WorldWideScience

Sample records for ambrosia paniculata willd

  1. Meranzin hydrate from Muraya paniculata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalijah Awang

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The coumarin ring system in the title compound, C15H18O5 [IUPAC name: 8-(2,3-dihydroxy-3-methylbutyl-7-methoxy-2H-1-benzopyran-2-one], isolated from Muraya paniculata, is planar (r.m.s. deviation 0.017 Å. In the crystal, the two hydroxy groups are involved in O—H...O hydrogen bonding with adjacent molecules, forming a sheet structure.

  2. Biology, Behavior, and Management of Ambrosia Beetles Attacking Ornamental Nursery Stock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosia beetles are being increasingly recognized as significant pests of field-grown ornamental nursery stock. Two species are especially problematic in ornamental nurseries, namely the black stem borer, Xylosandrus germanus, and the granulate ambrosia beetle, Xylosandrus crassiusculus. Ambrosia b...

  3. Two new coumarins from Murraya paniculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saied, Sumayya; Nizami, Shaikh Sirajuddin; Anis, Itrat

    2008-01-01

    Two new coumarins, murrmeranzin (1) and murralonginal (2), together with four known compounds minumicrolin (3), murrangatin (4), meranzin hydrate (5) and hainanmurpanin (6) have been isolated from the aerial parts of Murraya paniculata. The structures of these compounds were determined through spectral analysis. Minumicrolin (3) showed mild butyrylcholinesterase inhibition activity.

  4. A new coumarin from Murraya paniculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Muhammad Iqbal; Azizuddin; Khalid, Asaad; Sultani, Shaikh Ziauddin; Atta-ur-Rahman

    2002-01-01

    A new natural product, 2'-O-ethylmurrangatin (1) was isolated along with two previously known compounds murranganone (2) and paniculatin (3) from the leaves of Murraya paniculata. The structure of compound 1 was elucidated with the help of spectroscopic studies and by chemical reactions. Compounds 2 and 3 have been found to be cholinesterase inhibitors.

  5. Breeding quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zurita-Silva, Andrés; Fuentes, Francisco; Zamora, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) originated in the Andean region of South America; this species is associated with exceptional grain nutritional quality and is highly valued for its ability to tolerate abiotic stresses. However, its introduction outside the Andes has yet to take off on a large...... scale. In the Andes, quinoa has until recently been marginally grown by small-scale Andean farmers, leading to minor interest in the crop from urban consumers and the industry. Quinoa breeding programs were not initiated until the 1960s in the Andes, and elsewhere from the 1970s onwards. New molecular...... tools available for the existing quinoa breeding programs, which are critically examined in this review, will enable us to tackle the limitations of allotetraploidy and genetic specificities. The recent progress, together with the declaration of "The International Year of the Quinoa" by the Food...

  6. Antiplasmodial Isoflavanes and Pterocarpans from Apoplanesia paniculata

    OpenAIRE

    Su, Qingxi; Krai, Priscilla; Goetz, Michael; Cassera, Maria B.; Kingston, David G. I.

    2015-01-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of an EtOH extract of the roots of the plant Apoplanesia paniculata (Fabaceae) led to the isolation of the three known compounds amorphaquinone (1), pendulone (2) and melilotocarpan C (3) and the two new pterocarpans 4 and 5. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibited good antiplasmodial activity with IC50 values of 5.7 ± 1.5 and 7.0 ± 0.8 µM, respectively. Compound 3 exhibited weak antiplasmodial activity (41.8 ± 5.2 µM), while compounds 4 and 5 were inactive. Compound 6 was s...

  7. An inordinate fondness for Fusarium: Phylogenetic diversity of fusaria cultivated by Euwallacea ambrosia beetles on avocado and other plant hosts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosia beetle fungiculture represents one of the most ecologically and evolutionarily successful symbioses. Here we document the evolution of a clade within Fusarium associated with ambrosia beetles in the genus Euwallacea (Coleoptera: Scolytinae). Ambrosia Fusarium Clade (AFC) symbionts are unusu...

  8. Andrographis paniculata Extract (HMPL-004) for Active Ulcerative Colitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandborn, William J; Targan, Stephan R; Byers, Vera S; Rutty, Dean A; Mu, Hua; Zhang, Xun; Tang, Tom

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Andrographis paniculata has in vitro inhibitory activity against TNF-α, IL-1β and NF-κB. A pilot study of A. paniculata extract (HMPL-004) suggested similar efficacy to mesalamine for ulcerative colitis. METHODS: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial evaluated the efficacy of A. paniculata extract (HMPL-004) in 224 adults with mild-to-moderate ulcerative colitis. Patients were randomized to A. paniculata extract (HMPL-004) 1,200 mg or 1,800 mg daily or placebo for 8 weeks. RESULTS: In total, 45 and 60% of patients receiving A. paniculata 1,200 mg and 1,800 mg daily, respectively, were in clinical response at week 8, compared with 40% of those who received placebo (P=0.5924 for 1,200 mg vs. placebo and P=0.0183 for 1,800 mg vs. placebo). In all, 34 and 38% of patients receiving A. paniculata 1,200 mg and 1,800 mg daily, respectively, were in clinical remission at week 8, compared with 25% of those who received placebo (P=0.2582 for 1,200 mg vs. placebo and P=0.1011 for 1,800 mg vs. placebo). Adverse events developed in 60 and 53% of patients in the A. paniculata 1,200 mg and 1,800 mg daily groups, respectively, and 60% in the placebo group. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with mildly to moderately active ulcerative colitis treated with A. paniculata extract (HMPL-004) at a dose of 1,800 mg daily were more likely to achieve clinical response than those receiving placebo. PMID:23044768

  9. Labdane Diterpenoids from Coleus forskohlii (Willd.) Briq.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In order to investigate the active substances of Coleus forskohlii (Willd.) Briq., a new labdane diterpenoid, 12-hydroxy-8,13E-labdadien-15-0ic acid, together with two 8,13-epoxylabd-14-ene-11-one diterpenoids, 6-acetyl-1-deoxyforskolin and 6-acetyl-1,9-dideoxyforskolin, was isolated on the basis of various chromatographic techniques and spectroscopic methods.

  10. Reproductive Organography of Bougainvillea spectabilis Willd

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bougainvillea spectabilis Willd. is of prime importance for horticulture, as well as potentially for pharmaceutical industries, agriculture and environmental industries. However, its floral development is not yet well understood. A detailed study on floral structure and floral organography in the sp...

  11. New Sesquiterpenoids from Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenbing Ding

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A new pseudoguaianolide 1 and two new guaiane-type sesquiterpene glucosides 2 and 3, were isolated from the aerial parts of Ambrosia artemisiifolia L together with two known sesquiterpene dilactones 4 and 5. The new compounds were determined on the basis of spectroscopic and chemical methods to be 3β-acetoxy-4β-hydroxy-1α,7α, 10β,11αH-pseudoguaia-12,8β-olide (1, 1β,7β,9β,10β,13αH-guaia-4(5-en-12,6β-olide 9-O-β-d-glucoside (2 and 4β-hydroxy-1α,5α,7α,9αH-guaia-10(14,11(13-dien-12-acid 9-O-β-d-glucoside (3. The isolated compounds were evaluated for cytotoxicity against human promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 cell lines in vitro, but were all inactive.

  12. Antiplasmodial Isoflavanes and Pterocarpans from Apoplanesia paniculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Qingxi; Krai, Priscilla; Goetz, Michael; Cassera, Maria B; Kingston, David G I

    2015-08-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of an EtOH extract of the roots of the plant Apoplanesia paniculata (Fabaceae) led to the isolation of the three known compounds amorphaquinone (1), pendulone (2), and melilotocarpan C (3), and the two new pterocarpans 4 and 5. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibited good antiplasmodial activity with IC50 values of 5.7 ± 1.5 and 7.0 ± 0.8 µM, respectively. Compound 3 exhibited weak antiplasmodial activity (41.8 ± 5.2 µM), while compounds 4 and 5 were inactive. Compound 6 was synthesized to confirm the structure of 5, and it showed enhanced antiplasmodial activity (15.8 ± 1.4 µM) compared to its analogues 3-5.

  13. Coumarins from Murraya paniculata var. zollingeri endemic to the Timor Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teshima, Naoko; Yamada, Hiromi; Ju-ichi, Motoharu; Uji, Tahan; Kinoshita, Takeshi; Ito, Chihiro

    2015-02-01

    Four new coumarins, murrangatin-1'-senecioate (1), 5-methoxypanial (2), mexoticin-2'-senecioate (3) and murralongic acid (4), were isolated from the leaves of Murraya paniculata var. zollingeri, together with 23 known coumarins. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated based on spectroscopic data. The taxonomic status of M. paniculata var. zollingeri is briefly discussed, along with its similarity to M. paniculata.

  14. Ambrosia beetles associated with laurel wilt of avocado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus, is an exotic wood-boring pest first detected in 2002 near Savannah, Georgia. The beetle’s dominant fungal symbiont, Raffaelea lauricola, is the pathogen that causes laurel wilt, a lethal disease of trees in the family Lauraceae. Laurel wilt has since spr...

  15. Chemical ecology and lure development for redbay ambrosia beetle

    Science.gov (United States)

    The exotic redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff, has become a serious invasive pest in the U.S., currently established in nine southeastern states. Female beetles are the primary vectors of a pathogenic fungus (Raffaelea lauricola) that causes laurel wilt. This lethal vascular dise...

  16. Pfaffia paniculata (Martius Kuntze: o ginseng-brasileiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando de Oliveira

    1986-01-01

    Full Text Available O autor efetua, revisão sobre os conhecimentos farmacognósticos de Pfaffia paniculata (Martius Kuntze incluindo considerações sobre a química e o uso da espécie. Chama a atenção para a diferença existente entre o ginseng-brasileiro e os ginseng importados.

  17. METARHIZIUM ANISOPLIAE DAN ANDROGRAPHIS PANICULATA TERHADAP SERANGGA BUKAN HAMA SASARAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dini Yuliani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effect of Metarhizium anisopliae and Andrographis paniculata to the natural enemies of Nephotettix virescens and non-target insect pests. This research was conducted in tungro endemic areas in Subang District, West Java in the wet season 2013/2014. The method of research used a split plot design with four replications. The main plot was IR66, Inpari 9, and Ciherang varieties. Subplot was the application of M. anisopliae, A. paniculata, and control. Observations were carried out five times started at nursery (2 weeks after seedling, 14, 28, 42, and 56 days after planting using insect nets, double swing 10 times on each plot observations. The results show M. anisopliae and A. paniculata not adversely affect on non-target insect pests such as Chironomid and natural enemies of N. virescens namely Lycosa pseudoannulata, Cyrtorhinus lividipennis, Sepedon sp., damselfly, Tipulidae sp., Telenomus sp., dragonfly, and Tetrastichus sp.. Efficacy of M. anisopliae and A. paniculata as one of the control strategies that are environmentally friendly and proved not harmful to non-target insect pests.

  18. Paniculacin, a new coumarin derivative from Murraya paniculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Sumayya; Shah, Shazia; Mehmood, Rashad; Malik, Abdul

    2011-08-01

    Paniculacin (1), a new coumarin derivative, has been isolated from the ethyl acetate soluble fraction of the ethanolic extract of Murraya paniculata along with umbelliferone, scopoletin, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, trans-cinnamic acid, and β-sitosterol. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectral data.

  19. Isolation and structure elucidation of a new prenylcoumarin from Murraya paniculata var. omphalocarpa (Rutaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Takeshi; Shimada, Motoko

    2002-01-01

    A new C-8 prenylated 5,7-dimethoxycoumarin named omphamurrayin was isolated from the leaves of Murraya paniculata var. omphalocarpa, and its structure was established as 5,7-dimethoxy-8-(1-oxo-2-senecioyl-3-methyl-3-butenyl)-2H-1-benzopyran-2-one on the basis of the spectroscopic evidence. The taxonomic status of M. paniculata var. omphalocarpa is briefly discussed, along with its synonymity to M. paniculata from the chemosystematic viewpoint.

  20. Ethanol injection of ornamental trees facilitates testing insecticide efficacy against ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reding, Michael E; Oliver, Jason B; Schultz, Peter B; Ranger, Christopher M; Youssef, Nadeer N

    2013-02-01

    Exotic ambrosia beetles are damaging pests in ornamental tree nurseries in North America. The species Xylosandrus crassiusculus (Motshulsky) and Xylosandrus germanus (Blandford) are especially problematic. Management of these pests relies on preventive treatments of insecticides. However, field tests of recommended materials on nursery trees have been limited because of unreliable attacks by ambrosia beetles on experimental trees. Ethanol-injection of trees was used to induce colonization by ambrosia beetles to evaluate insecticides and botanical formulations for preventing attacks by ambrosia beetles. Experiments were conducted in Ohio, Tennessee, and Virginia. Experimental trees injected with ethanol had more attacks by ambrosia beetles than uninjected control trees in all but one experiment. Xylosandrus crassiusculus and X. germanus colonized trees injected with ethanol. In most experiments, attack rates declined 8 d after ethanol-injection. Ethanol-injection induced sufficient pressure from ambrosia beetles to evaluate the efficacy of insecticides for preventing attacks. Trunk sprays of permethrin suppressed cumulative total attacks by ambrosia beetles in most tests. Trunk sprays of the botanical formulations Armorex and Veggie Pharm suppressed cumulative total attacks in Ohio. Armorex, Armorex + Permethrin, and Veggie Pharm + Permethrin suppressed attacks in Tennessee. The bifenthrin product Onyx suppressed establishment of X. germanus in one Ohio experiment, and cumulative total ambrosia beetle attacks in Virginia. Substrate drenches and trunk sprays of neonicotinoids, or trunk sprays of anthranilic diamides or tolfenpyrad were not effective. Ethanol-injection is effective for inducing attacks and ensuring pressure by ambrosia beetles for testing insecticide efficacy on ornamental trees.

  1. The occurrence of Ambrosia pollen in the atmosphere of Northwest Turkey: investigation of possible source regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celenk, Sevcan; Malyer, Hulusi

    2017-02-01

    Ambrosia pollen was first reported as an important allergen in North America at the end of the nineteenth century, and many European countries have recently reported its increasing significance for pollen allergy. The aims of this study were to determine whether the highly allergenic Ambrosia pollen recorded during the studied period could be the result of long-distance transport (LDT) and to identify the potential sources of Ambrosia pollen grains. The study investigates Ambrosia pollen episodes during the peak term of six yearly periods between 2010 and 2015 by examining source regions in Ambrosia pollen in Bursa, Turkey. A volumetric trap was used for collecting the pollen samples, and the back-trajectory model was used to identify a potential source of atmospheric Ambrosia pollen. The days when pollen levels exceeded 30 P m-3 were computed, and clusters were shown on the figures. The study indicates that the Ambrosia pollen grains recorded during the episode in Bursa were not produced by local sources but transported long distances from potential source regions around the Azov Sea in Russia and Ukraine, Black Sea region of Turkey, Romania, and Bulgaria. Note that atmospheric concentrations of Ambrosia pollen exceeded the clinical threshold during 28 days during the investigation period. Taking into consideration the high allergenicity of Ambrosia pollen, the present findings suggest that the number of ragweed-sensitized individuals might increase in the near future in the region.

  2. EVALUATION OF SELECTION OF TREES OF SALIX ACUTIFOLIA WILLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergeyev R. V.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to identify high-genotypes in natural stands of Sacutifolia Willd we worked to identify the categories of breeding trees. Experimentally proved, that for breeding to increase the productivity of bark of Salixacutifolia Willd the selection would be best carried out with plants, the diameter of the barrel of which is in the range of 9 to 16 cm, tree age 15 - 19 years

  3. Photoperiod Adaptation of Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendevis, Mira Arpe

    The global interest in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is rapidly increasing, both as a result of its nutritional qualities but also due to its potential as an alternative crop in regions, such as the Mediterranean and Western Australia, where increasing soil salinity and extended periods...... of drought are the major constraints on agricultural productivity. However, quinoa originates from the Andean region and the majority of available cultivars are facultative short day plants and exhibit severely reduced, or completely disrupted, seed production under day lengths longer than 12 hours....... The inherent photoperiod sensitivity poses a challenge to future success of quinoa in regions outside its centre of origin. The existence of day length neutral quinoa cultivars provide an attractive alternative for cultivation in regions outside the tropical zone, as well as a valuable tool to compare adaptive...

  4. Ambrosia airborne pollen concentration modelling and evaluation over Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamaoui-Laguel, Lynda; Vautard, Robert; Viovy, Nicolas; Khvorostyanov, Dmitry; Colette, Augustin

    2014-05-01

    Native from North America, Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. (Common Ragweed) is an invasive annual weed introduced in Europe in the mid-nineteenth century. It has a very high spreading potential throughout Europe and releases very allergenic pollen leading to health problems for sensitive persons. Because of its health effects, it is necessary to develop modelling tools to be able to forecast ambrosia air pollen concentration and to inform allergy populations of allergenic threshold exceedance. This study is realised within the framework of the ATOPICA project (https://www.atopica.eu/) which is designed to provide first steps in tools and estimations of the fate of allergies in Europe due to changes in climate, land use and air quality. To calculate and predict airborne concentrations of ambrosia pollen, a chain of models has been built. Models have been developed or adapted for simulating the phenology (PMP phonological modelling platform), inter-annual production (ORCHIDEE vegetation model), release and airborne processes (CHIMERE chemical transport model) of ragweed pollen. Airborne pollens follow processes similar to air quality pollutants in CHIMERE with some adaptations. The detailed methodology, formulations and input data will be presented. A set of simulations has been performed to simulate airborne concentrations of pollens over long time periods on a large European domain. Hindcast simulations (2000 - 2012) driven by ERA-Interim re-analyses are designed to best simulate past periods airborne pollens. The modelled pollen concentrations are calibrated with observations and validated against additional observations. Then, 20-year long historical simulations (1986 - 2005) are carried out using calibrated ambrosia density distribution and climate model-driven weather in order to serve as a control simulation for future scenarios. By comparison with multi-annual observed daily pollen counts we have shown that the model captures well the gross features of the pollen

  5. INDUCED MACROMUTATION IN ANDROGRAPHIS PANICULATA (BURM. F.) NEES

    OpenAIRE

    Benoy Kumar Ghosh; Animesh Kumar Datta; Ananya Das; Aninda Mandal

    2012-01-01

    Fourteen viable macromutants (viridis, lax branching, bushy, unbranched I and II, dark green leaf, broad leaf I and II, narrow leaf I and II, drooping leaf I and II, dwarf and early maturity) were induced in Andrographis paniculata (Burm. F.) Nees (Family: Acanthaceae) at M2 following EMS (Ethyl methanesulfonate) and dES (Diethyl sulfate) treatments (0.25, 0.50 and 1.00% for 2h and 4h durations) to dry seeds (moisture content 11.55%). Mutation frequency over M2 population was 2.82% and lax br...

