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Sample records for ameliorates alcohol-induced intestinal

  1. Disruption of the Circadian Clock in Mice Increases Intestinal Permeability and Promotes Alcohol-Induced Hepatic Pathology and Inflammation.

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    Keith C Summa

    Full Text Available The circadian clock orchestrates temporal patterns of physiology and behavior relative to the environmental light:dark cycle by generating and organizing transcriptional and biochemical rhythms in cells and tissues throughout the body. Circadian clock genes have been shown to regulate the physiology and function of the gastrointestinal tract. Disruption of the intestinal epithelial barrier enables the translocation of proinflammatory bacterial products, such as endotoxin, across the intestinal wall and into systemic circulation; a process that has been linked to pathologic inflammatory states associated with metabolic, hepatic, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases - many of which are commonly reported in shift workers. Here we report, for the first time, that circadian disorganization, using independent genetic and environmental strategies, increases permeability of the intestinal epithelial barrier (i.e., gut leakiness in mice. Utilizing chronic alcohol consumption as a well-established model of induced intestinal hyperpermeability, we also found that both genetic and environmental circadian disruption promote alcohol-induced gut leakiness, endotoxemia and steatohepatitis, possibly through a mechanism involving the tight junction protein occludin. Circadian organization thus appears critical for the maintenance of intestinal barrier integrity, especially in the context of injurious agents, such as alcohol. Circadian disruption may therefore represent a previously unrecognized risk factor underlying the susceptibility to or development of alcoholic liver disease, as well as other conditions associated with intestinal hyperpermeability and an endotoxin-triggered inflammatory state.

  2. Intestinal flora imbalance promotes alcohol-induced liver fibrosis by the TGFβ/smad signaling pathway in mice.

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    Zhang, Dong; Hao, Xiuxian; Xu, Lili; Cui, Jing; Xue, Li; Tian, Zibin

    2017-10-01

    Intestinal flora performs a crucial role in human health and its imbalance may cause numerous pathological changes. The liver can also affect the intestinal function through bile secretion via the enterohepatic cycle. The pathophysiological association between the gut and the liver is described as the gut-liver axis. The present study investigated the role of intestinal flora in alcohol-induced liver fibrosis. A total of 36 C57 mice were randomly and equally divided into 3 different dietary regimes: Group I (alcohol injury; received alcohol); group II (alcohol injury with flora imbalance; received alcohol plus lincomycin hydrochloride) and group III (alcohol injury with corrected flora imbalance; received alcohol, lincomycin hydrochloride and extra probiotics). The present study then investigated several indicators of liver damage. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels in mice serum were studied. Masson staining and Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide double staining was also performed, and the expression of mothers against decapentaplegic homolog (smad) 3 and smad4 proteins in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) of the mice was examined using western blot analysis. The levels of serum ALP, AST and ALT were the highest in group II mice, and all 3 levels decreased in group III mice compared with those from group II. The degree of liver fibrosis was aggravated in group II mice compared with group I mice. The apoptosis of HSCs was significantly inhibited in group II mice, but was increased in group III mice. The HSCs in group II mice exhibited higher expression of smad3 and smad4, whilst group III mice (with corrected intestinal flora imbalance) exhibited downregulated expression of smad3 and smad4. The present data indicates that the intestinal flora perform a significant role in maintaining liver homeostasis. Furthermore, an imbalance of intestinal flora can exacerbate alcohol-induced

  3. Light/Dark Shifting Promotes Alcohol-Induced Colon Carcinogenesis: Possible Role of Intestinal Inflammatory Milieu and Microbiota

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    Faraz Bishehsari

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC is associated with the modern lifestyle. Chronic alcohol consumption—a frequent habit of majority of modern societies—increases the risk of CRC. Our group showed that chronic alcohol consumption increases polyposis in a mouse mode of CRC. Here we assess the effect of circadian disruption—another modern life style habit—in promoting alcohol-associated CRC. Method: TS4Cre × adenomatous polyposis coli (APClox468 mice underwent (a an alcohol-containing diet while maintained on a normal 12 h light:12 h dark cycle; or (b an alcohol-containing diet in conjunction with circadian disruption by once-weekly 12 h phase reversals of the light:dark (LD cycle. Mice were sacrificed after eight weeks of full alcohol and/or LD shift to collect intestine samples. Tumor number, size, and histologic grades were compared between animal groups. Mast cell protease 2 (MCP2 and 6 (MCP6 histology score were analyzed and compared. Stool collected at baseline and after four weeks of experimental manipulations was used for microbiota analysis. Results: The combination of alcohol and LD shifting accelerated intestinal polyposis, with a significant increase in polyp size, and caused advanced neoplasia. Consistent with a pathogenic role of stromal tryptase-positive mast cells in colon carcinogenesis, the ratio of mMCP6 (stromal/mMCP2 (intraepithelial mast cells increased upon LD shifting. Baseline microbiota was similar between groups, and experimental manipulations resulted in a significant difference in the microbiota composition between groups. Conclusions: Circadian disruption by Light:dark shifting exacerbates alcohol-induced polyposis and CRC. Effect of circadian disruption could, at least partly, be mediated by promoting a pro-tumorigenic inflammatory milieu via changes in microbiota.

  4. Coniferyl Aldehyde Ameliorates Radiation Intestine Injury via Endothelial Cell Survival

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    Jeong, Ye Ji; Jung, Myung Gu; Lee, Yoonjin; Lee, Haejune [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yunsil [Ewha Woman' s Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Younggyu [Korea Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Cancer treatments related gastrointestinal toxicity has also been recognized as a significant economic burden. Especially, extensive apoptosis of microvascular endothelial cell of the lamina propria is the primary lesion initiating intestinal radiation damage after abdominal radiation therapy. Coniferyl aldehyde (CA) is phenolic compounds isolated from cork stoppers, and one of the major pyrolysis products of lignin. Shi H. was support for the empirical use of CA as a medicinal food for cardiovascular diseases. CA has positive effect in broad way but there is no consequence in radiation induced intestine damage. Here, we investigate effect of CA on small intestine after abdominal IR to mice in this study. In this study, CA increased the survival rate in C3H mice against 13.5 Gy abdominal IR. We found CA protects small intestine via preventing endothelial cell apoptosis and enhancing their angiogenic activity. CA also showed protective effect on crypt cell survival. Endothelial cell survival may affect crypt cell protection against IR. From this data, we concluded that CA is effective for protection against abdominal radiation injury. CA could ameliorate side-effect of radiation therapy.

  5. Metagenomic analyses of alcohol induced pathogenic alterations in the intestinal microbiome and the effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG treatment.

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    Lara Bull-Otterson

    Full Text Available Enteric dysbiosis plays an essential role in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease (ALD. Detailed characterization of the alterations in the gut microbiome is needed for understanding their pathogenic role in ALD and developing effective therapeutic approaches using probiotic supplementation. Mice were fed liquid Lieber-DeCarli diet without or with alcohol (5% v/v for 6 weeks. A subset of mice were administered the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG from 6 to 8 weeks. Indicators of intestinal permeability, hepatic steatosis, inflammation and injury were evaluated. Metagenomic analysis of the gut microbiome was performed by analyzing the fecal DNA by amplification of the V3-V5 regions of the 16S rRNA gene and large-scale parallel pyrosequencing on the 454 FLX Titanium platform. Chronic ethanol feeding caused a decline in the abundance of both Bacteriodetes and Firmicutes phyla, with a proportional increase in the gram negative Proteobacteria and gram positive Actinobacteria phyla; the bacterial genera that showed the biggest expansion were the gram negative alkaline tolerant Alcaligenes and gram positive Corynebacterium. Commensurate with the qualitative and quantitative alterations in the microbiome, ethanol caused an increase in plasma endotoxin, fecal pH, hepatic inflammation and injury. Notably, the ethanol-induced pathogenic changes in the microbiome and the liver were prevented by LGG supplementation. Overall, significant alterations in the gut microbiome over time occur in response to chronic alcohol exposure and correspond to increases in intestinal barrier dysfunction and development of ALD. Moreover, the altered bacterial communities of the gut may serve as significant therapeutic target for the prevention/treatment of chronic alcohol intake induced intestinal barrier dysfunction and liver disease.

  6. Intestinal ameliorative effects of traditional Ogi-tutu, Vernonia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tutu, Vernonia amygdalina and Psidium guajava on intestinal histopathology of experimental mice infected with V. cholerae. Methods: Preliminary investigation of in vitro vibriocidal activities of these alternatives were carried out using agar cup ...

  7. Zinc treatment ameliorates diarrhea and intestinal inflammation in undernourished rats

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    de Queiroz, Camila AA; Fonseca, Said Gonçalves C; Frota, Priscila B; Figueiredo, Ítalo L; Aragão, Karoline S; Magalhães, Carlos Emanuel C; de Carvalho, Cibele BM; Lima, Aldo Ângelo M; Ribeiro, Ronaldo A; Guerrant, Richard L; Moore, Sean R; Oriá, Reinaldo B

    2014-01-01

    Background WHO guidelines recommend zinc supplementation as a key adjunct therapy for childhood diarrhea in developing countries, however zinc’s anti-diarrheal effects remain only partially understood. Recently, it has been recognized that low-grade inflammation may influence stunting. In this study, we examined whether oral zinc supplementation could improve weight, intestinal inflammation, and diarrhea in undernourished weanling rats. Methods Rats were undernourished using a northeastern Br...

  8. Zinc treatment ameliorates diarrhea and intestinal inflammation in undernourished rats.

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    de Queiroz, Camila A A; Fonseca, Said Gonçalves C; Frota, Priscila B; Figueiredo, Italo L; Aragão, Karoline S; Magalhães, Carlos Emanuel C; de Carvalho, Cibele B M; Lima, Aldo Ângelo M; Ribeiro, Ronaldo A; Guerrant, Richard L; Moore, Sean R; Oriá, Reinaldo B

    2014-08-05

    WHO guidelines recommend zinc supplementation as a key adjunct therapy for childhood diarrhea in developing countries, however zinc's anti-diarrheal effects remain only partially understood. Recently, it has been recognized that low-grade inflammation may influence stunting. In this study, we examined whether oral zinc supplementation could improve weight, intestinal inflammation, and diarrhea in undernourished weanling rats. Rats were undernourished using a northeastern Brazil regional diet (RBD) for two weeks, followed by oral gavage with a saturated lactose solution (30 g/kg) in the last 7 days to induce osmotic diarrhea. Animals were checked for diarrhea daily after lactose intake. Blood was drawn in order to measure serum zinc levels by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Rats were euthanized to harvest jejunal tissue for histology and cytokine profiles by ELISA. In a subset of animals, spleen samples were harvested under aseptic conditions to quantify bacterial translocation. Oral zinc supplementation increased serum zinc levels following lactose-induced osmotic diarrhea. In undernourished rats, zinc improved weight gain following osmotic diarrhea and significantly reduced diarrheal scores by the third day of lactose intake (p diarrhea and undernutrition and support the use of zinc to prevent the vicious cycle of malnutrition and diarrhea.

  9. TRO40303 Ameliorates Alcohol-Induced Pancreatitis Through Reduction of Fatty Acid Ethyl Ester–Induced Mitochondrial Injury and Necrotic Cell Death

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    Javed, Muhammad Ahsan; Wen, Li; Awais, Muhammad; Latawiec, Diane; Huang, Wei; Chvanov, Michael; Schaller, Sophie; Bordet, Thierry; Michaud, Magali; Pruss, Rebecca; Tepikin, Alexei; Criddle, David; Sutton, Robert

    2018-01-01

    Objectives Mitochondrial permeability transition pore inhibition is a promising approach to treat acute pancreatitis (AP). We sought to determine (i) the effects of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore inhibitor 3,5-seco-4-nor-cholestan-5-one oxime-3-ol (TRO40303) on murine and human pancreatic acinar cell (PAC) injury induced by fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) or taurolithocholic acid-3-sulfate and (ii) TRO40303 pharmacokinetics and efficacy in experimental alcoholic AP (FAEE-AP). Methods Changes in mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm), cytosolic Ca2+ ([Ca2+]c), and cell fate were examined in freshly isolated murine or human PACs by confocal microscopy. TRO40303 pharmacokinetics were assessed in cerulein-induced AP and therapeutic efficacy in FAEE-AP induced with palmitoleic acid and ethanol. Severity of AP was assessed by standard biomarkers and blinded histopathology. Results TRO40303 prevented loss of Δψm and necrosis induced by 100 μM palmitoleic acid ethyl ester or 500 μM taurolithocholic acid-3-sulfate in murine and human PACs. Pharmacokinetic analysis found TRO40303 accumulated in the pancreas. A single dose of 3 mg/kg TRO40303 significantly reduced serum amylase (P = 0.043), pancreatic trypsin (P = 0.018), and histopathology scores (P = 0.0058) in FAEE-AP. Conclusions TRO40303 protects mitochondria and prevents necrotic cell death pathway activation in murine and human PACs, ameliorates the severity of FAEE-AP, and is a candidate drug for human AP. PMID:29200128

  10. Amelioration of Chemotherapy-Induced Intestinal Mucositis by Orally Administered Probiotics in a Mouse Model

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    Jiang, Chun-Bin; Cheng, Mei-Lien; Liu, Chia-Yuan; Chang, Szu-Wen; Chiang Chiau, Jen-Shiu; Lee, Hung-Chang

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Intestinal mucositis is a frequently encountered side effect in oncology patients undergoing chemotherapy. No well-established or up to date therapeutic strategies are available. To study a novel way to alleviate mucositis, we investigate the effects and safety of probiotic supplementation in ameliorating 5-FU-induced intestinal mucositis in a mouse model. Methods Seventy-two mice were injected saline or 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) intraperitoneally daily. Mice were either orally administrated daily saline, probiotic suspension of Lactobacillus casei variety rhamnosus (Lcr35) or Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium bifidum (LaBi). Diarrhea score, pro-inflammatory cytokines serum levels, intestinal villus height and crypt depth and total RNA from tissue were assessed. Samples of blood, liver and spleen tissues were assessed for translocation. Results Marked diarrhea developed in the 5-FU groups but was attenuated after oral Lcr35 and LaBi administrations. Diarrhea scores decreased significantly from 2.64 to 1.45 and 0.80, respectively (Pprobiotics administration. We also found TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 mRNA expressions were up-regulated in intestinal mucositis tissues following 5-FU treatment (TNF-α: 4.35 vs. 1.18, IL-1β: 2.29 vs. 1.07, IL-6: 1.49 vs. 1.02) and that probiotics treatment suppressed this up-regulation (Pprobiotics Lcr35 and LaBi can ameliorate chemotherapy-induced intestinal mucositis in a mouse model. This suggests probiotics may serve as an alternative therapeutic strategy for the prevention or management of chemotherapy-induced mucositis in the future. PMID:26406888

  11. Increased intestinal permeability to macromolecules and endotoxemia in patients with chronic alcohol abuse in different stages of alcohol-induced liver disease

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    Parlesak, Alexandr; Schäfer, C.; Schütz, Tanja

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: No information is yet available about the influence of alcohol abuse on the translocation of larger molecules (Mr>1200) through the intestinal mucosa in man. The present study aimed to determine the intestinal permeability to macromolecules in patients with chronic alcohol abuse...... and mild to more advanced stages of liver disease, and to measure the concentration of endotoxins in the plasma, as these compounds derive from the intestinal flora and are suspected to contribute to the development of alcoholic liver disease (ALD). METHODS: The permeability to polyethylene glycol Mr 400......, Mr 1500, Mr 4000, and Mr 10,000 and endotoxin plasma concentrations were measured in 54 patients with alcoholic liver disease, 19 of them with cirrhosis, and in 30 non-alcoholic healthy controls. RESULTS: Permeability to polyethylene glycol Mr 400 was found to be unchanged in patients with ALD...

  12. Oral activated charcoal adsorbent (AST-120) ameliorates chronic kidney disease-induced intestinal epithelial barrier disruption.

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    Vaziri, Nosratola D; Yuan, Jun; Khazaeli, Mahyar; Masuda, Yuichi; Ichii, Hirohito; Liu, Shuman

    2013-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) impairs intestinal barrier function which by allowing influx of noxious products causes systemic inflammation. We have recently shown that intestinal barrier dysfunction in CKD is due to degradation of epithelial tight junction (TJ) which is, in part, mediated by influx of urea and its conversion to ammonia by microbial urease. We hypothesized that by adsorbing urea and urea-derived ammonia, oral activated charcoal (AST-120) may ameliorate CKD-induced intestinal epithelial barrier disruption and systemic inflammation. Rats were randomized to the CKD or control groups. The CKD group was fed a chow containing 0.7% adenine for 2 weeks. They were then randomized to receive a chow with or without AST-120 (4 g/kg/day) for 2 weeks. Rats consuming regular diet served as controls. Animals were then euthanized, colons were removed and processed for Western blot and immunohistology, and plasma was used to measure endotoxin and oxidative and inflammatory markers. Compared with the controls, the untreated CKD rats showed elevated plasma endotoxin, IL-6, TNF-α, MCP-1, CINC-3, L-selectin, ICAM-1, and malondialdehyde, and depletions of colonic epithelial TJ proteins, claudin-1, occludin, and ZO1. Administration of AST-120 resulted in partial restoration of the epithelial TJ proteins and reduction in plasma endotoxin and markers of oxidative stress and inflammation. CKD animals exhibited depletion of the key protein constituents of the colonic epithelial TJ which was associated with systemic inflammation, oxidative stress and endotoxemia. Administration of AST-120 attenuated uremia-induced disruption of colonic epithelial TJ and the associated endotoxemia, oxidative stress and inflammation. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Alcohol-Induced Blackout

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    Dai Jin Kim

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available For a long time, alcohol was thought to exert a general depressant effect on the central nervous system (CNS. However, currently the consensus is that specific regions of the brain are selectively vulnerable to the acute effects of alcohol. An alcohol-induced blackout is the classic example; the subject is temporarily unable to form new long-term memories while relatively maintaining other skills such as talking or even driving. A recent study showed that alcohol can cause retrograde memory impairment, that is, blackouts due to retrieval impairments as well as those due to deficits in encoding. Alcoholic blackouts may be complete (en bloc or partial (fragmentary depending on severity of memory impairment. In fragmentary blackouts, cueing often aids recall. Memory impairment during acute intoxication involves dysfunction of episodic memory, a type of memory encoded with spatial and social context. Recent studies have shown that there are multiple memory systems supported by discrete brain regions, and the acute effects of alcohol on learning and memory may result from alteration of the hippocampus and related structures on a cellular level. A rapid increase in blood alcohol concentration (BAC is most consistently associated with the likelihood of a blackout. However, not all subjects experience blackouts, implying that genetic factors play a role in determining CNS vulnerability to the effects of alcohol. This factor may predispose an individual to alcoholism, as altered memory function during intoxication may affect an individual‟s alcohol expectancy; one may perceive positive aspects of intoxication while unintentionally ignoring the negative aspects. Extensive research on memory and learning as well as findings related to the acute effects of alcohol on the brain may elucidate the mechanisms and impact associated with the alcohol- induced blackout.

  14. Intestinal ameliorative effects of traditional Ogi-tutu, Vernonia amygdalina and Psidium guajava in mice infected with Vibrio cholera.

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    Shittu, Olufunke B; Ajayi, Olusola L; Bankole, Samuel O; Popoola, Temitope Os

    2016-06-01

    Cholera, a severe acute watery diarrhea caused by Vibrio cholerae is endemic in Nigeria with most cases occurring in the rural areas. In South West Nigeria, some individuals resort to alternative treatments such as Ogi-tutu, Psidium guajava and Vernonia amygdalina during infections. The effectiveness of these alternatives in the prevention and treatment of V. cholerae infection requires experimental investigation. This study was designed to investigate the ameliorative effects of Ogi-tutu, Vernonia amygdalina and Psidium guajava on intestinal histopathology of experimental mice infected with V. cholerae. Preliminary investigation of in vitro vibriocidal activities of these alternatives were carried out using agar cup diffusion assay. For ameliorative effects, adult mice were inoculated with 100 µl (106 cells) of Vibrio cholerae and dosed at 0 h (immediate prevention) and 4 h (treatment of infection) and their intestines were histopathologically evaluated. The histopathological changes were the same irrespective of the treated groups, but the lesions varied in extent and severity. The ameliorative effects in decreasing order were V. amygdalina > P. guajava > Ogi-tutu. V. amygdalina gave the best ameliorative effects in the prevention and treatment of V. cholerae infection.

  15. FLLL32, a curcumin analog, ameliorates intestinal injury in necrotizing enterocolitis.

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    Eckert, Jeffrey; Scott, Brian; Lawrence, Shelley M; Ihnat, Michael; Chaaban, Hala

    2017-01-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a devastating gastrointestinal disease that primarily affects premature infants. It is characterized by inflammation and leukocyte infiltration that can progress to intestinal necrosis, perforation, systemic inflammatory response, and death. In this study, we examined the effect of FLLL32, a curcumin analog, on an NEC-like neonatal intestinal injury model. NEC was induced in CD-1 mice pups using the Paneth cell ablation and Klebsiella infection model. Pups were divided into sham, NEC, and NEC + FLLL32 groups. At the end of the experiment, pups were euthanized; whole blood and small intestines were harvested. Intestinal inflammatory cytokine profile, in vivo intestinal permeability using serum fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran, and histological injury scores were compared between the groups. FLLL32-treated pups had lower intestinal injury, improved intestinal permeability, and lower proinflammatory cytokine profiles compared to those in untreated pups with NEC. These results suggest that FLLL32 plays a protective role in NEC.

  16. FLLL32, a curcumin analog, ameliorates intestinal injury in necrotizing enterocolitis

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    Eckert J

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Jeffrey Eckert,1 Brian Scott,1,2 Shelley M Lawrence,3 Michael Ihnat,4 Hala Chaaban1 1Department of Pediatrics, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK, 2Department of Pediatrics, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX, 3Department of Pediatrics, University of California San Diego, San Diego, CA, 4Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Oklahoma, College of Pharmacy, Oklahoma City, OK, USA Background: Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC is a devastating gastrointestinal disease that primarily affects premature infants. It is characterized by inflammation and leukocyte infiltration that can progress to intestinal necrosis, perforation, systemic inflammatory response, and death. In this study, we examined the effect of FLLL32, a curcumin analog, on an NEC-like neonatal intestinal injury model. Methods: NEC was induced in CD-1 mice pups using the Paneth cell ablation and Klebsiella infection model. Pups were divided into sham, NEC, and NEC + FLLL32 groups. At the end of the experiment, pups were euthanized; whole blood and small intestines were harvested. Intestinal inflammatory cytokine profile, in vivo intestinal permeability using serum fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran, and histological injury scores were compared between the groups. Results and conclusion: FLLL32-treated pups had lower intestinal injury, improved intestinal permeability, and lower proinflammatory cytokine profiles compared to those in untreated pups with NEC. These results suggest that FLLL32 plays a protective role in NEC. Keywords: necrotizing enterocolitis, neonatal intestinal inflammation, curcumin, FLLL32, STAT3 inhibitors

  17. Soluble Dietary Fiber Ameliorates Radiation-Induced Intestinal Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition and Fibrosis.

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    Yang, Jianbo; Ding, Chao; Dai, Xujie; Lv, Tengfei; Xie, Tingbing; Zhang, Tenghui; Gao, Wen; Gong, Jianfeng; Zhu, Weiming; Li, Ning; Li, Jieshou

    2017-11-01

    Intestinal fibrosis is a late complication of pelvic radiotherapy. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays an important role in tissue fibrosis. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of soluble dietary fiber on radiation-induced intestinal EMT and fibrosis in a mouse model. Apple pectin (4% wt/wt in drinking water) was administered to wild-type and pVillin-Cre-EGFP transgenic mice with intestinal fibrosis induced by a single dose of abdominal irradiation of 10 Gy. The effects of pectin on intestinal EMT and fibrosis, gut microbiota, and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentration were evaluated. Intestinal fibrosis in late radiation enteropathy showed increased submucosal thickness and subepithelial collagen deposition. Enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) + /vimentin + and EGFP + /α-smooth muscle actin (SMA) + coexpressing cells were most clearly observed at 2 weeks after irradiation and gradually decreased at 4 and 12 weeks. Pectin significantly attenuated the thickness of submucosa and collagen deposition at 12 weeks (24.3 vs 27.6 µm in the pectin + radiation-treated group compared with radiation-alone group, respectively, P soluble dietary fiber pectin protected the terminal ileum against radiation-induced fibrosis. This effect might be mediated by altered SCFA concentration in the intestinal lumen and reduced EMT in the ileal epithelium.

  18. Ghrelin ameliorates intestinal barrier dysfunction in experimental colitis by inhibiting the activation of nuclear factor-kappa B

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    Cheng, Jian; Zhang, Lin [Department of Gastroenterology, Jinshan Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Dai, Weiqi [Department of Gastroenterology, Shanghai Tenth People' s Hospital, Tongji University, Shanghai (China); Mao, Yuqing [Department of Gastroenterology, Jinshan Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Li, Sainan [Department of Gastroenterology, Shanghai Tenth People' s Hospital, Tongji University, Shanghai (China); Wang, Jingjie; Li, Huanqing [Department of Gastroenterology, Jinshan Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Guo, Chuanyong [Department of Gastroenterology, Shanghai Tenth People' s Hospital, Tongji University, Shanghai (China); Fan, Xiaoming, E-mail: xiaomingfan57@sina.com [Department of Gastroenterology, Jinshan Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai (China)

    2015-02-27

    Aim: This study aimed to investigate the effect and underlying mechanism of ghrelin on intestinal barrier dysfunction in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. Methods and results: Acute colitis was induced in C57BL/6J mice by administering 2.5% DSS. Saline or 25, 125, 250 μg/kg ghrelin was administrated intraperitoneally (IP) to mice 1 day before colitis induction and on days 4, 5, and 6 after DSS administration. IP injection of a ghrelin receptor antagonist, [D-lys{sup 3}]-GHRP-6, was performed immediately prior to ghrelin injection. Ghrelin (125 or 250 μg/kg) could reduce the disease activity index, histological score, and myeloperoxidase activities in experimental colitis, and also prevented shortening of the colon. Ghrelin could prevent the reduction of transepithelial electrical resistance and tight junction expression, and bolstered tight junction structural integrity and regulated cytokine secretion. Ultimately, ghrelin inhibited nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), inhibitory κB-α, myosin light chain kinase, and phosphorylated myosin light chain 2 activation. Conclusions: Ghrelin prevented the breakdown of intestinal barrier function in DSS-induced colitis. The protective effects of ghrelin on intestinal barrier function were mediated by its receptor GHSR-1a. The inhibition of NF-κB activation might be part of the mechanism underlying the effects of ghrelin that protect against barrier dysfunction. - Highlights: • Ghrelin ameliorates intestinal barrier dysfunction in experimental colitis. • The effect of ghrelin is mediated by GHSR-1a. • Inhibition of NF-κB activation.

  19. Dunnione ameliorates cisplatin-induced small intestinal damage by modulating NAD{sup +} metabolism

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    Pandit, Arpana; Kim, Hyung-Jin; Oh, Gi-Su; Shen, AiHua; Lee, Su-Bin; Khadka, Dipendra; Lee, SeungHoon [Center for Metabolic Function Regulation & Department of Microbiology, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-749 (Korea, Republic of); Shim, Hyeok; Yang, Sei-Hoon; Cho, Eun-Young [Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-749 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Kang-Beom [Department of Oriental Medical Physiology, School of Oriental Medicine, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-749 (Korea, Republic of); Kwak, Tae Hwan [PAEAN Biotechnology, 160 Techno-2 Street, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-500 (Korea, Republic of); Choe, Seong-Kyu; Park, Raekil [Center for Metabolic Function Regulation & Department of Microbiology, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-749 (Korea, Republic of); So, Hong-Seob, E-mail: jeanso@wku.ac.kr [Center for Metabolic Function Regulation & Department of Microbiology, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-27

    Although cisplatin is a widely used anticancer drug for the treatment of a variety of tumors, its use is critically limited because of adverse effects such as ototoxicity, nephrotoxicity, neuropathy, and gastrointestinal damage. Cisplatin treatment increases oxidative stress biomarkers in the small intestine, which may induce apoptosis of epithelial cells and thereby elicit damage to the small intestine. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD{sup +}) is a cofactor for various enzymes associated with cellular homeostasis. In the present study, we demonstrated that the hyper-activation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) is closely associated with the depletion of NAD{sup +} in the small intestine after cisplatin treatment, which results in downregulation of sirtuin1 (SIRT1) activity. Furthermore, a decrease in SIRT1 activity was found to play an important role in cisplatin-mediated small intestinal damage through nuclear factor (NF)-κB p65 activation, facilitated by its acetylation increase. However, use of dunnione as a strong substrate for the NADH:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) enzyme led to an increase in intracellular NAD{sup +} levels and prevented the cisplatin-induced small intestinal damage correlating with the modulation of PARP-1, SIRT1, and NF-κB. These results suggest that direct modulation of cellular NAD{sup +} levels by pharmacological NQO1 substrates could be a promising therapeutic approach for protecting against cisplatin-induced small intestinal damage. - Highlights: • NAD{sup +} acts as a cofactor for numerous enzymes including Sirtuins and PARP. • Up-regulation of SIRT1 could attenuate the cisplatin-induced intestinal damage. • Modulation of the cellular NAD{sup +} could be a promising therapeutic approach.

  20. Carbachol ameliorates lipopolysaccharide-induced intestinal epithelial tight junction damage by down-regulating NF-{kappa}{beta} and myosin light-chain kinase pathways

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    Zhang, Ying [Department of Anesthesia, Critical Care Medicine and Emergency Medicine Center, Zhongnan Hospital, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071, Hubei Province, People' s Republic of China (China); Li, Jianguo, E-mail: 2010lijianguo@sina.cn [Department of Anesthesia, Critical Care Medicine and Emergency Medicine Center, Zhongnan Hospital, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071, Hubei Province, People' s Republic of China (China)

    2012-11-16

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Carbachol reduced the lipopolysaccharide-induced intestinal barrier breakdown. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Carbachol ameliorated the lipopolysaccharide-induced ileal tight junction damage. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Carbachol prevented the LPS-induced NF-{kappa}{beta} and myosin light-chain kinase activation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Carbachol exerted its beneficial effects in an {alpha}7 nicotinic receptor-dependent manner. -- Abstract: Carbachol is a cholinergic agonist that protects the intestines after trauma or burn injury. The present study determines the beneficial effects of carbachol and the mechanisms by which it ameliorates the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced intestinal barrier breakdown. Rats were injected intraperitoneally with 10 mg/kg LPS. Results showed that the gut barrier permeability was reduced, the ultrastructural disruption of tight junctions (TJs) was prevented, the redistribution of zonula occludens-1 and claudin-2 proteins was partially reversed, and the nuclear factor-kappa beta (NF-{kappa}{beta}) and myosin light-chain kinase (MLCK) activation in the intestinal epithelium were suppressed after carbachol administration in LPS-exposed rats. Pretreatment with the {alpha}7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor ({alpha}7nAchR) antagonist {alpha}-bungarotoxin blocked the protective action of carbachol. These results suggested that carbachol treatment can protect LPS-induced intestinal barrier dysfunction. Carbachol exerts its beneficial effect on the amelioration of the TJ damage by inhibiting the NF-{kappa}{beta} and MLCK pathways in an {alpha}7nAchR-dependent manner.

  1. The tripeptide feG ameliorates systemic inflammatory responses to rat intestinal anaphylaxis

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    Davison Joseph S

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Food allergies are generally associated with gastrointestinal upset, but in many patients systemic reactions occur. However, the systemic effects of food allergies are poorly understood in experimental animals, which also offer the opportunity to explore the actions of anti-allergic drugs. The tripeptide D-phenylalanine-D-glutamate-Glycine (feG, which potentially alleviates the symptoms of systemic anaphylactic reactions, was tested to determine if it also reduced systemic inflammatory responses provoked by a gastric allergic reaction. Results Optimal inhibition of intestinal anaphylaxis was obtained when 100 μg/kg of feG was given 20 min before the rats were challenged with antigen. The increase in total circulating neutrophils and accumulation of neutrophils in the heart, developing 3 h and 24 h, respectively, after antigen challenge were reduced by both feG and dexamethasone. Both anti-inflammatory agents reduced the increase in vascular permeability induced by antigen in the intestine and the peripheral skin (pinna, albeit with different time courses. Dexamethasone prevented increases in vascular permeability when given 12 h before antigen challenge, whereas feG was effective when given 20 min before ingestion of antigen. The tripeptide prevented the anaphylaxis induced up regulation of specific antibody binding of a cell adhesion molecule related to neutrophil activation, namely CD49d (α4 integrin. Conclusions Aside from showing that intestinal anaphylaxis produces significant systemic inflammatory responses in non-intestinal tissues, our results indicate that the tripeptide feG is a potent inhibitor of extra-gastrointestinal allergic reactions preventing both acute (30 min and chronic (3 h or greater inflammatory responses.

  2. Flos Lonicera ameliorates obesity and associated endotoxemia in rats through modulation of gut permeability and intestinal microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing-Hua; Bose, Shambhunath; Kim, Gi-Cheol; Hong, Seung-Ug; Kim, Ji-Hun; Kim, Jai-Eun; Kim, Hojun

    2014-01-01

    Increasing evidence has indicated a close association of host-gut flora metabolic interaction with obesity. Flos Lonicera, a traditional herbal medicine, is used widely in eastern Asia for the treatment of various disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether unfermented or fermented formulations of Flos Lonicera could exert a beneficial impact to combat obesity and related metabolic endotoxemia. Obesity and metabolic endotoxemia were induced separately or together in rats through feeding a eight-week high fat diet either alone (HFD control group) or in combination with a single LPS stimulation (intraperitoneal injection, 0.75 mg/kg) (LPS control group). While, the mechanism of action of the Lonicera formulations was explored in vitro using RAW 264.7 and HCT 116 cell lines as models. In cell-based studies, treatment with both unfermented Flos Lonicera (UFL) and fermented Flos Lonicera (FFL) formulations resulted in suppression of LPS-induced NO production and gene expression of vital proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, COX-2, and IL-6) in RAW 264.7 cells, reduced the gene expression of zonula occludens (ZO)-1 and claudin-1, and normalized trans epithelial electric resistance (TEER) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) flux in LPS-treated HCT-116 cells. In an animal study, treatment of HFD as well as HFD+LPS groups with UFL or FFL resulted in a notable decrease in body and adipose tissue weights, ameliorated total cholesterol, HDL, triglyceride, aspartate transaminase and endotoxin levels in serum, reduced the urinary lactulose/mannitol ratio, and markedly alleviated lipid accumulation in liver. In addition, exposure of HFD as well as HFD+LPS groups with UFL or FFL resulted in significant alteration of the distribution of intestinal flora, especially affecting the population of Akkermansia spp. and ratio of Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes. This evidence collectively demonstrates that Flos Lonicera ameliorates obesity and related metabolic endotoxemia via

  3. Inhibition of Epithelial TNF-α Receptors by Purified Fruit Bromelain Ameliorates Intestinal Inflammation and Barrier Dysfunction in Colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zijuan; Wang, Liang; Feng, Panpan; Yin, Lianhong; Wang, Chen; Zhi, Shengxu; Dong, Jianyi; Wang, Jingyu; Lin, Yuan; Chen, Dapeng; Xiong, Yongjian; Peng, Jinyong

    2017-01-01

    Activation of the TNF-α receptor (TNFR) leads to an inflammatory response, and anti-TNF therapy has been administered to reduce inflammation symptoms and heal mucosal ulcers in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Bromelain, a complex natural mixture of proteolytic enzymes, has been shown to exert anti-inflammatory effects. This study aimed to investigate the effect of purified fruit bromelain (PFB)-induced inhibition of epithelial TNFR in a rat colitis model. Colitis was established by intracolonic administration of 2, 4, 6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid. Expression of TNFR1 and TNFR2 was measured by quantitative RT-PCR and western blotting. The effect of PFB on colitis was evaluated by examining the inflammatory response and intestinal epithelial barrier function. Our results showed that both TNFR1 and TNFR2 expression were significantly increased in a colitis model, and the increase was significantly reversed by PFB. Colitis symptoms, including infiltration of inflammatory cells, cytokine profiles, epithelial cell apoptosis, and epithelial tight junction barrier dysfunction were significantly ameliorated by PFB. Compared with fruit bromelain and stem bromelain complex, the inhibition of TNFR2 induced by PFB was stronger than that exhibited on TNFR1. These results indicate that PFB showed a stronger selective inhibitory effect on TNFR2 than TNFR1. In other words, purification of fruit bromelain increases its selectivity on TNFR2 inhibition. High expression of epithelial TNFRs in colitis was significantly counteracted by PFB, and PFB-induced TNFR inhibition ameliorated colitis symptoms. These results supply novel insights into potential IBD treatment by PFB.

  4. Dexmedetomidine Ameliorate CLP-Induced Rat Intestinal Injury via Inhibition of Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanqing; Miao, Liyan; Yao, Yusheng; Wu, Weilan; Wu, Xiaodan; Gong, Cansheng; Qiu, Liangcheng; Chen, Jianping

    2015-01-01

    The aim was to verify that dexmedetomidine (DEX) can attenuate CLP-induced intestinal injury via inhibition of inflammation. Male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly allocated into Sham group and the other three CLP model groups, in terms of different treatments: placebo, DEX, and yohimbine plus DEX (DEX + YOH) groups. Pathology examination was conducted with HE stain. To identify differences among groups, the levels of DAO, and D-lactate in serum were measured by spectrophotometry, and the levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 in serum and organ were measured by ELISA. The expressions of occludin and TLR4 in tissue were detected by Western blot. The survival rate of an additional group of animals within 7 d was recorded. In DEX group, mortality was lower, histology change was minor, DAO, and D-lactate levels were reduced, and occludin expression was increased; the expressions of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and TLR4 were also decreased in DEX group. These results indicated that acute intestinal injury induced by CLP was mitigated by DEX treatment. However, these effects of DEX were significantly attenuated by yohimbine in DEX + YOH group. Our study indicated the protective effects of DEX on CLP-induced injury, which may be associated with the inhibition of inflammation via modulating TLR4 pathway and can be blocked by yohimbine.

  5. 4-methylesculetin, a coumarin derivative, ameliorates dextran sulfate sodium-induced intestinal inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witaicenis, Aline; de Oliveira, Ellen Cristina Souza; Tanimoto, Alexandre; Zorzella-Pezavento, Sofia Fernanda Gonçalves; de Oliveira, Silvio Luis; Sartori, Alexandrina; Di Stasi, Luiz Claudio

    2018-01-25

    4-methylesculetin is one of the coumarin derivatives with great anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Recent studies have shown that 4-methylesculetin has a promising potentiality to treat inflammatory diseases, especially those related to reactive oxygen species, as inflammatory bowel disease. Based on this, the present study aims to investigate the intestinal anti-inflammatory activity of 4-methylesculetin in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) model. For this purpose, mice received DSS 5% for 5 days followed by 2 days of filtered tap water. Treated groups received orally 5 or 25 mg/kg of 4-methylesculetin daily since the first day. Macroscopic, microscopic and biochemical parameters were evaluated. 4-methylesculetin (25 mg/kg) improved microscopic parameters, decreased MPO activity, reduced the colonic levels of IL-6 and counteracted GSH depletion when compared with DSS-control group. Our results show the intestinal anti-inflammatory activity of 4-methylesculetin in DSS model, which is related to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. This way, 4-methylesculetin, is a new potential compound for treatment of both types of IBD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. A lactic acid bacterium isolated from kimchi ameliorates intestinal inflammation in DSS-induced colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin-Soo; Joe, Inseong; Rhee, Paul Dong; Jeong, Choon-Soo; Jeong, Gajin

    2017-04-01

    Some species of lactic acid bacteria have been shown to be beneficial in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In the present study, a strain of lactic acid bacterium (Lactobacillus paracasei LS2) was isolated from the Korean food, kimchi, and was shown to inhibit the development of experimental colitis induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). To investigate the role of LS2 in IBD, mice were fed DSS in drinking water for seven days along with LS2 bacteria which were administered intragastrically to some of the mice, while phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) was administered to others (the controls). The administration of LS2 reduced body weight loss and increased survival, and disease activity indexes (DAI) and histological scores indicated that the severity of colitis was significantly reduced. The production of inflammatory cytokines and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity also decreased. Flow cytometry analysis showed that the number of Th1 (IFN-γ) population cells was significantly reduced in the LS2-administered mice compared with the controls. The administration of LS2 induced the increase of CD4 + FOXP3 + Treg cells, which are responsible for IL-10. Numbers of macrophages (CD11b + F4/80 + ), and neutrophils (CD11b + Gr-1 + ) among lamina propria lymphocytes (LPL) were also reduced. These results indicate that LS2 has an anti-inflammatory effect and ameliorates DSS-induced colitis.

  7. Flos Lonicera ameliorates obesity and associated endotoxemia in rats through modulation of gut permeability and intestinal microbiota.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Hua Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIM: Increasing evidence has indicated a close association of host-gut flora metabolic interaction with obesity. Flos Lonicera, a traditional herbal medicine, is used widely in eastern Asia for the treatment of various disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether unfermented or fermented formulations of Flos Lonicera could exert a beneficial impact to combat obesity and related metabolic endotoxemia. METHODS: Obesity and metabolic endotoxemia were induced separately or together in rats through feeding a eight-week high fat diet either alone (HFD control group or in combination with a single LPS stimulation (intraperitoneal injection, 0.75 mg/kg (LPS control group. While, the mechanism of action of the Lonicera formulations was explored in vitro using RAW 264.7 and HCT 116 cell lines as models. RESULTS: In cell-based studies, treatment with both unfermented Flos Lonicera (UFL and fermented Flos Lonicera (FFL formulations resulted in suppression of LPS-induced NO production and gene expression of vital proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, COX-2, and IL-6 in RAW 264.7 cells, reduced the gene expression of zonula occludens (ZO-1 and claudin-1, and normalized trans epithelial electric resistance (TEER and horseradish peroxidase (HRP flux in LPS-treated HCT-116 cells. In an animal study, treatment of HFD as well as HFD+LPS groups with UFL or FFL resulted in a notable decrease in body and adipose tissue weights, ameliorated total cholesterol, HDL, triglyceride, aspartate transaminase and endotoxin levels in serum, reduced the urinary lactulose/mannitol ratio, and markedly alleviated lipid accumulation in liver. In addition, exposure of HFD as well as HFD+LPS groups with UFL or FFL resulted in significant alteration of the distribution of intestinal flora, especially affecting the population of Akkermansia spp. and ratio of Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes. CONCLUSION: This evidence collectively demonstrates that Flos Lonicera

  8. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG supernatant promotes intestinal barrier function, balances Treg and TH17 cells and ameliorates hepatic injury in a mouse model of chronic-binge alcohol feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rui-Cong; Xu, Lan-Man; Du, Shan-Jie; Huang, Si-Si; Wu, He; Dong, Jia-Jia; Huang, Jian-Rong; Wang, Xiao-Dong; Feng, Wen-Ke; Chen, Yong-Ping

    2016-01-22

    Impaired intestinal barrier function plays a critical role in alcohol-induced hepatic injury, and the subsequent excessive absorbed endotoxin and bacterial translocation activate the immune response that aggravates the liver injury. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG supernatant (LGG-s) has been suggested to improve intestinal barrier function and alleviate the liver injury induced by chronic and binge alcohol consumption, but the underlying mechanisms are still not clear. In this study, chronic-binge alcohol fed model was used to determine the effects of LGG-s on the prevention of alcoholic liver disease in C57BL/6 mice and investigate underlying mechanisms. Mice were fed Lieber-DeCarli diet containing 5% alcohol for 10 days, and one dose of alcohol was gavaged on Day 11. In one group, LGG-s was supplemented along with alcohol. Control mice were fed isocaloric diet. Nine hours later the mice were sacrificed for analysis. Chronic-binge alcohol exposure induced an elevation in liver enzymes, steatosis and morphology changes, while LGG-s supplementation attenuated these changes. Treatment with LGG-s significantly improved intestinal barrier function reflected by increased mRNA expression of tight junction (TJ) proteins and villus-crypt histology in ileum, and decreased Escherichia coli (E. coli) protein level in liver. Importantly, flow cytometry analysis showed that alcohol reduced Treg cell population while increased TH17 cell population as well as IL-17 secretion, which was reversed by LGG-s administration. In conclusion, our findings indicate that LGG-s is effective in preventing chronic-binge alcohol exposure-induced liver injury and shed a light on the importance of the balance of Treg and TH17 cells in the role of LGG-s application. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Mitochondria-targeted ubiquinone (MitoQ enhances acetaldehyde clearance by reversing alcohol-induced posttranslational modification of aldehyde dehydrogenase 2: A molecular mechanism of protection against alcoholic liver disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liuyi Hao

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol metabolism in the liver generates highly toxic acetaldehyde. Breakdown of acetaldehyde by aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2 in the mitochondria consumes NAD+ and generates reactive oxygen/nitrogen species, which represents a fundamental mechanism in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease (ALD. A mitochondria-targeted lipophilic ubiquinone (MitoQ has been shown to confer greater protection against oxidative damage in the mitochondria compared to untargeted antioxidants. The present study aimed to investigate if MitoQ could preserve mitochondrial ALDH2 activity and speed up acetaldehyde clearance, thereby protects against ALD. Male C57BL/6 J mice were exposed to alcohol for 8 weeks with MitoQ supplementation (5 mg/kg/d for the last 4 weeks. MitoQ ameliorated alcohol-induced oxidative/nitrosative stress and glutathione deficiency. It also reversed alcohol-reduced hepatic ALDH activity and accelerated acetaldehyde clearance through modulating ALDH2 cysteine S-nitrosylation, tyrosine nitration and 4-hydroxynonenol adducts formation. MitoQ ameliorated nitric oxide (NO donor-mediated ADLH2 S-nitrosylation and nitration in Hepa-1c1c7 cells under glutathion depletion condition. In addition, alcohol-increased circulating acetaldehyde levels were accompanied by reduced intestinal ALDH activity and impaired intestinal barrier. In accordance, MitoQ reversed alcohol-increased plasma endotoxin levels and hepatic toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4-NF-κB signaling along with subsequent inhibition of inflammatory cell infiltration. MitoQ also reversed alcohol-induced hepatic lipid accumulation through enhancing fatty acid β-oxidation. Alcohol-induced ER stress and apoptotic cell death signaling were reversed by MitoQ. This study demonstrated that speeding up acetaldehyde clearance by preserving ALDH2 activity critically mediates the beneficial effect of MitoQ on alcohol-induced pathogenesis at the gut-liver axis. Keywords: Aldehyde dehydrogenase 2

  10. Maternal treatment with short-chain fatty acids modulates the intestinal microbiota and immunity and ameliorates type 1 diabetes in the offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James C Needell

    Full Text Available We recently hypothesized that the intestinal microbiota and the innate immune system play key roles in the mechanism of Kilham Rat Virus-induced type 1 diabetes in the LEW1.WR1 rat. We used this animal model to test the hypothesis that maternal therapy with short-chain fatty acids can modulate the intestinal microbiota and reverse virus-induced proinflammatory responses and type 1 diabetes in rat offspring. We observed that administration of short-chain fatty acids to rat breeders via drinking water prior to pregnancy and further treatment of the offspring with short-chain fatty acids after weaning led to disease amelioration. In contrast, rats that were administered short-chain fatty acids beginning at weaning were not protected from type 1 diabetes. Short-chain fatty acid therapy exerted a profound effect on the intestinal microbiome in the offspring reflected by a reduction and an increase in the abundances of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes taxa, respectively, on day 5 post-infection, and reversed virus-induced alterations in certain bacterial taxa. Principal component analysis and permutation multivariate analysis of variance tests further revealed that short-chain fatty acids induce a distinct intestinal microbiota compared with uninfected animals or rats that receive the virus only. Short-chain fatty acids downregulated Kilham Rat Virus-induced proinflammatory responses in the intestine. Finally, short-chain fatty acids altered the B and T cell compartments in Peyer's patches. These data demonstrate that short-chain fatty acids can reshape the intestinal microbiota and prevent virus-induced islet autoimmunity and may therefore represent a useful therapeutic strategy for disease prevention.

  11. Maternal treatment with short-chain fatty acids modulates the intestinal microbiota and immunity and ameliorates type 1 diabetes in the offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Needell, James C; Ir, Diana; Robertson, Charles E; Kroehl, Miranda E; Frank, Daniel N; Zipris, Danny

    2017-01-01

    We recently hypothesized that the intestinal microbiota and the innate immune system play key roles in the mechanism of Kilham Rat Virus-induced type 1 diabetes in the LEW1.WR1 rat. We used this animal model to test the hypothesis that maternal therapy with short-chain fatty acids can modulate the intestinal microbiota and reverse virus-induced proinflammatory responses and type 1 diabetes in rat offspring. We observed that administration of short-chain fatty acids to rat breeders via drinking water prior to pregnancy and further treatment of the offspring with short-chain fatty acids after weaning led to disease amelioration. In contrast, rats that were administered short-chain fatty acids beginning at weaning were not protected from type 1 diabetes. Short-chain fatty acid therapy exerted a profound effect on the intestinal microbiome in the offspring reflected by a reduction and an increase in the abundances of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes taxa, respectively, on day 5 post-infection, and reversed virus-induced alterations in certain bacterial taxa. Principal component analysis and permutation multivariate analysis of variance tests further revealed that short-chain fatty acids induce a distinct intestinal microbiota compared with uninfected animals or rats that receive the virus only. Short-chain fatty acids downregulated Kilham Rat Virus-induced proinflammatory responses in the intestine. Finally, short-chain fatty acids altered the B and T cell compartments in Peyer's patches. These data demonstrate that short-chain fatty acids can reshape the intestinal microbiota and prevent virus-induced islet autoimmunity and may therefore represent a useful therapeutic strategy for disease prevention.

  12. 1,4-Naphthoquinone, a pro-oxidant, ameliorated radiation induced gastro-intestinal injury through perturbation of cellular redox and activation of Nrf2 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambhir, Lokesh

    Detrimental effects of ionizing radiation (IR) are observed at the doses above 1 Gy. Treatment modalities are available up to doses of 6 Gy including bonemarrow transplantation and administration of antibiotics. However, exposure to IR doses above 8 Gy results in gastro-intestinal (GI) syndrome characterised by denudated villi, apoptosis of crypt cells and elevated inflammatory responses. Multiple strategies have been employed to investigate novel agents to protect against IR induced injury. Since cellular redox homeostasis plays a pivotal role in deciding the cell fate, present study was undertaken to explore the potential of 1,4-naphthoquinone (NQ), a pro-oxidant, to ameliorate IR induced GI syndrome. NQ protected INT 407 cells against IR induced cell death of intestinal epithelial cells in vitro. NQ induced perturbation in cellular redox status and induced the activation of nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) pathway. Thiol antioxidant and inhibitors of Nrf2 pathway abrogated the radioprotection offered by NQ. Further, knocking down Nrf2 rescind the NQ mediated protection against IR induced cell death. In conclusion, NQ protects against IR radiation induced GI syndrome in vitro by perturbing cellular redox and activating Nrf2 pathway. This is the first report highlighting the potential of a pro-oxidant to ameliorate IR induced GI injury.

  13. Radioprotector WR-2721 and mitigating peptidoglycan synergistically promote mouse survival through the amelioration of intestinal and bone marrow damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Wei; Chen Qiu; Wu Shu; Xia Xiaochun; Wu Anqing; Cui Fengmei; Cao Jianping; Gu Yongping; Zhang Xueguang

    2015-01-01

    The identification of an agent effective for the treatment of intestinal and bone marrow injury following radiation exposure remains a major issue in radiological medicine. In this study, we evaluated the therapeutic impact of single agent or combination treatments with 2-(3-aminopropylamino) ethylsulphanyl phosphonic acid (WR-2721) and peptidoglycan (PGN, a toll-like receptor 2 (TLR-2) agonist) on radiation-induced injury of the intestine and bone marrow in lethally irradiated male C57BL/6 mice. A dose of 3 mg of WR-2721 per mouse (167 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) was given 30 min before irradiation, and 30 μg of PGN per mouse (1.7 mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally 24 h after 10 Gy irradiation. Bone marrow cluster of differentiation (CD)45 + and CD34 + markers of multiple haematopoietic lineages, number of granulocyte-erythroid-macrophage-megakaryocyte (GEMM) progenitor colonies, bone marrow histopathology, leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein-coupled receptor 5 (Lgr5) expression in the intestines, xylose absorption and intestinal histopathology were all assessed at various time-points after irradiation. Furthermore, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) p65 protein in the ileum was stained by immunofluorescent labelling. PGN-treated irradiated mice showed an increase in CD45 + CD34 + cells compared with untreated mice 1.25 days after 10 Gy ionizing radiation (IR) (P < 0.05). Furthermore, combined PGN and WR-2721 treatment had an obviously synergistic radio-protective effect in nucleated cells in the bone marrow, including GEMM progenitors and CD45 + CD34 + cells 4 days after 10 Gy IR. Single agent PGN or WR-2721 treatment after 10 Gy IR clearly increased Lgr5-positive pit cells (P < 0.05) and xylose absorption (P < 0.05). However only PGN and WR-2721 combination treatment markedly increased villus height (P < 0.05), number of crypts (P < 0.05) and whole-body weights after 10 Gy whole-body irradiation (WBI). The NF-κB p65 subunit was translocated to the nucleus

  14. Total Glucosides of Paeony Promote Intestinal Motility in Slow Transit Constipation Rats through Amelioration of Interstitial Cells of Cajal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Feiye; Xu, Shan; Zhang, Yongsheng; Chen, Fangming; Ji, Jinjun; Xie, Guanqun

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Using an atropine-diphenoxylate-induced slow transit constipation (STC) model, this study explored the effects of the total glucosides of paeony (TGP) in the treatment of STC and the possible mechanisms. Study Design A prospective experimental animal study. Methods The constipation model was set up in rats with an oral gavage of atropine-diphenoxylate and then treated with the TGP. The volume and moisture content of the faeces were observed and the intestinal kinetic power was evaluated. Meanwhile, the colorimetric method and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were employed to determine the changes of nitric oxide (NO), nitric oxide synthase (NOS), vasoative intestinal peptide (VIP) and the P substance (SP) in the serum, respectively. The protein expressions of c-kit and stem cell factor (SCF) were assessed by immunohistochemical analysis and western blot, respectively, and the mRNA level of c-kit was measured by a reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Results The TGP attenuated STC responses in terms of an increase in the fecal volume and moisture content, an enhancement of intestinal transit rate and the reduction of NO, NOS and VIP in the serum. In addition, the c-kit, a labeling of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) increased at both protein and mRNA levels. SCF, which serves as a ligand of c-kit also increased at protein level. Conclusion The analysis of our data indicated that the TGP could obviously attenuate STC through improving the function of ICC and blocking the inhibitory neurotransmitters such as NO, NOS and VIP. PMID:27478893

  15. Total Glucosides of Paeony Promote Intestinal Motility in Slow Transit Constipation Rats through Amelioration of Interstitial Cells of Cajal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feiye Zhu

    Full Text Available Using an atropine-diphenoxylate-induced slow transit constipation (STC model, this study explored the effects of the total glucosides of paeony (TGP in the treatment of STC and the possible mechanisms.A prospective experimental animal study.The constipation model was set up in rats with an oral gavage of atropine-diphenoxylate and then treated with the TGP. The volume and moisture content of the faeces were observed and the intestinal kinetic power was evaluated. Meanwhile, the colorimetric method and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA were employed to determine the changes of nitric oxide (NO, nitric oxide synthase (NOS, vasoative intestinal peptide (VIP and the P substance (SP in the serum, respectively. The protein expressions of c-kit and stem cell factor (SCF were assessed by immunohistochemical analysis and western blot, respectively, and the mRNA level of c-kit was measured by a reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR.The TGP attenuated STC responses in terms of an increase in the fecal volume and moisture content, an enhancement of intestinal transit rate and the reduction of NO, NOS and VIP in the serum. In addition, the c-kit, a labeling of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC increased at both protein and mRNA levels. SCF, which serves as a ligand of c-kit also increased at protein level.The analysis of our data indicated that the TGP could obviously attenuate STC through improving the function of ICC and blocking the inhibitory neurotransmitters such as NO, NOS and VIP.

  16. Dietary flaxseed oil supplementation ameliorates the effect of cisplatin on brush border membrane enzymes and antioxidant system in rat intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naqshbandi, A; Rizwan, S; Khan, M W; Khan, F

    2013-04-01

    Cisplatin (CP; cis-diamminedichloroplatinum II) is a drug widely used against different types of solid tumors. Patients receiving CP, however, experience very profound and long lasting gastrointestinal symptoms. Recently, ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid-enriched flaxseed/flaxseed oil (FXO) has shown numerous health benefits. The present study was undertaken to investigate whether FXO can prevent CP-induced adverse biochemical changes in the small intestine of rats. A single intraperitoneal dose of CP (6 mg/kg body weight) was administered to male Wistar rats fed with control diet (CP group) and FXO diet (CPFXO group). Administration of CP led to a significant decline in the specific activities of brush border membrane enzymes both in the mucosal homogenates and in the isolated membrane vesicles. Lipid peroxidation and total sulfhydryl groups were altered upon CP treatment, indicating the generation of oxidative stress. The activities of SOD, catalase and glutathione peroxidase also decreased in CP-treated rats. In contrast, dietary supplementation of FXO prior to and following CP treatment significantly attenuated the CP-induced changes in all these parameters. FXO feeding markedly enhanced resistance to CP-elicited adverse gastrointestinal effects. The results suggest that FXO owing to its intrinsic biochemical/antioxidant properties is an effective agent in reducing the adverse effects of CP on intestine.

  17. Alcohol-induced sexual behavior on campus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meilman, P W

    1993-07-01

    This study investigated the prevalence of alcohol-related sexual activity on campus. Since coming to college, 35% of the students had engaged in some form of sexual activity that was influenced by drinking. Because they had been drinking, 18% had engaged in sexual intercourse, and 15% had abandoned safe-sex techniques. For the categories any form of sexual activity and abandonment of safe-sex techniques, a significantly greater percentage of women were affected by alcohol use, but this was not true for sexual intercourse. The survey showed no significant differences between undergraduate and graduate students. All three variables showed a relationship with heavier alcohol use and with binge drinking. Academic excellence was negatively correlated with alcohol-induced sexual intercourse.

  18. Acute alcohol-induced liver injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavin Edward Arteel

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol consumption is customary in most cultures and alcohol abuse is common worldwide. For example, more than 50% of Americans consume alcohol, with an estimated 23.1% of Americans participating in heavy and/or binge drinking at least once a month. A safe and effective therapy for alcoholic liver disease (ALD in humans is still elusive, despite significant advances in our understanding of how the disease is initiated and progresses. It is now clear that acute alcohol binges not only can be acutely toxic to the liver, but also can contribute to the chronicity of ALD. Potential mechanisms by which acute alcohol causes damage include steatosis, dysregulated immunity and inflammation and altered gut permeability. Recent interest in modeling acute alcohol exposure has yielded new insights into potential mechanisms of acute injury, that also may well be relevant for chronic ALD. Recent work by this group on the role of PAI-1 and fibrin metabolism in mediating acute alcohol-induced liver damage serve as an example of possible new targets that may be useful for alcohol abuse, be it acute or chronic.

  19. Oral Metformin-Ascorbic Acid Co-Administration Ameliorates Alcohol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oral Metformin-Ascorbic Acid Co-Administration Ameliorates Alcohol-Induced Hepatotoxicity In Rats. ... Nigerian Quarterly Journal of Hospital Medicine ... the present in vivo animal study was to determine whether metformin-ascorbic acid co-administration also prevents alcoholic hepatotoxicity in chronic alcohol exposure.

  20. Soyasaponin Bb Protects Rat Hepatocytes from Alcohol-Induced Oxidative Stress by Inducing Heme Oxygenase-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lijie, Zhu; Ranran, Fu; Xiuying, Liu; Yutang, He; Bo, Wang; Tao, Ma

    2016-01-01

    It has been known that oxidative stress induced by alcohol played a crucial role in the formation of alcoholic liver disease. Although the formation mechanisms underlying liver injury induced by alcohol still remained largely unknown, it has been considered that oxidative stress played a core role in the pathogenesis of hepatocyte damage. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of soyasaponin Bb (Ss-Bb) on oxidative stress in alcohol-induced rat hepatocyte injury. It has been shown that the administration of Ss-Bb could significantly restore antioxidant activity in BRL 3A cells. Moreover, the impaired liver function and morphology changes resulting from ethanol exposure were improved by Ss-Bb treatment. Treatment with a pharmacological inhibitor of haem oxygenase-1 (HO-1) indicated a critical role of HO-1 in mediating the protective role. Finally, we found that pretreatment with Ss-Bb to ethanol exposure cells increased the expression level of HO-1. It was suggested that Ss-Bb may protect against alcohol-induced hepatocyte injury through ameliorating oxidative stress, and the induction of HO-1 was an important protective mechanism. Effects of soyasaponin Bb was investigated on oxidative stress in rat hepatocytesCell viability and antioxidant capacities were evaluated to determine the effectsThe expression level of HO-1 was measured to reveal the proptective mechanisms.

  1. Oral Nigella sativa oil and thymoquinone administration ameliorates the effect of long-term cisplatin treatment on the enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism, brush border membrane, and antioxidant defense in rat intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, Faaiza; Farooqui, Zeba; Khan, Aijaz Ahmed; Khan, Farah

    2018-02-01

    We have previously shown that oral administration of Nigella sativa oil (NSO) ameliorates the deleterious gastrointestinal effects of cisplatin (CP), administered as a single dose. Since a typical clinical CP dosing regimen involves multiple cycles of CP administration in lower doses, in the present study we investigate the protective efficacy of NSO and its major bioactive constituent, thymoquinone (TQ), against multiple-dose CP treatment-induced deleterious biochemical and histological changes in rat intestine. Rats were divided into six groups, viz., control, CP, CP+NSO, CP+TQ, NSO, and TQ. Animals in CP+NSO and CP+TQ groups were pre-administered NSO (2 ml/kg bwt, orally) and TQ (1.5 mg/kg bwt, orally), respectively, daily for 14 days and were then treated with five repeated doses of CP (3 mg/kg bwt, i.p.), every fourth day for 20 days while still receiving NSO/TQ. CP treatment alone led to a significant decline in specific activities of brush border membrane (BBM) enzymes while NSO or TQ administration to CP-treated rats significantly prevented the decline in BBM enzyme activities in the isolated brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) as well as in mucosal homogenates. Furthermore, both NSO and TQ administration markedly ameliorated CP-induced alterations on carbohydrate metabolism enzymes and the enzymatic and non-enzymatic parameters of antioxidant defense system in the intestinal mucosa. However, NSO appeared to be more efficacious than TQ in protecting against CP-induced gastrointestinal dysfunction. Histopathological findings corroborated the biochemical results. Thus, NSO and TQ may prove clinically useful in amelioration of the intestinal toxicity associated with long-term CP chemotherapy.

  2. Short-Chain Fatty Acids Activate AMP-Activated Protein Kinase and Ameliorate Ethanol-Induced Intestinal Barrier Dysfunction in Caco-2 Cell Monolayers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eamin, E.E.; Masclee, A.A.; Dekker, J.; Pieters, H.J.; Jonkers, D.M.

    2013-01-01

    Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) have been shown to promote intestinal barrier function, but their protective effects against ethanol-induced intestinal injury and underlying mechanisms remain essentially unknown. The aim of the study was to analyze the influence of SCFAs on ethanol-induced barrier

  3. Modulation of intestinal microbiota by the probiotic VSL#3 resets brain gene expression and ameliorates the age-related deficit in LTP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Distrutti

    Full Text Available The intestinal microbiota is increasingly recognized as a complex signaling network that impacts on many systems beyond the enteric system modulating, among others, cognitive functions including learning, memory and decision-making processes. This has led to the concept of a microbiota-driven gut-brain axis, reflecting a bidirectional interaction between the central nervous system and the intestine. A deficit in synaptic plasticity is one of the many changes that occurs with age. Specifically, the archetypal model of plasticity, long-term potentiation (LTP, is reduced in hippocampus of middle-aged and aged rats. Because the intestinal microbiota might change with age, we have investigated whether the age-related deficit in LTP might be attenuated by changing the composition of intestinal microbiota with VSL#3, a probiotic mixture comprising 8 Gram-positive bacterial strains. Here, we report that treatment of aged rats with VSL#3 induced a robust change in the composition of intestinal microbiota with an increase in the abundance of Actinobacteria and Bacterioidetes, which was reduced in control-treated aged rats. VSL#3 administration modulated the expression of a large group of genes in brain tissue as assessed by whole gene expression, with evidence of a change in genes that impact on inflammatory and neuronal plasticity processes. The age-related deficit in LTP was attenuated in VSL#3-treated aged rats and this was accompanied by a modest decrease in markers of microglial activation and an increase in expression of BDNF and synapsin. The data support the notion that intestinal microbiota can be manipulated to positively impact on neuronal function.

  4. Polysaccharides derived from Ganoderma lucidum fungus mycelia ameliorate indomethacin-induced small intestinal injury via induction of GM-CSF from macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Kenta; Ueno, Yoshitaka; Tanaka, Shinji; Hayashi, Ryohei; Shinagawa, Kei; Chayama, Kazuaki

    2017-10-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs often cause ulcers in the human small intestine, but few effective agents exist to treat such injury. Ganoderma lucidum Karst, also known as "Reishi" or "Lingzhi", is a mushroom. We previously reported that a water-soluble extract from G. lucidum fungus mycelia (MAK) has anti-inflammatory effects in murine colitis induced by trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid, and induction of granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) by MAK may provide anti-inflammatory effects. However, its effects on indomethacin-induced small intestinal injuries are unknown. The present study investigated the preventative effects of MAK via immunological function and the polysaccharides from MAK on indomethacin-induced ileitis in mice. Peritoneal macrophages (PMs) were stimulated in vitro with MAK and adoptively transferred to C57BL/6 mice intraperitoneally, which were then given indomethacin. Intestinal inflammation was evaluated after 24h. We performed in vivo antibody blockade to investigate the preventive role of GM-CSF, which derived from PMs stimulated with MAK. We then used PMs stimulated with MAK pre-treated by pectinase in an adoptive transfer assay to determine the preventive role of polysaccharides. Indomethacin-induced small intestinal injury was inhibited by adoptive transfer of PMs stimulated in vitro with MAK. In this transfer model, pre-treatment with anti-GM-CSF antibody but not with control antibody reversed the improvement of small intestinal inflammation by indomethacin. Pectinase pretreatment impaired the anti-inflammatory effect of MAK. PMs stimulated by MAK appear to contribute to the anti-inflammatory response through GM-CSF in small intestinal injury induced by indomethacin. The polysaccharides may be the components that elicit the anti-inflammatory effect. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Role of IRAK-M in alcohol induced liver injury.

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    Yipeng Wang

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence suggests that innate immunity plays an important role in alcohol-induced liver injury and most studies have focused on positive regulation of innate immunity. The main objective of this study was to investigate the negative regulator of innate immunity, IL-1/Toll-like receptor (TLR signaling pathways and interleukin receptor-associated kinase-M (IRAK-M in alcoholic liver injury. We established an alcohol-induced liver injury model using wild type and IRAK-M deficient B6 mice and investigated the possible mechanisms. We found that in the absence of IRAK-M, liver damage by alcohol was worse with higher alanine transaminase (ALT, more immune cell infiltration and increased numbers of IFNγ producing cells. We also found enhanced phagocytic activity in CD68(+ cells. Moreover, our results revealed altered gut bacteria after alcohol consumption and this was more striking in the absence of IRAK-M. Our study provides evidence that IRAK-M plays an important role in alcohol-induced liver injury and IRAK-M negatively regulates the innate and possibly the adaptive immune response in the liver reacting to acute insult by alcohol. In the absence of IRAK-M, the hosts developed worse liver injury, enhanced gut permeability and altered gut microbiota.

  6. Root bark of Ulmus davidiana var. japonica restrains acute alcohol-induced hepatic steatosis onset in mice by inhibiting ROS accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jeong Hoon; Lim, Yejin; Kim, Jun Ho; Heo, Wan; Lee, Ki Yong; Shin, Hye Ji; Kim, Jae Kyeom; Lee, Jin Hyup; Kim, Young Jun

    2017-01-01

    Alcohol-induced hepatic steatosis and inflammation are key drivers of alcohol-induced liver injury, mainly caused by oxidative stress. The roots bark of Ulmus davidiana var. japonica is well known for its substantial antioxidative and antitumorigenic potency. In this study, we examined whether this plant can ameliorate alcohol-induced liver injuries characterized by hepatic steatosis and inflammation through its antioxidative activity. C57BL/6J mice were treated with the root bark extract of Ulmus davidiana var. japonica (RUE; 100 mg of extract/kg bodyweight; oral gavage) and alcohol (1 g/kg of bodyweight; oral gavage) for 5 days. Markers of acute alcohol-induced hepatic steatosis were determined and putative molecular mechanisms responsible for the protection of RUE were investigated. RUE noticeably protected against alcohol-induced hepatic steatosis and inflammation. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), over-produced by alcohol, negatively orchestrated various signaling pathways involved in the lipid metabolism and inflammation. These pathways were restored through the ROS scavenging activity of RUE in the liver. In particular, the expression of lipogenic genes (e.g., SREBP-1, ACC, and FAS) and inflammatory cytokines (e.g., IL-1β, and NF-κB p65) significantly decreased with RUE treatment. Conversely, the expression of fatty acid oxidation-related genes (e.g., SIRT1, AMPKα, and PGC1α) were increased in mice treated with RUE. Thus, the results indicate that RUE counteracts and thus attenuates alcoholic hepatic steatosis onset in mice, possibly by suppressing ROS-mediated steatosis and inflammation.

