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Sample records for ameliorate prepulse inhibition

  1. Prepulse inhibition deficits in women with PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineles, Suzanne L; Blumenthal, Terry D; Curreri, Andrew J; Nillni, Yael I; Putnam, Katherine M; Resick, Patricia A; Rasmusson, Ann M; Orr, Scott P

    2016-09-01

    Prepulse inhibition (PPI) is an automatic and preattentive process, whereby a weak stimulus attenuates responding to a sudden and intense startle stimulus. PPI is a measure of sensorimotor filtering, which is conceptualized as a mechanism that facilitates processing of an initial stimulus and is protective from interruption by a later response. Impaired PPI has been found in (a) healthy women during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle, and (b) individuals with types of psychopathology characterized by difficulty suppressing and filtering sensory, motor, or cognitive information. In the current study, 47 trauma-exposed women with or without posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) completed a PPI session during two different phases of the menstrual cycle: the early follicular phase, when estradiol and progesterone are both low, and the midluteal phase, when estradiol and progesterone are both high. Startle stimuli were 100 dB white noise bursts presented for 50 ms, and prepulses were 70 dB white noise bursts presented for 20 ms that preceded the startle stimuli by 120 ms. Women with PTSD showed deficits in PPI relative to the healthy trauma-exposed participants. Menstrual phase had no effect on PPI. These results provide empirical support for individuals with PTSD having difficulty with sensorimotor filtering. The potential utility of PPI as a Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) phenotype is discussed. PMID:27237725

  2. Prepulse inhibition of auditory change-related cortical responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inui Koji

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prepulse inhibition (PPI of the startle response is an important tool to investigate the biology of schizophrenia. PPI is usually observed by use of a startle reflex such as blinking following an intense sound. A similar phenomenon has not been reported for cortical responses. Results In 12 healthy subjects, change-related cortical activity in response to an abrupt increase of sound pressure by 5 dB above the background of 65 dB SPL (test stimulus was measured using magnetoencephalography. The test stimulus evoked a clear cortical response peaking at around 130 ms (Change-N1m. In Experiment 1, effects of the intensity of a prepulse (0.5 ~ 5 dB on the test response were examined using a paired stimulation paradigm. In Experiment 2, effects of the interval between the prepulse and test stimulus were examined using interstimulus intervals (ISIs of 50 ~ 350 ms. When the test stimulus was preceded by the prepulse, the Change-N1m was more strongly inhibited by a stronger prepulse (Experiment 1 and a shorter ISI prepulse (Experiment 2. In addition, the amplitude of the test Change-N1m correlated positively with both the amplitude of the prepulse-evoked response and the degree of inhibition, suggesting that subjects who are more sensitive to the auditory change are more strongly inhibited by the prepulse. Conclusions Since Change-N1m is easy to measure and control, it would be a valuable tool to investigate mechanisms of sensory gating or the biology of certain mental diseases such as schizophrenia.

  3. White matter hyperintensities and prepulse inhibition in a mixed elderly population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salem, Lise C; Hejl, Anne-Mette; Garde, Ellen;

    2011-01-01

    Prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the startle response, a measure for sensorimotor gating, exhibits a relatively high inter-individual variability in elderly subjects. The aim of this study was to investigate whether white matter hyperintensities (WMH), frequently identified on cranial magnetic resona...

  4. Prepulse inhibition is associated with attention, processing speed, and 123I-FP-CIT SPECT in Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zoetmulder, Marielle; Biernat, Heidi B; Nikolic, Miki;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Prepulse inhibition is a measure of sensorimotor gating, which reflects the ability to filter or 'gate' irrelevant information. Prepulse inhibition is dramatically altered in basal ganglia disorders associated with dysfunction in the midbrain dopaminergic system, and corresponding...... cognitive information processing deficits such as slowed processing speed. Parkinson's disease is characterised by the degeneration of the midbrain dopaminergic system and is associated with cognitive dysfunction, including slowed information processing. Although sensorimotor processes in Parkinson...

  5. FOS EXPRESSION FOLLOWING REGIMENS OF PREDATOR STRESS VERSUS FOOTSHOCK THAT DIFFERENTIALLY AFFECT PREPULSE INHIBITION IN RATS

    OpenAIRE

    Baisley, Sarah K.; Cloninger, Christina L.; Bakshi, Vaishali P.

    2011-01-01

    Stress is suggested to exacerbate symptoms and contribute to relapse in patients with schizophrenia and several other psychiatric disorders. A prominent feature of many of these illnesses is an impaired ability to filter information through sensorimotor gating processes. Prepulse inhibition (PPI) is a functional measure of sensorimotor gating, and known to be deficient in schizophrenia and sometimes in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), both of which are also sensitive to stress-induced s...

  6. The effect of neuroleptic medication on prepulse inhibition in schizophrenia patients : current status and future issues

    OpenAIRE

    Hamm, Alfons; Weike, Almut I.; Schupp, Harald Thomas

    2001-01-01

    RATIONALE: Prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the startle reflex is a powerful tool for investigating sensorimotor gating in both animals and humans. Evidence of impaired PPI in patients with schizophrenia suggests that PPI performance might serve as a promising model to investigate the neurobiological mechanisms of this disorder. Animal data show that experimentally induced PPI deficits can be removed by the administration of antipsychotic agents. Recent clinical studies suggest that neuroleptic m...

  7. Sex-Related Differences in Prepulse Inhibition of Startle in Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)

    OpenAIRE

    Kilpatrick, L. A.; Ornitz, E.; Ibrahimovic, H.; Treanor, M.; Craske, M.; Nazarian, M.; Labus, J; Mayer, E. A.; Naliboff, B. D.

    2010-01-01

    Alterations in central networks involved in regulation of arousal, attention, and cognition may be critical for IBS symptom maintenance and exacerbation. Differential sensitivities in these networks may underlie sex differences noted in IBS. The current study examined prepulse inhibition (PPI), a measure of sensorimotor gating, in male and female IBS patients. Relationships between PPI and symptom severity were examined, as well as potential menstrual status effects. Compared to healthy contr...

  8. Prepulse Inhibition of Startle Response: Recent Advances in Human Studies of Psychiatric Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Takahashi, Hidetoshi; Hashimoto, Ryota; Iwase, Masao; Ishii, Ryouhei; Kamio, Yoko; Takeda, Masatoshi

    2011-01-01

    Prepulse inhibition (PPI) is considered to be one of the most promising neurophysiological indexes for translational research in psychiatry. Impairment of PPI has been reported in several psychiatric diseases, particularly schizophrenia, where PPI is considered a candidate intermediate phenotype (endophenotype) of the disease. Recent findings from a variety of research areas have provided important evidence regarding PPI impairment. Human brain imaging studies have demonstrated the involvemen...

  9. Chronic estrogen and progesterone treatment inhibits ketamine-induced disruption of prepulse inhibition in rats.

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    van den Buuse, Maarten; Mingon, Rebecca L; Gogos, Andrea

    2015-10-21

    Ketamine is a dissociative anesthetic and antagonist of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDAr). Hypofunction of NMDAr may underlie some schizophrenia symptoms and the psychotomimetic effects of ketamine have been used to model this hypofunction. Gender differences exist in the age of onset and symptom profile of schizophrenia and sex steroid hormones have been successfully trialed as adjunctive treatment in this illness; however, the mechanism of action of these hormone treatment strategies remains unclear. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate the effect of sex steroid hormones on ketamine-induced disruption of prepulse inhibition (PPI), an endophenotype of schizophrenia. Female ovariectomized (OVX) rats did not show altered effects of ketamine compared to intact rats. There were also no significant changes in the effect of ketamine on PPI in OVX rats implanted with a high dose of estrogen. In contrast, in OVX rats implanted with a low dose of estrogen plus progesterone, the effect of 10mg/kg ketamine was significantly reduced. There were no parallel changes in startle amplitude. These results differ from previous studies on the effect of sex steroid hormones on the disruption of PPI by treatment with the NMDAr antagonist, MK-801, or dopaminergic drugs, such as apomorphine. We speculate that this differential effect of sex steroids on the action of ketamine is mediated by mechanisms other than dopaminergic stimulation or NMDA receptor blockade, for example GABAA receptors. These results extend our understanding of the effects of sex steroid hormones on PPI and their use as potential treatments in schizophrenia. PMID:26391745

  10. Gap prepulse inhibition and auditory brainstem evoked potentials as objective measures for tinnitus in guinea pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne eDehmel

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Tinnitus or ringing of the ears is a subjective phantom sensation necessitating behavioral models that objectively demonstrate the existence and quality of the tinnitus sensation. The gap detection test uses the acoustic startle response elicited by loud noise pulses and its gating or suppression by preceding sub-startling prepulses. Gaps in noise bands serve as prepulses, assuming that ongoing tinnitus masks the gap and results in impaired gap detection. This test has shown its reliability in rats, mice, and gerbils. No data exists for the guinea pig so far, although gap detection is similar across mammals and the acoustic startle response is a well-established tool in guinea pig studies of psychiatric disorders and in pharmacological studies. Here we investigated the startle behavior and prepulse inhibition (PPI of the guinea pig and showed that guinea pigs have a reliable startle response that can be suppressed by 15 ms gaps embedded in narrow noise bands preceding the startle noise pulse. After recovery of auditory brainstem response (ABR thresholds from a unilateral noise over-exposure centered at 7 kHz, guinea pigs showed diminished gap-induced reduction of the startle response in frequency bands between 8 and 18 kHz. This suggests the development of tinnitus in frequency regions that showed a temporary threshold shift (TTS after noise over-exposure. Changes in discharge rate and synchrony, two neuronal correlates of tinnitus, should be reflected in altered ABR waveforms, which would be useful to objectively detect tinnitus and its localization to auditory brainstem structures. Therefore we analyzed latencies and amplitudes of the first five ABR waves at suprathreshold sound intensities and correlated ABR abnormalities with the results of the behavioral tinnitus testing. Early ABR wave amplitudes up to N3 were increased for animals with tinnitus possibly stemming from hyperactivity and hypersynchrony underlying the tinnitus percept.

  11. Cocaine strongly reduces prepulse inhibition in apomorphine-susceptible rats, but not in apomorphine-unsusceptible rats: regulation by dopamine D2 receptors.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elst, M.C.J. van der; Ellenbroek, B.A.; Cools, A.R.

    2006-01-01

    Dopaminergic agonists, such as apomorphine and amphetamine, have been shown to drastically reduce prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle reflex. The effects of the indirect dopamine agonist cocaine on prepulse inhibition have only been described in a few reports and have yielded conflicting res

  12. Different effects of unexpected changes in environmental conditions on prepulse inhibition in rats and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De la Casa, L G; Fernandez, A; Larrauri, J; Mena, A; Puentes, A; Quintero, E; Schmajuk, N

    2012-06-25

    The reduction of the startle response to an auditory stimulus caused by the presentation of another stimulus of lower intensity closely preceding it, a phenomenon known as prepulse inhibition (PPI), can be modulated by changes in dopaminergic activity. Schmajuk, Larrauri, De la Casa, and Levin (2009) demonstrated that this dopaminergic modulation of PPI in rats can be influenced by manipulating the experimental context, specifically by introducing changes in the ambient lighting condition that include novel elements. In this paper we analyze the effects of introducing changes in context illumination on PPI in male rats (Experiment 1) and humans (Experiment 2). The results with rats showed a reduction of PPI when the illumination condition switched from dark to light, but not from light to dark. In the experiment with human participants the reduction of PPI occurred for both changes in illumination conditions. The animal experiment results are interpreted in terms of competing exploratory behavior that appear when the context is illuminated after the dark-light transition; while in the case of human participants a perceptual and/or attentional mechanism after both illumination transitions is proposed, which may result in a reduced processing of the prepulse and subsequent lower PPI. PMID:22504495

  13. Startle response and prepulse inhibition modulation by positive- and negative-induced affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De la Casa, Luis Gonzalo; Mena, Auxiliadora; Puentes, Andrea

    2014-02-01

    The startle response, a set of reflex behaviours intended to prepare the organism to face a potentially threatening stimulus, can be modulated by several factors as, for example, changes in affective state, or previous presentation of a weak stimulus (a phenomenon termed Pre-Pulse Inhibition [PPI]). In this paper we analyse whether the induction of positive or negative affective states in the participants modulates the startle response and the PPI phenomenon. The results revealed a decrease of the startle response and an increase of the PPI effect when registered while the participants were exposed to pleasant images (Experiment 1), and an increase of the startle response and of the PPI effect when they were exposed to a video-clip of unpleasant content (Experiment 2). These data are interpreted considering that changes in affective states correlate with changes in the startle reflex intensity, but changes in PPI might be the result of an attentional process. PMID:24188916

  14. Chronic morphine treatment decreases acoustic startle response and prepulse inhibition in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The reward-related effects of addictive drugs primarily act via the dopamine system, which also plays an important role in sensorimotor gating. The mesolimbic dopamine system is the common pathway of drug addiction and sensorimotor gating. However, the way in which addictive drugs affect sensorimotor gating is currently unclear. In previous studies, we examined the effects of morphine treatment on sensory gating in the hippocampus. The present study investigated the effects of morphine on sensorimotor gating in rats during chronic morphine treatment and withdrawal. Rats were examined during treatment with morphine for 10 successive days, followed by a withdrawal period. Acoustic startle responses to a single startle stimulus (115 dB SPL) and prepulse inhibition responses were recorded. The results showed that acoustic startle responses were attenuated during morphine treatment, but not during withdrawal. PPI was impaired in the last 2 morphine treatment days, but returned to a normal level during withdrawal.

  15. Routine post-weaning handling of rats prevents isolation rearing-induced deficit in prepulse inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L.N.M. Rosa

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Rats reared under isolation conditions from weaning present a number of behavioral changes compared to animals reared under social conditions (group housing. These changes include deficits in prepulse inhibition (PPI of the startle reflex to a loud sound. PPI refers to the reduction of the magnitude of the startle reflex when a relatively weak stimulus (the prepulse precedes by an appropriate time interval the intense startle-elicing stimulus (the pulse. PPI is useful for studying sensorimotor integration. The present study evaluated the effect of handling on the impairment of PPI induced by isolation-rearing. Male Wistar rats (N = 11-15/group were housed in groups (5 per cage and handled three times a week or isolated (housed individually since weaning (21 days for 10 weeks when they reach approximately 150 g. The isolated rats were divided into "minimally handled" animals (handled once a week for cleaning purposes only or "handled" animals (handled three times a week. This handling consisted of grasping the rat by the tail and moving it to a clean cage (approximately 5 s. A statistically significant reduction (52% in the PPI test was found only in the isolated group with minimal handling while no difference was seen between grouped animals and isolated handled animals. These results indicate that isolation rearing causes disruption in the PPI at adult age, which serves as an index of attention deficit. This change in the sensory processing of information induced by post-weaning isolation can be prevented by handling during the development of the animal.

  16. Effects of Olanzapine, Risperidone and Haloperidol on Prepulse Inhibition in Schizophrenia Patients: A Double-Blind, Randomized Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Wynn, Jonathan K.; Green, Michael F; Sprock, Joyce; Light, Gregory A.; Widmark, Clifford; Reist, Christopher; Erhart, Stephen; Marder, Stephen R.; Mintz, Jim; David L Braff

    2007-01-01

    Prepulse inhibition (PPI), whereby the startle eyeblink response is inhibited by a relatively weak non-startling stimulus preceding the powerful startle eliciting stimulus, is a measure of sensorimotor gating and has been shown to be deficient in schizophrenia patients. There is considerable interest in whether conventional and/or atypical antipsychotic medications can “normalize” PPI deficits in schizophrenia patients. 51 schizophrenia patients participated in a randomized, double-blind cont...

  17. Arachidonic acid drives postnatal neurogenesis and elicits a beneficial effect on prepulse inhibition, a biological trait of psychiatric illnesses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motoko Maekawa

    Full Text Available Prepulse inhibition (PPI is a compelling endophenotype (biological markers for mental disorders including schizophrenia. In a previous study, we identified Fabp7, a fatty acid binding protein 7 as one of the genes controlling PPI in mice and showed that this gene was associated with schizophrenia. We also demonstrated that disrupting Fabp7 dampened hippocampal neurogenesis. In this study, we examined a link between neurogenesis and PPI using different animal models and exploring the possibility of postnatal manipulation of neurogenesis affecting PPI, since gene-deficient mice show biological disturbances from prenatal stages. In parallel, we tested the potential for dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs, arachidonic acid (ARA and/or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, to promote neurogenesis and improve PPI. PUFAs are ligands for Fabp members and are abundantly expressed in neural stem/progenitor cells in the hippocampus. Our results are: (1 an independent model animal, Pax6 (+/- rats, exhibited PPI deficits along with impaired postnatal neurogenesis; (2 methylazoxymethanol acetate (an anti-proliferative drug elicited decreased neurogenesis even in postnatal period, and PPI defects in young adult rats (10 weeks when the drug was given at the juvenile stage (4-5 weeks; (3 administering ARA for 4 weeks after birth promoted neurogenesis in wild type rats; (4 raising Pax6 (+/- pups on an ARA-containing diet enhanced neurogenesis and partially improved PPI in adult animals. These results suggest the potential benefit of ARA in ameliorating PPI deficits relevant to psychiatric disorders and suggest that the effect may be correlated with augmented postnatal neurogenesis.

  18. Latent inhibition, but not prepulse inhibition, is reduced during withdrawal from an escalating dosage schedule of amphetamine.

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    Murphy, C A; Fend, M; Russig, H; Feldon, J

    2001-12-01

    The enhanced locomotor and stereotypic responses of the rat to repeated amphetamine (AMPH) administration are considered to be an animal model of positive schizophrenic symptoms. In contrast, behaviors observed during withdrawal from repeated AMPH are believed to model depression or anxiety. In the present study, the authors tested whether AMPH withdrawal might also elicit behaviors consistent with animal models of schizophrenia, specifically, disruptions in latent inhibition (LI) of 2-way active avoidance and prepulse inhibition (PPI) of startle. Rats treated with escalating doses of AMPH (6 days, 1-5 mg/kg ip) or saline were tested for LI and PPI during withdrawal. LI was eliminated by prior AMPH treatment in rats tested at 4, 13, and 28 days of withdrawal. In contrast, PPI did not differ between AMPH and control groups. These results support an interrelationship between repeated-AMPH and LI-disruption, but not PPI-disruption, models of schizophrenia. PMID:11770056

  19. Effects of smoking on the acoustic startle response and prepulse inhibition in smokers with and without posttraumatic stress disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrana, Scott R.; Calhoun, Patrick S.; McClernon, F. Joseph; Dennis, Michelle F.; Lee, Sherman T.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale Cigarette smokers smoke in part because nicotine helps regulate attention. Prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the startle reflex is a measure of early attentional gating that is reduced in abstinent smokers and in groups with attention regulation difficulties. Attention difficulties are found in people with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Objectives The aim of this study is to assess whether smoking and abstinence differentially affect the startle response and PPI in smokers with and without PTSD. Methods Startle response and PPI (prepulses at 60, 120, or 240 ms) were measured in smokers with (N=39) and without (N=61) PTSD, while smoking and again while abstinent. Results Participants with PTSD produced both larger magnitude and faster latency startle responses than controls. Across groups, PPI was greater when smoking than when abstinent. The PTSD and control group exhibited different patterns of PPI across prepulse intervals when smoking and when abstinent. Older age was associated with reduced PPI, but only when abstinent from smoking. Conclusions The effects of PTSD on startle magnitude and of smoking on PPI replicate earlier studies. The different pattern of PPI exhibited in PTSD and control groups across prepulse intervals, while smoking and abstinent suggests that previous research on smoking and PPI has been limited by not including longer prepulse intervals, and that nicotine may affect the time course as well as increasing the level of PPI. The reduced PPI among older participants during abstinence suggests that nicotine may play a role in maintaining attention in older smokers, which may motivate continued smoking in older individuals. PMID:23828156

  20. Using prepulse inhibition to detect functional D3 receptor antagonism: Effects of WC10 and WC44

    OpenAIRE

    WEBER, Martin; Chang, Wei-li; Durbin, John P.; Park, Paula E.; Luedtke, Robert R.; Mach, Robert H.; Swerdlow, Neal R.

    2009-01-01

    Prepulse inhibition of startle (PPI) is an operational measure of sensorimotor gating that is impaired in schizophrenia. Treatment with mixed dopamine D2/D3 antagonists diminishes schizophrenia symptoms, and opposes dopamine agonist-induced PPI deficits in rats. There are reasons to believe that functional D3 receptor antagonists might offer more favorable therapeutic profiles compared to current antipsychotics. However, D3-related drug discovery is hampered by the absence of assays sensitive...

  1. Meclizine Enhancement of Sensorimotor Gating in Healthy Male Subjects with High Startle Responses and Low Prepulse Inhibition

    OpenAIRE

    Larrauri, José A.; Kelley, Lisalynn D; Jenkins, Mason R; Westman, Eric C; Schmajuk, Nestor A; Rosenthal, M. Zachary; Levin, Edward D.

    2013-01-01

    Histamine H1 receptor systems have been shown in animal studies to have important roles in the reversal of sensorimotor gating deficits, as measured by prepulse inhibition (PPI). H1-antagonist treatment attenuates the PPI impairments caused by either blockade of NMDA glutamate receptors or facilitation of dopamine transmission. The current experiment brought the investigation of H1 effects on sensorimotor gating to human studies. The effects of the histamine H1 antagonist meclizine on the sta...

  2. Inhibition in Parkinson’s disease: A focus on prepulse inhibition and Rapid eye movement sleep Behavior Disorder (RBD)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zoetmulder, Marielle

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background: α-synucleinopathies are characterized by degeneration of the nigrostriatal pathway and midbrain dopamine function. These disorders, including Parkinson’s disease (PD), are associated with sensorimotor gating deficits and show an increased prevalence of the parasomnia REM sleep...... with daytime motor function in Parkinsonism, the relation to the increased motor activity during REM sleep as seen in RBD is unclear. Aim: The objective of this thesis was 1) to examine prepulse inhibition of the acoustic blink reflex in patients with idiopathic REM sleep behaviour disorder (iRBD), Parkinson...... in the striatum. Moreover, our results support the hypothesis that increased EMG-activity during REM sleep in iRBD is associated with the nigrostriatal dopamine system, while EMG-activity during REM-sleep in PD is associated with dopaminergic medication....

  3. Alterations to prepulse inhibition magnitude and latency in adult rats following neonatal treatment with domoic acid and social isolation rearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marriott, Amber L; Tasker, R Andrew; Ryan, Catherine L; Doucette, Tracy A

    2016-02-01

    Deficits in perceptual, informational, and attentional processing are consistently identified as a core feature in schizophrenia and related neuropsychiatric disorders. Neonatal injections of low doses of the AMPA/kainate agonist domoic acid (DOM) have previously been shown to alter various aspects of perceptual and attentional processing in adult rats. The current study investigated the effects of combined neonatal DOM treatment with isolation rearing on prepulse inhibition behaviour and relevant neurochemical measures, to assess the usefulness of these paradigms in modeling neurodevelopmental disorders. Daily subcutaneous injections of DOM (20 μg/kg) or saline were administered to male and female rat pups from postnatal days (PND) 8-14. After weaning, rats were either housed alone or in groups of 4. Both the magnitude and latency of prepulse inhibition were determined in adulthood (approximately 4.5 months of age) and post-mortem brain tissue was assayed using Western blot. Social isolation alone significantly lowered PPI magnitude in male (but not female) rats while DOM treatment appeared to make animals refractory to this effect. Combining social isolation and DOM treatment caused an additive decrease in PPI startle latency. No statistically significant differences were found in the expression of D1, D2, TH, GAD65 or GAD67 protein in either the prefrontal cortex or hippocampus, although some tendencies toward differences were noted. We conclude that both neonatal low-dose DOM and social isolation affect prepulse inhibition in rats but that each paradigm exerts these effects through different neuronal signalling systems.

  4. Sleep duration, depression, and oxytocinergic genotype influence prepulse inhibition of the startle reflex in postpartum women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comasco, Erika; Gulinello, Maria; Hellgren, Charlotte; Skalkidou, Alkistis; Sylven, Sara; Sundström-Poromaa, Inger

    2016-04-01

    The postpartum period is characterized by a post-withdrawal hormonal status, sleep deprivation, and susceptibility to affective disorders. Postpartum mothering involves automatic and attentional processes to screen out new external as well as internal stimuli. The present study investigated sensorimotor gating in relation to sleep duration, depression, as well as catecholaminergic and oxytocinergic genotypes in postpartum women. Prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the startle reflex and startle reactivity were assessed two months postpartum in 141 healthy and 29 depressed women. The catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met, and oxytocin receptor (OXTR) rs237885 and rs53576 polymorphisms were genotyped, and data on sleep duration were collected. Short sleep duration (less than four hours in the preceding night) and postpartum depression were independently associated with lower PPI. Also, women with postpartum depression had higher startle reactivity in comparison with controls. The OXTR rs237885 genotype was related to PPI in an allele dose-dependent mode, with T/T healthy postpartum women carriers displaying the lowest PPI. Reduced sensorimotor gating was associated with sleep deprivation and depressive symptoms during the postpartum period. Individual neurophysiological vulnerability might be mediated by oxytocinergic genotype which relates to bonding and stress response. These findings implicate the putative relevance of lower PPI of the startle response as an objective physiological correlate of liability to postpartum depression. PMID:26857197

  5. Effects of Intravenous Nicotine on Prepulse Inhibition in Smokers and Nonsmokers: Relationship with Familial Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drobes, David J.; MacQueen, David A.; Blank, Melissa D.; Saladin, Michael E.; Malcolm, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale The reinforcing properties of nicotine may be, in part, derived from its ability to enhance certain forms of cognitive processing. Several animal and human studies have shown that nicotine increases prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the startle reflex. However, it remains unclear whether these effects are related to smoking susceptibility. Objectives The current study examined the effects of intravenously delivered nicotine on PPI in smokers and nonsmokers, as well as its association with a quantitative index of familial smoking. Methods The sample consisted of 30 non-smokers and 16 smokers, who completed an initial assessment, followed on a separate day by a laboratory assessment of PPI prior to and following each of two intravenous nicotine infusions. Separate doses were used in smoker and non-smoker samples. Results Analyses indicated that both nicotine infusions acutely enhanced PPI among non-smokers, and this enhancement was positively related to the degree of smoking among first and second-degree relatives. Smokers also displayed PPI enhancement after receiving the first infusion, but this effect was unrelated to familial smoking. Conclusions These data suggest that the PPI paradigm may have utility as an endophenotype for cognitive processes which contribute to smoking risk. PMID:23624809

  6. Effect of stress and attention on startle response and prepulse inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De la Casa, Luis Gonzalo; Mena, Auxiliadora; Ruiz-Salas, Juan Carlos

    2016-10-15

    The startle reflex magnitude can be modulated when a weak stimulus is presented before the onset of the startle stimulus, a phenomenon termed prepulse inhibition (PPI). Previous research has demonstrated that emotional processes can modulate PPI and startle intensity, but the available evidence is inconclusive. In order to obtain additional evidence in this domain, we conducted two experiments intended to analyze the effect of induced stress and attentional load on PPI and startle magnitude. Specifically, in Experiment 1 we used a between subject strategy to evaluate the effect on startle response and PPI magnitude of performing a difficult task intended to induce stress in the participants, as compared to a group exposed to a control task. In Experiment 2 we evaluated the effect of diverting attention from the acoustic stimulus on startle and PPI intensity. The results seem to indicate that induced stress can reduce PPI, and that startle reflex intensity is reduced when attention is directed away from the auditory stimulus that induces the reflex.

  7. Acoustic startle reflex and pre-pulse inhibition in tinnitus patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kelly Shadwick; Wei Sun

    2014-01-01

    Gap induced pre-pulse inhibition (Gap-PPI) of acoustic startle reflex has been used as a measurement of tinnitus in animal models. However, whether this test is sensitive to detect tinnitus in humans is still unclear. Based on the testing procedure used in animal studies, a human subject testing method was formulated and conducted to investigate if a similar result could be found in tinnitus patients. Audiologic and tinnitus assessments and acoustic startle reflex measurements were performed on seven tinnitus subjects and nine age matched subjects without tinnitus. There was no significant difference found between the control and tinnitus group on the Gap-PPI across the frequencies evaluated. The amplitude of the startle response in the tinnitus group with normal hearing thresholds was significantly higher than the control group and those with tinnitus and hearing loss. This preliminary result suggests that hyperexcitability in the central auditory system may be involved in tinnitus. There was no correlation between hearing thresholds and the increased amplitude of startle response.

  8. Effects of the hallucinogen psilocybin on habituation and prepulse inhibition of the startle reflex in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouzoulis-Mayfrank, E; Heekeren, K; Thelen, B; Lindenblatt, H; Kovar, K A; Sass, H; Geyer, M A

    1998-11-01

    Schizophrenic patients exhibit deficits in indices of sensorimotor gating, such as habituation and prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the startle reflex. Hallucinogenic drug-induced states are putative models for the early and acute stages of schizophrenic and schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. Hallucinogenic drugs have been shown to disrupt PPI and/or retard habituation of the startle reflex in animal models of schizophrenia, consistent with the view of hallucinogen-induced states as 'model psychoses'. We evaluated the effects of the hallucinogen psilocybin on PPI and habituation of the startle reflex in a double-blind, placebo-controlled human study with 12 healthy subjects. In contrast to animal studies, in our small human sample, psilocybin increased PPI, while having no clear effect on habituation (n = 6). These findings must be considered preliminary because several factors, including dose regimens and experimental parameters, may influence the results of studies on startle plasticity. Further investigations both with psychotic patients in different stages of the disease and with human and animal models of schizophrenia are needed in order to explore the effects of hallucinogens on sensorimotor gating and the relationship between information processing in hallucinogenic drug-induced states and the naturally occurring psychoses.

  9. Behavioral and pharmacological validation of an integrated fear-potentiated startle and prepulse inhibition paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mengjiao; Li, Ming

    2016-07-01

    Fear-potentiated startle (FPS) and prepulse inhibition (PPI) of acoustic startle are two widely used paradigms specifically designed to capture the impact of negative emotion (e.g. fear) and preattentive function on startle response. Currently, there is no single paradigm that incorporates both FPS and PPI, making it impossible to examine the potential interactions between fear and attention in the regulation of startle response. In this study, we developed an integrated FPS and PPI test protocol and validated it with psychoactive drugs. In Experiment 1, male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to one of five groups, receiving either Light -Shock conditioning trials, non-overlapping Lights and Shocks, Light alone, Shock alone, or no Light and Shock. They were then tested for startle response and PPI concurrently, under the Light or No Light. FPS was observed only in rats subjected to fear conditioning, whereas all rats showed PPI and startle habituation. Experiment 2 used this paradigm and demonstrated a dissociative effect between diazepam (an anxiolytic drug) and phencyclidine (a nonselective NMDA receptor antagonist) on FPS and PPI. Diazepam suppressed both FPS and PPI, while PCP selectively disrupted PPI but not FPS. The diazepam's anxiolytic effect on FPS was further confirmed in the elevated plus maze test. Together, our findings indicate that our paradigm combines FPS and PPI into a single paradigm, and that is useful to examine potential interactions between multiple psychological processes, to identify the common neural substrates and to screen new drugs with multiple psychoactive effects. PMID:27059335

  10. Neural circuits containing olfactory neurons are involved in prepulse inhibition of the startle reflex in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haichen eNiu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Many neuropsychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, have been associated with abnormalities in the function of the olfactory system and prepulse inhibition (PPI of the startle reflex. However, whether these two abnormalities are related is unclear. The present study was designed to determine whether inhibiting olfactory sensory input via the infusion of zinc sulfate (ZnE, 0.17 M, 0.5 ml into the olfactory naris disrupts PPI. Furthermore, lidocaine/MK801 was bilaterally microinjected into the olfactory bulb (OB to examine whether the blockade of olfactory sensory input impairs PPI. To identify the neural projections that connect the olfaction- and PPI-related areas of the CNS, trans-synaptic retrograde tracing using a recombinant pseudorabies virus (PRV was performed. Our results demonstrated that blocking olfactory sensory input altered olfaction-related behavior. At the functional level, we demonstrated that the inhibition of olfactory sensory input impaired PPI of the startle response subsequent to a decrease in c-fos expression in relevant brain regions. Furthermore, the results of a similar and more robust experiment indicated that blocking olfactory sensory input via the microinjection of lidocaine/MK801 into the OB impaired PPI. At the circuit level, based on trans-synaptic retrograde tracing using PRV, we demonstrated that a large portion of the labeled neurons in several regions of the olfactory cortices connected to the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPTg. Thus, these data suggest that the olfactory system participates in the regulation of PPI and plays a role in the effect of PPI on the startle response in rats.

  11. Reversible disruption of pre-pulse inhibition in hypomorphic-inducible and reversible CB1-/- mice.

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    Maria Franca Marongiu

    Full Text Available Although several genes are implicated in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia, in animal models for such a severe mental illness only some aspects of the pathology can be represented (endophenotypes. Genetically modified mice are currently being used to obtain or characterize such endophenotypes. Since its cloning and characterization CB1 receptor has increasingly become of significant physiological, pharmacological and clinical interest. Recently, its involvement in schizophrenia has been reported. Among the different approaches employed, gene targeting permits to study the multiple roles of the endocannabinoid system using knockout ((-/- mice represent a powerful model but with some limitations due to compensation. To overcome such a limitation, we have generated an inducible and reversible tet-off dependent tissue-specific CB1(-/- mice where the CB1R is re-expressed exclusively in the forebrain at a hypomorphic level due to a mutation (IRh-CB1(-/- only in absence of doxycycline (Dox. In such mice, under Dox(+ or vehicle, as well as in wild-type (WT and CB1(-/-, two endophenotypes motor activity (increased in animal models of schizophrenia and pre-pulse inhibition (PPI of startle reflex (disrupted in schizophrenia were analyzed. Both CB1(-/- and IRh-CB1(-/- showed increased motor activity when compared to WT animals. The PPI response, unaltered in WT and CB1(-/- animals, was on the contrary highly and significantly disrupted only in Dox(+ IRh-CB1(-/- mice. Such a response was easily reverted after either withdrawal from Dox or haloperidol treatment. This is the first Inducible and Reversible CB1(-/- mice model to be described in the literature. It is noteworthy that the PPI disruption is not present either in classical full CB1(-/- mice or following acute administration of rimonabant. Such a hypomorphic model may provide a new tool for additional in vivo and in vitro studies of the physiological and pathological roles of cannabinoid system in

  12. M4 muscarinic receptor knockout mice display abnormal social behavior and decreased prepulse inhibition

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    Koshimizu Hisatsugu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the central nervous system (CNS, the muscarinic system plays key roles in learning and memory, as well as in the regulation of many sensory, motor, and autonomic processes, and is thought to be involved in the pathophysiology of several major diseases of the CNS, such as Alzheimer's disease, depression, and schizophrenia. Previous studies reveal that M4 muscarinic receptor knockout (M4R KO mice displayed an increase in basal locomotor activity, an increase in sensitivity to the prepulse inhibition (PPI-disrupting effect of psychotomimetics, and normal basal PPI. However, other behaviorally significant roles of M4R remain unclear. Results In this study, to further investigate precise functional roles of M4R in the CNS, M4R KO mice were subjected to a battery of behavioral tests. M4R KO mice showed no significant impairments in nociception, neuromuscular strength, or motor coordination/learning. In open field, light/dark transition, and social interaction tests, consistent with previous studies, M4R KO mice displayed enhanced locomotor activity compared to their wild-type littermates. In the open field test, M4R KO mice exhibited novelty-induced locomotor hyperactivity. In the social interaction test, contacts between pairs of M4R KO mice lasted shorter than those of wild-type mice. In the sensorimotor gating test, M4R KO mice showed a decrease in PPI, whereas in the startle response test, in contrast to a previous study, M4R KO mice demonstrated normal startle response. M4R KO mice also displayed normal performance in the Morris water maze test. Conclusions These findings indicate that M4R is involved in regulation of locomotor activity, social behavior, and sensorimotor gating in mice. Together with decreased PPI, abnormal social behavior, which was newly identified in the present study, may represent a behavioral abnormality related to psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia.

  13. Role of the NMDA-receptor in Prepulse Inhibition in the Rat

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    Klas Linderholm

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Kynurenic acid (KYNA is an endogenous metabolite of tryptophan. Studies have revealed increased brain KYNA levels in patients with schizophrenia. Prepulse inhibition (PPI is a behavioral model for sensorimotor gating and found to be reduced in schizophrenia. Previous studies have shown that pharmacologically elevated brain KYNA levels disrupt PPI in the rat. The aim of the present study was to investigate the receptor(s involved in this effect. Rats were treated with different drugs selectively blocking each of the sites that KYNA antagonizes, namely the glutamate recognition site of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR, the α7* nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR and the glycine site of the NMDAR. Kynurenine (200 mg/kg was given to replicate the effects of increased levels of KYNA on PPI. In order to block the glutamate recognition site of the NMDAR, CGS 19755 (10 mg/kg or SDZ 220–581 (2.5 mg/kg were administered and to antagonize the α7nAChR methyllycaconitine (MLA; 6 mg/kg was given. L-701,324 (1 and 4 mg/kg or 4-Chloro-kynurenine (4-Cl-KYN; 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg, a drug in situ converted to 7-Chloro-kynurenic acid, were used to block the glycine-site of the NMDAR. Administration of SDZ 220-581 or CGS 19755 was associated with a robust reduction in PPI, whereas L-701,324, 4-Cl-KYN or MLA failed to alter PPI. Kynurenine increased brain KYNA levels 5-fold and tended to decrease PPI. The present study suggests that neither antagonism of the glycine-site of the NMDA receptor nor antagonism of the α7nAChR disrupts PPI, rather with regard to the effects of KYNA, blockade of the glutamate recognition-site is necessary to reduce PPI.

  14. Effects of deep brain stimulation on prepulse inhibition in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohl, S; Gruendler, T O J; Huys, D; Sildatke, E; Dembek, T A; Hellmich, M; Vorderwulbecke, M; Timmermann, L; Ahmari, S E; Klosterkoetter, J; Jessen, F; Sturm, V; Visser-Vandewalle, V; Kuhn, J

    2015-01-01

    Owing to a high response rate, deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the ventral striatal area has been approved for treatment-refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder (tr-OCD). Many basic issues regarding DBS for tr-OCD are still not understood, in particular, the mechanisms of action and the origin of side effects. We measured prepulse inhibition (PPI) in treatment-refractory OCD patients undergoing DBS of the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) and matched controls. As PPI has been used in animal DBS studies, it is highly suitable for translational research. Eight patients receiving DBS, eight patients with pharmacological treatment and eight age-matched healthy controls participated in our study. PPI was measured twice in the DBS group: one session with the stimulator switched on and one session with the stimulator switched off. OCD patients in the pharmacologic group took part in a single session. Controls were tested twice, to ensure stability of data. Statistical analysis revealed significant differences between controls and (1) patients with pharmacological treatment and (2) OCD DBS patients when the stimulation was switched off. Switching the stimulator on led to an increase in PPI at a stimulus-onset asynchrony of 200 ms. There was no significant difference in PPI between OCD patients being stimulated and the control group. This study shows that NAcc-DBS leads to an increase in PPI in tr-OCD patients towards a level seen in healthy controls. Assuming that PPI impairments partially reflect the neurobiological substrates of OCD, our results show that DBS of the NAcc may improve sensorimotor gating via correction of dysfunctional neural substrates. Bearing in mind that PPI is based on a complex and multilayered network, our data confirm that DBS most likely takes effect via network modulation. PMID:26556284

  15. BDNF deficiency and young-adult methamphetamine induce sex-specific effects on prepulse inhibition regulation

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    Elizabeth E Manning

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF has been implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, yet its role in the development of specific symptoms is unclear. Methamphetamine (METH users have an increased risk of psychosis and schizophrenia, and METH-treated animals have been used extensively as a model to study the positive symptoms of schizophrenia. We investigated whether METH treatment in BDNF heterozygous mutant mice (HET has cumulative effects on sensorimotor gating, including the disruptive effects of psychotropic drugs. BDNF HETs and WT littermates were treated during young-adulthood with METH and, following a two-week break, prepulse inhibition (PPI was examined. At baseline, BDNF HETs showed reduced PPI compared to WT mice irrespective of METH pre-treatment. An acute challenge with amphetamine (AMPH disrupted PPI but male BDNF HETs were more sensitive to this effect, irrespective of METH pre-treatment. In contrast, female mice treated with METH were less sensitive to the disruptive effects of AMPH, and there were no effects of BDNF genotype. Similar changes were not observed in the response to an acute apomorphine or MK-801 challenge. These results show that genetically-induced reduction of BDNF caused changes in a behavioural endophenotype relevant to the positive symptoms of schizophrenia. However, major sex differences were observed in the effects of a psychotropic drug challenge on this behaviour. These findings suggest sex differences in the effects of BDNF depletion and METH treatment on the monoamine signaling pathways that regulate PPI. Given that these same pathways are thought to contribute to the expression of positive symptoms in schizophrenia, this work suggests that there may be significant sex differences in the pathophysiology underlying these symptoms. Elucidating these sex differences may be important for our understanding of the neurobiology of schizophrenia and developing better treatments strategies for the

  16. Glycine and GABAA receptors mediate tonic and phasic inhibitory processes that contribute to prepulse inhibition in the goldfish startle network

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    Paul C.P. Curtin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Prepulse inhibition (PPI is understood as an inhibitory process that attenuates sensory flow during early stages (20-1000ms of information processing. Here, we applied in vivo electrophysiology and pharmacology to determine if prepulse inhibition (PPI is mediated by glycine receptors (GlyRs and/or GABAA receptors (GABAARs in the goldfish auditory startle circuit. Specifically, we used selective antagonists to dissect the contributions of target receptors on sound-evoked postsynaptic potentials (PSPs recorded in the neurons that initiate startle, the Mauthner-cells (M-cell. We found that strychnine, a GlyR antagonist, disrupted a fast-activated (5 ms and rapidly (< 50ms decaying (feed-forward inhibitory process that disrupts PPI at 20 ms prepulse/pulse inter-stimulus intervals (ISI. Additionally we observed increases of the evoked postsynaptic potential (PSP peak amplitude (+87.43 ± 21.53%; N=9 and duration (+204 ± 48.91%, N=9. In contrast, treatment with bicuculline, a GABAAR antagonist, caused a general reduction in PPI across all tested ISIs (20-500 ms, essentially eliminating PPI at ISIs from 20-100 ms. Bicuculline also increased PSP peak amplitude (+133.8 ± 10.3%, N=5 and PSP duration (+284.95 ± 65.64%, N=5. Treatment with either antagonist also tonically increased post-synaptic excitability in the M-cells, reflected by an increase in the magnitude of antidromically-evoked action potentials (APs by 15.07 ± 3.21%, N=7 and 16.23 ± 7.08%, N=5 for strychnine and bicuculline, respectively. These results suggest that GABAARs and GlyRs are functionally segregated to short- and longer-lasting sound-evoked (phasic inhibitory processes that contribute to PPI, with the mediation of tonic inhibition by both receptor systems being critical for gain control within the M-cell startle circuit.

  17. The T-type calcium channel antagonist Z944 disrupts prepulse inhibition in both epileptic and non-epileptic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Wendie N; Greba, Quentin; Cain, Stuart M; Snutch, Terrance P; Howland, John G

    2016-09-22

    The role of T-type calcium channels in brain diseases such as absence epilepsy and neuropathic pain has been studied extensively. However, less is known regarding the involvement of T-type channels in cognition and behavior. Prepulse inhibition (PPI) is a measure of sensorimotor gating which is a basic process whereby the brain filters incoming stimuli to enable appropriate responding in sensory rich environments. The regulation of PPI involves a network of limbic, cortical, striatal, pallidal and pontine brain areas, many of which show high levels of T-type calcium channel expression. Therefore, we tested the effects of blocking T-type calcium channels on PPI with the potent and selective T-type antagonist Z944 (0.3, 1, 3, 10mg/kg; i.p.) in adult Wistar rats and two related strains, the Genetic Absence Epilepsy Rats from Strasbourg (GAERS) and Non-Epileptic Control (NEC). PPI was tested using a protocol that varied prepulse intensity (3, 6, and 12dB above background) and prepulse-pulse interval (30, 50, 80, 140ms). Z944 decreased startle in the Wistar strain at the highest dose relative to lower doses. Z944 dose-dependently disrupted PPI in the Wistar and GAERS strains with the most potent effect observed with the higher doses. These findings suggest that T-type calcium channels contribute to normal patterns of brain activity that regulate PPI. Given that PPI is disrupted in psychiatric disorders, future experiments that test the specific brain regions involved in the regulation of PPI by T-type calcium channels may help inform therapeutic development for those suffering from sensorimotor gating impairments. PMID:27365170

  18. Pre-pulse inhibition of the acoustic startle eye-blink in the Göttingen minipig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnfred, Sidse Marie; Lind, Nanna Marie; Hansen, Axel Kornerup;

    2004-01-01

    by a weak white noise pre-pulse (PP), the interval between the PP and the startle noise stimulus (SNS) determining the degree of inhibition. Aiming at developing a new animal model of schizophrenia, we have investigated the acoustic startle eye-blink and PPI in 10 Göttingen minipigs. The stimuli......Pre-pulse inhibition (PPI) of the startle response is a measure of sensorimotor gating which has been frequently shown to be deficient in schizophrenic patients. In humans it is typically measured as the attenuation of the startle eye-blink reflex EMG when a startle eliciting noise is preceded...... and the block design of the stimulation were similar to paradigms used in human research. Initially the startle habituation across trials and blocks, secondarily the PPI at PP to SNS intervals of 30, 60, 120, 220, 520, 1020 and 2020 ms was investigated. One pig out of ten did not have a startle response...

  19. Correlation of Prepulse Inhibition and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test in Schizophrenia and Controls: Effects of Smoking Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabin, Rachel A.; Sacco, Kristi A.; George, Tony P.

    2009-01-01

    Background In schizophrenia, neurocognitive deficits associated with the illness are modulated by tobacco smoking. However, little is known about how smoking status modulates the relationships between neurocognitive measures in schizophrenia and healthy control subjects. Objective The goal of this study was to evaluate the relationship between sensorimotor gating assessed by prepulse inhibition (PPI) and executive cognitive function using the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) in schizophrenia and controls as a function of smoking status. Method We studied PPI and neuropsychological function in four groups (N=50); smokers with schizophrenia (SS; n=15), control smokers (CS; n=13), non-smokers with schizophrenia (SNS; n=11) and control non-smokers (CNS; n=11). Results SNS demonstrated the poorest PPI, while SS showed comparably high levels of PPI to CNS. Non-psychiatric controls outperformed patients on WCST outcomes irrespective of smoking status. Several prefrontal outcome measures on the WCST (categories completed, percentage perseverative and non-perseverative errors) correlated significantly with PPI at the 60 and 120 msec prepulse intervals. In contrast, there were no significant correlations between PPI and any WCST outcomes in SNS, CS or CNS, and few significant correlations between PPI and other neuropsychological measures. Discussion Our preliminary data suggests that the correlation between sensorimotor gating (PPI) and prefrontal executive cognitive functioning (WCST) is enhanced by acute cigarette smoking in schizophrenia. PMID:19656658

  20. Differences in the cellular mechanism underlying the effects of amphetamine on prepulse inhibition in apomorphine-susceptible and apomorphine-unsusceptible rats.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elst, M.C.J. van der; Wunderink, Y.S.; Ellenbroek, B.A.; Cools, A.R.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Amphetamine is often used to mimic certain aspects of schizophrenia in laboratory animals, such as a decreased prepulse inhibition. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Apomorphine-susceptible and apomorphine-unsusceptible rats represent a well-characterized animal model for individual differences in

  1. Modulation of prepulse inhibition and startle reflex by emotions: A comparison between young and older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolyanne eLe Duc

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study examined whether or not the acoustic startle response and sensorimotor gating may be modulated by emotions differentially between young and older adults. Two groups of participants (mean age Young: 24 y.o.; Elderly: 63.6 y.o. were presented with three types of auditory stimuli (Startle alone, High or Low frequency Prepulse while viewing pleasant, neutral, or unpleasant images. Electromyographic activity of the eyeblink response was measured. Results show that older adults displayed diminished eyeblink responses whereas younger adults displayed enhanced eyeblink responses when viewing negative images. Sensorimotor gating also differed between young and older adults, with enhanced sensorimotor gating abilities while viewing positive pictures in older adults and diminished abilities while viewing negative pictures among younger adults. These results argue in favor of a differential emotional influence on the sensorimotor abilities of young and older adults, with a positivity bias among the latter.

  2. Gap prepulse inhibition and auditory brainstem-evoked potentials as objective measures for tinnitus in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehmel, Susanne; Eisinger, Daniel; Shore, Susan E

    2012-01-01

    Tinnitus or ringing of the ears is a subjective phantom sensation necessitating behavioral models that objectively demonstrate the existence and quality of the tinnitus sensation. The gap detection test uses the acoustic startle response elicited by loud noise pulses and its gating or suppression by preceding sub-startling prepulses. Gaps in noise bands serve as prepulses, assuming that ongoing tinnitus masks the gap and results in impaired gap detection. This test has shown its reliability in rats, mice, and gerbils. No data exists for the guinea pig so far, although gap detection is similar across mammals and the acoustic startle response is a well-established tool in guinea pig studies of psychiatric disorders and in pharmacological studies. Here we investigated the startle behavior and prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the guinea pig and showed that guinea pigs have a reliable startle response that can be suppressed by 15 ms gaps embedded in narrow noise bands preceding the startle noise pulse. After recovery of auditory brainstem response (ABR) thresholds from a unilateral noise over-exposure centered at 7 kHz, guinea pigs showed diminished gap-induced reduction of the startle response in frequency bands between 8 and 18 kHz. This suggests the development of tinnitus in frequency regions that showed a temporary threshold shift (TTS) after noise over-exposure. Changes in discharge rate and synchrony, two neuronal correlates of tinnitus, should be reflected in altered ABR waveforms, which would be useful to objectively detect tinnitus and its localization to auditory brainstem structures. Therefore, we analyzed latencies and amplitudes of the first five ABR waves at suprathreshold sound intensities and correlated ABR abnormalities with the results of the behavioral tinnitus testing. Early ABR wave amplitudes up to N3 were increased for animals with tinnitus possibly stemming from hyperactivity and hypersynchrony underlying the tinnitus percept. Animals that did not

  3. The Functional Networks of Prepulse Inhibition: Neuronal Connectivity Analysis Based on FDG-PET in Awake and Unrestrained Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohleder, Cathrin; Wiedermann, Dirk; Neumaier, Bernd; Drzezga, Alexander; Timmermann, Lars; Graf, Rudolf; Leweke, F. Markus; Endepols, Heike

    2016-01-01

    Prepulse inhibition (PPI) is a neuropsychological process during which a weak sensory stimulus (“prepulse”) attenuates the motor response (“startle reaction”) to a subsequent strong startling stimulus. It is measured as a surrogate marker of sensorimotor gating in patients suffering from neuropsychological diseases such as schizophrenia, as well as in corresponding animal models. A variety of studies has shown that PPI of the acoustical startle reaction comprises three brain circuitries for: (i) startle mediation, (ii) PPI mediation, and (iii) modulation of PPI mediation. While anatomical connections and information flow in the startle and PPI mediation pathways are well known, spatial and temporal interactions of the numerous regions involved in PPI modulation are incompletely understood. We therefore combined [18F]fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron-emission-tomography (FDG-PET) with PPI and resting state control paradigms in awake rats. A battery of subtractive, correlative as well as seed-based functional connectivity analyses revealed a default mode-like network (DMN) active during resting state only. Furthermore, two functional networks were observed during PPI: Metabolic activity in the lateral circuitry was positively correlated with PPI effectiveness and involved the auditory system and emotional regions. The medial network was negatively correlated with PPI effectiveness, i.e., associated with startle, and recruited a spatial/cognitive network. Our study provides evidence for two distinct neuronal networks, whose continuous interplay determines PPI effectiveness in rats, probably by either protecting the prepulse or facilitating startle processing. Discovering similar networks affected in neuropsychological disorders may help to better understand mechanisms of sensorimotor gating deficits and provide new perspectives for therapeutic strategies. PMID:27493627

  4. Individual difference in prepulse inhibition does not predict spatial learning and memory performance in C57BL/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peleg-Raibstein, Daria; Philipp, Singer; Feldon, Joram; Yee, Benjamin K

    2015-12-01

    The startle reflex to an intense acoustic pulse stimulus is attenuated if the pulse stimulus is shortly preceded by a weak non-startling prepulse stimulus. This attenuation of the startle reflex represents a form of pre-attentional sensory gating known as prepulse inhibition (PPI). Although PPI does not require learning, its expression is regulated by higher cognitive processes. PPI deficits have been detected in several psychiatric conditions including schizophrenia where they co-exist with cognitive deficits. A potential link between PPI expression and cognitive performance has therefore been suggested such that poor PPI may predict, or may be mechanistically linked to, overt cognitive impairments. A positive relationship between PPI and strategy formation, planning efficiency, and execution speed has been observed in healthy humans. However, parallel studies in healthy animals are rare. It thus remains unclear what cognitive domains may be associated with, or orthogonal to, sensory gating in the form of PPI in healthy animals. The present study evaluated a potential link between the magnitude of PPI and spatial memory performance by comparing two subgroups of animals differing substantially in baseline PPI expression (low-PPI vs high-PPI) within a homogenous cohort of 100 male adult C57BL/6 mice. Assessment of spatial reference memory in the Morris water maze and spatial recognition memory in the Y-maze failed to reveal any difference between low-PPI and high-PPI subjects. These negative findings contrast with our previous reports that individual difference in PPI correlated with sustained attention and working memory performance in C57BL/6 mice.

  5. Association between violent behaviour and impaired prepulse inhibition of the startle response in antisocial personality disorder and schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Veena; Das, Mrigen; Hodgins, Sheilagh; Zachariah, Elizabeth; Barkataki, Ian; Howlett, Michael; Sharma, Tonmoy

    2005-03-01

    Violent behaviour has a strong association with antisocial personality disorder (APD) and schizophrenia. Although developments in the understanding of socio-environmental factors associated with violence should not be ignored, advances in prevention and treatment of violent behaviour would benefit by improved understanding of its neurobiological and cognitive basis. The authors, therefore, investigated prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the startle response in APD and schizophrenia in relation to a history of serious violence. The neural substrates of PPI, especially the hippocampus, amygdala, thalamus and basal ganglia, are implicated in violence as well as in APD and schizophrenia. The study included four groups: (i) patients with APD and a history of violence, (ii) patients with schizophrenia and a history of violence, (iii) patients with schizophrenia without a history of violence, and (iv) healthy subjects with no history of violence or a mental disorder. All subjects were assessed identically on acoustic PPI. Compared to healthy subjects, significantly reduced PPI occurred in APD, violent schizophrenia and non-violent schizophrenia patients. Although PPI did not significantly differentiate the three clinical groups, high ratings of violence were modestly associated with reduced PPI across the entire study sample. Violent patients with impulsive and premeditated violence showed comparable PPI. The association between violent behaviour and impaired PPI suggests that neural structures and functions underlying PPI are implicated in (inhibition of) violence.

  6. Acetylcholinesterase inhibition ameliorates deficits in motivational drive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinowich Keri

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Apathy is frequently observed in numerous neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's, as well as neuropsychiatric disorders including schizophrenia. Apathy is defined as a lack of motivation characterized by diminished goal-oriented behavior and self-initiated activity. This study evaluated a chronic restraint stress (CRS protocol in modeling apathetic behavior, and determined whether administration of an anticholinesterase had utility in attenuating CRS-induced phenotypes. Methods We assessed behavior as well as regional neuronal activity patterns using FosB immunohistochemistry after exposure to CRS for 6 h/d for a minimum of 21 d. Based on our FosB findings and recent clinical trials, we administered an anticholinesterase to evaluate attenuation of CRS-induced phenotypes. Results CRS resulted in behaviors that reflect motivational loss and diminished emotional responsiveness. CRS-exposed mice showed differences in FosB accumulation, including changes in the cholinergic basal forebrain system. Facilitating cholinergic signaling ameliorated CRS-induced deficits in initiation and motivational drive and rescued immediate early gene activation in the medial septum and nucleus accumbens. Conclusions Some CRS protocols may be useful for studying deficits in motivation and apathetic behavior. Amelioration of CRS-induced behaviors with an anticholinesterase supports a role for the cholinergic system in remediation of deficits in motivational drive.

  7. Short-term selective breeding for High and Low prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle response; pharmacological characterization and QTL mapping in the selected lines

    OpenAIRE

    Hitzemann, Robert; Malmanger, Barry; Belknap, John; Darakjian, Priscila; McWeeney, Shannon

    2008-01-01

    Selective breeding offers several important advantages over using inbred strain panels in detecting genetically correlated traits to the selection phenotype. The purpose of the current study was to selectively breed for prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the acoustic startle response (ASR), to pharmacologically and behaviorally characterize the selected lines and to use the lines for quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping. Starting with heterogeneous stock mice formed by crossing the C57BL/6J, DBA/2...

  8. Fine mapping of QTL for prepulse inhibition in LG/J and SM/J mice using F2 and advanced intercross lines

    OpenAIRE

    Samocha, K. E.; Lim, J. E.; Cheng, R.; Sokoloff, G.; Palmer, A A

    2010-01-01

    Prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the startle response is a measure of sensorimotor gating, a process that filters out extraneous sensory, motor and cognitive information. Humans with neurological and psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia, obsessive-compulsive disorder and Huntington’s disease, exhibit a reduction in PPI. Habituation of the startle response is also disrupted in schizophrenic patients. In order to elucidate the genes involved in sensorimotor gating, we phenotyped 472 mice ...

  9. Nicotine blocks apomorphine-induced disruption of prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle in rats: possible involvement of central nicotinic α7 receptors

    OpenAIRE

    Suemaru, Katsuya; Yasuda, Kayo; Umeda, Kenta; Araki, Hiroaki; Shibata, Kazuhiko; Choshi, Tominari; Hibino, Satoshi; Gomita, Yutaka

    2004-01-01

    Nicotine has been reported to normalize deficits in auditory sensory gating in the cases of schizophrenia, suggesting an involvement of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in attentional abnormalities. However, the mechanism remains unclear. The present study investigated the effects of nicotine on the disruption of prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the acoustic startle response induced by apomorphine or phencyclidine in rats.Over the dose range tested, nicotine (0.05–1 mg kg−1, s.c.) did not disrup...

  10. Effects of stress, acute alcohol treatment, or both on pre-pulse inhibition in high- and low-alcohol preferring mice

    OpenAIRE

    Powers, Matthew S.; Chester, Julia

    2014-01-01

    Pre-pulse inhibition of the acoustic startle reflex (PPI) is a measure of sensorimotor gating frequently used to assess information processing in both humans and rodents. Both alcohol and stress exposure can modulate PPI, making it possible to assess how stress and alcohol interact to influence information processing. Humans with an increased genetic risk for alcoholism are more reactive to stressful situations compared to those without a family history, and alcohol may have stress-dampening ...

  11. Impaired prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle in Chinese patients with first-episode, medication-na(i)ve schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhi-ren; TAN Yun-long; YANG Fu-de; ZHANG Wu-fang; ZOU Yi-zhuang; TAN Shu-ping; SONG Chong-sheng

    2013-01-01

    Background Patients with schizophrenia have prominent abnormality in information processing that can be observed by measures of prepulse inhibition (PPI) of acoustic startle reflex and PPI deficits have been considered as a candidate endophenotypic marker of schizophrenia.However,there has been little information on PPI and related measures in Chinese patients with schizophrenia.The research was to explore the deficits of acoustic startle reflex that might exist in Chinese patients with schizophrenia.Methods Startle response to acoustic stimuli,habituation,and PPI were examined in 31 Chinese patients with first-episode,medication-naǐve schizophrenia and 30 age-and sex-matched healthy Chinese controls.At the same day of startle testing,psychopathological symptoms of the patients were assessed with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS).Results Compared with healthy controls,patients exhibited the significant reduction in startle response and PPI deficits at 60 milliseconds (ms) intervals (PPI60,P <0.05) but not at 30 or 120 ms intervals.Furthermore,there was a relatively strong correlation between PPI60 (P <0.05) and scores of positive scale of PANSS in patients with schizophrenia.Conclusion Our findings confirmed impaired PPI in Chinese patients with schizophrenia and suggested that a relationship between sensorimotor gating deficits and clinical symptoms of patients with schizophrenia might exist.

  12. Association between prepulse inhibition of the startle response and latent inhibition of two-way avoidance acquisition: A study with heterogeneous NIH-HS rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-González, Ana; Esnal, Aitor; Río-Álamos, Cristóbal; Oliveras, Ignasi; Cañete, Toni; Blázquez, Gloria; Tobeña, Adolf; Fernández-Teruel, Alberto

    2016-03-01

    This study presents the first evaluation of the associations between responses in two paradigms related to schizophrenia in the genetically heterogeneous NIH-HS rat stock. NIH-HS rats are a stock of genetically heterogeneous animals that have been derived from eight different inbred strains. A rotational breeding schedule has been followed for more than eighty generations, leading to a high level of genetic recombination that makes the NIH-HS rats a unique tool for studying the genetic basis of (biological, behavioral, disease-related) complex traits. Previous work has dealt with the characterization of coping styles, cognitive and anxiety/fear-related profiles of NIH-HS rats. In the present study we have completed their characterization in two behavioral models, prepulse inhibition (PPI) and latent inhibition (LI) of the two-way active avoidance response, that appear to be related to schizophrenia or to schizophrenia-relevant symptoms. We have found that these rats display PPI for each of the four prepulse intensities tested, allowing their stratification in high, medium and low PPI subgroups. When testing these three subgroups for LI of two-way active avoidance acquisition it has been observed that the LowPPI and MediumPPI subgroups present impaired LI, which, along with the fact that the HighPPI group presents significant LI, allows us to hypothesize that responses in these two paradigms are somehow related and that selection of NIH-HS rats for Low vs HighPPI could make a promising animal model for the study of clusters of schizophrenia-relevant symptoms and their underlying neurobiological mechanisms. PMID:26700617

  13. White matter hyperintensities and prepulse inhibition in a mixed elderly population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salem, Lise C; Hejl, Anne-Mette; Garde, Ellen;

    2011-01-01

    rated visually on craniel MRI FLAIR images using the Fazekas scale. WMH were identified in 70% of all subjects. The latency to peak of the startle response increased significantly with increasing WMH load, whereas the inhibition of the startle response (PPI) was neither significantly related...

  14. POSSIBLE ROLE OF THE BRAINSTEM IN THE MEDIATION OF PREPULSE INHIBITION IN THE RAT (JOURNAL VERSION)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilateral stimulation of electrodes aimed at the cuneiform nucleus produced significant inhibition of the startle response produced by presentation of an 8 KHz, 110 dB tone. Stimulation of electrodes aimed at the deep mesencephalic nucleus also reduced the magnitude of the startl...

  15. Using prepulse inhibition to detect functional D3 receptor antagonism: effects of WC10 and WC44.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Martin; Chang, Wei-Li; Durbin, John P; Park, Paula E; Luedtke, Robert R; Mach, Robert H; Swerdlow, Neal R

    2009-08-01

    Prepulse inhibition of startle (PPI) is an operational measure of sensorimotor gating that is impaired in schizophrenia. Treatment with mixed dopamine D2/D3 antagonists diminishes schizophrenia symptoms, and opposes dopamine agonist-induced PPI deficits in rats. There are reasons to believe that functional D3 receptor antagonists might offer more favorable therapeutic profiles compared to current antipsychotics. However, D3-related drug discovery is hampered by the absence of assays sensitive to D3-mediated (antipsychotic) properties in vivo. Here, we characterized two putative D3-active compounds - WC10 and WC44 - in a PPI-based screening assay, comparing the sensitivity of test compounds to oppose PPI deficits induced by the mixed D1/D2-like agonist apomorphine vs. the preferential D3 agonist pramipexole in rats. WC10, WC44 (0, 1, 3, 10 mg/kg, each), and the preferential D2 antagonist L741,626 (0, 1 mg/kg) were studied, in combination with apomorphine (0, 0.5 mg/kg), or pramipexole (0, 1 mg/kg). L741,626 prevented apomorphine-, but not pramipexole-induced PPI deficits. WC10, but not WC44, prevented apomorphine-induced PPI deficits; both compounds opposed pramipexole-induced PPI deficits, suggesting functional D3 and D1/D2 antagonist profiles for WC10, and functional D3 receptor antagonism for WC44. This assay may be valuable for detecting predominantly D3 vs. D2 receptor-linked mechanisms of action in vivo. PMID:19426754

  16. Knockout Zbtb33 gene results in an increased locomotion, exploration and pre-pulse inhibition in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulikov, Alexander V; Korostina, Valeria S; Kulikova, Elizabeth A; Fursenko, Dariya V; Akulov, Andrey E; Moshkin, Mikhail P; Prokhortchouk, Egor B

    2016-01-15

    The Zbtb33 gene encodes the Kaiso protein-a bimodal transcriptional repressor. Here, the effects of Zbtb33 gene disruption on the brain and behaviour of the Kaiso-deficient (KO) and C57BL/6 (WT) male mice were investigated. Behaviour was studied using the open field, novel object, elevated plus maze and acoustic startle reflex tests. Brain morphology was investigated with magnetic resonance imaging. Biogenic amine levels and gene expression in the brain were measured with high-performance liquid chromatography and quantitative real-time RT-PCR, respectively. Zbtb33 gene mRNA was not detected in the brain of KO mice. KO mice exhibited increased locomotion, exploration in the open field, novel object and elevated plus-maze test. At the same time, Zbtb33 gene disruption did not alter anxiety-related behaviour in the elevated plus-maze test. KO mice showed elevated amplitudes and pre-pulse inhibitions of the acoustic startle reflex. These behavioural alterations were accompanied by significant reductions in the volumes of the lateral ventricles without significant alterations in the volumes of the hippocampus, striatum, thalamus and corpus callosum. Norepinephrine concentration was reduced in the hypothalami and hippocampi in KO mice, while the levels of serotonin, dopamine, their metabolites as well as mRNA of the gene coding brain-derived neurotrophic factor were not altered in the brain of KO mice compared to WT mice. This study is the first to reveal the involvement of the Zbtb33 gene in the regulation of behaviour and the central nervous system. PMID:26454239

  17. Preventive effect of α-lipoic acid on prepulse inhibition deficits in a juvenile two-hit model of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deslauriers, J; Racine, W; Sarret, P; Grignon, S

    2014-07-11

    Some pathophysiological models of schizophrenia posit that prenatal inflammation sensitizes the developing brain to second insults in early life and enhances brain vulnerability, thereby increasing the risk of developing the disorder during adulthood. We previously developed a two-hit animal model, based on the well-established prenatal immune challenge with poly-inosinic/cytidylic acid (polyI:C), followed by juvenile restraint stress (RS). We observed an additive disruption of prepulse inhibition (PPI) of acoustic startle in juvenile mice submitted to both insults. Previous studies have also reported that oxidative stress is associated with pathophysiological mechanisms of psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia. We report here that PPI disruption in our two-hit animal model of schizophrenia is associated with an increase in oxidative stress. These findings led us to assess whether α-lipoic acid, an antioxidant, can prevent both increase in oxidative status and PPI deficits in our juvenile in vivo model of schizophrenia. In the offspring submitted to prenatal injection of polyI:C and to RS, treatment with α-lipoic acid prevented the development of PPI deficits 24h after the last period of RS. α-Lipoic acid also improved PPI performance in control mice. The reversal effect of α-lipoic acid pretreatment on these behavioral alterations was further accompanied by a normalization of the associated oxidative status and dopaminergic and GABAergic abnormalities in the prefrontal cortex. Based on our double insult paradigm, these results support the hypothesis that oxidative stress plays an important role in the development of PPI deficits, a well-known behavior associated with schizophrenia. These findings form the basis of future studies aiming to unravel mechanistic insights of the putative role of antioxidants in the treatment of schizophrenia, especially during the prodromal stage.

  18. Mice with deficient BK channel function show impaired prepulse inhibition and spatial learning, but normal working and spatial reference memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marei Typlt

    Full Text Available Genetic variations in the large-conductance, voltage- and calcium activated potassium channels (BK channels have been recently implicated in mental retardation, autism and schizophrenia which all come along with severe cognitive impairments. In the present study we investigate the effects of functional BK channel deletion on cognition using a genetic mouse model with a knock-out of the gene for the pore forming α-subunit of the channel. We tested the F1 generation of a hybrid SV129/C57BL6 mouse line in which the slo1 gene was deleted in both parent strains. We first evaluated hearing and motor function to establish the suitability of this model for cognitive testing. Auditory brain stem responses to click stimuli showed no threshold differences between knockout mice and their wild-type littermates. Despite of muscular tremor, reduced grip force, and impaired gait, knockout mice exhibited normal locomotion. These findings allowed for testing of sensorimotor gating using the acoustic startle reflex, as well as of working memory, spatial learning and memory in the Y-maze and the Morris water maze, respectively. Prepulse inhibition on the first day of testing was normal, but the knockout mice did not improve over the days of testing as their wild-type littermates did. Spontaneous alternation in the y-maze was normal as well, suggesting that the BK channel knock-out does not impair working memory. In the Morris water maze knock-out mice showed significantly slower acquisition of the task, but normal memory once the task was learned. Thus, we propose a crucial role of the BK channels in learning, but not in memory storage or recollection.

  19. Prepulse inhibition and latent inhibition deficits in Roman high-avoidance vs. Roman low-avoidance rats: Modeling schizophrenia-related features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esnal, Aitor; Sánchez-González, Ana; Río-Álamos, Cristóbal; Oliveras, Ignasi; Cañete, Toni; Blázquez, Gloria; Tobeña, Adolf; Fernández-Teruel, Alberto

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to obtain further evidence supporting the validity of a new genetically-based rat model for the study of schizophrenia-relevant symptoms. The Roman high- (RHA-I) and low-avoidance (RLA-I) inbred rats have been psychogenetically selected for their rapid versus extremely poor acquisition of the two-way avoidance task in the shuttle box and present two well-differentiated profiles regarding several traits related to anxiety, impulsivity and sensitivity to (dopaminergic) psychostimulants. In this study we have tested animals from both strains in two behavioral paradigms that are related to schizophrenia, i.e. prepulse inhibition (PPI) and latent inhibition (LI) of fear-potentiated startle (FPS). The results show that while RLA-I rats display good PPI and LI to the context, RHA-Is show an impairment of PPI and no sign of an LI effect, which goes in the direction of the results obtained in schizophrenic patients. Therefore, although further behavioral and psychopharmacological work needs to be done, the present findings and previous studies carried out in our laboratory and others allow us to propose the RHA-I rat strain as a putative genetic rat model of differential schizophrenia-related features. PMID:27184235

  20. Effects of melatonin on prepulse inhibition, habituation and sensitization of the human startle reflex in healthy volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehtinen, Emilia K; Ucar, Ebru; Glenthøj, Birte Y;

    2014-01-01

    assessed. Melatonin significantly reduced startle magnitude and ratings of alertness, but did not influence PPI, nor sensitization and habituation. However, when taking baseline scores in consideration, melatonin significantly increased PPI in low scoring individuals while significantly decreasing...... it in high scoring individuals in low intensity prepulse trialtypes only. In addition, subjective ratings of alertness correlated with PPI. The results suggest that melatonin has only minor influences on sensorimotor gating, habituation and sensitization of the startle reflex of healthy males. The data do...

  1. Fine mapping of QTL for prepulse inhibition in LG/J and SM/J mice using F(2) and advanced intercross lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samocha, K E; Lim, J E; Cheng, R; Sokoloff, G; Palmer, A A

    2010-10-01

    Prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the startle response is a measure of sensorimotor gating, a process that filters out extraneous sensory, motor and cognitive information. Humans with neurological and psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia, obsessive-compulsive disorder and Huntington's disease, exhibit a reduction in PPI. Habituation of the startle response is also disrupted in schizophrenic patients. In order to elucidate the genes involved in sensorimotor gating, we phenotyped 472 mice from an F(2) cross between LG/J × SM/J for PPI and genotyped these mice genome-wide using 162 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. We used prepulse intensity levels that were 3, 6 and 12 dB above background (PPI3, PPI6 and PPI12, respectively). We identified a significant quantitative trait locus (QTL) on chromosome 12 for all three prepulse intensities as well as a significant QTL for both PPI6 and PPI12 on chromosome 11. We identified QTLs on chromosomes 7 and 17 for the startle response when sex was included as an interactive covariate and found a QTL for habituation of the startle response on chromosome 4. We also phenotyped 135 mice from an F(34) advanced intercross line (AIL) between LG/J × SM/J for PPI and genotyped them at more than 3000 SNP markers. Inclusions of data from the AIL mice reduced the size of several of these QTLs to less than 5 cM. These results will be useful for identifying genes that influence sensorimotor gaiting and show the power of AIL for fine mapping of QTLs.

  2. Prepulse inhibition (PPI) of tactile startle response in recombinant congenic strains of mice:QTL mapping and comparison with acoustic PPI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Adam Torkamanzehi; Patricia Boksa; Ridha Joober

    2008-01-01

    Prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the startle response is a psychophysiological measure of sensorimotor gating believed to be cross-modal between different sensory systems.We analyzed the tactile startle response (TSR) and PPI of TSR (tPPD,using light as a prepulse stimulus,in the mouse strains A/J and C57BL/6J and 36 recombinant congenic strains derived from them.Parental strains were significantly different for TSR,but were comparable for tPPI.Among the congenic strains,variation for TSR was significant in both genetic backgrounds,but that of tPPI was significant only for the C57BL/6J background.Provisional mapping for loci modulating TSR and tPPI was carded out.Using mapping data from our previous study on acoustic startle responses (ASR) and PPI of ASR (aPPI),no common markers for aPPI and tPPI were identified.However,some markers were significantly associated with both ASR and TSIL at least in one genetic background.These results indicate cross-modal genetic regulation for the startle response but not for PPI,in these mouse strains.

  3. Assessment of auditory sensory processing in a neurodevelopmental animal model of schizophrenia-Gating of auditory-evoked potentials and prepulse inhibition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broberg, Brian Villumsen; Oranje, Bob; Yding, Birte;

    2010-01-01

    The use of translational approaches to validate animal models is needed for the development of treatments that can effectively alleviate cognitive impairments associated with schizophrenia, which are unsuccessfully treated by the current available therapies. Deficits in pre-attentive stages...... of sensory information processing seen in schizophrenia patients, can be assessed by highly homologues methods in both humans and rodents, evident by the prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the auditory startle response and the P50 (termed P1 here) suppression paradigms. Treatment with the NMDA receptor antagonist...... PCP on postnatal days 7, 9, and 11 reliably induce cognitive impairments resembling those presented by schizophrenia patients. Here we evaluate the potential of early postnatal PCP (20mg/kg) treatment in Lister Hooded rats to induce post-pubertal deficits in PPI and changes, such as reduced gating...

  4. Assessment of auditory sensory processing in a neurodevelopmental animal model of schizophrenia-Gating of auditory-evoked potentials and prepulse inhibition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broberg, Brian Villumsen; Oranje, Bob; Yding, Birte;

    2010-01-01

    of sensory information processing seen in schizophrenia patients, can be assessed by highly homologues methods in both humans and rodents, evident by the prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the auditory startle response and the P50 (termed P1 here) suppression paradigms. Treatment with the NMDA receptor antagonist...... findings confirm measures of early information processing to show high resemblance between rodents and humans, and indicate that early postnatal PCP-treated rats show deficits in pre-attentional processing, which are distinct from those observed in schizophrenia patients.......The use of translational approaches to validate animal models is needed for the development of treatments that can effectively alleviate cognitive impairments associated with schizophrenia, which are unsuccessfully treated by the current available therapies. Deficits in pre-attentive stages...

  5. 前脉冲抑制在自闭症研究中的进展和展望%The progress and prospect of prepulse inhibition in autism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴哲萌; 雷铭; 吴玺宏; 李量

    2014-01-01

    Prepulse inhibition (PPI) is suppression of the startle reflex when an intense startling stimulus is preceded by a weaker sensory stimulus (the prepulse).It is an operational measurement of sensorimotor gating mechanism to help human adapt to complex environment.This weak prepulse protect central cognitive processing by damping the effect of intense stimuli.Autistics cannot select out behaviorally important information from a lot of irrelevant resources and reflect abnormal gating mechanism and attentional abnormalities.Previous studies have not made agreement on whether autistic patients demonstrated deficits in PPI,because the results depend on age,sex,severity of the disease as well as the experimental parameters used.Moreover,these studies have not covered whether autistics have suffered deficits in higher-order processing.In this review,the "top-down" modulation of selective attention and subjective emotion are introduced into the PPI experiment.We also introduce fear conditioning and perceived spatial separation paradigm to further explore the interaction between autistic cognitive process and gating mechanism.%惊反射的前脉冲抑制(prepulse inhibition,PPI)是指当引发惊反射的强刺激之前出现了一个弱刺激(即前脉冲刺激)时,该弱刺激对惊反射有显著的抑制作用.PPI是一种大脑适应复杂环境的感觉运动门控过程,通过减弱惊反射使得由前脉冲刺激所引发的中枢加工活动得到保护.自闭症患者不仅存在感觉运动门控机制的缺失,还伴随注意加工的损害.但是对自闭症患者是否存在PPI的缺失还存在争议,这与患者的年龄、性别、疾病严重程度以及实验参数有关.前人的研究仅涉及对自闭症患者低水平门控机制的探讨,未探究自闭症患者高级认知加工过程是否存在缺损.本综述重点探讨注意和情绪等高级认知活动对PPI的调节作用,通过引入恐惧条件化和知觉空间分离去掩蔽范式,考

  6. Adenosine AA Receptor Antagonists Do Not Disrupt Rodent Prepulse Inhibition: An Improved Side Effect Profile in the Treatment of Parkinson's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina J. Bleickardt

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD is characterized by loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. Current treatments for PD focus on dopaminergic therapies, including L-dopa and dopamine receptor agonists. However, these treatments induce neuropsychiatric side effects. Psychosis, characterized by delusions and hallucinations, is one of the most serious such side effects. Adenosine A2A receptor antagonism is a nondopaminergic treatment for PD with clinical and preclinical efficacy. The present studies assessed A2A antagonists SCH 412348 and istradefylline in rodent prepulse inhibition (PPI, a model of psychosis. Dopamine receptor agonists pramipexole (0.3–3 mg/kg, pergolide (0.3–3 mg/kg, and apomorphine (0.3–3 mg/kg significantly disrupted PPI; ropinirole (1–30 mg/kg had no effect; L-dopa (100–300 mg/kg disrupted rat but not mouse PPI. SCH 412348 (0.3–3 mg/kg did not disrupt rodent PPI; istradefylline (0.1–1 mg/kg marginally disrupted mouse but not rat PPI. These results suggest that A2A antagonists, unlike dopamine agonists, have an improved neuropsychiatric side effect profile.

  7. Effects of Cannabinoid Drugs on the Deficit of Prepulse Inhibition of Startle in an Animal Model of Schizophrenia: the SHR Strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel eLevin

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Clinical and neurobiological findings suggest that the cannabinoids and the endocannabinoid system may be implicated in the pathophysiology and treatment of schizophrenia. We described that the Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHR strain presents a schizophrenia behavioral phenotype that is specifically attenuated by antipsychotic drugs, and potentiated by proschizophrenia manipulations. Based on these findings, we have suggested this strain as an animal model of schizophrenia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of cannabinoid drugs on the deficit of prepulse inhibition of startle (PPI, the main paradigm used to study sensorimotor gating impairment related to schizophrenia, presented by the SHR strain. The following drugs were used: 1 WIN55212,2 (cannabinoid agonist, 2 rimonabant (CB1 antagonist, 3 AM404 (anandamide uptake inhibitor, and 4 cannabidiol (indirect CB1/CB2 receptor antagonist, among other effects. Wistar rats (WR and SHRs were treated with vehicle or different doses of WIN55212 (0.3, 1 or 3 mg/kg, rimonabant (0.75, 1.5 or 3 mg/kg, AM404 (1, 5 or 10 mg/kg or cannabidiol (15, 30 or 60 mg/kg. Vehicle-treated SHRs showed a decreased PPI when compared to WRs. This PPI deficit was reversed by 1 mg/kg WIN and 30 mg/kg cannabidiol. Conversely, 0.75 mg/kg rimonabant decreased PPI in SHR strain, whereas AM404 did not modify it. Our results reinforce the role of the endocannabinoid system in the sensorimotor gating impairment related to schizophrenia, and point to cannabinoid drugs as potential therapeutic strategies.

  8. Prepulse inhibition of the startle reflex and its attentional modulation in the human S-ketamine and N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) models of psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heekeren, K; Neukirch, A; Daumann, J; Stoll, M; Obradovic, M; Kovar, K-A; Geyer, M A; Gouzoulis-Mayfrank, E

    2007-05-01

    Patients with schizophrenia exhibit diminished prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the acoustic startle reflex and deficits in the attentional modulation of PPI. Pharmacological challenges with hallucinogens are used as models for psychosis in both humans and animals. Remarkably, in contrast to the findings in schizophrenic patients and in animal hallucinogen models of psychosis, previous studies with healthy volunteers demonstrated increased levels of PPI after administration of low to moderate doses of either the antiglutamatergic hallucinogen ketamine or the serotonergic hallucinogen psilocybin. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of moderate and high doses of the serotonergic hallucinogen N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) and the N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonist S-ketamine on PPI and its attentional modulation in humans. Fifteen healthy volunteers were included in a double-blind cross-over study with two doses of DMT and S-ketamine. Effects on PPI and its attentional modulation were investigated. Nine subjects completed both experimental days with the two doses of both drugs. S-ketamine increased PPI in both dosages, whereas DMT had no significant effects on PPI. S-ketamine decreased and DMT tended to decrease startle magnitude. There were no significant effects of either drug on the attentional modulation of PPI. In human experimental hallucinogen psychoses, and even with high, clearly psychotogenic doses of DMT or S-ketamine, healthy subjects failed to exhibit the predicted attenuation of PPI. In contrast, PPI was augmented and the startle magnitude was decreased after S-ketamine. These data point to important differences between human hallucinogen models and both animal hallucinogen models of psychosis and naturally occurring schizophrenia.

