Sample records for amebiasis

  1. Cutaneous amebiasis in pediatrics. (United States)

    Magaña, Mario L; Fernández-Díez, Jorge; Magaña, Mario


    Cutaneous amebiasis (CA), which is still a health problem in developing countries, is important to diagnose based on its clinical and histopathologic features. Retrospective medical record review of 26 patients with CA (22 adults and 4 children) treated from 1955 to 2005 was performed. In addition to the age and sex of the patients, the case presentation, associated illness or factors, and method of establishing the diagnosis, clinical pictures and microscopic slides were also analyzed. Cutaneous amebiasis always presents with painful ulcers. The ulcers are laden with amebae, which are relatively easy to see microscopically with routine stains. Erythrophagocytosis is an unequivocal sign of CA. Amebae reach the skin via 2 mechanisms: direct and indirect. Amebae are able to reach the skin if there is a laceration (port of entry) and if conditions in the patient are favorable. Amebae are able to destroy tissues by means of their physical activity, phagocytosis, enzymes, secretagogues, and other molecules.

  2. [Amebiasis. Surgical treatment in 1989]. (United States)

    Sigler Morales, L; Mier y Díaz, J; Melgoza Ortiz, C; Blanco Benavides, R; Medina González, E


    Even when the number of patients with invasive amebiasis has decreased, the internist and surgeon must be alert in case that the patient requires an operation. Amebic liver abscess is treated medically; percutaneous evacuation is rarely used and surgical drainage is made when there is not response to medical treatment or there is high risk of abscess rupture. Operation is mandatory when the abscess has ruptured to the abdominal cavity or through the pericardial sac. In fulminant colitis it is necessary to resect the diseased portion of the colon without primary anastomoses. Amebic apendicitis is difficult to diagnosis before an operation. It may be suspected in cases of apendicitis if the cecal wall is inflammed. Colon ameboma requires medical treatment except if it is associated with necrosis or perforation. In a four year period (1985-1988) 294 patients with diagnosis of invasive amebiasis were admitted to three hospitals of the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social in Mexico City. 218 had hepatic abscess, 45 required surgical drainage with four deaths (9%) and four not operated patients died. In this series only four patients had their abscess drained percutaneously. 31 patients with amebic colitis were treated; three required colonic resection with one death. Ameboma was seen in five patients and there were 11 cases of amebic apendicitis. No deaths occurred in these last two groups.

  3. Amebiasis (United States)

    ... the intestines. It is caused by the parasite Entamoeba histolytica . ... Petri WA, Haque R. Entamoeba species, including amebic colitis and liver abscess. In: Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ, eds. Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's Principles ...

  4. Amebiasis (United States)


    of the parasite by antigen detection or PCR may be the best approach, although PCR techniques remain impractical in many developing countries.5,43,44...unstained halo-like space, an appearance that is useful in detecting cysts while scanning the fecal smear (Fig 8.5). The mature cyst con- tains 4...corticosteroids.5 The differential diagnosis of diarrhea with hematochezia includes Shigella, Salmonella, Campylobacter , and entero- invasive and

  5. Primary Pulmonary Amebiasis Complicated with Multicystic Empyema

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    Ali Zakaria


    Full Text Available Amebiasis is a parasitic infection caused by the protozoan Entamoeba histolytica. While most infections are asymptomatic, the disease could manifest clinically as amebic dysentery and/or extraintestinal invasion in the form of amebic liver abscess or other more rare manifestations such as pulmonary, cardiac, or brain involvement. Herein we are reporting a case of a 24-year-old male with history of Down syndrome who presented with severe right side pneumonia complicated with multicystic empyema resistant to regular medical therapy. Further investigation revealed a positive pleural fluid for E. histolytica cysts and trophozoites. The patient was diagnosed with primary pleuropulmonary amebiasis and he responded promptly to surgical drainage and metronidazole therapy. In patients from endemic areas all physicians should keep a high index of suspicion of amebiasis as a cause of pulmonary disease.

  6. Entamoeba Encystation: New Targets to Prevent the Transmission of Amebiasis. (United States)

    Mi-Ichi, Fumika; Yoshida, Hiroki; Hamano, Shinjiro


    Amebiasis is caused by Entamoeba histolytica infection and can produce a broad range of clinical signs, from asymptomatic cases to patients with obvious symptoms. The current epidemiological and clinical statuses of amebiasis make it a serious public health problem worldwide. The Entamoeba life cycle consists of the trophozoite, the causative agent for amebiasis, and the cyst, the form responsible for transmission. These two stages are connected by "encystation" and "excystation." Hence, developing novel strategies to control encystation and excystation will potentially lead to new measures to block the transmission of amebiasis by interrupting the life cycle of the causative agent. Here, we highlight studies investigating encystation using inhibitory chemicals and categorize them based on the molecules inhibited. We also present a perspective on new strategies to prevent the transmission of amebiasis.

  7. Amebiasis: Epidemiología y Tratamiento

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    Alberto Albornoz Plata


    Full Text Available


    El concepto que se tenía hace varios años de “Enfermedades Tropicales” (se pensaba en un tipo de medicina exótica, como se llamaban en Europa, la malaria y amebiasis ha cambiado totalmente en la actualidad y específicamente para la amebiasis en el sentido de considerarla como enfermedad universal a la que puede ser susceptible cualquier ser humano que viva en cualquier sitio del mundo. Actualmente esta parasitosis cobra especial interés por los estudios inmunológicos, enzimáticos, epidemiológicos, metabólicos y terapéuticos que se desarrollan en centros muy especializados y se supone, con fundamento lógico, que no estará lejos el día en que se disponga de una vacuna eficaz contra esta enfermedad que ataca a muchas gentes, es causa de ausentismo al trabajo, incapacita por períodos largos a muchos pacientes por la complicación hepática y muchas veces es causa de mortalidad en los llamados casos de amebiasis invasora-fulminante.

    En este escrito solo se explicará lo referen te al aspecto epidemiológico y preventivo y, además, se hará énfasis para combatir ideas diagnósticas equivocadas con la entidad colon irritable.

    Al final se explicará el tratamiento actual de la amebiasis.

    Prevalencia y Susceptibilidad
    La amebiasis se considera como una enfermedad mundial, pero la mayor frecuencia es en aquellos lugares en donde las condiciones higiénicas ambientales son defectuosas, en especial lo referente al correcto suministro de agua potable, al buen tratamiento de las excretas y al control sanitario de los alimentos; por este motivo, en los países sub-desarrollados, o mejor subprivilegiados, y en las clases socio-económicas débiles, es donde más se encunetra esta enfermedad.

    Se ha calculado que en el mundo, el 20%de la población alberga la Endamoeba histolytica (l pero la gran mayoría no se consideran enfermos ya que son simplemente

  8. [Amebiasis and amebic liver abscess in Mexico: a present-day public health problem]. (United States)

    Escandón Romero, C; García Manzo, N T; Escobedo de la Peña, J; Hernández Ramos, J M; Olvera Alvarez, J; Cabral Soto, J


    Amebiasis still remains as a major public health problem in the world. It is one of the most common reasons for medical consult. There are more than half a million cases of amebiasis just at the Mexican Institute of the Social Security. There is still a lack of epidemiologic information on amebiasis in Mexico. To describe the secular trend fro amebiasis and for amebic liver abscess in the Mexican population, as well as in those covered by IMSS Solidaridad. An ecologic trend study was carried on. Incidence rate of amebiasis in all of its forms of presentation, and of amebic liver abscess, were plotted against each year for the 1986-1994 period. Amebiasis incidence in all of its forms of presentation showed a stable trend in this period, as it was seen with amebic liver abscess. Amebiasis is more common in the first years of life. On the contrary, amebic liver abscess showed an inverted 'J' pattern; its occurrence is higher in the extreme years of life. Fatality rates have shown a descendent trend. Amebiasis reflects socioeconomic conditions in Mexico and the fact that Mexican is still an endless culture. There is a need to promote health education, better diagnostic procedures and detection of asymptomatic carriers. Health policies for mothers that are asymptomatic carriers should be reviewed, due to the high rates of amebiasis and amebic liver abscess in children under one year of age.

  9. [Colonic amebiasis due to venereal transmission. Apropos of 2 cases]. (United States)

    Meunier, Y; Branchereau, B; Nozais, J P; Danis, M; Gentilini, M


    Intestinal amebiasis is an ubiquitous disease which is hyperendemic among high promiscuity homosexual males living under temperate climates. Sexual behaviour, especially oroanal contacts which are common in this population, as well as the multiplicity and sometimes anonymity of partners are responsible for this high prevalence. Individual prophylaxis involves local hygiene before intercourse and a decrease in the number of sexual contacts with different partners. Community prophylaxis is essential and consists in information of general practitioners and "gays" about the different means of transmission of amebiasis, its clinical manifestations and the necessity of routine parasitological stool examinations at regular intervals. We report on two cases and discuss these various considerations in the light of data from the literature.

  10. Extra-intestinal amebiasis: clinical presentation in a non-endemic setting

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    Thorsen, S; Rønne-Rasmussen, J; Petersen, E


    37/38 patients with reciprocal titers > or = 512 against Entamoeba histolytica in Denmark over a 5-year period were evaluated retrospectively in order to establish the clinical profile of extra-intestinal amebiasis in a non-endemic area. 24 of these had extra-intestinal amebiasis, all presenting 1...

  11. Immune Response of Amebiasis and Immune Evasion by Entamoeba histolytica (United States)

    Nakada-Tsukui, Kumiko; Nozaki, Tomoyoshi


    Entamoeba histolytica is a protozoan parasite and the causative agent of amebiasis. It is estimated approximately 1% of humans are infected with E. histolytica, resulting in an estimate of 100,000 deaths annually. Clinical manifestations of amebic infection range widely from asymptomatic to severe symptoms, including dysentery and extra-intestinal abscesses. Like other infectious diseases, it is assumed that only ~20% of infected individuals develop symptoms, and genetic factors of both the parasite and humans as well as the environmental factors, e.g., microbiota, determine outcome of infection. There are multiple essential steps in amebic infection: degradation of and invasion into the mucosal layer, adherence to the intestinal epithelium, invasion into the tissues, and dissemination to other organs. While the mechanisms of invasion and destruction of the host tissues by the amebae during infection have been elucidated at the molecular levels, it remains largely uncharacterized how the parasite survive in the host by evading and attacking host immune system. Recently, the strategies for immune evasion by the parasite have been unraveled, including immunomodulation to suppress IFN-γ production, elimination of immune cells and soluble immune mediators, and metabolic alterations against reactive oxygen and nitrogen species to fend off the attack from immune system. In this review, we summarized the latest knowledge on immune reaction and immune evasion during amebiasis. PMID:27242782

  12. Towards the establishment of a porcine model to study human amebiasis.

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    Fabienne Girard-Misguich

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Entamoeba histolytica is an important parasite of the human intestine. Its life cycle is monoxenous with two stages: (i the trophozoite, growing in the intestine and (ii the cyst corresponding to the dissemination stage. The trophozoite in the intestine can live as a commensal leading to asymptomatic infection or as a tissue invasive form producing mucosal ulcers and liver abscesses. There is no animal model mimicking the whole disease cycle. Most of the biological information on E. histolytica has been obtained from trophozoite adapted to axenic culture. The reproduction of intestinal amebiasis in an animal model is difficult while for liver amebiasis there are well-described rodent models. During this study, we worked on the assessment of pigs as a new potential model to study amebiasis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We first co-cultured trophozoites of E. histolytica with porcine colonic fragments and observed a disruption of the mucosal architecture. Then, we showed that outbred pigs can be used to reproduce some lesions associated with human amebiasis. A detailed analysis was performed using a washed closed-jejunal loops model. In loops inoculated with virulent amebas a severe acute ulcerative jejunitis was observed with large hemorrhagic lesions 14 days post-inoculation associated with the presence of the trophozoites in the depth of the mucosa in two out four animals. Furthermore, typical large sized hepatic abscesses were observed in the liver of one animal 7 days post-injection in the portal vein and the liver parenchyma. CONCLUSIONS: The pig model could help with simultaneously studying intestinal and extraintestinal lesion development.

  13. Invasive amebiasis. (United States)

    Grecu, F; Bulgariu, Teodora; Blanaru, Oana; Dragomir, C; Lunca, Claudia; Stratan, I; Manciuc, Carmen; Luca, V


    Digestive amoebiasis with his invasive form is an unusual pathology encountered in the temperate zone. This could lead to a life threatening complication: systemic amoebiasis. A 55-year-old male was treated successfully of systemic amoebiasis in a third referral hospital. The diagnosis was established based on epidemiology data and microscopical identification of trophozoites of Entamoeba histolytica. The amoebicidal, antibiotic and supportive treatments was firstly administrated. The clinical picture of intestinal amoebiasis raised from dysenteric syndrome to necrotizing enteritis. The bowel perforation with localized peritonitis was followed by chronic enteric fistula. Amoebic liver abscess, as the most frequent extraintestinal complication, was concomitantly diagnosed and treated. Urinary amoebiasis was considered as complication in the context of systemic dissemination: any other location could become a site of an amoebic abscess. Multidisciplinary approach was the successful key in the management of the patient, including antiparasitic therapy and antibiotic prophylaxis, intensive care and multiple surgical approaches. The diagnosis of digestive amoebiasis and systemic complication may be delayed in nonendemic areas, leading to advanced and complicated stages of the disease. The surgical approach is most efficiently to treat a large liver amoebic abscess and intraperitoneal collections.

  14. Evaluation of an immunoblot methodology for the detection of relevant Entamoeba histolytica antigens by antibodies induced in human amebiasis. (United States)

    Argüello-García, R; Sánchez-Guillén, M C; Garduño, G; Valadez-Salazar, A; Martínez-García, M C; Muñoz, O; Ortega-Pierres, M G


    The complexity of the clinical spectrum in human amebiasis and the high variability in laboratory methods used to detect Entamoeba histolytica infections have impeded the collection and evaluation of reliable epidemiological data. Thus, more sensitive, specific and standardized methods are needed in order to accurately identify infections with this parasite. An important step in the development of serological diagnostic methods is the identification and isolation of specific parasite antigens which are immunogenic in the host. In this work, we have standardized an electroimmunotransfer blot technique to characterize E. histolytica antigens recognized by antibodies present during human amebic infections. An important aspect was an investigation of technical variations in the preparation of cell lysates including the use of different protease inhibitors and solubilizing agents. The highest yield of protein was achieved by homogenization of trophozoites in the presence of 10 mM p-hydroxymercuribenzoate (pHMB) as a protease inhibitor and by lysis using Triton X-100 and a mixture of protease inhibitors. Recovery of degraded vs non-degraded proteins in the cell extracts was evaluated by gradient polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Both quantitative and qualitative differences were noted between the different methods of preparing soluble cell extracts. A more complete set of antigenic components was obtained by homogenization and use of pHMB. Thus parasite extracts prepared by this method were selected for protein transfer. In this, the optimal protein concentration was of 120 micrograms of protein per cm of gel width and efficient transfer of proteins to nitrocellulose sheets was achieved at 100 V for 2 hrs and at 4 degrees C.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Amebiasis (For Parents) (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  16. Suburban amoebiasis. CT and US findings and percutaneous treatment of amoebic liver abscess; Amebiasi sub-urbana: aspetti diagnostici con tomografia computerizzata ed ecografia e trattamento percutaneo degli ascessi amebici del fegato

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    Salzano, A.; De Rosa, A. [Ospedale Loreto Mare, Naples (Italy). Servizio di Radiologia; Rossi, E.; Carbone, M.; Mondillo, F. [Naples Univ. II, Naples (Italy).Dipt. di Scienze Biomorfologiche e Funzionali, Servizio di Diagnostica per Immagini; Tuccillo, M. [Azienda Ospedaliera di Rilievo Nazionale A. Cardarelli, Naples (Italy). Servizio di Radiologia; Capuano, N. [Ospedale Loreto Mare, Naples (Italy). Div. di Chirurgia; Nunziata, A. [Naples Univ. II, Naples (Italy). Ist. di Radiologia


    The study reports ultrasonography and computerise tomography findings in 16 patients with amoebic abscesses, 12 of whom lived in a temperate peripheral area north-east of Naples (Italy). All patients have a clinical-diagnostic condition called sub-urban amoebiasis. The personal experience with the US guided therapeutic drainage of amoebic abscess with repeated cavity washing, which is important for positive parasitology. Combined US and CT assessment facilitated the diagnosis of amoebiasis and its differentiation from pyogenic abscess and hepatoma. [Italian] La colonizzazione epatica rappresenta la localizzazione piu' comune dell'amebiasi extraintestinale e gli ascessi epatici ne costituiscono la manifestazione piu' frequente sviluppandosi nel 3-9 % dei pazienti affetti da infezione parassitaria. Diversi studi confermano che la terapia medica dell'amebiasi risulta piu' efficace quando viene associato il drenaggio percutaneo degli ascessi epatici con piu' rapida guarigione clinica e risposta favorevole dell'organismo. Scopo del presente lavoro e' di descrivere gli aspetti ecografici e di tomografia computerizzata degli ascessi amebici in un gruppo di 16 pazienti, 12 dei quali residenti in zona temperata e periferica di una vasta area a nord-est di Napoli presentandosi con caratteristico e raro quadro clinico-diagnostico definito amebiasi sub-urbana. Si discute infine l'esperienza personale del drenaggio terapeutico sotto guida ecografica dell'ascesso con tecnica del lavaggio ripetuto dalla cavita', importante ai fini della positivita' dell'esame. L'associazione dei reperti tipici ecografici e TC ha consentito la diagnosi agevole dell'amebiasi differenziandola dall'ascesso piogenico e dall'epatoma.