  7. Root bark of Ulmus davidiana var. japonica restrains acute alcohol-induced hepatic steatosis onset in mice by inhibiting ROS accumulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong Hoon Pan

    Full Text Available Alcohol-induced hepatic steatosis and inflammation are key drivers of alcohol-induced liver injury, mainly caused by oxidative stress. The roots bark of Ulmus davidiana var. japonica is well known for its substantial antioxidative and antitumorigenic potency. In this study, we examined whether this plant can ameliorate alcohol-induced liver injuries characterized by hepatic steatosis and inflammation through its antioxidative activity. C57BL/6J mice were treated with the root bark extract of Ulmus davidiana var. japonica (RUE; 100 mg of extract/kg bodyweight; oral gavage and alcohol (1 g/kg of bodyweight; oral gavage for 5 days. Markers of acute alcohol-induced hepatic steatosis were determined and putative molecular mechanisms responsible for the protection of RUE were investigated. RUE noticeably protected against alcohol-induced hepatic steatosis and inflammation. Reactive oxygen species (ROS, over-produced by alcohol, negatively orchestrated various signaling pathways involved in the lipid metabolism and inflammation. These pathways were restored through the ROS scavenging activity of RUE in the liver. In particular, the expression of lipogenic genes (e.g., SREBP-1, ACC, and FAS and inflammatory cytokines (e.g., IL-1β, and NF-κB p65 significantly decreased with RUE treatment. Conversely, the expression of fatty acid oxidation-related genes (e.g., SIRT1, AMPKα, and PGC1α were increased in mice treated with RUE. Thus, the results indicate that RUE counteracts and thus attenuates alcoholic hepatic steatosis onset in mice, possibly by suppressing ROS-mediated steatosis and inflammation.

  8. Oral administration of caffeic acid ameliorates the effect of cisplatin on brush border membrane enzymes and antioxidant system in rat intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arivarasu, N A; Priyamvada, Shubha; Mahmood, Riaz

    2013-01-01

    Cisplatin (CP) is a widely used antineoplastic drug that exhibits gastrointestinal toxicity. We have previously shown that administration of a single dose of CP results in a decrease in the activities of several brush border membrane (BBM) enzymes, induces oxidative stress and alters the activities of several antioxidant enzymes in the small intestine of rats. In the present study we have investigated the effect of treatment with the dietary antioxidant caffeic acid (CA) on CP induced biochemical changes in the intestine. Administration of a single intraperitoneal dose of CP alone (6 mg/kg body weight) led to a decrease in the activities of the BBM enzymes, increase in lipid peroxidation, decrease in sulfhydryl groups and changes in the activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glutathione reductase, glutathione S-transferase and thioredoxin reductase. Administration of two doses of CA (each of 250 mg/kg body weight), at 15 and 120 min after treatment with CP, significantly attenuated the CP-induced changes in all these parameters but the administration of CA alone had no effect. These results suggest that CA is an effective agent in reducing the effects of CP on the intestine and could prove to be useful in alleviating the gastrointestinal toxicity of this drug. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Oral administration of Nigella sativa oil ameliorates the effect of cisplatin on brush border membrane enzymes, carbohydrate metabolism and antioxidant system in rat intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, Faaiza; Farooqui, Zeba; Rizwan, Sana; Abidi, Subuhi; Parwez, Iqbal; Khan, Farah

    2017-06-14

    Cisplatin (CP) is an effective chemotherapeutic agent that induces gastrointestinal toxicity. Nigella sativa oil (NSO) has been shown to be beneficial in a wide range of gastrointestinal disorders. The present study investigates the possible protective effect of NSO on CP-induced gastrointestinal toxicity. NSO administration (2ml/kg bwt, orally), prior to and following, a single dose CP treatment (6mg/kg bwt. ip), significantly attenuated the CP-induced decrease in brush border membrane (BBM) enzyme activities in intestinal homogenates and BBM vesicles (BBMV). NSO administration also mitigated CP induced alterations in the activities of carbohydrate metabolism enzymes and in the enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant parameters in the intestine. The results suggest that NSO by empowering the endogenous antioxidant system improves intestinal redox and metabolic status and restores BBM integrity in CP treated rats. Histopathological studies supported the biochemical findings. Thus, NSO may help prevent the accompanying gastrointestinal dysfunction in CP chemotherapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Chlorogenic Acid Prevents Alcohol-induced Brain Damage in Neonatal Rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zikang; Li, Jiang

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The present investigation evaluates the neuroprotective effect of chlorogenic acid (CA) in alcohol-induced brain damage in neonatal rats. Ethanol (12 % v/v, 5 g/kg) was administered orally in the wistar rat pups on postnatal days (PD) 7-9. Chlorogenic acid (100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o.) was administered continuously from PD 6 to 28. Cognitive function was estimated by Morris water maze (MWM) test. However, activity of acetylcholinesterase, inflammatory mediators, parameters of oxidative stress and activity of caspase-3 enzyme was estimated in the tissue homogenate of cerebral cortex and hippocampus of ethanol-exposed pups. It has been observed that treatment with CA attenuates the altered cognitive function in ethanol-exposed pups. There was a significant decrease in the activity of acetylcholinesterase in the CA treated group compared to the negative control group. However, treatment with CA significantly ameliorates the increased oxidative stress and concentration of inflammatory mediators in the brain tissues of ethanol-exposed pups. Activity of caspase-3 enzyme was also found significantly decreased in the CA treated group compared to the negative control group. The present study concludes that CA attenuates the neuronal damage induced in alcohol exposed neonatal rat by decreasing the apoptosis of neuronal cells. PMID:29318034

  11. Protective Effects of Korean Red Ginseng against Alcohol-Induced Fatty Liver in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyo Jin Lee

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study tested the hypothesis that Korean red ginseng (KRG provides a protective effect against alcoholic fatty liver. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups and fed a modified Lieber-DeCarli diet containing 5% (w/v alcohol or an isocaloric amount of dextrin-maltose for the controls for 6 weeks: normal control (CON, alcohol control (ET, and ET treated with 125 or 250 mg/kg body weight/day of KRG (RGL or RGH, respectively. Compared with the CON group, the ET group exhibited a significant increase in triglycerides, total cholesterol and the presence of lipid droplets in the liver, and a decrease in fat mass, which were all attenuated by KRG supplementation in adose-dependent manner. The mitigation was accompanied by AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK signaling pathways in the liver and adipose tissue. In addition, suppression in the alcohol-induced changes of adipose adipokine mRNA expression was also observed in KRG supplementation group. These findings suggest that KRG may have the potential to ameliorate alcoholic fatty liver by suppressing inappropriate lysis of adipose tissue and preventing unnecessary de novo lipogenesis in the liver, which are mediated by AMPK signaling pathways. A mechanism for an interplay between the two organs is still needed to be examined with further assays.

  12. IgA against gut-derived endotoxins: does it contribute to suppression of hepatic inflammation in alcohol-induced liver disease?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parlesak, Alexandr; Schäfer, C.; Bode, C.

    2002-01-01

    , endotoxin, and acute-phase proteins were measured in patients with different stages of alcoholic liver disease and in healthy controls. Antibodies of type IgA, but not IgG, against fecal endotoxins were significantly increased in patients with alcohol-induced liver disease. IgA antibodies against fecal......Endotoxins of intestinal origin are supposed to play an important role in the development of alcoholic hepatitis in man. To estimate the role of immunoglobulin response to gut-derived endotoxin in the development of alcohol-induced liver disease, serum levels of IgA and IgG against fecal endotoxin...... endotoxin were found to be closely correlated with the plasma concentrations of alanine aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyl transferase, and C-reactive protein in patients with alcoholic liver disease. In conclusion, as IgA located in body tissue was shown to suppress the inflammatory process, enhanced...

  13. Lower risk for alcohol-induced cirrhosis in wine drinkers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becker, Ulrik; Grønbaek, Morten; Johansen, Ditte

    2002-01-01

    Although there is a well-known relationship between total alcohol intake and future risk for cirrhosis, other factors such as the type of alcohol consumed are sparsely studied. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of wine compared with other types of alcoholic beverages on risk...... for alcohol-induced cirrhosis. In 3 prospective studies, 30,630 participants from the Copenhagen area were followed-up for a total observation time of 417,325 person-years. Information on weekly intake of beer, wine, and spirits, and sex, age, body mass index, smoking habits, and education was obtained from...... with increasing alcohol intake. Individuals who drank more than 5 drinks per day had a relative risk of 14 to 20 for developing cirrhosis compared with non- or light drinkers. However, compared with individuals who drank no wine (relative risk set at 1.0), individuals drinking 16% to 30% wine of their total...

  14. Osteopontin binding to lipopolysaccharide lowers tumor necrosis factor-α and prevents early alcohol-induced liver injury in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ge, Xiadong; Leung, Tung-Ming; Arriazu, Elena

    2014-01-01

    , tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) production, and liver injury. Since OPN is protective for the intestinal mucosa, we postulated that enhancing OPN expression in the liver and consequently in the blood and/or in the gut could protect from early alcohol-induced liver injury. Wild-type (WT), OPN knockout...... score, and the number of macrophages and TNFα+ cells. To establish if OPN could limit LPS availability and its noxious effects in the liver, binding studies were performed. OPN showed binding affinity for LPS which prevented macrophage activation, reactive oxygen, and nitrogen species generation...... by decreased liver-to-body weight ratio, hepatic triglycerides, the steatosis score, oil red-O staining, and lipid peroxidation. There was also less inflammation and liver injury as demonstrated by lower alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity, hepatocyte ballooning degeneration, LPS levels, the inflammation...

  15. Dietary strawberry seed oil affects metabolite formation in the distal intestine and ameliorates lipid metabolism in rats fed an obesogenic diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Jurgoński

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To answer the question whether dietary strawberry seed oil rich in α-linolenic acid and linoleic acid (29.3 and 47.2% of total fatty acids, respectively can beneficially affect disorders induced by the consumption of an obesogenic diet. Design: Thirty-two male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to four groups of eight animals each and fed with a basal or obesogenic (high in fat and low in fiber diet that contained either strawberry seed oil or an edible rapeseed oil. A two-way analysis of variance was then applied to assess the effects of diet and oil and the interaction between them. Results: After 8 weeks of feeding, the obesogenic diet increased the body weight and the liver mass and fat content, whereas decreased the cecal acetate and butyrate concentration. This diet also altered the plasma lipid profile and decreased the liver sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c content. However, the lowest liver SREBP-1c content was observed in rats fed an obesogenic diet containing strawberry seed oil. Moreover, dietary strawberry seed oil decreased the cecal short-chain fatty acid concentrations (acetate, propionate, and butyrate regardless of the diet type, whereas the cecal β-glucuronidase activity was considerably increased only in rats fed an obesogenic diet containing strawberry seed oil. Dietary strawberry seed oil also lowered the liver fat content, the plasma triglyceride level and the atherogenic index of plasma. Conclusions: Strawberry seed oil has a potent lipid-lowering activity but can unfavorably affect microbial metabolism in the distal intestine. The observed effects are partly due to the synergistic action of the oil and the obesogenic diet.

  16. Alcohol induced alterations to the human fecal VOC metabolome.

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    Robin D Couch

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that excessive alcohol consumption impacts the intestinal microbiota composition, causing disruption of homeostasis (dysbiosis. However, this observed change is not indicative of the dysbiotic intestinal microbiota function that could result in the production of injurious and toxic products. Thus, knowledge of the effects of alcohol on the intestinal microbiota function and their metabolites is warranted, in order to better understand the role of the intestinal microbiota in alcohol associated organ failure. Here, we report the results of a differential metabolomic analysis comparing volatile organic compounds (VOC detected in the stool of alcoholics and non-alcoholic healthy controls. We performed the analysis with fecal samples collected after passage as well as with samples collected directly from the sigmoid lumen. Regardless of the approach to fecal collection, we found a stool VOC metabolomic signature in alcoholics that is different from healthy controls. The most notable metabolite alterations in the alcoholic samples include: (1 an elevation in the oxidative stress biomarker tetradecane; (2 a decrease in five fatty alcohols with anti-oxidant property; (3 a decrease in the short chain fatty acids propionate and isobutyrate, important in maintaining intestinal epithelial cell health and barrier integrity; (4 a decrease in alcohol consumption natural suppressant caryophyllene; (5 a decrease in natural product and hepatic steatosis attenuator camphene; and (6 decreased dimethyl disulfide and dimethyl trisulfide, microbial products of decomposition. Our results showed that intestinal microbiota function is altered in alcoholics which might promote alcohol associated pathologies.

  17. Caffeine antagonism of alcohol-induced driving impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liguori, A; Robinson, J H

    2001-07-01

    The extent to which caffeine antagonizes alcohol-induced impairment of simulated automobile driving at the current lowest legal American limit (0.08% BrAC) was the focus of this study. Fifteen adults swallowed a capsule (0, 200, or 400 mg caffeine) then drank a beverage (0.0 or 0.6 g/kg ethanol) in a within-subject, double-blind, randomized procedure. Forty-five minutes later, participants completed a test battery of subjective effects scales, dynamic posturography, critical flicker fusion (CFF), choice reaction time (CRT), divided attention (Stroop test), and simulated driving. Alcohol alone increased ratings of 'dizzy', 'drug effect', and 'high', slowed CRT and brake latency, and increased body sway. Caffeine alone increased ratings of 'alert' and 'jittery', but did not significantly affect body sway or psychomotor performance. Both caffeine doses comparably counteracted alcohol impairment of brake latency but not CRT or body sway. Brake latency with either alcohol-caffeine combination remained significantly longer than that with placebo. Stroop and CFF performance were unaffected by any drug condition. The results suggest that caffeine may increase alertness and improve reaction time after alcohol use but will not completely counteract alcohol impairment in a driver.

  18. The Molecular Circadian Clock and Alcohol-Induced Liver Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uduak S. Udoh

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Emerging evidence from both experimental animal studies and clinical human investigations demonstrates strong connections among circadian processes, alcohol use, and alcohol-induced tissue injury. Components of the circadian clock have been shown to influence the pathophysiological effects of alcohol. Conversely, alcohol may alter the expression of circadian clock genes and the rhythmic behavioral and metabolic processes they regulate. Therefore, we propose that alcohol-mediated disruption in circadian rhythms likely underpins many adverse health effects of alcohol that cut across multiple organ systems. In this review, we provide an overview of the circadian clock mechanism and showcase results from new studies in the alcohol field implicating the circadian clock as a key target of alcohol action and toxicity in the liver. We discuss various molecular events through which alcohol may work to negatively impact circadian clock-mediated processes in the liver, and contribute to tissue pathology. Illuminating the mechanistic connections between the circadian clock and alcohol will be critical to the development of new preventative and pharmacological treatments for alcohol use disorders and alcohol-mediated organ diseases.

  19. Neural and Behavioral Correlates of Alcohol-Induced Aggression Under Provocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Gabriela; Sterzer, Philipp; Marxen, Michael; Zimmermann, Ulrich S; Smolka, Michael N

    2015-12-01

    Although alcohol consumption is linked to increased aggression, its neural correlates have not directly been studied in humans so far. Based on a comprehensive neurobiological model of alcohol-induced aggression, we hypothesized that alcohol-induced aggression would go along with increased amygdala and ventral striatum reactivity and impaired functioning of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) under alcohol. We measured neural and behavioral correlates of alcohol-induced aggression in a provoking vs non-provoking condition with a variant of the Taylor aggression paradigm (TAP) allowing to differentiate between reactive (provoked) and proactive (unprovoked) aggression. In a placebo-controlled cross-over design with moderate alcohol intoxication (~0.6 g/kg), 35 young healthy adults performed the TAP during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Analyses revealed that provoking vs non-provoking conditions and alcohol vs placebo increased aggression and decreased brain responses in the anterior cingulate cortex/dorso-medial PFC (provokingalcoholalcohol specifically increased proactive (unprovoked) but not reactive (provoked) aggression (alcohol × provocation interaction). However, investigation of inter-individual differences revealed (1) that pronounced alcohol-induced proactive aggression was linked to higher levels of aggression under placebo, and (2) that pronounced alcohol-induced reactive aggression was related to increased amygdala and ventral striatum reactivity under alcohol, providing evidence for their role in human alcohol-induced reactive aggression. Our findings suggest that in healthy young adults a liability for alcohol-induced aggression in a non-provoking context might depend on overall high levels of aggression, but on alcohol-induced increased striatal and amygdala reactivity when triggered by provocation.

  20. Alcohol-induced blackout. Phenomenology, biological basis, and gender differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Mark E; Grant, Jon E

    2010-06-01

    Blackouts from acute alcohol ingestion are defined as the inability to recall events that occurred during a drinking episode and are highly prevalent in both alcoholic and nonalcoholic populations. This article reviews the clinical manifestations, epidemiology, risk factors, cognitive impairment, and neurobiology associated with alcohol-induced blackout, with special emphasis on the neurochemical and neurophysiological basis, and gender differences. Two types of blackout have been identified: en bloc, or complete inability to recall events during a time period, and fragmentary, where memory loss is incomplete. The rapidity of rise in blood alcohol concentration is the most robust predictor of blackout. Alcohol impairs different brain functions at different rates, and cognitive and memory performance are differentially impaired by ascending versus descending blood alcohol concentration. Cognitive and memory impairment occurs before motor impairment, possibly explaining how a drinker appearing fully functional can have little subsequent memory. Blackouts are caused by breakdown in the transfer of short-term memory into long-term storage and subsequent retrieval primarily through dose-dependent disruption of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cell activity. The exact mechanism is believed to involve potentiation of gamma-aminobutyric acid-alpha-mediated inhibition and interference with excitatory hippocampal N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor activation, resulting in decreased long-term potentiation. Another possible mechanism involves disrupted septohippocampal theta rhythm activity because of enhanced medial septal area gamma-aminobutyric acid-ergic neurotransmission. Women are more susceptible to blackouts and undergo a slower recovery from cognitive impairment than men, due in part to the effect of gender differences in pharmacokinetics and body composition on alcohol bioavailability.

  1. In vitro and in vivo hepatoprotective effects of the aqueous extract from Taraxacum officinale (dandelion) root against alcohol-induced oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Yanghee; Yoo, Soonam; Yoon, Ho-Geun; Park, Jeongjin; Lee, Yoo-Hyun; Kim, Sunoh; Oh, Kyung-Taek; Lee, Jeongmin; Cho, Hong-Yon; Jun, Woojin

    2010-06-01

    The protective effects of Taraxacum officinale (dandelion) root against alcoholic liver damage were investigated in HepG2/2E1 cells and ICR mice. When an increase in the production of reactive oxygen species was induced by 300 mM ethanol in vitro, cell viability was drastically decreased by 39%. However, in the presence of hot water extract (TOH) from T. officinale root, no hepatocytic damage was observed in the cells treated with ethanol, while ethanol-extract (TOE) did not show potent hepatoprotective activity. Mice, which received TOH (1 g/kg bw/day) with ethanol revealed complete prevention of alcohol-induced hepatotoxicity as evidenced by the significant reductions of serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and lactate dehydrogenase activities compared to ethanol-alone administered mice. When compared to the ethanol-alone treated group, the mice receiving ethanol plus TOH exhibited significant increases in hepatic antioxidant activities, including catalase, glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione. Furthermore, the amelioration of malondialdehyde levels indicated TOH's protective effects against liver damage mediated by alcohol in vivo. These results suggest that the aqueous extract of T. officinale root has protective action against alcohol-induced toxicity in the liver by elevating antioxidative potentials and decreasing lipid peroxidation. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Antioxidant Activity and Protective Effects of Enzyme-Extracted Oudemansiella radiata Polysaccharides on Alcohol-Induced Liver Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuxiu Wang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This work was to examine the antioxidation in vitro and hepatoprotective effects of enzyme-extracted Oudemansiella radiata polysaccharides (En-OPS on alcohol-induced liver damage in mice. The antioxidant activities were determined according to the scavenging effects of En-OPS on hydroxyl, superoxide, and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radicals, and the level of reducing power. En-OPS showed hepatoprotective activities on decreasing the serum levels of aspertate aminotransferase (AST, alamine aminotransferase (ALT, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP, as well as hepatic lipid levels of total cholesterol (TC and triacylglycerols (TG. En-OPS treatment reversed the acute impairment induced by alcohol consumption, including reactive oxygen species (ROS generation, malondialdehyde (MAD, and lipid peroxide (LPO elevation; and superoxide dismutase (SOD, GSH peroxide (GSH-Px, catalase (CAT, and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC impairment. The En-OPS effectively ameliorated alcohol metabolism by activating alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH, and reducing cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1 levels. Furthermore, the histopathological observations also displayed that En-OPS could alleviate liver damage. These results indicated that En-OPS could be suitable to be an ingredient of preventing alcoholic liver diseases (ALD. In addition, the preliminary structure characteristics of En-OPS were also analyzed by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR spectroscopy and a gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID.

  3. Effects of alcohol-induced human peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) pretreated whey protein concentrate (WPC) on oxidative damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Yang-Ming; Chen, Sheng-Yi; Chen, Chien-Hung; Jin, Yi-Ru; Tsai, Shih-Meng; Chen, Ing-Jun; Lee, Jang-Hwa; Chiu, Chzng-Cheng; Tsai, Li-Yu

    2008-09-10

    Excessive alcohol consumption can induce apoptosis in a variety of tissues and influence the antioxidant status in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). This paper investigates the effects of whey protein concentrate (WPC) pretreated in PBMC on the apoptosis and antioxidant status after the treatment of alcohol. The results show that the percentages of apoptotic cells in the alcohol-treated group were higher than those in the group without alcohol treatment. Additionally, there was higher glutathione (GSH) peroxidase (GPx) activity when the PBMC were treated with 300 mg/dL of alcohol. With regard to the activity of GSH reductase (GRx), there was higher activity in the group pretreated with WPC than in the group with the treatment of alcohol only. On the contrary, the levels of GSH were reduced after the treatment of alcohol, but there was a higher level of GSH in the group pretreated with WPC. In this study, it was found that the increased level of GSH in PBMC might not be attributed to the effect of GRx because there was still a higher level of GSH in the group with the treatment of WPC and BCNU (a GRx inhibitor) in this study. The results indicated that PBMC pretreated with WPC might ameliorate alcohol-induced effects such as imbalance of the antioxidant status.

  4. Discovery and identification of potential biomarkers for alcohol-induced oxidative stress based on cellular metabolomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qingping; Wei, Jianteng; Liu, Yewei; Fei, Xiulan; Hao, Yuwei; Pei, Dong; Di, Duolong

    2017-07-01

    Biomarkers involved in alcohol-induced oxidative stress play an important role in alcoholic liver disease prevention and diagnosis. Alcohol-induced oxidative stress in human liver L-02 cells was used to discover the potential biomarkers. Metabolites from L-02 cells induced by alcohol were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. Fourteen metabolites that allowed discrimination between control and model groups were discovered by multivariate statistical data analysis (i.e. principal components analysis, orthogonal partial least-squares discriminate analysis). Based on the retention time, UV spectrum and LC-MS findings of the samples and compared with the authentic standards, eight biomarkers involved in alcohol-induced oxidative stress, namely, malic acid, oxidized glutathione, γ-glutamyl-cysteinyl-glycine, adenosine triphosphate, phenylalanine, adenosine monophosphate, nitrotyrosine and tryptophan, were identified. These biomarkers offered important targets for disease diagnosis and other researches. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Purple potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) anthocyanins attenuate alcohol-induced hepatic injury by enhancing antioxidant defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhihui; Chen, Chen; Wang, Jian; Xie, Wenyan; Wang, Meng; Li, Xinsheng; Zhang, Xiaoying

    2016-01-01

    Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is a serious and challenging health issue. In the past decade, natural components possessing hepatoprotective properties have gained more attention for ALD intervention. In this study, the phytochemical components of anthocyanins from purple potato were assessed using UPLC-MS/MS, and the hepatoprotective effects of purple potato anthocyanins (PPAs) were investigated in the ALD mouse model. Serum and liver biochemical parameters were determined, along with histopathological changes in liver tissue. In addition, the major contributors to alcohol-induced oxidative stress were assessed. The results indicated that the levels of aspartate transaminase and alanine transaminase were lower in the serum of the PPA-treated group than the alcohol-treated group. PPAs significantly inhibited the reduction of total cholesterol and triglycerides. Higher levels of superoxide dismutase and reduced glutathione enzymes as well as a reduction in the formation of malondialdehyde occurred in mice fed with PPAs. In addition, PPAs protected against increased alcohol-induced levels and activity of cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1), which demonstrates the effects of PPAs against alcohol-induced oxidative stress and liver injury. This study suggests that PPAs could be an effective therapeutic agent in alcohol-induced liver injuries by inhibiting CYP2E1 expression and thereby strengthening antioxidant defenses.

  6. Maltol, a Food Flavoring Agent, Attenuates Acute Alcohol-Induced Oxidative Damage in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Han

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the hepatoprotective effect of maltol, a food-flavoring agent, on alcohol-induced acute oxidative damage in mice. Maltol used in this study was isolated from red ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A Meyer and analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and mass spectrometry. For hepatoprotective activity in vivo, pretreatment with maltol (12.5, 25 and 50 mg/kg; 15 days drastically prevented the elevated activities of aspartate transaminase (AST, alanine transaminase (ALT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP and triglyceride (TG in serum and the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, interleukin-1β (IL-1β in liver tissue (p < 0.05. Meanwhile, the levels of hepatic antioxidant, such as catalase (CAT, superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px were elevated by maltol pretreatment, compared to the alcohol group (p < 0.05. Histopathological examination revealed that maltol pretreatment significantly inhibited alcohol-induced hepatocyte apoptosis and fatty degeneration. Interestingly, pretreatment of maltol effectively relieved alcohol-induced oxidative damage in a dose-dependent manner. Maltol appeared to possess promising anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory capacities. It was suggested that the hepatoprotective effect exhibited by maltol on alcohol-induced liver oxidative injury may be due to its potent antioxidant properties.

  7. Inhibitory Effects of Pretreatment with Radon on Acute Alcohol-Induced Hepatopathy in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teruaki Toyota

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We previously reported that radon inhalation activates antioxidative functions in the liver and inhibits carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatopathy in mice. In addition, it has been reported that reactive oxygen species contribute to alcohol-induced hepatopathy. In this study, we examined the inhibitory effects of radon inhalation on acute alcohol-induced hepatopathy in mice. C57BL/6J mice were subjected to intraperitoneal injection of 50% alcohol (5 g/kg bodyweight after inhaling approximately 4000 Bq/m3 radon for 24 h. Alcohol administration significantly increased the activities of glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT, glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT in serum, and the levels of triglyceride and lipid peroxide in the liver, suggesting acute alcohol-induced hepatopathy. Radon inhalation activated antioxidative functions in the liver. Furthermore, pretreatment with radon inhibited the depression of hepatic functions and antioxidative functions. These findings suggested that radon inhalation activated antioxidative functions in the liver and inhibited acute alcohol-induced hepatopathy in mice.

  8. Protective effect of oligomeric proanthocyanidins against alcohol-induced liver steatosis and injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiguo; Su, Bo; Fan, Sumei; Fei, Haixia; Zhao, Wei

    2015-03-20

    The long-term consumption of alcohol has been associated with multiple pathologies at all levels, such as alcoholism, chronic pancreatitis, malnutrition, alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and cancer. In the current study, we investigated the protective effect of oligomeric proanthocyanidins (OPC) against alcohol-induced liver steatosis and injury and the possible mechanisms using ethanol-induced chronic liver damage mouse models. The results showed that OPC significantly improved alcohol-induced dyslipidemia and alleviated liver steatosis by reducing levels of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low-density cholesterol (LDL-c) and liver malondialdehyde (MDA), and increasing levels of serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL-c), liver superoxide dismutase (SOD). Further investigation indicated that OPC markedly decreased the expressions of lipid synthesis genes and inflammation genes such as sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (Srebp-1c), protein-2 (Srebp2), interleukin IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α. Furthermore, AML-12 cells line was used to investigate the possible mechanisms which indicated that OPC might alleviate liver steatosis and damage through AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation involving oxidative stress. In conclusion, our study demonstrated excellent protective effect of OPC against alcohol-induced liver steatosis and injury, which could a potential drug for the treatment of alcohol-induced liver injury in the future. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Maltol, a food flavoring agent, attenuates acute alcohol-induced oxidative damage in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ye; Xu, Qi; Hu, Jiang-ning; Han, Xin-yue; Li, Wei; Zhao, Li-chun

    2015-01-20

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the hepatoprotective effect of maltol, a food-flavoring agent, on alcohol-induced acute oxidative damage in mice. Maltol used in this study was isolated from red ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A Meyer) and analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and mass spectrometry. For hepatoprotective activity in vivo, pretreatment with maltol (12.5, 25 and 50 mg/kg; 15 days) drastically prevented the elevated activities of aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and triglyceride (TG) in serum and the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in liver tissue (p < 0.05). Meanwhile, the levels of hepatic antioxidant, such as catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) were elevated by maltol pretreatment, compared to the alcohol group (p < 0.05). Histopathological examination revealed that maltol pretreatment significantly inhibited alcohol-induced hepatocyte apoptosis and fatty degeneration. Interestingly, pretreatment of maltol effectively relieved alcohol-induced oxidative damage in a dose-dependent manner. Maltol appeared to possess promising anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory capacities. It was suggested that the hepatoprotective effect exhibited by maltol on alcohol-induced liver oxidative injury may be due to its potent antioxidant properties.

  10. Visualization of alcohol-induced rhabdomyolysis: a correlative radiotracer, histochemical, and electron-microscopic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silberstein, E.B.; Bove, K.E.

    1979-01-01

    Technetium-99m diphosphonate was used to visualize the extent of alcohol-induced rhabdomyolysis and its resolution. Transient secondary hyperparathyroidism was documented. Histological and biochemical analyses of skeletal muscle obtained at biopsy 6 days postscan and 9 days after the onset of the illness did not show abnormal calcium content

  11. Irf4-dependent CD103+CD11b+ dendritic cells and the intestinal microbiome regulate monocyte and macrophage activation and intestinal peristalsis in postoperative ileus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pohl, Judith Mira; Gutweiler, Sebastian; Thiebes, Stephanie

    2017-01-01

    and large intestinal POI suggested a potential role of the intestinal microbiota. Indeed, antibiotic treatment reduced iNOS levels and ameliorated POI. Conclusions: Our findings reveal that CD103+CD11b+ DCs and the intestinal microbiome are a prerequisite for the activation of intestinal monocytes...

  12. Modulation of intestinal barrier function to ameliorate Salmonella infection in mice by oral administration of fermented milks produced with Lactobacillus plantarum MTCC 5690 - a probiotic strain of Indian gut origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokana, Namita; Singh, Rajbir; Mallappa, Rashmi Hogarehalli; Batish, Virender Kumar; Grover, Sunita

    2016-12-01

    Probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum MTCC 5690, a probiotic strain of Indian gut origin, and milk formulations produced with the same were explored in this study as biotherapeutics by evaluating their functional efficacy against Salmonella infection in mice. The efficacy of milk formulations (fermented/unfermented) of MTCC 5690 for enhancement of intestinal barrier function was determined by monitoring the permeability and histopathology of the intestine. Infected mice fed with probiotic Dahi, fermented probiotic drink and sweetened fermented probiotic drink maintained the health and integrity of the intestinal epithelium as compared to those fed with PBS, milk, unfermented probiotic milk and Dahi. Our relative expression data revealed that the changes caused by MTCC 5690 in intestinal barrier function components were established through modulation of the key regulatory receptors Toll-like receptor 2 and Toll-like receptor 4. The results suggest that fermented milks of MTCC 5690 could enhance the defences of the intestinal barrier in enteric infection condition and, therefore, can be explored as a dietary-based strategy to reduce Salmonella infection in the human gut.

  13. [Intestinal failure: from adaptation to transplantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messing, B; Corcos, O; Amiot, A; Joly, F

    2009-01-01

    Optimised Home Parenteral Nutrition is still, after 35 years of progress, the of benign but chronic Intestinal Failure. A better recognition of chronic Intestinal Failure, in its multiple facets, is warranted for a better approach of associated treatment to Home Parenteral Nutrition, i.e., intestinal trophic factors (growth hormone, Glucagon Like Peptide-2), rehabilitative surgery (reestablishment of colonic continuity, reverse jejunal segment in severe short gut type II) and/or reconstructive surgery (intestinal transplantation for end stage intestinal failure patients). Boundaries of permanent, judged irreversible, intestinal failure will be certainly modified in the following years by combining the various and effective therapies which optimise management by ameliorating absorption of the remnant short gut. The work done on short bowel syndrome in the past 20 years should be done in the next years for chronic-intestinal - pseudo-obstruction patients presenting with intestinal failure on a large European scale because chronic-intestinal - pseudo-obstruction is a group of heterogeneous but rare intestinal diseases. Intestinal transplantation is now a mature therapy with formal indication especially in case of Home Parenteral Nutrition failure (mainly Home Parenteral Nutrition-associated severe liver disease) where combined Liver-intestine transplantation is indicated before end-stage liver failure occurs. For high-risk patients, "preemptive" indication for intestinal transplantation alone will be discussed before home parenteral nutrition complications occur. No doubt that, for improving overall outcome in intestinal failure patients, reference centres should have in expert hands the whole spectrum of medicosurgical therapies for intestinal failure.

  14. Trace elements in the scalp hair of patients with alcohol induced psychosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradeep, A.S.; Nagaraju, G.J.; Sarita, P.

    2012-01-01

    A number of essential trace elements play a major role in various metabolic pathways and in many diseases like autoimmune, neurological and psychiatric. This study is undertaken with an aim to evaluate the levels of different trace elements in the scalp hair samples of patients suffering from alcohol induced psychosis by particle induced X-ray emission technique (PIXE). It is observed that Fe (p < 0.0005), Cu (p < 0.001) are significantly higher in the hair samples of alcohol induced psychosis patients compared to those in normals while concentrations of Mn (p < 0.005) and Zn (p < 0.0001) are lower. The concentrations of Co and Ni in the hair samples are found to be in consonance with the concentrations in the normals. (author)

  15. Intestinal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... connects your stomach to your large intestine. Intestinal cancer is rare, but eating a high-fat diet ... increase your risk. Possible signs of small intestine cancer include Abdominal pain Weight loss for no reason ...

  16. Alcohol-Induced Impairment of Balance is Antagonized by Energy Drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marczinski, Cecile A; Fillmore, Mark T; Stamates, Amy L; Maloney, Sarah F

    2018-01-01

    The acute administration of alcohol reliably impairs balance and motor coordination. While it is common for consumers to ingest alcohol with other stimulant drugs (e.g., caffeine, nicotine), little is known whether prototypical alcohol-induced balance impairments are altered by stimulant drugs. The purpose of this study was to examine whether the coadministration of a high-caffeine energy drink with alcohol can antagonize expected alcohol-induced increases in body sway. Sixteen social drinkers (of equal gender) participated in 4 separate double-blind dose administration sessions that involved consumption of alcohol and energy drinks, alone and in combination. Following dose administration, participants completed automated assessments of balance stability (both eyes open and eyes closed) measured using the Biosway Portable Balance System. Participants completed several subjective measures including self-reported ratings of sedation, stimulation, fatigue, and impairment. Blood pressure and pulse rate were recorded repeatedly. The acute administration of alcohol increased body sway, and the coadministration of energy drinks antagonized this impairment. When participants closed their eyes, alcohol-induced body sway was similar whether or not energy drinks were ingested. While alcohol administration increased ratings of sedation and fatigue, energy drink administration increased ratings of stimulation and reduced ratings of fatigue. Modest increases in systolic and diastolic blood pressure following energy drink administration were also observed. Visual assessment of balance impairment is frequently used to indicate that an individual has consumed too much alcohol (e.g., as part of police-standardized field sobriety testing or by a bartender assessing when someone should no longer be served more alcohol). The current findings suggest that energy drinks can antagonize alcohol-induced increases in body sway, indicating that future work is needed to determine whether this

  17. [Effect of Dendrobium officinale granule on long-term-alcohol-induced hypertension rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Gui-Yuan; Xia, Chao-Qun; Chen, Su-Hong; Su, Jie; Liu, Xiao-Pang; Li, Bo; Gao, Jian-Li

    2013-10-01

    To observe the effect of Dendrobium officinale granule (DOG) on symptoms, blood pressure and serum biochemical indexes of long-term-alcohol-induced hypertension rats. The alcohol-induced hypertension rat model was established by feeding alcohol drink to normal rats (the alcohol volume fraction increases from 5% to 22%). Since the 4th week, DOG was administered for 32 weeks, once everyday. During the experiment, body weight, kinematic parameters (locomotor activities, grip strength, duration of vertigo) and blood pressures (systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure and mean blood pressure) were detected regularly. On the 28th and 32nd weeks, blood samples were collected to determine serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), uric acid (UA), creatinine (Cr), cholesterol (CH) and triglycerides (TG). (1) Sign: The DOG-administered group showed reduction in the duration of vertigo and increase in appetite, body weight, locomotor activities and grip strength. (2) Blood pressure: The DOG-administered group showed significant decrease in blood pressure since the 8th week. (3) Biochemical indexes: The DOG-administered group showed notable decrease in serum ALT, AST, ALP, Cr, UA, TG level, but without significant change in TC level. The long-term administration of DOG can relieve alcohol-induced hypertension, while alleviating general signs, liver and kidney injuries and abnormal blood fat biochemical indexes.

  18. Alcohol-induced risk taking on the BART mediates alcohol priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Abigail K; Jones, Andrew; Clarke, Natasha; Christiansen, Paul

    2014-06-01

    Hazardous drinking has been associated with risk taking and alcohol priming effects. However, the potential relationship between risk taking and priming has not been investigated. The Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART) is a behavioural measure of risk taking which appears to be associated with drinking behaviour. However, alcohol's acute effects on BART performance are not clear, and the potentially mediating effect of alcohol-induced risk taking on priming has not been tested. To assess the effects of a priming dose of alcohol on BART performance; to determine the predictive utility of the BART on drinking habits; and to identify whether alcohol-induced risk taking mediates alcohol priming (urge to drink). A total of 142 participants provided data on drinking habits and trait-like impulsivity and sensation seeking. The BART was then completed after consuming alcohol (0.6 g/kg) or placebo (between-subjects design). Baseline and post-drink measures of alcohol urge were also taken. Alcohol consumption increased urge to drink (priming) and risk taking on the BART. In the alcohol group only, risk taking on the BART predicted unique variance in weekly alcohol consumption and bingeing. Mediation analysis showed that risk taking following alcohol consumption mediated alcohol priming. This is the first study to show that alcohol acutely increases risk taking on the BART. Results suggest that social drinkers susceptible to alcohol-induced risk taking may be more likely to drink excessively, perhaps due to increased urge to drink (priming).

  19. Protective Effects of Lemon Juice on Alcohol-Induced Liver Injury in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Zhou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic excessive alcohol consumption (more than 40–80 g/day for males and more than 20–40 g/day for females could induce serious liver injury. In this study, effects of lemon juice on chronic alcohol-induced liver injury in mice were evaluated. The serum biochemical profiles and hepatic lipid peroxidation levels, triacylglycerol (TG contents, antioxidant enzyme activities, and histopathological changes were examined for evaluating the hepatoprotective effects of lemon juice in mice. In addition, the in vitro antioxidant capacities of lemon juice were determined. The results showed that lemon juice significantly inhibited alcohol-induced increase of alanine transaminase (ALT, aspartate transaminase (AST, hepatic TG, and lipid peroxidation levels in a dose-dependent manner. Histopathological changes induced by alcohol were also remarkably improved by lemon juice treatment. These findings suggest that lemon juice has protective effects on alcohol-induced liver injury in mice. The protective effects might be related to the antioxidant capacity of lemon juice because lemon juice showed in vitro antioxidant capacity.

  20. Enhanced AMPK phosphorylation contributes to the beneficial effects of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG supernatant on chronic-alcohol-induced fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Wang, Cuiling; Wang, Chunhong; Zhao, Haiyang; Zhao, Cuiqing; Chen, Yongping; Wang, Yuhua; McClain, Craig; Feng, Wenke

    2015-04-01

    We have previously demonstrated that Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG culture supernatant (LGGs) prevents acute-alcohol-exposure-induced hepatic steatosis and injury. The protective effects of LGGs were attributed to the improved intestinal barrier function leading to decreased endotoxemia. The purpose of this study was to determine whether LGGs was effective in protecting against chronic-alcohol-induced hepatic steatosis and injury and to evaluate the underlying mechanisms of LGGs on hepatic lipid metabolism. C57BL/6N mice were fed liquid diet containing 5% alcohol or pair-fed isocaloric maltose dextrin for 4 weeks. LGGs at a dose equivalent to 10(9) CFU/day/mouse was given in the liquid diet. Hepatic steatosis, liver enzymes and hepatic apoptosis were analyzed. LGGs prevented alcohol-mediated increase in hepatic expression of lipogenic genes, sterol regulatory element binding protein-1 and stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 and increased the expression of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-α, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator protein-1α and carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1, leading to increased fatty acid β-oxidation. Importantly, chronic alcohol exposure decreased adenosine-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation and increased acetyl-CoA carboxylase activity, which were attenuated by LGGs administration. LGGs also decreased Bax expression and increased Bcl-2 expression, which attenuated alcohol-induced hepatic apoptosis. These LGGs-regulated molecular changes resulted in the attenuation of chronic-alcohol-exposure-mediated increase in hepatic fat accumulation and liver injury. Probiotic LGG culture supernatant is effective in the prevention of chronic-alcohol-exposure-induced hepatic steatosis and injury. LGGs likely exerts its beneficial effects, at least in part, through modulation of hepatic AMPK activation and Bax/Bcl-2-mediated apoptosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of alcohol-induced working memory decline on alcohol consumption and adverse consequences of use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechner, William V; Day, Anne M; Metrik, Jane; Leventhal, Adam M; Kahler, Christopher W

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol use appears to decrease executive function acutely in a dose-dependent manner, and lower baseline executive function appears to contribute to problematic alcohol use. However, no studies, to our knowledge, have examined the relationship between individual differences in working memory (a subcomponent of executive function) after alcohol consumption and drinking behaviors and consequences. The current study assessed the relationship between drinking behavior, alcohol-related consequences, and alcohol-induced changes in working memory (as assessed by Trail Making Test-B). Participants recruited from the community (n = 41), 57.3 % male, mean age 39.2, took part in a three-session, within-subjects, repeated-measures design. Participants were administered a placebo, 0.4 g/kg, or 0.8 g/kg dose of alcohol. Working memory, past 30-day alcohol consumption, and consequences of alcohol use were measured at baseline; working memory was measured again after each beverage administration. Poorer working memory after alcohol administration (controlling for baseline working memory) was significantly associated with a greater number of drinks consumed per drinking day. Additionally, we observed a significant indirect relationship between the degree of alcohol-induced working memory decline and adverse consequences of alcohol use, which was mediated through greater average drinks per drinking day. It is possible that greater individual susceptibility to alcohol-induced working memory decline may limit one's ability to moderate alcohol consumption as evidenced by greater drinks per drinking day and that this results in more adverse consequences of alcohol use.

  2. The Protective Effect of Cordycepin On Alcohol-Induced Osteonecrosis of the Femoral Head

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Xuan Chen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Alcohol abuse is known to be a leading risk factor for atraumatic osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH, in which the suppression of osteogenesis plays a critical role. Cordycepin benefits bone metabolism; however, there has been no study to determine its effect on osteonecrosis. Methods: Human bone mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs were identified by multi-lineage differentiation. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity, RT-PCR, western blots, immunofluorescent assay and Alizarin red staining of BMSCs were evaluated. A rat model of alcohol-induced ONFH was established to investigate the protective role of cordycepin against ethanol. Hematoxylin & eosin (H&E staining and micro-computerized tomography (micro-CT were performed to observe ONFH. Apoptosis was assessed by TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL. Immunohistochemical staining was carried out to detect OCN and COL1. Results: Ethanol significantly suppressed ALP activity, decreased gene expression of OCN and BMP2, lowered levels of RUNX2 protein, and reduced immunofluorescence staining of OCN and COL1 and calcium formation of hBMSCs. However, these inhibitory effects were attenuated by cordycepin co-treatment at concentrations of 1 and 10 µg/mL Moreover, it was revealed that the osteo-protective effect of cordycepin was associated with modulation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. In vivo, by micro-CT, TUNEL and immunohistochemical staining of OCN and COL1, we found that cordycepin administration prevented alcohol-induced ONFH. Conclusion: Cordycepin treatment to enhance osteogenesis may be considered a potential therapeutic approach to prevent the development of alcohol-induced ONFH.

  3. Biochemical Features of Alcohol-Induced Liver Disease in Native Versus Non-Native Canadians

    OpenAIRE

    GY Minuk; W Thompson

    1990-01-01

    The medical records of 37 native and 40 non-native adult Canadians with alcohol-induced liver disease were reviewed in order to determine whether a biochemical pattern of bile ductular injury (increase in serum alkaline phosphatase levels) was more common and/or severe in native versus non-native Canadians. The results of this retrospective review revealed that serum alkaline phosphatase levels were markedly elevated (at least three tunes the upper limit of normal) in six of 37 (16%) native C...

  4. Novel Akt activator SC-79 is a potential treatment for alcohol-induced osteonecrosis of the femoral head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Xuan; Tao, Shi-Cong; Xu, Zheng-Liang; Yin, Wen-Jing; Zhang, Yue-Lei; Yin, Jun-Hui; Gao, You-Shui; Zhang, Chang-Qing

    2017-05-09

    Alcohol is a leading risk factor for osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH). We explored the molecular mechanisms underlying alcohol-induced ONFH and investigated the protective effect of the novel Akt activator SC-79 against this disease. We found that ethanol inhibited expression of the osteogenic genes RUNX2 and OCN, downregulated osteogenic differentiation, impaired the recruitment of Akt to the plasma membrane, and suppressed Akt phosphorylation at Ser473, thereby inhibiting the Akt/GSK3β/β-catenin signaling pathway in bone mesenchymal stem cells. To assess SC-79's ability to counteract the inhibitory effect of ethanol on Akt-Ser73 phosphorylation, we performed micro-computerized tomography and immunofluorescent staining of osteopontin, osteocalcin and collagen type 1 in a rat model of alcohol-induced ONFH. We found that SC-79 injections inhibited alcohol-induced osteonecrosis. These results show that alcohol-induced ONFH is associated with suppression of p-Akt-Ser473 in the Akt/GSK3β/β-catenin signaling pathway in bone mesenchymal stem cells. We propose that SC-79 treatment to rescue Akt activation could be tested in the clinic as a potential therapeutic approach to preventing the development of alcohol-induced ONFH.

  5. Intestinal Obstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the obstruction along the intestines. Treatment Suction via nasogastric tube Fluids given by vein Surgery for strangulation Sometimes ... nose and placed in the stomach (called a nasogastric tube) or into the intestine. Suction is applied to ...

  6. Alcohol-Induced Disinhibition Expectancies and Impaired Control as Prospective Predictors of Problem Drinking in Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeman, Robert F.; Toll, Benjamin A.; Taylor, Laura A.; Volpicelli, Joseph R.

    2009-01-01

    Trait disinhibition is associated with problem drinking and alcohol drinking itself can bring about a state of disinhibition. It is unclear however, if expectancies of alcohol-induced disinhibition are unique predictors of problem drinking. Impaired control (i.e., difficulty in limiting alcohol consumption) may be related to disinhibition expectancies in that both involve issues of control related to alcohol use. Data from a prospective survey of undergraduates assessed during freshman (N = 337) and senior year (N = 201) were analyzed to determine whether subscales of the Drinking-Induced Disinhibition Scale and the Impaired Control Scale predicted unique variance in heavy episodic drinking and alcohol-related problems. In Time 1 cross-sectional models, dysphoric disinhibition expectancies predicted alcohol-related problems and impaired control predicted both alcohol-related problems and heavy episodic drinking. In prospective models, Time 1 impaired control predicted Time 2 alcohol-related problems and Time 1 euphoric/social disinhibition expectancies predicted Time 2 heavy episodic drinking. These findings suggest that expectancies of alcohol-induced disinhibition and impaired control predict unique variance in problem drinking cross-sectionally and prospectively and that these phenomena should be targeted in early intervention efforts. PMID:20025361

  7. Effects of monoaminergic agonists on alcohol-induced increases in mouse aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, G C; Fisher, H; Pole, N; Borve, T; Johnson, S K

    1993-09-01

    Two sets of studies were conducted on alcohol-induced increases in aggression. In the first, the effects of alcohol on target biting and resident-intruder attack were assessed in mice fed a standard diet or one supplemented with 0.5% L-tryptophan. Mice attacked an inanimate target at a high rate following tail shock, an intermediate rate during the intershock interval and a low rate during a tone that preceded the shock. Alcohol increased target biting following shock and during the intershock interval, an effect partially blocked by tryptophan. Resident mice attacked intruders 27.2 +/- 5.3 times per 10-minute session with an average latency of 155 +/- 42 seconds. Alcohol increased the number of attacks and lowered the latency to the first attack. Again, tryptophan partially blocked these effects. Finally, in a second set of mice, the same tryptophan diet was found to potentiate the aggression-reducing effects of fluoxetine and fenfluramine without disrupting motor performance. In the second study, the effects of alcohol administered alone or in combination with tyramine were assessed in the resident-intruder paradigm. Again, it was observed that low doses of alcohol increased the resident attack of intruders. Although this effect was heightened by the co-administration of tyramine, the effect failed to reach statistical significance. These observations are discussed in reference to alcohol-induced increases in offensive and defensive aggression and the possible modulation of this effect by brain monoamines.

  8. Alcohol-induced histone acetylation reveals a gene network involved in alcohol tolerance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Ghezzi

    Full Text Available Sustained or repeated exposure to sedating drugs, such as alcohol, triggers homeostatic adaptations in the brain that lead to the development of drug tolerance and dependence. These adaptations involve long-term changes in the transcription of drug-responsive genes as well as an epigenetic restructuring of chromosomal regions that is thought to signal and maintain the altered transcriptional state. Alcohol-induced epigenetic changes have been shown to be important in the long-term adaptation that leads to alcohol tolerance and dependence endophenotypes. A major constraint impeding progress is that alcohol produces a surfeit of changes in gene expression, most of which may not make any meaningful contribution to the ethanol response under study. Here we used a novel genomic epigenetic approach to find genes relevant for functional alcohol tolerance by exploiting the commonalities of two chemically distinct alcohols. In Drosophila melanogaster, ethanol and benzyl alcohol induce mutual cross-tolerance, indicating that they share a common mechanism for producing tolerance. We surveyed the genome-wide changes in histone acetylation that occur in response to these drugs. Each drug induces modifications in a large number of genes. The genes that respond similarly to either treatment, however, represent a subgroup enriched for genes important for the common tolerance response. Genes were functionally tested for behavioral tolerance to the sedative effects of ethanol and benzyl alcohol using mutant and inducible RNAi stocks. We identified a network of genes that are essential for the development of tolerance to sedation by alcohol.

  9. Vagotomy plus Bilroth II gastrectomy for the prevention of recurrent alcohol-induced pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, H H; Mullins, R J; Scovill, W A

    1985-06-01

    Three retrospective reviews documenting a lessened frequency of acute recurrent alcohol-induced pancreatitis following vagotomy, with or without gastrectomy or gastroenterostomy, prompted a prospective evaluation of truncal vagotomy with Bilroth II gastrectomy as a means of preventing such exacerbations. Randomization between operation and encouragement to abstain from alcohol in patients with a history of more than one, but less than ten, acute bouts of alcohol-induced pancreatitis was set by odd-even digits in the hospital number. Of 176 patients admitted with acute alcoholic pancreatitis during 23 months of study, 49 were excluded because of too few or too many prior attacks. Another 61 refused to enter the study. At least one (average 1.9) recurrence requiring hospitalization was noted in 49, or 80%, of these patients on follow-up for 2 to 26 months (average 14 months). Of the 66 who consented to participate, 33 were randomized not to undergo operation and had almost identical recurrence statistics (i.e., an average of 1.7 recurrences in 24, or 73%). By contrast, only two of 31, or six per cent, allocated to operation have experienced a recurrence (p less than 0.001). Two who had been randomized were excluded because of persisting active pancreatitis.

  10. Cannabidiol protects liver from binge alcohol-induced steatosis by mechanisms including inhibition of oxidative stress and increase in autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lili; Rozenfeld, Raphael; Wu, Defeng; Devi, Lakshmi A; Zhang, Zhenfeng; Cederbaum, Arthur

    2014-03-01

    Acute alcohol drinking induces steatosis, and effective prevention of steatosis can protect liver from progressive damage caused by alcohol. Increased oxidative stress has been reported as one mechanism underlying alcohol-induced steatosis. We evaluated whether cannabidiol, which has been reported to function as an antioxidant, can protect the liver from alcohol-generated oxidative stress-induced steatosis. Cannabidiol can prevent acute alcohol-induced liver steatosis in mice, possibly by preventing the increase in oxidative stress and the activation of the JNK MAPK pathway. Cannabidiol per se can increase autophagy both in CYP2E1-expressing HepG2 cells and in mouse liver. Importantly, cannabidiol can prevent the decrease in autophagy induced by alcohol. In conclusion, these results show that cannabidiol protects mouse liver from acute alcohol-induced steatosis through multiple mechanisms including attenuation of alcohol-mediated oxidative stress, prevention of JNK MAPK activation, and increasing autophagy. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Saturation of retinol-binding protein correlates closely to the severity of alcohol-induced liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagnerberger, S.; Schäfer, C.; Bode, C.

    2006-01-01

    Impaired metabolism of retinol has been shown to occur in alcohol-induced liver disease (ALD). The purpose of the present study was to investigate the saturation of retinol-binding protein (RBP) in 6 patients with different stages of ALD. Hospitalized alcohol consumers (n=118) with different stages......: 43.5+/-6.2%; ALD3: 29.0+/-5.1%). The present study indicates that plasma concentrations of retinol and RBP per se do not correlate to severity of ALD, but rather that the retinol/RBP ratio links to the severity of alcohol-induced liver damage. From these results, a reduced availability of retinol...

  12. Modulation of Intestinal Microbiome Prevents Intestinal Ischemic Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Bertacco

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Butyrate protects against ischemic injury to the small intestine by reducing inflammation and maintaining the structure of the intestinal barrier, but is expensive, short-lived, and cannot be administered easily due to its odor. Lactate, both economical and more palatable, can be converted into butyrate by the intestinal microbiome. This study aimed to assess in a rat model whether lactate perfusion can also protect against intestinal ischemia.Materials and Methods: Rat intestinal segments were loaded in an in vitro bowel perfusion device, and water absorption or secretion was assessed based on fluorescence of FITC-inulin, a fluorescent marker bound to a biologically inert sugar. Change in FITC concentration was used as a measure of ischemic injury, given the tendency of ischemic cells to retain water. Hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections at light level microscopy were examined to evaluate intestinal epithelium morphology. Comparisons between the data sets were paired Student t-tests or ANOVA with p < 0.05 performed on GraphPad.Results: Lactate administration resulted in a protective effect against intestinal ischemia of similar magnitude to that observed with butyrate. Both exhibited approximately 1.5 times the secretion exhibited by control sections (p = 0.03. Perfusion with lactate and methoxyacetate, a specific inhibitor of lactate-butyrate conversion, abolished this effect (p = 0.09. Antibiotic treatment also eliminated this effect, rendering lactate-perfused sections similar to control sections (p = 0.72. Perfusion with butyrate and methoxyacetate did not eliminate the observed increased secretion, which indicates that ischemic protection was mediated by microbial conversion of lactate to butyrate (p = 0.71.Conclusions: Lactate's protective effect against intestinal ischemia due to microbial conversion to butyrate suggests possible applications in the transplant setting for reducing ischemic injury and ameliorating intestinal

  13. Alcohol-induced changes in opioid peptide levels in adolescent rats are dependent on housing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm, Sara; Nylander, Ingrid

    2014-12-01

    Endogenous opioids are implicated in the mechanism of action of alcohol and alcohol affects opioids in a number of brain areas, although little is known about alcohol's effects on opioids in the adolescent brain. One concern, in particular when studying young animals, is that alcohol intake models often are based on single housing that may result in alcohol effects confounded by the lack of social interactions. The aim of this study was to investigate short- and long-term alcohol effects on opioids and the influence of housing conditions on these effects. In the first part, opioid peptide levels were measured after one 24-hour session of single housing and 2-hour voluntary alcohol intake in adolescent and adult rats. In the second part, a model with a cage divider inserted during 2-hour drinking sessions was tested and the effects on opioids were examined after 6 weeks of adolescent voluntary intake in single-and pair-housed rats, respectively. The effects of single housing were age specific and affected Met-enkephalin-Arg(6) Phe(7) (MEAP) in particular. In adolescent rats, it was difficult to distinguish between effects induced by alcohol and single housing, whereas alcohol-specific effects were seen in dynorphin B (DYNB), beta-endorphin (BEND), and MEAP levels in adults. Voluntary drinking affected several brain areas and the majority of alcohol-induced effects were not dependent on housing. However, alcohol effects on DYNB and BEND in the amygdala were dependent on housing. Housing alone affected MEAP in the cingulate cortex. Age-specific housing- and alcohol-induced effects on opioids were found. In addition, prolonged voluntary alcohol intake under different housing conditions produced several alcohol-induced effects independent of housing. However, housing-dependent effects were found in areas implicated in stress, emotionality, and alcohol use disorder. Housing condition and age may therefore affect the reasons and underlying mechanisms for drinking and

  14. Effects of Various Drugs on Alcohol-induced Oxidative Stress in the Liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Trivic

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The major aim of this work was to investigate how alcohol-induced oxidative stress in combined chemotherapy changes the metabolic function of the liver in experimental animals. This research was conducted to establish how bromocriptine, haloperidol and azithromycin, applied to the experimental model, affected the antioxidative status of the liver. The following parameters were determined: reduced glutathione, activities of glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, peroxidase, catalase, xanthine oxidase and lipid peroxidation intensity. Alanine transaminase was measured in serum. Alcohol stress (AO group reduced glutathione and the activity of xanthine oxidase and glutathione peroxidase, but increased catalase and alanine transaminase activity. The best protective effect was achieved with the bromocriptine (AB1 group, while other groups had similar effects on the studied parameters.

  15. Alcohol-Induced Memory Blackouts as an Indicator of Injury Risk among College Drinkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundt, Marlon P.; Zakletskaia, Larissa I.; Brown, David D.; Fleming, Michael F.

    2011-01-01

    Objective An alcohol-induced memory blackout represents an amnesia to recall events but does not involve a loss of consciousness. Memory blackouts are a common occurrence among college drinkers, but it is not clear if a history of memory blackouts is predictive of future alcohol-related injury above and beyond the risk associated with heavy drinking episodes. This analysis sought to determine if baseline memory blackouts can prospectively identify college students with alcohol-related injury in the next 24 months after controlling for heavy drinking days. Methods Data were analyzed from the College Health Intervention Project Study (CHIPS), a randomized controlled trial of screening and brief physician intervention for problem alcohol use among 796 undergraduate and 158 graduate students at four university sites in the US and one in Canada, conducted from 2004 to 2009. Multivariate analyses used generalized estimating equations (GEE) with the logit link. Results The overall 24-month alcohol-related injury rate was 25.6%, with no significant difference between males and females (p=.51). Alcohol-induced memory blackouts at baseline exhibited a significant dose-response on odds of alcohol-related injury during follow-up, increasing from 1.57 (95% CI: 1.13–2.19) for subjects reporting 1–2 memory blackouts at baseline to 2.64 (95% CI: 1.65–4.21) for students acknowledging 6+ memory blackouts at baseline. The link between memory blackouts and injury was mediated by younger age, prior alcohol-related injury, heavy drinking, and sensation-seeking disposition. Conclusions Memory blackouts are a significant predictor of future alcohol-related injury among college drinkers after adjusting for heavy drinking episodes. PMID:21708813

  16. Intestine transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeja Pintar

    2011-02-01

    Conclusion: Intestine transplantation is reserved for patients with irreversible intestinal failure due to short gut syndrome requiring total paranteral nutrition with no possibility of discontinuation and loss of venous access for patient maintenance. In these patients complications of underlying disease and long-term total parenteral nutrition are present.

  17. Pathological mechanisms of alcohol-induced hepatic portal hypertension in early stage fibrosis rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Niu, Jian-Zhao; Wang, Ji-Feng; Li, Yu; Tao, Xiao-Hua

    2005-11-07

    To study the role of hepatic sinusoidal capillarization and perisinusoidal fibrosis in rats with alcohol-induced portal hypertension and to discuss the pathological mechanisms of alcohol-induced hepatic portal hypertension. Fifty SD rats were divided into control group (n=20) and model group (n=30). Alcoholic liver fibrosis rat model was induced by intragastric infusion of a mixture containing alcohol, corn oil and pyrazole (1 000:250:3). Fifteen rats in each group were killed at wk 16. The diameter and pressure of portal vein were measured. Plasma hyaluronic acid (HA), type IV collagen (CoIV) and laminin (LN) were determined by radioimmunoassay. Liver tissue was fixed in formalin (10%) and 6-mum thick sections were routinely stained with Mallory and Sirius Red. Liver tissue was treated with rabbit polyclonal antibody against LN and ColIV. Hepatic non-parenchymal cells were isolated, total protein was extracted and separated by SDS-PAGE. MMP-2 and TIMP-1 protein expression was estimated by Western blotting. The diameter (2.207+/-0.096 vs 1.528+/-0.054 mm, Pportal vein were significantly higher in model group than those in the control group. Plasma HA (129.97+/-16.10 vs 73.09+/-2.38 ng/mL, Pmodel group. Abundant collagen deposited around the central vein of lobules, hepatic sinusoids and hepatocytes in model group. ColI and ColIII increased remarkably and perisinusoids were almost surrounded by ColIII. Immunohistochemical staining showed that ColIV protein level (0.130+/-0.007 vs 0.032+/-0.004, Pprotein level (0.152+/-0.005 vs 0.029+/-0.005, Pmodel group. MMP-2 protein expression (2.306+/-1.089 vs 0.612+/-0.081, Pprotein expression (3.015+/-1.364 vs 0.446+/-0.009, Pmodel group and TIMP-1 protein expression was evidently higher than MMP-2 protein expression (2.669+/-0.170 vs 1.695+/-0.008, Pportal hypertension in rats.

  18. Protective function of complement against alcohol-induced rat liver damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bykov, Igor L; Väkevä, Antti; Järveläinen, Harri A; Meri, Seppo; Lindros, Kai O

    2004-11-01

    The complement system can promote tissue damage or play a homeostatic role in the clearance and disposal of damaged tissue. We assessed the role of the terminal complement pathway in alcohol-induced liver damage in complement C6 (C6-/-) genetically deficient rats. C6-/- and corresponding C6+/+ rats were continuously exposed to ethanol by feeding ethanol-supplemented liquid diet for six weeks. Liver samples were analyzed for histopathology and complement component deposition by immunofluorescence microscopy. Prostaglandin E receptors and cytokine mRNA levels were analyzed by RT-PCR and plasma cytokines by ELISA. Deposition of complement components C1, C3, C8 and C9 was observed in C6+/+ rats, but not in C6-/- animals. The histopathological changes, the liver weight increase and the elevation of the plasma pro-/anti-inflammatory TNF-alpha/IL-10 ratio were, on the other hand, more marked in C6-/- rats. Furthermore, ethanol enhanced the hepatic mRNA expression of the prostaglandin E receptors EP2R and EP4R exclusively in the C6-/- rats. Our results indicate that a deficient terminal complement pathway predisposes to tissue injury and promotes a pro-inflammatory cytokine response. This suggests that an intact complement system has a protective function in the development of alcoholic liver damage.

  19. Alcohol-induced structural transitions in the acid-denatured Bacillus licheniformis α-amylase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adyani Azizah Abd Halim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol-induced structural changes in the acid-denatured Bacillus licheniformis α-amylase (BLA at pH 2.0 were studied by far-ultra violet circular dichroism, intrinsic, three-dimensional and 8-anilino-1-naphthalene sulfonic acid (ANS fluorescence, acrylamide quenching and thermal denaturation. All the alcohols used in this study produced partial refolding in the acid-denatured BLA as evident from the increased mean residue ellipticity at 222 nm, increased intrinsic fluorescence and decreased ANS fluorescence. The order of effectiveness of these alcohols to induce a partially folded state of BLA was found to be: 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol/tert-butanol > 1-propanol/2-propanol > 2-chloroethanol > ethanol > methanol. Three-dimensional fluorescence and acrylamide quenching results obtained in the presence of 5.5 M tert-butanol also suggested formation of a partially folded state in the acid-denatured BLA. However, 5.5 M tert-butanol-induced state of BLA showed a non-cooperative thermal transition. All these results suggested formation of a partially folded state of the acid-denatured BLA in the presence of these alcohols. Furthermore, their effectiveness was found to be guided by their chain length, position of methyl groups and presence of the substituents.

  20. Intestinal Ischemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... weight loss Intestinal ischemia Symptoms & causes Diagnosis & treatment Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...

  1. miR-339-5p inhibits alcohol-induced brain inflammation through regulating NF-κB pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yu [Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated School of Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150001 (China); Wei, Guangkuan [Department of Neurology, Heilongjiang Provincial Hospital, Harbin 150036 (China); Di, Zhiyong [Department of Laboratory, Heilongjiang Provincial Hospital, Harbin 150036 (China); Zhao, Qingjie, E-mail: zhaoqingjie2013@163.com [Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated School of Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2014-09-26

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Alcohol upregulates miR-339-5p expression. • miR-339-5p inhibits the NF-kB pathway. • miR-339-5p interacts with and blocks activity of IKK-beat and IKK-epsilon. • miR-339-5p modulates IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α. - Abstract: Alcohol-induced neuroinflammation is mediated by the innate immunesystem. Pro-inflammatory responses to alcohol are modulated by miRNAs. The miRNA miR-339-5p has previously been found to be upregulated in alcohol-induced neuroinflammation. However, little has been elucidated on the regulatory functions of this miRNA in alcohol-induced neuroinflammation. We investigated the function of miR-339-5p in alcohol exposed brain tissue and isolated microglial cells using ex vivo and in vitro techniques. Our results show that alcohol induces transcription of miR 339-5p, IL-6, IL-1β and TNF-α in mouse brain tissue and isolated microglial cells by activating NF-κB. Alcohol activation of NF-κB allows for nuclear translocation of the NF-κB subunit p65 and expression of pro-inflammatory mediators. miR-339-5p inhibited expression of these pro-inflammatory factors through the NF-κB pathway by abolishing IKK-β and IKK-ε activity.

  2. miR-339-5p inhibits alcohol-induced brain inflammation through regulating NF-κB pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yu; Wei, Guangkuan; Di, Zhiyong; Zhao, Qingjie

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Alcohol upregulates miR-339-5p expression. • miR-339-5p inhibits the NF-kB pathway. • miR-339-5p interacts with and blocks activity of IKK-beat and IKK-epsilon. • miR-339-5p modulates IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α. - Abstract: Alcohol-induced neuroinflammation is mediated by the innate immunesystem. Pro-inflammatory responses to alcohol are modulated by miRNAs. The miRNA miR-339-5p has previously been found to be upregulated in alcohol-induced neuroinflammation. However, little has been elucidated on the regulatory functions of this miRNA in alcohol-induced neuroinflammation. We investigated the function of miR-339-5p in alcohol exposed brain tissue and isolated microglial cells using ex vivo and in vitro techniques. Our results show that alcohol induces transcription of miR 339-5p, IL-6, IL-1β and TNF-α in mouse brain tissue and isolated microglial cells by activating NF-κB. Alcohol activation of NF-κB allows for nuclear translocation of the NF-κB subunit p65 and expression of pro-inflammatory mediators. miR-339-5p inhibited expression of these pro-inflammatory factors through the NF-κB pathway by abolishing IKK-β and IKK-ε activity

  3. Hepatic overproduction of 13-HODE due to ALOX15 upregulation contributes to alcohol-induced liver injury in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Wenliang; Zhong, Wei; Sun, Qian; Sun, Xinguo; Zhou, Zhanxiang

    2017-01-01

    Chronic alcohol feeding causes lipid accumulation and apoptosis in the liver. This study investigated the role of bioactive lipid metabolites in alcohol-induced liver damage and tested the potential of targeting arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase (ALOX15) in treating alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Results showed that chronic alcohol exposure induced hepatocyte apoptosis in association with increased hepatic 13-HODE. Exposure of 13-HODE to Hepa-1c1c7 cells induced oxidative stress, ER stress and apo...

  4. Intestinal Coccidia

    OpenAIRE

    MJ Ggaravi

    2007-01-01

    Intestinal Coccidia are a subclass of Apicomplexa phylum. Eucoccidida are facultative heteroxenous, but some of them are monoxenous. They have sexual and asexual life cycle. Some coccidia are human pathogens, for example: Cryptosporidium: Cryptosporidiums has many species that are mammalian intestinal parasites.C. Parvum specie is a human pathogenic protozoa. Cryptosporidum has circle or ellipse shapes and nearly 4-6 mm. It is transmitted in warm seasons. Oocyst is obtained insexual life cycl...

  5. Antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of A. cerana honey against acute alcohol-induced liver damage in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Haoan; Cheng, Ni; He, Liangliang; Peng, Guoxia; Xue, Xiaofeng; Wu, Liming; Cao, Wei

    2017-11-01

    A. cerana honey, gathered from Apis cerana Fabricius (A. cerana), has not been fully studied. Samples of honey originating from six geographical regions (mainly in the Qinling Mountains of China) were investigated to determine their antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects against acute alcohol-induced liver damage. The results showed that A. cerana honeys from the Qinling Mountains had high total phenolic contents (345.1-502.1mgGAkg -1 ), ascorbic acid contents (153.8-368.4mgkg -1 ), and strong antioxidant activities in DPPH radical scavenging activity assays (87.5-136.2IC50mgmL -1 ), ferric reducing antioxidant powers (191.8-317.4mgTroloxkg -1 ), and ferrous ion-chelating activities (27.5-35.5mgNa 2 EDTAkg -1 ). Pretreatment with A. cerana honey (Qinling Mountains) at 5, 10, or 20gkg -1 twice daily for 12weeks significantly inhibited serum lipoprotein oxidation and increased serum radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) (Phoney inhibited acute alcohol-induced increases in alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in serum (Pproduction of hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) (Phoney prevents acute alcohol-induced liver damage likely because of its antioxidant properties and ability to prevent oxidative stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Hepatic overproduction of 13-HODE due to ALOX15 upregulation contributes to alcohol-induced liver injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenliang; Zhong, Wei; Sun, Qian; Sun, Xinguo; Zhou, Zhanxiang

    2017-08-21

    Chronic alcohol feeding causes lipid accumulation and apoptosis in the liver. This study investigated the role of bioactive lipid metabolites in alcohol-induced liver damage and tested the potential of targeting arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase (ALOX15) in treating alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Results showed that chronic alcohol exposure induced hepatocyte apoptosis in association with increased hepatic 13-HODE. Exposure of 13-HODE to Hepa-1c1c7 cells induced oxidative stress, ER stress and apoptosis. 13-HODE also perturbed proteins related to lipid metabolism. HODE-generating ALOX15 was up-regulated by chronic alcohol exposure. Linoleic acid, but not ethanol or acetaldehyde, induced ALOX15 expression in Hepa-1c1c7 cells. ALOX15 knockout prevented alcohol-induced liver damage via attenuation of oxidative stress, ER stress, lipid metabolic disorder, and cell death signaling. ALOX15 inhibitor (PD146176) treatment also significantly alleviated alcohol-induced oxidative stress, lipid accumulation and liver damage. These results demonstrated that activation of ALOX15/13-HODE circuit critically mediates the pathogenesis of ALD. This study suggests that ALOX15 is a potential molecular target for treatment of ALD.