  6. Molluscicidal acridone alkaloids from Angostura paniculata: isolation, structures, and synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, P C; Kubo, I; Kujime, H; Yamagiwa, Y; Kamikawa, T

    1992-08-01

    Two novel acridone alkaloids, cuspanine [1] and cusculine [2], were isolated from the CH2Cl2 extract of the leaves of Angostura paniculata (Rutaceae). Their structures were established as 1-hydroxy-2,3,5,6-tetramethoxy-9-acridone for 1 and 1,2,3,5,6-pentamethoxy-9-acridone for 2 by means of spectroscopic studies, in particular nmr. These structural assignments were confirmed by synthesis, using a direct metallation method as a key reaction. Both alkaloids exhibited moderate molluscicidal activity against an aquatic snail, Biomphalaria glabrata, and cytotoxicity against several types of carcinoma cell lines.

  7. Bioassay Guided Isolation of Antibacterial Compounds from Andrographis paniculata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sule

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Chronic disease-causing bacteria of medical importance have developed resistance to antibiotics, hence, necessitating distinct and constant need for safe and efficient therapeutic agents. Plants are considered potent candidate for this aim. A way out of reducing antibiotic resistance and adverse effects on host is the employment of antibiotic resistance inhibitors of plant origin. Approach: About 5 kg pulverized Andrographis paniculata whole plant was macerated with MeOH at room temperature to get 305 g freeze dried MeOH extract. The bioautography of MeOH extract using Staphylococcus aureus and Proteus mirabilis as indicator organisms revealed the presence of two potent antibacterial compounds. MeOH extract was further fractionated and purified by silica gel column chromatography which led to the isolation of a diterpene lactone and an entlabdane diterpene glycoside upon crystallization with absolute ethanol. Results: Two antibacterial compounds viz., 3-O-β-D-glucosyl-14-deoxyandrographolide and 14-deoxyandrographolide were successfully isolated and characterized. Their structures were exclusively elucidated through spectroscopic methods (UV, IR, 1H- and 13C NMR. Conclusion: A. paniculata possesses antibacterial activity and could be potential source of a new class of antibiotics that might be useful for infectious disease chemotherapy and control.

  8. Environmental Assessment of remedial action at the Ambrosia Lake uranium mill tailings site, Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-06-01

    This document assesses and compares the environmental impacts of various alternatives for remedial action at the Ambrosia Lake uranium mill tailings site located near Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico. The designated site covers 196 acres and contains 111 acres of tailings and some of the original mill structures. The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA), Public Law 95-604, authorizes the US Department of Energy to clean up the site to reduce the potential health impacts associated with the residual radioactive materials remaining at the site and at associated properties off the site. The US Environmental Protection Agency promulgated standards for th remedial action (40 CFR Part 192). Remedial action must be performed in accordance with these standards and with the concurrence of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The proposed action is to stabilize the tailings at their present location by consolidating the tailings and associated contaminated materials into a recontoured pile. A radon barrier would be constructed over the pile and various erosion protection measures would be taken to assure the long-term stability of the pile. Another alternative which would involve moving the tailings to a new location is also assessed in this document. This alternative would generally involve greater short-term impacts and costs but would result in stabilization of the tailings at an undeveloped location. The no action alternative is also assessed in this document.

  9. Spatio-Temporal Distribution of Bark and Ambrosia Beetles in a Brazilian Tropical Dry Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Novais, Samuel Matos Antunes; Monteiro, Graziela França; Flechtmann, Carlos Alberto Hector; de Faria, Maurício Lopes; Neves, Frederico de Siqueira

    2016-01-01

    Bark and the ambrosia beetles dig into host plants and live most of their lives in concealed tunnels. We assessed beetle community dynamics in tropical dry forest sites in early, intermediate, and late successional stages, evaluating the influence of resource availability and seasonal variations in guild structure. We collected a total of 763 beetles from 23 species, including 14 bark beetle species, and 9 ambrosia beetle species. Local richness of bark and ambrosia beetles was estimated at 31 species. Bark and ambrosia composition was similar over the successional stages gradient, and beta diversity among sites was primarily determined by species turnover, mainly in the bark beetle community. Bark beetle richness and abundance were higher at intermediate stages; availability of wood was the main spatial mechanism. Climate factors were effectively non-seasonal. Ambrosia beetles were not influenced by successional stages, however the increase in wood resulted in increased abundance. We found higher richness at the end of the dry and wet seasons, and abundance increased with air moisture and decreased with higher temperatures and greater rainfall. In summary, bark beetle species accumulation was higher at sites with better wood production, while the needs of fungi (host and air moisture), resulted in a favorable conditions for species accumulation of ambrosia. The overall biological pattern among guilds differed from tropical rain forests, showing patterns similar to dry forest areas. PMID:27271969

  10. The weeding of Ambrosia artemisiifolia and sanitary risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zicari, Giuseppe; Soardo, Vincenzo; Rivetti, Daniela; Cerrato, Elena; Russo, Domenico

    2013-01-01

    Ambrosia artemisiifolia is a potentially allergenic annual herbaceous plant coming from North America and widespread in Italy, where it can be easily seen since May-April. Its pollination is mainly windborne and each plant is able to produce billions of pollen grains. The pollen peaks are in the hottest days in the absence of rain and wind. In susceptible individuals, the great amount of pollen produced by this species may cause rhinitis and severe asthma attacks. Some allergic subjects can manifest disorders already at a concentration of a few granules per cubic metre. Chemical control is often practiced on a large scale and uses herbicides. A major risk is the result of the unprofessional use of chemicals by the population, especially in residential or very busy areas (eg railways, urban areas). In this paper we propose preventive measures of chemical hazards that may be resulting from the excessive use of plant protection products.

  11. Co-occurrence of Artemisia and Ambrosia pollen seasons against the background of the synoptic situations in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stępalska, Danuta; Myszkowska, Dorota; Katarzyna, Leśkiewicz; Katarzyna, Piotrowicz; Katarzyna, Borycka; Kazimiera, Chłopek; Łukasz, Grewling; Idalia, Kasprzyk; Barbara, Majkowska-Wojciechowska; Małgorzata, Malkiewicz; Małgorzata, Nowak; Krystyna, Piotrowska-Weryszko; Małgorzata, Puc; Elżbieta, Weryszko-Chmielewska

    2016-10-01

    The Asteraceae family is one of the largest families, comprising 67 genera and 264 species in Poland. However, only a few genera, including Artemisia and Ambrosia are potential allergenic sources. The aim of the study was to estimate how often and to what degree Artemisia and Ambrosia pollen seasons co-occur intensifying human health risk, and how synoptic situations influence frequency of days with high pollen concentrations of both taxa. Artemisia and Ambrosia pollen data were collected, using the volumetric method, at 8 sites in Poland. Daily concentrations of Artemisia pollen equal to 30 grains or more and Ambrosia pollen equal to 10 grains or more were accepted as high values. Concentrations of more than 10 pollen grains were defined as high in the case of Ambrosia because its allergenicity is considered higher. High concentrations were confronted with synoptic situations. Analysis was performed on the basis of two calendars on circulation types of atmosphere in Poland (Niedźwiedź, 2006, 2015). Co-occurrence of Artemisia and Ambrosia pollen seasons is being found most often, when Ambrosia pollen season starts in the first half of August. If it happens in the last 10 days of August high pollen concentrations of Artemisia and Ambrosia do not occur at the same days. At three sites (Sosnowiec, Rzeszów, Lublin) high Ambrosia pollen concentrations during the Artemisia pollen season appear more often than in other sites under question. The high Artemisia pollen concentrations occur, when continental or polar maritime old air masses inflow into Poland. The impact of air masses on high Ambrosia pollen concentrations depends on site localizations. It is likely, that in the south-eastern part of Poland high Ambrosia pollen concentrations result from the pollen transport from east-south-south-westerly directions and the local sources. Co-occurrence of both taxa pollen seasons depends on the air masses inflow and appears more often in a south-eastern part of Poland.

  12. Nysius cymoides (Spinola on Chenopodium quinoa Willd. cultivated in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bocchi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. (Family: Amaranthaceae – APG classification is an Andean grain recently introduced on the European market and cultivated in experimental fields. In one of these experimental fields, in San Giorgio Piacentino (Italy, a heavy bug infestation was observed. The species was identified as Nysius cymoides (Spinola (Heteroptera Lygaeidae, a polyphagous species known as a pest of different crops. It occurs in the Mediterranean area from the sea level to the alpine meadows.

  13. Invasive Asian Fusarium – Euwallacea ambrosia beetle mutualists pose a serious threat to forests, urban landscapes and the avocado industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several species of the ambrosia beetle Euwallacea (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) cultivate Ambrosia Fusarium Clade (AFC) species in their galleries as a source of food. Like all other scolytine beetles in the tribe Xyleborini, Euwallacea are thought to be obligate mutualists with their fung...

  14. Growth and Heavy Metal Accumulation of Koelreuteria Paniculata Seedlings and Their Potential for Restoring Manganese Mine Wastelands in Hunan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihong Huang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The planting of trees on mine wastelands is an effective, long-term technique for phytoremediation of heavy metal-contaminated wastes. In this study, a pot experiment with seedlings of Koelreuteria paniculata under six treatments of local mine wastes was designed to determine the major constraints on tree establishment and to evaluate the feasibility of planting K. paniculata on manganese mine wastelands. Results showed that K. paniculata grew well in mine tailings, and also under a regime of equal amounts of mine tailings and soil provided in adjacent halves of pots. In contrast, mine sludge did not favor survival and growth because its clay texture limited fine root development. The bio-concentration factor and the translocation factor were mostly less than 1, indicating a low phytoextraction potential for K. paniculata. K. paniculata is suited to restore manganese mine sludge by mixing the mine sludge with local mine tailings or soil.

  15. Coumarins and flavonoid from Murraya paniculata (L.) Jack: Antibacterial and anti-inflammation activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodanant, Pirasut; Khetkam, Pichit; Suksamrarn, Apichart; Kuvatanasuchati, Jintakorn

    2015-11-01

    The ethyl acetate extract of leaves of Murraya paniculata (L.) Jack was described in the previous in vitro study on the inhibition effect on the growth of periodontopathic bacteria and the reduction of cytokines from LPS-stimulated macrophages. In this study, four coumarins including murrangatin (1), murrangatin acetate (2), murranganonesenecionate (3), micropubescin (4) and one flavonoid, 3', 4', 5', 7-tetramethoxyflavone (5) were isolated from the leaves of ethyl acetate extract of M. paniculata. MTT assay was used to test cytotoxicity on human gingival fibroblast and monocytes. The isolated compounds were evaluated for their antibacterial effect against Porphyromonas gingivalis (ATCC33277) and anti-inflammation on lipopolysaccharide-stimulated inflammation using monocyte cells. All isolated compounds exhibited antibacterial activity against P. gingivalis (ATCC 33277). Murranganonesenecionate (3) was highly potent anti-inflammation properties. The coumarin constituents from M. paniculata leaves might be potential lead molecules for the development of antimicrobial drugs for treating periodontal disease.

  16. Ambrosia fungi in the insect-fungi symbiosis in relation to cork oak decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriques, Joana; Inácio, Maria Lurdes; Sousa, Edmundo

    2006-09-01

    Ambrosia fungi live associated with beetles (Scolytidae and Platypodidae) in host trees and act as a food source for the insects. The symbiotic relation is important to the colonizing strategies of host trees by beetles. Ambrosia fungi are dimorphic: they grow as ambrosial form and as mycelium. The fungi are highly specialized, adapted to a specific beetle and to the biotope where they both live. In addition other fungi have been found such as tree pathogenic fungi that may play a role in insects host colonization success. Saprophytic fungi are also present in insects galleries. These may decompose cellulose and/or be antagonistic to other less beneficial fungi. This paper summarizes the importance of ambrosia fungi and the interaction with insects and hosts. The possibility of the transport of pathogenic fungi by Platypus cylindrus to cork oak thus contributing for its decline is discussed.

  17. Sieben Jahre Aktionsprogramm Ambrosia in Bayern – eine Bestandsaufnahme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brix, Jutta

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Since 2005 the common ragweed, Ambrosia artemisiifolia, which was introduced from North America has also been found in Bavaria in larger stocks and has an increasing tendency to spread. After receiving the report of the Bavarian Ministry of Health, the Bavarian Parliament addressed the implications for health. There was consensus across all political groups to combat the plant. Under the auspices of the Ministry of Health the action programme “eradication campaign against ragweed” aimed at systematic control was set up in 2007 in cooperation with the Ministries of Agriculture (registration office at the State Research Center for Agriculture and the Interior (district administration authorities. The 96 district administration authorities, which each have a trained ragweed officer, report to the registration office on new verified ragweed locations with more than 100 plants. The reports of common ragweed stands are filed by citizens or through research by the district administration authorities, who are also responsible for supporting the fight against stocks. On behalf of the Bavarian Ministry of Health, the Working Group Biodiversity monitors the situation and finds many new locations. Since 2006, 279 new common ragweed stocks were registered. After control measures there are currently 190 known remaining stocks. Since 2007, however, the populated area has tripled. This means that the control measures need further improvement. This is especially true for the common ragweed stocks along roadsides where the plants have increased massively in recent years. Sustainable control has proved to be particularly difficult.

  18. In Vitro Antiplasmodial Activity of Sesquiterpene Lactones from Ambrosia tenuifolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Sülsen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro antiplasmodial activity of Ambrosia tenuifolia organic extract and its isolated sesquiterpene lactones, psilostachyin and peruvin, has been evaluated against Plasmodium falciparum F32 and W2 strains. The cytotoxicity of both compounds was determined on lymphoid cells, and their corresponding selectivity indexes (SIs were calculated. Peruvin was the most active compound on F32 strain of P. falciparum with a 50% inhibitory concentration value (IC50 of 0.3 μg/mL (1.1 μM whereas psilostachyin showed activity on both strains (IC50 = 0.6 (2.1 μM and 1.8 μg/mL (6.4 μM. Fifty percent cytotoxic concentration (CC50 values (48 h were 6.8 μg/mL (24.3 μM and 10.0 μg/mL (37.9 μM for psilostachyin and peruvin, respectively.

  19. Bark and Ambrosia Beetles Show Different Invasion Patterns in the USA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Rassati

    Full Text Available Non-native bark and ambrosia beetles represent a threat to forests worldwide. Their invasion patterns are, however, still unclear. Here we investigated first, if the spread of non-native bark and ambrosia beetles is a gradual or a discontinuous process; second, which are the main correlates of their community structure; third, whether those correlates correspond to those of native species. We used data on species distribution of non-native and native scolytines in the continental 48 USA states. These data were analyzed through a beta-diversity index, partitioned into species richness differences and species replacement, using Mantel correlograms and non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS ordination for identifying spatial patterns, and regression on distance matrices to test the association of climate (temperature, rainfall, forest (cover area, composition, geographical (distance, and human-related (import variables with β-diversity components. For both non-native bark and ambrosia beetles, β-diversity was mainly composed of species richness difference than species replacement. For non-native bark beetles, a discontinuous invasion process composed of long distance jumps or multiple introduction events was apparent. Species richness differences were primarily correlated with differences in import values while temperature was the main correlate of species replacement. For non-native ambrosia beetles, a more continuous invasion process was apparent, with the pool of non-native species arriving in the coastal areas that tended to be filtered as they spread to interior portions of the continental USA. Species richness differences were mainly correlated with differences in rainfall among states, while rainfall and temperature were the main correlates of species replacement. Our study suggests that the different ecology of bark and ambrosia beetles influences their invasion process in new environments. The lower dependency that bark beetles have

  20. Spectrophotometric determination of total lactones in Andrographis paniculata Nees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Napaporn Jantakun

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available A spectrophotometric method for determination of total lactones in Andrographis paniculata was established by using dinitrobenzoic acid and potassium hydroxide solutions as colour forming agents. The absorbance of the solution was determined at 536 nm. The linearity range was 12-72 × 10-6 g.ml-1. The detection limit was 1.2 μg, the quantitation limit was 4.23 μg. The intraday variation had an average of slope 6082.97 g.ml-1, % RSD 0.10; an average intercept 0.2786, %RSD 3.66 (n=3. The interday variation had an average of 6146 g.ml-1 with the %RSD of 6.30 and an average intercept 0.2628, %RSD 4.95 (n=4. The coefficients of determination were 0.998-0.999. The total lactones content, calculated as andrographolide, determined by this method was 8.61±0.52% (n=4 and by the official method, Thai Herbal Pharmacopoeia, was 8.12±0.34% (n=2. The results of the two methods do not differ significantly at P=0.05 (P(|t|>0.903 = 0.53

  1. Vasorelaxing activity of two coumarins from Murraya paniculata leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuong, Nguyen Manh; Khanh, Pham Ngoc; Duc, Ho Viet; Huong, Tran Thu; Tai, Bui Huu; Binh, Nguyen Quoc; Durante, Miriam; Fusi, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    In the search for novel chemical scaffolds leading to potential antihypertensive agents, the methanol extract of Murraya paniculata leaves was assessed for its effects on isolated rat aorta rings. The vasorelaxing effect of the chloroform fraction of the methanol plant extract was the most potent for its vasorelaxing activity on rat aorta rings contracted by 60 mM K(+) (K60). Two coumarins were isolated from the chloroform fraction: the novel kimcuongin (1) and the known murracarpin (2). Their structures were determined from spectroscopic evidences including (1)H- and (13)C-NMR, correlation spectroscopy (COSY), nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy (NOESY), heteronuclear multiple bond correlation (HMBC), heteronuclear single quantum correlation (HSQC), and high resolution mass spectrometry (HR-MS). Kimcuongin and, to a lesser extent, murracarpin, showed vasorelaxing activity with IC50 values of 37.7 µM and 139.3 µM, respectively. The coumarins kimcuongin and murracarpin may thus represent a novel class of vasodilators of natural source.