  17. Estudio seroepidemiologico de la amibiasis en una comunidad del estado Zulia, Venezuela A seroepidemiological study of amebiasis in a community of Zulia State, Venezuela

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    Leonor Chacin-Bonilla


    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio seroepidemiologico de amibiasis en una comunidad de bajas condiciones socioeconómicas del Municipio Mara, Estado Zulia, Venezuela. Se estudiaron 283 individuos cuyas edades fluctuaron de 2 a 53 años. Se obtuvieron muestras de sueros, las cuales se examinaron con la prueba de hemaglutinación indirecta de KESSEL et al., según una modificación de MILGRAM et al. Se utilizó antígeno amibiano obtenido de cultivos axénicos de la raza HK9 de E. histolytica. La tasa de seropositividad obtenida fué de 46.6%; la mayoría de los reactores tenía títulos bajos y no presentaba signos de amibiasis. El porcentaje de seropositividad aumentó con la edad. Los resultados sugieren una alta endemicidad de la infección en esta comunidad, ocurriendo la transmisión con mucha mayor frecuencia que la amibiasis invasiva.In the present evaluation, a community of low socioeconomical conditions from Zulia State, Venezuela, was analyzed for the prevalence of antibodies to E. histolytica. Two hundred and eighty three serum samples were collected and examined by the indirect hemagglutination test according to a microtiter modification of the KESSEL and LEWIS method, as used by MILGRAM et al. Antigen prepared from axenically-grown. E. histolytica strain HK9 in Diamond's medium was used. The seropositivity rate obtained was 46.6% and the frequency of positive cases was dependent on age. The antibody profiles obtained suggest a high endemicity for this parasitic infection in the area studied, with a much higher level of transmission than invasive amebiasis.

  18. Laboratory diagnosis of amebiasis in a sample of students from southeastern Brazil and a comparison of microscopy with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for screening of infections with Entamoeba sp.

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    Valeriana Valadares Pereira


    Full Text Available Introduction: Epidemiological studies on amebiasis have been reassessed since Entamoeba histolytica and E. dispar were first recognized as distinct species. Because the morphological similarity of these species renders microscopic diagnosis unreliable, additional tools are required to discriminate between Entamoeba species. The objectives of our study were to compare microscopy with ELISA kit (IVD® results, to diagnose E. histolytica infection, and to determine the prevalence of amebiasis in a sample of students from southeastern Brazil. Methods: In this study, diagnosis was based on microscopy due to its capacity for revealing potential cysts/trophozoites and on two commercial kits for antigen detection in stool samples. Results: For 1,403 samples collected from students aged 6 to 14 years who were living in Divinópolis, Minas Gerais, Brazil, microscopy underestimated the number of individuals infected with E. histolytica/E. dispar (5.7% prevalence compared with the ELISA kit (IVD®-based diagnoses (15.7% for E. histolytica/E. dispar. A comparison of the ELISA (IVD® and light microscopy results returned a 20% sensitivity, 97% specificity, low positive predictive value, and high negative predictive value for microscopy. An ELISA kit (TechLab® that was specific for E. histolytica detected a 3.1% (43/1403 prevalence for E. histolytica infection. Conclusions: The ELISA kit (IVD® can be used as an alternative screening tool. The high prevalence of E. histolytica infection detected in this study warrants the implementation of actions directed toward health promotion and preventive measures.

  19. Amebic liver abscess (United States)

    Hepatic amebiasis; Extraintestinal amebiasis; Abscess - amebic liver ... Amebic liver abscess is caused by Entamoeba histolytica. This parasite causes amebiasis , an intestinal infection that is also called ...


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    Kiap Sahab


    Full Text Available Mikro indirek hemagglutinasi test dengan antigen axenik dari Entamoeba histolytica telah dipakai untuk mendapatkan zat2 anti amuba dalam sera dari 15 kasus abses hati yang pasti dan 4 kasus yang tidak pasti, 13 kasus disenteri amubawi akuta, 6 kasus colitis amur.awi chronis, satu asymptomatik carrier, 39 pasien yang menderita penyakit! lain dari 43 donor darah. Sera dari abses hati terdapat 100 per sen positif untuk zat anti amuba sedangkan sera dari orang2 dengan colitis amubawi chronis dan sera dari kasus disenteri amubawi akuta terdapat positif dalam urutan 50 dan 15 persen. Titer dari sera abses hati berkisar antara 1 : 128 dan 1 : 4096 dan titer dari sera amubiasis intestinalis yang positif adalah 1 : 128. Dari kedua kontrol grup tidak terdapat zat2 anti dengan titer lebih dari 1 : 64 (tabel 1 dan 2. Dari penyelidikan ini dapat diambil kesimpulan bahwa test indirek hemagglutinasi test dapat dipakai untuk occult invasive amubiasis bila metoda.2 yang lazim gagal menemukan parasit.

  1. Extra-intestinal amebiasis: clinical presentation in a non-endemic setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, S; Rønne-Rasmussen, J; Petersen, E


    or more amebic liver abscesses on ultrasonography. Fever was the most common finding, present in 91% of the cases. The most striking observation was the lack of both abdominal pain and tenderness in 22% of the patients with liver abscess. Pulmonary symptoms and abnormal chest X-rays were each recorded...... in 45% of the cases. Liver abscesses with or without pulmonary involvement were the only extra-intestinal manifestations recorded. The condition was initially misconceived in more than half the cases, but most of the patients responded well once treatment with metronidazole was started....

  2. Seroepidemiology of amebiasis in the Orang Asli (Western Malaysian aborigine) and other Malaysians. (United States)

    Gilman, R H; Davis, C; Gan, E; Bolton, M


    The indirect hemagglutination test was used to study antibody titers to Entamoeba histolytica in different Malaysian populations. Eighty-seven percent of Orang Asli (western Malaysian aborigines) adults and 79% of Orang Asli children with acute amebic dysentery were seropositive. However, significantly fewer children (39%) with amebic dysentery had high titer responses (titer greater than or equal to 1:1,280) than did adults with amebic dysentery (76%). No correlation between proctoscopic severity and amebic titer was found. Forty-four percent of asymptomatic family members were seroresponders. Satak, an Orang Asli village located near towns, had significantly more seroresponders (32%) than did the isolated, deep jungle village, Belatim (4%).

  3. Comparison of Azithromycin and Ciprofloxacin in treating adults\\\\\\' acute non amebiasis dysenter

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    Azadeh Erahimzadeh


    Results: Out of 84 patients, shigella was diagnosed in 41 (48.8%, 18 patients of whom (43.9% had been treated with azitromycin and 23 cases (56.1% had received ciprofloxacin .In 14 samples (16.7% other microbes had grown (e.g. Salmonella, Campylobacter jejuni, Escherichia Coli. Antibiogram of 55 patients showed that 32 (58.2% of them were sensitive to ciprofloxacin and 41 subjects (74.5% to azitromycin .On the third day of treatment the clinical response of the patients was assessed through their probable fever and diarrhea .It was found that 29 cases (93.5% in azitromycin group and 31 patients (88.5% in ciprofloxacin group were a febrile. Thus, no significant difference between the two groups was observed (P=0.6. Conclusion: The present study proved that Azitromycin and Ciprofloxacin have the same efficacy in treating non-amoebic dysentery

  4. Amebiasis presenting as acute appendicitis: Report of a case and review of Japanese literature

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    Daisuke Ito


    CONCLUSION: We report a case of acute amebic appendicitis in a 31-year-old woman and review the ages at presentation, causative factors, treatments, and outcomes of 11 cases reported in Japan between 1995 and 2013.

  5. Importancia de las prostaglandinas en la amibiasis hepática The importance of prostaglandins in hepatic amebiasis

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    Blanca Sánchez-Ramírez


    Full Text Available Las prostaglandinas son importantes mediadores inflamatorios, pero también desempeñan un papel importante como reguladoras de las funciones de los linfocitos y los macrófagos. La inoculación por vía intrahepática o intraportal de trofozoitos viables de Entamoeba histolytica en hámsteres se caracteriza por una rápida respuesta inflamatoria aguda, en la cual los trofozoitos amibianos se ven rodeados sucesivamente por leucocitos polimorfonucleares, linfocitos y macrófagos. La incapacidad de estas células para contrarrestar la invasión amibiana ha sido demostrada en varios estudios. La prostaglandina E2 (PGE2 tiene potentes efectos sobre las células de la respuesta inmune; su participación durante la formación del absceso hepático se reportó recientemente. En este artículo hacemos una revisión de los hallazgos de los últimos años en relación con el estudio de los mediadores bioquímicos de la inflamación durante la infección con E. histolytica, y su posible participación en el establecimiento de la respuesta inmune en el huésped.Prostaglandins are important mediators of inflammation; they also play a role in the regulation of both lymphocyte and macrophage functions. Hamster's liver lesions resulting from intraportal or intrahepatic inoculation of living Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites are characterized by an acute inflammatory response, where trophozoites are successively surrounded by polymorphonuclear leukocytes, lymphocytes, and macrophages. Incapability of these cells to counteract amebic invasion has been demonstrated in some studies. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 has potent effects on immune cells; its participation in amebic liver abscess has been reported recently. This paper presents a review of recent discoveries on biochemical mediators produced during inflammation due to Entamoeba histolytica infection, and their possible role in establishing the host's immune response.

  6. Epizootic amebiasis outbreak in wild black howler monkeys (Alouatta caraya in a wildlife facility during captivity prior to translocation - Recommendations to wildlife management programs

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    Alexander Genoy-Puerto


    Full Text Available Óbitos por infecções causadas por protozoários intestinais são indesejáveis para programas de manejo de fauna, exigidos no âmbito do licenciamento ambiental e que demandam a captura e quarentena de primatas não humanos. Exames coproparasitológicos, necroscópicos, microbiológicos e moleculares foram utilizados para a confirmação do diagnóstico de uma severa enterite necrótica que levou a óbito três fêmeas e dois machos de Alouatta (A. caraya capturados e mantidos em quarentena prévia à translocação. Exames coproparasitológicos revelaram a presença de cistos de Entamoeba (E. histolytica/dispar (5/5, Entamoeba (E. coli (5/5 e Giardia (G. duodenalis (1/5. A avaliação necroscópica revelou áreas de necrose multifocal severa na mucosa e submucosa intestinal. A análise microscópica revelou a presença de estruturas morfologicamente compatíveis com trofozoítos do gênero Entamoeba spp. em todos os indivíduos examinados. Além disso, G. duodenalis (1/5 foi demonstrada pela técnica de Nested PCR. Sugere-se que quando for necessário o cativeiro temporário de primatas, deverão ser adotados protocolos de manejo adequados buscando a destinação imediata dos animais, de moto a mitigar os efeitos negativos do estresse e reduzir o risco da ocorrência de infecções.

  7. Gene migration for re-emerging amebiasis in Iran's northwest-Iraq borders: a microevolutionary scale for reflecting epidemiological drift of Entamoeba histolytica metapopulations. (United States)

    Mohammadzadeh, Asad; Spotin, Adel; Mahami-Oskouei, Mahmoud; Haghighi, Ali; Zebardast, Nozhat; Kohansal, Kobra


    In the microevolutionary scales of Entamoeba isolates, the gene migration shows how Entamoeba spp. has epidemiologically drifted among border countries. Five hundred fecal samples were taken from patients suffering gastrointestinal disorders, abdominal pain, and diarrhea at Saggez, northwest Iran located within the border Iraq country. Following parasitological techniques, DNA samples were extracted and amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of 18S rRNA region to identify Entamoeba infections. To distinguish the Entamoeba spp., a multiplex PCR was conducted. Amplicons were sequenced to reconfirm their heterogeneity traits and phylogenetic analysis. Additionally, Entamoeba histolytica sequences of Iraq were retrieved from GenBank database. The suspected isolates were diagnosed as E. histolytica (2.2 %), Entamoeba moshkovskii (1 %), and Entamoeba dispar (0.4 %). Mixed Entamoeba infections did not detect among isolates. A parsimonious network of the sequence haplotypes displayed star-like features in the overall isolates containing E.h1, E.d2, and E.m3 as the most common haplotypes. According to analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) test, high partial value of haplotype diversity (0.700 to 0.800) of E. histolytica was shown the total genetic variability within populations while nucleotide diversity was low among Iranian and Iraqi metapopulations. Neutrality indices of the 18S rRNA were shown negative values in E. histolytica populations which indicating significant deviations from neutrality. A pairwise fixation index (F-statistics [Fst]) as a degree of gene flow had a low value for all populations (0.001) while the number of migrants was 2.48. The statistically Fst value indicates that E. histolytica isolates are not genetically differentiated among shared isolates of Iran and Iraq. Occurrence of E.h1 between two regional populations indicates that there is dawn of Entamoeba flow due to transfer of alleles from one population to another population through host mobility and ecological alterations. To evaluate the hypothetical evolutionary scenario, further study is required to analyze Entamoeba spp. in the neighboring Middle East countries.

  8. Prevalence of Entamoeba histolytica , Giardia lamblia , and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: The intestinal protozoa Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia, and Cryptosporidium spp. are the causative agents of giardiasis, amebiasis, and cryptosporidiosis, respectively. Adequate knowledge of the geographical distribution of parasites and the demographic variables that influence their prevalence is ...

  9. Tinidazole (United States)

    Tinidazole is used to treat trichomoniasis (a sexually transmitted disease that can affect men and women), giardiasis (an infection of the intestine that can cause diarrhea, gas, and stomach cramps), and amebiasis (an infection of the intestine that can ...

  10. Laboratory methods of identification of Entamoeba histolytica and its differentiation from look-alike Entamoeba spp.


    Parija, Subhash Chandra; Mandal, Jharna; Ponnambath, Dinoop Korol


    Entamoeba histolytica, the causative agent of intestinal and extraintestinal amebiasis, is a common parasitic cause of significant morbidity and mortality in the developing countries. Hence, early detection and differentiation of pathogenic E. histolytica from nonpathogenic/commensal Entamoeba spp (Entamoeba dispar/Entamoeba moshkovskii/Entamoeba bangladeshi) plays a crucial role in clinical management of patients with amebiasis. Most diagnostic tests currently available do not reliably diffe...

  11. First case of amebic liver abscess 22 years after the first occurrence

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    Nespola Benoît


    Full Text Available A 72-year-old man consulted in November 2012 for abdominal pain in the right upper quadrant. The patient had a history of suspected hepatic amebiasis treated in Senegal in 1985 and has not traveled to endemic areas since 1990. Abdominal CT scan revealed a liver abscess. At first, no parasitological tests were performed and the patient was treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics. Only after failure of this therapy, serology and PCR performed after liver abscess puncture established the diagnosis of hepatic amebiasis. The patient was treated with metronidazole and tiliquinol-tilbroquinol. Amebic liver abscess is the most frequent extra-intestinal manifestation. Hepatic amebiasis 22 years after the last visit to an endemic area is exceptional and raises questions on the mechanisms of latency and recurrence of these intestinal protozoan parasites.

  12. The diagnostic implications of the separation of Entamoeba ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    response to Entamoeba histolytica infection in preschool children in Bangladesh; Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 60 1031–. 1034. Haque R, Ali I M, Sack R B, Farr B M, Ramakrishnan G and. Petri W A Jr 2001 Amebiasis and Mucosal IgA Antibody against the Entamoeba histolytica Adherence Lectin in Bangla- deshi Children; J.

