effect of Boiogito in the TSOD (Tsumura Suzuki Obese Diabetes mouse, a model of spontaneous obese type II diabetes mellitus. Boiogito showed a significant anti-obesity effect in TSOD mice by suppressing body weight gain in a dosage-dependent manner. In addition, Boiogito showed significant ameliorative effects on features of metabolic syndrome such as hyperinsulinemia, fasting hyperglycemia and abnormal lipid metabolism. Regarding lipid accumulation in TSOD mice, Boiogito showed a significant suppressive effect on accumulation of subcutaneous fat, but the effect on the visceral fat accumulation that constitutes the basis of metabolic syndrome was weak, and the suppressive effect on insulin resistance was also weak. Furthermore, Boiogito did not alleviate the abnormal glucose tolerance, the hypertension or the peripheral neuropathy characteristically developed in the TSOD mice. In contrast, in the TSNO (Tsumura Suzuki Non-Obesity mice used as controls, Boiogito suppressed body weight gain and accumulation of subcutaneous and visceral fat. The above results suggested that Boiogito is effective as an anti-obesity drug against obesity of the “asthenic constitution” type in which subcutaneous fat accumulates, but cannot be expected to exert a preventive effect against various symptoms of metabolic syndrome that are based on visceral fat accumulation.

  13. Musculoskeletal symptoms among electricians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunting, K L; Welch, L S; Cuccherini, B A; Seiger, L A

    1994-02-01

    This study ascertained the presence of musculoskeletal symptoms among electricians, in order to evaluate the prevalence of cumulative trauma disorders (CTD) in this population. We adapted the CTD surveillance questionnaire used by National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) to assess the prevalence of neck, shoulder, elbow, hand/wrist, back, and knee symptoms in the year prior to the survey. Questionnaires were completed by 308 apprentices and journeymen enrolled in training classes at the local union hall. The participants were relatively young individuals, and 86% of the participants were currently working as electricians. Participants reported a high prevalence of symptoms which occurred more than three times during the past year or which lasted more than 1 week. Back symptoms and hand/wrist symptoms were experienced most frequently, by about half the population, while elbow symptoms were reported by only 15% of participants. Symptom prevalence was lower, but still notable, when defined as symptoms which had occurred at least once a month or lasted more than a week in the past year. Eighty-two percent of participants reported at least one musculoskeletal symptom using the most inclusive definition, while 57% reported two or more symptoms. This survey highlights that: 1) low back discomfort is common in young construction workers, and resulted in medical care, missed work, or light duty for almost 35% of the participants; 2) neck discomfort is also very common and required doctor visits or work modification for almost one quarter of the participants; 3) these construction workers continued to work with symptoms that are classifiable as a CTD; and 4) history of injury is correlated with the subsequent prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms.

  14. Probiotic foods: Can their increasing use in India ameliorate the burden of chronic lifestyle disorders?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neerja Hajela

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics are defined as live microorganisms which, when ingested in adequate amounts, confer health benefits on the host. Chronic diseases such as diabetes, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, coronary artery disease, a variety of chronic inflammatory disorders with an immune basis, and some forms of cancer are increasing in incidence around the world and in India, and may be attributable in part to rapid changes in our lifestyle. There is considerable public interest in India in the consumption of probiotic foods. This brief review summarizes the background of the gut microbiota, the immunological reactions induced by these, the evidence linking the microbiota to health outcomes, and the evidence linking the use of probiotics for amelioration of chronic lifestyle diseases.

  15. Probiotic foods: can their increasing use in India ameliorate the burden of chronic lifestyle disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajela, Neerja; Nair, G Balakrish; Ramakrishna, B S; Ganguly, N K

    2014-01-01

    Probiotics are defined as live microorganisms which, when ingested in adequate amounts, confer health benefits on the host. Chronic diseases such as diabetes, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, coronary artery disease, a variety of chronic inflammatory disorders with an immune basis, and some forms of cancer are increasing in incidence around the world and in India, and may be attributable in part to rapid changes in our lifestyle. There is considerable public interest in India in the consumption of probiotic foods. This brief review summarizes the background of the gut microbiota, the immunological reactions induced by these, the evidence linking the microbiota to health outcomes, and the evidence linking the use of probiotics for amelioration of chronic lifestyle diseases.