  9. Prepulse inhibition of the startle reflex and its attentional modulation in the human S-ketamine and N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) models of psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heekeren, K; Neukirch, A; Daumann, J; Stoll, M; Obradovic, M; Kovar, K-A; Geyer, M A; Gouzoulis-Mayfrank, E

    2007-05-01

    Patients with schizophrenia exhibit diminished prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the acoustic startle reflex and deficits in the attentional modulation of PPI. Pharmacological challenges with hallucinogens are used as models for psychosis in both humans and animals. Remarkably, in contrast to the findings in schizophrenic patients and in animal hallucinogen models of psychosis, previous studies with healthy volunteers demonstrated increased levels of PPI after administration of low to moderate doses of either the antiglutamatergic hallucinogen ketamine or the serotonergic hallucinogen psilocybin. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of moderate and high doses of the serotonergic hallucinogen N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) and the N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonist S-ketamine on PPI and its attentional modulation in humans. Fifteen healthy volunteers were included in a double-blind cross-over study with two doses of DMT and S-ketamine. Effects on PPI and its attentional modulation were investigated. Nine subjects completed both experimental days with the two doses of both drugs. S-ketamine increased PPI in both dosages, whereas DMT had no significant effects on PPI. S-ketamine decreased and DMT tended to decrease startle magnitude. There were no significant effects of either drug on the attentional modulation of PPI. In human experimental hallucinogen psychoses, and even with high, clearly psychotogenic doses of DMT or S-ketamine, healthy subjects failed to exhibit the predicted attenuation of PPI. In contrast, PPI was augmented and the startle magnitude was decreased after S-ketamine. These data point to important differences between human hallucinogen models and both animal hallucinogen models of psychosis and naturally occurring schizophrenia. PMID:17591658

  10. The effects of the preferential 5-HT2A agonist psilocybin on prepulse inhibition of startle in healthy human volunteers depend on interstimulus interval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollenweider, Franz X; Csomor, Philipp A; Knappe, Bernhard; Geyer, Mark A; Quednow, Boris B

    2007-09-01

    Schizophrenia patients exhibit impairments in prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the startle response. Hallucinogenic 5-HT(2A) receptor agonists are used for animal models of schizophrenia because they mimic some symptoms of schizophrenia in humans and induce PPI deficits in animals. Nevertheless, one report indicates that the 5-HT(2A) receptor agonist psilocybin increases PPI in healthy humans. Hence, we investigated these inconsistent results by assessing the dose-dependent effects of psilocybin on PPI in healthy humans. Sixteen subjects each received placebo or 115, 215, and 315 microg/kg of psilocybin at 4-week intervals in a randomized and counterbalanced order. PPI at 30-, 60-, 120-, 240-, and 2000-ms interstimulus intervals (ISIs) was measured 90 and 165 min after drug intake, coinciding with the peak and post-peak effects of psilocybin. The effects of psilocybin on psychopathological core dimensions and sustained attention were assessed by the Altered States of Consciousness Rating Scale (5D-ASC) and the Frankfurt Attention Inventory (FAIR). Psilocybin dose-dependently reduced PPI at short (30 ms), had no effect at medium (60 ms), and increased PPI at long (120-2000 ms) ISIs, without affecting startle reactivity or habituation. Psilocybin dose-dependently impaired sustained attention and increased all 5D-ASC scores with exception of Auditory Alterations. Moreover, psilocybin-induced impairments in sustained attention performance were positively correlated with reduced PPI at the 30 ms ISI and not with the concomitant increases in PPI observed at long ISIs. These results confirm the psilocybin-induced increase in PPI at long ISIs and reveal that psilocybin also produces a decrease in PPI at short ISIs that is correlated with impaired attention and consistent with deficient PPI in schizophrenia.

  11. Differences in P50 and prepulse inhibition of the startle reflex between male smokers and non-smokers with first episode schizophrenia without medical treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song Lisheng; Chen Xingshi; Chen Meijuan; Tang Yunxiang; Wang Jijun; Zhang Mingdao; Lou Feiying

    2014-01-01

    Backgorund Nicotine may improve schizophrenia patient's cognitive deficit symptoms.This study was to explore the chronic effects of smoking on prepulse inhibition of the startle reflex (PPI) and P50 in the patients with first-episode schizophrenia (FES).Methods The event-related potentials (ERP) recording and analysis instrument made by Brain Products,Germany,was used to detect PPI and P50 in 49 male FES patients (FES group,n=21 for smokers and n=28 for non-smokers) and 43 normal male controls (control group,n=19 for smokers and n=24 for non-smokers).Results Compared with normal controls,the FES group had prolonged PPI latency when elicited by single stronger stimulus (P <0.05); the FES group had prolonged PPI latency and increased PPI amplitude (P <0.05,0.01) when elicited by weak and strong stimuli.The FES group had lower PPI inhibition rate than normal controls (P <0.05).Compared with normal controls,the FES group had increased P50-S2 amplitude and increased amplitude ratio S2/S1 (both P <0.05).In the control group,the smokers had a tendency of increase in P50-S2 amplitude (P >0.05) and shorter P50-S2 latency (P <0.05) than the non-smokers.The smokers had higher PPI amplitude than the non-smokers (P <0.05).In the FES group,the smokers had higher P50-S1 amplitude,shorter P50-S2 latency,and higher amplitude ratio S2/S1 than the non-smokers (P <0.05,0.01).The smokers had higher PPI amplitude than the non-smokers (P <0.05).Conclusions There is obvious PPI and P50 deficits in schizophrenic patients.However,these deficits are relatively preserved in the smokers compared with the non-smokers,which suggests that long-term smoking might partially improve the sensory gating in schizophrenic patients.Whether this conclusion can be deduced to female patients requires further follow-ups.

  12. Inhibiting Glycosphingolipid Synthesis Ameliorates Hepatic Steatosis in Obese Mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Zhao; M. Przybylska; I.H. Wu; J. Zhang; P. Maniatis; J. Pacheco; P. Piepenhagen; D. Copeland; C. Arbeeny; J.A. Shayman; J.M. Aerts; C. Jiang; S.H. Cheng; N.S. Yew

    2009-01-01

    Steatosis in the liver is a common feature of obesity and type 2 diabetes and the precursor to the development of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), cirrhosis, and liver failure. It has been shown previously that inhibiting glycosphingolipid (GSL) synthesis increases insulin sensitivity and lowers

  13. Inhibition of autophagy ameliorates atherogenic inflammation by augmenting apigenin-induced macrophage apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qun; Zeng, Ping; Liu, Yuanliang; Wen, Ge; Fu, Xiuqiong; Sun, Xuegang

    2015-07-01

    Increasing evidences showed that the survival of macrophages promotes atherogenesis. Macrophage apoptosis in the early phase of atherosclerotic process negatively regulates the progression of atherosclerotic lesions. We demonstrated that a natural anti-oxidant apigenin could ameliorate atherogenesis in ApoE(-/-) mice. It reduced the number of foam cells and decreased the serum levels of tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin 1β (IL-1β) and IL-6. Our results showed that oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) led to the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Apigenin-induced apoptosis and downregulated the secretion of TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β. It is further supported by the use of zVAD, a pan-caspase inhibitor, demonstrating that apigenin lowered cytokine profile through induction of macrophage apoptosis. Moreover, apigenin-induced Atg5/Atg7-dependent autophagy in macrophages pretreated with oxLDL. Results illustrated that autophagy inhibition increased apigenin-induced apoptosis through activation of Bax. The present findings suggest that oxLDL maintained the survival of macrophages and activated the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines to initiate atherosclerosis. Apigenin-induced apoptosis of lipid-laden macrophages and resolved inflammation to ameliorate atherosclerosis. In conclusion, combination of apigenin with autophagy inhibition may be a promising strategy to induce foam cell apoptosis and subdue atherogenic cytokines.

  14. Inhibition of Protease-activated Receptor 1 Ameliorates Intestinal Radiation Mucositis in a Preclinical Rat Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To determine, using a specific small-molecule inhibitor of protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1) signaling, whether the beneficial effect of thrombin inhibition on radiation enteropathy development is due to inhibition of blood clotting or to cellular (PAR1-mediated) thrombin effects. Methods and Materials: Rats underwent fractionated X-irradiation (5 Gy × 9) of a 4-cm small-bowel segment. Early radiation toxicity was evaluated in rats receiving PAR1 inhibitor (SCH602539, 0, 10, or 15 mg/kg/d) from 1 day before to 2 weeks after the end of irradiation. The effect of PAR1 inhibition on development of chronic intestinal radiation fibrosis was evaluated in animals receiving SCH602539 (0, 15, or 30 mg/kg/d) until 2 weeks after irradiation, or continuously until termination of the experiment 26 weeks after irradiation. Results: Blockade of PAR1 ameliorated early intestinal toxicity, with reduced overall intestinal radiation injury (P=.002), number of myeloperoxidase-positive (P=.03) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen-positive (P=.04) cells, and collagen III accumulation (P=.005). In contrast, there was no difference in delayed radiation enteropathy in either the 2- or 26-week administration groups. Conclusion: Pharmacological blockade of PAR1 seems to reduce early radiation mucositis but does not affect the level of delayed intestinal radiation fibrosis. Early radiation enteropathy is related to activation of cellular thrombin receptors, whereas platelet activation or fibrin formation may play a greater role in the development of delayed toxicity. Because of the favorable side-effect profile, PAR1 blockade should be further explored as a method to ameliorate acute intestinal radiation toxicity in patients undergoing radiotherapy for cancer and to protect first responders and rescue personnel in radiologic/nuclear emergencies.

  15. Inhibition of Protease-activated Receptor 1 Ameliorates Intestinal Radiation Mucositis in a Preclinical Rat Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Junru; Kulkarni, Ashwini [Division of Radiation Health, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas (United States); Chintala, Madhu [Schering-Plough Research Institute, Kenilworth, New Jersey (United States); Fink, Louis M. [Nevada Cancer Institute, Las Vegas, Nevada (United States); Hauer-Jensen, Martin, E-mail: mhjensen@life.uams.edu [Division of Radiation Health, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas (United States); Surgery Service, Central Arkansas Veterans Healthcare System, Little Rock, Arkansas (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To determine, using a specific small-molecule inhibitor of protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1) signaling, whether the beneficial effect of thrombin inhibition on radiation enteropathy development is due to inhibition of blood clotting or to cellular (PAR1-mediated) thrombin effects. Methods and Materials: Rats underwent fractionated X-irradiation (5 Gy Multiplication-Sign 9) of a 4-cm small-bowel segment. Early radiation toxicity was evaluated in rats receiving PAR1 inhibitor (SCH602539, 0, 10, or 15 mg/kg/d) from 1 day before to 2 weeks after the end of irradiation. The effect of PAR1 inhibition on development of chronic intestinal radiation fibrosis was evaluated in animals receiving SCH602539 (0, 15, or 30 mg/kg/d) until 2 weeks after irradiation, or continuously until termination of the experiment 26 weeks after irradiation. Results: Blockade of PAR1 ameliorated early intestinal toxicity, with reduced overall intestinal radiation injury (P=.002), number of myeloperoxidase-positive (P=.03) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen-positive (P=.04) cells, and collagen III accumulation (P=.005). In contrast, there was no difference in delayed radiation enteropathy in either the 2- or 26-week administration groups. Conclusion: Pharmacological blockade of PAR1 seems to reduce early radiation mucositis but does not affect the level of delayed intestinal radiation fibrosis. Early radiation enteropathy is related to activation of cellular thrombin receptors, whereas platelet activation or fibrin formation may play a greater role in the development of delayed toxicity. Because of the favorable side-effect profile, PAR1 blockade should be further explored as a method to ameliorate acute intestinal radiation toxicity in patients undergoing radiotherapy for cancer and to protect first responders and rescue personnel in radiologic/nuclear emergencies.

  16. Divergent effects of isolation rearing on prepulse inhibition, activity, anxiety and hippocampal-dependent memory in Roman high- and low-avoidance rats: A putative model of schizophrenia-relevant features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveras, Ignasi; Sánchez-González, Ana; Piludu, Maria Antonietta; Gerboles, Cristina; Río-Álamos, Cristóbal; Tobeña, Adolf; Fernández-Teruel, Alberto

    2016-11-01

    Social isolation of rats induces a constellation of behavioral alterations known as "isolation syndrome" that are consistent with some of the positive and cognitive symptoms observed in schizophrenic patients. In the present study we have assessed whether isolation rearing of inbred Roman high-avoidance (RHA-I) and Roman low-avoidance (RLA-I) strains can lead to the appearance of some of the key features of the "isolation syndrome", such as prepulse inhibition (PPI) deficits, increased anxious behavior, hyperactivity and memory/learning impairments. Compared to RLA-I rats, the results show that isolation rearing (IR) in RHA-I rats has a more profound impact, as they exhibit isolation-induced PPI deficits, increased anxiety, hyperactivity and long-term reference memory deficits, while isolated RLA-I rats only exhibit deficits in a spatial working memory task. These results give further support to the validity of RHA-I rats as a genetically-based model of schizophrenia relevant-symptoms. PMID:27478139

  17. Inhibition of Notch signaling promotes browning of white adipose tissue and ameliorates obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Pengpeng; Shan, Tizhong; Liu, Weiyi; Yue, Feng; Yang, Xin; Liang, Xin-Rong; Wang, Jinghua; Li, Jie; Carlesso, Nadia; Liu, Xiaoqi; Kuang, Shihuan

    2014-08-01

    Beige adipocytes in white adipose tissue (WAT) are similar to classical brown adipocytes in that they can burn lipids to produce heat. Thus, an increase in beige adipocyte content in WAT browning would raise energy expenditure and reduce adiposity. Here we report that adipose-specific inactivation of Notch1 or its signaling mediator Rbpj in mice results in browning of WAT and elevated expression of uncoupling protein 1 (Ucp1), a key regulator of thermogenesis. Consequently, as compared to wild-type mice, Notch mutants exhibit elevated energy expenditure, better glucose tolerance and improved insulin sensitivity and are more resistant to high fat diet-induced obesity. By contrast, adipose-specific activation of Notch1 leads to the opposite phenotypes. At the molecular level, constitutive activation of Notch signaling inhibits, whereas Notch inhibition induces, Ppargc1a and Prdm16 transcription in white adipocytes. Notably, pharmacological inhibition of Notch signaling in obese mice ameliorates obesity, reduces blood glucose and increases Ucp1 expression in white fat. Therefore, Notch signaling may be therapeutically targeted to treat obesity and type 2 diabetes.

  18. Rho-kinase inhibition ameliorates metabolic disorders through activation of AMPK pathway in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuki Noda

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Metabolic disorders, caused by excessive calorie intake and low physical activity, are important cardiovascular risk factors. Rho-kinase, an effector protein of the small GTP-binding protein RhoA, is an important cardiovascular therapeutic target and its activity is increased in patients with metabolic syndrome. We aimed to examine whether Rho-kinase inhibition improves high-fat diet (HFD-induced metabolic disorders, and if so, to elucidate the involvement of AMP-activated kinase (AMPK, a key molecule of metabolic conditions. METHODS AND RESULTS: Mice were fed a high-fat diet, which induced metabolic phenotypes, such as obesity, hypercholesterolemia and glucose intolerance. These phenotypes are suppressed by treatment with selective Rho-kinase inhibitor, associated with increased whole body O2 consumption and AMPK activation in the skeletal muscle and liver. Moreover, Rho-kinase inhibition increased mRNA expression of the molecules linked to fatty acid oxidation, mitochondrial energy production and glucose metabolism, all of which are known as targets of AMPK in those tissues. In systemic overexpression of dominant-negative Rho-kinase mice, body weight, serum lipid levels and glucose metabolism were improved compared with littermate control mice. Furthermore, in AMPKα2-deficient mice, the beneficial effects of fasudil, a Rho-kinase inhibitor, on body weight, hypercholesterolemia, mRNA expression of the AMPK targets and increase of whole body O2 consumption were absent, whereas glucose metabolism was restored by fasudil to the level in wild-type mice. In cultured mouse myocytes, pharmacological and genetic inhibition of Rho-kinase increased AMPK activity through liver kinase b1 (LKB1, with up-regulation of its targets, which effects were abolished by an AMPK inhibitor, compound C. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that Rho-kinase inhibition ameliorates metabolic disorders through activation of the LKB1/AMPK pathway, suggesting that

  19. Prepulse inhibition predicts spatial working memory performance in the inbred Roman high- and low-avoidance rats and in genetically heterogeneous NIH-HS rats: relevance for studying pre-attentive and cognitive anomalies in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignasi eOliveras

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Animal models of schizophrenia-relevant symptoms are increasingly important for progress in our understanding of the neurobiological basis of the disorder and for discovering novel and more specific treatments. Prepulse inhibition (PPI and working memory, which are impaired in schizophrenic patients, are among the symptoms/processes modeled in those animal analogues. We have evaluated whether a genetically-selected rat model, the Roman high-avoidance inbred strain (RHA-I, displays PPI deficits as compared with its Roman low-avoidance (RLA-I counterpart and the genetically heterogeneous NIH-HS rat stock. We have investigated whether PPI deficits predict spatial working memory impairments (in the Morris water maze; MWM in these three rat types (Experiment 1, as well as in a separate sample of NIH-HS rats stratified according to their extreme (High, Medium, Low PPI scores (Experiment 2. The results from Exp. 1 show that RHA-I rats display PPI and spatial working memory deficits compared to both RLA-I and NIH-HS rats. Likewise, in Exp. 2, Low-PPI NIH-HS rats present significantly impaired working memory with respect to Medium-PPI and High-PPI NIH-HS subgroups. Further support to these results comes from correlational, factorial and multiple regression analyses, which reveal that PPI is positively associated with spatial working memory performance. Conversely, cued learning in the MWM was not associated with PPI. Thus, using genetically-selected and genetically heterogeneous rats, the present study shows, for the first time, that PPI is a positive predictor of performance in a spatial working memory task. These results may have translational value for schizophrenia symptom research in humans, as they suggest that either by psychogenetic selection or by focusing on extreme PPI scores from a genetically heterogeneous rat stock, it is possible to detect a useful (perhaps at risk phenotype to study cognitive anomalies linked to schizophrenia.

  20. Exosomes derived from MSCs ameliorate retinal laser injury partially by inhibition of MCP-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Bo; Shao, Hui; Su, Chang; Jiang, Yuanfeng; Chen, Xiteng; Bai, Lingling; Zhang, Yan; Li, Qiutang; Zhang, Xiaomin; Li, Xiaorong

    2016-01-01

    Although accumulated evidence supports the notion that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) act in a paracrine manner, the mechanisms are still not fully understood. Recently, MSC-derived exosomes (MSC-Exos), a type of microvesicle released from MSCs, were thought to carry functional proteins and RNAs to recipient cells and play therapeutic roles. In the present study, we intravitreally injected MSCs derived from either mouse adipose tissue or human umbilical cord, and their exosomes to observe and compare their functions in a mouse model of laser-induced retinal injury. We found that both MSCs and their exosomes reduced damage, inhibited apoptosis, and suppressed inflammatory responses to obtain better visual function to nearly the same extent in vivo. Obvious down-regulation of monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1 in the retina was found after MSC-Exos injection. In vitro, MSC-Exos also down-regulated MCP-1 mRNA expression in primarily cultured retinal cells after thermal injury. It was further demonstrated that intravitreal injection of an MCP-1-neutralizing antibody promoted the recovery of retinal laser injury, whereas the therapeutic effect of exosomes was abolished when MSC-Exos and MCP-1 were administrated simultaneously. Collectively, these results suggest that MSC-Exos ameliorate laser-induced retinal injury partially through down-regulation of MCP-1. PMID:27686625

  1. Tetrandrine Ameliorates Cirrhosis and Portal Hypertension by Inhibiting Nitric Oxide in Cirrhotic Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海; 陈孝平

    2004-01-01

    To examine the role and effect of nitric oxide synthase type Ⅱ (NOSⅡ) in cirrhotic rats,expression of NOSⅡ mRNA was detected by real time RT-PCR. The enzymatic activity of nitric oxide synthase and the circulating levels of NO, systemic and portal hemodynamics and quantification of cirrhosis were measured. Chinese traditional medicine was used to treat cirrhotic rats and the effect of NO was evaluated. Double-blind method was used in experiment. Our results showed the concentration of NO and the enzymatic activity of NOS increased markedly at all stages of cirrhosis and iNOSmRNA was strongly expressed. Meanwhile, the portal-venous-pressure (PVP) and portal-venous-flow (PVF) were significantly increased. NO, NOS and iNOSmRNA were positively correlated to the degree of hepatic fibrosis. Tetrandrine significantly inhibited NO production and the expression of iNOSmRNA. Our results suggested that increased hepatic expression of NOS Ⅱ is one of the important factors causing cirrhosis and portal hypertension. Tetrandrine can significantly ameliorate cirrhosis and portal hypertension.

  2. Cinnamomum loureirii Extract Inhibits Acetylcholinesterase Activity and Ameliorates Trimethyltin-Induced Cognitive Dysfunction in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Cho Rong; Choi, Soo Jung; Kwon, Yoon Kyung; Kim, Jae Kyeom; Kim, Youn-Jung; Park, Gwi Gun; Shin, Dong-Hoon

    2016-01-01

    The pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been linked to the deficiency of neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh) in the brain, and the main treatment strategy for improving AD symptoms is the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity. In the present study, we aimed to identify potent AChE inhibitors from Cinnamomum loureirii extract via bioassay-guided fractionation. We demonstrated that the most potent AChE inhibitor present in the C. loureirii extract was 2,4-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl)phenol. To confirm the antiamnesic effects of the ethanol extract of C. loureirii, mice were intraperitoneally injected with the neurotoxin trimethyltin (2.5 mg/kg) to induce cognitive dysfunction, and performance in the Y-maze and passive avoidance tests was assessed. Treatment with C. loureirii extract significantly improved performance in both behavioral tests, suggesting that this extract may be neuroprotective and therefore beneficial in preventing or ameliorating the degenerative processes of AD, potentially by restoring cholinergic function. PMID:27374288

  3. Celecoxib and octreotide synergistically ameliorate portal hypertension via inhibition of angiogenesis in cirrhotic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jin-Hang; Wen, Shi-Lei; Feng, Shi; Yang, Wen-Juan; Lu, Yao-Yao; Tong, Huan; Liu, Rui; Tang, Shi-Hang; Huang, Zhi-Yin; Tang, Ying-Mei; Yang, Jin-Hui; Xie, Hui-Qi; Tang, Cheng-Wei

    2016-10-01

    Abnormal angiogenesis is critical for portal hypertension in cirrhosis. Except for etiological treatment, no efficient medication or regime has been explored to treat the early stage of cirrhosis when angiogenesis is initiated or overwhelming. In this study, we explored an anti-angiogenesis effort through non-cytotoxic drugs octreotide and celecoxib to treat early stage of cirrhotic portal hypertension in an animal model. Peritoneal injection of thioacetamide (TAA) was employed to induce liver cirrhosis in rats. A combination treatment of celecoxib and octreotide was found to relieve liver fibrosis, portal venous pressure, micro-hepatic arterioportal fistulas, intrahepatic and splanchnic angiogenesis. Celecoxib and octreotide exerted their anti-angiogenesis effect via an axis of cyclooxygenase-2/prostaglandin E2/EP-2/somatostatin receptor-2, which consequently down-regulated phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (p-ERK)-hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α)-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) integrated signaling pathways. In conclusions, combination of celecoxib and octreotide synergistically ameliorated liver fibrosis and portal hypertension of the cirrhotic rats induced by TAA via the inhibition of intrahepatic and extrahepatic angiogenesis. The potential mechanisms behind the regimen may due to the inactivation of p-ERK-HIF-1α-VEGF signaling pathway. PMID:27380212

  4. Nitric oxide synthase inhibition ameliorates nicotine-induced sperm function decline in male rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    IP Oyeyipo; Y Raji; AdeyomboF Bolarinwa

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the effects of inhibiting nitric oxide synthase as a means of intervention in nicotine-induced infertility in male rats.Methods:Forty-eight male and thirty female Wistar rats (180-200 g) were randomly assigned to six groups and treated orally for 30 days with saline (control), nicotine (0.5 mg/kg, 1.0 mg/kg) with or without NG Nitro-L-Arginine Methyl Ester (L- NAME, 50 mg/kg). Treated male rats were cohabited with untreated females in ratio 1:2 for fertility studies. Sperm analysis was done by microscopy. Results:There was a significant decrease in the epididymal sperm motility and count after nicotine treatment. However, the percentage of abnormality significantly increased in nicotine treatment groups. Fertility studies revealed that nicotine reduced libido in male rats and decreased litter weight and number delivered by the untreated female during the experiments. Co-treatment with L-NAME effectively reversed the nicotine-mediated alterations in the sperm functional parameters, fertility indexes and hormone when compared to nicotine only.Conclusion: Taken together, the present data indicate the abilities of L-NAME to ameliorate nicotine-induced spermatotoxic effects in male rats via a mechanism dependent on the circulating testosterone level.

  5. Corosolic acid ameliorates acute inflammation through inhibition of IRAK-1 phosphorylation in macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seung-Jae; Cha, Ji-Young; Kang, Hye Suk; Lee, Jae-Ho; Lee, Ji Yoon; Park, Jae-Hyung; Bae, Jae-Hoon; Song, Dae-Kyu; Im, Seung-Soon

    2016-01-01

    Corosolic acid (CA), a triterpenoid compound isolated from Lagerstroemia speciosa L. (Banaba) leaves, exerts anti-inflammatory effects by regulating phosphorylation of interleukin receptor- associated kinase (IRAK)-2 via the NF-κB cascade. However, the protective effect of CA against endotoxic shock has not been reported. LPS (200 ng/mL, 30 min) induced phosphorylation of IRAK-1 and treatment with CA (10 μM) significantly attenuated this effect. In addition, CA also reduced protein levels of NLRP3 and ASC which are the main components of the inflammasome in BMDMs. LPS-induced inflammasome assembly through activation of IRAK-1 was down-regulated by CA challenge. Treatment with Bay11-7082, an inhibitor of IκB-α, had no effect on CA-mediated inhibition of IRAK-1 activation, indicating that CA-mediated attenuation of IRAK-1 phosphorylation was independent of NF-κB signaling. These results demonstrate that CA ameliorates acute inflammation in mouse BMDMs and CA may be useful as a pharmacological agent to prevent acute inflammation. [BMB Reports 2016; 49(5): 276-281] PMID:26615974

  6. Ethyl Pyruvate Ameliorates Hepatic Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury by Inhibiting Intrinsic Pathway of Apoptosis and Autophagy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao Shen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Hepatic ischemia-reperfusion (I/R injury is a pivotal clinical problem occurring in many clinical conditions such as transplantation, trauma, and hepatic failure after hemorrhagic shock. Apoptosis and autophagy have been shown to contribute to cell death in hepatic I/R injury. Ethyl pyruvate, a stable and simple lipophilic ester, has been shown to have anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, the purpose is to explore both the effect of ethyl pyruvate on hepatic I/R injury and regulation of intrinsic pathway of apoptosis and autophagy. Methods. Three doses of ethyl pyruvate (20 mg/kg, 40 mg/kg, and 80 mg/kg were administered 1 h before a model of segmental (70% hepatic warm ischemia was established in Balb/c mice. All serum and liver tissues were obtained at three different time points (4 h, 8 h, and 16 h. Results. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, and pathological features were significantly ameliorated by ethyl pyruvate (80 mg/kg. The expression of Bcl-2, Bax, Beclin-1, and LC3, which play an important role in the regulation of intrinsic pathway of apoptosis and autophagy, was also obviously decreased by ethyl pyruvate (80 mg/kg. Furthermore, ethyl pyruvate inhibited the HMGB1/TLR4/ NF-κb axis and the release of cytokines (TNF-α and IL-6. Conclusion. Our results showed that ethyl pyruvate might attenuate to hepatic I/R injury by inhibiting intrinsic pathway of apoptosis and autophagy, mediated partly through downregulation of HMGB1/TLR4/ NF-κb axis and the competitive interaction with Beclin-1 of HMGB1.

  7. Thalidomide ameliorates cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity by inhibiting renal inflammation in an experimental model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirshahrokhi, Keyvan; Khalili, Ali-Reza

    2015-04-01

    Cisplatin is a platinum-based chemotherapy drug. However, its chemotherapeutic use is restricted by serious side effects, especially nephrotoxicity. Inflammatory mechanisms have a significant role in the pathogenesis of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. Thalidomide is an immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory agent and is used for the treatment of various inflammatory diseases. The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential nephroprotective effect of thalidomide in a mouse model of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. Nephrotoxicity was induced in mice by a single injection of cisplatin (15 mg/kg, i.p.) and treated with thalidomide (50 and 100 mg/kg/day, orally) for 4 days, beginning 24 h prior to the cisplatin injection. Renal toxicity induced by cisplatin was demonstrated by increasing plasma levels of creatinine and blood urea nitrogen (BUN). Cisplatin increased the renal production of the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1. In addition, kidney levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), myeloperoxidase (MPO), and nitric oxide (NO) were increased by cisplatin. Biochemical results showed that thalidomide reduced cisplatin-induced increase in plasma creatinine and BUN. Thalidomide treatment also significantly reduced tissue levels of the proinflammatory cytokines, MDA, MPO, and NO and increased anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. Furthermore, histological examination indicated that thalidomide ameliorated renal damage caused by cisplatin. These data suggest that thalidomide attenuates cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity possibly by inhibition of inflammatory reactions. Taken together, our findings indicate that thalidomide might be a valuable candidate for the prevention of nephrotoxicity in patients receiving cisplatin.

  8. Cystamine ameliorates liver fibrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride via inhibition of tissue transglutaminase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the anti-fibrosis effect of the tissue transglutaminase (tTG) specific inhibitor cystamine on liver fibrosis.METHODS: Sixty-eight male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into three groups: normal control, liver fibrosis control and cystamine-treated group. Liver fibrosis was induced by intraperitoneal injection of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), and Cystamine was administrated by intraperitoneal injection starting 2 d before the first administration of CCl4. Animals in each group were further divided into 2 subgroups according to two time points of 4 wk and 8 wk after treatment. Hepatic function, pathological evaluation (semi-quantitative scoring system, SSS) and liver hydroxyproline (Hyp)content were examined. Real-time PCR was used to detect the expression of tTG, smooth muscle alpha actin (α-SMA), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP-1)and collagen-1 mRNA. The expressions of tTG and α-SMA protein were detected by Western Blotting.RESULTS: Eight weeks after treatment, the SSS score of liver was significantly less in the cystamine group than that in the fibrosis control group (P < 0.01). The levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and total bile acid (TBA)at the 4 wk and 8 wk time points were decreased in the cystamine group compared with those in fibrosis controls (P < 0.01). Liver hydroxyproline content at the 4 wk and 8 wk time points showed a substantial reduction in the cystamine group compared to fibrosis controls (P < 0.01).The expression of tTG, α-SMA, collagen-1, TIMP-1 mRNA and tTG, as well as α-SMA protein was downregulated in the cystamine group compared to fibrosis controls.CONCLUSION: Cystamine can ameliorate CCl4 induced liver fibrosis and protect hepatic function. The possible mechanism is related to the reduced synthesis of the extracellular matrix (ECM) caused by the inhibition of hepatic stellate cell activation and decreased expression of TIMP-1.

  9. Chinese Herbal Preparation Xuebijing Potently Inhibits Inflammasome Activation in Hepatocytes and Ameliorates Mouse Liver Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiqiang Liu

    Full Text Available The Chinese herb preparation Xuebijing injection (XBJ has been widely used in the management of various septic disorders or inflammation-related conditions, however the molecular mechanism of its anti-inflammatory effect remains largely elusive. In the current study, we found that XBJ treatment potently ameliorated mouse hepatic ischemia-reperfusion (IR injury, manifested as decreased liver function tests (LDH, ALT, AST, improved inflammation and less hepatocyte apoptosis. Notably, XBJ markedly inhibited inflammasome activation and IL-1 production in mouse livers subjected to IRI, even in the absence of Kupffer cells, suggesting Kupffer cells are not necessary for hepatic inflammasome activation upon Redox-induced sterile inflammation. This finding led us to investigate the role of XBJ on hepatocyte apoptosis and inflammasome activation using an in vitro hydrogen peroxide (H2O2-triggered hepatocyte injury model. Our data clearly demonstrated that XBJ potently inhibited apoptosis, as well as caspase-1 cleavage and IL-1β production in a time- and dose-dependent manner in isolated hepatocytes, suggesting that in addition to its known modulatory effect on NF-κB-dependent inflammatory gene expression, it also has a direct impact on hepatocyte inflammasome activation. The current study not only deepens our understanding of how XBJ ameliorates inflammation and apoptosis, but also has immediate practical significance in many clinical situations such as partial hepatectomy, liver transplantation, etc.

  10. Prepulse inhibition of startle reflex in schizophrenics and healthy adults%首发未服药精神分裂症患者的惊跳反射弱刺激抑制和P50检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴荣琴; 宋立升; 吕坚; 黄军斌; 孙复林; 李桦; 陈兴时; 陈冲

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the characteristics of sensory gating inhibition and variation of schizophrenia with both prepulse inhibition (PPI) and P50.Methods The PPI of startle reflex and P50 were tested by an event-related potential (ERP) recorder in 82 first episode schizophrenics (FES) recruited from September 2007 to February 2014 at Shanghai Mental Health Hospital and 78 healthy controls (NC) from hospital staffs and local residents for the same period.All patients fulfilled the evaluation of PPI with strong stimulus alone and strong + weak stimulus paradigm,P50 with conditioning (S1)-testing (S2) paradigm.The psychotic symptoms were assessed with Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS).Results (1) Compared with control group,schizophrenia group had increased PL (NC:(89 ± 14) ms,FES:(97 ± 17) ms,P < 0.05) and PPL,decreased amplitude (NC:(92 ± 21) ms,(24 ± 14) μV,FSZ:(96 ± 20) ms,(41 ± 29) μV,P < 0.05,0.01),lower PPI inhibition ratio (NC:(67 ± 32) %,FSZ:(41 ± 37) %,P < 0.05).(2) Compared with NC group,there were increased S2 amplitude [NC:(3 ± 2) μV vs FES:(5 ±3) μV,P <0.05] and ratio of S2/S1 amplitude [(43 ± 22) % vs (82 ±41)%,P <0.05] in schizophrenia group.And P50 inhibition decreased significantly.Conclusion Schizophrenics have both PPI and P50 impairments.And a combination of PPI inhibition ratio and S2/S1 (P50) may be a better electrocerebrophysiological index for schizophrenia.%目的 应用惊跳反射弱刺激抑制(PPI)和P50两项新技术共同评价精神分裂症感觉门抑制及其变异特点.方法 应用德国Brain Products公司的ERP记录与分析系统,PPI采用单独强刺激和弱刺激+强刺激范式,P50采用S1和S2范式,对82例首发精神分裂症患者(患者组,来源于2007年9月至2014年2月上海市精神卫生中心)和78名健康成人(健康对照组,来源于同时期医院工作人员及附近居民)作了PPI和P50检测.并用阳性和阴性症状量表(PANSS)

  11. Reinforcement and Stimulant Medication Ameliorate Deficient Response Inhibition in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosch, Keri S; Fosco, Whitney D; Pelham, William E; Waxmonsky, James G; Bubnik, Michelle G; Hawk, Larry W

    2016-02-01

    This study examined the degree to which reinforcement, stimulant medication, and their combination impact response inhibition in children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Across three studies, participants with ADHD (n = 111, 25 girls) and typically-developing (TD) controls (n = 33, 6 girls) completed a standard version of the stop signal task (SST) and/or a reinforcement-manipulation SST with performance-contingent points. In two of these studies, these tasks were performed under placebo or 0.3 and 0.6 mg/kg methylphenidate (MPH) conditions. Cross-study comparisons were conducted to test hypotheses regarding the separate and combined effects of reinforcement and methylphenidate on response inhibition among children with ADHD relative to TD controls. Baseline response inhibition was worse among children with ADHD compared to controls. MPH produced dose-related improvements in response inhibition in children with ADHD; compared to non-medicated TD controls, 0.3 mg/kg MPH normalized deficient response inhibition, and 0.6 mg/kg MPH resulted in better inhibition in children with ADHD. Reinforcement improved response inhibition to a greater extent for children with ADHD than for TD children, normalizing response inhibition. The combination of MPH and reinforcement improved response inhibition among children with ADHD compared to reinforcement alone and MPH alone, also resulting in normalization of response inhibition despite repeated task exposure. Deficient response inhibition commonly observed in children with ADHD is significantly improved with MPH and/or reinforcement, normalizing inhibition relative to TD children tested under standard conditions.

  12. Reinforcement and Stimulant Medication Ameliorate Deficient Response Inhibition in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosch, Keri S; Fosco, Whitney D; Pelham, William E; Waxmonsky, James G; Bubnik, Michelle G; Hawk, Larry W

    2016-02-01

    This study examined the degree to which reinforcement, stimulant medication, and their combination impact response inhibition in children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Across three studies, participants with ADHD (n = 111, 25 girls) and typically-developing (TD) controls (n = 33, 6 girls) completed a standard version of the stop signal task (SST) and/or a reinforcement-manipulation SST with performance-contingent points. In two of these studies, these tasks were performed under placebo or 0.3 and 0.6 mg/kg methylphenidate (MPH) conditions. Cross-study comparisons were conducted to test hypotheses regarding the separate and combined effects of reinforcement and methylphenidate on response inhibition among children with ADHD relative to TD controls. Baseline response inhibition was worse among children with ADHD compared to controls. MPH produced dose-related improvements in response inhibition in children with ADHD; compared to non-medicated TD controls, 0.3 mg/kg MPH normalized deficient response inhibition, and 0.6 mg/kg MPH resulted in better inhibition in children with ADHD. Reinforcement improved response inhibition to a greater extent for children with ADHD than for TD children, normalizing response inhibition. The combination of MPH and reinforcement improved response inhibition among children with ADHD compared to reinforcement alone and MPH alone, also resulting in normalization of response inhibition despite repeated task exposure. Deficient response inhibition commonly observed in children with ADHD is significantly improved with MPH and/or reinforcement, normalizing inhibition relative to TD children tested under standard conditions. PMID:25985978

  13. Activation of Cannabinoid Receptor 2 Ameliorates DSS-Induced Colitis through Inhibiting NLRP3 Inflammasome in Macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Ping; Shao, Bo-Zong; Xu, Zhe-Qi; Wei, Wei; Han, Bin-Ze; Chen, Xiong-Wen; Su, Ding-Feng; Liu, Chong

    2016-01-01

    Activation of cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2R) ameliorates inflammation, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, we examined whether activation of CB2R could suppress the nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome. In peritoneal macrophages isolated from C57BL/6 mice, LPS/DSS challenge for 24 h increased the expression of the components of NLRP3 inflammasome NLRP3, Casp-1 p20/Casp-1 p45 ratio, proIL-1β and IL-1β and also enhanced autophagy (LC3-II/LC3-I ratio, Beclin-1 and SQSTM1). Pretreatment of peritoneal macrophages with HU 308, a selective CB2R agonist, attenuated LPS/DSS-induced NLRP3 inflammasome activation, but further enhanced autophagy. In comparison with wild-type (WT) control, peritoneal macrophages from CB2R knockout (KO) mice had more robust NLRP3 inflammasome activation and attenuated autophagy upon LPS/DSS challenge. Knockdown autophagy-related gene 5 (Atg5) with a siRNA in peritoneal macrophages attenuated the inhibitory effects of HU 308 on LPS/DSS-induced NLRP3 inflammasome activation in vitro. In vivo, HU308 treatment attenuated DSS-induced colitis mice associated with reduced colon inflammation and inhibited NLRP3 inflammasome activation in wild-type mice. In CB2R KO mice, DSS-induced inflammation and NLRP3 inflammasome activation were more pronounced than those in WT control. Finally, we demonstrated that AMPK-mTOR-P70S6K signaling pathway was involved in this CB2R-mediated process. We conclude that activation of CB2R ameliorates DSS-induced colitis through enhancing autophagy that may inhibit NLRP3 inflammasome activation in macrophages.

  14. Graptopetalum paraguayense Ameliorates Airway Inflammation and Allergy in Ovalbumin- (OVA- Sensitized BALB/C Mice by Inhibiting Th2 Signal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao-Hong Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Role of inflammation-induced oxidative stress in the pathogenesis and progression of chronic inflammatory airways diseases has received increasing attention in recent years. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 is the primary transcription factor that regulates the expression of antioxidant and detoxifying enzymes. Graptopetalum paraguayense E. Walther, a vegetable consumed in Taiwan, has been used in folk medicine for protection against liver injury through elevating antioxidation. Recently, we found that gallic acid is an active compound of Graptopetalum paraguayense E. Walther, which has been reported to inhibit T-helper 2 cytokines. Currently, we assumed that Graptopetalum paraguayense E. Walther may potentially protect against ovalbumin-induced allergy and airway inflammation. Results demonstrated that Graptopetalum paraguayense E. Walther ethanolic extracts (GPE clearly inhibited airway inflammation, mucus cell hyperplasia, and eosinophilia in OVA-challenged mice. Additionally, GPE also prevented T-cell infiltration and Th2 cytokines, including interleukin- (IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 generations in bronchial alveolar lavage fluid. The adhesion molecules ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 were substantially reduced by GPE treatment mediated by Nrf2 activation. Moreover, GPE attenuated GATA3 expression and inhibited Th2 signals of the T cells. These findings suggested that GPE ameliorated the development of airway inflammation through immune regulation.

  15. Piperine ameliorates the severity of cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis by inhibiting the activation of mitogen activated protein kinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Gi-Sang; Kim, Min-Sun; Jeong, Jinsu; Lee, Hye-Youn; Park, Kyoung-Chel; Koo, Bon Soon; Kim, Byung-Jin; Kim, Tae-Hyeon; Lee, Seung Ho; Hwang, Sung-Yeon; Shin, Yong Kook; Song, Ho-Joon; Park, Sung-Joo

    2011-07-01

    Piperine is a phenolic component of black pepper (Piper nigrum) and long pepper (Piper longum), fruits used in traditional Asian medicine. Our previous study showed that piperine inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory responses. In this study, we investigated whether piperine reduces the severity of cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis (AP). Administration of piperine reduced histologic damage and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in the pancreas and ameliorated many of the examined laboratory parameters, including the pancreatic weight (PW) to body weight (BW) ratio, as well as serum levels of amylase and lipase and trypsin activity. Furthermore, piperine pretreatment reduced the production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-6 during cerulein-induced AP. In accordance with in vivo results, piperine reduced cell death, amylase and lipase activity, and cytokine production in isolated cerulein-treated pancreatic acinar cells. In addition, piperine inhibited the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). These findings suggest that the anti-inflammatory effect of piperine in cerulein-induced AP is mediated by inhibiting the activation of MAPKs. Thus, piperine may have a protective effect against AP.

  16. Sphingosine kinase inhibition ameliorates chronic hypoperfusion-induced white matter lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ying; Torta, Federico; Arai, Ken; Wenk, Markus R; Herr, Deron R; Wong, Peter T-H; Lai, Mitchell K P

    2016-03-01

    White matter lesions (WML) are thought to contribute to vascular cognitive impairment in elderly patients. Growing evidence show that failure of myelin formation arising from the disruption of oligodendrocyte progenitor cell (OPC) differentiation is a cause of chronic vascular white matter damage. The sphingosine kinase (SphK)/sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) signaling pathway regulates oligodendroglia differentiation and function, and is known to be altered in hypoxia. In this study, we measured SphK, S1P as well as markers of WML, hypoxia and OPC (NG2) in a mouse bilateral carotid artery stenosis (BCAS) model of chronic cerebral hypoperfusion. Our results indicated that BCAS induced hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1α, Sphk2, S1P, and NG2 up-regulation together with accumulation of WML. In contrast, BCAS mice treated with the SphK inhibitor, SKI-II, showed partial reversal of SphK2, S1P and NG2 elevation and amelioration of WML. In an in vitro model of hypoxia, SKI-II reversed the suppression of OPC differentiation. Our study suggests a mechanism for hypoperfusion-associated WML involving HIF-1α-SphK2-S1P-mediated disruption of OPC differentiation, and proposes the SphK signaling pathway as a potential therapeutic target for white matter disease. PMID:26921668

  17. Pharmacologic inhibition of L-tyrosine degradation ameliorates cerebral dopamine deficiency in murine phenylketonuria (PKU).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Cary O; Winn, Shelley R; Gibson, K Michael; Arning, Erland; Bottiglieri, Teodoro; Grompe, Markus

    2014-09-01

    Monoamine neurotransmitter deficiency has been implicated in the etiology of neuropsychiatric symptoms associated with chronic hyperphenylalaninemia in phenylketonuria (PKU). Two proposed explanations for neurotransmitter deficiency in PKU include first, that chronically elevated blood L-phenylalanine (Phe) inhibits the transport of L-tyrosine (Tyr) and L-tryptophan (Trp), the substrates for dopamine and serotonin synthesis respectively, into brain. In the second hypothesis, elevated Phe competitively inhibits brain tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) activities, the rate limiting steps in dopamine and serotonin synthesis. Dietary supplementation with large neutral amino acids (LNAA) including Tyr and Trp has been recommended for individuals with chronically elevated blood Phe in an attempt to restore amino acid and monoamine homeostasis in brain. As a potential alternative treatment approach, we demonstrate that pharmacologic inhibition of Tyr degradation through oral administration of nitisinone (NTBC) yielded sustained increases in blood and brain Tyr, decreased blood and brain Phe, and consequently increased dopamine synthesis in a murine model of PKU. Our results suggest that Phe-mediated inhibition of TH activity is the likely mechanism of impaired dopamine synthesis in PKU. Pharmacologic inhibition of Tyr degradation may be a promising adjunct therapy for CNS monoamine neurotransmitter deficiency in hyperphenylalaninemic individuals with PKU. PMID:24487571

  18. A New Phenylpyrazoleanilide, Y-320, Inhibits Interleukin 17 Production and Ameliorates Collagen-Induced Arthritis in Mice and Cynomolgus Monkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki Ushio

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Interleukin (IL-15 and IL-17 are thought to play an important role in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA because both pro-inflammatory cytokines are found in synovial fluid of RA patients. In this study, we examined the pharmacological profiles of Y-320, a new phenylpyrazoleanilide immunomodulator. Y-320 inhibited IL-17 production by CD4 T cells stimulated with IL-15 with IC50 values of 20 to 60 nM. Oral administration of Y-320 (0.3 to 3 mg/kg significantly inhibited the development and progression of arthritis and joint destruction with reduction of IL-17 mRNA expression in arthritic joints of type II collagen-induced arthritis (CIA in DBA/1J mice. Y-320 in combination with anti-murine tumor necrosis factor-α monoclonal antibody showed a synergistic effect on mouse CIA. Moreover, therapeutic treatment with Y-320 (0.3 and 1 mg/kg orally ameliorated CIA in cynomolgus monkeys. Our results suggest that Y-320, an orally active inhibitor for IL-17 production, provides a useful therapy for RA.

  19. A new phenylpyrazoleanilide, y-320, inhibits interleukin 17 production and ameliorates collagen-induced arthritis in mice and cynomolgus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushio, Hiroyuki; Ishibuchi, Seigo; Oshita, Koichi; Seki, Noriyasu; Kataoka, Hirotoshi; Sugahara, Kunio; Adachi, Kunitomo; Chiba, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-15 and IL-17 are thought to play an important role in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) because both pro-inflammatory cytokines are found in synovial fluid of RA patients. In this study, we examined the pharmacological profiles of Y-320, a new phenylpyrazoleanilide immunomodulator. Y-320 inhibited IL-17 production by CD4 T cells stimulated with IL-15 with IC50 values of 20 to 60 nM. Oral administration of Y-320 (0.3 to 3 mg/kg) significantly inhibited the development and progression of arthritis and joint destruction with reduction of IL-17 mRNA expression in arthritic joints of type II collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in DBA/1J mice. Y-320 in combination with anti-murine tumor necrosis factor-α monoclonal antibody showed a synergistic effect on mouse CIA. Moreover, therapeutic treatment with Y-320 (0.3 and 1 mg/kg orally) ameliorated CIA in cynomolgus monkeys. Our results suggest that Y-320, an orally active inhibitor for IL-17 production, provides a useful therapy for RA. PMID:24366113

  20. All-trans-Retinoic Acid Ameliorated High Fat Diet-Induced Atherosclerosis in Rabbits by Inhibiting Platelet Activation and Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birong Zhou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. All-trans-retinoic acid (atRA is effective for many proliferative diseases. We investigated the protective effects of atRA against atherosclerosis. Methods. Rabbits were randomly allocated to receive basal diet or an HFD for 4 weeks. HFD group then received rosuvastatin (3 mg/day, atRA (5 mg/kg/day, or the same volume of vehicle, respectively, for next 8 weeks. Results. HFD group showed increases in plasma lipids and aortic plaque formation. P-selectin expression and fibrinogen binding on platelets or deposition on the intima of the aorta also increased significantly as did the levels of TNF-α, IL-6, and fibrinogen in plasma. After 8 weeks of treatment with atRA, there was a significant decrease in plasma lipids and improvement in aortic lesions. AtRA also inhibited the expression of P-selectin and fibrinogen binding on platelets and deposition on the intima of the aorta. Conclusion. AtRA can ameliorate HFD-induced AS in rabbits by inhibiting platelet activation and inflammation.

  1. A Mushroom Extract Piwep from Phellinus igniarius Ameliorates Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis by Inhibiting Immune Cell Infiltration in the Spinal Cord

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to evaluate the therapeutic potential of a mushroom extract from Phellinus igniarius in an animal model of multiple sclerosis. The medicinal mushroom, Phellinus igniarius, contains biologically active compounds that modulate the human immune system. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE was induced by immunization with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG 35–55 in C57BL/6 female mice. A water-ethanol extract of Phellinus igniarius (Piwep was delivered intraperitoneally every other day for the entire experimental course. Three weeks after the initial immunization, demyelination and immune cell infiltration in the spinal cord were examined. Piwep injection profoundly decreased the daily incidence rate and clinical score of EAE. The Piwep-mediated inhibition of the clinical course of EAE was accompanied by suppression of demyelination and infiltration of encephalitogenic immune cells including CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, macrophages, and B cells in the spinal cord. Piwep reduced expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1 in the spinal cord and integrin-α4 in the lymph node of EAE mice. Piwep also inhibited proliferation of lymphocytes and secretion of interferon-γ in the lymph node of EAE mice. The results suggest that a mushroom extract, Piwep, may have a high therapeutic potential for ameliorating multiple sclerosis progression.

  2. Inhibition of Lipolysis Ameliorates Diabetic Phenotype in a Mouse Model of Obstructive Sleep Apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiszenstein, Martin; Shimoda, Larissa A; Koc, Michal; Seda, Ondrej; Polak, Jan

    2016-08-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, and type 2 diabetes. Causal mechanisms mediating this association are not well defined; however, augmented lipolysis in adipose might be involved. Here, we investigated the effect of acipimox treatment (lipolysis inhibitor) on glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in mice exposed to intermittent hypoxia (IH). C57BL6/J mice were exposed for 14 days to IH or control conditions. IH was created by decreasing the fraction of inspired oxygen from 20.9 to 6.5%, 60 times/h. Control exposure was air (fraction of inspired oxygen, 20.9%) delivered at an identical flow rate. Acipimox was provided in drinking water (0.5 g/ml) during exposures. After exposures, intraperitoneal insulin (0.5 IU/kg) and glucose (1 g/kg) tolerance tests were performed, and primary adipocytes were isolated for lipolysis experiments. IH elevated fasting glucose by 51% and worsened glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity by 33 and 102%, respectively. In parallel, IH increased spontaneous lipolysis by 264%, and reduced epididymal fat mass by 15% and adipocyte size by 8%. Acipimox treatment prevented IH-induced lipolysis and increased epididymal fat mass and adipocyte size by 19 and 10%, respectively. Acipimox fully prevented IH-induced impairments in fasting glycemia, glucose tolerance, and insulin sensitivity. For all reported results, P less than 0.05 was considered significant. Augmented lipolysis contributes to insulin resistance and glucose intolerance observed in mice exposed to IH. Acipimox treatment ameliorated the metabolic consequences of IH and might represent a novel treatment option for patients with obstructive sleep apnea. PMID:26978122

  3. Inhibition of Lipolysis Ameliorates Diabetic Phenotype in a Mouse Model of Obstructive Sleep Apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiszenstein, Martin; Shimoda, Larissa A; Koc, Michal; Seda, Ondrej; Polak, Jan

    2016-08-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, and type 2 diabetes. Causal mechanisms mediating this association are not well defined; however, augmented lipolysis in adipose might be involved. Here, we investigated the effect of acipimox treatment (lipolysis inhibitor) on glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in mice exposed to intermittent hypoxia (IH). C57BL6/J mice were exposed for 14 days to IH or control conditions. IH was created by decreasing the fraction of inspired oxygen from 20.9 to 6.5%, 60 times/h. Control exposure was air (fraction of inspired oxygen, 20.9%) delivered at an identical flow rate. Acipimox was provided in drinking water (0.5 g/ml) during exposures. After exposures, intraperitoneal insulin (0.5 IU/kg) and glucose (1 g/kg) tolerance tests were performed, and primary adipocytes were isolated for lipolysis experiments. IH elevated fasting glucose by 51% and worsened glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity by 33 and 102%, respectively. In parallel, IH increased spontaneous lipolysis by 264%, and reduced epididymal fat mass by 15% and adipocyte size by 8%. Acipimox treatment prevented IH-induced lipolysis and increased epididymal fat mass and adipocyte size by 19 and 10%, respectively. Acipimox fully prevented IH-induced impairments in fasting glycemia, glucose tolerance, and insulin sensitivity. For all reported results, P less than 0.05 was considered significant. Augmented lipolysis contributes to insulin resistance and glucose intolerance observed in mice exposed to IH. Acipimox treatment ameliorated the metabolic consequences of IH and might represent a novel treatment option for patients with obstructive sleep apnea.

  4. NFkappaB decoy oligodeoxynucleotides ameliorates osteoporosis through inhibition of activation and differentiation of osteoclasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, H; Nakagami, H; Tsukamoto, I; Morita, S; Kunugiza, Y; Tomita, T; Yoshikawa, H; Kaneda, Y; Ogihara, T; Morishita, R

    2006-06-01

    The transcription factor, nuclear factor-kappa B (NFkappaB), is believed to play a pivotal role in osteoclast formation. In this study, we focused on NFkappaB decoy oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) as a new therapeutic strategy to attenuate osteoporosis. Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive multinuclear osteoclasts formed in mononuclear cells including osteoclast precursors from neonatal rabbit bone marrow were increased in the presence of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, whereas transfection of NFkappaB decoy ODN decreased the number of TRAP-positive cells and attenuated RANKL and M-CSF-induced osteoclast formation. NFkappaB decoy ODN also inhibited the activity of osteoclasts, as assessed by pit formation. In rat ovariectomized model of estrogen deficiency, continuous administration of NFkappaB decoy ODN attenuated the increase of TRAP activity, accompanied by a significant increase in calcium concentration in tibia and femur and decrease in urinary deoxypyridinoline. In additional osteoporosis model using vitamin C-deficient rat, inhibition of NFkappaB by decoy ODN dramatically improved the bone length, weight, density as assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Overall, inhibition of NFkappaB by decoy strategy prevented osteoporosis through the inhibition of bone resorption. Targeting of NFkappaB might be potential therapy in various bone metabolic diseases.

  5. Ghrelin ameliorates intestinal barrier dysfunction in experimental colitis by inhibiting the activation of nuclear factor-kappa B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: This study aimed to investigate the effect and underlying mechanism of ghrelin on intestinal barrier dysfunction in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. Methods and results: Acute colitis was induced in C57BL/6J mice by administering 2.5% DSS. Saline or 25, 125, 250 μg/kg ghrelin was administrated intraperitoneally (IP) to mice 1 day before colitis induction and on days 4, 5, and 6 after DSS administration. IP injection of a ghrelin receptor antagonist, [D-lys3]-GHRP-6, was performed immediately prior to ghrelin injection. Ghrelin (125 or 250 μg/kg) could reduce the disease activity index, histological score, and myeloperoxidase activities in experimental colitis, and also prevented shortening of the colon. Ghrelin could prevent the reduction of transepithelial electrical resistance and tight junction expression, and bolstered tight junction structural integrity and regulated cytokine secretion. Ultimately, ghrelin inhibited nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), inhibitory κB-α, myosin light chain kinase, and phosphorylated myosin light chain 2 activation. Conclusions: Ghrelin prevented the breakdown of intestinal barrier function in DSS-induced colitis. The protective effects of ghrelin on intestinal barrier function were mediated by its receptor GHSR-1a. The inhibition of NF-κB activation might be part of the mechanism underlying the effects of ghrelin that protect against barrier dysfunction. - Highlights: • Ghrelin ameliorates intestinal barrier dysfunction in experimental colitis. • The effect of ghrelin is mediated by GHSR-1a. • Inhibition of NF-κB activation

  6. Ethyl pyruvate ameliorates experimental colitis in mice by inhibiting the HMGB1-Th17 and Th1/Tc1 responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xianghua; Guo, Runhua; Luo, Xia; Zhou, Lian

    2015-12-01

    Ethyl pyruvate (EP), a simple lipophilic pyruvate ester, has demonstrated protective effects against murine colitis through inhibition the release of inflammatory factor high-mobility group protein box 1 (HMGB1). HMGB1 has been implicated in several autoimmune diseases by inducing Thl and Thl7 cells activation. This study was designed to investigate whether EP amelioration of murine colitis is related to the blocking of the HMGB1-Th17/Thl pathway. We induced murine colitis by intrarectal administration of 2, 4, 6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS). Ethyl pyruvate was injected intraperitoneally once a day for 7days. One week after intrarectal challenge with TNBS, HMGB1, IL-17 and IFN-γ protein levels were remarkably increased following severe colon inflammation. Meanwhile, excessive infiltration of Th17 cells in colonic tissues, and an upregulated proportion of Th17 and Th1/Tc1 cells in the spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) were found in the TNBS-treated group compared to the control group. Treatment with the HMGB1 inhibitor EP not only remarkably improved colon pathological damage, but also significantly reduced the number of Th17 cells in the local tissues of the colitis-induced mice. Furthermore, the percentage of Th1/Tc1 and Th17 cells in the spleen and MLN, as well as levels of serum IFN-γ and IL-17A, were all markedly decreased in the EP-treated group. Moreover, in vitro, our results showed that EP in a dose dependent manner inhibited HMGB1 release induced by LPS from CT26 cells (murine colon adenocarcinoma cell line). These results suggest that HMGB1 contributes to the development of murine colitis by promoting the Th17 and Th1/Tc1 responses, and that EP can significantly inhibit HMGB1-Th17 and Thl/Tc1 pathway activation, which may provide better protection to mice with TNBS-induced colitis.

  7. Ghrelin ameliorates intestinal barrier dysfunction in experimental colitis by inhibiting the activation of nuclear factor-kappa B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Jian; Zhang, Lin [Department of Gastroenterology, Jinshan Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Dai, Weiqi [Department of Gastroenterology, Shanghai Tenth People' s Hospital, Tongji University, Shanghai (China); Mao, Yuqing [Department of Gastroenterology, Jinshan Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Li, Sainan [Department of Gastroenterology, Shanghai Tenth People' s Hospital, Tongji University, Shanghai (China); Wang, Jingjie; Li, Huanqing [Department of Gastroenterology, Jinshan Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Guo, Chuanyong [Department of Gastroenterology, Shanghai Tenth People' s Hospital, Tongji University, Shanghai (China); Fan, Xiaoming, E-mail: xiaomingfan57@sina.com [Department of Gastroenterology, Jinshan Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai (China)

    2015-02-27

    Aim: This study aimed to investigate the effect and underlying mechanism of ghrelin on intestinal barrier dysfunction in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. Methods and results: Acute colitis was induced in C57BL/6J mice by administering 2.5% DSS. Saline or 25, 125, 250 μg/kg ghrelin was administrated intraperitoneally (IP) to mice 1 day before colitis induction and on days 4, 5, and 6 after DSS administration. IP injection of a ghrelin receptor antagonist, [D-lys{sup 3}]-GHRP-6, was performed immediately prior to ghrelin injection. Ghrelin (125 or 250 μg/kg) could reduce the disease activity index, histological score, and myeloperoxidase activities in experimental colitis, and also prevented shortening of the colon. Ghrelin could prevent the reduction of transepithelial electrical resistance and tight junction expression, and bolstered tight junction structural integrity and regulated cytokine secretion. Ultimately, ghrelin inhibited nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), inhibitory κB-α, myosin light chain kinase, and phosphorylated myosin light chain 2 activation. Conclusions: Ghrelin prevented the breakdown of intestinal barrier function in DSS-induced colitis. The protective effects of ghrelin on intestinal barrier function were mediated by its receptor GHSR-1a. The inhibition of NF-κB activation might be part of the mechanism underlying the effects of ghrelin that protect against barrier dysfunction. - Highlights: • Ghrelin ameliorates intestinal barrier dysfunction in experimental colitis. • The effect of ghrelin is mediated by GHSR-1a. • Inhibition of NF-κB activation.

  8. Pharmacologic inhibition of L-tyrosine degradation ameliorates cerebral dopamine deficiency in murine phenylketonuria (PKU)

    OpenAIRE

    Harding, Cary O.; Winn, Shelley R.; Gibson, K Michael; Arning, Erland; Bottiglieri, Teodoro; Grompe, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Monoamine neurotransmitter deficiency has been implicated in the etiology of neuropsychiatric symptoms associated with chronic hyperphenylalaninemia in phenylketonuria (PKU). Two proposed explanations for neurotransmitter deficiency in PKU include first, that chronically elevated blood L-phenylalanine (Phe) inhibits the transport of L-tyrosine (Tyr) and L-tryptophan (Trp), the substrates for dopamine and serotonin synthesis respectively, into brain. In the second hypothesis, elevated Phe comp...

  9. Inhibition of fatty acid metabolism ameliorates disease activity in an animal model of multiple sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Shriver, Leah P.; Manchester, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system and a leading cause of neurological disability. The complex immunopathology and variable disease course of multiple sclerosis have limited effective treatment of all patients. Altering the metabolism of immune cells may be an attractive strategy to modify their function during autoimmunity. We examined the effect of inhibiting fatty acid metabolism in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a mo...

  10. Helianthus annuus Leaf Ameliorates Postprandial Hyperglycaemia by Inhibiting Carbohydrate Hydrolyzing Enzymes Associated with Type-2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwafemi Adeleke Ojo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease. Decreasing postprandial hyperglycemia by retarding glucose absorption through inhibiting carbohydrates digesting enzymes (α-amylase and α-glucosidase is one of many approaches used for the management of this disease. This study was aimed at evaluating the normoglycaemic potential of Helianthus annuus leaf. Methods: The effect of the in vitro inhibitory of different extracts (acetone, ethyl acetate and hexane of the plant was assessed on the activities of diabetes-related enzymes (α-amylase and α-glucosidase. Results: The hexane extract of H. annuus leaf displayed the best inhibitory activity against α-amylase and α-glucosidase as indicated by the IC50 values (3.92 ± 0.02 mg mL-1 and (3.29 ± 0.12 mg mL-1, respectively. Lineweaver-Burk plot of inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase by this extract showed that it was competitive and non-competitive mode, respectively. Conclusion: H. annuus leaf possesses hypoglycaemic potential which may be due to the inhibition of pancreatic α-amylase and intestinal α-glucosidase.

  11. Mammalian target of rapamycin signaling inhibition ameliorates vascular calcification via Klotho upregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yang; Zhao, Ming-Ming; Cai, Yan; Zheng, Ming-Fei; Sun, Wei-Liang; Zhang, Song-Yang; Kong, Wei; Gu, Jun; Wang, Xian; Xu, Ming-Jiang

    2015-10-01

    Vascular calcification (VC) is a major risk factor for cardiovascular mortality in chronic renal failure (CRF) patients, but the pathogenesis remains partially unknown and effective therapeutic targets should be urgently explored. Here we pursued the therapeutic role of rapamycin in CRF-related VC. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signal was activated in the aortic wall of CRF rats. As expected, oral rapamycin administration significantly reduced VC by inhibiting mTOR in rats with CRF. Further in vitro results showed that activation of mTOR by both pharmacological agent and genetic method promoted, while inhibition of mTOR reduced, inorganic phosphate-induced vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) calcification and chondrogenic/osteogenic gene expression, which were independent of autophagy and apoptosis. Interestingly, the expression of Klotho, an antiaging gene that suppresses VC, was reduced in calcified vasculature, whereas rapamycin reversed membrane and secreted Klotho decline through mTOR inhibition. When mTOR signaling was enhanced by either mTOR overexpression or deletion of tuberous sclerosis 1, Klotho mRNA was further decreased in phosphate-treated VSMCs, suggesting a vital association between mTOR signaling and Klotho expression. More importantly, rapamycin failed to reduce VC in the absence of Klotho by using either siRNA knockdown of Klotho or Klotho knockout mice. Thus, Klotho has a critical role in mediating the observed decrease in calcification by rapamycin in vitro and in vivo. PMID:26061549

  12. Hydroxylase inhibition attenuates colonic epithelial secretory function and ameliorates experimental diarrhea.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ward, Joseph B J

    2012-02-01

    Hydroxylases are oxygen-sensing enzymes that regulate cellular responses to hypoxia. Transepithelial Cl(-) secretion, the driving force for fluid secretion, is dependent on O(2) availability for generation of cellular energy. Here, we investigated the role of hydroxylases in regulating epithelial secretion and the potential for targeting these enzymes in treatment of diarrheal disorders. Ion transport was measured as short-circuit current changes across voltage-clamped monolayers of T(84) cells and mouse colon. The antidiarrheal efficacy of dimethyloxallyl glycine (DMOG) was tested in a mouse model of allergic disease. Hydroxylase inhibition with DMOG attenuated Ca(2+)- and cAMP-dependent secretory responses in voltage-clamped T(84) cells to 20.2 +\\/- 2.6 and 38.8 +\\/- 6.7% (n=16; P<\\/=0.001) of those in control cells, respectively. Antisecretory actions of DMOG were time and concentration dependent, being maximal after 18 h of DMOG (1 mM) treatment. DMOG specifically inhibited Na(+)\\/K(+)-ATPase pump activity without altering its expression or membrane localization. In mice, DMOG inhibited agonist-induced secretory responses ex vivo and prevented allergic diarrhea in vivo. In conclusion, hydroxylases are important regulators of epithelial Cl(-) and fluid secretion and present a promising target for development of new drugs to treat transport disorders.

  13. Hydroxylase inhibition attenuates colonic epithelial secretory function and ameliorates experimental diarrhea.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ward, Joseph B J

    2011-02-01

    Hydroxylases are oxygen-sensing enzymes that regulate cellular responses to hypoxia. Transepithelial Cl(-) secretion, the driving force for fluid secretion, is dependent on O(2) availability for generation of cellular energy. Here, we investigated the role of hydroxylases in regulating epithelial secretion and the potential for targeting these enzymes in treatment of diarrheal disorders. Ion transport was measured as short-circuit current changes across voltage-clamped monolayers of T(84) cells and mouse colon. The antidiarrheal efficacy of dimethyloxallyl glycine (DMOG) was tested in a mouse model of allergic disease. Hydroxylase inhibition with DMOG attenuated Ca(2+)- and cAMP-dependent secretory responses in voltage-clamped T(84) cells to 20.2 ± 2.6 and 38.8 ± 6.7% (n=16; P≤0.001) of those in control cells, respectively. Antisecretory actions of DMOG were time and concentration dependent, being maximal after 18 h of DMOG (1 mM) treatment. DMOG specifically inhibited Na(+)\\/K(+)-ATPase pump activity without altering its expression or membrane localization. In mice, DMOG inhibited agonist-induced secretory responses ex vivo and prevented allergic diarrhea in vivo. In conclusion, hydroxylases are important regulators of epithelial Cl(-) and fluid secretion and present a promising target for development of new drugs to treat transport disorders.

  14. Janus kinase inhibition lessens inflammation and ameliorates disease in murine models of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Rupali; Guan, Peng; Sprague, Leslee; Verbist, Katherine; Tedrick, Paige; An, Qi Angel; Cheng, Cheng; Kurachi, Makoto; Levine, Ross; Wherry, E John; Canna, Scott W; Behrens, Edward M; Nichols, Kim E

    2016-03-31

    Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) comprises an emerging spectrum of inherited and noninherited disorders of the immune system characterized by the excessive production of cytokines, including interferon-γ and interleukins 2, 6, and 10 (IL-2, IL-6, and IL-10). The Janus kinases (JAKs) transduce signals initiated following engagement of specific receptors that bind a broad array of cytokines, including those overproduced in HLH. Based on the central role for cytokines in the pathogenesis of HLH, we sought to examine whether the inhibition of JAK function might lessen inflammation in murine models of the disease. Toward this end, we examined the effects of JAK inhibition using a model of primary (inherited) HLH in which perforin-deficient (Prf1(-∕-)) mice are infected with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) and secondary (noninherited) HLH in which C57BL/6 mice receive repeated injections of CpG DNA. In both models, treatment with the JAK1/2 inhibitor ruxolitinib significantly lessened the clinical and laboratory manifestations of HLH, including weight loss, organomegaly, anemia, thrombocytopenia, hypercytokinemia, and tissue inflammation. Importantly, ruxolitinib treatment also significantly improved the survival of LCMV-infectedPrf1(-∕-)mice. Mechanistic studies revealed that in vivo exposure to ruxolitinib inhibited signal transducer and activation of transcription 1-dependent gene expression, limited CD8(+)T-cell expansion, and greatly reduced proinflammatory cytokine production, without effecting degranulation and cytotoxic function. Collectively, these findings highlight the JAKs as novel, druggable targets for mitigating the cytokine-driven hyperinflammation that occurs in HLH. These observations also support the incorporation of JAK inhibitors such as ruxolitinib into future clinical trials for patients with these life-threatening disorders. PMID:26825707

  15. Inhibition of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 ameliorates obesity-related insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Shiying; Zhang, Xiaojie; Zhang, Muxun

    2016-09-01

    Excess 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) may be implicated in the development of obesity related metabolic disorders. The present study measured the expression level of 11β-HSD1 in visceral adipose tissues from 23 patients undergoing abdominal operation. Correlation of 11β-HSD1 expression with BMI, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), HOMA-IR, and serum lipids was evaluated by spearman correlation analysis. High-fat diet-induced obese (DIO) rats were orally dosed with BVT.2733 for 4 weeks. Weight, plasma insulin, and lipids were detected at the end of the treatment. The effects of 11β-HSD1 inhibition on the key insulin-signaling cascade and adipocytokines were measured by western blot and ELISA respectively. 11β-HSD1 was increased in patients with central obesity, the expression level of which was closely related with WHR (r = 0.5851), BMI (r = 0.4952), and HOMA-IR (r = 0.4637). Obesity related insulin resistance in high-fat DIO rats, as reflected by a marked decrease in IRS-1, IRS-2, GLUT4, and PI3K, could be attenuated by 11β-HSD1 inhibition. Furthermore, the down-regulation of 11β-HSD1 could correct the disordered profiles of adipocytokines including adiponectin, IL-6, and TNF-α. These findings indicated that 11β-HSD1 inhibition can give a potential benefit in reducing obesity and lowering insulin resistance by modulating the insulin-signaling pathway and adipocytokine production. PMID:27268236

  16. Continual low-level MEK inhibition ameliorates cardio-facio-cutaneous phenotypes in zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina Anastasaki

    2012-07-01

    Cardio-facio-cutaneous (CFC syndrome is caused by germline mutations in KRAS, BRAF and MEK1/2. The highly selective and potent MEK inhibitors that have been developed as anti-cancer agents hold potential as therapeutics for CFC syndrome. We have previously shown that the effects of CFC mutations on zebrafish gastrulation can be prevented by a 1-hour treatment with MEK inhibitors within a specific developmental time-window. However, MEK activity is essential for normal development and PD0325901 treatment outside this treatment window leads to additional developmental defects in MEK-dependent tissues. We now test ten different doses of PD0325901 at six developmental time points and assess the effects on body axis length, heart development and craniofacial structures in zebrafish embryos. Notably, we find that a continuous low-level dose of PD0325901 that has only minor inhibition of MEK activity can prevent the action of both the common CFC BRAFQ257R kinase-active allele and the BRAFG596V kinase-impaired mutant allele through the first 5 days of development. These results provide a detailed study of the effects of PD0325901 in development and show that, unlike in cancer, which requires robust inhibition of MAPK signalling, a partial reduction in phospho-ERK1/2 activity is sufficient to moderate the developmental effects of BRAFCFC mutations.

  17. Continual low-level MEK inhibition ameliorates cardio-facio-cutaneous phenotypes in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasaki, Corina; Rauen, Katherine A; Patton, E Elizabeth

    2012-07-01

    Cardio-facio-cutaneous (CFC) syndrome is caused by germline mutations in KRAS, BRAF and MEK1/2. The highly selective and potent MEK inhibitors that have been developed as anti-cancer agents hold potential as therapeutics for CFC syndrome. We have previously shown that the effects of CFC mutations on zebrafish gastrulation can be prevented by a 1-hour treatment with MEK inhibitors within a specific developmental time-window. However, MEK activity is essential for normal development and PD0325901 treatment outside this treatment window leads to additional developmental defects in MEK-dependent tissues. We now test ten different doses of PD0325901 at six developmental time points and assess the effects on body axis length, heart development and craniofacial structures in zebrafish embryos. Notably, we find that a continuous low-level dose of PD0325901 that has only minor inhibition of MEK activity can prevent the action of both the common CFC BRAF(Q257R) kinase-active allele and the BRAF(G596V) kinase-impaired mutant allele through the first 5 days of development. These results provide a detailed study of the effects of PD0325901 in development and show that, unlike in cancer, which requires robust inhibition of MAPK signalling, a partial reduction in phospho-ERK1/2 activity is sufficient to moderate the developmental effects of BRAF(CFC) mutations.

  18. Inhibition of autophagy ameliorates pulmonary microvascular dilation and PMVECs excessive proliferation in rat experimental hepatopulmonary syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Duo; Chen, Bing; Gu, Jianteng; Chen, Lin; Belguise, Karine; Wang, Xiaobo; Yi, Bin; Lu, Kaizhi

    2016-01-01

    Hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS) is a defective liver-induced pulmonary vascular disorder with massive pulmonary microvascular dilation and excessive proliferation of pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (PMVECs). Growing evidence suggests that autophagy is involved in pulmonary diseases, protectively or detrimentally. Thus, it is interesting and important to explore whether autophagy might be involved in and critical in HPS. In the present study, we report that autophagy was activated in common bile duct ligation (CBDL) rats and cultured pulmonary PMVECs induced by CBDL rat serum, two accepted in vivo and in vitro experimental models of HPS. Furthermore, pharmacological inhibition of autophagy with 3-methyladenine (3-MA) significantly alleviated pathological alterations and typical symptom of HPS in CBDL rats in vivo, and consistently 3-MA significantly attenuated the CBDL rat serum-induced excessive proliferation of PMVECs in vitro. All these changes mediated by 3-MA might explain the observed prominent improvement of pulmonary appearance, edema, microvascular dilatation and arterial oxygenation in vivo. Collectively, these results suggest that autophagy activation may play a critical role in the pathogenesis of HPS, and autophagy inhibition may have a therapeutic potential for this disease. PMID:27480323

  19. CLK2 inhibition ameliorates autistic features associated with SHANK3 deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidinosti, Michael; Botta, Paolo; Krüttner, Sebastian; Proenca, Catia C; Stoehr, Natacha; Bernhard, Mario; Fruh, Isabelle; Mueller, Matthias; Bonenfant, Debora; Voshol, Hans; Carbone, Walter; Neal, Sarah J; McTighe, Stephanie M; Roma, Guglielmo; Dolmetsch, Ricardo E; Porter, Jeffrey A; Caroni, Pico; Bouwmeester, Tewis; Lüthi, Andreas; Galimberti, Ivan

    2016-03-11

    SH3 and multiple ankyrin repeat domains 3 (SHANK3) haploinsufficiency is causative for the neurological features of Phelan-McDermid syndrome (PMDS), including a high risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We used unbiased, quantitative proteomics to identify changes in the phosphoproteome of Shank3-deficient neurons. Down-regulation of protein kinase B (PKB/Akt)-mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling resulted from enhanced phosphorylation and activation of serine/threonine protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) regulatory subunit, B56β, due to increased steady-state levels of its kinase, Cdc2-like kinase 2 (CLK2). Pharmacological and genetic activation of Akt or inhibition of CLK2 relieved synaptic deficits in Shank3-deficient and PMDS patient-derived neurons. CLK2 inhibition also restored normal sociability in a Shank3-deficient mouse model. Our study thereby provides a novel mechanistic and potentially therapeutic understanding of deregulated signaling downstream of Shank3 deficiency.

  20. FOLH1/GCPII is elevated in IBD patients, and its inhibition ameliorates murine IBD abnormalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wozniak, Krystyna M.; Stathis, Marigo; Hollinger, Kristen R.; Thomas, Ajit G.; Rojas, Camilo; Vornov, James J.; Marohn, Michael; Li, Xuhang; Slusher, Barbara S.

    2016-01-01

    Recent gene-profiling analyses showed significant upregulation of the folate hydrolase (FOLH1) gene in the affected intestinal mucosa of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The FOLH1 gene encodes a type II transmembrane glycoprotein termed glutamate carboxypeptidase II (GCPII). To establish that the previously reported increased gene expression was functional, we quantified the glutamate carboxypeptidase enzymatic activity in 31 surgical specimens and report a robust 2.8- to 41-fold increase in enzymatic activity in the affected intestinal mucosa of IBD patients compared with an uninvolved area in the same patients or intestinal mucosa from healthy controls. Using a human-to-mouse approach, we next showed a similar enzymatic increase in two well-validated IBD murine models and evaluated the therapeutic effect of the potent FOLH1/ GCPII inhibitor 2-phosphonomethyl pentanedioic acid (2-PMPA) (IC50 = 300 pM). In the dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) colitis model, 2-PMPA inhibited the GCPII activity in the colonic mucosa by over 90% and substantially reduced the disease activity. The significance of the target was confirmed in FOLH1−/− mice who exhibited resistance to DSS treatment. In the murine IL-10−/− model of spontaneous colitis, daily 2-PMPA treatment also significantly reduced both macroscopic and microscopic disease severity. These results provide the first evidence of FOLH1/GCPII enzymatic inhibition as a therapeutic option for IBD. PMID:27536732

  1. Inhibition of Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinases Ameliorates Hypertension-Induced Renal Vascular Remodeling in Rat Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jing

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of the extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2 inhibitor, PD98059, on high blood pressure and related vascular changes. Blood pressure was recorded, thicknesses of renal small artery walls were measured and ERK1/2 immunoreactivity and erk2 mRNA in renal vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs and endothelial cells were detected by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization in normotensive wistar kyoto (WKY rats, spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR and PD98059-treated SHR. Compared with normo-tensive WKY rats, SHR developed hypertension at 8 weeks of age, thickened renal small artery wall and asymmetric arrangement of VSMCs at 16 and 24 weeks of age. Phospho-ERK1/2 immunoreactivity and erk2 mRNA expression levels were increased in VSMCs and endothelial cells of the renal small arteries in the SHR. Treating SHR with PD98059 reduced the spontaneous hypertension-induced vascular wall thickening. This effect was associated with suppressions of erk2 mRNA expression and ERK1/2 phosphorylation in VSMCs and endothelial cells of the renal small arteries. It is concluded that inhibition of ERK1/2 ameliorates hypertension induced vascular remodeling in renal small arteries.

  2. Treadmill exercise ameliorates motor dysfunction through inhibition of Purkinje cell loss in cerebellum of valproic acid-induced autistic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Han-Sam; Kim, Tae-Woon; Ji, Eun-Sang; Park, Hye-Sang; Shin, Mal-Soon; Baek, Seung-Soo

    2016-08-01

    Autism is a complex developmental disorder with impairments in social interaction, communication, repetitive behavior and motor skills. Exercise enhances cognitive function, ameliorates motor dysfunction, and provides protective profits against neurodegeneration. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of treadmill exercise on the motor coordination and Purkinje cell loss in relation with reactive astrocytes and microglial activation in the cerebellum using valproic acid (VPA)-induced autism rat model. On the 12th day of pregnancy, the pregnant rats in the VPA-exposed group received intraperitoneal injections of 600-mg/kg VPA. After birth, the rat pups were divided into four groups: the control group, the exercise group, the VPA-treated group, the VPA-treated and exercise group. The rat pups in the exercise groups were forced to run on a treadmill for 30 min once a day, 5 times a week for 4 weeks. In the present results, motor balance and coordination was disturbed by induction of autism, in contrast, treadmill exercise alleviated motor dysfunction in the autistic rats. Purkinje cell loss, reactive astrocytes, and microglial activation were occurred by induction of autism, in contrast, treadmill exercise enhanced survival rate of Purkinje neurons through inhibition of reactive astrocytes and microglia in the autistic rats. The present study showed that exercise may provide a potential therapeutic strategy for the alleviation of motor dysfunction in autistic patients. PMID:27656625

  3. Curcumin ameliorated diabetic neuropathy partially by inhibition of NADPH oxidase mediating oxidative stress in the spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei-Cheng; Zhang, Bin; Liao, Mei-Juan; Zhang, Wen-Xuan; He, Wan-You; Wang, Han-Bing; Yang, Cheng-Xiang

    2014-02-01

    Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidases are the main enzymes that produce oxidative stress, which plays an important role in painful diabetic neuropathy. Curcumin has been reported to exert an antinociceptive effect in a rat model of diabetic neuropathy by suppressing oxidative stress in the spinal cord. However, it remains unknown whether the mechanism by which curcumin ameliorates diabetic neuropathy can be attributed to spinal NADPH oxidases. This study was designed to determine the effect of curcumin on diabetic neuropathy and to investigate its precise mechanism in relation to NADPH oxidase-mediating oxidative stress in the spinal cord. Diabetic neuropathy was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats by intraperitoneal injection with 1% streptozotocin (STZ; 60 mg/kg). After the onset of diabetic neuropathy, a subset of the diabetic rats received daily intragastric administrations of curcumin (200mg/kg) or intraperitoneal injections of apocynin (2.5mg/kg) for 14 consecutive days, whereas other diabetic rats received equivalent volumes of normal saline (NS). STZ resulted in diabetic neuropathy with hyperglycemia and a lower paw withdrawal threshold (PWT), accompanied by elevations in the expression of the NADPH oxidase subunits p47(phox) and gp91(phox) and in the levels of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malondialdehyde (MDA) and a reduction in superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity (Pdiabetic neuropathy. In conclusion, curcumin attenuated neuropathic pain in diabetic rats, at least partly by inhibiting NADPH oxidase-mediating oxidative stress in the spinal cord.