  13. Journal of Special Operations Medicine. Volume 7, Edition 1, Winter 2007. Training Supplement: USSOCOM Medic Certification Program (United States)


    Cardiac arrhythmias Ventricular Tachycardia Ventricular Fibrillation Winter 2007 Supplement 87 Angina Hypertension BP Nausea Vomiting Vasoconstriction...been established, except for amebiasis. 35 to 50mg/kg TID for 10 days. Newborns exhibit a reduced capacity to eliminate the drug. Side-effects...exacerbate hypertension Cholestatic jaundice Arrhythmias Warning: Intra-arterial injection may result in gangrene of the affected extremity Because of

  14. Prevalence of Entamoeba histolytica in stool specimens at Muhondo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Entamoeba histolytica is a protozoan parasite causing amebiasis. ... The infection occurs by ingestion of mature cyst in fecally contaminated food, water or hands. ... hand before eating and after using latrines) ; (ii) avoiding fecal contamination of food, water, and utensils ; and (iii) boiling drinking water before consumption.

  15. Parasitic diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozenshtraukh, L.S.


    Foundations of roentgenological semiotics of parasitic diseases of lungs, w hich are of the greatest practical value, are presented. Roentgenological pictu res of the following parasitic diseases: hydatid and alveolar echinococcosis, pa ragonimiasis, toxoplasmosis, ascariasis, amebiasis, bilharziasis (Schistosomias is) of lungs, are considered

  16. An Experimental Animal Model for the Study of Immunity to Entamoeba Histolytica. (United States)


    invasive amebiasis. Diseases of the Colon and Rectum 16:368-370; 1973. 203. Hernindez-L,0pez, H. R.; Escobedo-Salinas, A. Produccion de absceSos hep~ticos...of soluble salts of emetine. British Medical Journal 1912(1):1424-1425; 1912. 452. Rogers, L. Amoebic liver abscess: its pathology, prevention, and


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Entamoeba histolytica is a protozoan parasite causing amebiasis. It occurs usually in the large intestine and causes internal inflammation as its name means (histo = tissue, lytic = destroying). Between 40 and 50 million people are infected worldwide, mostly in tropical countries, in areas of poor sanitation. The infection ...

  18. Salpingitis due to Entamoeba histolytica

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    E.E Calore

    Full Text Available We describe the pathology of a unique case of Fallopian tube amebiasis, associated with hydrosalpinx, in a 21-year-old woman. She complained of lower abdominal pain, had a foul-smelling green vaginal discharge and fever during one week. There was a discrete increase in body temperature and a painful abdominal palpation at the lower right side, with signs of local peritoneal irritation. Pathological examination showed a marked dilatation of the fallopian tube and hydrosalpinx. Microscopic examination showed a poorly formed granuloma composed of large macrophages with many Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites inside the fallopian tube. Even though it is a rare disease the correct diagnosis of female genital tract amebiasis is of great importance for the indication of proper therapy.

  19. Salpingitis due to Entamoeba histolytica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calore E.E


    Full Text Available We describe the pathology of a unique case of Fallopian tube amebiasis, associated with hydrosalpinx, in a 21-year-old woman. She complained of lower abdominal pain, had a foul-smelling green vaginal discharge and fever during one week. There was a discrete increase in body temperature and a painful abdominal palpation at the lower right side, with signs of local peritoneal irritation. Pathological examination showed a marked dilatation of the fallopian tube and hydrosalpinx. Microscopic examination showed a poorly formed granuloma composed of large macrophages with many Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites inside the fallopian tube. Even though it is a rare disease the correct diagnosis of female genital tract amebiasis is of great importance for the indication of proper therapy.

  20. Review: amebic liver abscess in children - the role of diagnostic imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merten, D.F.; Kirks, D.R.


    Amebiasis, infection with the protozoan Entamoeba histolytica, affects at least 10% of the world's population, with an incidence exceeding 30% in tropical and subtropical regions. Amebic liver abscess (ALA) is the most common extraintestinal form of invasive amebiasis and is a serious life-threatening disease in children. Recent experience indicates the prognosis of ALA in childhood to be improved with early identification of abscesses and prompt institution of treatment. The authors incorporate experience with a case of ALA in infancy with a review of current literature (1974-1983) to delineate clinical and radiologic features of ALA in childhood and further define the role of hepatic imaging in the diagnosis and treatment.

  1. Sexually Transmitted Parasitic Diseases


    Shelton, Andrew A.


    An increasing number of diseases are recognized as being sexually transmitted. The majority of these are bacterial or viral in nature; however, several protozoan and nematode infections can also be transmitted by sexual activity. For most of these diseases, the primary mode of transmission is nonsexual in nature, but sexual activity that results in fecal-oral contact can lead to transmission of these agents. Two parasitic diseases commonly transmitted by sexual contact are amebiasis and giard...

  2. Role of the Gut Microbiota of Children in Diarrhea Due to the Protozoan Parasite Entamoeba histolytica


    Gilchrist, Carol A.; Petri, Sarah E.; Schneider, Brittany N.; Reichman, Daniel J.; Jiang, Nona; Begum, Sharmin; Watanabe, Koji; Jansen, Caroline S.; Elliott, K. Pamela; Burgess, Stacey L.; Ma, Jennie Z.; Alam, Masud; Kabir, Mamun; Haque, Rashidul; Petri, William A.


    Background. ?An estimated 1 million children die each year before their fifth birthday from diarrhea. Previous population-based surveys of pediatric diarrheal diseases have identified the protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica, the etiological agent of amebiasis, as one of the causes of moderate-to-severe diarrhea in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. Methods. ?We prospectively studied the natural history of E. histolytica colonization and diarrhea among infants in an urban slum of Dhaka, B...

  3. A Sequential Model of Host Cell Killing and Phagocytosis by Entamoeba histolytica (United States)

    Sateriale, Adam; Huston, Christopher D.


    The protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica is responsible for invasive intestinal and extraintestinal amebiasis. The virulence of Entamoeba histolytica is strongly correlated with the parasite's capacity to effectively kill and phagocytose host cells. The process by which host cells are killed and phagocytosed follows a sequential model of adherence, cell killing, initiation of phagocytosis, and engulfment. This paper presents recent advances in the cytolytic and phagocytic processes of Entamoeba histolytica in context of the sequential model. PMID:21331284

  4. US and CT findings of rectal amebian abscess

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guelek, B.; Oenel, S.


    An interesting case of rectal amebic abscess is presented. Ultrasound and CT images provided the diagnosis of a cystic intramural mass at the rectal wall of a young man, who complained of pelvic pain, constipation, and fever. His clinical history of amebiasis and the finding of trophozoids and cysts at the stool swap confirmed the diagnosis. Intravenous metronidazole therapy cured the disease and led to total disappearance of the mass, and clinical well-being. (orig.)

  5. Magnetic removal of Entamoeba cysts from water using chitosan oligosaccharide-coated iron oxide nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shukla S


    Full Text Available Sudeep Shukla,1 Vikas Arora,2 Alka Jadaun,3 Jitender Kumar,1 Nishant Singh,1 Vinod Kumar Jain1 1School of Environmental Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, Delhi, India; 2Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi, Delhi, India; 3School of Biotechnology, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, Delhi, India Abstract: Amebiasis, a major health problem in developing countries, is the second most common cause of death due to parasitic infection. Amebiasis is usually transmitted by the ingestion of Entamoeba histolytica cysts through oral–fecal route. Herein, we report on the use of chitosan oligosaccharide-functionalized iron oxide nanoparticles for efficient capture and removal of pathogenic protozoan cysts under the influence of an external magnetic field. These nanoparticles were synthesized through a chemical synthesis process. The synthesized particles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and zeta potential analysis. The particles were found to be well dispersed and uniform in size. The capture and removal of pathogenic cysts were demonstrated by fluorescent microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Three-dimensional modeling of various biochemical components of cyst walls, and thereafter, flexible docking studies demonstrate the probable interaction mechanism of nanoparticles with various components of E. histolytica cyst walls. Results of the present study suggest that E. histolytica cysts can be efficiently captured and removed from contaminated aqueous systems through the application of synthesized nanoparticles. Keywords: amebiasis, water treatment, nanotechnology

  6. Differentiation of Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar by the polymerase chain reaction in stool samples of patients with gastrointestinal symptoms in the Sanliurfa Province. (United States)

    Zeyrek, Fadile Yıldız; Turgay, Nevin; Unver, Aysegül; Ustün, Sebnem; Akarca, Ulus; Töz, Seray


    We aimed to diagnose amebiasis and also identify Entamoeba histolytica (E. histolytica) and Entamoeba dispar (E. dispar) in patients with gastrointestinal symptoms in an endemic region in Turkey. Stool samples obtained from 181 patients with gastrointestinal symptoms from the Harran University Hospital of Sanliurfa were examined for the diagnosis of amebiasis by the three methods which are as follows:- In house polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the 135 base pair region located on the small-subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene to differentiate E. histolytica from E. dispar; and the commercial kit, RIDASCREEN® stool ELISA, that identifies Entamoeba sensu lato antigen and microscopical examination of Trichrome stained smears of stool samples. Positivity for E. histolytica/E. dispar complex was found to be 79 (43.6%) by microscopy versus 83 (45.9%) by PCR out of 181 stool samples. A total of 45 patients were found to be positive by the antigen detection method. PCR and microscopy were both positive in 59 samples. The number of patients infected with E. dispar (39.8%) was found to be higher than E. histolytica (3.3%) while 5 patients (2.8%) had mixed E. histolytica+E. dispar infections according to PCR results. Routine diagnosis of amebiasis by a combination of microscopy and antigen detection technique should be complemented with a PCR assay as a reference test for sensitive differentiation of both species.

  7. Non tumoral intracranial expansive processes: clinical tomographic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, P.; Herrera, G.; Valneica, F.


    Presentation of clinical-tomographic correlation in 111 cases of non tumoral intracranial expansive processes seen between 1984-1988 in the Hospital Cayetano Heredia (Lima, Peru). Emphasis is given fundamentally to: the importance of establishing the organicity of partial and late epilepsy; the high incidence rate of inflammatory infectious processes with CNS compromise in under developing countries; the necessity of making public the importance of two parasitic diseases in the differential diagnosis of non tumoral intracranial expansive processes: free living amebiasis, and toxoplasmosis (especially in association with AIDS). (author)

  8. Acute amebic appendicitis: Report of a rare case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Naorem


    Full Text Available Acute appendicitis of amebic origin is considered a rare cause of acute appendicitis. We report a case of amebic appendicitis presenting with fever, severe pain in the right lower quadrant of the abdomen and rebound tenderness. Lab investigations revealed neutrophilic leukocytosis. The patient underwent appendectomy. Histopathological examination revealed numerous Entameba histolytica trophozoites in the mucosa of the appendix. Acute appendicitis of amebic origin does not appear frequently. Appendicular amebiasis can give the clinical features of acute appendicitis and should be treated accordingly.

  9. Tratamento da colite amebiana não disentérica com dose única de Teclozan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald Huggins


    Full Text Available Os autores trataram 30 pacientes portadores de colite amebiana não disentérica, de ambos os sexos (17 homens e 13 mulheres, com idades compreendidas entre 15 (dois casos a 55 anos (um doente, na Disciplina de Doenças Infecciosas. Parasitárias da Universidade Federal de Pernambuco. A posologia administrada foi de 1.500 mg em dose única e os resultados avaliados pelas técnicas de Hoffman, raspado da mucosa retaí, retossigmoidoscopia (em 16 enfermos e exame direto com ou sem coloração pelo lugol, foram de 80% (24 doentes de cura clínica e laboratorial. Nenhuma manifestação colateral foi relatada petos pacientas e concluem os autores que o Teclozan administrado em nova posologia, representa valioso subsídio no tratamento da amebíase intestinal.The authors report their experience with Teclozan in the treatment of 30 patients with chronic intestinal amebiasis, administering a new dosage 1.500 mgm in a single oral dosa. After a follow-up in the 7th, 14th, and 30th days after the treatment, the para sito togical cure rate obtained was 80% (24 cases and no side-effects were observed. The authors concluded that the drug (Teclozine is a very safe and effective agent in the treatment of amebiasis.

  10. Seroprevalence of Entamoeba histolytica from a tertiary care hospital, South India (United States)

    Dhanalakshmi, Sankaramoorthy; Parija, Subhash Chandra


    Introduction: Amebiasis is the third leading cause of death after malaria and schistosomiasis. Diagnosis is based on microscopy, culture, isoenzyme analysis, and serology-based techniques. In resource-limited nation such as India where polymerase chain reaction cannot be employed, serology is considered to be the reliable diagnostic tool. To find the seroprevalence of Entamoeba histolytica IgG antibody by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) among the liver abscess cases and healthy controls. Materials and Methods: Commercially available RIDASCREEN Entamoeba IgG ELISA kit was used to evaluate the samples as per manufacturer's instruction. Results: A total of 322 samples were evaluated by ELISA. 94/157 (59.87%) were positive for amebic liver abscess cases, 2/13 (15.38%) were positive in suspected amebiasis group, 5/15 (33.3%) were positive in nonamoebic hepatic disorder group, 5/39 (12.8%) were positive in other parasitic disorders, and 2/98 (2.04%) were positive in presumed healthy controls. The sensitivity and specificity of the assay were found to be 56% and 92%, respectively. Conclusion: In an endemic nation such as India and other developing countries, ELISA can be used as a routine surveillance test in a clinical setup to detect amoebiasis if the cases are judicially evaluated along with the other routine tests. PMID:26998437


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anorital -


    Full Text Available The intestinal infection caused by amoeba is one of the three diarrhea causes appears to be a public health problem with high incidence in the community. Amebiasis is caused by Entamoeba histolytica, can be differentiated from non pathogen Entamoeba hartmanni and Entamoeba coli. Morphologically of Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar are very similar. However, based on the diagnosis utilizing molecular examination technique, in fact, the main cause of amebiasis is Entamoeba dispar. Amoeba dysentry can be found arround the world, having cosmopolite characteristic with incidences varying between 3-10%. In the developed countries with relatively better hygiene and sanitation, amoebiasis incidence is between 2-11%. In Indonesia, the amoebiasis incidence is`quite high, in the range of 10-18%. Whereas the mortality caused by amoebiasis is high enough between 1.9—9.1%, second rank after malaria. Several kinds of amoeba dysentri medicines were used, but Metronidazole is proven as the effective drug of choice for Entamoeba histolytica, both the cyste and trophozoite forms with minor side effect to the patients. Good personal hygiene and environmental sanitation practices are the major factors of this disease prevention. The main principle to prevent the spreading of amoebiasis infection is to cut the link of infection sources to human beings. Personal hygiene is focused on the management of individual behaviour, meanwhile environmental sanitation prevention focus lies on the better environmental management to cut the link of disease cycle.

  12. Magnetic removal of Entamoeba cysts from water using chitosan oligosaccharide-coated iron oxide nanoparticles. (United States)

    Shukla, Sudeep; Arora, Vikas; Jadaun, Alka; Kumar, Jitender; Singh, Nishant; Jain, Vinod Kumar


    Amebiasis, a major health problem in developing countries, is the second most common cause of death due to parasitic infection. Amebiasis is usually transmitted by the ingestion of Entamoeba histolytica cysts through oral-fecal route. Herein, we report on the use of chitosan oligosaccharide-functionalized iron oxide nanoparticles for efficient capture and removal of pathogenic protozoan cysts under the influence of an external magnetic field. These nanoparticles were synthesized through a chemical synthesis process. The synthesized particles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and zeta potential analysis. The particles were found to be well dispersed and uniform in size. The capture and removal of pathogenic cysts were demonstrated by fluorescent microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Three-dimensional modeling of various biochemical components of cyst walls, and thereafter, flexible docking studies demonstrate the probable interaction mechanism of nanoparticles with various components of E. histolytica cyst walls. Results of the present study suggest that E. histolytica cysts can be efficiently captured and removed from contaminated aqueous systems through the application of synthesized nanoparticles.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Joseph Herman


    Full Text Available Berbagai penyakit akibat hubungan seksual (PHS selain yang disebabkan oleh bakteri, klamidia, virus, dan mikroplasma, juga mungkin disebabkan oleh jamur, protozoa dan parasit, antara lain kandidiasis, trikomoniasis, giardiasis, amebiasis, kudis, dan kutu pubis. Diagnosis PHS yang tepat dan pasti sangat penting karena mcmiliki konotasi sosial dan biasanya diperoleh melalui pemeriksaan mikroskopik, pembenihan bakteriologis atau virologis. Sedangkan penatalaksanaan PHS bergantung pada infeksi masing-masing individu, tetapi secara umum apabila PHS sendiri tidak/kurang serius seperti trikomoniasis atau ektoparasit maka tidak perlu pengamatan pasangan seksual meskipun harus diobati juga karena hampir pasti ia juga terinfeksi. Sebagian besar PHS lain demikian berat (dalam kasus gonore resistensi terhadap antibiotika merupakan masalah sehingga semua kontak seksual harus ditelusuri dan diobati, khususnya pada gonore, sifilis dan AIDS.