  16. Clinical Observation on Trigonella Foenum-graecum L.Total Saponins in Combination with Sulphanylureas in the Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Fu-rong; SHEN Lin; QIN You; GAO Lan; LI Heng; DAI Yi

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of trigonella foenum-graecum L. total saponins (TFGs) in combination with sulfonylureas (SU) in the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) not well controlled by SU alone. Methods: Sixty-nine T2DM patients whose blood glucose levels were not well controlled by oral sulfonylureas hypoglycemic drug were randomly assigned to the treated group (46 cases) and the control group (23 cases), and were given TFGs or placebo three times per day, 6 pills each time for 12 weeks, respectively. Meanwhile, the patients continued taking their original hypoglycemic drugs. The following indexes, including effects on traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) symptoms, fast blood glucose (FBG), 2-h post-prandial blood glucose (2h PBG), glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), clinical symptomatic quantitative scores (CSQS), body mass index (BMI), as well as hepatic and renal functions, were observed and compared before and after treatment. Results: The efficacy on TCM symptoms was obviously better in the treated group than that in the control group (P0.05). Conclusion: The combined therapy of TFGs with sulfonylureas hypoglycemic drug could lower the blood glucose level and ameliorate clinical symptoms in the treatment of T2DM, and the therapy was relatively safe.

  17. Diabetes in children. Adjusting to normal life as a diabetic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Georgina; Paul, Siba Prosad; Hicks, Sarah

    2012-12-01

    Diabetes is a chronic childhood condition, presenting with raised blood sugar. The classic signs and symptoms may not be evident early on, especially in younger children, so it is important that health professionals maintain a high level of suspicion about diabetes when presented with non-specific symptoms eg. abdominal pain, lethargy, delayed wound healing, etc. When a child is first diagnosed, not only does the young person and their family have to cope with the emotional impact of diagnosis, but they also need to understand the huge amounts of information given to them. Health care practitioners provide essential support in helping them come to terms with, as well as manage, this condition. In this article we explain how diabetes is diagnosed and some of the common issues that arise in the ongoing care of the young person, with a particular emphasis on managing daily challenges. Community practitioners play a vital role in detecting symptoms early and making a referral, as well as supporting children with diabetes post-diagnosis in the community.

  18. Management of somatic symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Andreas; Dimsdale, Joel

    2014-01-01

    on the recognition and effective management of patients with excessive and disabling somatic symptoms. The clinical presentation of somatic symptoms is categorized into three groups of patients: those with multiple somatic symptoms, those with health anxiety, and those with conversion disorder. The chapter provides...... information to assist with making a diagnosis and differential diagnosis. Management includes ways to improve the physician–patient interaction that will benefit the patient, a step-care model based on illness severity and complexity, and psychological and pharmacologic treatment. The chapter is enhanced...... by figures and tables that summarize health anxiety, symptoms, differential diagnoses, and management strategies, as well as by case studies and examples....

  19. Diabetic ketoacidosis in type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus – clinical and biochemical differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Krdžalić

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this retrospective study was to establish differences in clinical picture, biochemical parametres and precipitating factors in patiens with diabetic ketoacidosis in type 1 and type 2 diabetes. A total number of 25 patients was hospitalised in the Intensive Case Unit of the Department for Internal Diseases of the Cantonal Hospital in Zenica in the period of 14 months. Most patients had type 1 diabetes whose ketoacidosis showed symptoms of vomiting, stomachache and it was most often caused by a discontinued application of insulin or an infection. In patients with type 2 diabetes an inadequate regulation of glycemia had been noticed before hospitalisation and diabetic ketoacidosis was manifested by polyuria, polyphagia, polydipsia and weight loss. Precipitating factor in most patients with type 2 diabetes was an infection. In addition, a significant number of patients were newly discovered diabetics whose precipitating factor in most cases could not be found and the symptoms of the disease correspond to insulin dependent patients. The observed biochemical parameters did not show statistically significant differences between the groups of patients suffering from different types of diabetes. This study has shown that diabetic ketoacidosis can occur in type 2 diabetes. DKA can be prevented by education of patients, improvement of health care as well as improved communication between patients and doctors of family medicine.