  4. Treadmill exercise ameliorates motor dysfunction through inhibition of Purkinje cell loss in cerebellum of valproic acid-induced autistic rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Han-Sam; Kim, Tae-Woon; Ji, Eun-Sang; Park, Hye-Sang; Shin, Mal-Soon; Baek, Seung-Soo

    2016-01-01

    Autism is a complex developmental disorder with impairments in social interaction, communication, repetitive behavior and motor skills. Exercise enhances cognitive function, ameliorates motor dysfunction, and provides protective profits against neurodegeneration. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of treadmill exercise on the motor coordination and Purkinje cell loss in relation with reactive astrocytes and microglial activation in the cerebellum using valproic acid (VPA)-induced autism rat model. On the 12th day of pregnancy, the pregnant rats in the VPA-exposed group received intraperitoneal injections of 600-mg/kg VPA. After birth, the rat pups were divided into four groups: the control group, the exercise group, the VPA-treated group, the VPA-treated and exercise group. The rat pups in the exercise groups were forced to run on a treadmill for 30 min once a day, 5 times a week for 4 weeks. In the present results, motor balance and coordination was disturbed by induction of autism, in contrast, treadmill exercise alleviated motor dysfunction in the autistic rats. Purkinje cell loss, reactive astrocytes, and microglial activation were occurred by induction of autism, in contrast, treadmill exercise enhanced survival rate of Purkinje neurons through inhibition of reactive astrocytes and microglia in the autistic rats. The present study showed that exercise may provide a potential therapeutic strategy for the alleviation of motor dysfunction in autistic patients.

  5. Inhibition of ceramide synthesis ameliorates glucocorticoid-, saturated-fat-, and obesity-induced insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, William L; Brozinick, Joseph T; Wang, Li-Ping; Hawkins, Eric D; Sargent, Katherine M; Liu, Yanqi; Narra, Krishna; Hoehn, Kyle L; Knotts, Trina A; Siesky, Angela; Nelson, Don H; Karathanasis, Sotirios K; Fontenot, Greg K; Birnbaum, Morris J; Summers, Scott A

    2007-03-01

    Insulin resistance occurs in 20%-25% of the human population, and the condition is a chief component of type 2 diabetes mellitus and a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and certain forms of cancer. Herein, we demonstrate that the sphingolipid ceramide is a common molecular intermediate linking several different pathological metabolic stresses (i.e., glucocorticoids and saturated fats, but not unsaturated fats) to the induction of insulin resistance. Moreover, inhibition of ceramide synthesis markedly improves glucose tolerance and prevents the onset of frank diabetes in obese rodents. Collectively, these data have two important implications. First, they indicate that different fatty acids induce insulin resistance by distinct mechanisms discerned by their reliance on sphingolipid synthesis. Second, they identify enzymes required for ceramide synthesis as therapeutic targets for combating insulin resistance caused by nutrient excess or glucocorticoid therapy.

  6. Hydrogen Sulfide Ameliorates Ischemia/Reperfusion-Induced Hepatitis by Inhibiting Apoptosis and Autophagy Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Hepatic ischemia/reperfusion (I/R injury is an important clinical problem, and its consequences can seriously threaten human health. Apoptosis and autophagy have been shown to contribute to cell death in hepatic I/R injury. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S is the third most common endogenously produced gaseous signaling molecule and is known to exert a protective effect against hepatic I/R injury. In this study, the purpose is to explore both the effect and mechanism of H2S on hepatic I/R injury. Methods. Balb/c mice were randomized into Sham, I/R, or two doses (14 μmol/kg and 28 μmol/kg of sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS, an H2S donor preconditioning groups. Results. NaHS significantly reduced the levels of TNF-α and IL-6 at 12 h and 24 h after injection compared with ischemia/reperfusion challenge alone. The expression of Bcl-2, Bax, Beclin-1, and LC3, which play important roles in the regulation of the apoptosis and autophagy pathways, was also clearly affected by NaHS. Furthermore, NaHS affected the p-JNK1, p-ERK1, and p-p38. Conclusion. Our results indicate that H2S attenuates hepatic I/R injury, at least in part, by regulating apoptosis through inhibiting JNK1 signaling. The autophagy agonist rapamycin potentiated this hepatoprotective effect by reversing the inhibition of autophagy by H2S.

  7. Curcumin ameliorates macrophage infiltration by inhibiting NF-κB activation and proinflammatory cytokines in streptozotocin induced-diabetic nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzuki Kenji

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic inflammation plays an important role in the progression of diabetic nephropathy (DN and that the infiltration of macrophages in glomerulus has been implicated in the development of glomerular injury. We hypothesized that the plant polyphenolic compound curcumin, which is known to exert potent anti-inflammatory effect, would ameliorate macrophage infiltration in streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic rats. Methods Diabetes was induced with STZ (55 mg/kg by intraperitoneal injection in rats. Three weeks after STZ injection, rats were divided into three groups, namely, control, diabetic, and diabetic treated with curcumin at 100 mg/kg/day, p.o., for 8 weeks. The rats were sacrificed 11 weeks after induction of diabetes. The excised kidney was used to assess macrophage infiltration and expression of various inflammatory markers. Results At 11 weeks after STZ injection, diabetic rats exhibited renal dysfunction, as evidenced by reduced creatinine clearance, increased blood glucose, blood urea nitrogen and proteinuria, along with marked reduction in the body weight. All of these abnormalities were significantly reversed by curcumin. Hyperglycemia induced the degradation of IκBα and NF-κB activation and as a result increased infiltration of macrophages (52% as well as increased proinflammatory cytokines: TNF-α and IL-1β. Curcumin treatment significantly reduced macrophage infiltration in the kidneys of diabetic rats, suppressed the expression of above proinflammatory cytokines and degradation of IκBα. In addition, curcumin treatment also markedly decreased ICAM-1, MCP-1 and TGF-β1 protein expression. Moreover, at nuclear level curcumin inhibited the NF-κB activity. Conclusion Our results suggested that curcumin treatment protect against the development of DN in rats by reducing macrophage infiltration through the inhibition of NF-κB activation in STZ-induced diabetic rats.

  8. Kombucha Tea Ameliorates Trichloroethylene Induced Hepatic Damages in Rats via Inhibition of Oxidative Stress and Free Radicals Induction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kombucha Tea (KT) is reported to exhibit a wide variety of biological effects, including antioxidant. Evidence shows the important role of oxidative stress in the hepatic damage. The aim of this study is to investigate the possible protective effects of oral administration of KT in rats with trichloroethylene (TCE)-induced damage for ten consecutive days. Hepatic damage was evaluated by measuring total free radicals levels, biochemical and histological examinations. Serum gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) activity (the hepatic damage marker), total protein, albumin and globulin as well as malonaldehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH) content, nitric oxide (NO) concentration were evaluated in liver tissue homogenates. Total free radicals concentration in blood was examined by electron spin resonance (ESR). Total protein, DNA concentration, cell number and cell size in liver tissues were also examined. The rats orally administrated with TCE for ten days indicates hepatic damage changes, an increase in blood total free radicals concentration was observed, serum GGT activity, liver MDA, NO levels, total protein and decreased GSH content, DNA concentration and cell number. This accompanied with an increase in cell size of liver tissues, whereas KT reversed these effects. Furthermore, KT inhibits the concentration of total free radicals in blood and decreasing the increment of MDA and NO concentration. Histological studies reveal partial healing in those rats treated by KT after oral administration with TCE. The present results suggest that KT ameliorates TCE induced hepatic damage in rats probably due to its content of glucuronic, acetic acid and B vitamins via inhibition of oxidative stress and total free radicals

  9. Inhibition of HIF-1{alpha} activity by BP-1 ameliorates adjuvant induced arthritis in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shankar, J. [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago (United States); Thippegowda, P.B., E-mail: btprabha@uic.edu [Department of Pharmacology, (M/C 868), College of Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago, 835 S. Wolcott Ave., Chicago, IL 60612 (United States); Kanum, S.A. [Department of Chemistry, Yuvaraj' s College, University of Mysore, Mysore (India)

    2009-09-18

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory, angiogenic disease. Inflamed synovitis is a hallmark of RA which is hypoxic in nature. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), one of the key regulators of angiogenesis, is overexpressed in the pathogenesis of RA. VEGF expression is regulated by hypoxia-inducible factor-1{alpha} (HIF-1{alpha}), a master regulator of homeostasis which plays a pivotal role in hypoxia-induced angiogenesis. In this study we show that synthetic benzophenone analogue, 2-benzoyl-phenoxy acetamide (BP-1) can act as a novel anti-arthritic agent in an experimental adjuvant induced arthritis (AIA) rat model by targeting VEGF and HIF-1{alpha}. BP-1 administered hypoxic endothelial cells and arthritic animals clearly showed down regulation of VEGF expression. Further, BP-1 inhibits nuclear translocation of HIF-1{alpha}, which in turn suppresses transcription of the VEGF gene. These results suggest a further possible clinical application of the BP-1 derivative as an anti-arthritic agent in association with conventional chemotherapeutic agents.

  10. Deficiency of DJ-1 Ameliorates Liver Fibrosis through Inhibition of Hepatic ROS Production and Inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yingxue; Sun, Xuehua; Gu, Jinyang; Yu, Chang; Wen, Yankai; Gao, Yueqiu; Xia, Qiang; Kong, Xiaoni

    2016-01-01

    Liver fibrosis is a global health problem and previous studies have demonstrated that reactive oxygen species (ROS) play important roles in fibrogenesis. Parkinson disease (autosomal recessive, early onset) 7 (Park7) also called DJ-1 has an essential role in modulating cellular ROS levels. DJ-1 therefore may play functions in liver fibrogenesis and modulation of DJ-1 may be a promising therapeutic approach. Here, wild-type (WT) and DJ-1 knockout (DJ-1 KO) mice were administrated with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) to induce liver fibrosis or acute liver injury. Results showed that DJ-1 depletion significantly blunted liver fibrosis, accompanied by marked reductions in liver injury and ROS production. In the acute CCl4 model, deficiency of DJ-1 showed hepatic protective functions as evidenced by decreased hepatic damage, reduced ROS levels, diminished hepatic inflammation and hepatocyte proliferation compared to WT mice. In vitro hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) activation assays indicated that DJ-1 has no direct effect on the activation of HSCs in the context of with or without TGFβ treatment. Thus our present study demonstrates that in CCl4-induced liver fibrosis, DJ-1 deficiency attenuates mice fibrosis by inhibiting ROS production and liver injury, and further indirectly affecting the activation of HSCs. These results are in line with previous studies that ROS promote HSC activation and fibrosis development, and suggest the therapeutic value of DJ-1 in treatment of liver fibrosis.

  11. Pharmacological inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase ameliorates diet-induced metabolic syndrome in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Abishek; Kauter, Kathleen; Alam, Md Ashraful; Hwang, Sung Hee; Morisseau, Christophe; Hammock, Bruce D; Brown, Lindsay

    2012-01-01

    The signs of metabolic syndrome following chronic excessive macronutrient intake include body weight gain, excess visceral adipose deposition, hyperglycaemia, glucose and insulin intolerances, hypertension, dyslipidaemia, endothelial damage, cardiovascular hypertrophy, inflammation, ventricular contractile dysfunction, fibrosis, and fatty liver disease. Recent studies show increased activity of soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) during obesity and metabolic dysfunction. We have tested whether sEH inhibition has therapeutic potential in a rat model of diet-induced metabolic syndrome. In these high-carbohydrate, high-fat-fed rats, chronic oral treatment with trans-4-[4-(3-adamantan-1-ylureido)-cyclohexyloxy]-benzoic acid (t-AUCB), a potent sEH inhibitor, alleviated the signs of metabolic syndrome in vivo including glucose, insulin, and lipid abnormalities, changes in pancreatic structure, increased systolic blood pressure, cardiovascular structural and functional abnormalities, and structural and functional changes in the liver. The present study describes the pharmacological responses to this selective sEH inhibitor in rats with the signs of diet-induced metabolic syndrome.

  12. Deficits in latent inhibition induced by estradiol replacement are ameliorated by haloperidol treatment

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    Anne eAlmey

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available There are sex differences in the symptomatology of schizophrenia, and in the response to antipsychotic treatments. One hallmark symptom of schizophrenia is a deficit in selective attention. Selective attention can be measured using a latent inhibition (LI paradigm in humans; LI can be measured in rodents, and is used as an animal model of the selective attention deficits observed in schizophrenia. In the current experiments LI was used to clarify whether selective attention differs between male rats and ovariectomized (OVX female rats receiving different estradiol (E2 replacement regimens. An additional aim was to determine whether haloperidol's facilitation of LI is enhanced by E2. Males and OVX female rats were trained in a conditioned emotional response LI paradigm. Females received no E2 replacement, a chronic low dose of E2 via silastic capsule, or a high phasic dose of E2 via silastic capsule accompanied by E2 (10 ug/kg SC injections every fourth day. Actual plasma levels of E2 were determined using an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Rats were also administered a vehicle treatment, a 0.05mg/kg, or a 0.1mg/kg IP injection of haloperidol. Males and OVX females that did not receive E2 replacement both exhibited LI, but LI was not observed in the low and high E2 replacement groups. Haloperidol restored LI at a lower dose in the females receiving high E2 replacement compared to females receiving low E2 replacement, indicating that E2 replacement facilitates haloperidol in restoring LI.

  13. Cilnidipine, but not amlodipine, ameliorates osteoporosis in ovariectomized hypertensive rats through inhibition of the N-type calcium channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Hideo; Nakagami, Hironori; Yasumasa, Natsuki; Mariana, Osako Kiomy; Kyutoku, Mariko; Koriyama, Hiroshi; Nakagami, Futoshi; Shimamura, Munehisa; Rakugi, Hiromi; Morishita, Ryuichi

    2012-01-01

    Both osteoporosis and high blood pressure are major diseases in aging populations. Recent studies demonstrated that some antihypertensive drugs reduced the risk of bone fracture in elderly patients. Although calcium channel blockers (CCB) are widely used as first-line antihypertensive agents, there is no evidence that they prevent osteoporosis. In this study, we investigated the effects of two types of CCB on bone metabolism: cilnidipine (L-/N-type CCB), which suppresses norepinephrine release from the sympathetic nerve, and amlodipine (L-type CCB). In ovariectomized female spontaneous hypertensive rats, administration of cilnidipine, but not amlodipine, resulted in a significant increase in the ratio of alkaline phosphatase to tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) and a decrease in the number of osteoclasts, as assessed by TRAP staining in the proximal tibia. Bone mineral density, moreover, was significantly higher in the cilnidipine group as compared with the amlodipine group and was associated with a significant decrease in a urinary collagen degradation product (deoxypyridinoline). The degree of prevention of osteoporosis by cilnidipine was similar to that of carvedilol (a β-blocker) because β-blockers reduce fracture risks though the inhibition of osteoclast activation. Interestingly, these effects cannot be attributed to the reduction of blood pressure because all three drugs significantly decreased blood pressure. In contrast, both cilnidipine and carvedilol, but not amlodipine, significantly decreased heart rate, indicating that both cilnidipine and carvedilol suppressed sympathetic nervous activity. Overall, our present data showed that cilnidipine (L-/N-type CCB) ameliorated osteoporosis in ovariectomized hypertensive rats. These pleiotropic effects of antihypertensive drugs such as cilnidipine and carvedilol might provide additional benefits in the treatment of hypertensive postmenopausal women.

  14. Inhibiting Matrix Metalloproteinase 3 Ameliorates Neuronal Loss in the Ganglion Cell Layer of Rats in Retinal Ischemia/Reperfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Tu; You, Qiuting; Chen, Dan; Tong, Jianbin; Shang, Lei; Luo, Jia; Qiu, Yi; Yu, Huimin; Zeng, Leping; Huang, Jufang

    2016-05-01

    It has been demonstrated that matrix metalloproteinase 3 (MMP3) is integrally involved in the neuronal degeneration of the central nervous system by promoting glial activation, neuronal apoptosis and damage to the brain-blood barrier. However, whether MMP3 also contributes to the neuronal degeneration induced by retinal ischemia/reperfusion is still uncertain. In the present study, we detected the cellular localization of MMP3 in adult rat retinae and explored the relationship of its expression with neuronal loss in the ganglion cell layer (GCL) in retinal ischemia/reperfusion. We found that MMP3 was widely expressed in many cells throughout the layers of the rat retinae, including Vertebrate neuron-specific nuclear protein (NeuN)-, parvalbumin-, calbindin-, protein kinase C-α-, glial fibrillary acidic protein-, glutamine synthetase- and CD11b-positive cells. Furthermore, all rats were treated with high intraocular pressure (HIOP) for 1 h (h) and sacrificed at 6 h, 1 day (d), 3 d, and 7 d after HIOP. Compared to the normal control, the expression of both proenzyme MMP3 and active MMP3 were significantly up-regulated after HIOP treatment without alteration of the laminar distribution pattern. Moreover, inhibiting MMP3 ameliorated the loss of NeuN-positive cells in the GCL following HIOP. In summary, our data demonstrates that MMP3 is expressed in multiple types of neurons and glial cells in normal rat retinae. Simultaneously, the up-regulation of its expression and activity are closely involved in neuronal loss in the GCL in retinal ischemia/reperfusion. PMID:26830289

  15. Vitamin D Can Ameliorate Chlorhexidine Gluconate-Induced Peritoneal Fibrosis and Functional Deterioration through the Inhibition of Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition of Mesothelial Cells

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    Yi-Che Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Peritoneal dialysis (PD can induce fibrosis and functional alterations in PD patients’ peritoneal membranes, due to long-term unphysiological dialysate exposure, partially occurring via triggering of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT in peritoneal mesothelial cells (MCs. Vitamin D can ameliorate these negative effects; however, the mechanism remains unexplored. Therefore, we investigated its possible links to MCs EMT inhibition. Methods. Peritoneal fibrosis was established in Sprague-Dawley rats by chlorhexidine gluconate (CG intraperitoneal injection for 21 days, with and without 1α,25(OH2D3 treatment. Morphological and functional evaluation and western blot analysis of EMT marker were performed upon peritoneum tissue. In vitro study was also performed in a primary human peritoneal MC culture system; MCs were incubated with transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1 in the absence or presence of 1α,25(OH2D3. EMT marker expression, migration activities, and cytoskeleton redistribution of MCs were determined. Results. 1α,25(OH2D3 ameliorated CG-induced morphological and functional deterioration in animal model, along with CG-induced upregulation of α-SMA and downregulation of E-cadherin expression. Meanwhile, 1α,25(OH2D3 also ameliorated TGF-β1-induced decrease in E-cadherin expression, increase in Snai1 and α-SMA expression, intracellular F-actin redistribution, and migration activity in vitro. Conclusion. 1α,25(OH2D3 can ameliorate CG-induced peritoneal fibrosis and attenuate functional deterioration through inhibiting MC EMT.

  16. Pulse compression and prepulse suppression apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dane, C.B.; Hackel, L.A.; George, E.V.; Miller, J.L.; Krupke, W.F.

    1993-11-09

    A pulse compression and prepulse suppression apparatus (10) for time compressing the output of a laser (14). A pump pulse (46) is separated from a seed pulse (48) by a first polarized beam splitter (20) according to the orientation of a half wave plate (18). The seed pulse (48) is directed into an SBS oscillator (44) by two plane mirrors (22, 26) and a corner mirror (24), the corner mirror (24) being movable to adjust timing. The pump pulse (46) is directed into an SBS amplifier 34 wherein SBS occurs. The seed pulse (48), having been propagated from the SBS oscillator (44), is then directed through the SBS amplifier (34) wherein it sweeps the energy of the pump pulse (46) out of the SBS amplifier (34) and is simultaneously compressed, and the time compressed pump pulse (46) is emitted as a pulse output (52). A second polarized beam splitter (38) directs any undepleted pump pulse 58 away from the SBS oscillator (44).

  17. Upregulation of miR-21 by Ghrelin Ameliorates Ischemia/Reperfusion-Induced Acute Kidney Injury by Inhibiting Inflammation and Cell Apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wanzhe; Shu, Liliang

    2016-08-01

    Renal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury can be caused by cardiac surgery, renal vascular obstruction, and kidney transplantation, mainly leading to acute kidney injury (AKI), which is complicated by lack of effective preventative and therapeutic strategies. Ghrelin has recently been reported to possess anti-inflammatory properties in several types of cells; however, little attention has been given to the role of ghrelin in I/R-induced AKI. The aim of this study is to explore the role of ghrelin in I/R-induced AKI. In this study, an I/R-induced rat AKI model and a hypoxia-induced NRK-52E cell I/R model were successfully constructed. Ghrelin expression was increased significantly in these rat and cell models. After enhancing ghrelin level by injecting exogenous ghrelin into rats or transfecting a ghrelin-pcDNA3.1 vector into renal tubular epithelial cells, we observed that I/R-induced AKI can be ameliorated by ghrelin, as shown by alterations in histology, as well as changes in serum creatinine (SCr) level, cell apoptosis, and the levels of inflammatory factors. Based on the importance of microRNA-21 (miR-21) in renal disease and the modulation effect of ghrelin on miR-21 in gastric epithelial cells, we tested whether miR-21 participates in the protective effect of ghrelin on I/R-induced AKI. Ghrelin could upregulate the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway by increasing the miR-21 level, which led to the protective effect of ghrelin on I/R-induced AKI by inhibiting the inflammatory response and renal tubular epithelial cell apoptosis. Our research identifies that ghrelin can ameliorate I/R-induced AKI by upregulating miR-21, which advances the understanding of mechanisms by which ghrelin ameliorates I/R-induced AKI. PMID:27152763

  18. Arctigenin ameliorates inflammation in vitro and in vivo by inhibiting the PI3K/AKT pathway and polarizing M1 macrophages to M2-like macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyam, Supriya R; Lee, In-Ah; Gu, Wan; Kim, Kyung-Ah; Jeong, Jin-Ju; Jang, Se-Eun; Han, Myung Joo; Kim, Dong-Hyun

    2013-05-15

    Seeds of Arctium lappa, containing arctigenin and its glycoside arctiin as main constituents, have been used as a diuretic, anti-inflammatory and detoxifying agent in Chinese traditional medicine. In our preliminary study, arctigenin inhibited IKKβ and NF-κB activation in peptidoglycan (PGN)- or lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced peritoneal macrophages. To understand the anti-inflammatory effect of arctigenin, we investigated its anti-inflammatory effect in LPS-stimulated peritoneal macrophages and on LPS-induced systemic inflammation as well as 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis in mice. Arctigenin inhibited LPS-increased IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α expression in LPS-stimulated peritoneal macrophages, but increased LPS-reduced IL-10 and CD204 expression. Arctigenin inhibited LPS-induced PI3K, AKT and IKKβ phosphorylation, but did not suppress LPS-induced IRAK-1 phosphorylation. However, arctigenin did not inhibit NF-κB activation in LPS-stimulated PI3K siRNA-treated peritoneal macrophages. Arctigenin suppressed the binding of p-PI3K antibody and the nucleus translocation of NF-κB p65 in LPS-stimulated peritoneal macrophages. Arctigenin suppressed blood IL-1β and TNF-α level in mice systemically inflamed by intraperitoneal injection of LPS. Arctigenin also inhibited colon shortening, macroscopic scores and myeloperoxidase activity in TNBS-induced colitic mice. Arctigenin inhibited TNBS-induced IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-6 expression, as well as PI3K, AKT and IKKβ phosphorylation and NF-κB activation in mice, but increased IL-10 and CD204 expression. However, it did not affect IRAK-1 phosphorylation. Based on these findings, arctigenin may ameliorate inflammatory diseases, such as colitis, by inhibiting PI3K and polarizing M1 macrophages to M2-like macrophages. PMID:23375938

  19. Extracellular superoxide dismutase ameliorates house dust mite-induced atopic dermatitis-like skin inflammation and inhibits mast cell activation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yun Sang; Choi, Jung-Hye; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Lee, Han-Woong; Lee, Weontae; Kim, Woo Taek; Kim, Tae-Yoon

    2016-08-01

    Extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD) is an enzyme that catalyses the dismutation of superoxide anions. It has multiple functions, such as reactive oxygen species scavenging, anti-angiogenic, anti-inflammatory, antichemotatic and antitumor activities. Recently, we demonstrated that EC-SOD inhibits ovalbumin-induced allergic airway inflammation in mice. However, the anti-allergic effect of EC-SOD on skin tissue and the role of EC-SOD in mast cells, which are important for allergic responses, have not been well studied. In this study, we investigated whether EC-SOD can alleviate atopic dermatitis in mice and inhibit mast cell activation. Treatment with human recombinant EC-SOD ameliorated house dust mite-induced atopic dermatitis in mice. Furthermore, the levels of pro-allergic cytokine gene expression and histamine release increased in EC-SOD KO mast cells and decreased in EC-SOD overexpressing mast cells, suggesting that EC-SOD inhibits mast cell activation. Consistently, a passive cutaneous anaphylaxis experiment showed more blood leakage from EC-SOD KO mouse ear skin, implying that the lack of EC-SOD increases allergic responses. These results suggest that EC-SOD inhibits mast cell activation and atopic dermatitis and that the loss of EC-SOD causes more severe allergic responses, implying that EC-SOD might be a good drug candidate for treatment of allergic disorders, such as atopic dermatitis. PMID:27061078

  20. Mangiferin treatment inhibits hepatic expression of acyl-coenzyme A:diacylglycerol acyltransferase-2 in fructose-fed spontaneously hypertensive rats: a link to amelioration of fatty liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xing, Xiaomang; Li, Danyang; Chen, Dilong; Zhou, Liang [Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 China (China); Chonan, Ritsu [Koei Kogyo Co., Ltd., Tokyo, 101-0063 Japan (Japan); Yamahara, Johji [Pharmafood Institute, Kyoto, 602-8136 Japan (Japan); Wang, Jianwei, E-mail: wangjianwei1968@gmail.com [Department of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 China (China); Li, Yuhao, E-mail: yuhao@sitcm.edu.au [Endocrinology and Metabolism Group, Sydney Institute of Health Sciences/Sydney Institute of Traditional Chinese Medicine, NSW 2000 Australia (Australia)

    2014-10-15

    Mangiferin, a xanthone glucoside, and its associated traditional herbs have been demonstrated to improve abnormalities of lipid metabolism. However, its underlying mechanisms remain largely unclear. This study investigated the anti-steatotic effect of mangiferin in fructose-fed spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR)s that have a mutation in sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP)-1. The results showed that co-administration of mangiferin (15 mg/kg, once daily, by oral gavage) over 7 weeks dramatically diminished fructose-induced increases in hepatic triglyceride content and Oil Red O-stained area in SHRs. However, blood pressure, fructose and chow intakes, white adipose tissue weight and metabolic parameters (plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, triglyceride, total cholesterol and non-esterified fatty acids) were unaffected by mangiferin treatment. Mechanistically, mangiferin treatment suppressed acyl-coenzyme A:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT)-2 expression at the mRNA and protein levels in the liver. In contrast, mangiferin treatment was without effect on hepatic mRNA and/or protein expression of SREBP-1/1c, carbohydrate response element binding protein, liver pyruvate kinase, fatty acid synthase, acetyl-CoA carboxylase-1, stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1, DGAT-1, monoacyglycerol acyltransferase-2, microsomal triglyceride transfer protein, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha, carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 and acyl-CoA oxidase. Collectively, our results suggest that mangiferin treatment ameliorates fatty liver in fructose-fed SHRs by inhibiting hepatic DGAT-2 that catalyzes the final step in triglyceride biosynthesis. The anti-steatotic effect of mangiferin may occur independently of the hepatic signals associated with de novo fatty acid synthesis and oxidation. - Highlights: • We investigated the anti-steatotic effect of mangiferin (MA) in fructose-fed SHR. • MA (15 mg/kg/day for 7 weeks) ameliorated fructose-induced fatty liver in

  1. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate Ameliorates Seawater Aspiration-Induced Acute Lung Injury via Regulating Inflammatory Cytokines and Inhibiting JAK/STAT1 Pathway in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Signal transducers and activators of transcriptions 1 (STAT1 play an important role in the inflammation process of acute lung injury (ALI. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG exhibits a specific and strong anti-STAT1 activity. Therefore, our study is to explore whether EGCG pretreatment can ameliorate seawater aspiration-induced ALI and its possible mechanisms. We detected the arterial partial pressure of oxygen, lung wet/dry weight ratios, protein content in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and the histopathologic and ultrastructure staining of the lung. The levels of IL-1, TNF-α, and IL-10 and the total and the phosphorylated protein level of STAT1, JAK1, and JAK2 were assessed in vitro and in vivo. The results showed that EGCG pretreatment significantly improved hypoxemia and histopathologic changes, alleviated pulmonary edema and lung vascular leak, reduced the production of TNF-α and IL-1, and increased the production of IL-10 in seawater aspiration-induced ALI rats. EGCG also prevented the seawater aspiration-induced increase of TNF-α and IL-1 and decrease of IL-10 in NR8383 cell line. Moreover, EGCG pretreatment reduced the total and the phosphorylated protein level of STAT1 in vivo and in vitro and reduced the phosphorylated protein level of JAK1 and JAK2. The present study demonstrates that EGCG ameliorates seawater aspiration-induced ALI via regulating inflammatory cytokines and inhibiting JAK/STAT1 pathway in rats.

  2. Lithium chloride ameliorates learning and memory ability and inhibits glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta activity in a mouse model of fragile X syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shengqiang Chen; Xuegang Luo; Quan Yang; Weiwen Sun; Kaiyi Cao; Xi Chen; Yueling Huang; Lijun Dai; Yonghong Yi

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, Fmr1 knockout mice (KO mice) were used as the model for fragile X syndrome. The results of step-through and step-down tests demonstrated that Fmr1 KO mice had shorter latencies and more error counts, indicating a learning and memory disorder. After treatment with 30, 60, 90, 120, or 200 mg/kg lithium chloride, the learning and memory abilities of the Fmr1 KO mice were significantly ameliorated, in particular, the 200 mg/kg lithium chloride treatment had the most significant effect. Western blot analysis showed that lithium chloride significantly enhanced the expression of phosphorylated glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta, an inactive form of glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta, in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of the Fmr1 KO mice. These results indicated that lithium chloride improved learning and memory in the Fmr1 KO mice, possibly by inhibiting glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta activity.

  3. Inhibition in the Human Auditory Cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koji Inui

    Full Text Available Despite their indispensable roles in sensory processing, little is known about inhibitory interneurons in humans. Inhibitory postsynaptic potentials cannot be recorded non-invasively, at least in a pure form, in humans. We herein sought to clarify whether prepulse inhibition (PPI in the auditory cortex reflected inhibition via interneurons using magnetoencephalography. An abrupt increase in sound pressure by 10 dB in a continuous sound was used to evoke the test response, and PPI was observed by inserting a weak (5 dB increase for 1 ms prepulse. The time course of the inhibition evaluated by prepulses presented at 10-800 ms before the test stimulus showed at least two temporally distinct inhibitions peaking at approximately 20-60 and 600 ms that presumably reflected IPSPs by fast spiking, parvalbumin-positive cells and somatostatin-positive, Martinotti cells, respectively. In another experiment, we confirmed that the degree of the inhibition depended on the strength of the prepulse, but not on the amplitude of the prepulse-evoked cortical response, indicating that the prepulse-evoked excitatory response and prepulse-evoked inhibition reflected activation in two different pathways. Although many diseases such as schizophrenia may involve deficits in the inhibitory system, we do not have appropriate methods to evaluate them; therefore, the easy and non-invasive method described herein may be clinically useful.

  4. Inhibition of human high-affinity copper importer Ctr1 orthologous in the nervous system of Drosophila ameliorates Aβ42-induced Alzheimer's disease-like symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Minglin; Fan, Qiangwang; Wang, Lei; Zheng, Yajun; Xiao, Guiran; Wang, Xiaoxi; Wang, Wei; Zhong, Yi; Zhou, Bing

    2013-11-01

    Disruption of copper homeostasis has been implicated in Alzheimer's disease (AD) during the last 2 decades; however, whether copper is a friend or a foe is controversial. Within a genetically tractable Drosophila AD model, we manipulated the expression of human high-affinity copper importer orthologous in Drosophila to explore the in vivo roles of copper ions in the development of AD. We found that inhibition of Ctr1C expression by RNAi in Aβ-expressing flies significantly reduced copper accumulation in the brains of the flies as well as ameliorating neurodegeneration, enhancing climbing ability, and prolonging lifespan. Interestingly, Ctr1C inhibition led to a significant increase in higher-molecular-weight Aβ42 forms in brain lysates, whereas it was accompanied by a trend of decreased expression of amyloid-β degradation proteases (including NEP1-3 and IDE) with age and reduced Cu-Aβ interaction-induced oxidative stress in Ctr1C RNAi flies. Similar results were obtained from inhibiting another copper importer Ctr1B and overexpressing a copper exporter DmATP7 in the nervous system of AD flies. These results imply that copper may play a causative role in developing AD, as either Aβ oligomers or aggregates were less toxic in a reduced copper environment or one with less copper binding. Early manipulation of brain copper uptake can have a great effect on Aβ pathology.

  5. Picroside Ⅱ inhibits hypoxia/reoxygenation-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis by ameliorating mitochondrial function through a mechanism involving a decrease in reactive oxygen species production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian-Zhe; Yu, Shu-Yi; Mo, Dan; Tang, Xiu-Neng; Shao, Qing-Rui

    2015-02-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS)‑induced mitochondrial dysfunction plays an important role in cardiomyocyte apoptosis during myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Picroside Ⅱ, isolated from Picrorhiza scrophulariiflora Pennell (Scrophulariaceae), has been reported to protect cardiomyocytes from hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R)‑induced apoptosis, but the exact mechanism is not fully clear. The aim of the present study was to explore the protective effects of picroside Ⅱ on H/R‑induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis and the underlying mechanism. In the H9c2 rat cardiomyocyte cell line, picroside Ⅱ (100 µg/ml) was added for 48 h prior to H/R. The results showed that picroside Ⅱ markedly inhibited H/R‑induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis. In addition, picroside Ⅱ was also able to decrease the opening degree of mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP), increase the mitochondrial membrane potential, inhibit cytochrome c release from mitochondria to cytosol and downregulate caspase‑3 expression and activity concomitantly with the decreased ROS production. These results suggested that picroside Ⅱ inhibited H/R‑induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis by ameliorating mitochondrial function through a mechanism involving a decrease in ROS production.

  6. Morin ameliorates chemically induced liver fibrosis in vivo and inhibits stellate cell proliferation in vitro by suppressing Wnt/β-catenin signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MadanKumar, Perumal; NaveenKumar, Perumal; Manikandan, Samidurai [Department of Biochemistry, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai 600 025, Tamil Nadu (India); Devaraj, Halagowder [Department of Zoology, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai 600 025, Tamil Nadu (India); NiranjaliDevaraj, Sivasithamparam, E-mail: niranjali@yahoo.com [Department of Biochemistry, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai 600 025, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2014-06-01

    The anti-fibrotic effect of morin was examined in LX-2 cells (culture-activated human hepatic stellate cells) and in diethylnitrosamine induced rat model of liver fibrosis. The in vitro study was designed to determine whether morin affects the survival of cultured LX-2 cells, while the in vivo study was designed to evaluate the antioxidant and anti-fibrotic efficacy of morin on diethylnitrosamine induced liver fibrosis in male albino Wistar rat. The activities of liver function enzymes in serum, liver lipid peroxide levels, activities of serum antioxidant enzymes and liver architecture were monitored to cast light on the antioxidant and hepatoprotective nature of morin. To establish the anti-fibrotic effects of morin, the levels of key Wnt signaling molecules which are strongly associated with the signal transduction pathway of HSC activation were measured. Overall, from the in vitro results, it was observed that morin at 50 μM concentration inhibited the proliferation of cultured LX-2 cells, inhibited Wnt signaling and induced G1 cell cycle arrest. The in vivo results further confirmed that morin by downregulating the expressions of GSK-3β, β-catenin and cyclin D1 ameliorated DEN-induced liver fibrosis. Hence morin could be employed as a promising chemopreventive natural supplement for liver fibrosis. - Highlights: • In vivo and in vitro results revealed the active participation of Wnt signaling. • Morin at 50 μM inhibited LX-2 cell proliferation by suppressing Wnt signaling. • Morin exhibited hepatoprotective effects against DEN induced liver fibrosis. • Morin inhibited HSC activation in vivo by downregulating Wnt/β-catenin signaling.

  7. Simvastatin inhibits ox-LDL-induced inflammatory adipokines secretion via amelioration of ER stress in 3T3-L1 adipocyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhi-hong; Chen, Ya-qin; Zhao, Shui-ping

    2013-03-01

    Adipocytes behave as a rich source of pro-inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1). Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in adipocytes can alter adipokines secretion and induce inflammation. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of simvastatin on the ox-LDL-induced ER stress and expression and secretion of TNF-α and MCP-1 in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Differentiated adipocytes were treated with various concentrations of ox-LDL (0-100 μg/ml) for 24h with or without simvastatin pre-treatment. The protein expressions of ER stress markers, glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) and C/EBP homology protein (CHOP), were determined by Western blot analysis. The mRNA expressions of TNF-α and MCP-1 were measured by real-time PCR. The protein release of TNF-α and MCP-1 in culture medium were evaluated by ELISA. Ox-LDL treatment led to significant up-regulation of GRP78 and CHOP in dose-dependent manner. The expressions of TNF-α and MCP-1 were dose-dependently increased at mRNA and protein levels after ox-LDL intervention. The effects of ox-LDL on adipocytes were abolished by pre-treatment with 4-phenylbutyrate (4-PBA), a chemical chaperone known to ameliorate ER stress. Simvastatin could inhibit ox-LDL-induced ER stress and reduce the expression of TNF-α and MCP-1 at mRNA and protien level in dose dependent manner. In conclusion, ox-LDL can stimulate the expression and secretion of TNF-α and MCP-1 through its activation of ER stress in adipocytes. Simvastatin might exert direct anti-inflammatory effects in adipocytes through amelioration of ER stress.

  8. Dehydroepiandrosterone ameliorates H2O2-induced Leydig cells oxidation damage and apoptosis through inhibition of ROS production and activation of PI3K/Akt pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xiao; Wang, Dian; Li, Longlong; Ma, Haitian

    2016-01-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is widely used as a nutritional supplement, and administration of DHEA produces a number of beneficial effects in the elderly. Many researchers have suggested that DHEA exerts it function after conversion into more biologically active hormones in peripheral target cells. The actions of DHEA in Leydig cells, a major target cell of DHEA biotransformation in males, are not clear. The present study found that DHEA increased cell viability and decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde contents in H2O2-induced Leydig cells. DHEA significantly increased the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and peroxidase, and decreased the DNA damage in H2O2-induced Leydig cells. Apoptosis was significant decreased in H2O2-induced Leydig cells after DHEA treatment. DHEA inhibited the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) and the upregulation of the caspase-3 protein level induced by H2O2 in Leydig cells. DHEA also reversed the decrease in PI3K and p-Akt protein levels induced by H2O2. These data showed that DHEA could ameliorate H2O2-induced oxidative damage by increasing anti-oxidative enzyme activities, which resulted in reduced ROS content, and decreased apoptosis, mainly by preventing the loss of ΔΨm and inhibiting caspase-3 protein levels via activation of PI3K/Akt signaling pathways. These results increase our understanding of the molecular mechanism of the anti-ageing effect of DHEA.

  9. Sodium Meta-Arsenite Ameliorates Hyperglycemia in Obese Diabetic db/db Mice by Inhibition of Hepatic Gluconeogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Sun Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sodium meta-arsenite (SA is implicated in the regulation of hepatic gluconeogenesis-related genes in vitro; however, the effects in vivo have not been studied. We investigated whether SA has antidiabetic effects in a type 2 diabetic mouse model. Diabetic db/db mice were orally intubated with SA (10 mg kg−1 body weight/day for 8 weeks. We examined hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c, blood glucose levels, food intake, and body weight. We performed glucose, insulin, and pyruvate tolerance tests and analyzed glucose production and the expression of gluconeogenesis-related genes in hepatocytes. We analyzed energy metabolism using a comprehensive animal metabolic monitoring system. SA-treated diabetic db/db mice had reduced concentrations of HbA1c and blood glucose levels. Exogenous glucose was quickly cleared in glucose tolerance tests. The mRNA expressions of genes for gluconeogenesis-related enzymes, glucose 6-phosphatase (G6Pase, and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK were significantly reduced in the liver of SA-treated diabetic db/db mice. In primary hepatocytes, SA treatment decreased glucose production and the expression of G6Pase, PEPCK, and hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 alpha (HNF-4α mRNA. Small heterodimer partner (SHP mRNA expression was increased in hepatocytes dependent upon the SA concentration. The expression of Sirt1 mRNA and protein was reduced, and acetylated forkhead box protein O1 (FoxO1 was induced by SA treatment in hepatocytes. In addition, SA-treated diabetic db/db mice showed reduced energy expenditure. Oral intubation of SA ameliorates hyperglycemia in db/db mice by reducing hepatic gluconeogenesis through the decrease of Sirt1 expression and increase in acetylated FoxO1.

  10. 6-Shogaol has anti-amyloidogenic activity and ameliorates Alzheimer's disease via CysLT1R-mediated inhibition of cathepsin B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Ji-Young; Song, Kibbeum; Lee, Ju-Woon; Kim, Sokho; Kwon, Jungkee

    2016-08-12

    Although 6-shogaol, a constituent of ginger, has been reported to have anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects on neuronal cells, the effects of 6-shogaol on Alzheimer's disease (AD) have not yet been investigated. Here we aimed to determine whether 6-shogaol exerts neuroprotective effects against AD. Specifically, we investigated the effects of 6-shogaol on the cysteinyl leukotriene 1 receptor (CysLT1R), a major factor in AD pathogenesis. Moreover, we clarified the relationship between CysLT1R and cathepsin B, a cysteine protease. We used in vitro and in vivo models to determine whether 6-shogaol inhibits CysLT1R/cathepsin B in an amyloid-beta (Aβ; 1-42)-induced model of neurotoxicity. We first confirmed that CysLT1R and cathepsin B are upregulated by Aβ (1-42) and that CysLT1R activation induces cathepsin B. In contrast, we found that 6-shogaol-mediated inhibition of CysLT1R downregulates cathepsin B in both in vitro and in vivo models. Furthermore, we found that 6-shogaol-mediated inhibition of CysLT1R/cathepsin B reduces Aβ deposition in the brain and ameliorates behavioral deficits in APPSw/PS1-dE9 Tg mice. Our results indicate that 6-shogaol is a CysLT1R/cathepsin B inhibitor and is a novel potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of various neurodegenerative diseases, including AD. PMID:27286707

  11. Amelioration by glucose-6-phosphate and NADP of potato glycoalkaloid inhibition in cell, enzyme and liposome assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roddick, J G; Leonard, A L

    1999-05-01

    Lysis of human erythrocytes by 20 microM chaconine was reduced by 0.5 mM glucose-6-phosphate (G6P) and NADP. Both compounds caused approximately 50% inhibition of haemolysis at 1 mM. Glucose, glucose-1-phosphate, rhamnose, galactose and galactose-6-phosphate were ineffective; NAD was effective, although not to the extent of NADP. Of the tested sugars, only G6P reduced solanine-induced haemolysis. G6P also reduced the synergistic haemolytic action of solanine and chaconine in combination. G6P and NADP at or above 5 mM antagonised chaconine-induced betanin loss from excised red beet root discs; NADP was more effective than G6P. Disruption of PC/cholesterol liposomes by chaconine and inhibition of acetylcholinesterase by chaconine or solanine, were unaffected by up to 10 mM NADP or 50 mM G6P.

  12. Sodium Tanshinone IIA Sulfonate Ameliorates Bladder Fibrosis in a Rat Model of Partial Bladder Outlet Obstruction by Inhibiting the TGF-β/Smad Pathway Activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxiao Jiang

    Full Text Available Transforming growth factor (TGF-β1 is known to play a pivotal role in a diverse range of biological systems including modulation of fibrosis in several organs. The precise role of TGF-β/Smad signaling in the progression of bladder fibrosis secondary to partial bladder outlet obstruction (PBOO is yet to be conclusively. Using a rat PBOO model, we investigated TGF-β1 expression and exaimined whether sodium tanshinone IIA sulfonate (STS could inhibit TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway activation and ameliorate bladder fibrosis. Forty-eight female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups: sham operation group (n = 16, PBOO operation without STS treatment group (n = 16 and PBOO operation with STS treatment group (n = 16. Thirty-two rats underwent the operative procedure to create PBOO and subsequently received intraperitoneal injections of STS (10 mg/kg/d; n = 16 or vehicle (n = 16 two days after the surgery. Sham surgery was conducted on 16 rats, which received intraperitoneal vehicle injection two days later. In each of the three groups, an equal number of rats were sacrificed at weeks 4 and 8 after the PBOO or sham operation. The TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway was analyzed using western blotting, immunohistochemical staining and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. One-way analysis of variance was conducted to draw statistical inferences. At 4 and 8 weeks, the expression of TGF-β1 and phosphorylated Smad2 and Smad3 in STS-treated PBOO rats was significantly lower than in the PBOO rats not treated with STS. Alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA, collagen I and collagen III expression at 4 and 8 weeks post PBOO was lower in STS-treated PBOO rats when compared to that in PBOO rats not treated with STS. Our findings indicate that STS ameliorates bladder fibrosis by inhibiting TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway activation, and may prove to be a potential therapeutic measure for preventing bladder fibrosis secondary to PBOO

  13. Andrographolide Ameliorates Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Progression by Inhibiting Inflammatory Cell Infiltration through Downregulation of Cytokine and Integrin Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jun; Liu, Zhenjie; Wang, Qiwei; Giles, Jasmine; Greenberg, Jason; Sheibani, Nader; Kent, K Craig; Liu, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), characterized by exuberant inflammation and tissue deterioration, is a common aortic disease associated with a high mortality rate. There is currently no established pharmacological therapy to treat this progressive disease. Andrographolide (Andro), a major bioactive component of the herbaceous plant Andrographis paniculata, has been found to exhibit potent anti-inflammatory properties by inhibiting nuclear factor κ-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) activity in several disease models. In this study, we investigated the ability of Andro to suppress inflammation associated with aneurysms, and whether it may be used to block the progression of AAA. Whereas diseased aortae continued to expand in the solvent-treated group, daily administration of Andro to mice with small aneurysms significantly attenuated aneurysm growth, as measured by the diminished expansion of aortic diameter (165.68 ± 15.85% vs. 90.62 ± 22.91%, P < 0.05). Immunohistochemistry analyses revealed that Andro decreased infiltration of monocytes/macrophages and T cells. Mechanistically, Andro inhibited arterial NF-κB activation and reduced the production of proinflammatory cytokines [CCL2, CXCL10, tumor necrosis factor α, and interferon-γ] in the treated aortae. Furthermore, Andro suppressed α4 integrin expression and attenuated the ability of monocytes/macrophages to adhere to activated endothelial cells. These results indicate that Andro suppresses progression of AAA, likely through inhibition of inflammatory cell infiltration via downregulation of NF-κB-mediated cytokine production and α4 integrin expression. Thus, Andro may offer a pharmacological therapy to slow disease progression in patients with small aneurysms. PMID:26483397

  14. N-methyl pyrrolidone (NMP) ameliorates the hypoxia-reduced osteoblast differentiation via inhibiting the NF-κB signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiang; Liu, Rui; Zhao, Jianmin; Lu, Quanli

    2016-01-01

    Ischemic-hypoxic condition for local osteoblasts and bone mesenchymal stem cells during bone fracture inhibits bone repairing. N-methyl pyrrolidone (NMP) has been approved as a safe and biologically inactive small chemical molecule, and might be useful for bone fracture repairing. In the present study, we investigated the effect of NMP on the hypoxia-reduced cellular viability and the expression of differentiation-associated markers, such as bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2), propeptide of type I procollagen I (PINP), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) or runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) in the osteoblasts, and then we examined the molecular mechanism underlining such effect in the human osteoblastic hFOB 1.19 cells. Our results demonstrated that NMP significantly blocked the hypoxia-induced cell viability reduction and inhibited the hypoxia-caused expression downregulation of BMP-2, PINP, ALP and Runx2 in hFOB 1.19 cells. Then we confirmed the involvement of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) pathway in the regulation by NMP on the hypoxia-mediated the reduction of osteoblast differentiation. The upregulated expression and transcriptional activity of NF-κB, while the downregulated inhibitory κB expression by the hypoxia treatment was reversed by the treatment with 10 mM NMP. In conclusion, our study found a protective role of NMP in osteoblast differentiation in response to hypoxia, and such protection was through inhibiting the NF-κB signaling. This suggests that NMP might be a protective agent in bone fracture repairing. PMID:27665779

  15. Targeted complement inhibition by C3d recognition ameliorates tissue injury without apparent increase in susceptibility to infection

    OpenAIRE

    Atkinson, Carl; Song, Hongbin; Lu, Bo; Qiao, Fei; Burns, Tara A.; Holers, V. Michael; Tsokos, George C.; Tomlinson, Stephen

    2005-01-01

    Previous studies indicate a pivotal role for complement in mediating both local and remote injury following ischemia and reperfusion of the intestine. Here, we report on the use of a mouse model of intestinal ischemia/reperfusion injury to investigate the strategy of targeting complement inhibition to sites of complement activation by linking an iC3b/C3dg-binding fragment of mouse complement receptor 2 (CR2) to a mouse complement-inhibitory protein, Crry. We show that the novel CR2-Crry fusio...

  16. Inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase-9 activity by doxycycline ameliorates RANK ligand-induced osteoclast differentiation in vitro and in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franco, Gilson C.N. [Department of Immunology, Forsyth Institute, Cambridge, MA (United States); Department of Pharmacology, FOP/UNICAMP, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Kajiya, Mikihito [Department of Immunology, Forsyth Institute, Cambridge, MA (United States); Department of Oral Medicine, Infection and Immunity, Harvard School of Dental Medicine, Boston, MA (United States); Nakanishi, Tadashi [Department of Immunology, Forsyth Institute, Cambridge, MA (United States); Ohta, Kouji [Department of Immunology, Forsyth Institute, Cambridge, MA (United States); Department of Oral Medicine, Infection and Immunity, Harvard School of Dental Medicine, Boston, MA (United States); Rosalen, Pedro L.; Groppo, Francisco C. [Department of Pharmacology, FOP/UNICAMP, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Ernst, Cory W.O.; Boyesen, Janie L. [Department of Immunology, Forsyth Institute, Cambridge, MA (United States); Bartlett, John D.; Stashenko, Philip [Department of Cytokine Biology, Forsyth Institute, Cambridge, MA (United States); Taubman, Martin A. [Department of Immunology, Forsyth Institute, Cambridge, MA (United States); Kawai, Toshihisa, E-mail: tkawai@forsyth.org [Department of Immunology, Forsyth Institute, Cambridge, MA (United States); Department of Oral Medicine, Infection and Immunity, Harvard School of Dental Medicine, Boston, MA (United States)

    2011-06-10

    Tetracycline antibiotics, including doxycycli/e (DOX), have been used to treat bone resorptive diseases, partially because of their activity to suppress osteoclastogenesis induced by receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL). However, their precise inhibitory mechanism remains unclear. Therefore, the present study examined the effect of Dox on osteoclastogenesis signaling induced by RANKL, both in vitro and in vivo. Although Dox inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis and down-modulated the mRNA expression of functional osteoclast markers, including tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) and cathepsin K, Dox neither affected RANKL-induced MAPKs phosphorylation nor NFATc1 gene expression in RAW264.7 murine monocytic cells. Gelatin zymography and Western blot analyses showed that Dox down-regulated the enzyme activity of RANKL-induced MMP-9, but without affecting its protein expression. Furthermore, MMP-9 enzyme inhibitor also attenuated both RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis and up-regulation of TRAP and cathepsin K mRNA expression, indicating that MMP-9 enzyme action is engaged in the promotion of RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis. Finally, Dox treatment abrogated RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis and TRAP activity in mouse calvaria along with the suppression of MMP9 enzyme activity, again without affecting the expression of MMP9 protein. These findings suggested that Dox inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis by its inhibitory effect on MMP-9 enzyme activity independent of the MAPK-NFATc1 signaling cascade.

  17. Bone Morphogenetic Protein-7 Ameliorates Cerebral Ischemia and Reperfusion Injury via Inhibiting Oxidative Stress and Neuronal Apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haitao Pei

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have indicated that bone morphogenetic protein-7 (BMP-7 is neuroprotective against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (IR injury. The present study was undertaken to determine the molecular mechanisms involved in this effect. Adult male Wistar rats were subjected to 2 h of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO, followed by 24 h of reperfusion. BMP-7 (10−4 g/kg or vehicle was infused into rats at the onset of reperfusion via the tail vein. Neurological deficits, infarct volume, histopathological changes, oxidative stress-related biochemical parameters, neuronal apoptosis, and apoptosis-related proteins were assessed. BMP-7 significantly improved neurological and histological deficits, reduced the infarct volume, and decreased apoptotic cells after cerebral ischemia. BMP-7 also markedly enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX, and reduced the level of malondialdehyde (MDA in IR rats. In addition, Western blot analysis indicated that BMP-7 prevented cytochrome c release, inhibited activation of caspase-3, caspase-9 and caspase-8. Our data suggested that BMP-7 has protective effects against cerebral IR injury in rats, and the neuroprotective effects may be attributed to attenuating oxidative stress and inhibiting neuronal apoptosis.

  18. Inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase-9 activity by doxycycline ameliorates RANK ligand-induced osteoclast differentiation in vitro and in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tetracycline antibiotics, including doxycycli/e (DOX), have been used to treat bone resorptive diseases, partially because of their activity to suppress osteoclastogenesis induced by receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL). However, their precise inhibitory mechanism remains unclear. Therefore, the present study examined the effect of Dox on osteoclastogenesis signaling induced by RANKL, both in vitro and in vivo. Although Dox inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis and down-modulated the mRNA expression of functional osteoclast markers, including tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) and cathepsin K, Dox neither affected RANKL-induced MAPKs phosphorylation nor NFATc1 gene expression in RAW264.7 murine monocytic cells. Gelatin zymography and Western blot analyses showed that Dox down-regulated the enzyme activity of RANKL-induced MMP-9, but without affecting its protein expression. Furthermore, MMP-9 enzyme inhibitor also attenuated both RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis and up-regulation of TRAP and cathepsin K mRNA expression, indicating that MMP-9 enzyme action is engaged in the promotion of RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis. Finally, Dox treatment abrogated RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis and TRAP activity in mouse calvaria along with the suppression of MMP9 enzyme activity, again without affecting the expression of MMP9 protein. These findings suggested that Dox inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis by its inhibitory effect on MMP-9 enzyme activity independent of the MAPK-NFATc1 signaling cascade.

  19. Targeted complement inhibition by C3d recognition ameliorates tissue injury without apparent increase in susceptibility to infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Carl; Song, Hongbin; Lu, Bo; Qiao, Fei; Burns, Tara A; Holers, V Michael; Tsokos, George C; Tomlinson, Stephen

    2005-09-01

    Previous studies indicate a pivotal role for complement in mediating both local and remote injury following ischemia and reperfusion of the intestine. Here, we report on the use of a mouse model of intestinal ischemia/reperfusion injury to investigate the strategy of targeting complement inhibition to sites of complement activation by linking an iC3b/C3dg-binding fragment of mouse complement receptor 2 (CR2) to a mouse complement-inhibitory protein, Crry. We show that the novel CR2-Crry fusion protein targets sites of local and remote (lung) complement activation following intestinal ischemia and reperfusion injury and that CR2-Crry requires a 10-fold lower dose than its systemic counterpart, Crry-Ig, to provide equivalent protection from both local and remote injury. CR2-Crry has a significantly shorter serum half-life than Crry-Ig and, unlike Crry-Ig, had no significant effect on serum complement activity at minimum effective therapeutic doses. Furthermore, the minimum effective dose of Crry-Ig significantly enhanced susceptibility to infection in a mouse model of acute septic peritonitis, whereas the effect of CR2-Crry on susceptibility to infection was indistinguishable from that of PBS control. Thus, compared with systemic inhibition, CR2-mediated targeting of a complement inhibitor of activation improved bioavailability, significantly enhanced efficacy, and maintained host resistance to infection. PMID:16127466

  20. Brazilin Ameliorates High Glucose-Induced Vascular Inflammation via Inhibiting ROS and CAMs Production in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanasekaran Jayakumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vascular inflammatory process has been suggested to play a key role in the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis, a major complication of diabetes mellitus. Recent studies have shown that brazilin exhibits antihepatotoxic, antiplatelet, cancer preventive, or anti-inflammatory properties. Thus, we investigated whether brazilin suppresses vascular inflammatory process induced by high glucose (HG in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC. HG induced nitrite production, lipid peroxidation, and intracellular reactive oxygen species formation in HUVEC cells, which was reversed by brazilin. Western blot analysis revealed that brazilin markedly inhibited HG-induced phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase. Besides, we investigated the effects of brazilin on the MAPK signal transduction pathway because MAPK families are associated with vascular inflammation under stress. Brazilin blocked HG-induced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase and transcription factor NF-κB. Furthermore, brazilin concentration-dependently attenuated cell adhesion molecules (ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression induced by various concentrations of HG in HUVEC. Taken together, the present data suggested that brazilin could suppress high glucose-induced vascular inflammatory process, which may be closely related with the inhibition of oxidative stress, CAMs expression, and NF-κB activation in HUVEC. Our findings may highlight a new therapeutic intervention for the prevention of vascular diseases.

  1. Interstitial renal fibrosis due to multiple cisplatin treatments is ameliorated by semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katagiri, Daisuke; Hamasaki, Yoshifumi; Doi, Kent; Negishi, Kousuke; Sugaya, Takeshi; Nangaku, Masaomi; Noiri, Eisei

    2016-02-01

    Elucidation of acute kidney diseases and disorders (AKD), including acute kidney injury (AKI), is important to prevent their progression to chronic kidney disease. Current animal AKI models are often too severe for use in evaluating human AKI. Therefore, new animal models of mild kidney injury are needed. Here a new clinically relevant animal model using multiple low doses of cisplatin (CP) was used to evaluate AKD. When 10 mg/kg CP was administered intraperitoneally once weekly for three times to L-type fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP) transgenic mice, moderate renal interstitial fibrosis and tubule dilatation occurred, accompanied by brush-border loss. Urinary L-FABP, a promising biomarker of AKI, changed more drastically than blood urea nitrogen or creatinine. Preventing fibrosis in organs was also studied. Oral administration of a recently reported selective semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase inhibitor, PXS-4728A, for 1 week attenuated kidney injury and interstitial fibrosis compared with vehicle. Inhibition of renal lipid accumulation in semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase inhibitor-treated mice, together with reduced oxidative stress and L-FABP suppression in proximal tubules, suggested an antifibrotic effect of semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase inhibition in this CP-AKD model, a representative onco-nephrology. Thus, semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase inhibitors may be promising candidates for the prevention of chronic kidney disease in patients using CP to treat malignancy. PMID:26535996

  2. Interstitial renal fibrosis due to multiple cisplatin treatments is ameliorated by semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katagiri, Daisuke; Hamasaki, Yoshifumi; Doi, Kent; Negishi, Kousuke; Sugaya, Takeshi; Nangaku, Masaomi; Noiri, Eisei

    2016-02-01

    Elucidation of acute kidney diseases and disorders (AKD), including acute kidney injury (AKI), is important to prevent their progression to chronic kidney disease. Current animal AKI models are often too severe for use in evaluating human AKI. Therefore, new animal models of mild kidney injury are needed. Here a new clinically relevant animal model using multiple low doses of cisplatin (CP) was used to evaluate AKD. When 10 mg/kg CP was administered intraperitoneally once weekly for three times to L-type fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP) transgenic mice, moderate renal interstitial fibrosis and tubule dilatation occurred, accompanied by brush-border loss. Urinary L-FABP, a promising biomarker of AKI, changed more drastically than blood urea nitrogen or creatinine. Preventing fibrosis in organs was also studied. Oral administration of a recently reported selective semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase inhibitor, PXS-4728A, for 1 week attenuated kidney injury and interstitial fibrosis compared with vehicle. Inhibition of renal lipid accumulation in semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase inhibitor-treated mice, together with reduced oxidative stress and L-FABP suppression in proximal tubules, suggested an antifibrotic effect of semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase inhibition in this CP-AKD model, a representative onco-nephrology. Thus, semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase inhibitors may be promising candidates for the prevention of chronic kidney disease in patients using CP to treat malignancy.

  3. Targeted complement inhibition by C3d recognition ameliorates tissue injury without apparent increase in susceptibility to infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Carl; Song, Hongbin; Lu, Bo; Qiao, Fei; Burns, Tara A; Holers, V Michael; Tsokos, George C; Tomlinson, Stephen

    2005-09-01

    Previous studies indicate a pivotal role for complement in mediating both local and remote injury following ischemia and reperfusion of the intestine. Here, we report on the use of a mouse model of intestinal ischemia/reperfusion injury to investigate the strategy of targeting complement inhibition to sites of complement activation by linking an iC3b/C3dg-binding fragment of mouse complement receptor 2 (CR2) to a mouse complement-inhibitory protein, Crry. We show that the novel CR2-Crry fusion protein targets sites of local and remote (lung) complement activation following intestinal ischemia and reperfusion injury and that CR2-Crry requires a 10-fold lower dose than its systemic counterpart, Crry-Ig, to provide equivalent protection from both local and remote injury. CR2-Crry has a significantly shorter serum half-life than Crry-Ig and, unlike Crry-Ig, had no significant effect on serum complement activity at minimum effective therapeutic doses. Furthermore, the minimum effective dose of Crry-Ig significantly enhanced susceptibility to infection in a mouse model of acute septic peritonitis, whereas the effect of CR2-Crry on susceptibility to infection was indistinguishable from that of PBS control. Thus, compared with systemic inhibition, CR2-mediated targeting of a complement inhibitor of activation improved bioavailability, significantly enhanced efficacy, and maintained host resistance to infection.

  4. Ameliorative effect of polyphenols from Padina boergesenii against ferric nitrilotriacetate induced renal oxidative damage: With inhibition of oxidative hemolysis and in vitro free radicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajamani, Karthikeyan; Renju, V C; Sethupathy, S; Thirugnanasambandan, Somasundaram S

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant activities of diethyl ether (DEE) and methanol (M) extracts from brown alga Padina boergesenii using in vitro and in vivo antioxidant assay, which may help to relate the antioxidant properties with the possible outline of its ameliorative effect. M extract showed higher radical scavenging activity through ferric reducing antioxidant power 139.11 µmol tannic acid equivalent/g; DPPH 71.32 ± 0.56%; deoxyribose radical 88.31 ± 0.47%, and total antioxidant activity 0.47 ± 0.02 mg ascorbic acid equivalents/g. Oxidative red blood cell (RBC) hemolysis inhibition rate was significantly higher in M extract (150 mg/kg body weight) in reference to total phenolic content (r = 0.935). Rats administered with DEE and M extracts (150 mg/kg body weight) for seven days before the administration of ferric nitrilotriacetate (9 mg of Fe/mg/kg bodyweight). Rats pretreated with extracts significantly changed the level of renal microsomal lipid peroxidation, glutathione, and antioxidant enzymes in post-mitochondrial supernatant (P rutin with reference to retardation factor (Rf ) in both the extracts. These findings support the source of polyphenols (rutin) from P. boergesenii had potent antioxidant activity; further work on isolation of bioactive compounds can be channeled to develop as a natural antioxidant.

  5. SOD3 Ameliorates H2O2-Induced Oxidative Damage in SH-SY5Y Cells by Inhibiting the Mitochondrial Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rong; Wei, Li; Fu, Qing-Qing; Wang, Hua; You, Hua; Yu, Hua-Rong

    2016-07-01

    This study was designed to investigate the protective effects of extracellular superoxide dismutase (SOD3) against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) induced damage in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells and to elucidate the mechanisms responsible for this beneficial effect. SOD3-overexpressing SH-SY5Y cells were generated by adenoviral vector-mediated infection, and H2O2 was then added into the cell culture system to establish an in vitro model of oxidative stress. Cell viability, the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), the expression and activity of antioxidant enzymes, the levels of lipid peroxidation malondialdehyde (MDA), the expression of mitochondrial apoptosis-related genes, and calcium imaging were examined. Following H2O2 exposure, the over-expression of SOD3 promoted the survival of SH-SY5Y cells; decreased the production of ROS, MDA levels, cytochrome C, caspase-3, caspase-9, and Bax gene expression, and calcium levels; and increased the expression and activity of antioxidant enzyme genes and the expression level of Bcl-2. Together, our data demonstrate that SOD3 ameliorates H2O2-induced oxidative damage in neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells by inhibiting the mitochondrial pathway and provide new insights into the functional actions of SOD3 on oxidative stress-induced cell damage. PMID:27084770

  6. Amelioration of Mitochondrial Dysfunction-Induced Insulin Resistance in Differentiated 3T3-L1 Adipocytes via Inhibition of NF-κB Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Hafizi Abu Bakar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of evidence suggests that activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB signaling pathways is among the inflammatory mechanism involved in the development of insulin resistance and chronic low-grade inflammation in adipose tissues derived from obese animal and human subjects. Nevertheless, little is known about the roles of NF-κB pathways in regulating mitochondrial function of the adipose tissues. In the present study, we sought to investigate the direct effects of celastrol (potent NF-κB inhibitor upon mitochondrial dysfunction-induced insulin resistance in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Celastrol ameliorates mitochondrial dysfunction by altering mitochondrial fusion and fission in adipocytes. The levels of oxidative DNA damage, protein carbonylation and lipid peroxidation were down-regulated. Further, the morphology and quantification of intracellular lipid droplets revealed the decrease of intracellular lipid accumulation with reduced lipolysis. Moreover, massive production of the pro-inflammatory mediators tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and interleukin-1β (IL-1β were markedly depleted. Insulin-stimulated glucose uptake activity was restored with the enhancement of insulin signaling pathways. This study signified that the treatments modulated towards knockdown of NF-κB transcription factor may counteract these metabolic insults exacerbated in our model of synergy between mitochondrial dysfunction and inflammation. These results demonstrate for the first time that NF-κB inhibition modulates mitochondrial dysfunction induced insulin resistance in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

  7. FTY720, Sphingosine 1-Phosphate Receptor Modulator, Ameliorates Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis by Inhibition of T Cell Infiltration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hirotoshi Kataoka; Kunio Sugahara; Kyoko Shimano; Koji Teshima; Mamoru Koyama; Atsushi Fukunari; Kenji Chiba

    2005-01-01

    FTY720, a sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor modulator, induces a marked decrease in the number of peripheral blood lymphocytes and exerts immunomodulating activity in various experimental allograft and autoimmune disease models. In this study, we evaluated the effect of FTY720 and its active metabolite, (S)-enantiomer of FTY720-phosphate [(S)-FTY720-P] on experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in rats and mice.Prophylactic administration of FTY720 at 0.1 to 1 mg/kg almost completely prevented the development of EAE,and therapeutic treatment with FTY720 significantly inhibited the progression of EAE and EAE-associated histological change in the spinal cords of LEW rats induced by immunization with myelin basic protein. Consistent with rat EAE, the development of proteolipid protein-induced EAE in SJL/J mice was almost completely prevented and infiltration of CD4+ T cells into spinal cord was decreased by prophylactic treatment with FTY720 and (S)-FTY720-P. When FTY720 or (S)-FTY720-P was given after establishment of EAE in SJL/J mice, the relapse of EAE was markedly inhibited as compared with interferon-β, and the area of demyelination and the infiltration of CD4+ T cells were decreased in spinal cords of EAE mice. Similar therapeutic effect by FTY720 was obtained in myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein-induced EAE in C57BL/6 mice. These results indicate that FTY720 exhibits not only a prophylactic but also a therapeutic effect on EAE in rats and mice, and that the effect of FTY720 on EAE appears to be due to a reduction of the infiltration of myelin antigen-specific CD4+ T cells into the inflammation site.

  8. Inhibition of GSK-3 ameliorates Abeta pathology in an adult-onset Drosophila model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oyinkan Sofola

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abeta peptide accumulation is thought to be the primary event in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD, with downstream neurotoxic effects including the hyperphosphorylation of tau protein. Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3 is increasingly implicated as playing a pivotal role in this amyloid cascade. We have developed an adult-onset Drosophila model of AD, using an inducible gene expression system to express Arctic mutant Abeta42 specifically in adult neurons, to avoid developmental effects. Abeta42 accumulated with age in these flies and they displayed increased mortality together with progressive neuronal dysfunction, but in the apparent absence of neuronal loss. This fly model can thus be used to examine the role of events during adulthood and early AD aetiology. Expression of Abeta42 in adult neurons increased GSK-3 activity, and inhibition of GSK-3 (either genetically or pharmacologically by lithium treatment rescued Abeta42 toxicity. Abeta42 pathogenesis was also reduced by removal of endogenous fly tau; but, within the limits of detection of available methods, tau phosphorylation did not appear to be altered in flies expressing Abeta42. The GSK-3-mediated effects on Abeta42 toxicity appear to be at least in part mediated by tau-independent mechanisms, because the protective effect of lithium alone was greater than that of the removal of tau alone. Finally, Abeta42 levels were reduced upon GSK-3 inhibition, pointing to a direct role of GSK-3 in the regulation of Abeta42 peptide level, in the absence of APP processing. Our study points to the need both to identify the mechanisms by which GSK-3 modulates Abeta42 levels in the fly and to determine if similar mechanisms are present in mammals, and it supports the potential therapeutic use of GSK-3 inhibitors in AD.

  9. Inhibition of the striatal specific phosphodiesterase PDE10A ameliorates striatal and cortical pathology in R6/2 mouse model of Huntington's disease.

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    Carmela Giampà

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Huntington's disease is a devastating neurodegenerative condition for which there is no therapy to slow disease progression. The particular vulnerability of striatal medium spiny neurons to Huntington's pathology is hypothesized to result from transcriptional dysregulation within the cAMP and CREB signaling cascades in these neurons. To test this hypothesis, and a potential therapeutic approach, we investigated whether inhibition of the striatal-specific cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase PDE10A would alleviate neurological deficits and brain pathology in a highly utilized model system, the R6/2 mouse. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: R6/2 mice were treated with the highly selective PDE10A inhibitor TP-10 from 4 weeks of age until euthanasia. TP-10 treatment significantly reduced and delayed the development of the hind paw clasping response during tail suspension, deficits in rotarod performance, and decrease in locomotor activity in an open field. Treatment prolonged time to loss of righting reflex. These effects of PDE10A inhibition on neurological function were reflected in a significant amelioration in brain pathology, including reduction in striatal and cortical cell loss, the formation of striatal neuronal intranuclear inclusions, and the degree of microglial activation that occurs in response to the mutant huntingtin-induced brain damage. Striatal and cortical levels of phosphorylated CREB and BDNF were significantly elevated. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings provide experimental support for targeting the cAMP and CREB signaling pathways and more broadly transcriptional dysregulation as a therapeutic approach to Huntington's disease. It is noteworthy that PDE10A inhibition in the R6/2 mice reduces striatal pathology, consistent with the localization of the enzyme in medium spiny neurons, and also cortical pathology and the formation of neuronal nuclear inclusions. These latter findings suggest that striatal pathology may

  10. Inhibition of TYK2 and JAK1 ameliorates imiquimod-induced psoriasis-like dermatitis by inhibiting IL-22 and the IL-23/IL-17 axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Works, Melissa G; Yin, Fangfang; Yin, Catherine C; Yiu, Ying; Shew, Kenneth; Tran, Thanh-Thuy; Dunlap, Nahoko; Lam, Jennifer; Mitchell, Tim; Reader, John; Stein, Paul L; D'Andrea, Annalisa

    2014-10-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic autoimmune disease affecting the skin and characterized by aberrant keratinocyte proliferation and function. Immune cells infiltrate the skin and release proinflammatory cytokines that play important roles in psoriasis. The Th17 network, including IL-23 and IL-22, has recently emerged as a critical component in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. IL-22 and IL-23 signaling is dependent on the JAK family of protein tyrosine kinases, making JAK inhibition an appealing strategy for the treatment of psoriasis. In this study, we report the activity of SAR-20347, a small molecule inhibitor with specificity for JAK1 and tyrosine kinase 2 (TYK2) over other JAK family members. In cellular assays, SAR-20347 dose dependently (1 nM-10 μM) inhibited JAK1- and/or TYK2-dependent signaling from the IL-12/IL-23, IL-22, and IFN-α receptors. In vivo, TYK2 mutant mice or treatment of wild-type mice with SAR-20347 significantly reduced IL-12-induced IFN-γ production and IL-22-dependent serum amyloid A to similar extents, indicating that, in these models, SAR-20347 is probably acting through inhibition of TYK2. In an imiquimod-induced psoriasis model, the administration of SAR-20347 led to a striking decrease in disease pathology, including reduced activation of keratinocytes and proinflammatory cytokine levels compared with both TYK2 mutant mice and wild-type controls. Taken together, these data indicate that targeting both JAK1- and TYK2-mediated cytokine signaling is more effective than TYK2 inhibition alone in reducing psoriasis pathogenesis. PMID:25156366

  11. Suppressing Syndecan-1 Shedding Ameliorates Intestinal Epithelial Inflammation through Inhibiting NF-κB Pathway and TNF-α.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Wang, Zhongqiu; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Zhenyu; Chen, Ye

    2016-01-01

    Syndecan-1 (SDC1), with a long variable ectodomain carrying heparan sulfate chains, participates in many steps of inflammatory responses. But reports about the efforts of SDC1's unshedding ectodomain on intestinal epithelial inflammation and the precise underlying mechanism are limited. In our study, unshedding SDC1 from intestinal epithelial cell models was established by transfecting with unshedding SDC1 plasmid into the cell, respectively. And the role of unshedding SDC1 in intestinal inflammation was further investigated. We found that components of NF-κB pathway, including P65 and IκBα, and secretion of TNF-α were upregulated upon LPS stimulation in intestinal epithelial cells. SDC1, especially through its unshed ectodomain, significantly lessened the upregulation extent. It also functioned in inhibiting migration of neutrophils by downregulating secretion of CXCL-1. Taken together, we conclude that suppressing SDC1 shedding from intestinal epithelial cells relieves severity of intestinal inflammation by inactivating NF-κB pathway and downregulating TNF-α expression. These results indicate that the ectodomain of SDC1 might be the optional therapy for intestinal inflammation. PMID:27579035

  12. Suppressing Syndecan-1 Shedding Ameliorates Intestinal Epithelial Inflammation through Inhibiting NF-κB Pathway and TNF-α

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Syndecan-1 (SDC1, with a long variable ectodomain carrying heparan sulfate chains, participates in many steps of inflammatory responses. But reports about the efforts of SDC1’s unshedding ectodomain on intestinal epithelial inflammation and the precise underlying mechanism are limited. In our study, unshedding SDC1 from intestinal epithelial cell models was established by transfecting with unshedding SDC1 plasmid into the cell, respectively. And the role of unshedding SDC1 in intestinal inflammation was further investigated. We found that components of NF-κB pathway, including P65 and IκBα, and secretion of TNF-α were upregulated upon LPS stimulation in intestinal epithelial cells. SDC1, especially through its unshed ectodomain, significantly lessened the upregulation extent. It also functioned in inhibiting migration of neutrophils by downregulating secretion of CXCL-1. Taken together, we conclude that suppressing SDC1 shedding from intestinal epithelial cells relieves severity of intestinal inflammation by inactivating NF-κB pathway and downregulating TNF-α expression. These results indicate that the ectodomain of SDC1 might be the optional therapy for intestinal inflammation.

  13. Fenugreek Seed Extract Inhibit Fat Accumulation and Ameliorates Dyslipidemia in High Fat Diet-Induced Obese Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parveen Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the inhibitory effect of aqueous extract of Trigonella foenum-graecum seeds (AqE-TFG on fat accumulation and dyslipidemia in high fat diet- (HFD- induced obese rats. Female Wistar rats were fed with HFD ad libitum, and the rats on HFD were treated orally with AqE-TFG or orlistat ((HFD for 28 days + AqE-TFG (0.5 and 1.0 g/kg or orlistat (10 mg/kg from day 8 to 28, respectively. Treatment with AqE-TFG produced significant reduction in body weight gain, body mass index (BMI, white adipose tissue (WAT weights, blood glucose, serum insulin, lipids, leptin, lipase, and apolipoprotein-B levels and elevation in adiponectin levels. AqE-TFG improved serum aspartate amino transferase (AST, alanine amino transferase (ALT, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH levels. AqE-TFG treatment reduced the hepatic and cardiac thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS and elevated the antioxidant enzyme (glutathione (GSH, superoxide dismutase (SOD, and catalase (CAT levels. In addition, liver and uterine WAT lipogenic enzyme (fatty acid synthetase (FAS and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD activities were restored towards normal levels. These findings demonstrated the preventive effect of AqE-TFG on fat accumulation and dyslipidemia, due to inhibition of impaired lipid digestion and absorption, in addition to improvement in glucose and lipid metabolism, enhancement of insulin sensitivity, increased antioxidant defense, and downregulation of lipogenic enzymes.

  14. Psoralea corylifolia L. Seed Extract Ameliorates Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes in Mice by Inhibition of Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunhui Seo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic beta-cell death is known to be the cause of deficient insulin production in diabetes mellitus. Oxidative stress is one of the major causes of beta-cell death. In this study, we investigated the effects of Psoralea corylifolia L. seed (PCS extract on beta-cell death. Oral administration of PCS extract resulted in a significant improvement of hyperglycemia in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. PCS extract treatment improved glucose tolerance and increased serum insulin levels. To study the mechanisms involved, we investigated the effects of PCS extract on H2O2-induced apoptosis in INS-1 cells. Treatment with PCS extract inhibited cell death. PCS extract treatment decreased reactive oxygen species level and activated antioxidative enzymes. Among the major components of PCS extract, psoralen and isopsoralen (coumarins, but not bakuchiol, showed preventive effects against H2O2-induced beta-cell death. These findings indicate that PCS extract may be a potential pharmacological agent to protect against pancreatic beta-cell damage caused by oxidative stress associated with diabetes.

  15. Inhibition of catecholamine degradation ameliorates while chemical sympathectomy aggravates the severity of acute Friend retrovirus infection in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloemker, Dominique; Mollerus, Sina; Gibbert, Kathrin; Dittmer, Ulf; del Rey, Adriana; Schedlowski, Manfred; Engler, Harald

    2016-05-01

    Several lines of evidence indicate that the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) might be involved in the pathogenesis and progression of retroviral infections. However, experimental data are scarce and findings inconsistent. Here, we investigated the role of the SNS during acute infection with Friend virus (FV), a pathogenic murine retrovirus that causes polyclonal proliferation of erythroid precursor cells and splenomegaly in adult mice. Experimental animals were infected with FV complex, and viral load, spleen weight, and splenic noradrenaline (NA) concentration was analyzed until 25 days post infection. Results show that FV infection caused a massive but transient depletion in splenic NA during the acute phase of the disease. At the peak of the virus-induced splenomegaly, splenic NA concentration was reduced by about 90% compared to naïve uninfected mice. Concurrently, expression of the catecholamine degrading enzymes monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) was significantly upregulated in immune cells of the spleen. Pharmacological inhibition of MAO-A and COMT by the selective inhibitors clorgyline and 3,5-dinitrocatechol, respectively, efficiently blocked NA degradation and significantly reduced viral load and virus-induced splenomegaly. In contrast, chemical sympathectomy prior to FV inoculation aggravated the acute infection and extended the duration of the disease. Together these findings demonstrate that catecholamine availability at the site of viral replication is an important factor affecting the course of retroviral infections. PMID:26880342

  16. Amelioration of experimental colitis by Astragalus membranaceus through anti-oxidation and inhibition of adhesion molecule synthesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Joshua Ka-Shun Ko; Flora Ying-Lee Lam; Andrew Pok-Lap Cheung

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the protective effects of Astragalus membranaceus(Am) against hapten-induced colitis in male Sprague-Dawley rats as well as its underlying mechanism.METHODS: Experimental colitis was induced in rats by enema administration of 2,4-dinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (DNBS). Rats were either pretreated with Am extract (2 or 4 g/kg, p.o. once daily) starting from 10 d before DNBS enema, or received Am post-treatment (2 or 4 g/kg, p.o.twice daily) on the three consecutive days following DNBS administration. Colonic lesion area and histological damage were determined, while the activities of myeloperoxidase (MPO) and xanthine oxidase, as well as reduced glutathione (GSH) content were measured in the excised colonic tissues. Besides, protein expression of inducible nitrite oxide synthase (iNOS), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and P-selectin was also detected by Western blot analysis.RESULTS: Our findings had shown that both macroscopic lesion area and histological colonic damage induced by DNBS were significantly reduced by both Am pre- and post-treatments. These were accompanied by attenuation of the elevated colonic MPO activity and downregulation of the iNOS, P-selectin, and ICAM-1 protein expression.Besides, deprivation of colonic GSH level under colitis condition was also preserved.CONCLUSION: These results demonstrate that Am possesses both preventive and therapeutic potential in experimental colitis. The anti-inflammatory actions involve anti-oxidation along with inhibition of adhesion molecule synthesis in the colonic tissues.