  7. Intestinal ameliorative effects of traditional Ogi-tutu, Vernonia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Cholera, a severe acute watery diarrhea caused by Vibrio cholerae is endemic in Nigeria with most cases occurring in the rural areas. In South West Nigeria, some individuals resort to alternative treatments such as Ogi-tutu, Psidium guajava and Vernonia amygdalina during infections. The effectiveness of ...

  8. The Gastrointestinal Microbiome: Alcohol Effects on the Composition of Intestinal Microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engen, Phillip A; Green, Stefan J; Voigt, Robin M; Forsyth, Christopher B; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2015-01-01

    The excessive use of alcohol is a global problem causing many adverse pathological health effects and a significant financial health care burden. This review addresses the effect of alcohol consumption on the microbiota in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Although data are limited in humans, studies highlight the importance of changes in the intestinal microbiota in alcohol-related disorders. Alcohol-induced changes in the GIT microbiota composition and metabolic function may contribute to the well-established link between alcohol-induced oxidative stress, intestinal hyperpermeability to luminal bacterial products, and the subsequent development of alcoholic liver disease (ALD), as well as other diseases. In addition, clinical and preclinical data suggest that alcohol-related disorders are associated with quantitative and qualitative dysbiotic changes in the intestinal microbiota and may be associated with increased GIT inflammation, intestinal hyperpermeability resulting in endotoxemia, systemic inflammation, and tissue damage/organ pathologies including ALD. Thus, gut-directed interventions, such as probiotic and synbiotic modulation of the intestinal microbiota, should be considered and evaluated for prevention and treatment of alcohol-associated pathologies.

  9. Small Intestine Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disease Crohn's disease Infections Intestinal cancer Intestinal obstruction Irritable bowel syndrome Ulcers, such as peptic ulcer Treatment of disorders of the small intestine depends on the cause.

  10. p53 pathway determines the cellular response to alcohol-induced DNA damage in MCF-7 breast cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ming; Howard, Erin W.; Guo, Zhiying; Parris, Amanda B.; Yang, Xiaohe

    2017-01-01

    Alcohol consumption is associated with increased breast cancer risk; however, the underlying mechanisms that contribute to mammary tumor initiation and progression are unclear. Alcohol is known to induce oxidative stress and DNA damage; likewise, p53 is a critical modulator of the DNA repair pathway and ensures genomic integrity. p53 mutations are frequently detected in breast and other tumors. The impact of alcohol on p53 is recognized, yet the role of p53 in alcohol-induced mammary carcinogenesis remains poorly defined. In our study, we measured alcohol-mediated oxidative DNA damage in MCF-7 cells using 8-OHdG and p-H2AX foci formation assays. p53 activity and target gene expression after alcohol exposure were determined using p53 luciferase reporter assay, qPCR, and Western blotting. A mechanistic study delineating the role of p53 in DNA damage response and cell cycle arrest was based on isogenic MCF-7 cells stably transfected with control (MCF-7/Con) or p53-targeting siRNA (MCF-7/sip53), and MCF-7 cells that were pretreated with Nutlin-3 (Mdm2 inhibitor) to stabilize p53. Alcohol treatment resulted in significant DNA damage in MCF-7 cells, as indicated by increased levels of 8-OHdG and p-H2AX foci number. A p53-dependent signaling cascade was stimulated by alcohol-induced DNA damage. Moderate to high concentrations of alcohol (0.1–0.8% v/v) induced p53 activation, as indicated by increased p53 phosphorylation, reporter gene activity, and p21/Bax gene expression, which led to G0/G1 cell cycle arrest. Importantly, compared to MCF-7/Con cells, alcohol-induced DNA damage was significantly enhanced, while alcohol-induced p21/Bax expression and cell cycle arrest were attenuated in MCF-7/sip53 cells. In contrast, inhibition of p53 degradation via Nutlin-3 reinforced G0/G1 cell cycle arrest in MCF-7 control cells. Our study suggests that functional p53 plays a critical role in cellular responses to alcohol-induced DNA damage, which protects the cells from DNA damage

  11. Human neutrophil peptide-1 promotes alcohol-induced hepatic fibrosis and hepatocyte apoptosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rie Ibusuki

    Full Text Available Neutrophil infiltration of the liver is a typical feature of alcoholic liver injury. Human neutrophil peptide (HNP-1 is an antimicrobial peptide secreted by neutrophils. The aim of this study was to determine if HNP-1 affects ethanol-induced liver injury and to examine the mechanism of liver injury induced by HNP-1.Transgenic (TG mice expressing HNP-1 under the control of a β-actin-based promoter were established. Ethanol was orally administered to HNP-1 TG or wild-type C57BL/6N (WT mice. SK-Hep1 hepatocellular carcinoma cells were used to investigate the effect of HNP-1 on hepatocytes in vitro.After 24 weeks of ethanol intake, hepatic fibrosis and hepatocyte apoptosis were significantly more severe in TG mice than in WT mice. Levels of CD14, TLR4, and IL-6 in liver tissues were higher in TG mice than in WT mice. Apoptosis was accompanied by higher protein levels of caspase-3, caspase-8, and cleaved PARP in liver tissue. In addition, phosphorylated ASK1, ASK1, phosphorylated JNK, JNK1, JNK2, Bax, Bak and Bim were all more abundant in TG mice than in WT mice. In contrast, the level of anti-apoptotic Bcl2 in the liver was significantly lower in TG mice than in WT mice. Analysis of microRNAs in liver tissue showed that miR-34a-5p expression was significantly higher in TG mice than in WT mice. Furthermore, in the presence of ethanol, HNP-1 increased the apoptosis with the decreased level of Bcl2 in a concentration-dependent manner in vitro.HNP-1 secreted by neutrophils may exacerbate alcohol-induced hepatic fibrosis and hepatocyte apoptosis with a decrease in Bcl2 expression and an increase in miR-34a-5p expression.

  12. Peripherally circulating ghrelin does not mediate alcohol-induced reward and alcohol intake in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerlhag, Elisabet; Ivanoff, Lisa; Vater, Axel; Engel, Jörgen A

    2014-04-01

    Development of alcohol dependence, a chronic and relapsing disease, largely depends on the effects of alcohol on the brain reward systems. By elucidating the mechanisms involved in alcohol use disorder, novel treatment strategies may be developed. Ghrelin, the endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1A, acts as an important regulator of energy balance. Recently ghrelin and its receptor were shown to mediate alcohol reward and to control alcohol consumption in rodents. However, the role of central versus peripheral ghrelin for alcohol reward needs to be elucidated. Given that ghrelin mainly is produced by peripheral organs, the present study was designed to investigate the role of circulating endogenous ghelin for alcohol reward and for alcohol intake in rodents. We showed that the Spiegelmer NOX-B11-2, which binds and neutralizes acylated ghrelin in the periphery with high affinity and thus prevents its brain access, does not attenuate the alcohol-induced locomotor activity, accumbal dopamine release and expression of conditioned place preference in mice. Moreover, NOX-B11-2 does not affect alcohol intake using the intermittent access 20% alcohol 2-bottle-choice drinking paradigm in rats, suggesting that circulating ghrelin does not regulate alcohol intake or the rewarding properties of alcohol. In the present study, we showed however, that NOX-B11-2 reduced food intake in rats supporting a role for circulating ghrelin as physiological regulators of food intake. Moreover, NOX-B11-2 did not affect the blood alcohol concentration in mice. Collectively, the past and present studies suggest that central, rather than peripheral, ghrelin signaling may be a potential target for pharmacological treatment of alcohol dependence. Copyright © 2014 The Authors Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Research Society on Alcoholism.

  13. TNF suppresses acute intestinal inflammation by inducing local glucocorticoid synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noti, Mario; Corazza, Nadia; Mueller, Christoph; Berger, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Although tumor necrosis factor (α) (TNF) exerts proinflammatory activities in a variety of diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease, there is increasing evidence for antiinflammatory actions of TNF. In contrast, glucocorticoids (GCs) are steroid hormones that suppress inflammation, at least in part by regulating the expression and action of TNF. We report that TNF induces extraadrenal production of immunoregulatory GCs in the intestinal mucosa during acute intestinal inflammation. The absence of TNF results in a lack of colonic GC synthesis and exacerbation of dextran sodium sulfate–induced colitis. TNF seems to promote local steroidogenesis by directly inducing steroidogenic enzymes in intestinal epithelial cells. Therapeutic administration of TNF induces GC synthesis in oxazolone-induced colitis and ameliorates intestinal inflammation, whereas inhibition of intestinal GC synthesis abrogates the therapeutic effect of TNF. These data show that TNF suppresses the pathogenesis of acute intestinal inflammation by promoting local steroidogenesis. PMID:20439544

  14. Alcohol-associated intestinal dysbiosis impairs pulmonary host defense against Klebsiella pneumoniae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campagna, Shawn R.; Blanchard, Eugene E.; Ronis, Martin J. J.

    2017-01-01

    Chronic alcohol consumption perturbs the normal intestinal microbial communities (dysbiosis). To investigate the relationship between alcohol-mediated dysbiosis and pulmonary host defense we developed a fecal adoptive transfer model, which allows us to investigate the impact of alcohol-induced gut dysbiosis on host immune response to an infectious challenge at a distal organ, independent of prevailing alcohol use. Male C57BL/6 mice were treated with a cocktail of antibiotics (ampicillin, gentamicin, neomycin, vancomycin, and metronidazole) via daily gavage for two weeks. A separate group of animals was fed a chronic alcohol (or isocaloric dextrose pair-fed controls) liquid diet for 10 days. Microbiota-depleted mice were recolonized with intestinal microbiota from alcohol-fed or pair-fed (control) animals. Following recolonization groups of mice were sacrificed prior to and 48 hrs. post respiratory infection with Klebsiella pneumoniae. Klebsiella lung burden, lung immunology and inflammation, as well as intestinal immunology, inflammation, and barrier damage were examined. Results showed that alcohol-associated susceptibility to K. pneumoniae is, in part, mediated by gut dysbiosis, as alcohol-naïve animals recolonized with a microbiota isolated from alcohol-fed mice had an increased respiratory burden of K. pneumoniae compared to mice recolonized with a control microbiota. The increased susceptibility in alcohol-dysbiosis recolonized animals was associated with an increase in pulmonary inflammatory cytokines, and a decrease in the number of CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells in the lung following Klebsiella infection but an increase in T-cell counts in the intestinal tract following Klebsiella infection, suggesting intestinal T-cell sequestration as a factor in impaired lung host defense. Mice recolonized with an alcohol-dysbiotic microbiota also had increased intestinal damage as measured by increased levels of serum intestinal fatty acid binding protein. Collectively, these

  15. Ethanol Extract of Pinus koraiensis Leaf Ameliorates Alcoholic Fatty Liver via the Activation of LKB1-AMPK Signaling In Vitro and In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sang-Hyuk; Lee, Hyemin; Lee, Hyo-Jung; Kim, Bonglee; Nam, Min-Ho; Shim, Bum-Sang; Kim, Sung-Hoon

    2017-05-01

    Although Pinus koraiensis leaf (PKL) was reported for its anti-diabetes, anti-obesity and anticancer effects as a folk remedy, the inhibitory effect of PKL on alcoholic fatty liver has never been elucidated yet. This study investigated the molecular mechanisms of PKL on alcoholic fatty liver in HepG2 cells, Sprague Dawley (SD) rats and Imprinting Control Region (ICR) mice. Pinus koraiensis leaf increased phosphorylation of liver kinase B1 (LKB1)/AMP-activated protein kinase signaling, low-density lipoprotein receptor and decreased fatty acid biosynthesis-related proteins such as sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c, fatty acid synthase, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase in HepG2 cells. In SD rats with 25% alcohol-induced fatty liver, PKL suppressed the levels of aspartate aminotransferase and triglyceride and also enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione s-transferase compared with untreated control. Furthermore, PKL increased serum alcohol dehydrogenase and serum aldehyde dehydrogenase, but decreased serum alcohol concentration in ICR mice after alcohol administration. Consistently, histochemical analysis revealed that PKL attenuated alcohol-induced fatty liver in SD rats. Overall, these findings suggest that PKL ameliorates alcohol-induced fatty liver via activation of LKB1-AMP-activated protein kinase and modulation of proteins related to lipogenesis synthesis, cholesterol synthesis and fatty acid oxidation. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Alcohol-induced morbidity and mortality by occupation: a population-based follow-up study of working Finns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaila-Kangas, Leena; Koskinen, Aki; Pensola, Tiina; Mäkelä, Pia; Leino-Arjas, Päivi

    2016-02-01

    To justify alcohol-related health promotion programs and target them at the correct workplaces, it is important to identify occupations with increased risk of severe health outcomes caused by alcohol. Data on hospital admissions (854,555 men and 801,653 women) from the Finnish health care register and data on deaths from Statistics Finland from 1 January 2001 to 31 December 2004 were merged with information from the 2000 population census. We assessed the age- and education-adjusted relationship between occupation and the sum of hospitalizations and death primarily caused by alcohol, using Cox proportional hazards regression. We also estimated the fraction of incidence of severe alcohol-induced health outcomes that are attributable to factors related to one's occupation (population attributable fraction). Most of the cases were men (80%), middle-aged and usually had no more than a secondary level of education. When the reference was professionals, who were at the lowest risk, those at increased risk were mostly manual workers in craft work, construction and service. However, we also found several non-manual occupations at a high risk. According to population attributable fraction, the proportion of severe alcohol-induced health outcomes would have been 31% lower among men and 20% lower among women if all occupational groups had been at the same risk as professionals. We detected considerable occupational differences in alcohol-induced morbidity and mortality among a nationally representative working population. This indicates a need for alcohol-focused health promotion programs in these high-risk occupations. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  17. Microglial activation is not equivalent to neuroinflammation in alcohol-induced neurodegeneration: The importance of microglia phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, S Alex; McClain, Justin A; Kelso, Matthew L; Hopkins, Deann M; Pauly, James R; Nixon, Kimberly

    2013-06-01

    Excessive alcohol intake, a defining characteristic of an alcohol use disorder (AUD), results in neurodegeneration in the hippocampus and entorhinal cortex that has been linked to a variety of cognitive deficits. Neuroinflammation is thought to be a factor in alcohol-induced neurodegeneration, and microglia activation is a key but not sole component of an inflammatory response. These experiments investigate the effects of ethanol exposure in a well-accepted model of an AUD on both microglial activation and blood brain barrier disruption (BBB) in order to understand their relationship to classical definitions of inflammation and alcohol-induced neurodegeneration. Following a four-day binge ethanol paradigm, rat hippocampal and entorhinal cortex tissue was examined using three distinct approaches to determine microglia phenotype and BBB disruption: immunohistochemistry, autoradiography, and ELISA. After ethanol exposure, there was an increase in [(3)H]-PK-11195 binding and OX-42 immunoreactivity indicative of microglial activation; however, microglia were not fully activated since both OX-6 and ED-1 immunoreactive microglia were absent. This data was supported by functional evidence as there was no increase in the proinflammatory cytokines IL-6 or TNF-α, but a 26% increase in the anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-10, and a 38% increase in the growth factor, TGF-β, seven days after exposure. Furthermore, there was no evidence of a disruption of the BBB. These data suggest that the four-day binge model of an AUD, which produces neurodegeneration in corticolimbic regions, does not elicit classical neuroinflammation but instead produces partially activated microglia. Partial activation of microglia following binge ethanol exposure suggest that microglia in this model have beneficial or homeostatic roles rather than directly contributing to neurodegeneration and are a consequence of alcohol-induced-damage instead of the source of damage. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All

  18. PARTIALLY HYDROLYZED GUAR GUM INTAKE AMELIORATES CONSTIPATION, IMPROVES NUTRITIONAL STATUS AND REDUCES INDOXYLSULFURIC ACID IN DIALYSIS PATIENTS.

    OpenAIRE

    Maeda, Hiroto; Uemura, Tomoko; Nasu, Makoto; Iwata, Natsumi; Yoshimura, Junko; Sakai, Shoji

    2012-01-01

    Dialysis patients often develop constipation and changes in intestinal bacterial flora. Indoxylsulfuric acid (IS) levels rise as glomerular filtration decreases, and patients with renal failure have high IS. Elevated IS is also caused by increased indole due to altered intestinal flora (Takayama et al, Am J Kidney Dis. 2003). We investigated whether administering partially hydrolyzed guar gum (PHGG) (Sunfiber: a product of Taiyokagaku Co., Ltd., Japan) ameliorates constipation and improves nu...

  19. Quercetin prevents alcohol-induced liver injury through targeting of PI3K/Akt/nuclear factor-κB and STAT3 signaling pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Minglin; Zhou, Xuefeng; Zhao, Jinping

    2017-01-01

    Quercetin is a type of flavonoid compound, which has potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, capable of treating a variety of diseases including neurodegenerative diseases, tumors, diabetes and obesity. The present study selected alcohol-induced liver injury model mice and aimed at studying the protective role of quercetin in preventing alcohol-induced liver injury. In alcohol-induced liver injury mice treated with quercetin, it was demonstrated that levels of aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, total bilirubin and triglyceride were reduced. In addition to this, the activities of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase were increased, malondialdehyde was inhibited, and interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-10 and inducible nitric oxide synthase were suppressed. Quercetin additionally suppressed the protein expression levels of B-cell lymphoma (Bcl)-2, Bcl-2 associated X apoptosis regulator, Caspase-3, poly ADP-ribose polymerase, and signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 3 phosphorylation, nuclear factor (NF)-κB and protein kinase B (Akt) phosphorylation levels in alcohol-induced liver injured mice. These results suggested that the protective role of quercetin prevents alcohol-induced liver injury through the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt/NF-κB and STAT3 pathway. PMID:29285175

  20. Binge Alcohol Exposure Transiently Changes the Endocannabinoid System: A Potential Target to Prevent Alcohol-Induced Neurodegeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liput, Daniel J; Pauly, James R; Stinchcomb, Audra L; Nixon, Kimberly

    2017-11-29

    Excessive alcohol consumption leads to neurodegeneration, which contributes to cognitive decline that is associated with alcohol use disorders (AUDs). The endocannabinoid system has been implicated in the development of AUDs, but little is known about how the neurotoxic effects of alcohol impact the endocannabinoid system. Therefore, the current study investigated the effects of neurotoxic, binge-like alcohol exposure on components of the endocannabinoid system and related N-acylethanolamines (NAEs), and then evaluated the efficacy of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibition on attenuating alcohol-induced neurodegeneration. Male rats were administered alcohol according to a binge model, which resulted in a transient decrease in [³H]-CP-55,940 binding in the entorhinal cortex and hippocampus following two days, but not four days, of treatment. Furthermore, binge alcohol treatment did not change the tissue content of the three NAEs quantified, including the endocannabinoid and anandamide. In a separate study, the FAAH inhibitor, URB597 was administered to rats during alcohol treatment and neuroprotection was assessed by FluoroJade B (FJB) staining. The administration of URB597 during binge treatment did not significantly reduce FJB+ cells in the entorhinal cortex or hippocampus, however, a follow up "target engagement" study found that NAE augmentation by URB597 was impaired in alcohol intoxicated rats. Thus, potential alcohol induced alterations in URB597 pharmacodynamics may have contributed to the lack of neuroprotection by FAAH inhibition.

  1. Transdermal Delivery of Cannabidiol Attenuates Binge Alcohol-Induced Neurodegeneration in a Rodent Model of an Alcohol Use Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liput, Daniel J.; Hammell, Dana C.; Stinchcomb, Audra L.; Nixon, Kimberly

    2013-01-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption, characteristic of alcohol use disorders, results in neurodegeneration and behavioral and cognitive impairments that are hypothesized to contribute to the chronic and relapsing nature of alcoholism. Therefore, the current study aimed to advance the preclinical development of transdermal delivery of cannabidiol (CBD) for the treatment of alcohol-induced neurodegeneration. In experiment 1, 1.0%, 2.5% and 5.0% CBD gels were evaluated for neuroprotection. The 5.0% CBD gel resulted in a 48.8% reduction in neurodegeneration in the entorhinal cortex assessed by Fluoro-Jade B (FJB), which trended to statistical significance (p = 0.069). Treatment with the 5.0% CBD gel resulted in day 3 CBD plasma concentrations of ~100.0 ng/mL so this level was used as a target concentration for development of an optimized gel formulation. Experiment 2 tested a next generation 2.5% CBD gel formulation, which was compared to CBD administration by intraperitoneal injection (IP; 40.0 mg/kg/d). This experiment found similar magnitudes of neuroprotection following both routes of administration; transdermal CBD decreased FJB+ cells in the entorhinal cortex by 56.1% (p < 0.05), while IP CBD resulted in a 50.6% (p < 0.05) reduction in FJB+ cells. These results demonstrate the feasibility of using CBD transdermal delivery systems for the treatment of alcohol-induced neurodegeneration. PMID:24012796

  2. Binge Alcohol Exposure Transiently Changes the Endocannabinoid System: A Potential Target to Prevent Alcohol-Induced Neurodegeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J. Liput

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Excessive alcohol consumption leads to neurodegeneration, which contributes to cognitive decline that is associated with alcohol use disorders (AUDs. The endocannabinoid system has been implicated in the development of AUDs, but little is known about how the neurotoxic effects of alcohol impact the endocannabinoid system. Therefore, the current study investigated the effects of neurotoxic, binge-like alcohol exposure on components of the endocannabinoid system and related N-acylethanolamines (NAEs, and then evaluated the efficacy of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH inhibition on attenuating alcohol-induced neurodegeneration. Male rats were administered alcohol according to a binge model, which resulted in a transient decrease in [3H]-CP-55,940 binding in the entorhinal cortex and hippocampus following two days, but not four days, of treatment. Furthermore, binge alcohol treatment did not change the tissue content of the three NAEs quantified, including the endocannabinoid and anandamide. In a separate study, the FAAH inhibitor, URB597 was administered to rats during alcohol treatment and neuroprotection was assessed by FluoroJade B (FJB staining. The administration of URB597 during binge treatment did not significantly reduce FJB+ cells in the entorhinal cortex or hippocampus, however, a follow up “target engagement” study found that NAE augmentation by URB597 was impaired in alcohol intoxicated rats. Thus, potential alcohol induced alterations in URB597 pharmacodynamics may have contributed to the lack of neuroprotection by FAAH inhibition.

  3. Saturation of retinol-binding protein correlates closely to the severity of alcohol-induced liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagnerberger, S.; Schäfer, C.; Bode, C.

    2006-01-01

    Impaired metabolism of retinol has been shown to occur in alcohol-induced liver disease (ALD). The purpose of the present study was to investigate the saturation of retinol-binding protein (RBP) in 6 patients with different stages of ALD. Hospitalized alcohol consumers (n=118) with different stages...... chromatography and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay methods, respectively. No differences were noted in daily retinol intake, but subjects with ALD had significantly lower concentrations of retinol in plasma (ALD1: 1.81+/-0.17 micromol/l [mean+/-S.E.M.]; ALD2: 1.95+/-0.24 micromol/l; ALD3: 0.67+/-0.13 micromol......: 43.5+/-6.2%; ALD3: 29.0+/-5.1%). The present study indicates that plasma concentrations of retinol and RBP per se do not correlate to severity of ALD, but rather that the retinol/RBP ratio links to the severity of alcohol-induced liver damage. From these results, a reduced availability of retinol...

  4. Intestinal pseudo-obstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primary intestinal pseudo-obstruction; Acute colonic ileus; Colonic pseudo-obstruction; Idiopathic intestinal pseudo-obstruction; Ogilvie syndrome; Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction; Paralytic ileus - pseudo-obstruction

  5. Intestinal myiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U S Udgaonkar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Intestinal myiasis is a condition when the fly larvae inhabit the gastrointestinal tract and are passed out in faeces. This type of infestation results when eggs or larvae of the fly, deposited on food are inadvertently taken by man. They survive the unfavourable conditions within the gastrointestinal tract and produce disturbances, which may vary from mild to severe. The condition is not uncommon and is often misdiagnosed as pinworm infestation. Correct diagnosis by the clinical microbiologist is important to avoid unnecessary treatment. Materials and Methods: We had 7 cases of intestinal myiasis. In 2 cases the larvae were reared to adult fly in modified meat and sand medium (developed by Udgaonkar. This medium is simple and can be easily prepared in the laboratory. Results: Of the 7 larvae, 5 were Sarcophaga haemorrhoidalis, 1 Megaselia species and 1 was identified as Muscina stabulans. Conclusions: S. haemorrhoidalis was the commonest maggot involved. A high index of suspicion is required for clinical diagnosis when the patient complains of passing wriggling worms in faeces for a long period without any response to antihelminthics. The reason for long duration of illness and recurrence of infestation is baffling. The nearest to cure was colonic wash. We feel prevention is of utmost importance, which is to avoid eating food articles with easy access to flies.

  6. Is nutrient intake a gender-specific cause for enhanced susceptibility to alcohol-induced liver disease in women?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagnerberger, S.; Schafer, C.; Schwarz, E.

    2008-01-01

    of ALD in animal experiments, the hypothesis of the present retrospective cross-sectional study was that gender-dependent (micro-) nutrient intake in patients with ALD may cause the higher susceptibility of women to this disease. Methods: In 210 patients (male: 158, female: 52) with different stages......Aim: Women have a higher susceptibility to alcohol-induced liver disease (ALD) than men. Gender-related differences in food preference were described in previous studies for several populations, but not in alcohol abusers. As certain micronutrients are reported to take influence on the development......, the data of calculated daily macro- and micronutrient intake do not suggest any explicit influence of gender-specific nutrition in the development of ALD....

  7. Is nutrient intake a gender-specific cause for enhanced susceptibility to alcohol-induced liver disease in women?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagnerberger, S.; Schäfer, C.; Schwarz, E.

    2008-01-01

    of ALD in animal experiments, the hypothesis of the present retrospective cross-sectional study was that gender-dependent (micro-) nutrient intake in patients with ALD may cause the higher susceptibility of women to this disease. METHODS: In 210 patients (male: 158, female: 52) with different stages......AIM: Women have a higher susceptibility to alcohol-induced liver disease (ALD) than men. Gender-related differences in food preference were described in previous studies for several populations, but not in alcohol abusers. As certain micronutrients are reported to take influence on the development......, the data of calculated daily macro- and micronutrient intake do not suggest any explicit influence of gender-specific nutrition in the development of ALD....

  8. Alcohol-induced heart rate response dampening during aversive and rewarding stress paradigms in subjects at risk for alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croissant, Bernhard; Rist, Fred; Demmel, Ralf; Olbrich, Robert

    2006-08-01

    Individuals with a family history of alcoholism (FH+) are at risk to develop alcohol problems. In several studies, psychophysiological stress responses were more attenuated by alcohol in FH+ than in FH- subjects. However, it is not clear from these studies, if this stronger stress-response dampening effect of alcohol (SRD) in FH+ subjects is confined to aversive stimuli, or would hold for nonaversive stress conditions as well. Also, male and female FH+ subjects seem to respond differently to the alcohol challenge, but have rarely been directly compared in a SRD paradigm. Participants were 54 female and 63 male healthy adults; 31 women were daughters (DOAs) and 40 men were sons (SOAs) of alcohol-dependent fathers. The remaining 23 women (DONAs) and 23 men (SONAs) had no FH of any alcohol use disorder. The participants took part in two laboratory sessions, one with and one without alcohol. In each session, three stressor procedures were presented. Heart rate is the main dependent variable in this report. SOAs, but not SONAs showed a tendency towards SRD. Among female participants, a strong SRD occurred, but contrary to our expectation only in controls. Stress responses and SRD effects were somewhat stronger in the aversive than in the rewarding task. The extent of alcohol induced SRD was strongly influenced by BAL and the amplitude of the stress response in the no-alcohol condition (multiple regression analysis). Thus, aversive tasks might have the advantage of eliciting stronger stress responses than rewarding tasks, thereby providing better conditions for observing differences in alcohol induced SRD between FH+ and FH- subjects.

  9. Cellulose Supplementation Early in Life Ameliorates Colitis in Adult Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy-Szakal, Dorottya; Hollister, Emily B.; Luna, Ruth Ann; Szigeti, Reka; Tatevian, Nina; Smith, C. Wayne; Versalovic, James; Kellermayer, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Decreased consumption of dietary fibers, such as cellulose, has been proposed to promote the emergence of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD: Crohn disease [CD] and ulcerative colitis [UC]) where intestinal microbes are recognized to play an etiologic role. However, it is not known if transient fiber consumption during critical developmental periods may prevent consecutive intestinal inflammation. The incidence of IBD peaks in young adulthood indicating that pediatric environmental exposures may be important in the etiology of this disease group. We studied the effects of transient dietary cellulose supplementation on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) colitis susceptibility during the pediatric period in mice. Cellulose supplementation stimulated substantial shifts in the colonic mucosal microbiome. Several bacterial taxa decreased in relative abundance (e.g., Coriobacteriaceae [p = 0.001]), and other taxa increased in abundance (e.g., Peptostreptococcaceae [p = 0.008] and Clostridiaceae [p = 0.048]). Some of these shifts persisted for 10 days following the cessation of cellulose supplementation. The changes in the gut microbiome were associated with transient trophic and anticolitic effects 10 days following the cessation of a cellulose-enriched diet, but these changes diminished by 40 days following reversal to a low cellulose diet. These findings emphasize the transient protective effect of dietary cellulose in the mammalian large bowel and highlight the potential role of dietary fibers in amelioration of intestinal inflammation. PMID:23437211

  10. Intestinal Failure (Short Bowel Syndrome)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intestinal Failure (Short Bowel Syndrome) What is intestinal failure? Intestinal failure occurs when a significant portion of the small ... intestine does. Who is at risk for intestinal failure? N Babies (usually premature) who have had surgery ...

  11. Lychee (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) Pulp Phenolic Extract Provides Protection against Alcoholic Liver Injury in Mice by Alleviating Intestinal Microbiota Dysbiosis, Intestinal Barrier Dysfunction, and Liver Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Juan; Zhang, Ruifen; Zhou, Qiuyun; Liu, Lei; Huang, Fei; Deng, Yuanyuan; Ma, Yongxuan; Wei, Zhencheng; Tang, Xiaojun; Zhang, Mingwei

    2017-11-08

    Liver injury is the most common consequence of alcohol abuse, which is promoted by the inflammatory response triggered by gut-derived endotoxins produced as a consequence of intestinal microbiota dysbiosis and barrier dysfunction. The aim of this study was to investigate whether modulation of intestinal microbiota and barrier function, and liver inflammation contributes to the hepatoprotective effect of lychee pulp phenolic extract (LPPE) in alcohol-fed mice. Mice were treated with an ethanol-containing liquid diet alone or in combination with LPPE for 8 weeks. LPPE supplementation alleviated ethanol-induced liver injury and downregulated key markers of inflammation. Moreover, LPPE supplementation reversed the ethanol-induced alteration of intestinal microbiota composition and increased the expression of intestinal tight junction proteins, mucus protecting proteins, and antimicrobial proteins. Furthermore, in addition to decreasing serum endotoxin level, LPPE supplementation suppressed CD14 and toll-like receptor 4 expression, and repressed the activation of nuclear factor-κB p65 in the liver. These data suggest that intestinal microbiota dysbiosis, intestinal barrier dysfunction, and liver inflammation are improved by LPPE, and therefore, the intake of LPPE or Litchi pulp may be an effective strategy to alleviate the susceptibility to alcohol-induced hepatic diseases.

  12. Local and Remote Postconditioning Decrease Intestinal Injury in a Rabbit Ischemia/Reperfusion Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mu Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R injury is a significant problem that is associated with high morbidity and mortality in critical settings. This injury may be ameliorated using postconditioning protocol. In our study, we created a rabbit intestinal I/R injury model to analyze the effects of local ischemia postconditioning (LIPo and remote ischemia postconditioning (RIPo on intestinal I/R injury. We concluded that LIPo affords protection in intestinal I/R injury in a comparable fashion with RIPo by decreasing oxidative stress, neutrophil activation, and apoptosis.

  13. Visualization of alcohol-induced rhabdomyolysis: a correlative radiotracer, histochemical, and electron-microscopic study. [/sup 99m/Tc-HEDP (a diphosphonate)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silberstein, E.B.; Bove, K.E.

    1979-02-01

    Technetium-99m diphosphonate was used to visualize the extent of alcohol-induced rhabdomyolysis and its resolution. Transient secondary hyperparathyroidism was documented. Histological and biochemical analyses of skeletal muscle obtained at biopsy 6 days postscan and 9 days after the onset of the illness did not show abnormal calcium content.

  14. TREM-1 Promotes Pancreatitis-Associated Intestinal Barrier Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengchun Dang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Severe acute pancreatitis (SAP can cause intestinal barrier dysfunction (IBD, which significantly increases the disease severity and risk of mortality. We hypothesized that the innate immunity- and inflammatory-related protein-triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 (TREM-1 contributes to this complication of SAP. Thus, we investigated the effect of TREM-1 pathway modulation on a rat model of pancreatitis-associated IBD. In this study we sought to clarify the role of TREM-1 in the pathophysiology of intestinal barrier dysfunction in SAP. Specifically, we evaluated levels of serum TREM-1 and membrane-bound TREM-1 in the intestine and pancreas from an animal model of experimentally induced SAP. TREM-1 pathway blockade by LP17 treatment may suppress pancreatitis-associated IBD and ameliorate the damage to the intestinal mucosa barrier.

  15. Fish oil enhances recovery of intestinal microbiota and epithelial integrity in chronic rejection of intestinal transplant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiurong Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The intestinal chronic rejection (CR is the major limitation to long-term survival of transplanted organs. This study aimed to investigate the interaction between intestinal microbiota and epithelial integrity in chronic rejection of intestinal transplantation, and to find out whether fish oil enhances recovery of intestinal microbiota and epithelial integrity. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The luminal and mucosal microbiota composition of CR rats were characterized by DGGE analysis at 190 days after intestinal transplant. The specific bacterial species were determined by sequence analysis. Furthermore, changes in the localization of intestinal TJ proteins were examined by immunofluorescent staining. PCR-DGGE analysis revealed that gut microbiota in CR rats had a shift towards Escherichia coli, Bacteroides spp and Clostridium spp and a decrease in the abundance of Lactobacillales bacteria in the intestines. Fish oil supplementation could enhance the recovery of gut microbiota, showing a significant decrease of gut bacterial proportions of E. coli and Bacteroides spp and an increase of Lactobacillales spp. In addition, CR rats showed pronounced alteration of tight junction, depicted by marked changes in epithelial cell ultrastructure and redistribution of occuldin and claudins as well as disruption in TJ barrier function. Fish oil administration ameliorated disruption of epithelial integrity in CR, which was associated with an improvement of the mucosal structure leading to improved tight junctions. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study have presented novel evidence that fish oil is involved in the maintenance of epithelial TJ integrity and recovery of gut microbiota, which may have therapeutic potential against CR in intestinal transplantation.

  16. Central administration of the anorexigenic peptide neuromedin U decreases alcohol intake and attenuates alcohol-induced reward in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallöf, Daniel; Ulenius, Lisa; Egecioglu, Emil; Engel, Jörgen A; Jerlhag, Elisabet

    2017-05-01

    By investigating the neurochemical mechanisms through which alcohol activates the brain reward systems, novel treatment strategies for alcohol use disorder (AUD), a chronic relapsing disease, can be developed. In contrast to the common view of the function of gut-brain peptides, such as neuromedin U (NMU), to regulate food intake and appetite, a novel role in reinforcement mediation has been implied. The anorexigenic effects of NMU are mediated via NMU2 receptors, preferably in the arcuate nucleus and paraventricular nucleus. The expression of NMU2 receptors is also expressed in several reward-related areas in the brain, suggesting a role in reward regulation. The present experiments were therefore set up to investigate the effect of intracerebroventricular administration of NMU on alcohol-mediated behaviors in rodents. We found that central administration of NMU attenuated alcohol-induced locomotor stimulation, accumbal dopamine release and the expression of conditioned place preference in mice. In addition, NMU dose dependently decreased alcohol intake in high, but not in low, alcohol-consuming rats. Central NMU administration did not alter the blood alcohol concentrations nor change the corticosterone levels in rodents. Given that AUD is a major health-care challenge causing an enormous cost to society and novel treatment strategies are warranted, our data suggest that NMU analogues deserve to be evaluated as novel treatment of AUD in humans. © 2016 The Authors Addiction Biology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Alcohol-induced severe acute pancreatitis followed by hemolytic uremic syndrome managed with continuous renal replacement therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Peng; Yuan, Ai-hong; Wang, Chun-hua; Li, Xin; Wu, Hai-yang

    2014-01-06

    Acute kidney injury in patients with acute pancreatitis carries a poor prognosis. Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is characterized by non-immune hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, and renal failure caused by platelet thrombi in the microcirculation of the kidney, and though rare in adults it is associated with high mortality and a high rate of chronic renal failure. Herein, we report a case of alcohol-induced acute pancreatitis in a 38-year-old Chinese female complicated by HUS. Her renal function progressively deteriorated in 2 days, and daily continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) was thus performed for a total of 13 treatments. She also received intermittent transfusions of fresh frozen plasma. Her renal failure was successfully managed, with subsequent return of normal renal function. She was discharged 1 month after admission and follow-up at 3 months revealed normal urea and creatinine. CRRT was shown to be useful for the treatment of HUS following acute pancreatitis. Prior case reports and our case should remind clinicians that HUS is a possible complication of acute pancreatitis. This study highlights the importance of early diagnosis and prompt initiation of CRRT to prevent mortality and improve outcomes.

  18. Protective effect of Zhuyeqing liquor, a Chinese traditional health liquor, on acute alcohol-induced liver injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hong-Ying; Huang, Jian; Wang, Hang-Yu; Du, Xiao-Wei; Cheng, Suo-Ming; Han, Ying; Wang, Li-Fei; Li, Guo-Yu; Wang, Jin-Hui

    2013-10-03

    The study first evaluated the hepatoprotective effect of Zhuyeqing Liquor (ZYQL) against acute alcohol-induced liver injury in mice. Animals were administered orally with 50% alcohol 12 ml/kg at 4 h after the doses of ZYQL everyday for fourteen consecutive days except mice in normal group. The protective effect was evaluated by biochemical parameters including serum aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transferase (ALT), total-bilirubin (TBIL) and reduced glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) in liver tissue. The result were confirmed histopathologically and the expression of TNF-α in mice liver was determined by immunohistochemistry analysis. HPLC-PDA was used for phytochemical analysis of ZYQL, and the plant source of each compound was claritied by UPLC-TOF-MS. The result showed that pretreatment with ZYQL exhibited a significant protective effect by reversing the biochemical parameters and histopathological changes in a dose depended manner. HPLC analysis indicated that ZYQL contained flavonoids, iridoids, terpenoids and phenolic acids, which might be the active chemicals. This study demonstrated the hepatoprotective activity of ZYQL, thus scientifically supported the function of its health care.

  19. Protective role of ginkgo Biloba extract against gamma radiation and alcohol induced liver damage in albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fahmy, N. M.; Mohamed, E.T.; Mansour, H.H; Hafez, H.F.

    2007-01-01

    Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) is a standardized extract of Ginkgo biloba leaves that promotes vasodilatation and improves blood flow through arteries, veins and capillaries and has antioxidant properties as a tree radical scavenger. This study was designed to evaluate the protective efficacy of EGb 761 against gamma radiation and/ or alcohol induced disorders in the liver of male albino rats. EGb 761 was given orally at a dose level of 100 mg/ kg body wt for 4 days, absolute alcohol was administered orally at a dose level of 1ml/ rat for 4 days and the dose of gamma radiation was 6.5 Gy. All animals were subjected to the following investigations: nitric oxide (NO), superoxide dismutase (SOD), malonaldehyde (MDA). reduced glutathion (GSH) and glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx) in the liver tissue. In irradiated and/ or alcoholic animal groups, there was a highly significant decrease in liver NO and GSH content and in the activities of GSHPx and SOD. On the other hand, significant increase in MDA content was observed. Treatment with EGb 761 before irradiation and/or alcohol causes significant increase in NO and GSH content and in the activities of GSHPx and SOD and significant decrease in MDA content compared to the irradiated and/ or alcoholic groups. Based on these observations, one could conclude that pre-treatment of rats with EGb 761 could partly protect liver from gamma rays and/ or absolute alcohol injurious and this protection may be induced, at least partly, through antioxidant mechanisms

  20. A lactobacillus rhamnosus GG-derived soluble protein, p40, stimulates ligand release from intestinal epithelial cells to transactivate epidermal growth factor receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protein p40, a Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG)-derived soluble protein, ameliorates intestinal injury and colitis, reduces apoptosis and preserves barrier function by activation of EGF receptor (EGFR) in intestinal epithelial cells. The aim of this study was to determine the mechanisms by which p40...

  1. Intestinal microbiome landscaping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shetty, Sudarshan A.; Hugenholtz, Floor; Lahti, Leo; Smidt, Hauke; Vos, de Willem M.

    2017-01-01

    High individuality, large complexity and limited understanding of the mechanisms underlying human intestinal microbiome function remain the major challenges for designing beneficial modulation strategies. Exemplified by the analysis of intestinal bacteria in a thousand Western adults, we discuss

  2. Small Intestine Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... all of an organ that contains cancer. The resection may include the small intestine and nearby organs (if the cancer has spread). The doctor may remove the section of the small intestine that contains cancer and perform an anastomosis (joining the cut ends of the intestine together). ...

  3. Alcohol-associated intestinal dysbiosis impairs pulmonary host defense against Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derrick R Samuelson

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Chronic alcohol consumption perturbs the normal intestinal microbial communities (dysbiosis. To investigate the relationship between alcohol-mediated dysbiosis and pulmonary host defense we developed a fecal adoptive transfer model, which allows us to investigate the impact of alcohol-induced gut dysbiosis on host immune response to an infectious challenge at a distal organ, independent of prevailing alcohol use. Male C57BL/6 mice were treated with a cocktail of antibiotics (ampicillin, gentamicin, neomycin, vancomycin, and metronidazole via daily gavage for two weeks. A separate group of animals was fed a chronic alcohol (or isocaloric dextrose pair-fed controls liquid diet for 10 days. Microbiota-depleted mice were recolonized with intestinal microbiota from alcohol-fed or pair-fed (control animals. Following recolonization groups of mice were sacrificed prior to and 48 hrs. post respiratory infection with Klebsiella pneumoniae. Klebsiella lung burden, lung immunology and inflammation, as well as intestinal immunology, inflammation, and barrier damage were examined. Results showed that alcohol-associated susceptibility to K. pneumoniae is, in part, mediated by gut dysbiosis, as alcohol-naïve animals recolonized with a microbiota isolated from alcohol-fed mice had an increased respiratory burden of K. pneumoniae compared to mice recolonized with a control microbiota. The increased susceptibility in alcohol-dysbiosis recolonized animals was associated with an increase in pulmonary inflammatory cytokines, and a decrease in the number of CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells in the lung following Klebsiella infection but an increase in T-cell counts in the intestinal tract following Klebsiella infection, suggesting intestinal T-cell sequestration as a factor in impaired lung host defense. Mice recolonized with an alcohol-dysbiotic microbiota also had increased intestinal damage as measured by increased levels of serum intestinal fatty acid binding protein

  4. The H-Impairment Index (HII): a standardized assessment of alcohol-induced impairment in the Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hack, Jason B; Goldlust, Eric J; Gibbs, Frantz; Zink, Brian

    2014-03-01

    Emergency Departments (EDs) care for thousands of alcohol-intoxicated patients annually. No clinically relevant bedside measures currently exist to describe degree of impairment. To assess a group of bedside tests ("Hack's Impairment Index [HII] score") that applies a numerical value to the degree of alcohol-induced impairment in ED patients. A six-month retrospective review of HII score data was performed in a convenience sample of 293 intoxicated ED patients. Patients were scored 0-4 on five tasks, divided by the maximum score (20 if all tasks completed), every 2 hours; and classified by the number of visits: Low-frequency (1 visit); Medium-frequency (2 visits); High-frequency (≥3 visits). Correlations were assessed between HII score, healthcare provider judgment of intoxication, and measured alcohol levels. Study patients had 513 visits; 236 were low-frequency, 26 middle-frequency and 31 high-frequency. Clinical assessment and HII score were strongly correlated (Spearman's rho = 0.82, p < 0.001); clinical assessment and alcohol level less strongly so (rho = 0.49, p < 0.001). Among low-frequency patients, HII score and alcohol level were weakly correlated (r = 0.324, p < 0.001), with no such correlation among high-frequency visitors (r = -0.04, p = 0.89). The mean decline between serial HII scores was 0.126 (95% CI: 0.098-0.154). This pilot study shows the HII score can be performed at the bedside of alcohol-intoxicated patients. The HII declines in a reasonably predictable manner over time; and applies a quantitative, objective assessment of alcohol impairment.

  5. Binge Drinking and the Young Brain: A Mini Review of the Neurobiological Underpinnings of Alcohol-Induced Blackout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel F. Hermens

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Binge drinking has significant effects on memory, particularly with regards to the transfer of information to long-term storage. Partial or complete blocking of memory formation is known as blackout. Youth represents a critical period in brain development that is particularly vulnerable to alcohol misuse. Animal models show that the adolescent brain is more vulnerable to the acute and chronic effects of alcohol compared with the adult brain. This mini-review addresses the neurobiological underpinnings of binge drinking and associated memory loss (blackout in the adolescent and young adult period. Although the extent to which there are pre-existing versus alcohol-induced neurobiological changes remains unclear, it is likely that repetitive binge drinking in youth has detrimental effects on cognitive and social functioning. Given its role in learning and memory, the hippocampus is a critical region with neuroimaging research showing notable changes in this structure associated with alcohol misuse in young people. There is a great need for earlier identification of biological markers associated with alcohol-related brain damage. As a means to assess in vivo neurochemistry, magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS has emerged as a particularly promising technique since changes in neurometabolites often precede gross structural changes. Thus, the current paper addresses how MRS biomarkers of neurotransmission (glutamate, GABA and oxidative stress (indexed by depleted glutathione in the hippocampal region of young binge drinkers may underlie propensity for blackouts and other memory impairments. MRS biomarkers may have particular utility in determining the acute versus longer-term effects of binge drinking in young people.

  6. Role of hypoxia inducing factor-1β in alcohol-induced autophagy, steatosis and liver injury in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Min Ni

    Full Text Available Chronic alcohol causes liver hypoxia and steatosis, which eventually develops into alcoholic liver disease (ALD. While it has been known that alcohol consumption activates hepatic hypoxia inducing factor-1α (HIF-1α, conflicting results regarding the role of HIF-1α in alcohol-induced liver injury and steatosis in mice have been reported. In the present study, we aimed to use hepatocyte-specific HIF-1β knockout mice to eliminate the possible compensatory effects of the single knockout of the 1α subunit of HIF to study the role of HIFs in ALD. C57BL/6 wild type mice were treated with acute ethanol to mimic human binge drinking. Matched wild-type and hepatocyte specific HIF-1β knockout mice were also subjected to a recently established Gao-binge alcohol model to mimic chronic plus binge conditions, which is quite common in human alcoholics. We found that acute alcohol treatment increased BNIP3 and BNIP3L/NIX expression in primary cultured hepatocytes and in mouse livers, suggesting that HIF may be activated in these models. We further found that hepatocyte-specific HIF-1β knockout mice developed less steatosis and liver injury following the Gao-binge model or acute ethanol treatment compared with their matched wild type mice. Mechanistically, protection against Gao-binge treatment-induced steatosis and liver injury was likely associated with increased FoxO3a activation and subsequent induction of autophagy in hepatocyte-specific HIF-1β knockout mice.

  7. Increased Sensitivity to Binge Alcohol-Induced Gut Leakiness and Inflammatory Liver Disease in HIV Transgenic Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atrayee Banerjee

    Full Text Available The mechanisms of alcohol-mediated advanced liver injury in HIV-infected individuals are poorly understood. Thus, this study was aimed to investigate the effect of binge alcohol on the inflammatory liver disease in HIV transgenic rats as a model for simulating human conditions. Female wild-type (WT or HIV transgenic rats were treated with three consecutive doses of binge ethanol (EtOH (3.5 g/kg/dose oral gavages at 12-h intervals or dextrose (Control. Blood and liver tissues were collected at 1 or 6-h following the last dose of ethanol or dextrose for the measurements of serum endotoxin and liver pathology, respectively. Compared to the WT, the HIV rats showed increased sensitivity to alcohol-mediated gut leakiness, hepatic steatosis and inflammation, as evidenced with the significantly elevated levels of serum endotoxin, hepatic triglycerides, histological fat accumulation and F4/80 staining. Real-time PCR analysis revealed that hepatic levels of toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4, leptin and the downstream target monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 were significantly up-regulated in the HIV-EtOH rats, compared to all other groups. Subsequent experiments with primary cultured cells showed that both hepatocytes and hepatic Kupffer cells were the sources of the elevated MCP-1 in HIV-EtOH rats. Further, TLR4 and MCP-1 were found to be upregulated by leptin. Collectively, these results show that HIV rats, similar to HIV-infected people being treated with the highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART, are more susceptible to binge alcohol-induced gut leakiness and inflammatory liver disease than the corresponding WT, possibly due to additive or synergistic interaction between binge alcohol exposure and HIV infection. Based on these results, HIV transgenic rats can be used as a surrogate model to study the molecular mechanisms of many disease states caused by heavy alcohol intake in HIV-infected people on HAART.

  8. An iso-α-acid-rich extract from hops (Humulus lupulus) attenuates acute alcohol-induced liver steatosis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hege, Marianne; Jung, Finn; Sellmann, Cathrin; Jin, Chengjun; Ziegenhardt, Doreen; Hellerbrand, Claus; Bergheim, Ina

    2018-01-01

    Results of in vitro and in vivo studies suggest that consumption of beer is less harmful for the liver than consumption of spirits. It also has been suggested that secondary plant compounds derived from hops such as xanthohumol or iso-α-acids may have beneficial effects on the development of liver diseases of various etiologies. The aim of this study was to determine whether iso-α-acids consumed in doses achieved by "normal" beer consumption have beneficial effects on health. Female C57 Bl/6 J mice, pretreated for 4 d with an iso-α-acid-rich extract (∼30% iso-α-acids from hops, 0.75 mg/kg body weight), were fed one bolus of ethanol (6 g/kg body weight intragastric) or an iso-caloric maltodextrin solution. Markers of liver damage, toll-like receptor-4 signaling, and lipid peroxidation were determined. Furthermore, the effect of isohumulone on the lipopolysaccharide-dependent activation of J774 A.1 macrophages, used as a model of Kupffer cells, was determined. In the liver, acute ethanol administration led to a significant accumulation of fat (∼10-fold), which was accompanied by significantly higher inducible nitric oxide synthase protein level, elevated nitric oxide production, and increased plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 protein concentration when compared to controls. In mice pretreated with iso-α-acids, these effects of alcohol were markedly attenuated. Pretreatment of J774 A.1 macrophages with isohumulone significantly attenuated lipopolysaccharide-induced mRNA expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and interleukin-6 as well as the release of nitric oxide. Taken together, iso-α-acids markedly attenuated the development of acute alcohol-induced damage in mice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Black ginseng extract ameliorates hypercholesterolemia in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn Saba

    2016-04-01

    Conclusion: Administration of BG extracts to Sprague Dawley rats fed with high-cholesterol diet ameliorated hypercholesterolemia, which was mediated via modulation of cholesterol-metabolizing marker genes. This data throw a light on BG's cardioprotective effects.

  10. Fucoidan Extracts Ameliorate Acute Colitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Ying Lean

    Full Text Available Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD, such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, are an important cause of morbidity and impact significantly on quality of life. Overall, current treatments do not sustain a long-term clinical remission and are associated with adverse effects, which highlight the need for new treatment options. Fucoidans are complex sulphated, fucose-rich polysaccharides, found in edible brown algae and are described as having multiple bioactivities including potent anti-inflammatory effects. Therefore, the therapeutic potential of two different fucoidan preparations, fucoidan-polyphenol complex (Maritech Synergy and depyrogenated fucoidan (DPF was evaluated in the dextran sulphate sodium (DSS mouse model of acute colitis. Mice were treated once daily over 7 days with fucoidans via oral (Synergy or DPF or intraperitoneal administration (DPF. Signs and severity of colitis were monitored daily before colons and spleens were collected for macroscopic evaluation, cytokine measurements and histology. Orally administered Synergy and DPF, but not intraperitoneal DPF treatment, significantly ameliorated symptoms of colitis based on retention of body weight, as well as reduced diarrhoea and faecal blood loss, compared to the untreated colitis group. Colon and spleen weight in mice treated with oral fucoidan was also significantly lower, indicating reduced inflammation and oedema. Histological examination of untreated colitis mice confirmed a massive loss of crypt architecture and goblet cells, infiltration of immune cells and oedema, while all aspects of this pathology were alleviated by oral fucoidan. Importantly, in this model, the macroscopic changes induced by oral fucoidan correlated significantly with substantially decreased production of at least 15 pro-inflammatory cytokines by the colon tissue. Overall, oral fucoidan preparations significantly reduce the inflammatory pathology associated with DSS-induced colitis and could

  11. Gastric and intestinal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossum, Theresa W; Hedlund, Cheryl S

    2003-09-01

    Gastric surgery is commonly performed to remove foreign bodies and correct gastric dilatation-volvulus and is less commonly performed to treat gastric ulceration or erosion, neoplasia, and benign gastric outflow obstruction. Intestinal surgery, although commonly performed by veterinarians, should never be considered routine. The most common procedures of the small intestinal tract performed in dogs and cats include enterotomy and resection/anastomosis. Surgery of the large intestine is indicated for lesions causing obstruction, perforations, colonic inertia, or chronic inflammation.

  12. Intestinal parasites and tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuar Alonso Cedeño-Burbano

    2017-10-01

    Conclusions: The available evidence was insufficient to affirm that intestinal parasites predispose to developing tuberculous. The studies carried out so far have found statistically insignificant results.

  13. Neurotrophic peptides, ADNF-9 and NAP, prevent alcohol-induced apoptosis at midgestation in fetal brains of C57BL/6 mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Youssef; Weedman, Jason M; Nkrumah-Abrokwah, Maxwell

    2013-01-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure is known to induce fetal brain growth deficits at different embryonic stages. We focused this study on investigating the neuroprotective effects against alcohol-induced apoptosis at midgestation using activity-dependent neurotrophic factor (ADNF)-9, a peptide (SALLRSIPA) derived from activity-dependent neurotrophic factor, and NAP, a peptide (NAPVSIPQ) derived from activity-dependent neuroprotective protein. We used an established fetal alcohol exposure mouse model. On embryonic day 7 (E7), weight-matched pregnant females were assigned to the following groups: (1) ethanol liquid diet (ALC) group with 25 % (4.49 %, v/v) ethanol-derived calories, (2) pair-fed (PF) control group, (3) ALC combined with i.p. injections (1.5 mg/kg) of ADNF-9 (ALC/ADNF-9) group, (4) ALC combined with i.p. injections (1.5 mg/kg) of NAP (ALC/NAP) group, (5) PF liquid diet combined with i.p. injections of ADNF-9 (PF/ADNF-9) group, and (6) PF liquid diet combined with i.p. injections of NAP (PF/NAP) group. On day 15 (E15), fetal brains were collected, weighed, and assayed for TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining. ADNF-9 or NAP was administered daily from E7 to E15 alongside PF or ALC liquid diet exposure. Our results show that NAP and ADNF-9 significantly prevented alcohol-induced weight reduction of fetal brains. Apoptosis was determined by TUNEL staining; NAP or ADNF-9 administration alongside alcohol exposure significantly prevented alcohol-induced increase in TUNEL-positive cells in primordium of the cingulate cortex and ganglionic eminence. These findings may pave the path toward potential therapeutics against alcohol intoxication during pregnancy stages.

  14. adhesive intestinal obstruction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-06-01

    Jun 1, 2006 ... ABSTRACT. Background: Adhesions after abdominal and pelvic surgery are a major cause of intestinal obstruction in the western world and the pathology is steadily gaining prominence in our practice. Objective: To determine the magnitude of adhesive intestinal obstruction; to determine the types.

  15. Intestinal Barrier and Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julio-Pieper, M; Bravo, J A

    2016-01-01

    The intestinal barrier function contributes to gut homeostasis by modulating absorption of water, electrolytes, and nutrients from the lumen into the circulation while restricting the passage of noxious luminal substances and microorganisms. Chronic conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and celiac disease are associated to intestinal barrier dysfunction. Here, the hypothesis is that a leaky intestinal wall allowing for indiscriminate passage of intraluminal compounds to the vascular compartment could in turn lead to systemic inflammation. An increasing number of studies are now investigating the association between gut permeability and CNS disorders, under the premise that translocation of intestinal luminal contents could affect CNS function, either directly or indirectly. Still, it is unknown whether disruption of intestinal barrier is a causative agent or a consequence in these situations. Here, we discuss the latest evidence pointing to an association between increased gut permeability and disrupted behavioral responses. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Hepatoprotective Effects of Antrodia cinnamomea: The Modulation of Oxidative Stress Signaling in a Mouse Model of Alcohol-Induced Acute Liver Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yange Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the components of A. cinnamomea (AC mycelia were systematically analyzed. Subsequently, its hepatoprotective effects and the underlying mechanisms were explored using a mouse model of acute alcohol-induced liver injury. AC contained 25 types of fatty acid, 16 types of amino acid, 3 types of nucleotide, and 8 types of mineral. The hepatoprotective effects were observed after 2 weeks of AC treatment at doses of 75 mg/kg, 225 mg/kg, and 675 mg/kg in the mouse model. These effects were indicated by the changes in the levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, several oxidation-related factors, and inflammatory cytokines in serum and/or liver samples. AC reduced the incidence rate of necrosis, inflammatory infiltration, fatty droplets formation, and cell apoptosis in liver detecting via histological and TUNEL assay. In addition, AC reduced the expression of cleaved caspase-3, -8, and -9 and the levels of phosphor-protein kinase B (Akt and phosphor-nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB in the liver samples. Collectively, AC-mediated hepatoprotective effects in a mouse model of acute alcohol-induced liver injury are the result of reduction in oxidative stress. This may be associated with Akt/NF-κB signaling. These results provide valuable evidence to support the use of A. cinnamomea as a functional food and/or medicine.

  17. Fucoidan from Fucus vesiculosus Protects against Alcohol-Induced Liver Damage by Modulating Inflammatory Mediators in Mice and HepG2 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Dae Lim

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Fucoidan is an l-fucose-enriched sulfated polysaccharide isolated from brown algae and marine invertebrates. In this study, we investigated the protective effect of fucoidan from Fucus vesiculosus on alcohol-induced murine liver damage. Liver injury was induced by oral administration of 25% alcohol with or without fucoidan (30 mg/kg or 60 mg/kg for seven days. Alcohol administration increased serum aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase levels, but these increases were suppressed by the treatment of fucoidan. Transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1, a liver fibrosis-inducing factor, was highly expressed in the alcohol-fed group and human hepatoma HepG2 cell; however, the increase in TGF-β1 expression was reduced following fucoidan administration. Treatment with fucoidan was also found to significantly reduce the production of inflammation-promoting cyclooygenase-2 and nitric oxide, while markedly increasing the expression of the hepatoprotective enzyme, hemeoxygenase-1, on murine liver and HepG2 cells. Taken together, the antifibrotic and anti-inflammatory effects of fucoidan on alcohol-induced liver damage may provide valuable insights into developing new therapeutics or interventions.

  18. Intestinal fungi contribute to development of alcoholic liver disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, An-Ming; Inamine, Tatsuo; Hochrath, Katrin; Chen, Peng; Wang, Lirui; Llorente, Cristina; Bluemel, Sena; Hartmann, Phillipp; Koyama, Yukinori; Kisseleva, Tatiana; Torralba, Manolito G.; Moncera, Kelvin; Beeri, Karen; Chen, Chien-Sheng; Freese, Kim; Hellerbrand, Claus; Lee, Serene M.L.; Hoffman, Hal M.; Mehal, Wajahat Z.; Garcia-Tsao, Guadalupe; Mutlu, Ece A.; Keshavarzian, Ali; Brown, Gordon D.; Bataller, Ramon; Stärkel, Peter; Fouts, Derrick E.

    2017-01-01

    Chronic liver disease with cirrhosis is the 12th leading cause of death in the United States, and alcoholic liver disease accounts for approximately half of all cirrhosis deaths. Chronic alcohol consumption is associated with intestinal bacterial dysbiosis, yet we understand little about the contribution of intestinal fungi, or mycobiota, to alcoholic liver disease. Here we have demonstrated that chronic alcohol administration increases mycobiota populations and translocation of fungal β-glucan into systemic circulation in mice. Treating mice with antifungal agents reduced intestinal fungal overgrowth, decreased β-glucan translocation, and ameliorated ethanol-induced liver disease. Using bone marrow chimeric mice, we found that β-glucan induces liver inflammation via the C-type lectin–like receptor CLEC7A on Kupffer cells and possibly other bone marrow–derived cells. Subsequent increases in IL-1β expression and secretion contributed to hepatocyte damage and promoted development of ethanol-induced liver disease. We observed that alcohol-dependent patients displayed reduced intestinal fungal diversity and Candida overgrowth. Compared with healthy individuals and patients with non–alcohol-related cirrhosis, alcoholic cirrhosis patients had increased systemic exposure and immune response to mycobiota. Moreover, the levels of extraintestinal exposure and immune response correlated with mortality. Thus, chronic alcohol consumption is associated with an altered mycobiota and translocation of fungal products. Manipulating the intestinal mycobiome might be an effective strategy for attenuating alcohol-related liver disease. PMID:28530644

  19. ANTIOXIDANTS AMELIORATION OF ARSENICAL-INDUCED EFFECTS IN VIVO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antioxidant amelioration of arsenical-induced effects in vivo. ES Hunter and EH Rogers. Reproductive Toxicology Division, NHEERL, US EPA, RTP, NC. Antioxidants have been reported to ameliorate the effects of many developmental toxicants. We tested the hypothesis that oxi...

  20. Mycotoxins and the intestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon Broom

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Fungal biochemical pathways can yield various compounds that are not considered to be necessary for their growth and are thus referred to as secondary metabolites. These compounds have been found to have wide ranging biological effects and include potent poisons (mycotoxins. Mycotoxins invariably contaminate crops and (thus animal feeds. The intestine is the key link between ingested mycotoxins and their detrimental effects on the animal. Effects on the intestine, or intestinal environment, and immune system have been reported with various mycotoxins. These effects are almost certainly occurring across species. Most, if not all, of the reported effects of mycotoxins are negative in terms of intestinal health, for example, decreased intestinal cell viability, reductions in short chain fatty acid (SCFA concentrations and elimination of beneficial bacteria, increased expression of genes involved in promoting inflammation and counteracting oxidative stress. This challenge to intestinal health will predispose the animal to intestinal (and systemic infections and impair efficient digestion and absorption of nutrients, with the associated effect on animal productivity.

  1. 27 CFR 24.178 - Amelioration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Amelioration. 24.178 Section 24.178 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT..., during and after fermentation. The fixed acid level of the juice is determined prior to fermentation and...

  2. Ameliorative effects of selenium and zinc

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methidathion-induced hematological, biochemical and hepatohistological alterations in rat: Ameliorative effects of selenium and zinc. ... In contrast, reduced glutathione level (GSH), and the activities of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and the glutathione peroxidase (GPx) content of hepatic tissue decreased ...

  3. Ameliorative effect of Lentinus squarrosulus mycomeat against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ameliorative effect of Lentinus squarrosulus mycomeat against Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection using albino rat as animal model. ... The increasing awareness of inherent therapeutic and prophylactic benefits of some higher fungi and their products has been the recent trend for improving a healthy vigour. Mycomeat is a ...

  4. Amelioration of radiation nephropathy by acetylsalicylic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheij, M.; Stewart, F. A.; Oussoren, Y.; Weening, J. J.; Dewit, L.

    1995-01-01

    This investigation was carried out to assess the amelioration by two antithrombotic drugs of radiation nephropathy in mice. Mouse kidneys were given split-dose irradiation to total doses between 17 and 22 Gy. A first group of animals was given acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) in drinking water, a second

  5. Intestinal solute carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffansen, Bente; Nielsen, Carsten Uhd; Brodin, Birger

    2004-01-01

    A large amount of absorptive intestinal membrane transporters play an important part in absorption and distribution of several nutrients, drugs and prodrugs. The present paper gives a general overview on intestinal solute carriers as well as on trends and strategies for targeting drugs and...... membrane transporters in the small intestine in order to increase oral bioavailabilities of drug or prodrug, the major influence on in vivo pharmacokinetics is suggested to be dose-dependent increase in bioavailability as well as prolonged blood circulation due to large capacity facilitated absorption...

  6. Intestinal solute carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffansen, Bente; Nielsen, Carsten Uhd; Brodin, Birger

    2004-01-01

    membrane transporters in the small intestine in order to increase oral bioavailabilities of drug or prodrug, the major influence on in vivo pharmacokinetics is suggested to be dose-dependent increase in bioavailability as well as prolonged blood circulation due to large capacity facilitated absorption......A large amount of absorptive intestinal membrane transporters play an important part in absorption and distribution of several nutrients, drugs and prodrugs. The present paper gives a general overview on intestinal solute carriers as well as on trends and strategies for targeting drugs and...

  7. Exploring the molecular mechanisms underlying the potentiation of exogenous growth hormone on alcohol-induced fatty liver diseases in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Ya-ping

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Growth hormone (GH is an essential regulator of intrahepatic lipid metabolism by activating multiple complex hepatic signaling cascades. Here, we examined whether chronic exogenous GH administration (via gene therapy could ameliorate liver steatosis in animal models of alcoholic fatty liver disease (AFLD and explored the underlying molecular mechanisms. Methods Male C57BL/6J mice were fed either an alcohol or a control liquid diet with or without GH therapy for 6 weeks. Biochemical parameters, liver histology, oxidative stress markers, and serum high molecular weight (HMW adiponectin were measured. Quantitative real-time PCR and western blotting were also conducted to determine the underlying molecular mechanism. Results Serum HMW adiponectin levels were significantly higher in the GH1-treated control group than in the control group (3.98 ± 0.71 μg/mL vs. 3.07 ± 0.55 μg/mL; P P P P P Conclusions GH therapy had positive effects on AFLD and may offer a promising approach to prevent or treat AFLD. These beneficial effects of GH on AFLD were achieved through the activation of the hepatic adiponectin-SIRT1-AMPK and PPARα-AMPK signaling systems.

  8. Oral Administration of Escin Inhibits Acute Inflammation and Reduces Intestinal Mucosal Injury in Animal Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minmin Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to investigate the effects of oral administration of escin on acute inflammation and intestinal mucosal injury in animal models. The effects of escin on carrageenan-induced paw edema in a rat model of acute inflammation, cecal ligation and puncture (CLP induced intestinal mucosal injury in a mouse model, were observed. It was shown that oral administration of escin inhibits carrageenan-induced paw edema and decreases the production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 and cyclooxygenase- (COX- 2. In CLP model, low dose of escin ameliorates endotoxin induced liver injury and intestinal mucosal injury and increases the expression of tight junction protein claudin-5 in mice. These findings suggest that escin effectively inhibits acute inflammation and reduces intestinal mucosal injury in animal models.

  9. Oral Administration of Escin Inhibits Acute Inflammation and Reduces Intestinal Mucosal Injury in Animal Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Minmin; Lu, Chengwen; Zhang, Leiming; Zhang, Jianqiao; Du, Yuan; Duan, Sijin; Wang, Tian; Fu, Fenghua

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effects of oral administration of escin on acute inflammation and intestinal mucosal injury in animal models. The effects of escin on carrageenan-induced paw edema in a rat model of acute inflammation, cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) induced intestinal mucosal injury in a mouse model, were observed. It was shown that oral administration of escin inhibits carrageenan-induced paw edema and decreases the production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and cyclooxygenase- (COX-) 2. In CLP model, low dose of escin ameliorates endotoxin induced liver injury and intestinal mucosal injury and increases the expression of tight junction protein claudin-5 in mice. These findings suggest that escin effectively inhibits acute inflammation and reduces intestinal mucosal injury in animal models.

  10. Amelioration of Ethanol-Induced Hepatitis by Magnesium Isoglycyrrhizinate through Inhibition of Neutrophil Cell Infiltration and Oxidative Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcoholic liver disease (ALD is a leading cause of liver-related morbidity and mortality worldwide. There is no effective treatment to prevent the disease progression. Magnesium isoglycyrrhizinate (MgIG showed potent anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and hepatoprotective activities and was used for treating liver diseases in Asia. In this study, we examined whether MgIG could protect mice against alcohol-induced liver injury. The newly developed chronic plus binge ethanol feeding model was used to study the role of MgIG in ALD. Serum liver enzyme levels, H&E staining, immunohistochemical staining, flow cytometric analysis, and real-time PCR were used to evaluate the liver injury and inflammation. We showed that MgIG markedly ameliorated chronic plus binge ethanol feeding liver injury, as shown by decreased serum alanine transaminase and aspartate aminotransferase levels and reduced neutrophil infiltration. The reason may be attributed to the reduced expression of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines with the treatment of MgIG. The hepatoprotective effect of MgIG was associated with suppression of neutrophil ROS production as well as hepatocellular oxidative stress. MgIG may play a critical role in protecting against chronic plus binge ethanol feeding-induced liver injury by regulating neutrophil activity and hepatic oxidative stress.