  14. Microbiological and Pharmacological Evaluation of the Micropropagated Rubus liebmannii Medicinal Plant

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    Adelina Jiménez-Arellanes


    Full Text Available Rubus liebmannii is an endemic species from Mexico used in traditional medicine primarily to treat dysentery and cough. The in vitro activity against Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica that produces the ethanolic extract of the aerial parts of the plant led us to expand the pharmacological and phytochemical research of this species. Gastrointestinal disorders including amebiasis remain one of the health problems that need to be addressed and it is of interest to find alternatives that improve their treatment. Also, it is important to emphasize that R. liebmannii grows wild in the country and is not found in abundance; therefore, alternatives that avoid overexploitation of the natural resource are mandatory. Ongoing with the evaluation of the potentialities that R. liebmannii possesses for treating infectious gastrointestinal diseases, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the biological effects and the chemical composition of the micropropagated plant.

  15. Utilization of Different Omic Approaches to Unravel Stress Response Mechanisms in the Parasite Entamoeba histolytica

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    Shruti Nagaraja


    Full Text Available During its life cycle, the unicellular parasite Entamoeba histolytica is challenged by a wide variety of environmental stresses, such as fluctuation in glucose concentration, changes in gut microbiota composition, and the release of oxidative and nitrosative species from neutrophils and macrophages. The best mode of survival for this parasite is to continuously adapt itself to the dynamic environment of the host. Our ability to study the stress-induced responses and adaptive mechanisms of this parasite has been transformed through the development of genomics, proteomics or metabolomics (omics sciences. These studies provide insights into different facets of the parasite's behavior in the host. However, there is a dire need for multi-omics data integration to better understand its pathogenic nature, ultimately paving the way to identify new chemotherapeutic targets against amebiasis. This review provides an integration of the most relevant omics information on the mechanisms that are used by E. histolytica to resist environmental stresses.

  16. Entamoeba histolytica: cyst-like structures in vitro induction. (United States)

    Barrón-González, M P; Villarreal-Treviño, L; Reséndez-Pérez, D; Mata-Cárdenas, B D; Morales-Vallarta, M R


    The cyst of Entamoeba histolytica is responsible for amebiasis infection. However, no axenic in vitro system exists that promotes mass encystation for studying this process of this human-infecting parasite. Cyst-like structures of E. histolytica obtained in this work were induced using TYI-S-33 media in combination with enterobacterias Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis conditioned media, high CO2 tension and histamine. Cyst-like structures showed the same characteristics of a typical E. histolytica cyst: aggregation, resistance to 0.15% sarcosyl for 10 min, high signal of fluorescence under UV light when stained with 10% calcofluor M2r and the surface topology showed a wrinkled wall. In addition these structures are multinucleated with condensed chromatin attached to nuclear membrane, contain big vacuoles and ribonucleoproteic helices in the cytoplasm and also present a thin cell wall. Last all characteristics are all the same as a typical of E. histolytica cyst.

  17. Diagnostic imaging and interventional radiology of the amoebic liver abscess. Personal experience; Diagnostica per immagini e radiologia interventistica degli ascessi amebici del fegato: esperienza personale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Rosa, A. [Ospedale S. Maria di Lorento Nuovo, NA (Italy). Servizio di Radiologia; Nunziata, A. [Neapel, Presidio Sanitario Intermedio (Italy). Area di Diagnostica per Immagini; Catalano, O.; Cusati, B.; Esposito, M.; Siani, A. [Ospedale di S. Maria delle Grazie, Pozzuoli, NA (Italy). Servizio di Radiologia


    The diagnostic imaging findings in hepatic amoebiasis and the capabilities of percutaneous drainage have already been described but some debate is open on both diagnosis and treatment. It is reported the experience with the ultrasound (US) and Computed Tomography (CT) studies of the hepatic amoebic abscess and its management. [Italian] I reperti con diagnostica per immagini nell'amebiasi epatica e le possibilita' del drenaggio percutaneo sono stati gia' illustrati; esistono tuttavia controversie sul piano sia diagnostico che terapeutico. Obiettivo di questo lavoro e' quello di riportare l'esperienza personale nella diagnostica con ecografia e tomografia computerizzata (TC) e nel trattamento degli ascessi amebici del fegato.

  18. Respiratory failure caused by intrathoracic amoebiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshinobu Yokoyama


    Full Text Available Toshinobu Yokoyama1, Masashi Hirokawa1, Yutaka Imamura2, Hisamichi Aizawa11Division of Respirology, Neurology and Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kurume University, Japan; 2Department of Hematology, St. Mary’s Hospital, Kurume, JapanAbstract: A 41-year-old male was admitted to the hospital with symptoms of diarrhea, fever and rapidly progressive respiratory distress. A chest radiograph and computed tomography (CT of the chest and the abdomen showed a large amount of right pleural effusion and a large liver abscess. The patient was thus diagnosed to have amoebic colitis, amoebic liver abscess and amoebic empyema complicated with an HIV infection. The patient demonstrated agranulocytosis caused by the administration of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. However, the administration of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor made it possible for the patient to successfully recover from agranulocytosis, and he thereafter demonstrated a good clinical course.Keywords: amebiasis, amoebic empyema, HIV, agranulocytosis, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole

  19. Entamoeba histolytica: Host parasite interactions at the colonic epithelium (United States)

    Cornick, Steve; Chadee, Kris


    ABSTRACT Entamoeba histolytica (Eh) is the protozoan parasite responsible for intestinal amebiasis and interacts dynamically with the host intestinal epithelium during disease pathogenesis. A multifaceted pathogenesis profile accounts for why 90% of individuals infected with Eh are largely asymptomatic. For 100 millions individuals that are infected each year, key interactions within the intestinal mucosa dictate disease susceptibility. The ability for Eh to induce amebic colitis and disseminate into extraintestinal organs depends on the parasite competing with indigenous bacteria and overcoming the mucus barrier, binding to host cells inducing their cell death, invasion through the mucosa and outsmarting the immune system. In this review we summarize how Eh interacts with the intestinal epithelium and subverts host defense mechanisms in disease pathogenesis. PMID:28452682

  20. Amebic liver abscess with bacterial superinfection in a patient with no epidemiologic risk factors Absceso hepático amebiano sobreinfectado sin antecedentes epidemiológicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Sánchez-Pobre


    Full Text Available The amebic liver abscess is uncommon in developed countries like Spain, but the incidence is increasing probably due to the migratory movements of the population. We report a case of an amebic abscess, initially unsuspected due to the absence of epidemiologic risk factors and the negative serology for amebiasis, in the early stages of the disease.El absceso hepático amebiano es infrecuente en países desarrollados, como lo es el caso de España, pero su incidencia está aumentando, posiblemente en relación con los movimientos migratorios de la población. Presentamos un caso de absceso hepático amebiano, no sospechado inicialmente, debido a la ausencia de antecedentes epidemiológicos y a la negatividad de las pruebas serológicas en las fases iniciales de enfermedad.

  1. Microbiome-mediated neutrophil recruitment via CXCR2 and protection from amebic colitis.

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    Koji Watanabe


    Full Text Available The disease severity of Entamoeba histolytica infection ranges from asymptomatic to life-threatening. Recent human and animal data implicate the gut microbiome as a modifier of E. histolytica virulence. Here we have explored the association of the microbiome with susceptibility to amebiasis in infants and in the mouse model of amebic colitis. Dysbiosis occurred symptomatic E. histolytica infection in children, as evidenced by a lower Shannon diversity index of the gut microbiota. To test if dysbiosis was a cause of susceptibility, wild type C57BL/6 mice (which are innately resistant to E. histiolytica infection were treated with antibiotics prior to cecal challenge with E. histolytica. Compared with untreated mice, antibiotic pre-treated mice had more severe colitis and delayed clearance of E. histolytica. Gut IL-25 and mucus protein Muc2, both shown to provide innate immunity in the mouse model of amebic colitis, were lower in antibiotic pre-treated mice. Moreover, dysbiotic mice had fewer cecal neutrophils and myeloperoxidase activity. Paradoxically, the neutrophil chemoattractant chemokines CXCL1 and CXCL2, as well as IL-1β, were higher in the colon of mice with antibiotic-induced dysbiosis. Neutrophils from antibiotic pre-treated mice had diminished surface expression of the chemokine receptor CXCR2, potentially explaining their inability to migrate to the site of infection. Blockade of CXCR2 increased susceptibility of control non-antibiotic treated mice to amebiasis. In conclusion, dysbiosis increased the severity of amebic colitis due to decreased neutrophil recruitment to the gut, which was due in part to decreased surface expression on neutrophils of CXCR2.

  2. Differences in Entamoeba histolytica Cysteine Proteinase 5 Gene Isolated From Bandar Abbas and Tabriz, Iran

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    Sima Rostami


    Full Text Available Background: Amebiasis with up to 100 000 human deaths each year is the third cause of human deadly parasitic disease. With regard to the fact that cysteine protease 5 is known to be one of the most important pathogenicity factors of the Entamoeba histolytica and also, CP5 gene has been observed only in E. histolytica, hence we discriminated E. histolytica from E. dispar on CP5 gene by polymerase chain reaction (PCR and characterized CP5 gene variation in E. histolytica isolated from patients in both cold regions and tropical regions of Iran at molecular level. Materials and Methods: In the present study, a total of 2332 stool samples (1550 from Tabriz and 782 from Bandar Abbas were studied microscopically. DNA extraction and PCR method were performed on the positive specimens, infected with E. histolytica/E. dispar. Finally we characterized CP5 gene in E. histolytica isolates from 10 positive samples in the cold regions (Tabriz and 10 positive samples in the tropical regions (Bandar Abbas by sequencing and studied the polymorphism of the gene. Results: Of 1550 subjects studied from Tabriz and 782 from Bandar Abaas, 83/1550 (8.3% and 65/782 (5.35% persons were infected with E. histolytica/E. dispar, respectively. The molecular results on 20 E. histolytica PCR positive isolates from both regions revealed that nucleotides substitution and polymorphism on CP5 gene was more in samples from Bandar Abbas than those from Tabriz. Conclusion: Prevalence of amebiasis was high in the tropical region (Bandar Abbas compared with the cold region (Tabriz. In this study, CP5 gene variation in the pathogenicity and virulence of this parasite in the tropical region was higher than that in the cold region.

  3. Determinação da infecção por Entamoeba histolytica em residentes da área metropolitana de Belém, Pará, Brasil, utilizando ensaio imunoenzimático (ELISA para detecção de antígenos Determination of Entamoeba histolytica infection in patients from Greater Metropolitan Belém, Pará, Brazil, by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for antigen detection

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    Mônica Cristina de Moraes Silva


    Full Text Available O status epidemiológico da amebíase está sendo reavaliado desde que a Entamoeba histolytica (patogênica foi considerada espécie distinta de Entamoeba dispar (não patogênica. Em nosso estudo, realizamos pesquisa de antígenos de E. histolytica em amostras fecais de pacientes residentes na cidade de Belém, Pará, Brasil, utilizando ensaio imunoenzimático (E. histolytica Test, TechLab Inc., Blacksburg, Estados Unidos disponível comercialmente. Foram analisadas 845 amostras, com positividade em 248 (29,35%. A infecção por E. histolytica foi maior no grupo etário acima de 14 anos (30,36% que no grupo de 0-14 anos (28,28%, porém sem significância estatística (p The epidemiological status of amebiasis has been reevaluated since Entamoeba histolytica (pathogenic was considered a distinct species from Entamoeba dispar (non-pathogenic. We investigated E. histolytica antigens in stool samples from residents of Belém, Pará State, Brazil, with commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (E. histolytica Test, TechLab Inc., Blacksburg, USA. A total of 845 samples were analyzed, of which 248 were positive (29.35%. E. histolytica infection was more frequent in the over-14-year age group (30.36% than in the 0-14-year group (28.28%, but the difference was not statistically significant (p < 0.05. Of all the samples, 334 were also submitted to parasitological methods (direct, Hoffman, and Faust et al.. There were discordant results between ELISA and parasitological methods in 83 samples (24.85%, with more positive results using ELISA. Our results thus suggest that intestinal amebiasis is an important public health problem in Greater Metropolitan Belém.

  4. Influence of parasite density and sample storage time on the reliability of Entamoeba histolytica-specific PCR from formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissues. (United States)

    Frickmann, Hagen; Tenner-Racz, Klara; Eggert, Petra; Schwarz, Norbert G; Poppert, Sven; Tannich, Egbert; Hagen, Ralf M


    We report on the reliability of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the detection of Entamoeba histolytica from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue in comparison with microscopy and have determined predictors that may influence PCR results. E. histolytica-specific and Entamoeba dispar-specific real-time PCR and microscopy from adjacent histologic sections were performed using a collection of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue specimens obtained from patients with invasive amebiasis. Specimens had been collected during the previous 4 decades. Association of sample age, parasite density, and reliability of PCR was analyzed. E. histolytica PCR was positive in 20 of 34 biopsies (58.8%); 2 of these 20 were microscopically negative for amebae in neighboring tissue sections. PCR was negative in 9 samples with visible amebae in neighboring sections and in 5 samples without visible parasites in neighboring sections. PCR was negative in all specimens that were older than 3 decades. Low parasite counts and sample ages older than 20 years were predictors for false-negative PCR results. All samples were negative for E. dispar DNA. PCR is suitable for the detection of E. histolytica in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples that are younger than 2 decades and that contain intermediate to high parasite numbers. Negative results in older samples were due to progressive degradation of DNA over time as indicated by control PCRs targeting the human 18S rRNA gene. Moreover, our findings support previous suggestions that only E. histolytica but not E. dispar is responsible for invasive amebiasis.

  5. [A Case of Peristomal Cutaneous Ulcer Following Amebic Colitis Caused by Entamoeba histolytica]. (United States)

    Sasaki, Yu; Yoshida, Tetsuya; Suzuki, Jun; Kobayashi, Seiki; Sato, Tomotaka


    A 66-year-old Japanese male with a history of a rectal ulcer and rectovesical fistula following brachytherapy and radiotherapy for prostate cancer, who had undergone colostomy and vesicotomy presented with a painful peristomal ulcer of approximately 5 x 2.5cm adjacent to the direction of 6 o'clock of the stoma in his left lower abdomen. Although he was admitted to be treated with intravenous antibiotics and topical debridement, the ulcer was rapidly increasing. In the laboratory findings, WBC was 12,400/μL, CRP was 16.9 mg/dL, ESR was 105mm in the first hour. Contrast enhanced CT images showed a wide high density area of skin and subcutaneous tissue around the stoma and dillitation of the transverse and descending colon. Colonoscopy showed furred profound ulcers in the rectum. A biopsy from the ulcer floor submitted to histopathology showed necrotic tissue with a mixed inflammatory infiltrates mainly composed of neutrophils and lymphocytes in the dermis. We suspected pyoderma gangrenosum with an inflammatory bowel disease in the beginning. Although he was started on oral prednisolone 60 mg daily, the ulcer did not respond to treatment. Additional methylprednisolone pulse therapy, intravenous cyclosporine and granulocytapheresis were also ineffective. A biopsy specimen from the skin ulcer margin showed erythrophagocytosis by trophozoites of amebae which were identified on PAS stained slides. The PCR method and stool examination showed positive for Entamoeba histolytica (E. histolytica), but serum antibodies were negative. Within two weeks of treatment with oral metronidazole 2,250 mg/day and topical metronidazole ointment, resolution of the ulcer was observed, then the prednisolone dosage was tapered. A split-thickness skin graft was used to cover the ulcer with a successful result. Even though we originally misdiagnosed this case, we finally reached a diagnosis of amebiasis. It is important to take account of amebiasis in the differential diagnosis of intractable

  6. Efficacy of saccharomyces boulardii with antibiotics in acute amoebiasis (United States)

    Mansour-Ghanaei, Fariborz; Dehbashi, Najaf; Yazdanparast, Kamyar; Shafaghi, Afshin


    AIM: To compare the efficacy of antibiotics therapy alone with antibiotics and saccharomyces boulardii in treatment of acute amebiasis. METHODS: In a double blind, random clinical trial on patients with acute intestinal amoebiasis, 57 adult patients with acute amoebiasis, diagnosed with clinical manifestations (acute mucous bloody diarrhea) and amebic trophozoites engulfing RBCs found in stool were enrolled in the study. Regimen 1 included metronidazole (750 mg Tid) and iodoquinol (630 mg Tid) for 10 days. Regimen 2 contained capsules of lyophilized saccharomyces boulardii (250 mg Tid) orally in addition to regimen 1. Patients were re-examined at two and four weeks after the treatment, and stool examination was performed at the end of week 4. Student’s t-test, χ2 and McNemar’s tests were used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: Three patients refused to participate. The other 54 patients were randomized to receive either regimen 1 or regimen 2 (Groups 1 and 2 respectively, each with 27 patients). The two groups were similar regarding their age, sex and clinical manifestations. In Group 1, diarrhea lasted 48.0 ± 18.5 hours and in Group 2, 12.0 ± 3.7 hours (P < 0.0001). In Group 1, the durations of fever and abdominal pain were 24.0 ± 8.8 and 24.0 ± 7.3 hours and in Group 2 they were 12.0 ± 5.3 and 12.0 ± 3.2 hours, respectively (P < 0.001). Duration of headache was similar in both groups. At week 4, amebic cysts were detected in 5 cases (18.5%) of Group 1 but in none of the Group 2 (P < 0.02). CONCLUSION: Adding saccharomyces boulardii to antibiotics in the treatment of acute amebiasis seems to decrease the duration of clinical symptoms and cyst passage. PMID:12918131

  7. Proteomic Identification of Oxidized Proteins in Entamoeba histolytica by Resin-Assisted Capture: Insights into the Role of Arginase in Resistance to Oxidative Stress.