  17. A clerodane diterpene inhibit adipogenesis by cell cycle arrest and ameliorate obesity in C57BL/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beg, Muheeb; Shankar, Kripa; Varshney, Salil; Rajan, Sujith; Singh, Suriya Pratap; Jagdale, Pankaj; Puri, Anju; Chaudhari, Bhushan P; Sashidhara, Koneni V; Gaikwad, Anil Nilkanth

    2015-01-01

    A clerodane diterpene, 16α-Hydroxycleroda-3, 13 (14) Z-dien-15, 16-olide (compound 1) isolated from Polyalthia longifolia had previously been reported as a new structural class of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor apart from statins. Statins are known to be anti-adipogenic in nature. The distant structural similarity between compound 1 and lovastatin (polyketide class of compound) prompted us to investigate effects of diterpene compound 1 on adipogenesis and thereby obesity. High content microscopy proved diterpene compound 1 exhibits better anti-adipogenic activity and less toxicity in differentiating adipocytes. Moreover, it reduced expression levels of PPARγ, C/EBPα and GLUT4 during differentiation in a time and concentration dependent manner. Diterpene compound 1 during early differentiation reduced MDI induced-Akt/mTOR phosphorylation and expression of cell cycle proteins, and thereby halted mitotic clonal expansion, the decisive factor in early adipogenesis. Further, its anti-adipogenic activity was validated in murine mesenchymal cell-line C3H10T1/2 and human mesenchymal stem cell models of adipogenic differentiation. When compound 1 was administered along with HFD, for another 8 weeks in 2 month HFD fed overweight mice (with BMI > 30 and impaired glucose tolerance), it attenuated weight gain and epididymal fat accumulation. It improved body glucose tolerance, reduced HFD induced increase in total cholesterol and leptin/adiponectin ratio. All these effects were comparable with standard anti-obesity drug Orlistat with added edge of potently decreasing circulating triglyceride levels comparable with normal chow fed group. Histological analysis shows that compound 1 inhibit adipocyte hypertrophy and decreased steatosis in hepatocytes. Both in vivo and in vitro results demonstrate a potential value of compound 1 as a novel anti-adipogenic and anti-obesity agent.

  18. CXCR4 inhibition ameliorates severe obliterative pulmonary hypertension and accumulation of C-kit⁺ cells in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Farkas

    Full Text Available Successful curative treatment of severe pulmonary arterial hypertension with luminal obliteration will require a thorough understanding of the mechanism underlying the development and progression of pulmonary vascular lesions. But the cells that obliterate the pulmonary arterial lumen in severe pulmonary arterial hypertension are incompletely characterized. The goal of our study was to evaluate whether inhibition of CXC chemokine receptor 4 will prevent the accumulation of c-kit⁺ cells and severe pulmonary arterial hypertension. We detected c-kit⁺⁻ cells expressing endothelial (von Willebrand Factor or smooth muscle cell/myofibroblast (α-smooth muscle actin markers in pulmonary arterial lesions of SU5416/chronic hypoxia rats. We found increased expression of CXC chemokine ligand 12 in the lung tissue of SU5416/chronic hypoxia rats. In our prevention study, AMD3100, an inhibitor of the CXC chemokine ligand 12 receptor, CXC chemokine receptor 4, only moderately decreased pulmonary arterial obliteration and pulmonary hypertension in SU5416/chronic hypoxia animals. AMD3100 treatment reduced the number of proliferating c-kit⁺ α-smooth muscle actin⁺ cells and pulmonary arterial muscularization and did not affect c-kit⁺ von Willebrand Factor⁺ cell numbers. Both c-kit⁺ cell types expressed CXC chemokine receptor 4. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that in the SU5416/chronic hypoxia model of severe pulmonary hypertension, the CXC chemokine receptor 4-expressing c-kit⁺ α-smooth muscle actin⁺ cells contribute to pulmonary arterial muscularization. In contrast, vascular lumen obliteration by c-kit⁺ von Willebrand Factor⁺ cells is largely independent of CXC chemokine receptor 4.

  19. Rapamycin ameliorates experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis by inhibiting Th1/Th2/Th17 cells and upregulating CD4+CD25+ Foxp3 regulatory T cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-Fei; Yuan; Guang-Da; Li; Xin-Jun; Ren; Hong; Nian; Xiao-Rong; Li; Xiao-Min; Zhang

    2015-01-01

    · AIM: To determine the effects of rapamycin on experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis(EAU) and investigate of role of rapamycin on T cell subsets in the disease.·METHODS: EAU was induced in rats using peptides1169 to 1191 of the interphotoreceptor binding protein(IRBP). Rapamycin(0.2 mg/kg/d) was administrated by intraperitoneal injection for a consecutive 7d after immunization. Th1/Th2/Th17 cytokines, TGF-β1, and IL-6produced by lymphocyteswere measured by ELISA, while Th17 cells and CD4 +CD25 + regulatory T cells(Tregs)from rat spleen were detected by flow cytometry.·RESULTS: Intraperitoneal treatment immediately after immunization dramatically ameliorated the clinical course of EAU. Clinical responses were associated with reduced retinal inflammatory cell infiltration and tissue destruction. Rapamycin induced suppression of Th1/Th2/Th17 cytokines, including IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-17, IL-4, and IL-10 release from T lymphocytes of EAU rats, in vitro.Rapamycin also significantly increased TGF-β1production but had no effect on IL-6 productionof T lymphocytes from EAU rats in vitro. Furthermore,rapamycin decreased the ratio of Th17 cells/CD4 +T cells and upregulated Tregs in EAU, as detected by flow cytometry.·CONCLUSION: Rapamycin effectively interferes with T cell mediated autoimmune uveitis by inhibiting antigen-specific T cell functions and enhancing Tregs in EAU.Rapamycin is a promising new alternative as an adjunct corticosteroid-sparing agent for treating uveitis.

  20. Mangiferin treatment inhibits hepatic expression of acyl-coenzyme A:diacylglycerol acyltransferase-2 in fructose-fed spontaneously hypertensive rats: a link to amelioration of fatty liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Xiaomang; Li, Danyang; Chen, Dilong; Zhou, Liang; Chonan, Ritsu; Yamahara, Johji; Wang, Jianwei; Li, Yuhao

    2014-10-15

    Mangiferin, a xanthone glucoside, and its associated traditional herbs have been demonstrated to improve abnormalities of lipid metabolism. However, its underlying mechanisms remain largely unclear. This study investigated the anti-steatotic effect of mangiferin in fructose-fed spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR)s that have a mutation in sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP)-1. The results showed that co-administration of mangiferin (15 mg/kg, once daily, by oral gavage) over 7 weeks dramatically diminished fructose-induced increases in hepatic triglyceride content and Oil Red O-stained area in SHRs. However, blood pressure, fructose and chow intakes, white adipose tissue weight and metabolic parameters (plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, triglyceride, total cholesterol and non-esterified fatty acids) were unaffected by mangiferin treatment. Mechanistically, mangiferin treatment suppressed acyl-coenzyme A:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT)-2 expression at the mRNA and protein levels in the liver. In contrast, mangiferin treatment was without effect on hepatic mRNA and/or protein expression of SREBP-1/1c, carbohydrate response element binding protein, liver pyruvate kinase, fatty acid synthase, acetyl-CoA carboxylase-1, stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1, DGAT-1, monoacyglycerol acyltransferase-2, microsomal triglyceride transfer protein, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha, carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 and acyl-CoA oxidase. Collectively, our results suggest that mangiferin treatment ameliorates fatty liver in fructose-fed SHRs by inhibiting hepatic DGAT-2 that catalyzes the final step in triglyceride biosynthesis. The anti-steatotic effect of mangiferin may occur independently of the hepatic signals associated with de novo fatty acid synthesis and oxidation.

  1. Evaluation of the effect of prepulses on HF laser-target interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have assessed the effect of multinanosecond, low-power-density prepulses on the interaction of multinanosecond, 1014 W/cm2, approx. 3 -μm HF laser pulses with slab targets. The emphasis is on analyzing absorption and x-ray conversion efficiency. A survey of previous experiments gives no evidence that these prepulses will affect the total absorption. However, prepulses have been observed to cause qualitative changes in both the x-ray spectrum and conversion efficiency. Numerical simulations indicate that the laser-target interaction is effectively insensitive to low-power-density prepulses. These studies imply that basic laser-target experiments with multiplexed, HF laser pulses will provide an important characterization of the interaction of long pulse, multi-line, approx. 3 μm radiation with targets. Future wavelength comparison experiments will require prepulse suppression or target isolation

  2. The amelioration of phagocytic ability in microglial cells by curcumin through the inhibition of EMF-induced pro-inflammatory responses

    OpenAIRE

    He, Gen-Lin; Liu, Yong; Min LI; Chen, Chun-Hai; Gao, Peng; Yu, Zheng-Ping; Yang, Xue-Sen

    2014-01-01

    Background Insufficient clearance by microglial cells, prevalent in several neurological conditions and diseases, is intricately intertwined with MFG-E8 expression and inflammatory responses. Electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure can elicit the pro-inflammatory activation and may also trigger an alteration of the clearance function in microglial cells. Curcumin has important roles in the anti-inflammatory and phagocytic process. Here, we evaluated the ability of curcumin to ameliorate the phag...

  3. The effects of insulating coatings and current prepulse on tungsten planar wire array Z-pinches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, M., E-mail: limo@nint.ac.cn; Li, Y. [State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Shaanxi 710049 (China); State Key Laboratory of Intense Pulsed Radiation Simulation and Effect, Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, Xi' an 710024 (China); Sheng, L.; Wang, L. P.; Zhao, C.; Yuan, Y.; Zhang, X. J.; Zhang, M.; Peng, B. D.; Zhang, J. H.; Zhang, S. G.; Qiu, M. T. [State Key Laboratory of Intense Pulsed Radiation Simulation and Effect, Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, Xi' an 710024 (China); Li, X. W. [State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Shaanxi 710049 (China)

    2015-12-15

    This paper presents experimental results on the effects of insulating coatings and current prepulse on tungsten planar wire array Z-pinches on ∼100 ns main current facility. Optical framing images indicated that without a current prepulse the wire ablation process was asymmetrical and the implosion was zippered. The x-ray peak power was ∼320 GW. By using insulating coatings on the wire surface the asymmetry remained, and the processes of ablation and implosion were delayed by ∼30 ns. The x-ray burst was narrow and decreased to ∼200 GW. When current prepulses were used on both standard and insulated wire arrays, implosion symmetry was improved and the x-ray burst was improved (to ∼520 GW peak power). In addition, there was a strong emitting precursor column for insulated loads with the current prepulse.

  4. Influence of Laser Prepulse in Ultra-short Laser-Driven Proton Acceleration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Influence of laser prepulse in ultra-short laser-driven proton acceleration was investigated by the differences in spatial distribution and energy spectrum between different foil-targets. The laser system produced pulses having energies of up to

  5. Chronic administration of the neurotrophic agent cerebrolysin ameliorates the behavioral and morphological changes induced by neonatal ventral hippocampus lesion in a rat model of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Roque, Rubén Antonio; Ramos, Brenda; Tecuatl, Carolina; Juárez, Ismael; Adame, Anthony; de la Cruz, Fidel; Zamudio, Sergio; Mena, Raúl; Rockenstein, Edward; Masliah, Eliezer; Flores, Gonzalo

    2012-01-01

    Neonatal ventral hippocampal lesion (nVHL) in rats has been widely used as a neurodevelopmental model to mimic schizophrenia-like behaviors. Recently, we reported that nVHLs result in dendritic retraction and spine loss in prefrontal cortex (PFC) pyramidal neurons and medium spiny neurons of the nucleus accumbens (NAcc). Cerebrolysin (Cbl), a neurotrophic peptide mixture, has been reported to ameliorate the synaptic and dendritic pathology in models of aging and neurodevelopmental disorder such as Rett syndrome. This study sought to determine whether Cbl was capable of reducing behavioral and neuronal alterations in nVHL rats. The behavioral analysis included locomotor activity induced by novel environment and amphetamine, social interaction, and sensoriomotor gating. The morphological evaluation included dendritic analysis by using the Golgi-Cox procedure and stereology to quantify the total cell number in PFC and NAcc. Behavioral data show a reduction in the hyperresponsiveness to novel environment- and amphetamine-induced locomotion, with an increase in the total time spent in social interactions and in prepulse inhibition in Cbl-treated nVHL rats. In addition, neuropathological analysis of the limbic regions also showed amelioration of dendritic retraction and spine loss in Cbl-treated nVHL rats. Cbl treatment also ameliorated dendritic pathology and neuronal loss in the PFC and NAcc in nVHL rats. This study demonstrates that Cbl promotes behavioral improvements and recovery of dendritic neuronal damage in postpubertal nVHL rats and suggests that Cbl may have neurotrophic effects in this neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia. These findings support the possibility that Cbl has beneficial effects in the management of schizophrenia symptoms. PMID:21932359

  6. Chronic administration of the neurotrophic agent cerebrolysin ameliorates the behavioral and morphological changes induced by neonatal ventral hippocampus lesion in a rat model of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Roque, Rubén Antonio; Ramos, Brenda; Tecuatl, Carolina; Juárez, Ismael; Adame, Anthony; de la Cruz, Fidel; Zamudio, Sergio; Mena, Raúl; Rockenstein, Edward; Masliah, Eliezer; Flores, Gonzalo

    2012-01-01

    Neonatal ventral hippocampal lesion (nVHL) in rats has been widely used as a neurodevelopmental model to mimic schizophrenia-like behaviors. Recently, we reported that nVHLs result in dendritic retraction and spine loss in prefrontal cortex (PFC) pyramidal neurons and medium spiny neurons of the nucleus accumbens (NAcc). Cerebrolysin (Cbl), a neurotrophic peptide mixture, has been reported to ameliorate the synaptic and dendritic pathology in models of aging and neurodevelopmental disorder such as Rett syndrome. This study sought to determine whether Cbl was capable of reducing behavioral and neuronal alterations in nVHL rats. The behavioral analysis included locomotor activity induced by novel environment and amphetamine, social interaction, and sensoriomotor gating. The morphological evaluation included dendritic analysis by using the Golgi-Cox procedure and stereology to quantify the total cell number in PFC and NAcc. Behavioral data show a reduction in the hyperresponsiveness to novel environment- and amphetamine-induced locomotion, with an increase in the total time spent in social interactions and in prepulse inhibition in Cbl-treated nVHL rats. In addition, neuropathological analysis of the limbic regions also showed amelioration of dendritic retraction and spine loss in Cbl-treated nVHL rats. Cbl treatment also ameliorated dendritic pathology and neuronal loss in the PFC and NAcc in nVHL rats. This study demonstrates that Cbl promotes behavioral improvements and recovery of dendritic neuronal damage in postpubertal nVHL rats and suggests that Cbl may have neurotrophic effects in this neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia. These findings support the possibility that Cbl has beneficial effects in the management of schizophrenia symptoms.

  7. A semisynthetic diterpenoid lactone inhibits NF-κB signalling to ameliorate inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness in a mouse asthma model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, J C-W; Goh, F-Y; Sagineedu, S-R; Yong, A C-H; Sidik, S M; Lajis, N H; Wong, W S F; Stanslas, J

    2016-07-01

    Andrographolide (AGP) and 14-deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide (DDAG), two main diterpenoid constituents of Andrographis paniculata were previously shown to ameliorate asthmatic symptoms in a mouse model. However, due to inadequacies of both compounds in terms of drug-likeness, DDAG analogues were semisynthesised for assessment of their anti-asthma activity. A selected analogue, 3,19-diacetyl-14-deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide (SRS27), was tested for inhibitory activity of NF-κB activation in TNF-α-induced A549 cells and was subsequently evaluated in a mouse model of ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthma. Female BALB/c mice, 6-8weeks old were sensitized on days 0 and 14, and challenged on days 22, 23 and 24 with OVA. Compound or vehicle (3% dimethyl sulfoxide) was administered intraperitoneally 1h before and 11h after each OVA aerosol challenge. On day 25, pulmonary eosinophilia, airway hyperresponsiveness, mucus hypersecretion, inflammatory cytokines such as IL-4, -5 and -13 in BAL fluid, gene expression of inflammatory mediators such as 5-LOX, E-selectin, VCAM-1, CCL5, TNF-α, AMCase, Ym2, YKL-40, Muc5ac, CCL2 and iNOS in animal lung tissues, and serum IgE were determined. SRS27 at 30μM was found to suppress NF-κB nuclear translocation in A549 cells. In the ovalbumin-induced mouse asthma model, SRS27 at 3mg/kg displayed a substantial decrease in pulmonary eosinophilia, BAL fluid inflammatory cytokines level, serum IgE production, mucus hypersecretion and gene expression of inflammatory mediators in lung tissues. SRS27 is the first known DDAG analogue effective in ameliorating inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness in the ovalbumin-induced mouse asthma model. PMID:27089844

  8. The effect of current prepulse on wire array Z-pinch implosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of a prepulse current on the behavior of wire array Z pinches is investigated. The experiments were performed on the MAGPIE generator (1 MA peak current at 240 ns) [I. Mitchell, J. M. Bayley, J. P. Chittenden et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 1533 (1996)]. A linear ramp current, ∼500-ns long, was used as a prepulse. The array consisted of 32 15-μm aluminum wires, 23-mm long arranged in a 16-mm diameter circle. With a prepulse of 1 kA/wire, a low density precursor plasma column (ne∼2x1017 cm-3) is formed on the array axis before the start of the main current. Later, the soft x-ray emission shows the growth of an m=1 helical instability in the precursor plasma, which indicates the presence of a current. Without a prepulse current, the precursor plasma on axis is uniform and does not show any instability. The x-ray pulse at stagnation on axis is at least 30 times smaller with a prepulse current than without

  9. Cysteamine treatment ameliorates alterations in GAD67 expression and spatial memory in heterozygous reeler mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutiyanawalla, Ammar; Promsote, Wanwisa; Terry, Alvin; Pillai, Anilkumar

    2012-09-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signalling through its receptor, TrkB is known to regulate GABAergic function and glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) 67 expression in neurons. Alterations in BDNF signalling have been implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and as a result, they are a potential therapeutic target. Interestingly, heterozygous reeler mice (HRM) have decreased GAD67 expression in the frontal cortex and hippocampus and they exhibit many behavioural and neurochemical abnormalities similar to schizophrenia. In this study, we evaluated the potential of cysteamine, a neuroprotective compound to improve the deficits in GAD67 expression and cognitive function in HRM. We found that cysteamine administration (150 mg/kg.d, through drinking water) for 30 d significantly ameliorated the decreases in GAD67, mature BDNF and full-length TrkB protein levels found in frontal cortex and hippocampus of HRM. A significant attenuation of the increased levels of truncated BDNF in frontal cortex and hippocampus, as well as truncated TrkB in frontal cortex of HRM was also observed following cysteamine treatment. In behavioural studies, HRM were impaired in a Y-maze spatial recognition memory task, but not in a spontaneous alternation task or a sensorimotor, prepulse inhibition (PPI) procedure. Cysteamine improved Y-maze spatial recognition in HRM to the level of wide-type controls and it improved PPI in both wild-type and HRM. Finally, mice deficient in TrkB, showed a reduced response to cysteamine in GAD67 expression suggesting that TrkB signalling plays an important role in GAD67 regulation by cysteamine.

  10. Garlic-Derived S-Allylmercaptocysteine Ameliorates Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in a Rat Model through Inhibition of Apoptosis and Enhancing Autophagy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Xiao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Our previous study demonstrated that administration of garlic-derived antioxidant S-allylmercaptocysteine (SAMC ameliorated hepatic injury in a nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD rat model. Our present study aimed to investigate the mechanism of SAMC on NAFLD-induced hepatic apoptosis and autophagy. Adult female rats were fed with a high-fat diet for 8 weeks to develop NAFLD with or without intraperitoneal injection of 200 mg/kg SAMC for three times per week. During NAFLD development, increased apoptotic cells and caspase-3 activation were observed in the liver. Increased apoptosis was modulated through both intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways. NAFLD treatment also enhanced the expression of key autophagic markers in the liver with reduced activity of LKB1/AMPK and PI3K/Akt pathways. Increased expression of proapoptotic regulator p53 and decreased activity of antiautophagic regulator mTOR were also observed. Administration of SAMC reduced the number of apoptotic cells through downregulation of both intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic mechanisms. SAMC also counteracted the effects of NAFLD on LKB1/AMPK and PI3K/Akt pathways. Treatment with SAMC further enhanced hepatic autophagy by regulating autophagic markers and mTOR activity. In conclusion, administration of SAMC during NAFLD development in rats protects the liver from chronic injury by reducing apoptosis and enhancing autophagy.

  11. Essential oil from the heartwood of Taiwan fir ameliorates LPS-induced inflammatory response by inhibiting the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, May-Lan; Hua, Kuo-Feng; Yang, Tzu-Jung; Chiu, Huan-Wen; Ho, Chen-Lung

    2014-10-01

    The essential oil from the heartwood of Taiwan fir (EOTC) was demonstrated to exhibit anti-inflammatory activity in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated mouse macrophages. EOTC reduced nitrite oxide levels and inducible nitrite oxide synthase expression in, and tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 secretion by, LPS-activated macrophages without affecting cyclooxygenase-2 expression. EOTC reduced the levels of interleukin-lβ precursor induced by LPS and decreased the NLRP3 inflammasome-derived interleukin-lβ secretion induced by LPS and adenosine triphosphate. In addition, the phosphorylation levels of ERKI/2, JNK1/2, and p38 in LPS-activated macrophages were reduced by EOTC. Furthermore, EOTC was composed of oxygenated sesquiterpenes (68.4%), sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (28.9%) and diterpenes (0.9%). The major compounds of the oxygenated sesquiterpenes were τ-cadinol (23.9%), α-cadinol (21.1%) and cedrol (16.9%). These findings suggest that EOTC may be a candidate for the development of anti-inflammatory agents for preventing and ameliorating inflammation-related diseases. PMID:25522551

  12. Inhibition of Notch Signaling Ameliorates Acute Kidney Failure and Downregulates Platelet-Derived Growth Factor Receptor β in the Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Jan; Schwanbeck, Ralf; Pagel, Horst; Cakiroglu, Figen; Rohwedel, Jürgen; Just, Ursula

    2016-01-01

    Ischemic acute kidney injury (AKI) is associated with high morbidity and frequent complications. Repeated episodes of AKI may lead to end-stage renal failure. The pathobiology of regeneration in AKI is not well understood and there is no effective clinical therapy that improves regeneration. The Notch signaling pathway plays an essential role in kidney development and has been implicated in tissue repair in the adult kidney. Here, we found that kidneys after experimental AKI in mice showed increased expression of Notch receptors, specifically Notch1-3, of the Notch ligands Jagged-1 (Jag1), Jag2 and Delta-like-4 (Dll4) and of the Notch target genes Hes1, Hey2, HeyL, Sox9 and platelet-derived growth factor receptor β (Pdgfrb). Treatment of ischemic mice with the x03B3;-secretase inhibitor DBZ blocked Notch signaling and specifically downregulated the expression of Notch3 and the Notch target genes Hes1, Hey2, HeyL and Pdgfrb. After DBZ treatment, the mice developed less interstitial edema and displayed altered interstitial inflammation patterns. Furthermore, serum urea and creatinine levels were significantly decreased from 6 h onwards when compared to control mice treated with DMSO only. Our data are consistent with an amelioration of the severity of kidney injury by blocking Notch activation following AKI, and suggest an involvement of Notch-regulated Pdgfrb in AKI pathogenesis. PMID:26939110

  13. 1,4-Dihydropyridines Active on the SIRT1/AMPK Pathway Ameliorate Skin Repair and Mitochondrial Function and Exhibit Inhibition of Proliferation in Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Sergio; Mellini, Paolo; Spallotta, Francesco; Carafa, Vincenzo; Nebbioso, Angela; Polletta, Lucia; Carnevale, Ilaria; Saladini, Serena; Trisciuoglio, Daniela; Gabellini, Chiara; Tardugno, Maria; Zwergel, Clemens; Cencioni, Chiara; Atlante, Sandra; Moniot, Sébastien; Steegborn, Clemens; Budriesi, Roberta; Tafani, Marco; Del Bufalo, Donatella; Altucci, Lucia; Gaetano, Carlo; Mai, Antonello

    2016-02-25

    Modulators of sirtuins are considered promising therapeutic targets for the treatment of cancer, cardiovascular, metabolic, inflammatory, and neurodegenerative diseases. Here we prepared new 1,4-dihydropyridines (DHPs) bearing changes at the C2/C6, C3/C5, C4, or N1 position. Tested with the SIRTainty procedure, some of them displayed increased SIRT1 activation with respect to the prototype 3a, high NO release in HaCat cells, and ameliorated skin repair in a mouse model of wound healing. In C2C12 myoblasts, two of them improved mitochondrial density and functions. All the effects were reverted by coadministration of compound C (9), an AMPK inhibitor, or of EX-527 (10), a SIRT1 inhibitor, highlighting the involvement of the SIRT1/AMPK pathway in the action of DHPs. Finally, tested in a panel of cancer cells, the water-soluble form of 3a, compound 8, displayed antiproliferative effects in the range of 8-35 μM and increased H4K16 deacetylation, suggesting a possible role for SIRT1 activators in cancer therapy. PMID:26689352

  14. Atomic layer deposition of platinum with enhanced nucleation and coalescence by trimethylaluminum pre-pulsing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Yoontae; Dayeh, Shadi A., E-mail: sdayeh@ece.ucsd.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, San Diego, California 92093 (United States); Nguyen, Binh-Minh [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, San Diego, California 92093 (United States); Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    2013-12-23

    Conformal coating of metal layers on three-dimensional structures is essential for advanced electronic devices such as storage elements, transistors, and sensors. The quality of atomic layer deposited platinum on oxide surfaces was enhanced by adding pre-deposition pulses of trimethylaluminum (TMA) for improved wetting. With an optimal number of TMA pre-pulses, a 6 nm thick Pt film was perfectly coalesced in contrast to only Pt island formation without TMA pre-pulses. A Pt gate all around Ge/Si nanowire field effect transistor was realized highlighting the potential of this approach for efficient deposition of Pt on 3D nanoelectronic devices.

  15. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation ameliorates anxiety-like behavior and impaired sensorimotor gating in a rat model of post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua-Ning Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS has been employed for decades as a non-pharmacologic treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD. Although a link has been suggested between PTSD and impaired sensorimotor gating (SG, studies assessing the effects of rTMS against PTSD or PTSD with impaired SG are scarce. AIM: To assess the benefit of rTMS in a rat model of PTSD. METHODS: Using a modified single prolonged stress (SPS&S rat model of PTSD, behavioral parameters were acquired using open field test (OFT, elevated plus maze test (EPMT, and prepulse inhibition trial (PPI, with or without 7 days of high frequency (10Hz rTMS treatment of SPS&S rats. RESULTS: Anxiety-like behavior, impaired SG and increased plasma level of cortisol were observed in SPS&S animals after stress for a prolonged time. Interestingly, rTMS administered immediately after stress prevented those impairment. CONCLUSION: Stress-induced anxiety-like behavior, increased plasma level of cortisol and impaired PPI occur after stress and high-frequency rTMS has the potential to ameliorate this behavior, suggesting that high frequency rTMS should be further evaluated for its use as a method for preventing PTSD.

  16. Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme (ACE) 2 Overexpression Ameliorates Glomerular Injury in a Rat Model of Diabetic Nephropathy: A Comparison with ACE Inhibition

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Chun Xi; Hu, Qin; Yan WANG; Zhang, Wei; Ma, Zhi Yong; Feng, Jin Bo; Wang, Rong; Wang, Xu Ping; Dong, Bo; Gao, Fei; Zhang, Ming Xiang; Zhang, Yun

    2010-01-01

    The reduced expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) 2 in the kidneys of animal models and patients with diabetes suggests ACE2 involvement in diabetic nephrology. To explore the renoprotective effects of ACE2 overexpression, ACE inhibition (ACEI) or both on diabetic nephropathy and the potential mechanisms involved, 50 Wistar rats were randomly divided into a normal group that received an injection of sodium citrate buffer and a diabetic model group that received an injection of 60 ...

  17. Celastrol ameliorates HIV-1 Tat-induced inflammatory responses via NF-kappaB and AP-1 inhibition and heme oxygenase-1 induction in astrocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youn, Gi Soo; Kwon, Dong-Joo; Ju, Sung Mi [Department of Biomedical Science and Research Institute for Bioscience and Biotechnology, Hallym University, Chunchon 200-702 (Korea, Republic of); Rhim, Hyangshuk [Department of Biomedical Sciences, Department of Medical Life Sciences, College of Medicine, the Catholic University of Korea, Seoul 137-701 (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Yong Soo [Department of Biological Science, College of Natural Sciences, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Soo Young [Department of Biomedical Science and Research Institute for Bioscience and Biotechnology, Hallym University, Chunchon 200-702 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jinseu, E-mail: jinpark@hallym.ac.kr [Department of Biomedical Science and Research Institute for Bioscience and Biotechnology, Hallym University, Chunchon 200-702 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-01

    HIV-1 Tat causes extensive neuroinflammation that may progress to AIDS-related encephalitis and dementia. Celastrol possesses various biological activities such as anti-oxidant, anti-tumor, and anti-inflammatory activities. In this study, we investigated the modulatory effects of celastrol on HIV-1 Tat-induced inflammatory responses and the molecular mechanisms underlying its action in astrocytes. Pre-treatment of CRT-MG human astroglioma cells with celastrol significantly inhibited HIV-1 Tat-induced expression of ICAM-1/VCAM-1 and subsequent monocyte adhesiveness in CRT-MG cells. In addition, celastrol suppressed HIV-1 Tat-induced expression of pro-inflammatory chemokines, such as CXCL10, IL-8, and MCP-1. Celastrol decreased HIV-1 Tat-induced activation of JNK MAPK, AP-1, and NF-κB. Furthermore, celastrol induced mRNA and protein expression of HO-1 as well as Nrf2 activation. Blockage of HO-1 expression using siRNA reversed the inhibitory effect of celastrol on HIV-1 Tat-induced inflammatory responses. These results suggest that celastrol has regulatory effects on HIV-1 Tat-induced inflammatory responses by blocking the JNK MAPK-AP-1/NF-κB signaling pathways and inducing HO-1 expression in astrocytes. - Highlights: • Celastrol suppressed HIV-1 Tat-induced expression of pro-inflammatory genes. • Celastrol inhibited HIV-1 Tat -induced activation of JNK MAPK. • Celastrol inhibited HIV-1 Tat-induced activation of both NF-κB and AP-1. • Celastrol inhibited HIV-1 Tat-induced inflammatory responses via HO-1 induction.

  18. Celastrol ameliorates HIV-1 Tat-induced inflammatory responses via NF-kappaB and AP-1 inhibition and heme oxygenase-1 induction in astrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HIV-1 Tat causes extensive neuroinflammation that may progress to AIDS-related encephalitis and dementia. Celastrol possesses various biological activities such as anti-oxidant, anti-tumor, and anti-inflammatory activities. In this study, we investigated the modulatory effects of celastrol on HIV-1 Tat-induced inflammatory responses and the molecular mechanisms underlying its action in astrocytes. Pre-treatment of CRT-MG human astroglioma cells with celastrol significantly inhibited HIV-1 Tat-induced expression of ICAM-1/VCAM-1 and subsequent monocyte adhesiveness in CRT-MG cells. In addition, celastrol suppressed HIV-1 Tat-induced expression of pro-inflammatory chemokines, such as CXCL10, IL-8, and MCP-1. Celastrol decreased HIV-1 Tat-induced activation of JNK MAPK, AP-1, and NF-κB. Furthermore, celastrol induced mRNA and protein expression of HO-1 as well as Nrf2 activation. Blockage of HO-1 expression using siRNA reversed the inhibitory effect of celastrol on HIV-1 Tat-induced inflammatory responses. These results suggest that celastrol has regulatory effects on HIV-1 Tat-induced inflammatory responses by blocking the JNK MAPK-AP-1/NF-κB signaling pathways and inducing HO-1 expression in astrocytes. - Highlights: • Celastrol suppressed HIV-1 Tat-induced expression of pro-inflammatory genes. • Celastrol inhibited HIV-1 Tat -induced activation of JNK MAPK. • Celastrol inhibited HIV-1 Tat-induced activation of both NF-κB and AP-1. • Celastrol inhibited HIV-1 Tat-induced inflammatory responses via HO-1 induction

  19. A low toxicity synthetic cinnamaldehyde derivative ameliorates renal inflammation in mice by inhibiting NLRP3 inflammasome and its related signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ka, Shuk-Man; Kuoping Chao, Louis; Lin, Jung-Chen; Chen, Shui-Tein; Li, Wen-Tai; Lin, Chien-Nan; Cheng, Jen-Che; Jheng, Huei-Ling; Chen, Ann; Hua, Kuo-Feng

    2016-02-01

    Uncontrolled inflammation is a leading cause of various chronic diseases. Cinnamaldehyde (CA) is a major bioactive compound isolated from the essential oil of the leaves of Cinnamomum osmophloeum kaneh that exhibits anti-inflammatory activity; however, the use of CA is limited by its cytotoxicity. Here, we synthesized three CA derivatives and identified 4-hydroxycinnamaldehyde-galactosamine (HCAG) as a low toxicity anti-inflammatory compound in vitro (HCAG IC50 ≫ 1600 µM; CA IC50=40 µM) and in vivo. HCAG reduced pro-inflammatory mediator expression in LPS-activated macrophages by inhibiting MAPK and PKC-α/δ phosphorylation, decreasing ROS generation and reducing NF-κB activation. HCAG also reduced NLRP3 inflammasome-derived IL-1β secretion by inhibiting the ATP-mediated phosphorylation of AKT and PKC-α/δ. In a mouse model of LPS-induced renal inflammation, we observed reduced albuminuria and a mild degree of glomerular proliferation, glomerular sclerosis and periglomerular inflammation in the HCAG-treated mice compared with the vehicle-treated mice. The underlying mechanisms for these renoprotective effects involved: (1) inhibited NLRP3 inflammasome activation; (2) decreased superoxide anion levels and apoptosis; and (3) suppressed activation of NF-κB and related downstream inflammatory mediators. PMID:26675345

  20. Glycyrrhizin Ameliorates Imiquimod-Induced Psoriasis-like Skin Lesions in BALB/c Mice and Inhibits TNF-a-Induced ICAM-1 Expression via NF-κB/MAPK in HaCaT Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Xiong

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim: Glycyrrhizin (GL is an important derivative of certain herbal medicines used in Asian countries. Currently, GL is used to treat hepatitis and allergic disease worldwide because of its anti-viral and anti-allergy effects. In addition to these prominent functions, GL likely regulates cellular functions such as tumor cell growth and cellular immunity. However, how GL affects the keratinocyte inflammation response remains poorly understood. The current paper investigates the effect of GL on psoriasis and explores the mechanisms involved. Methods: We used an in vitro cell model of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-a-induced keratinocyte inflammation and the topical application of imiquimod (IMQ using an animal model (mouse skin of IMQ-induced psoriasis-like inflammation (IPI to investigate the effect of GL on skin inflammation. Cell viability was analyzed using the Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK8. Carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester (CFSE labeling was used to trace monocyte adherence to keratinocytes. A Western blot analysis was used to detect the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1 and the activation of the nuclear factor (NF-κB/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK signaling pathway. A modified version of the Psoriasis Area Severity Index (PASI was used to monitor disease severity. Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E staining was used to observe pathological changes. An immunohistochemistry (IHC analysis was used to detect ICAM-1 expression in mouse skin. Results: GL treatment significantly reduced the levels of ICAM-1 in TNF-a-stimulated HaCaT cells, inhibited subsequent monocyte adhesion to keratinocytes, and suppressed the nuclear translation and phosphorylation of p65 following the degradation of inhibitor κB (IκB. GL treatment blocked the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK/p38 MAPK. GL effectively delayed the onset of IPI in mice and ameliorated ongoing IPI, thereby reducing ICAM-1 expression in

  1. Site-targeted complement inhibition by a complement receptor 2-conjugated inhibitor (mTT30) ameliorates post-injury neuropathology in mouse brains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Megan C; Keene, Chesleigh N; Neher, Miriam D; Johnson, Krista; Yu, Zhao-Xue; Ganivet, Antoine; Holers, V Michael; Stahel, Philip F

    2016-03-23

    Intracerebral complement activation after severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) leads to a cascade of neuroinflammatory pathological sequelae that propagate host-mediated secondary brain injury and adverse outcomes. There are currently no specific pharmacological agents on the market to prevent or mitigate the development of secondary cerebral insults after TBI. A novel chimeric CR2-fH compound (mTT30) provides targeted inhibition of the alternative complement pathway at the site of tissue injury. This experimental study was designed to test the neuroprotective effects of mTT30 in a mouse model of closed head injury. The administration of 500 μg mTT30 i.v. at 1 h, 4 h and 24 h after head injury attenuated complement C3 deposition in injured brains, reduced the extent of neuronal cell death, and decreased post-injury microglial activation, compared to vehicle-injected placebo controls. These data imply that site-targeted alternative pathway complement inhibition may represent a new promising therapeutic avenue for the future management of severe TBI. PMID:26892188

  2. Artesunate ameliorates severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) in rats by inhibiting expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and Toll-like receptor 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cen, Yanyan; Liu, Chao; Li, Xiaoli; Yan, Zifei; Kuang, Mei; Su, Yujie; Pan, Xichun; Qin, Rongxin; Liu, Xin; Zheng, Jiang; Zhou, Hong

    2016-09-01

    Severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) is a severe clinical condition with significant morbidity and mortality. Multiple organs dysfunction (MOD) is the leading cause of SAP-related death. The over-release of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α is the underlying mechanism of MOD; however, there is no effective agent against the inflammation. Herein, artesunate (AS) was found to increase the survival of SAP rats significantly when injected with 3.5% sodium taurocholate into the biliopancreatic duct in a retrograde direction, improving their pancreatic pathology and decreasing serum amylase and pancreatic lipase activities along with substantially reduced pancreatic IL-1β and IL-6 release. In vitro, AS-pretreatment strongly inhibited IL-1β and IL-6 release and their mRNA expressions in the pancreatic acinar cells treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) but exerted little effect on TNF-α release. Additionally, AS reduced the mRNA expressions of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65 as well as their protein expressions in the pancreatic acinar cells. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that AS could significantly protect SAP rats, and this protection was related to the reduction of digestive enzyme activities and pro-inflammatory cytokine expressions via inhibition of TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway. Therefore, AS may be considered as a potential therapeutic agent against SAP.

  3. Artesunate ameliorates severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) in rats by inhibiting expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and Toll-like receptor 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cen, Yanyan; Liu, Chao; Li, Xiaoli; Yan, Zifei; Kuang, Mei; Su, Yujie; Pan, Xichun; Qin, Rongxin; Liu, Xin; Zheng, Jiang; Zhou, Hong

    2016-09-01

    Severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) is a severe clinical condition with significant morbidity and mortality. Multiple organs dysfunction (MOD) is the leading cause of SAP-related death. The over-release of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α is the underlying mechanism of MOD; however, there is no effective agent against the inflammation. Herein, artesunate (AS) was found to increase the survival of SAP rats significantly when injected with 3.5% sodium taurocholate into the biliopancreatic duct in a retrograde direction, improving their pancreatic pathology and decreasing serum amylase and pancreatic lipase activities along with substantially reduced pancreatic IL-1β and IL-6 release. In vitro, AS-pretreatment strongly inhibited IL-1β and IL-6 release and their mRNA expressions in the pancreatic acinar cells treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) but exerted little effect on TNF-α release. Additionally, AS reduced the mRNA expressions of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65 as well as their protein expressions in the pancreatic acinar cells. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that AS could significantly protect SAP rats, and this protection was related to the reduction of digestive enzyme activities and pro-inflammatory cytokine expressions via inhibition of TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway. Therefore, AS may be considered as a potential therapeutic agent against SAP. PMID:27318790

  4. Exogenous spermine ameliorates high glucose-induced cardiomyocytic apoptosis via decreasing reactive oxygen species accumulation through inhibiting p38/JNK and JAK2 pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yuqin; Yang, Jinxia; Li, Hongzhu; Shao, Hongjiang; Wei, Can; Wang, Yuehong; Li, Meixiu; Xu, Changqing

    2015-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation has been suggested to play a vital role in the initiation and progression of diabetic cardiomyopathy, a major complication of diabetes mellitus. Recent studies reveal that spermine possesses proliferative, antiaging and antioxidative properties. Thus, we hypothesized that spermine could decrease apoptosis via suppressing ROS accumulation induced by high glucose (HG) in cardiomyocytes. Cultured neonatal rat ventricle cardiomyocytes were treated with normal glucose (NG) (5 mM) or HG (25 mM) in the presence or absence of spermine for 48 h. The cell activity, apoptosis, ROS production, T-SOD and GSH activities, MDA content and GSSG level were assessed. The results showed that HG induced lipid peroxidation and the increase of intracellular ROS formation and apoptosis in primary cardiomyocytes. Spermine could obviously improve the above-mentioned changes. Western blot analysis revealed that spermine markedly inhibited HG-induced the phosphorylation of p38/JNK MAPKs and JAK2. Moreover, spermine had better antioxidative and anti-apoptotic effects than N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC). Taken together, the present data suggested that spermine could suppress ROS accumulation to decrease cardiomyocytes apoptosis in HG condition, which may be attributed to the inhibition of p38/JNK and JAK2 activation and its natural antioxidative property. Our findings may highlight a new therapeutic intervention for the prevention of diabetic cardiomyopathy. PMID:26884823

  5. Betulinic acid ameliorates experimental diabetic-induced renal inflammation and fibrosis via inhibiting the activation of NF-κB signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shaogui; Yang, Zhiying; Xiong, Fengxiao; Chen, Cheng; Chao, Xiaojuan; Huang, Junying; Huang, Heqing

    2016-10-15

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the leading cause of end-stage renal failure and is characterized by excessive deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins such as fibronectin (FN), in the glomerular mesangium and tubulointerstitium. Betulinic acid (BA), a pentacyclic triterpene derived from the bark of the white birch tree, has been demonstrated to have many pharmacological activities. However, the effect of BA on DN has not been fully elucidated. To explore the possible anti-inflammatory effects of BA and their underlying mechanisms, we used streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat kidneys and high glucose-treated glomerular mesangial cells. Our study showed BA could inhibit the degradation of IκBα and the activity of NF-κB in diabetic rat kidneys and high glucose-induced mesangial cells, resulting in reduction of FN expression. In addition, BA suppressed the DNA binding activity and transcriptional activity of NF-κB in high glucose-induced glomerular mesangial cells (GMCs). Furthermore, BA enhanced the interaction between IκBα and β-arrestin2 in mesangial cells. Taken together, our data suggest BA inhibits NF-κB activation through stabilizing NF-κB inhibitory protein IκBα, thereby preventing diabetic renal fibrosis. PMID:27364889

  6. Inhibition of P2X7 receptor ameliorates transient global cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury via modulating inflammatory responses in the rat hippocampus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chu Ketan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neuroinflammation plays an important role in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R injury. The P2X7 receptor (P2X7R has been reported to be involved in the inflammatory response of many central nervous system diseases. However, the role of P2X7Rs in transient global cerebral I/R injury remains unclear. The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of inhibiting the P2X7R in a rat model of transient global cerebral I/R injury, and then to explore the association between the P2X7R and neuroinflammation after transient global cerebral I/R injury. Methods Immediately after infusion with the P2X7R antagonists Brilliant blue G (BBG, adenosine 5′-triphosphate-2′,3′-dialdehyde (OxATP or A-438079, 20 minutes of transient global cerebral I/R was induced using the four-vessel occlusion (4-VO method in rats. Survival rate was calculated, neuronal death in the hippocampal CA1 region was observed using H & E staining, and DNA cleavage was observed by deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated UTP nick end labeling TUNEL. In addition, behavioral deficits were measured using the Morris water maze, and RT-PCR and immunohistochemical staining were performed to measure the expression of IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-6, and to identify activated microglia and astrocytes. Results The P2X7R antagonists protected against transient global cerebral I/R injury in a dosage-dependent manner. A high dosage of BBG (10 μg and A-0438079 (3 μg, and a low dosage of OxATP (1 μg significantly increased survival rates, reduced I/R-induced learning memory deficit, and reduced I/R-induced neuronal death, DNA cleavage, and glial activation and inflammatory cytokine overexpression in the hippocampus. Conclusions Our study indicates that inhibiting P2X7Rs protects against transient global cerebral I/R injury by reducing the I/R-induced inflammatory response, which suggests inhibition of P2X7Rs may be a promising therapeutic strategy for clinical treatment of

  7. ISSLS PRIZE WINNER: INHIBITION OF NF-κB ACTIVITY AMELIORATES AGE-ASSOCIATED DISC DEGENERATION IN A MOUSE MODEL OF ACCELERATED AGING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasto, Luigi A.; Seo, Hyoung-Yeon; Robinson, Andria R.; Tilstra, Jeremy S.; Clauson, Cheryl L.; Sowa, Gwendolyn A.; Ngo, Kevin; Dong, Qing; Pola, Enrico; Lee, Joon Y.; Niedernhofer, Laura J.; Kang, James D.; Robbins, Paul D.; Vo, Nam V.

    2012-01-01

    Study Design NF-κB activity was pharmacologically and genetically blocked in an accelerated aging mouse model to mitigate age-related disc degenerative changes. Objective To study the mediatory role of NF-κB signaling pathway in age-dependent intervertebral disc degeneration. Summary of Background Data Aging is a major contributor to intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD), but the molecular mechanism behind this process is poorly understood. NF-κB is a family of transcription factors which play a central role in mediating cellular response to damage, stress, and inflammation. Growing evidence implicates chronic NF-κB activation as a culprit in many aging-related diseases, but its role in aging-related IDD has not been adequately explored. We studied the effects of NF-κB inhibition on IDD using a DNA repair-deficient mouse model of accelerated aging (Ercc1-/Δ mice) previously been reported to exhibit age-related IDD. Methods Systemic inhibition of NF-κB activation was achieved either genetically by deletion of one allele of the NF-κB subunit p65 (Ercc1-/Δp65+/- mice) or pharmacologically by chronic intra-peritoneal administration of the Nemo Binding Domain (8K-NBD) peptide to block the formation of the upstream activator of NF-κB, IκB Inducible Kinase (IKK), in Ercc1-/Δ mice. Disc cellularity, total proteoglycan content and proteoglycan synthesis of treated mice and untreated controls were assessed. Results Decreased disc matrix proteoglycan content, a hallmark feature of IDD, and elevated disc NF-κB activity were observed in discs of progeroid Ercc1-/Δ mice and naturally aged wild-type compared to young WT mice. Systemic inhibition of NF-κB by the 8K-NBD peptide in Ercc1-/Δ mice increased disc proteoglycan synthesis and ameriolated loss disc cellularity and matrix proteoglycan. These results were confirmed genetically by using the p65 haploinsufficient Ercc1-/Δp65+/- mice. Conclusion These findings demonstrate that the IKK/NF-κB signaling pathway

  8. Quercetin ameliorates ischemia/reperfusion-induced cognitive deficits by inhibiting ASK1/JNK3/caspase-3 by enhancing the Akt signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Bing; Yang, Miaomiao; Qi, Xiaoyan; Shen, Xin; Chen, Xing; Zhang, Fayong

    2016-09-01

    Cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) is a major cause of severe disability and death all worldwide. However, therapeutic options to minimize the detrimental effects of cerebral I/R injury are limited. Recent research has demonstrated that quercetin mediates neuroprotective effects associated with the activation of the Akt signaling pathway in the cerebral I/R brain. Therefore, the aim of this study was to further investigate the mechanisms of cognitive deficits induced by cerebral I/R injury and the effects of quercetin on these mechanisms. First, we assessed anxiety-like behavioral and cognitive impairment using the open field test and the Morris water maze test, respectively. Next, we examined the severity of apoptosis by staining hippocampal neurons by the Cresyl violet method. Third, we used western blot analysis to investigate the expression of total and phosphorylated Akt, ASK1, JNK3, c-Jun and caspase-3 after I/R injury. Our results revealed that mice subjected to bilateral common carotid occlusion exhibited severe anxiety-like behavior, learning and memory impairment, cell damage and apoptosis. These severe effects were attenuated by administration of quercetin. Further, western blot analysis revealed that quercetin increased p-Akt expression and decreased p-ASK1, p-JNK3 and cleaved caspase-3 expression after cerebral I/R injury and led to inhibition of neuronal apoptosis. Conversely, treatment with LY294002 (a selective inhibitor of Akt1) reversed the effects of quercetin. In conclusion, these findings highlight the important role of quercetin in protecting against cognitive deficits and inhibiting neuronal apoptosis via the Akt signaling pathway. We believe that quercetin might prove to be a useful therapeutic component in treating cerebral I/R diseases in the near future. PMID:27450812

  9. Long-term treatment of thalidomide ameliorates amyloid-like pathology through inhibition of β-secretase in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ping; Cheng, Xin; Staufenbiel, Matthias; Li, Rena; Shen, Yong

    2013-01-01

    Thalidomide is a tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) inhibitor which has been found to have abilities against tumor growth, angiogenesis and inflammation. Recently, it has been applied in clinic for the treatment of multiple myeloma as well as some inflammatory diseases. However, whether thalidomide has any therapeutic effects on neurodegenerative disorders, i.e. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is not clear. AD is characterized by excessive amount of amyloid β peptides (Aβ), which results in a significant release of inflammatory factors, including TNFα in the brain. Studies have shown that inhibition of TNFα reduces amyloid-associated pathology, prevents neuron loss and improves cognition. Our recent report showed that genetic inhibition of TNFα/TNF receptor signal transduction down-regulates β amyloid cleavage enzyme 1 (BACE1) activity, reduces Aβ generation and improves learning and memory deficits. However, the mechanism of thalidomide involving in the mitigation of AD neuropathological features remains unclear. Here, we chronically administrated thalidomide on human APPswedish mutation transgenic (APP23) mice from 9 months old (an onset of Aβ deposits and early stage of AD-like changes) to 12 months old. We found that, in addition of dramatic decrease in the activation of both astrocytes and microglia, thalidomide significantly reduces Aβ load and plaque formation. Furthermore, we found a significant decrease in BACE1 level and activity with long-term thalidomide application. Interestingly, these findings cannot be observed in the brains of 12-month-old APP23 mice with short-term treatment of thalidomide (3 days). These results suggest that chronic thalidomide administration is an alternative approach for AD prevention and therapeutics.

  10. Long-term treatment of thalidomide ameliorates amyloid-like pathology through inhibition of β-secretase in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping He

    Full Text Available Thalidomide is a tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα inhibitor which has been found to have abilities against tumor growth, angiogenesis and inflammation. Recently, it has been applied in clinic for the treatment of multiple myeloma as well as some inflammatory diseases. However, whether thalidomide has any therapeutic effects on neurodegenerative disorders, i.e. Alzheimer's disease (AD is not clear. AD is characterized by excessive amount of amyloid β peptides (Aβ, which results in a significant release of inflammatory factors, including TNFα in the brain. Studies have shown that inhibition of TNFα reduces amyloid-associated pathology, prevents neuron loss and improves cognition. Our recent report showed that genetic inhibition of TNFα/TNF receptor signal transduction down-regulates β amyloid cleavage enzyme 1 (BACE1 activity, reduces Aβ generation and improves learning and memory deficits. However, the mechanism of thalidomide involving in the mitigation of AD neuropathological features remains unclear. Here, we chronically administrated thalidomide on human APPswedish mutation transgenic (APP23 mice from 9 months old (an onset of Aβ deposits and early stage of AD-like changes to 12 months old. We found that, in addition of dramatic decrease in the activation of both astrocytes and microglia, thalidomide significantly reduces Aβ load and plaque formation. Furthermore, we found a significant decrease in BACE1 level and activity with long-term thalidomide application. Interestingly, these findings cannot be observed in the brains of 12-month-old APP23 mice with short-term treatment of thalidomide (3 days. These results suggest that chronic thalidomide administration is an alternative approach for AD prevention and therapeutics.

  11. MGAT2 deficiency ameliorates high-fat diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance by inhibiting intestinal fat absorption in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuchida Takuma

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Resynthesis of triglycerides in enterocytes of the small intestine plays a critical role in the absorption of dietary fat. Acyl-CoA:monoacylglycerol acyltransferase-2 (MGAT2 is highly expressed in the small intestine and catalyzes the synthesis of diacylglycerol from monoacylglycerol and acyl-CoA. To determine the physiological importance of MGAT2 in metabolic disorders and lipid metabolism in the small intestine, we constructed and analyzed Mgat2-deficient mice. Results In oral fat tolerance test (OFTT, Mgat2-deficient mice absorbed less fat into the circulation. When maintained on a high-fat diet (HFD, Mgat2-deficient mice were protected from HFD-induced obesity and insulin resistance. Heterozygote (Mgat2+/− mice had an intermediate phenotype between Mgat2+/+ and Mgat2−/− and were partially protected from metabolic disorders. Despite of a decrease in fat absorption in the Mgat2-deficient mice, lipid levels in the feces and small intestine were comparable among the genotypes. Oxygen consumption was increased in the Mgat2-deficient mice when maintained on an HFD. A prominent upregulation of the genes involved in fatty acid oxidation was observed in the duodenum but not in the liver of the Mgat2-deficient mice. Conclusion These results suggest that MGAT2 has a pivotal role in lipid metabolism in the small intestine, and the inhibition of MGAT2 activity may be a promising strategy for the treatment of obesity-related metabolic disorders.

  12. Maresin 1 ameliorates iron-deficient anemia in IL-10-/- mice with spontaneous colitis by the inhibition of hepcidin expression though the IL-6/STAT3 pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Honggang; Shi, Peiliang; Huang, Chuanjiang; Liu, Qinghong

    2016-01-01

    Background: Approximately 50% of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) suffer from anemia, which is prevalently caused by iron deficiency. Maresin 1 (MaR1) is a novel docosahexaenoic acid-derived pro-resolving agent that promotes the resolution of inflammation. The aim of the present study was to investigate the therapeutic effects of MaR1 on iron-deficient anemia in IL-10 knockout (IL-10-/-) mice with spontaneous chronic colitis. Methods: IL-10-/- mice of 16 weeks of age with established colitis were used for the experiments with MaR1 treatment for 2 weeks. Histologic injury, CD4+ lymphocyte values in the lamina propria, blood hemoglobin, hematocrit, serum iron concentrations, transferrin saturation, splenic iron stores, levels of inflammatory cytokines, expression of liver hepcidin mRNA, and western blotting of STAT3 were analyzed in this study. Results: MaR1 treatment (0.3 ng/mouse) effectively attenuated histological colitis typically associated with decreased CD4+ lymphocytes in the lamina propria as well as the concentrations of MPO, TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-6 and IL-17 (Piron, transferrin saturation and splenic iron stores were found in IL-10-/- mice after MaR1 treatment (Piron-deficient anemia by reducing colonic inflammation and inhibiting hepcidin expression though the IL-6/STAT3 pathway. PMID:27398158

  13. MicroRNA let-7a ameliorates con A-induced hepatitis by inhibiting IL-6-dependent Th17 cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yingying; Wang, Xiangmin; Zhong, Min; Zhang, Mengying; Suo, Qifeng; Lv, Kun

    2013-04-01

    In this study we explored the effects of microRNA let-7a on Con A-induced hepatitis and its possible mechanisms involved. We demonstrated that IL-6 and IL-17 expression were significantly upregulated in the liver following Con A treatment and IL-6 level was correlated with the IL-17 expression. To explore whether let-7a may have therapeutic effect on Con A-induced hepatitis, mice was infected with a lentiviral vector containing the let-7a sequence 7 days before Con A treatment. Significantly reduced Th17 cells and remarkably increased regulatory T cells frequency in the liver tissue were found as compared to control mice. It was accompanied by a significant decreased level of inflammatory cytokines as TNF-α, IL-6 and IFN-γ in the serum, and an decreased level of Th17 lineage-specific genes such as Il17a, Il17f, Il21 and Il23r. let-7a was further found to inhibit Th17 differentiation by downregulating IL-6 secretion. It may represent as a novel therapeutic strategy in treating immune-mediated inflammatory hepatitis.

  14. GW501516, a PPARδ agonist, ameliorates tubulointerstitial inflammation in proteinuric kidney disease via inhibition of TAK1-NFκB pathway in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Yang

    Full Text Available Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs are a nuclear receptor family of ligand-inducible transcription factors, which have three different isoforms: PPARα, δ and γ. It has been demonstrated that PPARα and γ agonists have renoprotective effects in proteinuric kidney diseases; however, the role of PPARδ agonists in kidney diseases remains unclear. Thus, we examined the renoprotective effect of GW501516, a PPARδ agonist, in a protein-overload mouse nephropathy model and identified its molecular mechanism. Mice fed with a control diet or GW501516-containing diet were intraperitoneally injected with free fatty acid (FFA-bound albumin or PBS(-. In the control group, protein overload caused tubular damages, macrophage infiltration and increased mRNA expression of MCP-1 and TNFα. These effects were prevented by GW501516 treatment. In proteinuric kidney diseases, excess exposure of proximal tubular cells to albumin, FFA bound to albumin or cytokines such as TNFα is detrimental. In vitro studies using cultured proximal tubular cells showed that GW501516 attenuated both TNFα- and FFA (palmitate-induced, but not albumin-induced, MCP-1 expression via direct inhibition of the TGF-β activated kinase 1 (TAK1-NFκB pathway, a common downstream signaling pathway to TNFα receptor and toll-like receptor-4. In conclusion, we demonstrate that GW501516 has an anti-inflammatory effect in renal tubular cells and may serve as a therapeutic candidate to attenuate tubulointerstitial lesions in proteinuric kidney diseases.

  15. Bofutsushosan ameliorates obesity in mice through modulating PGC-la expression in brown adipose tissues and inhibiting inflammation in white adipose tissues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Ying-Ying; YAN Yan; ZHAO Zheng; SHI Mei-Jing; ZHANG Yu-Bin

    2016-01-01

    The inducible co-activator PGC-1a plays a crucial role in adaptive thermogenesis and increases energy expenditure in brown adipose tissue (BAT).Meanwhile,chronic inflammation caused by infiltrated-macrophage in the white adipose tissue (WAT) is a target for the treatment of obesity.Bofutsushosan (BF),a traditional Chinese medicine composed of 17 crude drugs,has been widely used to treat obesity in China,Japan,and other Asia countries.However,the mechanism underlying anti-obesity remains to be elucidated.In the present study,we demonstrated that BF oral administration reduced the body weight of obese mice induced by high-fat diet (HFD) and alleviated the level of biochemical markers (P < 0.05),including blood glucose (Glu),total cholesterol (TC),triglyceride (TG),low density lipoprotein (LDL-C) and insulin.Our further results also indicated that oral BF administration increased the expression of PGC-1α and UCP1 in BAT.Moreover,BF also reduced the expression of inflammatory cytokines in WAT,such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6).These findings suggested that the mechanism of BF against obesity was at least partially through increasing gene expression of PGC-1α and UCP1 for energy consumption in BAT and inhibiting inflammation in WAT.

  16. A Grape Seed Procyanidin Extract Ameliorates Fructose-Induced Hypertriglyceridemia in Rats via Enhanced Fecal Bile Acid and Cholesterol Excretion and Inhibition of Hepatic Lipogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura E Downing

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine whether a grape seed procyanidin extract (GSPE exerts a triglyceride-lowering effect in a hyperlipidemic state using the fructose-fed rat model and to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms. Rats were fed either a starch control diet or a diet containing 65% fructose for 8 weeks to induce hypertriglyceridemia. During the 9th week of the study, rats were maintained on their respective diet and administered vehicle or GSPE via oral gavage for 7 days. Fructose increased serum triglyceride levels by 171% after 9 weeks, compared to control, while GSPE administration attenuated this effect, resulting in a 41% decrease. GSPE inhibited hepatic lipogenesis via down-regulation of sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c and stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 in the fructose-fed animals. GSPE increased fecal bile acid and total lipid excretion, decreased serum bile acid levels and increased the expression of genes involved in cholesterol synthesis. However, bile acid biosynthetic gene expression was not increased in the presence of GSPE and fructose. Serum cholesterol levels remained constant, while hepatic cholesterol levels decreased. GSPE did not modulate expression of genes responsible for esterification or biliary export of the newly synthesized cholesterol, but did increase fecal cholesterol excretion, suggesting that in the presence of GSPE and fructose, the liver may secrete more free cholesterol into the plasma which may then be shunted to the proximal small intestine for direct basolateral to apical secretion and subsequent fecal excretion. Our results demonstrate that GSPE effectively lowers serum triglyceride levels in fructose-fed rats after one week administration. This study provides novel insight into the mechanistic actions of GSPE in treating hypertriglyceridemia and demonstrates that it targets hepatic de novo lipogenesis, bile acid homeostasis and non-biliary cholesterol excretion as

  17. A Grape Seed Procyanidin Extract Ameliorates Fructose-Induced Hypertriglyceridemia in Rats via Enhanced Fecal Bile Acid and Cholesterol Excretion and Inhibition of Hepatic Lipogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downing, Laura E; Heidker, Rebecca M; Caiozzi, Gianella C; Wong, Brian S; Rodriguez, Kelvin; Del Rey, Fernando; Ricketts, Marie-Louise

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether a grape seed procyanidin extract (GSPE) exerts a triglyceride-lowering effect in a hyperlipidemic state using the fructose-fed rat model and to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms. Rats were fed either a starch control diet or a diet containing 65% fructose for 8 weeks to induce hypertriglyceridemia. During the 9th week of the study, rats were maintained on their respective diet and administered vehicle or GSPE via oral gavage for 7 days. Fructose increased serum triglyceride levels by 171% after 9 weeks, compared to control, while GSPE administration attenuated this effect, resulting in a 41% decrease. GSPE inhibited hepatic lipogenesis via down-regulation of sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c and stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 in the fructose-fed animals. GSPE increased fecal bile acid and total lipid excretion, decreased serum bile acid levels and increased the expression of genes involved in cholesterol synthesis. However, bile acid biosynthetic gene expression was not increased in the presence of GSPE and fructose. Serum cholesterol levels remained constant, while hepatic cholesterol levels decreased. GSPE did not modulate expression of genes responsible for esterification or biliary export of the newly synthesized cholesterol, but did increase fecal cholesterol excretion, suggesting that in the presence of GSPE and fructose, the liver may secrete more free cholesterol into the plasma which may then be shunted to the proximal small intestine for direct basolateral to apical secretion and subsequent fecal excretion. Our results demonstrate that GSPE effectively lowers serum triglyceride levels in fructose-fed rats after one week administration. This study provides novel insight into the mechanistic actions of GSPE in treating hypertriglyceridemia and demonstrates that it targets hepatic de novo lipogenesis, bile acid homeostasis and non-biliary cholesterol excretion as important mechanisms for

  18. Infliximab ameliorating depression-like behavior through inhibiting the activation of the IDO-HAAO pathway mediated by tumor necrosis factor-α in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xiao-Yan; Li, Hai-Yan; Jiang, Qing-Song; Cui, Ting; Jiang, Xin-Hui; Zhou, Qi-Xin; Qiu, Hong-Mei

    2016-09-01

    In recent years, some studies have suggested that the activation of inflammatory system plays a role in the occurrence of depression. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), as one of the preinflammatory cytokines, has been reported to be involved in the occurrence of various diseases including depression. Infliximab, an antagonist of TNF-α, is usually used to treat some autoimmune diseases such as Crohn's disease and can perhaps be used to treat other diseases. In this study, the antidepressant effect and a possible mechanism of infliximab were investigated by studying the depression-like behavior and expression of TNF-α, indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase (IDO), and 3-hydroxyl amino acid oxygenase (HAAO) from the cortex and hippocampus in rat exposed to chronic unpredicted stress. Forty male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into a control group (CG), an infliximab-treated control group, a model group (MG), and an infliximab-treated model group (IFXM). Infliximab (5 mg/kg once week) was administered to the infliximab-treated control group and IFXM rats by an intraperitoneal injection, whereas an equivalent volume of vehicle was administered to CG and MG rats. Rat behaviors and the expression of TNF-α, IDO, and HAAO in the cortex and hippocampus were determined. It was found that a significant relief in depression-like behaviors was observed with a downregulation of TNF-α, IDO, and HAAO expression in the IFXM rats compared with MG rats. The results show the antidepressant effect of infliximab and suggest that its mechanism is partly related to inhibition of IDO-HAAO pathway activation mediated by TNF-α in rat brain. PMID:27366867

  19. Hohlraum glint and laser pre-pulse detector for NIF experiments using velocity interferometer system for any reflector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, J D; Clancy, T J; Frieders, G; Celliers, P M; Ralph, J; Turnbull, D P

    2014-11-01

    Laser pre-pulse and early-time laser reflection from the hohlraum wall onto the capsule (termed "glint") can cause capsule imprint and unwanted early-time shocks on indirect drive implosion experiments. In a minor modification to the existing velocity interferometer system for any reflector diagnostic on NIF a fast-response vacuum photodiode was added to detect this light. The measurements show evidence of laser pre-pulse and possible light reflection off the hohlraum wall and onto the capsule.

  20. Hot electron production in laser solid interactions with a controlled pre-pulse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Culfa, O.; Tallents, G. J.; Wagenaars, E.; Ridgers, C. P.; Dance, R. J.; Rossall, A. K.; Woolsey, N. C. [York Plasma Institute, Department of Physics, The University of York, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Gray, R. J.; McKenna, P. [Department of Physics, SUPA, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom); Brown, C. D. R.; James, S. F.; Hoarty, D. J. [AWE, Aldermaston, Reading, Berkshire RG7 4PR (United Kingdom); Booth, N.; Robinson, A. P. L. [CLF, STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Lancaster, K. L. [York Plasma Institute, Department of Physics, The University of York, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); CLF, STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Pikuz, S. A. [Joint Institute for High Temperatures, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 125412 (Russian Federation); Faenov, A. Ya. [Joint Institute for High Temperatures, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 125412 (Russian Federation); Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Kizugawa, Kyoto 619-0215 (Japan); Kampfer, T.; Schulze, K. S.; Uschmann, I. [Friedrich Schiller University of Jena, D-07743 Jena (Germany)

    2014-04-15

    Hot electron generation plays an important role in the fast ignition approach to inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and other applications with ultra-intense lasers. Hot electrons of temperature up to 10–20 MeV have been produced by high contrast picosecond duration laser pulses focussed to intensities of ∼10{sup 20} W cm{sup −2} with a deliberate pre-pulse on solid targets using the Vulcan Petawatt Laser facility. We present measurements of the number and temperature of hot electrons obtained using an electron spectrometer. The results are correlated to the density scale length of the plasma produced by a controlled pre-pulse measured using an optical probe diagnostic. 1D simulations predict electron temperature variations with plasma density scale length in agreement with the experiment at shorter plasma scale lengths (<7.5μm), but with the experimental temperatures (13–17 MeV) dropping below the simulation values (20–25 MeV) at longer scale lengths. The experimental results show that longer interaction plasmas produced by pre-pulses enable significantly greater number of hot electrons to be produced.

  1. Inhibition in the Human Auditory Cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Koji Inui; Kei Nakagawa; Makoto Nishihara; Eishi Motomura; Ryusuke Kakigi

    2016-01-01

    Despite their indispensable roles in sensory processing, little is known about inhibitory interneurons in humans. Inhibitory postsynaptic potentials cannot be recorded non-invasively, at least in a pure form, in humans. We herein sought to clarify whether prepulse inhibition (PPI) in the auditory cortex reflected inhibition via interneurons using magnetoencephalography. An abrupt increase in sound pressure by 10 dB in a continuous sound was used to evoke the test response, and PPI was observe...

  2. Prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle reflex in pigs and its disruption by d-amphetamine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Nanna Marie; Arnfred, Sidse M; Hemmingsen, Ralf P;

    2004-01-01

    for validation of a pig model of psychosis, we wished to verify the existence of PPI in landrace pigs and investigate the potential disruption of PPI by d-amphetamine (AMPH) in these animals. PPI of the acoustic startle reflex and its potential disruption by AMPH were investigated using three doses 0.5-1.5mg...... and, in spite of only the 0.5mg/kg dose proved statistically significant, the results indicate this to be dose-related. We have demonstrated the phenomenon of PPI of the startle reflex in landrace pigs and its disruption by d-amphetamine. Studies of sensorimotor gating defects could be a valuable...

  3. Deficit in Prepulse Inhibition in Mice Caused by Dietary n-3 Fatty Acid Deficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Fedorova, Irina; Alvheim, Anita R.; Hussein, Nahed; Salem, Norman

    2009-01-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) may be biosynthesized from a precursor α-linolenic acid (LNA) or obtained preformed in the diet. Dams were fed four diets with different levels of the various n-3 fatty acids during pregnancy and lactation, and their offspring were weaned to the same diets: “n-3 Deficient”, containing (as % total fatty acids) 0.07% of LNA; “Low LNA” (0.4%); “High LNA” (4.8%); and a “DHA+EPA” diet, containing 0.4% of LNA, 2% DHA and 2% EPA. Sensorimoto...

  4. Effects of postnatal anoxia on striatal dopamine metabolism and prepulse inhibition in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandager-Nielsen, Karin; Andersen, Maibritt B; Sager, Thomas N;

    2004-01-01

    . Anoxia was experimentally induced by placing 9-day-old rat pups for 6 min in a chamber saturated with 100% nitrogen (N(2)). Exposure to anoxia on postnatal day (PND) 9 resulted in significantly reduced subcortical dopamine metabolism and turnover, as measured by striatal 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid...... (DOPAC) and homovanillic acid (HVA) concentrations. Furthermore, in the anoxic group only, striatal HVA concentrations were negatively correlated to prefrontal cortical N-acetylaspartate (NAA) levels. Similar findings of distorted prefrontal-subcortical interactions have recently been reported...

  5. Prepulse Inhibition in Patients with Fragile X-associated Tremor Ataxia Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Andrea; Ballinger, Elizabeth; Chavez, Alyssa; Tassone, Flora; Randi J Hagerman; Hessl, David

    2010-01-01

    Fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) is a late-onset neurodegenerative disorder that affects carriers of the fragile X premutation, typically after age 50. Common symptoms include intention tremor, ataxia, neuropathy, autonomic dysfunction, cognitive decline, and dementia.

  6. Effects of postnatal anoxia on striatal dopamine metabolism and prepulse inhibition in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandager-Nielsen, Karin; Andersen, Maibritt B; Sager, Thomas N;

    2004-01-01

    Various evidence indicate that schizophrenia is a neurodevelopmental disorder. Epidemiological observations point to oxygen deficiencies during delivery as one of the early risk factors for developing schizophrenia. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of postnatal anoxia in rat...... to postnatal anoxia in the rat does not show clear-cut phenomenological similarities with the disorder....

  7. D-saccharic acid-1,4-lactone ameliorates alloxan-induced diabetes mellitus and oxidative stress in rats through inhibiting pancreatic beta-cells from apoptosis via mitochondrial dependent pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oxidative stress plays a vital role in diabetic complications. To suppress the oxidative stress mediated damage in diabetic pathophysiology, a special focus has been given on naturally occurring antioxidants present in normal diet. D-saccharic acid 1,4-lactone (DSL), a derivative of D-glucaric acid, is present in many dietary plants and is known for its detoxifying and antioxidant properties. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the beneficial role of DSL against alloxan (ALX) induced diabetes in the pancreas tissue of Swiss albino rats. A dose-dependent study for DSL (20–120 mg/kg body weight) was carried out to find the effective dose of the compound in ALX-induced diabetic rats. ALX exposure elevated the blood glucose, glycosylated Hb, decreased the plasma insulin and disturbed the intra-cellular antioxidant machineries whereas oral administration of DSL at a dose of 80 mg/kg body weight restored these alterations close to normal. Investigating the mechanism of the protective activity of DSL we observed that it prevented the pancreatic β-cell apoptosis via mitochondria-dependent pathway. Results showed decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, enhanced cytochrome c release in the cytosol and reciprocal regulation of Bcl-2 family proteins in the diabetic rats. These events were also found to be associated with increased level of Apaf-1, caspase 9, and caspase 3 that ultimately led to pancreatic β-cell apoptosis. DSL treatment, however, counteracted these changes. In conclusion, DSL possesses the capability of ameliorating the oxidative stress in ALX-induced diabetes and thus could be a promising approach in lessening diabetic complications. Highlights: ► Oxidative stress is suggested as a key event in the pathogenesis of diabetes. ► D-saccharic acid 1,4-lactone (DSL) reduces the alloxan-induced diabetes mellitus. ► DSL normalizes cellular antioxidant machineries disturbed due to alloxan toxicity. ► DSL inhibits pancreatic β-cells apoptosis

  8. A computational and functional study elicits the ameliorating effect of the Chinese herbal formula Huo Luo Xiao Ling Dan on experimental ischemia-induced myocardial injury in rats via inhibition of apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xiang-Dong; Zhou, Zhi-Wei; Yang, Wei; Ye, Hang-Cheng; Xu, Ying-Zi; Huang, Yun-Feng; Zhang, Tong; Zhou, Shu-Feng

    2015-01-01

    of rise/descent of left ventricular pressure levels. Administration of HLXLD significantly ameliorated coronary artery ligation-induced tissue damage in the left ventricle, with restored arrangement of myocardial fibers and recovered myoplasm in rats. Furthermore, HLXLD markedly increased the expression level of Bcl-2 but decreased the level of cleaved caspase 3. Taken together, administration of HLXLD attenuated acute myocardial ischemia-induced damage in cardiomyocytes and inhibited apoptotic death of cardiomyocytes, thereby exerting a cardioprotective effect in rats with IHD. These findings suggest that HLXLD may represent a promising herbal formula for the treatment of cardiovascular disease by counteracting apoptotic cell death via multiple active compounds. More studies are warranted to fully elucidate the mechanisms of action, identify the therapeutic targets, and validate the efficacy and safety of HLXLD in the treatment of IHD.

  9. D-saccharic acid-1,4-lactone ameliorates alloxan-induced diabetes mellitus and oxidative stress in rats through inhibiting pancreatic beta-cells from apoptosis via mitochondrial dependent pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharya, Semantee [Department of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Jadavpur University, 188, Raja S C Mullick Road, Kolkata 700 032 (India); Manna, Prasenjit [Division of Molecular Medicine, Bose Institute, P-1/12, CIT Scheme VII M, Kolkata-700054 (India); Gachhui, Ratan [Department of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Jadavpur University, 188, Raja S C Mullick Road, Kolkata 700 032 (India); Sil, Parames C., E-mail: parames@bosemain.boseinst.ac.in [Division of Molecular Medicine, Bose Institute, P-1/12, CIT Scheme VII M, Kolkata-700054 (India)

    2011-12-15

    Oxidative stress plays a vital role in diabetic complications. To suppress the oxidative stress mediated damage in diabetic pathophysiology, a special focus has been given on naturally occurring antioxidants present in normal diet. D-saccharic acid 1,4-lactone (DSL), a derivative of D-glucaric acid, is present in many dietary plants and is known for its detoxifying and antioxidant properties. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the beneficial role of DSL against alloxan (ALX) induced diabetes in the pancreas tissue of Swiss albino rats. A dose-dependent study for DSL (20-120 mg/kg body weight) was carried out to find the effective dose of the compound in ALX-induced diabetic rats. ALX exposure elevated the blood glucose, glycosylated Hb, decreased the plasma insulin and disturbed the intra-cellular antioxidant machineries whereas oral administration of DSL at a dose of 80 mg/kg body weight restored these alterations close to normal. Investigating the mechanism of the protective activity of DSL we observed that it prevented the pancreatic {beta}-cell apoptosis via mitochondria-dependent pathway. Results showed decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, enhanced cytochrome c release in the cytosol and reciprocal regulation of Bcl-2 family proteins in the diabetic rats. These events were also found to be associated with increased level of Apaf-1, caspase 9, and caspase 3 that ultimately led to pancreatic {beta}-cell apoptosis. DSL treatment, however, counteracted these changes. In conclusion, DSL possesses the capability of ameliorating the oxidative stress in ALX-induced diabetes and thus could be a promising approach in lessening diabetic complications. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Oxidative stress is suggested as a key event in the pathogenesis of diabetes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer D-saccharic acid 1,4-lactone (DSL) reduces the alloxan-induced diabetes mellitus. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DSL normalizes cellular antioxidant machineries

  10. Femtosecond laser-plasma interaction with prepulse-generated liquid metal microjets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uryupina, D. S.; Ivanov, K. A.; Savel' ev, A. B.; Volkov, R. V. [Faculty of Physics and International Laser Center of M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119991 Moscow, Leninskie Gory (Russian Federation); Brantov, A. V.; Bychenkov, V. Yu. [P. N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Povarnitsyn, M. E. [Joint Institute for High Temperatures, Russian Academy of Sciences, 125412 Moscow (Russian Federation); Tikhonchuk, V. T. [CELIA, University of Bordeaux - CNRS - CEA, 33405 Talence (France)

    2012-01-15

    Ultrashort laser pulse interaction with a microstructured surface of a melted metal is a promising source of hard x-ray radiation. Microstructuring is achieved by a weak prepulse that produces narrow high-density microjets. As an x-ray source, the interaction of the main laser pulse with such jets is shown to be nearly two orders of magnitude more efficient than the interaction with ordinary metal targets. This paper presents the results of optical and x-ray studies of laser-plasma interaction physics under such conditions supported by numerical simulations of microjet formation and fast-electron generation.

  11. Femtosecond laser-plasma interaction with prepulse-generated liquid metal microjets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uryupina, D. S.; Ivanov, K. A.; Brantov, A. V.; Savel'ev, A. B.; Bychenkov, V. Yu.; Povarnitsyn, M. E.; Volkov, R. V.; Tikhonchuk, V. T.

    2012-01-01

    Ultrashort laser pulse interaction with a microstructured surface of a melted metal is a promising source of hard x-ray radiation. Microstructuring is achieved by a weak prepulse that produces narrow high-density microjets. As an x-ray source, the interaction of the main laser pulse with such jets is shown to be nearly two orders of magnitude more efficient than the interaction with ordinary metal targets. This paper presents the results of optical and x-ray studies of laser-plasma interaction physics under such conditions supported by numerical simulations of microjet formation and fast-electron generation.

  12. Femtosecond laser-plasma interaction with prepulse-generated liquid metal microjets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ultrashort laser pulse interaction with a microstructured surface of a melted metal is a promising source of hard x-ray radiation. Microstructuring is achieved by a weak prepulse that produces narrow high-density microjets. As an x-ray source, the interaction of the main laser pulse with such jets is shown to be nearly two orders of magnitude more efficient than the interaction with ordinary metal targets. This paper presents the results of optical and x-ray studies of laser-plasma interaction physics under such conditions supported by numerical simulations of microjet formation and fast-electron generation.

  13. Production of controlled fast prepulse in the Angara-1 facility and its effect on diode electric performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To increase the electron accelerator energy release to thermonuclear target, experiments on decrease of delay of current occurrence in current diode channel, filled with plasma, were conducted. To avoid a premature diode short circuiting by a plasma, the task was posed to produce a ''fast'' prepulse with duration less than that of the basic pulse. For this purpose metal inserts of cylindrical configuration, different in length, were set into the internal coaxial electrode of the accelerator transmission line. The effect of the produced prepulse on the electric diode characteristics and the character of the plasma layer motion in the diode was investigated. It is shown that, in the presence of a prepulse, the anode plasma glow appears noticeably sooner, which testifies to the presence of formed current channel by the moment of the base voltage pulse arrival

  14. Space-resolved keV spectroscopy study of neonlike x-ray laser plasmas created with low-level prepulse irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nantel, Marc; Klisnick, Annie; Jamelot, Gerard; Holden, P. B.; Jaegle, Pierre; Zeitoun, Philippe; Tallents, Gregory J.; MacPhee, Andrew G.; Lewis, Ciaran L. S.

    1995-09-01

    Through the use of time-integrated space-resolved keV spectroscopy, we investigate line plasmas showing gain for irradiation using the prepulse technique. The experiments were conducted with the LULI laser of the Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France), at 1.06 micrometer with prepulse-to-main pulse intensity ratio ranging from 10-6 to 10-2. The particular x-ray lasers which were studied were the collisionally excited Ne-like zinc, copper and nickel systems. The effect of the prepulses on plasma conditions are inferred through spectroscopic line ratio diagnostics. It is observed that the value of the electron temperature for each system does not vary significantly with prepulse levels, nor does their spatially resolved profile along the line. The lateral width and density of the Ne-like regions in the plasmas of all three x-ray lasers are seen to increase with the prepulse level.