  11. Potential beneficial effects of butyrate in intestinal and extraintestinal diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canani, Roberto Berni; Costanzo, Margherita Di; Leone, Ludovica; Pedata, Monica; Meli, Rosaria; Calignano, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    The multiple beneficial effects on human health of the short-chain fatty acid butyrate, synthesized from non-absorbed carbohydrate by colonic microbiota, are well documented. At the intestinal level, butyrate plays a regulatory role on the transepithelial fluid transport, ameliorates mucosal inflammation and oxidative status, reinforces the epithelial defense barrier, and modulates visceral sensitivity and intestinal motility. In addition, a growing number of studies have stressed the role of butyrate in the prevention and inhibition of colorectal cancer. At the extraintestinal level, butyrate exerts potentially useful effects on many conditions, including hemoglobinopathies, genetic metabolic diseases, hypercholesterolemia, insulin resistance, and ischemic stroke. The mechanisms of action of butyrate are different; many of these are related to its potent regulatory effects on gene expression. These data suggest a wide spectrum of positive effects exerted by butyrate, with a high potential for a therapeutic use in human medicine. PMID:21472114

  12. Sulforaphane induces Nrf2 and protects against CYP2E1-dependent binge alcohol-induced liver steatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Richard; Lin, Jianjun; Wu, Defeng

    2014-01-01

    The mechanism(s) by which alcohol causes cell injury are still not clear but a major mechanism appears to be the role of lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress in alcohol toxicity. CYP2E1-generated ROS contributes to the ethanol-induced oxidant stress and inhibition of CYP2E1 activity decreases ethanol-induced fatty liver. The transcription factor Nrf2 regulates the expression of many cytoprotective enzymes which results in cellular protection against a variety of toxins. The current study was designed to evaluate the ability of sulforaphane, an activator of Nrf2, to blunt CYP2E1-dependent, ethanol-induced steatosis in vivo and in vitro. The sulforaphane treatment activated Nrf2, increased levels of the Nrf2 target heme oxygenase-1 and subsequently lowered oxidant stress as shown by the decline in lipid peroxidation and 3-nitrotyrosine protein adducts and an increase in GSH levels after the acute ethanol treatment. It decreased ethanol-elevated liver levels of triglycerides and cholesterol and Oil Red O staining. Similar results were found in vitro as addition of sulforaphane to HepG2 E47 cells, which express CYP2E1, elevated Nrf2 levels and decreased the accumulation of lipid in cells cultured with ethanol. Sulforaphane treatment had no effect on levels of or activity of CYP2E1. Sulforaphane proved to be an effective in vivo inhibitor of acute ethanol-induced fatty liver in mice. The possible amelioration of liver injury which occurs under these conditions by chemical activators of Nrf2 is of clinical relevance and worthy of further study. © 2013.

  13. Uric acid ameliorates indomethacin-induced enteropathy in mice through its antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasutake, Yuichi; Tomita, Kengo; Higashiyama, Masaaki; Furuhashi, Hirotaka; Shirakabe, Kazuhiko; Takajo, Takeshi; Maruta, Koji; Sato, Hirokazu; Narimatsu, Kazuyuki; Yoshikawa, Kenichi; Okada, Yoshikiyo; Kurihara, Chie; Watanabe, Chikako; Komoto, Shunsuke; Nagao, Shigeaki; Matsuo, Hirotaka; Miura, Soichiro; Hokari, Ryota

    2017-11-01

    Uric acid is excreted from blood into the intestinal lumen, yet the roles of uric acid in intestinal diseases remain to be elucidated. The study aimed to determine whether uric acid could reduce end points associated with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-induced enteropathy. A mouse model of NSAID-induced enteropathy was generated by administering indomethacin intraperitoneally to 8-week-old male C57BL/6 mice, and then vehicle or uric acid was administered orally. A group of mice treated with indomethacin was also concurrently administered inosinic acid, a uric acid precursor, and potassium oxonate, an inhibitor of uric acid metabolism, intraperitoneally. For in vitro analysis, Caco-2 cells treated with indomethacin were incubated in the presence or absence of uric acid. Oral administration of uric acid ameliorated NSAID-induced enteropathy in mice even though serum uric acid levels did not increase. Intraperitoneal administration of inosinic acid and potassium oxonate significantly elevated serum uric acid levels and ameliorated NSAID-induced enteropathy in mice. Both oral uric acid treatment and intraperitoneal treatment with inosinic acid and potassium oxonate significantly decreased lipid peroxidation in the ileum of mice with NSAID-induced enteropathy. Treatment with uric acid protected Caco-2 cells from indomethacin-induced oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, and cytotoxicity. Uric acid within the intestinal lumen and in serum had a protective effect against NSAID-induced enteropathy in mice, through its antioxidant activity. Uric acid could be a promising therapeutic target for NSAID-induced enteropathy. © 2017 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  14. Prognostic value of insulinlike growth factor I and its binding protein in patients with alcohol-induced liver disease. EMALD group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Søren; Becker, Povl Ulrik; Juul, A

    1996-01-01

    , and immunoglobulin (Ig) M. When IGF-I or IGFBP-3 were added into this model, a Cox regression analysis showed that either had a significant independent prognostic value. Because IGF-I and IGFBP-3 were closely correlated, they contained almost the same prognostic information. Inclusion of IGF-I gave these results......Insulinlike growth factor I (IGF-I) is a single-polypeptide chain with important anabolic and endocrine activities. The liver is the major source of IGF-I and its binding protein, IGFBP-3. Circulating concentrations of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 are decreased in patients with chronic liver disease...... and correlate with the severity. The aim of this study was to assess the additional prognostic value of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 in patients entered in a large multicenter study (EMALD). Three hundred thirty-seven patients with alcohol-induced liver disease were studied in a randomized placebo-controlled trial...

  15. Evaluation of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness measurements using optical coherence tomography in patients with tobacco-alcohol-induced toxic optic neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moura Frederico

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Three patients with progressive visual loss, chronic alcoholism and tabagism were submitted to a complete neuro-ophthalmic examination and to retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL measurements using optical coherence tomography (OCT scanning. Two patients showed marked RNFL loss in the temporal sector of the optic disc. However, a third patient presented RNFL measurements within or above normal limits, based on the Stratus-OCT normative database. Such findings may be due to possible RNFL edema similar to the one that may occur in the acute phase of toxic optic neuropathies. Stratus-OCT was able to detect RNFL loss in the papillomacular bundle of patients with tobacco-alcohol-induced toxic optic neuropathy. However, interpretation must be careful when OCT does not show abnormality in order to prevent diagnostic confusion, since overestimation of RNFL thickness measurements is possible in such cases.

  16. Gastroprotective activity of Nigella sativa L oil and its constituent, thymoquinone against acute alcohol-induced gastric mucosal injury in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanter, Mehmet; Demir, Halit; Karakaya, Cengiz; Ozbek, Hanefi

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the role of reactive oxygen species in the pathogenesis of acute ethanol-induced gastric mucosal lesions and the effect of Nigella sativa L oil (NS) and its constituent thymoquinone (TQ) in an exper-imental model. METHODS: Male Wistar albino rats were assigned into 4 groups. Control group was given physiologic saline orally (10 mL/kg body weight) as the vehicle (gavage); ethanol group was administrated 1 mL (per rat) absolute alcohol by gavage; the third and fourth groups were given NS (10 mL/kg body weight) and TQ (10 mg/kg body weight p.o) respectively 1 h prior to alcohol intake. One hour after ethanol administration, stomach tissues were excised for macroscopic examination and biochemical analysis. RESULTS: NS and TQ could protect gastric mucosa against the injurious effect of absolute alcohol and promote ulcer healing as evidenced from the ulcer index (UI) values. NS prevented alcohol-induced increase in thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), an index of lipid peroxidation. NS also increased gastric glutathione content (GSH), enzymatic activities of gastric superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST). Likewise, TQ protected against the ulcerating effect of alcohol and mitigated most of the biochemical adverse effects induced by alcohol in gastric mucosa, but to a lesser extent than NS. Neither NS nor TQ affected catalase activity in gastric tissue. CONCLUSION: Both NS and TQ, particularly NS can partly protect gastric mucosa from acute alcohol-induced mucosal injury, and these gastroprotective effects might be induced, at least partly by their radical scavenging activity. PMID:16425361

  17. Transmural intestinal wall permeability in severe ischemia after enteral protease inhibition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelina E Altshuler

    across the wall and enteral proteolytic inhibition attenuates tissue breakdown. These combined interventions ameliorate lesion formation in the small intestine after hemorrhagic shock.

  18. Intestinal alkaline phosphatase: novel functions and protective effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lallès, Jean-Paul

    2014-02-01

    Important protective roles of intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP)--including regulation of intestinal surface pH, absorption of lipids, detoxification of free nucleotides and bacterial lipopolysaccharide, attenuation of intestinal inflammation, and possible modulation of the gut microbiota--have been reviewed recently. IAP is modulated by numerous nutritional factors. The present review highlights new findings on the properties of IAP and extends the list of its protective functions. Critical assessment of data suggests that some IAP properties are a direct result of dephosphorylation of proinflammatory moieties, while others (e.g., gut barrier protection and microbiota shaping) may be secondary to IAP-mediated downregulation of inflammation. IAP and tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase isoforms characterize the small intestine and the colon, respectively. Gastrointestinal administration of exogenous IAP ameliorates gut inflammation and favors gut tissue regeneration, whereas enteral and systemic IAP administration attenuates systemic inflammation only. Finally, the IAP gene family has a strong evolutionary link to food-driven changes in gastrointestinal tract anatomy and microbiota composition. Therefore, stimulation of IAP activity by dietary intervention is a goal for preserving gut homeostasis and health by minimizing low-grade inflammation. © 2013 International Life Sciences Institute.

  19. Diagnosis of intestinal and extra intestinal amoebiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, Myriam Consuelo; Quiroz, Damian Arnoldo; Pinilla, Analida Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    The objective is to carry out a review of the national and international literature as of the XXth century in order to update the advances for the diagnosis of complex odd Entamoeba histolytic / Entamoeba dispar and that of intestinal and extra intestinal amoebiasis that may be of use to the scientific community. As well as to unify the diagnostic criteria of this parasitosis known as a public health problem, and as a consequence of that, optimize the quality of population care. Data source: there was a systematic search for the scientific literature Publisher in Spanish and English since 1960 until today, this selection started on the first semester of 2006 until 2007, in the development of the line on intestinal and extra-intestinal amoebiasis of the Medical School of the National University of Colombia. A retrospective search process was carried out, systematically reviewing the most relevant articles as well as the products of this research line. In deciding how to make this article, there was a continuous search in different data bases such as Medline, SciELO and other bases in the library of the National University of Colombia, as well as other classical books related to the subject. For that purpose the terms amoebiasis, odd Entamoeba histolytic, Entamoeba, diagnosis, epidemiology, dysentery, amoebic liver abscess, were used. Studies selection: titles and abstracts were reviewed to select the original publications and the most representative ones related to this article's subject. Data extraction: the articles were classified according to the subject, the chronology and the authors according to the scientific contribution to solve the problem. Synthesis of the data: in the fi rst instance, a chronological critical analysis was carried out to order and synthesize the progress made in the diagnosis until confirmation of the experts' agreements in the field of amoebiasis was obtained throughout the world. Conclusion: this article summarizes what has taken place

  20. Intestinal anisakidosis (anisakiosis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takei, Hidehiro; Powell, Suzanne Z

    2007-10-01

    A case of intestinal anisakidosis in a 42-year-old man in Japan is presented. His chief complaint was an acute onset of severe abdominal pain. Approximately 12 hours before the onset of this symptom, he had eaten sliced raw mackerel ("sashimi"). Upper endoscopy was unremarkable. At exploratory laparotomy, an edematous, diffusely thickened segment of jejunum was observed, which was resected. The postoperative course was uneventful. The segment of small intestine showed a granular indurated area on the mucosal surface, and microscopically, a helminthic larva penetrating the intestinal wall, which was surrounded by a cuff of numerous neutrophils and eosinophils, as well as diffuse acute serositis. A cross section of the larva revealed the internal structures, pathognomonic of Anisakis simplex. Although anisakidosis is rare in the United States, with the increasing popularity of Japanese cuisine, the incidence is expected to increase, and pathologists should be familiar with this disease.

  1. Intestinal failure: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Philip; Lal, Simon

    2018-01-01

    Intestinal failure (IF) is the inability of the gut to absorb necessary water, macronutrients (carbohydrate, protein, and fat), micronutrients, and electrolytes sufficient to sustain life and requiring intravenous supplementation or replacement. Acute IF (types 1 and 2) is the initial phase of the illness and may last for weeks to a few months, and chronic IF (type 3) from months to years. The challenge of caring for patients with IF is not merely the management of the underlying condition leading to IF or the correct provision of appropriate nutrition or both but also the prevention of complications, whether thromboembolic phenomenon (for example, venous occlusion), central venous catheter-related bloodstream infection, IF-associated liver disease, or metabolic bone disease. This review looks at recent questions regarding chronic IF (type 3), its diagnosis and management, the role of the multidisciplinary team, and novel therapies, including hormonal treatment for short bowel syndrome but also surgical options for intestinal lengthening and intestinal transplant. PMID:29399329

  2. Small intestine diverticuli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomakov, P.; Risov, A.

    1991-01-01

    The routine method of contrast matter passage applied to 850 patients with different gastrointestinal diseases proved inefficient to detect any small-intestinal diverticuli. The following modiffications of the method have been tested in order to improve the diagnostic possibilities of the X-ray: study at short intervals, assisted passage, enteroclysm, pharmacodynamic impact, retrograde filling of the ileum by irrigoscopy. Twelve diverticuli of the small-intestinal loops were identified: 5 Meckel's diverticuli, 2 solitary of which one of the therminal ileum, 2 double diverticuli and 1 multiple diverticulosis of the jejunum. The results show that the short interval X-ray examination of the small intestines is the method of choice for identifying local changes in them. The solitary diverticuli are not casuistic scarcity, its occurrence is about 0.5% at purposeful X-ray investigation. The assisted passage method is proposed as a method of choice for detection of the Meckel's diverticulum. 5 figs., 3 tabs. 18 refs

  3. Chronic intestinal pseudoobstruction syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeon, Kyung Mo; Seo, Jeong Kee; Lee, Yong Seok

    1992-01-01

    Chronic intestinal pseudoobstruction syndrome is a rare clinical condition in which impaired intestinal peristalsis causes recurrent symptoms of bowel obstruction in the absence of a mechanical occlusion. This syndrome may involve variable segments of small or large bowel, and may be associated with urinary bladder retention. This study included 6 children(3 boys and 3 girls) of chronic intestinal obstruction. Four were symptomatic at birth and two were of the ages of one month and one year. All had abdominal distension and deflection difficulty. Five had urinary bladder distension. Despite parenteral nutrition and surgical intervention(ileostomy or colostomy), bowel obstruction persisted and four patients expired from sepses within one year. All had gaseous distension of small and large bowel on abdominal films. In small bowel series, consistent findings were variable degree of dilatation, decreased peristalsis(prolonged transit time) and microcolon or microrectum. This disease entity must be differentiated from congenital megacolon, ileal atresia and megacystis syndrome

  4. Small Intestinal Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munot, Khushboo; Kotler, Donald P

    2016-06-01

    Small intestinal infections are extremely common worldwide. They may be bacterial, viral, or parasitic in etiology. Most are foodborne or waterborne, with specific etiologies differing by region and with diverse pathophysiologies. Very young, very old, and immune-deficient individuals are the most vulnerable to morbidity or mortality from small intestinal infections. There have been significant advances in diagnostic sophistication with the development and early application of molecular diagnostic assays, though these tests have not become mainstream. The lack of rapid diagnoses combined with the self-limited nature of small intestinal infections has hampered the development of specific and effective treatments other than oral rehydration. Antibiotics are not indicated in the absence of an etiologic diagnosis, and not at all in the case of some infections.

  5. The intestinal calcistat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M K Garg

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The main physiological function of vitamin D is maintenance of calcium homeostasis by its effect on calcium absorption, and bone health in association with parathyroid gland. Vitamin D deficiency (VDD is defined as serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25OHD levels <20 ng/ml. Do all subjects with VDD have clinical disease according to this definition? We hypothesize that there exist an intestinal calcistat, which controls the calcium absorption independent of PTH levels. It consists of calcium sensing receptor (CaSR on intestinal brush border, which senses calcium in intestinal cells and vitamin D system in intestinal cells. CaSR dampens the generation of active vitamin D metabolite in intestinal cells and decrease active transcellular calcium transport. It also facilitates passive paracellular diffusion of calcium in intestine. This local adaptation adjusts the fractional calcium absorption according the body requirement. Failure of local adaptation due to decreased calcium intake, decreased supply of 25OHD, mutation in CaSR or vitamin D system decreases systemic calcium levels and systemic adaptations comes into the play. Systemic adaptations consist of rise in PTH and increase in active vitamin D metabolites. These adaptations lead to bone resorption and maintenance of calcium homeostasis. Not all subjects with varying levels of VDD manifest with secondary hyperparathyroidism and decreased in bone mineral density. We suggest that rise in PTH is first indicator of VDD along with decrease in BMD depending on duration of VDD. Hence, subjects with any degree of VDD with normal PTH and BMD should not be labeled as vitamin D deficient. These subjects can be called subclinical VDD, and further studies are required to assess beneficial effect of vitamin D supplementation in this subset of population.

  6. Intestinal microbiota and ulcerative colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohkusa, Toshifumi; Koido, Shigeo

    2015-11-01

    There is a close relationship between the human host and the intestinal microbiota, which is an assortment of microorganisms, protecting the intestine against colonization by exogenous pathogens. Moreover, the intestinal microbiota play a critical role in providing nutrition and the modulation of host immune homeostasis. Recent reports indicate that some strains of intestinal bacteria are responsible for intestinal ulceration and chronic inflammation in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) such as ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD). Understanding the interaction of the intestinal microbiota with pathogens and the human host might provide new strategies treating patients with IBD. This review focuses on the important role that the intestinal microbiota plays in maintaining innate immunity in the pathogenesis and etiology of UC and discusses new antibiotic therapies targeting the intestinal microbiota. Copyright © 2015 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Small intestine aspirate and culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ency/article/003731.htm Small intestine aspirate and culture To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Small intestine aspirate and culture is a lab test to check for infection ...

  8. Effect of Polysaccharides from on Intestinal Mucosal Barrier of Lipopolysaccharide Challenged Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Han

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the role of polysaccharide from Acanthopanax senticosus (ASPS in preventing lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced intestinal injury, 18 mice (at 5 wk of age were assigned to three groups with 6 replicates of one mouse each. Mice were administrated by oral gavage with or without ASPS (300 mg/kg body weight for 14 days and were injected with saline or LPS at 15 days. Intestinal samples were collected at 4 h post-challenge. The results showed that ASPS ameliorated LPS-induced deterioration of digestive ability of LPS-challenged mice, indicated by an increase in intestinal lactase activity (45%, p<0.05, and the intestinal morphology, as proved by improved villus height (20.84%, p<0.05 and villus height:crypt depth ratio (42%, p<0.05, and lower crypt depth in jejunum (15.55%, p<0.05, as well as enhanced intestinal tight junction proteins expression involving occludin-1 (71.43%, p<0.05. ASPS also prevented intestinal inflammation response, supported by decrease in intestinal inflammatory mediators including tumor necrosis factor α (22.28%, p<0.05 and heat shock protein (HSP70 (77.42%, p<0.05. In addition, intestinal mucus layers were also improved by ASPS, as indicated by the increase in number of goblet cells (24.89%, p<0.05 and intestinal trefoil peptide (17.75%, p<0.05. Finally, ASPS facilitated mRNA expression of epidermal growth factor (100%, p<0.05 and its receptor (200%, p<0.05 gene. These results indicate that ASPS can prevent intestinal mucosal barrier injury under inflammatory conditions, which may be associated with up-regulating gene mRNA expression of epidermal growth factor and its receptor.

  9. Intestinal Serotonin Transporter Inhibition by Toll-Like Receptor 2 Activation. A Feedback Modulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Latorre

    Full Text Available TLR2 is a microbiota recognition receptor that has been described to contribute to intestinal homeostasis and to ameliorate inflammatory intestinal injury. In this context, serotonin (5-HT has shown to be an essential intestinal physiological neuromodulator that is also involved in intestinal inflammatory diseases. Since the interaction between TLR2 activation and the intestinal serotoninergic system remains non-investigated, our main aim was to analyze the effect of TLR2 on intestinal serotonin transporter (SERT activity and expression and the intracellular pathways involved. Caco-2/TC7 cells were used to analyze SERT and TLR2 molecular expression and SERT activity by measuring 5-HT uptake. The results showed that apical TLR2 activation inhibits SERT activity in Caco-2/TC7 cells mainly by reducing SERT protein level either in the plasma membrane, after short-term TLR2 activation or in both the plasma membrane and cell lysate, after long-term activation. cAMP/PKA pathway appears to mediate short-term inhibitory effect of TLR2 on SERT; however, p38 MAPK pathway has been shown to be involved in both short- and long-term TLR2 effect. Reciprocally, 5-HT long-term treatment yielded TLR2 down regulation in Caco-2/TC7 cells. Finally, results from in vivo showed an augmented intestinal SERT expression in mice Tlr2-/-, thus confirming our inhibitory effect of TLR2 on intestinal SERT in vitro. The present work infers that TLR2 may act in intestinal pathophysiology, not only by its inherent innate immune role, but also by regulating the intestinal serotoninergic system.

  10. Stages of Small Intestine Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... all of an organ that contains cancer. The resection may include the small intestine and nearby organs (if the cancer has spread). The doctor may remove the section of the small intestine that contains cancer and perform an anastomosis (joining the cut ends of the intestine together). ...

  11. Intestinal inflammatory myofibroblastic tumour

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abdominal X-ray of patients 1, 3 and 4 demonstrated dilated small bowel loops with fluid levels in keeping with intestinal ... myxoid/vascular pattern characterised by a variable admixture of capillary-calibre blood vessels, .... in the present study had a past history of abdominal trauma or surgery. Ancillary histopathological ...

  12. Small intestine and microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotter, Paul D

    2011-03-01

    To highlight the recent studies which have enhanced our appreciation of the composition of the microbiota in the human small intestine and its relevance to the health of the host. In the past number of years, the composition of the microorganisms present in our small intestines has been the subject of greater scrutiny than ever before. These investigations have been possible as a consequence of the development and utilization of new molecular tools which have revolutionized the field of microbial ecology and have focused predominantly on the small intestinal microbiota associated with pediatric celiac disease, inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome and pouchitis. The impact of invasive procedures, such as small bowel transplant, ileostomy and ileal pouch anal anastomosis, on the ileal microbiota has also been investigated. The ever greater appreciation of the link between the small intestinal microbiota and the health status of the host has the potential to lead to the development of new strategies to alter this microbiota in a targeted way to prevent or treat specific disorders.

  13. Intestinal obstruction repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ileostomy and your diet Ileostomy - caring for your stoma Ileostomy - changing your pouch Ileostomy - discharge Ileostomy - what to ask your doctor Intestinal or bowel obstruction - discharge Low-fiber diet Surgical wound care - open Types of ileostomy When you have nausea ...

  14. adhesive intestinal obstruction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-06-01

    Jun 1, 2006 ... obstruction. Brit. I. Surg. 1998; 85: 1071-1074. The acute abdomen: Intestinal obstruction. In: Primary surgery, Vol. 1. Edited by Maurice King et al. Oxford. Med. PubL, Oxford. 1990; 142-169. Fluids and electrolyte management. In: Essentials of pediatric surgery. Edited by Marc Rowe et al. Mosby,. St. Louis ...

  15. Intestinal Complications of IBD

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... localized pocket of pus caused by infection from bacteria. More common in Crohn’s than in colitis, an abscess may form in the intestinal wall—sometimes causing it to bulge out. Visible abscesses, such as those around the anus, look like boils and treatment often involves lancing. Symptoms of ...

  16. Intestinal failure in childhood

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Short bowel syndrome (SBS) was one of the first recognised conditions of protracted IF. With the increasing and successful use of long-term PN during the last three decades, several other causes of IF have emerged. Long-term PN and home-PN are the mainstay of therapy, independent of the nature of “Intestinal failure” ...

  17. FLLL32, a curcumin analog, ameliorates intestinal injury in necrotizing enterocolitis

    OpenAIRE

    Eckert, Jeffrey; Scott, Brian; Lawrence, Shelley M; Ihnat, Michael; Chaaban, Hala

    2017-01-01

    Jeffrey Eckert,1 Brian Scott,1,2 Shelley M Lawrence,3 Michael Ihnat,4 Hala Chaaban1 1Department of Pediatrics, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK, 2Department of Pediatrics, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX, 3Department of Pediatrics, University of California San Diego, San Diego, CA, 4Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Oklahoma, College of Pharmacy, Oklahoma City, OK, USA Background: Necrotizing enteroco...

  18. Nerve Growth Factor Protects Against Alcohol-Induced Neurotoxicity in PC12 Cells via PI3K/Akt/mTOR Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liping; Sun, Tiedong; Xin, Feng; Cui, Wei; Guo, Jianquan; Hu, Jian

    2017-01-01

    To study whether autophagy participates in the neuroprotective effect of nerve growth factor (NGF) on neurons treated with alcohol. The autophagy-related markers were used to explore the role of autophagy in PC12 cells exposed to alcohol or pre-incubated with NGF before initiating the treatment with alcohol (100 mM; 6 h). PC12 cells were pre-incubated with 3-methyladenine (3-MA) (10 mM; 1 h) or rapamycin (100 nM; 1 h) before co-incubated with alcohol (100 mM; 6 h) in order to investigate the relationship between apoptosis and autophagy. PC12 cells were pre-incubated with LY294002 (50 μM; 30 min) before co-incubated with NGF and alcohol in order to analyze the protein expression of PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway via western blotting. By methylthiazoltetrazolium, western blotting and flow cytometry assays, we found that cell viability decreased in a dose- and time-dependent manner after treatment with alcohol in PC12 cells. As cells were exposed to alcohol, the levels of LC3-II proteins became elevated, likewise, pre-treatment with 3-methyladenine (3-MA, an autophagic inhibitor) or rapamycin (an autophagic inducer) resulted in an increased or decreased percentage of apoptosis in contrast to other alcohol-treated groups, respectively. NGF markedly increased LC3-II production after treatment with alcohol in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, NGF remarkably attenuated the phosphorylation effect of alcohol exposure on PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway, which was suppressed by LY294002 (Akt inhibitor). NGF protects against alcohol-induced neurotoxicity via PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway. In this study, we chose the PC12 cell line as a neuronal model, and our results demonstrate that nerve growth factor can induce autophagy with the neuroprotective effect and regulatory mechanisms of alcohol-induced autophagy in PC12 cells. © The Author 2016. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  19. Acetylcholinesterase inhibition ameliorates deficits in motivational drive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinowich Keri

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Apathy is frequently observed in numerous neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's, as well as neuropsychiatric disorders including schizophrenia. Apathy is defined as a lack of motivation characterized by diminished goal-oriented behavior and self-initiated activity. This study evaluated a chronic restraint stress (CRS protocol in modeling apathetic behavior, and determined whether administration of an anticholinesterase had utility in attenuating CRS-induced phenotypes. Methods We assessed behavior as well as regional neuronal activity patterns using FosB immunohistochemistry after exposure to CRS for 6 h/d for a minimum of 21 d. Based on our FosB findings and recent clinical trials, we administered an anticholinesterase to evaluate attenuation of CRS-induced phenotypes. Results CRS resulted in behaviors that reflect motivational loss and diminished emotional responsiveness. CRS-exposed mice showed differences in FosB accumulation, including changes in the cholinergic basal forebrain system. Facilitating cholinergic signaling ameliorated CRS-induced deficits in initiation and motivational drive and rescued immediate early gene activation in the medial septum and nucleus accumbens. Conclusions Some CRS protocols may be useful for studying deficits in motivation and apathetic behavior. Amelioration of CRS-induced behaviors with an anticholinesterase supports a role for the cholinergic system in remediation of deficits in motivational drive.

  20. Cacao polyphenols ameliorate autoimmune myocarditis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zempo, Hirofumi; Suzuki, Jun-ichi; Watanabe, Ryo; Wakayama, Kouji; Kumagai, Hidetoshi; Ikeda, Yuichi; Akazawa, Hiroshi; Komuro, Issei; Isobe, Mitsuaki

    2016-04-01

    Myocarditis is a clinically severe disease; however, no effective treatment has been established. The aim of this study was to determine whether cacao bean (Theobroma cacao) polyphenols ameliorate autoimmune myocarditis. We used an experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM) model in Balb/c mice. Mice with induced EAM were treated with a cacao polyphenol extract (CPE, n=12) or vehicle (n=12). On day 21, hearts were harvested and analyzed. Elevated heart weight to body weight and fibrotic area ratios as well as high cardiac cell infiltration were observed in the vehicle-treated EAM mice. However, these increases were significantly suppressed in the CPE-treated mice. Reverse transcriptase-PCR revealed that mRNA expressions of interleukin (Il)-1β, Il-6, E-selectin, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and collagen type 1 were lower in the CPE group compared with the vehicle group. The mRNA expressions of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-oxidase (Nox)2 and Nox4 were increased in the vehicle-treated EAM hearts, although CPE treatment did not significantly suppress the transcription levels. However, compared with vehicle treatment of EAM hearts, CPE treatment significantly suppressed hydrogen peroxide concentrations. Cardiac myeloperoxidase activity, the intensity of dihydroethidium staining and the phosphorylation of nuclear factor-κB p65 were also lower in the CPE group compared with the vehicle group. Our data suggest that CPE ameliorates EAM in mice. CPE is a promising dietary supplement to suppress cardiovascular inflammation and oxidative stress.

  1. In Vitro Antioxidant Activities of Enzymatic Hydrolysate from Schizochytrium sp. and Its Hepatoprotective Effects on Acute Alcohol-Induced Liver Injury In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xixi Cai

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Schizochytrium protein hydrolysate (SPH was prepared through stepwise enzymatic hydrolysis by alcalase and flavourzyme sequentially. The proportion of hydrophobic amino acids of SPH was 34.71%. The molecular weight (MW of SPH was principally concentrated at 180–3000 Da (52.29%. SPH was divided into two fractions by ultrafiltration: SPH-I (MW < 3 kDa and SPH-II (MW > 3 kDa. Besides showing lipid peroxidation inhibitory activity in vitro, SPH-I exhibited high DPPH and ABTS radicals scavenging activities with IC50 of 350 μg/mL and 17.5 μg/mL, respectively. In addition, the antioxidant activity of SPH-I was estimated in vivo using the model of acute alcohol-induced liver injury in mice. For the hepatoprotective effects, oral administration of SPH-I at different concentrations (100, 300 mg/kg BW to the mice subjected to alcohol significantly decreased serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST activities and hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA level compared to the untreated mice. Besides, SPH-I could effectively restore the hepatic superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px activities and glutathione (GSH level. Results suggested that SPH was rich in biopeptides that could be exploited as antioxidant molecules against oxidative stress in human body.

  2. PROTECTIVE EFFECTS OF HYPOTHALAMIC BETA-ENDORPHIN NEURONS AGAINST ALCOHOL-INDUCED LIVER INJURIES AND LIVER CANCERS IN RAT ANIMAL MODELS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugan, Sengottuvelan; Boyadjieva, Nadka; Sarkar, Dipak K.

    2014-01-01

    Background Recently, retrograde tracing has provided evidence for an influence of hypothalamic β-endorphin (BEP) neurons on the liver, but functions of these neurons are not known. We evaluated the effect of BEP neuronal activation on alcohol-induced liver injury and hepatocellular cancer. Methods Male rats received either BEP neuron transplants or control transplants in the hypothalamus and randomly assigned to feeding alcohol-containing liquid diet or control liquid diet for 8 weeks or to treatment of a carcinogen diethylnitrosamine (DEN). Liver tissues of these animals were analyzed histochemically and biochemically for tissue injuries or cancer. Results Alcohol-feeding increased liver weight and induced several histopathological changes such as prominent microvesicular steatosis and hepatic fibrosis. Alcohol feeding also increased protein levels of triglyceride, hepatic stellate cell activation factors and catecholamines in the liver and endotoxin levels in the plasma. However, these effects of alcohol on the liver were reduced in animals with BEP neuron transplants. BEP neuron transplants also suppressed carcinogen-induced liver histopathologies such as extensive fibrosis, large focus of inflammatory infiltration, hepatocelluar carcinoma, collagen deposition, numbers of preneoplastic foci, levels of hepatic stellate cell activation factors and catecholamines, as well as inflammatory milieu and the levels of NK cell cytotoxic factors in the liver. Conclusion These findings are the first evidence for a role of hypothalamic BEP neurons in influencing liver functions. Additionally, the data identify that BEP neuron transplantation prevents hepatocellular injury and hepatocellular carcinoma formation possibly via influencing the immune function. PMID:25581653

  3. Small intestinal transplantation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Quigley, E M

    2012-02-03

    The past few years have witnessed a considerable shift in the clinical status of intestinal transplantation. A great deal of experience has been gained at the most active centers, and results comparable with those reported at a similar stage in the development of other solid-organ graft programs are now being achieved by these highly proficient transplant teams. Rejection and its inevitable associate, sepsis, remain ubiquitous, and new immunosuppressant regimes are urgently needed; some may already be on the near horizon. The recent success of isolated intestinal grafts, together with the mortality and morbidity attendant upon the development of advanced liver disease related to total parenteral nutrition, has prompted the bold proposal that patients at risk for this complication should be identified and should receive isolated small bowel grafts before the onset of end-stage hepatic failure. The very fact that such a suggestion has begun to emerge reflects real progress in this challenging field.

  4. The performance of maize crop during acid amelioration with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tanzania Journal of Science ... This study evaluated acid ameliorative potential and their effects on maize growth of four organic residues namely wild spikenard, cordia, cowpea and pigeon peas ... The finding suggests different acid ameliorating potential of residues, pigeon peas and cordia being the most effective.

  5. Use of Coffee Pulp and Minerals for Natural Soil Ameliorant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pujiyanto Pujiyanto

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available In coffee plantation, solid waste of coffee pulp is usually collected as heap nearby processing facilities for several months prior being used as compost. The practice is leading to the formation of odor and liquid which contaminate the environment. Experiments to evaluate the effect of natural soil ameliorant derived from coffee pulp and minerals were conducted at The Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute in Jember, East Java. The experiments were intended to optimize the use of coffee pulp to support farming sustainability and minimize negative impacts of solid waste disposal originated from coffee cherry processing. Prior to applications, coffee pulp was hulled to organic paste. The paste was then mixed with 10% minerals (b/b. Composition of the minerals was 50% zeolite and 50% rock phosphate powder. The ameliorant was characterized for their physical and chemical properties. Agronomic tests were conducted on coffee and cocoa seedling. The experiments were arranged according to Randomized Completely Design with 2 factors, consisted of natural ameliorant and inorganic fertilizer respectively. Natural ameliorant derived from coffee pulp was applied at 6 levels: 0, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 g dry ameliorant/seedling of 3 kg soil, equivalent to 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5% (b/b of ameliorant respectively. Inorganic fertilizer was applied at 2 levels: 0 and 2 g fertilizer/application of N-P-K compound fertilizer of 15-15-15 respectively. The inorganic fertilizer was applied 4 times during nursery of coffee and cocoa. The result of the experiment indicated that coffee pulp may be used as natural soil ameliorant. Composition of ameliorant of 90% coffee pulp and 10% of minerals has good physical and chemical characteristics for soil amelioration. The composition has high water holding capacity; cations exchange capacity, organic carbon and phosphorus contents which are favorable to increase soil capacity to support plant growth. Application of

  6. De Novo Formation of Insulin-Producing “Neo-β Cell Islets” from Intestinal Crypts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Ju Chen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The ability to interconvert terminally differentiated cells could serve as a powerful tool for cell-based treatment of degenerative diseases, including diabetes mellitus. To determine which, if any, adult tissues are competent to activate an islet β cell program, we performed an in vivo screen by expressing three β cell “reprogramming factors” in a wide spectrum of tissues. We report that transient intestinal expression of these factors—Pdx1, MafA, and Ngn3 (PMN—promotes rapid conversion of intestinal crypt cells into endocrine cells, which coalesce into “neoislets” below the crypt base. Neoislet cells express insulin and show ultrastructural features of β cells. Importantly, intestinal neoislets are glucose-responsive and able to ameliorate hyperglycemia in diabetic mice. Moreover, PMN expression in human intestinal “organoids” stimulates the conversion of intestinal epithelial cells into β-like cells. Our results thus demonstrate that the intestine is an accessible and abundant source of functional insulin-producing cells.

  7. Effect of Glycine, Pyruvate, and Resveratrol on the Regeneration Process of Postischemic Intestinal Mucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Brencher

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Intestinal ischemia is often caused by a malperfusion of the upper mesenteric artery. Since the intestinal mucosa is one of the most rapidly proliferating organs in human body, this tissue can partly regenerate itself after the onset of ischemia and reperfusion (I/R. Therefore, we investigated whether glycine, sodium pyruvate, and resveratrol can either support or potentially harm regeneration when applied therapeutically after reperfusion injury. Methods. I/R of the small intestine was initiated by occluding and reopening the upper mesenteric artery in rats. After 60 min of ischemia and 300 min of reperfusion, glycine, sodium pyruvate, or resveratrol was administered intravenously. Small intestine regeneration was analyzed regarding tissue damage, activity of saccharase, and Ki-67 positive cells. Additionally, systemic parameters and metabolic ones were obtained at selected periods. Results. Resveratrol failed in improving the outcome after I/R, while glycine showed a partial beneficial effect. Sodium pyruvate ameliorated metabolic acidosis, diminished histopathologic tissue injury, and increased cell proliferation in the small intestine. Conclusion. While glycine could improve in part regeneration but not proliferation, sodium pyruvate seems to be a possible therapeutic agent to facilitate proliferation and to support mucosal regeneration after I/R injury to the small intestine.

  8. Arsenic Induced Toxicity in Broiler Chicks and Its Amelioration with Ascorbic Acid: Clinical, Hematological and Pathological Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabia Sharaf, Ahrar Khan*, Muhammad Zargham Khan, Iftikhar Hussain, Rao Zahid Abbas, S. T. Gul, Fazal Mahmood and Muhammad Kashif Saleemi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to observe the arsenic (As toxicity lesions in birds and to know either Vit C ameliorates these toxic effects or not. One-day-old broilers chicks (n=72 procured from a local hatchery were randomly divided into four equal groups. First group was kept as control and second group was given As (50 mg/kg BW via crop tubing. Third group received in addition to As, Vit C (250 mg/kg BW whereas fourth group received only Vit C. Killing by neck dislocation of randomly selected six birds from each group was carried out on experimental days 0, 16 and 32 for collection of blood and tissues specimens. Arsenic treated birds showed clinical signs of toxicity throughout the experiment than all other groups. These clinical signs included decreased body weight and feed intake, dullness, open mouth breathing, increased thirst, ruffled feathers, pale comb, skin irritation and watery diarrhea which were not significant in any other group. As treated group showed a significant (P<0.05 decrease in hematological parameters. Severe gross and histopathological changes were observed in intestines, spleen and lungs of birds fed with As than all other groups. Decreased height of villi of middle portion of small intestines was also observed in As treated birds. Villi height in Vit C treated group increased as compared to control group. It was concluded that As induces severe toxic effects in broiler birds; however, these toxic effects can be partially ameliorated by Vit C.

  9. Administration of Protein kinase D1 induce an immunomodulatory effect on lipopolysaccharide-induced intestinal inflammation in a co-culture model of intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells and RAW 264.7 macrophage cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ditte Søvsø Gundelund; Fredborg, Marlene; Andersen, Vibeke

    2017-01-01

    the effects of human PKD1 in relation to intestinal inflammation, using a co-culture model of intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells and RAW264.7 macrophages. An inflammatory response was induced in the macrophages by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), upregulating the expression of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF......-α), interleukin- (IL-) 1β, and IL-6 besides increasing the secretion of TNF-α protein. The effect of administering PKD1 to Caco-2 was evaluated in relation to both amelioration of inflammation and the ability to suppress inflammation initiation. Administration of PKD1 (10–100 ng/ml) following induction...

  10. Small intestinal cytochromes P450.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminsky, L S; Fasco, M J

    1991-01-01

    Small intestinal cytochromes P450 (P450) provide the principal, initial source of biotransformation of ingested xenobiotics. The consequences of such biotransformation are detoxification by facilitating excretion, or toxification by bioactivation. P450s occur at highest concentrations in the duodenum, near the pylorus, and at decreasing concentrations distally--being lowest in the ileum. Highest concentrations occur from midvillus to villous tip, with little or none occurring in the crypts of Lieberkuehn. Microsomal P4503A, 2C8-10, and 2D6 forms have been identified in human small intestine, and P450s 2B1, possibly 2B2, 2A1, and 3A1/2 were located in endoplasmic reticulum of rodent small intestine, while P4502B4 has been purified to electrophoretic homogeneity from rabbit intestine. Some evidence indicates a differential distribution of P450 forms along the length of the small intestine and even along the villus. Rat intestinal P450s are inducible by xenobiotics--with phenobarbital (PB) inducing P4502B1, 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC) inducing P4501A1, and dexamethasone inducing two forms of P4503A. Induction is most effectively achieved by oral administration of the agents, and is rapid--aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) was increased within 1 h of administration of, for example, 3-MC. AHH, 7-ethoxycoumarin O-deethylase (ECOD), and 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) have been used most frequently as substrates to characterize intestinal P450s. Dietary factors affect intestinal P450s markedly--iron restriction rapidly decreased intestinal P450 to beneath detectable values; selenium deficiency acted similarly but was less effective; Brussels sprouts increased intestinal AHH activity 9.8-fold, ECOD activity 3.2-fold, and P450 1.9-fold; fried meat and dietary fat significantly increased intestinal EROD activity; a vitamin A-deficient diet increased, and a vitamin A-rich diet decreased intestinal P450 activities; and excess cholesterol in the diet increased intestinal

  11. PARTIALLY HYDROLYZED GUAR GUM INTAKE AMELIORATES CONSTIPATION, IMPROVES NUTRITIONAL STATUS AND REDUCES INDOXYLSULFURIC ACID IN DIALYSIS PATIENTS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroto Maeda

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Dialysis patients often develop constipation and changes in intestinal bacterial flora. Indoxylsulfuric acid (IS levels rise as glomerular filtration decreases, and patients with renal failure have high IS. Elevated IS is also caused by increased indole due to altered intestinal flora (Takayama et al, Am J Kidney Dis. 2003. We investigated whether administering partially hydrolyzed guar gum (PHGG (Sunfiber: a product of Taiyokagaku Co., Ltd., Japan ameliorates constipation and improves nutritional status in dialysis patients, while decreasing IS levels. Thirty-five patients on maintenance dialysis (mean age, 71 ± 9; male/female= 22/13 ingested PHGG (10 g/day for 6 weeks. Defecation was scored before and after PHGG intake using a modified Constipation Assessment Scale-Long Term (Japanese version. Nutritional status was rated according to the Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index (GNRI before and after PHGG intake. IS was measured in 8 patients taking PHGG orally for 24 weeks, for comparison with those in 8 patients not on PHGG. Constipation scores decreased from 7.9 to 5.0 (p 〈.01 and GNRI increased from 95.0 ± 5.0 to 95.9 ± 5.7 (p 〈.05, reflecting amelioration of constipation and improved nutritional status. The ratio of IS after to that before PHGG intake was calculated to analyze the magnitude of IS change. The ratio in patients not on PHGG was 1.2 ± 0.3, i.e. IS rose, while that in patients taking PHGG was significantly reduced (0.8 ± 0.3, p 〈.05. Our results indicate PHGG consumption to ameliorate constipation and improve nutritional status, and that continued intake reduces IS, in dialysis patients.

  12. Lipo sarcoma in small intestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Iglesias, J.; Pineyro Gutierrez, A.; Taroco Medeiros, L.; Fein Kolodny, C.; Navarrete Pedocchi, H.

    1987-01-01

    A case is presented by primitive liposarcoma in small intestine , an extensive bibliographical review foreigner and national in this case. It detach the exceptional of the intestinal topography of the liposarcomas; and making stress in the relative value of the computerized tomography and ultrasonography in the diagnose of the small intestine tumors . As well as in the sarcomas of another topography, chemo and radiotherapy associated to the exeresis surgery, it can be of benefit [es

  13. Hereditary intestinal polyposis syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, P A

    1996-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world, with overall mortality exceeding 40% even with treatment. Effective efforts for screening and prevention are most likely to succeed in patient groups identified as high risk for colorectal cancer, most notably the hereditary intestinal polyposis syndromes. In these syndromes, benign polyps develop throughout the intestinal tract prior to the development of colorectal cancer, marking the patient and associated family for precancer diagnosis followed by either close surveillance or preventive treatment. This review article was undertaken to discuss the most recent developments in the knowledge of hereditary intestinal polyposis syndromes, emphasizing the clinical approach to diagnosis and treatment relative to preventing the development of cancer. The most common of the hereditary polyposis syndromes is familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), which is characterized by the development of hundreds to thousands of adenomatous polyps in the colon followed at an early age by colorectal cancer. Colorectal cancer can be prevented in this autosomal dominant condition by prophylactic colectomy, though a risk for other tumors, including periampullary cancers, remains throughout life. Variant of FAP associated with fewer and smaller polyps (hereditary flat adenoma syndrome), or even CNS tumors (Turcot's syndrome) also carry this high risk of colorectal cancer. Hereditary hamartomatous polyposis syndromes such as juvenile polyposis and Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (also autosomal dominant) are characterized by less frequent polyps. Though these are generally benign polyps, they are also associated with a significant risk of colorectal and other cancers. Other polyposis syndromes, including neurofibromatosis and Cowden's disease, do not carry this increased risk of colorectal cancer, and therefore affect different treatment strategies. Analysis of genetic factors responsible for these and other hereditary syndromes with

  14. Alcohol-induced sleepwalking or confusional arousal as a defense to criminal behavior: a review of scientific evidence, methods and forensic considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressman, Mark R; Mahowald, Mark W; Schenck, Carlos H; Bornemann, Michel Cramer

    2007-06-01

    An increasing number of criminal cases have claimed the defendant to be in a state of sleepwalking or related disorders induced by high quantities of alcohol. Sleepwalkers who commit violent acts, sexual assaults and other criminal acts are thought to be in a state of automatism, lacking conscious awareness and criminal intent. They may be acquitted in criminal trials. On the other hand, criminal acts performed as the result of voluntary alcohol intoxication alone cannot be used as a complete defense. The alcohol-induced sleepwalking criminal defense is most often based on past clinical or legal reports that ingestion of alcohol directly 'triggers' sleepwalking or increased the risk of sleepwalking by increasing the quantity of slow wave sleep (SWS). A review of the sleep medicine literature found no sleep laboratory studies of the effects of alcohol on the sleep of clinically diagnosed sleepwalkers. However, 19 sleep laboratory studies of the effects of alcohol on the sleep of healthy non-drinkers or social drinkers were identified with none reporting a change in SWS as a percentage of total sleep time. However, in six of 19 studies, a modest but statistically significant increase in SWS was found in the first 2-4 h. Among studies of sleep in alcohol abusers and abstinent abusers, the quantity and percentage of SWS was most often reduced and sometimes absent. Claims that direct alcohol provocation tests can assist in the forensic assessment of these cases found no support of any kind in the medical literature with not a single report of testing in normative or patient groups and no reports of validation testing of any sort. There is no direct experimental evidence that alcohol predisposes or triggers sleepwalking or related disorders. A legal defense of sleepwalking resulting from voluntarily ingested alcohol should be consistent with the current state of art sleep science and meet generally accepted requirements for the diagnosis of sleepwalking and other

  15. Statin therapy exacerbates alcohol-induced constriction of cerebral arteries via modulation of ethanol-induced BK channel inhibition in vascular smooth muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simakova, Maria N; Bisen, Shivantika; Dopico, Alex M; Bukiya, Anna N

    2017-12-01

    Statins constitute the most commonly prescribed drugs to decrease cholesterol (CLR). CLR is an important modulator of alcohol-induced cerebral artery constriction (AICAC). Using rats on a high CLR diet (2% CLR) we set to determine whether atorvastatin administration (10mg/kg daily for 18-23weeks) modified AICAC. Middle cerebral arteries were pressurized in vitro at 60mmHg and AICAC was evoked by 50mM ethanol, that is within the range of blood alcohol detected in humans following moderate-to-heavy drinking. AICAC was evident in high CLR+atorvastatin group but not in high CLR diet+placebo. Statin exacerbation of AICAC persisted in de-endothelialized arteries, and was blunted by CLR enrichment in vitro. Fluorescence imaging of filipin-stained arteries showed that atorvastatin decreased vascular smooth muscle (VSM) CLR when compared to placebo, this difference being reduced by CLR enrichment in vitro. Voltage- and calcium-gated potassium channels of large conductance (BK) are known VSM targets of ethanol, with their beta1 subunit being necessary for ethanol-induced channel inhibition and resulting AICAC. Ethanol-induced BK inhibition in excised membrane patches from freshly isolated myocytes was exacerbated in the high CLR diet+atorvastatin group when compared to high CLR diet+placebo. Unexpectedly, atorvastatin decreased the amount and function of BK beta1 subunit as documented by immunofluorescence imaging and functional patch-clamp studies. Atorvastatin exacerbation of ethanol-induced BK inhibition disappeared upon artery CLR enrichment in vitro. Our study demonstrates for the first time statin's ability to exacerbate the vascular effect of a widely consumed drug of abuse, this exacerbation being driven by statin modulation of ethanol-induced BK channel inhibition in the VSM via CLR-mediated mechanism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Intestinal parasites : associations with intestinal and systemic inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zavala, Gerardo A; García, Olga P; Camacho, Mariela; Ronquillo, Dolores; Campos-Ponce, Maiza; Doak, Colleen; Polman, Katja; Rosado, Jorge L

    2018-01-01

    AIMS: Evaluate associations between intestinal parasitic infection with intestinal and systemic inflammatory markers in school-aged children with high rates of obesity. METHODS AND RESULTS: Plasma concentrations of CRP, leptin, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-10 were measured as systemic inflammation markers and

  17. Mechanism underlying methyl eugenol attenuation of intestinal ischemia/reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Hanan; El-Shorbagy, Haidan M

    2017-10-01

    Intestinal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is associated with a high risk of mortality in the clinical situation. Many factors are involved in I/R, including reactive oxygen species, cytokine release, and apoptosis. We aimed to determine whether a pure methyl eugenol (ME) given before intestinal ischemia, protects against intestinal I/R injury and the possible mechanism involved in this protection. Rat received ME (100 mg/kg) for 30 days then underwent intestinal I/R with 30 min ischemia and 60 min reperfusion. Serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) level, tissue malondialdehyde (MDA), as well as some antioxidant biomarkers were assessed, while the serum level of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) was determined by ELISA. The change in TNF-α and interleukin 6 (IL-6) gene expressions were evaluated and confirmed by assessing protein level of TNF-α in the intestinal tissue by immunohistochemistry. Apoptosis was evaluated using DNA-laddering assay and by detecting caspase-3 immunohistochemically. Administration of ME prior to I/R injury resulted in a modulation of the production of MDA, LDH, and nitric oxide and restoration of the tested oxidative stress biomarkers. Pretreatment with ME downregulated messenger RNA of TNF-α and IL-6 inflammatory cytokines and their protein expressions in I/R rats. Marked inhibition of the apoptotic DNA and improvement of the architectures of small intestine were observed after pretreatment with ME. ME exhibits a protective effect against intestinal I/R via amelioration of the oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokines gene expression. Therefore, the supplementation of ME prior to intestinal I/R might be helpful in the attenuation of I/R complications.

  18. Cytokines and intestinal inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamias, Giorgos; Cominelli, Fabio

    2016-11-01

    Cytokines of the intestinal microenvironment largely dictate immunological responses after mucosal insults and the dominance of homeostatic or proinflammatory pathways. This review presents important recent studies on the role of specific cytokines in the pathogenesis of intestinal inflammation. The particular mucosal effects of cytokines depend on their inherent properties but also the cellular origin, type of stimulatory antigens, intermolecular interactions, and the particular immunological milieu. Novel cytokines of the interleukin-1 (IL-1) family, including IL-33 and IL-36, have dominant roles in mucosal immunity, whereas more established ones such as IL-18 are constantly enriched with unique properties. Th17 cells are important mucosal constituents, although their profound plasticity, makes the specific set of cytokines they secrete more important than their mere numbers. Finally, various cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-like cytokine 1A, and death receptor, 3 demonstrate dichotomous roles with mucosa-protective function in acute injury but proinflammatory effects during chronic inflammation. The role of cytokines in mucosal health and disease is increasingly revealed. Such information not only will advance our understanding of the pathogenesis of gut inflammation, but also set the background for development of reliable diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers and cytokine-specific therapies.

  19. Hippo signalling directs intestinal fate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    le Bouteiller, Marie Catherine M; Jensen, Kim Bak

    2015-01-01

    Hippo signalling has been associated with many important tissue functions including the regulation of organ size. In the intestinal epithelium differing functions have been proposed for the effectors of Hippo signalling, YAP and TAZ1. These are now shown to have a dual role in the intestinal epit...

  20. MDCT in blunt intestinal trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romano, Stefania [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, ' A.Cardarelli' Hospital, 80131 Naples (Italy)]. E-mail: stefromano@libero.it; Scaglione, Mariano [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, ' A.Cardarelli' Hospital, 80131 Naples (Italy); Tortora, Giovanni [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, ' A.Cardarelli' Hospital, 80131 Naples (Italy); Martino, Antonio [Trauma Center, ' A.Cardarelli' Hospital, 80131 Naples (Italy); Di Pietto, Francesco [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, ' A.Cardarelli' Hospital, 80131 Naples (Italy); Romano, Luigia [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, ' A.Cardarelli' Hospital, 80131 Naples (Italy); Grassi, Roberto [Department ' Magrassi-Lanzara' , Section of Radiology, Second University of Naples, 80138 Naples (Italy)

    2006-09-15

    Injuries to the small and large intestine from blunt trauma represent a defined clinical entity, often not easy to correctly diagnose in emergency but extremely important for the therapeutic assessment of patients. This article summarizes the MDCT spectrum of findings in intestinal blunt lesions, from functional disorders to hemorrhage and perforation.

  1. MDCT in blunt intestinal trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romano, Stefania; Scaglione, Mariano; Tortora, Giovanni; Martino, Antonio; Di Pietto, Francesco; Romano, Luigia; Grassi, Roberto

    2006-01-01

    Injuries to the small and large intestine from blunt trauma represent a defined clinical entity, often not easy to correctly diagnose in emergency but extremely important for the therapeutic assessment of patients. This article summarizes the MDCT spectrum of findings in intestinal blunt lesions, from functional disorders to hemorrhage and perforation

  2. Intestinal microbiota sustains inflammation and autoimmunity induced by hypomorphic RAG defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigoni, Rosita; Fontana, Elena; Guglielmetti, Simone; Fosso, Bruno; D’Erchia, Anna Maria; Maina, Virginia; Taverniti, Valentina; Castiello, Maria Carmina; Mantero, Stefano; Pacchiana, Giovanni; Musio, Silvia; Pedotti, Rosetta; Selmi, Carlo; Mora, J. Rodrigo; Pesole, Graziano; Vezzoni, Paolo; Poliani, Pietro Luigi; Grassi, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    Omenn syndrome (OS) is caused by hypomorphic Rag mutations and characterized by a profound immunodeficiency associated with autoimmune-like manifestations. Both in humans and mice, OS is mediated by oligoclonal activated T and B cells. The role of microbial signals in disease pathogenesis is debated. Here, we show that Rag2R229Q knock-in mice developed an inflammatory bowel disease affecting both the small bowel and colon. Lymphocytes were sufficient for disease induction, as intestinal CD4 T cells with a Th1/Th17 phenotype reproduced the pathological picture when transplanted into immunocompromised hosts. Moreover, oral tolerance was impaired in Rag2R229Q mice, and transfer of wild-type (WT) regulatory T cells ameliorated bowel inflammation. Mucosal immunoglobulin A (IgA) deficiency in the gut resulted in enhanced absorption of microbial products and altered composition of commensal communities. The Rag2R229Q microbiota further contributed to the immunopathology because its transplant into WT recipients promoted Th1/Th17 immune response. Consistently, long-term dosing of broad-spectrum antibiotics (ABXs) in Rag2R229Q mice ameliorated intestinal and systemic autoimmunity by diminishing the frequency of mucosal and circulating gut-tropic CCR9+ Th1 and Th17 T cells. Remarkably, serum hyper-IgE, a hallmark of the disease, was also normalized by ABX treatment. These results indicate that intestinal microbes may play a critical role in the distinctive immune dysregulation of OS. PMID:26926994

  3. Improvement for Amelioration Inventory Model with Weibull Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han-Wen Tuan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Most inventory models dealt with deteriorated items. On the contrary, just a few papers considered inventory systems under amelioration environment. We study an amelioration inventory model with Weibull distribution. However, there are some questionable results in the amelioration paper. We will first point out those questionable results in the previous paper that did not derive the optimal solution and then provide some improvements. We will provide a rigorous analytical work for different cases dependent on the size of the shape parameter. We present a detailed numerical example for different ranges of the sharp parameter to illustrate that our solution method attains the optimal solution. We developed a new amelioration model and then provided a detailed analyzed procedure to find the optimal solution. Our findings will help researchers develop their new inventory models.

  4. Riboflavin ameliorates cisplatin induced toxicities under photoillumination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iftekhar Hassan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cisplatin is an effective anticancer drug that elicits many side effects mainly due to induction of oxidative and nitrosative stresses during prolonged chemotherapy. The severity of these side effects consequently restricts its clinical use under long term treatment. Riboflavin is an essential vitamin used in various metabolic redox reactions in the form of flavin adenine dinucleotide and flavin mononucleotide. Besides, it has excellent photosensitizing property that can be used to ameliorate these toxicities in mice under photodynamic therapy. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Riboflavin, cisplatin and their combinations were given to the separate groups of mice under photoilluminated condition under specific treatment regime. Their kidney and liver were excised for comet assay and histopathological studies. Furthermore, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy of riboflavin-cisplatin combination in vitro was also conducted to investigate any possible interaction between the two compounds. Their comet assay and histopathological examination revealed that riboflavin in combination with cisplatin was able to protect the tissues from cisplatin induced toxicities and damages. Moreover, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy analysis of the combination indicated a strong molecular interaction among their constituent groups that may be assigned for the protective effect of the combination in the treated animals. CONCLUSION: Inclusion of riboflavin diminishes cisplatin induced toxicities which may possibly make the cisplatin-riboflavin combination, an effective treatment strategy under chemoradiotherapy in pronouncing its antineoplastic activity and sensitivity towards the cancer cells as compared to cisplatin alone.

  5. An experimental study on effect of antioxidant vitamin E in stress and alcohol induced changes in male fertility in albino rats.

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    Sanghishetti Vijay Prasad, Nayak BB, Ghongane BB, Raul AR, Vijay Kumar AN, Mutalik MM, Kapure NL.

    2012-09-01

    stress and alcohol induced change (Group III exhibited by gain in body wt, increase sperm count, motility and SLDR, serum testosterone and decrease in MDA level. All the results were statically significant except serum testosterone. Conclusion: Force swimming indicates that swimming is an effective model for producing stress in albino rats. The stress induced changes were further accentuated by addition of ethyl alcohol. However Vit E treatment reverses the effect of stress and alcohol.

  6. Black ginseng extract ameliorates hypercholesterolemia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saba, Evelyn; Jeon, Bo Ra; Jeong, Da-Hye; Lee, Kija; Goo, Youn-Kyoung; Kim, Seung-Hyung; Sung, Chang-Keun; Roh, Seong-Soo; Kim, Sung Dae; Kim, Hyun-Kyoung; Rhee, Man-Hee

    2016-04-01

    Ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer) is a well-characterized medicinal herb listed in the classic oriental herbal dictionary as "Shin-nong-bon-cho-kyung." Ginseng has diverse pharmacologic and therapeutic properties. Black ginseng (BG, Ginseng Radix nigra) is produced by repeatedly steaming fresh ginseng nine times. Studies of BG have shown that prolonged heat treatment enhances the antioxidant activity with increased radical scavenging activity. Several recent studies have showed the effects of BG on increased lipid profiles in mice. In this study report the effects of water and ethanol extracts of BG on hypercholesterolemia in rats. To our knowledge, this is the first time such an effect has been reported. Experiments were conducted on male Sprague Dawley rats fed with a high-cholesterol diet supplemented with the water and ethanol extracts of BG (200 mg/kg). Their blood cholesterol levels, serum white blood cell levels, and cholesterol-metabolizing marker genes messenger RNA (mRNA) expression were determined. Liver and adipose tissues were histologically analyzed. We found that BG extracts efficiently reduced the total serum cholesterol levels, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels with increased food efficiency ratio and increased number of neutrophil cells. It also attenuated the key genes responsible for lipogenesis, that is, acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA) acetyltransferase 2, 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase, and sterol regulatory element-binding protein 2, at the mRNA level inside liver cells. Furthermore, the BG extract also reduced the accumulation of fat in adipose tissues, and inhibited the neutral fat content in liver cells stained with hematoxylin and eosin and oil red O. Administration of BG extracts to Sprague Dawley rats fed with high-cholesterol diet ameliorated hypercholesterolemia, which was mediated via modulation of cholesterol-metabolizing marker genes. This data throw a light on BG's cardioprotective effects.

  7. Megacystis microcolon intestinal hypoperistalsis syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiradfar, Mehran; Shojaeian, Reza; Dehghanian, Paria; Hajian, Sara

    2013-01-01

    Megacystis microcolon intestinal hypoperistalsis syndrome (MMIHS) is a multisystemic disorder in which impaired intestinal motor activity causes recurrent symptoms of intestinal obstruction in the absence of mechanical occlusion, associated with bladder distention without distal obstruction of the urinary tract. MMIHS and prune belly syndrome may overlap in most of the clinical features and discrimination of these two entities is important because the prognosis, management and consulting with parents are completely different. MMIHS outcome is very poor and in this article we present two neonates with MMIHS that both died in a few days. PMID:23729700

  8. INFANTS’ INTESTINAL COLICS. MODERN DATA

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    N.I. Ursova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes modern data on infants’ intestinal colics. Peculiarities of nutrition, intestinal microbiocenose in healthy infants, methods of colcs’ correction are discussed. Author describes the principles of probiotics choice based on their clinical effectiveness in infants. Milk formula «Nan Comfort» can be useful in prophylaxis and treatment of functional disorders of gastrointestinal tract in children.Key words: infants, gastrointestinal tract, anatomy, physiology, intestinal colics, nutrition, probiotics.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2011; 10 (2: 125–131

  9. Modulatory effect of fenugreek seed mucilage and spent turmeric on intestinal and renal disaccharidases in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, G Suresh; Shetty, A K; Salimath, P V

    2005-06-01

    To elucidate the effect of feeding fenugreek seed mucilage and spent turmeric (10%) on disaccharidases activities, the specific activities of intestinal and renal disaccharidases viz., sucrase, maltase and lactase were measured in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Specific activities of intestinal disaccharidases were increased significantly during diabetes and amelioration of these activities during diabetes was clearly visible by supplementing fenugreek seed mucilage and spent turmeric in the diet. However during diabetes renal disaccharidases activities were significantly lower than those in the control rats. Fenugreek seed mucilage and spent turmeric supplementations were beneficial in alleviating the reduction in maltase activity during diabetes, however not much change in the activities of sucrase and lactase was observed upon feeding. This positive influence of feeding fenugreek seed mucilage and spent turmeric on intestinal and renal disaccharidases clearly indicates their beneficial role in the management of diabetes.

  10. Disorders of the Small Intestine

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    ... that move down the intestine in a peristaltic fashion (Phase III). Phase III represents a continuation of ... Activities, Legislative & Regulatory Research Leadership Contact us News Industry Treatment News Medical News Legislative & Regulatory News Press ...

  11. Defence Mechanisms during Intestinal Infection

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    André Buret

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available This review examines and compares host defence mechanisms during intestinal infection with three types of organisms: a virus, a bacterium and a nematode parasite (ie, transmissible gastroenteritis virus [TGEV], Helicobacter jejuni and Trichinella spiralis. Diarrhea is commonly associated with all of these infections. It appears that T spiralis initiates the most elaborate defence system of the three organisms, involving full range humoral and cellular immunity, as well as mucus hypersecretion, epithelial alterations, altered gut motility and parasite impairment (morphological and physiological. In contrast, intestinal defence against H jejuni and TGEV involves fewer components. The latter seems to initiate the most rudimentary host response. Despite such differences, these mechanisms exhibit many similarities, thus further illustrating the relatively limited repertoire of defence systems that the intestine can mount. The mediators translating the insult of any intestinal pathogen into a common response deserve further investigation.

  12. INTESTINAL INTUSSUSCEPTION DUE TO CONCURRENT ...

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    Hymenolepis nana and Dentostomella ... worms (H. nana and D. translucida) were observed in the lumen of the intestine with severe cellular infiltration .... helminthosis and Balantidosis in Red monkey (Erythrocebus patas) in Ibadan Nigeria Nigerian ...

  13. Patchouli alcohol ameliorates dextran sodium sulfate-induced experimental colitis and suppresses tryptophan catabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Chang; Yuan, Zhong-Wen; Yu, Xiu-Ting; Huang, Yan-Feng; Yang, Guang-Hua; Chen, Jian-Nan; Lai, Xiao-Ping; Su, Zi-Ren; Zeng, Hui-Fang; Xie, Ying; Zhang, Xiao-Jun

    2017-07-01

    Despite the increased morbidity of ulcerative colitis (UC) in recent years, available treatments remain unsatisfactory. Pogostemon cablin has been widely applied to treat a variety of gastrointestinal disorders in clinic for centuries, in which patchouli alcohol (PA, C 15 H 26 O) has been identified as the major active component. This study attempted to determine the bioactivity of PA on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced mice colitis and clarify the mechanism of action. Acute colitis was induced in mice by 3% DSS for 7 days. The mice were then given PA (10, 20 and 40mg/kg) or sulfasalazine (SASP, 200mg/kg) as positive control via oral administration for 7 days. At the end of study, animals were sacrificed and samples were collected for pathological and other analysis. In addition, a metabolite profiling and a targeted metabolite analysis, based on the Ultra-Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) approach, were performed to characterize the metabolic changes in plasma. The results revealed that PA significantly reduced the disease activity index (DAI) and ameliorated the colonic injury of DSS mice. The levels of colonic MPO and cytokines involving TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-4 and IL-10 also declined. Furthermore, PA improved the intestinal epithelial barrier by enhancing the level of colonic expression of the tight junction (TJ) proteins, for instance ZO-1, ZO-2, claudin-1 and occludin, and by elevating the levels of mucin-1 and mucin-2 mRNA. The study also demonstrated that PA inhibited the DSS-induced cell death signaling by modulating the apoptosis related Bax and Bcl-2 proteins and down-regulating the necroptosis related RIP3 and MLKL proteins. By comparison, up-regulation of IDO-1 and TPH-1 protein expression in DSS group was suppressed by PA, which was in line with the declined levels of kynurenine (Kyn) and 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) in plasma. The therapeutic effect of PA was evidently reduced when Kyn was given

  14. Ameliorative effects of Nigella sativa on dyslipidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgary, S; Sahebkar, A; Goli-Malekabadi, N

    2015-10-01

    Dyslipidemia is an established risk factor for ischemic heart disease. Nigella sativa (NS) is a medicinal plant that has been used for the treatment and prevention of a variety of diseases, in particular hyperlipidemia. We reviewed the existing literature published until 2014 by using the following keywords: ''Nigella sativa'', ''black cumin'', ''black seeds'', ''thymoquinone'', and ''lipid''. In the conducted studies, different preparations of NS including seed powder (100 mg-20 g daily), seed oil (20-800 mg daily), thymoquinone (3.5-20 mg daily), and seed extract (methanolic extract especially), were shown to reduce plasma levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglycerides, but the effect on high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) was not significant. NS and thymoquinone have been reported to be safe and well tolerated with no severe adverse effect. In clinical trials, NS was found to be effective when added as adjunct to standard antihyperlipidemic and antidiabetic medications. Lipid-modifying effects of NS could be attributed to the inhibition of intestinal cholesterol absorption, decreased hepatic cholesterol synthesis, and up-regulation of LDL receptors. Overall, the evidence from experimental and a clinical studies suggests that NS seeds are a promising natural therapy for dyslipidemic patients.

  15. Zinc Deficiency in Humans and its Amelioration

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    Yashbir Singh Shivay

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Zinc (Zn deficiency in humans has recently received considerable attention. Global mortality in children under 5 years of age in 2004 due to Zn deficiency was estimated at 4,53,207 as against 6,66,771 for vitamin A deficiency; 20,854 for iron deficiency and 3,619 for iodine deficiency. In humans 2800-3000 proteins contain Zn prosthetic group and Zn is an integral component of zinc finger prints that regulate DNA transcription. Zinc is a Type-2 nutrient, which means that its concentration in blood does not decrease in proportion of the Zn deficiency. Adverse effects of Zn deficiency vary with age: low weight gain, diarrhoea, aneroxia and neurobehavioral disturbances are observed in infants, while skin changes and dwarfism are frequent in toddlers and adolescents. Common manifestations of Zn deficiency among elderly include hypogeusia, chronic non-healing ulcers and recurrent infections.Ameliorative measures of Zn deficiency in humans can be classified in two groups, namely, nutraceutical and biofortification of food grains. Nutraceutical interventions include pharmaceutical supplements, dietary supplements and dietary diversification, while biofortification of food grains can be achieved by genetic modification (GM of crops or by agronomic techniques that include soil or/and foliar fertilization of crops.The major disadvantage of nutraceutical approaches is that the major beneficiaries are urban people and the poor rural masses that need adequate Zn nutrition most are left out. Genetic biofortification of food grains requires large amounts of funds and a fairly long-period of time. Further, a large number of countries have not yet accepted genetically modified (GM foods. On the other hand agronomic biofortification of food grains yields immediate effects and rural and urban people are equally benefitted. Our studies have shown that Zn concentration in cereals (rice, wheat etc and pulses can be considerably increased by soil or/and foliar

  16. Parenteral Nutrition and Intestinal Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielawska, Barbara; Allard, Johane P

    2017-05-06

    Severe short bowel syndrome (SBS) is a major cause of chronic (Type 3) intestinal failure (IF) where structural and functional changes contribute to malabsorption and risk of micronutrient deficiencies. Chronic IF may be reversible, depending on anatomy and intestinal adaptation, but most patients require long-term nutritional support, generally in the form of parenteral nutrition (PN). SBS management begins with dietary changes and pharmacologic therapies taking into account individual anatomy and physiology, but these are rarely sufficient to avoid PN. New hormonal therapies targeting intestinal adaptation hold promise. Surgical options for SBS including intestinal transplant are available, but have significant limitations. Home PN (HPN) is therefore the mainstay of treatment for severe SBS. HPN involves chronic administration of macronutrients, micronutrients, fluid, and electrolytes via central venous access in the patient's home. HPN requires careful clinical and biochemical monitoring. Main complications of HPN are related to venous access (infection, thrombosis) and metabolic complications including intestinal failure associated liver disease (IFALD). Although HPN significantly impacts quality of life, outcomes are generally good and survival is mostly determined by the underlying disease. As chronic intestinal failure is a rare disease, registries are a promising strategy for studying HPN patients to improve outcomes.