  2. Daily Ambrosia Pollen Concentration in the Air of Ankara,Turkey (1990-1999)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ayse KAPLAN; Nazmiye SAKIYAN; N Münevver PINAR

    2003-01-01

    The airborne ragweed pollen spectrum was investigated in the air of Ankara, Turkey for aperiod of ten years (1990-1999) using a Burkard seven-day volumetric recording trap. In our study period,long distance transported Ambrosia pollen has been registered. Daily pollen levels varied from low to highin Burge's system. In last three years, the pollen concentration of Ambrosia showed a clear increasingtendency. Our results prove that ragweed pollen may be an important threat for ragweed sensitive patientsin Ankara city in near future.

  3. Constituintes químicos das folhas de Murraya paniculata (Rutaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Sumaia G. Mesquita; Martinez,Marcela F.; Paulete Romoff; Oriana A. Fávero; Lieber,Sofia R.; Lago, João Henrique G.

    2008-01-01

    A separação cromatográfica do extrato hexânico e da fase em CH2Cl2 do extrato etanólico das folhas de Murraya paniculata resultou no isolamento de um triterpeno (24-metileno-cicloartan-3β-ol), um fenilpropanóide (cafeato de metila) e sete cumarinas preniladas [isomeranzina, acetato de murranganona, murrayatina, murrangatina, hidrato de meranzina, febalosina e murranganona]. Dentre as substâncias isoladas, as cumarinas foram detectadas anteriormente em M. paniculata ao passo que 24-metile...

  4. Morfoanatomia vegetativa de Opuntia brasiliensis (Willd Haw / Vegetative morphology and anatomy of Opuntia brasiliensis (Willd Haw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Firmino de Azevedo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Opuntia brasiliensis (Willd Haw. é uma Cactaceae nativa do Brasil utilizada como ornamental, que apresenta caracteres morfológicos semelhantes a outras espécies do gênero, o que dificulta sua identificação. Dessa forma, foi realizado uma descrição morfoanatômica de O. brasiliensis com o objetivo de ampliar o conhecimento sobre a organização estrutural do gênero e fornecer subsídios para a identificação da espécie, bem como observar caracteres importantes na adaptação a ambientes xerófilos. Foram feitas secções transversais e paradérmicas da raiz, caule principal e cladódios com espécimes coletados na zona rural da cidade de Serra Branca (PB, localizada na região do cariri ocidental. O. brasiliensis apresenta raiz ramificada e caule clorofilado formando um eixo principal de onde partem inúmeros cladódios delgados. Observamse pelos e epiderme unisseriada irregular na raiz, que possui córtex formado por parênquima, seguido de endoderme multisseriada e periciclo. No cilindro central da raiz, ocorrem tecidos vasculares formando cinco pólos seguidos de medula. O caule e o cladódio apresentam epiderme com paredes sinuosas, em que encontram-se estômatos paralelocíticos que apresentam câmara subestomática; e na camada subsequente, hipoderme com grande quantidade de drusas de oxalato de cálcio. O córtex é formado por parênquimas clorofiliano e aquífero, onde observam-se feixes vasculares, com raios de floema voltados para o lado externo, seguido de xilema helicoidal. Porém, nos cladódios, o parênquima clorofiliano é bem mais denso e os feixes vasculares são dispostos irregularmente, enquanto no caule estão distribuídos no sentido radial. O. brasiliensis apresenta várias características importantes na sua identificação, bem como adaptações estruturais a ambientes xerófilos

  5. Anti-Diabetic Activity and Metabolic Changes Induced by Andrographis paniculata Plant Extract in Obese Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Tayyab Akhtar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Andrographis paniculata is an annual herb and widely cultivated in Southeast Asian countries for its medicinal use. In recent investigations, A. paniculata was found to be effective against Type 1 diabetes mellitus (Type 1 DM. Here, we used a non-genetic out-bred Sprague-Dawley rat model to test the antidiabetic activity of A. paniculata against Type 2 diabetes mellitus (Type 2 DM. Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1H-NMR spectroscopy in combination with multivariate data analyses was used to evaluate the A. paniculata and metformin induced metabolic effects on the obese and obese–diabetic (obdb rat models. Compared to the normal rats, high levels of creatinine, lactate, and allantoin were found in the urine of obese rats, whereas, obese-diabetic rats were marked by high glucose, choline and taurine levels, and low lactate, formate, creatinine, citrate, 2-oxoglutarate, succinate, dimethylamine, acetoacetate, acetate, allantoin and hippurate levels. Treatment of A. paniculata leaf water extract was found to be quite effective in restoring the disturbed metabolic profile of obdb rats back towards normal conditions. Thisstudy shows the anti-diabetic potential of A. paniculata plant extract and strengthens the idea of using this plant against the diabetes. Further classical genetic methods and state of the art molecular techniques could provide insights into the molecular mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus and anti-diabetic effects of A. paniculata water extract.

  6. In vitro anti oxidant activity and acute oral toxicity of Terminalia paniculata bark ethanolic extract on Sprague Dawley rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ramgopal Mopuri; Balaji Meriga

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To ensure the safety and evaluate the anti oxidant activity of Terminalia paniculata (T.paniculata) ethanolic extract in Sprague Dawley rats. Methods: The solvent extracts (hexane, ethyl acetate and ethanol) of T. paniculata were subjected to phytochemical analysis and their DPPH radical scavenging activity was assayed. The oral acute toxicity was evaluated using ethanolic extract of T. paniculata. Results:Ethyl acetate and ethanolic extracts showed more phytochemicals, whereas highest DPPH scavenging activity was found in ethanolic extract. In an acute toxicity study, T. paniculata ethanolic extract was orally administered (1 000 mg/kg body weight) to rats and observed for 72 h for any toxic symptoms and the dose was continued up to 14 d. On the 15th day rats were sacrificed and blood samples were collected from control and test animals and analyzed for some biochemical parameters. We did not observe any behavioral changes in test groups in comparison with their controls. Also, there were no significant alterations in biochemical, hematological (hemoglobin content and blood cells count) and liver function parameters such as serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase, serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, total proteins, albumin and bilirubin levels between T. paniculata ethanolic extract treated and normal control groups. Conclusions:Together our results demonstrated that T. paniculata ethanolic possessed potent antioxidant activity and it was safer and non toxic to rats even at higher doses and therefore could be well considered for further investigation for its medicinal and therapeutic efficacy.

  7. Anti-Diabetic Activity and Metabolic Changes Induced by Andrographis paniculata Plant Extract in Obese Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Muhammad Tayyab; Bin Mohd Sarib, Mohamad Syakir; Ismail, Intan Safinar; Abas, Faridah; Ismail, Amin; Lajis, Nordin Hj; Shaari, Khozirah

    2016-08-09

    Andrographis paniculata is an annual herb and widely cultivated in Southeast Asian countries for its medicinal use. In recent investigations, A. paniculata was found to be effective against Type 1 diabetes mellitus (Type 1 DM). Here, we used a non-genetic out-bred Sprague-Dawley rat model to test the antidiabetic activity of A. paniculata against Type 2 diabetes mellitus (Type 2 DM). Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (¹H-NMR) spectroscopy in combination with multivariate data analyses was used to evaluate the A. paniculata and metformin induced metabolic effects on the obese and obese-diabetic (obdb) rat models. Compared to the normal rats, high levels of creatinine, lactate, and allantoin were found in the urine of obese rats, whereas, obese-diabetic rats were marked by high glucose, choline and taurine levels, and low lactate, formate, creatinine, citrate, 2-oxoglutarate, succinate, dimethylamine, acetoacetate, acetate, allantoin and hippurate levels. Treatment of A. paniculata leaf water extract was found to be quite effective in restoring the disturbed metabolic profile of obdb rats back towards normal conditions. Thisstudy shows the anti-diabetic potential of A. paniculata plant extract and strengthens the idea of using this plant against the diabetes. Further classical genetic methods and state of the art molecular techniques could provide insights into the molecular mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus and anti-diabetic effects of A. paniculata water extract.

  8. INDUCED MACROMUTATION IN ANDROGRAPHIS PANICULATA (BURM. F. NEES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoy Kumar Ghosh

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Fourteen viable macromutants (viridis, lax branching, bushy, unbranched I and II, dark green leaf, broad leaf I and II, narrow leaf I and II, drooping leaf I and II, dwarf and early maturity were induced in Andrographis paniculata (Burm. F. Nees (Family: Acanthaceae at M2 following EMS (Ethyl methanesulfonate and dES (Diethyl sulfate treatments (0.25, 0.50 and 1.00% for 2h and 4h durations to dry seeds (moisture content 11.55%. Mutation frequency over M2 population was 2.82% and lax branching mutant was maximum (0.51%. EMS induced relatively higher (3.12%, spectrum 1 to 4 frequency of mutation than dES (2.46%, spectrum 1 to 3. The mutant trait(s were monogenic recessive mostly (viridis showed digenic mode of inheritance. All mutants bred true at M4. Meiotic analysis revealed 2n=50 chromosomes always in the plant types (control: 24.92II+0.51I/cell; mutants: 24.80II+0.40I to 25II/cell at MI; AI cells were cytologically balanced in all cases. Pollen fertility (control: 80.63%, mutants: 21.28% to 89.25% and viability (control: 72.24%, mutants: 27.55% to 59.04% were also assessed. DAPI staining was performed to assess pollen nuclei composition (3-nucleate stage in dark green leaf, broad leaf I and drooping leaf II as the mutants showed considerably lower pollen fertility and viability than normal plants. Results indicated that pollen developmental phase may be significant for reproductive outcome. Andrographolide (estimated from matured leaves by HPTLC content (control: 3.41%, mutants: 0.03 to 3.99% was significantly higher in bushy and broad leaf I and II than normal plants. The mutants induced were considered to be important genetic resources in the plant species.

  9. Pharmacognostical Investigation and Physicochemical Analysis of Celastrus paniculatus Willd. Leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kalaskar Mohan G.; Saner Sachin Y.; Pawar Manohar V.; Rokade Dipak L; Surana Sanjay J

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Celastrus paniculatus Willd. is an important Indian medicinal plant and widely used in the treatment of the verity of disease and well explored scientifically for their pharmacological properties. The current study was therefore carried out to provide requisite pharmacognostic details about the plant. Methods: Pharmacognostic investigation of the fresh, powdered and anatomical sections of the leaves of Celastrus paniculatus Willd. was carried out to determine its morphological, anatomical, and phytochemical diagnostic features. Quantitative diagnostic characteristics, physicochemical properties and quantitative phytochemical measures were established. Results: The morphology of leave reveled, leaves are alternate, acute, acuminate or obtuse, rounded with cuncate base,; margin is finely crenate, venation is reticulate. The microscopy reveals the dorsiventral type of leave, with anomocytic stomata, covering (lower epidermis) and glandular (upper epidermis) trichomes. The collateral vascular bundle crowned with sclerenchymatous fiber, ideoblast of calcium oxalate. The Quantitative diagnostic characteristics such as leaf constant were measured. Physicochemical properties such as ash, extractive values and fluorescence analysis were established. Quantitative phytochemical revealed presence of carbohydrates, fixed oil, glycosides, cumarines, tannins, flavonoids, saponins, steroids and triterpenoids. Conclusion: The results of the study could be useful in setting some diagnostic indices for the identification and preparation of a monograph of the plant.

  10. Chemical Control of the Redbay Ambrosia Beetle, Xyleborus glabratus (Coleoptera: Scolytinae) in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    The redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), is an exotic pest of U.S. trees in the family Lauraceae, including avocado (Persea americana) and redbay (P. borbonia). It threatens avocado production in Florida by transmitting Raffaelea lauricola, the fungal...

  11. Biology, ecology, and management of Xylosandrus spp. ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) in ornamental tree nurseries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xylosandrus germanus (Blandford) and Xylosandrus crassiusculus (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) are two of the most damaging non-native ambrosia beetle pests in ornamental tree nurseries. Adult females tunnel into the stems and branches of host trees to create galleries with bro...

  12. Efficacy of current lures for detection of redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since its introduction into the USA in 2002, the exotic redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff, has become a serious invasive pest, currently established in eight southeastern states. Females are the primary vectors of a pathogenic fungus, Raffaelea lauricola, that causes laurel wilt....

  13. Repeated evolution of crop theft in fungus-farming ambrosia beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulcr, Jiri; Cognato, Anthony I

    2010-11-01

    Ambrosia beetles, dominant wood degraders in the tropics, create tunnels in dead trees and employ gardens of symbiotic fungi to extract nutrients from wood. Specificity of the beetle-fungus relationship has rarely been examined, and simple vertical transmission of a specific fungal cultivar by each beetle species is often assumed in literature. We report repeated evolution of fungal crop stealing, termed mycocleptism, among ambrosia beetles. The mycocleptic species seek brood galleries of other species, and exploit their established fungal gardens by tunneling through the ambient mycelium-laden wood. Instead of carrying their own fungal sybmbionts, mycocleptae depend on adopting the fungal assemblages of their host species, as shown by an analysis of fungal DNA from beetle galleries. The evidence for widespread horizontal exchange of fungi between beetles challenges the traditional concept of ambrosia fungi as species-specific symbionts. Fungus stealing appears to be an evolutionarily successful strategy. It evolved independently in several beetle clades, two of which have radiated, and at least one case was accompanied by a loss of the beetles' fungus-transporting organs. We demonstrate this using the first robust phylogeny of one of the world's largest group of ambrosia beetles, Xyleborini.

  14. Comparison of ambrosia beetle communities in two hosts with laurel wilt: swampbay vs. avocado

    Science.gov (United States)

    The invasive redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), is an exotic wood-boring pest first detected in 2002 near Savannah, Georgia. The beetle’s dominant fungal symbiont, Raffaelea lauricola, is the pathogen that causes laurel wilt, a lethal disease of tre...

  15. Antinociceptive and bioactivity of leaves of Murraya paniculata (L.) Jack, Rutaceae

    OpenAIRE

    Shazid Md. Sharker; Israt Jahan Shahid; Md. Hasanuzzaman

    2009-01-01

    The results of antinociceptive and toxicological studies on the ethanol extract of the leaves of Murraya paniculata (L.) Jack, Rutaceae, are reported. The extract (250 and 500 mg/kg dosages) was found to produce a profound antinociceptive activity in a dose dependent manner. The extract showed considerable brine shrimp toxicity (LD50 = 32 μg/mL).

  16. Effect of Temperature and Light on Phytochemical Profiling and Antimicrobial Activity of Andrographis paniculata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Jaikumar

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Andrographis paniculata (Acanthaceae is an annual herb. It is found in Sri Lanka, and throughout the plains of India especially Tamilnadu, Maharashtra, Karnataka, and Orissa. Various medicinal properties like cholevetic, antidiarrheal, immunostimulant and anti-inflammatory have been attributed to this plant in the traditional system of Indian medicine. Further reported activities are hepatoprotective, antimalarial, anticancer, antihypertensive, antipyretic, antithrombotic and antidote for snake bites. The present study aimed to evaluate the anti-microbial activity for the isopropanol extract of A. paniculata against different bacterial strains such as E. coli, K. pneumoniae, P. vulgaris, S. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa, S. aureus by determining inhibitory concentration and zone of inhibition. Minimum inhibitory concentration and zone of inhibition values and the high bioactive metabolites production was observed in different extracts of A. paniculata under different physical stress (Light and temperatures. The results revealed that, the isopropanol extract of A. paniculata is potent for inhibiting bacterial growth and various secondary metabolites production in dark condition at 37°C than other tested parameters.

  17. Hepatoprotective activity of Terminalia paniculata against paracetamol induced hepatocellular damage in Wistar albino rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eesha BR; Mohanbabu Amberkar V; Meena Kumari K; Sarath babu; Vijay M; Lalit M; Rajput R

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of Terminalia paniculata against paracetamol induced hepatic damage in rats. Methods:The plant material was shade dried, powdered and extracted with ethanol. Liv 52 and silymarin were used as standard drugs and 2%gum acacia as a control (vehicle). Alteration in the levels of biochemical markers of hepatic damage like AST, ALT, ALP and lipid peroxides were tested, and phytochemical tests were also performed. Results:Paracetamol (2 g/kg) increased the serum levels of alanine aminotransfer (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and the lipid peroxides. Treatment of Liv 52, silymarin and ethanolic extract of Terminalia paniculata (200 mg/kg) altered levels of biochemical marker and showed significant hepatoprotective activity. Ethanolic extract revealed the presence of phenolic compound and flavanoids. Our findings suggested that ethanolic bark extract of Terminalia paniculata possessed hepatoprotective activity in a dose dependent manner. Conclusions:Terminalia paniculata possesses hepatoprotective activity. It could be an effective and promising preventive agent against PCT induced hepatotoxicity.

  18. Antinociceptive and bioactivity of leaves of Murraya paniculata (L. Jack, Rutaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shazid Md. Sharker

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The results of antinociceptive and toxicological studies on the ethanol extract of the leaves of Murraya paniculata (L. Jack, Rutaceae, are reported. The extract (250 and 500 mg/kg dosages was found to produce a profound antinociceptive activity in a dose dependent manner. The extract showed considerable brine shrimp toxicity (LD50 = 32 μg/mL.

  19. Yuehchukene, a Novel Anti-implantation Indole Alkaloid from Murraya paniculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Y C; Ng, K H; Wat, K H; Wong, A; Saxena, I F; Cheng, K F; But, P P; Chang, H T

    1985-08-01

    Yuehchukene, 11beta-(3'-indolyl-7,9alpha,9beta-trimethyl-5beta,8,9,10beta-tetrahydroindano-[2,3- B]indole, a novel dimeric indole alkaloid from the roots of MURRAY A PANICULATA has potent anti-implantation activity in rats at 3 mg/kg P. O. dosing on pregnancy day 2.