  15. A computational and functional study elicits the ameliorating effect of the Chinese herbal formula Huo Luo Xiao Ling Dan on experimental ischemia-induced myocardial injury in rats via inhibition of apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han XD

    2015-02-01

    ADMET (absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity Predictor to have favorable pharmacokinetic and low hepatotoxicity profiles. The acute myocardial ischemia was established by surgical ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery. The rats were divided into a sham operative group, a model group, a positive control group treated with 0.2 mg/kg isosorbide mononitrate, and groups treated with 2.7, 5.4, or 10.8 g/kg HLXLD. The results showed that administration of HLXLD increased mean arterial pressure, left ventricular systolic pressure, heart rate, and maximal rate of rise/descent of left ventricular pressure levels. Administration of HLXLD significantly ameliorated coronary artery ligation-induced tissue damage in the left ventricle, with restored arrangement of myocardial fibers and recovered myoplasm in rats. Furthermore, HLXLD markedly increased the expression level of Bcl-2 but decreased the level of cleaved caspase 3. Taken together, administration of HLXLD attenuated acute myocardial ischemia-induced damage in cardiomyocytes and inhibited apoptotic death of cardiomyocytes, thereby exerting a cardioprotective effect in rats with IHD. These findings suggest that HLXLD may represent a promising herbal formula for the treatment of cardiovascular disease by counteracting apoptotic cell death via multiple active compounds. More studies are warranted to fully elucidate the mechanisms of action, identify the therapeutic targets, and validate the efficacy and safety of HLXLD in the treatment of IHD. Keywords: Huo Luo Xiao Ling Dan, myocardial ischemia, coronary artery ligation, hemodynamics, apoptosis, molecular docking

  16. Prepulse effects on the interaction of intense femtosecond laser pulses with high-Z solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhidkov, Alexei; Sasaki, Akira; Utsumi, Takayuki; Fukumoto, Ichirou; Tajima, Toshiki; Saito, Fumikazu; Hironaka, Yoichiro; Nakamura, Kazutaka G.; Kondo, Ken-ichi; Yoshida, Masatake

    2000-11-01

    K{alpha} emission of high-Z solid targets irradiated by an intense, short (<100 fs) laser pulse in the 10 keV region is shown to be sensitive to the electron energy cutoff, which is strongly dependent on the density gradient of the plasma corona formed by a long prepulse. The absorption rate of short laser pulses, the hot electron distribution, and x-ray emission from a Cu slab target are studied via a hybrid model, which combines the hydrodynamics, collisional particle-in-cell, and Monte Carlo simulation techniques, and via a direct spectroscopic measurement. An absorption mechanism originating from the interaction of the laser pulse with plasma waves is found to increase the absorption rate by over 30% even for a very short, s-polarized laser pulse. Calculated and measured x-ray spectra are in good agreement, confirming the electron energy cutoff.

  17. The influence of plasma density decreasement by pre-pulse on the laser wakefield acceleration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke-Gong Dong

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In the laser wakefield acceleration, the generation of electron beam is very sensitive to the plasma density. Not only the laser-wakefield interaction, but also the electron trapping and acceleration would be effected by the plasma density. However, the plasma density could be changed in the experiment by different reasons, which will result in the mismatch of parameters arranged initially. Forward Raman scattering spectrum demonstrated that the interaction density was decreased obviously in the experiment, which was verified by the pre-pulse conditions and two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. It was demonstrated that the plasma density was very important on the self-evolutions and energy coupling of laser pulse and wakefield, and eventually the energy spectrum of electron beam.

  18. Curcumin Ameliorates the Reduction Effect of PGE2 on Fibrillar β-Amyloid Peptide (1-42-Induced Microglial Phagocytosis through the Inhibition of EP2-PKA Signaling in N9 Microglial Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gen-Lin He

    Full Text Available Inflammatory activation of microglia and β amyloid (Aβ deposition are considered to work both independently and synergistically to contribute to the increased risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD. Recent studies indicate that long-term use of phenolic compounds provides protection against AD, primarily due to their anti-inflammatory actions. We previously suggested that phenolic compound curcumin ameliorated phagocytosis possibly through its anti-inflammatory effects rather than direct regulation of phagocytic function in electromagnetic field-exposed N9 microglial cells (N9 cells. Here, we explored the prostaglandin-E2 (PGE2-related signaling pathway that involved in curcumin-mediated phagocytosis in fibrillar β-amyloid peptide (1-42 (fAβ42-stimulated N9 cells. Treatment with fAβ42 increased phagocytosis of fluorescent-labeled latex beads in N9 cells. This increase was attenuated in a dose-dependent manner by endogenous and exogenous PGE2, as well as a selective EP2 or protein kinase A (PKA agonist, but not by an EP4 agonist. We also found that an antagonist of EP2, but not EP4, abolished the reduction effect of PGE2 on fAβ42-induced microglial phagocytosis. Additionally, the increased expression of endogenous PGE2, EP2, and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (AMP, and activation of vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein, cyclic AMP responsive element-binding protein, and PKA were depressed by curcumin administration. This reduction led to the amelioration of the phagocytic abilities of PGE2-stimulated N9 cells. Taken together, these data suggested that curcumin restored the attenuating effect of PGE2 on fAβ42-induced microglial phagocytosis via a signaling mechanism involving EP2 and PKA. Moreover, due to its immune modulatory effects, curcumin may be a promising pharmacological candidate for neurodegenerative diseases.

  19. Inhibition of SH2-domain-containing inositol 5-phosphatase (SHIP2) ameliorates palmitate induced-apoptosis through regulating Akt/FOXO1 pathway and ROS production in HepG2 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorgani-Firuzjaee, Sattar [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Adeli, Khosrow [Division of Clinical Biochemistry, The Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada); Meshkani, Reza, E-mail: rmeshkani@tums.ac.ir [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-08-21

    The serine–threonine kinase Akt regulates proliferation and survival by phosphorylating a network of protein substrates; however, the role of a negative regulator of the Akt pathway, the SH2-domain-containing inositol 5-phosphatase (SHIP2) in apoptosis of the hepatocytes, remains unknown. In the present study, we studied the molecular mechanisms linking SHIP2 expression to apoptosis using overexpression or suppression of SHIP2 gene in HepG2 cells exposed to palmitate (0.5 mM). Overexpression of the dominant negative mutant SHIP2 (SHIP2-DN) significantly reduced palmitate-induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells, as these cells had increased cell viability, decreased apoptotic cell death and reduced the activity of caspase-3, cytochrome c and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase. Overexpression of the wild-type SHIP2 gene led to a massive apoptosis in HepG2 cells. The protection from palmitate-induced apoptosis by SHIP2 inhibition was accompanied by a decrease in the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In addition, SHIP2 inhibition was accompanied by an increased Akt and FOXO-1 phosphorylation, whereas overexpression of the wild-type SHIP2 gene had the opposite effects. Taken together, these findings suggest that SHIP2 expression level is an important determinant of hepatic lipoapotosis and its inhibition can potentially be a target in treatment of hepatic lipoapoptosis in diabetic patients. - Highlights: • Lipoapoptosis is the major contributor to the development of NAFLD. • The PI3-K/Akt pathway regulates apoptosis in different cells. • The role of negative regulator of this pathway, SHIP2 in lipoapoptosis is unknown. • SHIP2 inhibition significantly reduces palmitate-induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells. • SHIP2 inhibition prevents palmitate induced-apoptosis by regulating Akt/FOXO1 pathway.

  20. Chinese medicine CGA formula ameliorates DMN-induced liver fibrosis in rats via inhibiting MMP2/9, TIMP1/2 and the TGF-β/Smad signaling pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xue-mei; Peng, Jing-hua; Sun, Zhao-lin; Tian, Hua-jie; Duan, Xiao-hua; Liu, Lin; Ma, Xin; Feng, Qin; Liu, Ping; Hu, Yi-yang

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Chinese medicine CGA formula consists of polysaccharide from Cordyceps sinensis mycelia (CS-PS), gypenosides and amygdalin, which is derived from Fuzheng Huayu (FZHY) capsule for treating liver fibrosis. In this study we attempted to confirm the therapeutic effects of CGA formula in dimethylnitrosamine (DMN)-induced liver fibrosis in rats, and to identify the mechanisms of anti-fibrotic actions. Methods: Rats were injected with DMN (10 mg·kg−1·d−1, ip) for 3 consecutive days per week over a 4-week period. The rats then were orally administered with CGA formula (CS-PS 60 mg·kg−1·d−1, gypenosides 50 mg·kg−1·d−1 and amygdalin 80 mg·kg−1·d−1) daily in the next 2 weeks. CS-PS, gypenosides or amygdalin alone were administered as individual component controls, whereas colchicine and FZHY were used as positive controls. Serum biomarkers were measured. Hepatic injury, collagen deposition and stellate cell activation were examined. The MMP activities, expression of TIMP protein and proteins involved in the TGF-β1/Smad signaling pathways in liver tissues were assayed. Results: In DMN-treated rats, administration of CGA formula significantly decreased serum ALT, AST and total bilirubin and hepatic hydroxyproline levels, increased serum albumin level, and attenuated liver fibrosis as shown by histological examination. Furthermore, these effects were comparable to those caused by administration of FZHY, and superior to those caused by administration of colchicine or the individual components of CGA formula. Moreover, administration of CGA formula significantly decreased the protein levels of α-SMA, TGF-β1, TGF-β1 receptor (TβR-I), p-TβR-I, p-TβR-II, p-Smad2, p-Smad3, TIMP1 and TIMP2, as well as MMP2 and MMP9 activities in liver tissues of DMN-treated rats. Conclusion: Chinese medicine CGA formula ameliorates DMN-induced liver fibrosis in rats, and this effect was likely associated with the down-regulation of MMP2/9 activities, TIMP1/2 protein

  1. Orally administrated Lactobacillus pentosus var. plantarum C29 ameliorates age-dependent colitis by inhibiting the nuclear factor-kappa B signaling pathway via the regulation of lipopolysaccharide production by gut microbiota.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Ju Jeong

    Full Text Available To evaluate the anti-inflammaging effect of lactic acid bacteria (LAB on age-dependent inflammation, we first screened and selected a tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α and reactive oxygen species (ROS-inhibitory LAB, Lactobacillus pentosus var. plantarum C29, among the LABs isolated from fermented vegetables using LPS-stimulated mouse peritoneal macrophages. Oral administration of C29 (2 × 109 CFU/rat for 8 weeks in aged Fischer 344 rats (age, 16 months inhibited the expression of the inflammatory markers myeloperoxidase, inducible nitric oxide (NO synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α and IL-6 and the activation of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB, activator protein 1 (AP1, and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs. Treatment with C29 induced the expression of tight junction proteins ZO-1, occludin, and claudin-1, and reduced intestinal microbial LPS and plasmatic LPS levels and ROS, as well as the Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratio, which is significantly higher in aged rats than in young rats. C29 treatment also reduced plasmatic reactive oxygen species, malondialdehyde, C-reactive protein, and TNF-α, and suppressed expression of senescence markers p16 and p53 in the colon of the aged rats, but increased SIRT 1 expression. Based on these findings, we concluded that C29 treatment may suppress aging-dependent colitis by inhibiting NF-κB, AP1, and MAPK activation via the inhibition of gut microbiota LPS production and the induction of tight junction protein expression.

  2. The effects of imipramine on P50 suppression, prepulse inhibition and habituation of the startle response in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, Trine Bjørg; Oranje, Bob; Glenthoj, Birte Y

    2007-01-01

    of sensory filtering in humans, and the few reports that can be found in literature show discrepancies with animal studies. The current study was designed to study the effects of increased monoaminergic activity on sensory filtering and habituation of healthy volunteers. In a double-blind, placebo......-controlled cross-over design, 20 healthy male volunteers received either placebo or a dose of 50 mg imipramine (a dual-acting antidepressant), after which they were tested in a P50 suppression paradigm, a PPI paradigm, and an habituation of the startle reflex paradigm. Imipramine significantly decreased PPI...... as well as P50 suppression. No significant differences between the two treatments were observed on habituation of the acoustic startle reflex. Since sensory filtering is usually already reduced in patients with schizophrenia, the current results call for caution in the widespread use of dual...

  3. The effects of increased central serotonergic activity on prepulse inhibition and habituation of the human startle response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristian S; Oranje, Bob; Wienberg, Malene;

    2007-01-01

    modulation is currently inconsistent. In a double-blind placebo-controlled crossover design, 18 healthy male volunteers received either placebo or a dose of 10 mg of escitalopram (SSRI), after which they were tested in both PPI and habituation of the startle reflex paradigms. No significant differences...... between the two treatments were observed on PPI, although escitalopram was found to significantly delay habituation of the ASR. In the current study, escitalopram was found to delay habituation, but it did not affect PPI in healthy male volunteers. As escitalopram is a highly specific SSRI, the results...... suggest that an increased serotonergic activity disrupts habituation, but not PPI in healthy volunteers....

  4. Associations between prepulse inhibition and executive visual attention in children with the 22q11 deletion syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Sobin, C; Kiley-Brabeck, K; Karayiorgou, M

    2005-01-01

    The 22q11 deletion syndrome (DS) results in the loss of approximately 30 gene copies and is associated with possible physical anomalies, varied learning disabilities, and a specific cluster of neurocognitive deficits, including primary impairment in working memory, executive visual attention, and sensorimotor processing. Retrospective studies have suggested that children with 22q11DS are at 25 times greater risk of developing schizophrenia, thus specification of early brain network vulnerabil...

  5. The effects of increased central serotonergic activity on prepulse inhibition and habituation of the human startle response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristian S; Oranje, Bob; Wienberg, Malene;

    2007-01-01

    modulation is currently inconsistent. In a double-blind placebo-controlled crossover design, 18 healthy male volunteers received either placebo or a dose of 10 mg of escitalopram (SSRI), after which they were tested in both PPI and habituation of the startle reflex paradigms. No significant differences...... between the two treatments were observed on PPI, although escitalopram was found to significantly delay habituation of the ASR. In the current study, escitalopram was found to delay habituation, but it did not affect PPI in healthy male volunteers. As escitalopram is a highly specific SSRI, the results...

  6. Gap-prepulse inhibition of the startle reflex (GPIAS for tinnitus assessment: current status and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander eGalazyuk

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The progress in the field of tinnitus largely depends on the development of a reliable tinnitus animal model. Recently a new method based on the acoustic startle reflex modification was introduced for tinnitus screening in laboratory animals. This method was enthusiastically adopted and now widely used by many scientists in the field due to its seeming simplicity and a number of advantages over the other methods of tinnitus assessment. Furthermore, this method opened an opportunity for tinnitus assessment in humans as well. Unfortunately multiple modifications of data collection and interpretation implemented in different labs make comparisons across studies very difficult. In addition, recent animal and human studies have challenged the original filling-in interpretation of the paradigm. Here we review the current literature to emphasize on the commonalities and differences in data collection and interpretation across laboratories that are using this method for tinnitus assessment. We also propose future research directions that could be taken in order to establish whether or not this method is warranted as an indicator of the presence of tinnitus.

  7. Schisandrin B Ameliorates ICV-Infused Amyloid β Induced Oxidative Stress and Neuronal Dysfunction through Inhibiting RAGE/NF-κB/MAPK and Up-Regulating HSP/Beclin Expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayasree V Giridharan

    Full Text Available Amyloid β (Aβ-induced neurotoxicity is a major pathological mechanism of Alzheimer's disease (AD. Our previous studies have demonstrated that schisandrin B (Sch B, an antioxidant lignan from Schisandra chinensis, could protect mouse brain against scopolamine- and cisplatin-induced neuronal dysfunction. In the present study, we examined the protective effect of Sch B against intracerebroventricular (ICV-infused Aβ-induced neuronal dysfunction in rat cortex and explored the potential mechanism of its action. Our results showed that 26 days co-administration of Sch B significantly improved the behavioral performance of Aβ (1-40-infused rats in step-through test. At the same time, Sch B attenuated Aβ-induced increases in oxidative and nitrosative stresses, inflammatory markers such as inducible nitric oxide syntheses, cyclooxygenase-2, interleukin-1β (IL-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α, and DNA damage. Several proteins such as receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE, nuclear factor-κB, mitogen-activated protein kinases, and apoptosis markers were over expressed in Aβ-infused rats but were significantly inhibited by Sch B treatment. Furthermore, Sch B negatively modulated the Aβ level with simultaneous up-regulation of HSP70 and beclin, autophagy markers in Aβ-infused rats. The aforementioned effects of Sch B suggest its protective role against Aβ-induced neurotoxicity through intervention in the negative cycle of RAGE-mediated Aβ accumulation during AD patho-physiology.

  8. Multi-glycoside of Tripterygium wilfordii Hook. f. ameliorates imiquimod-induced skin lesions through a STAT3-dependent mechanism involving the inhibition of Th17-mediated inflammatory responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jingxia; Di, Tingting; Wang, Yan; Liu, Xin; Liang, Daiying; Zhang, Guangzhong; Li, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Multi-glycoside of Tripterygium wilfordii Hook. f. (GTW) possesses anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive properties, and has been used as a traditional treatment for psoriasis for many years, although the underlying immunological mechanisms remain poorly understood. The T helper (Th)17 cell response is considered to play a major role in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. Th17 cells are implicated in the mechanism of pathogenesis of imiquimod (IMQ)-induced skin inflammation. Using a mouse model, we demonstrated that GTW protected mice from developing psoriasis-like lesions induced by topical IMQ administration. This protection was associated with significantly decreased mRNA levels of Th17 cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-17A, IL-17F and IL-22 in mouse skin samples as well as fewer IL-17-secreting splenic CD4+ lymphocytes in IMQ-exposed mice. There were no significant effects on the proportion of CD4+ interferon (IFN)-γ+ T cells, CD4+IL-4+ T cells and CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ Treg cells in the spleen cells. Taken together with the unchanged mRNA levels of Th1 cytokine IFN-γ, Th2 cytokine IL-4 and Treg cytokine IL-10 in IMQ-exposed mouse skin following GTW administration, our findings suggest that the immunosuppressive effect of GTW in psoriasis is exerted mainly on Th17 cells, rather than on Th1, Th2 or Treg cells. Furthermore, we showed that GTW suppressed Th17 function through the inhibition of STAT3 phosphorylation. These results have the potential to pave the way for the use of GTW as an agent for the treatment of psoriasis. PMID:27431437

  9. Multi-glycoside of Tripterygium wilfordii Hook. f. ameliorates imiquimod-induced skin lesions through a STAT3-dependent mechanism involving the inhibition of Th17-mediated inflammatory responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jingxia; Di, Tingting; Wang, Yan; Liu, Xin; Liang, Daiying; Zhang, Guangzhong; Li, Ping

    2016-09-01

    Multi-glycoside of Tripterygium wilfordii Hook. f.(GTW) possesses anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive properties, and has been used as a traditional treatment for psoriasis for many years, although the underlying immunological mechanisms remain poorly understood. The T helper (Th)17 cell response is considered to play a major role in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. Th17 cells are implicated in the mechanism of pathogenesis of imiquimod (IMQ)‑induced skin inflammation. Using a mouse model, we demonstrated that GTW protected mice from developing psoriasis-like lesions induced by topical IMQ administration. This protection was associated with significantly decreased mRNA levels of Th17 cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-17A, IL-17F and IL-22 in mouse skin samples as well as fewer IL-17-secreting splenic CD4+ lymphocytes in IMQ-exposed mice. There were no significant effects on the proportion of CD4+ interferon (IFN)-γ+ T cells, CD4+IL-4+ T cells and CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ Treg cells in the spleen cells. Taken together with the unchanged mRNA levels of Th1 cytokine IFN-γ, Th2 cytokine IL-4 and Treg cytokine IL-10 in IMQ-exposed mouse skin following GTW administration, our findings suggest that the immunosuppressive effect of GTW in psoriasis is exerted mainly on Th17 cells, rather than on Th1, Th2 or Treg cells. Furthermore, we showed that GTW suppressed Th17 function through the inhibition of STAT3 phosphorylation. These results have the potential to pave the way for the use of GTW as an agent for the treatment of psoriasis. PMID:27431437

  10. γ-aminobutyric acid B receptor (GABABR)ameliorated liver fibrosis by inhibiting hepatic cell migration%γ-氨基丁酸B受体抑制大鼠肝细胞迁移并改善肝纤维化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊文梅; 石炳毅; 冯凯; 马锡慧; 魏红山; 黄海燕; 何秀云

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the role of r-aminobutyric acid B receptor in the development of liver fibrosis.Methods Thirty-two Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were divided into four groups including a control group,a model group,a baclofen group,and a CGP35348 group.Liver fibrosis was then induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4).Baclofen and CGP35348 treatment were carried out after the formation of liver fibrosis,followed by complete extraction of the eyeball to obtain blood sample to test liver function.Liver tissue specimens were cut and stored for histological staining,histochemistry,real-time polymerase chain-reaction (RT-PCR),and western blot analysis.Results Histological staining indicated that the degree of liver fibrosis was more severe in the CGP35348 group than in the baclofen group (P<0.001).The levels of alanine transaminase (ALT),aspartate aminotransferase (AST),gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT),total bilirubin (TBil),and direct bilirubin (DBil) were significantly lower in the baclofen group than in the CGP35348 group (P<0.01).The levels of ALT,AST,GGT,TBil,and DBil were significantly higher in the CGP35348 group than in the model group (P<0.05).Immunofluorescence results show that the hepatic cell migration was inhibited in the baclofen group.Western blot results showed that the expression levels of α-SMA protein were significantly lowered in the baclofen group when compared to that of the CGP35348 group and model group (P<0.01).Conclusion GABAB receptor might play a role in the liver protection by inhibition of migration of hepatic cells in liver fibrosis.Further studies into the mechanism behind this function are further needed and may be a potential source of future anti-fibrotic treatment.%目的 探讨发现γ-氨基丁酸B(GABAB)受体对肝纤维化的调控作用.方法 32只SD 大鼠分为4组,每组8只,分别为对照组、模型组、baclofen处理组和CGP35348处理组.用四氯化碳(CCl4)溶液诱导肝纤维化,baclofen和CGP35348处

  11. Flemingia macrophylla Extract Ameliorates Experimental Osteoporosis in Ovariectomized Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Ya Ho

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Flemingia macrophylla (Leguminosae, a native plant of Taiwan, is used as folk medicine. An in vitro study showed that a 75% ethanolic extract of F. macrophylla (FME inhibited osteoclast differentiation of cultured rat bone marrow cells, and the active component, lespedezaflavanone A (LDF-A, was isolated. It was found that oral administration of FME for 13 weeks suppressed bone loss in ovariectomized rats, an experimental model of osteoporosis. In addition, FME decreased urinary deoxypyridinoline concentrations but did not inhibit serum alkaline phosphatase activities, indicating that it ameliorated bone loss via inhibition of bone resorption. These results suggest that FME may represent a useful remedy for the treatment of bone resorption diseases, such as osteoporosis. In addition, LDF-A could be used as a marker compound to control the quality of FME.

  12. Magnetic pulse compression in the prepulse circuit for a 1 kW, 1kHz XeCl excimer laser

    OpenAIRE

    Ekelmans, G.B.; Goor, van, H.; Trentelman, M.; Witteman, W.J.

    1991-01-01

    Using high quality low loss ferrite, a single stage magnetic pulse compression network has been demonstrated working at 1 kHz PRF. A pulse compression factor of 4 has been achieved, delivering a 50 ns pulse as prepulse in the excitation circuit for a high power XeC1-excimer laser.

  13. Effects of nanosecond-scale prepulse on generation of high-energy protons in target normal sheath acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A pulse cleaner based on noncollinear optical-parametric amplification and second-harmonic generation processes is used to improve the contrast of a laser of peak intensity ∼2 × 1019 W/cm2 to ∼1011 at 100 ps before the peak of the main pulse. A 7 MeV proton beam is observed when a 2.5 μm-thick Al foil is irradiated by this high-contrast laser. The maximum proton energy decreases to 2.9 MeV when a low-contrast (∼108) laser is used. Two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations combined with MULTI simulations show that the maximum proton energy sensitively relies on the detecting direction. The ns-time-scale prepulse can bend a thin target before the main pulse arrives, which reduces maximum proton energy in the target normal sheath acceleration.

  14. HyperCEST detection of cucurbit[6]uril in whole blood using an ultrashort saturation Pre-pulse train.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hane, Francis T; Smylie, Peter S; Li, Tao; Ruberto, Julia; Dowhos, Krista; Ball, Iain; Tomanek, Boguslaw; DeBoef, Brenton; Albert, Mitchell S

    2016-07-01

    Xenon based biosensors have the potential to detect and localize biomarkers associated with a wide variety of diseases. The development and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) characterization of cage molecules which encapsulate hyperpolarized xenon is imperative for the development of these xenon biosensors. We acquired (129) Xe NMR spectra, and magnetic resonance images and a HyperCEST saturation map of cucurbit[6]uril (CB6) in whole bovine blood. We observed a mean HyperCEST depletion of 84% (n = 5) at a concentration of 5 mM and 74% at 2.5 mM. Additionally, we collected these data using a pulsed HyperCEST saturation pre-pulse train with a SAR of 0.025 W/kg which will minimize any potential RF heating in animal or human tissue. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27071809

  15. Inhibition of SLPI ameliorates disease activity in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

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    Müller André

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI exerts wide ranging effects on inflammatory pathways and is upregulated in EAE but the biological role of SLPI in EAE, an animal model of multiple sclerosis is unknown Methods To investigate the pathophysiological effects of SLPI within EAE, we induced SLPI-neutralizing antibodies in mice and rats to determine the clinical severity of the disease. In addition we studied the effects of SLPI on the anti-inflammatory cytokine TGF-β. Results The induction of SLPI neutralizing antibodies resulted in a milder disease course in mouse and rat EAE. SLPI neutralization was associated with increased serum levels of TGF-β and increased numbers of FoxP3+ CD4+ T cells in lymph nodes. In vitro, the addition of SLPI significantly decreased the number of functional FoxP3+ CD25hi CD4+ regulatory T cells in cultures of naive human CD4+ T cells. Adding recombinant TGF-β to SLPI-treated human T cell cultures neutralized SLPI's inhibitory effect on regulatory T cell differentiation. Conclusion In EAE, SLPI exerts potent pro-inflammatory actions by modulation of T-cell activity and its neutralization may be beneficial for the disease.

  16. Losartan ameliorates dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa and uncovers new disease mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyström, Alexander; Thriene, Kerstin; Mittapalli, Venugopal; Kern, Johannes S; Kiritsi, Dimitra; Dengjel, Jörn; Bruckner-Tuderman, Leena

    2015-07-20

    Genetic loss of collagen VII causes recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (RDEB)-a severe skin fragility disorder associated with lifelong blistering and disabling progressive soft tissue fibrosis. Causative therapies for this complex disorder face major hurdles, and clinical implementation remains elusive. Here, we report an alternative evidence-based approach to ameliorate fibrosis and relieve symptoms in RDEB. Based on the findings that TGF-β activity is elevated in injured RDEB skin, we targeted TGF-β activity with losartan in a preclinical setting. Long-term treatment of RDEB mice efficiently reduced TGF-β signaling in chronically injured forepaws and halted fibrosis and subsequent fusion of the digits. In addition, proteomics analysis of losartan- vs. vehicle-treated RDEB skin uncovered changes in multiple proteins related to tissue inflammation. In line with this, losartan reduced inflammation and diminished TNF-α and IL-6 expression in injured forepaws. Collectively, the data argue that RDEB fibrosis is a consequence of a cascade encompassing tissue damage, TGF-β-mediated inflammation, and matrix remodeling. Inhibition of TGF-β activity limits these unwanted outcomes and thereby substantially ameliorates long-term symptoms.

  17. Nicotine ameliorates schizophrenia-like cognitive deficits induced by maternal LPS exposure: a study in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uta Waterhouse

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Maternal exposure to infectious agents is a predisposing factor for schizophrenia with associated cognitive deficits in offspring. A high incidence of smoking in these individuals in adulthood might be, at least in part, due to the cognitive-enhancing effects of nicotine. Here, we have used prenatal exposure to maternal lipopolysaccharide (LPS, bacterial endotoxin at different time points as a model for cognitive deficits in schizophrenia to determine whether nicotine reverses any associated impairments. Pregnant rats were treated subcutaneously with LPS (0.5 mg/kg at one of three neurodevelopmental time periods [gestation days (GD 10-11, 15-16, 18-19]. Cognitive assessment in male offspring commenced in early adulthood [postnatal day (PND 60] and included: prepulse inhibition (PPI, latent inhibition (LI and delayed non-matching to sample (DNMTS. Following PND 100, daily nicotine injections (0.6 mg/kg, subcutaneously were administered, and animals were re-tested in the same tasks (PND 110. Only maternal LPS exposure early during fetal neurodevelopment (GD 10-11 resulted in deficits in all tests compared to animals that had been prenatally exposed to saline at the same gestational time point. Repeated nicotine treatment led to global (PPI and selective (LI improvements in performance. Early but not later prenatal LPS exposure induced consistent deficits in cognitive tests with relevance for schizophrenia. Nicotine reversed the LPS-induced deficits in selective attention (LI and induced a global enhancement of sensorimotor gating (PPI.

  18. 慢性间歇性低压低氧抑制线粒体途径介导的代谢综合征大鼠心肌组织细胞凋亡%Chronic intermittent hypobaric hypoxia ameliorates myocardial apoptosis through inhibiting mitochondrial pathway in rats with metabolism syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁芳; 李艳青; 滕旭; 周京京; 郭赞; 王昕; 张自伟; 张翼

    2015-01-01

    Aim To confirm the inhibitory effect of chronic intermittent hypobaric hypoxia ( CIHH) on my-ocardial apoptosis induced by metabolism syndrome ( MS) , and to investigate its mechanism. Methods A rat model of MS induced by fructose was used. The blood pressure and the plasma content of glucose, tri-glyceride, cholesterol, and insulin after 12 h fasting were detected. HE stain were used to detect the cardi-ac structure. The TUNEL staining and activity of caspase-3 were used to detect the apoptosis of myocar-dium. The protein expression of Bcl-2 and Bax was detected by Western blot . Results Compared with the control rats, the blood pressure and the plasma content of glucose, triglyceride, cholesterol, and insu-lin were all increased in rats with MS. In rats with MS, the impairment of cardiac structure and the increase of apoptosis were also observed. The protein expression of Bcl-2 was significantly down-regulated, and that of Bax was significantly up-regulated in MS rats. The ratio of Bcl-2/Bax was also significantly decreased. Interest-ingly, CIHH could ameliorate all of the above issues. There was no significant difference between control group and CIHH group. Conclusion CIHH may im-prove the increased apoptosis in rats with MS via inhib-iting the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. This stud-y might provide new targets for therapy and the preven-tion of MS patients.%目的:证实CIHH( chronic intermittent hypobaric hypoxi-a, CIHH)具有改善代谢综合征( metabolism syndrome, MS)大鼠心肌细胞凋亡的作用,并探讨其机制。方法10%果糖水喂养SD大鼠(250~300) g 42 d制备MS模型,检测动脉血压以及空腹血糖、胆固醇、甘油三酯和胰岛素含量,HE染色观察心肌结构,TUNEL染色和caspase-3活性测定检测心肌细胞凋亡, Western blot 检测 Bcl-2和 Bax 的蛋白表达水平。结果与正常大鼠比较,果糖喂养大鼠表现出明显的高血压、高血糖、高甘油三脂血症、高胆固醇血症和高胰

  19. Emodin ameliorates lipopolysaccharides-induced corneal inflammation in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo-Ling; Chen; Jing-Jing; Zhang; Xin; Kao; Lu-Wan; Wei; Zhi-Yu; Liu

    2015-01-01

    · AIM: To investigate the effect of emodin on pseudomonas aeruginosa lipopolysaccharides(LPS)-induced corneal inflammation in rats.· METHODS: Corneal infection was induced by pseudomonas aeruginosa LPS in Wistar rats. The inflammation induced by LPS were examined by slit lamp microscope and cytological checkup of aqueous humor.Corneal tissue structure was observed by hematoxylin and eosin(HE) staining. The activation of nuclear factor kappa B(NF-κB) was determined by Western blot.Messenger ribonucleic acid(m RNA) of tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1(ICAM-1) in LPS-challenged rat corneas were measured with reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR).· RESULTS: Typical manifestations of acute corneal inflammation were observed in LPS-induce rat model,and the corneal inflammatory response and structure were improved in rats pretreated with emodin. Treatment with emodin could improve corneal structure, reduce corneal injure by reducing corneal inflammatory response. Emodin could inhibit the decreasing lever of inhibitor of kappa B alpha(IкBα) express, and the m RNA expression of TNF-α and ICAM-1 in corneal tissues was also inhibited by emodin. The differences were statistically significant between groups treated with emodin and those without treatment(P <0.01).·CONCLUSION: Emodin could ameliorate LPS-induced corneal inflammation, which might via inhibiting the activation of NF-κB.

  20. 27 CFR 24.178 - Amelioration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Amelioration. 24.178 Section 24.178 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... is calculated as tartaric acid for grapes, malic acid for apples, and citric acid for other...

  1. Neuronal dysfunction with aging and its amelioration

    OpenAIRE

    Ando, Susumu

    2012-01-01

    The author focused on the functional decline of synapses in the brain with aging to understand the underlying mechanisms and to ameliorate the deficits. The first attempt was to unravel the neuronal functions of gangliosides so that gangliosides could be used for enhancing synaptic activity. The second attempt was to elicit the neuronal plasticity in aged animals through enriched environmental stimulation and nutritional intervention. Environmental stimuli were revealed neurochemically and mo...

  2. Curcumin Ameliorates Ischemia-Induced Limb Injury Through Immunomodulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Chen, Lianyu; Shen, Yi; Tan, Tao; Xie, Nanzi; Luo, Ming; Li, Zhihong; Xie, Xiaoyun

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND The prevalence of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is increasing worldwide. Currently, there is no effective treatment for PAD. Curcumin is an ingredient of turmeric that has antioxidant, anti-inflammation, and anticancer properties. In the present study we investigated the potential effect of curcumin in protecting against ischemic limb injury. MATERIAL AND METHODS We used an established hindlimb ischemia mouse model in our study. Curcumin was administrated through intraperitoneal (I.P.) injection. Immunohistochemical staining and ELISA assays were performed. Treadmill training was used to evaluate skeletal muscle functions of animals. RESULTS Our experiments using in vivo treadmill training showed that curcumin treatment improved the running capacity of animals after ischemic injury. Histological analysis revealed that curcumin treatment significantly reduced the skeletal muscle damage and fibrosis associated with ischemic injury. In order to determine the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying curcumin-mediated tissue protection, immunohistochemical staining and ELISA assays were performed. The results showed that curcumin treatment led to less macrophage infiltration and less local inflammatory responses as demonstrated by decreasing TNF-α, IL-1, and IL-6 levels. Further immunofluorescent staining of tissue slides indicated that curcumin treatment inhibited the NF-κB signaling pathway. Finally, curcumin can inhibit NF-kB activation induced by LPS in macrophages. CONCLUSIONS Our study results show that curcumin treatment can ameliorate hindlimb injury following ischemic surgery, which suggests that curcumin could be used for PAD treatment. PMID:27302110

  3. Yangjing Capsule Ameliorates Spermatogenesis in Male Mice Exposed to Cyclophosphamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongle Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Yangjing capsule (YC, a traditional Chinese compound herbal preparation, has been proven as an effective drug to improve spermatogenesis in clinical practice. However, its pharmacological mechanisms were not fully clarified. This study was designed to investigate the protective effects of YC on spermatogenesis in the mouse model of spermatogenesis dysfunction induced by cyclophosphamide (CP. The administration of YC significantly increased the epididymal index, sperm count, and sperm motility of model mice. Histopathological changes demonstrated that CP caused obvious structural damage to testis, which were reversed by the administration of YC. Results from TUNEL assay showed that treatment with YC dramatically decreased the apoptosis of spermatogenic cell induced by CP. Moreover, YC treatment could inhibit the mRNA and protein expression of Bax to Bcl-2 and also raised expression of AR at both mRNA and protein levels. These data suggest that YC might ameliorate spermatogenesis in male mice exposed to CP through inhibiting the apoptosis of spermatogenic cell and enhancing the actions of testosterone in spermatogenesis.

  4. Review of neon-like and nickel-like ions lasing on the J = 0 {r_arrow} 1 line using the prepulse and multiple pulse techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsen, J.; Moreno, J.C.; Da Silva, L.B.; Barbee, T.W. Jr. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Li, Y.; Lu, P.; Fill, E.E. [Max-Planck-Inst. fuer Quantenoptik, Garching (Germany); Fiedorowicz, H.; Bartnik, A. [Military Univ. of Technology, Warsaw (Poland). Inst. of Optoelectronics

    1995-11-01

    The authors discuss the use of a prepulse technique to achieve lasing in low-Z neon-like ions on the 3p {r_arrow} 3s(J = 0 {r_arrow} 1) transition. Lasing has now been observed on this transitions for neon-like ions from chlorine to selenium with wavelengths ranging from 528 {angstrom} to 182 {angstrom}. For the germanium targets they present two dimensional space resolves images of the laser output with magnification of ten. Using a gas puff target as an alternative to the prepulse technique, they observe lasing at 469 {angstrom} in neon-like argon. Using a series of 100 ps pulses 400 ps apart to illuminate germanium and selenium plasmas they present results which now show the 3p {r_arrow} 3s(J = 0 {r_arrow} 1) transition to dominate the other laser lines even for selenium. Applying the multiple pulse technique to nickel-like ions they observed lasing at 79 {angstrom} on the 4d {r_arrow} 4p(J = 0 {r_arrow} 1) transition in nickel-like neodymium (Z = 60) when a series of 100--150 ps pulses which are 400--500 ps apart are used to illuminate slab targets of neodymium. To maximize the laser output for neodymium they combine the advantages of coupling two slab targets, using the traveling wave geometry, and curving the target surface.

  5. Treadmill exercise ameliorates intracerebral hemorrhage-induced depression in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Joo Hwan; Ko, Il-Gyu; Kim, Sung-Eun; Lee, Jae-Min; Ji, Eun-Sang; Kim, Ju Ho; Chang, Hyun-Kyung; Lee, Seung Kyu; Kim, Khae Hawn

    2016-08-01

    Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a severe type of stroke causing neurological dysfunction with high mortality rate. Depression is one of the most common complications of ICH. In the present study, the effects of treadmill exercise on ICH-induced depressive symptoms in relation with apoptosis were investigated using rats. ICH rat model was induced by injection of collagenase into the hippocampus using stereotaxic instrument. Open field test for activity and forced swimming test for depressive symptoms were conducted. Apoptosis in the hippocampus was detected using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling assay, immunohistochemistry for caspase-3, and western blot for Bcl-2 and Bax. Western blot analysis for 5-hydroxy-tryptamine (5-HT, serotonin) and tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) in the dorsal raphe was also conducted for biomarkers of depression. In the present results, immobility time was increased and climbing time was decreased by induction of ICH and treadmill exercise inhibited immobility time and increased climbing time in ICH rats. DNA fragmentation and caspase-3 expression in the hippocampal dentate gyrus were enhanced by induction of ICH and treadmill exercise suppressed ICH-induced DNA fragmentation and caspase-3 expression. Bax expression in the hippocampus was increased by induction of ICH and treadmill exercise inhibited Bax expression in the ICH rats. Expressions of 5-HT and TPH in the dorsal raphe were decreased by induction of ICH and treadmill exercise increased expressions of 5-HT and TPH in the ICH rats. In the present study, treadmill exercise ameliorated depressive symptoms through inhibiting apoptosis. PMID:27656626

  6. Effects of cannabinoid drugs on the deficit of prepulse inhibition of startle in an animal model of schizophrenia: the SHR strain

    OpenAIRE

    Levin, Raquel; Peres, Fernanda F.; Almeida, Valéria; Calzavara, Mariana B.; Antonio W Zuardi; Hallak, Jaime E. C.; Crippa, José Alexandre S.; Abílio, Vanessa C.

    2014-01-01

    Clinical and neurobiological findings suggest that the cannabinoids and the endocannabinoid system may be implicated in the pathophysiology and treatment of schizophrenia. We described that the spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) strain presents a schizophrenia behavioral phenotype that is specifically attenuated by antipsychotic drugs, and potentiated by proschizophrenia manipulations. Based on these findings, we have suggested this strain as an animal model of schizophrenia. The aim of th...

  7. Effects of Cannabinoid Drugs on the Deficit of Prepulse Inhibition of Startle in an Animal Model of Schizophrenia: the SHR Strain

    OpenAIRE

    Raquel eLevin; Fernanda Fiel Peres; Valéria eAlmeida; Mariana Bendlin Calzavara; Antonio Waldo Zuardi; Jaime Eduardo Cecílio Hallak; José Alexandre de Souza Crippa; Vanessa Costhek Abílio

    2014-01-01

    Clinical and neurobiological findings suggest that the cannabinoids and the endocannabinoid system may be implicated in the pathophysiology and treatment of schizophrenia. We described that the Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHR) strain presents a schizophrenia behavioral phenotype that is specifically attenuated by antipsychotic drugs, and potentiated by proschizophrenia manipulations. Based on these findings, we have suggested this strain as an animal model of schizophrenia. The aim of th...

  8. Nicotine Withdrawal Disrupts Both Foreground and Background Contextual Fear Conditioning but not Pre-Pulse Inhibition of the Acoustic Startle Response in C57BL/6 Mice

    OpenAIRE

    André, Jessica M.; Gulick, Danielle; Portugal, George S.; Gould, Thomas J.

    2008-01-01

    Nicotine withdrawal is associated with multiple symptoms such as anxiety, increased appetite, and disrupted cognition in humans. Although animal models have provided insights into the somatic and affective symptoms of nicotine withdrawal, less research has focused on the effects of nicotine withdrawal on cognition. Therefore, in this study, C57BL/6 mice were used to test the effects of withdrawal from chronic nicotine on foreground and background contextual fear conditioning, which present th...

  9. Arctigenin isolated from the seeds of Arctium lappa ameliorates memory deficits in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, In-Ah; Joh, Eun-Ha; Kim, Dong-Hyun

    2011-09-01

    The seeds of Arctium lappa L. (AL, family Asteraceae), the main constituents of which are arctiin and arctigenin, have been used as an herbal medicine or functional food to treat inflammatory diseases. These main constituents were shown to inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity. Arctigenin more potently inhibited AChE activity than arctiin. Arctigenin at doses of 30 and 60 mg/kg (p. o.) potently reversed scopolamine-induced memory deficits by 62 % and 73 %, respectively, in a passive avoidance test. This finding is comparable with that of tacrine (10 mg/kg p. o.). Arctigenin also significantly reversed scopolamine-induced memory deficits in the Y-maze and Morris water maze tests. On the basis of these findings, arctigenin may ameliorate memory deficits by inhibiting AChE.

  10. Means for limiting and ameliorating electrode shorting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konynenburg, R.A. van; Farmer, J.C.

    1999-11-09

    A fuse and filter arrangement is described for limiting and ameliorating electrode shorting in capacitive deionization water purification systems utilizing carbon aerogel, for example. This arrangement limits and ameliorates the effects of conducting particles or debonded carbon aerogel in shorting the electrodes of a system such as a capacitive deionization water purification system. This is important because of the small interelectrode spacing and the finite possibility of debonding or fragmentation of carbon aerogel in a large system. The fuse and filter arrangement electrically protect the entire system from shutting down if a single pair of electrodes is shorted and mechanically prevents a conducting particle from migrating through the electrode stack, shorting a series of electrode pairs in sequence. It also limits the amount of energy released in a shorting event. The arrangement consists of a set of circuit breakers or fuses with one fuse or breaker in the power line connected to one electrode of each electrode pair and a set of screens of filters in the water flow channels between each set of electrode pairs.

  11. Means for limiting and ameliorating electrode shorting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Konynenburg, Richard A. (Livermore, CA); Farmer, Joseph C. (Tracy, CA)

    1999-01-01

    A fuse and filter arrangement for limiting and ameliorating electrode shorting in capacitive deionization water purification systems utilizing carbon aerogel, for example. This arrangement limits and ameliorates the effects of conducting particles or debonded carbon aerogel in shorting the electrodes of a system such as a capacitive deionization water purification system. This is important because of the small interelectrode spacing and the finite possibility of debonding or fragmentation of carbon aerogel in a large system. The fuse and filter arrangement electrically protect the entire system from shutting down if a single pair of electrodes is shorted and mechanically prevents a conducting particle from migrating through the electrode stack, shorting a series of electrode pairs in sequence. It also limits the amount of energy released in a shorting event. The arrangement consists of a set of circuit breakers or fuses with one fuse or breaker in the power line connected to one electrode of each electrode pair and a set of screens of filters in the water flow channels between each set of electrode pairs.

  12. Astragaloside IV ameliorates renal injury in db/db mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Huili; Wang, Wenjing; Han, Pengxun; Shao, Mumin; Song, Gaofeng; Du, Heng; Yi, Tiegang; Li, Shunmin

    2016-09-01

    Diabetic nephropathy is a lethal complication of diabetes mellitus and a major type of chronic kidney disease. Dysregulation of the Akt pathway and its downstream cascades, including mTOR, NFκB, and Erk1/2, play a critical role in the development of diabetic nephropathy. Astragaloside IV is a major component of Huangqi and exerts renal protection in a mouse model of type 1 diabetes. The current study was undertaken to investigate the protective effects of diet supplementation of AS-IV on renal injury in db/db mice, a type 2 diabetic mouse model. Results showed that administration of AS-IV reduced albuminuria, ameliorated changes in the glomerular and tubular pathology, and decreased urinary NAG, NGAL, and TGF-β1 in db/db mice. AS-IV also attenuated the diabetes-related activation of Akt/mTOR, NFκB, and Erk1/2 signaling pathways without causing any detectable hepatotoxicity. Collectively, these findings showed AS-IV to be beneficial to type 2 diabetic nephropathy, which might be associated with the inhibition of Akt/mTOR, NFκB and Erk1/2 signaling pathways.

  13. Pathways Implicated in Tadalafil Amelioration of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Arcangelis, Valeria; Strimpakos, Georgios; Gabanella, Francesca; Corbi, Nicoletta; Luvisetto, Siro; Magrelli, Armando; Onori, Annalisa; Passananti, Claudio; Pisani, Cinzia; Rome, Sophie; Severini, Cinzia; Naro, Fabio; Mattei, Elisabetta; Di Certo, Maria Grazia; Monaco, Lucia

    2016-01-01

    Numerous therapeutic approaches for Duchenne and Becker Muscular Dystrophy (DMD and BMD), the most common X-linked muscle degenerative disease, have been proposed. So far, the only one showing a clear beneficial effect is the use of corticosteroids. Recent evidence indicates an improvement of dystrophic cardiac and skeletal muscles in the presence of sustained cGMP levels secondary to a blocking of their degradation by phosphodiesterase five (PDE5). Due to these data, we performed a study to investigate the effect of the specific PDE5 inhibitor, tadalafil, on dystrophic skeletal muscle function. Chronic pharmacological treatment with tadalafil has been carried out in mdx mice. Behavioral and physiological tests, as well as histological and biochemical analyses, confirmed the efficacy of the therapy. We then performed a microarray-based genomic analysis to assess the pattern of gene expression in muscle samples obtained from the different cohorts of animals treated with tadalafil. This scrutiny allowed us to identify several classes of modulated genes. Our results show that PDE5 inhibition can ameliorate dystrophy by acting at different levels. Tadalafil can lead to (1) increased lipid metabolism; (2) a switch towards slow oxidative fibers driven by the up-regulation of PGC-1α; (3) an increased protein synthesis efficiency; (4) a better actin network organization at Z-disk. PMID:26097015

  14. Triptolide ameliorates colonic fibrosis in an experimental rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Qingsong; Wang, Baochai; Zheng, Yu; Li, Guanwei; Ren, Jianan

    2015-08-01

    Triptolide is known to exert anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activities; however, its impact on intestinal fibrosis has not been previously examined. Based on our previous studies of the suppressive activity of triptolide on human colonic subepithelial myofibroblasts and the therapeutic efficacy of triptolide in Crohn's disease, it was hypothesized that triptolide may have beneficial effects on intestinal fibrosis. In the present study, colonic fibrosis was induced in rats by 6 weekly repeated administration with a low-dose of 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) and was then treated with triptolide or PBS daily (control) simultaneously. Extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition in the colon was examined with image analysis of Masson Trichrome staining. Total collagen levels in colonic homogenates were measured by a Sircol assay. Collagen Iα1 transcripts and collagen I protein were measured ex vivo in the isolated colonic subepithelial myofibroblasts by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunoblot analysis, respectively. The results indicated that triptolide decreased ECM deposition and collagen production in the colon, and inhibited collagen Iα1 transcripts and collagen I protein expression in the isolated subepithelial myofibroblasts of the rats with colonic fibrosis. In conclusion, triptolide ameliorates colonic fibrosis in the experimental rat model, suggesting triptolide may be a promising compound for inflammatory bowel disease treatment. PMID:25845760

  15. Tryptanthrin ameliorates atopic dermatitis through down-regulation of TSLP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Na-Ra; Moon, Phil-Dong; Kim, Hyung-Min; Jeong, Hyun-Ja

    2014-01-15

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common skin disease that greatly worsens quality of life. Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) plays a decisive role in the development of AD. The purpose of this study is to examine whether tryptanthrin (TR) would suppress AD through the regulation of TSLP. We analyzed the effect of TR on the level of TSLP from phorbol myristate acetate/calcium ionophore A23187-activated human mast cell line, HMC-1 cells, in 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene-induced AD-like skin lesions of NC/Nga mice, and in anti-CD3/anti-CD28-stimulated splenocytes. TR significantly suppressed the level of intracellular calcium and the production and mRNA expression of TSLP through the blockade of receptor-interacting protein 2/caspase-1/nuclear factor-κB pathway in the activated HMC-1 cells. TR also significantly suppressed the levels of histidine decarboxylase and IL-1β. Furthermore, TR ameliorated clinical symptoms in the AD model. TR significantly reduced the levels of TSLP, IL-4, IFN-γ, IL-6, TNF-α, thymus and activation-regulated chemokine, and caspase-1 in AD skin lesions. Also, TR significantly reduced the serum levels of histamine and IL-4 in the AD model. Finally, TR significantly inhibited the production of IL-4, IFN-γ, and TNF-α from the stimulated splenocytes. Taken together, TR exhibits the potential to be a therapeutic agent for AD through down-regulation of TSLP. PMID:24295961

  16. Amelioration of radiation damage by pentoxifylline treatment in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pentoxifylline (PTX) is a methylxanthine derivative used to treat vascular diseases. It has antioxidant properties, an anti- tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) effect, increase erythrocyte flexibility and vasodilatation. An agent that increases blood flow and tissue oxygen content may contribute to enhanced healing of soft tissue, and inhibit inflammatory reactions. The mechanism of action of the anti-oxidant effect of pentoxifylline is not yet clear and it is an interesting field to explore. This study has investigated the antioxidant pathways through which PTX treatment (1200 mg/ l in drinking water) exerts its effect on radiation-induced changes. Blood reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) and serum catalase (CAT), MDA, xanthine oxidase (XO) and xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH), total protein, albumin, uric acid, advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) and ascorbyl radical (AsR) were measured in female rats. Animals were divided into: Group 1: control, Group 2: administrated PTX for 8 days. Group 3: Exposed to fractionated radiation at the dose level of 4 Gy (2 Gy every 4 days) for 8 days and Group 4: received PTX two h post the onset of irradiation (4 Gy fractionated) till the end of the experiment. All animals were inspected after 8 days from the beginning of the experiment. Fractionated 4 Gy whole body gamma irradiation induced oxidative damage manifested in the significant decreases in blood GSH content, GSH-PX and CAT activities, total protein, albumin, uric acid, and XDH. Conversely, significant elevations were detected in plasma MDA, AOPP and AsR contents as well as XO activity. PTX treatment ameliorated radiation induced oxidative damage through its antioxidant properties and free radical scavenging ability that is partially mediated through inhibition of xanthine oxidase thus could play a role in regulating radiation complications.

  17. High molecular weight polysaccharide that binds and inhibits virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konowalchuk, Thomas W

    2014-01-14

    This invention provides a high molecular weight polysaccharide capable of binding to and inhibiting virus and related pharmaceutical formulations and methods on inhibiting viral infectivity and/or pathogenicity, as well as immunogenic compositions. The invention further methods of inhibiting the growth of cancer cells and of ameliorating a symptom of aging. Additionally, the invention provides methods of detecting and/or quantifying and/or isolating viruses.

  18. Use of Coffee Pulp and Minerals for Natural Soil Ameliorant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pujiyanto Pujiyanto

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available In coffee plantation, solid waste of coffee pulp is usually collected as heap nearby processing facilities for several months prior being used as compost. The practice is leading to the formation of odor and liquid which contaminate the environment. Experiments to evaluate the effect of natural soil ameliorant derived from coffee pulp and minerals were conducted at The Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute in Jember, East Java. The experiments were intended to optimize the use of coffee pulp to support farming sustainability and minimize negative impacts of solid waste disposal originated from coffee cherry processing. Prior to applications, coffee pulp was hulled to organic paste. The paste was then mixed with 10% minerals (b/b. Composition of the minerals was 50% zeolite and 50% rock phosphate powder. The ameliorant was characterized for their physical and chemical properties. Agronomic tests were conducted on coffee and cocoa seedling. The experiments were arranged according to Randomized Completely Design with 2 factors, consisted of natural ameliorant and inorganic fertilizer respectively. Natural ameliorant derived from coffee pulp was applied at 6 levels: 0, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 g dry ameliorant/seedling of 3 kg soil, equivalent to 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5% (b/b of ameliorant respectively. Inorganic fertilizer was applied at 2 levels: 0 and 2 g fertilizer/application of N-P-K compound fertilizer of 15-15-15 respectively. The inorganic fertilizer was applied 4 times during nursery of coffee and cocoa. The result of the experiment indicated that coffee pulp may be used as natural soil ameliorant. Composition of ameliorant of 90% coffee pulp and 10% of minerals has good physical and chemical characteristics for soil amelioration. The composition has high water holding capacity; cations exchange capacity, organic carbon and phosphorus contents which are favorable to increase soil capacity to support plant growth. Application of

  19. PEG minocycline-liposomes ameliorate CNS autoimmune disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Hu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Minocycline is an oral tetracycline derivative with good bioavailability in the central nervous system (CNS. Minocycline, a potent inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-9, attenuates disease activity in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE, an animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS. Potential adverse effects associated with long-term daily minocycline therapy in human patients are concerning. Here, we investigated whether less frequent treatment with long-circulating polyethylene glycol (PEG minocycline liposomes are effective in treating EAE. FINDINGS: Performing in vitro time kinetic studies of PEG minocycline-liposomes in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs, we determined that PEG minocycline-liposome preparations stabilized with CaCl(2 are effective in diminishing MMP-9 activity. Intravenous injections of PEG minocycline-liposomes every five days were as effective in ameliorating clinical EAE as daily intraperitoneal injections of minocycline. Treatment of animals with PEG minocycline-liposomes significantly reduced the number of CNS-infiltrating leukocytes, and the overall expression of MMP-9 in the CNS. There was also a significant suppression of MMP-9 expression and proteolytic activity in splenocytes of treated animals, but not in CNS-infiltrating leukocytes. Thus, leukocytes gaining access to the brain and spinal cord require the same absolute amount of MMP-9 in all treatment groups, but minocycline decreases the absolute cell number. CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate that less frequent injections of PEG minocycline-liposomes are an effective alternative pharmacotherapy to daily minocycline injections for the treatment of CNS autoimmune diseases. Also, inhibition of MMP-9 remains a promising treatment target in EAE and patients with MS.

  20. Amelioration of safety management in infrastructure projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. Gopinath S.Mohite

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Accidents are a major public health concern, resulting in an estimated 1.2 million deaths and 50 million injuries worldwide each year specifically, the relationships between drivers' characteristics and road accidents are not fully understood. Many factors are involved in the accident occurrence at construction site. Some important elements that create a significant portion of accidents include: safety management error, poor training programs, human element, act of god, outdated procedure and no clear monitoring policy. Although some of these items are inevitable, but the occurrence of the largest part can be prevented. Therefore, for ameliorating the safety in a project each of these items should be analyzed and a practical approach introduced. In general, near miss, incident and accident are three dependent levels that mainly lead to injury. Risk and hazard are allocated in first level which means near miss, therefore, no on-time identification of hazard and risk causes to create incident and preventing accident in incident stage is unavoidable.

  1. Riboflavin ameliorates cisplatin induced toxicities under photoillumination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iftekhar Hassan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cisplatin is an effective anticancer drug that elicits many side effects mainly due to induction of oxidative and nitrosative stresses during prolonged chemotherapy. The severity of these side effects consequently restricts its clinical use under long term treatment. Riboflavin is an essential vitamin used in various metabolic redox reactions in the form of flavin adenine dinucleotide and flavin mononucleotide. Besides, it has excellent photosensitizing property that can be used to ameliorate these toxicities in mice under photodynamic therapy. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Riboflavin, cisplatin and their combinations were given to the separate groups of mice under photoilluminated condition under specific treatment regime. Their kidney and liver were excised for comet assay and histopathological studies. Furthermore, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy of riboflavin-cisplatin combination in vitro was also conducted to investigate any possible interaction between the two compounds. Their comet assay and histopathological examination revealed that riboflavin in combination with cisplatin was able to protect the tissues from cisplatin induced toxicities and damages. Moreover, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy analysis of the combination indicated a strong molecular interaction among their constituent groups that may be assigned for the protective effect of the combination in the treated animals. CONCLUSION: Inclusion of riboflavin diminishes cisplatin induced toxicities which may possibly make the cisplatin-riboflavin combination, an effective treatment strategy under chemoradiotherapy in pronouncing its antineoplastic activity and sensitivity towards the cancer cells as compared to cisplatin alone.

  2. SIRT2 ameliorates lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in macrophages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ae Sin; Jung, Yu Jin; Kim, Dal; Nguyen-Thanh, Tung [Department of Internal Medicine, Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Kyung Pyo [Department of Internal Medicine, Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Research Institute of Clinical Medicine of Chonbuk National University, Chonbuk National University Hospital, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sik [Department of Internal Medicine, Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sung Kwang [Department of Internal Medicine, Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Research Institute of Clinical Medicine of Chonbuk National University, Chonbuk National University Hospital, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Won, E-mail: kwon@jbnu.ac.kr [Department of Internal Medicine, Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Research Institute of Clinical Medicine of Chonbuk National University, Chonbuk National University Hospital, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-08

    Highlights: • Knockout of SIRT2 attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced iNOS expression. • Lipopolysaccharide-induced NO production is decreased in SIRT2 KO macrophage. • SIRT2 deficiency suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced ROS production in macrophage. • M1-macrophage related factors are decreased in SIRT2 deficient cells. • SIRT2 deficiency decreases lipopolysaccharide-induced activation of NFκB. - Abstract: Introduction: SIRT2 is a NAD(+)-dependent deacetylases and associated with numerous processes such as infection, carcinogenesis, DNA damage and cell cycle regulation. However, the role of SIRT2 in inflammatory process in macrophage remains unclear. Materials and methods: In the present study, we have evaluated the regulatory effects of SIRT2 in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophages isolated from SIRT2 knockout (KO) and wild type (WT) mice or Raw264.7 macrophage cells. As inflammatory parameters, expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), the productions of nitric oxide, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and M1-macrophage-related factors were evaluated. We also examined the effects of SIRT2 on activation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NFκB) signaling. Results: SIRT2 deficiency inhibits LPS-induced iNOS mRNA and protein expression in bone marrow derived macrophages. SIRT2-siRNA transfection also suppressed LPS-induced iNOS expression in Raw264.7 macrophage cells. Bone marrow derived macrophages isolated from SIRT2 KO mice produced lower nitric oxide and expressed lower levels of M1-macrophage related markers including iNOS and CD86 in response to LPS than WT mice. Decrease of SIRT2 reduced the LPS-induced reactive oxygen species production. Deficiency of SIRT2 resulted in inhibition of NFκB activation through reducing the phosphorylation and degradation of IκBα. The phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of p65 was significantly decreased in SIRT2-deficient macrophages after LPS stimulation. Discussion: Our data suggested that

  3. Polymerase I pathway inhibitor ameliorates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achiron, Anat; Mashiach, Roi; Zilkha-Falb, Rina; Meijler, Michael M; Gurevich, Michael

    2013-10-15

    Applying high throughput gene expression microarrays we identified that the suppression of polymerase 1 (POL1) pathway is associated with benign course of multiple sclerosis (MS). This finding supports the rationale for direct targeting of the POL1 transcription machinery as an innovative strategy to suppress MS. To evaluate the effects of a specific polymerase I inhibitor (POL1-I) on experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), we immunized female C57BL/6J mice (8 weeks) with MOG35-55/CFA. A new POL1-I was administered at a daily dose of 12.5mg/kg body weight by oral gavage either from the day of immunization until disease onset (EAE score 1.0, immunization model), at disease onset (EAE score=1.0) for the following 14 days (treatment model), or by alternate daily dose of 25.0mg/kg body weight, by oral gavage from the day of immunization for the following 25 days (combined model). POL1-I remarkably suppressed EAE in the immunization model; while in the Vehicle group the onset of EAE occurred on day 10.0±0.4 with maximal clinical score of 3.2±0.2, in the POL1-I treated mice onset was significantly delayed and occurred on day 16.9±1.1 (p=0.001), and maximal disease score 2.0±0.1 was reduced (p=0.004). In the treatment model POL1-I treatment significantly reduced disease activity; maximal score was 2.0±0.5 while in the Vehicle group it reached a mean maximal score of 3.9±0.1, (p=0.0008). In the combined model, POL1-I treatment completely inhibited disease activity. The effect of POL1-I treatment was modulated through decreased expression of POL1 pathway key-related genes LRPPRC, pre-RNA, POLR1D and RRN3 together with activation of P53 dependent apoptosis of CD4+ splenocytes. Our findings demonstrate that POL1 pathway inhibition delayed and suppressed the development of EAE and ameliorated the disease in mice with persistent clinical signs.

  4. SIRT2 ameliorates lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in macrophages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Knockout of SIRT2 attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced iNOS expression. • Lipopolysaccharide-induced NO production is decreased in SIRT2 KO macrophage. • SIRT2 deficiency suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced ROS production in macrophage. • M1-macrophage related factors are decreased in SIRT2 deficient cells. • SIRT2 deficiency decreases lipopolysaccharide-induced activation of NFκB. - Abstract: Introduction: SIRT2 is a NAD(+)-dependent deacetylases and associated with numerous processes such as infection, carcinogenesis, DNA damage and cell cycle regulation. However, the role of SIRT2 in inflammatory process in macrophage remains unclear. Materials and methods: In the present study, we have evaluated the regulatory effects of SIRT2 in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophages isolated from SIRT2 knockout (KO) and wild type (WT) mice or Raw264.7 macrophage cells. As inflammatory parameters, expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), the productions of nitric oxide, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and M1-macrophage-related factors were evaluated. We also examined the effects of SIRT2 on activation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NFκB) signaling. Results: SIRT2 deficiency inhibits LPS-induced iNOS mRNA and protein expression in bone marrow derived macrophages. SIRT2-siRNA transfection also suppressed LPS-induced iNOS expression in Raw264.7 macrophage cells. Bone marrow derived macrophages isolated from SIRT2 KO mice produced lower nitric oxide and expressed lower levels of M1-macrophage related markers including iNOS and CD86 in response to LPS than WT mice. Decrease of SIRT2 reduced the LPS-induced reactive oxygen species production. Deficiency of SIRT2 resulted in inhibition of NFκB activation through reducing the phosphorylation and degradation of IκBα. The phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of p65 was significantly decreased in SIRT2-deficient macrophages after LPS stimulation. Discussion: Our data suggested that

  5. Amelioration of scopolamine-induced amnesia by phosphatidylserine and curcumin in the day-old chick.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Teresa A; Edris, Edward M; Levinsky, Paul J; Williams, Justin M; Brouwer, Ari R; Gessay, Shawn A

    2016-09-01

    In the one-trial taste-avoidance task in day-old chicks, acetylcholine receptor activation has been shown to be important for memory formation. Injection of scopolamine produces amnesia, which appears to be very similar in type to that of Alzheimer's disease, which is correlated with low levels of acetylcholine in the brain. Traditional pharmacological treatments of Alzheimer's disease, such as cholinesterase inhibitors and glutamate receptor blockers, improve memory and delay the onset of impairments in memory compared with placebo controls. These agents also ameliorate scopolamine-induced amnesia in the day-old chick trained on the one-trial taste-avoidance task. The present experiments examined the ability of two less traditional treatments for Alzheimer's disease, phosphatidylserine and curcumin, to ameliorate scopolamine-induced amnesia in day-old chicks. The results showed that 37.9 mmol/l phosphatidylserine and 2.7 mmol/l curcumin significantly improved retention in chicks administered scopolamine, whereas lower doses were not effective. Scopolamine did not produce state-dependent learning, indicating that this paradigm in day-old chicks might be a useful one to study the effects of possible Alzheimer's treatments. In addition, chicks administered curcumin or phosphatidylserine showed little avoidance of a bead associated with water reward, indicating that these drugs did not produce response inhibition. The current results extend the findings that some nontraditional memory enhancers can ameliorate memory impairment and support the hypothesis that these treatments might be of benefit in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. PMID:27388114

  6. Antimicrobial Peptide LL-37 and IDR-1 Ameliorate MRSA Pneumonia in Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man Hou

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The only human cathelicidin, LL-37, and the innate defense regulator peptide IDR-1, which have been proven to have antimicrobial activity, represent essential elements of immunity. Our previous study showed that the peptide LL-37 was protective in vitro to attenuate LTA-induced inflammatory effects. Methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA causes a multitude of serious and sometimes life-threatening diseases around the globe. However, the effect of LL-37 and IDR-1 in MRSA-induced pneumonia is unknown. In the present study, we explored the potential of LL-37 and IDR-1 in ameliorating MRSA-induced pneumonia in vivo. Methods: C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into four groups and perfused intratracheally with PBS, peptide, MRSA and MRSA plus peptide, respectively. Pulmonary tissue pathology, ELISA and quantitative RT-PCR were employed. The relative signal pathways were further explored by western blot analysis. Results: Pathological analysis of the lung tissue sections demonstrated that, when compared with the MRSA-treated group, both the LL-37 and IDR-1 could ameliorate the MRSA-induced pneumonia. The phosphorylation of JNK and Akt were markedly decreased in the peptide plus MRSA-treated group compared with the MRSA-treated group. Furthermore, both of them also reduced TNF-α and IL-6 production in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF and serum in vivo. Conclusion: We report the first evidence of peptides inhibiting inflammation, decreasing the release of inflammatory cytokines and restoring pulmonary function in vivo. The antimicrobial peptide LL-37 and IDR-1 could ameliorate MRSA-induced pneumonia by exerting an anti-inflammatory property and attenuating pro-inflammatory cytokine release, thus providing support for the hypothesis that both innate and synthetic peptides could protect against MRSA in vivo.

  7. Zinc Deficiency in Humans and its Amelioration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yashbir Singh Shivay

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Zinc (Zn deficiency in humans has recently received considerable attention. Global mortality in children under 5 years of age in 2004 due to Zn deficiency was estimated at 4,53,207 as against 6,66,771 for vitamin A deficiency; 20,854 for iron deficiency and 3,619 for iodine deficiency. In humans 2800-3000 proteins contain Zn prosthetic group and Zn is an integral component of zinc finger prints that regulate DNA transcription. Zinc is a Type-2 nutrient, which means that its concentration in blood does not decrease in proportion of the Zn deficiency. Adverse effects of Zn deficiency vary with age: low weight gain, diarrhoea, aneroxia and neurobehavioral disturbances are observed in infants, while skin changes and dwarfism are frequent in toddlers and adolescents. Common manifestations of Zn deficiency among elderly include hypogeusia, chronic non-healing ulcers and recurrent infections.Ameliorative measures of Zn deficiency in humans can be classified in two groups, namely, nutraceutical and biofortification of food grains. Nutraceutical interventions include pharmaceutical supplements, dietary supplements and dietary diversification, while biofortification of food grains can be achieved by genetic modification (GM of crops or by agronomic techniques that include soil or/and foliar fertilization of crops.The major disadvantage of nutraceutical approaches is that the major beneficiaries are urban people and the poor rural masses that need adequate Zn nutrition most are left out. Genetic biofortification of food grains requires large amounts of funds and a fairly long-period of time. Further, a large number of countries have not yet accepted genetically modified (GM foods. On the other hand agronomic biofortification of food grains yields immediate effects and rural and urban people are equally benefitted. Our studies have shown that Zn concentration in cereals (rice, wheat etc and pulses can be considerably increased by soil or/and foliar

  8. Rikkunshito Ameliorates Cancer Cachexia Partly through Elevation of Glucarate in Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuya Ohbuchi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer cachexia, which is characterized by decreased food intake, weight loss and systemic inflammation, increases patient’s morbidity and mortality. We previously showed that rikkunshito (RKT, a Japanese traditional herbal medicine (Kampo, ameliorated the symptoms of cancer cachexia through ghrelin signaling-dependent and independent pathways. To investigate other mechanisms of RKT action in cancer cachexia, we performed metabolome analysis of plasma in a rat model bearing the Yoshida AH-130 hepatoma. A total of 110 metabolites were detected in plasma and RKT treatment significantly altered levels of 23 of those metabolites in cachexia model rats. Among them, glucarate, which is known to have anticarcinogenic activity through detoxification of carcinogens via inhibition of β-glucuronidase, was increased in plasma following administration of RKT. In our AH-130 ascites-induced cachexia rat model, administration of glucarate delayed onset of weight loss, improved muscle atrophy, and reduced ascites content. Additionally, glucarate reduced levels of plasma interferon-γ (IFN-γ in tumor-bearing rats and was also found to suppress LPS-induced IFN-γ expression in splenocytes in vitro. These results suggest that glucarate has anti-inflammatory activity via a direct effect on immune host cells and suggest that RKT may also ameliorate inflammation partly through the elevation of glucarate in plasma.

  9. Ameliorative effect of grapefruit juice on amiodarone-induced cytogenetic and testicular damage in albino rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Saber Abdelruhman Sakr; Mohamed El-said Zoil; Samraa Samy El-shafey

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the ameliorative role of grapefruit juice on the cytogenetic and testicular damage induced by the antiarrythmic drug amiodarone in albino rats. Methods: Animals were divided into four groups. Group I was considered as control. Group II was given grapefruit juice at a dose level of 27 mL/kg body weight. Group III was orally administered amiodarone (18 mg/kg body weight) daily for 5 weeks. Animals were sacrificed after 5 weeks of treatment. Bone marrow was collected from the femurs for analysis of chromosomal aberrations and mitotic indices. Testes were removed and stained with H&E for histological examination. Sperms were collected from epidedymis for detection of sperm head abnormalities. Comet assay was used to detect DNA damage. Results: Amiodarone treatment caused a significant increase in the percentage of chromosomal aberrations, decreased the mitotic index and increased DNA damage. The testis showed many histopathological alterations, inhibition of spermatogenesis and morphometric changes. The number of sperm head abnormalities was increased. Treating animals with amiodarone and grapefruit juice caused a reduction in chromosomal aberrations, mitotic index, DNA damage and testicular alterations caused by amiodarone. Conclusions:The results of this study indicated that grapefruit juice ameliorates the cytotoxicty and testicular alterations induced by amiodarone in albino rats and this is may be due to the potent antioxidant effects of its components.

  10. Oral administration of Bifidobacterium longum ameliorates influenza virus infection in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwabuchi, Noriyuki; Xiao, Jin-Zhong; Yaeshima, Tomoko; Iwatsuki, Keiji

    2011-01-01

    We investigated whether the oral administration of Bifidobacterium longum BB536 could ameliorate influenza virus (IFV) infection in a mice model. Mice were orally administrated BB536 or saline for 2 weeks and then infected with IFV. Orally administered BB536 significantly alleviated symptoms, reduced the loss of body weight, and inhibited viral proliferation in the lungs relative to the control group findings. Histopathological findings in the lungs were improved in the BB536 group compared to control group findings. There was no significant difference in the levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), interferon-γ (IFN-γ), IL-10 and IL-12p40 in the lungs between the groups, but the levels of IL-6 and IFN-γ were lower (p=0.076, 0.103, respectively) in the BB536 group compared with those of control group. The levels of IL-6 and IL-10 correlated significantly with the values of weight loss, and the levels of IFN-γ correlated with the virus titers in the lungs. These results suggested the potential of the oral administration of BB536 in ameliorating IFV infection and the possible involvement of anti-inflammatory effects of BB536 in the anti-infection effects against IFV.

  11. Arctigenin effectively ameliorates memory impairment in Alzheimer's disease model mice targeting both β-amyloid production and clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhiyuan; Yan, Jianming; Jiang, Wei; Yao, Xin-gang; Chen, Jing; Chen, Lili; Li, Chenjing; Hu, Lihong; Jiang, Hualiang; Shen, Xu

    2013-08-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) chiefly characterizes a progressively neurodegenerative disorder of the brain, and eventually leads to irreversible loss of intellectual abilities. The β-amyloid (Aβ)-induced neurodegeneration is believed to be the main pathological mechanism of AD, and Aβ production inhibition or its clearance promotion is one of the promising therapeutic strategies for anti-AD research. Here, we report that the natural product arctigenin from Arctium lappa (L.) can both inhibit Aβ production by suppressing β-site amyloid precursor protein cleavage enzyme 1 expression and promote Aβ clearance by enhancing autophagy through AKT/mTOR signaling inhibition and AMPK/Raptor pathway activation as investigated in cells and APP/PS1 transgenic AD model mice. Moreover, the results showing that treatment of arctigenin in mice highly decreased Aβ formation and senile plaques and efficiently ameliorated AD mouse memory impairment strongly highlight the potential of arctigenin in anti-AD drug discovery. PMID:23926267

  12. Doinseunggitang Ameliorates Endothelial Dysfunction in Diabetic Atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Joo Yoon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis, a chronic and progressive disease characterized by vascular inflammation, is a leading cause of death in diabetes patients. Doinseunggitang (DYSGT, traditional prescription, has been used for promoting blood circulation to remove blood stasis. The aim of this study was to investigate the beneficial effects of DYSGT on endothelial dysfunction in diabetic atherosclerosis animal model. Apolipoprotein E knockout (ApoE KO mice fed on a Western diet were treated with DYSGT (200 mg/kg/day. DYSGT significantly lowered blood glucose level and glucose tolerance as well as systolic blood pressure. Metabolic parameter showed that DYSGT markedly decreased triglyceride and LDL-cholesterol levels. In the thoracic aorta, the impairment of vasorelaxation response to acetylcholine and atherosclerotic lesion was attenuated by DYSGT. Furthermore, DYSGT restored the reduction of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS expression, leading to the inhibition of intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1 and endothelin-1 (ET-1 expression. In conclusion, DYSGT improved the development of diabetic atherosclerosis via attenuation of the endothelial dysfunction, possibly by inhibiting ET-1, cell adhesion molecules, and lesion formation. Therefore, these results suggest that Korean traditional prescription Doinseunggitang may be useful in the treatment and prevention of diabetic vascular complications.

  13. Stress kinase inhibition modulates acute experimental pancreatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    F. Fleischer; R. Dabew; B. Goke; ACC Wagner

    2001-01-01

    AIM To examine the role of p38 during acute experimental cerulein pancreatitis.METHODS Rats were treated with cerulein with or without a specific JNK inhibitor (CEP1347)andy or a specific p38 inhbitor (SB203380) and pancreatic stress kinase activity wasdetermined. Parameters to assess pancreatitis included trypsin, amylase, lipase, pancreatic weight and histology.RESULTS JNK inhibition with CEP1347ameliorated pancreatitis, reducing pancreatic edema. In contrast, p38 inhibition with SB203580aggravated pancreatitis with higher trypsinlevels and, with induction of acinar necrosis not normally found after cerulein hyperstimulation.Simultaneous treatment with both CEP1347 and SB203580 mutually abolished the effects of either compound on cerulein pancreatitis.CONCLUSION Stress kinases modulatepancreatitis differentially. JNK seems to promote pancreatitis development, possibly by supporting inflammatory reactions such as edema formation while its inhibition ameliorates pancreatitis. In contrast, p38 may help reduce organ destruction while inhibition of p38 during induction of cerulein pancreatitis leads to the occurrence of acinar necrosis.

  14. Amelioration of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis by Plumbagin through Down-Regulation of JAK-STAT and NF-κB Signaling Pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Yan Jia; Ji Jing; Yang Bai; Zhen Li; Lande Liu; Jian Luo; Mingyao Liu; Huaqing Chen

    2011-01-01

    Plumbagin (PL), a herbal compound derived from roots of the medicinal plant Plumbago zeylanica, has been shown to have immunosuppressive properties. Present report describes that PL is a potent novel agent in control of encephalitogenic T cell responses and amelioration of mouse experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), through down-regulation of JAK-STAT pathway. PL was found to selectively inhibit IFN-γ and IL-17 production by CD4(+) T cells, which was mediated through abrogated phos...

  15. Possible modulation of FAS and PTP-1B signaling in ameliorative potential of Bombax ceiba against high fat diet induced obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Paras; Goyal, Rohit; Chauhan, Yamini; Sharma, Pyare Lal

    2013-01-01

    Background Bombax ceiba Linn., commonly called as Semal, is used in various gastro-intestinal disturbances. It contains Lupeol which inhibits PTP-1B, adipogenesis, TG synthesis and accumulation of lipids in adipocytes and adipokines whereas the flavonoids isolated from B. ceiba has FAS inhibitory activity. The present study was aimed to investigate ameliorative potential of Bombax ceiba to experimental obesity in Wistar rats, and its possible mechanism of action. Methods Male Wistar albino ra...

  16. 黄连素调节鞘氨醇激酶-1-磷酸鞘氨醇信号通路抗糖尿病小鼠肾损伤的研究%Berberine ameliorates diabetic mouse renal injury through inhibition of SphK1-S1P signaling pathway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭晶; 兰天; 黄凯鹏; 黄娟; 谢曦; 黄河清

    2011-01-01

    Aim To evaluate the protective effects of berberine on alloxan-induced diabetic renal injury in mice and the inhibitory effects of berberine on the Sphingosine kinase Sphingosine 1-phosphate ( SphK SIP) signaling pathway in mouse kidney. Methods Diabetic mice in berberine treatment group were treated orally with berberine (300 mg ? Kg"1 ? D~* ) or vehicle for 12 weeks. Mice in control or diabetic group were administrated with the equal volume of vehicle. Western blot method was applied to detect the protein expression of SphKl, FN, Col IV and RT-PCR was used to detect the mRNA expression of SphKl, TGF-(31, FN, Col IV. Results Berberine significantly attenuated the abnormal increases in fasting blood glu-cose , kidney/body weight, blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine and 24 h urine protein. In addition, berberine prevented renal hypertrophy, TGF-pl synthesis, FN and Col IV accumulation in kidney of diabetic mouse. Moreover, berberine down-regulated the elevated stainining, activity and levels of mRNA and protein of SphKl, and SI P production as well. Conclusion The protective effects of berberine on the diabetic renal injury in mice are relevant to the inhibition of activation of SphK-Sl P pathway in diabetic mouse kidney.%目的 研究黄连素对四氧嘧啶诱导的糖尿病小鼠肾损伤的保护作用及其对糖尿病小鼠肾脏鞘氨醇激酶-1-磷酸鞘氨醇(SphK-S1P)信号通路的抑制效应.方法 四氧嘧啶诱导的糖尿病小鼠采用黄连素(300 mg·kg-1·d-1)灌胃给药12周,正常组和糖尿病组小鼠给予同体积的溶媒.采用Real-time PCR技术检测肾组织中SphK1、TGF-β1、FN、Col Ⅳ的基因;Western blot法检测肾脏组织中SphK1、FN、Col Ⅳ的蛋白表达;LC-MS/MS检测肾脏组织中SphK1活性和S1P含量.结果 黄连素明显抑制糖尿病小鼠血糖,肾重/体重比、血尿素氮、血肌酐和24 h尿蛋白异常增高;抑制肾脏肥大、纤维连接蛋白和Ⅳ型胶原积聚.此外,黄

  17. Ac-SDKP ameliorates the progression of lupus nephritis in MRL/lpr mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Hechang; Zhao, Jijun; Wang, Shuang; Zhang, Lili; Wang, Hongyue; Huang, Bin; Liang, Yingjie; Yu, Xueqing; Yang, Niansheng

    2012-12-01

    N-acetyl-seryl-aspartyl-lysyl-proline (Ac-SDKP) is an endogenous tetrapeptide which can inhibit the differentiation, migration and activation of macrophages and suppress the proliferation of fibroblast. This study examined the effects of Ac-SDKP on the progression of lupus nephritis (LN). MRL/lpr mice received subcutaneous infusion of Ac-SDKP (1.0 mg kg(-1) d(-1)) or vehicle through implanted osmotic mini-pumps from 12 to 20 weeks until being euthanized. MRL/MpJ mice served as normal controls. The data indicative of renal inflammation and fibrosis were evaluated before and after treatment. Ac-SDKP-treated MRL/lpr mice showed reduced proteinuria and improved renal function compared with vehicle-treated controls. Ac-SDKP-treated mice demonstrated decreased inflammatory infiltrates of T cells and macrophages in the kidneys as compared to vehicle-treated animals. The treatment also inhibited the activation of NF-κB and production of TNF-α. Despite this, immune complex deposition and plasma anti-dsDNA levels were not statistically different between the two groups. In addition, the treatment inhibited renal expression of TGF-β1, α-SMA and fibronectin as well as the phosphorylation of Smad2/3. Ac-SDKP treatment ameliorated LN through exerting anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic effects on MRL/lpr mice, providing therapeutic potential for halting the progression of LN.

  18. Thioredoxin ameliorates cutaneous inflammation by regulating the epithelial production and release of pro-Inflammatory cytokines

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    Hai eTian

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Human thioredoxin-1 (TRX is a 12-kDa protein with redox-active dithiol in the active site -Cys-Gly-Pro-Cys-. It has been demonstrated that systemic administration and transgenic overexpression of TRX ameliorate inflammation in various animal models, but its anti-inflammatory mechanism is not well characterized. We investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of topically applied recombinant human TRX (rhTRX in a murine irritant contact dermatitis (ICD induced by croton oil. Topically applied rhTRX was distributed only in the skin tissues under both non-inflammatory and inflammatory conditions, and significantly suppressed the inflammatory response by inhibiting the production of cytokines and chemokines, such as TNF-α, Il-1β, IL-6, CXCL-1, and MCP-1. In an in vitro study, rhTRX also significantly inhibited the formation of cytokines and chemokines produced by keratinocytes after exposure to croton oil and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate. These results indicate that TRX prevents skin inflammation via the inhibition of local formation of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. As a promising new approach, local application of TRX may be useful for the treatment of various skin and mucosal inflammatory disorders.