  17. Haemorrhage and intestinal lymphoma

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    Attilia M. Pizzini

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of coeliac disease is around 1% in general population but this is often unrecognised. The classical presentation of adult coeliac disease is characterized by diarrhoea and malabsorption syndrome, but atypical presentations are probably more common and are characterized by iron deficiency anaemia, weight loss, fatigue, infertility, arthralgia, peripheral neuropathy and osteoporosis. Unusual are the coagulation disorders (prevalence 20% and these are due to vitamin K malabsorption (prolonged prothrombin time. Clinical case: A 64-year-old man was admitted to our Department for an extensive spontaneous haematoma of the right leg. He had a history of a small bowel resection for T-cell lymphoma, with a negative follow-up and he didn’t report any personal or familiar history of bleeding. Laboratory tests showed markedly prolonged prothrombin (PT and partial-thromboplastin time (PTT, corrected by mixing studies, and whereas platelet count and liver tests was normal. A single dose (10 mg of intravenous vitamin K normalized the PT. Several days before the patient had been exposed to a superwarfarin pesticide, but diagnostic tests for brodifacoum, bromadiolone or difenacoum were negative. Diagnosis of multiple vitamin K-dependent coagulationfactor deficiencies (II, VII, IX, X due to intestinal malabsorption was made and coeliac disease was detected. Therefore the previous lymphoma diagnosis might be closely related to coeliac disease. Conclusions: A gluten free diet improves quality of life and restores normal nutritional and biochemical status and protects against these complications.

  18. [Malaria and intestinal protozoa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojo-Marcos, Gerardo; Cuadros-González, Juan

    2016-03-01

    Malaria is life threatening and requires urgent diagnosis and treatment. Incidence and mortality are being reduced in endemic areas. Clinical features are unspecific so in imported cases it is vital the history of staying in a malarious area. The first line treatments for Plasmodium falciparum are artemisinin combination therapies, chloroquine in most non-falciparum and intravenous artesunate if any severity criteria. Human infections with intestinal protozoa are distributed worldwide with a high global morbid-mortality. They cause diarrhea and sometimes invasive disease, although most are asymptomatic. In our environment populations at higher risk are children, including adopted abroad, immune-suppressed, travelers, immigrants, people in contact with animals or who engage in oral-anal sex. Diagnostic microscopic examination has low sensitivity improving with antigen detection or molecular methods. Antiparasitic resistances are emerging lately. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  19. Adult intestinal failure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidson, J., E-mail: Jdavidson@doctors.org.u [Salford Royal Hospital, Salford (United Kingdom); Plumb, A.; Burnett, H. [Salford Royal Hospital, Salford (United Kingdom)

    2010-05-15

    Intestinal failure (IF) is the inability of the alimentary tract to digest and absorb sufficient nutrition to maintain normal fluid balance, growth, and health. It commonly arises from disease affecting the mesenteric root. Although severe IF is usually managed in specialized units, it lies at the end of a spectrum with degrees of nutritional compromise being widely encountered, but commonly under-recognized. Furthermore, in the majority of cases, the initial enteric insult occurs in non-specialist IF centres. The aim of this article is to review the common causes of IF, general principles of its management, some commoner complications, and the role of radiology in the approach to a patient with severe IF. The radiologist has a crucial role in helping provide access for feeding solutions (both enteral and parenteral) and controlling sepsis (via drainage of collections) in an initial restorative phase of treatment, whilst simultaneously mapping bowel anatomy and quality, and searching for disease complications to assist the clinicians in planning a later, restorative phase of therapy.

  20. [Interaction between humans and intestinal bacteria as a determinant for intestinal health : intestinal microbiome and inflammatory bowel diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, Dirk; Hörmannsperger, G

    2015-02-01

    Recent scientific results underline the importance of the intestinal microbiome, the totality of all intestinal microbes and their genes, for the health of the host organism. The intestinal microbiome can therefore be considered as a kind of "external organ". It has been shown that the intestinal microbiota is a complex and dynamic ecosystem that influences host immunity and metabolism beyond the intestine. The composition and functionality of the intestinal microbiota is of major importance for the development and maintenance of intestinal functions. Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are characterized by dysregulated interactions between the host and its microbiota.The present contribution summarizes current knowledge of the composition and development of the intestinal microbiome and gives an overview of the bidirectional interaction between host and microbiota. The contribution informs about insights regarding the role of the intestinal microbiota in IBD and finally discusses the protective potential of microbial therapies in the context of IBD.

  1. The antiprotozoal drug pentamidine ameliorates experimentally induced acute colitis in mice

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    Esposito Giuseppe

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intestinal inflammation is partly driven by enteroglial-derived S100B protein. The antiprotozoal drug pentamidine directly blocks S100B activity. We aimed to investigate the effect of pentamidine on intestinal inflammation using an animal model of dextran sodium sulphate (DSS-induced acute colitis. Methods Mice were divided into: control group, colitis group (4% DSS for four days and two pentamidine-treated colitis groups (0.8 mg/kg and 4 mg/kg. Anti-inflammatory effect of pentamidine was assessed in colonic tissue by evaluating the disease activity index and the severity of histological changes. Colonic tissue were also used to evaluate cyclooxigenase-2, inducible nitric oxide synthase, S100B, glial fibrillary acidic protein, phosphorylated-p38 MAPkinase, p50, p65 protein expression, malondyaldheyde production, mieloperoxidase activity, and macrophage infiltration. Nitric oxide, prostaglandin E2, interleukin-1 beta, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and S100B levels were detected in plasma samples. Parallel measurements were performed in vitro on dissected mucosa and longitudinal muscle myenteric plexus (LMMP preparations after challenge with LPS + DSS or exogenous S100B protein in the presence or absence of pentamidine. Results Pentamidine treatment significantly ameliorated the severity of acute colitis in mice, as showed by macroscopic evaluation and histological/biochemical assays in colonic tissues and in plasma. Pentamidine effect on inflammatory mediators was almost completely abrogated in dissected mucosa but not in LMMP. Conclusions Pentamidine exerts a marked anti-inflammatory effect in a mice model of acute colitis, likely targeting S100B activity. Pentamidine might be an innovative molecule to broaden pharmacological tools against colitis.

  2. Modulating the Gut Micro-Environment in the Treatment of Intestinal Parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitetta, Luis; Saltzman, Emma Tali; Nikov, Tessa; Ibrahim, Isabelle; Hall, Sean

    2016-11-16

    The interactions of micro-organisms cohabitating with Homo sapiens spans millennia, with microbial communities living in a symbiotic relationship with the host. Interacting to regulate and maintain physiological functions and immunological tolerance, the microbial community is able to exert an influence on host health. An example of micro-organisms contributing to an intestinal disease state is exhibited by a biodiverse range of protozoan and bacterial species that damage the intestinal epithelia and are therefore implicated in the symptoms of diarrhea. As a contentious exemplar, Blastocystis hominis is a ubiquitous enteric protist that can adversely affect the intestines. The symptoms experienced are a consequence of the responses of the innate immune system triggered by the disruption of the intestinal barrier. The infiltration of the intestinal epithelial barrier involves a host of immune receptors, including toll like receptors and IgM/IgG/IgA antibodies as well as CD8+ T cells, macrophages, and neutrophils. Whilst the mechanisms of interactions between the intestinal microbiome and protozoan parasites remain incompletely understood, it is acknowledged that the intestinal microbiota is a key factor in the pathophysiology of parasitic infections. Modulating the intestinal environment through the administration of probiotics has been postulated as a possible therapeutic agent to control the proliferation of intestinal microbes through their capacity to induce competition for occupation of a common biotype. The ultimate goal of this mechanism is to prevent infections of the like of giardiasis and eliminate its symptoms. The differing types of probiotics (i.e., bacteria and yeast) modulate immunity by stimulating the host immune system. Early animal studies support the potential benefits of probiotic administration to prevent intestinal infections, with human clinical studies showing probiotics can reduce the number of parasites and the severity of symptoms. The

  3. Huangqin-Tang Ameliorates TNBS-Induced Colitis by Regulating Effector and Regulatory CD4+ T Cells

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    Ying Zou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Huangqin-Tang decoction (HQT is a classic traditional Chinese herbal formulation that is widely used to ameliorate the symptoms of gastrointestinal disorders, including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. This study was designed to investigate the therapeutic potential and immunological regulatory activity of HQT in experimental colitis in rats. Using an animal model of colitis by intrarectally administering 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS, we found that administration of HQT significantly inhibited the severity of TNBS-induced colitis in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, treatment with HQT produced better results than that with mesalazine, as shown by improvedweight loss bleeding and diarrhoea scores, colon length, and intestinal inflammation. As for potential immunological regulation of HQT action, the percentages of Th1 and Th17 cells were reduced, but those Th2 and Treg cells were enhanced in LPMCs after HQT treatment. Additionally, HQT lowered the levels of Th1/Th17-associated cytokines but increased production of Th2/Treg-associated cytokines in the colon and MLNs. Furthermore, we observed a remarkable suppression of the Th1/Th17-associated transcription factors T-bet and ROR-γt. However, expression levels of the Th2/Treg-associated transcription factors GATA-3 and Foxp3 were enhanced during treatment with HQT. Our results suggest that HQT has the therapeutic potential to ameliorate TNBS-induced colitis symptoms. This protective effect is possibly mediated by its effects on CD4+ T cells subsets.

  4. Inhibitory effect of Zanthoxylum bungeanum essential oil (ZBEO) on Escherichia coli and intestinal dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Lei; Jing, Wu; Qing, Wang; Anxiang, Su; Mei, Xue; Qin, Liu; Qiuhui, Hu

    2017-04-19

    The inhibitory effects of Zanthoxylum bungeanum essential oil (ZBEO) on Escherichia coli (E. coli) in vitro and in vivo were investigated, as well as its function of improvement of intestinal health. The results of in vitro studies, such as minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) analysis, agar disc diffusion test and growth curve analysis of E. coli, showed that ZBEO had an excellent inhibitory effect on the growth of E. coli, which may be related to the loss of the normal shape of the cell membranes and the leakage of intracellular constituents, on the basis of SEM observation and cell constituents' release assay. ZBEO also had an inhibitory effect on enteritis and intestinal dysfunction induced by infection of E. coli in vivo, and histopathological observation indicated that ZBEO could markedly ameliorate the structural destruction of intestinal tissues, which might be related to its inhibitory effect on the gene expression of inflammatory cytokines (TLR2, TLR4, TNF α and IL-8). In conclusion, ZBEO showed an excellent inhibitory effect on E. coli both in vitro and in vivo, suggesting the potential application of ZBEO as a kind of functional component having the effects of improving intestinal function and health.

  5. Glucocorticoids alleviate intestinal ER stress by enhancing protein folding and degradation of misfolded proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Indrajit; Png, Chin Wen; Oancea, Iulia; Hasnain, Sumaira Z.; Lourie, Rohan; Proctor, Martina; Eri, Rajaraman D.; Sheng, Yong; Crane, Denis I.; Florin, Timothy H.

    2013-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in intestinal secretory cells has been linked with colitis in mice and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Endogenous intestinal glucocorticoids are important for homeostasis and glucocorticoid drugs are efficacious in IBD. In Winnie mice with intestinal ER stress caused by misfolding of the Muc2 mucin, the glucocorticoid dexamethasone (DEX) suppressed ER stress and activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR), substantially restoring goblet cell Muc2 production. In mice lacking inflammation, a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist increased ER stress, and DEX suppressed ER stress induced by the N-glycosylation inhibitor, tunicamycin (Tm). In cultured human intestinal secretory cells, in a glucocorticoid receptor-dependent manner, DEX suppressed ER stress and UPR activation induced by blocking N-glycosylation, reducing ER Ca2+ or depleting glucose. DEX up-regulated genes encoding chaperones and elements of ER-associated degradation (ERAD), including EDEM1. Silencing EDEM1 partially inhibited DEX’s suppression of misfolding-induced ER stress, showing that DEX enhances ERAD. DEX inhibited Tm-induced MUC2 precursor accumulation, promoted production of mature mucin, and restored ER exit and secretion of Winnie mutant recombinant Muc2 domains, consistent with enhanced protein folding. In IBD, glucocorticoids are likely to ameliorate ER stress by promoting correct folding of secreted proteins and enhancing removal of misfolded proteins from the ER. PMID:23650437

  6. Curcumin and Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD: Major Mode of Action through Stimulating Endogenous Intestinal Alkaline Phosphatase

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    Siddhartha S. Ghosh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Curcumin, an active ingredient in the traditional herbal remedy and dietary spice turmeric (Curcuma longa, has significant anti-inflammatory properties. Chronic kidney disease (CKD, an inflammatory disease, can lead to end stage renal disease resulting in dialysis and transplant. Furthermore, it is frequently associated with other inflammatory disease such as diabetes and cardiovascular disorders. This review will focus on the clinically relevant inflammatory molecules that play a role in CKD and associated diseases. Various enzymes, transcription factors, growth factors modulate production and action of inflammatory molecules; curcumin can blunt the generation and action of these inflammatory molecules and ameliorate CKD as well as associated inflammatory disorders. Recent studies have shown that increased intestinal permeability results in the leakage of pro-inflammatory molecules (cytokines and lipopolysaccharides from gut into the circulation in diseases such as CKD, diabetes and atherosclerosis. This change in intestinal permeability is due to decreased expression of tight junction proteins and intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP. Curcumin increases the expression of IAP and tight junction proteins and corrects gut permeability. This action reduces the levels of circulatory inflammatory biomolecules. This effect of curcumin on intestine can explain why, despite poor bioavailability, curcumin has potential anti-inflammatory effects in vivo and beneficial effects on CKD.

  7. Intestinal circulation during inhalation anesthesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tverskoy, M.; Gelman, S.; Fowler, K.C.; Bradley, E.L.

    1985-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the influence of inhalational agents on the intestinal circulation in an isolated loop preparation. Sixty dogs were studied, using three intestinal segments from each dog. Selected intestinal segments were pumped with aortic blood at a constant pressure of 100 mmHg. A mixture of 86 Rb and 9-microns spheres labeled with 141 Ce was injected into the arterial cannula supplying the intestinal loop, while mesenteric venous blood was collected for activity counting. A very strong and significant correlation was found between rubidium clearance and microsphere entrapment (r = 0.97, P less than 0.0001). Nitrous oxide anesthesia was accompanied by a higher vascular resistance (VR), lower flow (F), rubidium clearance (Cl-Rb), and microspheres entrapment (Cl-Sph) than pentobarbital anesthesia, indicating that the vascular bed in the intestinal segment was constricted and flow (total and nutritive) decreased. Halothane, enflurane, and isoflurane anesthesia were accompanied by a much lower arteriovenous oxygen content difference (AVDO 2 ) and oxygen uptake than pentobarbital or nitrous oxide. Compared with pentobarbital, enflurane anesthesia was not accompanied by marked differences in VR, F, Cl-Rb, and Cl-Sph; halothane at 2 MAC decreased VR and increased F and Cl-Rb while isoflurane increased VR and decreased F. alpha-Adrenoceptor blockade with phentolamine (1 mg . kg-1) abolished isoflurane-induced vasoconstriction, suggesting that the increase in VR was mediated via circulating catecholamines

  8. Modeling intestinal disorders using zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, X; Pack, M

    2017-01-01

    Although the zebrafish was initially developed as a model system to study embryonic development, it has gained increasing attention as an advantageous system to investigate human diseases, including intestinal disorders. Zebrafish embryos develop rapidly, and their digestive system is fully functional and visible by 5days post fertilization. There is a large degree of homology between the intestine of zebrafish and higher vertebrate organisms in terms of its cellular composition and function as both a digestive and immune organ. Furthermore, molecular pathways regulating injury and immune responses are highly conserved. In this chapter, we provide an overview of studies addressing developmental and physiological processes relevant to human intestinal disease. These studies include those related to congenital disorders, host-microbiota interactions, inflammatory diseases, motility disorders, and intestinal cancer. We also highlight the utility of zebrafish to functionally validate candidate genes identified through mutational analyses and genome-wide association studies, and discuss methodologies to investigate the intestinal biology that are unique to zebrafish. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Isotopic identification of intestinal strangulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, M.C.; Selby, J.B.

    1982-01-01

    A small series of eleven dogs prepared with a strangulating segment of jejunum demonstrated that a radionuclide, 99 mTc-labelled albumin, concentrates in the lumen and bowel wall of the affected intestinal segment. Modern scanning equipment accurately localized the strangulating loop. This technique has the potential of identifying patients with intestinal obstruction, in whom strangulation is a factor, prior to the development of impaired arterial inflow and frank gangrene. These findings confirmed earlier obstructions that were reported when nuclear scanning instrumentation was less sophisticated. Identification of patients at risk for intestinal strangulation requires a high index of suspicion. Excruciating cramping abdominal pain out of proportion to physical findings, roentgenogram evidence, and laboratory studies should alert the physician to the possibility of intestinal ischemia and closed loop obstruction. Radionuclide scanning in such cases may be of assistance in defining or excluding the diagnosis of a strangulating mechanism. The test is simple, relatively economical, and represents a low risk procedure to patients. It would have no place when the classic physical and laboratory findings of intestinal infarction are present

  10. Isotopic identification of intestinal strangulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, M.C.; Selby, J.B.

    1982-12-01

    A small series of eleven dogs prepared with a strangulating segment of jejunum demonstrated that a radionuclide, /sup 99/mTc-labelled albumin, concentrates in the lumen and bowel wall of the affected intestinal segment. Modern scanning equipment accurately localized the strangulating loop. This technique has the potential of identifying patients with intestinal obstruction, in whom strangulation is a factor, prior to the development of impaired arterial inflow and frank gangrene. These findings confirmed earlier obstructions that were reported when nuclear scanning instrumentation was less sophisticated. Identification of patients at risk for intestinal strangulation requires a high index of suspicion. Excruciating cramping abdominal pain out of proportion to physical findings, roentgenogram evidence, and laboratory studies should alert the physician to the possibility of intestinal ischemia and closed loop obstruction. Radionuclide scanning in such cases may be of assistance in defining or excluding the diagnosis of a strangulating mechanism. The test is simple, relatively economical, and represents a low risk procedure to patients. It would have no place when the classic physical and laboratory findings of intestinal infarction are present.

  11. Agmatine attenuates intestinal ischemia and reperfusion injury by reducing oxidative stress and inflammatory reaction in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turan, Inci; Ozacmak, Hale Sayan; Ozacmak, V Haktan; Barut, Figen; Araslı, Mehmet

    2017-11-15

    Oxidative stress and inflammatory response are major factors causing several tissue injuries in intestinal ischemia and reperfusion (I/R). Agmatine has been reported to attenuate I/R injury of various organs. The present study aims to analyze the possible protective effects of agmatine on intestinal I/R injury in rats. Four groups were designed: sham control, agmatine-treated control, I/R control, and agmatine-treated I/R groups. IR injury of small intestine was induced by the occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery for half an hour to be followed by a 3-hour-long reperfusion. Agmatine (10mg/kg) was administered intraperitoneally before reperfusion period. After 180min of reperfusion period, the contractile responses to both carbachol and potassium chloride (KCl) were subsequently examined in an isolated-organ bath. Malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH), and the activity of myeloperoxidase (MPO) were measured in intestinal tissue. Plasma cytokine levels were determined. The expression of the intestinal inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) was also assessed by immunohistochemistry. The treatment with agmatine appeared to be significantly effective in reducing the MDA content and MPO activity besides restoring the content of GSH. The treatment also attenuated the histological injury. The increases in the I/R induced expressions of iNOS, IFN-γ, and IL-1α were brought back to the sham control levels by the treatment as well. Our findings indicate that the agmatine pretreatment may ameliorate reperfusion induced injury in small intestine mainly due to reducing inflammatory response and oxidative stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The ameliorative effects of Moringa oleifera leaf extract on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    2017-03-13

    Mar 13, 2017 ... *Correspondence: Tel.: +2348033858362; E-mail: misibisol@yahoo.com. Abstract. The present study was aimed at evaluating the ameliorating effects of Moringa oleifera extract compared to ... At the end of the exposure, 0.2ml of blood samples obtained from individual rat in each group were suspended in ...

  13. Ameliorative effect of ethanolic extract of leaves of Momordica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mormodica charantia has been shown to possess antioxidant, hepatoprotective and anticancer effects while the kidneys have been shown to be the second largest repository of lead in lead poisoining. This study assessed the ameliorative effect of ethanolic leaf extract of Momordica charantia on lead nitrate induced kidney ...

  14. Antibiotics can ameliorate circulatory complications of liver cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Bjørn Stæhr; Schaffalitzky de Muckadell, Ove B

    2011-01-01

    . This review focuses on how broad spectrum antibiotics can ameliorate the haemodynamic consequences of bacterial translocation. It is possible that the use of broad spectrum antibiotics in the future may be used to prevent other complications of liver cirrhosis than spontaneous bacterial peritonitis...

  15. Designing urban parks that ameliorate the effects of climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, R.D.; Vanos, J.; Kenny, N.; Lenzholzer, S.

    2015-01-01

    Many inhabitants of cities throughout the world suffer from health problems and discomfort that are caused by overheating of urban areas, and there is compelling evidence that these problems will be exacerbated by global climate change. Most cities are not designed to ameliorate these effects

  16. Bacterial mediated amelioration of drought stress in drought tolerant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacterial mediated amelioration of drought stress in drought tolerant and susceptible cultivars of rice (Oryza sativa L.) YS Gusain, US Singh, AK Sharma. Abstract. In the present study, plant growth promoting rhizobacterial (PGPR) strains Pseudomonas fluorescence strain P2, Pseudomonas jessenii R62, Pseudomonas ...

  17. Cancer ameliorating potential of Phyllanthus amarus: In vivo and in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Md. Sultan Ahmad

    2015-06-10

    Jun 10, 2015 ... ORIGINAL ARTICLE. Cancer ameliorating potential of Phyllanthus amarus: In vivo and in vitro studies against. Aflatoxin B1 toxicity. Md. Sultan Ahmad *, Sultana Bano, Shafaat Anwar. Department of Zoology, Shibli National (P.G) College, Azamgarh, U.P. 276001, India. Received 17 April 2015; accepted 14 ...

  18. Salvianolic Acid B Ameliorates Motor Dysfuntion in Spinal Cord ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Salvianolic Acid B Ameliorates Motor Dysfuntion in Spinal. Cord Injury Rats. Chong Xun, Shouyu Wang, Guang Chen, Yang Hu, Jiaqi Xie and Decheng Lv*. Department of ... Purpose: To evaluate the effect of salvianolic acid B (Sal B) treatment on the motor function of spinal ... China. All the animals were housed at 25 °C in.

  19. Dose-Dependent Amelioration of Gentamicin-Induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    increase in serum urea and creatine while 3ml/kg of the same drug completely prevented the increase in serum urea and creatine in this model. Conclusion: Vitamin B-complex dose-dependently ameliorated gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in adult Swiss albino rats when given intramuscularly. This finding may have ...

  20. The Effect of Vitamin E on Ameliorating Primary Dysmenorrhea: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dysmenorrhea or painful menstruation is one of the most common problems of women. Using systematic review and meta‑analysis, this study aimed to determine the effect of vitamin E on ameliorating the intensity of pain of primary dysmenorrhea. Available databases comprising PubMed, Google Scholar, ISI, Science ...

  1. Ameliorative effects of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius on anaemia and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to evaluate the ameliorative effect of dietary supplementation of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius leaf on anaemia and changes in erythrocyte osmotic fragility in protein energy malnourished rats. Protein energy malnutrition has been associated with anaemia and changes in osmotic fragility, deformability ...

  2. Ameliorative effects of salt resistance on physiological parameters in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ameliorative effects of salt resistance on physiological parameters in the halophyte Salicornia bigelovii torr. with plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria. Edgar Omar Rueda-Puente, R Prabhaharan, B Murillo-Amador, F Ruiz-Espinoza, M Puente, RD Valdez-Cepeda ...

  3. Ameliorative effect of the hydroethanolic whole plant extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    At the end of the study, biochemical markers of nitrosative and oxidative stress status were determined. Results: DH (12.5, 50 and 100 mg/kg) significantly ameliorated haloperidol-induced catalepsy (bar test), spontaneous motor and working memory deficits (open field and elevated plus maze tests, respectively), ...

  4. Erratum: Unripe Musa paradisiaca Fruit Diet Ameliorates Impaired ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the article “Unripe Musa paradisiaca Fruit Diet Ameliorates Impaired Glucose Regulation Caused by Iron-Induced Oxidative Stress” by Ige A.O, Oyekunle A.O, Olaoye M. O and Adewoye E.O which appeared on pages 301-308 of the September 2017 issue, it has been observed that the name of the second author was ...

  5. Using innovation platforms to scale out soil acidity- ameliorating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr V.Kabambe

    2012-01-10

    Jan 10, 2012 ... ameliorating technologies in Dedza district in central. Malawi. V. H. Kabambe1* ... end of the project support in 2008, the participating farmers were willing to invest in the technology and raised funds for purchase ..... Engineering Commodity Group Project Meeting held at Mzuzu Hotel,. 10-15 August 1996.

  6. Ameliorative effects of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius on anaemia and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-06-03

    Jun 3, 2008 ... Accepted 28 April, 2008. This study was designed to evaluate the ameliorative effect of dietary supplementation of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius leaf on anaemia and changes in erythrocyte osmotic fragility in protein energy malnourished rats. Protein energy malnutrition has been associated with anaemia and ...

  7. The ameliorative effects of Moringa oleifera leaf extract on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was aimed at evaluating the ameliorating effects of Moringa oleifera extract compared to captopril and candesartan cilexetil on cardiovascular functions and osmotic fragility of rats exposed to petrol vapour. Twenty five adult male Wistar rats (130g-200g) were randomly grouped to five with five rats in a ...

  8. Galanin and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harling, H; Messell, T; Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1991-01-01

    By immunohistochemistry and double staining technique, almost complete coexistence of galanin-like immunoreactivity (GAL-LI) and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-like immunoreactivity (VIP-LI) was demonstrated in submucosal ganglionic cells and mucosal nerve fibers of the porcine ileum. The rele......By immunohistochemistry and double staining technique, almost complete coexistence of galanin-like immunoreactivity (GAL-LI) and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-like immunoreactivity (VIP-LI) was demonstrated in submucosal ganglionic cells and mucosal nerve fibers of the porcine ileum...

  9. Intestinal Microbiota Influences Non-intestinal Related Autoimmune Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria C. Opazo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The human body is colonized by millions of microorganisms named microbiota that interact with our tissues in a cooperative and non-pathogenic manner. These microorganisms are present in the skin, gut, nasal, oral cavities, and genital tract. In fact, it has been described that the microbiota contributes to balancing the immune system to maintain host homeostasis. The gut is a vital organ where microbiota can influence and determine the function of cells of the immune system and contributes to preserve the wellbeing of the individual. Several articles have emphasized the connection between intestinal autoimmune diseases, such as Crohn's disease with dysbiosis or an imbalance in the microbiota composition in the gut. However, little is known about the role of the microbiota in autoimmune pathologies affecting other tissues than the intestine. This article focuses on what is known about the role that gut microbiota can play in the pathogenesis of non-intestinal autoimmune diseases, such as Grave's diseases, multiple sclerosis, type-1 diabetes, systemic lupus erythematosus, psoriasis, schizophrenia, and autism spectrum disorders. Furthermore, we discuss as to how metabolites derived from bacteria could be used as potential therapies for non-intestinal autoimmune diseases.

  10. Gintonin absorption in intestinal model systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung-Hwan Lee

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion: The present study shows that gintonin could be absorbed in the intestine through transcellular and paracellular diffusion, and active transport. In addition, the lipid component of gintonin might play a key role in its intestinal absorption.

  11. Microbiota, intestinal immunity, and mouse bustle

    OpenAIRE

    Kruglov, A.; Nedospasov, S.

    2014-01-01

    The composition of the intestinal microbiota is regulated by the immune system. This paper discusses the role of cytokines and innate immunity lymphoid cells in the intestinal immune regulation by means of IgA.

  12. Prevention of alcohol-induced DNA damage by a proprietary glycyrrhizin/D-mannitol product: A randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over human study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chigurupati, Harsha; Auddy, Biswajit; Biyani, Manish; Chakrabarti, Shrabana; Stohs, Sidney J

    2017-11-06

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the ability of a proprietary combination of glycyrrhizin and D-mannitol to protect against oxidative damage to DNA associated with acute alcohol consumption by human subjects in a randomized, placebo-controlled cross-over designed study. Excessive alcohol consumption is associated with numerous diseases. Alcohol has been shown to generate reactive oxygen species that can result in DNA damage, leading to genetic and epigenetic changes. A total of 25 subjects (13 male and 12 female) were enrolled. Alcohol intake in the form of vodka (40% ethanol) was adjusted based on 1.275 g of 100% ethanol/kg body weight for men and 1.020 g/kg body weight for women, which was consumed with and without the study product. Blood samples were drawn at 2 h after alcohol consumption, lymphocytes were isolated, and were subjected to DNA comet electrophoresis on a blinded basis. Acute alcohol consumption increased lymphocyte DNA damage by approximately 8.36%. Co-consumption of the glycyrrhizin/D-mannitol study product with alcohol reduced DNA damage to baseline levels. No adverse effects were associated with use of the study product, and no differences were observed in blood alcohol concentrations in the presence or absence of the study product in males and females. Acute alcohol ingestion resulted in measurable increases in DNA damage, which were prevented by the addition of the proprietary glycyrrhizin/D-mannitol (NTX ® ) study product to the alcohol, suggesting that the tissue-damaging effects of alcohol consumption can be ameliorated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The Anti-Inflammatory Effect and Intestinal Barrier Protection of HU210 Differentially Depend on TLR4 Signaling in Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Murine Colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Sisi; Li, Yongyu; Shen, Li; Zhang, Ruiqin; Yang, Lizhi; Li, Min; Li, Kun; Fichna, Jakub

    2017-02-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is strongly associated with inflammation and intestinal barrier disorder. The nonselective cannabinoid receptor agonist HU210 has been shown to ameliorate inflamed colon in colitis, but its effects on intestinal barrier function and extraintestinal inflammation are unclear. To investigate the effects and the underlying mechanism of HU210 action on the UC in relation to a role of TLR4 and MAP kinase signaling. Wild-type (WT) and TLR4 knockout (Tlr4 -/- ) mice were exposed to 4% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) for 7 days. The effects of HU210 on inflammation and intestinal barrier were explored. Upon DSS challenge, mice suffered from bloody stool, colon shortening, intestinal mucosa edema, pro-inflammatory cytokine increase and intestinal barrier destruction with goblet cell depletion, increased intestinal microflora accompanied with elevated plasma lipopolysaccharide, reduced mRNA expression of the intestinal tight junction proteins, and abnormal ratio of CD4 + /CD8 + T cells in the intestinal Peyer's patches. Pro-inflammatory cytokines in the plasma and the lung, as well as pulmonary myeloperoxidase activity, indicators of extraintestinal inflammation were increased. Protein expression of p38α and pp38 was up-regulated in the colon of WT mice. Tlr4 -/- mice showed milder colitis. HU210 reversed the intestinal barrier changes in both strains of mice, but alleviated inflammation only in WT mice. Our study indicates that in experimental colitis, HU210 displays a protective effect on the intestinal barrier function independently of the TLR4 signaling pathway; however, in the extraintestinal tissues, the anti-inflammatory action seems through affecting TLR4-mediated p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway.

  14. Treatment Option Overview (Small Intestine Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... all of an organ that contains cancer. The resection may include the small intestine and nearby organs (if the cancer has spread). The doctor may remove the section of the small intestine that contains cancer and perform an anastomosis (joining the cut ends of the intestine together). ...

  15. General Information about Small Intestine Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... all of an organ that contains cancer. The resection may include the small intestine and nearby organs (if the cancer has spread). The doctor may remove the section of the small intestine that contains cancer and perform an anastomosis (joining the cut ends of the intestine together). ...

  16. Abdominal tuberculosis presenting as intestinal obstruction- Case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One of the complications of abdominal tuberculosis is intestinal obstruction, which can be acute, chronic or acute on chronic. Other complications include intestinal haemorrhage, perforation of the intestine (rare), faecal fistula, cold abscess formation, mal-absorption syndrome and dissemination of the tuberculosis to other ...

  17. Exercise and the gastro-intestinal tract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    on perfonnance and me value of cardiovascular training in improving performance in aerobic sports is well recognised. The role of me gastro-intestinal tracr, bom as a limiting and sustaining facror in aerobic exercises, is less well appreciared. Gastro-intestinal symptoms. The spectrum of gastro-intestinal effecrs of exercise ...

  18. Childhood intestinal obstruction in Northwestern Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of childhood intestinal obstruction in this study agrees with those reportedis'gi m3 from other parts of the coun- try. Mortality from childhood intestinal obstruction is still high in our environment. References. 1. Otu AA. Tropical surgical abdominal emergencies: acute intestinal obstruction. Postgrad. Doctor (Afr) 1992; 14: 51. 2.

  19. Protein malnutrition and metronidazole induced intestinal bacterial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-09-17

    Sep 17, 2008 ... The gastrointestinal tract serves as a potent barrier that prevents luminal bacteria from entering the host. This barrier function is maintained by a well-balanced intestinal flora, an unaltered perme- ability of the intestinal mucosa, and a normal functioning immune system. Furthermore, the intestinal mucosa, in.

  20. Childhood intestinal obstruction in Northwestern Nigeria | Uba ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Intestinal obstruction is a common cause of childhood surgical emergency in the tropics. The aim of this paper was to assess the pattern and the outcome of mangement of intestinal obstruction in Nigerian children. Study design: The clinical reccords of all the cases of childhood intestinal obstructions managed ...

  1. The TNO gastro-intestinal model (TIM)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minekus, M.

    2015-01-01

    The TNO Gastro–Intestinal Model (TIM) is a multi–compartmental model, designed to realistically simulate conditions in the lumen of the gastro–intestinal tract. TIM is successfully used to study the gastro–intestinal behavior of a wide variety of feed, food and pharmaceutical products. Experiments

  2. Entomoftoromicose intestinal: relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábia Aparecida Carvalho

    1997-02-01

    Full Text Available Os autores relatam um caso de entomoftoromicose intestinal causada por Entomophthorales, em indivíduo de 19 anos, agricultor e sem doença associada. O paciente foi submetido a ressecção intestinal e o diagnóstico foi feito após análise da peça cirúrgica. Após revisão da literatura, são discutidos a evolução clínica, as características clinicopatológicas, as dificuldades no diagnóstico e o tratamento dessa entidade rara.A case of intestinal entomophthoramycosis caused by Entomophthorales in a man with 19 years-old, farmer and without associated disease. The patient was submitted to a intestinal ressection and diagnosis was carried through after analisys of the surgical specimen. After a review of the literature, the clinical evolution, clinico-pathologic features, difficulties in diagnosis and treatment are discussed.

  3. Diversity of insect intestinal microflora

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mrázek, Jakub; Štrosová, Lenka; Fliegerová, Kateřina; Kott, T.; Kopečný, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 3 (2008), s. 229-233 ISSN 0015-5632 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA303/06/0974 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : insect intestinal microflora Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.172, year: 2008

  4. Circadian disorganization alters intestinal microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Robin M; Forsyth, Christopher B; Green, Stefan J; Mutlu, Ece; Engen, Phillip; Vitaterna, Martha H; Turek, Fred W; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal dysbiosis and circadian rhythm disruption are associated with similar diseases including obesity, metabolic syndrome, and inflammatory bowel disease. Despite the overlap, the potential relationship between circadian disorganization and dysbiosis is unknown; thus, in the present study, a model of chronic circadian disruption was used to determine the impact on the intestinal microbiome. Male C57BL/6J mice underwent once weekly phase reversals of the light:dark cycle (i.e., circadian rhythm disrupted mice) to determine the impact of circadian rhythm disruption on the intestinal microbiome and were fed either standard chow or a high-fat, high-sugar diet to determine how diet influences circadian disruption-induced effects on the microbiome. Weekly phase reversals of the light:dark (LD) cycle did not alter the microbiome in mice fed standard chow; however, mice fed a high-fat, high-sugar diet in conjunction with phase shifts in the light:dark cycle had significantly altered microbiota. While it is yet to be established if some of the adverse effects associated with circadian disorganization in humans (e.g., shift workers, travelers moving across time zones, and in individuals with social jet lag) are mediated by dysbiosis, the current study demonstrates that circadian disorganization can impact the intestinal microbiota which may have implications for inflammatory diseases.

  5. Milk products and intestinal health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Meer, R; Bovee-Oudenhoven, IMJ; Sesink, ALA; Kleibeuker, JH

    Milk products may improve intestinal health by means of the cytoprotective effects of their high calcium phosphate (CaPi) content. We hypothesized that this cytoprotection may increase host defenses against bacterial infections as well as decrease colon cancer risk. This paper summarizes our studies

  6. [Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joly, Francisca; Amiot, Aurélien; Coffin, Benoît; Lavergne-Slove, Anne; Messing, Bernard; Bouhnik, Yoram

    2006-01-01

    Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction (CIPO) is a disease characterized by episodes resembling mechanical obstruction in the absence of organic, systemic, or metabolic disorders. Pseudo-obstruction is an uncommon condition and can result from primary (40%) or secondary (60%) causes. The most common symptoms are nausea, vomiting, abdominal distension, abdominal pain and constipation or diarrhea. These symptoms are usually present many years before CIPO diagnosis. They can lead to severe electrolyte disorders and malnutrition. Principles for management of patients with CIPO are: to establish a correct clinical diagnosis in excluding mechanical obstruction; to perform a symptomatic and physiologic assessment of the gastrointestinal tract involved; to look for extra-intestinal manifestations, especially for myopathy and neuropathy; to discuss in some cases a surgery for full-thickness intestinal biopsies, and/or a neuromuscular biopsy in case of mitochondrial cytopathy suspicion. The management is primarily focused on symptom control and nutritional support to prevent weight loss and malnutrition. Treatment of CIPO includes prokinetic agents which may help to reduce gastrointestinal symptoms Courses of antibiotics may be needed in patients with symptoms suggestive of bacterial overgrowth. When necessary, enteral nutrition is preferred. In carefully selected patients, feeding jejunostomy with or without decompression gastrostomy may be tried. Long term parenteral nutrition should be reserved for patients who can not tolerate enteral nutrition. Intestinal transplantation can be discussed in selected patients.

  7. INTESTINAL PERMEABILITY IN PEDIATRIC GASTROENTEROLOGY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANELBURG, RM; UIL, JJ; DEMONCHY, JGR; HEYMANS, HSA

    1992-01-01

    The role of the physiologic barrier function of the small bowel and its possible role in health and disease has attracted much attention over the past decade. The intestinal mucosal barrier for luminal macromolecules and microorganism is the result of non-immunologic and immunologic defense

  8. Microcontainers for Intestinal Drug Delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tentor, Fabio; Mazzoni, Chiara; Keller, Stephan Sylvest

    Among all the drug administration routes, the oral one is the most preferred by the patients being less invasive, faster and easier. Oral drug delivery systems designed to target the intestine are produced by powder technology and capsule formulations. Those systems including micro- and nano...

  9. A bottle of beer, a glass of wine or a shot of whiskey? Can the rate of alcohol-induced harm be affected by altering the population's beverage choices?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkelä, Pia; Hellman, Matilda; Kerr, William; Room, Robin

    2011-01-01

    This article summarizes and puts into context the findings from the five articles contained in this thematic issue. The question of interest has been the connection between different beverage types and alcohol-induced harm. The key question is whether policy makers can affect rates of harm by affecting beverage choice. In the discussion, four different potential pathways for such an effect are differentiated. The first is the direct effect of the beverage over and above the effect of the ethanol it contains. The review of results suggests that the size of this effect may be modest, and it is clearly overmatched by cultural factors relating to who chooses to drink which beverage and how. However, even more relevant than the direct effect may be the other three mechanisms, which potentially affect the amounts of alcohol drunk or allow the influencing of drinker groups of interest.

  10. Intestinal epithelium in inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coskun, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    homeostasis. Therefore, dysregulation within the epithelial layer can increase intestinal permeability, lead to abnormalities in interactions between IECs and immune cells in underlying lamina propria, and disturb the intestinal immune homeostasis, all of which are linked to the clinical disease course......The intestinal epithelium has a strategic position as a protective physical barrier to luminal microbiota and actively contributes to the mucosal immune system. This barrier is mainly formed by a monolayer of specialized intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) that are crucial in maintaining intestinal...

  11. A etiological factors in mechanical intestinal obstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asad, S.; Khan, H.; Khan, I.A.; Ghaffar, S.; Rehman, Z.U.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Intestinal obstruction occurs when the normal flow of intestinal contents is interrupted. The most frequent causes of intestinal obstruction are postoperative adhesions and hernias, which cause extrinsic compression of the intestine. Less frequently, tumours or strictures of the bowel can cause intrinsic blockage. Objective of the study was to find out the various a etiological factors of mechanical intestinal obstruction and to evaluate the morbidity and mortality in adult patients presenting to Surgical 'A' unit of Ayub teaching hospital with mechanical intestinal obstruction. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted from March 2009 to September, 2009. All patients presenting with intestinal obstruction and were above the age of 12 years were included in the study. Patients with non-mechanical obstruction were excluded from the study and those who responded to conservative measures were also excluded. Results: A total of 36 patients with age ranging from 12 to 80 years (Mean age 37.72+-19.74 years) and male to female ratio of 1.77:1, were treated for mechanical intestinal obstruction. The most common cause for mechanical intestinal obstruction was adhesions (36.1%). Intestinal tuberculosis was the second most common cause (19.4%), while hernias and sigmoid volvulus affected 13.9% patients each. Malignancies were found in 5.6% cases. Conclusion: Adhesions and Tuberculosis are the leading causes of mechanical intestinal obstruction in Pakistan. Although some patients can be treated conservatively, a substantial portion requires immediate surgical intervention. (author)

  12. Intestinal Epithelial Sirtuin 1 Regulates Intestinal Inflammation During Aging in Mice by Altering the Intestinal Microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellman, Alicia S; Metukuri, Mallikarjuna R; Kazgan, Nevzat; Xu, Xiaojiang; Xu, Qing; Ren, Natalie S X; Czopik, Agnieszka; Shanahan, Michael T; Kang, Ashley; Chen, Willa; Azcarate-Peril, M Andrea; Gulati, Ajay S; Fargo, David C; Guarente, Leonard; Li, Xiaoling

    2017-09-01

    Intestinal epithelial homeostasis is maintained by complex interactions among epithelial cells, commensal gut microorganisms, and immune cells. Disruption of this homeostasis is associated with disorders such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), but the mechanisms of this process are not clear. We investigated how Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), a conserved mammalian NAD + -dependent protein deacetylase, senses environmental stress to alter intestinal integrity. We performed studies of mice with disruption of Sirt1 specifically in the intestinal epithelium (SIRT1 iKO, villin-Cre+, Sirt1 flox/flox mice) and control mice (villin-Cre-, Sirt1 flox/flox ) on a C57BL/6 background. Acute colitis was induced in some mice by addition of 2.5% dextran sodium sulfate to drinking water for 5-9 consecutive days. Some mice were given antibiotics via their drinking water for 4 weeks to deplete their microbiota. Some mice were fed with a cholestyramine-containing diet for 7 days to sequester their bile acids. Feces were collected and proportions of microbiota were analyzed by 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing and quantitative PCR. Intestines were collected from mice and gene expression profiles were compared by microarray and quantitative PCR analyses. We compared levels of specific mRNAs between colon tissues from age-matched patients with ulcerative colitis (n=10) vs without IBD (n=8, controls). Mice with intestinal deletion of SIRT1 (SIRT1 iKO) had abnormal activation of Paneth cells starting at the age of 5-8 months, with increased activation of NF-κB, stress pathways, and spontaneous inflammation at 22-24 months of age, compared with control mice. SIRT1 iKO mice also had altered fecal microbiota starting at 4-6 months of age compared with control mice, in part because of altered bile acid metabolism. Moreover, SIRT1 iKO mice with defective gut microbiota developed more severe colitis than control mice. Intestinal tissues from patients with ulcerative colitis expressed significantly lower

  13. Intestinal perfusion in the study of intestinal absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, S.J.

    1976-01-01

    Several techniques for studying absorption by means of intestinal perfusion have been developed. While the principle is simple, the practice is complicated by absorption of the solvent and by excretion of fluid into the lumen. To improve reliability a ''marker'' is incorporated into the system; it should behave as nearly as possible like the nutrient of interest, except that it should be unabsorbable. A great many markers, including several labelled with radionuclides, have been developed for use with numerous nutrients, and perfusion methods using double or triple tubes or occlusive balloons have been tested. The perfusion technique is too complicated for routine diagnostic use, but it offers at present the only possibility of studying the function of defined sections of the small intestine in the intact human. (author)

  14. Intestinal exposure to PCB 153 induces inflammation via the ATM/NEMO pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Matthew C; Dheer, Rishu; Santaolalla, Rebeca; Davies, Julie M; Burgueño, Juan; Lang, Jessica K; Toborek, Michal; Abreu, Maria T

    2018-01-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent organic pollutants that adversely affect human health. PCBs bio-accumulate in organisms important for human consumption. PCBs accumulation in the body leads to activation of the transcription factor NF-κB, a major driver of inflammation. Despite dietary exposure being one of the main routes of exposure to PCBs, the gut has been widely ignored when studying the effects of PCBs. We investigated the effects of PCB 153 on the intestine and addressed whether PCB 153 affected intestinal permeability or inflammation and the mechanism by which this occurred. Mice were orally exposed to PCB 153 and gut permeability was assessed. Intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) were collected and evaluated for evidence of genotoxicity and inflammation. A human IEC line (SW480) was used to examine the direct effects of PCB 153 on epithelial function. NF-кB activation was measured using a reporter assay, DNA damage was assessed, and cytokine expression was ascertained with real-time PCR. Mice orally exposed to PCB 153 had an increase in intestinal permeability and inflammatory cytokine expression in their IECs; inhibition of NF-кB ameliorated both these effects. This inflammation was associated with genotoxic damage and NF-кB activation. Exposure of SW480 cells to PCB 153 led to similar effects as seen in vivo. We found that activation of the ATM/NEMO pathway by genotoxic stress was upstream of NF-kB activation. These results demonstrate that oral exposure to PCB 153 is genotoxic to IECs and induces downstream inflammation and barrier dysfunction in the intestinal epithelium. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Practical Guidance on How to Handle Levodopa/Carbidopa Intestinal Gel Therapy of Advanced PD in a Movement Disorder Clinic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Stephen Wørlich; Clausen, Jesper Bøje; Gregerslund, Mie Manon

    2012-01-01

    Continuous dopaminergic delivery is recognized for the capacity to ameliorate symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD). In advanced PD the short comings of orally administered Levodopa/Carbidopa include fluctuations resulting in unstable effect and dyskinesia. Levodopa/Carbidopa intestinal gel, LCIG......, (Duodopa®, Abbott Laboratories) is delivered continuously through a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy with the inner tube placed in the duodenum by means of a device (CADD legacy Duodopa pump (CE 0473)). The therapy implies continuous dopaminergic delivery directly to the duodenum and is therefore...

  16. Biochar from commercially cultivated seaweed for soil amelioration

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, David A.; Paul, Nicholas A.; Dworjanyn, Symon A.; Bird, Michael I.; de Nys, Rocky

    2015-01-01

    Seaweed cultivation is a high growth industry that is primarily targeted at human food and hydrocolloid markets. However, seaweed biomass also offers a feedstock for the production of nutrient-rich biochar for soil amelioration. We provide the first data of biochar yield and characteristics from intensively cultivated seaweeds (Saccharina, Undaria and Sargassum ? brown seaweeds, and Gracilaria, Kappaphycus and Eucheuma ? red seaweeds). While there is some variability in biochar properties as ...

  17. The Contributions of Human Mini-Intestines to the Study of Intestinal Physiology and Pathophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Huimin; Hasan, Nesrin M; In, Julie G; Estes, Mary K; Kovbasnjuk, Olga; Zachos, Nicholas C; Donowitz, Mark

    2017-02-10

    The lack of accessibility to normal and diseased human intestine and the inability to separate the different functional compartments of the intestine even when tissue could be obtained have held back the understanding of human intestinal physiology. Clevers and his associates identified intestinal stem cells and established conditions to grow "mini-intestines" ex vivo in differentiated and undifferentiated conditions. This pioneering work has made a new model of the human intestine available and has begun making contributions to the understanding of human intestinal transport in normal physiologic conditions and the pathophysiology of intestinal diseases. However, this model is reductionist and lacks many of the complexities of normal intestine. Consequently, it is not yet possible to predict how great the advances using this model will be for understanding human physiology and pathophysiology, nor how the model will be modified to include multiple other intestinal cell types and physical forces necessary to more closely approximate normal intestine. This review describes recent studies using mini-intestines, which have readdressed previously established models of normal intestinal transport physiology and newly examined intestinal pathophysiology. The emphasis is on studies with human enteroids grown either as three-dimensional spheroids or two-dimensional monolayers. In addition, comments are provided on mouse studies in cases when human studies have not yet been described.

  18. Biflorin Ameliorates Memory Impairments Induced by Cholinergic Blockade in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Se Jin; Kim, Boseong; Ryu, Byeol; Kim, Eunji; Lee, Sunhee; Jang, Dae Sik; Ryu, Jong Hoon

    2017-01-01

    To examine the effect of biflorin, a component of Syzygium aromaticum, on memory deficit, we introduced a scopolamine-induced cognitive deficit mouse model. A single administration of biflorin increased latency time in the passive avoidance task, ameliorated alternation behavior in the Y-maze, and increased exploration time in the Morris water maze task, indicating the improvement of cognitive behaviors against cholinergic dysfunction. The biflorin-induced reverse of latency in the scopolamine-treated group was attenuated by MK-801, an NMDA receptor antagonist. Biflorin also enhanced cognitive function in a naïve mouse model. To understand the mechanism of biflorin for memory amelioration, we performed Western blot. Biflorin increased the activation of protein kinase C-ζ and its downstream signaling molecules in the hippocampus. These results suggest that biflorin ameliorates drug-induced memory impairment by modulation of protein kinase C-ζ signaling in mice, implying that biflorin could function as a possible therapeutic agent for the treatment of cognitive problems. PMID:27829270

  19. Biochar from commercially cultivated seaweed for soil amelioration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, David A.; Paul, Nicholas A.; Dworjanyn, Symon A.; Bird, Michael I.; de Nys, Rocky

    2015-01-01

    Seaweed cultivation is a high growth industry that is primarily targeted at human food and hydrocolloid markets. However, seaweed biomass also offers a feedstock for the production of nutrient-rich biochar for soil amelioration. We provide the first data of biochar yield and characteristics from intensively cultivated seaweeds (Saccharina, Undaria and Sargassum – brown seaweeds, and Gracilaria, Kappaphycus and Eucheuma – red seaweeds). While there is some variability in biochar properties as a function of the origin of seaweed, there are several defining and consistent characteristics of seaweed biochar, in particular a relatively low C content and surface area but high yield, essential trace elements (N, P and K) and exchangeable cations (particularly K). The pH of seaweed biochar ranges from neutral (7) to alkaline (11), allowing for broad-spectrum applications in diverse soil types. We find that seaweed biochar is a unique material for soil amelioration that is consistently different to biochar derived from ligno-cellulosic feedstock. Blending of seaweed and ligno-cellulosic biochar could provide a soil ameliorant that combines a high fixed C content with a mineral-rich substrate to enhance crop productivity. PMID:25856799

  20. Administration of red ginseng ameliorates memory decline in aged mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yeonju; Oh, Seikwan

    2015-07-01

    It has been known that ginseng can be applied as a potential nutraceutical for memory impairment; however, experiments with animals of old age are few. To determine the memory enhancing effect of red ginseng, C57BL/6 mice (21 mo old) were given experimental diet pellets containing 0.12% red ginseng extract (approximately 200 mg/kg/d) for 3 mo. Young and old mice (4 mo and 21 mo old, respectively) were used as the control group. The effect of red ginseng, which ameliorated memory impairment in aged mice, was quantified using Y-maze test, novel objective test, and Morris water maze. Red ginseng ameliorated age-related declines in learning and memory in older mice. In addition, red ginseng's effect on the induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase and proinflammatory cytokines was investigated in the hippocampus of aged mice. Red ginseng treatment suppressed the production of age-processed inducible nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-1β expressions. Moreover, it was observed that red ginseng had an antioxidative effect on aged mice. The suppressed glutathione level in aged mice was restored with red ginseng treatment. The antioxidative-related enzymes Nrf2 and HO-1 were increased with red ginseng treatment. The results revealed that when red ginseng is administered over long periods, age-related decline of learning and memory is ameliorated through anti-inflammatory activity.

  1. Biochar from commercially cultivated seaweed for soil amelioration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, David A.; Paul, Nicholas A.; Dworjanyn, Symon A.; Bird, Michael I.; de Nys, Rocky

    2015-04-01

    Seaweed cultivation is a high growth industry that is primarily targeted at human food and hydrocolloid markets. However, seaweed biomass also offers a feedstock for the production of nutrient-rich biochar for soil amelioration. We provide the first data of biochar yield and characteristics from intensively cultivated seaweeds (Saccharina, Undaria and Sargassum - brown seaweeds, and Gracilaria, Kappaphycus and Eucheuma - red seaweeds). While there is some variability in biochar properties as a function of the origin of seaweed, there are several defining and consistent characteristics of seaweed biochar, in particular a relatively low C content and surface area but high yield, essential trace elements (N, P and K) and exchangeable cations (particularly K). The pH of seaweed biochar ranges from neutral (7) to alkaline (11), allowing for broad-spectrum applications in diverse soil types. We find that seaweed biochar is a unique material for soil amelioration that is consistently different to biochar derived from ligno-cellulosic feedstock. Blending of seaweed and ligno-cellulosic biochar could provide a soil ameliorant that combines a high fixed C content with a mineral-rich substrate to enhance crop productivity.

  2. Ghrelin Ameliorates Asthma by Inhibiting Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Tian; Wang, Lei; Zeng, Qingdi; Zhang, Yan; Sheng, Baowei; Han, Liping

    2017-12-01

    This study aimed to confirm the ameliorative effect of ghrelin on asthma and investigate its mechanism. The murine model of asthma was induced by ovalbumin (OVA) treatment and assessed by histological pathology and airway responsiveness to methacholine. The total and differential leukocytes were counted. Tumor necrosis factor α, interferon γ, interleukin-5 and interleukin-13 levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were quantified by commercial kits. The protein levels in pulmonary tissues were measured by Western blot analysis. Ghrelin ameliorated the histological pathology and airway hyperresponsiveness in the OVA-induced asthmatic mouse model. Consistently, OVA-increased total and differential leukocytes and levels of tumor necrosis factor α, interferon γ, interleukin-5 and interleukin-13 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were significantly attenuated by ghrelin. Ghrelin prevented the increased protein levels of the endoplasmic reticulum stress markers glucose regulated protein 78 and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein homologous protein and reversed the reduced levels of p-Akt in asthmatic mice. Ghrelin might prevent endoplasmic reticulum stress activation by stimulating the Akt signaling pathway, which attenuated inflammation and ameliorated asthma in mice. Ghrelin might be a new target for asthma therapy. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Biochar from commercially cultivated seaweed for soil amelioration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, David A; Paul, Nicholas A; Dworjanyn, Symon A; Bird, Michael I; de Nys, Rocky

    2015-04-09

    Seaweed cultivation is a high growth industry that is primarily targeted at human food and hydrocolloid markets. However, seaweed biomass also offers a feedstock for the production of nutrient-rich biochar for soil amelioration. We provide the first data of biochar yield and characteristics from intensively cultivated seaweeds (Saccharina, Undaria and Sargassum--brown seaweeds, and Gracilaria, Kappaphycus and Eucheuma--red seaweeds). While there is some variability in biochar properties as a function of the origin of seaweed, there are several defining and consistent characteristics of seaweed biochar, in particular a relatively low C content and surface area but high yield, essential trace elements (N, P and K) and exchangeable cations (particularly K). The pH of seaweed biochar ranges from neutral (7) to alkaline (11), allowing for broad-spectrum applications in diverse soil types. We find that seaweed biochar is a unique material for soil amelioration that is consistently different to biochar derived from ligno-cellulosic feedstock. Blending of seaweed and ligno-cellulosic biochar could provide a soil ameliorant that combines a high fixed C content with a mineral-rich substrate to enhance crop productivity.

  4. The intestinal microenvironment in sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fay, Katherine T; Ford, Mandy L; Coopersmith, Craig M

    2017-10-01

    The gastrointestinal tract has long been hypothesized to function as "the motor" of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. The gastrointestinal microenvironment is comprised of a single cell layer epithelia, a local immune system, and the microbiome. These three components of the intestine together play a crucial role in maintaining homeostasis during times of health. However, the gastrointestinal microenvironment is perturbed during sepsis, resulting in pathologic changes that drive both local and distant injury. In this review, we seek to characterize the relationship between the epithelium, gastrointestinal lymphocytes, and commensal bacteria during basal and pathologic conditions and how the intestinal microenvironment may be targeted for therapeutic gain in septic patients. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Drug Transporters in the Intestine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffansen, Bente

    2016-01-01

    that may impact drug absorption. Thus absorptive transporters may facilitate BA of APIs that are substrates/victims for the transporters and have permeability-limited absorption, i.e. those that are classified in the biopharmaceutics classification system (BCS) Class 3 and 4. On the other hand, exsorptive...... transporters may restrict BA of APIs that are victims for these efflux transporters, especially those APIs classified to have solubility-limited absorption, i.e. compounds in BCS Class 2 and 4. The aim of the present Chapter is to review drug transporters (DTs) present within the intestine and to discuss...... and exemplify their roles in drug absorption/exsorption and in drug-drug interactions (DDIs). Although focus in the present Chapter is on DTs that are mentioned in American and European regulatory guidances, the intestinal transporters for nutrients and endogens (endogenous compounds) are also briefly...

  6. Dietary soybean protein concentrate-induced intestinal disorder in marine farmed Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar is associated with alterations in gut microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Timothy J; Smullen, Richard; Barnes, Andrew C

    2013-09-27

    The aquaculture industry has made substantial progress in reducing the fishmeal content of feeds for carnivorous species, driven by demand for improved sustainability and reduced cost. Soybean protein concentrate (SPC) is an attractive replacement for fishmeal, but intestinal disorders have been reported in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) fed these diets at high seawater temperatures, with preliminary evidence suggesting SPC induces these disorders by altering the intestinal microbiota. We compared the intestinal microbiota of marine-farmed S. salar fed experimental diets with varying levels of SPC in mid- and late-summer. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and 16S rRNA clone library analysis revealed the microbiota adherent to the intestinal tract of salmon is complex at the population level, but simple and highly variable at the individual level. Temporal changes were observed with the bacterial diversity increasing in the intestinal tract in late summer. A Verrucomicrobia was the most frequently observed ribotype in early summer, whilst an Aliivibrio was the most frequently observed ribotype in late summer. Feeding SPC to salmon increased the bacterial diversity of the intestinal tract and resulted in the presence of bacteria not normally associated with marine fish (Escherichia and Propionibacterium). These diet-induced changes to the intestinal-microbiome could be ameliorated by inclusion of a prebiotic (mannan-oligosaccharide or MOS) to the diet. None of the experimental diets induced inflammation of the intestine as assessed by histopathology and expression of inflammatory cytokines. Our results support the "dysbiosis" hypothesis that SPC adversely affects the intestinal microbiota of Atlantic salmon. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. [Chronic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, T; Navarrete, J; Celestina, A

    1989-01-01

    Much has been written about gastric mucosae behavior and the occurrence of intestinal metaplasia. The aim of this paper is to learn something more about these matters in peruvian population. We selected 100 patients with endoscopically no localized lesions between 30 to 70 years of age. We took 8 samples of gastric mucosae in each patient which were carefully examined for the presence of inflammatory changes, settle the line type between antral and fundic mucosae and the frequency of intestinal metaplasia finding. The results showed disagreement between endoscopic and histological findings, so we conclude it is better to diagnose chronic gastritis on the basis of histological parameters. The line between antral and fundic mucosae was of the close type one found in 87% of all cases and it advanced proximally with increasing age. Intestinal metaplasia was present in 46% of the whole number of patients and the rate of occurrence increased in 50% over 50 years age. These findings will let us compare future investigations of gastric mucosae behavior with localized benign or malign lesions.

  8. Radiological manifestations of intestinal tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Im, Jae Hoon

    1974-01-01

    Radiological findings of 87 cases of intestinal tuberculosis are analyzed and presented. The diagnosis was based on histopathology in 29 cases, and on clinical ground and radiological findings in 58 cases. The radio of male and female patients was 4:6, and peak incidence is between 10 and 30. Abdominal pain, diarrhea, weight loss, fever and general weakness are frequent symptoms, and tenderness of abdomen, ascites with abdominal distension, malnutrition and emaciation are frequent signs of the patients. Laboratory investigation reveal anemia, raised ESR, hypoalbuminaemia and positive occult blood reaction in the stool in most of the patients. Chest film show activity pulmonary tuberculosis in only 1/3 patients. There is no pathognomonic radiological findings in intestinal tuberculosis and their manifestations are protean, and differentiation from other inflammatory diseases and malignant tumors in gastrointestinal tract is very difficult on radiological ground alone. However, in patients with complaining vague abdominal symptoms and signs, the radiological diagnosis is most certain means in the decision of existence of organic lesion and suggestion of tuberculosis in the gastrointestinal tract and its extent as yet. Multiplicity of the lesion, involvement of adjacent organ such as peritoneum or mesenteric lymph nodes, typical nodularity or irregularity of mesenteric border and existence of active pulmonary tuberculosis are the suggestive findings of intestinal tuberculosis. In the diagnosis of inflammatory disease or malignant tumor of gastrointestinal tract, the possibility of tuberculosis should be borne in mind, and vice versa

  9. [Intestinal parasitic diseases in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mare, Anca; Man, A; Toma, Felicia; Székely, Edit; Lôrinczi, Lilla; Sipoş, Anca

    2007-01-01

    To compare the incidence of intestinal parasitosis between children with residence in urban and rural areas: to compare the efficacy of parasitologic diagnostic methods. In our study we included two lots of children. The first lot consisted in 74 children from rural areas from which we collected 44 samples of feces and 55 samples for the "Scotch tape" test. The second lot consisted in 214 children from urban areas from which we collected 44 samples of feces. We examined each sample of feces by three different methods. The study was performed between April to June 2006. The incidence of intestinal parasitosis increases in children from urban areas towards rural areas, and in children between 5 and 10 years. Ascariasis is the most frequent disease in both urban and rural areas. By examination of each fecal sample by three different methods, the number of positive cases increased. The residence in rural areas and age between 5 to 10 years are risk factors for intestinal parasitosis. The "Scotch tape" test was more efficient in Enterobius vermicularis infection than the methods performed from feces. We recommend using at the same time three diagnostic methods for feces examination to improve the diagnostic sensibility.

  10. Colon in acute intestinal infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarino, Alfredo; Buccigrossi, Vittoria; Armellino, Carla

    2009-04-01

    The colon is actively implicated in intestinal infections not only as a target of enteric pathogens and their products but also as a target organ for treatment. In the presence of diarrhea, both of osmotic and secretory nature, the colon reacts with homeostatic mechanisms to increase ion absorption. These mechanisms can be effectively exploited to decrease fluid discharge. A model of intestinal infections using rotavirus (RV) in colonic cells was set up and used to define a dual model of secretory and osmotic diarrhea in sequence. Using this model, antidiarrheal drugs were tested, namely zinc and the enkephalinase inhibitor racecadotril. Zinc was able to decrease the enterotoxic activity responsible for secretory diarrhea. It also inhibited the cytotoxic effect of RV. The mechanism of zinc was related at least in part to the activation of MAPK activity, but also a direct antiviral effect was observed. Racecadotril showed a potent and selective inhibition of active secretion, being particularly effective in the first phase of RV diarrhea. The use of drugs active at the colonic level, therefore, offers effective options to treat intestinal infections in childhood. In addition, the colon is the natural site of colonic microflora, a target of probiotic therapy, which is the first line of approach recommended by the European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition to treat infectious diarrhea.

  11. The acetate switch of an intestinal pathogen disrupts host insulin signaling and lipid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hang, Saiyu; Purdy, Alexandra E; Robins, William P; Wang, Zhipeng; Mandal, Manabendra; Chang, Sarah; Mekalanos, John J; Watnick, Paula I

    2014-11-12

    Vibrio cholerae is lethal to the model host Drosophila melanogaster through mechanisms not solely attributable to cholera toxin. To examine additional virulence determinants, we performed a genetic screen in V. cholerae-infected Drosophila and identified the two-component system CrbRS. CrbRS controls transcriptional activation of acetyl-CoA synthase-1 (ACS-1) and thus regulates the acetate switch, in which bacteria transition from excretion to assimilation of environmental acetate. The resultant loss of intestinal acetate leads to deactivation of host insulin signaling and lipid accumulation in enterocytes, resulting in host lethality. These metabolic effects are not observed upon infection with ΔcrbS or Δacs1 V. cholerae mutants. Additionally, uninfected flies lacking intestinal commensals, which supply short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) such as acetate, also exhibit altered insulin signaling and intestinal steatosis, which is reversed upon acetate supplementation. Thus, acetate consumption by V. cholerae alters host metabolism, and dietary acetate supplementation may ameliorate some sequelae of cholera. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Immunogenetic control of the intestinal microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marietta, Eric; Rishi, Abdul; Taneja, Veena

    2015-07-01

    All vertebrates contain a diverse collection of commensal, symbiotic and pathogenic microorganisms, such as bacteria, viruses and fungi, on their various body surfaces, and the ecological community of these microorganisms is referred to as the microbiota. Mucosal sites, such as the intestine, harbour the majority of microorganisms, and the human intestine contains the largest community of commensal and symbiotic bacteria. This intestinal community of bacteria is diverse, and there is a significant variability among individuals with respect to the composition of the intestinal microbiome. Both genetic and environmental factors can influence the diversity and composition of the intestinal bacteria with the predominant environmental factor being diet. So far, studies have shown that diet-dependent differences in the composition of intestinal bacteria can be classified into three groups, called enterotypes. Other environmental factors that can influence the composition include antibiotics, probiotics, smoking and drugs. Studies of monozygotic and dizygotic twins have proven that genetics plays a role. Recently, MHC II genes have been associated with specific microbial compositions in human infants and transgenic mice that express different HLA alleles. There is a growing list of genes/molecules that are involved with the sensing and monitoring of the intestinal lumen by the intestinal immune system that, when genetically altered, will significantly alter the composition of the intestinal microflora. The focus of this review will be on the genetic factors that influence the composition of the intestinal microflora. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Immediate postconditioning during reperfusion attenuates intestinal injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ke-Xuan; Li, Yun-Sheng; Huang, Wen-Qi; Chen, Shu-Qing; Wang, Zhong-Xin; Liu, Jia-Xin; Xia, Zhengyuan

    2009-05-01

    To test the hypothesis that immediate but not delayed ischemic postconditioning (IPo) during reperfusion attenuates intestinal injury, and that ischemic preconditioning (IPC) and IPo may confer synergy in intestinal protection. Prospective laboratory animal study with concurrent control. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats. Intestinal ischemia/reperfusion (II/R) injury in rats was produced by clamping superior mesenteric artery for 60 min followed by 60 min reperfusion; IPC was elicited by 10 min ischemia and 10 min reperfusion before index ischemia; IPo was performed by three cycles of 30 s reperfusion and 30 s ischemia initiated either immediately at the onset of reperfusion (IPo) or after reperfusion for 3 min (delayed-IPo). Combination of IPC and IPo was performed by combining both protocols. Intestinal ischemia/reperfusion resulted in significant intestinal injury evidenced as significant increase in Chiu's scores and wet-to-dry intestine weight ratio accompanied with increases in plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6, as well as increases in the intestinal tissue lipid peroxidation product malonediadehyde and myeloperoxidase activity as compared to control animals (all P IPo or their combination (P IPo (P > 0.05). IPC and IPo showed synergistic protection compared with either protocol alone. Ischemic postconditioning reduces intestinal injury, in part, by inhibiting oxidative injury, neutrophils filtration and proinflammatory response. The early period of reperfusion is critical to intestinal protection by IPo, and intestinal protection with IPo can be enhanced by IPC.

  14. Intestinal microcirculatory dysfunction and neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong-yi; Wang, Fang; Feng, Jie-xiong

    2013-01-01

    Based on the observation that coagulation necrosis occurs in the majority of neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) patients, it is clear that intestinal ischemia is a contributing factor to the pathogenesis of NEC. However, the published studies regarding the role of intestinal ischemia in NEC are controversial. The aim of this paper is to review the current studies regarding intestinal microcirculatory dysfunction and NEC, and try to elucidate the exact role of intestinal microcirculatory dysfunction in NEC. The studies cited in this review were mainly obtained from articles listed in Medline and PubMed. The search terms used were "intestinal microcirculatory dysfunction" and "neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis". Mainly original milestone articles and critical reviews written by major pioneer investigators in the field were selected. Immature regulatory control of mesentery circulation makes the neonatal intestinal microvasculature vulnerable. When neonates are subjected to stress, endothelial cell dysfunction occurs and results in vasoconstriction of arterioles, inflammatory cell infiltration and activation in venules, and endothelial barrier disruption in capillaries. The compromised vasculature increases circulation resistance and therefore decreases intestinal perfusion, and may eventually progress to intestinal necrosis. Intestinal ischemia plays an important role through the whole course of NEC. New therapeutic agents targeting intestinal ischemia, like HB-EGF, are promising therapeutic agents for the treatment of NEC.