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    Preeti Shahi


    Full Text Available Entamoeba histolytica is an obligate protozoan parasite of humans, and amebiasis, an infectious disease which targets the intestine and/or liver, is the second most common cause of human death due to a protozoan after malaria. Although amebiasis is usually asymptomatic, E. histolytica has potent pathogenic potential. During host infection, the parasite is exposed to reactive oxygen species that are produced and released by cells of the innate immune system at the site of infection. The ability of the parasite to survive oxidative stress (OS is essential for a successful invasion of the host. Although the effects of OS on the regulation of gene expression in E. histolytica and the characterization of some proteins whose function in the parasite's defense against OS have been previously studied, our knowledge of oxidized proteins in E. histolytica is lacking. In order to fill this knowledge gap, we performed a large-scale identification and quantification of the oxidized proteins in oxidatively stressed E. histolytica trophozoites using resin-assisted capture coupled to mass spectrometry. We detected 154 oxidized proteins (OXs and the functions of some of these proteins were associated with antioxidant activity, maintaining the parasite's cytoskeleton, translation, catalysis, and transport. We also found that oxidation of the Gal/GalNAc impairs its function and contributes to the inhibition of E. histolytica adherence to host cells. We also provide evidence that arginase, an enzyme which converts L-arginine into L-ornithine and urea, is involved in the protection of the parasite against OS. Collectively, these results emphasize the importance of OS as a critical regulator of E. histolytica's functions and indicate a new role for arginase in E. histolytica's resistance to OS.

  8. Top of the Most Dangerous Food Parasites

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    A.A. Zaslavskaya


    Full Text Available According to the rating of the risk of infection by food parasites, which was published the World Health Organization (WHO and the Food Agriculture Organisation in 2014, cryptosporidiosis is on the 5th place. It is a parasitic protozoan disease, belongs to the genus Cryptosporidium type Apicomplexa. About 20 species of Cryptosporidium are revealed and known now. The incubation period of cryptosporidiosis lasts from 4 to 14 days. The main and most typical clinical manifestation of the disease — a profuse watery diarrhea, as well as clinically possible cryptosporidiosis of the biliary tract and broncho-pulmonary (respiratory cryptosporidiosis. Cryptosporidiosis diagnosis is based on laboratory studies of faeces (in vivo and pathological material (posthumously, taking into account epizootic, clinical and postmortem data. Causal treatment is not developed. But it is possible to control the diarrhea caused by this infection. Specific preventive management of cryptosporidiosis is not developed. Personal hygiene measures are necessary. The 6th most dangerous food parasitosis is Entamoeba histolytica. This intestinal protozoa disease is characterized by ulcerative lesions of the colon, chronic protracted course with the risk of the formation of abscesses in the liver and various organs. The causative agent of ame­biasis — Entamoeba histolytica — belongs to the genus Entamoeba, family Entamoebidae, the simplest type — Protozoa. According to the recommendations of the WHO Expert Committee (1970, there are three clinical forms of amebiasis: intestinal, extra-intestinal and skin. Diagnostic microscopy of the native smears of fresh feces in saline solution and smears stained with Lugol’s solution is carried out. In the presence of clinical signs of intestinal amebiasis and negative results of parasitological studies, serological tests are used based on the detection of specific antibodies against Entamoeba. There are several groups of drugs for

  9. [Experimental teaching program on cooperation between "Sapienza" University of Rome and the University Hospital "Le Bon Samaritain" in N'Djamena, Chad]. (United States)

    Salvi, Pier Federico; Balducci, Genoveffa; Dente, Mario; Sarti, Paolo; Bocchetti, Tommaso; Farah, Pierre; Ziparo, Vincenzo


    The shortage of essential surgical care in sub-Saharan Africa is a worldwide problem. Lack of healthcare workers, surgeons and very limited resources are the reason for this critical health crisis. Furthermore in Africa many physicians as soon as they get a degree emigrate in more attractive countries. "Multidisciplinary teaching support to a new Faculty of Medicine in N'Djamena - Chad" is a teaching cooperation program between «Sapienza» University of Rome and the University Hospital "Le Bon Samaritain" in N'Djamena, Chad. The project started in 2010, with the aim of cooperating in teaching medical students of African origin and in training Italian residents in sub-Saharan surgical and internal pathologies. In Chad the greatest surgical burden (about 11% of the total global diseases) is created by injuries, cancers, congenital anomalies, appendicitis, bowel obstructions, hernias, abscesses (by amebiasis or others) and obstetric emergencies. Up till now healthcare in Africa especially in rural areas has been provided by international organisations,we believe that academic collaborations between high-income and low-income Nations is necessary to meet the real needs of the african surgical workforce; at the same time it is very useful for store of knowledge of our residents.

  10. Amoebic PI3K and PKC is required for Jurkat T cell death induced by Entamoeba histolytica. (United States)

    Lee, Young Ah; Kim, Kyeong Ah; Min, Arim; Shin, Myeong Heon


    The enteric protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica is the causative agent of human amebiasis. During infection, adherence of E. histolytica through Gal/GalNAc lectin on the surface of the amoeba can induce caspase-3-dependent or -independent host cell death. Phosphorylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and protein kinase C (PKC) in E. histolytica play an important function in the adhesion, killing, or phagocytosis of target cells. In this study, we examined the role of amoebic PI3K and PKC in amoeba-induced apoptotic cell death in Jurkat T cells. When Jurkat T cells were incubated with E. histolytica trophozoites, phosphatidylserine (PS) externalization and DNA fragmentation in Jurkat cells were markedly increased compared to those of cells incubated with medium alone. However, when amoebae were pretreated with a PI3K inhibitor, wortmannin before being incubated with E. histolytica, E. histolytica-induced PS externalization and DNA fragmentation in Jurkat cells were significantly reduced compared to results for amoebae pretreated with DMSO. In addition, pretreatment of amoebae with a PKC inhibitor, staurosporine strongly inhibited Jurkat T cell death. However, E. histolytica-induced cleavage of caspase-3, -6, and -7 were not inhibited by pretreatment of amoebae with wortmannin or staurosporin. In addition, we found that amoebic PI3K and PKC have an important role on amoeba adhesion to host compartment. These results suggest that amebic PI3K and PKC activation may play an important role in caspase-independent cell death in Entamoeba-induced apoptosis.

  11. Human parasitology worldwide research. (United States)

    Garrido-Cardenas, Jose Antonio; Mesa-Valle, Concepción; Manzano-Agugliaro, Francisco


    In this article, the trends in human parasitology have been studied through the analysis of the number of publications in this area. The parameters studied were: number of articles, language, countries and institutions with the highest number of publications, and keywords with greater presence in the articles of human parasitology. The results of the analysis confirm the growing interest in this area, observing an exponential growth in the number of publications in the last decades. We also verified that the main country in terms of scientific production is the USA, although among the most important institutions, we find non-US centres such as the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation and the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. For observing the relative importance of the journals that publish articles in this specific topic, an index has been created based on the h-index of the journal with publications related to human parasitology and divided by every 100 items. This rank is led fist by 'Journal of Medical Entomology' closely followed by 'Parasitology'. The analysis of the keywords allows to draw conclusions about the great importance of malaria in the current world research. A change in analytical methodology is also observed, and molecular techniques are now being imposed. These techniques, in the near future, have to influence in an improvement in the treatments and prevention of the diseases caused by parasites. Finally, it can be seen that diseases traditionally studied as helminthiasis and amebiasis are currently as well studied as others such as toxoplasmosis or leishmaniasis.

  12. [Clinical microbiology laboratory and imported parasitic diseases]. (United States)

    Martín-Rabadán, Pablo; Martínez-Ruiz, Rocío; Cuadros, Juan; Cañavate, Carmen


    Imported parasitosis represents an increasingly frequent diagnostic challenge for microbiology laboratories. A surge in immigration and international travel has led to a rise in the number of imported cases of parasitosis, and this trend is expected to continue in the future. The present article addresses this challenge by reviewing recommended diagnostic approaches and tests. Currently, microscopy is always recommended when analysing blood samples for parasites. If malaria is suspected, rapid antigen testing (including at least HRP2 antigen) should also be performed. The work-up for suspected leishmaniasis should include serology, culture, and in selected cases detection of antigen in urine. In suspected Chagas disease, two different serological tests should be performed. PCR for blood protozoa is highly sensitive, although it cannot be used to rule out Chagas disease, since this condition may be present without parasitemia. Accurate diagnosis of intestinal amebiasis usually requires PCR or antigen detection tests. In helminthiasis, traditional microscopy may need to be complemented with other tests, such as agar plate culture for strongyloidiasis, Og4C3 antigen detection for bancroftian filariasis, and antibody detection test for filariasis and schistosomiasis. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  13. Ensaio clinico com Teclozan: 500mg no tratamento da colite amebiana não disentérica. (Resultados com esquema terapêutico de 24 horas

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    Donald Huggins


    Full Text Available O Autor relata sua experiência com novo esquema terapêutico com Teclozan - dose total de 1.500mg empregada em 24 horas, em 40 pacientes portadores de colite amebiana não disentérica na Disciplina de Doenças Infecciosas e Parasitárias da Universidade Federal de Pernambuco. Após um controle de cura realizado no 4º, 8º, 12º e 20º dias após o tratamento, obteve eficácia em 75% dos enfermos (30 casos e excelente tolerância.The author report his experience with Teclozine in the treatment on 40 patients suffering chronic intestinal amebiasis, employing a new therapeutical schedule - 1,500 mg as the total dose, within the period of 24 hours. After a follow-up on the 4th, 8th, 12th, and 20th days of treatment, the parasitological cure rate obtained was 75% (30 cases, and the drug was very well tolerated by all the patients.

  14. [Parasitosis and irritable bowel syndrome]. (United States)

    Ibarra, Catalina; Herrera, Valentina; Pérez de Arce, Edith; Gil, Luis Carlos; Madrid, Ana María; Valenzuela, Lucía; Beltrán, Caroll J


    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional disorder of the gastrointestinal tract characterised by multi-factorial aetiology. In IBS physiopathology are involved diverse factors between them biological, psychosocial, and environmental components which affect the immune activation status of gut mucosa. Among these factors is recognized the intestinal parasitosis. Post-infection IBS (PI-IBS) is recognised as a subgroup of functional disorders whose symptoms onset appear after a symptomatic intestinal infection caused by microbial agents. There are few studies regarding of relationship between IBS and intestinal parasitosis in Chile. However, is has been well described a positive association between IBS and Blastocystis hominis infections, one of prevalent parasites in Chile. In other countries, is also described a relationship between IBS and amebiasis and giardiasis. Both, characterized by a common mode of transmission through water as well as contaminated food. Because the high prevalence of parasitosis in our country it is necessary to expand the association studies to clarify the strength of the parasites ethiology in IBS.

  15. Vaccines to combat the neglected tropical diseases (United States)

    Bethony, Jeffrey M.; Cole, Rhea N.; Guo, Xiaoti; Kamhawi, Shaden; Lightowlers, Marshall W.; Loukas, Alex; Petri, William; Reed, Steven; Valenzuela, Jesus G.; Hotez, Peter J.


    Summary The neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) represent a group of parasitic and related infectious diseases such as amebiasis, Chagas disease, cysticercosis, echinococcosis, hookworm, leishmaniasis, and schistosomiasis. Together, these conditions are considered the most common infections in low- and middle-income countries, where they produce a level of global disability and human suffering equivalent to better known conditions such as human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and malaria. Despite their global public health importance, progress on developing vaccines for NTD pathogens has lagged because of some key technical hurdles and the fact that these infections occur almost exclusively in the world’s poorest people living below the World Bank poverty line. In the absence of financial incentives for new products, the multinational pharmaceutical companies have not embarked on substantive research and development programs for the neglected tropical disease vaccines. Here, we review the current status of scientific and technical progress in the development of new neglected tropical disease vaccines, highlighting the successes that have been achieved (cysticercosis and echinococcosis) and identifying the challenges and opportunities for development of new vaccines for NTDs. Also highlighted are the contributions being made by non-profit product development partnerships that are working to overcome some of the economic challenges in vaccine manufacture, clinical testing, and global access. PMID:21198676

  16. [Parasitology and entomology in the 29th century in Latin American narrative]. (United States)

    Schenone, H


    In the present review of twelve pieces produced by distinguished 20th century Latin American writers--Jorge Luis Borges from Argentina, Jorge Amado and João Ubaldo Ribeiro from Brazil, José Donoso from Chile, Gabriel García Márquez from Colombia, Alejo Carpentier from Cuba, Miguel Angel Asturias from Guatemala, Octavio Paz from Mexico, Mario Vargas Llosa from Perú, Horacio Quiroga and Mario Benedetti from Uruguay and Arturo Uslar-Pietri from Venezuela--paragraphs or parts of paragraphs in which parasitological or entomological situations of the most varied hues are referred to or described, have been extracted in a selective form. Sometimes in these descriptions appear, local or regional expressions, without ignoring colorful folklore representations. For a easier interpretation these or part of these paragraph sentences have been arranged by thematic similarities. In a varied and kaleidoscopic vision, it will be possible to find protozoiasis (malaria, Chagas disease, leishmaniasis, amebiasis), helminthiases (ascariasis, hydatidosis, trichinosis, schistosomiasis, cysticercosis, onchocerciasis), parasitoses produced by arthropods (pediculosis, scabies, tungiasis, myiasis), passing progressively to hemaphagous arthropods (mosquitoes, gnats, horse flies, bedbugs, ticks), venomous arthropods (Latrodectus spiders, scorpions, wasps, bees), mechanical vectors (flies and cockroaches), culminating with a conjunction of bucolic arthropods (butterflies, crickets, grasshoppers cicadas, ants, centipedes, beetles, glow worms, dragonflies).

  17. Entamoeba histolytica Cysteine Proteinase 5 Evokes Mucin Exocytosis from Colonic Goblet Cells via αvβ3 Integrin.

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    Steve Cornick


    Full Text Available Critical to the pathogenesis of intestinal amebiasis, Entamoeba histolytica (Eh induces mucus hypersecretion and degrades the colonic mucus layer at the site of invasion. The parasite component(s responsible for hypersecretion are poorly defined, as are regulators of mucin secretion within the host. In this study, we have identified the key virulence factor in live Eh that elicits the fast release of mucin by goblets cells as cysteine protease 5 (EhCP5 whereas, modest mucus secretion occurred with secreted soluble EhCP5 and recombinant CP5. Coupling of EhCP5-αvβ3 integrin on goblet cells facilitated outside-in signaling by activating SRC family kinases (SFK and focal adhesion kinase that resulted in the activation/phosphorlyation of PI3K at the site of Eh contact and production of PIP3. PKCδ was activated at the EhCP5-αvβ3 integrin contact site that specifically regulated mucin secretion though the trafficking vesicle marker myristoylated alanine-rich C-kinase substrate (MARCKS. This study has identified that EhCP5 coupling with goblet cell αvβ3 receptors can initiate a signal cascade involving PI3K, PKCδ and MARCKS to drive mucin secretion from goblet cells critical in disease pathogenesis.