  20. Flood Stress as a Technique to Assess Preventive Insecticide and Fungicide Treatments for Protecting Trees against Ambrosia Beetles

    OpenAIRE

    Ranger, Christopher M.; Peter B Schultz; Reding, Michael E.; Frank, Steven D.; Debra E. Palmquist

    2016-01-01

    Ambrosia beetles tunnel into the heartwood of trees where they cultivate and feed upon a symbiotic fungus. We assessed the effectiveness of flood stress for making Cercis canadensis L. and Cornus florida L. trees attractive to attack as part of insecticide and fungicide efficacy trials conducted in Ohio and Virginia. Since female ambrosia beetles will not begin ovipositing until their symbiotic fungus is established within the host, we also assessed pre-treatment of trees with permethrin, azo...

  1. Zingiber cassumunar, Guazuma ulmifolia, and Murraya paniculata Extracts as Antiobesity: In Vitro Inhibitory Effect on Pancreatic Lipase Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DYAH ISWANTINI

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Zingiber cassumunar Roxb. (Bangle, Guazuma ulmifolia Lamk. (Jati belanda, and Murraya paniculata (Kemuning have been used as slimming agents in jamu. A few researches have performed studies on their potency as antiobesity. The aim of this research was to investigate the potency of Z. cassumunar rhizome, G. ulmifolia, and M. paniculata leaf extracts as antiobesity agent based on in vitro inhibition activity of the extracts on pancreatic lipase activity. In this research, water content determination, phytochemical assay, toxicity assay and in vitro assay of inhibition activity on pancreatic lipase were performed toward single and mixture extracts of Z. cassumunar, G. ulmifolia, and M. paniculata resulted by water, ethanol, and saponin extractions. The results indicated that 100 ppm of ethanol extraction of Z. cassumunar had highest inhibition effect on the activity of pancreatic lipase (29.17%, followed by 100 ppm of water extraction of M. paniculata (25.66%, 60 ppm of ethanol extraction of G. ulmifolia leaves (25.13% and ethanol extraction mixture of Z. cassumunar, G. ulmifolia, and M. paniculata leaves with ratio of 25:25:25 (21.58%. These inhibition effects were higher than inhibitory effect of 100 ppm of Xenical®/orlistat as the positive control, with the inhibition value of 17.53%. Saponin crude extracts had lower inhibitory effect than the other extractions. It was suggested that ethanol extraction of Z. cassumunar, and G. ulmifolia and water extraction of M. paniculata had potency as antiobesity agent.

  2. Assessment of the nutritional composition of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Verena; Du, Juan; Charrondière, U Ruth

    2016-02-15

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is an ancient crop which can play an important role for worldwide food security. The current review aimed at evaluating existing compositional data which were compiled according to international standards. A limited number of data were found that met the dataset quality criteria. In general, high variations in nutrient contents of quinoa were observed per 100g edible portion on fresh weight basis, for example: protein (9.1-15.7g), total fat (4.0-7.6g) and dietary fiber (8.8-14.1g). The variations of nutrient values among different varieties and among different data sources were considerable. The results show the nutritional potential of quinoa but they also demonstrate that more high-quality analytical data of quinoa are needed, especially for minerals and vitamins.

  3. Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.): composition, chemistry, nutritional, and functional properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abugoch James, Lilian E

    2009-01-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.), which is considered a pseudocereal or pseudograin, has been recognized as a complete food due to its protein quality. It has remarkable nutritional properties; not only from its protein content (15%) but also from its great amino acid balance. It is an important source of minerals and vitamins, and has also been found to contain compounds like polyphenols, phytosterols, and flavonoids with possible nutraceutical benefits. It has some functional (technological) properties like solubility, water-holding capacity (WHC), gelation, emulsifying, and foaming that allow diversified uses. Besides, it has been considered an oil crop, with an interesting proportion of omega-6 and a notable vitamin E content. Quinoa starch has physicochemical properties (such as viscosity, freeze stability) which give it functional properties with novel uses. Quinoa has a high nutritional value and has recently been used as a novel functional food because of all these properties; it is a promising alternative cultivar.

  4. Site observational work plan for the UMTRA Project site at Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    The Ambrosia Lake Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site is within the Grants Mineral Belt and was one of numerous uranium mills supplied by many local mines. Ground water contamination at the site occurred as a result of uranium mill operations. The potential for impacts to human health and the environment from contaminated ground water currently does not exist. No domestic or livestock wells accessing ground water from the uppermost aquifer have been identified within a 5 mile radius from the site. Therefore, no current exposure pathways to humans, livestock, or wildlife exist, nor are any foreseen. The proposed ground water compliance strategy under consideration for application at the Ambrosia Lake site is to perform no remediation, based on the application of supplemental standards because the ground water has ``limited use.``

  5. Pollen viability of Polygala paniculata L. (Polygalaceae) using different staining methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frescura, Viviane Dal-Souto; Laughinghouse, Haywood Dail; do Canto-Dorow, Thais Scotti; Tedesco, Solange Bosio

    2012-12-01

    Polygala paniculata L. is a medicinal plant that grows in the Brazilian Atlantic coast, known as 'barba-de-São-João', 'barba-de-bode', 'vassourinha branca', and 'mimosa'. In this study, pollen viability was estimated by three different staining methods: 2% acetic orcein, 2% acetic carmine, and Alexander's stain. The young inflorescences of twenty accessions were collected and fixed in a solution of ethanol: acetic acid (3:1) for 24 hours, then stored in ethanol 70% under refrigeration. Six slides per plant, two for each stain, were prepared by squashing, and 300 pollen grains per slide were analyzed. Pollen viability was high (> 70%) for most accessions of P. paniculata using the Alexander's stain, which proved the most adequate method to estimate pollen viability.

  6. APPROACHES ON THE INVASIVE ALIEN TAXA IN ROMANIA - AMBROSIA ARTEMISIIFOLIA (RAGWEED I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta IANOVICI

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present contribution was to determine the situation of Ambrosia artemisiifolia in Romania. A. artemisiifolia has a pronounced invasive character and is anemophilous, contrary to most Asteraceae. This paper is a brief summary about the researches on the alien plant Ambrosia artemisiifolia in Romania. At present, this alien plant is in the process of acclimatization and naturalization in our country. Till now it has indicated from all Romanian provinces, the spread of this taxon through our country is still incomplete known, at about a century since its first identification at Orşova. Nowadays the agricultural areas are greatly infested in Romania. However, the infestations on waste land or roadsides are rarely controlled. The annual pollen counts show an increasing tendency, indicating an increased local population. Ambrosia artemisiifolia has been studied by a high number of romanian scientists and many articles have been written on the topic. For the study of the spreading of the Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. species in the Western field of the country it was established as a study perimeter an areal which situates between the adminitrative limits of Timiş county. In 2008 the presence of the species was noticed in 49 locations. In 2009 - 2011, the observations continued and it was observed the emergence of the species in 28 new locations, also the expansion and amplification in the pryor locations. In the years 2010-2011 have been made many observations in other 33 counties and Bucureşti. The determinations were made in the months of June-September. In this work were listed a number of sites across Romania, where A. artemisiifolia vegetate. Currently the biggest problem is in the lowland and hill area of macro-regions 1, 3 and 4 where the species A. artemisiifolia is found in the extensive and diverse ecosystems. The paper presents personal observations on some morphological features, anatomical and ecological aspects.

  7. Supplement to the UMTRA Project water sampling and analysis plan, Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    The Ambrosia Lake Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site is in McKinley County, New Mexico. As part of UMTRA surface remediation, residual radioactive materials were consolidated on the site in a disposal cell that was completed July 1995. The need for ground water monitoring was evaluated and found not to be necessary beyond the completion of the remedial action because the ground water in the uppermost aquifer is classified as limited use.

  8. Site Observational Work Plan for the UMTRA project site at Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-02-01

    Ground water compliance for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project sites, including the Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico, site, is governed by the Uranium Mills Tailings Radiation Control Act (42 USC {section}7901 et seq.) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency`s Health and Environmental Protection Standards for Uranium and Thorium Mill Tailings (40 CFR Part 192; 60 FR 2854). The EPA standards describe specific conditions for which the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) may apply for supplemental standards for contaminated ground water rather than meeting background levels or numerical standards. To achieve compliance with Subpart A of the EPA standards the residual radioactive materials are currently being consolidated on the site by the DOE in a disposal cell, isolating them from direct human or ecological contact and further dispersion into the environment. Completion of the disposal cell is scheduled for early 1995. An environmental assessment and a Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) were completed in 1987. Concurrence with the UMTRA Surface Project Ambrosia Lake remedial action plan (RAP) was granted by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and state of New Mexico in 1990. The DOE deferred compliance with Subpart B of the EPA standards in the Surface Project RAP. This site observational work plan (SOWP) is the first document to address ground water compliance under Subpart B at the Ambrosia Lake site. The Ambrosia Lake UMTRA Project site is within the Grants Mineral Belt and was one of numerous uranium mills supplied by many local mines. Ground water contamination at the site occurred as a result of uranium mill operations. Contamination of ground water resulted from discharge of waste water, infiltration of water through the tailings pile, hydraulic placement of mill tailings in nearby mines, and water pumped from mine shafts.

  9. Ambrosia artemisiifolia (ragweed) in Germany – current presence, allergological relevance and containment procedures

    OpenAIRE

    Buters, Jeroen; Alberternst, Beate; Nawrath, Stefan; WIMMER Maria; Traidl-Hoffmann, Claudia; Starfinger, Uwe; Behrendt, Heidrun; Schmidt-Weber, Carsten; Bergmann, Karl-Christian

    2015-01-01

    Ambrosia artemisiifolia (ragweed) is a neophyte in Europe and Germany, which originated from the United States of America. In the USA the rate of sensitization against ragweed equals that of grass pollen, and without containment the rate of allergic sensitizations against ragweed pollen will clearly increase. Currently, the most frequent sensitizations in Germany are against grass pollen, followed by sensitizations against house dust mite and birch pollen. Ragweed pollen evokes symptoms at ab...

  10. Bioassay studies of 2'-O-ethylmurrangatin isolated from a medicinal plant, Murraya paniculata

    OpenAIRE

    SHAIKH, Azizuddin; Choudhary, Muhammad Iqbal

    2011-01-01

    A secondary metabolite, 2'-O-ethylmurrangatin (1), was isolated from the leaves of a medicinal plant, Murraya paniculata. The structure of compound 1 was identified with the help of spectroscopic techniques. Compound 1 was screened for its antioxidant, lipoxygenase, prolyl endopeptidase, and respiratory burst inhibitory activities. 2'-O-Ethylmurrangatin (1) was found to have significant activity against lipoxygenase enzyme and moderate respiratory burst inhibitory activity, but no a...

  11. A NORMATIVE STUDY OF NIGERIAN GROWN MAHA-TITA (KING OF BITTERS) - ANDROGRAPHIS PANICULATA NEES

    OpenAIRE

    Ameh, Sunday; Obodozie, Obiageri; Inyang, Uford; Abubakar, Mujitaba; Garba, Magaji

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study is to characterize the aerial parts of Andrographis paniculata - an intensely bitter herb grown in Nigeria from seeds obtained in India. The ultimate aim is to develop a suitable dosage form from the herb for use in Nigeria. The bitterness value; various physicochemical characteristics; tests for key phytochemicals; and thin layer chromatography (TLC) were carried out on the air-dried herb as prescribed in relevant standard texts. The mean bitterness value for both men an...

  12. Structural features of a water soluble gum polysaccharide from Murraya paniculata fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, S K; Ray, B; Ghosal, P K; Teleman, A; Vuorinen, T

    2001-10-22

    A water soluble gum polysaccharide was isolated from Murraya paniculata fruits. Hydrolytic experiments, methylation analysis, periodate oxidation studies and NMR data revealed that the polysaccharide was extensively branched and it consisted of 1,3-, and 1,3,6-linked beta-D-galactopyranosyl units, terminal beta-D-galactopyranosyl units and terminal alpha-D-glucopyranosyl 1,4-beta-D-galactopyranosyl units. Small amounts of 4-O-methylglucuronic acid residues were also present.

  13. The long distance transport of airborne Ambrosia pollen to the UK and the Netherlands from Central and south Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Weger, Letty A.; Pashley, Catherine H.; Šikoparija, Branko; Skjøth, Carsten A.; Kasprzyk, Idalia; Grewling, Łukasz; Thibaudon, Michel; Magyar, Donat; Smith, Matt

    2016-12-01

    The invasive alien species Ambrosia artemisiifolia (common or short ragweed) is increasing its range in Europe. In the UK and the Netherlands, airborne concentrations of Ambrosia pollen are usually low. However, more than 30 Ambrosia pollen grains per cubic metre of air (above the level capable to trigger allergic symptoms) were recorded in Leicester (UK) and Leiden (NL) on 4 and 5 September 2014. The aims of this study were to determine whether the highly allergenic Ambrosia pollen recorded during the episode could be the result of long distance transport, to identify the potential sources of these pollen grains and to describe the conditions that facilitated this possible long distance transport. Airborne Ambrosia pollen data were collected at 10 sites in Europe. Back trajectory and atmospheric dispersion calculations were performed using HYSPLIT_4. Back trajectories calculated at Leicester and Leiden show that higher altitude air masses (1500 m) originated from source areas on the Pannonian Plain and Ukraine. During the episode, air masses veered to the west and passed over the Rhône Valley. Dispersion calculations showed that the atmospheric conditions were suitable for Ambrosia pollen released from the Pannonian Plain and the Rhône Valley to reach the higher levels and enter the airstream moving to northwest Europe where they were deposited at ground level and recorded by monitoring sites. The study indicates that the Ambrosia pollen grains recorded during the episode in Leicester and Leiden were probably not produced by local sources but transported long distances from potential source regions in east Europe, i.e. the Pannonian Plain and Ukraine, as well as the Rhône Valley in France.

  14. Scientific Opinion on the effect on public or animal health or on the environment on the presence of seeds of Ambrosia spp. in animal feed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, R.; Candresse, T.; Dormannsné Simon, E.

    2010-01-01

    spp. The genus Ambrosia (Asteraceae family) is distributed worldwide. Ambrosia artemisiifolia (common ragweed) has heavily colonised several areas of South-East Europe. Ambrosia spp., both in their native range and in invaded areas, are of public health concern due to the allergenic properties...

  15. New Raffaelea species (Ophiostomatales) from the USA and Taiwan associated with ambrosia beetles and plant hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, D Rabern; de Beer, Z Wilhelm; Huang, Yin-Tse; Bateman, Craig; Campbell, Alina S; Dreaden, Tyler J; Li, You; Ploetz, Randy C; Black, Adam; Li, Hou-Feng; Chen, Chi-Yu; Wingfield, Michael J; Hulcr, Jiri

    2016-12-01

    Raffaelea (Ophiostomatales) is a genus of more than 20 ophiostomatoid fungi commonly occurring in symbioses with wood-boring ambrosia beetles. We examined ambrosia beetles and plant hosts in the USA and Taiwan for the presence of these mycosymbionts and found 22 isolates representing known and undescribed lineages in Raffaelea. From 28S rDNA and β-tubulin sequences, we generated a molecular phylogeny of Ophiostomatales and observed morphological features of seven cultures representing undescribed lineages in Raffaelea s. lat. From these analyses, we describe five new species in Raffaelea s. lat.: R. aguacate, R. campbellii, R. crossotarsa, R. cyclorhipidia, and R. xyleborina spp. nov. Our analyses also identified two plant-pathogenic species of Raffaelea associated with previously undocumented beetle hosts: (1) R. quercivora, the causative agent of Japanese oak wilt, from Cyclorhipidion ohnoi and Crossotarsus emancipatus in Taiwan, and (2) R. lauricola, the pathogen responsible for laurel wilt, from Ambrosiodmus lecontei in Florida. The results of this study show that Raffaelea and associated ophiostomatoid fungi have been poorly sampled and that future investigations on ambrosia beetle mycosymbionts should reveal a substantially increased diversity.

  16. Analysis of airborne ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. pollen in Timisoara, 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta IANOVICI

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Ambrosia artemisiifolia (ragweed is an annual, herbaceous, with high invasive potential, wind-pollinated plant that is important allergenic weed belonging to the Asteraceae plant family. Allergenic airpollen can interact with other components of environmental global change in a synergic way increasing the risks to public health. Analysis of the pollen count was performed on the basis of the data collected in Timişoara in the season of 2004. Airborne ragweed pollen concentrations, measured continuously with a volumetric method are compared with respect to both their quantitative and seasonal aspects. A weekly programmed Hirst spore-trap was used to sample airborne pollen grains, calibrated to handle a flow of 10 L/min of air, which roughly corresponds to a human breathing rhythm. In Timisoara the Lanzoni model was used. The daily quantities of pollen are expressed as numbers of pollen grains per cubic meter of air per day (PG/m3.The pollen seasons show 3 main parts: tree season (February–April, grass season (May–July, weed season (July–October. In September 65,71% of the total aeropollen concentration is due to Ambrosia. The highest concentration of ragweed pollen was 220 PG/m3.Ambrosia artemisiifolia have a pronounced invasive character. Since 1910, having been spread all over the country, it has become the most common weed in Romania. There is an urgent need to organize interventions to stop ragweed expansion and to clear the areas already polluted.

  17. Antispasmodic activity of Symplocos paniculata is mediated through opening of ATP-dependent K+ channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Hussain Janbaz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Symplocos paniculata is a medicinal plant used by native healers to manage gastrointestinal ailments. The crude methanolic extract of S. paniculata was screened pharmacologically both in vitro and in vivo for the validation of its therapeutic potential. It suppressed the spontaneous activity of isolated rabbit jejunum preparations and also caused inhibition of the low K+ (20 mM- induced spastic contractions in isolated rabbit jejunum preparations in a manner comparable to cromakalim. The relaxant effect was found to be blocked following glibenclamide exposure of the isolated tissue preparations similar to cromakalim, suggesting that observed response was likely to be mediated through opening of ATP dependent K+ channels. Following oral administration to mice provided protection against castor oil-induced diarrhea in a manner similar to loperamide. The plant material was found safe in toxicity study up to oral dose of 8 g/kg in mice. Hence, present study provides a scientific basis for the vernacular use of S. paniculata in gastro-intestinal system.