  15. Ketogenesis contributes to intestinal cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qingding; Zhou, Yuning; Rychahou, Piotr; Fan, Teresa W-M; Lane, Andrew N; Weiss, Heidi L; Evers, B Mark

    2017-03-01

    The intestinal epithelium undergoes a continual process of proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. Previously, we have shown that the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway has a critical role in intestinal homeostasis. However, the downstream targets mediating the effects of mTOR in intestinal cells are not known. Here, we show that the ketone body β-hydroxybutyrate (βHB), an endogenous inhibitor of histone deacetylases (HDACs) induces intestinal cell differentiation as noted by the increased expression of differentiation markers (Mucin2 (MUC2), lysozyme, IAP, sucrase-isomaltase, KRT20, villin, Caudal-related homeobox transcription factor 2 (CDX2) and p21 Waf1 ). Conversely, knockdown of the ketogenic mitochondrial enzyme hydroxymethylglutaryl CoA synthase 2 (HMGCS2) attenuated spontaneous differentiation in the human colon cancer cell line Caco-2. Overexpression of HMGCS2, which we found is localized specifically in the more differentiated portions of the intestinal mucosa, increased the expression of CDX2, thus further suggesting the contributory role of HMGCS2 in intestinal differentiation. In addition, mice fed a ketogenic diet demonstrated increased differentiation of intestinal cells as noted by an increase in the enterocyte, goblet and Paneth cell lineages. Moreover, we showed that either knockdown of mTOR or inhibition of mTORC1 with rapamycin increases the expression of HMGCS2 in intestinal cells in vitro and in vivo, suggesting a possible cross-talk between mTOR and HMGCS2/βHB signaling in intestinal cells. In contrast, treatment of intestinal cells with βHB or feeding mice with a ketogenic diet inhibits mTOR signaling in intestinal cells. Together, we provide evidence showing that HMGCS2/βHB contributes to intestinal cell differentiation. Our results suggest that mTOR acts cooperatively with HMGCS2/βHB to maintain intestinal homeostasis.

  16. Inhibition of Epithelial TNF-α Receptors by Purified Fruit Bromelain Ameliorates Intestinal Inflammation and Barrier Dysfunction in Colitis

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Zijuan; Wang, Liang; Feng, Panpan; Yin, Lianhong; Wang, Chen; Zhi, Shengxu; Dong, Jianyi; Wang, Jingyu; Lin, Yuan; Chen, Dapeng; Xiong, Yongjian; Peng, Jinyong

    2017-01-01

    Activation of the TNF-α receptor (TNFR) leads to an inflammatory response, and anti-TNF therapy has been administered to reduce inflammation symptoms and heal mucosal ulcers in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Bromelain, a complex natural mixture of proteolytic enzymes, has been shown to exert anti-inflammatory effects. This study aimed to investigate the effect of purified fruit bromelain (PFB)-induced inhibition of epithelial TNFR in a rat colitis model. Colitis was established by intracol...

  17. Cannabinoid receptor-2 (CB2) agonist ameliorates colitis in IL-10{sup −/−} mice by attenuating the activation of T cells and promoting their apoptosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Udai P.; Singh, Narendra P. [Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States); Singh, Balwan [National Primate Research Center, Emory University, Atlanta GA 30329 (United States); Price, Robert L. [Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States); Nagarkatti, Mitzi [Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States); Nagarkatti, Prakash S., E-mail: Prakash.Nagarkatti@uscmed.sc.edu [Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States)

    2012-01-15

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic intestinal inflammation caused by hyperactivated effector immune cells that produce pro-inflammatory cytokines. Recent studies have shown that the cannabinoid system may play a critical role in mediating protection against intestinal inflammation. However, the effect of cannabinoid receptor induction after chronic colitis progression has not been investigated. Here, we investigate the effect of cannabinoid receptor-2 (CB2) agonist, JWH-133, after chronic colitis in IL-10{sup −/−} mice. JWH-133 effectively attenuated the overall clinical score, and reversed colitis-associated pathogenesis and decrease in body weight in IL-10{sup −/−} mice. After JWH-133 treatment, the percentage of CD4{sup +} T cells, neutrophils, mast cells, natural killer (NK1.1) cells, and activated T cells declined in the intestinal lamina propria (LP) and mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) of mice with chronic colitis. JWH-133 was also effective in ameliorating dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis. In this model, JWH-133 reduced the number and percentage of macrophages and IFN-γ expressing cells that were induced during colitis progression. Treatment with aminoalkylindole 6-iodo-pravadoline (AM630), a CB2 receptor antagonist, reversed the colitis protection provided by JWH-133 treatment. Also, activated T cells were found to undergo apoptosis following JWH-133 treatment both in-vivo and in-vitro. These findings suggest that JWH-133 mediates its effect through CB2 receptors, and ameliorates chronic colitis by inducing apoptosis in activated T cells, reducing the numbers of activated T cells, and suppressing induction of mast cells, NK cells, and neutrophils at sites of inflammation in the LP. These results support the idea that the CB2 receptor agonists may serve as a therapeutic modality against IBD. -- Highlights: ► JWH-133, a cannnabinoid receptor-2 agonist ameliorates experimental colitis. ► JWH-133 suppressed inflammation and

  18. Effects of medium-chain triglycerides on intestinal morphology and energy metabolism of intrauterine growth retarded weanling piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li-Li; Zhang, Hao; Li, Yue; Wang, Tian

    2017-06-01

    It has been shown that there is a relationship between intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) and postnatal intestinal damage involved in energy deficits. Therefore, the present study was conducted to investigate the effect of medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) on the intestinal morphology, intestinal function and energy metabolism of piglets with IUGR. At weaning (21 ± 1.1 d of age), 24 IUGR piglets and 24 normal birth weight (NBW) piglets were selected according to their birth weights (BW) (IUGR: 0.95 ± 0.04 kg BW; NBW: 1.58 ± 0.04 kg BW) and their weights at the time of weaning (IUGR: 5.26 ± 0.15 kg BW; NBW: 6.98 ± 0.19 kg BW). The piglets were fed a diet of either long-chain triglycerides (LCT) (containing 5% LCT) or MCT (containing 1% LCT and 4% MCT) for 28 d. Then, the piglets' intestinal morphology, biochemical parameters and mRNA abundance related to intestinal damage and energy metabolism were determined. IUGR was found to impair intestinal morphology, with evidence of decreased villus height and increased crypt depth; however, these negative effects of IUGR were ameliorated by MCT treatment. IUGR piglets showed compromised intestinal digestion and absorption functions when compared with NBW piglets. However, feeding MCT increased the maltase activity in the jejunum and alleviated IUGR-induced reductions in plasma d-xylose concentrations and jejunal sucrase activity. IUGR decreased the efficiency of the piglets' intestinal energy metabolism; however, piglets fed an MCT diet exhibited increased adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentrations and ATP synthase F1 complex beta polypeptide expression, as well as decreased adenosine monophosphate-activated kinase alpha 1 expression in the jejunum of piglets. In addition, up-regulation of the piglets' citrate synthase and succinate dehydrogenase levels was found to occur following MCT treatment at both the activity and the transcriptional levels of the jejunum. Therefore, it can be postulated that

  19. A gut microbiota-targeted dietary intervention for amelioration of chronic inflammation underlying metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Shuiming; Fei, Na; Pang, Xiaoyan; Shen, Jian; Wang, Linghua; Zhang, Baorang; Zhang, Menghui; Zhang, Xiaojun; Zhang, Chenhong; Li, Min; Sun, Lifeng; Xue, Zhengsheng; Wang, Jingjing; Feng, Jie; Yan, Feiyan; Zhao, Naisi; Liu, Jiaqi; Long, Wenmin; Zhao, Liping

    2014-02-01

    Chronic inflammation induced by endotoxin from a dysbiotic gut microbiota contributes to the development of obesity-related metabolic disorders. Modification of gut microbiota by a diet to balance its composition becomes a promising strategy to help manage obesity. A dietary scheme based on whole grains, traditional Chinese medicinal foods, and prebiotics (WTP diet) was designed to meet human nutritional needs as well as balance the gut microbiota. Ninety-three of 123 central obese volunteers (BMI ≥ 28 kg m(-2) ) completed a self-controlled clinical trial consisting of 9-week intervention on WTP diet followed by a 14-week maintenance period. The average weight loss reached 5.79 ± 4.64 kg (6.62 ± 4.94%), in addition to improvement in insulin sensitivity, lipid profiles, and blood pressure. Pyrosequencing of fecal samples showed that phylotypes related to endotoxin-producing opportunistic pathogens of Enterobacteriaceae and Desulfovibrionaceae were reduced significantly, while those related to gut barrier-protecting bacteria of Bifidobacteriaceae increased. Gut permeability, measured as lactulose/mannitol ratio, was decreased compared with the baseline. Plasma endotoxin load as lipopolysaccharide-binding protein was also significantly reduced, with concomitant decrease in tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, and an increase in adiponectin. These results suggest that modulation of the gut microbiota via dietary intervention may enhance the intestinal barrier integrity, reduce circulating antigen load, and ultimately ameliorate the inflammation and metabolic phenotypes. © 2013 The Authors. FEMS Microbiology Ecology pubished by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the Federation of European Microbiological Societies.

  20. Aronia Berry Extract Ameliorates the Severity of Dextran Sodium Sulfate-Induced Ulcerative Colitis in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sa-Haeng; Jeon, Yong-Deok; Moon, Kwang-Hyun; Lee, Jeong-Ho; Kim, Dae-Geun; Kim, Wook; Myung, Hyun; Kim, Jong-Sung; Kim, Hyun-Ju; Bang, Keuk-Soo; Jin, Jong-Sik

    2017-07-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease, including Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis (UC), is a group of inflammatory conditions of the colon and small intestine. UC is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the colon and rectum that includes intervals of acute exacerbation. Although recent studies have suggested that proinflammatory cytokines might have initiated the inflammatory responses in UC, its etiology remains unclear. Aronia berries are rich in dietary polyphenols such as phenolic acids, anthocyanins, flavonoids, and proanthocyanidins with various health benefits, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiaging activities. The objective of this study was to determine whether Aronia berry can be an effective intervention for the treatment of UC. BALB/c mice were administered 5% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) to induce UC. They were then given Aronia berry extracts at concentrations of 10 or 100 mg/kg. During the induction of UC, the expression levels of nuclear factor-kappa B were increased in colonic epithelial cells and immune cells, leading to increased proinflammatory cytokine levels. Aronia berry extract significantly improved the clinical signs of DSS-induced UC, including body weight loss, colon length shortening, and disease activity index increase, with histological markers of colon injury. Furthermore, oral administration of Aronia berry extract inhibited prostaglandin E 2 production in DSS-induced colitis and decreased the levels of nitric oxide, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages. These results suggest that Aronia berry extract could efficiently ameliorate clinical signs and inflammatory mediators of UC. Therefore, Aronia berry might be a promising natural treatment for UC.

  1. Epidermal Growth Factor and Intestinal Barrier Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaopeng Tang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidermal growth factor (EGF is a 53-amino acid peptide that plays an important role in regulating cell growth, survival, migration, apoptosis, proliferation, and differentiation. In addition, EGF has been established to be an effective intestinal regulator helping to protect intestinal barrier integrity, which was essential for the absorption of nutrients and health in humans and animals. Several researches have demonstrated that EGF via binding to the EGF receptor and subsequent activation of Ras/MAPK, PI3K/AKT, PLC-γ/PKC, and STATS signal pathways regulates intestinal barrier function. In this review, the relationship between epidermal growth factor and intestinal development and intestinal barrier is described, to provide a better understanding of the effects of EGF on intestine development and health.

  2. Intestinal epithelium in inflammatory bowel disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet eCoskun

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The intestinal epithelium has a strategic position as a protective physical barrier to luminal microbiota and actively contributes to the mucosal immune system. This barrier is mainly formed by a monolayer of specialized intestinal epithelial cells (IECs that are crucial in maintaining intestinal homeostasis. Therefore, dysregulation within the epithelial layer can increase intestinal permeability, lead to abnormalities in interactions between IECs and immune cells in underlying lamina propria, and disturb the intestinal immune homeostasis, all of which are linked to the clinical disease course of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. Understanding the role of the intestinal epithelium in IBD pathogenesis might contribute to an improved knowledge of the inflammatory processes and the identification of potential therapeutic targets.

  3. Cinnamon polyphenols regulate multiple metabolic pathways involved in intestinal lipid metabolism of primary small intestinal enterocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increasing evidence suggests that dietary factors may affect the expression of multiple genes and signaling pathways including those that regulate intestinal lipoprotein metabolism. The small intestine is actively involved in the regulation of dietary lipid absorption, intracellular transport and me...

  4. The effect of gastric inhibitory polypeptide on intestinal glucose absorption and intestinal motility in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, Eiichi [Department of Diabetes and Clinical Nutrition, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University (Japan); Hosokawa, Masaya [Department of Diabetes and Clinical Nutrition, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University (Japan); Faculty of Human Sciences, Tezukayama Gakuin University, Osaka (Japan); Harada, Norio; Yamane, Shunsuke; Hamasaki, Akihiro; Toyoda, Kentaro; Fujimoto, Shimpei; Fujita, Yoshihito; Fukuda, Kazuhito [Department of Diabetes and Clinical Nutrition, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University (Japan); Tsukiyama, Katsushi; Yamada, Yuichiro [Department of Diabetes and Clinical Nutrition, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University (Japan); Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Geriatric Medicine, Akita University School of Medicine, Akita (Japan); Seino, Yutaka [Department of Diabetes and Clinical Nutrition, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University (Japan); Kansai Electric Power Hospital, Osaka (Japan); Inagaki, Nobuya, E-mail: inagaki@metab.kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Diabetes and Clinical Nutrition, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University (Japan); CREST of Japan Science and Technology Cooperation (JST), Kyoto (Japan)

    2011-01-07

    Research highlights: {yields} Exogenous GIP inhibits intestinal motility through a somatostatin-mediated pathway. {yields} Exogenous GIP inhibits intestinal glucose absorption by reducing intestinal motility. {yields} The GIP-receptor-mediated action in intestine does not involve in GLP-1-mediated pathway. -- Abstract: Gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) is released from the small intestine upon meal ingestion and increases insulin secretion from pancreatic {beta} cells. Although the GIP receptor is known to be expressed in small intestine, the effects of GIP in small intestine are not fully understood. This study was designed to clarify the effect of GIP on intestinal glucose absorption and intestinal motility. Intestinal glucose absorption in vivo was measured by single-pass perfusion method. Incorporation of [{sup 14}C]-glucose into everted jejunal rings in vitro was used to evaluate the effect of GIP on sodium-glucose co-transporter (SGLT). Motility of small intestine was measured by intestinal transit after oral administration of a non-absorbed marker. Intraperitoneal administration of GIP inhibited glucose absorption in wild-type mice in a concentration-dependent manner, showing maximum decrease at the dosage of 50 nmol/kg body weight. In glucagon-like-peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor-deficient mice, GIP inhibited glucose absorption as in wild-type mice. In vitro examination of [{sup 14}C]-glucose uptake revealed that 100 nM GIP did not change SGLT-dependent glucose uptake in wild-type mice. After intraperitoneal administration of GIP (50 nmol/kg body weight), small intestinal transit was inhibited to 40% in both wild-type and GLP-1 receptor-deficient mice. Furthermore, a somatostatin receptor antagonist, cyclosomatostatin, reduced the inhibitory effect of GIP on both intestinal transit and glucose absorption in wild-type mice. These results demonstrate that exogenous GIP inhibits intestinal glucose absorption by reducing intestinal motility through a somatostatin

  5. The effect of gastric inhibitory polypeptide on intestinal glucose absorption and intestinal motility in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Eiichi; Hosokawa, Masaya; Harada, Norio; Yamane, Shunsuke; Hamasaki, Akihiro; Toyoda, Kentaro; Fujimoto, Shimpei; Fujita, Yoshihito; Fukuda, Kazuhito; Tsukiyama, Katsushi; Yamada, Yuichiro; Seino, Yutaka; Inagaki, Nobuya

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Exogenous GIP inhibits intestinal motility through a somatostatin-mediated pathway. → Exogenous GIP inhibits intestinal glucose absorption by reducing intestinal motility. → The GIP-receptor-mediated action in intestine does not involve in GLP-1-mediated pathway. -- Abstract: Gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) is released from the small intestine upon meal ingestion and increases insulin secretion from pancreatic β cells. Although the GIP receptor is known to be expressed in small intestine, the effects of GIP in small intestine are not fully understood. This study was designed to clarify the effect of GIP on intestinal glucose absorption and intestinal motility. Intestinal glucose absorption in vivo was measured by single-pass perfusion method. Incorporation of [ 14 C]-glucose into everted jejunal rings in vitro was used to evaluate the effect of GIP on sodium-glucose co-transporter (SGLT). Motility of small intestine was measured by intestinal transit after oral administration of a non-absorbed marker. Intraperitoneal administration of GIP inhibited glucose absorption in wild-type mice in a concentration-dependent manner, showing maximum decrease at the dosage of 50 nmol/kg body weight. In glucagon-like-peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor-deficient mice, GIP inhibited glucose absorption as in wild-type mice. In vitro examination of [ 14 C]-glucose uptake revealed that 100 nM GIP did not change SGLT-dependent glucose uptake in wild-type mice. After intraperitoneal administration of GIP (50 nmol/kg body weight), small intestinal transit was inhibited to 40% in both wild-type and GLP-1 receptor-deficient mice. Furthermore, a somatostatin receptor antagonist, cyclosomatostatin, reduced the inhibitory effect of GIP on both intestinal transit and glucose absorption in wild-type mice. These results demonstrate that exogenous GIP inhibits intestinal glucose absorption by reducing intestinal motility through a somatostatin-mediated pathway rather

  6. Differentiated thyroid carcinoma and intestinal polyposis syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triggiani, Vincenzo; Angelo Giagulli, Vito; Tafaro, Angela; Resta, Francesco; Sabba, Carlo; Licchelli, Brunella; Guastamacchia, Edoardo

    2012-12-01

    Familial Adenomatous Polyposis, Cowden's Syndrome, and Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome are well known as Intestinal Polyposis Syndromes, inherited conditions characterized by the development of polyps of the gastro-intestinal tract in association with extra-intestinal manifestations, in particular malignant tumors at different sites. Thyroid carcinoma is sometimes a part of the clinical picture of these syndromes. The aim of this paper is to review the literature dealing with the association between differentiated thyroid carcinomas and Intestinal Polyposis Syndromes in order to point out peculiar aspects, providing suggestions for the screening and the management of thyroid tumors in these patients.

  7. Sonographic diagnosis of intestinal polyps in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, Dimitri A; Navarro, Oscar M

    2008-06-01

    Although colonoscopy is the modality of choice for the diagnosis of intestinal polyps, sonography may be the first diagnostic modality in the evaluation of children with this pathology. Graded compression sonography of the small and large bowel may be useful in diagnosing intestinal polyps. A specific diagnosis is possible in many cases as most polyps have a characteristic appearance. Although sonography is not intended to replace endoscopy in the diagnostic work-up of intestinal polyps, it is important for radiologists to be aware of this appearance as they can be the first in making the diagnosis of intestinal polyps using sonography.

  8. Intestinal absorption of fluorescently labeled nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simovic, Spomenka; Song, Yunmei; Nann, Thomas; Desai, Tejal A

    2015-07-01

    Characterization of intestinal absorption of nanoparticles is critical in the design of noninvasive anticancer, protein-based, and gene nanoparticle-based therapeutics. Here we demonstrate a general approach for the characterization of the intestinal absorption of nanoparticles and for understanding the mechanisms active in their processing within healthy intestinal cells. It is generally accepted that the cellular processing represents a major drawback of current nanoparticle-based therapeutic systems. In particular, endolysosomal trafficking causes degradation of therapeutic molecules such as proteins, lipids, acid-sensitive anticancer drugs, and genes. To date, investigations into nanoparticle processing within intestinal cells have studied mass transport through Caco-2 cells or everted rat intestinal sac models. We developed an approach to visualize directly the mechanisms of nanoparticle processing within intestinal tissue. These results clearly identify a mechanism by which healthy intestinal cells process nanoparticles and point to the possible use of this approach in the design of noninvasive nanoparticle-based therapies. Advances in nanomedicine have resulted in the development of new therapies for various diseases. Intestinal route of administration remains the easiest and most natural. The authors here designed experiments to explore and characterize the process of nanoparticle transport across the intestinal tissue. In so doing, further insights were gained for future drug design. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Bile acids in regulation of intestinal physiology.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Keating, Niamh

    2009-10-01

    In addition to their roles in facilitating lipid digestion and absorption, bile acids are recognized as important regulators of intestinal function. Exposure to bile acids can dramatically influence intestinal transport and barrier properties; in recent years, they have also become appreciated as important factors in regulating cell growth and survival. Indeed, few cells reside within the intestinal mucosa that are not altered to some degree by exposure to bile acids. The past decade saw great advances in the knowledge of how bile acids exert their actions at the cellular and molecular levels. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of the role of bile acids in regulation of intestinal physiology.

  10. Intestinal myiasis caused by Muscina stabulans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivekar S

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal maggots were isolated from a patient, who had reported to the Department of General Medicine of Sri Manakula Vinayagar Medical College, Puducherry, in southern India with complaints of abdominal distress, bloating of abdomen and intestinal hurry following a meal. He was diagnosed as a case of intestinal myiasis. Maggots obtained from his stool were identified to be Muscina stabulans based on characteristic patterns of posterior spiracles. He was treated with purgatives and albendazole. This intestinal myiasis case caused by M. stabulans is reported here because of its rare occurrence and the need to establish a correct diagnosis.

  11. Ischemia-reperfusion and neonatal intestinal injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Christopher M; Kingma, Sandra D K; Neu, Josef

    2011-02-01

    We review research relating ischemia/reperfusion to injury in the neonatal intestine. Epidemiologic evidence suggests that the most common form of necrotizing enterocolitis is not triggered by a primary hypoxic-ischemic event. Its late occurrence, lack of preceding ischemic events, and evidence for microbial and inflammatory processes preclude a major role for primary hypoxic ischemia as the sentinel pathogenic event. However, term infants, especially those with congenital heart disease who have development of intestinal necrosis, and those preterm infants with spontaneous intestinal perforations, are more likely to have intestinal ischemia as a primary component of their disease pathogenesis. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of digested onion extracts on intestinal gene expression: an interspecies comparison using different intestine models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulst, M.M.; Meulen, van der J.; Hoekman, A.J.W.; Smits, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    Applicability of in vitro (human Caco-2 cells) and ex vivo intestine models (rat precision cut intestine slices and the pig in-situ small intestinal segment perfusion (SISP) technique) to study the effect of food compounds. In vitro digested yellow (YOd) and white onion extracts (WOd) were used as

  13. Intestinal Microbiota Signatures Associated With Histological Liver Steatosis in Pediatric-Onset Intestinal Failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korpela, K.; Mutanen, A.; Salonen, A.; Savilahti, E.; Vos, de W.M.; Pakarinen, M.P.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Intestinal failure (IF)-associated liver disease (IFALD) is the major cause of mortality in IF. The link between intestinal microbiota and IFALD is unclear. METHODS: We compared intestinal microbiota of patients with IF (n = 23) with healthy controls (n = 58) using culture-independent

  14. Inflammatory mediators and intestinal injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, M S; MacKendrick, W

    1994-06-01

    Although the causes of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) are not well understood, there is compelling evidence to suggest that the inflammatory mediators play an important role in the pathophysiology of the disease. This article examines the role of platelet-activating factor (PAF) and other mediators on the development of NEC, and attempts to explain the association of the putative NEC risk factors with altered mediator production and subsequent intestinal injury. The authors hypothesize that PAF is a key mediator in the final common pathway leading to NEC.

  15. Intestinal Lymphangiectasia Secondary to Neuroblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RM Reifen

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available An eight month-old infant presented with a 10-day history of vomiting and diarrhea, and a one-week history of swelling of the lower extremities. Laboratory evaluations revealed hypoproteinemia and lymphocytopenia due to protein-losing enteropathy. Peroral small bowel biopsy showed intestinal lymphangiectasia. Subsequent onset of unexplained ecchymosis and obstructive jaundice resulted in additional studies which revealed an omental neuroblastoma as the underlying etiology of the infant’s symptoms. This report emphasizes the importance of considering secondary, obstructive causes for lymphangiectasia and protein-losing enteropathy.

  16. A note on inventory model for ameliorating items with time dependent second order demand rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gobinda Chandra Panda

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: This paper is concerned with the development of ameliorating inventory models. The ameliorating inventory is the inventory of goods whose utility increases over the time by ameliorating activation. Material and Methods: This study is performed according to two areas: one is an economic order quantity (EOQ model for the items whose utility is ameliorating in accordance with Weibull distribution, and the other is a partial selling quantity (PSQ model developed for selling the surplus inventory accumulated by ameliorating activation with linear demand. The aim of this paper was to develop a mathematical model for inventory type concerned in the paper. Numerical examples were presented show the effect of ameliorating rate on inventory polices.  Results and Conclusions:  The inventory model for items with Weibull ameliorating is developed. For the case of small ameliorating rate (less than linear demand rate, EOQ model is developed, and for the case where ameliorating rate is greater than linear demand rate, PSQ model is developed.  .  

  17. Prematurity reduces functional adaptation to intestinal resection in piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aunsholt, Lise; Thymann, Thomas; Qvist, Niels

    2015-01-01

    Background: Necrotizing enterocolitis and congenital gastrointestinal malformations in infants often require intestinal resection, with a subsequent risk of short bowel syndrome (SBS). We hypothesized that immediate intestinal adaptation following resection of the distal intestine with placement ...

  18. The Adaptive Response to Intestinal Oxidative Stress in Mammalian Hibernation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carey, Hannah V

    2006-01-01

    .... Specific Aim 2 examines consequences of intestinal oxidative stress during hibernation including seasonal changes in NF-kB activation in intestine, seasonal changes in the intestinal mucosal immune...

  19. The effect of ulinastatin on the small intestine injury and mast cell degranulation in a rat model of sepsis induced by CLP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi-Jing; Li, Ming; Meng, Mei; Feng, Mei; Qin, Cheng-Yong

    2009-09-01

    Sepsis could be initiated by the gastrointestinal tract injury and subsequent bacterial translocation. In the present experiment, we aimed to investigate effect of ulinastatin (UTI) on the small intestinal injury and bacterial translocation in septic rats and role of mast cells degranulation in its action. Fifty-four male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups: sham laparatomy, cecal ligation and puncture (CLP), and CLP plus UTI. CLP was used to develop septic rat model and UTI was administered to rats intraperitoneally (50,000 U/kg) 30 min prior to CLP operation. After CLP or sham operation, variable parameters were investigated in three subsets of animals. One subset was used for measurements of nitrite and nitrate (NO(x)) concentration in plasma at 1, 6, 12, 18, and 24h and levels of NO(x) and iNOS mRNA in the small intestine, RMCP-II released into the small intestinal lumen, bacterial translocation and morphologic changes at 24h. The other subsets were used for the small intestinal motility and microvascular in vivo at 24h. Bacterial translocation, barrier injury, impaired motility and blood flow, mast cells degranulation of the small intestine in the CLP group were found more severe than that in the sham group. Elevated RMCP-II, NO(x), and iNOS mRNA levels were also detected in the CLP group. Application of UTI not only protected the small intestine from sepsis but also diminished changes of intestinal mast cells. UTI can significantly ameliorate the small intestinal injury and subsequent bacterial translocation by inhibiting mast cells degranulation in septic rats.

  20. Colitis promotes adaptation of an intestinal nematode: a Heligmosomoides polygyrus mouse model system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Donskow-Łysoniewska

    Full Text Available The precise mechanism of the very effective therapeutic effect of gastrointestinal nematodes on some autoimmune diseases is not clearly understood and is currently being intensively investigated. Treatment with living helminths has been initiated to reverse intestinal immune-mediated diseases in humans. However, little attention has been paid to the phenotype of nematodes in the IBD-affected gut and the consequences of nematode adaptation. In the present study, exposure of Heligmosomoides polygyrus larvae to the changed cytokine milieu of the intestine during colitis reduced inflammation in an experimental model of dextran sulphate sodium (DSS- induced colitis, but increased nematode establishment in the moderate-responder BALB/c mouse strain. We used mass spectrometry in combination with two-dimensional Western blotting to determine changes in protein expression and changes in nematode antigens recognized by IgG1 in mice with colitis. We show that nematode larvae immunogenicity is changed by colitis as soon as 6 days post-infection; IgG1 did not recognize highly conserved proteins Lev-11 (isoform 1 of tropomyosin α1 chain, actin-4 isoform or FTT-2 isoform a (14-3-3 family protein. These results indicate that changes in the small intestine provoked by colitis directly influence the nematode proteome. The unrecognized proteins seem to be key antigenic epitopes able to induce protective immune responses. The proteome changes were associated with weak immune recognition and increased larval adaptation and worm growth, altered localization in the intestine and increased survival of males but reduced worm fecundity. In this report, the mechanisms influencing nematode survival and the consequences of changed immunogenicity that reflect the immune response at the site colonized by the parasite in mice with colitis are described. The results are relevant to the use of live parasites to ameliorate IBD.

  1. Effects of the Probiotic Enterococcus faecium and Pathogenic Escherichia coli Strains in a Pig and Human Epithelial Intestinal Cell Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Lodemann

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study has been to elucidate the effect of the probiotic Enterococcus faecium NCIMB 10415 on epithelial integrity in intestinal epithelial cells and whether pre- and coincubation with this strain can reproducibly prevent damage induced by enterotoxigenic (ETEC and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC. Porcine (IPEC-J2 and human (Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cells were incubated with bacterial strains and epithelial integrity was assessed by measuring transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER and mannitol flux rates. E. faecium alone increased TEER of Caco-2 cells without affecting mannitol fluxes whereas the E. coli strains decreased TEER and concomitantly increased mannitol flux rates in both cell lines. Preincubation with E. faecium had no effect on the TEER decrease induced by E. coli in preliminary experiments. However, in a second set of experiments using a slightly different protocol, E. faecium ameliorated the TEER decrease induced by ETEC at 4 h in IPEC-J2 and at 2, 4, and 6 h in Caco-2 cells. We conclude that E. faecium positively affected epithelial integrity in monoinfected Caco-2 cells and could ameliorate the damage on TEER induced by an ETEC strain. Reproducibility of the results is, however, limited when experiments are performed with living bacteria over longer periods.

  2. Lymphoma Caused by Intestinal Microbiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsuko L. Yamamoto

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The intestinal microbiota and gut immune system must constantly communicate to maintain a balance between tolerance and activation: on the one hand, our immune system should protect us from pathogenic microbes and on the other hand, most of the millions of microbes in and on our body are innocuous symbionts and some can even be beneficial. Since there is such a close interaction between the immune system and the intestinal microbiota, it is not surprising that some lymphomas such as mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma have been shown to be caused by the presence of certain bacteria. Animal models played an important role in establishing causation and mechanism of bacteria-induced MALT lymphoma. In this review we discuss different ways that animal models have been applied to establish a link between the gut microbiota and lymphoma and how animal models have helped to elucidate mechanisms of microbiota-induced lymphoma. While there are not a plethora of studies demonstrating a connection between microbiota and lymphoma development, we believe that animal models are a system which can be exploited in the future to enhance our understanding of causation and improve prognosis and treatment of lymphoma.

  3. Intestinal histoplasmosis in immunocompetent adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lin-Lin; Wang, Jin; Wang, Zi-Jing; Wang, Yi-Ping; Yang, Jin-Lin

    2016-04-21

    To present a retrospective analysis of clinical and endoscopic features of 4 cases of immunocompetent hosts with intestinal histoplasmosis (IH). Four immunocompetent adults were diagnosed with IH between October 2005 and March 2015 at West China Hospital of Sichuan University. Clinical and endoscopic characteristics were summarized and analyzed retrospectively. GMS (Gomori methenamine silver), PAS (periodic acid-Schiff) and Giemsa staining technique were used to confirm Histoplasma capsulatum(H. capsulatum). The symptoms, signs, endoscopic presentations, radiographic imaging, pathological stain results and follow-up are presented as tables and illustrations. The cases were male patients, ranging from 33 to 61 years old, and primarily presented with non-specific symptoms such as irregular fever, weight loss, abdominal pain and distention. Hepatosplenomegaly and lymphadenopathy were the most common signs. Endoscopic manifestations were localized or diffuse congestion, edema, ulcers, and polypoid nodules with central erosion involving the terminal ileum, ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon and rectum, similar to intestinal tuberculosis, tumor, and inflammatory bowel disease. Numerous yeast-like pathogens testing positive for PAS and GMS stains but negative for Giemsa were detected in the cytoplasm of the histiocytes, which were highly suggestive of H. capsulatum. Immunocompetent individuals suffering from histoplasmosis are rarely reported. It is necessary that gastroenterologists and endoscopists consider histoplasmosis as a differential diagnosis, even in immunocompetent patients.

  4. Megacystis microcolon intestinal hypoperistalsis syndrome: a report ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prognosis is poor and most patients die early because of sepsis or total parental nutrition-related complications. This report describes a new case of megacystis microcolon intestinal hypoperistalsis syndrome associated with meconium ileus, dilated stomach, and megaesophagus. Keywords: intestinal hypoperistalsis ...

  5. Intestinal cholesterol secretion: future clinical implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jakulj, L.; Besseling, J.; Stroes, E. S. G.; Groen, A. K.

    2013-01-01

    Together with the liver, the intestine serves as a homeostatic organ in cholesterol metabolism. Recent evidence has substantiated the pivotal role of the intestine in reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). RCT is a fundamental antiatherogenic pathway, mediating the removal of cholesterol from tissues

  6. Intestinal cholesterol secretion : future clinical implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jakulj, L.; Besseling, J.; Stroes, E. S. G.; Groen, A. K.

    2013-01-01

    Together with the liver, the intestine serves as a homeostatic organ in cholesterol metabolism. Recent evidence has substantiated the pivotal role of the intestine in reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). RCT is a fundamental antiatherogenic pathway, mediating the removal of cholesterol from tissues

  7. Alkaline Phosphatases From Camel Small Intestine | Fahmy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Camel intestinal alkaline phosphatase have been purified and characterized. The purification was carried out by chromatography on DEAE-cellulose. Five intestinal alkaline phosphatase isoenzymes (IAP1 to IAP5) were obtained. IAP2 and IAP5 with the highest activity levels were purified to homogeneity by Sephacryl ...

  8. Megacystis microcolon intestinal hypoperistalsis syndrome: a report ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    intestinal peristalsis. The prognosis is poor and most patients die early because of sepsis or total parental nutrition-related complications. This report describes a new case of megacystis microcolon intestinal hypoperistalsis syndrome associated with meconium ileus, dilated stomach, and megaesophagus. Ann Pediatr Surg.

  9. Is nonoperative management of adhesive intestinal obstruction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Nonoperative management of adhesive intestinal obstruction gives good results in adults but there are scant studies on its outcome in children. This study reports outcomes and experiences with nonoperative and operative management of adhesive intestinal obstruction in children in a resource-poor country.

  10. Laparoscopic Treatment of Intestinal Malrotation in Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ooms, N.; Matthyssens, L.E.; Draaisma, J.M.T.; Blaauw, I. de; Wijnen, M.H.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Intestinal malrotation is a congenital intestinal rotation anomaly, which can be treated by either laparotomy or laparoscopy. Our hypothesis is that laparoscopic treatment leads to less small bowel obstruction because of the fewer adhesions in comparison to laparotomy, without increasing the

  11. Species and prevalence determination of Human Intestinal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intestinal parasitic infections constitute a global health burden causing clinical morbidity. Parasitic protozoa and helminthes are responsible for some of the most devastating and prevalent diseases of human. The study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites among patients attending Federal ...

  12. Ectoparasites and intestinal helminths of speckled pigeon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ectoparasites and intestinal helminths of speckled pigeon ( Columba guinea Hartlaub and Finsch 1870) in Zaria, Nigeria. ... Science World Journal ... A total of 30 (20 males and 10 females) Speckled Pigeons trapped from the wild in Zaria and its environs, Nigeria, were examined for ectoparasites and intestinal helminths, ...

  13. Species and prevalence determination of Human Intestinal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    ABSTRACT: Intestinal parasitic infections constitute a global health burden causing clinical morbidity. Parasitic protozoa and helminthes are responsible for some of the most devastating and prevalent diseases of human. The study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites among patients attending ...

  14. Intestinal radiation syndrome: sepsis and endotoxin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geraci, J.P.; Jackson, K.L.; Mariano, M.S.

    1985-01-01

    Rats were whole-body irradiated with 8-MeV cyclotron-produced neutrons and 137 Cs γ rays to study the role of enteric bacteria and endotoxin in the intestinal radiation syndrome. Decrease in intestinal weight was used as an index of radiation-induced breakdown of the mucosa. Neutron and γ-ray doses that were sublethal for intestinal death resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in intestinal weight, reaching minimal values 2 to 3 days after exposure, followed by recovery within 5 days after irradiation. Neutron and photon doses that caused intestinal death resulted in greater mucosal breakdown with little or no evidence of mucosal recovery. The presence of fluid in the intestine and diarrhea, but not bacteremia or endotoxemia, were related to mucosal breakdown and recovery. Neither sepsis nor endotoxin could be detected in liver samples taken at autopsy from animals which died a short time earlier from intestinal injury. These results suggest that overt sepsis and endotoxemia do not play a significant role in the intestinal radiation syndrome

  15. Regulation of intestinal calcium absorption by luminal calcium content: role of intestinal alkaline phosphatase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brun, Lucas R; Brance, María L; Lombarte, Mercedes; Lupo, Maela; Di Loreto, Verónica E; Rigalli, Alfredo

    2014-07-01

    Intestinal alkaline phosphatase is a brush border enzyme that is stimulated by calcium. Inhibition of intestinal alkaline phosphatase increases intestinal calcium absorption. We hypothesized that intestinal alkaline phosphatase acts as a minute-to-minute regulatory mechanism of calcium entry. The aim of this study was to evaluate the mechanism by which intestinal luminal calcium controls intestinal calcium absorption. We performed kinetic studies with purified intestinal alkaline phosphatase and everted duodenal sacs and showed that intestinal alkaline phosphatase modifies the luminal pH as a function of enzyme concentration and calcium luminal content. A decrease in pH occurred simultaneously with a decrease in calcium absorption. The inhibition of intestinal alkaline phosphatase by l-phenylalanine caused an increase in calcium absorption. This effect was also confirmed in calcium uptake experiments with isolated duodenal cells. Changes in luminal pH arising from intestinal alkaline phosphatase activity induced by luminal calcium concentration modulate intestinal calcium absorption. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Incremental Beliefs About Ability Ameliorate Self-Doubt Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Zhao

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Past research has typically shown negative effects of self-doubt on performance and psychological well-being. We suggest that these self-doubt effects largely may be due to an underlying assumption that ability is innate and fixed. The present research investigated the main hypothesis that incremental beliefs about ability might ameliorate negative effects of self-doubt. We examined our hypotheses using two lab tasks: verbal reasoning and anagram tasks. Participants’ self-doubt was measured and beliefs about ability were measured after participants read articles advocating either for incremental or entity theories of ability. American College Testing (ACT scores were obtained to index actual ability level. Consistent with our hypothesis, for participants who believed ability was relatively fixed, higher self-doubt was associated with increased negative affect and lower task performance and engagement. In contrast, for participants who believed that ability was malleable, negative self-doubt effects were ameliorated; self-doubt was even associated with better task performance. These effects were further moderated by participants’ academic ability. These findings suggest that mind-sets about ability moderate self-doubt effects. Self-doubt may have negative effects only when it is interpreted as signaling that ability is immutably low.

  17. Guanfacine ameliorates hypobaric hypoxia induced spatial working memory deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauser, H; Sahu, S; Kumar, S; Panjwani, U

    2014-01-17

    Hypobaric hypoxia (HH) observed at high altitude causes mild cognitive impairment specifically affecting attention and working memory. Adrenergic dysregulation and neuronal damage in prefrontal cortex (PFC) has been implicated in hypoxia induced memory deficits. Optimal stimulation of alpha 2A adrenergic receptor in PFC facilitates the spatial working memory (SWM) under the conditions of adrenergic dysregulation. Therefore the present study was designed to test the efficacy of alpha 2A adrenergic agonist, Guanfacine (GFC), to restore HH induced SWM deficits and PFC neuronal damage. The rats were exposed to chronic HH equivalent to 25,000ft for 7days in an animal decompression chamber and received daily treatment of GFC at a dose of 1mg/kg body weight via the intramuscular route during the period of exposure. The cognitive performance was assessed by Delayed Alternation Task (DAT) using T-Maze and PFC neuronal damage was studied by apoptotic and neurodegenerative markers. Percentage of correct choice decreased significantly while perseverative errors showed a significant increase after 7days HH exposure, GFC significantly ameliorated the SWM deficits and perseveration. There was a marked and significant increase in chromatin condensation, DNA fragmentation, neuronal pyknosis and fluoro Jade positive cells in layer II of the medial PFC in hypoxia exposed group, administration of GFC significantly reduced the magnitude of these changes. Modulation of adrenergic mechanisms by GFC may serve as an effective countermeasure in amelioration of prefrontal deficits and neurodegenerative changes during HH. © 2013.

  18. Phytoceramide Shows Neuroprotection and Ameliorates Scopolamine-Induced Memory Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seikwan Oh

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The function and the role phytoceramide (PCER and phytosphingosine (PSO in the central nervous system has not been well studied. This study was aimed at investigating the possible roles of PCER and PSO in glutamate-induced neurotoxicity in cultured neuronal cells and memory function in mice. Phytoceramide showed neuro-protective activity in the glutamate-induced toxicity in cultured cortical neuronal cells. Neither phytosphingosine nor tetraacetylphytosphingosine (TAPS showed neuroproective effects in neuronal cells. PCER (50 mg/kg, p.o. recovered the scopolamine-induced reduction in step-through latency in the passive avoidance test; however, PSO did not modulate memory function on this task. The ameliorating effects of PCER on spatial memory were confirmed by the Morris water maze test. In conclusion, through behavioral and neurochemical experimental results, it was demonstrated that central administration of PCER produces amelioration of memory impairment. These results suggest that PCER plays an important role in neuroprotection and memory enhancement and PCER could be a potential new therapeutic agent for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease.

  19. Phytoceramide shows neuroprotection and ameliorates scopolamine-induced memory impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jae-Chul; Lee, Yeonju; Moon, Sohyeon; Ryu, Jong Hoon; Oh, Seikwan

    2011-10-28

    The function and the role phytoceramide (PCER) and phytosphingosine (PSO) in the central nervous system has not been well studied. This study was aimed at investigating the possible roles of PCER and PSO in glutamate-induced neurotoxicity in cultured neuronal cells and memory function in mice. Phytoceramide showed neuro-protective activity in the glutamate-induced toxicity in cultured cortical neuronal cells. Neither phytosphingosine nor tetraacetylphytosphingosine (TAPS) showed neuroproective effects in neuronal cells. PCER (50 mg/kg, p.o.) recovered the scopolamine-induced reduction in step-through latency in the passive avoidance test; however, PSO did not modulate memory function on this task. The ameliorating effects of PCER on spatial memory were confirmed by the Morris water maze test. In conclusion, through behavioral and neurochemical experimental results, it was demonstrated that central administration of PCER produces amelioration of memory impairment. These results suggest that PCER plays an important role in neuroprotection and memory enhancement and PCER could be a potential new therapeutic agent for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease.

  20. Arginase Inhibition Ameliorates Hepatic Metabolic Abnormalities in Obese Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Jiyoung; Do, Hyun Ju; Cho, Yoonsu; Shin, Min-Jeong

    2014-01-01

    Objectives We examined whether arginase inhibition influences hepatic metabolic pathways and whole body adiposity in diet-induced obesity. Methods and Results After obesity induction by a high fat diet (HFD), mice were fed either the HFD or the HFD with an arginase inhibitor, Nω-hydroxy-nor-L-arginine (nor-NOHA). Nor-NOHA significantly prevented HFD-induced increases in body, liver, and visceral fat tissue weight, and ameliorated abnormal lipid profiles. Furthermore, nor-NOHA treatment reduced lipid accumulation in oleic acid-induced hepatic steatosis in vitro. Arginase inhibition increased hepatic nitric oxide (NO) in HFD-fed mice and HepG2 cells, and reversed the elevated mRNA expression of hepatic genes in lipid metabolism. Expression of phosphorylated 5′ AMPK-activated protein kinase α was increased by arginase inhibition in the mouse livers and HepG2 cells. Conclusions Arginase inhibition ameliorated obesity-induced hepatic lipid abnormalities and whole body adiposity, possibly as a result of increased hepatic NO production and subsequent activation of metabolic pathways involved in hepatic triglyceride metabolism and mitochondrial function. PMID:25057910

  1. Gemigliptin ameliorates Western-diet-induced metabolic syndrome in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seung Hee; Leem, Jaechan; Park, Sungmi; Lee, Chong-Kee; Park, Keun-Gyu; Lee, In-Kyu

    2017-02-01

    Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitors are widely used antihyperglycemic agents for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Recently, increasing attention has been focused on the pleiotropic actions of DPP-4 inhibitors. The aim of the present study was to examine whether gemigliptin, a recently developed DPP-4 inhibitor, could ameliorate features of metabolic syndrome. Mice were fed a Western diet (WD) for 12 weeks and were subsequently divided into 2 groups: mice fed a WD diet alone or mice fed a WD diet supplemented with gemigliptin for an additional 4 weeks. Gemigliptin treatment attenuated WD-induced body mass gain, hypercholesterolemia, adipocyte hypertrophy, and macrophage infiltration into adipose tissue, which were accompanied by an increased expression of uncoupling protein 1 in subcutaneous fat. These events contributed to improved insulin sensitivity, as assessed by the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance and intraperitoneal insulin tolerance test. Furthermore, gemigliptin reduced WD-induced hepatic triglyceride accumulation via inhibition of de novo lipogenesis and activation of fatty acid oxidation, which was accompanied by AMP-dependent protein kinase activation. Gemigliptin ameliorated WD-induced hepatic inflammation and fibrosis through suppression of oxidative stress. These results suggest that DPP-4 inhibitors may represent promising therapeutic agents for metabolic syndrome beyond their current role as antihyperglycemic agents.

  2. Naltrexone ameliorates functional network abnormalities in alcohol‐dependent individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Kwangyeol; Tait, Roger; Elliott, Rebecca; Ersche, Karen D.; Flechais, Remy; McGonigle, John; Murphy, Anna; Nestor, Liam J.; Orban, Csaba; Passetti, Filippo; Paterson, Louise M.; Rabiner, Ilan; Reed, Laurence; Smith, Dana; Suckling, John; Taylor, Eleanor M.; Bullmore, Edward T.; Lingford‐Hughes, Anne R.; Deakin, Bill; Nutt, David J.; Sahakian, Barbara J.; Robbins, Trevor W.; Voon, Valerie

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Naltrexone, an opioid receptor antagonist, is commonly used as a relapse prevention medication in alcohol and opiate addiction, but its efficacy and the mechanisms underpinning its clinical usefulness are not well characterized. In the current study, we examined the effects of 50‐mg naltrexone compared with placebo on neural network changes associated with substance dependence in 21 alcohol and 36 poly‐drug‐dependent individuals compared with 36 healthy volunteers. Graph theoretic and network‐based statistical analysis of resting‐state functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data revealed that alcohol‐dependent subjects had reduced functional connectivity of a dispersed network compared with both poly‐drug‐dependent and healthy subjects. Higher local efficiency was observed in both patient groups, indicating clustered and segregated network topology and information processing. Naltrexone normalized heightened local efficiency of the neural network in alcohol‐dependent individuals, to the same levels as healthy volunteers. Naltrexone failed to have an effect on the local efficiency in abstinent poly‐substance‐dependent individuals. Across groups, local efficiency was associated with substance, but no alcohol exposure implicating local efficiency as a potential premorbid risk factor in alcohol use disorders that can be ameliorated by naltrexone. These findings suggest one possible mechanism for the clinical effects of naltrexone, namely, the amelioration of disrupted network topology. PMID:28247526

  3. Relationship between intestinal microflora imbalance and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA Ruijuan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The intestinal microecosystem is composed of natural microflora, intestinal epithelial cells, and intestinal mucosal immune system. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is a metabolic stress-induced liver injury associated with insulin resistance and genetic susceptibility. In recent years, there has been increasing evidence showing the involvement of imbalanced intestinal microflora in the pathogenesis of NAFLD. Overgrowth of intestinal microflora, increased permeability of intestinal mucosa, intestinal endotoxemia, and production of inflammatory cytokines play important roles in the development of NAFLD. Further studies on the relationship between intestinal microflora imbalance and the pathogenesis of NAFLD may shed light on the treatment and prevention of NAFLD.

  4. Gallstone ileus resulting in strong intestinal obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel Szajnbok

    Full Text Available Mechanic intestinal obstruction, caused by the passage of biliary calculus from vesicle to intestine, through fistulization, although not frequent, deserve study due to the morbi-mortality rates. Incidence in elder people explains the association with chronic degenerative diseases, increasing complexity in terms of therapy decision. Literature discusses the need and opportunity for the one or two-phase surgical attack of the cholecystenteric fistule, in front of the resolution on the obstructive urgency and makes reference to Gallstone Ileus as an exception for strong intestinal obstruction. The more frequent intestinal obstruction observed is when it occurs a Gallstone Ileus impacting in terms of ileocecal valve. The authors submit a Gallstone Ileus manifestation as causing strong intestinal obstruction, discussing aspects regarding diagnostic and treatment.

  5. Multispectral tissue characterization for intestinal anastomosis optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Jaepyeong; Shademan, Azad; Le, Hanh N. D.; Decker, Ryan; Kim, Peter C. W.; Kang, Jin U.; Krieger, Axel

    2015-10-01

    Intestinal anastomosis is a surgical procedure that restores bowel continuity after surgical resection to treat intestinal malignancy, inflammation, or obstruction. Despite the routine nature of intestinal anastomosis procedures, the rate of complications is high. Standard visual inspection cannot distinguish the tissue subsurface and small changes in spectral characteristics of the tissue, so existing tissue anastomosis techniques that rely on human vision to guide suturing could lead to problems such as bleeding and leakage from suturing sites. We present a proof-of-concept study using a portable multispectral imaging (MSI) platform for tissue characterization and preoperative surgical planning in intestinal anastomosis. The platform is composed of a fiber ring light-guided MSI system coupled with polarizers and image analysis software. The system is tested on ex vivo porcine intestine tissue, and we demonstrate the feasibility of identifying optimal regions for suture placement.

  6. ACUTE INTESTINAL INFECTIONS: THERAPEUTICAL TACTICS IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.N. Surkov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute intestinal infections are quite common among children. Their clinical presentations include intoxication syndrome (drowsiness, low appetite, fever etc, infectious toxic syndrome (toxicosis with exicosis, neurotoxicosi, hypovolemic or infectious-toxic shockand diarrhea syndrome. Sometimes intestinal infections can be quite severe and even lethal. However disease duration and outcome depend on timelines and adequacy of prescribed treatment. Main guidelines of intestinal infections treatment include probiotics. That is why the right choice of probiotics is important for a pediatrician. The article contains basic information upon etiopathogenesis, classification, diagnostic criteria and acute pediatric intestinal infections treatment guidelines.Key words: acute intestinal infections, etiopathogenesis, diagnostic criteria, treatment, probiotics, children. (Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. — 2011; 10 (6: 141–147

  7. Regional specialization within the intestinal immune system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mowat, Allan M.; Agace, William Winston

    2014-01-01

    The intestine represents the largest compartment of the immune system. It is continually exposed to antigens and immunomodulatory agents from the diet and the commensal microbiota, and it is the port of entry for many clinically important pathogens. Intestinal immune processes are also increasingly...... implicated in controlling disease development elsewhere in the body. In this Review, we detail the anatomical and physiological distinctions that are observed in the small and large intestines, and we suggest how these may account for the diversity in the immune apparatus that is seen throughout...... the intestine. We describe how the distribution of innate, adaptive and innate-like immune cells varies in different segments of the intestine and discuss the environmental factors that may influence this. Finally, we consider the implications of regional immune specialization for inflammatory disease...

  8. [Neovagina with intestine: 13 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parente, A; Molina, E; Cerdá, J; Cañizo, A; Rodriguez, A; Laín, A; Fanjul, M; Vázquez, J

    2008-01-01

    The absence or hipoplasia vaginal can turn out to be isolated, associated with ambiguous genitalia, or as anatomical variant in a syndrome of sewer. The fundamental aim in the creation of a new vagina is: to obtain a good aesthetic result, to fulfil functional criteria (elasticity, sensibility, physiological inclination) and to improve the quality of life of the patients avoiding the use of molds and minimizing the morbidity of the zones donors. In this work let's sense beforehand our experience in the accomplishment of neovaginas with intestine. We analyze the clinical record of 13 patients treated surgically in the last ten years. We differentiate two groups according to the age, the diagnosis and the type of surgery: a) the first group of 8 patients present syndrome of insensibility to the androgens (4), syndrome of Rokitansky (2), extrofia of sewer (1) and mixed gonadal disgenesia (1). This group of patients were controlled in the adolescence by an average of age of 19 years (11-35 years), they fulfilling a neovagina with sigma; b) the second group of 5 patients with sewer (3), extrofia of sewer (1) and congenital suprarrenal hiperplasia (1). This group was controlled prematurely by a middle ages of one year (4 months-3 years). The intestinal segment used as neovagina was sigma (2), ileon (2) and rectum (1), and was performed during the surgical correction of her congenital malformation. Two patients have presented intestinal obstruction in the postoperatory immediate one. Four patients have needed removal of a small vaginal prolapse, and three have needed vaginal transitory expansions for introit stenosis. The long-term evolution has been favorable with an excellent aesthetic aspect. Four patients recount sexual fully satisfactory relations. We believe that the neovagina with sigma is at present the best option in patients with absence or hipoplasia vaginal. The advantages are the possibility of precocious and one time correction, a neovagina of dimensions and

  9. Malaria-Associated l-Arginine Deficiency Induces Mast Cell-Associated Disruption to Intestinal Barrier Defenses against Nontyphoidal Salmonella Bacteremia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, Jennifer Y.; Tiffany, Caitlin M.; Nimishakavi, Shilpa; Lawrence, Jessica A.; Pakpour, Nazzy; Mooney, Jason P.; Lokken, Kristen L.; Caughey, George H.; Tsolis, Renee M.

    2013-01-01

    Coinfection with malaria and nontyphoidal Salmonella serotypes (NTS) can cause life-threatening bacteremia in humans. Coinfection with malaria is a recognized risk factor for invasive NTS, suggesting that malaria impairs intestinal barrier function. Here, we investigated mechanisms and strategies for prevention of coinfection pathology in a mouse model. Our findings reveal that malarial-parasite-infected mice, like humans, develop l-arginine deficiency, which is associated with intestinal mastocytosis, elevated levels of histamine, and enhanced intestinal permeability. Prevention or reversal of l-arginine deficiency blunts mastocytosis in ileal villi as well as bacterial translocation, measured as numbers of mesenteric lymph node CFU of noninvasive Escherichia coli Nissle and Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium, the latter of which is naturally invasive in mice. Dietary supplementation of malarial-parasite-infected mice with l-arginine or l-citrulline reduced levels of ileal transcripts encoding interleukin-4 (IL-4), a key mediator of intestinal mastocytosis and macromolecular permeability. Supplementation with l-citrulline also enhanced epithelial adherens and tight junctions in the ilea of coinfected mice. These data suggest that increasing l-arginine bioavailability via oral supplementation can ameliorate malaria-induced intestinal pathology, providing a basis for testing nutritional interventions to reduce malaria-associated mortality in humans. PMID:23690397

  10. Lipoxin A4 Preconditioning Attenuates Intestinal Ischemia Reperfusion Injury through Keap1/Nrf2 Pathway in a Lipoxin A4 Receptor Independent Manner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Han

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of intestinal ischemia reperfusion (IIR injury. Enhancement in endogenous Lipoxin A4 (LXA4, a potent antioxidant and mediator, is associated with attenuation of IIR. However, the effects of LXA4 on IIR injury and the potential mechanisms are unknown. In a rat IIR (ischemia 45 minutes and subsequent reperfusion 6 hours model, IIR caused intestinal injury, evidenced by increased serum diamine oxidase, D-lactic acid, intestinal-type fatty acid-binding protein, and the oxidative stress marker 15-F2t-Isoprostane. LXA4 treatment significantly attenuated IIR injury by reducing mucosal 15-F2t-Isoprostane and elevating endogenous antioxidant superoxide dismutase activity, accompanied with Keap1/Nrf2 pathway activation. Meanwhile, LXA4 receptor antagonist Boc-2 reversed the protective effects of LXA4 on intestinal injury but failed to affect the oxidative stress and the related Nrf2 pathway. Furthermore, Nrf2 antagonist brusatol reversed the antioxidant effects conferred by LXA4 and led to exacerbation of intestinal epithelium cells oxidative stress and apoptosis, finally resulting in a decrease of survival rate of rat. Meanwhile, LXA4 pretreatment upregulated nuclear Nrf2 level and reduced hypoxia/reoxygenation-induced IEC-6 cell damage and Nrf2 siRNA reversed this protective effect of LXA4 in vitro. In conclusion, these findings suggest that LXA4 ameliorates IIR injury by activating Keap1/Nrf2 pathway in a LXA4 receptor independent manner.

  11. 75 FR 58415 - Prospective Grant of Exclusive License: Prevention, Prophylaxis, Cure, Amelioration, and/or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-24

    ... Exclusive License: Prevention, Prophylaxis, Cure, Amelioration, and/or Treatment of Infection and/or the... dengue virus, characterized by rash, high fever, and severe, sometimes persistent arthritis. The field of use may be limited to ``Prevention, prophylaxis, cure, amelioration, and/or treatment of infection and...

  12. [Intestinal endometriosis - a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzemiński, Sławomir

    2017-03-21

    Endometriosis intestines due to its non-specific symptoms can pose diagnostic problems, a lack of or incorrect treatment worsens the quality of life, sometimes leading to serious complications. The differential diagnosis of abdominal pain, especially in patients of reproductive age should be taken disease into account. Often abdominal pain in young women are classified as a functional gastrointestinal disorder, and only carefully collected intelligence allows you to focus on the diagnosis of endometriosis, especially if the symptoms significantly impair quality of life. A woman 32 year old who was admitted to the department of gastroenterology because of increasing pain in the abdomen. Due to the deteriorating condition of the patient, the characteristics of mechanical obstruction on imaging studies was transferred to the surgical ward with suspected Crohn's disease. She was treated surgically. Histopathological examination found endometriosis. Endometriosis outside the sex system can lead to serious complications.

  13. The tripeptide KdPT ameliorates ongoing psoriasis-like skin inflammation in murine and human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mykicki, Nadine; Klenner, Lars; Baumann, Christoph; Auriemma, Matteo; Sternemann, Carlo; Soeberdt, Michael; Elliott, Graham R; Abels, Christoph; Luger, Thomas A; Loser, Karin

    2017-04-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory disease appearing as scaly erythematous cutaneous lesions, which are characterized by parakeratosis and acanthosis as well as the infiltration of immune cells, such as T helper-1 and T helper-17 cells. Here, we demonstrated that KdPT, a tripeptide structurally related to the C-terminal amino acids of alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone, which was previously shown to exhibit anti-inflammatory effects in intestinal inflammation, ameliorated ongoing disease in the mouse model of imiquimod-induced psoriasis-like skin inflammation and in the small xenotransplant mouse model of psoriasis. We could show that systemic KdPT treatment significantly reduced hyperkeratosis and acanthosis in murine as well as human skin. Moreover, KdPT upregulated Foxp3 in CD4 + T cells from mice and from peripheral blood of individuals with psoriasis and decreased the expression of type 1 inflammatory cytokines, indicating that the beneficial effect of KdPT was, at least in part, mediated by the induction of functional regulatory T cells that suppressed the activation of pathogenic CD4 + IFN-γ + and CD4 + IL-17 + T cells. Thus, these data might suggest KdPT as a potential novel therapeutic alternative for the treatment of psoriasis. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Lactobacillus acidophilus ameliorates H. pylori-induced gastric inflammation by inactivating the Smad7 and NFκB pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yao-Jong

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background H. pylori infection may trigger Smad7 and NFκB expression in the stomach, whereas probiotics promote gastrointestinal health and improve intestinal inflammation caused by pathogens. This study examines if probiotics can improve H. pylori-induced gastric inflammation by inactivating the Smad7 and NFκB pathways. Results Challenge with H. pylori increased IL-8 and TNF-α expressions but not TGF-β1 in MKN45 cells. The RNA levels of Smad7 in AGS cells increased after H. pylori infection in a dose-dependent manner. A higher dose (MOI 100 of L. acidophilus pre-treatment attenuated the H. pylori-induced IL-8 expressions, but not TGF-β1. Such anti-inflammatory effect was mediated via increased cytoplasmic IκBα and depletion of nuclear NFκB. L. acidophilus also inhibited H. pylori-induced Smad7 transcription by inactivating the Jak1 and Stat1 pathways, which might activate the TGF-β1/Smad pathway. L. acidophilus pre-treatment ameliorated IFN-γ-induced Smad7 translation level and subsequently reduced nuclear NF-κB production, as detected by western blotting. Conclusions H. pylori infection induces Smad7, NFκB, IL-8, and TNF-α production in vitro. Higher doses of L. acidophilus pre-treatment reduce H. pylori-induced inflammation through the inactivation of the Smad7 and NFκB pathways.

  15. Kaposiform hemangioendothelioma causing intestinal obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bassel Salman

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A previously healthy toddler with bilious vomiting and erythematous gluteal rash over 2 weeks had intermittent pain, constipation and decreased appetite. All labs were negative with the exception of fecal occult blood. Abdominal x-ray and ultrasound revealed dilated air-filled loops of bowel and partial small bowel obstruction. After persistent worsening abdominal pain and vomiting a CT scan with IV contrast (Fig. 1 suggested small bowel obstruction. Emergent surgery was performed and diagnostic laparoscopy revealed about 61 cm of necrotic bowel causing stricture formation and mesenteric shortening in the distal small bowel. 56 cm of inflamed bowel was resected with end-to-end anastomosis. Final pathology report indicated diffuse intestinal angiomatosis with transmural involvement and focal erosion consistent with KHE (Fig. 2. Presentation is varied, consists of cutaneous lesion, retroperitoneal mass, intestinal obstruction, jaundice, intussusception, or multifocal neoplasms. Complete surgical resection with wide margins is the best therapeutic option and has achieved the best outcomes. If not treated in sufficient time, KHE has a relatively high mortality rate of 30%, with most deaths occurring due to its locally invasive effects [5]. There are limited reports of identifying features of KHE on imaging. Of 165 cases of KHE none were presented in the small bowel [5]. We report the unique case of KHE presenting as a hypervascular mass causing obstruction in the distal small bowel. Although extremely rare, KHE should be considered as a reason for severe GI stricture or obstruction in infants and children in obscure cases and included in the differential.

  16. The significance of intestinal apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potten, C.S.

    1997-01-01

    Apoptosis occurs at a low level spontaneously in the small intestine (SI). The levels can be raised by a variety of cytotoxic agents including radiation. The apoptosis induced by radiation, and some drugs and the spontaneous apoptosis, show some specificity for the stem cells in the small intestinal crypt. In the colon, these agents target transit cells in the mid crypt. p53 expression is elevated at the same time as apoptosis in the SI but not in the cells undergoing apoptosis. The expression of bcl-2, a survival gene, is largely absent in the SI, but is expressed, albeit weakly, in the stem cells in the colon. Spontaneous apoptosis is observed in p53 null mice which also develop normally suggesting that spontaneous and developmental apoptosis are p53 independent and that spontaneous apoptosis is part of the homeostatic mechanisms maintaining stem cell numbers. Radiation induced apoptosis is completely absent at these early times post-irradiation in p53 nulls. In bel-2 null mice, the levels of spontaneous and radiation induced apoptosis are elevated in the colon. Bax, a death gene, is expressed on the villus and inter-crypt table in the colon suggesting that cells at the end of their lifespan initiate apoptosis. It has been suggested that apoptosis in the SI is a protective mechanism against carcinogenesis in the stem cells of the SI which rarely develops cancer. Cells that possess genetic damage detected. In the large bowel, this mechanism is not effective due to the action of bcl-2. Thus stem cells may persist in this tissue with genetic damage resulting in a higher cancer risk. Furthermore, the lack of spontaneous apoptosis in the colon may result in a gradual increase of the stem cells with time resulting in more ells at risk. (author)

  17. Alpha-ketoglutarate (AKG) lowers body weight and affects intestinal innate immunity through influencing intestinal microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuai; Bin, Peng; Ren, Wenkai; Gao, Wei; Liu, Gang; Yin, Jie; Duan, Jielin; Li, Yinghui; Yao, Kang; Huang, Ruilin; Tan, Bie; Yin, Yulong

    2017-06-13

    Alpha-ketoglutarate (AKG), a precursor of glutamate and a critical intermediate in the tricarboxylic acid cycle, shows beneficial effects on intestinal function. However, the influence of AKG on the intestinal innate immune system and intestinal microbiota is unknown. This study explores the effect of oral AKG administration in drinking water (10 g/L) on intestinal innate immunity and intestinal microbiota in a mouse model. Mouse water intake, feed intake and body weight were recorded throughout the entire experiment. The ileum was collected for detecting the expression of intestinal proinflammatory cytokines and innate immune factors by Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction. Additionally, the ileal luminal contents and feces were collected for 16S rDNA sequencing to analyze the microbial composition. The intestinal microbiota in mice was disrupted with an antibiotic cocktail. The results revealed that AKG supplementation lowered body weight, promoted ileal expression of mammalian defensins of the alpha subfamily (such as cryptdins-1, cryptdins-4, and cryptdins-5) while influencing the intestinal microbial composition (i.e., lowering the Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratio). In the antibiotic-treated mouse model, AKG supplementation failed to affect mouse body weight and inhibited the expression of cryptdins-1 and cryptdins-5 in the ileum. We concluded that AKG might affect body weight and intestinal innate immunity through influencing intestinal microbiota.

  18. [Effect of perioperative intestinal probiotics on intestinal flora and immune function in patients with colorectal cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dajian; Chen, Xiaowu; Wu, Jinhao; Ju, Yongle; Feng, Jing; Lu, Guangsheng; Ouyang, Manzhao; Ren, Baojun; Li, Yong

    2012-08-01

    To investigate the effect of perioperative application of intestinal probiotics to substitute oral intestinal antimicrobial agents on intestinal flora and immune function in surgical patients with colorectal cancer. Sixty patients with colorectal cancer undergoing elective laparoscopic radical surgery were randomized to receive preoperative bowel preparation using oral intestinal antimicrobial agents (n=20) or using oral intestinal probiotics (Jinshuangqi Tablets, 2.0 g, 3 times daily) since the fifth day before the operation and at 24 h after the operation for 7 consecutive days. Upon admission and 7 days after the operation, fecal samples and fasting peripheral venous blood were collected from the patients to examine the intestinal flora and serum levels of interleukin-2 (IL-2), IgA, IgG, and IgM, NK cell activity, T lymphocytes subsets CD3(+), CD4(+), CD8(+) and CD4(+)/CD8(+) ratio. At 7 days after the operation, the patients receiving probiotics showed significantly increased counts of intestinal Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus, and Enterococcus (Pprobiotics group compared with those in patients with conventional intestinal preparation (Pprobiotics to replace preoperative oral intestinal antimicrobial agents can effectively correct intestinal flora imbalance and improve the immune function of surgical patients with colorectal cancer.

  19. Diffused and sustained inhibitory effects of intestinal electrical stimulation on intestinal motility mediated via sympathetic pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaotuan; Yin, Jieyun; Wang, Lijie; Chen, Jiande D Z

    2014-06-01

    The aims were to investigate the energy-dose response effect of intestinal electrical stimulation (IES) on small bowel motility, to compare the effect of forward and backward IES, and to explore the possibility of using intermittent IES and mechanism of IES on intestinal motility. Five dogs implanted with a duodenal cannula and one pair of intestinal serosal electrodes were studied in five sessions: 1) energy-dose response study; 2) forward IES; 3) backward IES; 4) intermittent IES vs. continuous IES; 5) administration of guanethidine. The contractile activity and tonic pressure of the small intestine were recorded. The duration of sustained effect after turning off IES was manually calculated. 1) IES with long pulse energy dose dependently inhibited contractile activity and tonic pressure of the small intestine (p intestine depended on the energy of IES delivered (p intestine. 5) Guanethidine blocked the inhibitory effect of IES on intestinal motility. IES with long pulses inhibits small intestinal motility; the effect is energy-dose dependent, diffused, and sustained. Intermittent IES has the same efficacy as the continuous IES in inhibiting small intestinal motility. Forward and backward IES have similar inhibitory effects on small bowel motility. This IES-induced inhibitory effect is mediated via the sympathetic pathway. © 2013 International Neuromodulation Society.