  18. Intestinal parasitic infections and eosinophilia in an human immunedeficiency virus positive population in Honduras

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    Rina G Kaminsky


    Full Text Available The occurrence of intestinal parasites, their regional distribution and their relations to eosinophilia were studied in 133 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV positive individuals from Honduras. After signing an informed consent, participants answered a socio-demographic and risk factor questionnaire, a complete physical examination, medical history, and a series of laboratory tests. All participants were HIV positive but not acquired immunodeficiency syndrome positive. Of them, 67% were co-infected with pathogen and non pathogen parasites. Overall occurrence of nematodes was: 44.3% for Trichuris trichiura, 24% for Ascaris lumbricoides, 12% for Hookworm and 7.5% for Strongyloides stercoralis. No cases of Giardia lamblia, acute amebiasis or cryptosporidiasis were diagnosed. Mean eosinophil percents for participants were consistently and significantly higher in infected than in non infected individuals: 22% for Hookworm vs 7.2% (p < 0.001, 11% for Trichuris compared to 5.2% (p < 0.001, 13.2% compared to 7.5% for S. stercoralis (p < 0.05, and 12% compared to 6% for Ascaris cases (p < 0.05. Helminths and non pathogenic protozoa, as single or mixed infections, occurred among the participants. There was a strong correlation between eosinophilia and helminthiasis infections; however, none was identified between CD4 levels and eosinophilia. Because parasitic infections aggravate malnutrition and promote a disbalanced Th2 response in a potentially immuno-compromised host, their effect on HIV disease progression needs further study, mainly in countries were HIV and parasitic infections are highly prevalent.

  19. The monocyte locomotion inhibitory factor an anti-inflammatory peptide; therapeutics originating from amebic abscess of the liver. (United States)

    Velazquez, Juan R


    Entamoeba histolytica in culture produces a pentapeptide (MQCNS). This oligopeptide inhibits the in vitro and in vivo locomotion of human monocytes, hence its denomination Monocyte Locomotion Inhibitory Factor (MLIF). The original isolated peptide and its synthetic construct display similar effects, among others, being inhibition of the respiratory burst in monocytes and neutrophils, decrease of Dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) skin hypersensitivity in guinea pigs and gerbils, and delay of mononuclear leukocytes in human Rebuck skin windows with inhibition of vascular cell Very late antigen (VLA)-4 and Vascular adhesion molecules (VCAM) in endothelia and monocytes. The MLIF molecular mechanism of action is unknown, but data reveal its implication in Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and Mitogenactivated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways. This could explain MLIF multiplicity of biological effects. On the other hand, the amebic peptide has been useful in treating experimental amebiasis of the liver. The amebic peptide is effective in reducing inflammation induced by carragenin and arthritis in a Collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) model. Microarray data from experimental arthritis revealed an MLIF gene expression profile that includes genes that are involved in apoptosis, cell adhesion, extracellular matrix, and inflammation / chemotaxis. MLIF could be involved in unsuspected biological factions because there is increasing data on the peptide effect on several cell activities. This review also presents uses of MLIF as described in patents.

  20. Role of the Gut Microbiota of Children in Diarrhea Due to the Protozoan Parasite Entamoeba histolytica. (United States)

    Gilchrist, Carol A; Petri, Sarah E; Schneider, Brittany N; Reichman, Daniel J; Jiang, Nona; Begum, Sharmin; Watanabe, Koji; Jansen, Caroline S; Elliott, K Pamela; Burgess, Stacey L; Ma, Jennie Z; Alam, Masud; Kabir, Mamun; Haque, Rashidul; Petri, William A


    An estimated 1 million children die each year before their fifth birthday from diarrhea. Previous population-based surveys of pediatric diarrheal diseases have identified the protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica, the etiological agent of amebiasis, as one of the causes of moderate-to-severe diarrhea in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. We prospectively studied the natural history of E. histolytica colonization and diarrhea among infants in an urban slum of Dhaka, Bangladesh. Approximately 80% of children were infected with E. histolytica by the age of 2 years. Fecal anti-galactose/N-acetylgalactosamine lectin immunoglobulin A was associated with protection from reinfection, while a high parasite burden and expansion of the Prevotella copri level was associated with diarrhea. E. histolytica infection was prevalent in this population, with most infections asymptomatic and diarrhea associated with both the amount of parasite and the composition of the microbiota. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  1. A ten year (1999-2008) retrospective study of amoebiasis in University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. (United States)

    Farhana, F; Jamaiah, I; Rohela, M; Abdul-Aziz, N M; Nissapatorn, V


    This is a ten year (1999-2008) retrospective study of amebiasis in patients admitted to UMMC. A total of 34 cases were analyzed. The most common were amebic liver abscess 22(65%) and the rest were amoebic dysentery 12(35%). Majority of the cases occurred among Malaysians 29(85%), with Chinese 14(41%), followed by the Malays 9(26%) and the Indians 6(18%). Foreigners made up of one Indonesian, one Pakistani and three Myanmarese and constituted 5(15%) of the total cases. Males 24(71%) were more commonly affected. Most of the cases occurred between the age group of 40-49 years, 8(23%) and 60 years and above, 8(23%). Age group of 20-50 years constituted 20(60%) of the cases. The most common clinical presentations were fever with chills and rigors 26(76%), diarrhoea 20 (59%), right hypochondrium pain 17(50%), abdominal pain 17(50%), hepatomegaly 16 (47%) and jaundice 7(20%). All were discharged well after treatment except for one case of death in a 69-year-old Chinese male with amebic liver abscess.

  2. Comparison of multiplex-PCR and antigen detection for differential diagnosis of Entamoeba histolytica

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    Helena Lúcia Carneiro Santos

    Full Text Available Amebiasis is an infection caused by Entamoeba histolytica. However, differentiation between E. histolytica and Entamoeba dispar, which are morphologically identical species, is essential for treatment decision, precaution of the invasive disease and public health. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate a Multiplex -PCR for detection and differentiation of E. histolytica from E. dispar from fresh stool samples in comparison with the coproantigen commercial ELISA. Microscopic examination of stools using the Coprotest method, detection of stool antigen by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit and a home made Multiplex-PCR, were used for the diagnosis of amoebiasis infection. Analysis of the 127 stools samples by microscopy examination demonstrated that only 27 (21% samples were positive for E. histolytica/E. dispar complex. Among these stool samples, 11 were positive by Multiplex-PCR, with nine presenting the diagnostic fragment characteristic of E. dispar (96 bp and two presenting diagnostic fragment of E. histolytica (132 bp. Among negative samples detected by microscopic examination, three positive samples for E. dispar and one positive for E. histolytica by Multiplex-PCR was observed. This denotes a low sensibility of microscopic examination when a single stool sample is analyzed. Assay for detection of E. histolytica antigen was concordant with multiplex-PCR in relation to E. histolytica. Statistical analysis comparing the sensibility tests was not done because of the low number of E. histolytica cases. The results demonstrate the importance of the specific techniques use for the differentiation between E. histolytica and E. dispar.

  3. Infections Associated with Exotic Cuisine: The Dangers of Delicacies. (United States)

    Hochberg, Natasha S; Bhadelia, Nahid


    "Exotic" food dishes are an expression of regional culture, religion, and ethnicity worldwide. With the increase in international travel to remote areas of the world, globalization of the food supply, and changes in food habits, more people are consuming dishes once considered exotic. Such behavioral changes require awareness by consumers and clinicians about the risks of food-borne infections. This chapter addresses pathogens associated with consumption of raw or undercooked seafood including anisakidosis, Diphyllobothrium latum infection, flukes, and other infectious and toxin-mediated diseases. We discuss the geographic distribution of the pathogens, symptomatology, and basic principles of treatment. Food products derived from turtles, snakes, and other reptiles are reviewed, and we address the risk of gnathostomiasis, sparganosis, trichinellosis, and other pathogens. In discussing infections associated with undercooked beef, pork, and bush meat, we address dysentery, amebiasis, toxoplasmosis, Taenia infections, and risks of novel viral infections, among others. We also review infectious risks from poultry, dairy, and other food items, focusing on those organisms encountered less frequently by clinicians in developed countries. The wide range of infectious organisms related to exotic cuisine underscores the importance of educating the adventurous traveler and warrants continued vigilance on the part of the clinician.

  4. Detection and differentiation of Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar in clinical samples through PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. (United States)

    López-López, P; Martínez-López, M C; Boldo-León, X M; Hernández-Díaz, Y; González-Castro, T B; Tovilla-Zárate, C A; Luna-Arias, J P


    Amebiasis is one of the twenty major causes of disease in Mexico; however, the diagnosis is difficult due to limitations of conventional microscopy-based techniques. In this study, we analyzed stool samples using polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) to differentiate between Entamoeba histolytica (pathogenic) and E. dispar (non-pathogenic). The target for the PCR amplification was a small region (228 bp) of the adh112 gene selected to increase the sensitivity of the test. The study involved 62 stool samples that were collected from individuals with complaints of gastrointestinal discomfort. Of the 62 samples, 10 (16.1%) were positive for E. histolytica while 52 (83.9%) were negative. No sample was positive for E. dispar. These results were validated by nested PCR-RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism) and suggest that PCR-DGGE is a promising tool to differentiate among Entamoeba infections, contributing to determine the specific treatment for patients infected with E. histolytica, and therefore, avoiding unnecessary treatment of patients infected with the non-pathogenic E. dispar.

  5. Entamoeba histolytica: Adhesins and Lectins in the Trophozoite Surface

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    Magdalena Aguirre García


    Full Text Available Entamoeba histolytica is the causative agent of amebiasis in humans and is responsible for 100,000 deaths annually, making it the third leading cause of death due to a protozoan parasite. Pathogenesis appears to result from the potent cytotoxic activity of the parasite, which kills host cells within minutes. Although the mechanism is unknown, it is well established to be contact-dependent. The life cycle of the parasite alternates with two forms: the resistant cyst and the invasive trophozoite. The adhesive interactions between the parasite and surface glycoconjugates of host cells, as well as those lining the epithelia, are determinants for invasion of human tissues, for its cytotoxic activity, and finally for the outcome of the disease. In this review we present an overview of the information available on the amebic lectins and adhesins that are responsible of those adhesive interactions and we also refer to their effect on the host immune response. Finally, we present some concluding remarks and perspectives in the field.

  6. G protein signaling in the parasite Entamoeba histolytica (United States)

    Bosch, Dustin E; Siderovski, David P


    The parasite Entamoeba histolytica causes amebic colitis and systemic amebiasis. Among the known amebic factors contributing to pathogenesis are signaling pathways involving heterotrimeric and Ras superfamily G proteins. Here, we review the current knowledge of the roles of heterotrimeric G protein subunits, Ras, Rho and Rab GTPase families in E. histolytica pathogenesis, as well as of their downstream signaling effectors and nucleotide cycle regulators. Heterotrimeric G protein signaling likely modulates amebic motility and attachment to and killing of host cells, in part through activation of an RGS-RhoGEF (regulator of G protein signaling–Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor) effector. Rho family GTPases, as well as RhoGEFs and Rho effectors (formins and p21-activated kinases) regulate the dynamic actin cytoskeleton of E. histolytica and associated pathogenesis-related cellular processes, such as migration, invasion, phagocytosis and evasion of the host immune response by surface receptor capping. A remarkably large family of 91 Rab GTPases has multiple roles in a complex amebic vesicular trafficking system required for phagocytosis and pinocytosis and secretion of known virulence factors, such as amebapores and cysteine proteases. Although much remains to be discovered, recent studies of G protein signaling in E. histolytica have enhanced our understanding of parasitic pathogenesis and have also highlighted possible targets for pharmacological manipulation. PMID:23519208

  7. Susceptibility testing of Entamoeba histolytica

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    Cedeno, J.R.; Krogstad, D.J.


    The growth of Entamoeba histolytica in microtiter plates in vitro in a variety of environments with reduced oxygen tensions is reported. With 3% O/sub 2/, 3% CO/sub 2/, and 94% N/sub 2/, the parasite growth in microtiter plates was identical to that in screw-capped culture tubes, as measured by (/sup 3/H)thymidine incorporation and by quantitative parasite counts. There were no significant differences between the drug concentrations necessary to inhibit parasite growth by 50% based on (/sup 3/H)thymidine incorporation vs those defined by quantitative parasite counts for the 15 antimicrobial agents tested (including seven drugs used for the treatment of amebiasis). This technique provides a reproducible method to quantitate the activity of potential antiamebic agents in vitro. The isotopic method should be of particular value in defining the metabolism of the parasite and effects of antimicrobial agents on it, whereas the morphologic method may be more valuable for workers with limited resources available to them.

  8. A Toll/IL-1R/resistance domain-containing thioredoxin regulates phagocytosis in Entamoeba histolytica

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    Mancilla-Herrera Ismael


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Entamoeba histolytica is a protozoan parasite that infects humans and causes amebiasis affecting developing countries. Phagocytosis of epithelial cells, erythrocytes, leucocytes, and commensal microbiota bacteria is a major pathogenic mechanism used by this parasite. A Toll/IL-1R/Resistance (TIR domain-containing protein is required in phagocytosis in the social ameba Dictyostelium discoideum, an ameba closely related to Entamoeba histolytica in phylogeny. In insects and vertebrates, TIR domain-containing proteins regulate phagocytic and cell activation. Therefore, we investigated whether E. histolytica expresses TIR domain-containing molecules that may be involved in the phagocytosis of erythrocytes and bacteria. Methods Using in silico analysis we explored in Entamoeba histolytica databases for TIR domain containing sequences. After silencing TIR domain containing sequences in trophozoites by siRNA we evaluated phagocytosis of erythrocytes and bacteria. Results We identified an E. histolytica thioredoxin containing a TIR-like domain. The secondary and tertiary structure of this sequence exhibited structural similarity to TIR domain family. Thioredoxin transcripts silenced in E. histolytica trophozoites decreased erythrocytes and E. coli phagocytosis. Conclusion TIR domain-containing thioredoxin of E. histolytica could be an important element in erythrocytes and bacteria phagocytosis.

  9. Erythrophagocytosis in Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar: a comparative study. (United States)

    Talamás-Lara, Daniel; Chávez-Munguía, Bibiana; González-Robles, Arturo; Talamás-Rohana, Patricia; Salazar-Villatoro, Lizbeth; Durán-Díaz, Ángel; Martínez-Palomo, Adolfo


    Entamoeba histolytica is the causative agent of human intestinal and liver amebiasis. The extraordinary phagocytic activity of E. histolytica trophozoites has been accepted as one of the virulence mechanisms responsible for their invasive capacity. The recognition of the noninvasive Entamoeba dispar as a different species has raised the question as to whether the lack of pathogenic potential of this ameba correlates with a limited phagocytic capacity. We have therefore compared the process of erythrophagocytosis in both species by means of light and video microscopy, hemoglobin measurement, and the estimation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In the present study, we confirmed that E. dispar has lower erythrophagocytic capacity. We also observed by video microscopy a new event of erythrocyte opsonization-like in both species, being more characteristic in E. histolytica. Moreover, E. dispar showed a lower capacity to produce ROS compared with the invasive species and also showed a large population of amoebae that did not engulf any erythrocyte over time. Our results demonstrate that E. histolytica has a higher phagocytic capacity than E. dispar, including a higher rate of production of ROS in the course of ingesting red blood cells.

  10. Larrea tridentata: A novel source for anti-parasitic agents active against Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia and Naegleria fowleri. (United States)

    Bashyal, Bharat; Li, Linfeng; Bains, Trpta; Debnath, Anjan; LaBarbera, Daniel V


    Protozoan parasites infect and kill millions of people worldwide every year, particularly in developing countries where access to clean fresh water is limited. Among the most common are intestinal parasites, including Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica. These parasites wreak havoc on the epithelium lining the small intestines (G. lamblia) and colon (E. histolytica) causing giardiasis and amebiasis, respectively. In addition, there are less common but far more deadly pathogens such as Naegleria fowleri that thrive in warm waters and infect the central nervous systems of their victims via the nasal passages. Despite their prevalence and associated high mortality rates, there remains an unmet need to identify more effective therapeutics for people infected with these opportunistic parasites. To address this unmet need, we have surveyed plants and traditional herbal medicines known throughout the world to identify novel antiparasitic agents with activity against G. lamblia, E. histolytica, and N. fowleri. Herein, we report Larrea tridentata, known as creosote bush, as a novel source for secondary metabolites that display antiparasitic activity against all three pathogens. This report also characterizes the lignan compound classes, nordihydroguairetic acid and demethoxyisoguaiacin, as novel antiparasitic lead agents to further develop more effective drug therapy options for millions of people worldwide.

  11. Larrea tridentata: A novel source for anti-parasitic agents active against Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia and Naegleria fowleri.

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    Bharat Bashyal


    Full Text Available Protozoan parasites infect and kill millions of people worldwide every year, particularly in developing countries where access to clean fresh water is limited. Among the most common are intestinal parasites, including Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica. These parasites wreak havoc on the epithelium lining the small intestines (G. lamblia and colon (E. histolytica causing giardiasis and amebiasis, respectively. In addition, there are less common but far more deadly pathogens such as Naegleria fowleri that thrive in warm waters and infect the central nervous systems of their victims via the nasal passages. Despite their prevalence and associated high mortality rates, there remains an unmet need to identify more effective therapeutics for people infected with these opportunistic parasites. To address this unmet need, we have surveyed plants and traditional herbal medicines known throughout the world to identify novel antiparasitic agents with activity against G. lamblia, E. histolytica, and N. fowleri. Herein, we report Larrea tridentata, known as creosote bush, as a novel source for secondary metabolites that display antiparasitic activity against all three pathogens. This report also characterizes the lignan compound classes, nordihydroguairetic acid and demethoxyisoguaiacin, as novel antiparasitic lead agents to further develop more effective drug therapy options for millions of people worldwide.