  19. Metformin and resveratrol ameliorate muscle insulin resistance through preventing lipolysis and inflammation in hypoxic adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wenjun; Li, Aiyun; Feng, Xin; Hou, Ting; Liu, Kang; Liu, Baolin; Zhang, Ning

    2016-09-01

    This study aims to investigate the effects of metformin and resveratrol on muscle insulin resistance with emphasis on the regulation of lipolysis in hypoxic adipose tissue. ICR mice were fed with high fat diet (HFD) for 10days with administration of metformin, resveratrol, or intraperitoneal injection of digoxin. Adipose hypoxia, inflammation and cAMP/PKA-dependent lipolysis were investigated. Moreover, lipid deposition and insulin resistance were examined in the muscle. Metformin and resveratrol attenuated adipose hypoxia, inhibited HIF-1α expression and inflammation in the adipose tissue of HFD-fed mice. Metformin and resveratrol inhibited lipolysis through prevention of PKA/HSL activation by decreasing the accumulation of cAMP via preserving PDE3B. Metformin and resveratrol reduced FFAs influx and DAG accumulation, and thus improved insulin signaling in the muscle by inhibiting PKCθ translocation. This study presents a new view of regulating lipid metabolism to ameliorate insulin resistance and provides the clinical guiding significance for obesity and type 2 diabetes with metformin and resveratrol treatment. PMID:27343375

  20. Nebivolol Ameliorates Nitric Oxide–Deficient Hypertension

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    L.A. Fortepiani

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Nebivolol is a new selective beta 1-adrenoceptor antagonist with nitric oxide (NO–releasing properties. In the present study we have analyzed whether nebivolol affects the development of the arterial hypertension that follows the chronic inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis. Nebivolol (1 mg/kg/day, 14 days was given concurrently with the NO synthesis inhibitor Nw-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 0.1, 1, and 10 mg/kg/day, 14 days to several groups of rats. Blood pressure, renal function, plasma renin activity (PRA, and NO activity and metabolites were measured at the end of the treatment period. L-NAME treatment alone increased mean arterial pressure dose dependently (103.5 ± 2.4, 110.9 ± 2.0, and 125.8 ± 2.2 mmHg, respectively. Nebivolol completely prevented the development of arterial hypertension in the groups treated with L-NAME at the doses of 0.1 and 1 mg/kg/day and reduced the increase achieved with the L-NAME dose of 10 mg/kg/day (110.3 ± 2.7. There were no differences in glomerular filtration rate or natriuresis between nebivolol-treated and -untreated rats. Plasma nitrates+nitrites and calcium-dependent NO synthase activity in the kidney also decreased dose dependently with L-NAME treatment and nebivolol did not significantly modify it. However, PRA was lower in all groups treated with nebivolol and L-NAME as compared to the rats receiving only L-NAME. These data indicate that nebivolol prevents the development of the arterial hypertension associated with chronic NO deficit and this effect seems to be dependent on the inhibition of renin-angiotensin system.

  1. Designing urban parks that ameliorate the effects of climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, R.D.; Vanos, J.; Kenny, N.; Lenzholzer, S.

    2015-01-01

    Many inhabitants of cities throughout the world suffer from health problems and discomfort that are caused by overheating of urban areas, and there is compelling evidence that these problems will be exacerbated by global climate change. Most cities are not designed to ameliorate these effects althou

  2. Glycine preconditioning to ameliorate pulmonary ischemia reperfusion injury in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sommer, Sebastian-Patrick; Sommer, Stefanie; Sinha, Bhanu; Leyh, Rainer G.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the impact of glycine (Gly) preconditioning on ischemia reperfusion (IR)-induced pulmonary mitochondrial injury to research the previously, in pig lungs, demonstrated Gly-dependent amelioration of pulmonary IR injury. IR injury was induced in rat lungs by 30 min pulmonary hilum c

  3. Antibiotics can ameliorate circulatory complications of liver cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Bjørn Stæhr; Schaffalitzky de Muckadell, Ove B

    2011-01-01

    . This review focuses on how broad spectrum antibiotics can ameliorate the haemodynamic consequences of bacterial translocation. It is possible that the use of broad spectrum antibiotics in the future may be used to prevent other complications of liver cirrhosis than spontaneous bacterial peritonitis...

  4. Adipose-Derived Stem Cells Ameliorate Allergic Airway Inflammation by Inducing Regulatory T Cells in a Mouse Model of Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyu-Sup Cho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Although several studies have demonstrated that mesenchymal stem cells derived from adipose tissue (ASCs can ameliorate allergic airway inflammation, the immunomodulatory mechanism of ASCs remains unclear. In this study, we investigated whether regulatory T cells (Tregs induction is a potential mechanism in immunomodulatory effects of ASCs on allergic airway disease and how these induced Tregs orchestrate allergic inflammation. Intravenous administration of ASCs significantly reduced allergic symptoms and inhibited eosinophilic inflammation. Airway hyperresponsiveness, total immune cell and eosinophils in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, mucus production, and serum allergen-specific IgE and IgG1 were significantly reduced after ASCs administration. ASCs significantly inhibited Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 and enhanced Th1 cytokine (IFN-γ and regulatory cytokines (IL-10 and TGF-β in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung draining lymph nodes. Furthermore, levels of IDO, TGF-β, and PGE2 were significantly increased after ASCs administration. Interestingly, this upregulation was accompanied by increased Treg populations. In conclusion, ASCs ameliorated allergic airway inflammation and improved lung function through the induction of Treg expansion. The induction of Treg by ASCs involves the secretion of soluble factors such as IDO, TGF-β, and PGE2 and Treg might be involved in the downregulation of Th2 cytokines and upregulation of Th1 cytokines production.

  5. Adipose-derived stem cells ameliorate allergic airway inflammation by inducing regulatory T cells in a mouse model of asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kyu-Sup; Park, Mi-Kyung; Kang, Shin-Ae; Park, Hee-Young; Hong, Sung-Lyong; Park, Hye-Kyung; Yu, Hak-Sun; Roh, Hwan-Jung

    2014-01-01

    Although several studies have demonstrated that mesenchymal stem cells derived from adipose tissue (ASCs) can ameliorate allergic airway inflammation, the immunomodulatory mechanism of ASCs remains unclear. In this study, we investigated whether regulatory T cells (Tregs) induction is a potential mechanism in immunomodulatory effects of ASCs on allergic airway disease and how these induced Tregs orchestrate allergic inflammation. Intravenous administration of ASCs significantly reduced allergic symptoms and inhibited eosinophilic inflammation. Airway hyperresponsiveness, total immune cell and eosinophils in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, mucus production, and serum allergen-specific IgE and IgG1 were significantly reduced after ASCs administration. ASCs significantly inhibited Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13) and enhanced Th1 cytokine (IFN-γ) and regulatory cytokines (IL-10 and TGF-β) in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung draining lymph nodes. Furthermore, levels of IDO, TGF-β, and PGE2 were significantly increased after ASCs administration. Interestingly, this upregulation was accompanied by increased Treg populations. In conclusion, ASCs ameliorated allergic airway inflammation and improved lung function through the induction of Treg expansion. The induction of Treg by ASCs involves the secretion of soluble factors such as IDO, TGF-β, and PGE2 and Treg might be involved in the downregulation of Th2 cytokines and upregulation of Th1 cytokines production. PMID:25246732

  6. Rosiglitazone ameliorates diffuse axonal injury by reducing loss of tau and up-regulating caveolin-1 expression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-lin Zhao; Jin-ning Song; Xu-dong Ma; Bin-fei Zhang; Dan-dong Li; Hong-gang Pang

    2016-01-01

    Rosiglitazone up-regulates caveolin-1 levels and has neuroprotective effects in both chronic and acute brain injury. Therefore, we postu-lated that rosiglitazone may ameliorate diffuse axonal injuryvia its ability to up-regulate caveolin-1, inhibit expression of amyloid-beta precursor protein, and reduce the loss and abnormal phosphorylation of tau. In the present study, intraperitoneal injection of rosiglitazone signiifcantly reduced the levels ofamyloid-beta precursor protein and hyperphosphorylated tau (phosphorylated at Ser404 (p-tau (S404)), and it increased the expression of total tau and caveolin-1 in the rat cortex. Our results show that rosiglitazone inhibits the expression of amyloid-beta precursor protein and lowers p-tau (S404) levels, and it reduces the loss of total tau, possibly by up-regulating caveolin-1. These actions of rosiglitazone may underlie its neuroprotective effects in the treatment of diffuse axonal injury.

  7. Rosiglitazone ameliorates diffuse axonal injury by reducing loss of tau and up-regulating caveolin-1 expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-lin Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rosiglitazone up-regulates caveolin-1 levels and has neuroprotective effects in both chronic and acute brain injury. Therefore, we postulated that rosiglitazone may ameliorate diffuse axonal injury via its ability to up-regulate caveolin-1, inhibit expression of amyloid-beta precursor protein, and reduce the loss and abnormal phosphorylation of tau. In the present study, intraperitoneal injection of rosiglitazone significantly reduced the levels of amyloid-beta precursor protein and hyperphosphorylated tau (phosphorylated at Ser 404 (p-tau (S 404 , and it increased the expression of total tau and caveolin-1 in the rat cortex. Our results show that rosiglitazone inhibits the expression of amyloid-beta precursor protein and lowers p-tau (S 404 levels, and it reduces the loss of total tau, possibly by up-regulating caveolin-1. These actions of rosiglitazone may underlie its neuroprotective effects in the treatment of diffuse axonal injury.

  8. Rosiglitazone ameliorates diffuse axonal injury by reducing loss of tau and up-regulating caveolin-1 expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yong-lin; Song, Jin-ning; Ma, Xu-dong; Zhang, Bin-fei; Li, Dan-dong; Pang, Hong-gang

    2016-01-01

    Rosiglitazone up-regulates caveolin-1 levels and has neuroprotective effects in both chronic and acute brain injury. Therefore, we postulated that rosiglitazone may ameliorate diffuse axonal injury via its ability to up-regulate caveolin-1, inhibit expression of amyloid-beta precursor protein, and reduce the loss and abnormal phosphorylation of tau. In the present study, intraperitoneal injection of rosiglitazone significantly reduced the levels of amyloid-beta precursor protein and hyperphosphorylated tau (phosphorylated at Ser404(p-tau (S404)), and it increased the expression of total tau and caveolin-1 in the rat cortex. Our results show that rosiglitazone inhibits the expression of amyloid-beta precursor protein and lowers p-tau (S404) levels, and it reduces the loss of total tau, possibly by up-regulating caveolin-1. These actions of rosiglitazone may underlie its neuroprotective effects in the treatment of diffuse axonal injury.

  9. Disruptions of sensorimotor gating, cytokines, glycemia, monoamines, and genes in both sexes of rats reared in social isolation can be ameliorated by oral chronic quetiapine administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Chih-Yuan; Liu, Yia-Ping

    2016-01-01

    The pathogenesis of schizophrenia in patients with metabolic abnormalities remains unclear. Our previous study demonstrated that isolation rearing (IR) induced longitudinal concomitant changes of pro-inflammatory cytokine (pro-CK) levels and metabolic abnormalities with a developmental origin. However, the general consensus, believes that these abnormalities are caused by antipsychotic treatment in schizophrenic patients. The IR paradigm presents with face, construct, and predictive validity for schizophrenia. Therefore, we employed IR rats of both sexes to examine whether chronic quetiapine (QTP, a second-generation antipsychotic medication) treatment induces disruptions of metabolism (body weight, blood pressure, and the glycemic and lipid profiles) or cytokines [interleukin (IL)-1 beta, IL-6, IL-10, interferon-gamma, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha], and further, whether it reverses deficits of behaviors [locomotor activity and prepulse inhibition (PPI)] and the expression of monoamines (dopamine and serotonin) and related genes (Htr1a, Htr2a, Htr3a, Drd1a, and Gabbr2). IR induced higher levels of pro-CK, dysglycemia, blood pressure, locomotor activity, and impaired PPI, simultaneously destabilizing cortico-striatal monoamines and relevant genes in both sexes, while QTP demonstrated dose-dependent reversal of these changes, suggesting that QTP might reduce the pro-CKs to regulate these abnormalities. Our data implied that antipsychotics may not be the solitary factor causing metabolic problems in schizophrenia and suggested that inflammatory changes may play a vital role in the developmental pathophysiology of schizophrenia and related metabolic abnormalities.

  10. Tribulus terrestris ameliorates metronidazole-induced spermatogenic inhibition and testicular oxidative stress in the laboratory mouse

    OpenAIRE

    Mrinalini Kumari; Poonam Singh

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the protective effects of the fruit extract of Tribulus terrestris (TT) on the metronidazole (MTZ)-induced alterations in spermatogenesis, sperm count, testicular functions, and oxidative stress. Materials and Methods: Thirty adult Swiss strain mice were divided into six groups. Animals of Groups I and II served as untreated and vehicle-treated controls, while that of Groups III and IV were administered with MTZ (500 mg/kg BW/day) an...

  11. Paclitaxel ameliorates fibrosis in hepatic stellate cells via inhibition of TGF-β/Smad activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To investigated if paclitaxel can attenuate hepatic fi brosis in rat hepatic stellate cells (RHSCs). METHODS: RHSCs were cultured in vitro and randomly assigned to four groups: normal control group (treated only with Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium), Taxol group (200 nmol/L paclitaxel was added to the cell culture), transforming growth factor (TGF)-β group (5 ng/mL recombinant human TGF-β1 was added to the cell culture), and TGF-β + Taxol group. TGF-β signaling cascade and status of various extracel...

  12. Water Spinach, Ipomoea aquatic (Convolvulaceae, Ameliorates Lead Toxicity by Inhibiting Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saikat Dewanjee

    Full Text Available Ipomoea aquatica (Convolvulaceae, an aquatic edible plant, is traditionally used against heavy metal toxicity in India. The current study intended to explore the protective role of edible (aqueous extract of I. aquatica (AEIA against experimentally induced Pb-intoxication.The cytoprotective role of AEIA was measured on mouse hepatocytes by cell viability assay followed by Hoechst staining and flow cytometric assay. The effect on ROS production, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation, intracellular redox status were measured after incubating the hepatocytes with Pb-acetate (6.8 μM along with AEIA (400 μg/ml. The effects on the expressions of apoptotic signal proteins were estimated by western blotting. The protective role of AEIA was measured by in vivo assay in mice. Haematological, serum biochemical, tissue redox status, Pb bioaccumulation and histological parameters were evaluated to estimate the protective role of AEIA (100 mg/kg against Pb-acetate (5 mg/kg intoxication.Pb-acetate treated hepatocytes showed a gradual reduction of cell viability dose-dependently with an IC50 value of 6.8 μM. Pb-acetate treated hepatocytes exhibited significantly enhanced levels (p < 0.01 of ROS production, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation with concomitant depletion (p < 0.01 of antioxidant enzymes and GSH. However, AEIA treatment could significantly restore the aforementioned parameters in murine hepatocytes near to normalcy. Besides, AEIA significantly reversed (p < 0.05-0.01 the alterations of transcription levels of apoptotic proteins viz. Bcl 2, Bad, Cyt C, Apaf-1, cleaved caspases [caspase 3, caspase 8 and caspase 9], Fas and Bid. In in vivo bioassay, Pb-acetate treatment caused significantly high intracellular Pb burden and oxidative pressure in the kidney, liver, heart, brain and testes in mice. In addition, the haematological and serum biochemical factors were changed significantly in Pb-acetate-treated animals. AEIA treatment restored significantly the evaluated-parameters to the near-normal position.The extract may offer the protective effect via counteracting with Pb mediated oxidative stress and/or promoting the elimination of Pb by chelating. The presence of substantial quantities of flavonoids, phenolics and saponins would be responsible for the overall protective effect.

  13. Myostatin inhibition by a follistatin-derived peptide ameliorates the pathophysiology of muscular dystrophy model mice

    OpenAIRE

    Tsuchida, K.

    2008-01-01

    Gene-targeted therapies, such as adeno-associated viral vector (AAV)-mediated gene therapy and cell-mediated therapy using myogenic stem cells, are hopeful molecular strategies for muscular dystrophy. In addition, drug therapies based on the pathophysiology of muscular dystrophy patients are desirable. Multidisciplinary approaches to drug design would offer promising therapeutic strategies. Myostatin, a member of the transforming growth factor-β superfamily, is predominantly produced by skele...

  14. Resveratrol Ameliorates Aging-Related Metabolic Phenotypes by Inhibiting cAMP Phosphodiesterases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Park, Sung-Jun; Ahmad, Faiyaz; Philp, Andrew; Baar, Keith; Williams, Tishan; Luo, Haibin; Ke, Hengming; Rehmann, Holger; Taussig, Ronald; Brown, Alexandra L.; Kim, Myung K.; Beaven, Michael A.; Burgin, Alex B.; Manganiello, Vincent; Chung, Jay H.

    2012-01-01

    Resveratrol, a polyphenol in red wine, has been reported as a calorie restriction mimetic with potential antiaging and antidiabetogenic properties. It is widely consumed as a nutritional supplement, but its mechanism of action remains a mystery. Here, we report that the metabolic effects of resverat

  15. Oral intake of hydrogen-rich water ameliorated chlorpyrifos-induced neurotoxicity in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Tingting; Zhao, Ling; Liu, Mengyu; Xie, Fei; Ma, Xuemei, E-mail: xmma@bjut.edu.cn; Zhao, Pengxiang; Liu, Yunqi; Li, Jiala; Wang, Minglian; Yang, Zhaona; Zhang, Yutong

    2014-10-01

    Chronic exposure to low-levels of organophosphate (OP) compounds, such as chlorpyrifos (CPF), induces oxidative stress and could be related to neurological disorders. Hydrogen has been identified as a novel antioxidant which could selectively scavenge hydroxyl radicals. We explore whether intake of hydrogen-rich water (HRW) can protect Wistar rats from CPF-induced neurotoxicity. Rats were gavaged daily with 6.75 mg/kg body weight (1/20 LD{sub 50}) of CPF and given HRW by oral intake. Nissl staining and electron microscopy results indicated that HRW intake had protective effects on the CPF-induced damage of hippocampal neurons and neuronal mitochondria. Immunostaining results showed that the increased glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression in astrocytes induced by CPF exposure can be ameliorated by HRW intake. Moreover, HRW intake also attenuated CPF-induced oxidative stress as evidenced by enhanced level of MDA, accompanied by an increase in GSH level and SOD and CAT activity. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity tests showed significant decrease in brain AChE activity after CPF exposure, and this effect can be ameliorated by HRW intake. An in vitro study demonstrated that AChE activity was more intense in HRW than in normal water with or without chlorpyrifos-oxon (CPO), the metabolically-activated form of CPF. These observations suggest that HRW intake can protect rats from CPF-induced neurotoxicity, and the protective effects of hydrogen may be mediated by regulating the oxidant and antioxidant status of rats. Furthermore, this work defines a novel mechanism of biological activity of hydrogen by directly increasing the AChE activity. - Highlights: • Hydrogen molecules protect rats from CPF-induced damage of hippocampal neurons. • The increased GFAP expression induced by CPF can also be ameliorated by hydrogen. • Hydrogen molecules attenuated the increase in CPF-induced oxidative stress. • Hydrogen molecules attenuated AChE inhibition in vivo

  16. Trypanosome lytic factor, an antimicrobial high-density lipoprotein, ameliorates Leishmania infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Samanovic

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Innate immunity is the first line of defense against invading microorganisms. Trypanosome Lytic Factor (TLF is a minor sub-fraction of human high-density lipoprotein that provides innate immunity by completely protecting humans from infection by most species of African trypanosomes, which belong to the Kinetoplastida order. Herein, we demonstrate the broader protective effects of human TLF, which inhibits intracellular infection by Leishmania, a kinetoplastid that replicates in phagolysosomes of macrophages. We show that TLF accumulates within the parasitophorous vacuole of macrophages in vitro and reduces the number of Leishmania metacyclic promastigotes, but not amastigotes. We do not detect any activation of the macrophages by TLF in the presence or absence of Leishmania, and therefore propose that TLF directly damages the parasite in the acidic parasitophorous vacuole. To investigate the physiological relevance of this observation, we have reconstituted lytic activity in vivo by generating mice that express the two main protein components of TLFs: human apolipoprotein L-I and haptoglobin-related protein. Both proteins are expressed in mice at levels equivalent to those found in humans and circulate within high-density lipoproteins. We find that TLF mice can ameliorate an infection with Leishmania by significantly reducing the pathogen burden. In contrast, TLF mice were not protected against infection by the kinetoplastid Trypanosoma cruzi, which infects many cell types and transiently passes through a phagolysosome. We conclude that TLF not only determines species specificity for African trypanosomes, but can also ameliorate an infection with Leishmania, while having no effect on T. cruzi. We propose that TLFs are a component of the innate immune system that can limit infections by their ability to selectively damage pathogens in phagolysosomes within the reticuloendothelial system.

  17. Silicon-Mediated Amelioration of Fe2+ Toxicity in Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Roots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU You-Qiang; SHEN Hong; WU Dao-Ming; CAI Kun-Zheng

    2012-01-01

    Silicon (Si) can enhance the resistance of plants to many abiotic stresses. To explore whether Si ameliorates Fe2+ toxicity,a hydroponic experiment was performed to investigate whether and how Si detoxifies Fe2+ toxicity in rice (Oryza sativa L.) roots.Results indicated that rice cultivar Tianyou 998 (TY998) showed greater sensitivity to Fe2+ toxicity than rice cultivar Peizataifeng (PZTF).Treatment with 0.1 mmol L-1 Fe2+ inhibited TY998 root elongation and root biomass significantly.Reddish iron plaque was formed on root surface of both cultivars.TY998 had a higher amount of iron plaque than PZTF.Addition of Si to the solution of Fe treatment decreased the amount of iron plaque on root surface by 17.6% to 37.1% and iron uptake in rice roots by 37.0% to 40.3%,and subsequently restored root elongation triggered by Fe2+ toxicity by 13.5% in the TY998.Compared with Fe treatment,the addition of 1 mmol L-1 Si to the solution of Fe treatment increased xylem sap flow by 19.3% to 24.8% and root-shoot Fe transportation by 45.0% to 78.6%.Furthermore,Si addition to the solution of Fe treatment induced root cell wall to thicken.These results suggested that Si could detoxify Fe2+ toxicity and Si-mediated amelioration of Fe2+ toxicity in rice roots was associated with less iron plaque on root surface and more Fe transportation from roots to shoots.

  18. AMELIORATIVE EFFECTS OF TINOSPORA CORDIFOLIA IN SCIATICA PAIN INDUCED RATS

    OpenAIRE

    Thaakur Santhrani; Yaidikar Lavanya

    2012-01-01

    The present study was aimed at investigating the ameliorative effect of Tinospora cordifolia in sciatic nerve root Ligation -induced sciatica pain in rats. Adult male albino rats weighing 130-150gm were used for the study, and were divided into seven groups and ligation was performed on left sciatic nerve in group II to group VII. Tail cold-hyperalgesia, motor co-ordination tests, foot deformity, and total calcium levels were estimated to assess the extent of sciatica. Superoxide dismutase ...

  19. Response of Field Crops to Ameliorative Phosphorus Fertilization

    OpenAIRE

    KOVACEVIC, Vlado; Rastija, Mirta; KOMLJENOVIC, Ilija; BEGIC, Sabina; JOVIC, Jurica

    2014-01-01

    Different types of nutritional unbalances, including also low levels of plant available phosphorus (P), are often limiting factor of soil fertility in Croatia and in countries of the region, particularly in Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H). Aim of this study was survey our recent investigations (eight stationary field experiments) of maize, soybean, wheat and barley responses to ameliorative P fertilization up to different levels (depending on the trial up to from 825 to 1580 kg P2O5 ha-1). Eithe...

  20. Caffeic acid ameliorates early and delayed brain injuries after focal cerebral ischemia in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu ZHOU; San-hua FANG; Yi-lu YE; Li-sheng CHU; Wei-ping ZHANG; Meng-ling WANG; Er-qing WEI

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effects of caffeic acid on early and delayed injuries after focal cerebral ischemia in rats, and the possible relation to 5-lipoxygenase inhibition. Methods: Transient focal cerebral ischemia was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion in Sprague-Dawley rats. Caffeic acid (10 and 50 mg/kg) was ip injected for 5 d after ischemia. The brain injuries were observed, and the levels of cysteinyl leukotrienes and leukotriene B4 in the brain tissue were measured. Results: Caffeic acid (50 mg/kg) ameliorated neurological dysfunction and neuron loss, and decreased infarct volume 24 h after ischemia; it attenuated brain atrophy, infarct volume, and particularly astrocyte proliferation 14 d after ischemia. In addition, it reduced the production of leukotrienes (5-lipoxygenase metabolites) in the ischemic hemispheres 3 h and 7 d after ischemia. Conclusion: Caffeic acid has protective effect on both early and delayed injuries after focal cerebral ischemia in rats; and this effect may partly relate to 5-lipoxygenase inhibition.

  1. MiR-133b ameliorates axon degeneration induced by MPP(+) via targeting RhoA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, M; Xu, R; Wang, J; Hou, B; Xie, A

    2016-06-14

    Increasing evidence suggests that microRNAs (miRs) play a significant role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). MiR-133b, which is significantly decreased in the PD midbrain, has recently been shown to promote neurite outgrowth and enhance neural functional recovery. However, the role of miR-133b in PD has not been clearly established. Here, using a well-established PD model culture based on the neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-pyridinium (MPP(+)), we demonstrated that miR-133b could promote axon outgrowth in dopaminergic neurons (DNs) and ameliorated MPP(+)-induced axon degeneration. Additional experiments suggested that the mechanisms of this miR-133b-mediated effect might rely on RhoA inhibition. We demonstrated that RhoA, an inhibitor of axonal growth, was increased in DNs under MPP(+) treatment, and this increase could be attenuated by miR-133b overexpression. Moreover, we demonstrated that the induced expression of miR-133b could inhibit α-synuclein, which is critically involved in the pathological process of PD. Furthermore, we found that overexpression of miR-133b abrogated the MPP(+)-induced decrease in the Bcl-2/Bax ratio and upregulated phosphorylated Akt (p-Akt), which is a pro-survival kinase. Together these findings reveal novel roles for miR-133b in the pathogenesis of PD and provide new therapeutic avenues for the treatment of the disease. PMID:27012608

  2. Omigapil ameliorates the pathology of muscle dystrophy caused by laminin-alpha2 deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erb, Michael; Meinen, Sarina; Barzaghi, Patrizia; Sumanovski, Lazar T; Courdier-Früh, Isabelle; Rüegg, Markus A; Meier, Thomas

    2009-12-01

    Laminin alpha2-deficient congenital muscular dystrophy, called MDC1A, is a rare, devastating genetic disease characterized by severe neonatal hypotonia ("floppy infant syndrome"), peripheral neuropathy, inability to stand or walk, respiratory distress, and premature death in early life. Transgenic overexpression of the apoptosis inhibitor protein BCL-2, or deletion of the proapoptotic Bax gene in a mouse model for MDC1A prolongs survival and mitigates pathology, indicating that apoptotic events are involved in the pathology. Here we demonstrate that the proapoptotic glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH)-Siah1-CBP/p300-p53 pathway is activated in a mouse model for MDC1A. Moreover, we show that omigapil, which inhibits GAPDH-Siah1-mediated apoptosis, ameliorates several pathological hallmarks in the MDC1A mouse model. Specifically, we demonstrate that treatment with omigapil inhibits apoptosis in muscle, reduces body weight loss and skeletal deformation, increases locomotive activity, and protects from early mortality. These data qualify omigapil, which is in late phase of clinical development for human use, as a drug candidate for the treatment of MDC1A.

  3. Biochar from commercially cultivated seaweed for soil amelioration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, David A.; Paul, Nicholas A.; Dworjanyn, Symon A.; Bird, Michael I.; de Nys, Rocky

    2015-04-01

    Seaweed cultivation is a high growth industry that is primarily targeted at human food and hydrocolloid markets. However, seaweed biomass also offers a feedstock for the production of nutrient-rich biochar for soil amelioration. We provide the first data of biochar yield and characteristics from intensively cultivated seaweeds (Saccharina, Undaria and Sargassum - brown seaweeds, and Gracilaria, Kappaphycus and Eucheuma - red seaweeds). While there is some variability in biochar properties as a function of the origin of seaweed, there are several defining and consistent characteristics of seaweed biochar, in particular a relatively low C content and surface area but high yield, essential trace elements (N, P and K) and exchangeable cations (particularly K). The pH of seaweed biochar ranges from neutral (7) to alkaline (11), allowing for broad-spectrum applications in diverse soil types. We find that seaweed biochar is a unique material for soil amelioration that is consistently different to biochar derived from ligno-cellulosic feedstock. Blending of seaweed and ligno-cellulosic biochar could provide a soil ameliorant that combines a high fixed C content with a mineral-rich substrate to enhance crop productivity.

  4. Arsenic toxicity in mice and its possible amelioration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R. J. Verma; Archana Vasu, Abdu; Alim Saiyed

    2004-01-01

    Oral administration of arsenic trioxide(3 and 6 mg/kg body weight/d) for 30 d caused, as compared with vehicle control, dose- dependent significant reductions in body weight, absolute weight, protein, glycogen, as well as, total, dehydro and reduced ascorbic acid contents both in the liver) and kidney of arsenic- treated mice. Succinic dehydrogenase(SDH) and phosphorylase(only in the liver activities were significantly reduced in a dose-dependent manner. Acid phosphatase activity was significantly decreased in the liver of low dose arsenic-treated animals; however, significant rise in its activity was observed in high dose group. As compared with vehicle control, treatment also caused significant dose-dependent reductions in SDH, alkaline phosphatase and acid phosphatase activities in the kidney of mice. Vitamin E cotreatment as well as, 30 d withdrawal of arsenic trioxide treatment with or without vitamin E caused significant amelioration in arsenic-induced toxicity in mice. Administration of vitamin E during withdrawal of treatment also caused significant amelioration as compared from only withdrawal of the treatment. It is concluded that vitamin E ameliorates arsenic-induced toxicities in the liver and kidney of mice.

  5. Hydrogen-rich saline ameliorates the severity of L-arginine-induced acute pancreatitis in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Han; Sun, Yan Ping; Li, Yang [Department of General Surgery, Shanghai Chang Zheng Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200003 (China); Liu, Wen Wu [Department of Diving Medicine, Faculty of Naval Medicine, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Xiang, Hong Gang [Department of General Surgery, Shanghai Chang Zheng Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200003 (China); Fan, Lie Ying [Department of Clinical Laboratory, Shanghai East Hospital, Tong Ji University, Shanghai 200120 (China); Sun, Qiang [Department of Diving Medicine, Faculty of Naval Medicine, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Xu, Xin Yun [Department of General Surgery, Shanghai Chang Zheng Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200003 (China); Cai, Jian Mei [Department of Diving Medicine, Faculty of Naval Medicine, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Ruan, Can Ping; Su, Ning; Yan, Rong Lin [Department of General Surgery, Shanghai Chang Zheng Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200003 (China); Sun, Xue Jun, E-mail: sunxjk@hotmail.com [Department of Diving Medicine, Faculty of Naval Medicine, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Wang, Qiang, E-mail: wang2929@hotmail.com [Department of General Surgery, Shanghai Chang Zheng Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200003 (China)

    2010-03-05

    Molecular hydrogen, which reacts with the hydroxyl radical, has been considered as a novel antioxidant. Here, we evaluated the protective effects of hydrogen-rich saline on the L-arginine (L-Arg)-induced acute pancreatitis (AP). AP was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats by giving two intraperitoneal injections of L-Arg, each at concentrations of 250 mg/100 g body weight, with an interval of 1 h. Hydrogen-rich saline (>0.6 mM, 6 ml/kg) or saline (6 ml/kg) was administered, respectively, via tail vein 15 min after each L-Arg administration. Severity of AP was assessed by analysis of serum amylase activity, pancreatic water content and histology. Samples of pancreas were taken for measuring malondialdehyde and myeloperoxidase. Apoptosis in pancreatic acinar cell was determined with terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labeling technique (TUNEL). Expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-{kappa}B) were detected with immunohistochemistry. Hydrogen-rich saline treatment significantly attenuated the severity of L-Arg-induced AP by ameliorating the increased serum amylase activity, inhibiting neutrophil infiltration, lipid oxidation and pancreatic tissue edema. Moreover, hydrogen-rich saline treatment could promote acinar cell proliferation, inhibit apoptosis and NF-{kappa}B activation. These results indicate that hydrogen treatment has a protective effect against AP, and the effect is possibly due to its ability to inhibit oxidative stress, apoptosis, NF-{kappa}B activation and to promote acinar cell proliferation.

  6. Magnolol Ameliorates Ligature-Induced Periodontitis in Rats and Osteoclastogenesis: In Vivo and In Vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Hua Lu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Periodontal disease characterized by alveolar bone resorption and bacterial pathogen-evoked inflammatory response has been believed to have an important impact on human oral health. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether magnolol, a main constituent of Magnolia officinalis, could inhibit the pathological features in ligature-induced periodontitis in rats and osteoclastogenesis. The sterile, 3–0 (diameter; 0.2 mm black braided silk thread, was placed around the cervix of the upper second molars bilaterally and knotted medially to induce periodontitis. The morphological changes around the ligated molars and alveolar bone were examined by micro-CT. The distances between the amelocemental junction and the alveolar crest of the upper second molars bilaterally were measured to evaluate the alveolar bone loss. Administration of magnolol (100 mg/kg, p.o. significantly inhibited alveolar bone resorption, the number of osteoclasts on bony surface, and protein expression of receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL, a key mediator promoting osteoclast differentiation, in ligated rats. Moreover, the ligature-induced neutrophil infiltration, expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-1 and MMP-9, superoxide formation, and nuclear factor-κB activation in inflamed gingival tissues were all attenuated by magnolol. In the in vitro study, magnolol also inhibited the growth of Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans that are key pathogens initiating periodontal disease. Furthermore, magnolol dose dependently reduced RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation from RAW264.7 macrophages, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP activity of differentiated cells accompanied by a significant attenuation of resorption pit area caused by osteoclasts. Collectively, we demonstrated for the first time that magnolol significantly ameliorates the alveolar bone loss in

  7. Propionate Ameliorates Dextran Sodium Sulfate-Induced Colitis by Improving Intestinal Barrier Function and Reducing Inflammation and Oxidative Stress.

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    Tong, Ling-Chang; Wang, Yue; Wang, Zhi-Bin; Liu, Wei-Ye; Sun, Sheng; Li, Ling; Su, Ding-Feng; Zhang, Li-Chao

    2016-01-01

    Propionate is a short chain fatty acid that is abundant as butyrate in the gut and blood. However, propionate has not been studied as extensively as butyrate in the treatment of colitis. The present study was to investigate the effects of sodium propionate on intestinal barrier function, inflammation and oxidative stress in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis mice. Animals in DSS group received drinking water from 1 to 6 days and DSS [3% (w/v) dissolved in double distilled water] instead of drinking water from 7 to 14 days. Animals in DSS+propionate (DSS+Prop) group were given 1% sodium propionate for 14 consecutive days and supplemented with 3% DSS solution on day 7-14. Intestinal barrier function, proinflammatory factors, oxidative stress, and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling pathway in the colon were determined. It was found that sodium propionate ameliorated body weight loss, colon-length shortening and colonic damage in colitis mice. Sodium propionate significantly inhibited the increase of FITC-dextran in serum and the decrease of zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), occludin, and E-cadherin expression in the colonic tissue. It also inhibited the expression of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) mRNA and phosphorylation of STAT3 in colitis mice markedly, reduced the myeloperoxidase (MPO) level, and increased the superoxide dismutase and catalase level in colon and serum compared with DSS group. Sodium propionate inhibited macrophages with CD68 marker infiltration into the colonic mucosa of colitis mice. These results suggest that oral administration of sodium propionate could ameliorate DSS-induced colitis mainly by improving intestinal barrier function and reducing inflammation and oxidative stress via the STAT3 signaling pathway. PMID:27574508

  8. A note on inventory model for ameliorating items with time dependent second order demand rate

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    Gobinda Chandra Panda

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: This paper is concerned with the development of ameliorating inventory models. The ameliorating inventory is the inventory of goods whose utility increases over the time by ameliorating activation. Material and Methods: This study is performed according to two areas: one is an economic order quantity (EOQ model for the items whose utility is ameliorating in accordance with Weibull distribution, and the other is a partial selling quantity (PSQ model developed for selling the surplus inventory accumulated by ameliorating activation with linear demand. The aim of this paper was to develop a mathematical model for inventory type concerned in the paper. Numerical examples were presented show the effect of ameliorating rate on inventory polices.  Results and Conclusions:  The inventory model for items with Weibull ameliorating is developed. For the case of small ameliorating rate (less than linear demand rate, EOQ model is developed, and for the case where ameliorating rate is greater than linear demand rate, PSQ model is developed.  .  

  9. Landscape Planning of Forest Amelioration on Irrigated Soils

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    Ruleva Olga Vasilyevna

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The authors study the landscape program which supposes the formation of land use system aimed at connection of protective shelterbelts to geo-morphological watershed elements, relief, unsimilarity of agricultural territories, adapted to the dynamically balanced state of substance and energy within a landscape. Such approach favors the development of agricultural lands estimation system by means of forest amelioration. It happens due to transformation (reorganization of qualitative and quantitative characteristics of energy mass transfer. Consequently, the radiation, heat, soil, hydrophysical and hydrodynamical processes change as well. So, the area adjoining the protective forest belt is the area of determined processes, while further from the forest belt the space is open for changes of all the characteristics. While estimating lands geoecology, the agroforest landscape was considered as a modification of agricultural landscape forming and functioning under the influence of protective shelterbelts. The landscape unsimilarity of the territory should be taken into account during the optimum organization of irrigated farming. It was made by means of desiphering space photos. According to bioclimatical zonal indications, the dry steppe and desert steppe agrolandscape types have been determined. The irrigated soils of the Volgograd region are located mainly in dry steppe agroforest landscapes on dark-chestnut and chestnut soils within natural ameliorative areas of Privolzhskaya and Ergeninskaya Hills and partly in Zavolzhskaya river delta plain; in semi-desert agroforest landscapes on light-chestnut soils within Zavolzhskaya river delta plain and Sarpinskaya lowlands. The favourable hydrogeological ameliorative situation on the territory of southern Privolzhskaya Hill gives the opportunity to revive the irrigation in the Volgograd region and therefore to increase the productivity and sustainability of agricultural production on a higher scientific

  10. Roscovitine ameliorates endotoxin-induced uveitis through neutrophil apoptosis.

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    Jiang, Zhao-Xin; Qiu, Suo; Lou, Bing-Sheng; Yang, Yao; Wang, Wen-Cong; Lin, Xiao-Feng

    2016-08-01

    Neutrophils have been recognized as critical response cells during the pathogenesis of endotoxin‑induced uveitis (EIU). Apoptosis of neutrophils induced by roscovitine has previously been demonstrated to ameliorate inflammation in several in vivo models. The present study aimed to assess whether roscovitine ameliorates EIU. EIU was induced in female C57BL/6 mice by a single intravitreal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 250 ng). The mice were divided into three groups as follows: LPS alone, LPS plus vehicle, LPS plus roscovitine (50 mg/kg). The mice were euthanized 12, 24, 48 and 72 h after LPS‑induced uveitis. Accumulation of inflammatory cells in the vitreous body was confirmed by immunohistochemistry, and quantified following hematoxylin and eosin staining. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick‑end labeling was performed to detect of apoptotic cells. The mRNA levels of inflammatory cytokines were analyzed by reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction and the changes in protein levels were analyzed by western blotting. Inflammatory cells accumulated in the vitreous near the optic nerve head and the quantity peaked at 24 h after LPS injection. Immunohistochemistry revealed that the majority of the inflammatory cells were neutrophils. The number of infiltrating cells was similar in the LPS and LPS plus vehicle groups, while there were significantly less in the roscovitine group at 24 h. Apoptosis of neutrophils was observed between 12 and 48 h after roscovitine injection, while no apoptosis was observed in the other groups. The mRNA expression levels of GMCSF, CINC‑1 and ICAM‑1 peaked at 12 h after LPS injection, and decreased to normal levels at 72 h. This trend in mRNA expression was similar in the LPS and LPS plus vehicle groups; however, the expression levels decreased more quickly in the roscovitine group at 24 and 48 h. Following roscovitine administration, upregulated cleaved caspase 3 expression levels

  11. Huangqin-Tang Ameliorates TNBS-Induced Colitis by Regulating Effector and Regulatory CD4+ T Cells

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    Ying Zou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Huangqin-Tang decoction (HQT is a classic traditional Chinese herbal formulation that is widely used to ameliorate the symptoms of gastrointestinal disorders, including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. This study was designed to investigate the therapeutic potential and immunological regulatory activity of HQT in experimental colitis in rats. Using an animal model of colitis by intrarectally administering 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS, we found that administration of HQT significantly inhibited the severity of TNBS-induced colitis in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, treatment with HQT produced better results than that with mesalazine, as shown by improvedweight loss bleeding and diarrhoea scores, colon length, and intestinal inflammation. As for potential immunological regulation of HQT action, the percentages of Th1 and Th17 cells were reduced, but those Th2 and Treg cells were enhanced in LPMCs after HQT treatment. Additionally, HQT lowered the levels of Th1/Th17-associated cytokines but increased production of Th2/Treg-associated cytokines in the colon and MLNs. Furthermore, we observed a remarkable suppression of the Th1/Th17-associated transcription factors T-bet and ROR-γt. However, expression levels of the Th2/Treg-associated transcription factors GATA-3 and Foxp3 were enhanced during treatment with HQT. Our results suggest that HQT has the therapeutic potential to ameliorate TNBS-induced colitis symptoms. This protective effect is possibly mediated by its effects on CD4+ T cells subsets.

  12. Atorvastatin ameliorates contrast medium-induced renal tubular cell apoptosis in diabetic rats via suppression of Rho-kinase pathway.

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    Su, Jinzi; Zou, Wenbo; Cai, Wenqin; Chen, Xiuping; Wang, Fangbing; Li, Shuizhu; Ma, Wenwen; Cao, Yangming

    2014-01-15

    Contrast medium-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) remains a leading cause of iatrogenic, drug-induced acute renal failure. This study aimed to investigate the protective effects of atorvastatin against renal tubular cell apoptosis in diabetic rats and the related mechanisms. CI-AKI was induced by intravenous administration of iopromide (12ml/kg) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Atorvastatin (ATO) was administered intragastrically at the dose of 5, 10 and 30mg/kg/d in different groups, respectively, for 5 days before iopromide injection. Renal function parameters, kidney histology, renal tubular cell apoptosis, the expression of apoptosis regulatory proteins, caspase-3 and Rho-associated protein kinase 1 (ROCK-1), and the phosphorylation of myosin phosphatase target subunit -1 (MYPT-1), were determined. Atorvastatin was shown to notably ameliorate contrast medium induced medullary damage, restore renal function, and suppress renal tubular apoptosis. Meanwhile, atorvastatin up-regulated the expression of Bcl-2, down-regulated the expression of Bax, caspase-3 and ROCK-1, restored the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax, and suppressed the phosphorylation of MYPT-1 in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, atorvastatin pretreatment could dose-dependently ameliorate the development of CI-AKI, which was partly attributed to its suppression of renal tubular cell apoptosis by inhibiting the Rho/ROCK pathway.

  13. Antiresistin RNA Oligonucleotide Ameliorates Diet-Induced Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Mice through Attenuating Proinflammatory Cytokines

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    Yi Tan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine whether inhibition of resistin by a synthetic antiresistin RNA (oligonucleotide oligo ameliorates metabolic and histological abnormalities in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD induced by high-fat diet (HFD in mice. The antiresistin RNA oligo and a scrambled control oligo (25 mg/kg of body weight were i.p. injected to HFD mice. Serum metabolic parameters and hepatic enzymes were measured after 4-week treatment. The treatment significantly reduced epididymal fat and attenuated the elevated serum resistin, cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, and insulin with an improved glucose tolerance test. Antiresistin RNA oligo also normalized serum AST and ALT levels with improved pathohistology of NAFLD. Immunoblotting and qRT-PCR revealed that decreased protein and mRNA expression of resistin in fat and liver tissues of the treated mice were associated with reduction of adipose TNF-α and IL-6 expression and secretion into circulation. mRNA and protein expression of hepatic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK and sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c were also significantly decreased in the treated mice. Our results suggest that resistin may exacerbate NAFLD in metabolic syndrome through upregulating inflammatory cytokines and hepatic PEPCK and SREBP-1c. Antiresistin RNA oligo ameliorated metabolic abnormalities and histopathology of NAFLD through attenuating proinflammatory cytokines.

  14. Curcumin ameliorates experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis by diverse immune cells.

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    Wang, Shan; Li, Heng; Zhang, Min; Yue, Long-Tao; Wang, Cong-Cong; Zhang, Peng; Liu, Ying; Duan, Rui-Sheng

    2016-07-28

    Curcumin is a traditional Asian medicine with diverse immunomodulatory properties used therapeutically in the treatment of many autoimmune diseases. However, the effects of curcumin on myasthenia gravis (MG) remain undefined. Here we investigated the effects and potential mechanisms of curcumin in experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis (EAMG). Our results demonstrated that curcumin ameliorated the clinical scores of EAMG, suppressed the expression of T cell co-stimulatory molecules (CD80 and CD86) and MHC class II, down-regulated the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-17, IFN-γ and TNF-α) and up-regulated the levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10, shifted the balance from Th1/Th17 toward Th2/Treg, and increased the numbers of NKR-P1(+) cells (natural killer cell receptor protein 1 positive cells, including NK and NKT cells). Moreover, the administration of curcumin promoted the differentiation of B cells into a subset of B10 cells, increased the anti-R97-166 peptide IgG1 levels and decreased the relative affinity indexes of anti-R97-116 peptide IgG. In summary, curcumin effectively ameliorate EAMG, indicating that curcumin may be a potential candidate therapeutic agent for MG. PMID:27181511

  15. Phytoceramide Shows Neuroprotection and Ameliorates Scopolamine-Induced Memory Impairment

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    Seikwan Oh

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The function and the role phytoceramide (PCER and phytosphingosine (PSO in the central nervous system has not been well studied. This study was aimed at investigating the possible roles of PCER and PSO in glutamate-induced neurotoxicity in cultured neuronal cells and memory function in mice. Phytoceramide showed neuro-protective activity in the glutamate-induced toxicity in cultured cortical neuronal cells. Neither phytosphingosine nor tetraacetylphytosphingosine (TAPS showed neuroproective effects in neuronal cells. PCER (50 mg/kg, p.o. recovered the scopolamine-induced reduction in step-through latency in the passive avoidance test; however, PSO did not modulate memory function on this task. The ameliorating effects of PCER on spatial memory were confirmed by the Morris water maze test. In conclusion, through behavioral and neurochemical experimental results, it was demonstrated that central administration of PCER produces amelioration of memory impairment. These results suggest that PCER plays an important role in neuroprotection and memory enhancement and PCER could be a potential new therapeutic agent for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease.

  16. AMELIORATIVE EFFECTS OF TINOSPORA CORDIFOLIA IN SCIATICA PAIN INDUCED RATS

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    Thaakur Santhrani

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed at investigating the ameliorative effect of Tinospora cordifolia in sciatic nerve root Ligation -induced sciatica pain in rats. Adult male albino rats weighing 130-150gm were used for the study, and were divided into seven groups and ligation was performed on left sciatic nerve in group II to group VII. Tail cold-hyperalgesia, motor co-ordination tests, foot deformity, and total calcium levels were estimated to assess the extent of sciatica. Superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, and lipid peroxide (LPO levels were estimated to evaluate the extent of oxidative stress. The alcoholic and aqueous extract of Tinospora cordifolia was administered at a dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg/p.o for 15 days. Tinospora cordifolia attenuated sciatic nerve root Ligation-induced motor in-coordination, foot deformity, tail cold hyperalgesia, reversed ligation-induced alterations in lipid peroxides, total calcium, superoxide dismutase, catalase levels in a dose-dependent manner. Ameliorative effects of Tinospora cordifolia in ligation-induced sciatica may be due to its foot deformity, antioxidant, and calcium attenuating actions.

  17. Oxidative Stress in Lead and Cadmium Toxicity and Its Amelioration

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    R. C. Patra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress has been implicated to play a role, at least in part, in pathogenesis of many disease conditions and toxicities in animals. Overproduction of reactive oxygen species and free radicals beyond the cells intrinsic capacity to neutralize following xenobiotics exposure leads to a state of oxidative stress and resultant damages of lipids, protein, and DNA. Lead and cadmium are the common environmental heavy metal pollutants and have widespread distribution. Both natural and anthropogenic sources including mining, smelting, and other industrial processes are responsible for human and animal exposure. These pollutants, many a times, are copollutants leading to concurrent exposure to living beings and resultant synergistic deleterious health effects. Several mechanisms have been explained for the damaging effects on the body system. Of late, oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of the lead- and cadmium-induced pathotoxicity. Several ameliorative measures to counteract the oxidative damage to the body system aftermath or during exposure to these toxicants have been assessed with the use of antioxidants. The present review focuses on mechanism of lead- and cadmium-induced oxidate damages and the ameliorative measures to counteract the oxidative damage and pathotoxicity with the use of supplemented antioxidants for their beneficial effects.

  18. Incremental Beliefs About Ability Ameliorate Self-Doubt Effects

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    Qin Zhao

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Past research has typically shown negative effects of self-doubt on performance and psychological well-being. We suggest that these self-doubt effects largely may be due to an underlying assumption that ability is innate and fixed. The present research investigated the main hypothesis that incremental beliefs about ability might ameliorate negative effects of self-doubt. We examined our hypotheses using two lab tasks: verbal reasoning and anagram tasks. Participants’ self-doubt was measured and beliefs about ability were measured after participants read articles advocating either for incremental or entity theories of ability. American College Testing (ACT scores were obtained to index actual ability level. Consistent with our hypothesis, for participants who believed ability was relatively fixed, higher self-doubt was associated with increased negative affect and lower task performance and engagement. In contrast, for participants who believed that ability was malleable, negative self-doubt effects were ameliorated; self-doubt was even associated with better task performance. These effects were further moderated by participants’ academic ability. These findings suggest that mind-sets about ability moderate self-doubt effects. Self-doubt may have negative effects only when it is interpreted as signaling that ability is immutably low.

  19. Guanfacine ameliorates hypobaric hypoxia induced spatial working memory deficits.

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    Kauser, H; Sahu, S; Kumar, S; Panjwani, U

    2014-01-17

    Hypobaric hypoxia (HH) observed at high altitude causes mild cognitive impairment specifically affecting attention and working memory. Adrenergic dysregulation and neuronal damage in prefrontal cortex (PFC) has been implicated in hypoxia induced memory deficits. Optimal stimulation of alpha 2A adrenergic receptor in PFC facilitates the spatial working memory (SWM) under the conditions of adrenergic dysregulation. Therefore the present study was designed to test the efficacy of alpha 2A adrenergic agonist, Guanfacine (GFC), to restore HH induced SWM deficits and PFC neuronal damage. The rats were exposed to chronic HH equivalent to 25,000ft for 7days in an animal decompression chamber and received daily treatment of GFC at a dose of 1mg/kg body weight via the intramuscular route during the period of exposure. The cognitive performance was assessed by Delayed Alternation Task (DAT) using T-Maze and PFC neuronal damage was studied by apoptotic and neurodegenerative markers. Percentage of correct choice decreased significantly while perseverative errors showed a significant increase after 7days HH exposure, GFC significantly ameliorated the SWM deficits and perseveration. There was a marked and significant increase in chromatin condensation, DNA fragmentation, neuronal pyknosis and fluoro Jade positive cells in layer II of the medial PFC in hypoxia exposed group, administration of GFC significantly reduced the magnitude of these changes. Modulation of adrenergic mechanisms by GFC may serve as an effective countermeasure in amelioration of prefrontal deficits and neurodegenerative changes during HH. PMID:24184415

  20. Splenic dendritic cell involvement in FXR-mediated amelioration of DSS colitis.

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    Massafra, Vittoria; Ijssennagger, Noortje; Plantinga, Maud; Milona, Alexandra; Ramos Pittol, José M; Boes, Marianne; van Mil, Saskia W C

    2016-02-01

    Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) is a multifactorial disorder involving dysregulation of the immune response and bacterial translocation through the intestinal mucosal barrier. Previously, we have shown that activation of the bile acid sensor Farnesoid X Receptor (FXR), which belongs to the family of nuclear receptors, improves experimental intestinal inflammation, decreasing expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and protecting the intestinal barrier. Here, we aimed to investigate the immunological mechanisms that ameliorate colitis when FXR is activated. We analyzed by FACS immune cell populations in mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) and in the spleen to understand whether FXR activation alters the systemic immune response. We show that FXR activation by obeticholic acid (OCA) has systemic anti-inflammatory effects that include increased levels of plasma IL-10, inhibition of both DSS-colitis associated decrease in splenic dendritic cells (DCs) and increase in Tregs. Impact of OCA on DC relative abundance was seen in spleen but not MLN, possibly related to the increased FXR expression in splenic DCs compared to MLN DCs. Moreover, FXR activation modulates the chemotactic environment in the colonic site of inflammation, as Madcam1 expression is decreased, while Ccl25 is upregulated. Together, our data suggest that OCA treatment elicits an anti-inflammatory immune status including retention of DCs in the spleen, which is associated with decreased colonic inflammation. Pharmacological FXR activation is therefore an attractive new drug target for treatment of IBD. PMID:26554605

  1. Paeoniflorin ameliorates acute necrotizing pancreatitis and pancreatitis‑induced acute renal injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Wang, Weixing; Shi, Qiao; Zhao, Liang; Mei, Fangchao; Li, Chen; Zuo, Teng; He, Xiaobo

    2016-08-01

    Acute renal injury caused by acute necrotizing pancreatitis (ANP) is a common complication that is associated with a high rate of mortality. Paeoniflorin is the active ingredient of paeonia radix and exhibits a number of pharmacological effects, such as anti‑inflammatory, anticancer, analgesic and immunomodulatory effects. The present study detected the potential treatment effects of paeoniflorin on acute renal injury induced by ANP in a rat model. The optimal dose of paeoniflorin for preventing acute renal injury induced by ANP was determined. Then, the possible protective mechanism of paeoniflorin was investigated. The serum levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)‑α, interleukin (IL)‑1β and IL‑6 were measured with enzyme‑linked immunosorbent assay kits. Renal inflammation and apoptosis were measured by immunohistochemistry and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase‑mediated dUTP nick end labeling assay. The expression of nitric oxide in kidney tissues was also evaluated. The p38 mitogen‑activated protein kinases (MAPKs) were measured by western blotting. The results shown that paeoniflorin may ameliorate acute renal injury following ANP in rats by inhibiting inflammatory responses and renal cell apoptosis. These effects may be associated with the p38MAPK and nuclear factor‑κB signal pathway. PMID:27279569

  2. Circumventing furin enhances factor VIII biological activity and ameliorates bleeding phenotypes in hemophilia models

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    Siner, Joshua I.; Samelson-Jones, Benjamin J.; Crudele, Julie M.; French, Robert A.; Lee, Benjamin J.; Zhou, Shanzhen; Merricks, Elizabeth; Raymer, Robin; Camire, Rodney M.; Arruda, Valder R.

    2016-01-01

    Processing by the proprotein convertase furin is believed to be critical for the biological activity of multiple proteins involved in hemostasis, including coagulation factor VIII (FVIII). This belief prompted the retention of the furin recognition motif (amino acids 1645–1648) in the design of B-domain–deleted FVIII (FVIII-BDD) products in current clinical use and in the drug development pipeline, as well as in experimental FVIII gene therapy strategies. Here, we report that processing by furin is in fact deleterious to FVIII-BDD secretion and procoagulant activity. Inhibition of furin increases the secretion and decreases the intracellular retention of FVIII-BDD protein in mammalian cells. Our new variant (FVIII-ΔF), in which this recognition motif is removed, efficiently circumvents furin. FVIII-ΔF demonstrates increased recombinant protein yields, enhanced clotting activity, and higher circulating FVIII levels after adeno-associated viral vector–based liver gene therapy in a murine model of severe hemophilia A (HA) compared with FVIII-BDD. Moreover, we observed an amelioration of the bleeding phenotype in severe HA dogs with sustained therapeutic FVIII levels after FVIII-ΔF gene therapy at a lower vector dose than previously employed in this model. The immunogenicity of FVIII-ΔF did not differ from that of FVIII-BDD as a protein or a gene therapeutic. Thus, contrary to previous suppositions, FVIII variants that can avoid furin processing are likely to have enhanced translational potential for HA therapy. PMID:27734034

  3. The Sulu-Sulawesi Sea: environmental and socioeconomic status, future prognosis and ameliorative policy options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVantier, Lyndon; Alcala, Angel; Wilkinson, Clive

    2004-02-01

    The Sulu-Sulawesi Sea, with neighboring Indonesian Seas and South China Sea, lies at the center of the world's tropical marine biodiversity. Encircled by 3 populous, developing nations, the Philippines, Indonesia and Malaysia, the Sea and its adjacent coastal and terrestrial ecosystems, supports ca. 33 million people, most with subsistence livelihoods heavily reliant on its renewable natural resources. These resources are being impacted severely by rapid population growth (> 2% yr-1, with expected doubling by 2035) and widespread poverty, coupled with increasing international market demand and rapid technological changes, compounded by inefficiencies in governance and a lack of awareness and/or acceptance of some laws among local populations, particularly in parts of the Philippines and Indonesia. These key root causes all contribute to illegal practices and corruption, and are resulting in severe resource depletion and degradation of water catchments, river, lacustrine, estuarine, coastal, and marine ecosystems. The Sulu-Sulawesi Sea forms a major geopolitical focus, with porous borders, transmigration, separatist movements, piracy, and illegal fishing all contributing to environmental degradation, human suffering and political instability, and inhibiting strong trilateral support for interventions. This review analyzes these multifarious environmental and socioeconomic impacts and their root causes, provides a future prognosis of status by 2020, and recommends policy options aimed at amelioration through sustainable management and development.

  4. Ameliorative Effects of Pomegranate Peel Extract against Dietary-Induced Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shaaibi, Siham N K; Waly, Mostafa I; Al-Subhi, Lyutha; Tageldin, Mohamed H; Al-Balushi, Nada M; Rahman, Mohammad S

    2016-03-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is caused by fat accumulation and is associated with oxidative stress. In this study, we investigated the potential protective effect of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) peel extract (PPE) against oxidative stress in the liver of rats with NAFLD. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a high fat diet (HFD), 20% corn oil, or palm oil for 8 weeks in the presence or absence of PPE. The control group was fed a basal diet. The progression of NAFLD was evaluated histologically and by measuring liver enzymes (alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase), serum lipids (triglycerides and total cholesterol), and oxidative stress markers. The HFD feeding increased the body weight and caused NAFLD, liver steatosis, hyperlipidemia, oxidative stress, and elevated liver enzymes. Administration of PPE ameliorated the hepatic morphology, reduced body weight, improved liver enzymes, and inhibited lipogenesis. Furthermore, PPE enhanced the cellular redox status in the liver tissue of rats with NAFLD. Our findings suggest that PPE could improve HFD-induced NAFLD via abolishment of hepatic oxidative damage and hyperlipidemia. PPE might be considered as a potential lead material in the treatment of NAFLD and obesity through the modulation of lipid metabolism. PMID:27069901

  5. Radiation-Induced Testicular Injury and Its Amelioration by Tinospora cordifolia (An Indian Medicinal Plant Extract

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    Priyanka Sharma

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of this investigation is to determine the deleterious effects of sub lethal gamma radiation on testes and their possible inhibition by Tinospora cordifolia extract (TCE. For this purpose, one group of male Swiss albino mice was exposed to 7.5 Gy gamma radiation to serve as the irradiated control, while the other group received TCE (75 mg/kg b. wt./day orally for 5 consecutive days half an hr before irradiation to serve as experimental. Exposure of animals to 7.5 Gy gamma radiation resulted into significant decrease in body weight, tissue weight, testes- body weight ratio and tubular diameter up to 15 days of irradiation. Cent percent mortality was recorded by day 17th in irradiated control, whereas all animals survived in experimental group. TCE pretreatment rendered significant increase in body weight, tissue weight, testes- body weight ratio and tubular diameter at various intervals as compared to irradiated group. Radiation induced histological lesions in testicular architecture were observed more severe in irradiated control then the experimental. TCE administration before irradiation significantly ameliorated radiation induced elevation in lipid peroxidation and decline in glutathione concentration in testes. These observations indicate the radio- protective potential of Tinospora cordifolia root extract in testicular constituents against gamma irradiation in mice.

  6. Arctium lappa ameliorates endothelial dysfunction in rats fed with high fat/cholesterol diets

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    Lee Yun

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Arctium lappa L. (Asteraceae, burdock, is a medicinal plant that is popularly used for treating hypertension, gout, hepatitis, and other inflammatory disorders. This study was performed to test the effect of ethanol extract of Arctium lappa L. (EAL seeds on vascular reactivity and inflammatory factors in rats fed a high fat/cholesterol diet (HFCD. Method EAL-I (100 mg·kg−1/day, EAL-II (200 mg·kg−1/day, and fluvastatin (3 mg·kg−1/day groups initially received HFCD alone for 8 weeks, with EAL supplementation provided during the final 6 weeks. Results Treatment with low or high doses of EAL markedly attenuated plasma levels of triglycerides and augmented plasma levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL in HFCD-fed rats. Chronic treatment with EAL markedly reduced impairments of acetylcholine (ACh-induced relaxation of aortic rings. Furthermore, chronic treatment with EAL significantly lowered systolic blood pressure (SBP and maintained smooth and flexible intimal endothelial layers in HFCD-fed rats. Chronic treatment with EAL suppressed upregulation of intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1, and E-selectin in the aorta. Chronic treatment with EAL also suppressed increases in matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-2 expression. These results suggested that EAL can inhibit HFCD-induced vascular inflammation in the rat model. Conclusion The present study provides evidence that EAL ameliorates HFCD-induced vascular dysfunction through protection of vascular relaxation and suppression of vascular inflammation.

  7. Factors which deter potential science/math teachers from teaching; changes necessary to ameliorate their concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Robert H.

    In light of the perceived national need for more science and math teachers, this study was conceived to:1.Identify teaching oriented students among freshmen at a mid-western engineering school, who have chosen NOT to become teachers;2.Find out what reasons these potential science and math teachers have for deciding not to pursue teaching careers;3.Determine what amelioration of these problems would be necessary for them to no longer be factors which would inhibit students from becoming teachers.Of a random sample of 110 students drawn from a freshman class, 98 participated fully in the study. Each participant took Holland's Self-Directed Search to determine teaching orientation and author-constructed instruments to assess their concerns about teaching.Results showed teaching oriented students avoided teaching due to low starting salaries, lack of job security, low maximum salaries, not wanting to do the work teacher's do, poor job availability and discouragement by family and friends. Starting salaries of 21,693 and salaries of 32,600 for a teacher with a B.A. and 10 years experience were among the changes deemed necessary to make teaching attractive.

  8. Mannose-binding lectin blunts macrophage polarization and ameliorates lupus nephritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanxing Cai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Deficiency in clearance of self nuclear antigens, including DNA, is the hallmark of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, a chronic autoimmnue disease characterized by the production of various autoantibodies, immune complex deposition and severe organ damage. Our previous studies revealed that administration of syngeneic BALB/c mice with activated lymphocyte-derived DNA (ALD-DNA could induce SLE disease. Mannose-binding lectin (MBL, a secreted pattern recognition receptor with binding activity to DNA, has been proved to be a modulator of inflammation, but whether MBL takes responsibility for DNA clearance, modulates the DNA-mediated immune responses, and is involved in the development of DNA-induced SLE disease remain poorly understood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The levels of serum MBL significantly decreased in lupus mice induced by ALD-DNA and were negatively correlated with SLE disease. MBL blunted macrophage M2b polarization by inhibiting the MAPK and NF-κB signaling while enhancing the activation of CREB. Furthermore, MBL suppressed the ability of ALD-DNA-stimulated macrophages to polarize T cells toward Th1 cells and Th17 cells. Importantly, MBL supplement in vivo could ameliorate lupus nephritis. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest MBL supplement could alleviate SLE disease and might imply a potential therapeutic strategy for DNA-induced SLE, which would further our understanding of the protective role of MBL in SLE disease.

  9. Sildenafil increases chemotherapeutic efficacy of doxorubicin in prostate cancer and ameliorates cardiac dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Anindita; Durrant, David; Mitchell, Clint; Mayton, Eric; Hoke, Nicholas N; Salloum, Fadi N; Park, Margaret A; Qureshi, Ian; Lee, Ray; Dent, Paul; Kukreja, Rakesh C

    2010-10-19

    We have shown that the potent phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE-5) inhibitor sildenafil (Viagra) induces a powerful effect on reduction of infarct size following ischemia/reperfusion injury and improvement of left ventricular dysfunction in the failing heart after myocardial infarction or doxorubicin (DOX) treatment. In the present study, we further investigated the potential effects of sildenafil on improving antitumor efficacy of DOX in prostate cancer. Cotreatment with sildenafil enhanced DOX-induced apoptosis in PC-3 and DU145 prostate cancer cells, which was mediated by enhanced generation of reactive oxygen species, up-regulation of caspase-3 and caspase-9 activities, reduced expression of Bcl-xL, and phosphorylation of Bad. Overexpression of Bcl-xL or dominant negative caspase 9 attenuated the synergistic effect of sildenafil and DOX on prostate cancer cell killing. Furthermore, treatment with sildenafil and DOX in mice bearing prostate tumor xenografts resulted in significant inhibition of tumor growth. The reduced tumor size was associated with amplified apoptotic cell death and increased expression of activated caspase 3. Doppler echocardiography showed that sildenafil treatment ameliorated DOX-induced left ventricular dysfunction. In conclusion, these results provide provocative evidence that sildenafil is both a powerful sensitizer of DOX-induced killing of prostate cancer while providing concurrent cardioprotective benefit. PMID:20884855

  10. Wogonin potentiates the antitumor action of etoposide and ameliorates its adverse effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enomoto, Riyo; Koshiba, Chika; Suzuki, Chie; Lee, Eibai

    2011-05-01

    Wogonin, a flavone in the roots of Scutellaria baicalensis, reduced etoposide-induced apoptotic cell death in normal cells, such as bone marrow cells and thymocytes. On the other hand, wogonin potentiated the proapoptotic or cytotoxic action of etoposide in tumor cells, such as Jurkat, HL-60, A549, and NCI-H226. These contradictory actions of wogonin on apoptosis are distinguished by normal or cancer cell types. Wogonin had no effect on apoptosis induced by other anticancer agents in the tumor cells. Thus, the potentiation effect of wogonin was observed only in etoposide-induced apoptosis in tumor cells. In a functional assay for P-glycoprotein (P-gp), wogonin suppressed excretion of calcein, a substrate for P-gp, in these tumor cells. Moreover, wogonin decreased the excretion of radiolabeled etoposide and accordingly increased intracellular content of this agent in the cells. P-gp inhibitors showed a similar potentiation effect on etoposide-induced apoptosis in these tumor cells. Thus, wogonin is likely to potentiate the anticancer action of etoposide due to P-gp inhibition and accumulation of this agent. These findings suggest that wogonin may be a useful chemotherapeutic adjuvant to potentiate the pharmacological action of etoposide and ameliorate its adverse effects. PMID:20658136

  11. Targeting AGEs Signaling Ameliorates Central Nervous System Diabetic Complications in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Naguib Zakaria

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes is a chronic endocrine disorder associated with several complications as hypertension, advanced brain aging, and cognitive decline. Accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs is an important mechanism that mediates diabetic complications. Upon binding to their receptor (RAGE, AGEs mediate oxidative stress and/or cause cross-linking with proteins in blood vessels and brain tissues. The current investigation was designed to investigate the effect of agents that decrease AGEs signaling, perindopril which increases soluble RAGE (sRAGE and alagebrium which cleaves AGEs cross-links, compared to the standard antidiabetic drug, gliclazide, on the vascular and central nervous system (CNS complications in STZ-induced (50 mg/kg, IP diabetes in rats. Perindopril ameliorated the elevation in blood pressure seen in diabetic animals. In addition, both perindopril and alagebrium significantly inhibited memory decline (performance in the Y-maze, neuronal degeneration (Fluoro-Jade staining, AGEs accumulation in serum and brain, and brain oxidative stress (level of reduced glutathione and activities of catalase and malondialdehyde. These results suggest that blockade of AGEs signaling after diabetes induction in rats is effective in reducing diabetic CNS complications.

  12. The Sulu-Sulawesi Sea: environmental and socioeconomic status, future prognosis and ameliorative policy options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVantier, Lyndon; Alcala, Angel; Wilkinson, Clive

    2004-02-01

    The Sulu-Sulawesi Sea, with neighboring Indonesian Seas and South China Sea, lies at the center of the world's tropical marine biodiversity. Encircled by 3 populous, developing nations, the Philippines, Indonesia and Malaysia, the Sea and its adjacent coastal and terrestrial ecosystems, supports ca. 33 million people, most with subsistence livelihoods heavily reliant on its renewable natural resources. These resources are being impacted severely by rapid population growth (> 2% yr-1, with expected doubling by 2035) and widespread poverty, coupled with increasing international market demand and rapid technological changes, compounded by inefficiencies in governance and a lack of awareness and/or acceptance of some laws among local populations, particularly in parts of the Philippines and Indonesia. These key root causes all contribute to illegal practices and corruption, and are resulting in severe resource depletion and degradation of water catchments, river, lacustrine, estuarine, coastal, and marine ecosystems. The Sulu-Sulawesi Sea forms a major geopolitical focus, with porous borders, transmigration, separatist movements, piracy, and illegal fishing all contributing to environmental degradation, human suffering and political instability, and inhibiting strong trilateral support for interventions. This review analyzes these multifarious environmental and socioeconomic impacts and their root causes, provides a future prognosis of status by 2020, and recommends policy options aimed at amelioration through sustainable management and development. PMID:15083654

  13. Targeting AGEs Signaling Ameliorates Central Nervous System Diabetic Complications in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Mohamed Naguib; El-Bassossy, Hany M; Barakat, Waleed

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes is a chronic endocrine disorder associated with several complications as hypertension, advanced brain aging, and cognitive decline. Accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) is an important mechanism that mediates diabetic complications. Upon binding to their receptor (RAGE), AGEs mediate oxidative stress and/or cause cross-linking with proteins in blood vessels and brain tissues. The current investigation was designed to investigate the effect of agents that decrease AGEs signaling, perindopril which increases soluble RAGE (sRAGE) and alagebrium which cleaves AGEs cross-links, compared to the standard antidiabetic drug, gliclazide, on the vascular and central nervous system (CNS) complications in STZ-induced (50 mg/kg, IP) diabetes in rats. Perindopril ameliorated the elevation in blood pressure seen in diabetic animals. In addition, both perindopril and alagebrium significantly inhibited memory decline (performance in the Y-maze), neuronal degeneration (Fluoro-Jade staining), AGEs accumulation in serum and brain, and brain oxidative stress (level of reduced glutathione and activities of catalase and malondialdehyde). These results suggest that blockade of AGEs signaling after diabetes induction in rats is effective in reducing diabetic CNS complications. PMID:26491434

  14. Topical application of glycyrrhizin preparation ameliorates experimentally induced colitis in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tomohiro Kudo; Shinichi Okamura; Yajing Zhang; Takashige Masuo; Masatomo Mori

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To examine the efficacy of glycyrrhizin preparation (GL-p) in the treatment of a rat model of ulcerative colitis (UC). METHODS: Experimental colitis was induced by oral administration of dextran sodium sulfate. Rats with colitis were intrarectally administered GL-p or saline. The extent of colitis was evaluated based on body weight gain,colon wet weight,and macroscopic damage score. The expression levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in the inflamed mucosa were measured by cytokine antibody array analysis. The effect of GL-p on myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in the inflamed mucosa and purified enzyme was assayed. RESULTS: GL-p treatment significantly ameliorated the extent of colitis compared to sham treatment with saline. Cytokine antibody array analysis showed that GL-p treatment significantly decreased the expression levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines,including interleukin (IL)-1β,IL-6,tumor necrosis factor-α,cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant-2,and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in the inflamed mucosa. Furthermore,GL-p inhibited the oxidative activity of mucosal and purified MPO. CONCLUSION: GL-p enema has a therapeutic effect on experimental colitis in rats and may be useful in the treatment of UC.

  15. Salvianolic acid B ameliorates CNS autoimmunity by suppressing Th1 responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zhihui; Ma, Dihui; Gong, Ye; Yu, Tingmin; Yao, Gang

    2016-04-21

    Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), the animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS), is a Th1 and Th17 cell-mediated CNS autoimmune disease. Therefore, immune regulation is a key target for therapy. Salvianolic acid B (Sal B) is a major water-soluble bioactive component of the famous traditional Chinese medicine Salvia miltiorrhiza, which is notable for its anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects. Thus Sal B, by impairing Th1 or Th17 responses in EAE/MS, might ameliorate the crippling symptoms. Here we show that the intraperitoneal administration of 30mg/kg Sal B daily for 14 days after the onset of MOG-induced EAE in mice effectively reduced its severity. Additionally, Sal B treatment downgraded the infiltration of inflammatory cells, limited astrogliosis and blocked Th1 responses other than that of Th17. These results indicated that Sal B may serve as an effective therapeutic agent for MS/EAE by inhibiting Th1 cell responses. PMID:26777627

  16. Amelioration of dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis in mice by Rhodobacter sphaeroides extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wen-Sheng; Chen, Man-Chin; Chiu, Kuo-Hsun; Wen, Zhi-Hong; Lee, Che-Hsin

    2012-01-01

    Bacteria can produce some compounds in response to their environment. These compounds are widely used in cosmetic and pharmaceutical applications. Some probiotics have immunomodulatory activities and modulate the symptoms of several diseases. Autoimmune diseases represent a complex group of conditions that are thought to be mediated through the development of autoreactive immunoresponses. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is common autoimmune disease that affects many individuals worldwide. Previously, we found that the extracts of Rhodobacter sphaeroides (Lycogen) inhibited nitric oxide production and inducible nitric-oxide synthase expression in activated macrophages. In this study, the effect of Lycogen, a potent anti-inflammatory agent, was evaluated in mice with dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis. Oral administration of Lycogen reduced the expressions of proinflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β) in female BABL/c mice. In addition, the increased number of bacterial flora in the colon induced by DSS was amelirated by Lycogen. The histological score of intestinal inflammation in 5% DSS-treated mice after oral administration of Lycogen was lower than that of control mice. Meanwhile, Lycogen dramatically prolonged the survival of mice with severe colitis. These findings identified that Lycogen is an anti-inflammatory agent with the capacity to ameliorate DSS-induced colitis. PMID:23159923

  17. Role of Exogenous Proline in Ameliorating Salt Stress at Early Stage in Two Rice Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deivanai S

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The study evaluated the effect of proline on germination and seedling growth of two Malaysian rice cultivars (MR220 and MR232 under salt stress. The exposure of rice seeds to increasing concentration of NaCl (0, 100, 200, 300 and 400 mM had drastically affected germination (%, root and shoot length (mm, chlorophyll content and protein content. It is evident from the result of inhibition in germination rate, reduction in root and shoot length, chlorophyll content and protein content. However, several studies have shown that exogenous application of proline has ameliorated the negative effect of salt stress by regulating cellular osmotic balance. The present study has demonstrated that rice seeds pretreated with proline (1mM, 5mM and 10mM and grown at different NaCl concentrations counteracted the adverse effect of salt. Pretreatment of proline at a concentration of 1mM was found to be effective and stimulated cellular activities, whereas 10mM proline was ineffective in improving plant growth under high level of salt (300 and 400mM NaCl.

  18. Salvia miltiorrhiza Injection Ameliorates Renal Damage Induced by Lead Exposure in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to lead (Pb can induce kidney injury and our recent studies have found that Salvia miltiorrhiza (SM injection, a traditional Chinese medicine, could protect against the organ injury induced by iron overload. This study was designed to investigate the protective effects of SM injection on nephrotoxicity induced by Pb acetate in mice and to elucidate the potential mechanism(s. Healthy male mice were randomly divided into four groups: control, Pb, low-dose Salvia miltiorrhiza (L-SM, and high-dose Salvia miltiorrhiza (H-SM. SM injection dose dependently reduced the Pb accumulation in the kidney, decreased kidney coefficients, and ameliorated renal structure and function from the morphology analysis. Meanwhile, SM administration downregulated serum levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN and creatinine (CR, decreased malondialdehyde (MAD content, and increased activities of super oxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px in the kidney homogenate. Moreover, SM injection reduced the level of renal apoptosis by immunohistochemical staining analysis. Our findings implicate the therapeutic potential of SM injection for Pb-induced nephrotoxicity, which were at least partly due to the decrease of Pb accumulation, inhibition of lipid peroxidation, and suppression of renal apoptosis. These results provided preliminary experimental support for Danshen as a therapeutic drug for Pb poisoning diseases.

  19. Salvia miltiorrhiza injection ameliorates renal damage induced by lead exposure in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lei; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Ma, Juanjuan; Dong, Weichong; Song, Qiongtao; Zhang, Jianping; Chu, Li

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to lead (Pb) can induce kidney injury and our recent studies have found that Salvia miltiorrhiza (SM) injection, a traditional Chinese medicine, could protect against the organ injury induced by iron overload. This study was designed to investigate the protective effects of SM injection on nephrotoxicity induced by Pb acetate in mice and to elucidate the potential mechanism(s). Healthy male mice were randomly divided into four groups: control, Pb, low-dose Salvia miltiorrhiza (L-SM), and high-dose Salvia miltiorrhiza (H-SM). SM injection dose dependently reduced the Pb accumulation in the kidney, decreased kidney coefficients, and ameliorated renal structure and function from the morphology analysis. Meanwhile, SM administration downregulated serum levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine (CR), decreased malondialdehyde (MAD) content, and increased activities of super oxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) in the kidney homogenate. Moreover, SM injection reduced the level of renal apoptosis by immunohistochemical staining analysis. Our findings implicate the therapeutic potential of SM injection for Pb-induced nephrotoxicity, which were at least partly due to the decrease of Pb accumulation, inhibition of lipid peroxidation, and suppression of renal apoptosis. These results provided preliminary experimental support for Danshen as a therapeutic drug for Pb poisoning diseases. PMID:24696648

  20. Carbachol ameliorates lipopolysaccharide-induced intestinal epithelial tight junction damage by down-regulating NF-{kappa}{beta} and myosin light-chain kinase pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Ying [Department of Anesthesia, Critical Care Medicine and Emergency Medicine Center, Zhongnan Hospital, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071, Hubei Province, People' s Republic of China (China); Li, Jianguo, E-mail: 2010lijianguo@sina.cn [Department of Anesthesia, Critical Care Medicine and Emergency Medicine Center, Zhongnan Hospital, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071, Hubei Province, People' s Republic of China (China)

    2012-11-16

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Carbachol reduced the lipopolysaccharide-induced intestinal barrier breakdown. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Carbachol ameliorated the lipopolysaccharide-induced ileal tight junction damage. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Carbachol prevented the LPS-induced NF-{kappa}{beta} and myosin light-chain kinase activation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Carbachol exerted its beneficial effects in an {alpha}7 nicotinic receptor-dependent manner. -- Abstract: Carbachol is a cholinergic agonist that protects the intestines after trauma or burn injury. The present study determines the beneficial effects of carbachol and the mechanisms by which it ameliorates the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced intestinal barrier breakdown. Rats were injected intraperitoneally with 10 mg/kg LPS. Results showed that the gut barrier permeability was reduced, the ultrastructural disruption of tight junctions (TJs) was prevented, the redistribution of zonula occludens-1 and claudin-2 proteins was partially reversed, and the nuclear factor-kappa beta (NF-{kappa}{beta}) and myosin light-chain kinase (MLCK) activation in the intestinal epithelium were suppressed after carbachol administration in LPS-exposed rats. Pretreatment with the {alpha}7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor ({alpha}7nAchR) antagonist {alpha}-bungarotoxin blocked the protective action of carbachol. These results suggested that carbachol treatment can protect LPS-induced intestinal barrier dysfunction. Carbachol exerts its beneficial effect on the amelioration of the TJ damage by inhibiting the NF-{kappa}{beta} and MLCK pathways in an {alpha}7nAchR-dependent manner.

  1. Infection of non-encapsulated species of Trichinella ameliorates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis involving suppression of Th17 and Th1 response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhiliang; Nagano, Isao; Asano, Kazunobu; Takahashi, Yuzo

    2010-10-01

    Epidemiological and experimental studies have indicated that helminth infections can ameliorate autoimmune diseases. The present study investigated the amelioration effect of the Trichinella pseudospiralis infection on experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a T-cell-mediated autoimmune disease of central nervous system (CNS), and expression kinetics of Th17 and Th1 cytokine which play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of EAE. The results indicated that the infection of helminth T. pseudospiralis obviously ameliorated clinical severity and greatly delayed the onset of EAE induced by myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) immunization. Infection caused much lesser inflammatory infiltration and demyilination in the CNS of infected EAE mice than uninfected EAE mice. The reduced infiltration was also suggested by the expressions of the inflammation cytokines, IL-17, IL-6, IL-1β, IFN-γ, and TNF-α, which were high in the spinal cords of the uninfected EAE mice, but was nearly normal or low in the infected EAE mice. The increased production of MOG-induced IL-17 and IFN-γ and the expression of IL-6, IL-1β, TGF-β in splenocytes after restimulation with MOG was inhibited in the infected EAE mice. On the other hand, the greatly induced Th2 response was observed in the splenocytes of the infected EAE mice. The present study showed that T. pseudospiralis infection can suppresses EAE by reducing the inflammatory infiltration in CNS, likely associated with the suppression of Th17 and Th1 responses by the infection. PMID:20661746

  2. Dietary component isorhamnetin is a PPARγ antagonist and ameliorates metabolic disorders induced by diet or leptin deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Gu, Ming; Cai, Wujie; Yu, Lijing; Feng, Li; Zhang, Lu; Zang, Qingqing; Wang, Yahui; Wang, Dongshan; Chen, Hui; Tong, Qingchun; Ji, Guang; Huang, Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Studies on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ ligands have been focused on agonists. However, PPARγ activation may induce obesity and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), one of the most challenging medical conditions. Here, we identified that isorhamnetin, a naturally occurring compound in fruits and vegetables and the metabolite of quercetin, is a novel antagonist of PPARγ. Isorhamnetin treatment inhibited the adipocyte differentiation induced by the PPARγ agonist rosiglitazone, reduced obesity development and ameliorated hepatic steatosis induced by both high-fat diet treatment and leptin deficiency. Our results suggest that dietary supplement of isorhamnetin may be beneficial to prevent obesity and steatosis and PPARγ antagonists may be useful to treat hepatic steatosis. PMID:26775807

  3. Saline-alkali land in the Yellow River Delta:amelioration zonation based on GIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Soil salinization is one of the major land degradation types andhas greatly influenced sustainable agricultural development. Zonation of saline-alkali land is the precondition for effective amelioration. The present situation of saline-alkali land is monitored by remote sensing image processing. Causes for land salinization are analyzed, especially the two key factors, ground water depth and its mineralization degree, are analyzed by using long-term observation data. Previously,zonation of saline-alkali soil was made descriptively and artificially. Based on the present situation of saline-alkali land, ground water depth and ground water mineralization degree, the zonation of salinealkali land for amelioration in the Yellow River Delta was completed quantitatively. Four different ypes of saline-alkali land amelioration zones are delineated, namely, easy ameliorated zone,elatively difficult ameliorated zone, difficult ameliorated zone and unfavorable ameliorated zone.Countermeasures for ameliorating saline-alkali soils are put forward according to ecological conditions of different saline-alkali land zones.