  20. Fertility and Symptom Relief following Robot-Assisted Laparoscopic Myomectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael C. Pitter

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To examine success of robot-assisted laparoscopic myomectomy (RALM measured by sustained symptom relief and fertility. Methods. This is a retrospective survey of 426 women who underwent RALM for fibroids, symptom relief, or infertility at three practice sites across the US. We examined rates of symptom recurrence and pregnancy and factors associated with these outcomes. Results. Overall, 70% of women reported being symptom-free, with 62.9% free of symptoms after three years. At >3 years, 66.7% of women who underwent surgery to treat infertility and 80% who were also symptom-free reported achieving pregnancy. Factors independently associated with symptom recurrence included greater time after surgery, preoperative dyspareunia, multiple fibroid surgeries, smoking after surgery, and preexisting diabetes. Factors positively correlated with achieving pregnancy included desiring pregnancy, prior pregnancy, greater time since surgery, and Caucasian race. Factors negatively correlated with pregnancy were advanced age and symptom recurrence. Conclusions. This paper, the first to examine symptom recurrence after RALM, demonstrates both short- and long-term effectiveness in providing symptom relief. Furthermore, RALM may have the potential to improve the chance of conception, even in a population at high risk of subfertility, with greater benefits among those who remain symptom-free. These findings require prospective validation.

  1. Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS): Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CDC.gov . Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) Share Compartir Symptoms On this Page Primary Symptoms Other Symptoms What's ... a doctor distinguish CFS from other illnesses. Primary Symptoms As the name chronic fatigue syndrome suggests , fatigue ...

  2. The effect of bamboo extract on hepatic biotransforming enzymes – Findings from an obese–diabetic mouse model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koide, Cheryl L.K.; Collier, Abby C.; Berry, Marla J.; Panee, Jun

    2012-01-01

    Aim of the study Bamboo leaves are used as a component in traditional Chinese medicine for the anti-inflammatory function. Our previous studies have demonstrated that an ethanol/water extract from Phyllostachys edulis ameliorated obesity-associated chronic systemic inflammation in mice, and therefore relieving the symptoms of type 2 diabetes. The aim of this project was to further investigate the effects of this bamboo extract on hepatic biotransformation enzymes in both lean and obese mice, as an initial step in the toxicological evaluation of using this traditional medicine in obese/diabetic population. Materials and methods Male C57BL/6J mice were randomized to 4 groups and fed standard (10% kcal from fat) diet with or without bamboo extract supplementation at a dose of 10 gram per kilogram diet (n = 10 and n = 9, respectively), or high fat (45% kcal from fat) diet with or without bamboo extract (n = 8 and N = 7, respectively). The dietary treatment lasted for 6 months. Subsequently, the activities and expression of the major Phase I and II hepatic biotransformation enzymes were assessed in subcellular fractions from murine livers. Results Three groups of mice, lean bamboo extract-supplemented, obese/diabetic, and bamboo extract-supplemented obese/diabetic, showed greater activities of cytochromes P450 1a2 and 3a11 compared to control but no changes in the expression level of these proteins. For Phase II enzymes, bamboo extract supplementation in lean mice caused decreased glutathione-S-transferase activity (−12%) and greater uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase activity (+46%), but had no effect on sulfotransferase activity. Conversely, the obese/diabetic condition itself increased glutathione-S-transferase and uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase activities, but decreased total sulfotransferase activity and sulfotransferase 2a1 expression. Conclusions Bamboo extract and obesity/diabetes show significant independent effects on hepatic bio

  3. [Diabetes mellitus: simple classification and corresponding treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simsek, S; Diamant, M; Eekhoffen, E M W; Heine, R J