    Roca-Mézquita, Carolina; Graniel-Sabido, Manlio; Moo-Puc, Rosa E; Leon-Déniz, Lorena V; Gamboa-León, Rubí; Arjona-Ruiz, Carely; Tun-Garrido, Juan; Mirón-López, Gumersindo; Mena-Rejón, Gonzalo J


    Chagas disease, amebiasis, giardiasis and trichomoniasis represent a serious health problem in Latin America. The drugs employed to treat these illnesses produce important side effects and resistant strains have appeared. The present study was aimed to evaluate the antiprotozoal activity of leaves, stem bark and root bark of Elaeodendron trichotomum , a celastraceus, that is used in Mexico as an anti-infective in febrile-type diseases. Dichloromethane and methanol extracts of leaves, bark and roots of Elaeodendron trichotomum were tested against Entamoeba histolytica , Giardia lamblia , Trichomonas vaginalis , and Trypanosoma cruzi . A quantitative HPLC analysis of pristimerin and tingenone was performed. The dichloromethane extract of roots was active against E. histolytica , G. lamblia , T. vaginalis , and T. cruzi , at IC50's of 0.80, 0.44, 0.46, and 2.68 μg/mL, respectively. The HPLC analysis revealed the presence of tingenone (3.84%) and pristimerin (0.14%). The dichloromethane extract of the roots bark showed significant activity against all screened protozoa.

  13. Cecal ameboma in nasopharyngeal carcinoma patient mimicking intra-abdominal malignancy

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    Chih-Wei Hsu


    Full Text Available Amebiasis is quite uncommon in developed countries. Its clinical presentation can vary from an asymptomatic carrier state to fulminant colitis and colonic perforation. We presented a 39-year-old female who received combined chemotherapy and radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma 1 year prior to admission. Thereafter, she felt acute abdominal pain and diarrhea after traveling to Hainan 3 months ago. A physical examination of the patient revealed diffused peritoneal sign. Abdominal computed tomography showed a cecal tumor and intra-abdominal abscess. A subsequent exploratory laparotomy revealed an infiltrating yellowish tumor about 7 cm over the cecum and massive serous ascites. Pathology reported ambeic colitis with undermined ulcer and abscess formation of the cecum. Ameboma can be found in developed countries, particularly in patients with risk factors and a history of traveling to areas with the developing disease. Colonoscopy with biopsy is recommended for patients with suspected ameboma, and surgical intervention is likely indicated in complicated cases although the surgical mortality rate is high.

  14. Repurposing the open access malaria box to discover potent inhibitor/span>s of Toxoplasma gondii and Entamoeba histolytica. (United States)

    Boyom, Fabrice F; Fokou, Patrick V T; Tchokouaha, Lauve R Y; Spangenberg, Thomas; Mfopa, Alvine N; Kouipou, Ruffin M T; Mbouna, Cedric J; Donfack, Valerie F Donkeng; Zollo, Paul H A


    Toxoplasmosis and amebiasis are important public health concerns worldwide. The drugs currently available to control these diseases have proven limitations. Therefore, innovative approaches should be adopted to identify and develop new leads from novel scaffolds exhibiting novel modes of action. In this paper, we describe results from the screening of compounds in the Medicines for Malaria Venture (MMV) open access Malaria Box in a search for new anti-Toxoplasma and anti-Entamoeba agents. Standard in vitro phenotypic screening procedures were adopted to assess their biological activities. Seven anti-Toxoplasma compounds with a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 6 were identified. The most interesting compound was MMV007791, a piperazine acetamide, which has an IC50 of 0.19 μM and a selectivity index of >157. Also, we identified two compounds, MMV666600 and MMV006861, with modest activities against Entamoeba histolytica, with IC50s of 10.66 μM and 15.58 μM, respectively. The anti-Toxoplasma compounds identified in this study belong to scaffold types different from those of currently used drugs, underscoring their novelty and potential as starting points for the development of new antitoxoplasmosis drugs with novel modes of action. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  15. Sensibilidad de trofozoítos de Entamoeba histolytica a ivermectina Sensibility of Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites to ivermectin

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    Francisco González-Salazar


    Full Text Available La amibiasis producida por Entamoeba histolytica es un problema de salud pública. Las formas clínicas más frecuentes son la disentería y el absceso hepático amibiano. En el mundo se notifican anualmente 50 millones de casos y más de 100 000 muertes por esta enfermedad. El ciclo de vida de E. histolytica tiene dos fases: trofozoíto y quiste. Los trofozoítos son los responsables de producir enfermedad. El tratamiento actual para la amibiasis incluye medicamentos con efectos colaterales serios. La ivermectina es un macrólido con actividad contra endoparásitos y ectoparásitos causantes de strongiloidosis, filariasis, oncocercosis, sarna y pediculosis. Su uso está extendido a casi todo el mundo y se lo reconoce como un medicamento seguro. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar la sensiblidad in vitro de trofozoítos de E. histolytica al tratamiento con ivermectina. Para determinar su sensibilidad a la droga, se utilizaron trofozoítos de E. histolytica cultivados en medio PEHPS. Durante su fase de crecimiento logarítmico se expusieron a diferentes concentraciones de ivermectina. Como controles se usaron otras drogas antiparasitarias. Se prepararon diluciones seriadas de cada droga, luego se agregaron a tubos con parásitos (2 x 10(4 células/ml. Se incubó por 72 h y luego se determinó el porcentaje de inhibición de crecimiento calculado por análisis Probit. La ivermectina tiene actividad contra trofozoítos de E. histolytica. La dosis de ivermectina que produjo el 50% de inhibición de crecimiento fue de 6.40 mg/ml. Esta dosis fue mayor a la encontrada con otras drogas antiparasitarias. Falta demostrar su actividad in vivo en modelos animales.Amebiasis caused by Entamoeba histolytica is a problem of public world health. The most frequent clinical presentation are the dysentery and the amebic liver abscess. Fifty millions of cases and more than 100.000 deaths for this disease are reported annually worldwide. The life cycle of E


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    Srisasi Gandahusada


    anomalies are found. T. gondii as one of the causes, is widely spread in man and animals. The prevalence of Toxoplasma antibodies in man varies from 2 % to 63 %, in cats and other animals it can reach up to 75%. Confirmed cases of congenital toxoplasmosis are reported. The diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in the Department of Parasitology, University of Indonesia is done with detection of specific IgM and IgG antibodies with ELISA. A test for antigenemia to get a rapid and direct diagnosis of active infection is not yet available. A suitable Toxoplasma vaccine to prevent toxoplasmosis would be desirable. E. histolytica infection is endemic throughout the archipelago. The prevalence rates are 18% to 25% . Extraintestinal infection mostly occurs in the liver. Pulmonary amebiasis is occasionally found. Medication with metronidazole has obtained good results. Diagnosis of extraintestinal amebiasis in our laboratory is by the immunodiffusion test, which is not capable to differentiate active infection from infection in the past. A more accurate diagnosis would be the use of monoclonal antibodies to detect antigens.

  17. [Quality of the water and public health in the Central American isthmus]. (United States)

    Donato, C


    As of December 1970 the population of the Central American Isthmus was 16,436,723; 6,225,447 (37.9%) urban and 10,210,946 (62.1%) rural. Of the urban population, 63.3%, or 3,964,611 had water in the home, while 2,283,836 (36.7% had no adequate water supply. The problem is even worse in the rural population where only 732,150 inhabitants (7.17%) had water in the home; the rest, 9,500,000 were using water from contaminated rivers, streams, wells, etc. These low percentages do not meet the standards proposed at Punta del Este, Uruguay in 1961 of providing drinking water to 70% of the urban population and to 50% of those of rural areas. Nor do the very low figures for sanitary disposal of wastes meet these standards (31.4% in urban areas and 19.5% in rural areas). As a logical consequence, water-bourne morbility in the Central American Isthmus is very high. The rates per 100,000 inhabitants are 0.4 to 18.8 for typhoid fever; 0.7 to 13.0 for paratyphoid fever; 0.5 to 786.2 for bacillary dysentery; and 17.9 to 555.6 for amebiasis. Although it would be hard to evaluate the benefits of sanitary water and waste disposal systems, the damage caused by water-bourne illnesses is well known, especially their effect on the individual human being since they sap his energy, lower his life expectancy and productivity, and thus indirectly affect the national economy. It is a well known fact that the cost of optimum water supply and waste disposal systems will more than amply be paid for by the savings in medication and lost time through illness.

  18. Analysis of parasitic diseases diagnosed by tissue biopsy specimens at KyungHee Medical Center (1984-2005) in Seoul, Korea. (United States)

    Choi, Won-Hyung; Chu, Jong-Phil; Jiang, Meihua; Lee, Yun-Sik; Kim, Bum-Shik; Kim, Deog-Gon; Park, Yong-Koo


    We analyzed parasitic diseases diagnosed by tissue biopsy specimens at KyungHee Medical Center (KMC) from 1984 to 2005. The total number of parasite infection cases was 150 (0.07%) out of the total 211,859 biopsy specimens submitted for histopathological examinations. They consisted of 62 cysticercosis, 23 sparganosis, 16 paragonimiasis, 15 amebiasis, 11 anisakiasis, 11 clonorchiasis, 3 ascariasis, 2 scabies, 2 enterobiasis, 2 trichuriasis, 1 leishmaniasis, 1 taeniasis, and 1 thelaziasis. Out of 62 cysticercosis cases, 55 were detected in subcutaneous tissues or the central nerve system. Eighteen out of 23 sparganosis cases were involved in muscular and subcutaneous tissues. In most anisakiasis cases, the involved organ was the stomach. The lung and the pleura were the most common site of paragonimiasis. The incidence of parasitic diseases during the first 5 years (1984-1988) was the highest of all observed periods. After 1989, similar incidences were shown throughout the period. Whereas cysticercosis was diagnosed in 34 cases during 1984-1988, no case has been diagnosed since 2000. In the case of sparganosis, the chronological incidence was almost uniform throughout the period 1984-2005. Paragonimiasis showed a similar tendency to cysticercosis. In gender and age distribution of parasitic diseases, men showed higher incidence rates than females, and the age groups of the 40s or older indicated higher infection frequencies than other age groups. Therefore, these results are a significant report to appear the tendency of human parasitic disease diagnosed by tissue biopsy in association with parasitosis at KMC in Seoul.

  19. Expatriates ill after travel: results from the Geosentinel Surveillance Network. (United States)

    Lim, Poh-Lian; Han, Pauline; Chen, Lin H; MacDonald, Susan; Pandey, Prativa; Hale, DeVon; Schlagenhauf, Patricia; Loutan, Louis; Wilder-Smith, Annelies; Davis, Xiaohong M; Freedman, David O


    Expatriates are a distinct population at unique risk for health problems related to their travel exposure. We analyzed GeoSentinel data comparing ill returned expatriates with other travelers for demographics, travel characteristics, and proportionate morbidity (PM) for travel-related illness. Our study included 2,883 expatriates and 11,910 non-expatriates who visited GeoSentinel clinics ill after travel. Expatriates were more likely to be male, do volunteer work, be long-stay travelers (>6 months), and have sought pre-travel advice. Compared to non-expatriates, expatriates returning from Africa had higher proportionate morbidity (PM) for malaria, filariasis, schistosomiasis, and hepatitis E; expatriates from the Asia-Pacific region had higher PM for strongyloidiasis, depression, and anxiety; expatriates returning from Latin America had higher PM for mononucleosis and ingestion-related infections (giardiasis, brucellosis). Expatriates returning from all three regions had higher PM for latent TB, amebiasis, and gastrointestinal infections (other than acute diarrhea) compared to non-expatriates. When the data were stratified by travel reason, business expatriates had higher PM for febrile systemic illness (malaria and dengue) and vaccine-preventable infections (hepatitis A), and volunteer expatriates had higher PM for parasitic infections. Expatriates overall had higher adjusted odds ratios for latent TB and lower odds ratios for acute diarrhea and dermatologic illness. Ill returned expatriates differ from other travelers in travel characteristics and proportionate morbidity for specific diseases, based on the region of exposure and travel reason. They are more likely to present with more serious illness.

  20. Real-time PCR assay in differentiating Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba dispar, and Entamoeba moshkovskii infections in Orang Asli settlements in Malaysia. (United States)

    Lau, Yee Ling; Anthony, Claudia; Fakhrurrazi, Siti Aminah; Ibrahim, Jamaiah; Ithoi, Init; Mahmud, Rohela


    Amebiasis caused by Entamoeba histolytica is the third leading cause of death worldwide. This pathogenic amoeba is morphologically indistinguishable from E. dispar and E. moshkovskii, the non-pathogenic species. Polymerase chain reaction is the current method of choice approved by World Health Organization. Real-time PCR is another attractive molecular method for diagnosis of infectious diseases as post-PCR analyses are eliminated and turnaround times are shorter. The present work aimed to compare the results of Entamoeba species identification using the real-time assay against the established nested PCR method. In this study, a total of 334 human faecal samples were collected from different Orang Asli settlements. Faecal samples were processed by direct wet smear and formalin ethyl acetate concentration methods followed by iodine staining and was microscopically examined for Entamoeba species and other intestinal parasites. Microscopically positive samples were then subject to nested PCR and real-time PCR. The overall prevalence of Entamoeba infection was 19.5% (65/334). SK Posh Piah recorded highest Entamoeba prevalence (63.3%) while Kampung Kemensah had the lowest prevalence (3.7%) of Entamoeba. Microscopically positive samples were then tested by real-time PCR and nested PCR for the presence of Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba dispar, and Entamoeba moshkovskii infection. Real-time PCR showed higher Entamoeba detection (86.2%) compared to nested PCR (80%), although the McNemar test value showed no significant difference between the two methods (p = 0.221). This study is the first in Malaysia to report the use of real-time PCR in identifying and differentiating the three Entamoeba infections. It is also proven to be more effective compared to the conventional nested PCR molecular method.

  1. Neglected tropical diseases in sub-saharan Africa: review of their prevalence, distribution, and disease burden.

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    Peter J Hotez

    Full Text Available The neglected tropical diseases (NTDs are the most common conditions affecting the poorest 500 million people living in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA, and together produce a burden of disease that may be equivalent to up to one-half of SSA's malaria disease burden and more than double that caused by tuberculosis. Approximately 85% of the NTD disease burden results from helminth infections. Hookworm infection occurs in almost half of SSA's poorest people, including 40-50 million school-aged children and 7 million pregnant women in whom it is a leading cause of anemia. Schistosomiasis is the second most prevalent NTD after hookworm (192 million cases, accounting for 93% of the world's number of cases and possibly associated with increased horizontal transmission of HIV/AIDS. Lymphatic filariasis (46-51 million cases and onchocerciasis (37 million cases are also widespread in SSA, each disease representing a significant cause of disability and reduction in the region's agricultural productivity. There is a dearth of information on Africa's non-helminth NTDs. The protozoan infections, human African trypanosomiasis and visceral leishmaniasis, affect almost 100,000 people, primarily in areas of conflict in SSA where they cause high mortality, and where trachoma is the most prevalent bacterial NTD (30 million cases. However, there are little or no data on some very important protozoan infections, e.g., amebiasis and toxoplasmosis; bacterial infections, e.g., typhoid fever and non-typhoidal salmonellosis, the tick-borne bacterial zoonoses, and non-tuberculosis mycobaterial infections; and arboviral infections. Thus, the overall burden of Africa's NTDs may be severely underestimated. A full assessment is an important step for disease control priorities, particularly in Nigeria and the Democratic Republic of Congo, where the greatest number of NTDs may occur.