  4. Amelioration of Acute Mercury Toxicity by a Novel, Non-Toxic Lipid Soluble Chelator N,N′bis-(2-mercaptoethyl)isophthalamide: Effect on Animal Survival, Health, Mercury Excretion and Organ Accumulation

    OpenAIRE

    Clarke, David; Buchanan, Roger; Gupta, Niladri; Haley, Boyd

    2012-01-01

    The toxic effects of mercury are known to be complex with specific enzyme inhibitions and subsequent oxidative stress adding to the damaging effects. There are likely other factors involved, such as the development of impaired metal ion homeostasis and depletion of thiol and selenium based metabolites such as cysteine and selenium. Much of the toxicity of mercury occurs at the intracellular level via binding of Hg2+ to thiol groups in specific proteins. Therefore, amelioration of mercury toxi...

  5. Biologically Synthesized Gold Nanoparticles Ameliorate Cold and Heat Stress-Induced Oxidative Stress in Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi-Feng Zhang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to their unique physical, chemical, and optical properties, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs have recently attracted much interest in the field of nanomedicine, especially in the areas of cancer diagnosis and photothermal therapy. Because of the enormous potential of these nanoparticles, various physical, chemical, and biological methods have been adopted for their synthesis. Synthetic antioxidants are dangerous to human health. Thus, the search for effective, nontoxic natural compounds with effective antioxidative properties is essential. Although AuNPs have been studied for use in various biological applications, exploration of AuNPs as antioxidants capable of inhibiting oxidative stress induced by heat and cold stress is still warranted. Therefore, one goal of our study was to produce biocompatible AuNPs using biological methods that are simple, nontoxic, biocompatible, and environmentally friendly. Next, we aimed to assess the antioxidative effect of AuNPs against oxidative stress induced by cold and heat in Escherichia coli, which is a suitable model for stress responses involving AuNPs. The response of aerobically grown E. coli cells to cold and heat stress was found to be similar to the oxidative stress response. Upon exposure to cold and heat stress, the viability and metabolic activity of E. coli was significantly reduced compared to the control. In addition, levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS and malondialdehyde (MDA and leakage of proteins and sugars were significantly elevated, and the levels of lactate dehydrogenase activity (LDH and adenosine triphosphate (ATP significantly lowered compared to in the control. Concomitantly, AuNPs ameliorated cold and heat-induced oxidative stress responses by increasing the expression of antioxidants, including glutathione (GSH, glutathione S-transferase (GST, super oxide dismutase (SOD, and catalase (CAT. These consistent physiology and biochemical data suggest that AuNPs can ameliorate cold and

  6. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor ameliorates brain stem cardiovascular dysregulation during experimental temporal lobe status epilepticus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Yi Tsai

    -derived NO leads to a reduction in baroreflex-mediated sympathetic vasomotor tone during experimental TLSE; to be ameliorated by the upregulated BDNF/TrkB signaling via inhibition of p47(phox phosphorylation. This information offers a new vista in devising therapeutic strategy towards minimizing mortality associated with TLSE.

  7. Virus-specific regulatory T cells ameliorate encephalitis by repressing effector T cell functions from priming to effector stages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingxian Zhao

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have demonstrated the presence of pathogen-specific Foxp3+ CD4 regulatory T cells (Treg in infected animals, but little is known about where and how these cells affect the effector T cell responses and whether they are more suppressive than bulk Treg populations. We recently showed the presence of both epitope M133-specific Tregs (M133 Treg and conventional CD4 T cells (M133 Tconv in the brains of mice with coronavirus-induced encephalitis. Here, we provide new insights into the interactions between pathogenic Tconv and Tregs responding to the same epitope. M133 Tregs inhibited the proliferation but not initial activation of M133 Tconv in draining lymph nodes (DLN. Further, M133 Tregs inhibited migration of M133 Tconv from the DLN. In addition, M133 Tregs diminished microglia activation and decreased the number and function of Tconv in the infected brain. Thus, virus-specific Tregs inhibited pathogenic CD4 T cell responses during priming and effector stages, particularly those recognizing cognate antigen, and decreased mortality and morbidity without affecting virus clearance. These cells are more suppressive than bulk Tregs and provide a targeted approach to ameliorating immunopathological disease in infectious settings.

  8. Quercetin Treatment Ameliorates Systemic Oxidative Stress in Cirrhotic Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Emanuelle Kerber; Bona, Silvia; Di Naso, Fábio Cangeri; Porawski, Marilene; Tieppo, Juliana; Marroni, Norma Possa

    2011-01-01

    Our aim was to investigate whether the antioxidant quercetin protects against liver injury and ameliorates the systemic oxidative stress in rats with common bile duct ligation. Secondary biliary cirrhosis was induced through 28 days of bile duct obstruction. Animals received quercetin (Q) after 14 days of obstruction. Groups of control (CO) and cirrhotic (CBDL) animals received a daily 50 mg/kg body weight i.p. injection of quercetin (CO + Q; CBDL + Q) or vehicle (CO; CBDL). Quercetin corrected the reduction in superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase CAT, and glutathione peroxidase GPx activities and prevented the increase of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), aminotransferases, and alkaline phosphatase in cirrhotic animals. Quercetin administration also corrected the reduced total nitrate concentration in the liver and prevented liver fibrosis and necrosis. These effects suggest that quercetin might be a useful agent to preserve liver function and prevent systemic oxidative stress. PMID:21991520

  9. Pleurotus eryngii Ameliorates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Lung Inflammation in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junya Kawai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pleurotus eryngii (P. eryngii is consumed as a fresh cultivated mushroom worldwide and demonstrated to have multiple beneficial effects. We investigated the anti-inflammatory effect of P. eryngii in mice with acute lung injury (ALI. Intranasal instillation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS (10 μg/site/mouse induced marked lung inflammation (increase in the number of inflammatory cells, protein leakage, and production of nitric oxide in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid as well as histopathological damage in the lung, 6 h after treatment. Mice administered heat-treated P. eryngii (0.3–1 g/kg, p.o. (HTPE 1 h before LPS challenge showed decreased pulmonary inflammation and ameliorated histopathological damage. These results suggest that HTPE has anti-inflammatory effects against ALI. Thus, P. eryngii itself may also have anti-inflammatory effects and could be a beneficial food for the prevention of ALI induced by bacterial infection.

  10. Biochar Ameliorate Drought and Salt Stress in Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saleem Akhtar, Saqib

    of plant with halophytic plant growth promoting bacteria) approaches. The results showed that: - Biochar mitigated drought stress in plants by enhancing soil moisture availability due to its high porosity and large surface area - Biochar ameliorated salinity stress in plant by a high transient Na+ binding...... due to its high adsorption capacity; decreasing osmotic stress by enhancing soil moisture content; and releasing mineral nutrients (particularly K+, Ca++, Mg++) into the soil solution - Growth, physiology and yield of plants were positively affected by biochar due to its ability to increase soil...... moisture content, improve nutrient acquisition and reduce Na+ uptake under drought and salinity stress, respectively - Biochar had long-term positive residual effect on plant growth and performance under salinity stress - Positive responses of biochar on plants could be further enhanced by adopting...

  11. Evaluation of water treatment sludge for ameliorating acid mine waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Rensburg, L.; Morgenthal, T.L. [Potchefstroom University for Christian Higher Education, Potchefstroom (South Africa). School for Environmental Science & Development

    2003-10-01

    This study investigated the liming effect of water treatment sludge on acid mine spoils. The study was conducted with sludge from a water purification plant along the Vaal River catchments in South Africa. The optimum application rate for liming acid spoils and the speed and depth with which the sludge reacted with the mine waste were investigated. Chemical analysis indicated that the sludge is suitable as a liming agent because of its alkaline pH (8.08), high bicarbonate concentration (183.03 mg L{sup -1}), and low salinity (electrical conductivity = 76 mS m(-1)). The high cation exchange capacity of 15.47 cmol{sub c} kg{sup -1} and elevated nitrate concentration (73.16 mg L{sup -1}) also increase its value as an ameliorative material. The soluble concentrations for manganese, aluminum, lead, and selenium were high at a pH of 5 although only selenium (0.83 mg L{sup -1}) warranted some concern. According to experimental results, the application of 10 Mg ha{sup -1} of sludge to acid gold tailings increased the leach water pH from 4.5 to more than 7.5 and also increased the medium pH from 2.4 to 7.5. The addition of sludge further reduced the solubility of iron, manganese, copper, and zinc in the ameliorated gold tailings, but increased the electrical conductivity. The liming tempo was highest in the coal discard profile that had a coarse particle size distribution and took the longest to move through the gold tailings that had a fine particle size distribution. Results from this study indicate that the water treatment sludge investigated is suitable as a liming agent for rehabilitation of acid mine waste.

  12. Carbenoxolone treatment ameliorated metabolic syndrome in WNIN/Ob obese rats, but induced severe fat loss and glucose intolerance in lean rats.

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    Siva Sankara Vara Prasad Sakamuri

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1 regulates local glucocorticoid action in tissues by catalysing conversion of inactive glucocorticoids to active glucocorticoids. 11β-HSD1 inhibition ameliorates obesity and associated co-morbidities. Here, we tested the effect of 11β-HSD inhibitor, carbenoxolone (CBX on obesity and associated comorbidities in obese rats of WNIN/Ob strain, a new animal model for genetic obesity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Subcutaneous injection of CBX (50 mg/kg body weight or volume-matched vehicle was given once daily for four weeks to three month-old WNIN/Ob lean and obese rats (n = 6 for each phenotype and for each treatment. Body composition, plasma lipids and hormones were assayed. Hepatic steatosis, adipose tissue morphology, inflammation and fibrosis were also studied. Insulin resistance and glucose intolerance were determined along with tissue glycogen content. Gene expressions were determined in liver and adipose tissue. CBX significantly inhibited 11β-HSD1 activity in liver and adipose tissue of WNIN/Ob lean and obese rats. CBX significantly decreased body fat percentage, hypertriglyceridemia, hypercholesterolemia, insulin resistance in obese rats. CBX ameliorated hepatic steatosis, adipocyte hypertrophy, adipose tissue inflammation and fibrosis in obese rats. Tissue glycogen content was significantly decreased by CBX in liver and adipose tissue of obese rats. Severe fat loss and glucose- intolerance were observed in lean rats after CBX treatment. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that 11β-HSD1 inhibition by CBX decreases obesity and associated co-morbidities in WNIN/Ob obese rats. Our study supports the hypothesis that inhibition of 11β-HSD1 is a key strategy to treat metabolic syndrome. Severe fat loss and glucose -intolerance by CBX treatment in lean rats suggest that chronic 11β-HSD1 inhibition may lead to insulin resistance in normal conditions.

  13. Direct renin inhibitor ameliorates insulin resistance by improving insulin signaling and oxidative stress in the skeletal muscle from post-infarct heart failure in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Arata; Kinugawa, Shintaro; Takada, Shingo; Matsumoto, Junichi; Furihata, Takaaki; Mizushima, Wataru; Tsuda, Masaya; Yokota, Takashi; Matsushima, Shouji; Okita, Koichi; Tsutsui, Hiroyuki

    2016-05-15

    Insulin resistance can occur as a consequence of heart failure (HF). Activation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) may play a crucial role in this phenomenon. We thus investigated the effect of a direct renin inhibitor, aliskiren, on insulin resistance in HF after myocardial infarction (MI). MI and sham operation were performed in male C57BL/6J mice. The mice were divided into 4 groups and treated with sham-operation (Sham, n=10), sham-operation and aliskiren (Sham+Aliskiren; 10mg/kg/day, n=10), MI (n=11), or MI and aliskiren (MI+Aliskiren, n=11). After 4 weeks, MI mice showed left ventricular dilation and dysfunction, which were not affected by aliskiren. The percent decrease of blood glucose after insulin load was significantly smaller in MI than in Sham (14±5% vs. 36±2%), and was ameliorated in MI+Aliskiren (34±5%) mice. Insulin-stimulated serine-phosphorylation of Akt and glucose transporter 4 translocation were decreased in the skeletal muscle of MI compared to Sham by 57% and 69%, and both changes were ameliorated in the MI+Aliskiren group (91% and 94%). Aliskiren administration in MI mice significantly inhibited plasma renin activity and angiotensin II (Ang II) levels. Moreover, (pro)renin receptor expression and local Ang II production were upregulated in skeletal muscle from MI and were attenuated in MI+Aliskiren mice, in tandem with a decrease in superoxide production and NAD(P)H oxidase activities. In conclusion, aliskiren ameliorated insulin resistance in HF by improving insulin signaling in the skeletal muscle, at least partly by inhibiting systemic and (pro)renin receptor-mediated local RAS activation, and subsequent NAD(P)H oxidase-induced oxidative stress. PMID:26988296

  14. Inhibition of microbial arsenate reduction by phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaughter, Deanne C; Macur, Richard E; Inskeep, William P

    2012-03-20

    The ratio of arsenite (As(III)) to arsenate (As(V)) in soils and natural waters is often controlled by the activity of As-transforming microorganisms. Phosphate is a chemical analog to As(V) and, consequently, may competitively inhibit microbial uptake and enzymatic binding of As(V), thus preventing its reduction to the more toxic, mobile, and bioavailable form - As(III). Five As-transforming bacteria isolated either from As-treated soil columns or from As-impacted soils were used to evaluate the effects of phosphate on As(V) reduction and As(III) oxidation. Cultures were initially spiked with various P:As ratios, incubated for approximately 48 h, and analyzed periodically for As(V) and As(III) concentration. Arsenate reduction was inhibited at high P:As ratios and completely suppressed at elevated levels of phosphate (500 and 1,000 μM; P inhibition constant (K(i))∼20-100 μM). While high P:As ratios effectively shut down microbial As(V) reduction, the expression of the arsenate reductase gene (arsC) was not inhibited under these conditions in the As(V)-reducing isolate, Agrobacterium tumefaciens str. 5B. Further, high phosphate ameliorated As(V)-induced cell growth inhibition caused by high (1mM) As pressure. These results indicate that phosphate may inhibit As(V) reduction by impeding As(V) uptake by the cell via phosphate transport systems or by competitively binding to the active site of ArsC. PMID:21741807

  15. N-hydroxycinnamide derivatives of osthole ameliorate hyperglycemia through activation of AMPK and p38 MAPK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wei-Hwa; Wu, Hsueh-Hsia; Huang, Wei-Jan; Li, Yi-Ning; Lin, Ren-Jye; Lin, Shyr-Yi; Liang, Yu-Chih

    2015-01-01

    Our previous studies found that osthole markedly reduced blood glucose levels in both db/db and ob/ob mice. To improve the antidiabetic activity of osthole, a series of N-hydroxycinnamide derivatives of osthole were synthesized, and their hypoglycemia activities were examined in vitro and in vivo. Both N-hydroxycinnamide derivatives of osthole, OHC-4p and OHC-2m, had the greatest potential for activating AMPK and increasing glucose uptake by L6 skeletal muscle cells. In addition, OHC-4p and OHC-2m time- and dose-dependently increased phosphorylation levels of AMPK and p38 MAPK. The AMPK inhibitor, compound C, and the p38 MAPK inhibitor, SB203580, significantly reversed activation of AMPK and p38 MAPK, respectively, in OHC-4p- and OHC-2m-treated cells. Compound C and SB203580 also inhibited glucose uptake induced by OHC-4p and OHC-2m. Next, we found that OHC-4p and OHC-2m significantly increased glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) translocation to plasma membranes and counteracted hyperglycemia in mice with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. These results suggest that activation of AMPK and p38 MAPK by OHC-4p and OHC-2m is associated with increased glucose uptake and GLUT4 translocation and subsequently led to amelioration of hyperglycemia. Therefore, OHC-4p and OHC-2m might have potential as antidiabetic agents for treating type 2 diabetes. Our previous studies found that osthole markedly reduced blood glucose levels in both db/db and ob/ob mice. To improve the antidiabetic activity of osthole, a series of N-hydroxycinnamide derivatives of osthole were synthesized, and their hypoglycemia activities were examined in vitro and in vivo. Both N-hydroxycinnamide derivatives of osthole, OHC-4p and OHC-2m, had the greatest potential for activating AMPK and increasing glucose uptake by L6 skeletal muscle cells. In addition, OHC-4p and OHC-2m time- and dose-dependently increased phosphorylation levels of AMPK and p38 MAPK. The AMPK inhibitor, compound C, and the p38 MAPK inhibitor

  16. Geraniin suppresses RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis in vitro and ameliorates wear particle-induced osteolysis in mouse model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Fei; Zhai, Zanjing; Jiang, Chuan; Liu, Xuqiang; Li, Haowei; Qu, Xinhua [Department of Orthopedics, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Orthopedic Implant, Shanghai Ninth People' s Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai (China); Ouyang, Zhengxiao [Department of Orthopedics, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Orthopedic Implant, Shanghai Ninth People' s Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai (China); Department of Orthopaedics, Hunan Provincial Tumor Hospital and Tumor Hospital of Xiangya School of Medicine, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410013 (China); Fan, Qiming; Tang, Tingting [Department of Orthopedics, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Orthopedic Implant, Shanghai Ninth People' s Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai (China); Qin, An, E-mail: dr.qinan@gmail.com [Department of Orthopedics, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Orthopedic Implant, Shanghai Ninth People' s Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai (China); Gu, Dongyun, E-mail: dongyungu@gmail.com [Department of Orthopedics, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Orthopedic Implant, Shanghai Ninth People' s Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai (China); Engineering Research Center of Digital Medicine and Clinical Translation, Ministry of Education of PR China (China); School of Biomedical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 1954 Huashan Road, Shanghai 200030 (China)

    2015-01-01

    Wear particle-induced osteolysis and subsequent aseptic loosening remains the most common complication that limits the longevity of prostheses. Wear particle-induced osteoclastogenesis is known to be responsible for extensive bone erosion that leads to prosthesis failure. Thus, inhibition of osteoclastic bone resorption may serve as a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of wear particle induced osteolysis. In this study, we demonstrated for the first time that geraniin, an active natural compound derived from Geranium thunbergii, ameliorated particle-induced osteolysis in a Ti particle-induced mouse calvaria model in vivo. We also investigated the mechanism by which geraniin exerts inhibitory effects on osteoclasts. Geraniin inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis in a dose-dependent manner, evidenced by reduced osteoclast formation and suppressed osteoclast specific gene expression. Specially, geraniin inhibited actin ring formation and bone resorption in vitro. Further molecular investigation demonstrated geraniin impaired osteoclast differentiation via the inhibition of the RANKL-induced NF-κB and ERK signaling pathways, as well as suppressed the expression of key osteoclast transcriptional factors NFATc1 and c-Fos. Collectively, our data suggested that geraniin exerts inhibitory effects on osteoclast differentiation in vitro and suppresses Ti particle-induced osteolysis in vivo. Geraniin is therefore a potential natural compound for the treatment of wear particle induced osteolysis in prostheses failure. - Highlights: • Geraniin suppresses osteoclasts formation and function in vitro. • Geraniin impairs RANKL-induced nuclear factor-κB and ERK signaling pathway. • Geraniin suppresses osteolysis in vivo. • Geraniin may be used for treating osteoclast related diseases.

  17. Geraniin suppresses RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis in vitro and ameliorates wear particle-induced osteolysis in mouse model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wear particle-induced osteolysis and subsequent aseptic loosening remains the most common complication that limits the longevity of prostheses. Wear particle-induced osteoclastogenesis is known to be responsible for extensive bone erosion that leads to prosthesis failure. Thus, inhibition of osteoclastic bone resorption may serve as a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of wear particle induced osteolysis. In this study, we demonstrated for the first time that geraniin, an active natural compound derived from Geranium thunbergii, ameliorated particle-induced osteolysis in a Ti particle-induced mouse calvaria model in vivo. We also investigated the mechanism by which geraniin exerts inhibitory effects on osteoclasts. Geraniin inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis in a dose-dependent manner, evidenced by reduced osteoclast formation and suppressed osteoclast specific gene expression. Specially, geraniin inhibited actin ring formation and bone resorption in vitro. Further molecular investigation demonstrated geraniin impaired osteoclast differentiation via the inhibition of the RANKL-induced NF-κB and ERK signaling pathways, as well as suppressed the expression of key osteoclast transcriptional factors NFATc1 and c-Fos. Collectively, our data suggested that geraniin exerts inhibitory effects on osteoclast differentiation in vitro and suppresses Ti particle-induced osteolysis in vivo. Geraniin is therefore a potential natural compound for the treatment of wear particle induced osteolysis in prostheses failure. - Highlights: • Geraniin suppresses osteoclasts formation and function in vitro. • Geraniin impairs RANKL-induced nuclear factor-κB and ERK signaling pathway. • Geraniin suppresses osteolysis in vivo. • Geraniin may be used for treating osteoclast related diseases

  18. N-Docosahexaenoylethanolamine ameliorates ethanol-induced impairment of neural stem cell neurogenic differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Mohammad Abdur; Kim, Hee-Yong

    2016-03-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that prenatal exposure to ethanol interferes with embryonic and fetal development, and causes abnormal neurodevelopment. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid highly enriched in the brain, was shown to be essential for proper brain development and function. Recently, we found that N-docosahexenoyethanolamine (synaptamide), an endogenous metabolite of DHA, is a potent PKA-dependent neurogenic factor for neural stem cell (NSC) differentiation. In this study, we demonstrate that ethanol at pharmacologically relevant concentrations downregulates cAMP signaling in NSC and impairs neurogenic differentiation. In contrast, synaptamide reverses ethanol-impaired NSC neurogenic differentiation through counter-acting on the cAMP production system. NSC exposure to ethanol (25-50 mM) for 4 days dose-dependently decreased the number of Tuj-1 positive neurons and PKA/CREB phosphorylation with a concomitant reduction of cellular cAMP. Ethanol-induced cAMP reduction was accompanied by the inhibition of G-protein activation and expression of adenylyl cyclase (AC) 7 and AC8, as well as PDE4 upregulation. In contrast to ethanol, synaptamide increased cAMP production, GTPγS binding, and expression of AC7 and AC8 isoforms in a cAMP-dependent manner, offsetting the ethanol-induced impairment in neurogenic differentiation. These results indicate that synaptamide can reduce ethanol-induced impairment of neuronal differentiation by counter-affecting shared targets in G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR)/cAMP signaling. The synaptamide-mediated mechanism observed in this study may offer a possible avenue for ameliorating the adverse impact of fetal alcohol exposure on neurodevelopment.

  19. Recombinant human erythropoietin reduces plasminogen activator inhibitor and ameliorates pro-inflammatory responses following trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Mojtahedzadeh

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available "n  "n Background and the purpose of the study: Besides its hematopoietic effects, erythropoietin (EPO by mobilization of iron and modulation of some inflammatory cytokines has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The purpose of this study was to evaluate these effects of erythropoietin and its impact on organ function in traumatized patients. "n Methods: Twenty-six ICU-admitted traumatized patients within 24 hrs after trauma were randomly assigned to the EPO (received EPO, 300 units/Kg/day and Control (not received EPO groups. The inflammatory biomarkers including Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha (TNF-α, Interleukin 1 (IL-1, Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1 (PAI-1 and Nitrotyrosine were recorded at the admission, 3, 6 and 9 days thereafter. Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE II and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA scores were also recorded. "n Results: Among 12 patients (EPO group TNF-α level at the day of 9 (P=0.046, and within EPO group at the days of 3 (P=0.026 ameliorate, 6 (P=0.016, and 9 (P=0.052 were significantly lowered. Level of IL-1 and PAI-1 decreased significantly at days of 3, 6 and 9 post intervention. Also there were significant differences between two groups in the SOFA score during three measured time intervals (the first, third and seventh days. "n Conclusion: From the results of this study it seems that injection of erythrocyte stimulating agent is well tolerated and inhibits the inflammatory response and oxidative stress following trauma.

  20. Excretory/secretory products from Trichinella spiralis adult worms ameliorate DSS-induced colitis in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodi Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many evidences show the inverse correlation between helminth infection and allergic or autoimmune diseases. Identification and characterization of the active helminth-derived products responsible for the beneficial effects on allergic or inflammatory diseases will provide another feasible approach to treat these diseases. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Colitis was induced in C57BL/6 mice by giving 3% DSS orally for 7 days. During this period, the mice were treated daily with the excretory/secretory products from T. spiralis adult worms (AES intraperitoneally. The severity of colitis was monitored by measuring body weight, stool consistency or bleeding, colon length and inflammation. To determine the T. spiralis AES product-induced immunological response, Th1, Th2, Th17 and regulatory cytokine profiles were measured in lymphocytes isolated from colon, mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN, and the spleen of treated mice. The CD4+ CD25+ FOXP3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs were also measured in the spleens and MLN of treated mice. Mice treated with AES significantly ameliorated the severity of the DSS-induced colitis indicated by the reduced disease manifestations, improved macroscopic and microscopic inflammation correlated with the up-regulation of Treg response (increased regulatory cytokines IL-10, TGF-beta and regulatory T cells and down-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IFN-gamma, IL-6 and IL-17 in the spleens, MLN and colon of treated mice. CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide direct evidences that T. spiralis AES have a therapeutic potential for alleviating inflammatory colitis in mice. This effect is possibly mediated by the immunomodulation of regulatory T cells to produce regulatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines and inhibit pro-inflammatory cytokines.

  1. Alpha-tocopherol ameliorates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis through the regulation of Th1 cells

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    Haikuo Xue

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Multiple sclerosis (MS is a serious neurological autoimmune disease, it commonly affects young adults. Vitamin E (Vit E is an important component of human diet with antioxidant activity, which protects the body’s biological systems. In order to assess the effect of Vit E treatment on this autoimmune disease, we established experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE, the animal model of MS, and treated EAE with α-tocopherol (AT which is the main content of Vit E. Materials and Methods:Twenty C57BL/6 adult female mice were used and divided into two groups randomly. EAE was induced with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG, and one group was treated with AT, at a dose of 100 mg/kg on the 3th day post-immunization with MOG, the other group was treated with 1% alcohol. Mice were euthanized on day 14, post-immunization, spleens were removed for assessing splenocytes proliferation and cytokine profile, and spinal cords were dissected to assess the infiltration of inflammatory cells in spinal cord. Results:AT was able to attenuate the severity of EAE and delay the disease progression. H&E staining and fast blue staining indicated that AT reduced the inflammation and the demyelination reaction in the spinal cord. Treatment with AT significantly decreased the proliferation of splenocytes. AT also inhibited the production of IFN-γ (Th1 cytokine, though the other cytokines were only affected slightly. Conclusion:According to the results, AT ameliorated EAE, through suppressing the proliferation of T cells and the Th1 response. AT may be used as a potential treatment for MS.

  2. Protocatechuic aldehyde ameliorates experimental pulmonary fibrosis by modulating HMGB1/RAGE pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Liang, E-mail: countryspring@sina.com; Ji, Yunxia, E-mail: 413499057@qq.com; Kang, Zechun, E-mail: davidjiangwl@163.com; Lv, Changjun, E-mail: Lucky_lcj@sina.com; Jiang, Wanglin, E-mail: jwl518@163.com

    2015-02-15

    An abnormal high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) activation and a decrease in receptor for advanced glycation end-product (RAGE) play a key role in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis. Protocatechuic aldehyde (PA) is a naturally occurring compound, which is extracted from the degradation of phenolic acids. However, whether PA has anti-fibrotic functions is unknown. In this study, the effects of PA on the transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1)-mediated epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) in A549 cells, on the apoptosis of human type I alveolar epithelial cells (AT I), on the proliferation of human lung fibroblasts (HLF-1) in vitro, and on bleomycin (BLM)-induced pulmonary fibrosis in vivo were investigated. PA treatment resulted in a reduction of EMT in A549 cells with a decrease in vimentin and HMGB, an increase of E-cadherin and RAGE, a reduction of HLF-1 proliferation with a decrease of fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2) and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF). Apoptosis of AT I was attenuated with an increase of RAGE. PA ameliorated BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats with a reduction of histopathological scores and collagen deposition, and a lower FGF-2, PDGF, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and HMGB1 expression, whereas higher RAGE was found in BLM-instilled lungs. Through the decrease of HGMB1 and the regulation of RAGE, PA reversed the EMT, inhibited HLF-1 proliferation as well as reduced apoptosis in AT I, and prevented pulmonary fibrosis in vivo. Collectively, our results demonstrate that PA prevents experimental pulmonary fibrosis by modulating HMGB1/RAGE pathway. - Highlights: • PA prevents EMT, reduces the apoptosis of AT1 in vitro. • PA decreases proliferation of HLF-1, reduces PDGF and FGF expression in vitro. • PA prevents experimental pulmonary fibrosis by modulating the HMGB1/RAGE pathway.

  3. Sildenafil ameliorates long term peripheral neuropathy in type II diabetic mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Wang

    Full Text Available Diabetic peripheral neuropathy is a common complication of long-standing diabetes mellitus. To mimic clinical trials in which patients with diabetes enrolled have advanced peripheral neuropathy, we investigated the effect of sildenafil, a specific inhibitor of phosphodiesterase type 5 enzyme, on long term peripheral neuropathy in middle aged male mice with type II diabetes. Treatment of diabetic mice (BKS.Cg-m+/+Leprdb/J, db/db at age 36 weeks with sildenafil significantly increased functional blood vessels and regional blood flow in the sciatic nerve, concurrently with augmentation of intra-epidermal nerve fiber density in the skin and myelinated axons in the sciatic nerve. Functional analysis showed that the sildenafil treatment considerably improved motor and sensory conduction velocities in the sciatic nerve and peripheral thermal stimulus sensitivity compared with the saline treatment. In vitro studies showed that mouse dermal endothelial cells (MDE cultured under high glucose levels exhibited significant down regulation of angiopoietin 1 (Ang1 expression and reduction of capillary-like tube formation, which were completely reversed by sildenafil. In addition, incubation of dorsal root ganglia (DRG neurons with conditioned medium harvested from MDE under high glucose levels suppressed neurite outgrowth, where as conditional medium harvested from MDE treated with sildenafil under high glucose levels did not inhibit neurite outgrowth of DRG neurons. Moreover, blockage of the Ang1 receptor, Tie2, with a neutralized antibody against Tie2 abolished the beneficial effect of sildenafil on tube formation and neurite outgrowth. Collectively, our data indicate that sildenafil has a therapeutic effect on long term peripheral neuropathy of middle aged diabetic mice and that improvement of neurovascular dysfunction by sildenafil likely contributes to the amelioration of nerve function. The Ang1/Tie2 signaling pathway may play an important role in these

  4. Apigenin and naringenin regulate glucose and lipid metabolism, and ameliorate vascular dysfunction in type 2 diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Bei; Qin, Weiwei; Wu, Feihua; Wang, Shanshan; Pan, Cheng; Wang, Liying; Zeng, Biao; Ma, Shiping; Liang, Jingyu

    2016-02-15

    Vascular endothelial dysfunction is regarded as the initial step of vascular complications in diabetes mellitus. This study investigated the amelioration of apigenin and naringenin in type 2 diabetic (T2D) rats induced by high-fat diet and streptozotocin and explored the underlying mechanism. Apigenin or naringenin was intragastrically administered at 50 or 100mg/kg once a day for 6 weeks. Biochemical parameters including blood glucose, glycated serum protein, serum lipid, insulin, superoxide dismutase (SOD), malonaldehyde and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) were measured. Vascular reactivity in isolated thoracic aortic rings was examined. Pathological features of the thoracic aorta were further observed through optical microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Lastly, we evaluated their effects on insulin resistance of palmitic acid (PA)-induced endothelial cells. Compared with diabetic control group, apigenin and naringenin significantly decreased the levels of blood glucose, serum lipid, malonaldehyde, ICAM-1 and insulin resistance index, increased SOD activity and improved impaired glucose tolerance. Apigenin and naringenin restored phenylephrine-mediated contractions and acetylcholine or insulin-induced relaxations in aortic tissues. Furthermore, pathological damage in the thoracic aorta of apigenin and naringenin groups was more remissive than diabetic control group. In vitro, apigenin and naringenin inhibited NF-κB activation and ICAM-1 mRNA expression in PA-treated endothelial cells and improved nitric oxide production in the presence of insulin. In conclusion, both apigenin and naringenin can ameliorate glucose and lipid metabolism, as well as endothelial dysfunction in T2D rats at least in part by down-regulating oxidative stress and inflammation. In general, apigenin showed greater potency than naringenin equivalent. PMID:26801071

  5. Berberine ameliorates renal injury in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats by suppression of both oxidative stress and aldose reductase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Wei-hua; HUANG Wen-ge; CHEN Feng-ying; LIU Pei-qing; HEI Zi-qing; NIE Hong; TANG Fu-tian; HUANG He-qing; LI Xue-juan; DENG Yan-hui; CHEN Shao-rui; GUO Fen-fen

    2008-01-01

    Background Berberine is one of the main constituents of Coptidis rhizoma (CR) and Cortex phellodendri, In this study, we investigated the beneficial effects of berberine on renal function and its possible mechanisms in rats with diabetic nephropathy(DN). Methods Male Wistar rats were divided into three groups: normal, diabetic model, and berberine treatment groups. Rats in the diabetic model and berberine treatment groups were induced to diabetes by intraperitonal injection with streptozotocin(STZ). Glomerular area, glomerular volume, fasting blood glucose(FBG), blood urea nitrogen(BUN), serum creatinine (Cr)and urine protein for 24 hours(UP24h) were measured using commercially available kits. Meanwhile, the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), content of malondialdehyde (MDA) in serum, activity of aldose reductase (AR)and the expression of AR mRNA and protein in kidney were detected by different methods. Results The result showed that oral administration of berberine (200mg·kg-1·d-1) significantly ameliorated the ratio of kidney weight to body weight. Glomerular area, glomerular volume, FBG, BUN, Cr and UP24h were significantly decreased in the berberine treatment group compared with the diabetic model group(P<0.05). Berberine treatment significantly increased serum SOD activity and decreased the content of MDA compared with diabetic model group(P<0.05). AR activity as well as the expression of AR mRNA and protein in the kidney was markedly decreased in the berberine treatment group compared with diabetic model group (P<0.05). Conclusion These results suggested that berberine could ameliorate renal dysfunction in DN rats through controlling blood glucose, reduction of oxidative stress and inhibition of the activation of the polyol pathway.

  6. Coniferyl Aldehyde Ameliorates Radiation Intestine Injury via Endothelial Cell Survival

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Ye Ji; Jung, Myung Gu; Lee, Yoonjin; Lee, Haejune [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yunsil [Ewha Woman' s Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Younggyu [Korea Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Cancer treatments related gastrointestinal toxicity has also been recognized as a significant economic burden. Especially, extensive apoptosis of microvascular endothelial cell of the lamina propria is the primary lesion initiating intestinal radiation damage after abdominal radiation therapy. Coniferyl aldehyde (CA) is phenolic compounds isolated from cork stoppers, and one of the major pyrolysis products of lignin. Shi H. was support for the empirical use of CA as a medicinal food for cardiovascular diseases. CA has positive effect in broad way but there is no consequence in radiation induced intestine damage. Here, we investigate effect of CA on small intestine after abdominal IR to mice in this study. In this study, CA increased the survival rate in C3H mice against 13.5 Gy abdominal IR. We found CA protects small intestine via preventing endothelial cell apoptosis and enhancing their angiogenic activity. CA also showed protective effect on crypt cell survival. Endothelial cell survival may affect crypt cell protection against IR. From this data, we concluded that CA is effective for protection against abdominal radiation injury. CA could ameliorate side-effect of radiation therapy.

  7. Bushen Yisui Capsule ameliorates axonal injury in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ling Fang; Lei Wang; Qi Zheng; Tao Yang; Hui Zhao; Qiuxia Zhang; Kangning Li; Li Zhou; Haiyang Gong; Yongping Fan

    2013-01-01

    A preliminary clinical study by our group demonstrated Bushen Yisui Capsule (formerly cal ed Er-huang Formula) in combination with conventional therapy is an effective prescription for the treat-ment of multiple sclerosis. However, its effect on axonal injury during early multiple sclerosis re-mains unclear. In this study, a MOG 35-55-immunized C57BL/6 mouse model of experimental au-toimmune encephalomyelitis was intragastrical y administered Bushen Yisui Capsule. The results showed that Bushen Yisui Capsule effectively improved clinical symptoms and neurological function of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. In addition, amyloid precursor protein expression was down-regulated and microtubule-associated protein 2 was up-regulated. Experimental findings indicate that the disease-preventive mechanism of Bushen Yisui Capsule in experimental autoim-mune encephalomyelitis was mediated by amelioration of axonal damage and promotion of rege-neration. But the effects of the high-dose Bushen Yisui Capsule group was not better than that of the medium-dose and low-dose Bushen Yisui Capsule group in preventing neurological dysfunction.

  8. Ameliorative property of Teucrium polium on second degree burn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ansari Roya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Traditionally, burn wound healing activities have been claimed for Teucrium polium. Teucrium polium possesses antioxidant and inflammatory activities and seems to ameliorate burn wound healing. This study was performed to evaluate the effects of Teucrium polium on burn healing in Balb/C mice. Materials and Methods: In this preclinical experimental study 56 mice were randomly designated into 4 equal groups. Burn wounds were made using a hot plate with a surface area of 1.5 cm2. Animals were treated with Teucrium 2%, Silver sulfadiazine or Vaseline 2 times per day for 21 days. The forth group received no treatment. Results: The percentage of burn wounds healing and total time required for complete healing were evaluated and compared in different groups. Data were analyzed using ANOVA test. Conclusion: Teucrium extract accelerated the burn wound healing more rapidly than control groups (p<0.01. Teucrium polium is effective on burn wounds healing and might be beneficial in these groups of patients.

  9. Magnesium lithospermate B ameliorates renal cortical microperfusion in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun-guang CHEN; Yi-ping WANG

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effects of magnesium lithospermate B (MLB) isolated from Salviae miltiorrhizae on renal microcirculation, and renal and systemic hemodynamics in Sprague-Dawley rats. Methods: MLB (10, 30, and 60 mg/kg) was injected intravenously and renal blood flow (RBF), renal cortical microperfusion (RCM), and systemic hemodynamic function parameters including heart rate (HR),mean arterial pressure (MAP), left ventricular systolic pressure (LVSP), left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP), and maximal velocity of pressure increase (dp/dtmax) were measured for 45 min after administration. Results: Intravenous MLB at doses of 10, 30, and 60 mg/kg increased RCM significantly, but had no obvious effects on RBF or systemic hemodynamics. The effect of MLB on RCM reached its peak 15 min after injection and returned to baseline after 45 min. Up to60 mg/kg MLB increased RCM by 62.4%±20.2% (changes from baseline, P<0.01),whereas RBF (3.7%±9.7% vs baseline) and renal vascular resistance (-1.4%±9.1%vs baseline) did not obviously change. Conclusion: These results indicate that MLB ameliorates renal microcirculation in a dose-dependent manner, which may be related to the renoprotective effects of MLB.

  10. Potential role of Borreria hispida in ameliorating cardiovascular risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasanthi, Hannah R; Mukherjee, Subhendu; Lekli, Istvan; Ray, Diptarka; Veeraraghavan, Gayathri; Das, Dipak K

    2009-06-01

    Borreria hispida (BHE), a weed of Rubiaceae family, is being used from time immemorial as an alternative therapy for diabetes. To evaluate the scientific background of using BHE as therapy to reduce cardiovascular risk, a group of rats were given BHE for a period of 30 days, whereas control animals were given the vehicle only. The animals were sacrificed, the hearts were isolated, and perfused with buffer. All the hearts were subjected to 30-minute ischemia followed by 2-hour reperfusion. Compared with vehicle-treated rats, BHE-treated rat hearts showed improved post-ischemic ventricular function and exhibited reduced myocardial infarct size and cardiomyocyte apoptosis. The level of cytochrome c expression and caspase 3 activation was also reduced. BHE elevated antiapoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and heme oxygenase-1 and stimulated the phosphorylation of survival protein Akt simultaneously decreasing the apoptotic proteins Bax and Src. In addition, BHE enhanced the protein expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-delta, and Glut-4, probably revealing the antiobese and antidiabetic potential of BHE. These results indicate that treatment with BHE improves cardiac function and ameliorates various risk factors associated with cardiac disease, suggesting that BHE can be considered as a potential plant-based nutraceutical and pharmaceutical agent for the management of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:19455054

  11. Augmenting DAF levels in vivo ameliorates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing; Huang, Danping; Nacion, Kristine; Bu, Hong; Lin, Feng

    2009-09-01

    Recent studies in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) have found that CNS injury in Daf1(-/-) mice is much greater than in wild types (WTs), suggesting that upregulating DAF levels in vivo might ameliorate disease. To test this, we generated a Daf1 transgenic (Tg) mouse which had elevated DAF levels on its cell surfaces. In by-stand C3b uptake assays, Daf1 Tg mouse erythrocytes took up less C3b on their surfaces than WT erythrocytes. When co-cultured with OT-II CD4(+) T cells together with OVA(323-339) peptide, Daf1 Tg mouse bone marrow derived dendritic cells (BM-DCs) produced less C5a and C3a than WT BM-DCs and stimulated a lesser T cell response. In MOG(35-55) immunization induced EAE model, Daf1 Tg mice exhibited delayed disease onset and decreased clinical scores compared to WTs. Histological analyses showed that there were less inflammation and demyelination in spinal cords in Daf1 Tg mice than those in WTs. In accordance with these results, Daf1 Tg mice had decreased MOG(35-55) specific Th1 and Th17 responses. These data provide further evidence that DAF suppresses autoreactive T cell responses in EAE, and indicate that augmenting its expression levels could be effective therapeutically in treating multiple sclerosis as well as other T cell mediated diseases. PMID:19660813

  12. Brain microvascular endothelial cell transplantation ameliorates ischemic white matter damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puentes, Sandra; Kurachi, Masashi; Shibasaki, Koji; Naruse, Masae; Yoshimoto, Yuhei; Mikuni, Masahiko; Imai, Hideaki; Ishizaki, Yasuki

    2012-08-21

    Ischemic insults affecting the internal capsule result in sensory-motor disabilities which adversely affect the patient's life. Cerebral endothelial cells have been reported to exert a protective effect against brain damage, so the transplantation of healthy endothelial cells might have a beneficial effect on the outcome of ischemic brain damage. In this study, endothelin-1 (ET-1) was injected into the rat internal capsule to induce lacunar infarction. Seven days after ET-1 injection, microvascular endothelial cells (MVECs) were transplanted into the internal capsule. Meningeal cells or 0.2% bovine serum albumin-Hank's balanced salt solution were injected as controls. Two weeks later, the footprint test and histochemical analysis were performed. We found that MVEC transplantation improved the behavioral outcome based on recovery of hind-limb rotation angle (P<0.01) and induced remyelination (P<0.01) compared with the control groups. Also the inflammatory response was repressed by MVEC transplantation, judging from fewer ED-1-positive activated microglial cells in the MVEC-transplanted group than in the other groups. Elucidation of the mechanisms by which MVECs ameliorate ischemic damage of the white matter may provide important information for the development of effective therapies for white matter ischemia. PMID:22771710

  13. PPARα agonist, fenofibrate, ameliorates age-related renal injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun Nim; Lim, Ji Hee; Kim, Min Young; Kim, Hyung Wook; Park, Cheol Whee; Chang, Yoon Sik; Choi, Bum Soon

    2016-08-01

    The kidney ages quickly compared with other organs. Expression of senescence markers reflects changes in the energy metabolism in the kidney. Two important issues in aging are mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) is a member of the ligand-activated nuclear receptor superfamily. PPARα plays a major role as a transcription factor that regulates the expression of genes involved in various processes. In this study, 18-month-old male C57BL/6 mice were divided into two groups, the control group (n=7) and the fenofibrate-treated group (n=7) was fed the normal chow plus fenofibrate for 6months. The PPARα agonist, fenofibrate, improved renal function, proteinuria, histological change (glomerulosclerosis and tubular interstitial fibrosis), inflammation, and apoptosis in aging mice. This protective effect against age-related renal injury occurred through the activation of AMPK and SIRT1 signaling. The activation of AMPK and SIRT1 allowed for the concurrent deacetylation and phosphorylation of their target molecules and decreased the kidney's susceptibility to age-related changes. Activation of the AMPK-FOXO3a and AMPK-PGC-1α signaling pathways ameliorated oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. Our results suggest that activation of PPARα and AMPK-SIRT1 signaling may have protective effects against age-related renal injury. Pharmacological targeting of PPARα and AMPK-SIRT1 signaling molecules may prevent or attenuate age-related pathological changes in the kidney. PMID:27130813

  14. Apricot Kernel Oil Ameliorates Cyclophosphamide-Associated Immunosuppression in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Honglei; Yan, Haiyan; Tan, Siwei; Zhan, Ping; Mao, Xiaoying; Wang, Peng; Wang, Zhouping

    2016-08-01

    The effects of dietary apricot kernel oil (AKO), which contains high levels of oleic and linoleic acids and lower levels of α-tocopherol, were evaluated in a rat model of cyclophosphamide-induced immunosuppression. Rats had intraperitoneal injection with cyclophosphamide to induce immunosuppression and were then infused with AKO or normal saline (NS) for 4 weeks. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were used to detect antimicrobial factors in lymphocytes and anti-inflammatory factors in hepatocytes. Hematoxylin & eosin staining was conducted prior to histopathological analysis of the spleen, liver, and thymus. Significant differences were observed between the immune functions of the healthy control group, the normal saline group, and the AKO group. Compared to the normal saline-treated group, lymphocytes isolated from rats administered AKO showed significant improvement in immunoglobulin (Ig)A, IgM, IgG, interleukin (IL)-2, IL-12, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels (p cyclophosphamide-associated organ degeneration. These results suggested that AKO may enhance the immune system in vivo. These effects may reflect the activities of intermediate oleic and linoleic acid metabolites, which play a vital role in the immune system, and the α-tocopherol in AKO may further enhance this phenomenon. Thus, the use of AKO as a nutritional supplement can be proposed to ameliorate chemotherapy-associated immunosuppression. PMID:27262314

  15. Cellulose supplementation early in life ameliorates colitis in adult mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorottya Nagy-Szakal

    Full Text Available Decreased consumption of dietary fibers, such as cellulose, has been proposed to promote the emergence of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD: Crohn disease [CD] and ulcerative colitis [UC] where intestinal microbes are recognized to play an etiologic role. However, it is not known if transient fiber consumption during critical developmental periods may prevent consecutive intestinal inflammation. The incidence of IBD peaks in young adulthood indicating that pediatric environmental exposures may be important in the etiology of this disease group. We studied the effects of transient dietary cellulose supplementation on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS colitis susceptibility during the pediatric period in mice. Cellulose supplementation stimulated substantial shifts in the colonic mucosal microbiome. Several bacterial taxa decreased in relative abundance (e.g., Coriobacteriaceae [p = 0.001], and other taxa increased in abundance (e.g., Peptostreptococcaceae [p = 0.008] and Clostridiaceae [p = 0.048]. Some of these shifts persisted for 10 days following the cessation of cellulose supplementation. The changes in the gut microbiome were associated with transient trophic and anticolitic effects 10 days following the cessation of a cellulose-enriched diet, but these changes diminished by 40 days following reversal to a low cellulose diet. These findings emphasize the transient protective effect of dietary cellulose in the mammalian large bowel and highlight the potential role of dietary fibers in amelioration of intestinal inflammation.

  16. N, P and K storage efficiency on degraded peat soil through ameliorant application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Maftu’ah

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The availability of nutrients, especially N, P, K in the degraded peat are very low. The high organic acids can decrease the soil pH, its causes the negatively charged nutrients such as nitrate and phosphate are also very low. Ameliorant contributes some cations both monovalent and polivalent which acts as a bridge cations, thus increasing the availability of nutrients, especially nitrogen and phosphate. The objective of research was to determine the storage efficiency of N, P, K on application of some ameliorants on degraded peat land. The experiment was conducted at the laboratory of ISARI, Banjarbaru. Peat soil collected from the degraded peat land at Kalampangan, Central Kalimantan. The treatments were 8 ameliorant formula and two control treatments (+NPK and -NPK. The treatments were arranged in CRD, with 3 replications, And using soil coloum (lysimeter. The leaching was conducted every once a week, with 1.25 liter of aquades and the volume of leachate would be recorded. N, P, K concentration in leachate were analyzed periodically at 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks after incubation. The results showed that the concentrations of N and K on each observation time were relatively same, but P increased significantly at 4 weeks after incubation. The highest concentrations of N, P, and K in leachate were ameliorant from 100% of chicken manure. The storage efficiency of N, P and K varied depending on the type of ameliorant. Ameliorant that improved storage efficiency of N and K was ameliorant which consist of 80% agricultural weed + 20% dolomite, whereas for P efficiency storage was on ameliorant which consist of 80% Chinese water chestnut (Eleocharis dulcis + 20% dolomite.

  17. Curcumin ameliorates neuropathic pain by down-regulating spinal IL-1β via suppressing astroglial NALP1 inflammasome and JAK2-STAT3 signalling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shenbin; Li, Qian; Zhang, Meng-Ting; Mao-Ying, Qi-Liang; Hu, Lang-Yue; Wu, Gen-Cheng; Mi, Wen-Li; Wang, Yan-Qing

    2016-01-01

    Curcumin has been shown to possess strong anti-inflammatory activity in many diseases. It has been demonstrated that the janus kinase 2 (JAK2)-signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) cascade and the NAcht leucine-rich-repeat protein 1 (NALP1) inflammasome are important for the synthesis of Pro-Interleukin (IL)-1β and the processing of the inactive protein to its mature form, which plays an active role in the pathogenesis of neuropathic pain. The present study showed that repeated intraperitoneal injection of curcumin ameliorated SNI-induced mechanical and cold allodynia in a dose-dependent manner and inhibited the elevation of spinal mature IL-1β protein levels. Additionally, repeated curcumin treatment significantly inhibited the aggregation of the NALP1 inflammasome and the activation of the JAK2-STAT3 cascade in spinal astrocytes. Furthermore, the genetic down-regulation of NALP1 inflammasome activation by NALP1 siRNA and the pharmacological inhibition of the JAK2-STAT3 cascade by AG490 markedly inhibited IL-1β maturation and Pro-IL-1β synthesis, respectively, and reduced SNI-induced pain hypersensitivity. Our results suggest that curcumin attenuated neuropathic pain and down-regulated the production of spinal mature IL-1β by inhibiting the aggregation of NALP1 inflammasome and the activation of the JAK2-STAT3 cascade in astrocytes. PMID:27381056

  18. Amelioration and reforestation of sulfurous mine soils in Lusatia (eastern Germany)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Germany nearly 1.550 km2 have been claimed by brown coal mining until now. Mine soils formed of carboniferous and sulfurous overburden are classified as sulfurous mine soils. They remain vegetation-free for decades and may be cultivated only after soil amelioration. The objective of amelioration is a sustained improvement of soil reaction. Lime requirement for the achievement of a certain pH-value is calculated from acid-base-balance (SBB). Lime fertilizers and base-rich brown coal ashes are used for amelioration. As ashes have several advantages, their application is recommended. The ameliorative application of lime fertilizer or brown coal ash should be incorporated intensively into the soil to a depth of 60 cm, better 100 cm. Amelioration includes a mineral fertilization with N, P and K. Afforestation with Pinus sylvestris, Pinus nigra, Larix decidua, Larix eurolepis. Tilia cordata, Quercus rubra and Quercus petraea on ameliorated mine soils show surprising good results. Multi-species stands have very positive effects on soil formation. Raw humus is formed under pine and larch, and under deciduous trees moder and mull with higher bioactivity and better development of water and nutrient balance in the topsoil are found. 55 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs

  19. 5-Lipoxygenase Inhibition of the Fructus of Foeniculum vulgare and Its Constituents

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Je Hyeong; Lee, Dong Ung; Kim, Yeong Shik; Kim, Hyun Pyo

    2012-01-01

    The fruits of Foeniculum vulgare (Foeniculi Fructus) have been widely used in Chinese medicine as an antiemetic, ameliorating stomach ailments and as an analgesic. In order to establish its potential for antiallergic use, inhibitory actions of the fruiton 5-lipoxgenase (5-LOX) and β-hexosaminidase release were evaluated. The 70% ethanol extract of this plant material (FR) considerably inhibited 5-LOX-catalyzed leukotriene production from A23187-induced rat basophilic leukemia (RBL)-1 cells. T...

  20. Antiapoptotic Effect of Simvastatin Ameliorates Myocardial Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadi, Najah R.; Al-amran, Fadhil; Yousif, Maitham; Zamil, Suhaad T.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Myocardial ischemial reperfusion represents a clinically relevant problem associated with thrombolysis, angioplasty, and coronary bypass surgery. Injury of myocardium due to ischemial reperfusion includes cardiac contractile dysfunction, arrhythmias, and irreversible myocytes damage. These changes are considered to be the consequence of imbalance between the formation of oxidants and the availability of endogenous antioxidants in the heart. Objective. This study was undertaken to investigate the potential role of Simvastatin in the amelioration of myocardial I/R injury induced by ligation of coronary artery in a rat model. Materials and Methods. Adult male Swiss Albino rats were randomized into 4 equal groups. Group (1): sham group: rats underwent the same anesthetic and surgical procedures as those in the control group except ligation of LAD coronary artery, group (2): control group: rats were subjected to regional ischemia for 25 min and reperfusion for 2 hours by ligation of LAD coronary artery, group (3): control vehicle group: rats received vehicle of Simvastatin (normal saline) via IP injection and were subjected to regional ischemia for 25 min and reperfusion for 2 hours by ligation of LAD coronary artery, group (4): Simvastatin treated group: rats were pretreated with Simvastatin 1 mg/kg i.p. 1 hr before ligation of LAD coronary artery. At the end of experiment (2 hr of reperfusion), blood samples were collected from the heart for the measurement of plasma level of cardiac troponin I (cTnI). After that the heart was harvested and divided into 3 parts; one part was used for measurement of apoptosis, another part was homogenized for the measurement of tissue tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and macrophage inflammatory protein-1α, and the last part for histopathology study. Results. Compared with the sham group, levels of myocardial TNF-α and IL-1β, IL-6

  1. Glycine and Folate Ameliorate Models of Congenital Sideroblastic Anemia.

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    J Pedro Fernández-Murray

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sideroblastic anemias are acquired or inherited anemias that result in a decreased ability to synthesize hemoglobin in red blood cells and result in the presence of iron deposits in the mitochondria of red blood cell precursors. A common subtype of congenital sideroblastic anemia is due to autosomal recessive mutations in the SLC25A38 gene. The current treatment for SLC25A38 congenital sideroblastic anemia is chronic blood transfusion coupled with iron chelation. The function of SLC25A38 is not known. Here we report that the SLC25A38 protein, and its yeast homolog Hem25, are mitochondrial glycine transporters required for the initiation of heme synthesis. To do so, we took advantage of the fact that mitochondrial glycine has several roles beyond the synthesis of heme, including the synthesis of folate derivatives through the glycine cleavage system. The data were consistent with Hem25 not being the sole mitochondrial glycine importer, and we identify a second SLC25 family member Ymc1, as a potential secondary mitochondrial glycine importer. Based on these findings, we observed that high levels of exogenous glycine, or 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-Ala a metabolite downstream of Hem25 in heme biosynthetic pathway, were able to restore heme levels to normal in yeast cells lacking Hem25 function. While neither glycine nor 5-Ala could ameliorate SLC25A38 congenital sideroblastic anemia in a zebrafish model, we determined that the addition of folate with glycine was able to restore hemoglobin levels. This difference is likely due to the fact that yeast can synthesize folate, whereas in zebrafish folate is an essential vitamin that must be obtained exogenously. Given the tolerability of glycine and folate in humans, this study points to a potential novel treatment for SLC25A38 congenital sideroblastic anemia.

  2. Matrine ameliorates spontaneously developed colitis in interleukin-10-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Cong; Xu, Zheng; Gai, Renhua; Huang, Kehe

    2016-07-01

    Interleukin-10 (IL-10)-deficient mice spontaneously develop T cell-mediated colitis. Previous reports have shown that Matrine may reduce the symptoms of acute colitis induced by trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS). However, whether Matrine impacts chronic colitis remains unknown. In this study, we investigated whether Matrine could limit the symptoms of spontaneously developed colitis and its potential molecular mechanisms. IL-10 deficient mice were given Matrine or a PBS control by oral gavage daily for 4weeks and were euthanized at week 2 or week 4. We measured body weight, colon length and weight, and histological scores. We also evaluated the spontaneous secretion of IL-12/23p40, IFN-γ and IL-17 in colon explant cultures as well as IFN-γ and IL-17 secretion in unseparated mesenteric lymph node (MLN) cells, and assessed IFN-γ, IL-17, IL-1β and IL-6 mRNA expression in colon tissue. In addition, we analyzed the proportions of CD4-positive and CD8-positive cells in unseparated MLN cells. Our results show that Matrine-treated mice exhibited better body weight recovery than controls and that histological scores and spontaneously secreted IL-12/23p40, IFN-γ and IL-17 in colon tissue were significantly decreased in treated mice compared with controls. The proportion of CD4-positive cells of MLNs in treated mice was significantly smaller than that in controls at week 4. Both cytokine production and mRNA expression of IFN-γ and IL-17 were significantly reduced in treated mice compared with controls. Taken together, our results indicate that Matrine may ameliorate spontaneously developed chronic colitis and could be considered as a therapeutic alternative for chronic colitis.

  3. NAD+ biosynthesis ameliorates a zebrafish model of muscular dystrophy.

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    Michelle F Goody

    Full Text Available Muscular dystrophies are common, currently incurable diseases. A subset of dystrophies result from genetic disruptions in complexes that attach muscle fibers to their surrounding extracellular matrix microenvironment. Cell-matrix adhesions are exquisite sensors of physiological conditions and mediate responses that allow cells to adapt to changing conditions. Thus, one approach towards finding targets for future therapeutic applications is to identify cell adhesion pathways that mediate these dynamic, adaptive responses in vivo. We find that nicotinamide riboside kinase 2b-mediated NAD+ biosynthesis, which functions as a small molecule agonist of muscle fiber-extracellular matrix adhesion, corrects dystrophic phenotypes in zebrafish lacking either a primary component of the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex or integrin alpha7. Exogenous NAD+ or a vitamin precursor to NAD+ reduces muscle fiber degeneration and results in significantly faster escape responses in dystrophic embryos. Overexpression of paxillin, a cell adhesion protein downstream of NAD+ in this novel cell adhesion pathway, reduces muscle degeneration in zebrafish with intact integrin receptors but does not improve motility. Activation of this pathway significantly increases organization of laminin, a major component of the extracellular matrix basement membrane. Our results indicate that the primary protective effects of NAD+ result from changes to the basement membrane, as a wild-type basement membrane is sufficient to increase resilience of dystrophic muscle fibers to damage. The surprising result that NAD+ supplementation ameliorates dystrophy in dystrophin-glycoprotein complex- or integrin alpha7-deficient zebrafish suggests the existence of an additional laminin receptor complex that anchors muscle fibers to the basement membrane. We find that integrin alpha6 participates in this pathway, but either integrin alpha7 or the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex is required in conjunction

  4. Promoterless gene targeting without nucleases ameliorates haemophilia B in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzel, A; Paulk, N K; Shi, Y; Huang, Y; Chu, K; Zhang, F; Valdmanis, P N; Spector, L P; Porteus, M H; Gaensler, K M; Kay, M A

    2015-01-15

    Site-specific gene addition can allow stable transgene expression for gene therapy. When possible, this is preferred over the use of promiscuously integrating vectors, which are sometimes associated with clonal expansion and oncogenesis. Site-specific endonucleases that can induce high rates of targeted genome editing are finding increasing applications in biological discovery and gene therapy. However, two safety concerns persist: endonuclease-associated adverse effects, both on-target and off-target; and oncogene activation caused by promoter integration, even without nucleases. Here we perform recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV)-mediated promoterless gene targeting without nucleases and demonstrate amelioration of the bleeding diathesis in haemophilia B mice. In particular, we target a promoterless human coagulation factor IX (F9) gene to the liver-expressed mouse albumin (Alb) locus. F9 is targeted, along with a preceding 2A-peptide coding sequence, to be integrated just upstream to the Alb stop codon. While F9 is fused to Alb at the DNA and RNA levels, two separate proteins are synthesized by way of ribosomal skipping. Thus, F9 expression is linked to robust hepatic albumin expression without disrupting it. We injected an AAV8-F9 vector into neonatal and adult mice and achieved on-target integration into ∼0.5% of the albumin alleles in hepatocytes. We established that F9 was produced only from on-target integration, and ribosomal skipping was highly efficient. Stable F9 plasma levels at 7-20% of normal were obtained, and treated F9-deficient mice had normal coagulation times. In conclusion, transgene integration as a 2A-fusion to a highly expressed endogenous gene may obviate the requirement for nucleases and/or vector-borne promoters. This method may allow for safe and efficacious gene targeting in both infants and adults by greatly diminishing off-target effects while still providing therapeutic levels of expression from integration. PMID:25363772

  5. Naringin ameliorates cognitive deficits in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

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    Xianchu Liu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s:Previous research demonstrated that diabetes is one of the leading causes of learning and memory deficits. Naringin, a bioflavonoid isolated from grapefruits and oranges, has potent protective effects on streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic rats. Recently, the effects of naringin on learning and memory performances were monitored in many animal models of cognitive impairment. However, to date, no studies have investigated the ameliorative effects of naringin on diabetes-associated cognitive decline (DACD. In this study, we investigated the effects of naringin, using a STZ-injected rat model and explored its potential mechanism. Materials and Methods:Diabetic rats were treated with naringin (100 mg/kg/d for 7 days. The learning and memory function were assessed by Morris water maze test. The oxidative stress indicators [superoxide dismutase (SOD and malondialdehyde (MDA] and inflammatory cytokines (TNF-a, IL-1β, and IL-6 were measured in hippocampus using corresponding commercial kits. The mRNA and protein levels of PPARγ were evaluated by real time (RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. Results:The results showed that supplementation of naringin improved learning and memory performances compared with the STZ group. Moreover, naringin supplement dramatically increased SOD levels, reduced MDA levels, and alleviated TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 compared with the STZ group in the hippocampus. The pretreatment with naringin also significantly increased PPARγ expression. Conclusion: Our results showed that naringin may be a promising therapeutic agent for improving cognitive decline in DACD.

  6. Treatment with 4-methylpyrazole modulated stellate cells and natural killer cells and ameliorated liver fibrosis in mice.

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    Hyon-Seung Yi

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence suggests that retinol and its metabolites are closely associated with liver fibrogenesis. Recently, we demonstrated that genetic ablation of alcohol dehydrogenase 3 (ADH3, a retinol metabolizing gene that is expressed in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs and natural killer (NK cells, attenuated liver fibrosis in mice. In the current study, we investigated whether pharmacological ablation of ADH3 has therapeutic effects on experimentally induced liver fibrosis in mice.Liver fibrosis was induced by intraperitoneal injections of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 or bile duct ligation (BDL for two weeks. To inhibit ADH3-mediated retinol metabolism, 10 μg 4-methylpyrazole (4-MP/g of body weight was administered to mice treated with CCl4 or subjected to BDL. The mice were sacrificed at week 2 to evaluate the regression of liver fibrosis. Liver sections were stained for collagen and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA. In addition, HSCs and NK cells were isolated from control and treated mice livers for molecular and immunological studies.Treatment with 4-MP attenuated CCl4- and BDL-induced liver fibrosis in mice, without any adverse effects. HSCs from 4-MP treated mice depicted decreased levels of retinoic acids and increased retinol content than HSCs from control mice. In addition, the expression of α-SMA, transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1, and type I collagen α1 was significantly reduced in the HSCs of 4-MP treated mice compared to the HSCs from control mice. Furthermore, inhibition of retinol metabolism by 4-MP increased interferon-γ production in NK cells, resulting in increased apoptosis of activated HSCs.Based on our data, we conclude that inhibition of retinol metabolism by 4-MP ameliorates liver fibrosis in mice through activation of NK cells and suppression of HSCs. Therefore, retinol and its metabolizing enzyme, ADH3, might be potential targets for therapeutic intervention of liver fibrosis.

  7. Effect of Soil Ameliorators on Ectomycorrhizal Fungal Communities that Colonize Seedlings of Pinus densiflora in Abandoned Coal Mine Spoils

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Eun-Hwa; Eo, Ju-Kyeong; Lee, Chang-Seok; Eom, Ahn-Heum

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the effect of soil ameliorators on ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungal communities in coal mine spoils was investigated. Organic fertilizers and slaked lime were applied as soil ameliorators in 3 abandoned coal mine spoils. One year after the initial treatment, roots of Pinus densiflora seedlings were collected and the number of ECM species, colonization rate, and species diversity were assessed. The results showed that the soil ameliorators significantly increased ECM colonization on...

  8. Resolvin D1 Protects Lipopolysaccharide-induced Acute Kidney Injury by Down-regulating Nuclear Factor-kappa B Signal and Inhibiting Apoptosis

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    Yu-Liang Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: In LPS-induced AKI, RvD1 could decrease TNF-α level, ameliorate kidney pathological injury, protect kidney function, and improve animal survival by down-regulating NF-κB inflammatory signal as well as inhibiting renal cell apoptosis.

  9. Oxytocin ameliorates the immediate myocardial injury in heart transplant through down regulation of the neutrophil dependent myocardial apoptosis

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    F Fadhil Al-Amran

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Oxytocin ameliorates myocardial injury in heart transplant through down-regulation the myocardial inflammatory response, reactive oxygen species, and neutrophil-dependant myocardial apoptosis.

  10. Melatonin ameliorated okadaic-acid induced Alzheimer-like lesions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-peng WANG; Xian-tao LI; Shi-jie LIU; Xin-wen ZHOU; Xiao-chuan WANG; Jian-zhi WANG

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To explore the protective effects of melatonin (Mel) on the abnormal phosphorylation of neuronal cytoskeletal proteins. METHODS: We generated a neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y) cell system in which cytoskeletal proteins are abnormally phosphorylated resulting in microtubule disruption due to the marked inhibition of protein phosphatase activities by okadaic acid (OA). RESULTS: OA-induced declines in cell viability and mitochondrial metabolic activity were remarkably prevented by Mel. In addition, the hyperphosphorylation/accumulation of neurofilament(NF-) H/M subunits and the disruption of microtubules, induced by OA, were significantly inhibited by Mel.CONCLUSION: Our results suggest multiple protective functions of Mel against a series of pathological lesions known to culminate in AD, including abnormal phosphorylation of cytoskeletal proteins, microtubule disassembly and mitochondrion-initiated cell toxicity.

  11. Assessment of changes of some functions of Ukrainian acid soils after chemical amelioration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zapko Yurij

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the article was to determine the effectiveness of lime of different origin for chemical amelioration of soils and examine its impact on soil functions such as productivity, habitat, regulation of water quality, and the protective buffer biogeocenotic screen. Limy ameliorants were applied in small local field experiment on Luvic Chernozem, and experiment with lysimeter columns was carried out on Albic Luvisol. The number of the main groups of microflora and enzymatic activity of soil was determined in soil samples taken for the analysis from the root zone. Research concerning the influence of natural and industrial origin ameliorants on soil as habitat showed the correlation of sugar beets productivity with soil biogenic. The increase of biomultiplicity of soil microbiota after addition of a cement dust and negative influence of red sludge on soil as habitat for living organisms was observed. Research involving the influence of ameliorants on soil by lime as the protective buffer biogeocenotic screen was carried out using lysimeter columns. It was stated that the addition of limy ameliorants reduces mobility of heavy metals.

  12. Stevioside ameliorates high-fat diet-induced insulin resistance and adipose tissue inflammation by downregulating the NF-κB pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Stevioside ameliorates high-fat diet-induced insulin resistance. ► Stevioside alleviates the adipose tissue inflammation. ► Stevioside reduces macrophages infiltration into the adipose tissue. ► Stevioside suppresses the activation of NF-κB in the adipose tissue. -- Abstract: Accumulating evidence suggests that adipose tissue is the main source of pro-inflammatory molecules that predispose individuals to insulin resistance. Stevioside (SVS) is a widely used sweetener with multiple beneficial effects for diabetic patients. In this study, we investigated the effect of SVS on insulin resistance and the pro-inflammatory state of adipose tissue in mice fed with a high-fat diet (HFD). Oral administration of SVS for 1 month had no effect on body weight, but it significantly improved fasting glucose, basal insulin levels, glucose tolerance and whole body insulin sensitivity. Interestingly, these changes were accompanied with decreased expression levels of several inflammatory cytokines in adipose tissue, including TNF-α, IL6, IL10, IL1β, KC, MIP-1α, CD11b and CD14. Moreover, macrophage infiltration in adipose tissue was remarkably reduced by SVS. Finally, SVS significantly suppressed the nuclear factor-kappa b (NF-κB) signaling pathway in adipose tissue. Collectively, these results suggested that SVS may ameliorate insulin resistance in HFD-fed mice by attenuating adipose tissue inflammation and inhibiting the NF-κB pathway.

  13. AMELIORATIVE EFFECT OF HYGROPHILA AURICULATA (K. SCHUM HEINE ON LIPID PEROXIDATION IN A RAT MODEL OF N-NITROSODIETHYLAMINE INDUCED HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Premkumari et al

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate the ameliorative effect effect of Hygrophila auriculata (H. auriculata on lipid peroxidation (LPO in Nnitrosodiethylamine induced Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC in rats. Experimental rats were divided into different groups: normal, NNitrosodiethylamine induced hepatocellular Carcinoma bearing rats, H.auriculata treated hepatocellular carcinoma bearing rats, (200 mg/kg body weight, doses for 28 days, Animals treated with plant extract alone for 28 days. After the treatment period of 28th day , effect of H.auriculata on LPO in serum , liver and kidney of control and experimental animals were assayed and compared. Under basal and in the presence of inducers (H2O2, the levels of LPO were increased significantly (p<0.001 in group II cancer bearing animals where as the levels of LPO in the presence of ascorbic acid and FeSO4, were not statistically different. In group III plant extract treated animals, significant decrease on LPO was observed. However, the changes in the above parameters were comparable with control.Thus, methanolic extract of H. auriculata ameliorated the LPO which is associated with the development of HCC to near normal in HCC bearing rats which could be attributed to the presence of polyphenols and flavonoids in the plant extract. Antioxidants act as radical scavenger, inhibit LPO and other free radicalmediated processes, thereby protecting the human body from various diseases.

  14. Bilateral Renal Denervation Ameliorates Isoproterenol-Induced Heart Failure through Downregulation of the Brain Renin-Angiotensin System and Inflammation in Rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian-Dong; Cheng, Ai-Yuan; Huo, Yan-Li; Fan, Jie; Zhang, Yu-Ping; Fang, Zhi-Qin; Sun, Hong-Sheng; Peng, Wei; Zhang, Jin-Shun

    2016-01-01

    Heart failure (HF) is characterized by cardiac dysfunction along with autonomic unbalance that is associated with increased renin-angiotensin system (RAS) activity and elevated levels of proinflammatory cytokines (PICs). Renal denervation (RD) has been shown to improve cardiac function in HF, but the protective mechanisms remain unclear. The present study tested the hypothesis that RD ameliorates isoproterenol- (ISO-) induced HF through regulation of brain RAS and PICs. Chronic ISO infusion resulted in remarked decrease in blood pressure (BP) and increase in heart rate and cardiac dysfunction, which was accompanied by increased BP variability and decreased baroreflex sensitivity and HR variability. Most of these adverse effects of ISO on cardiac and autonomic function were reversed by RD. Furthermore, ISO upregulated mRNA and protein expressions of several components of the RAS and PICs in the lamina terminalis and hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus, two forebrain nuclei involved in cardiovascular regulations. RD significantly inhibited the upregulation of these genes. Either intracerebroventricular AT1-R antagonist, irbesartan, or TNF-α inhibitor, etanercept, mimicked the beneficial actions of RD in the ISO-induced HF. The results suggest that the RD restores autonomic balance and ameliorates ISO-induced HF and that the downregulated RAS and PICs in the brain contribute to these beneficial effects of RD. PMID:27746855

  15. Electroacupuncture Could Regulate the NF-κB Signaling Pathway to Ameliorate the Inflammatory Injury in Focal Cerebral Ischemia/Reperfusion Model Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Wen-Yi; Luo, Yong; Chen, Ling; Tao, Tao; Li, Yang; Cai, Yan-Li; Li, Ya-Hui

    2013-01-01

    The activated nuclear factor-KappaB signaling pathway plays a critical role in inducing inflammatory injury. It has been reported that electroacupuncture could be an effective anti-inflammatory treatment. We aimed to explore the complex mechanism by which EA inhibits the activation of the NF- κ B signal pathway and ameliorate inflammatory injury in the short term; the effects of NEMO Binding Domain peptide for this purpose were compared. Focal cerebral I/R was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion for 2 hrs. Total 380 male Sprague-Dawley rats are in the study. The neurobehavioral scores, infarction volumes, and the levels of IL-1 β and IL-13 were detected. NF- κ B p65, I κ B α , IKK α , and IKK β were analyzed and the ability of NF- κ B binding DNA was investigated. The EA treatment and the NBD peptide treatment both reduced infarct size, improved neurological scores, and regulated the levels of IL-1 β and IL-13. The treatment reduced the expression of IKK α and IKK β and altered the expression of NF- κ B p65 and I κ B α in the cytoplasm and nucleus; the activity of NF- κ B was effectively reduced. We conclude that EA treatment might interfere with the process of NF- κ B nuclear translocation. And it also could suppress the activity of NF- κ B signaling pathway to ameliorate the inflammatory injury after focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion. PMID:23970940

  16. Electroacupuncture Could Regulate the NF-κB Signaling Pathway to Ameliorate the Inflammatory Injury in Focal Cerebral Ischemia/Reperfusion Model Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-yi Qin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The activated nuclear factor-KappaB signaling pathway plays a critical role in inducing inflammatory injury. It has been reported that electroacupuncture could be an effective anti-inflammatory treatment. We aimed to explore the complex mechanism by which EA inhibits the activation of the NF-κB signal pathway and ameliorate inflammatory injury in the short term; the effects of NEMO Binding Domain peptide for this purpose were compared. Focal cerebral I/R was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion for 2 hrs. Total 380 male Sprague-Dawley rats are in the study. The neurobehavioral scores, infarction volumes, and the levels of IL-1β and IL-13 were detected. NF-κB p65, IκBα, IKKα, and IKKβ were analyzed and the ability of NF-κB binding DNA was investigated. The EA treatment and the NBD peptide treatment both reduced infarct size, improved neurological scores, and regulated the levels of IL-1β and IL-13. The treatment reduced the expression of IKKα and IKKβ and altered the expression of NF-κB p65 and IκBα in the cytoplasm and nucleus; the activity of NF-κB was effectively reduced. We conclude that EA treatment might interfere with the process of NF-κB nuclear translocation. And it also could suppress the activity of NF-κB signaling pathway to ameliorate the inflammatory injury after focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion.

  17. Andrographolide sulfonate ameliorates lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury in mice by down-regulating MAPK and NF-κB pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Shuang; Hang, Nan; Liu, Wen; Guo, Wenjie; Jiang, Chunhong; Yang, Xiaoling; Xu, Qiang; Sun, Yang

    2016-05-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) or acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a severe, life-threatening medical condition characterized by widespread inflammation in the lungs, and is a significant source of morbidity and mortality in the patient population. New therapies for the treatment of ALI are desperately needed. In the present study, we examined the effect of andrographolide sulfonate, a water-soluble form of andrographolide (trade name: Xi-Yan-Ping Injection), on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ALI and inflammation. Andrographolide sulfonate was administered by intraperitoneal injection to mice with LPS-induced ALI. LPS-induced airway inflammatory cell recruitment and lung histological alterations were significantly ameliorated by andrographolide sulfonate. Protein levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and serum were reduced by andrographolide sulfonate administration. mRNA levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in lung tissue were also suppressed. Moreover, andrographolide sulfonate markedly suppressed the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) as well as p65 subunit of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). In summary, these results suggest that andrographolide sulfonate ameliorated LPS-induced ALI in mice by inhibiting NF-κB and MAPK-mediated inflammatory responses. Our study shows that water-soluble andrographolide sulfonate may represent a new therapeutic approach for treating inflammatory lung disorders. PMID:27175331

  18. Andrographolide sulfonate ameliorates lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury in mice by down-regulating MAPK and NF-κB pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Peng

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Acute lung injury (ALI or acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS is a severe, life-threatening medical condition characterized by widespread inflammation in the lungs, and is a significant source of morbidity and mortality in the patient population. New therapies for the treatment of ALI are desperately needed. In the present study, we examined the effect of andrographolide sulfonate, a water-soluble form of andrographolide (trade name: Xi-Yan-Ping Injection, on lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced ALI and inflammation. Andrographolide sulfonate was administered by intraperitoneal injection to mice with LPS-induced ALI. LPS-induced airway inflammatory cell recruitment and lung histological alterations were significantly ameliorated by andrographolide sulfonate. Protein levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF and serum were reduced by andrographolide sulfonate administration. mRNA levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in lung tissue were also suppressed. Moreover, andrographolide sulfonate markedly suppressed the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK as well as p65 subunit of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB. In summary, these results suggest that andrographolide sulfonate ameliorated LPS-induced ALI in mice by inhibiting NF-κB and MAPK-mediated inflammatory responses. Our study shows that water-soluble andrographolide sulfonate may represent a new therapeutic approach for treating inflammatory lung disorders.

  19. Stevioside ameliorates high-fat diet-induced insulin resistance and adipose tissue inflammation by downregulating the NF-{kappa}B pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhiquan; Xue, Liqiong; Guo, Cuicui; Han, Bing; Pan, Chunming; Zhao, Shuangxia; Song, Huaidong [State Key Laboratory of Medical Genomics, Shanghai Institute of Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200025 (China); Ma, Qinyun, E-mail: qinyunma@126.com [State Key Laboratory of Medical Genomics, Shanghai Institute of Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200025 (China)

    2012-01-27

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stevioside ameliorates high-fat diet-induced insulin resistance. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stevioside alleviates the adipose tissue inflammation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stevioside reduces macrophages infiltration into the adipose tissue. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stevioside suppresses the activation of NF-{kappa}B in the adipose tissue. -- Abstract: Accumulating evidence suggests that adipose tissue is the main source of pro-inflammatory molecules that predispose individuals to insulin resistance. Stevioside (SVS) is a widely used sweetener with multiple beneficial effects for diabetic patients. In this study, we investigated the effect of SVS on insulin resistance and the pro-inflammatory state of adipose tissue in mice fed with a high-fat diet (HFD). Oral administration of SVS for 1 month had no effect on body weight, but it significantly improved fasting glucose, basal insulin levels, glucose tolerance and whole body insulin sensitivity. Interestingly, these changes were accompanied with decreased expression levels of several inflammatory cytokines in adipose tissue, including TNF-{alpha}, IL6, IL10, IL1{beta}, KC, MIP-1{alpha}, CD11b and CD14. Moreover, macrophage infiltration in adipose tissue was remarkably reduced by SVS. Finally, SVS significantly suppressed the nuclear factor-kappa b (NF-{kappa}B) signaling pathway in adipose tissue. Collectively, these results suggested that SVS may ameliorate insulin resistance in HFD-fed mice by attenuating adipose tissue inflammation and inhibiting the NF-{kappa}B pathway.