    2006-05-06

    The classification of diabetes mellitus is not always straightforward but is of clinical importance in view of the differences in treatment, prognosis and inheritance. In young patients with acute signs ofhyperglycaemia and a low bodymass index (BMI), diabetes type 1 is the evident diagnosis, and insulin therapy should be initiated as quickly as possible. Deafness in patients with mild symptoms and a highly positive family history suggests the presence of a mitochondrial or maternally inherited type of diabetes: maternally inherited diabetes and deafness (MIDD). In the absence of deafness, maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY) should be suspected in the same group of patients. In case of a non-acute presentation of hyperglycaemia without an evident family history of diabetes, the BMI can be helpful in the next steps of the diagnostic process. In practice, the proposed flow chart can readily be applied for the classification and treatment of patients with hyperglycaemia.

  4. Increasing incidence of diabetes after gestational diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauenborg, Jeannet; Hansen, Torben; Jensen, Dorte Møller;

    2004-01-01

    To study the incidence of diabetes among women with previous diet-treated gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in the light of the general increasing incidence of overweight and diabetes and to identify risk factors for the development of diabetes....

  5. The efficacy of Aesculus hippocastanum seeds on diabetic nephropathy in a streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmas, Onur; Erbas, Oytun; Yigitturk, Gurkan

    2016-10-01

    Cytokines, such as transforming growth factor (TGF)-ß1, and increased oxidative stress are considered to be responsible for the development of diabetic nephropathy. We hypothesized that Aesculus hippocastanum (AH) seeds may have preventive effects on oxidative stress and TGF-β-related diabetic nephropathy in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic nephropathy in rats. Twenty-one male Sprague-Dawley albino rats were divided into three groups (n=7). Except for the control group, they all had diabetic nephropathy induced by an intraperitoneal injection of STZ. While the diabetes group did not receive any medication, the diabetes+AH group was given the medication for 4 weeks. After the experiment, analyses were performed to evaluate the glomerular area, severity of sclerosis, and fibronectin immunoexpression, as well as levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), TGF-β, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), blood glucose, creatinine, and proteinuria. It was found that glomerular area, severity of sclerosis, fibronectin immunoexpression, and levels of MDA, TGF-β, BUN, creatinine, and proteinuria were decreased in the diabetes+AH group. It is known that diabetic nephropathy is induced, to a large extent, by hyperglycemia. In the present study, AH extract ameliorated diabetic nephropathy without decrease in blood glucose levels. In the study, AH seeds showed beneficial effects on the functional properties of the kidney and microscopic improvements in diabetic nephropathy.

  6. [Diabetic neuropathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudzik, Wiesław; Kaczorowska, Beata; Przybyła, Monika; Chudzik, Bartosz; Gałka, Małgorzata

    2007-01-01

    Diabetic neuropathy is most common chronic complication of diabetes mellitus. It is responsible for substantial morbidity, increased mortality and impaired quality of life. Patogenesis of diabetic neuropathy is complex. Chronic hyperglycemia is a major factor induces nerve fibers injury. High level of glucose stimulate the polyol pathway causing osmotic stress and enhance reactive oxygen species generation, as well as it play an important role in diabetic angiopathy development. Distal symmetric polineuropathy is most common type of diabetic neuropathy. Many patient may develop combinations of neuropathies concerning somatic and autonomic system. Early diagnosis and administered suitable treatment are necessary to reduce severe complication of diabetic neuropathy as well as strict glycemic control and risk factor increased.

  7. Types of Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Dental Problems Diabetes & Sexual & Urologic Problems What is Diabetes? Diabetes is a disease that occurs when your ... is serious. What are the different types of diabetes? The most common types of diabetes are type ...

  8. Genetics of Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A A A Listen En Español Genetics of Diabetes You've probably wondered how you developed diabetes. ... to develop diabetes than others. What Leads to Diabetes? Type 1 and type 2 diabetes have different ...

  9. Diabetes eye exams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diabetic retinopathy - eye exams; Diabetes - eye exams; Glaucoma - diabetic eye exam; Macular edema - diabetic eye exam ... if the doctor who takes care of your diabetes checks your eyes, you need an eye exam ...