  18. Comparative analysis of the essential oil composition of Murraya paniculata and M. exotica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Hai-Ning; Guo, Xiao-Yu; Tu, Peng-Fei; Jiang, Yong

    2013-10-01

    Murrayae Folium et Cacumen (MFC) is a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) derived from the leaves and twigs of two aromatic species of Rutaceae: Murraya paniculata (L.) Jack and M. exotica L. It has long been used as a folk medicine in South China for the treatment of a variety of disorders, particularly for inflammatory lesions and pains. In the present study, a detailed chemical examination as well as a comparative analysis of the essential oil composition of M. paniculata and M. exotica was conducted by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 141 volatile components were identified from the essential oil of these two plants. Sesquiterpenes were found to be the predominant constituents, accounting for 92.8% of the oil from M. paniculata and 87.9% of that from M. exotica. A comparative analysis of the essential oil composition of these two plants revealed a high level of similarity in their main constituents, such as the co-occurrence of E-caryophyllene, spathulenol and delta-elemene, which gave the chemical evidence for their equal medicinal application as MFC in TCMs. Moreover, in combination with literature reports, E-caryophyllene was theoretically deduced as one of the pharmacologically effective components of MFC that is responsible for treating inflammatory lesions and for local anaesthesia.

  19. Association of ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’, the causal agent of citrus huanglongbing in Murraya paniculata and Diaphorina citri in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orange jasmine, Murraya paniculata, is a preferred alternative host for the Asian citrus psyllid, the primary vector of citrus Huanglongbing (HLB) disease caused by ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ (Las). M. paniculata plant samples and psyllids on the Murraya plants from ten diverse geographical...

  20. APPROACHES ON THE INVASIVE ALIEN TAXA IN ROMANIA - AMBROSIA ARTEMISIIFOLIA (RAGWEED II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta IANOVICI

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In a previous paper we presented the localities in Romania where we identified populations of Ambrosia artemisiifolia. Between 2008-2011, investigations were continuing. Our data clearly show that Ambrosia is present throughout the country. The territories heavily infested are railway embankments, along traffic routes, gravel pits, building sites, forest edges, industrial areas, cemeteries and recreational areas. It is quite common to find ragweed in many private gardens, or flower pots in urban areas. The few foci observed along riversides got there by household waste and construction waste. In many rural communities find it on the drainage ditches. Disturbed and neglected land (on city limits and outside the city, abandonment of land without subsequent turning of stubble and another wrong agricultural practice, absence of ruderal weed control are the main causes that favor the dissemination of our country. Intensity of anthropogenic influence is manifested mainly by transport of materials and soil movement during road rehabilitation and construction of highways. The recent observations show that could be expected to appear on agricultural fields, now being found only on the outskirts of cultivated land, at 5-6 meters from high traffic roads. Ambrosia benefits from human activities to spread. This implies a strong control strategy. The main objective of the fighting activities need to be to reduce damages caused by its pollen and to limit its expansion. If invasion by Ambrosia is left uncontrolled, increase of allergies could heavily augment the treatments. Knowledge about mechanical or chemical control of ragweed could be very important for road and rail services, agricultural institutions, farmers, staff responsible for managing natural areas, institutions that approves and oversees residential sites and factories, responsible personnel of the administrations from cities and rural localities. Reducing the population is more required than

  1. PCR multiplexes discriminate Fusarium symbionts of invasive Euwallacea ambrosia beetles that inflict damage on numerous tree species throughout the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asian Euwallacea ambrosia beetles vector Fusarium mutualists. The ambrosial fusaria are all members of the Ambrosia Fusarium Clade (AFC) within the Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC). Several Euwallacea-Fusarium mutualists have been introduced into non-native regions and have caused varying degr...

  2. An inordinate fondness for Fusarium: Phylogenetic diversity of fusaria cultivated by ambrosia beetles in the genus Euwallacea on avocado and other plant hosts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosia beetle fungiculture represents one of the most ecologically and evolutionarily successful symbioses, as evidenced by the spectacular adaptive radiation that gave rise to at least 3,500 extant Xyleborini. Here we document the evolution of a clade within Fusarium associated with ambrosia beet...

  3. Notas taxonómicas sobre el género Centaurea (Asteraceae) en la Península Ibérica. C. paniculata, C. hanryi y C. diffusa

    OpenAIRE

    Devesa Alcaraz, Juan Antonio; López, Eusebio

    2010-01-01

    Se comenta la variabilidad morfológica en la Península Ibérica de Centaurea paniculata L. (Centaurea L. sect. Centaurea), un endemismo del SW de Europa, para el que reconocen tres subespecies con áreas bien definidas: C. paniculata subsp. paniculata, C. paniculata subsp. leucophaea (Jord.) Arcang. y C. paniculata subsp. oscensis, una nueva subespecie para la que se estudia además el número cromosómico (2n = 18). También se comenta la variabilidad en el territorio de C. ha...

  4. ANALGESIC ACTIVITY OF LEPIDAGATHIS CRISTATA WILLD FLOWER EXTRACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purma Aravinda Reddy

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study was to screen the Lepidagathis cristata Willd, flower extracts for analgesic activity. In the present study the analgesic activity of flower extracts was performed. The methanolic, ethyl acetate, chloroform extracts were prepared and were used for analgesic activity in two dose level of 200 and 400mg/kg body weight in two screening methods, Hot Plate (n=5 and Tail Immersion method (n=5. The flower extracts showed significant analgesic activity. The plant extracts did not exhibit any mortality up to the dose level 4000mg/kg. The methanol, chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts of flower was evaluated for analgesic activity. The flower ethyl acetate extract of Lepidagathis cristata showed 47% and 57.1% activity at 200 and 400mg/kg.b.wt, after 30 min by Eddy’s Hot plate Method respectively. The flower chloroform extract showed 43.7% and 44.7% protection at 200, 400mg/kg respectively. The flower methanol, chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts showed dose dependent analgesic activity in thermal models. The flower ethylacetate extract has maximum analgesic activity with 57.1% (p < 0.001c.

  5. EVALUATION OF ANALGESIC ACTIVITY OF LEPIDAGATHIS CRISTATA WILLD LEAF EXTRACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purma Aravinda Reddy

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study is to screen the Lepidagathis cristata Willd, leaf extracts for analgesic activity, because the plant was screened only for immunosuppressive, antipyretic activities only, now in the present study the analgesic activity of leaf extracts were performed. The ethanolic, ethyl acetate, chloroform extracts were prepared and are used for analgesic activity in two dose level that is 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight per oral in two screening methods, one is Hot Plate (n=5, another is Tail Immersion method (n=5, and the leaf extracts are showed significant analgesic activity. The plant extracts did not exhibit any mortality up to the dose level 4000 mg/kg. The methanol, Chloroform and Ethyl acetate extracts of leaf was evaluated for analgesic activity. . The 400mg/kg dose of leaf chloroform extract has highest activity in both the experimental models with 62.5% protection after 30min and 47.3% after 60 min with the significance of p< 0.001 when compared with 0 time interval and after 90 min it was shown 50% of protection and all the extracts has graded dose response.

  6. Atividade Antimicrobiana da Uncaria Tomentosa (Willd D. C.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Silva e Sá

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A Uncaria tomentosa (Willd D. C. (unha de gato é uma planta amplamente utilizada na medicina popular, originária da Amazônia. Possui atividades biológicas, como anti-inflamatória, antimutagênica e antioxidante. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a atividade antimicrobiana do extrato de U. tomentosa, seco e hidroalcoólico, obtido comercialmente, utilizando-se 12 cepas de microrganismos (6 Gram-positvas e 6 Gramnegativas. Os testes antimicrobianos foram realizados em ágar BHI pela técnica de difusão em ágar. Também foram determinadas a Concentração Inibitória Mínima (CIM e Concentração Microbicida Mínima (CMM. Os testes demonstraram que os extratos inibiram o crescimento de bactérias Gram-positivas e Gramnegativas, sendo o extrato hidroalcoólico mais eficiente que o extrato seco. Conclui-se que o extrato de U. tomentosa possui atividade antimicrobiana podendo ser utilizado como uma alternativa terapêutica de baixo custo.

  7. Chemical composition of the leaf essential oils of Murraya koenigii (L.) Spreng and Murraya paniculata (L.) Jack

    OpenAIRE

    Jasim Uddin Chowdhury; Mohammad Nazrul Islam Bhuiyan; Mohammed Yusuf

    2008-01-01

    The chemical composition of the leaf oils of Murraya koenigii (L.) Spreng and M. paniculata (L.) Jack from Bangladesh was studied by gas chromatography mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). M. koenigii oil contained 39 compounds of which the major is 3-carene (54.2%) followed by caryophyllene (9.5%). Oil of M. paniculata contained 58 compounds of which the major are caryophyllene oxide (16.6%), b-caryophyllene (11.8%), spathulenol (10.2%), b-elemene (8.9%), germacrene D (6.9%) and cyclooctene, 4-methyle...

  8. Chemical composition of the leaf essential oils of Murraya koenigii (L. Spreng and Murraya paniculata (L. Jack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasim Uddin Chowdhury

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of the leaf oils of Murraya koenigii (L. Spreng and M. paniculata (L. Jack from Bangladesh was studied by gas chromatography mass spectroscopy (GC-MS. M. koenigii oil contained 39 compounds of which the major is 3-carene (54.2% followed by caryophyllene (9.5%. Oil of M. paniculata contained 58 compounds of which the major are caryophyllene oxide (16.6%, b-caryophyllene (11.8%, spathulenol (10.2%, b-elemene (8.9%, germacrene D (6.9% and cyclooctene, 4-methylene-6-(1-propenylidene (6.4%. The compositions of both oils varied qualitatively and quantitatively.

  9. The Application of Murraya Paniculata in Medicine%浅析九里香在医药上的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李敦禧; 林秋贤; 吴海霞; 钱军; 骆焱平

    2014-01-01

    概述了九里香及其组合物用于镇痛、消炎,麻醉,治疗骚痒、疥疮,除臭及其他利用,为综合开发利用九里香提供参考。%The text reviews combinations of Murraya paniculata for the analgesic effect, anti-inflammatory ef-fect, anesthetic, treatment of pruritus and scabies, deodorizing and other utilizations, which provide a reference for the comprehensive development and utilization of Murraya paniculata.

  10. A classical genetic solution to enhance the biosynthesis of anticancer phytochemicals in Andrographis paniculata Nees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdiani, Alireza; Talei, Daryush; Tan, Soon Guan; Abdul Kadir, Mihdzar; Maziah, Mahmood; Rafii, Mohd Yusop; Sagineedu, Sreenivasa Rao

    2014-01-01

    Andrographolides, the diterpene lactones, are major bioactive phytochemicals which could be found in different parts of the medicinal herb Andrographis paniculata. A number of such compounds namely andrographolide (AG), neoandrographolide (NAG), and 14-deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide (DDAG) have already attracted a great deal of attention due to their potential therapeutic effects in hard-to-treat diseases such as cancers and HIV. Recently, they have also been considered as substrates for the discovery of novel pharmaceutical compounds. Nevertheless, there is still a huge gap in knowledge on the genetic pattern of the biosynthesis of these bioactive compounds. Hence, the present study aimed to investigate the genetic mechanisms controlling the biosynthesis of these phytochemicals using a diallel analysis. The high performance liquid chromatography analysis of the three andrographolides in 210 F1 progenies confirmed that the biosynthesis of these andrographolides was considerably increased via intraspecific hybridization. The results revealed high, moderate and low heterosis for DDAG, AG and NAG, respectively. Furthermore, the preponderance of non-additive gene actions was affirmed in the enhancement of the three andrographolides contents. The consequence of this type of gene action was the occurrence of high broad-sense and low narrow-sense heritabilities for the above mentioned andrographolides. The prevalence of non-additive gene action suggests the suitability of heterosis breeding and hybrid seed production as a preferred option to produce new plant varieties with higher andrographolide contents using the wild accessions of A. paniculata. Moreover, from an evolutionary point of view, the occurrence of population bottlenecks in the Malaysian accessions of A. paniculata was unveiled by observing a low level of additive genetic variance (VA ) for all the andrographolides.

  11. Evaluation of antimicrobial efficacy of flavonoids and alkaloids of Andrographis paniculata nees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keerti Gautam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The persistent increase in the number of antibiotic resistant strains of microorganisms has led to the development of more potent but more expensive antibiotics. Synthetic drugs are mostly associated with side effects and are generally costly, hence are not affordable to economically poor class of the society when long term treatment is required, thus interest has been developed in the use of herbal medicines which have been reported to have either very little or no side effects. Aims: Present work was carried out to assess the antimicrobial activity of A. paniculata against some multidrug resistant pathogenic bacteria. Materials and Methods: Different parts (leaf, stem, root of A. paniculata were collected and air dried and soxhlet extracted by using standard methods for flavonoid and alkaloid extraction. These extracts were then tested for antimicrobial activity using disc diffusion method. Minimum inhibitory concentration, Minimum bactericidal concentration and Total activity were also calculated. Statistical Analysis: Mean value and Standard Deviation were calculated for the test bacteria and fungi. Data were analysed by one-way analysis of variance and P values were considered significant at P < 0.05. Results: C. albicans was found to be the most susceptible organism followed by P. mirabilis, S. aureus, E. coli, P. aeruginosa and A. flavus. A. niger and T. mentegrophyte were observed to be resistant as none of the tested extracts showed activity against them. Free flavonoid extract of root showed best activity against C. albicans (IZ 14 mm, MIC 0.156, whereas leaf free flavonoid extract showed maximum 21 mm inhibition zone against P. mirabilis.The range of MIC and MBC was found to be 1.25-0.039 and 2.5-0.078 respectively. Conclusion: Results of the present study reveal that extracts of A. paniculata are showing great antimicrobial potential against tested microorganisms, and may be exploited for future antimicrobial drugs

  12. Long-term surveillance plan for the Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico disposal site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Ambrosia Lake disposal site in McKinley County, New Mexico, describes the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) long-term care program for the disposal site. The DOE will carry out this program to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials.

  13. Long-term surveillance plan for the Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico disposal site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Ambrosia Lake disposal site in McKinley County, New Mexico, describes the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) long-term care program for the disposal site. The DOE will carry out this program to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials.

  14. Immunoproteomic characterization of Ambrosia artemisiifolia pollen allergens in canine atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ognjenovic, Jana; Milcic-Matic, Natalija; Smiljanic, Katarina; Vuckovic, Olga; Burazer, Lidija; Popovic, Nikola; Stanic-Vucinic, Dragana; Velickovic, Tanja Cirkovic

    2013-09-01

    Canine atopic dermatitis (CAD) is an immune system disorder that affects 10-15% of the canine population. Short ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) pollen represents one of the major seasonal sources of allergenic pollen proteins in Europe, particularly in the Pannonian valley of the Balkan region. In Serbia, about 66% of atopic dogs showed a positive intradermal skin test with its pollen extract, which is second to house dust mites. Therefore, characterization of Ambrosia artemisiifolia pollen components, in terms of defining major and minor allergens that induce clinically manifested allergic reaction in dogs, is important for valid diagnosis and efficient therapy. This study has, for the first time, characterized and identified major Ambrosia artemisiifolia allergens in CAD, using an immunoproteomic approach. To assess the prevalence of specific IgE in electrophoretically separated ragweed pollen proteins, individual reactivity of sera from dogs with CAD was analyzed and compared to the reactivity of sera from healthy dogs in the non-reducing conditions, which were found optimal for specific canine IgE detection. A specific IgE band (38 kDa) was recognized as the most dominant allergen in CAD, occurring in 81% of positive dog's sera. 2-D immunoblotting followed by a mass spectrometry peptide fingerprint analyses with pooled canine and human atopic sera, revealed that 38 kDa major Ambrosia atremisiifolia allergens in CAD were all five isoallergens of the Amb a 1 group (antigen E), including the previously named Amb a 2 (antigen K). In contrast to canine sera, human atopic sera also recognized lower mass allergens such as the β fragment of Amb a 1 and profilins (Amb a 8 variants). The most prominent ragweed proteins in CAD, represent, as in humans, variants of all five isoallergens of the Amb a 1 group (pectate lyase): Amb a 1.0101 and its natural variant E1XUL2, Amb a 1.0202, 1.0304, 1.0402 and the natural variant of Amb a 1.0501, E1XUM0, as well as the

  15. Prenylated Coumarins from Heracleum stenopterum, Peucedanum praeruptorum, Clausena lansium, and Murraya paniculata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang-Mei Li

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Four hitherto unknown prenylated coumarins, namely 6″-O-β-d-apiofuranosylapterin (1, 4′-O-isobutyroylpeguangxienin (2, 6-(3-methyl-2-oxobutyroyl-7-methoxycoumarin (3, and 6-hydroxycoumurrayin (4, were isolated from the ethanol extract of Heracleum stenopterum, Peucedanum praeruptorum, Clausena lansium, and Murraya paniculata, respectively. Their chemical structures were established on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis. Compound 2 exhibited in vitro cytotoxic activity against five human cancer cell lines (HL-60, A-549, SMMC-7721, MCF-7, and SW-480 with IC50 values ranging from 15.9 to 23.2 μM. Graphical Abstract

  16. Adaptogenic potential of andrographolide: An active principle of the king of bitters (Andrographis paniculata)

    OpenAIRE

    Thakur, Ajit Kumar; Chatterjee, Shyam Sunder; Kumar, Vikas

    2014-01-01

    Andrographolide is a major bioactive secondary plant metabolite isolated Andrographis paniculata (Burm. F.) Wall. Ex. Nees. (穿心蓮 chuān xīn lián), a well-known traditionally used medicinal herb. The aim of the study was to pharmacologically evaluate the beneficial effect of andrographolide on stress-induced thermoregulatory and other physiological responses in mice. A stress-induced hyperthermia test was conducted in mice. The test agents were orally administered once daily for 11 consecutive ...