  2. Differential detection of Entamoeba histolytica from Entamoeba dispar by parasitological and nested multiplex polymerase chain reaction methods

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    esmaiel fallah


    Full Text Available Introduction: Amebiasis is an intestinal illness caused by a one-celled parasite (amoeba called Entamoeba (E histolytica. E histolytica and E dispar are morphologicallyundistinguishable but have genetic and functional differences. E. histolytica is invasive andcause amoebiasis, but E dispar cause an asymptomatic colonization which does not need to bemedically treated. We have performed a nested multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCRtargeting small subunit rRNA (Ribosomal ribonucleic acid gene for differential detection of Ehistolytica and E dispar directly from stool samples. Methods: All the fecal samples collected without preservation and were screened for amebiccells by parasitological methods. Fecal samples that containing amebic cells were stored at -20ºC until DNA extraction. DNA extraction was down by using a DNA extraction kit. Thegenus specific primers were designed using nucleotide sequences of 18S-rRNA gene ofEntamoeba. Results: Thirty one (4.28% stool samples out of 724 samples were positive for E histolytica/E dispar. The nested multiplex PCR illustrated that the size of diagnostic fragments of PCR products was obviously different for two Entamoeba species, the specific product size for Ehistolytica and E dispar was 439 and 174 bp. The nested multiplex PCR was positive in 25 outof 31 stool specimens that 17 (54.8% samples were positive for E dispar and 8 (25.8%samples were positive for E histolytica. Conclusion: Nested multiplex PCR was useful for the specific detection of E histolytica and Edispar in stool samples. In current study we detected that E dispar was more prevalent in our study area.

  3. Neglected tropical diseases in sub-saharan Africa: review of their prevalence, distribution, and disease burden. (United States)

    Hotez, Peter J; Kamath, Aruna


    The neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are the most common conditions affecting the poorest 500 million people living in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), and together produce a burden of disease that may be equivalent to up to one-half of SSA's malaria disease burden and more than double that caused by tuberculosis. Approximately 85% of the NTD disease burden results from helminth infections. Hookworm infection occurs in almost half of SSA's poorest people, including 40-50 million school-aged children and 7 million pregnant women in whom it is a leading cause of anemia. Schistosomiasis is the second most prevalent NTD after hookworm (192 million cases), accounting for 93% of the world's number of cases and possibly associated with increased horizontal transmission of HIV/AIDS. Lymphatic filariasis (46-51 million cases) and onchocerciasis (37 million cases) are also widespread in SSA, each disease representing a significant cause of disability and reduction in the region's agricultural productivity. There is a dearth of information on Africa's non-helminth NTDs. The protozoan infections, human African trypanosomiasis and visceral leishmaniasis, affect almost 100,000 people, primarily in areas of conflict in SSA where they cause high mortality, and where trachoma is the most prevalent bacterial NTD (30 million cases). However, there are little or no data on some very important protozoan infections, e.g., amebiasis and toxoplasmosis; bacterial infections, e.g., typhoid fever and non-typhoidal salmonellosis, the tick-borne bacterial zoonoses, and non-tuberculosis mycobaterial infections; and arboviral infections. Thus, the overall burden of Africa's NTDs may be severely underestimated. A full assessment is an important step for disease control priorities, particularly in Nigeria and the Democratic Republic of Congo, where the greatest number of NTDs may occur.

  4. Transcriptome analysis of encystation in Entamoeba invadens. (United States)

    De Cádiz, Aleyla Escueta; Jeelani, Ghulam; Nakada-Tsukui, Kumiko; Caler, Elisabet; Nozaki, Tomoyoshi


    Encystation is an essential differentiation process for the completion of the life cycle of a group of intestinal protozoa including Entamoeba histolytica, the causative agent of intestinal and extraintestinal amebiasis. However, regulation of gene expression during encystation is poorly understood. To comprehensively understand the process at the molecular level, the transcriptomic profiles of E. invadens, which is a related reptilian species that causes an invasive disease similar to that of E. histolytica, was investigated during encystation. Using a custom-generated Affymetrix platform microarray, we performed time course (0.5, 2, 8, 24, 48, and 120 h) gene expression analysis of encysting E. invadens. ANOVA analysis revealed that a total of 1,528 genes showed ≥3 fold up-regulation at one or more time points, relative to the trophozoite stage. Of these modulated genes, 8% (116 genes) were up-regulated at the early time points (0.5, 2 and 8h), while 63% (962 genes) were up-regulated at the later time points (24, 48, and 120 h). Twenty nine percent (450 genes) are either up-regulated at 2 to 5 time points or constitutively up-regulated in both early and late stages. Among the up-regulated genes are the genes encoding transporters, cytoskeletal proteins, proteins involved in vesicular trafficking (small GTPases), Myb transcription factors, cysteine proteases, components of the proteasome, and enzymes for chitin biosynthesis. This study represents the first kinetic analysis of gene expression during differentiation from the invasive trophozoite to the dormant, infective cyst stage in Entamoeba. Functional analysis on individual genes and their encoded products that are modulated during encystation may lead to the discovery of targets for the development of new chemotherapeutics that interfere with stage conversion of the parasite.

  5. Identification and characterization of microRNAs from Entamoeba histolytica HM1-IMSS.

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    Fermín Mar-Aguilar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Entamoeba histolytica is the causative agent of amebiasis, a disease that is a major source of morbidity and mortality in the developing world. MicroRNAs (miRNAs are a large group of non-coding RNAs that play important roles in regulating gene expression and protein translation in animals. Genome-wide identification of miRNAs is a critical step to facilitating our understanding of genome organization, genome biology, evolution, and post-transcriptional regulation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We sequenced a small RNA library prepared from a culture of trophozoites of Entamoeba histolytica Strain HM1-IMSS using a deep DNA sequencing approach. Deep sequencing yielded 16 million high-quality short sequence reads containing a total of 5 million non-redundant sequence reads. Based on a bioinformatics pipeline, we found that only 0.5% of these non-redundant small RNA reads were a perfect match with the drafted E. histolytica genome. We did not find miRNA homologs in plant or animal miRNAs. We discovered 199 new potential Entamoeba histolytica miRNAs. The expression and sequence of these Ehi-miRNAs were further validated through microarray by µParaflo Microfluidic Biochip Technology. Ten potential miRNAs were additionally confirmed by real time RT-PCR analysis. Prediction of target genes matched 32 known genes and 34 hypothetical genes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results show that there is a number of regulatory miRNAs in Entamoeba histolytica. The collection of miRNAs in this parasite could be used as a new platform to study genomic structure, gene regulation and networks, development, and host-parasite interactions.

  6. Epidemiologic and clinical characteristics of acute diarrhea with emphasis on Entamoeba histolytica infections in preschool children in an urban slum of Dhaka, Bangladesh. (United States)

    Haque, Rashidul; Mondal, Dinesh; Kirkpatrick, Beth D; Akther, Selim; Farr, Barry M; Sack, R Bradley; Petri, William A


    The epidemiology, clinical features, nutritional status, and causative agents of diarrhea were studied in 289 Bangladeshi children (147 boys and 142 girls) 2-5 years old. The use of improved diagnostic tests for amebiasis enabled for the first time analysis of the contribution of Entamoeba histolytica to total diarrheal illness in this community setting. The average incidence rate of diarrhea was 1.8/child-year, and the average number of diarrheal days was 3.7 days/child-year over an average observation period of 2.8 years/child. Seventy-five percent of the diarrheal episodes were diarrhea was relatively uncommon (0.2% of the children) and chronic diarrhea was observed in only one episode. Compared with malnourished and/or stunted children, better-nourished children experienced significantly fewer diarrheal episodes. The diarrheal incidence rate for children with blood group A was significantly less that that of the children with blood groups O and AB. The most frequent bacterial enteropathogens isolated from diarrheal stool specimens were enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (9%) and Aeromonas species (9%), followed by Plesimonas shigelloides (4%) and Shigella flexneri (3.8%). Rotavirus was the most common viral agent isolated from diarrheal stool samples (5%). Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium parvum, and E. histolytica were identified in 11%, 8.4%, and 8%, respectively, of the diarrheal stool specimens. Dysentery was observed in 7.7% of all diarrheal episodes. The most common pathogens isolated from dysenteric stool were S. flexneri (11.6%), Aeromonas sp. (10%), E. histolytica (8.7%), Campylobacter jejunii (5.8%), P. shigelloides (4.3%), and A. caviae (4.3%). The overall incidence rate of E. histolytica-associated diarrhea was 0.08/child-year. Visible blood and hemoccult test-detected blood loss was found in 7% and 25%, respectively, of cases of E. histolytica-associated diarrhea. Children who had recovered from a diarrheal episode with E. histolytica, but not E

  7. The Entamoeba histolytica TBP and TRF1 transcription factors are GAAC-box binding proteins, which display differential gene expression under different stress stimuli and during the interaction with mammalian cells. (United States)

    Narayanasamy, Ravi Kumar; Castañón-Sanchez, Carlos Alberto; Luna-Arias, Juan Pedro; García-Rivera, Guillermina; Avendaño-Borromeo, Bartolo; Labra-Barrios, María Luisa; Valdés, Jesús; Herrera-Aguirre, María Esther; Orozco, Esther


    Entamoeba histolytica is the protozoan parasite responsible for human amebiasis. It causes up to 100,000 deaths worldwide each year. This parasite has two closely related basal transcription factors, the TATA-box binding protein (EhTBP) and the TBP-related factor 1 (EhTRF1). TBP binds to the canonical TATTTAAA-box, as well as to different TATA variants. TRF1 also binds to the TATTTAAA-box. However, their binding capacity to diverse core promoter elements, including the GAAC-element, and their role in gene regulation in this parasite remains unknown. EMSA experiments were performed to determine the binding capacity of recombinant TBP and TRF1 to TATA variants, GAAC and GAAC-like boxes. For the functional analysis under different stress stimuli (e.g. growth curve, serum depletion, heat-shock, and UV-irradiation) and during the interaction with mammalian cells (erythrocytes, MDCK cell monolayers, and hepatocytes of hamsters), RT-qPCR, and gene knockdown were performed. Both transcription factors bound to the different TATA variants tested, as well as to the GAAC-boxes, suggesting that they are GAAC-box-binding proteins. The K D values determined for TBP and TRF1 for the different TATA variants and GAAC-box were in the range of 10 -12  M to 10 -11  M. During the death phase of growth or in serum depletion, Ehtbp mRNA levels significantly increased, whereas the mRNA level of Ehtrf1 did not change under these conditions. Ehtrf1 gene expression was negatively regulated by UV-irradiation and heat-shock stress, with no changes in Ehtbp gene expression. Moreover, Ehtrf1 gene also showed a negative regulation during erythrophagocytosis, liver abscess formation, and a transient expression level increase at the initial phase of MDCK cell destruction. Finally, the Ehtbp gene knockdown displayed a drastic decrease in the efficiency of erythrophagocytosis in G3 trophozoites. To our knowledge, this study reveals that these basal transcription factors are able to bind multiple

  8. Evaluación del serodiagnóstico en el absceso hepático amebiano

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    Luis Carlos Orozco


    Full Text Available El presente estudio fue diseñado para evaluar la eficacia del diagnóstico serológico del absceso hepático amibiano (AHA. Se utilizó una prueba de ELISA para la detección en suero de IgG especifica, utilizando una fase sólida con una alta capacidad de adherencia. Se estudiaron 147 personas; 22 pacientes con sospecha clínica y ultrasonográfica de AHA, 30 individuos completamente sanos, 9 portadores asintomáticos de E. histolytica, 35 con colitis amebiana pasada, 35 con otras parasitosis intestinales, 9 con otras patologías hepáticas y 6 con colitis amebiana presente. El rendimiento global de la prueba fue analizado por medio de las curvas del receptor-operador y del área bajo la curva. Se determinó que existe una diferencia significativa en la densidad óptica (DO de los siete grupos estudiados (Kruskal-Wallis entre todos los grupos: p=0,0001; esta diferencia no existe cuando, al comparar, se elimina el grupo 1 del análisis (Kruskal-Wallis exceptuando el grupo 1: p=0,8203. El área bajo la curva ROC fue igual a 0,9941, dato muy cercano al ideal que es 1. Se recomienda la utilización de esta fase sólida teniendo en cuenta la importancia de la fase de bloqueo con albúmina de huevo. Se determinó que, a pesar de estar en una zona donde el diagnóstico de amebiasis es frecuente, las infecciones intestinales por esta ameba no presentan niveles detectables de IgG especifica contra E. histolytica por esta prueba. Sin embargo, es importante ampliar la cantidad de personas estudiadas en estos grupos, principalmente, en el grupo de pacientes con otras patologías hepáticas puesto que este grupo incluye las entidades clínicas con las que realmente se debe hacer el diagnóstico diferencial de (AHA (absceso hepático piógeno (AHP, principalmente para poder realizar la última fase de la evaluación. El estudio de este grupo nos ayudaría a obtener valores reales de sensibilidad, especificidad y valores predictivos y nos darían una

  9. Prevalent HLA Class II Alleles in Mexico City Appear to Confer Resistance to the Development of Amebic Liver Abscess. (United States)

    Hernández, Eric G; Granados, Julio; Partida-Rodríguez, Oswaldo; Valenzuela, Olivia; Rascón, Edgar; Magaña, Ulises; Escamilla-Tilch, Mónica; López-Reyes, Alberto; Nieves-Ramírez, Miriam; González, Enrique; Morán, Patricia; Rojas, Liliana; Valadez, Alicia; Luna, Alexandra; Estrada, Francisco J; Maldonado, Carmen; Ximénez, Cecilia


    Amebiasis is an endemic disease and a public health problem throughout Mexico, although the incidence rates of amebic liver abscess (ALA) vary among the geographic regions of the country. Notably, incidence rates are high in the northwestern states (especially Sonora with a rate of 12.57/100,000 inhabitants) compared with the central region (Mexico City with a rate of 0.69/100,000 inhabitants). These data may be related to host genetic factors that are partially responsible for resistance or susceptibility. Therefore, we studied the association of the HLA-DRB1 and HLA-DQB1 alleles with resistance or susceptibility to ALA in two Mexican populations, one each from Mexico City and Sonora. Ninety ALA patients were clinically diagnosed by serology and sonography. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood mononuclear cells. To establish the genetic identity of both populations, 15 short tandem repeats (STRs) were analyzed with multiplexed PCR, and the allelic frequencies of HLA were studied by PCR-SSO using LUMINEX technology. The allele frequencies obtained were compared to an ethnically matched healthy control group (146 individuals). We observed that both affected populations differed genetically from the control group. We also found interesting trends in the population from Mexico City. HLA-DQB1*02 allele frequencies were higher in ALA patients compared to the control group (0.127 vs 0.047; p= 0.01; pc= NS; OR= 2.9, 95% CI= 1.09-8.3). The less frequent alleles in ALA patients were HLA-DRB1*08 (0.118 vs 0.238 in controls; p= 0.01; pc= NS; OR= 0.42, 95% CI= 0.19-0.87) and HLA-DQB1*04 (0.109 vs 0.214; p= 0.02; pc= NS; OR= 0.40, 95% CI= 0.20-0.94). The haplotype HLA-DRB1*08/-DQB1*04 also demonstrated a protective trend against the development of this disease (0.081 vs. 0.178; p=0.02; pc=NS; OR= 0.40, 95% CI= 0.16-0.93). These trends suggest that the prevalent alleles in the population of Mexico City may be associated with protection against the development of ALA.

  10. Mecanismos fisiopatogênicos e diagnóstico laboratorial da infecção causada pela Entamoeba histolytica Physiopathogenic mechanisms and laboratorial diagnosis of Entamoeba histolytica infection

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    Fred Luciano Neves Santos


    Full Text Available A amebíase é a segunda causa de morte entre as doenças parasitárias no mundo. Seu agente etiológico é o protozoário Entamoeba histolytica, que através da secreção de proteinases é capazes de destruir o tecido hospedeiro, matando as células-alvo por contato e fagocitando eritrócitos. Dessa forma, os trofozoítos invadem a mucosa intestinal, provocando a colite amebiana. Em alguns casos atravessam a mucosa e, através da circulação porta, chegam ao fígado, onde causam necrose constituída por poucos trofozoítos rodeados de hepatócitos mortos e debris celulares liquefeitos. Essa invasão está diretamente relacionada com a capacidade de síntese e a secreção de moléculas responsáveis pela virulência dos trofozoítos, como os amebaporos, as lectinas e as cisteína proteinases. O diagnóstico da infecção causada pelo patógeno é rotineiramente realizado através da microscopia óptica de amostras frescas ou espécimes fixados. Entretanto essa metodologia apresenta limitações, sendo incapaz de distinguir as espécies pertencentes ao complexo E. histolytica/E. dispar. A pesquisa de coproantígenos e a reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR têm sido utilizadas para diferenciação desses protozoários em amostras fecais. No entanto, estudos mais aprofundados são necessários para maior compreensão sobre a relação parasita/hospedeiro, a proteômica e a genômica do protozoário, o desenvolvimento de vacinas e a real prevalência dessa infecção no Brasil e no mundo.Amebiasis is the second cause of death among parasitary diseases in the world. Its etiologic agent is the protozoan Entamoeba histolytica, which destroys the host tissue by means of the secretion of proteinases, kills the target-cells by contact and phagocytizes erythrocytes. Accordingly, the trophozoites invade the intestinal mucosa, what causes amoebaean colitis. In some cases, they pass through the mucosa and reach the liver through the portal system, where