  10. Diabetes and Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disease of diabetes, or diabetic nephropathy. How does diabetes cause kidney disease? High blood glucose , also called ... I keep my kidneys healthy if I have diabetes? The best way to slow or prevent diabetes- ...

  11. Women and Diabetes

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... How to Report Problems with Glucose Meters Diabetes Treatments Some people with diabetes need to take diabetes ... with your health care provider about your diabetes treatment. Diabetes Medicines - easy-to-read booklet for women ...

  12. Diabetes mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    930047 Relationship between diabetic cardiacautonomic disturbances and Q-Tc interval pro-longation and its clinical significance.XIANGMingzhu(向明珠),et al.Dept Med,1st PeopleHosp,Shashi,Hubei Prov,Shashi,434000.Chin J Endocrinol & Metabol 1992;8(3):149-151.Autonomic cardiovascular function tests andelectrocardiograms were performed in 61 pa-tients with diabetes mellitus.The result showedthat Q-Tc interval in diabetic patients with ab-

  13. Diabetes mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    2005179 The association of LMNA1908C/T polymorphism with insulin resistance and dyslipidemia in diabetic patients. SU Ben-li (苏本利), et al. Dept Endocrinol, 2nd Affili Hosp, Dalian Med Univ, Dalian 116027. Chin J Diabetes, 2005;13(1) :27-30. Objective: To study the association of LMhlA 1908 C/T polymorphism with insulin resistance and dyslipidemia in type 2 diabetic patients. Methods:

  14. Increasing incidence of diabetes after gestational diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauenborg, Jeannet; Hansen, Torben; Jensen, Dorte Møller

    2004-01-01

    To study the incidence of diabetes among women with previous diet-treated gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in the light of the general increasing incidence of overweight and diabetes and to identify risk factors for the development of diabetes.......To study the incidence of diabetes among women with previous diet-treated gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in the light of the general increasing incidence of overweight and diabetes and to identify risk factors for the development of diabetes....

  15. Amelioration of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity by statins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh A Maheshwari

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: This finding suggests that simvastatin and rosuvastatin may have a protective effect against cisplatin-induced kidney damage via amelioration of lipid peroxidation as well as due to improvement of renal function, and lipid-lowering effects.

  16. Carissa carandas Linn. fruit extract ameliorates gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats via attenuation of oxidative stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jayesh B. Dhodi; Deepavali R. Thanekar; Snehal N. Mestry; Archana R. Juvekar

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To elucidate the mechanism of action of methanolic extract of Carissa carandas fruits (MCCF) in attenuation of diabetic nephropathy using gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity model.Methods:Extract was daily administered to Sprague Dawley rats at doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg for 8 days along with intramuscular injection of gentamicin (80 mg/kg). After completion of the study, serum was analyzed for blood urea nitrogen, albumin and creatinine; urine (24 h) was analyzed for albumin and creatinine. Kidney was evaluated for its biochemical and morphological changes. Results: Extract at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg significantly normalized the nephrotoxic biomarkers in serum and urine and increased the kidney antioxidant activities which were altered due to gentamicin toxicity. The histological findings reveal that MCCF was capable of protecting the kidney against gentamicin toxicity. Conclusions: Extract ameliorated oxidative stress generated by gentamicin administration, which is one of the mechanisms for its preventive action against diabetic nephropathy.

  17. Phytoestrogen calycosin-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside ameliorates advanced glycation end products-induced HUVEC damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Youhua; Feng, Liang; Wang, Shanshan; Zhu, Quan; Lin, Jing; Lou, Chihan; Xiang, Ping; He, Bao; Zheng, Zhaoguang; Tang, Dan; Zuo, Guoying