  17. Partial in vitro and in vivo red scorpion venom neutralization activity of Andrographis paniculata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjana I Brahmane

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Red scorpion (Mesobuthus tamulus is the most lethal among all poisonous species of scorpions. Envenoming by Mesobuthus tamulus is quite common along the western coast of India, without any established therapy. Andrographis paniculata is one of the plants that has long been used in traditional herbal medicine for the treatment of poisoning by animal bites. Hence, the study was planned to evaluate the ethanolic extract of Andrographis paniculata for the treatment of Mesobuthus tamulus envenoming. Materials and Methods: Ethanolic extract of the plant Andrographis paniculata was obtained using a soxhelet apparatus. Lyophilized venom sample of Mesobuthus tamulus was used. Swiss albino mice weighing 20-30 g were used in the study. Calculation of LD 99 of Mesobuthus tamulus venom was performed using Turner′s method. Acute toxicity of Mesobuthus tamulus venom and its neutralization by the plant extract at a dose of 1 g/kg and 2 g/kg in vivo was seen. Neutralization of the lethal venom effect of Mesobuthus tamulus by plant extract at the dose of 1 g/kg and 2 g/kg by Alam and Gome′s method (in vitro was also seen. Results: The LD 99 of Mesobuthus tamulus venom from this study was determined to be 25.12 ΅g/g and the LD 50 was 15.85 ΅g/g. In the acute toxicity and in vivo neutralization study, plant extract at the dose of 1 g/kg and 2 g/kg resulted in a mean survival of 62.667 min and 39.333 min, respectively. Neutralization of the lethal venom effect of Mesobuthus tamulus by the plant extract at the dose of 1 g/kg and 2 g/kg by Alam and Gome′s method (in vitro showed a mean survival of 49.667 min and 42.5 min, respectively. Conclusion: The ethanolic extract of Adrographis paniculata has some protective effect against the red scorpion venom in mice but does not offer any survival benefit.

  18. Antimycobacterial Efficacy of Andrographis paniculata Leaf Extracts Under Intracellular and Hypoxic Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatter, Purva; Gupta, Pooja; Daswani, Poonam; Tetali, Pundarikakshudu; Birdi, Tannaz

    2015-01-01

    The inhibition of the growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by the extracts of Andrographis paniculata has been studied using intracellular and axenic hypoxic conditions. The inhibition (confirmed using the gold standard colony forming unit assay) was found to increase with "double stimuli" or higher concentration of the extract. Organic solvent extracts were found to inhibit bacterial growth more than the aqueous extracts under microaerophilic conditions mimicked through axenic and intracellular assays. This could be further explored to evaluate the potential of the plant to be used against nonreplicating/dormant bacilli.

  19. A new guaiane mannoside from a Eutypa-like fungus isolated from Murraya paniculata in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Afonso D.L.; Rodrigues-Filho, Edson [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCAR), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Souza, Antonia Q.L.; Henrique-Silva, Flavio [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCAR), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Genetica e Evolucao; Pereira, Jose O. [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (UFAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agrarias

    2008-07-01

    A Eutypa-like fungus was isolated from the stems of Murraya paniculata. The fungus was cultivated in liquid medium and produced the new guaiane-type sesquiterpenoid (1R,4S,5S,7R,10R)- 10-hydroxyguaianol 10-O-beta-mannopyranoside and the 3-hydroxy-5-phenylmethyl-(3S,5R)- tetrahydrofuran-2-one, a diastereomer of harzialactone A, obtained for the first time from a natural source. The structures of these metabolites were elucidated based on analysis of their spectroscopic data. (author)

  20. Prenylated Coumarins from Heracleum stenopterum, Peucedanum praeruptorum, Clausena lansium, and Murraya paniculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang-Mei; Jiang, Xian-Jun; Yang, Ku; Wang, Li-Xia; Wen, Shi-Zhen; Wang, Fei

    2016-10-01

    Four hitherto unknown prenylated coumarins, namely 6″-O-β-D-apiofuranosylapterin (1), 4'-O-isobutyroylpeguangxienin (2), 6-(3-methyl-2-oxobutyroyl)-7-methoxycoumarin (3), and 6-hydroxycoumurrayin (4), were isolated from the ethanol extract of Heracleum stenopterum, Peucedanum praeruptorum, Clausena lansium, and Murraya paniculata, respectively. Their chemical structures were established on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis. Compound 2 exhibited in vitro cytotoxic activity against five human cancer cell lines (HL-60, A-549, SMMC-7721, MCF-7, and SW-480) with IC50 values ranging from 15.9 to 23.2 μM.

  1. Simulation of Quinoa (Chenopodium Quinoa Willd.) response to soil salinity using the saltmed model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Razzaghi, Fatemeh; Plauborg, Finn; Ahmadi, Seyed Hamid

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is a crop with high tolerance to salinity and drought and its response to varying soil moisture and salinity levels was studied in a field lysimeter experiment. Quinoa (cv. Titicaca) was irrigated with different concentrations of saline water (0, 10, 20, 30 and 40...

  2. Atividade analgésica e antiedematogênica de Polygala paniculata L. (Polygalaceae) selvagem e obtida por micropropagação

    OpenAIRE

    Nogueira,F.L.P.; Fernandes,S.B.O.; G.M. Reis; M.E. Matheus; P.D. Fernandes; C.L.S. Lage; F.S. Menezes

    2005-01-01

    Polygala paniculata L. (Polygalaceae) é uma erva que ocorre em todas as regiões do Brasil. No presente trabalho, foram avaliadas as atividades analgésica, através do teste da placa quente, da retirada de cauda e da formalina, e antiedematogênica, através do teste do edema de orelha induzido por óleo de cróton, dos extratos etanólicos obtidos das partes aéreas de Polygala paniculata selvagem e cultivadas por micropropagação. A aplicação oral do extrato etanólico de Polygala paniculata apresent...

  3. 外来入侵物种三裂叶豚草的研究进展%Research Advance on Invasive Alien Species Ambrosia trifida Linn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王娟; 吕国忠; 姜华; 孙晓东; 赵志慧; 周鹏

    2013-01-01

    The origin, distribution, biological features, harm, control and utilization of Ambrosia trifida were reviewed, which can provide theoretical basis for scientific, effective and sustainable control of Ambrosia trifida.%对三裂叶豚草(Ambrosia trifida Linn.)的起源与分布、生物学特性、危害、防治和利用等方面进行了综述,为科学、有效和可持续地防治三裂叶豚草提供了理论依据.

  4. Integration of Andrographis paniculata as Potential Medicinal Plant in Chir Pine (Pinus roxburghii Sarg. Plantation of North-Western Himalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra Shekher Sanwal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The integration of Andrographis paniculata under Pinus roxburghii (Chir pine plantation has been studied to evaluate the growth and yield for its economic viability and conservation. It was grown on three topographical aspects, namely, northern, north-western, and western, at a spacing of 30 cm × 30 cm, followed by three tillage depths, namely, minimum (0 cm, medium (up to 10 cm, and deep (up to 15 cm tillage. The growth parameters, namely, plant height and number of branches per plant, were recorded as significantly higher on western aspect and lowest on northern aspect except for leaf area index which was found nonsignificant. However under all tillage practices all the growth parameters in both understorey and open conditions were found to be nonsignificant except for plant height which was found to be significantly highest under deep tillage and lowest under minimum tillage. The study of net returns for Andrographis paniculata revealed that it had positive average annual returns even in understorey conditions which indicate its possible economic viability under integration of Chir pine plantations. Hence net returns can be enhanced by integrating Andrographis paniculata and this silvimedicinal system can be suggested which will help utilizing an unutilized part of land and increase total productivity from such lands besides conservation of the A. paniculata in situ.

  5. Andrographia paniculata a Miracle Herbs for cancer treatment: In vivo and in vitro studies against Aflatoxin B1 Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Sultan Ahmad

    2014-04-01

    Conclusion: In conclusion A. paniculata extracts significantly reduced the number of aberrant cells and frequencies of aberration per cell at each concentration and duration of exposure in vivo; similarly it reduced chromosomal aberrations and sister chromatid exchanges and replication index was enhanced in vitro that was statistically significant at <0.05 level.

  6. Integration of Andrographis paniculata as Potential Medicinal Plant in Chir Pine (Pinus roxburghii Sarg.) Plantation of North-Western Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanwal, Chandra Shekher; Bhardwaj, S. D.

    2016-01-01

    The integration of Andrographis paniculata under Pinus roxburghii (Chir pine) plantation has been studied to evaluate the growth and yield for its economic viability and conservation. It was grown on three topographical aspects, namely, northern, north-western, and western, at a spacing of 30 cm × 30 cm, followed by three tillage depths, namely, minimum (0 cm), medium (up to 10 cm), and deep (up to 15 cm) tillage. The growth parameters, namely, plant height and number of branches per plant, were recorded as significantly higher on western aspect and lowest on northern aspect except for leaf area index which was found nonsignificant. However under all tillage practices all the growth parameters in both understorey and open conditions were found to be nonsignificant except for plant height which was found to be significantly highest under deep tillage and lowest under minimum tillage. The study of net returns for Andrographis paniculata revealed that it had positive average annual returns even in understorey conditions which indicate its possible economic viability under integration of Chir pine plantations. Hence net returns can be enhanced by integrating Andrographis paniculata and this silvimedicinal system can be suggested which will help utilizing an unutilized part of land and increase total productivity from such lands besides conservation of the A. paniculata in situ. PMID:27563482

  7. Flood stress as a technicque to assess preventive insecticide and fungicide treatments for protecting trees against ambrosia beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    The exotic ambrosia beetles Xylosandrus germanus, Xylosandrus crassiusculus, and Xylosandrus compactus tunnel into the heartwood of trees where they cultivate and feed upon a symbiotic fungus. We assessed the effectiveness of flood stress as a tactic for making trees attractive and vulnerable to att...

  8. Cubeb oil Lures: sesquiterpene emissions and efficacy for attraction of redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus(Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The redbay ambrosia beetle (RAB), Xyleborus glabratus, is an exotic wood-boring pest that vectors Raffaelea lauricola, a symbiotic fungus that causes laurel wilt. This lethal disease has decimated native redbay (Persea borbonia) and swampbay (P. palustris) trees throughout the southeastern U.S., and...

  9. North American Lauraceae: Terpenoid emissions, relative attraction and boring preferences of redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The invasive redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus, is the primary vector of Raffaelea lauricola, a symbiotic fungus and the etiologic agent of laurel wilt. This lethal disease has caused severe mortality of redbay (Persea borbonia) and swampbay (P. palustris) trees in the southeastern USA, t...

  10. Cubeb oil lures:terpenoid emissions, trapping efficacy, and longevity for attraction of redbay ambrosia beetle (Coleoptera:Curculionidae:Scolytinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus, is an exotic wood-borer and the primary vector of Raffaelea lauricola, a symbiotic fungus that causes laurel wilt. This lethal disease has decimated native redbay (Persea borbonia) and swampbay (P. palustris) throughout southeastern U.S. forests, and curr...

  11. A pernicious agent affecting avocado in Israel: a novel symbiotic Fusarium sp. associated with the ambrosia beetle Euwallacea fornicatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since first recorded in Israel in 2009, the ambrosia beetle, Euwallacea fornicatus Eichhoff, has been shown to vector a fusarial pathogen of avocado (Persea Americana Miller) in its mandibular mycangia. Multilocus molecular phylogenetic analyses indicate the pathogen represents a novel symbiotic Fus...

  12. Efficacy of a-copaene, cubeb, and eucalyptol lures for detection of redbay ambrosia beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff, is a wood-boring pest that has now invaded nine states in the southeastern USA. The beetle’s dominant fungal symbiont (Raffaelea lauricola) is phytopathogenic, inducing laurel wilt in trees within the family Lauraceae. Members of the genus Pers...

  13. Presence and prevalence of Raffaelea lauricola, cause of laurel wilt, in different species of ambrosia beetle in Florida USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    We summarize information on ambrosia beetle species that have been associated in Florida with Raffaelea lauricola, the primary symbiont of Xyleborus glabratus and cause of laurel wilt, a lethal disease of plants in the Lauraceae. Adult females of 14 species in Ambrosiodmus, Euwallacea, Premnobius, ...

  14. Fusarium euwallaceae sp. nov.—a symbiotic fungus of Euwallacea sp., an invasive ambrosia beetle in Israel and California

    Science.gov (United States)

    The invasive Asian ambrosia beetle Euwallacea sp. (Coleoptera, Scolytinae, Xyleborini) and a novel Fusarium sp. that it farms in its galleries as a source of nutrition seriously damage over 20 species of live trees and pose a serious threat to avocado production (Persea americana) in Israel and Cali...

  15. Fusarium symbionts of an ambrosia beetle (Euwallacea sp.) in southern Florida are pathogens of avocado, Persea americana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium dieback, a destructive disease of avocado (Persea americana), was reported in California and Israel in 2012. It is associated with an ambrosia beetle, Euwallacea sp., and damage caused by an unnamed symbiont of the beetle in Clade 3 of the Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC) designated p...

  16. Characterization and host range of the symbiotic fungus Fusarium euwallaceae sp. nov., vectored by the invasive ambrosia beetle Euwallacea sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A novel symbiotic Fusarium euwallaceae fungus that serves as a specific nutritional source for the invasive Asian ambrosia beetle Euwallacea sp. (Coleoptera, Scolytinae, Xyleborini) is farmed in the galleries of host plants. This beetle-fungus complex, which has invaded Israel and California, is clo...

  17. Fusarium euwallaceae, a novel species cultivated by a Euwallacea ambrosia beetle that threatens avocado production in Israel and California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avocado production in Israel and California, USA is facing a serious threat due to damage caused by an invasive Euwallacea ambrosia beetle and a novel Fusarium that it cultivates as a source of food. Adult female beetles possess mandibular mycangia within which they carry the Fusarium symbiont. At l...

  18. UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan, Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    This water sampling and analysis plan (WSAP) provides the basis for ground water sampling at the Ambrosia Lake Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site during fiscal year 1994. It identifies and justifies the sampling locations, analytical parameters, detection limits, and sampling frequency for the monitoring locations and will be updated annually. The Ambrosia Lake site is in McKinley County, New Mexico, about 40 kilometers (km) (25 miles [mi]) north of Grants, New Mexico, and 1.6 km (1 mi) east of New Mexico Highway 509 (Figure 1.1). The town closest to the tailings pile is San Mateo, about 16 km ( 10 mi) southeast (Figure 1.2). The former mill and tailings pile are in Section 28, and two holding ponds are in Section 33, Township 14 North, Range 9 West. The site is shown on the US Geological Survey (USGS) map (USGS, 1980). The site is approximately 2100 meters (m) (7000 feet [ft]) above sea level.

  19. Ambrosia Beetle (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) Species, Flight, and Attack on Living Eastern Cottonwood Trees.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coyle, D R; D.C. Booth: M.S. Wallace

    2005-12-01

    ABSTRACT In spring 2002, ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) infested an intensively managed 22-ha tree plantation on the upper coastal plain of South Carolina. Nearly 3,500 scolytids representing 28 species were captured in ethanol-baited traps from 18 June 2002 to 18 April 2004. More than 88% of total captures were exotic species. Five species [Dryoxylon onoharaensum (Murayama), Euwallacea validus (Eichhoff), Pseudopityophthorus minutissimus (Zimmermann), Xyleborus atratus Eichhoff, and Xyleborus impressus Eichhoff]) were collected in South Carolina for the first time. Of four tree species in the plantation, eastern cottonwood, Populus deltoides Bartram, was the only one attacked, with nearly 40% of the trees sustaining ambrosia beetle damage. Clone ST66 sustained more damage than clone S7C15. ST66 trees receiving fertilization were attacked more frequently than trees receiving irrigation, irrigation_fertilization, or controls, although the number of S7C15 trees attacked did not differ among treatments. The study location is near major shipping ports; our results demonstrate the necessity for intensive monitoring programs to determine the arrival, spread, ecology, and impact of exotic scolytids.

  20. In Vitro antibacterial and in Vivo cytotoxic activities of Grewia paniculata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmuda Nasrin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Grewia paniculata (Family: Malvaceae has been used to treat inflammation, respiratory disorders and fever. It is additionally employed for other health conditions including colds, diarrhea and as an insecticide in Bangladesh. The aim of the present study was to investigate the antibacterial and cytotoxic activities of different extracts of Grewia paniculata. Materials and Methods: The antibacterial activity was evaluated against both gram negative and gram positive bacteria using disc diffusion method by determination of the diameter of zone of inhibition. Cytotoxic activity was performed by brine shrimp (Artemia salina lethality bioassay. Results: In disc diffusion method, all the natural products (400 μg/disc showed moderate to potent activity against all the tested bacteria. The ethanol extract of bark (EEB and ethanol fraction of bark (EFB (400 μg/disc exhibited highest activity against Shigella dysenteriae with a zone of inhibition of 23±1.63 mm and  23±1.77 mm respectively. In the brine shrimp lethality bioassay all the extracts showed moderate cytotoxic activity when compared with the standard drug vincristin sulphate. For example, LC50 value of the ethanol fraction of bark (EFB was 3.01 μg/ml while the LC50 of vincristine sulphate was 0.52 μg/ml. Conclusions: The results suggest that all the natural products possess potent antibacterial and moderate cytotoxic.