  20. Vitamin D and intestinal calcium absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christakos, Sylvia; Dhawan, Puneet; Porta, Angela; Mady, Leila J; Seth, Tanya

    2011-12-05

    The principal function of vitamin D in calcium homeostasis is to increase calcium absorption from the intestine. Calcium is absorbed by both an active transcellular pathway, which is energy dependent, and by a passive paracellular pathway through tight junctions. 1,25Dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (1,25(OH)(2)D(3)) the hormonally active form of vitamin D, through its genomic actions, is the major stimulator of active intestinal calcium absorption which involves calcium influx, translocation of calcium through the interior of the enterocyte and basolateral extrusion of calcium by the intestinal plasma membrane pump. This article reviews recent studies that have challenged the traditional model of vitamin D mediated transcellular calcium absorption and the crucial role of specific calcium transport proteins in intestinal calcium absorption. There is also increasing evidence that 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) can enhance paracellular calcium diffusion. The influence of estrogen, prolactin, glucocorticoids and aging on intestinal calcium absorption and the role of the distal intestine in vitamin D mediated intestinal calcium absorption are also discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Intestinal lineage commitment of embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Li; Gibson, Jason D; Miyamoto, Shingo; Sail, Vibhavari; Verma, Rajeev; Rosenberg, Daniel W; Nelson, Craig E; Giardina, Charles

    2011-01-01

    Generating lineage-committed intestinal stem cells from embryonic stem cells (ESCs) could provide a tractable experimental system for understanding intestinal differentiation pathways and may ultimately provide cells for regenerating damaged intestinal tissue. We tested a two-step differentiation procedure in which ESCs were first cultured with activin A to favor formation of definitive endoderm, and then treated with fibroblast-conditioned medium with or without Wnt3A. The definitive endoderm expressed a number of genes associated with gut-tube development through mouse embryonic day 8.5 (Sox17, Foxa2, and Gata4 expressed and Id2 silent). The intestinal stem cell marker Lgr5 gene was also activated in the endodermal cells, whereas the Msi1, Ephb2, and Dcamkl1 intestinal stem cell markers were not. Exposure of the endoderm to fibroblast-conditioned medium with Wnt3A resulted in the activation of Id2, the remaining intestinal stem cell markers and the later gut markers Cdx2, Fabp2, and Muc2. Interestingly, genes associated with distal gut-associated mesoderm (Foxf2, Hlx, and Hoxd8) were also simulated by Wnt3A. The two-step differentiation protocol generated gut bodies with crypt-like structures that included regions of Lgr5-expressing proliferating cells and regions of cell differentiation. These gut bodies also had a smooth muscle component and some underwent peristaltic movement. The ability of the definitive endoderm to differentiate into intestinal epithelium was supported by the vivo engraftment of these cells into mouse colonic mucosa. These findings demonstrate that definitive endoderm derived from ESCs can carry out intestinal cell differentiation pathways and may provide cells to restore damaged intestinal tissue. Copyright © 2010 International Society of Differentiation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Quercetin Treatment Ameliorates Systemic Oxidative Stress in Cirrhotic Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Emanuelle Kerber; Bona, Silvia; Di Naso, Fábio Cangeri; Porawski, Marilene; Tieppo, Juliana; Marroni, Norma Possa

    2011-01-01

    Our aim was to investigate whether the antioxidant quercetin protects against liver injury and ameliorates the systemic oxidative stress in rats with common bile duct ligation. Secondary biliary cirrhosis was induced through 28 days of bile duct obstruction. Animals received quercetin (Q) after 14 days of obstruction. Groups of control (CO) and cirrhotic (CBDL) animals received a daily 50 mg/kg body weight i.p. injection of quercetin (CO + Q; CBDL + Q) or vehicle (CO; CBDL). Quercetin corrected the reduction in superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase CAT, and glutathione peroxidase GPx activities and prevented the increase of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), aminotransferases, and alkaline phosphatase in cirrhotic animals. Quercetin administration also corrected the reduced total nitrate concentration in the liver and prevented liver fibrosis and necrosis. These effects suggest that quercetin might be a useful agent to preserve liver function and prevent systemic oxidative stress. PMID:21991520

  3. Pleurotus eryngii Ameliorates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Lung Inflammation in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junya Kawai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pleurotus eryngii (P. eryngii is consumed as a fresh cultivated mushroom worldwide and demonstrated to have multiple beneficial effects. We investigated the anti-inflammatory effect of P. eryngii in mice with acute lung injury (ALI. Intranasal instillation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS (10 μg/site/mouse induced marked lung inflammation (increase in the number of inflammatory cells, protein leakage, and production of nitric oxide in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid as well as histopathological damage in the lung, 6 h after treatment. Mice administered heat-treated P. eryngii (0.3–1 g/kg, p.o. (HTPE 1 h before LPS challenge showed decreased pulmonary inflammation and ameliorated histopathological damage. These results suggest that HTPE has anti-inflammatory effects against ALI. Thus, P. eryngii itself may also have anti-inflammatory effects and could be a beneficial food for the prevention of ALI induced by bacterial infection.

  4. Ameliorating the effects of global crisis on human resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilfred UKPERE

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Capitalist globalisation has produced certain negative consequences for human resources, industrial democracy and humanity in general. Globalisation is a powerful force that cannot be denied, however, conversely, it has also threatened life, in a broader sense. Globalisation was perceived by globalisers as a worldwide remedy for worldwide problems, but is viewed with great pessimism amongst proletariat (workers. In fact, current globalisation has an enormous negative impact on human resources, industrial democracy and humanity, at large. Hence, the aim of this paper is to proffer mechanisms, which can ameliorate negative impacts of globalisation on human resources, industrial democracy and humanity. It is the author’s belief that if current postulates are considered, globalisation might present a different picture, which could have positive effects on human resources, industrial democracy and humanity, in general.

  5. Biochar Ameliorate Drought and Salt Stress in Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saleem Akhtar, Saqib

    . Drought and salinity are the two most crucial abiotic stresses that limit crops production worldwide. In this PhD project, it was hypothesized that biochar could be used to effectively mitigate drought and salinity stresses in crop plants due to its putative physiochemical properties. The overall...... objectives of the present PhD project were to reveal the mechanisms by which biochar addition mitigates negative effect of drought and salinity stress on plants and to test the efficacy of biochar when applied in combination with already existing drought (like DI and PRD) and salt management (inoculation...... of plant with halophytic plant growth promoting bacteria) approaches. The results showed that: - Biochar mitigated drought stress in plants by enhancing soil moisture availability due to its high porosity and large surface area - Biochar ameliorated salinity stress in plant by a high transient Na+ binding...

  6. Flemingia macrophylla Extract Ameliorates Experimental Osteoporosis in Ovariectomized Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Ya Ho

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Flemingia macrophylla (Leguminosae, a native plant of Taiwan, is used as folk medicine. An in vitro study showed that a 75% ethanolic extract of F. macrophylla (FME inhibited osteoclast differentiation of cultured rat bone marrow cells, and the active component, lespedezaflavanone A (LDF-A, was isolated. It was found that oral administration of FME for 13 weeks suppressed bone loss in ovariectomized rats, an experimental model of osteoporosis. In addition, FME decreased urinary deoxypyridinoline concentrations but did not inhibit serum alkaline phosphatase activities, indicating that it ameliorated bone loss via inhibition of bone resorption. These results suggest that FME may represent a useful remedy for the treatment of bone resorption diseases, such as osteoporosis. In addition, LDF-A could be used as a marker compound to control the quality of FME.

  7. Transcriptome changes during intestinal cell differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tadjali, Mehrdad; Seidelin, Jakob B; Olsen, Jørgen Lillelund

    2002-01-01

    by a general down-regulation of genes in the low abundance class. Similar results were found using mouse small intestinal crypt and villus cells, suggesting that the phenomenon also occurs in the intestine in vivo. The expression data were subsequently used in a search for markers for subsets of epithelial...... cells by performing reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction on RNA extracted from laser dissected intestinal crypt and villi. In a screen of eight transcripts one - SART3 - was identified as a marker for human colonic crypts....

  8. Recreating Intestinal Peristalsis in the Petri Dish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa-Luna, Rosa; Barajas-Espinosa, Alma R; Ochoa-Cortez, Fernando; Barajas-López, Carlos

    2018-01-01

    Here we describe a culture technique of cells dissociated from the external muscularis of the guinea pig small intestine, which allows us to maintain all the elements involved in the intestinal peristaltic reflex. After a few days in culture, these cells reorganize to form a small group of cells that permit the generation of pacemaker activity, spontaneous contractions, and the development of inhibitory and excitatory junction potentials in the petri dish, all elements involved in the peristaltic reflex. Therefore, these co-cultures are suitable to study the cellular and molecular aspects related to the development, maintenance, and modulation of motor intestinal functions.

  9. Intestinal lengthening: an experimental and clinical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, A

    1984-01-01

    Small intestinal lengthening by the Bianchi procedure has now had successful clinical application in children and neonates with the short-bowel syndrome. This paper reviews the background experimental work and clinical cases so far treated. A personal case of intestinal lengthening in a 7-week-old baby with 35 cm jejunum is described in detail. Intestinal lengthening appears to reduce dependence on parenteral nutrition, thus allowing earlier establishment of total enteral alimentation. The procedure may therefore have a useful place in the overall management of the short-bowel syndrome. Images Figure 3. A Figure 3. B Figure 3. C Figure 3. D PMID:6471060

  10. Dihydromyricetin ameliorates atherosclerosis in LDL receptor deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ting Ting; Zeng, Yi; Tang, Kun; Chen, XueMeng; Zhang, Wei; Xu, Xiao Le

    2017-07-01

    Dihydromyricetin, the most abundant flavonoid in Ampelopsis grossedentata, exerts numerous pharmacological activities, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, and lipid regulatory activities; however, its protective effect against atherosclerosis remains poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of dihydromyricetin on high fat diet (HFD)-induced atherosclerosis using LDL receptor deficient (LDLr -/- ) mice. Blood samples were collected for determination of serum lipid profiles, oxidized LDL (ox-LDL) and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Histology, hepatic lipid content, quantification of atherosclerosis, assessment of oxidative stress and inflammation were performed on liver and aorta samples by molecular biology methods. The effects of dihydromyricetin on ox-LDL-induced human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) dysfunction and foam cell formation were further studied. (1) Dihydromyricetin ameliorated hyperlipidemia, reduced serum ox-LDL, IL-6 and TNF-α levels in HFD-fed LDLr -/- mice. Moreover, (2) dihydromyricetin suppressed hepatic lipid accumulation and increased protein expressions of PPARα, LXRα and ABCA1. (3) It inhibited atherosclerotic lesion formation and favoured features of plaque stability. (4) Dihydromyricetin prevented hepatic and aortic inflammation as evidenced by the reduced IL-6 and TNF-α mRNA expression; (5) it prevented hepatic and aortic oxidative stress by normalizing activities of antioxidant enzymes in the liver and suppressing reactive oxygen species generation and NOX2 protein expression in both liver and aorta; (6) it inhibited oxLDL-induced injury, monocytes adhesion and oxidative stress in HUVECs and (7) inhibited macrophage foam cell formation and enhanced cholesterol efflux. These findings suggest that dihydromyricetin could reduce atherosclerosis via its pleiotropic effects, including improvement of endothelial dysfunction, inhibition of macrophage foam cell formation

  11. An orally active Cannabis extract with high content in cannabidiol attenuates chemical induced intestinal inflammation and hypermotility in the mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ester Pagano

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Anecdotal and scientific evidence suggests that Cannabis use may be beneficial in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD patients. Here, we have investigated the effect of a standardized Cannabis sativa extract with high content of cannabidiol (CBD, here named CBD BDS for CBD botanical drug substance, on mucosal inflammation and hypermotility in mouse models of intestinal inflammation. Colitis was induced in mice by intracolonic administration of dinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (DNBS. Motility was evaluated in the experimental model of intestinal hypermotility induced by irritant croton oil. CBD BDS or pure CBD were given - either intraperitoneally or by oral gavage - after the inflammatory insult (curative protocol. The amounts of CBD in the colon, brain and liver after the oral treatments were measured by HPLC coupled to ion trap-time of flight mass spectrometry. CBD BDS, both when given intraperitoneally and by oral gavage, decreased the extent of the damage (as revealed by the decrease in the colon weight/length ratio and myeloperoxidase activity in the DNBS model of colitis. It also reduced intestinal hypermotility (at doses lower than those required to affect transit in healthy mice in the croton oil model of intestinal hypermotility. Under the same experimental conditions, pure CBD did not ameliorate colitis while it normalized croton oil-induced hypermotility when given intraperitoneally (in a dose-related fashion or orally (only at one dose. In conclusion, CBD BDS, given after the inflammatory insult, attenuates injury and motility in intestinal models of inflammation. These findings sustain the rationale of combining CBD with other minor Cannabis constituents and support the clinical development of CBD BDS for IBD treatment.

  12. Effect of lactic acid bacteria on the intestinal production of lactate and short-chain fatty acids, and the absorption of lactose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hove, H; Nordgaard-Andersen, I; Mortensen, P B

    1994-01-01

    (10) cells), but did not influence the concentrations and productions of DL-lactate and short-chain fatty acids in the ileostomic outputs and incubates. Large amounts of ingested lactic acid bacteria (4.2 x 10(10) cells) did not ameliorate lactose malabsorption measured by the breath-hydrogen test in 12...... lactose malabsorbers. This study shows that ingested lactic acid bacteria are indeed present in the colon, but it does not support the theory that they change the pattern of colonic fermentation or the degree of intestinal lactose malabsorption....

  13. Peptidases Compartmentalized to the Ascaris suum Intestinal Lumen and Apical Intestinal Membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Bruce A.

    2015-01-01

    The nematode intestine is a tissue of interest for developing new methods of therapy and control of parasitic nematodes. However, biological details of intestinal cell functions remain obscure, as do the proteins and molecular functions located on the apical intestinal membrane (AIM), and within the intestinal lumen (IL) of nematodes. Accordingly, methods were developed to gain a comprehensive identification of peptidases that function in the intestinal tract of adult female Ascaris suum. Peptidase activity was detected in multiple fractions of the A. suum intestine under pH conditions ranging from 5.0 to 8.0. Peptidase class inhibitors were used to characterize these activities. The fractions included whole lysates, membrane enriched fractions, and physiological- and 4 molar urea-perfusates of the intestinal lumen. Concanavalin A (ConA) was confirmed to bind to the AIM, and intestinal proteins affinity isolated on ConA-beads were compared to proteins from membrane and perfusate fractions by mass spectrometry. Twenty-nine predicted peptidases were identified including aspartic, cysteine, and serine peptidases, and an unexpectedly high number (16) of metallopeptidases. Many of these proteins co-localized to multiple fractions, providing independent support for localization to specific intestinal compartments, including the IL and AIM. This unique perfusion model produced the most comprehensive view of likely digestive peptidases that function in these intestinal compartments of A. suum, or any nematode. This model offers a means to directly determine functions of these proteins in the A. suum intestine and, more generally, deduce the wide array functions that exist in these cellular compartments of the nematode intestine. PMID:25569475

  14. Pathogen invasion changes the intestinal microbiota composition and induces innate immune responses in the zebrafish intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hui-Ting; Zou, Song-Song; Zhai, Li-Juan; Wang, Yao; Zhang, Fu-Miao; An, Li-Guo; Yang, Gui-Wen

    2017-12-01

    Numerous bacteria are harbored in the animal digestive tract and are impacted by several factors. Intestinal microbiota homeostasis is critical for maintaining the health of an organism. However, how pathogen invasion affects the microbiota composition has not been fully clarified. The mechanisms for preventing invasion by pathogenic microorganisms are yet to be elucidated. Zebrafish is a useful model for developmental biology, and studies in this organism have gradually become focused on intestinal immunity. In this study, we analyzed the microbiota of normal cultivated and infected zebrafish intestines, the aquarium water and feed samples. We found that the predominant bacteria in the zebrafish intestine belonged to Gammaproteobacteria (67%) and that feed and environment merely influenced intestinal microbiota composition only partially. Intestinal microbiota changed after a pathogenic bacterial challenge. At the genus level, the abundance of some pathogenic intestinal bacteria increased, and these genera included Halomonas (50%), Pelagibacterium (3.6%), Aeromonas (2.6%), Nesterenkonia (1%), Chryseobacterium (3.4‰), Mesorhizobium (1.4‰), Vibrio (1‰), Mycoplasma (0.7‰) and Methylobacterium (0.6‰) in IAh group. However, the abundance of some beneficial intestinal bacteria decreased, and these genera included Nitratireductor (0.8‰), Enterococcus (0.8‰), Brevundimonas (0.7‰), Lactococcus (0.7‰) and Lactobacillus (0.4‰). Additionally, we investigated the innate immune responses after infection. ROS levels in intestine increased in the early stages after a challenge and recovered subsequently. The mRNA levels of antimicrobial peptide genes lectin, hepcidin and defensin1, were upregulated in the intestine after pathogen infection. These results suggested that the invasion of pathogen could change the intestinal microbiota composition and induce intestinal innate immune responses in zebrafish. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Apple-peel intestinal atresia: enteroplasty for intestinal lengthening and primary anastomosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onofre, Luciano Silveira; Maranhão, Renato Frota de Albuquerque; Martins, Elaine Cristina Soares; Fachin, Camila Girardi; Martins, Jose Luiz

    2013-06-01

    Apple-peel atresia (or Type-IIIb intestinal atresia) is an unusual type of jejunoileal atresia. They present with jejunal atresia near the ligament of Treitz and a foreshortened small bowel. Many surgical options have been used, but the optimal method of repair remains unclear. We present a case of a newborn with apple-peel intestinal atresia managed by enteroplasty for intestinal lengthening and primary anastomosis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Intestinal Leiomyositis: A Cause of Chronic Intestinal Pseudo?Obstruction in 6 Dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Zacuto, A.C.; Pesavento, P.A.; Hill, S.; McAlister, A.; Rosenthal, K.; Cherbinsky, O.; Marks, S.L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Intestinal leiomyositis is a suspected autoimmune disorder affecting the muscularis propria layer of the gastrointestinal tract and is a cause of chronic intestinal pseudo?obstruction in humans and animals. Objective To characterize the clinical presentation, histopathologic features, and outcome of dogs with intestinal leiomyositis in an effort to optimize treatment and prognosis. Animals Six client?owned dogs. Methods Retrospective case series. Medical records were reviewed to de...

  17. Interactions between the intestinal microbiota and innate lymphoid cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Vincent L; Kasper, Dennis L

    2014-01-01

    The mammalian intestine must manage to contain 100 trillion intestinal bacteria without inducing inappropriate immune responses to these microorganisms. The effects of the immune system on intestinal microorganisms are numerous and well-characterized, and recent research has determined that the microbiota influences the intestinal immune system as well. In this review, we first discuss the intestinal immune system and its role in containing and maintaining tolerance to commensal organisms. We next introduce a category of immune cells, the innate lymphoid cells, and describe their classification and function in intestinal immunology. Finally, we discuss the effects of the intestinal microbiota on innate lymphoid cells.

  18. Experiencing sexuality after intestinal stoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Angela Boccara de Paula

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Identify the Social Representations (SR of ostomized people in terms of sexuality after the stoma. METHODS: An exploratory, descriptive, qualitative study using the Social Representation Theory with 15 ostomized people (8 females, mean age of 57.9 years, between August and September 2005. Data obtained from transcribed interviews were submitted to content analysis, resulting in the thematic unit "Giving new meaning to sexuality" and subthemes. RESULTS: The study demonstrated that the intestinal stoma interferes in the sexuality experience, showing that the meanings attributed to this experience are based on individual life stories, quality of personal relationships established in practice and perception of sexuality, despite the stoma. CONCLUSIONS: The Social Representations, in terms of experiencing sexuality after the stoma, are based on meanings attributed to the body, associated with daily life and present in the social imaginary. It is influenced by other factors, such as physiological changes resulting from the surgery and the fact of having or not a partner. Care taken during sexual practices provide greater security and comfort in moments of intimacy, resembling the closest to what ostomized people experienced before the stoma. The self-irrigation technique associated or not with the use of artificial occluder, has been attested by its users as a positive element that makes a difference in sexual practice after the stoma. The support to ostomized people should be comprehensive, not limited to technical care and disease, which are important, but not sufficient. The interdisciplinary health team should consider all aspects of the person, seeking a real meeting between subjects.OBJETIVO: Identificar as Representações Sociais (RS da pessoa estomizada intestinal sobre vivência da sexualidade após confecção do estoma. MÉTODOS: Estudo exploratório, descritivo, qualitativo do ponto de vista do referencial da Representa

  19. Effects of Diclofenac, L-NAME, L-Arginine, and Pentadecapeptide BPC 157 on Gastrointestinal, Liver, and Brain Lesions, Failed Anastomosis, and Intestinal Adaptation Deterioration in 24 Hour-Short-Bowel Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lojo, Nermin; Rasic, Zarko; Zenko Sever, Anita; Kolenc, Danijela; Vukusic, Darko; Drmic, Domagoj; Zoricic, Ivan; Sever, Marko; Seiwerth, Sven; Sikiric, Predrag

    2016-01-01

    Stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 was previously used to ameliorate wound healing following major surgery and counteract diclofenac toxicity. To resolve the increasing early risks following major massive small bowel resectioning surgery, diclofenac combined with nitric oxide (NO) system blockade was used, suggesting therapy with BPC 157 and the nitric oxide synthase (NOS substrate) L-arginine, is efficacious. Immediately after anastomosis creation, short-bowel rats were untreated or administered intraperitoneal diclofenac (12 mg/kg), BPC 157 (10 μg/kg or 10 ng/kg), L-NG-nitroarginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 5 mg/kg), L-arginine (100 mg/kg) alone or combined, and assessed 24 h later. Short-bowel rats exhibited poor anastomosis healing, failed intestine adaptation, and gastrointestinal, liver, and brain lesions, which worsened with diclofenac. This was gradually ameliorated by immediate therapy with BPC 157 and L-arginine. Contrastingly, NOS-blocker L-NAME induced further aggravation and lesions gradually worsened. Specifically, rats with surgery alone exhibited mild stomach/duodenum lesions, considerable liver lesions, and severe cerebral/hippocampal lesions while those also administered diclofenac showed widespread severe lesions in the gastrointestinal tract, liver, cerebellar nuclear/Purkinje cells, and cerebrum/hippocampus. Rats subjected to surgery, diclofenac, and L-NAME exhibited the mentioned lesions, worsening anastomosis, and macro/microscopical necrosis. Thus, rats subjected to surgery alone showed evidence of deterioration. Furtheremore, rats subjected to surgery and administered diclofenac showed worse symptoms, than the rats subjected to surgery alone did. Rats subjected to surgery combined with diclofenac and L-NAME showed the worst deterioration. Rats subjected to surgery exhibited habitual adaptation of the remaining small intestine, which was markedly reversed in rats subjected to surgery and diclofenac, and those with surgery, diclofenac, and

  20. Congenital central hypoventilation syndrome and intestinal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS), also called 'Ondine's curse', is characterised by an abnormal ventilatory response to progressive hypercapnia and sustained hypoxaemia. Neonates with this condition experience hypoventilation or apnoea while asleep. Patients may also have congenital intestinal aganglionosis (CIA), ...

  1. Intestinal perforation secondary to metastasic lung carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Álvarez Sánchez

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Secondary symptomatic gastrointestinal metastases from lung primary tumor are rare. They can cause a variety of clinical conditions such as perforation, obstruction and bleeding. Intestinal perforations of intestinal metastases have a very poor prognosis. We present a case of a patient with metastatic lung cancer who presents with intestinal perforation and pneumoperitoneum. A 67 year old male, immunosuppressed and smoker is diagnosed with acute abdomen secondary to perforation of a tumor of the terminal ileum, as well as three other similar injuries. Resection and anastomosis. The patient died two months after surgery. The final pathological diagnosis supports epidermoidide poorly differentiated lung carcinoma. It was concluded that given an intestinal perforation in a patient diagnosed with lung carcinoma, it shouldn´t be excluded the metastases origen . Surgery is a purely palliative procedure.

  2. Intestinal Colonization Dynamics of Vibrio cholerae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almagro-Moreno, Salvador; Pruss, Kali; Taylor, Ronald K.

    2015-01-01

    To cause the diarrheal disease cholera, Vibrio cholerae must effectively colonize the small intestine. In order to do so, the bacterium needs to successfully travel through the stomach and withstand the presence of agents such as bile and antimicrobial peptides in the intestinal lumen and mucus. The bacterial cells penetrate the viscous mucus layer covering the epithelium and attach and proliferate on its surface. In this review, we discuss recent developments and known aspects of the early stages of V. cholerae intestinal colonization and highlight areas that remain to be fully understood. We propose mechanisms and postulate a model that covers some of the steps that are required in order for the bacterium to efficiently colonize the human host. A deeper understanding of the colonization dynamics of V. cholerae and other intestinal pathogens will provide us with a variety of novel targets and strategies to avoid the diseases caused by these organisms. PMID:25996593

  3. [Acute intestinal infections: current and upcoming vaccines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlich, Paul; Sansonetti, Philippe J

    2013-01-01

    Currently, only a few licensed vaccines against intestinal infections are available. Existing vaccines have shown good efficacy when used by travelers in industrialized countries. However, these vaccines have lower efficacy in endemic areas with high prevalence of enteric pathogens. Current vaccines are too expensive to be efficiently distributed in endemic countries. Immune correlates of protection are not well defined for current licensed vaccines. A better understanding of protection mechanisms at the intestinal mucosal surfaces should allow the development of more efficient vaccines. Gut physiology and microbial composition play an important role in both physical integrity and immunological status of the gastro-intestinal tract. These parameters can partially explain the disparities observed in current vaccines efficiency. Several next-generation vaccines combined or not with adjuvant able to promote a strong mucosal response in the intestine, are under preclinical and clinical investigations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. [THE INTESTINAL BARRIER, THE MICROBIOTA, MICROBIOME].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mar'yanovich, A T

    2016-01-01

    The review examined modern condition of development directions physiology of digestion, like structure and function of the intestinal barrier, the microbiota of the digestive tract in its relations with the microorganism.

  5. Diversity and functions of intestinal mononuclear phagocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joeris, Thorsten; Müller-Luda, K; Agace, William Winston

    2017-01-01

    The intestinal lamina propria (LP) contains a diverse array of mononuclear phagocyte (MNP) subsets, including conventional dendritic cells (cDC), monocytes and tissue-resident macrophages (mφ) that collectively play an essential role in mucosal homeostasis, infection and inflammation. In the curr......The intestinal lamina propria (LP) contains a diverse array of mononuclear phagocyte (MNP) subsets, including conventional dendritic cells (cDC), monocytes and tissue-resident macrophages (mφ) that collectively play an essential role in mucosal homeostasis, infection and inflammation....... In the current review we discuss the function of intestinal cDC and monocyte-derived MNP, highlighting how these subsets play several non-redundant roles in the regulation of intestinal immune responses. While much remains to be learnt, recent findings also underline how the various populations of MNP adapt...

  6. Inflammasome in Intestinal Inflammation and Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Nunes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The activation of specific cytosolic pathogen recognition receptors, the nucleotide-binding-oligomerization-domain- (NOD- like receptors (NLRs, leads to the assembly of the inflammasome, a multimeric complex platform that activates caspase-1. The caspase-1 pathway leads to the upregulation of important cytokines from the interleukin (IL-1 family, IL-1β, and IL-18, with subsequent activation of the innate immune response. In this review, we discuss the molecular structure, the mechanisms behind the inflammasome activation, and its possible role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases and intestinal cancer. Here, we show that the available data points towards the importance of the inflammasome in the innate intestinal immune response, being the complex involved in the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis, correct intestinal barrier function and efficient elimination of invading pathogens.

  7. Upper intestinal and biliary tract endoprosthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tytgat, G. N.; Bartelsman, J. F.; den Hartog Jager, F. C.; Huibregtse, K.; Mathus-Vliegen, E. M.

    1986-01-01

    The endoscopic insertion of an endoprosthesis is now a standard procedure in the ultimate palliation of malignant obstructing upper gastrointestinal and biliary malignancy. The commercially available prostheses and introducing devices are adequate for the majority of upper intestinal cancers. For

  8. Epidemiology of small intestinal atresia in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Best, Kate E; Tennant, Peter W G; Addor, Marie-Claude

    2012-01-01

    The epidemiology of congenital small intestinal atresia (SIA) has not been well studied. This study describes the presence of additional anomalies, pregnancy outcomes, total prevalence and association with maternal age in SIA cases in Europe....

  9. Intestinal microbiota and HIV-1 infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. B. S. M. Trindade

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The intestinal microbiota consists of a qualitatively and quantitatively diverse range of microorganisms dynamically interacting with the host. It is remarkably stable with regard to the presence of microorganisms and their roles which, however, can be altered due to pathological conditions, diet composition, gastrointestinal disturbances and/or drug ingestion. The present review aimed at contributing to the discussion about changes in the intestinal microbiota due to HIV-1 infection, focusing on the triad infection-microbiota-nutrition as factors that promote intestinal bacterial imbalance. Intestinal microbiota alterations can be due to the HIV-1 infection as a primary factor or the pharmacotherapy employed, or they can be one of the consequences of the disease.

  10. Molecular characterization of intestinal protozoan parasites from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Koffi Mathurin

    2014-02-17

    AJEST. African Journal of Environmental Science and. Technology. Full Length Research Paper. Molecular characterization of intestinal protozoan parasites from children facing diarrheal disease and associated risk factors in ...

  11. Non-Meckel Small Intestine Diverticulitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamim Ejaz

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Non-Meckel small intestine diverticulitis can have many manifestations and its management is not well-defined. We report 4 unselect cases of small intestine diverticulitis; all patients were seen by the same physician at the Emergency Center at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center between 1999 and 2014. The median age at diagnosis of these patients was 82 years (range, 76–87 years. All 4 patients presented with acute onset of abdominal pain, and computed tomography scans showed characteristics of small intestine diverticulitis unrelated to cancer. Most of the diverticula were found in the region of the duodenum and jejuno-ileal segments of the small intestine. The patients, even those with peripancreatic inflammation and localized perforation, were treated conservatively. Non-Meckel diverticulitis can be overlooked in the initial diagnosis because of the location of the diverticulosis, the age of the patient, and the rarity of the disease. Because patients with non-Meckel small intestine diverticulitis can present with acute abdominal pain, non-Meckel small intestine diverticulitis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with acute abdominal pain, and computed tomography scans can help identify the condition. Because of the rarity of non-Meckel small intestine diverticulitis, few studies have been published, and the data are inconclusive about how best to approach these patients. Our experience with these 4 elderly patients indicates that non-Meckel small intestine diverticulitis can be treated conservatively, which avoids the potential morbidity and mortality of a surgical approach.

  12. Neuroimmune regulation during intestinal development and homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga-Fernandes, Henrique; Pachnis, Vassilis

    2017-02-01

    Interactions between the nervous system and immune system are required for organ function and homeostasis. Evidence suggests that enteric neurons and intestinal immune cells share common regulatory mechanisms and can coordinate their responses to developmental challenges and environmental aggressions. These discoveries shed light on the physiology of system interactions and open novel perspectives for therapy designs that target underappreciated neurological-immunological commonalities. Here we highlight findings that address the importance of neuroimmune cell units (NICUs) in intestinal development, homeostasis and disease.

  13. Intestinal angina. Report on two operated cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solheim, K; Rosseland, A; Lund, B L

    1977-01-01

    In spite of the fact that the concept of intestinal angina is more than 70 years old, it is not generally accepted and only 400 cases of elective revascularization of the celiac/mesenteric arteries are reported in the literature. Two typical cases of intestinal angina treated with elective revascularization are presented and the pertinent literature is reviewed. An aggresive approach to the problem, followed by adequate reconstruction, is recommended.

  14. DIAGNOSIS AND MANAGEMENT OF SUBACUTE INTESTINAL OBSTRUCTION: A PROSPECTIVE STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Amit; Anjani; Shaleen; Vikram; Prasheel

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal obstruction can be defined as impairment to the abnormal passage of intestinal contents that may be due to either mechanical obstruction or failure of normal intestinal motility in the absence of an obstructing lesion. Intestinal obstruction is the most common surgical disorder of the small intestine. SAIO implies incomplete obstruction. It has been defined in a number of ways and there are many gray zones in the treatment protocols. It is characterized by conti...

  15. Interactions between the intestinal microbiota and innate lymphoid cells

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Vincent L; Kasper, Dennis L

    2013-01-01

    The mammalian intestine must manage to contain 100 trillion intestinal bacteria without inducing inappropriate immune responses to these microorganisms. The effects of the immune system on intestinal microorganisms are numerous and well-characterized, and recent research has determined that the microbiota influences the intestinal immune system as well. In this review, we first discuss the intestinal immune system and its role in containing and maintaining tolerance to commensal organisms. We...

  16. Functions and Signaling Pathways of Amino Acids in Intestinal Inflammation

    OpenAIRE

    Fang He; Chenlu Wu; Pan Li; Nengzhang Li; Dong Zhang; Quoqiang Zhu; Wenkai Ren; Yuanyi Peng

    2018-01-01

    Intestine is always exposed to external environment and intestinal microorganism; thus it is more sensitive to dysfunction and dysbiosis, leading to intestinal inflammation, such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and diarrhea. An increasing number of studies indicate that dietary amino acids play significant roles in preventing and treating intestinal inflammation. The review aims to summarize the functions and signaling mechanisms of amino acids in intestin...

  17. Intestinal perforation by an ingested foreign body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Cleve Nicolodi

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To identify the computed tomography findings suggestive of intestinal perforation by an ingested foreign body. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective study of four cases of surgically proven intestinal perforation by a foreign body, comparing the computed tomography findings with those described in the literature. Results: None of the patients reported having ingested a foreign body, all were over 60 years of age, three of the four patients used a dental prosthesis, and all of the foreign bodies were elongated and sharp. In all four patients, there were findings indicative of acute abdomen. None of the foreign bodies were identified on conventional X-rays. The computed tomography findings suggestive of perforation were thickening of the intestinal walls (in all four cases, increased density of mesenteric fat (in all four cases, identification of the foreign body passing through the intestinal wall (in three cases, and gas in the peritoneal cavity (in one case. Conclusion: In cases of foreign body ingestion, intestinal perforation is more common when the foreign body is elongated and sharp. Although patients typically do not report having ingested such foreign bodies, the scenario should be suspected in elderly individuals who use dental prostheses. A computed tomography scan can detect foreign bodies, locate perforations, and guide treatment. The findings that suggest perforation are thickening of the intestinal walls, increased mesenteric fat density, and, less frequently, gas in the peritoneal cavity, often restricted to the point of perforation.

  18. Intestinal perforation by an ingested foreign body*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolodi, Gabriel Cleve; Trippia, Cesar Rodrigo; Caboclo, Maria Fernanda F. S.; de Castro, Francisco Gomes; Miller, Wagner Peitl; de Lima, Raphael Rodrigues; Tazima, Leandro; Geraldo, Jamylle

    2016-01-01

    Objective To identify the computed tomography findings suggestive of intestinal perforation by an ingested foreign body. Materials and Methods This was a retrospective study of four cases of surgically proven intestinal perforation by a foreign body, comparing the computed tomography findings with those described in the literature. Results None of the patients reported having ingested a foreign body, all were over 60 years of age, three of the four patients used a dental prosthesis, and all of the foreign bodies were elongated and sharp. In all four patients, there were findings indicative of acute abdomen. None of the foreign bodies were identified on conventional X-rays. The computed tomography findings suggestive of perforation were thickening of the intestinal walls (in all four cases), increased density of mesenteric fat (in all four cases), identification of the foreign body passing through the intestinal wall (in three cases), and gas in the peritoneal cavity (in one case). Conclusion In cases of foreign body ingestion, intestinal perforation is more common when the foreign body is elongated and sharp. Although patients typically do not report having ingested such foreign bodies, the scenario should be suspected in elderly individuals who use dental prostheses. A computed tomography scan can detect foreign bodies, locate perforations, and guide treatment. The findings that suggest perforation are thickening of the intestinal walls, increased mesenteric fat density, and, less frequently, gas in the peritoneal cavity, often restricted to the point of perforation. PMID:27818542

  19. Intestinal perforation by an ingested foreign body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolodi, Gabriel Cleve; Trippia, Cesar Rodrigo; Caboclo, Maria Fernanda F.S.; Castro, Francisco Gomes de; Miller, Wagner Peitl; Lima, Raphael Rodrigues de; Tazima, Leandro; Geraldo, Jamylle

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To identify the computed tomography findings suggestive of intestinal perforation by an ingested foreign body. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective study of four cases of surgically proven intestinal perforation by a foreign body, comparing the computed tomography findings with those described in the literature. Results: None of the patients reported having ingested a foreign body, all were over 60 years of age, three of the four patients used a dental prosthesis, and all of the foreign bodies were elongated and sharp. In all four patients, there were findings indicative of acute abdomen. None of the foreign bodies were identified on conventional X-rays. The computed tomography findings suggestive of perforation were thickening of the intestinal walls (in all four cases), increased density of mesenteric fat (in all four cases), identification of the foreign body passing through the intestinal wall (in three cases), and gas in the peritoneal cavity (in one case). Conclusion: In cases of foreign body ingestion, intestinal perforation is more common when the foreign body is elongated and sharp. Although patients typically do not report having ingested such foreign bodies, the scenario should be suspected in elderly individuals who use dental prostheses. A computed tomography scan can detect foreign bodies, locate perforations, and guide treatment. The findings that suggest perforation are thickening of the intestinal walls, increased mesenteric fat density, and, less frequently, gas in the peritoneal cavity, often restricted to the point of perforation. (author)

  20. Intestinal perforation by an ingested foreign body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolodi, Gabriel Cleve; Trippia, Cesar Rodrigo; Caboclo, Maria Fernanda F S; de Castro, Francisco Gomes; Miller, Wagner Peitl; de Lima, Raphael Rodrigues; Tazima, Leandro; Geraldo, Jamylle

    2016-01-01

    To identify the computed tomography findings suggestive of intestinal perforation by an ingested foreign body. This was a retrospective study of four cases of surgically proven intestinal perforation by a foreign body, comparing the computed tomography findings with those described in the literature. None of the patients reported having ingested a foreign body, all were over 60 years of age, three of the four patients used a dental prosthesis, and all of the foreign bodies were elongated and sharp. In all four patients, there were findings indicative of acute abdomen. None of the foreign bodies were identified on conventional X-rays. The computed tomography findings suggestive of perforation were thickening of the intestinal walls (in all four cases), increased density of mesenteric fat (in all four cases), identification of the foreign body passing through the intestinal wall (in three cases), and gas in the peritoneal cavity (in one case). In cases of foreign body ingestion, intestinal perforation is more common when the foreign body is elongated and sharp. Although patients typically do not report having ingested such foreign bodies, the scenario should be suspected in elderly individuals who use dental prostheses. A computed tomography scan can detect foreign bodies, locate perforations, and guide treatment. The findings that suggest perforation are thickening of the intestinal walls, increased mesenteric fat density, and, less frequently, gas in the peritoneal cavity, often restricted to the point of perforation.

  1. Loss of HLTF function promotes intestinal carcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandhu Sumit

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HLTF (Helicase-like Transcription Factor is a DNA helicase protein homologous to the SWI/SNF family involved in the maintenance of genomic stability and the regulation of gene expression. HLTF has also been found to be frequently inactivated by promoter hypermethylation in human colon cancers. Whether this epigenetic event is required for intestinal carcinogenesis is unknown. Results To address the role of loss of HLTF function in the development of intestinal cancer, we generated Hltf deficient mice. These mutant mice showed normal development, and did not develop intestinal tumors, indicating that loss of Hltf function by itself is insufficient to induce the formation of intestinal cancer. On the Apcmin/+ mutant background, Hltf- deficiency was found to significantly increase the formation of intestinal adenocarcinoma and colon cancers. Cytogenetic analysis of colon tumor cells from Hltf -/-/Apcmin/+ mice revealed a high incidence of gross chromosomal instabilities, including Robertsonian fusions, chromosomal fragments and aneuploidy. None of these genetic alterations were observed in the colon tumor cells derived from Apcmin/+ mice. Increased tumor growth and genomic instability was also demonstrated in HCT116 human colon cancer cells in which HLTF expression was significantly decreased. Conclusion Taken together, our results demonstrate that loss of HLTF function promotes the malignant transformation of intestinal or colonic adenomas to carcinomas by inducing genomic instability. Our findings highly suggest that epigenetic inactivation of HLTF, as found in most human colon cancers, could play an important role in the progression of colon tumors to malignant cancer.

  2. Intestinal perforation by an ingested foreign body

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolodi, Gabriel Cleve; Trippia, Cesar Rodrigo; Caboclo, Maria Fernanda F.S.; Castro, Francisco Gomes de; Miller, Wagner Peitl; Lima, Raphael Rodrigues de; Tazima, Leandro; Geraldo, Jamylle, E-mail: gabrielnicolodi@gmail.com [Hospital Sao Vicente - Funef, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2016-09-15

    Objective: To identify the computed tomography findings suggestive of intestinal perforation by an ingested foreign body. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective study of four cases of surgically proven intestinal perforation by a foreign body, comparing the computed tomography findings with those described in the literature. Results: None of the patients reported having ingested a foreign body, all were over 60 years of age, three of the four patients used a dental prosthesis, and all of the foreign bodies were elongated and sharp. In all four patients, there were findings indicative of acute abdomen. None of the foreign bodies were identified on conventional X-rays. The computed tomography findings suggestive of perforation were thickening of the intestinal walls (in all four cases), increased density of mesenteric fat (in all four cases), identification of the foreign body passing through the intestinal wall (in three cases), and gas in the peritoneal cavity (in one case). Conclusion: In cases of foreign body ingestion, intestinal perforation is more common when the foreign body is elongated and sharp. Although patients typically do not report having ingested such foreign bodies, the scenario should be suspected in elderly individuals who use dental prostheses. A computed tomography scan can detect foreign bodies, locate perforations, and guide treatment. The findings that suggest perforation are thickening of the intestinal walls, increased mesenteric fat density, and, less frequently, gas in the peritoneal cavity, often restricted to the point of perforation. (author)

  3. The intestinal microbiome of fish under starvation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jun Hong; Lin, Grace; Fu, Gui Hong; Wan, Zi Yi; Lee, May; Wang, Le; Liu, Xiao Jun; Yue, Gen Hua

    2014-04-05

    Starvation not only affects the nutritional and health status of the animals, but also the microbial composition in the host's intestine. Next-generation sequencing provides a unique opportunity to explore gut microbial communities and their interactions with hosts. However, studies on gut microbiomes have been conducted predominantly in humans and land animals. Not much is known on gut microbiomes of aquatic animals and their changes under changing environmental conditions. To address this shortcoming, we determined the microbial gene catalogue, and investigated changes in the microbial composition and host-microbe interactions in the intestine of Asian seabass in response to starvation. We found 33 phyla, 66 classes, 130 orders and 278 families in the intestinal microbiome. Proteobacteria (48.8%), Firmicutes (15.3%) and Bacteroidetes (8.2%) were the three most abundant bacteria taxa. Comparative analyses of the microbiome revealed shifts in bacteria communities, with dramatic enrichment of Bacteroidetes, but significant depletion of Betaproteobacteria in starved intestines. In addition, significant differences in clusters of orthologous groups (COG) functional categories and orthologous groups were observed. Genes related to antibiotic activity in the microbiome were significantly enriched in response to starvation, and host genes related to the immune response were generally up-regulated. This study provides the first insights into the fish intestinal microbiome and its changes under starvation. Further detailed study on interactions between intestinal microbiomes and hosts under dynamic conditions will shed new light on how the hosts and microbes respond to the changing environment.

  4. Curcumin ameliorates gastrointestinal dysfunction and oxidative damage in diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Indarchandji Kochar

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes is known to be associated with gastrointestinal complications characterized by nausea, vomiting, early satiety, bloating, and abdominal discomfort or pain commonly occurring in the advanced stages of the disease. Curcumin is the lipid-soluble antioxidant obtained from the rhizomes of Curcuma longa Linn, also known as turmeric. Curcumin targets multiple chemotherapeutic and oxidative stress pathways and has demonstrated safety and tolerability in humans, supporting its potential as a therapeutic agent; however, literature lacks conclusive evidence supporting its use as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of diabetes induced gastrointestinal complications. Hence, Curcumin was given in different doses to SD rats after 4 weeks of diabetic GI complication induction. At the end of 4 weeks, significant GI dysfunction characterized by weight loss, delayed gastric emptying and intestinal transit associated with reduction in antioxidant enzyme levels and increased lipid peroxidation was observed.  Upon treatment with Curcumin for further 4 weeks, reversal of GI dysfunction evidenced by restoration of body weight, GI emptying, intestinal transit, and restoration of antioxidant enzyme level and lipid peroxidation proves the beneficial role of Curcumin in diabetes induced GI complications due to its antioxidant potential.     

  5. Fecal markers of intestinal inflammation and intestinal permeability are elevated in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwiertz, Andreas; Spiegel, Jörg; Dillmann, Ulrich; Grundmann, David; Bürmann, Jan; Faßbender, Klaus; Schäfer, Karl-Herbert; Unger, Marcus M

    2018-02-12

    Intestinal inflammation and increased intestinal permeability (both possibly fueled by dysbiosis) have been suggested to be implicated in the multifactorial pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). The objective of the current study was to investigate whether fecal markers of inflammation and impaired intestinal barrier function corroborate this pathogenic aspect of PD. In a case-control study, we quantitatively analyzed established fecal markers of intestinal inflammation (calprotectin and lactoferrin) and fecal markers of intestinal permeability (alpha-1-antitrypsin and zonulin) in PD patients (n = 34) and controls (n = 28, group-matched for age) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The study design controlled for potential confounding factors. Calprotectin, a fecal marker of intestinal inflammation, and two fecal markers of increased intestinal permeability (alpha-1-antitrypsin and zonulin) were significantly elevated in PD patients compared to age-matched controls. Lactoferrin, as a second fecal marker of intestinal inflammation, showed a non-significant trend towards elevated concentrations in PD patients. None of the four fecal markers correlated with disease severity, PD subtype, dopaminergic therapy, or presence of constipation. Fecal markers reflecting intestinal inflammation and increased intestinal permeability have been primarily investigated in inflammatory bowel disease so far. Our data indicate that calprotectin, alpha-1-antitrypsin and zonulin could be useful non-invasive markers in PD as well. Even though these markers are not disease-specific, they corroborate the hypothesis of an intestinal inflammation as contributing factor in the pathogenesis of PD. Further investigations are needed to determine whether calprotectin, alpha-1-antitrypsin and zonulin can be used to define PD subgroups and to monitor the effect of interventions in PD. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Molecular aspects of intestinal calcium absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz de Barboza, Gabriela; Guizzardi, Solange; Tolosa de Talamoni, Nori

    2015-06-21

    Intestinal Ca(2+) absorption is a crucial physiological process for maintaining bone mineralization and Ca(2+) homeostasis. It occurs through the transcellular and paracellular pathways. The first route comprises 3 steps: the entrance of Ca(2+) across the brush border membranes (BBM) of enterocytes through epithelial Ca(2+) channels TRPV6, TRPV5, and Cav1.3; Ca(2+) movement from the BBM to the basolateral membranes by binding proteins with high Ca(2+) affinity (such as CB9k); and Ca(2+) extrusion into the blood. Plasma membrane Ca(2+) ATPase (PMCA1b) and sodium calcium exchanger (NCX1) are mainly involved in the exit of Ca(2+) from enterocytes. A novel molecule, the 4.1R protein, seems to be a partner of PMCA1b, since both molecules co-localize and interact. The paracellular pathway consists of Ca(2+) transport through transmembrane proteins of tight junction structures, such as claudins 2, 12, and 15. There is evidence of crosstalk between the transcellular and paracellular pathways in intestinal Ca(2+) transport. When intestinal oxidative stress is triggered, there is a decrease in the expression of several molecules of both pathways that inhibit intestinal Ca(2+) absorption. Normalization of redox status in the intestine with drugs such as quercetin, ursodeoxycholic acid, or melatonin return intestinal Ca(2+) transport to control values. Calcitriol [1,25(OH)₂D₃] is the major controlling hormone of intestinal Ca(2+) transport. It increases the gene and protein expression of most of the molecules involved in both pathways. PTH, thyroid hormones, estrogens, prolactin, growth hormone, and glucocorticoids apparently also regulate Ca(2+) transport by direct action, indirect mechanism mediated by the increase of renal 1,25(OH)₂D₃ production, or both. Different physiological conditions, such as growth, pregnancy, lactation, and aging, adjust intestinal Ca(2+) absorption according to Ca(2+) demands. Better knowledge of the molecular details of intestinal Ca(2

  7. Reversibility of alcohol-induced immune depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, H; Kaiser, A H; Nielsen, B B

    1992-01-01

    Alcohol abusers have suppressed cellular immune function. The aim of the study was to investigate the time of sobriety required to normalize immune function. Delayed hypersensitivity was investigated during disulfiram controlled abstinence in ten heavy alcoholics and in seven moderate drinkers wi...

  8. Intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury augments intestinal mucosal injury and bacterial translocation in jaundiced rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yüksek, Yunus Nadi; Kologlu, Murat; Daglar, Gül; Doganay, Mutlu; Dolapci, Istar; Bilgihan, Ayse; Dolapçi, Mete; Kama, Nuri Aydin

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate local effects and degree of bacterial translocation related with intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury in a rat obstructive jaundice model. Thirty adult Sprague-Dawley rats (200-250 g) were divided into three groups; including Group 1 (jaundice group), Group 2 (jaundice-ischemia group) and Group 3 (ischemia group). All rats had 2 laparotomies. After experimental interventions, tissue samples for translocation; liver and ileum samples for histopathological examination, 25 cm of small intestine for mucosal myeloperoxidase and malondialdehyde levels and blood samples for biochemical analysis were obtained. Jaundiced rats had increased liver enzyme levels and total and direct bilirubin levels (p<0.05). Intestinal mucosal myeloperoxidase and malondialdehyde levels were found to be high in intestinal ischemia-reperfusion groups (p<0.05). Intestinal mucosal damage was more severe in rats with intestinal ischemia-reperfusion after bile duct ligation (p<0.05). Degree of bacterial translocation was also found to be significantly high in these rats (p<0.05). Intestinal mucosa is disturbed more severely in obstructive jaundice with the development of ischemia and reperfusion. Development of intestinal ischemia-reperfusion in obstructive jaundice increases bacterial translocation.

  9. Plasma intestinal fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP) concentrations increase following intestinal ischemia in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niewold, T.A.; Meinen, M.; Meulen, van der J.

    2004-01-01

    Intestinal fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP) is an intracellular epithelial protein in the intestinal mucosa of many animals. IFABP appears in the circulation following epithelial damage, and in humans, is proven to be a parameter for damage to the mucosa. In this paper, an ELISA test designed for

  10. Intestinal rehabilitation for children with intestinal failure is cost-effective : a simulation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, Henk; Neelis, Esther G; Poley, Marten J; Olieman, Joanne F; Scheenstra, René; Krabbe, Paul Fm; Dijkstra, Gerard; Rings, Edmond Hhm

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Children with intestinal failure (IF) depend on parenteral nutrition (PN). The goal in the treatment of IF is to wean children off PN through intestinal rehabilitation (IR). Although the healthcare burden of IF is enormous, to our knowledge there has been no previous cost-effectiveness

  11. Intestinal rehabilitation for children with intestinal failure is cost-effective : a simulation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, Henk; Neelis, Esther G.; Poley, Marten J.; Olieman, Joanne F.; Scheenstra, Rene; Krabbe, Paul F. M.; Dijkstra, Gerard; Rings, Edmond H. H. M.

    Background: Children with intestinal failure (IF) depend on parenteral nutrition (PN). The goal in the treatment of IF is to wean children off PN through intestinal rehabilitation (IR). Although the healthcare burden of IF is enormous, to our knowledge there has been no previous cost-effectiveness

  12. [Myosin B ATPase activity of the intestinal smooth muscle in intestinal obstruction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamatsu, H

    1983-06-01

    Intestinal smooth myosin B was prepared from muscle layers around the lesion in dogs with experimental colonic stenosis and in patients with congenital intestinal obstruction. Mg2+-ATPase activity of the myosin B was compared between the proximal dilated segment and distal segment to obstruction. Experimental colonic stenosis: In early period after surgery, proximal colons showed higher activity of myosin B ATPase than distal colons, decreasing to less than distal colon as time passed. Congenital intestinal obstruction: In three cases, whose atresia might have occurred at earlier period of gestation, proximal bowels showed less activity of myosin B ATPase than distal bowels. However, in two cases, whose atresia might have occurred at later period of gestation, and two cases with intestinal stenosis, proximal bowels indicated higher activity of myosin B ATPase than distal bowels. These data suggested that the contractibility of the proximal intestine was depending on the duration of obstruction, and it was depressed in the former patients and was accelerated in the latter patients. These results suggested that the extensive resection of dilated proximal bowel in the congenital atresia is not always necessary to obtain good postoperative intestinal dynamics at the operation of the atresial lesions which may be induced at later period of gestation. They also suggested that surgery for intestinal obstruction should be performed before the depression of intestinal contractibility to get good bowel function.

  13. Coagulation of sheep intestinal and prefemoral lymph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, C A; Johnston, M G; Nelson, W

    1988-06-01

    We have determined the most suitable method for the automated analysis of the clotting parameters in sheep intestinal and prefemoral lymph as defined by the Activated Partial Thromboplastin Times (APTT; measure of intrinsic coagulation pathway) and the Prothrombin Times (PT; measure of extrinsic coagulation pathway). As opposed to optical density systems, the use of a Fibro-System Fibrometer was found to provide the most consistent assessment of coagulation with the endpoint being the time to fibrin strand formation. We measured APTT in sheep intestinal and prefemoral lymph of 59.78 +/- 7.69 seconds and 51.03 +/- 10.49 seconds respectively. These values were more prolonged than those obtained from sheep blood plasma but only in the case of intestinal lymph were the differences significant (p less than 0.025). Human blood APTT values were significantly less than both sheep blood (p less than 0.05) and sheep intestinal (p less than 0.001) and prefemoral lymph (p less than 0.01). PT values were found to be 21.56 +/- 1.14 seconds in intestinal and 22.00 +/- 1.88 seconds in prefemoral lymph. These values were also significantly greater than those obtained from sheep blood (both p less than 0.001). Human blood PTs were significantly less than both sheep blood (p less than 0.001) and intestinal and prefemoral lymph (both p less than 0.001). Measurement of APTT and PT values in intestinal lymph and PT determinations in prefemoral lymph were not affected by storage in the refrigerator or freezer. There was some indication that APTT values in prefemoral samples were susceptible to storage artifacts; however, the differences in coagulation times were not significant.

  14. Neonatal intestinal obstruction in Benin, Nigeria

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    Osifo Osarumwense

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Intestinal obstruction is a life threatening condition in the newborn, with attendant high mortality rate especially in underserved subregion. This study reports the aetiology, presentation, and outcome of intestinal obstruction management in neonates. Materials and Methods: A prospective study of neonatal intestinal obstruction at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin, Nigeria, between January 2006-June 2008. Data were collated on a structured proforma and analysed for age, sex, weight, presentation, type/date of gestation/delivery, aetiology, clinical presentation, associated anomaly, treatment, and outcome. Results: There were 71 neonates, 52 were males and 19 were females (2.7:1. Their age range was between 12 hours and 28 days (mean, 7.9 ± 2.7 days and they weighed between 1.8 and 5.2 kg (average, 3.2 kg. The causes of intestinal obstruction were: Anorectal anomaly, 28 (39.4%; Hirschsprung′s disease, 8 (11.3%′ prematurity, 3 (4.2%; meconeum plug, 2 (2.8%; malrotation, 6 (8.5%; intestinal atresia, 8 (11.3%; necrotising enterocolitis (NEC, 4 (5.6%; obstructed hernia, 4 (5.6%; and spontaneous gut perforation, 3 (4.2%. Also, 27 (38% children had colostomy, 24 (33.8% had laparotomy, 9 (12.8% had anoplasty, while 11 (15.4% were managed nonoperatively. A total of 41 (57.7% neonates required incubator, 26 (36.6% needed total parenteral nutrition, while 15 (21.1% require d paediatric ventilator. Financial constraint, late presentation, presence of multiple anomalies, aspiration, sepsis, gut perforation, and bowel gangrene were the main contributors to death. Neonates with lower obstructions had a better outcome compared to those having upper intestinal obstruction ( P < 0.0001. Conclusion: Outcomes of intestinal obstruction are still poor in our setting; late presentation, financial constraints, poor parental motivation and lack of basic facilities were the major determinants of mortality.

  15. CT evaluation of mechanical intestinal obstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Sung Tag; Kim, Ho Kyun; Jeon, Jeong Dong; Kim, Young Tong [Gollege of Medicine, Inje University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-11-15

    To evaluate the usefulness of CT for the diagnosis and treatment planning of mechanical intestinal obstruction. We retrospectively reviewed 38 patients who were clinically suspected of mechanical intestinal obstruction and had undergone abdominal CT. The CT scans were evaluated for the absence or presence, severity, cause and site of intestinal obstruction. CT findings were compared with the results of laparotomy, barium study and clinical course. The absence or presence and severity of intestinal obstruction were classified into no obstruction, partial obstruction, complete obstruction. Diagnosis was established by means of laparotomy in 20 cases, barium study in 9 cases and clinical course in 9 cases. Of 38 cases, 7(18.4%) showed no obstruction, 22(57.9%) showed partial obstruction, and 9(23.7%) showed complete obstruction. The presence or absence and severity on CT scans were correctly predicted in 36 of 38 cases (sensitivity 95 %, specificity 97 %, accuracy 96 %) (in case of no obstruction: sensitivity 100 %, specificity 94%, accuracy 95%; in case of partial obstruction : sensitivity 91%, specificity 100%, accuracy 95%; in case of complete obstruction : sensitivity 100%, specificity 100%, accuracy 100%). All 9 cases with complete obstruction underwent prompt and immediate laparotomy. 13 cases, excluding those with mass around the site of transition and adhesion with strangulation, with partial obstruction improved with conservative treatment without laparotomy. The causes of obstruction were adhesion in 13, hernia in 6, primary cancer in 5, metastatic cancer in 3, abscess in 2, intestinal tbc in 1, and Crohn's disease in 1. The cause of obstruction on CT scans were correctly predicted in 27 of 31 cases (87.1 %). The sites of obstruction on CT scans were correctly predicted in 22 of 26 cases (84.6%). CT is valuable in the evaluation of absence or presence, severity, cause and site of intestinal obstruction, and is considered to be helpful in treatment

  16. Elm bark extract improves immunomodulation and ameliorates oxidative stress in irradiated mice

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    You-Suk Lee

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: Our results indicate that EB extract (50 mg/kg body weight protects against radiation damage, at least in part, by improving immunomodulation and ameliorating oxidative stress in irradiated mice.

  17. Nitric oxide synthase inhibition ameliorates nicotine-induced sperm function decline in male rats

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    Ibukun P. Oyeyipo

    2015-09-01

    Conclusion: Taken together, the present data indicate the abilities of l-NAME to ameliorate nicotine-induced spermatotoxic effects in male rats via a mechanism dependent on the circulating testosterone level.

  18. Ameliorative Effect of Allopurinol on Vascular Complications of Insulin Resistance

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    Hany M. El-Bassossy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current study was to evaluate the possible protective effect of allopurinol (Allo on experimentally induced insulin resistance (IR and vascular complications. Rats were divided into four groups: control, IR, allopurinol-treated IR (IR-Allo, and allopurinol-treated control (Allo. IR was induced by adding fructose and high fat, high salt diet for 12 weeks. The results showed that Allo has alleviated the increased level of TNF-α and the systolic, diastolic, mean, and notch pressure observed in IR with no change in pulse pressure. In addition, Allo decreased the heart rate in the treated group compared to IR rats. On the other hand, it has no effect on increased levels of insulin, glucose, fructosamine, or body weight gain compared to IR group, while it increased significantly the insulin level and body weight without hyperglycemia in the control group. Moreover, Allo treatment ameliorated increased level of 4HNE, Ang II, and Ang R1. In conclusion, the results of the current study show that Allo has a protective effect on vascular complications of IR which may be attributed to the effect of Allo on decreasing the TNF-α, 4HNE, Ang II, and Ang R1 as well as increasing the level of insulin secretion.

  19. Insulin sensitizer prevents and ameliorates experimental type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valitsky, Michael; Hoffman, Amnon; Unterman, Terry; Bar-Tana, Jacob

    2017-12-01

    Insulin-dependent type-1 diabetes (T1D) is driven by autoimmune β-cell failure, whereas systemic resistance to insulin is considered the hallmark of insulin-independent type-2 diabetes (T2D). In contrast to this canonical dichotomy, insulin resistance appears to precede the overt diabetic stage of T1D and predict its progression, implying that insulin sensitizers may change the course of T1D. However, previous attempts to ameliorate T1D in animal models or patients by insulin sensitizers have largely failed. Sensitization to insulin by MEthyl-substituted long-chain DICArboxylic acid (MEDICA) analogs in T2D animal models surpasses that of current insulin sensitizers, thus prompting our interest in probing MEDICA in the T1D context. MEDICA efficacy in modulating the course of T1D was verified in streptozotocin (STZ) diabetic rats and autoimmune nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice. MEDICA treatment normalizes overt diabetes in STZ diabetic rats when added on to subtherapeutic insulin, and prevents/delays autoimmune T1D in NOD mice. MEDICA treatment does not improve β-cell insulin content or insulitis score, but its efficacy is accounted for by pronounced total body sensitization to insulin. In conclusion, potent insulin sensitizers may counteract genetic predisposition to autoimmune T1D and amplify subtherapeutic insulin into an effective therapeutic measure for the treatment of overt T1D. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  20. use of tolerant plants for environmental amelioration of saline soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salem, S.M.

    2007-01-01

    the objectives of this work are to use halophyte plants as suitable means for ameliorating salt-affected soils and to evaluate the use of saline water in irrigation halophyte plants as well as to determine the impact of saline irrigation on different properties of the salt -affected soil. two halophyte plants (i.e Atriplex nummularia and leptochloa fusca ( kallar grass)) were grown for 120 days during growth seasons of 2004 (first season) and 2005 ( second season)in lysimeters of 250 k gs capacity, which were filled with 180 k gs soil. the experiment was a randomized complete block factorial, involving two factors. the first factor was halophyte type (two halophytes were used, kallar grass and atriplex).the investigated data point to Ca accumulation in soil profile was increased with the increase in salinity level of irrigation water. increasing salinity of irrigation water sharply increased Mg accumulation in soil profile, especially with the cultivation of atriplex, where Mg accumulation by kallar grass was dramatically more than those occurred by atriplex.. kallar grass appears to have a good ability to reduce R Na C from the three soil layers under different saline irrigation waters rather than atriplex. R Na C (under using fresh water) was the lowest in the three soil layers rather the rest of the saline irrigation waters in both case of the two plants. a high residual sodium concentration recorded in soil cultivated by atriplex rather than kallar grass

  1. Exenatide with Metformin Ameliorated Visceral Adiposity and Insulin Resistance

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    Xuan Du

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. To study the effectiveness of exenatide with metformin and sequential treatment with exenatide and glargine added to metformin and their influence on insulin sensitivity and adipose distribution. Methods. 20 newly diagnosed obese type 2 diabetic patients were enrolled, and 2-month washout treatment of metformin, 6-month exenatide treatment, and 6-month glargine treatment were administrated sequentially accompanied with previous metformin. Glucolipid metabolic parameters were compared among groups. Adipose distribution was quantified with computerized tomography according to anatomy, dividing into visceral adipose tissue (VAT and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT, adding up to total adipose tissue (TAT. Results. The 6-month exenatide treatment dramatically ameliorated the glucose and lipid profile, improved insulin sensitivity, and mainly decreased VAT and also the ratio of VAT/SAT (RVS. The following 6-month glargine treatment increased VAT. The whole 12-month sequential treatment with exenatide and glargine added to metformin basically improved the insulin sensitivity and glucolipid control though VAT rebounded at the end, however without deteriorating the other parameters. Conclusion. Exenatide is an ideal treatment for obese type 2 diabetic patients in the aspect of adipose tissue distribution. Sequential treatment of exenatide and glargine could be an alternative for low-income patients who cannot afford GLP-1 agonist for long time. This trial is registered with ChiCTR-OOC-17013679.

  2. Levetiracetam ameliorates ovarian function in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akman, Levent; Erbas, Oytun; Akdemir, Ali; Yavasoglu, Altug; Taskiran, Dilek; Kazandi, Mert

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus can adversely affect gonadal function. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the protective effects and mechanism of action of levetiracetam (LEV) on the ovaries in a streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes model in rats. Twenty-one adult female rats were assigned to three groups as control, diabetes group treated with 1 mL/kg/d saline (STZ + SP) and diabetes group treated with 600 mg/kg/d LEV (STZ + LEV). Following 4 weeks treatment, blood samples were collected for biochemical analysis and ovariectomy was performed for histopathological examination. Plasma anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH), glutathione and total anti-oxidant capacity values were significantly lower whereas lipid peroxides and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) values were significantly higher in STZ + SP group compared to control. LEV treatment successfully decreased lipid peroxidation and TGF-β levels, and also increased anti-oxidant parameters and AMH levels in diabetic rats. Saline-treated rats significantly displayed ovarian degeneration and decreased counts of follicles. However, treatment of diabetic rats with LEV effectively prevented the degenerative changes and follicle loss. Also, LEV suppressed ovarian nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kB) immunoexpression in diabetic rats. Taken together, we propose that LEV can ameliorate the adverse effects of diabetes on ovarian function via decreasing NF-kB expression and oxidative stress and increasing anti-oxidant status in rats.

  3. Cannabidiol treatment ameliorates ischemia/reperfusion renal injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouad, Amr A; Al-Mulhim, Abdulruhman S; Jresat, Iyad

    2012-09-17

    To investigate the protective effect of cannabidiol, the major non-psychotropic Cannabis constituent, against renal ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats. Bilateral renal ischemia was induced for 30 min followed by reperfusion for 24h. Cannabidiol (5mg/kg, i.v.) was given 1h before and 12h following the procedure. Ischemia/reperfusion caused significant elevations of serum creatinine and renal malondialdehyde and nitric oxide levels, associated with a significant decrease in renal reduced glutathione. Cannabidiol significantly attenuated the deterioration in the measured biochemical parameters induced by ischemia/reperfusion. Histopathological examination showed that cannabidiol ameliorated ischemia/reperfusion-induced kidney damage. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that cannabidiol significantly reduced the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, tumor necrosis factor-α, cyclooxygenase-2, nuclear factor-κB, Fas ligand and caspase-3, and increased the expression of survivin in ischemic/reperfused kidney tissue. Cannabidiol, via its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, may represent a potential therapeutic option to protect against ischemia/reperfusion renal injury. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Listening to classical music ameliorates unilateral neglect after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Pei-Luen; Chen, Mei-Ching; Huang, Yu-Ting; Lin, Keh-Chung; Chen, Kuan-Lin; Hsu, Yung-Wen

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. We determined whether listening to excerpts of classical music ameliorates unilateral neglect (UN) in stroke patients. METHOD. In this within-subject study, we recruited and separately tested 16 UN patients with a right-hemisphere stroke under three conditions within 1 wk. In each condition, participants were asked to complete three subtests of the Behavioral Inattention Test while listening to classical music, white noise, or nothing. All conditions and the presentation of the tests were counterbalanced across participants. Visual analog scales were used to provide self-reported ratings of arousal and mood. RESULTS. Participants generally had the highest scores under the classical music condition and the lowest scores under the silence condition. In addition, most participants rated their arousal as highest after listening to classical music. CONCLUSION. Listening to classical music may improve visual attention in stroke patients with UN. Future research with larger study populations is necessary to validate these findings. Copyright © 2013 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  5. Yangjing Capsule Ameliorates Spermatogenesis in Male Mice Exposed to Cyclophosphamide

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    Hongle Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Yangjing capsule (YC, a traditional Chinese compound herbal preparation, has been proven as an effective drug to improve spermatogenesis in clinical practice. However, its pharmacological mechanisms were not fully clarified. This study was designed to investigate the protective effects of YC on spermatogenesis in the mouse model of spermatogenesis dysfunction induced by cyclophosphamide (CP. The administration of YC significantly increased the epididymal index, sperm count, and sperm motility of model mice. Histopathological changes demonstrated that CP caused obvious structural damage to testis, which were reversed by the administration of YC. Results from TUNEL assay showed that treatment with YC dramatically decreased the apoptosis of spermatogenic cell induced by CP. Moreover, YC treatment could inhibit the mRNA and protein expression of Bax to Bcl-2 and also raised expression of AR at both mRNA and protein levels. These data suggest that YC might ameliorate spermatogenesis in male mice exposed to CP through inhibiting the apoptosis of spermatogenic cell and enhancing the actions of testosterone in spermatogenesis.

  6. Intestinal cytochromes P450 regulating the intestinal microbiota and its probiotic profile

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    Eugenia Elefterios Venizelos Bezirtzoglou

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Cytochromes P450 (CYPs enzymes metabolize a large variety of xenobiotic substances. In this vein, a plethora of studies were conducted to investigate their role, as cytochromes are located in both liver and intestinal tissues. The P450 profile of the human intestine has not been fully characterized. Human intestine serves primarily as an absorptive organ for nutrients, although it has also the ability to metabolize drugs. CYPs are responsible for the majority of phase I drug metabolism reactions. CYP3A represents the major intestinal CYP (80% followed by CYP2C9. CYP1A is expressed at high level in the duodenum, together with less abundant levels of CYP2C8-10 and CYP2D6. Cytochromes present a genetic polymorphism intra- or interindividual and intra- or interethnic. Changes in the pharmacokinetic profile of the drug are associated with increased toxicity due to reduced metabolism, altered efficacy of the drug, increased production of toxic metabolites, and adverse drug interaction. The high metabolic capacity of the intestinal flora is due to its enormous pool of enzymes, which catalyzes reactions in phase I and phase II drug metabolism. Compromised intestinal barrier conditions, when rupture of the intestinal integrity occurs, could increase passive paracellular absorption. It is clear that high microbial intestinal charge following intestinal disturbances, ageing, environment, or food-associated ailments leads to the microbial metabolism of a drug before absorption. The effect of certain bacteria having a benefic action on the intestinal ecosystem has been largely discussed during the past few years by many authors. The aim of the probiotic approach is to repair the deficiencies in the gut flora and establish a protective effect. There is a tentative multifactorial association of the CYP (P450 cytochrome role in the different diseases states, environmental toxic effects or chemical exposures and nutritional status.

  7. Generation of tissue-engineered small intestine using embryonic stem cell-derived human intestinal organoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkbeiner, Stacy R; Freeman, Jennifer J; Wieck, Minna M; El-Nachef, Wael; Altheim, Christopher H; Tsai, Yu-Hwai; Huang, Sha; Dyal, Rachel; White, Eric S; Grikscheit, Tracy C; Teitelbaum, Daniel H; Spence, Jason R

    2015-10-12

    Short bowel syndrome (SBS) is characterized by poor nutrient absorption due to a deficit of healthy intestine. Current treatment practices rely on providing supportive medical therapy with parenteral nutrition; while life saving, such interventions are not curative and are still associated with significant co-morbidities. As approaches to lengthen remaining intestinal tissue have been met with only limited success and intestinal transplants have poor survival outcomes, new approaches to treating SBS are necessary. Human intestine derived from embryonic stem cells (hESCs) or induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), called human intestinal organoids (HIOs), have the potential to offer a personalized and scalable source of intestine for regenerative therapies. However, given that HIOs are small three-dimensional structures grown in vitro, methods to generate usable HIO-derived constructs are needed. We investigated the ability of hESCs or HIOs to populate acellular porcine intestinal matrices and artificial polyglycolic/poly L lactic acid (PGA/PLLA) scaffolds, and examined the ability of matrix/scaffolds to thrive when transplanted in vivo. Our results demonstrate that the acellular matrix alone is not sufficient to instruct hESC differentiation towards an endodermal or intestinal fate. We observed that while HIOs reseed acellular porcine matrices in vitro, the HIO-reseeded matrices do not thrive when transplanted in vivo. In contrast, HIO-seeded PGA/PLLA scaffolds thrive in vivo and develop into tissue that looks nearly identical to adult human intestinal tissue. Our results suggest that HIO-seeded PGA/PLLA scaffolds are a promising avenue for developing the mucosal component of tissue engineered human small intestine, which need to be explored further to develop them into fully functional tissue. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  8. Generation of tissue-engineered small intestine using embryonic stem cell-derived human intestinal organoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacy R. Finkbeiner

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Short bowel syndrome (SBS is characterized by poor nutrient absorption due to a deficit of healthy intestine. Current treatment practices rely on providing supportive medical therapy with parenteral nutrition; while life saving, such interventions are not curative and are still associated with significant co-morbidities. As approaches to lengthen remaining intestinal tissue have been met with only limited success and intestinal transplants have poor survival outcomes, new approaches to treating SBS are necessary. Human intestine derived from embryonic stem cells (hESCs or induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs, called human intestinal organoids (HIOs, have the potential to offer a personalized and scalable source of intestine for regenerative therapies. However, given that HIOs are small three-dimensional structures grown in vitro, methods to generate usable HIO-derived constructs are needed. We investigated the ability of hESCs or HIOs to populate acellular porcine intestinal matrices and artificial polyglycolic/poly L lactic acid (PGA/PLLA scaffolds, and examined the ability of matrix/scaffolds to thrive when transplanted in vivo. Our results demonstrate that the acellular matrix alone is not sufficient to instruct hESC differentiation towards an endodermal or intestinal fate. We observed that while HIOs reseed acellular porcine matrices in vitro, the HIO-reseeded matrices do not thrive when transplanted in vivo. In contrast, HIO-seeded PGA/PLLA scaffolds thrive in vivo and develop into tissue that looks nearly identical to adult human intestinal tissue. Our results suggest that HIO-seeded PGA/PLLA scaffolds are a promising avenue for developing the mucosal component of tissue engineered human small intestine, which need to be explored further to develop them into fully functional tissue.