    2011-10-01

    Vasculopathy including endothelial cell (EC) apoptosis and inflammation contributes to the high incidence of stroke and myocardial infarction in diabetic patients. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of calycosin-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (CG), a phytoestrogen, on advanced glycation end products (AGEs)-induced HUVEC damage. We observed that CG can significantly ameliorate AGEs-induced HUVEC oxidative stress and apoptosis. The ratio of SOD/MDA was significantly increased to the normal level by CG pretreatment. CG preincubation dramatically increased anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 while decreased pro-apoptotic Bax and Bad expressions as detected by immunocytochemistry. Moreover, CG ameliorated macrophage migration and adhesion to HUVEC; the monocyte chemotactic protein-1 and interleukin-6 levels in the culture supernatant were dramatically reduced by CG as determined by ELISA; the expressions of inflammatory proteins including ICAM-1, TGF-β1, and RAGE in both protein and mRNA levels were significantly reduced to the normal level by CG pretreatment as determined by immunocytochemistry and real-time RT-PCR. The intracellular investigation suggests that CG can reverse AGEs-activated ERK1/2 and NF-κB phosphorylation, in which estrogen receptors were involved in. Our results strongly indicate that CG can modulate EC dysfunction by ameliorating AGEs-induced cell apoptosis and inflammation.

  18. Diabetic Ketoacidosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... adrenaline or cortisol. Unfortunately, these hormones counter the effect of insulin — sometimes triggering an episode of diabetic ketoacidosis. Pneumonia and urinary tract infections are common culprits. A ...

  19. Wnt7a treatment ameliorates muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Maltzahn, Julia; Renaud, Jean-Marc; Parise, Gianni; Rudnicki, Michael A

    2012-12-11

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a devastating genetic muscular disorder of childhood marked by progressive debilitating muscle weakness and wasting, and ultimately death in the second or third decade of life. Wnt7a signaling through its receptor Fzd7 accelerates and augments regeneration by stimulating satellite stem cell expansion through the planar cell polarity pathway, as well as myofiber hypertrophy through the AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) anabolic pathway. We investigated the therapeutic potential of the secreted factor Wnt7a for focal treatment of dystrophic DMD muscles using the mdx mouse model, and found that Wnt7a treatment efficiently induced satellite cell expansion and myofiber hypertrophy in treated mucles in mdx mice. Importantly, Wnt7a treatment resulted in a significant increase in muscle strength, as determined by generation of specific force. Furthermore, Wnt7a reduced the level of contractile damage, likely by inducing a shift in fiber type toward slow-twitch. Finally, we found that Wnt7a similarly induced myotube hypertrophy and a shift in fiber type toward slow-twitch in human primary myotubes. Taken together, our findings suggest that Wnt7a is a promising candidate for development as an ameliorative treatment for DMD.

  20. Amelioration of safety management in infrastructure projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. Gopinath S.Mohite

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Accidents are a major public health concern, resulting in an estimated 1.2 million deaths and 50 million injuries worldwide each year specifically, the relationships between drivers' characteristics and road accidents are not fully understood. Many factors are involved in the accident occurrence at construction site. Some important elements that create a significant portion of accidents include: safety management error, poor training programs, human element, act of god, outdated procedure and no clear monitoring policy. Although some of these items are inevitable, but the occurrence of the largest part can be prevented. Therefore, for ameliorating the safety in a project each of these items should be analyzed and a practical approach introduced. In general, near miss, incident and accident are three dependent levels that mainly lead to injury. Risk and hazard are allocated in first level which means near miss, therefore, no on-time identification of hazard and risk causes to create incident and preventing accident in incident stage is unavoidable.

  1. Resveratrol Pretreatment Ameliorates TNBS Colitis in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Gulserap; Yildiz, Yuksel; Ulutas, Pinar A; Yaylali, Asl; Ural, Muruvvet

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic intestinal inflammatory disease in humans constituting a major health concern today whose prevalence has been increasing over the world. Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and disturbed capacity of antioxidant defense in IBD subjects have been reported. Antioxidants may play a significant role in IBD treatment. This study aimed at evaluating ameliorative effects of intraperitoneal resveratrol pretreatment on trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis in rats. Thirty five Wistar-Albino female rats were divided equally into five groups. Inflammation was induced by the intrarectal administration of TNBS under anesthesia. Intraperitoneal administration of resveratrol (RSV) at a concentration of 10mg/kg/day for 5 days before the induction of colitis significantly reduced microscopy score and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and increased glutathione peroxidase (GSH Px) activity compared to TNBS and vehicle groups. Also an insignificant increase in catalase (CAT) activity was observed in the RSV treated group compared to TNBS and vehicle groups. In this paper, the most recent patent on the identification and treatment of IBD was indicated. In conclusion, antioxidant RSV proved to have a beneficial effect on TNBS colitis in rats. In light of these advantageous results, the RSV can be considered as adjuvant agent in IBD treatments.