  1. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using methanolic root extracts of Diospyros paniculata and their antimicrobial activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, N.Hanumanta [Advanced Analytical Laboratory, DST-PURSE Programme, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam 530003 (India); Lakshmidevi, N. [Department of Microbiology, College of Science and Technology, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam 530003 (India); Pammi, S.V.N. [Advanced Analytical Laboratory, DST-PURSE Programme, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam 530003 (India); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Chungnam National University, Daeduk Science Town, 305-764, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kollu, Pratap [DST-INSPIRE Faculty, Department of Metallurgical Engineering & Materials Science, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India); Ganapaty, S. [GITAM Institute of Pharmacy, GITAM University, Visakhapatnam (India); Lakshmi, P., E-mail: lmkandregula@gmail.com [Department of Microbiology, College of Science and Technology, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam 530003 (India)

    2016-05-01

    Since the discovery and subsequent widespread use of antibiotics, a variety of bacterial species of human and animal origin have developed numerous mechanisms that render bacteria resistant to some, and in certain cases to nearly all antibiotics, thereby limiting the treatment options and compromising effective therapy. In the present study, the green synthesis of nanoparticles is carried out by the reduction of silver acetate in the presence of crude methanolic root extracts of Diospyros paniculata, a member of family Ebenaceae. The UV–Vis absorption spectrum of the biologically reduced reaction mixture showed the surface plasmon peak at 428 nm, a characteristic peak of silver nanoparticles. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis confirmed the face-centered cubic crystalline structure of metallic silver. The average diameter of Ag NPs is about 17 nm from Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) which is in good agreement with the average crystallite size (19 nm) calculated from XRD analysis. Further the study has been extended to the antimicrobial activity against test pathogenic Gram (+), Gram (−) bacterial and fungal strains. The biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles showed promising activity against all the tested pathogenic strains and the activity has been enhanced with the increased dose levels. - Highlights: • Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) using root extracts of Diospyros paniculata. • Average diameter of Ag NPs is about 17 nm from TEM analysis which is in good agreement with XRD analysis. • Antimicrobial activities of root extract mediated synthesis of silver Ag NPs were discussed in detail.

  2. Chemical Constituents with Free-Radical-Scavenging Activities from the Stem of Microcos paniculata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Chen

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The free-radical-scavenging activities of various solvent extracts of Microcos paniculata were evaluated through in vitro model systems, such as 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, 2,2'-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate (ABTS and Co (II EDTA-induced luminol chemiluminescence by flow injection. In all three of these systems the ethyl acetate (EtOAc extract showed the highest free-radical-scavenging activity compared with the other three (n-BuOH, water and petroleum ether extracts. Free-radical-scavenging assay-guided chromatographic separation of the EtOAc extract, using a normal-phase and reverse-phase silica gel column chromatography yielded five compounds: a new triterpene named methyl 3b-O-p-hydroxy-E-cinnamoyloxy-2a,23-dihydroxyolean-12-en-28-oate (1, whose spectral data are presented for the first time, together with four known compounds, epicatechin (2, 3-trans-feruloyl maslinic acid (3, maslinic acid (4 and sucrose (5. All of the compounds were isolated from Microcos paniculata for the first time. The compounds were identified by spectroscopic methods. Among them, compound 2 displayed significant free-radical-scavenging activity which is similar to that of standard antioxidant ascorbic acid (VC and therefore may be a promising natural antioxidant.

  3. Characterization and cloning of an 11S globulin with hemagglutination activity from Murraya paniculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anamika; Selvakumar, Purushotham; Saraswat, Akhilesh; Tomar, Prabhat P S; Mishra, Manisha; Singh, Pradhyumna K; Sharma, Ashwani K

    2015-01-01

    A ~56 kDa protein having hemagglutination activity was purified and characterized from the Murraya paniculata seeds. The gel electrophoresis studies demonstrated that protein is primarily of two different subunits, molecular weight ~ 35 and 21 kDa held together by disulfide-linkages and predominantly by secondary forces. The cloning and sequence analysis revealed that the protein exhibited a substantial sequence identity to seed storage 11S globulin family proteins. The sequence analysis of Murraya paniculata globulin (MPG) demonstrated higher and lower molecular weight polypeptides to be acidic (α) and basic (β) respectively. The sequence analysis further showed that it possesses a characteristic bi-cupin motif and a putative metal binding pocket. CD analysis revealed that the MPG was a β/α protein with a slightly higher content of the former. Conformational changes in protein have been studied by fluorescence spectrometry by using various chemical treatments. The results demonstrated that MPG belongs to 11S globulin family and exhibit's hemagglutination activity, which implicates it to be possessing lectin-like property.

  4. Constituintes químicos das folhas de Murraya paniculata (Rutaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumaia G. Mesquita

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A separação cromatográfica do extrato hexânico e da fase em CH2Cl2 do extrato etanólico das folhas de Murraya paniculata resultou no isolamento de um triterpeno (24-metileno-cicloartan-3β-ol, um fenilpropanóide (cafeato de metila e sete cumarinas preniladas [isomeranzina, acetato de murranganona, murrayatina, murrangatina, hidrato de meranzina, febalosina e murranganona]. Dentre as substâncias isoladas, as cumarinas foram detectadas anteriormente em M. paniculata ao passo que 24-metileno-cicloartan-3β-ol e cafeato de metila estão sendo descritos pela primeira vez no gênero Murraya. Os extratos e frações além das substâncias puras foram submetidos à avaliação do potencial antimicrobiano frente à Staphylococcus aureus e Escherichia coli indicando que somente a cumarina hidrato de meranzina mostrou fraca atividade.

  5. Pathogenic microorganisms survival in ambrosiaSobrevivência de micro-organismos patogênicos em ambrósia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Dias Timm

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Ambrosia is a kind of dulce de leche homemade with milk, eggs and sugar. It is usually sold in free markets and it is largely consumed in South America. Food contamination by pathogenic microorganisms can occur during the food processing, in distribution centers, in retail markets or in the consumer’s homes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the survival in ambrosia of main pathogenic microorganisms eventually transmitted by dairy products. Ambrosia fractions were experimentally contaminated with Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotype Typhimurium, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus. Analysis to evaluate the microorganisms’ viability were made after storage for 0, 1, 2, 3, 5, 10, 20 and 30 days. Salmonella and L. monocytogenes were recovered from all samples during the 30 days of study. E. coli O157:H7 was isolated until the tenth day and S. aureus until the third day. It was demonstrated that important pathogenic microorganisms are able to survive up to 30 days in ambrosia, which makes this product a potential carrier of food-borne diseases. This work is the first study about the possibility of ambrosia transmitting relevant public-health danger pathogenic microorganisms. Ambrosia é um tipo de doce de leite preparado artesanalmente com leite, ovos e açúcar, comumente comercializado em feiras livres e muito consumido na América do Sul. A contaminação de alimentos por microrganismos patogênicos pode ocorrer durante as etapas de processamento, nos centros de distribuição, no mercado varejista ou na casa do consumidor. O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a sobrevivência em ambrosia dos principais microrganismos patogênicos eventualmente transmitidos por leite e derivados. Alíquotas de ambrosia foram experimentalmente contaminadas com Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica sorotipo Typhimurium, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes e Staphylococcus aureus. Foram realizadas

  6. Hybrid analysis (barcode-high resolution melting) for authentication of Thai herbal products, Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Wall.ex Nees

    OpenAIRE

    Maslin Osathanunkul; Chatmongkon Suwannapoom; Nuttaluck Khamyong; Danupol Pintakum; Santisuk Na Lamphun; Kanokporn Triwitayakorn; Kitisak Osathanunkul; Panagiotis Madesis

    2016-01-01

    Background: Andrographis paniculata Nees is a medicinal plant with multiple pharmacological properties. It has been used over many centuries as a household remedy. A. paniculata products sold on the markets are in processed forms so it is difficult to authenticate. Therefore buying the herbal products poses a high-risk of acquiring counterfeited, substituted and/or adulterated products. Due to these issues, a reliable method to authenticate products is needed. Materials and Methods: High reso...

  7. Efeitos biológicos da Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen e da Pfaffia paniculata (Martius Kuntze (Amaranthaceae Biological effects of Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen and Pfaffia paniculata (Martius Kuntze (Amaranthaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diógenes Aparício Garcia Cortez

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available A Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen e da Pfaffia paniculata (Martius Kuntze (Amaranthaceae são plantas nativas da região alagada das ilhas de Porto Rico, Paraná, Brasil. São utilizadas na medicina popular como tônico, afrodisíaco e antidiabético. O extrato bruto metanólico, obtido das raízes das duas espécies, foi utilizado para avaliar a atividade moluscicida de caramujos (Biomphalaria glabrata. Além disso, o potencial hipoglicemiante da Pfaffia glomerata foi investigado em ratos tratados com aloxana. As saponinas do extrato bruto metanólico da P. glomerata e da P. paniculata foram analisadas em cromatografia em camada delgada e foi determinado o índice hemolítico. O extrato bruto metanólico obtido da Pfaffia glomerata apresentou maior conteúdo de saponinas hemolíticas e maior atividade moluscicida em relação à Pfaffia paniculata. Todavia, o tratamento com extrato de Pfaffia glomerata não promoveu efeitos significativos sobre os níveis glicêmicos.Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen. (Amaranthaceae and Pfaffia paniculata (Martius Kuntze are native plants found in the flooded area of the islands of Porto Rico, state of Paraná, Brazil. They are used in folk medicine as tonics, aphrodisiacs, and to treat diabetes. The methanolic extract obtained from roots of both species was used to evaluate the molluscicidal activity against the periwinkle Biomphalaria glabrata and the hypoglycemic activity of Pfaffia glomerata was investigated in rats with diabetes induced by alloxan. The saponins from the methanolic extract of P. glomerata and P. paniculata were analyzed by thin-layer chromatography and scum and the hemolitic index was measured. The methanolic extract obtained from Pfaffia glomerata showed higher content of hemolytic saponin than Pfaffia paniculata and presented molluscicidal activity against Biomphalaria glabrata from 200 ppm. However, the treatment with P. glomerata extract did not promote any significant effect on

  8. The Antiaging Properties of Andrographis paniculata by Activation Epidermal Cell Stemness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiyoung You

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Andrographis paniculata (A. paniculata, Chuanxinlian, a medicinal herb with an extremely bitter taste that is native to China and other parts of Southeast Asia, possesses immense therapeutic value; however, its therapeutic properties have rarely been applied in the field of skin care. In this study, we investigated the effect of an A. paniculata extract (APE on human epidermal stem cells (EpSCs, and confirmed its anti-aging effect through in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo study. An MTT assay was used to determine cell proliferation. A flow cytometric analysis, with propidium iodide, was used to evaluate the cell cycle. The expression of integrin β1 (CD29, the stem cell marker, was detected with antibodies, using flow cytometry in vitro, and immunohistochemical assays in ex vivo. Type 1 collagen and VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. During the clinical study, skin hydration, elasticity, wrinkling, sagging, and dermal density were evaluated before treatment and at four and eight weeks after the treatment with the test product (containing the APE on the face. The proliferation of the EpSCs, treated with the APE, increased significantly. In the cell cycle analysis, the APE increased the G2/M and S stages in a dose-dependent manner. The expression of integrin β1, which is related to epidermal progenitor cell expansion, was up-regulated in the APE-treated EpSCs and skin explants. In addition, the production of VEGF in the EpSCs increased significantly in response to the APE treatment. Consistent with these results, the VEGF and APE-treated EpSCs conditioned medium enhanced the Type 1 collagen production in normal human fibroblasts (NHFs. In the clinical study, the APE improved skin hydration, dermal density, wrinkling, and sagging significantly. Our findings revealed that the APE promotes a proliferation of EpSCs, through the up-regulation of the integrin β1 and VEGF expression

  9. Jurema-Preta (Mimosa tenuiflora [Willd.] Poir.: a review of its traditional use, phytochemistry and pharmacology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Sampaio Octaviano de Souza

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Numerous plant species are used throughout the world to achieve the modified states of conscientiousness. Some of them have been used for the therapeutic purposes, such as Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd Poir. (family Mimosaceae known as "jurema-preta", an hallucinogenic plant traditionally used for curing and divination by the Indians of northeastern Brazil. In this review, several aspects of the use, phytochemistry, and pharmacology of this plant are considered.Numerosas espécies de plantas são usadas para alterar estados de consciência. Algumas são utilizadas para fins terapêuticos, como Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd Poir. (Mimosaceae conhecida como "jurema-preta", uma planta alucinógena, tradicionalmente utilizada pelos índios no nordeste do Brasil. Nesta revisão, são considerados diversos aspectos do uso, fitoquímica e farmacologia desta planta.

  10. Innovations in Health Value and Functional Food Development of Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.)

    OpenAIRE

    Graf, Brittany L.; Rojas-Silva, Patricio; Rojo, Leonel E.; Delatorre-Herrera, Jose; Baldeón, Manuel E.; Raskin, Ilya

    2015-01-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd., Amaranthaceae) is a grain-like, stress-tolerant food crop that has provided subsistence, nutrition, and medicine for Andean indigenous cultures for thousands of years. Quinoa contains a high content of health-beneficial phytochemicals, including amino acids, fiber, polyunsaturated fatty acids, vitamins, minerals, saponins, phytosterols, phytoecdysteroids, phenolics, betalains, and glycine betaine. Over the past 2 decades, numerous food and nutraceutical prod...

  11. Jurema-Preta (Mimosa tenuiflora [Willd.] Poir.): a review of its traditional use, phytochemistry and pharmacology

    OpenAIRE

    Rafael Sampaio Octaviano de Souza; Ulysses Paulino de Albuquerque; Júlio Marcelino Monteiro; Elba Lúcia Cavalcanti de Amorim

    2008-01-01

    Numerous plant species are used throughout the world to achieve the modified states of conscientiousness. Some of them have been used for the therapeutic purposes, such as Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd) Poir. (family Mimosaceae) known as "jurema-preta", an hallucinogenic plant traditionally used for curing and divination by the Indians of northeastern Brazil. In this review, several aspects of the use, phytochemistry, and pharmacology of this plant are considered.Numerosas espécies de plantas são ...

  12. 3-pentanol: a new attractant present in volatile emissions from the ambrosia beetle, Megaplatypus mutatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatti Liguori, Pablo; Zerba, Eduardo; Alzogaray, Raul A; Gonzalez Audino, Paola

    2008-11-01

    Megaplatypus mutatus (=Platypus mutatus) (Coleoptera: Platypodidae) is an ambrosia beetle that is native to South America. It attacks only standing live trees and causes severe stem breakage and death in commercial poplar (Populus) plantations. Previous work showed that male M. mutatus emits a sex pheromone composed mainly of (+)-sulcatol and sulcatone. We collected male volatile emissions during the hours of maximum emergence by using a specific polar microextraction phase; analyzed the extract by GC-MS; and tested the biological activity of selected compounds in the extract with a walking behavioral assay. Female M. mutatus emerged primarily between 7 and 11 h. In the chemical analyses of volatiles, a third compound, 3-pentanol, was identified in a small percentage of samples. Walking behavioral bioassays with video image analysis showed that at the doses tested, 3-pentanol elicited an attractive response from females.

  13. Therapeutic Potential of Andrographolide Isolated from the Leaves of Andrographis paniculata Nees for Treating Lung Adenocarcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Tang Tung

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Andrographolide is one of the major diterpene lactones found in Andrographis paniculata Nees and exhibits remarkable inhibitory effects on various cancers. In this study, the antipulmonary cancer effects of andrographolide were studied in a lung tumor mouse model induced by human vascular endothelial growth factor A165 (hVEGF-A165. These results demonstrated that andrographolide significantly reduced the expression of hVEGF-A165 compared with a mock group in the Clara cells of the lungs. In addition, andrographolide also decreased tumor formation by reducing VEGF, EGFR, Cyclin A, and Cyclin B expression on the transcriptional and translational levels. These results indicated that andrographolide treatment on the overexpression of VEGF can arrest the cell cycle, which induced pulmonary tumors in transgenic mice. In conclusion, the antiangiogenesis and chemotherapeutic potential of andrographolide may provide a cure for pulmonary tumors in the future.

  14. Inhibition of Helicobacter pylori and Its Associate Urease by Labdane Diterpenoids Isolated from Andrographis paniculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Rafik U; Dawane, Ashwini A; Pawar, Rajendra P; Gond, Dhananjay S; Meshram, Rohan J; Gacche, Rajesh N

    2016-03-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate anti-Helicobacter pylori and its associated urease activity of labdane diterpenoids isolated from Andrographis paniculata. A molecular docking analysis was performed by using ArgusLab 4.0.1 software. The results obtained indicate that compound A possesses strong inhibition to H. pylori, 28 ± 2.98 (minimum inhibitory concentration, 9 µg/mL), and its urease, 85.54 ± 2.62% (IC50 , 20.2 µg/mL). Compounds B, C, and D also showed moderate inhibition to H. pylori and its urease. The obtained results were in agreement with the molecular docking analysis of compounds. The phytochemicals under investigation were found to be promising antibacterial agents. Moreover, the isolated compounds can be considered as a resource for searching novel anti-H. pylori agents possessing urease inhibition.

  15. Isoflavonoids in the Rutaceae family: 1. Fortunella obovata, Murraya paniculata and four Citrus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapcík, Oldrich; Klejdus, Borivoj; Davidová, Michaela; Kokoska, Ladislav; Kubán, Vlastimil; Moravcová, Jitka

    2004-01-01

    Several types of compounds with immunoreactivity similar to isoflavonoids were detected in water: ethanol extracts of leaves of Fortunella obovata Hort. ex Tanaka, Murraya paniculata Jack. and four Citrus species, namely C. aurantium L, C. grandis Osbeck, C. limonia Osbeck., and C. sinensis Osbeck (Rutaceae). The chromatographic mobilities of the immunoreactive substances were compared with those of authentic standards, revealing a spectrum of isoflavonoid metabolites in all plants studied. Aglycones as well as glycosides were recognized, namely daidzin, genistin, daidzein, genistein, formononetin, biochanin A, prunetin, and several incompletely characterized isoflavonoids. A subsequent HPLC-MS study verified the identities of the main immunoreactive isoflavonoids and established the identities of several others, viz. glycitein, glycitin, ononin and sissotrin, including the malonylated and acetylated isoflavonoid glucosides. The estimated content of the individual immunoreactive entities ranged from a few microg to about 2 mg/kg (dry weight). It is concluded that the isoflavonoid metabolic pathway is present throughout the Rutaceae family.

  16. Non-Native Ambrosia Beetles as Opportunistic Exploiters of Living but Weakened Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranger, Christopher M.; Schultz, Peter B.; Frank, Steven D.; Chong, Juang H.; Reding, Michael E.