  9. Intestinal Leiomyositis: A Cause of Chronic Intestinal Pseudo-Obstruction in 6 Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacuto, A C; Pesavento, P A; Hill, S; McAlister, A; Rosenthal, K; Cherbinsky, O; Marks, S L

    2016-01-01

    Intestinal leiomyositis is a suspected autoimmune disorder affecting the muscularis propria layer of the gastrointestinal tract and is a cause of chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction in humans and animals. To characterize the clinical presentation, histopathologic features, and outcome of dogs with intestinal leiomyositis in an effort to optimize treatment and prognosis. Six client-owned dogs. Retrospective case series. Medical records were reviewed to describe signalment, clinicopathologic and imaging findings, histopathologic diagnoses, treatment, and outcome. All biopsy specimens were reviewed by a board-certified pathologist. Median age of dogs was 5.4 years (range, 15 months-9 years). Consistent clinical signs included vomiting (6/6), regurgitation (2/6), and small bowel diarrhea (3/6). Median duration of clinical signs before presentation was 13 days (range, 5-150 days). Diagnostic imaging showed marked gastric distension with dilated small intestines in 4/6 dogs. Full-thickness intestinal biopsies were obtained in all dogs by laparotomy. Histopathology of the stomach and intestines disclosed mononuclear inflammation, myofiber degeneration and necrosis, and fibrosis centered within the region of myofiber loss in the intestinal muscularis propria. All dogs received various combinations of immunomodulatory and prokinetic treatment, antimicrobial agents, antiemetics, and IV fluids, but none of the dogs showed a clinically relevant improvement with treatment. Median survival was 19 days after diagnosis (range, 3-270 days). Intestinal leiomyositis is a cause of intestinal pseudo-obstruction and must be diagnosed by full-thickness intestinal biopsy. This disease should be considered in dogs with acute and chronic vomiting, regurgitation, and small bowel diarrhea. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  10. Red grape skin and seeds polyphenols: Evidence of their protective effects on endothelial progenitor cells and improvement of their intestinal absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felice, Francesca; Zambito, Ylenia; Di Colo, Giacomo; D'Onofrio, Claudio; Fausto, Catia; Balbarini, Alberto; Di Stefano, Rossella

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the ability of grape skin and seeds to protect endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) from oxidative stress induced by hyperglycemia (HG) compared to red wine (RW) and prepare innovative pharmaceutical systems for the oral administration of red grape extract allowing the overcoming of its poor intestinal absorption. Human EPC were characterized by expression of cell surface markers. Cells were incubated with different concentrations of total polyphenols from grape components or RW in the presence or absence of HG. Cell viability, migration, adhesion, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production were assayed. Intestinal permeation of polyphenols was studied in the absence or presence of a quaternary ammonium-chitosan conjugate (N⁺(60)-Ch). Grape components and RW increased EPC viability, adhesion and migration, and prevented the HG effect (P grape seed extract and RW (P polyphenol permeability across the excised rat intestine. Red grape components are a source of antioxidant compounds that ameliorate EPC viability and function, while preventing endothelial dysfunction. The use of polycationic chitosan derivatives can promote the absorption of polyphenols across intestinal epithelium, thus increasing their bioavailability and potential therapeutic value in atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Intestinal parasitic infections in renal transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azami, Mehdi; Sharifi, Mehran; Hejazi, Sayed Hossein; Tazhibi, Mehdi

    2010-01-01

    The impact of intestinal parasitic infection in renal transplant recipients requires careful consideration in the developing world. However, there have been very few studies addressing this issue in Iran. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in renal transplant recipients in Iran. Stool specimens from renal transplant recipients and control groups were obtained between June 2006 and January 2007. The samples screened for intestinal parasitic infections using direct smear, formalin-ether sedimentation, Sheather's flotation and modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining methods. Out of 150 renal transplant recipients, 33.3% (50), and out of 225 control group, 20% (45) were infected with one or more type of intestinal parasites. The parasites detected among patients included Entamoeba coli (10.6%), Endolimax nana (8.7%), Giardia lamblia (7.4%), Blastocystis spp. (4.7%), Iodamoeba butschlii (0.7%), Chilomastix mesnili (0.7%) and Ascaris lumbricoides (0.7%). Multiple infections were more common among renal transplant recipients group (p < 0.05). This study highlights the importance of testing for intestinal parasites among Iranian renal transplant recipients. Routine examinations of stool samples for parasites would significantly benefit the renal transplant recipients by contributing to reduce severe infections.

  12. Macrophages in intestinal homeostasis and inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, Calum C; Mowat, Allan McI

    2014-01-01

    The intestine contains the largest pool of macrophages in the body which are essential for maintaining mucosal homeostasis in the face of the microbiota and the constant need for epithelial renewal but are also important components of protective immunity and are involved in the pathology of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, defining the biological roles of intestinal macrophages has been impeded by problems in defining the phenotype and origins of different populations of myeloid cells in the mucosa. Here, we discuss how multiple parameters can be used in combination to discriminate between functionally distinct myeloid cells and discuss the roles of macrophages during homeostasis and how these may change when inflammation ensues. We also discuss the evidence that intestinal macrophages do not fit the current paradigm that tissue-resident macrophages are derived from embryonic precursors that self-renew in situ, but require constant replenishment by blood monocytes. We describe our recent work demonstrating that classical monocytes constantly enter the intestinal mucosa and how the environment dictates their subsequent fate. We believe that understanding the factors that drive intestinal macrophage development in the steady state and how these may change in response to pathogens or inflammation could provide important insights into the treatment of IBD. PMID:24942685

  13. Glutamine and Its Effects on the Intestine

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    Paul E Hardy

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Glutamine, an amino acid, is the principal energy substrate for small intestinal cells. It also acts as a nitrogen carrier through its amide nitrogen. Arterial glutamine is supported by net synthesis in skeletal muscle. Glutamine is rapidly metabolized by the intestine, whether supplied from the lumen or from the arterial circulation. Intestinal uptake of glutamine increases after trauma and operative stress. The consumption of glutamine by the gut may in large part be dependent on mucosal glutaminase activity and on enterocyte glutamine transport. Glutaminc has been shown to improve gut morphology and outcome in animal models of encerocolitis. It may play a similar role in aiding repair of human intestinal injury in persons with sufficient glutamine in their diet compared to those who arc glutamine deficient. Glutamine may have a positive effect on the immune function of the intestinal mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue. Glutamine is not currently available in nutritional preparations for routine clinical use, yet it has recently been shown to benefit maintenance of nitrogen balance in humans. Due to the instability and low solubility of glutamine, dipeptides have been studied. L-alanyl-L-glutamine seems to be the most promising glutamine precursor for parenteral use in humans, as it is safe and rapidly hydrolyzed in vivo to release free glutamine. The exact role of glutamine as a therapeutic agent to promote intetitinal well-being has yet to be determined. However, preliminary evidence suggests that glutaminc will be helpful in a variety of clinical scenarios.

  14. Intestinal parasitic infections in renal transplant recipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Azami

    Full Text Available The impact of intestinal parasitic infection in renal transplant recipients requires careful consideration in the developing world. However, there have been very few studies addressing this issue in Iran. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in renal transplant recipients in Iran. Stool specimens from renal transplant recipients and control groups were obtained between June 2006 and January 2007. The samples screened for intestinal parasitic infections using direct smear, formalin-ether sedimentation, Sheather's flotation and modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining methods. Out of 150 renal transplant recipients, 33.3% (50, and out of 225 control group, 20% (45 were infected with one or more type of intestinal parasites. The parasites detected among patients included Entamoeba coli (10.6%, Endolimax nana (8.7%, Giardia lamblia (7.4%, Blastocystis spp. (4.7%, Iodamoeba butschlii (0.7%, Chilomastix mesnili (0.7% and Ascaris lumbricoides (0.7%. Multiple infections were more common among renal transplant recipients group (p < 0.05. This study highlights the importance of testing for intestinal parasites among Iranian renal transplant recipients. Routine examinations of stool samples for parasites would significantly benefit the renal transplant recipients by contributing to reduce severe infections.

  15. Small Intestinal Obstruction Caused by Anisakiasis

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    Yuichi Takano

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Small intestinal anisakiasis is a rare disease that is very difficult to diagnose, and its initial diagnosis is often surgical. However, it is typically a benign disease that resolves with conservative treatment, and unnecessary surgery can be avoided if it is appropriately diagnosed. This case report is an example of small intestinal obstruction caused by anisakiasis that resolved with conservative treatment. A 63-year-old man admitted to our department with acute abdominal pain. A history of raw fish (sushi ingestion was recorded. Abdominal CT demonstrated small intestinal dilatation with wall thickening and contrast enhancement. Ascitic fluid was found on the liver surface and in the Douglas pouch. His IgE (RIST was elevated, and he tested positive for the anti-Anisakis antibodies IgG and IgA. Small intestinal obstruction by anisakiasis was highly suspected and conservative treatment was performed, ileus tube, fasting, and fluid replacement. Symptoms quickly resolved, and he was discharged on the seventh day of admission. Small intestinal anisakiasis is a relatively uncommon disease, the diagnosis of which may be difficult. Because it is a self-limiting disease that usually resolves in 1-2 weeks, a conservative approach is advisable to avoid unnecessary surgery.

  16. Tissue response after radiation exposure. Intestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsuka, Kensuke; Tomita, Masanori; Yamauchi, Motohiro; Iwasaki, Toshiyasu

    2014-01-01

    Gastrointestinal syndrome followed by 'gut death' is due to intestinal disorders. This syndrome is induced by high-dose (>10 Gy) of ionizing radiation. Recovery from the gastrointestinal syndrome would depend on the number of survived clonogens and regeneration capability of crypts. These tissue alterations can be observed by high-dose radiation, however, cellular dynamics in crypts can be affected by low-dose radiation. For example, Potten et al. found that low-dose radiation induce apoptosis of intestinal stem cells, which produce all differentiated function cells. Recently, intestinal stem cells are characterized by molecular markers such as Lgr5. Since intestinal adenomas can be induced by deletion of Apc gene in Lgr5 + stem cells, it is widely recognized that Lgr5 + stem cells are the cell-of-origin of cancer. Duodenal Lgr5 + stem cells are known as radioresistant cells, however, we found that ionizing radiation significantly induces the turnover of colonic Lgr5 + stem cells. Combined with the knowledge of other radioresistant markers, stem-cell dynamics in tissue after irradiation are becoming clear. The present review introduces the history of gastrointestinal syndrome and intestinal stem cells, and discusses those future perspectives. (author)

  17. Intestinal endocrine cells in radiation enteritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietroletti, R.; Blaauwgeers, J.L.; Taat, C.W.; Simi, M.; Brummelkamp, W.H.; Becker, A.E.

    1989-01-01

    In this study, the intestinal endocrine cells were investigated in 13 surgical specimens affected by radiation enteritis. Endocrine cells were studied by means of Grimelius' silver staining and immunostaining for chromogranin, a general marker of endocrine cells. Positively stained cells were quantified by counting their number per unit length of muscularis mucosa. Results in radiation enteritis were compared with matched control specimens by using Student's t test. Chromogranin immunostaining showed a statistically significant increase of endocrine cells in radiation enteritis specimens compared with controls both in small and large intestine (ileum, 67.5 +/- 23.5 cells per unit length of muscularis mucosa in radiation enteritis versus 17.0 +/- 6.1 in controls; colon, 40.9 +/- 13.7 cells per unit length of muscularis mucosa in radiation enteritis versus 9.5 +/- 4.1 in controls--p less than 0.005 in both instances). Increase of endocrine cells was demonstrated also by Grimelius' staining; however, without reaching statistical significance. It is not clear whether or not the increase of endocrine cells in radiation enteritis reported in this study is caused by a hyperplastic response or by a sparing phenomenon. We should consider that increased endocrine cells, when abnormally secreting their products, may be involved in some of the clinical features of radiation enteropathy. In addition, as intestinal endocrine cells produce trophic substances to the intestine, their increase could be responsible for the raised risk of developing carcinoma of the intestine in long standing radiation enteritis

  18. Stopping the error cascade: a report on ameliorators from the ASIPS collaborative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnes, Bennett; Fernald, Douglas; Quintela, Javán; Araya‐Guerra, Rodrigo; Westfall, John; Harris, Daniel; Pace, Wilson

    2007-01-01

    Objective To present a novel examination of how error cascades are stopped (ameliorated) before they affect patients. Design Qualitative analysis of reported errors in primary care. Setting Over a three‐year period, clinicians and staff in two practice‐based research networks voluntarily reported medical errors to a primary care patient safety reporting system, Applied Strategies for Improving Patient Safety (ASIPS). The authors found a number of reports where the error was corrected before it had an adverse impact on the patient. Results Of 754 codeable reported events, 60 were classified as ameliorated events. In these events, a participant stopped the progression of the event before it reached or affected the patient. Ameliorators included doctors, nurses, pharmacists, diagnostic laboratories and office staff. Additionally, patients or family members may be ameliorators by recognising the error and taking action. Ameliorating an event after an initial error requires an opportunity to catch the error by systems, chance or attentiveness. Correcting the error before it affects the patient requires action either directed by protocols and systems or by vigilance, power to change course and perseverance on the part of the ameliorator. Conclusion Despite numerous individual and systematic methods to prevent errors, a system to prevent all potential errors is not feasible. However, a more pervasive culture of safety that builds on simple acts in addition to more costly and complex electronic systems may improve patient outcomes. Medical staff and patients who are encouraged to be vigilant, ask questions and seek solutions may correct otherwise inevitable wrongs. PMID:17301195

  19. Amelioration and reforestation of sulfurous mine soils in Lusatia (eastern Germany)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katzur, J.; Haubold-Rosar, M.

    1996-01-01

    In Germany nearly 1.550 km 2 have been claimed by brown coal mining until now. Mine soils formed of carboniferous and sulfurous overburden are classified as sulfurous mine soils. They remain vegetation-free for decades and may be cultivated only after soil amelioration. The objective of amelioration is a sustained improvement of soil reaction. Lime requirement for the achievement of a certain pH-value is calculated from acid-base-balance (SBB). Lime fertilizers and base-rich brown coal ashes are used for amelioration. As ashes have several advantages, their application is recommended. The ameliorative application of lime fertilizer or brown coal ash should be incorporated intensively into the soil to a depth of 60 cm, better 100 cm. Amelioration includes a mineral fertilization with N, P and K. Afforestation with Pinus sylvestris, Pinus nigra, Larix decidua, Larix eurolepis. Tilia cordata, Quercus rubra and Quercus petraea on ameliorated mine soils show surprising good results. Multi-species stands have very positive effects on soil formation. Raw humus is formed under pine and larch, and under deciduous trees moder and mull with higher bioactivity and better development of water and nutrient balance in the topsoil are found. 55 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs

  20. Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass Surgery Suppresses Hepatic Gluconeogenesis and Increases Intestinal Gluconeogenesis in a T2DM Rat Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yong; Zhou, Zhou; Kong, Fanzhi; Feng, Suibin; Li, Xuzhong; Sha, Yanhua; Zhang, Guangjun; Liu, Haijun; Zhang, Haiqing; Wang, Shiguang; Hu, Cheng; Zhang, Xueli

    2016-11-01

    Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is an effective surgical treatment for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The present study aimed to investigate the effects of RYGB on glucose homeostasis, lipid metabolism, and intestinal morphological adaption, as well as hepatic and intestinal gluconeogenesis. Twenty adult male T2DM rats induced by high-fat diet and low dose of streptozotocin were randomly divided into sham and RYGB groups. The parameters of body weight, food intake, glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, and serum lipid profiles were assessed to evaluate metabolic changes. Intestinal sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) for light microscopy examination. The messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression levels of key regulatory enzymes of gluconeogenesis [phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase)] were determined through reverse-transcription PCR (RT-PCR) and Western blotting, respectively. RYGB induced significant improvements in glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity, along with weight loss and decreased food intake. RYGB also decreased serum triglyceride (TG) and free fatty acid (FFA) levels. The jejunum and ileum exhibited a marked increase in the length and number of intestinal villi after RYGB. The RYGB group exhibited downregulated mRNA and protein expression levels of PEPCK and G6Pase in the liver and upregulated expression of these enzymes in the jejunum and ileum tissues. RYGB ameliorates glucose and lipid metabolism accompanied by weight loss and calorie restriction. The small intestine shows hyperplasia and hypertrophy after RYGB. Meanwhile, our study demonstrated that the reduced hepatic gluconeogenesis and increased intestinal gluconeogenesis may contribute to improved glucose homeostasis after RYGB.

  1. Measures to minimize small intestine injury in the irradiated pelvis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, N.; Iba, G.; Smith, W.R.

    1975-01-01

    Small intestine injury causes long-term suffering and high mortality. Five of 187 of our patients had developed serious small intestine injury. Four patients had corrective surgery. Three patients died. All were women. Subsequently, all patients who received definitive pelvic irradiation had small intestine roentgenograms to determine its location and mobility. Female patients, thin patients, and elderly patients had larger amounts of small intestine in the whole pelvis, a deeper cul de sac, and a greater incidence of relatively immobile small intestine. Patients with relatively immobile small intestine in the treatment field may be predisposed to injury. There was no relationship of the incidence of relatively immobile small intestine to prior pelvic surgery. We used the findings from the small intestine roentgenograms to modify individually the radiotherapy regimen so as to minimize the risk for small intestine injury. Patients were placed in the prone position to displace the small intestine out of the treatment fields used for booster dose irradiation. The treatment field was modified to exclude the small intestine. The total tumor dose delivered was determined by expectations for cure vs complications. To date, none of the patients in this study group has developed small intestine injury. Cadaver studies showed the feasibility of elective shortening of the pelvic cul de sac. The small intestine can be displaced away from the bladder, prostate, or cervix. (U.S.)

  2. Small Bowel Obstruction due to Intestinal Xanthomatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. E. Barrera-Herrera

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vast majority of bowel obstruction is due to postoperative adhesions, malignancy, intestinal inflammatory disease, and hernias; however, knowledge of other uncommon causes is critical to establish a prompt treatment and decrease mortality. Xanthomatosis is produced by accumulation of cholesterol-rich foamy macrophages. Intestinal xanthomatosis is an uncommon nonneoplastic lesion that may cause small bowel obstruction and several cases have been reported in the English literature as obstruction in the jejunum. We report a case of small intestinal xanthomatosis occurring in a 51-year-old female who presented with one day of copious vomiting and intermittent abdominal pain. Radiologic images revealed jejunal loop thickening and inflammatory changes suggestive of foreign body obstruction, diagnostic laparoscopy found two strictures at the jejunum, and a pathologic examination confirmed a segmental small bowel xanthomatosis. This case illustrates that obstruction even without predisposing factors such as hyperlipidemia or lymphoproliferative disorders.

  3. Radiodiagnosis of early radiation intestinal changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volodina, G.I.; Abdulkhakova, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    X-ray examination of the colon in 102 patients and of the small intestine in 62 was performed during combined radiation therapy of cervical cancer and at different time after its discontinuation. Early radiation functional and morphological changes in the ileum and colon were detected. Radiation changes in the ileac mucosa were noted in 52% of the patients, changes of various degree in the rectal, sigmoid and cecal mucosa were noted in 41.2%. Moderate radiation changes in the ascending, descending and horizontal parts of the colon were noted in 10.7%. Early radiation intestinal injuries in the form of erosions and ulcers were revealed in 5.8% of the patients. In most of the patients radiation intestinal changes were without noticeable clinical manifestations. All these patients could be defined as a group at risk of developing late radiation changes

  4. Recent Advances in Intestinal Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Laura R; Parameswaran, Narayanan

    2017-09-01

    The intestine is a dynamic organ with rapid stem cell division generating epithelial cells that mature and apoptose in 3-5 days. Rapid turnover maintains the epithelial barrier and homeostasis. Current insights on intestinal stem cells (ISCs) and their regulation are discussed here. The Lgr5+ ISCs maintain intestinal homeostasis by dividing asymmetrically, but also divide symmetrically to extinguish or replace ISCs. Following radiation or mucosal injury, reserve BMI1+ ISCs as well as other crypt cells can de-differentiate into Lgr5+ ISCs. ISC niche cells, including Paneth, immune and myofibroblast cells secrete factors that regulate ISC proliferation. Finally, several studies indicate that the microbiome metabolites regulate ISC growth. ISC cells can be plastic and integrate a complexity of environmental/niche cues to trigger or suppress proliferation as needed.

  5. Intestinal infarction: A complication of endovascular therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    England, Andrew [Department of Radiology, South Manchester University Hospitals NHS Trust, Southmoor Road, Wythenshawe, Manchester M23 9LT (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: andrew.england@smtr.nhs.uk; Butterfield, John S. [Department of Radiology, South Manchester University Hospitals NHS Trust, Southmoor Road, Wythenshawe, Manchester M23 9LT (United Kingdom); Sukumar, Sathi [Department of Radiology, South Manchester University Hospitals NHS Trust, Southmoor Road, Wythenshawe, Manchester M23 9LT (United Kingdom); Thompson, David [Department of Radiology, South Manchester University Hospitals NHS Trust, Southmoor Road, Wythenshawe, Manchester M23 9LT (United Kingdom); Roulson, Jo-An [Department of Histopathology, South Manchester University Hospitals NHS Trust, Southmoor Road, Wythenshawe, Manchester M23 9LT (United Kingdom); Pritchard, Susan [Department of Histopathology, South Manchester University Hospitals NHS Trust, Southmoor Road, Wythenshawe, Manchester M23 9LT (United Kingdom); Ashleigh, Raymond J. [Department of Radiology, South Manchester University Hospitals NHS Trust, Southmoor Road, Wythenshawe, Manchester M23 9LT (United Kingdom)

    2007-08-15

    This report presents a rare case of intestinal infarction following endovascular therapy. A female patient who had undergone an internal carotid artery stenting procedure presented suddenly with abdominal pain. Radiological and clinical examinations at the time suggested a picture of intestinal ischaemia, in view of the patient's general conditions and co-existing morbidities surgical intervention was not considered to be an option. The patient died 4 days after the carotid stenting procedure, post-mortem examination revealed infarction of the ileum and caecum. The learning outcomes are if performing endovascular therapy in a patient with diffuse atherosclerotic disease early consideration of intestinal ischaemia should be given to any patient who presents with acute post-procedural abdominal pain.

  6. Intestinal infarction: A complication of endovascular therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    England, Andrew; Butterfield, John S.; Sukumar, Sathi; Thompson, David; Roulson, Jo-An; Pritchard, Susan; Ashleigh, Raymond J.

    2007-01-01

    This report presents a rare case of intestinal infarction following endovascular therapy. A female patient who had undergone an internal carotid artery stenting procedure presented suddenly with abdominal pain. Radiological and clinical examinations at the time suggested a picture of intestinal ischaemia, in view of the patient's general conditions and co-existing morbidities surgical intervention was not considered to be an option. The patient died 4 days after the carotid stenting procedure, post-mortem examination revealed infarction of the ileum and caecum. The learning outcomes are if performing endovascular therapy in a patient with diffuse atherosclerotic disease early consideration of intestinal ischaemia should be given to any patient who presents with acute post-procedural abdominal pain

  7. Seronegative Intestinal Villous Atrophy: A Diagnostic Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Martins

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Celiac disease is the most important cause of intestinal villous atrophy. Seronegative intestinal villous atrophy, including those that are nonresponsive to a gluten-free diet, is a diagnostic challenge. In these cases, before establishing the diagnosis of seronegative celiac disease, alternative etiologies of atrophic enteropathy should be considered. Recently, a new clinical entity responsible for seronegative villous atrophy was described—olmesartan-induced sprue-like enteropathy. Herein, we report two uncommon cases of atrophic enteropathy in patients with arterial hypertension under olmesartan, who presented with severe chronic diarrhea and significant involuntary weight loss. Further investigation revealed intestinal villous atrophy and intraepithelial lymphocytosis. Celiac disease and other causes of villous atrophy were ruled out. Drug-induced enteropathy was suspected and clinical improvement and histologic recovery were verified after olmesartan withdrawal. These cases highlight the importance for clinicians to maintain a high index of suspicion for olmesartan as a precipitant of sprue-like enteropathy.

  8. Nopal feeding reduces adiposity, intestinal inflammation and shifts the cecal microbiota and metabolism in high-fat fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran-Ramos, Sofia; He, Xuan; Chin, Elizabeth L; Tovar, Armando R; Torres, Nimbe; Slupsky, Carolyn M; Raybould, Helen E

    2017-01-01

    Nopal is a cactus plant widely consumed in Mexico that has been used in traditional medicine to aid in the treatment of type-2 diabetes. We previously showed that chronic consumption of dehydrated nopal ameliorated hepatic steatosis in obese (fa/fa) rats; however, description of the effects on other tissues is sparse. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of nopal cladode consumption on intestinal physiology, microbial community structure, adipose tissue, and serum biochemistry in diet-induced obese rats. Rats were fed either a normal fat (NF) diet or a HF diet containing 4% of dietary fiber from either nopal or cellulose for 6 weeks. Consumption of nopal counteracted HF-induced adiposity and adipocyte hypertrophy, and induced profound changes in intestinal physiology. Nopal consumption reduced biomarkers of intestinal inflammation (mRNA expression of IL-6) and oxidative stress (ROS), modfied gut microbiota composition, increasing microbial diversity and cecal fermentation (SCFA), and altered the serum metabolome. Interestingly, metabolomic analysis of dehydrated nopal revealed a high choline content, which appeared to generate high levels of serum betaine, that correlated negatively with hepatic triglyceride (TAG) levels. A parallel decrease in some of the taxa associated with the production of trimethylamine, suggest an increase in choline absorption and bioavailability with transformation to betaine. The latter may partially explain the previously observed effect of nopal on the development of hepatic steatosis. In conclusion, this study provides new evidence on the effects of nopal consumption on normal and HF-diet induced changes in the intestine, the liver and systemic metabolism.

  9. Nopal feeding reduces adiposity, intestinal inflammation and shifts the cecal microbiota and metabolism in high-fat fed rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Moran-Ramos

    Full Text Available Nopal is a cactus plant widely consumed in Mexico that has been used in traditional medicine to aid in the treatment of type-2 diabetes. We previously showed that chronic consumption of dehydrated nopal ameliorated hepatic steatosis in obese (fa/fa rats; however, description of the effects on other tissues is sparse. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of nopal cladode consumption on intestinal physiology, microbial community structure, adipose tissue, and serum biochemistry in diet-induced obese rats. Rats were fed either a normal fat (NF diet or a HF diet containing 4% of dietary fiber from either nopal or cellulose for 6 weeks. Consumption of nopal counteracted HF-induced adiposity and adipocyte hypertrophy, and induced profound changes in intestinal physiology. Nopal consumption reduced biomarkers of intestinal inflammation (mRNA expression of IL-6 and oxidative stress (ROS, modfied gut microbiota composition, increasing microbial diversity and cecal fermentation (SCFA, and altered the serum metabolome. Interestingly, metabolomic analysis of dehydrated nopal revealed a high choline content, which appeared to generate high levels of serum betaine, that correlated negatively with hepatic triglyceride (TAG levels. A parallel decrease in some of the taxa associated with the production of trimethylamine, suggest an increase in choline absorption and bioavailability with transformation to betaine. The latter may partially explain the previously observed effect of nopal on the development of hepatic steatosis. In conclusion, this study provides new evidence on the effects of nopal consumption on normal and HF-diet induced changes in the intestine, the liver and systemic metabolism.

  10. Intestinal Anti-inflammatory Effects of Outer Membrane Vesicles from Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 in DSS-Experimental Colitis in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María-José Fábrega

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 (EcN is a probiotic strain with proven efficacy in inducing and maintaining remission of ulcerative colitis. However, the microbial factors that mediate these beneficial effects are not fully known. Gram-negative bacteria release outer membrane vesicles (OMVs as a direct pathway for delivering selected bacterial proteins and active compounds to the host. In fact, vesicles released by gut microbiota are emerging as key players in signaling processes in the intestinal mucosa. In the present study, the dextran sodium sulfate (DSS-induced colitis mouse model was used to investigate the potential of EcN OMVs to ameliorate mucosal injury and inflammation in the gut. The experimental protocol involved pre-treatment with OMVs for 10 days before DSS intake, and a 5-day recovery period. Oral administration of purified EcN OMVs (5 μg/day significantly reduced DSS-induced weight loss and ameliorated clinical symptoms and histological scores. OMVs treatment counteracted altered expression of cytokines and markers of intestinal barrier function. This study shows for the first time that EcN OMVs can mediate the anti-inflammatory and barrier protection effects previously reported for this probiotic in experimental colitis. Remarkably, translation of probiotics to human healthcare requires knowledge of the molecular mechanisms involved in probiotic–host interactions. Thus, OMVs, as a non-replicative bacterial form, could be explored as a new probiotic-derived therapeutic approach, with even lower risk of adverse events than probiotic administration.

  11. Viability of the vascularly perfused, recirculating rat intestine and intestine-liver preparations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirayama, H.; Xu, X.; Pang, K.S. (Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada))

    1989-08-01

    Function and stability of vascularly perfused, recirculating in situ rat intestine (I) and intestine-liver (IL) preparations were evaluated in fasted and nonfasted rats because these techniques may be readily applied in drug metabolism studies. The rat intestine was perfused with blood medium (7.5 ml/min) via the superior mesenteric artery, with the venous outflow draining into the portal vein, which, together with hepatic arterial flow (2.5 ml/min), constituted the total blood flow (10 ml/min) to the liver. Maintenance of intestinal membrane integrity was observed. Rapid ({sup 14}C)glucose absorption against a concentration gradient and a lack of ({sup 3}H)-polyethylene glycol 4000 (PEG 4000, less than 4%) and Evans blue absorption by the recirculating I and IL preparations resulted after bolus injections of these markers into the pyloric end of the duodenum. Other indexes that revealed stable intestinal and liver functions were the following: preservation of reservoir perfusate volume, constancy in perfusion pressure, bile flow, and hemoglobin concentrations, evidence of intestinal glucose utilization and liver glucose production, and a lack of significant leakage of serum glutamic oxalic transaminase. The intestine and liver consumed oxygen at relatively constant rates, but the consumption rates for the fasted tissues (I or L) were significantly higher than those for nonfasted tissues. These results indicate that the vascularly perfused I and IL preparations were maintained in a viable and stable state for a 2-h perfusion period.

  12. Radiologic study on differential diagnosis of intestinal tuberculosis and intestinal Behcet's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Chul; Kim, Young Goo; Kim, Sang Joon; Choi, Byung Ihn; Park, Jae Hyung

    1986-01-01

    Radiologic findings in 30 patients with intestinal tuberculosis and 10 patients with intestinal Behcet's disease, who had been diagnosed at Seoul National University Hospital during the recent 5 years, were analysed retrospectively to evaluate the radiologic differential diagnosis of the two diseases. Intestinal tuberculosis severely involved the cecum, the ileocecal valve, the distal ileum and colons, but Behcet's disease mainly involved the distal ileum and infrequently the ileocecal valve and the cecum. The ulcers in tuberculosis were usually multiple small barium collected areas among pseudopolyps, on the contrary, those in Behcet's disease were multiple, discrete, well marinated, geographic, ring-like deep penetrating or collar-button shaped. Intestinal tuberculosis tended to involved long segments of intestines, with severer mucosal irregularity and deformity of the ileocecal valve and the ascending colon in comparison with Behcet's disease. Mesenteric and/or peritoneal involvement were accompanied in 1/3 cases of intestinal tuberculosis, and active pulmonary tuberculosis or pleural effusion also in 1/3 cases of intestinal tuberculosis.

  13. Intestinal Microbiota Signatures Associated With Histological Liver Steatosis in Pediatric-Onset Intestinal Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korpela, Katri; Mutanen, Annika; Salonen, Anne; Savilahti, Erkki; de Vos, Willem M; Pakarinen, Mikko P

    2017-02-01

    Intestinal failure (IF)-associated liver disease (IFALD) is the major cause of mortality in IF. The link between intestinal microbiota and IFALD is unclear. We compared intestinal microbiota of patients with IF (n = 23) with healthy controls (n = 58) using culture-independent phylogenetic microarray analysis. The microbiota was related to histological liver injury, fecal markers of intestinal inflammation, matrix metalloproteinase 9 and calprotectin, and disease characteristics. Overabundance of Lactobacilli, Proteobacteria, and Actinobacteria was observed in IF, whereas bacteria related to Clostridium clusters III, IV, and XIVa along with overall diversity and richness were reduced. Patients were segregated into 3 subgroups based on dominating bacteria: Clostridium cluster XIVa, Proteobacteria, and bacteria related to Lactobacillus plantarum. In addition to liver steatosis and fibrosis, Proteobacteria were associated with prolonged current parenteral nutrition (PN) as well as liver and intestinal inflammation. Lactobacilli were related to advanced steatosis and fibrosis mostly after weaning off PN without associated inflammation. In multivariate permutational analysis of variance, liver steatosis, bowel length, PN calories, and antibiotic treatment best explained the microbiota variation among patients with IF. Intestinal microbiota composition was associated with liver steatosis in IF and better predicted steatosis than duration of PN or length of the remaining intestine. Our results may be explained by a model in which steatosis is initiated during PN in response to proinflammatory lipopolysaccharides produced by Proteobacteria and progresses after weaning off PN, as the L plantarum group Lactobacilli becomes dominant and affects lipid metabolism by altering bile acid signaling.

  14. Neural regulation of intestinal nutrient absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourad, Fadi H; Saadé, Nayef E

    2011-10-01

    The nervous system and the gastrointestinal (GI) tract share several common features including reciprocal interconnections and several neurotransmitters and peptides known as gut peptides, neuropeptides or hormones. The processes of digestion, secretion of digestive enzymes and then absorption are regulated by the neuro-endocrine system. Luminal glucose enhances its own absorption through a neuronal reflex that involves capsaicin sensitive primary afferent (CSPA) fibres. Absorbed glucose stimulates insulin release that activates hepatoenteric neural pathways leading to an increase in the expression of glucose transporters. Adrenergic innervation increases glucose absorption through α1 and β receptors and decreases absorption through activation of α2 receptors. The vagus nerve plays an important role in the regulation of diurnal variation in transporter expression and in anticipation to food intake. Vagal CSPAs exert tonic inhibitory effects on amino acid absorption. It also plays an important role in the mediation of the inhibitory effect of intestinal amino acids on their own absorption at the level of proximal or distal segment. However, chronic extrinsic denervation leads to a decrease in intestinal amino acid absorption. Conversely, adrenergic agonists as well as activation of CSPA fibres enhance peptides uptake through the peptide transporter PEPT1. Finally, intestinal innervation plays a minimal role in the absorption of fat digestion products. Intestinal absorption of nutrients is a basic vital mechanism that depends essentially on the function of intestinal mucosa. However, intrinsic and extrinsic neural mechanisms that rely on several redundant loops are involved in immediate and long-term control of the outcome of intestinal function. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Bacteria, bile salts, and intestinal monosaccharide malabsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracey, Michael; Burke, Valerie; Oshin, Ademola; Barker, Judith; Glasgow, Eric F.

    1971-01-01

    Intestinal monosaccharide transport was studied in a series of rats with a self-filling jejunal blind loop using 3mM arbutin (p-hydroxyphenyl-B-glucoside) or 1mM D-fructose as substrate in vitro and 10 mM arbutin or 5mM D-fructose in vivo. These results were compared with changes in the bacterial flora and state of conjugation of intraluminal bile salts in those animals. Observations were also made of the microscopic and ultrastructural appearances of the small-intestinal epithelium. In the small intestine of blind-loop rats intestinal monosaccharide transport is impaired, and in vitro is most marked in the blind loop, less so in the efferent jejunum, and not significantly altered in the afferent jejunum. A similar pattern of disturbed monosaccharide absorption was demonstrated by perfusions in vivo. The degree of the transport defect correlates closely with the luxuriance of the anaerobic flora, which averaged 108 per millilitre in the blind loop, 107 in the efferent jejunum, and 106 in the afferent jejunum. A similar pattern of abnormality of bile salt conjugation occurred. In the blind loop the ratio of free to conjugated bile salts was grossly abnormal; this disturbance was somewhat less marked in the efferent jejunum and considerably less in the intraluminal contents of the afferent jejunum. An irregularly distributed lesion, consisting of swelling and vacuolation of microvilli and intracellular organelles, was demonstrated in the small-intestinal epithelium of blind-loop animals. Impaired absorption of monosaccharides is a further consequence of bacterial contamination of the upper gut. It is suggested that this defect is caused by the presence of high levels of deconjugated bile salts produced by an abnormal anaerobic bacterial flora in the small intestine. ImagesFig. 3Fig. 4 PMID:4329096

  16. The effect of fucoidan on intestinal flora and intestinal barrier function in rats with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Meilan; Ji, Xinqiang; Liang, Hui; Liu, Ying; Wang, Bing; Sun, Lingling; Li, Weiwei

    2018-02-21

    Recent research studies have shown that the intestinal flora are related to the occurrence and progress of breast cancer. This study investigates the effect of fucoidan on intestinal flora and intestinal barrier function in rats with 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced breast cancers. Sixty female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to the control group, the model group, and the F1 and F2 groups, which were fed fucoidan at concentrations of 200 and 400 mg per kg bw (body weight), respectively. Intestinal histopathological analysis was performed and 16S rDNA high-throughput sequencing was used to provide an overview of the intestinal flora composition. The contents of d-lactic acid (d-LA), diamine oxidase (DAO) and endotoxin in plasma were detected by ELISA. Expression levels of the tight junction (TJ) proteins, phosphorylated p38 MAPK and ERK1/2 were measured using western blotting. Our results suggested that the intestinal wall of the model group was damaged. However, after fucoidan intervention, the villi were gradually restored. ELISA showed that the levels of plasma endotoxin, d-LA and DAO decreased in the F1 and F2 groups compared to those in the model group. Fucoidan treatment also increased the expressions of ZO-1, occludin, claudin-1 and claudin-8. Furthermore, the expression levels of phosphorylated p38 MAPK and ERK1/2 were upregulated in fucoidan treatment groups. The results of 16S rDNA high-throughput sequencing indicated that fucoidan increased the diversity of the intestinal microbiota and induced changes in microbial composition, with the increased Bacteroidetes/Firmicutes phylum ratio. In conclusion, the supplement of fucoidan could improve the fecal microbiota composition and repair the intestinal barrier function. The study suggested the use of fucoidan as an intestinal flora modulator for potential prevention of breast cancer.

  17. Carvacrol Ameliorates Ligation-Induced Periodontitis in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Po-Jan; Hung, Tsung-Fu; Lin, Chi-Yu; Hsiao, Hsiang-Yin; Fu, Min-Wen; Hong, Po-Da; Chiu, Hsien-Chung; Fu, Earl

    2017-07-01

    This study aims to evaluate the ameliorative effect of carvacrol, an anti-inflammatory monoterpenoid phenol and a major component of Plectranthus amboinicus, on periodontal damage in an experimental rat model of periodontitis. Forty Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into ligation (Lig), non-ligation (n-Lig), and two ligation plus carvacrol (Lig+C) groups. Carvacrol (17.5 or 35.0 mg/kg body weight/day) was administered intragastrically from 1 day before ligation. On day 8, dental alveolar bone loss and gingival inflammation in periodontal specimens were examined by dental radiography, microcomputed tomography, and histology. Expressions of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and inducible nitric oxide synthase messenger (m)RNAs, and levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 in gingiva were examined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and zymography. Dental radiography revealed periodontal bone-supporting ratios in Lig and Lig+C groups were lower than the n-Lig group, with Lig group ratios being lowest. Compared with the n-Lig group, the cemento-enamel junction-bone distance was significantly longer in Lig and Lig+C groups, with Lig+C groups showing shorter distances regardless of radiographic methods used. Histology and histometry showed less inflammatory area and stronger connective tissue attachment in Lig+C groups than in the Lig group. Cytokine/mediator mRNA expression and MMP-9 levels were reduced in the Lig+C groups. Carvacrol reduced tissue damage and bone loss caused by ligation-induced periodontitis. The present results indicate that carvacrol might reduce tissue destruction by downregulating expression of proinflammatory mediators and MMP-9.

  18. Orthosiphon stamineus (Misai Kucing) ameliorated postmenopausal osteoporosis in rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokhari, Rubiatul Adawiyah; Lau, Seng Fong; Mohamed, Suhaila

    2018-02-01

    Orthosiphon stamineus (OS) or Misai Kucing (Java tea) is a popular herbal supplement from Southeast Asia for various metabolic, age-related diseases. This study investigated the potential use of OS leaf extracts to ameliorate osteoporosis in ovariectomized rats. Fifty-six female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly allocated into eight groups (n = 7): SHAM (healthy sham control); OVX (ovarietomized) nontreated rats (negative control); OVX + Remifemin (100 mg/kg body weight), and 2% green tea extract (positive controls); OVX + OS 50% ethanolic and aqueous extracts, both at either 150 or 300 mg/kg. After 16 weeks, the rats' bones and blood were evaluated for osteoporosis indicators (protein and mRNA expressions), micro-computed tomography for bone histomorphometry, and three-point bending test for tibia mechanical strength. The extracts dose-dependently and significantly (P < 0.05) improved bone strength and flexibility, bone mineral density, bone formation protein markers (P1NP), and bone histomorphometry. All extracts reduced the inflammation biomarker (interleukin-6). The extracts up-regulated osteoblastogenesis (bone morphogenetic protein-2) and collagen-1 synthesis (collagen type 1 alpha-1) mRNA expressions, and down-regulated bone resorption (TNFSF11 and nuclear factor-kappa B) mRNA expressions. Both the water and 50% ethanolic extract were effective. The effective dose is equivalent to 25 to 50 mg/kg extract for humans. The extract showed bone-protective and antiosteoporotic effects (improving bone strength, flexibility, bone density, and bone morphometry) by reducing inflammation and the bone resorption biomarkers, while enhancing bone formation biomarkers and collagen synthesis.

  19. Probiotic BIFICO cocktail ameliorates Helicobacter pylori induced gastritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hong-Jing; Liu, Wei; Chang, Zhen; Shen, Hui; He, Li-Juan; Wang, Sha-Sha; Liu, Lu; Jiang, Yuan-Ying; Xu, Guo-Tong; An, Mao-Mao; Zhang, Jun-Dong

    2015-06-07

    To determine the protective effect of triple viable probiotics on gastritis induced by Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) and elucidate the possible mechanisms of protection. Colonization of BIFICO strains in the mouse stomach was determined by counting colony-forming units per gram of stomach tissue. After treatment with or without BIFICO, inflammation and H. pylori colonization in the mouse stomach were analyzed by hematoxylin and eosin and Giemsa staining, respectively. Cytokine levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Milliplex. The activation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB and MAPK signaling in human gastric epithelial cells was evaluated by Western blot analysis. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was used to quantify TLR2, TLR4 and MyD88 mRNA expression in the mouse stomach. We demonstrated that BIFICO, which contains a mixture of Enterococcus faecalis, Bifidobacterium longum and Lactobacillus acidophilus, was tolerant to the mouse stomach environment and was able to survive both the 8-h and 3-d courses of administration. Although BIFICO treatment had no effect on the colonization of H. pylori in the mouse stomach, it ameliorated H. pylori-induced gastritis by significantly inhibiting the expression of cytokines and chemokines such as TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-10, IL-6, G-CSF and MIP-2 (P pylori-induced inflammatory response in gastric mucosal epithelial cells in vitro via the NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways. Indeed, we observed a decrease in the expression of the NF-κB subunit p65 and in the phosphorylation of IκB-α, ERK and p38. Moreover, there was a significant decrease in the production of IL-8, TNF-α, G-CSF and GM-CSF (P pylori in the stomach was also significantly reduced following BIFICO treatment (P pylori-induced gastritis by inhibiting the inflammatory response in gastric epithelial cells.

  20. Salt supplementation ameliorates developmental kidney defects in COX-2-/- mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slattery, Patrick; Frölich, Stefanie; Goren, Itamar; Nüsing, Rolf M

    2017-06-01

    Deficiency of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) activity in the early postnatal period causes impairment of kidney development leading to kidney insufficiency. We hypothesize that impaired NaCl reabsorption during the first days of life is a substantial cause for nephrogenic defects observed in COX-2 -/- mice and that salt supplementation corrects these defects. Daily injections of NaCl (0.8 mg·g -1 ·day -1 ) for the first 10 days after birth ameliorated impaired kidney development in COX-2 -/- pups resulting in an increase in glomerular size and fewer immature superficial glomeruli. However, impaired renal subcortical growth was not corrected. Increasing renal tubular flow by volume load or injections of KCl did not relieve the renal histomorphological damage. Administration of torsemide and spironolactone also affected nephrogenesis resulting in diminished glomeruli and cortical thinning. Treatment of COX-2 -/- pups with NaCl/DOCA caused a stronger mitigation of glomerular size and induced a slight but significant growth of cortical tissue mass. After birth, renal mRNA expression of NHE3, NKCC2, ROMK, NCCT, ENaC, and Na + /K + -ATPase increased relative to postnatal day 2 in wild-type mice. However, in COX-2 -/- mice, a significantly lower expression was observed for NCCT, whereas NaCl/DOCA treatment significantly increased NHE3 and ROMK expression. Long-term effects of postnatal NaCl/DOCA injections indicate improved kidney function with normalization of pathologically enhanced creatinine and urea plasma levels; also, albumin excretion was observed. In summary, we present evidence that salt supplementation during the COX-2-dependent time frame of nephrogenesis partly reverses renal morphological defects in COX-2 -/- mice and improves kidney function. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  1. NAD+ biosynthesis ameliorates a zebrafish model of muscular dystrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle F Goody

    Full Text Available Muscular dystrophies are common, currently incurable diseases. A subset of dystrophies result from genetic disruptions in complexes that attach muscle fibers to their surrounding extracellular matrix microenvironment. Cell-matrix adhesions are exquisite sensors of physiological conditions and mediate responses that allow cells to adapt to changing conditions. Thus, one approach towards finding targets for future therapeutic applications is to identify cell adhesion pathways that mediate these dynamic, adaptive responses in vivo. We find that nicotinamide riboside kinase 2b-mediated NAD+ biosynthesis, which functions as a small molecule agonist of muscle fiber-extracellular matrix adhesion, corrects dystrophic phenotypes in zebrafish lacking either a primary component of the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex or integrin alpha7. Exogenous NAD+ or a vitamin precursor to NAD+ reduces muscle fiber degeneration and results in significantly faster escape responses in dystrophic embryos. Overexpression of paxillin, a cell adhesion protein downstream of NAD+ in this novel cell adhesion pathway, reduces muscle degeneration in zebrafish with intact integrin receptors but does not improve motility. Activation of this pathway significantly increases organization of laminin, a major component of the extracellular matrix basement membrane. Our results indicate that the primary protective effects of NAD+ result from changes to the basement membrane, as a wild-type basement membrane is sufficient to increase resilience of dystrophic muscle fibers to damage. The surprising result that NAD+ supplementation ameliorates dystrophy in dystrophin-glycoprotein complex- or integrin alpha7-deficient zebrafish suggests the existence of an additional laminin receptor complex that anchors muscle fibers to the basement membrane. We find that integrin alpha6 participates in this pathway, but either integrin alpha7 or the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex is required in conjunction

  2. Aedes aegypti salivary gland extract ameliorates experimental inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales-Campos, Helioswilton; de Souza, Patricia Reis; Basso, Paulo José; Ramos, Anderson Daniel; Nardini, Viviani; Chica, Javier Emílio Lazo; Capurro, Margareth Lara; Sá-Nunes, Anderson; de Barros Cardoso, Cristina Ribeiro

    2015-05-01

    Current therapies for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are not totally effective, resulting in persistent and recurrent disease for many patients. Mosquito saliva contains immunomodulatory molecules and therein could represent a novel therapy for IBD. Here, we demonstrated the therapeutic activity of salivary gland extract (SGE) of Aedes aegypti on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. For this purpose, C57BL/6 male mice were exposed to 3% DSS in drinking water and treated with SGE at early (days 3-5) or late (days 5-8) time points, followed by euthanasia on days 6 and 9, respectively, for sample collection. The results showed an improvement in clinical disease outcome and postmortem scores after SGE treatment, accompanied by the systemic reduction in peripheral blood lymphocytes, with no impact on bone marrow and mesenteric lymph nodes cellularity or macrophages toxicity. Moreover, a local diminishment of IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-5 cytokines together with a reduction in the inflammatory area were observed in the colon of SGE-treated mice. Strikingly, early treatment with SGE led to mice protection from a late DSS re-challenging, as observed by decreased clinical and postmortem scores, besides reduced circulating lymphocytes, indicating that the mosquito saliva may present components able to prevent disease relapse. Indeed, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) experiments pointed to a major SGE pool fraction (F3) able to ameliorate disease signs. In conclusion, SGE and its components might represent a source of important immunomodulatory molecules with promising therapeutic activity for IBD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Economic recession and suicidal behaviour: Possible mechanisms and ameliorating factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haw, Camilla; Hawton, Keith; Gunnell, David; Platt, Stephen

    2015-02-01

    A growing body of research evidence from countries around the world indicates that economic recession is associated with increases in suicide, particularly in males of working age. To explore contributory and ameliorating factors associated with economic recession and suicide and thereby stimulate further research in this area and encourage policy makers to consider how best to reduce the impact of recession on mental health and suicidal behaviour. We conducted a selective review of the worldwide literature focusing on possible risk factors, mechanisms and preventative strategies for suicidal behaviour linked to economic recession. A model of how recession might affect suicide rates is presented. A major and often prolonged effect of recession is on unemployment and job insecurity. Other important effects include those exerted by financial loss, bankruptcy and home repossession. It is proposed these factors may lead directly or indirectly to mental health problems such as depression, anxiety and binge drinking and then to suicidal behaviour. Countries with active labour market programmes and sustained welfare spending during recessions have less marked increases in suicide rates than those that cut spending on welfare and job-search initiatives for the unemployed. Other measures likely to help include targeted interventions for unemployed people, membership of social organisations and responsible media reporting. Good primary care and mental health services are needed to cope with increased demand in times of economic recession but some governments have in fact reduced healthcare spending as an austerity measure. The research evidence linking recession, unemployment and suicide is substantial, but the evidence for the other mechanisms we have investigated is much more tentative. We describe the limitations of the existing body of research as well as make suggestions for future research into the effects of economic recession on suicidal behaviour. © The Author

  4. Caloric restriction ameliorates acrolein-induced neurotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ying-Juan; Zhang, Li; Shi, Lan-Ying; Wang, Yuan-Yuan; Yang, Yu-Bin; Ke, Bin; Zhang, Ting-Ying; Qin, Jian

    2018-03-01

    Acrolein, a highly reactive unsaturated aldehyde, is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant and oxidative damage induced by acrolein is hypothesized to involve in the etiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Calorie restriction (CR) is the only non-genetic intervention that has consistently been verified to retard aging by ameliorating oxidative stress. Therefore, we investigated the effects of CR on acrolein-induced neurotoxicity in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. A total of 45 weaned and specific-pathogen-free SD rats (male, weighing 180-220 g) were gavage-fed with acrolein (2.5 mg/kg/day) and fed ab libitum of 10 g/day or 7 g/day (representing 30% CR regimen), or gavage-fed with same volume of tap water and fed al libitum as vehicle control for 12 weeks. After behavioral test conducted by Morris Water Maze, SD rats were sacrificed and brain tissues were prepared for histochemical evaluation and Western blotting to detect alterations in oxidative stress, BDNF/TrkB pathway and key enzymes involved in amyloid precursor protein (APP) metabolism. Treatment with 30% CR in SD rats significantly attenuated acrolein-induced cognitive impairment. Oxidative damage including deletion of glutathione and superoxide dismutase and sharp rise in malondialdehyde were notably improved by 30% CR. Further study suggested that 30% CR showed protective effects against acrolein by modulating BDNF/TrkB signaling pathways. Moreover, 30% CR restored acrolein-induced changes of APP, β-secretase, α-secretase and receptor for advanced glycation end products. These findings suggest that CR may provide a promising approach for the treatment of AD, targeting acrolein. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Glycine and Folate Ameliorate Models of Congenital Sideroblastic Anemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Pedro Fernández-Murray

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sideroblastic anemias are acquired or inherited anemias that result in a decreased ability to synthesize hemoglobin in red blood cells and result in the presence of iron deposits in the mitochondria of red blood cell precursors. A common subtype of congenital sideroblastic anemia is due to autosomal recessive mutations in the SLC25A38 gene. The current treatment for SLC25A38 congenital sideroblastic anemia is chronic blood transfusion coupled with iron chelation. The function of SLC25A38 is not known. Here we report that the SLC25A38 protein, and its yeast homolog Hem25, are mitochondrial glycine transporters required for the initiation of heme synthesis. To do so, we took advantage of the fact that mitochondrial glycine has several roles beyond the synthesis of heme, including the synthesis of folate derivatives through the glycine cleavage system. The data were consistent with Hem25 not being the sole mitochondrial glycine importer, and we identify a second SLC25 family member Ymc1, as a potential secondary mitochondrial glycine importer. Based on these findings, we observed that high levels of exogenous glycine, or 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-Ala a metabolite downstream of Hem25 in heme biosynthetic pathway, were able to restore heme levels to normal in yeast cells lacking Hem25 function. While neither glycine nor 5-Ala could ameliorate SLC25A38 congenital sideroblastic anemia in a zebrafish model, we determined that the addition of folate with glycine was able to restore hemoglobin levels. This difference is likely due to the fact that yeast can synthesize folate, whereas in zebrafish folate is an essential vitamin that must be obtained exogenously. Given the tolerability of glycine and folate in humans, this study points to a potential novel treatment for SLC25A38 congenital sideroblastic anemia.

  6. Naringin ameliorates cognitive deficits in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianchu Liu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s:Previous research demonstrated that diabetes is one of the leading causes of learning and memory deficits. Naringin, a bioflavonoid isolated from grapefruits and oranges, has potent protective effects on streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic rats. Recently, the effects of naringin on learning and memory performances were monitored in many animal models of cognitive impairment. However, to date, no studies have investigated the ameliorative effects of naringin on diabetes-associated cognitive decline (DACD. In this study, we investigated the effects of naringin, using a STZ-injected rat model and explored its potential mechanism. Materials and Methods:Diabetic rats were treated with naringin (100 mg/kg/d for 7 days. The learning and memory function were assessed by Morris water maze test. The oxidative stress indicators [superoxide dismutase (SOD and malondialdehyde (MDA] and inflammatory cytokines (TNF-a, IL-1β, and IL-6 were measured in hippocampus using corresponding commercial kits. The mRNA and protein levels of PPARγ were evaluated by real time (RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. Results:The results showed that supplementation of naringin improved learning and memory performances compared with the STZ group. Moreover, naringin supplement dramatically increased SOD levels, reduced MDA levels, and alleviated TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 compared with the STZ group in the hippocampus. The pretreatment with naringin also significantly increased PPARγ expression. Conclusion: Our results showed that naringin may be a promising therapeutic agent for improving cognitive decline in DACD.

  7. Cisplatin-induced renal inflammation is ameliorated by cilastatin nephroprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humanes, Blanca; Camaño, Sonia; Lara, Jose Manuel; Sabbisetti, Venkatta; González-Nicolás, María Ángeles; Bonventre, Joseph V; Tejedor, Alberto; Lázaro, Alberto

    2017-10-01

    Cisplatin is a potent chemotherapeutic drug whose nephrotoxic effect is a major complication and a dose-limiting factor for antitumoral therapy. There is much evidence that inflammation contributes to the pathogenesis of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. We found that cilastatin, a renal dehydropeptidase-I inhibitor, has protective effects in vitro and in vivo against cisplatin-induced renal damage by inhibiting apoptosis and oxidation. Here, we investigated the potential use of cilastatin to protect against cisplatin-induced kidney injury and inflammation in rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: control, cilastatin-control, cisplatin and cilastatin-cisplatin. Nephrotoxicity was assessed 5 days after administration of cisplatin based on blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, glomerular filtration rate (GFR), kidney injury molecule (KIM)-1 and renal morphology. Inflammation was measured using the electrophoretic mobility shift assay, immunohistochemical studies and evaluation of inflammatory mediators. Compared with the control rats, cisplatin-administered rats were affected by significant proximal tubule damage, decreased GFR, increased production of inflammatory mediators and elevations in urea, creatinine and tissue KIM-1 levels. Cilastatin prevented these changes in renal function and ameliorated histological damage in cisplatin-administered animals. Cilastatin also reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine levels, activation of nuclear factor-κB and CD68-positive cell concentrations. Cilastatin reduces cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity, which is associated with decreased inflammation in vivo. Although the exact role of decreased inflammation in nephroprotection has not been fully elucidated, treatment with cilastatin could be a novel strategy for the prevention of cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  8. PEG minocycline-liposomes ameliorate CNS autoimmune disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Hu

    Full Text Available Minocycline is an oral tetracycline derivative with good bioavailability in the central nervous system (CNS. Minocycline, a potent inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-9, attenuates disease activity in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE, an animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS. Potential adverse effects associated with long-term daily minocycline therapy in human patients are concerning. Here, we investigated whether less frequent treatment with long-circulating polyethylene glycol (PEG minocycline liposomes are effective in treating EAE.Performing in vitro time kinetic studies of PEG minocycline-liposomes in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs, we determined that PEG minocycline-liposome preparations stabilized with CaCl(2 are effective in diminishing MMP-9 activity. Intravenous injections of PEG minocycline-liposomes every five days were as effective in ameliorating clinical EAE as daily intraperitoneal injections of minocycline. Treatment of animals with PEG minocycline-liposomes significantly reduced the number of CNS-infiltrating leukocytes, and the overall expression of MMP-9 in the CNS. There was also a significant suppression of MMP-9 expression and proteolytic activity in splenocytes of treated animals, but not in CNS-infiltrating leukocytes. Thus, leukocytes gaining access to the brain and spinal cord require the same absolute amount of MMP-9 in all treatment groups, but minocycline decreases the absolute cell number.Our data indicate that less frequent injections of PEG minocycline-liposomes are an effective alternative pharmacotherapy to daily minocycline injections for the treatment of CNS autoimmune diseases. Also, inhibition of MMP-9 remains a promising treatment target in EAE and patients with MS.

  9. Amelioration of acidic soil using various renewable waste resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Deok Hyun; Chang, Yoon-Young; Ok, Yong Sik; Cheong, Kyung Hoon; Koutsospyros, Agamemnon; Park, Jeong-Hun

    2014-01-01

    In this study, improvement of acidic soil with respect to soil pH and exchangeable cations was attempted for sample with an initial pH of approximately 5. Acidic soil was amended with various waste resources in the range of 1 to 5 wt.% including waste oyster shells (WOS), calcined oyster shells (COS), Class C fly ash (FA), and cement kiln dust (CKD) to improve soil pH and exchangeable cations. Upon treatment, the soil pH was monitored for periods up to 3 months. The exchangeable cations were measured after 1 month of curing. After a curing period of 1 month, a maize growth experiment was conducted with selected-treated samples to evaluate the effectiveness of treatment. The treatment results indicate that in order to increase the soil pH to a value of 7, 1 wt.% of WOS, 3 wt.% of FA, and 1 wt.% of CKD are required. In the case of COS, 1 wt.% was more than enough to increase the soil pH value to 7 because of COS's strong alkalinity. Moreover, the soil pH increases after a curing period of 7 days and remains virtually unchanged thereafter up to 1 month of curing. Upon treatment, the summation of cations (Ca, Mg, K, and Na) significantly increased. The growth of maize is superior in the treated samples rather than the untreated one, indicating that the amelioration of acidic soil is beneficial to plant growth, since soil pH was improved and nutrients were replenished.

  10. Autologous transplantation of intestine-isolated glia cells improves neuropathology and restores cognitive deficits in β amyloid-induced neurodegeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Giuseppe; Sarnelli, Giovanni; Capoccia, Elena; Cirillo, Carla; Pesce, Marcella; Lu, Jie; Calì, Gaetano; Cuomo, Rosario; Steardo, Luca

    2016-03-04

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by chronic deposition of β-amyloid (Aβ) in the brain, progressive neurodegeneration and consequent cognitive and behavioral deficits that typify the disease. Astrocytes are pivotal in this process because they are activated in the attempt to digest Aβ which starts a neuroinflammatory response that further contributes to neurodegeneration. The intestine is a good source of astrocytes-like cells-referred to as enteric glial cells (EGCs). Here we show that the autologous transplantation of EGCs into the brain of Aβ-injected rats arrested the development of the disease after their engraftment. Transplanted EGCs showed anti-amyloidogenic activity, embanked Aβ-induced neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration, and released neutrophic factors. The overall result was the amelioration of the pathological hallmarks and the cognitive and behavioral deficits typical of Aβ-associated disease. Our data indicate that autologous EGCs transplantation may provide an efficient alternative for applications in cell-replacement therapies to treat neurodegeneration in AD.

  11. Ameliorative Effects of 5-Hydroxymethyl-2-furfural (5-HMF from Schisandra chinensis on Alcoholic Liver Oxidative Injury in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to evaluate the protective effect of 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural (5-HMF on acute alcohol-induced liver oxidative injury in mice. 5-HMF, a maillard reaction product, was isolated from the fruits of Schisandra chinensis for animal experiments. Experimental ICR mice were pretreated with different doses of 5-HMF (7.5, 15, and 30 mg/kg for seven days by gavage feeding. Biochemical markers and enzymatic antioxidants from serum and liver tissue were examined. Our results showed that the activities of ALT (alanine aminotransferase, AST (aspartate transaminase, TC (total cholesterol, TG (triglyceride, L-DLC (low density lipoprotein in serum and the levels of MDA (malondialdehyde in liver tissue, decreased significantly (p < 0.05 in the 5-HMF-treated group compared with the alcohol group. On the contrary, enzymatic antioxidants CAT (catalase, GSH-Px (glutathione peroxidase, and GSH SOD (superoxide dismutase were markedly elevated in liver tissue treated with 5-HMF (p < 0.05. Furthermore, the hepatic levels of pro-inflammatory response marker tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α and interleukin-1β (IL-1β were significantly suppressed (p < 0.05. Histopathological examination revealed that 5-HMF (30 mg/kg pretreatment noticeably prevented alcohol-induced hepatocyte apoptosis and fatty degeneration. It is suggested that the hepatoprotective effects exhibited by 5-HMF on alcohol-induced liver oxidative injury may be due to its potent antioxidant properties.

  12. Persistently increased intestinal fraction of alkaline phosphatase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nathan, E; Baatrup, G; Berg, H

    1984-01-01

    Persistent elevation of the intestinal fraction of the alkaline phosphatase (API) as an isolated finding has to our knowledge not been reported previously. It was found in a boy followed during a period of 5.5 years. The only symptom was transient periodic fatigue observed at home, but not apparent...... during hospitalization. His blood type was O, RH+, Le (a-, b+) and he was a secretor of H-substance, which may be associated with rising API activity after fat-loading. In this case API was unchanged after fat-loading. Neither intestinal nor liver diseases were found, and no other cause for the elevated...

  13. Relationships between intestinal parasitosis and handedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uslu, Hakan; Dane, Senol; Uyanik, M Hamidullah; Ayyildiz, Ahmet

    2010-07-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate if there is a possible relation between intestinal parasitosis and handedness in patients with suspected intestinal parasitosis. Hand preference was assessed on the Edinburgh Handedness Inventory. Stool samples were examined microscopically for the presence of parasite. In the present study right-handers had many more helminth infections and left-handers had many more protozoon infections. Lower rate of helminth infections in the present study, and higher asthma incidences in the left-handed population in literature, may be associated with different immune machinery in left-handed people than in right-handed ones.

  14. Translational control of an intestinal microvillar enzyme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, E M; Cowell, G M; Sjöström, H

    1986-01-01

    The rates of biosynthesis of adult and foetal pig small-intestinal aminopeptidase N (EC 3.4.11.2) were compared to determine at which level the expression of the microvillar enzyme is developmentally controlled. In organ-cultured explants, the rate of biosynthesis of foetal aminopeptidase N is only...... about 3% of the adult rate. The small amount synthesized occurs in a high-mannose-glycosylated, membrane-bound, form that is processed to the mature, complex-glycosylated, form at a markedly slower rate than that of the adult enzyme. Extracts of total RNA from adult and foetal intestine contained...

  15. Verification of chronic intestinal ischemia by angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stolze, T.; Sandmann, W.

    1982-06-25

    With chronical occlusion of an intestianal artery (coeliac artery, superior and inferior mesenteric artery) functionally acting and organ-supplying collateral circulations may develop. When this collateral circulation provides a sufficient blood supply, uncharacteristic (10) and absent or minor clinical symptomatology (21) result and therefore in many cases such vascular occlusions are not detected in older people. Consequently, the possible existence of an intestinal ischaemia should be taken into consideration when indefinite complaints occur in older patients, particularly in those cases, where arterial occlusions exist in the lower extremities. With chronical intestinal (arteriosclerotic) ischaemia an acute thrombo-embolism has always to be regarded as a possible complication.

  16. Transcriptome changes during intestinal cell differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tadjali, Mehrdad; Seidelin, Jakob B; Olsen, Jørgen

    2002-01-01

    The expression of 18149 genes have been analysed during the differentiation of the human intestinal cell line Caco-2. cDNA probes from undifferentiated and differentiated Caco-2 cells were separately hybridised to EST DNAs spotted in an array on a nylon membrane. A remarkable change in the transc......The expression of 18149 genes have been analysed during the differentiation of the human intestinal cell line Caco-2. cDNA probes from undifferentiated and differentiated Caco-2 cells were separately hybridised to EST DNAs spotted in an array on a nylon membrane. A remarkable change...

  17. Intestinal tuberculosis sometimes mimics Crohn's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esfandiar Shojaei

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal tuberculosis is an uncommon presentation of tuberculosis (TB and has clinicopathological similarities with Crohn's disease. In regions where TB is endemic clinicians must aware of this condition and fully evaluate their patients when Crohn's disease is diagnosed. We recommend all pathologic specimens be evaluate effectively for TB.Smear,culture and PCR for Mycobacterium.tuberculosis from samples aside the pathological reviews help for better diagnosis. Here we present a case of intestinal tuberculosis which initially diagnosed as Crohn's disease but after starting immunosuppressive agents he presented with disseminated tuberculosis.

  18. A new approach to predict human intestinal absorption using porcine intestinal tissue and biorelevant matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerhout, Joost; van de Steeg, Evita; Grossouw, Dimitri; Zeijdner, Evelijn E; Krul, Cyrille A M; Verwei, Miriam; Wortelboer, Heleen M

    2014-10-15

    A reliable prediction of the oral bioavailability in humans is crucial and of high interest for pharmaceutical and food industry. The predictive value of currently used in silico methods, in vitro cell lines, ex vivo intestinal tissue and/or in vivo animal studies for human intestinal absorption, however, is often insufficient, especially when food-drug interactions are evaluated. Ideally, for this purpose healthy human intestinal tissue is used, but due to its limited availability there is a need for alternatives. The aim of this study was to evaluate the applicability of healthy porcine intestinal tissue mounted in a newly developed InTESTine™ system to predict human intestinal absorption of compounds with different chemical characteristics, and within biorelevant matrices. To that end, first, a representative set of compounds was chosen of which the apparent permeability (Papp) data in both Caco-2 cells and human intestinal tissue mounted in the Ussing chamber system, and absolute human oral bioavailability were reported. Thereafter, Papp values of the subset were determined in both porcine jejunal tissue and our own Caco-2 cells. In addition, the feasibility of this new approach to study regional differences (duodenum, jejunum, and ileum) in permeability of compounds and to study the effects of luminal factors on permeability was also investigated. For the latter, a comparison was made between the compatibility of porcine intestinal tissue, Caco-2 cells, and Caco-2 cells co-cultured with the mucin producing HT29-MTX cells with biorelevant samples as collected from an in vitro dynamic gastrointestinal model (TIM). The results demonstrated that for the paracellularly transported compounds atenolol, cimetidine, mannitol and ranitidine porcine Papp values are within 3-fold difference of human Papp values, whereas the Caco-2 Papp values are beyond 3-fold difference. Overall, the porcine intestinal tissue Papp values are more comparable to human Papp values (9 out

  19. Pseudo-obstrucción intestinal crónica Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction

    OpenAIRE

    M. T. Muñoz; J. A. Solís Herruzo

    2007-01-01

    El síndrome de pseudo-obstrucción intestinal crónica se caracteriza por la presencia de cuadros clínicos recidivantes que simulan una obstrucción intestinal pero en ausencia de proceso obstructivo anatómico. Es poco frecuente pero determina una alta morbilidad. Se origina como consecuencia de una alteración de la motilidad intestinal que no puede hacer progresar su contenido debido a la afectación de su componente muscular, neurológico o de ambos. Son más frecuentes los casos secundarios a un...

  20. Sodium recirculation and isotonic transport in toad small intestine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nedergaard, Signe Nielsen; Larsen, Erik Hviid; Ussing, Hans H.

    1999-01-01

    Small intestine; leaky epithelia; solute-coupled water transport; Na*O+ recirculation; lateral intercellular space; flux ratio analysi......Small intestine; leaky epithelia; solute-coupled water transport; Na*O+ recirculation; lateral intercellular space; flux ratio analysi...