  20. Psilocybin-induced deficits in automatic and controlled inhibition are attenuated by ketanserin in healthy human volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quednow, Boris B; Kometer, Michael; Geyer, Mark A; Vollenweider, Franz X

    2012-02-01

    The serotonin-2A receptor (5-HT(2A)R) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia and related inhibitory gating and behavioral inhibition deficits of schizophrenia patients. The hallucinogen psilocybin disrupts automatic forms of sensorimotor gating and response inhibition in humans, but it is unclear so far whether the 5-HT(2A)R or 5-HT(1A)R agonist properties of its bioactive metabolite psilocin account for these effects. Thus, we investigated whether psilocybin-induced deficits in automatic and controlled inhibition in healthy humans could be attenuated by the 5-HT(2A/2C)R antagonist ketanserin. A total of 16 healthy participants received placebo, ketanserin (40 mg p.o.), psilocybin (260 μg/kg p.o.), or psilocybin plus ketanserin in a double-blind, randomized, and counterbalanced order. Sensorimotor gating was measured by prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the acoustic startle response. The effects on psychopathological core dimensions and behavioral inhibition were assessed by the altered states of consciousness questionnaire (5D-ASC), and the Color-Word Stroop Test. Psilocybin decreased PPI at short lead intervals (30 ms), increased all 5D-ASC scores, and selectively increased errors in the interference condition of the Stroop Test. Stroop interference and Stroop effect of the response latencies were increased under psilocybin as well. Psilocybin-induced alterations were attenuated by ketanserin pretreatment, whereas ketanserin alone had no significant effects. These findings suggest that the disrupting effects of psilocybin on automatic and controlled inhibition processes are attributable to 5-HT(2A)R stimulation. Sensorimotor gating and attentional control deficits of schizophrenia patients might be due to changes within the 5-HT(2A)R system. PMID:21956447

  1. Psilocybin-induced deficits in automatic and controlled inhibition are attenuated by ketanserin in healthy human volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quednow, Boris B; Kometer, Michael; Geyer, Mark A; Vollenweider, Franz X

    2012-02-01

    The serotonin-2A receptor (5-HT(2A)R) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia and related inhibitory gating and behavioral inhibition deficits of schizophrenia patients. The hallucinogen psilocybin disrupts automatic forms of sensorimotor gating and response inhibition in humans, but it is unclear so far whether the 5-HT(2A)R or 5-HT(1A)R agonist properties of its bioactive metabolite psilocin account for these effects. Thus, we investigated whether psilocybin-induced deficits in automatic and controlled inhibition in healthy humans could be attenuated by the 5-HT(2A/2C)R antagonist ketanserin. A total of 16 healthy participants received placebo, ketanserin (40 mg p.o.), psilocybin (260 μg/kg p.o.), or psilocybin plus ketanserin in a double-blind, randomized, and counterbalanced order. Sensorimotor gating was measured by prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the acoustic startle response. The effects on psychopathological core dimensions and behavioral inhibition were assessed by the altered states of consciousness questionnaire (5D-ASC), and the Color-Word Stroop Test. Psilocybin decreased PPI at short lead intervals (30 ms), increased all 5D-ASC scores, and selectively increased errors in the interference condition of the Stroop Test. Stroop interference and Stroop effect of the response latencies were increased under psilocybin as well. Psilocybin-induced alterations were attenuated by ketanserin pretreatment, whereas ketanserin alone had no significant effects. These findings suggest that the disrupting effects of psilocybin on automatic and controlled inhibition processes are attributable to 5-HT(2A)R stimulation. Sensorimotor gating and attentional control deficits of schizophrenia patients might be due to changes within the 5-HT(2A)R system.

  2. Pharmacological inhibition of quorum sensing for the treatment of chronic bacterial infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hentzer, Morten; Givskov, Michael Christian

    2003-01-01

    Traditional treatment of infectious diseases is based on compounds that aim to kill or inhibit bacterial growth. A major concern with this approach is the frequently observed development of resistance to antimicrobial compounds. The discovery of bacterial-communication systems (quorum......-sensing systems), which orchestrate important temporal events during the infection process, has afforded a novel opportunity to ameliorate bacterial infection by means other than growth inhibition. Compounds able to override bacterial signaling are present in nature. Herein we discuss the known signaling...... mechanisms and potential antipathogenic drugs that specifically target quorum-sensing systems in a manner unlikely to pose a selective pressure for the development of resistant mutants....

  3. Repetitive training for ameliorating upper limbs spasm of hemiplegic patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Zhu; Lin Liu; Weiqun Song

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND:The main aim of rehabilitation is to ameliorate motor function and use the damaged limbs in the activities of daily living.Several factors are needed in the self-recovery of the patients,and the most important one is to reduce spasm.Some mechanical repetitive movements can affect and change the excitability of motor neurons.OBJECTIVE:To observe the effect of repetitive training on ameliorating spasm of upper limbs of hemiplegic patients.DESIGN:A self-controlled observation before and after training.SETTING:Department of Rehabilitation,Xuanwu Hospital of Capital Medical University.PARTICI PANTS: Seven hemiplegic patients induced by brain injury were selected from the Department of Rehabilitation,Xuanwu Hospital,Capital Medical University from March to June in 2005.Inclusive criteria:①Agreed and able to participate in the 30-minute training of hand function; ②Without disturbance of understanding.The patients with aphasia or apraxia,manifestation of shoulder pain,and severe neurological or mental defects.For the 7 patients,the Rivermead motor assessment(RMA)scores ranged 0-10 points,the Rivermead mobility index(RMI)ranged 1-3,and modified Ashworth scale(MAS)was grade 2-4.Their horizontal extension of shoulder joint was 0°-30°,anteflextion was 0°-50°,internal rotation was 50°-90°,external rotation was 0°-10°:and the elbow joint could extend for 15°-135°.METHODS:The viva 2 serial MOTOmed exerciser(Reck Company,Germany)was used.There were three phases of A-B-A.①The phase A lasted for 1 week.The patient sat on a chair facting to the MOTOmed screen.and did the circumduction of upper limbs forwardly,30 minutes a day and 5 days a week.②The phase B lasted for 3 weeks.The training consisted of forward circumduction of upper limbs for 15 minutes.followed by backward ones for 15 minutes and 5-minute rest.③The training in the phase A was performed again for 2 weeks.The extensions of upper limbs were recorded at phase A,the extension and flexion of

  4. DPP-4 inhibition improves early mortality, β cell function, and adipose tissue inflammation in db/db mice fed a diet containing sucrose and linoleic acid

    OpenAIRE

    Shirakawa, Jun; Okuyama, Tomoko; Kyohara, Mayu; Yoshida, Eiko; Togashi, Yu; Tajima, Kazuki; Yamazaki, Shunsuke; Kaji, Mitsuyo; Koganei, Megumi; Sasaki, Hajime; Terauchi, Yasuo

    2016-01-01

    Background Diabetes therapy that not only lowers glucose levels but also lengthens life spans is required. We previously demonstrated that DPP-4 inhibition ameliorated β cell apoptosis and adipose tissue inflammation in β cell-specific glucokinase haploinsufficient mice fed a diet containing a combination of sucrose and linoleic acid (SL). Methods In this study, we investigated the effects of DPP-4 inhibition in obese diabetic db/db mice fed an SL diet or a control diet containing sucrose and...

  5. Vitamin E ameliorates aflatoxin-induced biochemical changes in the testis of mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R.J. Verma; Anita Nair

    2001-01-01

    Aim: To assess the effect of aflatoxin on biochemical changes in the testis of mice and the possibility of amelioration by vitamin E treatment. Methods: Adult male albino mice were orally administered with 25 or 50 tg of aflatoxin/animal/day (750 or 1500 μg/kg body weight) for 45 days. The testis was isolated and processed for biochemical analysis. Results: There was a significant, dose-dependent reduction in DNA, RNA, protein, sialic acid contents and the activities of succinic dehydrogenase, adenosine triphosphatase and alkaline phosphatase in the testis of aflatoxintreated mice as compared to the vehicle control. However, the acid phosphatase activity was significantly increased in the aflatoxin-treated mice. Vitamin E (2 mg/animal/day) treatment significantly ameliorated the aflatoxin-induced changes, except the acid and alkaline phosphatase activities in the high dose group. Conclusion: Vitamin E treatment ameliorates the aflatoxin-induced changes in the testis of mice.

  6. Minocycline ameliorates cognitive impairment induced by whole-brain irradiation: an animal study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been long recognized that cranial irradiation used for the treatment of primary and metastatic brain tumor often causes neurological side-effects such as intellectual impairment, memory loss and dementia, especially in children patients. Our previous study has demonstrated that whole-brain irradiation (WBI) can cause cognitive decline in rats. Minocycline is an antibiotic that has shown neuroprotective properties in a variety of experimental models of neurological diseases. However, whether minocycline can ameliorate cognitive impairment induced by ionizing radiation (IR) has not been tested. Thus this study aimed to demonstrate the potential implication of minocycline in the treatment of WBI-induced cognitive deficits by using a rat model. Sprague Dawley rats were cranial irradiated with electron beams delivered by a linear accelerator with a single dose of 20 Gy. Minocycline was administered via oral gavages directly into the stomach before and after irradiation. The open field test was used to assess the anxiety level of rats. The Morris water maze (MWM) was used to assess the spatial learning and memory of rats. The level of apoptosis in hippocampal neurons was measured using immunohistochemistry for caspase-3 and relative markers for mature neurons (NeuN) or for newborn neurons (Doublecortin (DCX)). Neurogenesis was determined by BrdU incorporation method. Neither WBI nor minocycline affected the locomotor activity and anxiety level of rats. However, compared with the sham-irradiated controls, WBI caused a significant loss of learning and memory manifest as longer latency to reach the hidden platform in the MWM task. Minocycline intervention significantly improved the memory retention of irradiated rats. Although minocycline did not rescue neurogenesis deficit caused by WBI 2 months post-IR, it did significantly decreased WBI-induced apoptosis in the DCX positive neurons, thereby resulting in less newborn neuron depletion 12 h after irradiation

  7. A role for amyloid precursor protein translation to restore iron homeostasis and ameliorate lead (Pb) neurotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Jack T; Venkataramani, Vivek; Washburn, Cecilia; Liu, Yanyan; Tummala, Vinusha; Jiang, Hong; Smith, Ann; Cahill, Catherine M

    2016-08-01

    Iron supplementation ameliorates the neurotoxicity of the environmental contaminant lead (Pb); however, the mechanism remains undefined. Iron is an essential nutrient but high levels are toxic due to the catalytic generation of destructive hydroxyl radicals. Using human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells to model human neurons, we investigated the effect of Pb on proteins of iron homeostasis: the Alzheimer's amyloid precursor protein (APP), which stabilizes the iron exporter ferroportin 1; and, the heavy subunit of the iron-storage protein, ferritin (FTH). Lead (Pb(II) and Pb(IV) inhibited APP translation and raised cytosolic iron(II). Lead also increased iron regulatory protein-1 binding to the cognate 5'untranslated region-specific iron-responsive element (IRE) of APP and FTH mRNAs. Concurrent iron treatment rescued cells from Pb toxicity by specifically restoring APP synthesis, i.e. levels of the APP-related protein, APLP-2, were unchanged. Significantly, iron/IRE-independent over-expression of APP695  protected SH-SY5Y cells from Pb toxicity, demonstrating that APP plays a key role in maintaining safe levels of intracellular iron. Overall, our data support a model of neurotoxicity where Pb enhances iron regulatory protein/IRE-mediated repression of APP and FTH translation. We propose novel treatment options for Pb poisoning to include chelators and the use of small molecules to maintain APP and FTH translation. We propose the following cascade for Lead (Pb) toxicity to neurons; by targeting the interaction between Iron regulatory protein-1 and Iron-responsive elements, Pb caused translational repression of proteins that control intracellular iron homeostasis, including the Alzheimer's amyloid precursor protein (APP) that stabilizes the iron exporter ferroportin, and the ferroxidase heavy subunit of the iron-storage protein, ferritin. When unregulated, IRE-independent over-expression of APP695 protected SH-SY5Y neurons from Pb toxicity. There is a novel and key role

  8. Methylcobalamin ameliorates neuropathic pain induced by vincristine in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jing; Wang, Wei; Zhong, Xiong-Xiong; Feng, Yi-Wei; Liu, Xian-Guo

    2016-01-01

    Background Vincristine, a widely used chemotherapeutic agent, often induces painful peripheral neuropathy and there are currently no effective drugs to prevent or treat this side effect. Previous studies have shown that methylcobalamin has potential analgesic effect in diabetic and chronic compression of dorsal root ganglion model; however, whether methylcobalamin has effect on vincristine-induced painful peripheral neuropathy is still unknown. Results We found that vincristine-induced mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia, accompanied by a significant loss of intraepidermal nerve fibers in the plantar hind paw skin and an increase in the incidence of atypical mitochondria in the sciatic nerve. Moreover, in the spinal dorsal horn, the activity of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase and the protein expression of p-p65 as well as tumor necrosis factor α was increased, whereas the protein expression of IL-10 was decreased following vincristine treatment. Furthermore, intraperitoneal injection of methylcobalamin could dose dependently attenuate vincristine-induced mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia, which was associated with intraepidermal nerve fibers rescue, and atypical mitochondria prevalence decrease in the sciatic nerve. Moreover, methylcobalamin inhibited the activation of NADPH oxidase and the downstream NF-κB pathway. Production of tumor necrosis factor α was also decreased and production of IL-10 was increased in the spinal dorsal horn following methylcobalamin treatment. Intrathecal injection of Phorbol-12-Myristate-13-Acetate, a NADPH oxidase activator, could completely block the analgesic effect of methylcobalamin. Conclusions Methylcobalamin attenuated vincrinstine-induced neuropathic pain, which was accompanied by inhibition of intraepidermal nerve fibers loss and mitochondria impairment. Inhibiting the activation of NADPH oxidase and the downstream NF-κB pathway, resulting in the rebalancing of

  9. Fatty Acid Synthase Inhibitor C75 Ameliorates Experimental Colitis

    OpenAIRE

    Matsuo, Shingo; Yang, Weng-Lang; Aziz, Monowar; Kameoka, Shingo; Wang, Ping

    2013-01-01

    Abnormalities of lipid metabolism through overexpression of fatty acid synthase (FASN), which catalyzes the formation of long-chain fatty acids, are associated with the development of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). C75 is a synthetic α-methylene-γ-butyrolactone compound that inhibits FASN activity. We hypothesized that C75 treatment could effectively reduce the severity of experimental colitis. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed 4% dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) for 7 d. C75 (5 mg/kg body weight) or...

  10. Ibrutinib treatment ameliorates murine chronic graft-versus-host disease

    OpenAIRE

    Dubovsky, Jason A.; Flynn, Ryan; Du, Jing; Harrington, Bonnie K.; Zhong, Yiming; Kaffenberger, Benjamin; Yang, Carrie; Towns, William H; Lehman, Amy; Johnson, Amy J.; Muthusamy, Natarajan; Devine, Steven M.; Jaglowski, Samantha; Serody, Jonathan S.; Murphy, William J.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) is a life-threatening impediment to allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, and current therapies do not completely prevent and/or treat cGVHD. CD4+ T cells and B cells mediate cGVHD; therefore, targeting these populations may inhibit cGVHD pathogenesis. Ibrutinib is an FDA-approved irreversible inhibitor of Bruton’s tyrosine kinase (BTK) and IL-2 inducible T cell kinase (ITK) that targets Th2 cells and B cells and produces durable remissi...

  11. Triphala exhibits anti-arthritic effect by ameliorating bone and cartilage degradation in adjuvant-induced arthritic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaiselvan, Sowmiya; Rasool, MahaboobKhan

    2015-01-01

    The present study was aimed to investigate the anti-arthritic effect of triphala and its underlying mechanism on adjuvant-induced rat model. For comparison purpose, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug indomethacin was used. Arthritis was induced by intradermal injection of complete Freund's adjuvant (0.1 ml) into the right hind paw of the Wistar albino rats. Triphala (100 mg/kg body weight [bwt]) was administered intraperitoneally (from 11th to 20th day) after the arthritis induction. Arthritis induction increased the levels of reactive oxygen species (LPO and NO), elastase, and mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-β, IL-17, IL-6 and MCP-1), inflammatory marker enzymes (iNOS and COX-2), receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL), and transcription factors (NF-kB p65 and AP-1) in the paw tissues of rats. The levels of bone collagen were found to decrease with increased urinary constituents (hydroxyproline and total glycosaminoglycans) in arthritic rats. In addition, the immunohistochemistry analysis revealed increased expression of NF-kBp65 and COX-2 in the paw tissues of arthritic rats. However, administration of triphala significantly inhibited the biochemical and molecular alterations in adjuvant-induced arthritic rats compared to indomethacin (3 mg/kg bwt) as evidenced by the radiological and histopathological analysis. In conclusion, our results suggest that triphala administration ameliorate bone and cartilage degradation during rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:25942351

  12. Hepatoprotective, antioxidant, and ameliorative effects of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and vitamin E in acetaminophen treated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Azeem, Amal S; Hegazy, Amany M; Ibrahim, Khadiga S; Farrag, Abdel-Razik H; El-Sayed, Eman M

    2013-09-01

    Ginger is a remedy known to possess a number of pharmacological properties. This study investigated efficacy of ginger pretreatment in alleviating acetaminophen-induced acute hepatotoxicity in rats. Rats were divided into six groups; negative control, acetaminophen (APAP) (600 mg/kg single intraperitoneal injection); vitamin E (75 mg/kg), ginger (100 mg/kg), vitamin E + APAP, and ginger + APAP. Administration of APAP elicited significant liver injury that was manifested by remarkable increase in plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), arginase activities, and total bilirubin concentration. Meanwhile, APAP significantly decreased plasma total proteins and albumin levels. APAP administration resulted in substantial increase in each of plasma triacylglycerols (TAGs), malondialdhyde (MDA) levels, and total antioxidant capacity (TAC). However, ginger or vitamin E treatment prior to APAP showed significant hepatoprotective effect by lowering the hepatic marker enzymes (AST, ALT, ALP, and arginase) and total bilirubin in plasma. In addition, they remarkably ameliorated the APAP-induced oxidative stress by inhibiting lipid peroxidation (MDA). Pretreatment by ginger or vitamin E significantly restored TAGs, and total protein levels. Histopathological examination of APAP treated rats showed alterations in normal hepatic histoarchitecture, with necrosis and vacuolization of cells. These alterations were substantially decreased by ginger or vitamin E. Our results demonstrated that ginger can prevent hepatic injuries, alleviating oxidative stress in a manner comparable to that of vitamin E. Combination therapy of ginger and APAP is recommended especially in cases with hepatic disorders or when high doses of APAP are required. PMID:23927622

  13. GPR40 agonist ameliorates liver X receptor-induced lipid accumulation in liver by activating AMPK pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meng; Meng, Xiangyu; Xu, Jie; Huang, Xiuqing; Li, Hongxia; Li, Guoping; Wang, Shu; Man, Yong; Tang, Weiqing; Li, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Hepatic steatosis is strongly linked to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. GPR40 is a G protein-coupled receptor mediating free fatty acid-induced insulin secretion and thus plays a beneficial role in the improvement of diabetes. However, the impact of GPR40 agonist on hepatic steatosis still remains to be elucidated. In the present study, we found that activation of GPR40 by its agonist GW9508 attenuated Liver X receptor (LXR)-induced hepatic lipid accumulation. Activation of LXR in the livers of C57BL/6 mice fed a high-cholesterol diet and in HepG2 cells stimulated by chemical agonist caused increased expression of its target lipogenic genes and subsequent lipid accumulation. All these effects of LXR were dramatically downregulated after GW9508 supplementation. Moreover, GPR40 activation was accompanied by upregulation of AMPK pathway, whereas the inhibitive effect of GPR40 on the lipogenic gene expression was largely abrogated by AMPK knockdown. Taken together, our results demonstrated that GW9508 exerts a beneficial effect to ameliorate LXR-induced hepatic steatosis through regulation of AMPK signaling pathway. PMID:27121981

  14. Enhanced Amelioration of High-Fat Diet-Induced Fatty Liver by Docosahexaenoic Acid and Lysine Supplementations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Yu Lin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fatty liver disease is the most common pathological condition in the liver. Here, we generated high-fat diet-(HFD- induced nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD in mice and tested the effects of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA and lysine during a four-week regular chow (RCfeeding. Our results showed that 1% lysine and the combination of 1% lysine + 1% DHA reduced body weight. Moreover, serum triglyceride levels were reduced by 1% DHA and 1% lysine, whereas serum alanine transaminase activity was reduced by 1% DHA and 1% DHA + 0.5% lysine. Switching to RC reduced hepatic lipid droplet accumulation, which was further reduced by the addition of DHA or lysine. Furthermore, the mRNA expressions of hepatic proinflammatory cytokines were suppressed by DHA and combinations of DHA + lysine, whereas the mRNA for the lipogenic gene, acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 (ACC1, was suppressed by DHA. In the gonadal adipose tissues, combinations of DHA and lysine inhibited mRNA expression of lipid metabolism-associated genes, including ACC1, fatty acid synthase, lipoprotein lipase, and perilipin. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that, in conjunction with RC-induced benefits, supplementation with DHA or lysine further ameliorated the high-fat diet-induced NAFLD and provided an alternative strategy to treat, and potentially prevent, NAFLD.

  15. Lactobacillus acidophilus ameliorates H. pylori-induced gastric inflammation by inactivating the Smad7 and NFκB pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yao-Jong

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background H. pylori infection may trigger Smad7 and NFκB expression in the stomach, whereas probiotics promote gastrointestinal health and improve intestinal inflammation caused by pathogens. This study examines if probiotics can improve H. pylori-induced gastric inflammation by inactivating the Smad7 and NFκB pathways. Results Challenge with H. pylori increased IL-8 and TNF-α expressions but not TGF-β1 in MKN45 cells. The RNA levels of Smad7 in AGS cells increased after H. pylori infection in a dose-dependent manner. A higher dose (MOI 100 of L. acidophilus pre-treatment attenuated the H. pylori-induced IL-8 expressions, but not TGF-β1. Such anti-inflammatory effect was mediated via increased cytoplasmic IκBα and depletion of nuclear NFκB. L. acidophilus also inhibited H. pylori-induced Smad7 transcription by inactivating the Jak1 and Stat1 pathways, which might activate the TGF-β1/Smad pathway. L. acidophilus pre-treatment ameliorated IFN-γ-induced Smad7 translation level and subsequently reduced nuclear NF-κB production, as detected by western blotting. Conclusions H. pylori infection induces Smad7, NFκB, IL-8, and TNF-α production in vitro. Higher doses of L. acidophilus pre-treatment reduce H. pylori-induced inflammation through the inactivation of the Smad7 and NFκB pathways.

  16. Proteasome Inhibitor Bortezomib Suppresses Nuclear Factor-Kappa B Activation and Ameliorates Eye Inflammation in Experimental Autoimmune Uveitis

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    Sheng-Min Hsu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bortezomib is a proteasome inhibitor used for hematologic cancer treatment. Since it can suppress NF-κB activation, which is critical for the inflammatory process, bortezomib has been found to possess anti-inflammatory activity. In this study, we evaluated the effect of bortezomib on experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU in mice and investigated the potential mechanisms related to NF-κB inactivation. High-dose bortezomib (0.75 mg/kg, low-dose bortezomib (0.15 mg/kg, or phosphate buffered saline was given after EAU induction. We found that the EAU is ameliorated by high-dose bortezomib treatment when compared with low-dose bortezomib or PBS treatment. The DNA-binding activity of NF-κB was suppressed and expression of several key inflammatory mediators including TNF-α, IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-12, IL-17, and MCP-1 was lowered in the high-dose bortezomib-treated group. These results suggest that proteasome inhibition is a promising treatment strategy for autoimmune uveitis.

  17. Capillary permeability is increased in normo- and microalbuminuric Type I diabetic patients : amelioration by ACE-inhibition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, J; Hoogenberg, K; Dullaart, RPF; Smit, AJ

    1999-01-01

    Background Capillary leakage of sodium-fluorescein (NaF) in the skin reflects capillary permeability and may be a marker of diabetes-associated microcirculatory abnormalities. Design We evaluated transcapillary skin NaF leakage by fluorescence videodensitometry in 10 normoalbuminuric, 10 microalbumi

  18. Inhibition of GSK-3βameliorates hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury through GSK-3β/β-cateninsignalingpathwayinmice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-Xiang Xia; Ling Lu; Zheng-Shan Wu; Li-Yong Pu; Bei-Cheng Sun and Xue-Hao Wang

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3β/β-catenin signaling  regulates  ischemia-reperfusion  (I/R)-induced apoptosis and proliferation, and inhibition of GSK-3β has beneifcial effects on I/R injury in the heart and the central nervous system. However, the role of this signaling in hepatic I/R injury remains unclear. The present study aimed to investigate the effects and mechanism of GSK-3β/β-catenin signaling in hepatic I/R injury. METHODS: Male  C57BL/6  mice  (weighing  22-25  g)  were pretreated with either SB216763, an inhibitor of GSK-3β, or vehicle. These mice were subjected to partial hepatic I/R. Blood  was  collected  for  test  of  alanine  aminotransferase (ALT), and liver specimen for assays of phosphorylation at the Ser9 residue of GSK-3β, GSK-3β activity, axin 2 and the anti-apoptotic factors Bcl-2 and survivin, as well as the proliferative factors cyclin D1 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen, and apoptotic index (TUNEL). Real-time PCR, Western blotting and immunohistochemical staining were used. RESULTS: SB216763  increased  phospho-GSK-3β  levels  and suppressed GSK-3β activity (1880±229 vs 3280±272 cpm, P CONCLUSION: Inhibition of GSK-3β ameliorates hepatic I/R injury through the GSK-3β/β-catenin signaling pathway.

  19. Non-severe burn injury leads to depletion of bone volume that can be ameliorated by inhibiting TNF-α.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Halloran, Emily; Kular, Jasreen; Xu, Jiake; Wood, Fiona; Fear, Mark

    2015-05-01

    Bone loss after severe burn injury is well established, and is thought to be a consequence of the severe hyper-metabolic response as well as changes in cytokine and glucocorticoid levels that decrease bone synthesis and increase rate of loss. However, 90% of presentations are for non-severe burns which do not elicit this response. Little is known about whether these non-severe injuries may also affect bone tissue, and whether other mechanisms may be involved. To investigate whether bone loss occurs after a non-severe burn injury we used a mouse model of an approximately 8% total body surface area (TBSA) full-thickness burn and micro-CT. We also assessed whether blocking TNF-α after a burn injury by administration of an antibody could modulate the impacts of the burn on bone tissue. There was a significant loss of trabecular bone volume of (3.27% compared to 5.27%, p=0.0051) after non-severe burn injury. Trabecular number was significantly decreased (0.57/mm after injury compared to 1.02/mm controls, p=0.0051) and spacing increased after burn injury (0.40 compared to 0.28, p=0.0083). Anti-TNF-α antibodies significantly improved trabecular bone volume (8.53%, p=0.0034) and number after burn injury (1.28/mm, p=0.0034). There was no significant change observed in cortical bone after burn injury or administration of anti-TNF-α antibodies. These findings show that non-severe burn injury can lead to changes in bone metabolism. Monitoring bone density in patients with non-severe injuries and interventions to limit the impacts of the inflammatory storm may benefit patient recovery and outcomes.

  20. Carbofuran induced oxidative stress mediated alterations in Na⁺-K⁺-ATPase activity in rat brain: amelioration by vitamin E.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Sunil Kumar; Siddiqi, Nikhat Jamal; Sharma, Bechan

    2014-07-01

    Pesticides cause oxidative stress and adversely influence Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity in animals. Since impact of carbofuran has not been properly studied in the mammalian brain, the ability of carbofuran to induce oxidative stress and modulation in Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity and its amelioration by vitamin E was performed. The rats divided into six groups received two different doses of carbofuran (15% and 30% LD50) for 15 days. The results suggested that the carbofuran treatment caused a significant elevation in levels of malonaldehyde and reduced glutathione and sharp inhibition in the activities of super oxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione-S-transferase; the effect being dose dependent. Carbofuran at different doses also caused sharp reduction in the activity of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase. The pretreatment of vitamin E, however, showed a significant recovery in these indices. The pretreatment of rats with vitamin E offered protection from carbofuran-induced oxidative stress.

  1. Tempol, a superoxide dismutase mimetic agent, ameliorates cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity through alleviation of mitochondrial dysfunction in mice.

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    Lamiaa A Ahmed

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial dysfunction is a crucial mechanism by which cisplatin, a potent chemotherapeutic agent, causes nephrotoxicity where mitochondrial electron transport complexes are shifted mostly toward imbalanced reactive oxygen species versus energy production. In the present study, the protective role of tempol, a membrane-permeable superoxide dismutase mimetic agent, was evaluated on mitochondrial dysfunction and the subsequent damage induced by cisplatin nephrotoxicity in mice.Nephrotoxicity was assessed 72 h after a single i.p. injection of cisplatin (25 mg/kg with or without oral administration of tempol (100 mg/kg/day. Serum creatinine and urea as well as glucosuria and proteinuria were evaluated. Both kidneys were isolated for estimation of oxidative stress markers, adenosine triphosphate (ATP content and caspase-3 activity. Moreover, mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation capacity, complexes I-IV activities and mitochondrial nitric oxide synthase (mNOS protein expression were measured along with histological examinations of renal tubular damage and mitochondrial ultrastructural changes. Tempol was effective against cisplatin-induced elevation of serum creatinine and urea as well as glucosuria and proteinuria. Moreover, pretreatment with tempol notably inhibited cisplatin-induced oxidative stress and disruption of mitochondrial function by restoring mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, complexes I and III activities, mNOS protein expression and ATP content. Tempol also provided significant protection against apoptosis, tubular damage and mitochondrial ultrastructural changes. Interestingly, tempol did not interfere with the cytotoxic effect of cisplatin against the growth of solid Ehrlich carcinoma.This study highlights the potential role of tempol in inhibiting cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity without affecting its antitumor activity via amelioration of oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction.

  2. Plantamajoside ameliorates lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury via suppressing NF-κB and MAPK activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haichong; Zhao, Gan; Jiang, Kangfeng; Chen, Xiuying; Zhu, Zhe; Qiu, Changwei; Li, Chengye; Deng, Ganzhen

    2016-06-01

    Despite developments in the knowledge and therapy of acute lung injury in recent decades, mortality remains high, and there is usually a lack of effective therapy. Plantamajoside, a major ingredient isolated from Plantago asiatica L. (Plantaginaceae), has been reported to have potent anti-inflammatory properties. However, the effect of plantamajoside on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) in mice has not been investigated. The present study aimed to reveal the potential mechanism responsible for the anti-inflammatory effects of plantamajoside on LPS-induced acute lung injury in mice and in RAW264.7 cells. The results of histopathological changes as well as the lung wet-to-dry ratio and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity showed that plantamajoside ameliorated the lung injury that was induced by LPS. qPCR and ELISA assays demonstrated that plantamajoside suppressed the production of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α in a dose-dependent manner. TLR4 is an important sensor in LPS infection. Molecular studies showed that the expression of TLR4 was inhibited by plantamajoside administration. Further study was conducted on nuclear factor (NF)-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) using pathways using western blots. The results showed that plantamajoside inhibited the phosphorylation of IκBα, p65, p38, JNK and ERK. All results indicated that plantamajoside has protective effect on LPS-induced ALI in mice and in RAW264.7 cells. Thus, plantamajoside may be a potential therapy for the treatment of pulmonary inflammation.

  3. Plantamajoside ameliorates lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury via suppressing NF-κB and MAPK activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haichong; Zhao, Gan; Jiang, Kangfeng; Chen, Xiuying; Zhu, Zhe; Qiu, Changwei; Li, Chengye; Deng, Ganzhen

    2016-06-01

    Despite developments in the knowledge and therapy of acute lung injury in recent decades, mortality remains high, and there is usually a lack of effective therapy. Plantamajoside, a major ingredient isolated from Plantago asiatica L. (Plantaginaceae), has been reported to have potent anti-inflammatory properties. However, the effect of plantamajoside on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) in mice has not been investigated. The present study aimed to reveal the potential mechanism responsible for the anti-inflammatory effects of plantamajoside on LPS-induced acute lung injury in mice and in RAW264.7 cells. The results of histopathological changes as well as the lung wet-to-dry ratio and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity showed that plantamajoside ameliorated the lung injury that was induced by LPS. qPCR and ELISA assays demonstrated that plantamajoside suppressed the production of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α in a dose-dependent manner. TLR4 is an important sensor in LPS infection. Molecular studies showed that the expression of TLR4 was inhibited by plantamajoside administration. Further study was conducted on nuclear factor (NF)-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) using pathways using western blots. The results showed that plantamajoside inhibited the phosphorylation of IκBα, p65, p38, JNK and ERK. All results indicated that plantamajoside has protective effect on LPS-induced ALI in mice and in RAW264.7 cells. Thus, plantamajoside may be a potential therapy for the treatment of pulmonary inflammation. PMID:27089391

  4. Amelioration of liver injury by continuously targeted intervention against TNFRp55 in rats with acute-on-chronic liver failure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumin Xu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF is an acute deterioration of established liver disease. Blocking the TNF (tumor necrosis factor/TNFR (tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 pathway may reduce hepatocyte apoptosis/necrosis, and subsequently decrease mortality during development of ACLF. We demonstrated that a long-acting TNF antagonist (soluble TNF receptor: IgG Fc [sTNFR:IgG-Fc] prevented/reduced development of acute liver failure by blocking the TNF/TNFR1 (TNFRp55 pathway. However, it is still unclear if sTNFR:IgG-Fc can inhibit hepatocyte damage during development of ACLF. METHODOLOGY: Chronic liver disease (liver fibrosis/cirrhosis was induced in Wistar rats by repeatedly challenging with human serum albumin (HSA, and confirmed by histopathology. ACLF was induced with D-galactosamine (D-GalN/lipopolysaccharide (LPS i.p. in the rats with chronic liver disease. Serum and liver were collected for biochemical, pathological and molecular biological examinations. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Reduced mortality was observed in sTNFR:IgG-Fc treated ACLF rats, consistent with reduced interleukin (IL-6 levels in serum and liver, as well as reduced hepatic caspase-3 activity, compared to that of mock treated group. Reduced hepatic damage was confirmed with histopathology in the sTNFR:IgG-Fc treated group, which is consistent with reduced Bcl-2 and Bax, at mRNA and protein levels, but increased hepatocyte proliferation (PCNA. This is also supported by the findings that caspase-3 production was up-regulated significantly in ACLF group compared to the mock treated group. Moreover, up-regulated caspase-3 was inhibited following sTNFR:IgG-Fc treatment. Finally, there was up-regulation of hepatic IL-22R in sTNFR:IgG-Fc treated ACLF rats. CONCLUSIONS: sTNFR:IgG-Fc improved survival rate during development of ACLF via ameliorating liver injury with a potential therapeutic value.

  5. Pioglitazone can ameliorate insulin resistance in low-dose streptozotocin and high sucrose-fat diet induced obese rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi-ying DING; Zhu-fang SHEN; Yue-teng CHEN; Su-juan SUN; Quan Liu; Ming-zhi XIE

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effect of the peroxisome proliferator-activator receptor (PPAR)-γ agonist, pioglitazone, on insulin resistance in low-dose streptozotocin and high sucrose-fat diet induced obese rats. Methods: Normal female Wistar rats were injected intraperitoneally with low-dose streptozotocin (STZ, 30 mg/kg) and fed with a high sucrose-fat diet for 8 weeks. Pioglitazone (20 mg/kg) was administered orally to the obese and insulin-resistant rats for 28 d. Intraperitoneal glucose tolerance tests, insulin tolerance tests and gluconeogenesis tests were carried out over the last 14 d. At the end of d 28 of the treatment, serums were collected for biochemical analysis. Glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) and insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) protein expression in the liver and skeletal muscle were detected using Western blotting. Results: Significant insulin resistance and obesity were observed in low-dose STZ and high sucrose-fat diet induced obese rats. Pioglitazone (20 mg/kg) treatment significantly decreased serum insulin,triglyceride and free fatty acid levels, and elevated high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels. Pioglitazone also lowered the lipid contents in the liver and muscles of rats undergoing treatment. Gluconeogenesis was inhibited and insulin sensitivity was improved markedly. The IRS-1 protein contents in the liver and skeletal muscles and the GLUT4 contents in skeletal muscle were elevated significantly. Conclusion: The data suggest that treatment with pioglitazone improves insulin sensitivity in low-dose STZ and high sucrose-fat diet induced obese rats. The insulin sensitizing effect may be associated with ameliorating lipid metabolism, reducing hyperinsulinemia, inhibiting gluconeogenesis, and increasing IRS-1 and GLUT4 protein expression in insulin-sensitive tissues.

  6. A peptide that ameliorates lupus up-regulates the diminished expression of early growth response factors 2 and 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sela, Uri; Dayan, Molly; Hershkoviz, Rami; Lider, Ofer; Mozes, Edna

    2008-02-01

    Expansion of autoreactive T cells and their resistance to anergy was demonstrated in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). A pair of transcription factors, early growth response 2 (Egr-2) and 3 (Egr-3), are negative regulators of T cell activation that were shown to be important in anergy. A peptide (designated hCDR1 for human CDR1) based on the CDR-1 of an anti-DNA Ab ameliorated SLE in both induced and spontaneous lupus models. Our objectives were to determine the expression levels of Egr-2 and Egr-3 in autoreactive T cells following immunization with the lupus-inducing anti-DNA Ab that bears a common Id designated 16/6Id and also in a full-blown SLE and to determine the effect of hCDR1 on these transcription factors. We demonstrated diminished expression levels of Egr-2 and Egr-3 mRNA both early after immunization with the 16/6Id and in SLE-afflicted (NZB x NZW)F1 (New Zealand Black and New Zealand White) mice. Furthermore, by down-regulating Akt phosphorylation and up-regulating TGFbeta secretion, treatment with hCDR1 significantly up-regulated Egr-2 and Egr-3 expression. This was associated with an increased expression of the E3 ligase Cbl-b. Inhibition of Akt in T cells of immunized mice decreased, whereas silencing of the Egr-2 and Egr-3 in T cells of hCDR1-treated mice increased IFN-gamma secretion. Thus, hCDR1 down-regulates Akt phosphorylation, which leads to up-regulated expression of T cell Egr-2 and Egr-3, resulting in the inhibition of IFN-gamma secretion that is required for the maintenance of SLE. PMID:18209054

  7. The effectiveness of surface liming in ameliorating the phytotoxic effects of soil contaminated by copper acid leach pad solution in an arid ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golos, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Revegetation of sites following soil contamination can be challenging especially in identifying the most effective method for ameliorating phytotoxic effects in arid ecosystems. This study at a copper mine in the Great Sandy Desert of Western Australia investigated vegetation restoration of a site contaminated by acid (H2SO4) leach pad solution. Elevated soil copper at low soil pH is phytotoxic to plant roots inhibiting root elongation. In arid ecosystems where rapid root growth is crucial for seedling survival post germination physical or chemical barriers to root growth need to be identified and ameliorated. Initial attempt at rehabilitation of contaminated site with hydrated lime (CaOH2) at 2 tonnes/ha followed by ripping to 30 cm depth then seeding was ineffective as successful seedling emergence was followed by over 90% seedling mortality which was 10-fold greater than seedling mortality in an uncontaminated reference site. High mortality was attributed to seedling roots being impededed as soil water was more than 3-fold greater at 5 to 40 cm depth in contaminated site than reference site. In response to high seedling mortality after emergence test pits were dug to 1 m deep to collect soil samples at 10 cm intervals for phytotoxicity testing and to measure soil pH-CaCl2, copper (DPTA ion extraction), electrical conductivity and gravimetric water content in three replicate pits at three replicate sites. Also, soil impedance was measured down the soil profile at 5 cm intervals at six replicate points/pit. For phytotoxicity testing soil samples were placed into three replicate plastic pots/sample and seeded with 10 seeds of Avena sativa and watered daily. Seedlings were harvested after at least two weeks after seedling emergence and rooting depth in pots measured. There was no difference in seedling emergence and survival of seedlings between contaminated and uncontaminated soil samples however mean seedling root growth was significantly lower in soil samples

  8. The effectiveness of surface liming in ameliorating the phytotoxic effects of soil contaminated by copper acid leach pad solution in an arid ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golos, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Revegetation of sites following soil contamination can be challenging especially in identifying the most effective method for ameliorating phytotoxic effects in arid ecosystems. This study at a copper mine in the Great Sandy Desert of Western Australia investigated vegetation restoration of a site contaminated by acid (H2SO4) leach pad solution. Elevated soil copper at low soil pH is phytotoxic to plant roots inhibiting root elongation. In arid ecosystems where rapid root growth is crucial for seedling survival post germination physical or chemical barriers to root growth need to be identified and ameliorated. Initial attempt at rehabilitation of contaminated site with hydrated lime (CaOH2) at 2 tonnes/ha followed by ripping to 30 cm depth then seeding was ineffective as successful seedling emergence was followed by over 90% seedling mortality which was 10-fold greater than seedling mortality in an uncontaminated reference site. High mortality was attributed to seedling roots being impededed as soil water was more than 3-fold greater at 5 to 40 cm depth in contaminated site than reference site. In response to high seedling mortality after emergence test pits were dug to 1 m deep to collect soil samples at 10 cm intervals for phytotoxicity testing and to measure soil pH-CaCl2, copper (DPTA ion extraction), electrical conductivity and gravimetric water content in three replicate pits at three replicate sites. Also, soil impedance was measured down the soil profile at 5 cm intervals at six replicate points/pit. For phytotoxicity testing soil samples were placed into three replicate plastic pots/sample and seeded with 10 seeds of Avena sativa and watered daily. Seedlings were harvested after at least two weeks after seedling emergence and rooting depth in pots measured. There was no difference in seedling emergence and survival of seedlings between contaminated and uncontaminated soil samples however mean seedling root growth was significantly lower in soil samples

  9. Amelioration of the established radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis by a soluble transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-b) receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis is a major complication following chest irradiation for the treatment of many malignancies, such as lung cancer, breast cancer and malignant lymphoma. To date, however, few effective methods have been developed for the amelioration of the established radiation fibrosis. Transforming growth factor-b (TGF-b) has been considered a key molecule in establishment of injury-induced fibrosis in many vital organs. In this study, we investigated whether blockade of TGF-b signaling could improve the established radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis. To specifically inhibit TGF-b in vivo, we used an adenoviral vector expressing a soluble TGF-b receptor (AdTb-ExR), which adsorbs TGF-b and may inhibit the function of the wild-type receptor as a dominant-negative mutant. Rats were received X-ray irradiation at a dose of 30 Gy in a single fraction to the right lung, then eight weeks later, intravenously injected with either AdTb-ExR or AdLacZ, a control adenovirus expressing bacterial b-galactosidase, or saline. Sixteen weeks after irradiation (eight weeks after intravenous injection), rats were sacrificed to extract the lungs and the lungs were histopathologically examined. Pulmonary fibrosis as well as TGF-b expression were markedly reduced in the AdTb-ExR-treated rats in comparison with the saline- or AdLacZ-infected rats. Our results indicate that TGF-b does play a critical role in radiation fibrosis, and that fibrotic tissue is not an irreversible dead tissue. They also suggest that the soluble TGF-b receptor may have potential for use in the amelioration of this intractable established fibrosis

  10. Baclofen, a GABABR agonist, ameliorates immune-complex mediated acute lung injury by modulating pro-inflammatory mediators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunying Jin

    Full Text Available Immune-complexes play an important role in the inflammatory diseases of the lung. Neutrophil activation mediates immune-complex (IC deposition-induced acute lung injury (ALI. Components of gamma amino butyric acid (GABA signaling, including GABA B receptor 2 (GABABR2, GAD65/67 and the GABA transporter, are present in the lungs and in the neutrophils. However, the role of pulmonary GABABR activation in the context of neutrophil-mediated ALI has not been determined. Thus, the objective of the current study was to determine whether administration of a GABABR agonist, baclofen would ameliorate or exacerbate ALI. We hypothesized that baclofen would regulate IC-induced ALI by preserving pulmonary GABABR expression. Rats were subjected to sham injury or IC-induced ALI and two hours later rats were treated intratracheally with saline or 1 mg/kg baclofen for 2 additional hours and sacrificed. ALI was assessed by vascular leakage, histology, TUNEL, and lung caspase-3 cleavage. ALI increased total protein, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α and interleukin-1 receptor associated protein (IL-1R AcP, in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF. Moreover, ALI decreased lung GABABR2 expression, increased phospho-p38 MAPK, promoted IκB degradation and increased neutrophil influx in the lung. Administration of baclofen, after initiation of ALI, restored GABABR expression, which was inhibited in the presence of a GABABR antagonist, CGP52432. Baclofen administration activated pulmonary phospho-ERK and inhibited p38 MAPK phosphorylation and IκB degradation. Additionally, baclofen significantly inhibited pro-inflammatory TNF-α and IL-1βAcP release and promoted BAL neutrophil apoptosis. Protective effects of baclofen treatment on ALI were possibly mediated by inhibition of TNF-α- and IL-1β-mediated inflammatory signaling. Interestingly, GABABR2 expression was regulated in the type II pneumocytes in lung tissue sections from lung injured patients, further suggesting

  11. Oral administration of the KATP channel opener diazoxide ameliorates disease progression in a murine model of multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahy Nicole

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple Sclerosis (MS is an acquired inflammatory demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system (CNS and is the leading cause of nontraumatic disability among young adults. Activated microglial cells are important effectors of demyelination and neurodegeneration, by secreting cytokines and others neurotoxic agents. Previous studies have demonstrated that microglia expresses ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP channels and its pharmacological activation can provide neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, we have examined the effect of oral administration of KATP channel opener diazoxide on induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE, a mouse model of MS. Methods Anti-inflammatory effects of diazoxide were studied on lipopolysaccharide (LPS and interferon gamma (IFNγ-activated microglial cells. EAE was induced in C57BL/6J mice by immunization with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein peptide (MOG35-55. Mice were orally treated daily with diazoxide or vehicle for 15 days from the day of EAE symptom onset. Treatment starting at the same time as immunization was also assayed. Clinical signs of EAE were monitored and histological studies were performed to analyze tissue damage, demyelination, glial reactivity, axonal loss, neuronal preservation and lymphocyte infiltration. Results Diazoxide inhibited in vitro nitric oxide (NO, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α and interleukin-6 (IL-6 production and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS expression by activated microglia without affecting cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 expression and phagocytosis. Oral treatment of mice with diazoxide ameliorated EAE clinical signs but did not prevent disease. Histological analysis demonstrated that diazoxide elicited a significant reduction in myelin and axonal loss accompanied by a decrease in glial activation and neuronal damage. Diazoxide did not affect the number of infiltrating lymphocytes positive for CD3 and CD20

  12. Knockout of Cyclophilin-D Provides Partial Amelioration of Intrinsic and Synaptic Properties Altered by Mild Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jianli; Jacobs, Kimberle M

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondria are central to cell survival and Ca(2+) homeostasis due to their intracellular buffering capabilities. Mitochondrial dysfunction resulting in mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening has been reported after mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Cyclosporine A provides protection against the mPTP opening through its interaction with cyclophilin-D (CypD). A recent study has found that the extent of axonal injury after mTBI was diminished in neocortex in cyclophilin-D knockout (CypDKO) mice. Here we tested whether this CypDKO could also provide protection from the increased intrinsic and synaptic neuronal excitability previously described after mTBI in a mild central fluid percussion injury mice model. CypDKO mice were crossed with mice expressing yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) in layer V pyramidal neurons in neocortex to create CypDKO/YFP-H mice. Whole cell patch clamp recordings from axotomized (AX) and intact (IN) YFP+ layer V pyramidal neurons were made 1 and 2 days after sham or mTBI in slices from CypDKO/YFP-H mice. Both excitatory post synaptic currents (EPSCs) recorded in voltage clamp and intrinsic cellular properties, including action potential (AP), afterhyperpolarization (AHP), and depolarizing after potential (DAP) characteristics recorded in current clamp were evaluated. There was no significant difference between sham and mTBI for either spontaneous or miniature EPSC frequency, suggesting that CypDKO ameliorates excitatory synaptic abnormalities. There was a partial amelioration of intrinsic properties altered by mTBI. Alleviated were the increased slope of the AP frequency vs. injected current plot, the increased AP, AHP and DAP amplitudes. Other properties that saw a reversal that became significant in the opposite direction include the current rheobase and AP overshoot. The AP threshold remained depolarized and the input resistance remained increased in mTBI compared to sham. Additional altered properties suggest that

  13. Agmatine ameliorates lipopolysaccharide induced depressive-like behaviour in mice by targeting the underlying inflammatory and oxido-nitrosative mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawali, Nitin B; Bulani, Vipin D; Chowdhury, Amrita A; Deshpande, Padmini S; Nagmoti, Dnyaneshwar M; Juvekar, Archana R

    2016-10-01

    Experimental and clinical evidence indicates that pro-inflammatory cytokines, oxidative stress and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signalling mechanisms play a role in the pathophysiology of depression. Agmatine is a neurotransmitter and/or neuromodulator that has emerged as a potential agent to manage diverse central nervous system disorders. Agmatine has been shown to exert antidepressant-like effect. The present study investigated ability of agmatine to abolish the depressive-like behaviour induced by the administration of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in mice. Agmatine (20 and 40mg/kg) was administered daily for 7days, then the mice were challenged with saline or LPS (0.83mg/kg; i.p.) on the 7th day. After 24h of LPS administration we tested mice for depressive-like behaviour. LPS treated animals presented an increase in immobility time in the forced-swim test (FST), tail suspension test (TST) which was reversed by agmatine pre-treatment (20 and 40mg/kg). Oxidative/nitrosative stress evoked by LPS was ameliorated by both doses of agmatine in hippocampus (HC) and prefrontal cortex (PFC). Administration of LPS caused an increase in interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), whereas BDNF was down regulated in the HC. Agmatine pre-treatment at 40mg/kg ameliorated LPS-induced neuroinflammation by attenuating brain IL-1β and TNF-α level. In addition, agmatine pre-treatment also up-regulated the BDNF level in the HC. The present study shows that pre-treatment of agmatine is able to abolish the behavioural responses in the FST and TST elicited by the LPS-induced model of depression that may depend on the inhibition of pro-inflammatory mediators, reduction of oxidative stress as well as activation neuroplasticity-related signalling in mice, suggesting that agmatine may constitute an monotherapy/adjuvant for the management of depression associated with inflammation. PMID:27453424

  14. Celecoxib ameliorates portal hypertension of the cirrhotic rats through the dual inhibitory effects on the intrahepatic fibrosis and angiogenesis.

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    Jin-Hang Gao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Increased intra-hepatic resistance to portal blood flow is the primary factor leading to portal hypertension in cirrhosis. Up-regulated expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 in the cirrhotic liver might be a potential target to ameliorate portal hypertension. OBJECTIVE: To verify the effect of celecoxib, a selective inhibitor of COX-2, on portal hypertension and the mechanisms behind it. METHODS: Cirrhotic liver model of rat was established by peritoneal injection of thiacetamide (TAA. 36 rats were randomly assigned to control, TAA and TAA+celecoxib groups. Portal pressures were measured by introduction of catheters into portal vein. Hepatic fibrosis was assessed by the visible hepatic fibrotic areas and mRNAs for collagen III and α-SMA. The neovasculature was determined by hepatic vascular areas, vascular casts and CD31 expression. Expressions of COX-2, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR-2 and related signal molecules were quantitated. RESULTS: Compared with TAA group, the portal pressure in TAA+celecoxib group was significantly decreased by 17.8%, p<0.01. Celecoxib treatment greatly reduced the tortuous hepatic portal venules. The data of fibrotic areas, CD31expression, mRNA levels of α-SMA and collagen III in TAA+celecoxib group were much lower than those in TAA group, p<0.01. Furthermore, the up-regulation of hepatic mRNA and protein levels of VEGF, VEGFR-2 and COX-2 induced by TAA was significantly inhibited after celecoxib treatment. The expressions of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2, phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (p-ERK, hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α, and c-fos were also down-regulated after celecoxib treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Long term administration of celecoxib can efficiently ameliorate portal hypertension in TAA rat model by its dual inhibitory effects on the intrahepatic fibrosis and angiogenesis. The anti-angiogenesis effect afforded by celecoxib may attribute to its

  15. Clinical Aspects of Pregnancy-induced Amelioration of Rheumatoid Arthritis: PARA-study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y.A. de Man (Yael)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractIn this PhD thesis, embedded in the PARA (Pregnancy-induced Amelioration of Rheumatoid Arthritis) study, several clinical aspects of the spontaneously occurring pregnancy-induced improvement of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are addressed. An overview is given of inflammatory rheumatic disea

  16. [In situ immobilization of Pb and Cd in orchard soil using soil ameliorants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Min; Zhang, Jin-Zhong; Zhang, Dan; Chen, Shun; Zhang, Xun; Liu, Wan-Ping; Yu, Jian

    2012-10-01

    In situ immobilization of Pb and Cd in soil of two gardens in Golden Orchard of Chongqing was studied using soil ameliorants, which included eight treatments: control, quicklime, superphosphate, organic manure, quicklime + superphosphate, quicklime + organic manure, superphosphate + organic manure, and quicklime + superphosphate + organic manure. The results showed that all ameliorant treatments could decrease soil acidity in both the loquat garden and peach garden except the superphosphate treatment. Compared with the control, the soil pH in the two gardens increased by 0. 93 and 0. 79 with quicklime treatment for 120 d, respectively. Ameliorant treatments could decrease the bioavailability of Pb and Cd in the soil, and thus reduce the contents of Pb and Cd in the fruits. The available Pb contents in the soil of loquat garden and peach garden significantly decreased after the 150 d treatment with quicklime and superphosphate, by 3.46% and 3.56%, respectively, and the Pb contents in loquat and peach decreased by 18.3% and 14.44%, respectively. The available Cd content in the soil of loquat garden decreased by 10. 95% after the 150 d treatment with quicklime. The available Cd content in the soil of peach garden decreased by 7.09% after the 150 d treatment with quicklime, superphosphate and organic manure. Ameliorant treatments could further decrease the Cd content in loquat, and the Cd contents in loquat and peach decreased by 30.91% and 24.62% with quicklime treatment, respectively. PMID:23233990

  17. Spironolactone ameliorates transplant vasculopathy in renal chronic transplant dysfunction in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waanders, Femke; Rienstra, Heleen; Boer, Mark Walther; Zandvoort, Andre; Rozing, Jan; Navis, Gerjan; van Goor, Harry; Hillebrands, Jan-Luuk

    2009-01-01

    Waanders F, Rienstra H, Walther Boer M, Zandvoort A, Rozing J, Navis G, van Goor H, Hillebrands JL. Spironolactone ameliorates transplant vasculopathy in renal chronic transplant dysfunction in rats. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 296: F1072-F1079, 2009. First published February 25, 2009; doi:10.1152/aj

  18. EFFECTS OF AMELIORANT COMPOSITIONS ON NITROGEN MINERALIZATION AND UPTAKE BY SWEET CORN IN DEGRADED PEATLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eni Maftu’ah

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Peat soil is characterized by poor nitrogen (N availability. Ameliorants are expected to rectify this problem. This research  aimed to study the effect of ameliorant on N availability and N uptake by sweet corn plant in degraded peatland. The experiment was conducted in the greenhouse in May-July 2011 and on peatland of Kalampangan Village, Palangkaraya, Central Kalimantan in September-December 2011. Burnt peat soil of Kalampangan was used in the greenhouse experiment and sweet corn was used as an indicator plant. The treatments consisted of two factors, i.e. compositions of ameliorants by weight (A1 = 80% chicken manure + 20% dolomite; A2 = 80% local farm weed + 20% dolomite; A3 = 80% mineral soil + 20% dolomite; A4 = 20% chicken manure + 20% local farm weed + 20% residue of Chinese water chestnut (Eleocharis dulcis + 20% mineral soil + 20% dolomite; and A5 = 19% chicken manure + 71.5% mineral soil + 9.5% dolomite and rates of those ameliorants (5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 t ha-1. The experiment was arranged in a completely randomized block design with three replications. Data were collected every two weeks for five times. Observations were made on soil pH, available N (NH4+, NO3-, plant height, and N uptake in root and shoot. The results showed that  treatment A1 increased soil pH and availability of NH4+ and NO3-  in peat soils at the maximum vegetative stage. Treatment A1 provided the highest N availability and N uptake by the plant. Field experiment showed that N uptake increased  with the plant yield. Optimum yield of fresh corn cob was obtained from treatment A1 at the rate of 20 t ha-1. This research reconfirms the effectiveness of chicken manure and dolomite as peat soil ameliorant.

  19. Inhibition in multiclass classification

    OpenAIRE

    Huerta, Ramón; Vembu, Shankar; Amigó, José M.; Nowotny, Thomas; Elkan, Charles

    2012-01-01

    The role of inhibition is investigated in a multiclass support vector machine formalism inspired by the brain structure of insects. The so-called mushroom bodies have a set of output neurons, or classification functions, that compete with each other to encode a particular input. Strongly active output neurons depress or inhibit the remaining outputs without knowing which is correct or incorrect. Accordingly, we propose to use a classification function that embodies unselective inhibition and ...

  20. Simvastatin Ameliorates Matrix Stiffness-Mediated Endothelial Monolayer Disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampi, Marsha C; Faber, Courtney J; Huynh, John; Bordeleau, Francois; Zanotelli, Matthew R; Reinhart-King, Cynthia A

    2016-01-01

    Arterial stiffening accompanies both aging and atherosclerosis, and age-related stiffening of the arterial intima increases RhoA activity and cell contractility contributing to increased endothelium permeability. Notably, statins are 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors whose pleiotropic effects include disrupting small GTPase activity; therefore, we hypothesized the statin simvastatin could be used to attenuate RhoA activity and inhibit the deleterious effects of increased age-related matrix stiffness on endothelial barrier function. Using polyacrylamide gels with stiffnesses of 2.5, 5, and 10 kPa to mimic the physiological stiffness of young and aged arteries, endothelial cells were grown to confluence and treated with simvastatin. Our data indicate that RhoA and phosphorylated myosin light chain activity increase with matrix stiffness but are attenuated when treated with the statin. Increases in cell contractility, cell-cell junction size, and indirect measurements of intercellular tension that increase with matrix stiffness, and are correlated with matrix stiffness-dependent increases in monolayer permeability, also decrease with statin treatment. Furthermore, we report that simvastatin increases activated Rac1 levels that contribute to endothelial barrier enhancing cytoskeletal reorganization. Simvastatin, which is prescribed clinically due to its ability to lower cholesterol, alters the endothelial cell response to increased matrix stiffness to restore endothelial monolayer barrier function, and therefore, presents a possible therapeutic intervention to prevent atherogenesis initiated by age-related arterial stiffening.

  1. Simvastatin Ameliorates Matrix Stiffness-Mediated Endothelial Monolayer Disruption.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marsha C Lampi

    Full Text Available Arterial stiffening accompanies both aging and atherosclerosis, and age-related stiffening of the arterial intima increases RhoA activity and cell contractility contributing to increased endothelium permeability. Notably, statins are 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors whose pleiotropic effects include disrupting small GTPase activity; therefore, we hypothesized the statin simvastatin could be used to attenuate RhoA activity and inhibit the deleterious effects of increased age-related matrix stiffness on endothelial barrier function. Using polyacrylamide gels with stiffnesses of 2.5, 5, and 10 kPa to mimic the physiological stiffness of young and aged arteries, endothelial cells were grown to confluence and treated with simvastatin. Our data indicate that RhoA and phosphorylated myosin light chain activity increase with matrix stiffness but are attenuated when treated with the statin. Increases in cell contractility, cell-cell junction size, and indirect measurements of intercellular tension that increase with matrix stiffness, and are correlated with matrix stiffness-dependent increases in monolayer permeability, also decrease with statin treatment. Furthermore, we report that simvastatin increases activated Rac1 levels that contribute to endothelial barrier enhancing cytoskeletal reorganization. Simvastatin, which is prescribed clinically due to its ability to lower cholesterol, alters the endothelial cell response to increased matrix stiffness to restore endothelial monolayer barrier function, and therefore, presents a possible therapeutic intervention to prevent atherogenesis initiated by age-related arterial stiffening.

  2. Soluble epoxide hydrolase deficiency ameliorates acute pancreatitis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettaieb, Ahmed; Morisseau, Christophe; Hammock, Bruce; Haj, Fawaz

    2014-10-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a frequent gastrointestinal disorder that causes significant morbidity and its incidence has been progressively increasing. AP starts as a local inflammation in the pancreas that often leads to systemic inflammatory response and complications. Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) is a cytosolic enzyme whose inhibition in murine models has beneficial effects in inflammatory diseases, but its significance in AP remains unexplored. To investigate whether sEH may have a causal role in AP we utilized sEH knockout (KO) mice to determine the effects of sEH deficiency on ceruelin- and arginine-induced AP. sEH expression increased at the protein and messenger RNA levels, as well as sEH activity in the early phase of cerulein- and arginine-induced AP in mice. In addition, amylase and lipase levels were lower in cerulein-treated sEH KO mice compared with non-treated controls. Moreover, pancreatic mRNA and serum concentrations of the inflammatory cytokines IL-1ß and IL-6 were lower in sEH KO mice compared with controls. Further, sEH KO mice exhibited decreased cerulein- and arginine-induced NF-?B inflammatory response, MAPKs activation and decreased cell death. These findings demonstrate a novel role for sEH in the progression of cerulein- and arginine-induced AP. PMID:26461340

  3. [Copper compounds ameliorate cardiovasclur dysfunction and diabetes in animals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Hiromu

    2012-01-01

    Copper (Cu) is essential for our daily life and it is found at approximately 110 mg in human adults with the body weight of 70 kg, in which this metal occurs at 46 mg in the bone and 26 mg in the muscle. Although Cu exists in the brain (approximately 5 mg/kg), liver (6 mg/kg), kidney (13 mg/kg), erythrocytes (90 mg/L), bile (6 mg/L) and serum (120 mg/L), its organ-specific distribution is not yet known. In metalloenzymes such as oxidoreductases, Cu is abundantly found and greatly contributes in life functions. In addition, intracellular Cu transport system has been revealed in connection with iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) intracellular transport systems. In spite of such great contribution of Cu in life, no Cu-containing pharmaceutics have yet been known. Under such background, the author and his research group have tried to examine a possibility of Cu compounds as potential pharmaceutics. In the review, the following topics are concerned; (1) improvement of cardiovascular dysfunction in animals by di-nuclear Cu-asprinate complex on the basis of the results on its reactive oxygen scavenging (ROS) effect, (2) blood glucose-lowering effect of mono-nuclear Cu-picolinate complex in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type 1-like diabetic animals, based on the results on in vitro insulinomimetic activity, and (3) anti-diabetic effect of copper sulfate in animals with regard to the inhibition of α-glucosidase activity. These results suggest that copper ion and its complexes are possible seeds for developing Cu-containing pharmaceutics in the future.

  4. Peripherally administered oxytocin modulates latent inhibition in a manner consistent with antipsychotic drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feifel, D.; Shilling, P. D.; Hillman, J.; Maisel, M.; Winfield, J.; Melendez, G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Peripherally administered oxytocin (OT) has produced antipsychotic drug (APD)-like effects in animal tests that are predictive of APD efficacy. However, these effects have mainly been demonstrated using animal models of schizophrenia-like deficits in prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the startle reflex. Another schizophrenia-relevant abnormality that is the basis of a predictive animal test for APD efficacy is deficient latent inhibition (LI). LI is the normal suppression of a classically conditioned response when the subject is pre-exposed to the conditioned stimulus (CS) before it is paired with the unconditioned stimulus (UCS). Conditioned taste aversion (CTA), the normal avoidance of ingesting a food or liquid by animals when its taste is associated with an aversive experience, was used to test whether OT facilitates LI consistent with APDs. Methods Brown Norway rats, known to naturally display attenuated LI, were aversively conditioned on two consecutive exposures to flavored drinking water (0.1% saccharin) by pairing it with malaise-inducing lithium chloride injections. Concurrent with conditioning, rats received subcutaneous OT (0.02, 0.1, 0.5 mg/kg) or saline. Some rats were pre-exposed to the flavored water prior to its aversive conditioning (pre-exposed) while others were not (non pre-exposed). Two days after aversive conditioning the amount of flavored water consumed during a 20-minute session was recorded. Results As expected, LI, defined as greater consumption by pre-exposed vs. non pre-exposed rats was only weakly exhibited in Brown Norway rats and OT enhanced LI by reducing CTA in pre-exposed rats in a dose-dependent manner, with the 0.02 mg/kg dose producing the strongest effect. Conclusions The facilitation of LI by OT is consistent with the effects produced by APDs and provides further support for the notion that OT has therapeutic potential for schizophrenia. PMID:25447298

  5. SILIBININ INHIBITS ETHANOL METABOLISM AND ETHANOL-DEPENDENT CELL PROLIFERATION IN AN IN VITRO MODEL OF HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandon-Warner, Elizabeth; Sugg, James A.; Schrum, Laura W.; McKillop, Iain H.

    2009-01-01

    Chronic ethanol consumption is a known risk factor for developing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The use of plant-derived antioxidants is gaining increasing clinical prominence as a potential therapy to ameliorate the effects of ethanol on hepatic disease development and progression. This study demonstrates silibinin, a biologically active flavanoid derived from milk thistle, inhibits cytochrome p4502E1 induction, ethanol metabolism and reactive oxygen species generation in HCC cells in vitro. These silibinin-mediated effects also inhibit ethanol-dependent increases in HCC cell proliferation in culture. PMID:19900758

  6. Lactobacillus casei-01 facilitates the ameliorative effects of proanthocyanidins extracted from lotus seedpod on learning and memory impairment in scopolamine-induced amnesia mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Xiao

    Full Text Available Learning and memory abilities are associated with alterations in gut function. The two-way proanthocyanidins-microbiota interaction in vivo enhances the physiological activities of proanthocyanidins and promotes the regulation of gut function. Proanthocyanidins extracted from lotus seedpod (LSPC have shown the memory-enhancing ability. However, there has been no literature about whether Lactobacillus casei-01 (LC enhances the ameliorative effects of LSPC on learning and memory abilities. In this study, learning and memory abilities of scopolamine-induced amnesia mice were evaluated by Y-maze test after 20-day administration of LC (10(9 cfu/kg body weight (BW, LSPC (low dose was 60 mg/kg BW (L-LSPC and high dose was 90 mg/kg BW (H-LSPC, or LSPC and LC combinations (L-LSPC+LC and H-LSPC+LC. Alterations in antioxidant defense ability and oxidative damage of brain, serum and colon, and brain cholinergic system were investigated as the possible mechanisms. As a result, the error times of H-LSPC+LC group were reduced by 41.59% and 68.75% relative to those of H-LSPC and LC groups respectively. LSPC and LC combinations ameliorated scopolamine-induced memory impairment by improving total antioxidant capacity (TAOC level, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px and total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD activities of brain, serum and colon, suppressing malondialdehyde (MDA level of brain, serum and colon, and inhibiting brain acetylcholinesterase (AchE, myeloperoxidase, total nitric oxide synthase and neural nitric oxide synthase (nNOS activities, and nNOS mRNA level. Moreover, LC facilitated the ameliorative effects of H-LSPC on GSH-Px activity of colon, TAOC level, GSH-Px activity and ratio of T-SOD to MDA of brain and serum, and the inhibitory effects of H-LSPC on serum MDA level, brain nNOS mRNA level and AchE activity. These results indicated that LC promoted the memory-enhancing effect of LSPC in scopolamine-induced amnesia mice.

  7. Acute effect of insulin on guinea pig airways and its amelioration by pre-treatment with salbutamol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the magnitude of insulin-mediated airway hyper-reactivity and to explore the protective effects of salbutamol in inhibiting the insulin-induced airway hyper-responsiveness on tracheal smooth muscle of guinea pigs in vitro. Methods: The quasi-experimental study was conducted at the Pharmacology Department of Army Medical College, Rawalpindi, in collaboration with the Centre for Research in Experimental and Applied Medicine from December 2011 to July 2012. It used 18 healthy Dunkin Hartely guinea pigs of either gender. Effects of increasing concentrations of histamine (10-8-10-3M), insulin (10-8-10-3 M) and insulin pre-treated with salbutamol (10-6 M) were observed on isolated tracheal strip of guinea pig in vitro by constructing cumulative concentration response curves. The tracheal smooth muscle contractions were recorded with Transducer on Four Channel Oscillograph. Mean and standard error of mean were calculated. SPSS 16 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Histamine and insulin produced a concentration-dependent reversible contraction of isolated tracheal muscle of guinea pig. The mean of maximum amplitudes of contraction with histamine, insulin and insulin pre-treated with salbutamol were 92. 1.20 mm, 35+-1.13 mm and 14.55+-0.62 mm respectively. Salbutamol shifted the concentration response curve of insulin to the right and downwards. Conclusions: Salbutamol significantly reduced the insulin mediated airway hyper-reactivity in guinea pigs, suggesting that pre-treatment of inhaled insulin with salbutamol may have clinical implication in the amelioration of its potential respiratory adverse effects such as bronchoconstriction. (author)

  8. Propofol Ameliorates Calpain-induced Collapsin Response Mediator Protein-2 Proteolysis in Traumatic Brain Injury in Rats

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    Yun Yu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Collapsin response mediator protein-2 (CRMP2, a multifunctional cytosolic protein highly expressed in the brain, is degraded by calpain following traumatic brain injury (TBI, possibly inhibiting posttraumatic neurite regeneration. Lipid peroxidation (LP is involved in triggering postinjury CRMP2 proteolysis. We examined the hypothesis that propofol could attenuate LP, calpain-induced CRMP2 degradation, and brain injury after TBI. Methods: A unilateral moderate controlled cortical impact injury was induced in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. The animals were randomly divided into seven groups: Sham control group, TBI group, TBI + propofol groups (including propofol 1 h, 2 h, and 4 h groups, TBI + U83836E group and TBI + fat emulsion group. The LP inhibitor U83836E was used as a control to identify that antioxidation partially accounts for the potential neuroprotective effects of propofol. The solvent of propofol, fat emulsion, was used as the vehicle control. Ipsilateral cortex tissues were harvested at 24 h post-TBI. Immunofluorescent staining, Western blot analysis, and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling were used to evaluate LP, calpain activity, CRMP2 proteolysis and programmed cell death. The data were statistically analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and a paired t-test. Results: Propofol and U83836E significantly ameliorated the CRMP2 proteolysis. In addition, both propofol and U83836E significantly decreased the ratio of 145-kDa αII-spectrin breakdown products to intact 270-kDa spectrin, the 4-hydroxynonenal expression and programmed cell death in the pericontusional cortex at 24 h after TBI. There was no difference between the TBI group and the fat emulsion group. Conclusions: These results demonstrate that propofol postconditioning alleviates calpain-mediated CRMP2 proteolysis and provides neuroprotective effects following moderate TBI potentially by counteracting LP and reducing

  9. Dietary vitamin A supplementation ameliorates the effects of poly-aromatic hydrocarbons in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berntssen, Marc H G; Ørnsrud, Robin; Rasinger, Josef; Søfteland, Liv; Lock, Erik-Jan; Kolås, Kjersti; Moren, Mari; Hylland, Ketil; Silva, Joana; Johansen, Johan; Lie, Kai

    2016-06-01

    Several studies have reported on the interaction between vitamin A (VA) and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-binding toxicants, including poly-aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In aquaculture, the use of plant oils in novel aquafeeds can increase PAH levels while simultaneously lowering natural VA background levels, causing the need to supplement plant oil-based feeds with synthetic VA. To study dietary VA-PAH interactions, Atlantic salmon (initial weight 195±0.15g) were fed four identical plant-based diets that were supplemented with PAHs (100 and 10mgkg(-1) benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) and phenanthrene (Phe), respectively) or VA (retinyl acetate 8721IUkg(-1)) separately or combined for 2.5 months in a 2×2 factorial design, with triplicate net-pens per diet. Dietary PAH significantly reduced hepatic VA storage, and VA-enriched diets restored hepatic VA. There was a significant PAH-VA interaction effect on hepatic BaP, but not Phe, accumulation, with reduced hepatic BaP concentrations in fish fed VA+PAH compared to fish fed PAH alone. Concurrently, PAH and VA significantly interacted in their effects on CYP1A phase I biotransformation as observed from increased ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity, increased CYP1A protein concentration, and elevated transcription (cyp1a1 gene expression) in fish fed PAH+VA compared to PAH alone. Dietary VA supplementation alone had no significant effect on CYP1A phase I biotransformation. Metabolomic assessment showed that dietary VA caused a restoration of metabolic intermediates involved in energy metabolism that were affected by dietary PAH. Moreover, a PAH-induced growth inhibition was partially ameliorated by dietary VA supplementation. In conclusion, dietary VA interacted with PAH toxicity on the level of CYP1A-mediated detoxification, hepatic PAH accumulation, energy allocation, and growth.

  10. Apigenin ameliorates hypertension-induced cardiac hypertrophy and down-regulates cardiac hypoxia inducible factor-lα in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zeng-Yan; Gao, Tian; Huang, Yan; Xue, Jie; Xie, Mei-Lin

    2016-04-20

    Apigenin is a natural flavonoid compound that can inhibit hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α expression in cultured tumor cells under hypoxic conditions. Hypertension-induced cardiac hypertrophy is always accompanied by abnormal myocardial glucolipid metabolism due to an increase of HIF-1α. However, whether or not apigenin may ameliorate the cardiac hypertrophy and abnormal myocardial glucolipid metabolism remains unknown. This study aimed to examine the effects of apigenin. Rats with cardiac hypertrophy induced by renovascular hypertension were treated with apigenin 50-100 mg kg(-1) (the doses can be achieved by pharmacological or dietary supplementation for an adult person) by gavage for 4 weeks. The results showed that after treatment with apigenin, the blood pressure, heart weight, heart weight index, cardiomyocyte cross-sectional area, serum angiotensin II, and serum and myocardial free fatty acids were reduced. It is important to note that apigenin decreased the expression level of myocardial HIF-1α protein. Moreover, apigenin simultaneously increased the expression levels of myocardial peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) α, carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT)-1, and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK)-4 proteins and decreased the expression levels of myocardial PPARγ, glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase genes (GPAT), and glucose transporter (GLUT)-4 proteins. These findings demonstrated that apigenin could improve hypertensive cardiac hypertrophy and abnormal myocardial glucolipid metabolism in rats, and its mechanisms might be associated with the down-regulation of myocardial HIF-1α expression and, subsequently increasing the expressions of myocardial PPARα and its target genes CPT-1 and PDK-4, and decreasing the expressions of myocardial PPARγ and its target genes GPAT and GLUT-4. PMID:26987380

  11. Ameliorate Threshold Distributed Energy Efficient Clustering Algorithm for Heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOSTAFA BAGHOURI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Ameliorating the lifetime in heterogeneous wireless sensor network is an important task because the sensor nodes are limited in the resource energy. The best way to improve a WSN lifetime is the clustering based algorithms in which each cluster is managed by a leader called Cluster Head. Each other node must communicate with this CH to send the data sensing. The nearest base station nodes must also send their data to their leaders, this causes a loss of energy. In this paper, we propose a new approach to ameliorate a threshold distributed energy efficient clustering protocol for heterogeneous wireless sensor networks by excluding closest nodes to the base station in the clustering process. We show by simulation in MATLAB that the proposed approach increases obviously the number of the received packet messages and prolongs the lifetime of the network compared to TDEEC protocol.

  12. Lagenaria siceraria ameliorates atheromatous lesions by modulating HMG–CoA reductase and lipoprotein lipase enzymes activity in hypercholesterolemic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mithun Singh Rajput

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: It can be concluded that ethanolic extract of fruits of L. siceraria contains active components which ameliorates the atheromatous lesions in rat aorta and lowers the risk of atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic rats.

  13. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor ameliorates early renal injury through its anti-inflammatory action in a rat model of type 1 diabetes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •DPP-4 inhibitor decreased urinary albumin excretion in a rat of type 1 diabetes. •DPP-4 inhibitor ameliorated histlogical changes of diabetic nephropathy. •DPP-4 inhibitor has reno-protective effects through anti-inflammatory action. •DPP-4 inhibitor is beneficial on diabetic nephropathy besides lowering blood glucose. -- Abstract: Introduction: Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors are incretin-based drugs in patients with type 2 diabetes. In our previous study, we showed that glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist has reno-protective effects through anti-inflammatory action. The mechanism of action of DPP-4 inhibitor is different from that of GLP-1 receptor agonists. It is not obvious whether DPP-4 inhibitor prevents the exacerbation of diabetic nephropathy through anti-inflammatory effects besides lowering blood glucose or not. The purpose of this study is to clarify the reno-protective effects of DPP-4 inhibitor through anti-inflammatory actions in the early diabetic nephropathy. Materials and methods: Five-week-old male Sprague–Dawley (SD) rats were divided into three groups; non-diabetes, diabetes and diabetes treated with DPP-4 inhibitor (PKF275-055; 3 mg/kg/day). PKF275-055 was administered orally for 8 weeks. Results: PKF275-055 increased the serum active GLP-1 concentration and the production of urinary cyclic AMP. PKF275-055 decreased urinary albumin excretion and ameliorated histological change of diabetic nephropathy. Macrophage infiltration was inhibited, and inflammatory molecules were down-regulated by PKF275-055 in the glomeruli. In addition, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activity was suppressed in the kidney. Conclusions: These results indicate that DPP-4 inhibitor, PKF275-055, have reno-protective effects through anti-inflammatory action in the early stage of diabetic nephropathy. The endogenous biological active GLP-1 might be beneficial on diabetic nephropathy besides lowering blood glucose

  14. Melatonin ameliorates vascular endothelial dysfunction, inflammation, and atherosclerosis by suppressing the TLR4/NF-κB system in high-fat-fed rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ze-Ping; Fang, Xiao-Ling; Fang, Nan; Wang, Xiao-Bian; Qian, Hai-Yan; Cao, Zhong; Cheng, Yuan; Wang, Bang-Ning; Wang, Yuan

    2013-11-01

    Vascular endothelial dysfunction (VED) and inflammation contribute to the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis. Melatonin (MLT) normalizes lipid profile, improves endothelial function, and possesses anti-inflammatory properties. However, the precise mechanisms are still unclear. This study investigated whether MLT could ameliorate VED, inflammation, and atherosclerosis by suppressing the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)/nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) system in high-fat-fed rabbits. Rabbits were randomly divided into three groups that received a standard diet (control group), high-cholesterol diet (atherosclerosis group), or high-cholesterol diet plus 10 mg/kg/day MLT (MLT group) for 12 wk. After treatment, high-fat diet significantly increased serum lipid and inflammatory markers in rabbits in atherosclerosis group compared with that in control group. In addition, high-fat diet also induced VED and typical atherosclerotic plaque formation and increased intima/media thickness ratio, which were significantly improved by MLT therapy as demonstrated in MLT group. Histological and immunoblot analysis further showed that high-fat diet enhanced the expressions of TLR4, myeloid differentiation primary response protein (MyD88), and NF-κB p65, but decreased inhibitor of NF-κB (IκB) expression. By contrast, MLT therapy decreased the expressions of TLR4, MyD88, and NF-κB p65 and increased IκB expression. This study has demonstrated that MLT ameliorates lipid metabolism, VED, and inflammation and inhibits the progression of atherosclerosis in high-fat-fed rabbits. Moreover, our study indicates for the first time that suppression of the TLR4/NF-κB system in local vasculature with atherosclerotic damage is important for the protective effects of MLT.

  15. Eplerenone ameliorates the phenotypes of metabolic syndrome with NASH in liver-specific SREBP-1c Tg mice fed high-fat and high-fructose diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Tsutomu; Miyashita, Yusuke; Sasaki, Motohiro; Aruga, Yusuke; Nakamura, Yuto; Ishii, Yoko; Sasahara, Masakiyo; Kanasaki, Keizo; Kitada, Munehiro; Koya, Daisuke; Shimano, Hitoshi; Tsuneki, Hiroshi; Sasaoka, Toshiyasu

    2013-12-01

    Because the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system has been implicated in the development of insulin resistance and promotion of fibrosis in some tissues, such as the vasculature, we examined the effect of eplerenone, a selective mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonist, on nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and metabolic phenotypes in a mouse model reflecting metabolic syndrome in humans. We adopted liver-specific transgenic (Tg) mice overexpressing the active form of sterol response element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) fed a high-fat and fructose diet (HFFD) as the animal model in the present study. When wild-type (WT) C57BL/6 and liver-specific SREBP-1c Tg mice grew while being fed HFFD for 12 wk, body weight and epididymal fat weight increased in both groups with an elevation in blood pressure and dyslipidemia. Glucose intolerance and insulin resistance were also observed. Adipose tissue hypertrophy and macrophage infiltration with crown-like structure formation were also noted in mice fed HFFD. Interestingly, the changes noted in both genotypes fed HFFD were significantly ameliorated with eplerenone. HFFD-fed Tg mice exhibited the histological features of NASH in the liver, including macrovesicular steatosis and fibrosis, whereas HFFD-fed WT mice had hepatic steatosis without apparent fibrotic changes. Eplerenone effectively ameliorated these histological abnormalities. Moreover, the direct suppressive effects of eplerenone on lipopolysaccharide-induced TNFα production in the presence and absence of aldosterone were observed in primary-cultured Kupffer cells and bone marrow-derived macrophages. These results indicated that eplerenone prevented the development of NASH and metabolic abnormalities in mice by inhibiting inflammatory responses in both Kupffer cells and macrophages.

  16. Melatonin ameliorates vascular endothelial dysfunction, inflammation, and atherosclerosis by suppressing the TLR4/NF-κB system in high-fat-fed rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ze-Ping; Fang, Xiao-Ling; Fang, Nan; Wang, Xiao-Bian; Qian, Hai-Yan; Cao, Zhong; Cheng, Yuan; Wang, Bang-Ning; Wang, Yuan

    2013-11-01

    Vascular endothelial dysfunction (VED) and inflammation contribute to the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis. Melatonin (MLT) normalizes lipid profile, improves endothelial function, and possesses anti-inflammatory properties. However, the precise mechanisms are still unclear. This study investigated whether MLT could ameliorate VED, inflammation, and atherosclerosis by suppressing the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)/nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) system in high-fat-fed rabbits. Rabbits were randomly divided into three groups that received a standard diet (control group), high-cholesterol diet (atherosclerosis group), or high-cholesterol diet plus 10 mg/kg/day MLT (MLT group) for 12 wk. After treatment, high-fat diet significantly increased serum lipid and inflammatory markers in rabbits in atherosclerosis group compared with that in control group. In addition, high-fat diet also induced VED and typical atherosclerotic plaque formation and increased intima/media thickness ratio, which were significantly improved by MLT therapy as demonstrated in MLT group. Histological and immunoblot analysis further showed that high-fat diet enhanced the expressions of TLR4, myeloid differentiation primary response protein (MyD88), and NF-κB p65, but decreased inhibitor of NF-κB (IκB) expression. By contrast, MLT therapy decreased the expressions of TLR4, MyD88, and NF-κB p65 and increased IκB expression. This study