  2. Salvianolic Acid B Ameliorates Hyperglycemia and Dyslipidemia in db/db Mice through the AMPK Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Qing Huang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Salvianolic acid B (Sal B, a major polyphenolic compound of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, has been shown to possess potential antidiabetic activities. However, the action mechanism of SalB in type 2 diabetes has not been investigated extensively. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of Sal B on diabetes-related metabolic changes in a spontaneous model of type 2 diabetes, as well as its potential molecular mechanism. Methods: Male C57BL/KsJ-db/db mice were orally treated with Sal B (50 and 100 mg/kg or metformin (positive drug, 300 mg/kg for 6 weeks. Results: Both doses of Sal B significantly decreased fasting blood glucose, serum insulin, triglyceride and free fatty acid levels, reduced hepatic gluconeogenic gene expression and improved insulin intolerance in db/db mice. High dose Sal B also significantly improved glucose intolerance, increased hepatic glycolytic gene expression and muscle glycogen content, and ameliorated histopathological alterations of pancreas, similar to metformin. Sal B treatment resulted in increased phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase (p-AMPK protein expression in skeletal muscle and liver, increased glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4 and glycogen synthase protein expressions in skeletal muscle, and increased peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα and phosphorylated acetyl CoA carboxylase (p-ACC protein expressions in liver. Conclusion: Our data suggest that Sal B displays beneficial effects in the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes at least in part via modulation of the AMPK pathway.

  3. The Antidiabetic Activity of Nigella sativa and Propolis on Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes and Diabetic Nephropathy in Male Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Seeni, Madeha N.; Bakhashwain, Amal S.

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to compare the ameliorative effect of Nigella sativa and propolis methanol extract on streptozotocin-induced diabetic male rats and treating diabetic nephropathy. Forty male Albino rats were divided into four groups; the first group was the negative control fed standard diet. The other 30 rats were injected with streptozotocin to induce diabetes by a single intravenous injection and then divided equally into three groups; the second group was the positive diabetic control; the third and the fourth groups were treated orally with 20% w/w Nigella sativa seeds methanol extract and propolis methanol extract (20% w/w), respectively. The rats of the second group showed increased glucose levels and lipid peroxide accompanied with reduction in superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione-S-transferase enzyme activities compared with the negative control. Carboxymethyl lysine, interleukin-6, and immunoglobulins were also increased as a result of diabetes. Kidney function parameters were also elevated, while potassium and sodium levels were decreased. Moreover, tissues of kidney and pancreas showed severe histopathological changes. Treating the diabetic rats with Nigella sativa and propolis methanol extract in the third and fourth groups, respectively, ameliorated all altered biochemical and pathological examinations approaching the negative control. Propolis was more effective than Nigella sativa. PMID:28298934

  4. Nocturia, Insomnia Symptoms and Mortality among Older Men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Endeshaw, Y. W.; Schwartz, A. V.; Stone, K. A.

    2016-01-01

    episodes per night, in comparison to those with 0-1 episodes (HR [CI] : 1.21 [1.00-1.47], p = 0.055), even after controlling for baseline characteristics which included demographic variables, body mass index, lower urinary tract symptoms, use of loop diuretics, insomnia symptoms, feeling excessively sleepy.......97-1.44], p = 0.100). Conclusions: Nocturia is associated with mortality independent of insomnia symptoms and sleep duration. The relationship is explained in part by prevalent cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus. The results underscore the impact of these medical conditions on the association...

  5. Diabetes and Pregnancy: Gestational Diabetes