    2015-01-01

    Exotic Xylosandrus spp. ambrosia beetles established in non-native habitats have been associated with sudden and extensive attacks on a diverse range of living trees, but factors driving their shift from dying/dead hosts to living and healthy ones are not well understood. We sought to characterize the role of host physiological condition on preference and colonization by two invaders, Xylosandrus germanus and Xylosandrus crassiusculus. When given free-choice under field conditions among flooded and non-flooded deciduous tree species of varying intolerance to flooding, beetles attacked flood-intolerant tree species over more tolerant species within 3 days of initiating flood stress. In particular, flood-intolerant flowering dogwood (Cornus florida) sustained more attacks than flood-tolerant species, including silver maple (Acer saccharinum) and swamp white oak (Quercus bicolor). Ethanol, a key host-derived attractant, was detected at higher concentrations 3 days after initiating flooding within stems of flood intolerant species compared to tolerant and non-flooded species. A positive correlation was also detected between ethanol concentrations in stem tissue and cumulative ambrosia beetle attacks. When adult X. germanus and X. crassiusculus were confined with no-choice to stems of flood-stressed and non-flooded C. florida, more ejected sawdust resulting from tunneling activity was associated with the flood-stressed trees. Furthermore, living foundresses, eggs, larvae, and pupae were only detected within galleries created in stems of flood-stressed trees. Despite a capability to attack diverse tree genera, X. germanus and X. crassiusculus efficiently distinguished among varying host qualities and preferentially targeted trees based on their intolerance of flood stress. Non-flooded trees were not preferred or successfully colonized. This study demonstrates the host-selection strategy exhibited by X. germanus and X. crassiusculus in non-native habitats involves

  17. Non-Native Ambrosia Beetles as Opportunistic Exploiters of Living but Weakened Trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranger, Christopher M; Schultz, Peter B; Frank, Steven D; Chong, Juang H; Reding, Michael E

    2015-01-01

    Exotic Xylosandrus spp. ambrosia beetles established in non-native habitats have been associated with sudden and extensive attacks on a diverse range of living trees, but factors driving their shift from dying/dead hosts to living and healthy ones are not well understood. We sought to characterize the role of host physiological condition on preference and colonization by two invaders, Xylosandrus germanus and Xylosandrus crassiusculus. When given free-choice under field conditions among flooded and non-flooded deciduous tree species of varying intolerance to flooding, beetles attacked flood-intolerant tree species over more tolerant species within 3 days of initiating flood stress. In particular, flood-intolerant flowering dogwood (Cornus florida) sustained more attacks than flood-tolerant species, including silver maple (Acer saccharinum) and swamp white oak (Quercus bicolor). Ethanol, a key host-derived attractant, was detected at higher concentrations 3 days after initiating flooding within stems of flood intolerant species compared to tolerant and non-flooded species. A positive correlation was also detected between ethanol concentrations in stem tissue and cumulative ambrosia beetle attacks. When adult X. germanus and X. crassiusculus were confined with no-choice to stems of flood-stressed and non-flooded C. florida, more ejected sawdust resulting from tunneling activity was associated with the flood-stressed trees. Furthermore, living foundresses, eggs, larvae, and pupae were only detected within galleries created in stems of flood-stressed trees. Despite a capability to attack diverse tree genera, X. germanus and X. crassiusculus efficiently distinguished among varying host qualities and preferentially targeted trees based on their intolerance of flood stress. Non-flooded trees were not preferred or successfully colonized. This study demonstrates the host-selection strategy exhibited by X. germanus and X. crassiusculus in non-native habitats involves

  18. Hybrid analysis (barcode-high resolution melting) for authentication of Thai herbal products, Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Wall.ex Nees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osathanunkul, Maslin; Suwannapoom, Chatmongkon; Khamyong, Nuttaluck; Pintakum, Danupol; Lamphun, Santisuk Na; Triwitayakorn, Kanokporn; Osathanunkul, Kitisak; Madesis, Panagiotis

    2016-01-01

    Background: Andrographis paniculata Nees is a medicinal plant with multiple pharmacological properties. It has been used over many centuries as a household remedy. A. paniculata products sold on the markets are in processed forms so it is difficult to authenticate. Therefore buying the herbal products poses a high-risk of acquiring counterfeited, substituted and/or adulterated products. Due to these issues, a reliable method to authenticate products is needed. Materials and Methods: High resolution melting analysis coupled with DNA barcoding (Bar-HRM) was applied to detect adulteration in commercial herbal products. The rbcL barcode was selected to use in primers design for HRM analysis to produce standard melting profile of A. paniculata species. DNA of the tested commercial products was isolated and their melting profiles were then generated and compared with the standard A. paniculata. Results: The melting profiles of the rbcL amplicons of the three closely related herbal species (A. paniculata, Acanthus ebracteatus and Rhinacanthus nasutus) are clearly separated so that they can be distinguished by the developed method. The method was then used to authenticate commercial herbal products. HRM curves of all 10 samples tested are similar to A. paniculata which indicated that all tested products were contained the correct species as labeled. Conclusion: The method described in this study has been proved to be useful in aiding identification and/or authenticating A. paniculata. This Bar-HRM analysis has allowed us easily to determine the A. paniculata species in herbal products on the markets even they are in processed forms. SUMMARY We propose the use of DNA barcoding combined with High Resolution Melting analysis for authenticating of Andrographis paniculata products.The developed method can be used regardless of the type of the DNA template (fresh or dried tissue, leaf, and stem).rbcL region was chosen for the analysis and work well with our samplesWe can easily

  19. Diversidade de policetídeos produzidos por espécies de Penicillium isoladas de Melia azedarach e murraya paniculata Diversity of polyketides produced by Penicillium species isolated from Melia azedarach and Murraya paniculata

    OpenAIRE

    Renata Pastre; Marinho,Andrey M. R; Edson Rodrigues-Filho; Souza,Antônia Q. L.; José Odair Pereira

    2007-01-01

    Eight compounds comprising four groups of polyketides, the xanthone fusarindin, the mixed peptide alkaloid-polyketide GKK1032, the anthraquinones crisophanol, citreoveridin and janthinone, and the azaphylones dihydrocitrinone, citrinin and citrinin H-1, were identified in Penicillium species isolated as endophytic fungi from Melia azedarach and Murraya paniculata. The antibacterial activity of the azaphylones was tested and showed that citrinin H-1 is more active than citrinin.

  20. Diversidade de policetídeos produzidos por espécies de Penicillium isoladas de Melia azedarach e murraya paniculata Diversity of polyketides produced by Penicillium species isolated from Melia azedarach and Murraya paniculata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Pastre

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Eight compounds comprising four groups of polyketides, the xanthone fusarindin, the mixed peptide alkaloid-polyketide GKK1032, the anthraquinones crisophanol, citreoveridin and janthinone, and the azaphylones dihydrocitrinone, citrinin and citrinin H-1, were identified in Penicillium species isolated as endophytic fungi from Melia azedarach and Murraya paniculata. The antibacterial activity of the azaphylones was tested and showed that citrinin H-1 is more active than citrinin.

  1. Diversity of polyketides produced by Penicillium species isolated from Melia azedarach and Murraya paniculata; Diversidade de policetideos produzidos por especies de penicillium isolados de Melia azedarach e Murraya paniculata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pastre, Renata; Marinho, Andrey M.R.; Rodrigues-Filho, Edson [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: edson@dq.ufscar.br; Souza, Antonia Q.L.; Pereira, Jose Odair [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Genetica e Evolucao

    2007-07-01

    Eight compounds comprising four groups of polyketides, the xanthone fusarindin, the mixed peptide alkaloid-polyketide GKK1032, the anthraquinones crysophanol, citreoveridin and janthinone, and the azaphylones dihydrocitrinone, citrinin and citrinin H-1, were identified in Penicillium species isolated as endophytic fungi from Melia azedarach and Murraya paniculata. The antibacterial activity of the azaphylones was tested and showed that citrinin H-1 is more active than citrinin. (author)

  2. Flood Stress as a Technique to Assess Preventive Insecticide and Fungicide Treatments for Protecting Trees against Ambrosia Beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranger, Christopher M; Schultz, Peter B; Reding, Michael E; Frank, Steven D; Palmquist, Debra E

    2016-08-18

    Ambrosia beetles tunnel into the heartwood of trees where they cultivate and feed upon a symbiotic fungus. We assessed the effectiveness of flood stress for making Cercis canadensis L. and Cornus florida L. trees attractive to attack as part of insecticide and fungicide efficacy trials conducted in Ohio and Virginia. Since female ambrosia beetles will not begin ovipositing until their symbiotic fungus is established within the host, we also assessed pre-treatment of trees with permethrin, azoxystrobin, and potassium phosphite on fungal establishment and beetle colonization success. Permethrin reduced attacks on flooded trees, yet no attacks occurred on any of the non-flooded trees. Fewer galleries created within flooded trees pre-treated with permethrin, azoxystrobin, and potassium phosphite contained the purported symbiotic fungus; foundress' eggs were only detected in flooded but untreated trees. While pre-treatment with permethrin, azoxystrobin, and potassium phosphite can disrupt colonization success, maintaining tree health continues to be the most effective and sustainable management strategy.

  3. Variation in Morphological Characteristics and Andrographolide Content in Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f. Nees of Central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K. Pandey

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Andrographis paniculata (king of bitters, commonly known as Kalmegh is used both in Ayurvedic and Unani system of medicines for a number of ailments related to digestion, hepatoprotection, hypoglycemic, and as anti-bacterial, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, vermicidal and antipyretic. A. paniculata collected from five locations of Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh were studies for their morphological characteristics and diterpene contents to find out superior genotype. The average amount of dry weight per individual was between 16.58 to 18.92 g. The average andrographolide content varied from 1.07 to 2.24 percent in dried leaves. The differences in growth characteristics among the plants collected from different locations were not significant. However, andrographolide content among the plants from different locations were statistically significant. The results indicated that those populations are potentially important sources for breeding, improvement of cultivars and best sources for obtaining higher drug yield.

  4. An Effective Vacuum Assisted Extraction Method for the Optimization of Labdane Diterpenoids from Andrographis paniculata by Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Qi Wang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available An effective vacuum assisted extraction (VAE technique was proposed for the first time and applied to extract bioactive components from Andrographis paniculata. The process was carefully optimized by response surface methodology (RSM. Under the optimized experimental conditions, the best results were obtained using a boiling temperature of 65 °C, 50% ethanol concentration, 16 min of extraction time, one extraction cycles and a 12:1 liquid-solid ratio. Compared with conventional ultrasonic assisted extraction and heat reflux extraction, the VAE technique gave shorter extraction times and remarkable higher extraction efficiency, which indicated that a certain degree of vacuum gave the solvent a better penetration of the solvent into the pores and between the matrix particles, and enhanced the process of mass transfer. The present results demonstrated that VAE is an efficient, simple and fast method for extracting bioactive components from A. paniculata, which shows great potential for becoming an alternative technique for industrial scale-up applications.

  5. Atlas and checklist of the bark and ambrosia beetles of Texas and Oklahoma (Curculionidae: Scolytinae and Platypodinae)

    OpenAIRE

    Atkinson, Tom H.; Riley, E. G.

    2013-01-01

    180 species of bark and ambrosia beetles (Curculionidae: Scolytinae and Platypodinae) are known to occur in Texas and Oklahoma. 175 species are known from Texas, 35 of which are reported here for the first time. 78 species are known from Oklahoma, 47 of which are new records for the state. Based on overall distribution patterns the largest group of species found in Texas and virtually all known from Oklahoma are widely distributed in eastern and southeastern North America, reaching their sout...

  6. Two newly introduced tropical bark and ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) damaging figs (Ficus carica) in southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faccoli, Massimo; Campo, Giuseppe; Perrotta, Giancarlo; Rassati, Davide

    2016-07-14

    In summer 2014, the bark beetle Hypocryphalus scabricollis (Eichhoff) and the ambrosia beetle Xyleborus bispinatus Eichhoff, species new to Italy and Europe, respectively, were found for the first time in south-eastern Sicily (Italy). Large infestations of the two species were recorded in many plantations of common fig (Ficus carica L.) both in 2014 and 2015. Data concerning insect characteristics, taxonomy, and distribution are briefly reported.

  7. Ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) pollen allergenicity: SuperSAGE transcriptomic analysis upon elevated CO2 and drought stress

    OpenAIRE

    El Kelish, Amr; Zhao, Feng; Heller, Werner; Durner, Jörg; Winkler, J. Barbro; Behrendt, Heidrun; Traidl-Hoffmann, Claudia; Horres, Ralf; Pfeifer, Matthias; Frank, Ulrike; Ernst, Dieter

    2014-01-01

    Background Pollen of common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) is a main cause of allergic diseases in Northern America. The weed has recently become spreading as a neophyte in Europe, while climate change may also affect the growth of the plant and additionally may also influence pollen allergenicity. To gain better insight in the molecular mechanisms in the development of ragweed pollen and its allergenic proteins under global change scenarios, we generated SuperSAGE libraries to identify di...

  8. New Fungus-Insect Symbiosis: Culturing, Molecular, and Histological Methods Determine Saprophytic Polyporales Mutualists of Ambrosiodmus Ambrosia Beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, Craig C.; Short, Dylan P. G.; Kasson, Matthew T.; Rabaglia, Robert J.; Hulcr, Jiri

    2015-01-01

    Ambrosia symbiosis is an obligate, farming-like mutualism between wood-boring beetles and fungi. It evolved at least 11 times and includes many notorious invasive pests. All ambrosia beetles studied to date cultivate ascomycotan fungi: early colonizers of recently killed trees with poor wood digestion. Beetles in the widespread genus Ambrosiodmus, however, colonize decayed wood. We characterized the mycosymbionts of three Ambrosiodmus species using quantitative culturing, high-throughput metabarcoding, and histology. We determined the fungi to be within the Polyporales, closely related to Flavodon flavus. Culture-independent sequencing of Ambrosiodmus minor mycangia revealed a single operational taxonomic unit identical to the sequences from the cultured Flavodon. Histological sectioning confirmed that Ambrosiodmus possessed preoral mycangia containing dimitic hyphae similar to cultured F. cf. flavus. The Ambrosiodmus-Flavodon symbiosis is unique in several aspects: it is the first reported association between an ambrosia beetle and a basidiomycotan fungus; the mycosymbiont grows as hyphae in the mycangia, not as budding pseudo-mycelium; and the mycosymbiont is a white-rot saprophyte rather than an early colonizer: a previously undocumented wood borer niche. Few fungi are capable of turning rotten wood into complete animal nutrition. Several thousand beetle-fungus symbioses remain unstudied and promise unknown and unexpected mycological diversity and enzymatic innovations. PMID:26367271

  9. In-vitro antibacterial activity on human pathogens and total phenolic, flavonoid contents of Murraya paniculata Linn. leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Manish K Gautam; Mayank Gangwar; Gopal Nath; Chandana V Rao; Raj K Goel

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To deals with in-vitro antibacterial analysis of Murraya paniculata Linn. (Rutaceae) leaves extract on human pathogens in different solvent and determination of total phenolic and flavonoid contents in petroleum ether, methanol, ethanol and hydro-alcoholic extract of the plant.Methods:These extracts were tested against various human pathogens for antimicrobial activity which was evaluated by disc diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration was calculated by micro dilution method. Phenolic content was estimated by using folin ciocalteau reagent and flavonoids by using aluminium chloride reagent against quercetin equivalent. Results: The methanolic extract of leaf showed marked antibacterial activities against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Methanolic extract of Murraya paniculata leaf contain higher phenolic content (24.80±0.64) followed by ethanolic fraction (15.40±0.38), pet. Ether (13.50±0.96) and hydro-alcoholic (9.06±1.13). Flavonoid content was found to be maximum in pet. ether extracts (3.38±1.89). Conclusions: Murraya paniculata leaves posses antibacterial properties against human pathogens with high content of phenolic and flavonoids, which have supportive action of antibacterial activity. Studying plant based antimicrobial properties provides additional information in developing nature antibiotics and discovering the alternative of antimicrobial drugs for the treatment of infectious disease.

  10. Pfaffosidic Fraction from Hebanthe paniculata Induces Cell Cycle Arrest and Caspase-3-Induced Apoptosis in HepG2 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tereza Cristina da Silva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hebanthe paniculata roots (formerly Pfaffia paniculata and popularly known as Brazilian ginseng show antineoplastic, chemopreventive, and antiproliferative properties. Functional properties of these roots and their extracts are usually attributed to the pfaffosidic fraction, which is composed mainly by pfaffosides A–F. However, the therapeutic potential of this fraction in cancer cells is not yet entirely understood. This study aimed to analyze the antitumoral effects of the purified pfaffosidic fraction or saponinic fraction on the human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cell line. Cellular viability, proliferation, and apoptosis were evaluated, respectively, by MTT assay, BrdU incorporation, activated caspase-3 immunocytochemistry, and DNA fragmentation assay. Cell cycle was analyzed by flow cytometry and the cell cycle-related proteins were analyzed by quantitative PCR and Western blot. The cells exposed to pfaffosidic fraction had reduced viability and cellular growth, induced G2/M at 48 h or S at 72 h arrest, and increased sub-G1 cell population via cyclin E downregulation, p27KIP1 overexpression, and caspase-3-induced apoptosis, without affecting the DNA integrity. Antitumoral effects of pfaffosidic fraction from H. paniculata in HepG2 cells originated by multimechanisms of action might be associated with cell cycle arrest in the S phase, by CDK2 and cyclin E downregulation and p27KIP1 overexpression, besides induction of apoptosis through caspase-3 activation.

  11. Effects of Atmospheric Pressure Air Plasma Pretreatment on the Seed Germination and Early Growth of Andrographis paniculata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Jiayun; He, Rui; Zhang, Xiaoli; Zhan, Ruoting; Chen, Weiwen; Yang, Size

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this paper is to demonstrate whether air plasma can change the seed germination characteristics, seedling emergence, as well as biochemical reactivity, in Andrographis paniculata (A. paniculata) seedlings by modifying the seed coat and finding a beneficial treatment dose. Eight treatment doses and one control were used to conduct electrical conductivity determination, a germination test, a seedling emergence test and a biochemical assay. The results showed that after being treated with air plasma excited at 5950 V for 10 s, the permeability of the seeds was improved significantly, resulting in the acceleration of seed germination and seedling emergence. In the meantime, the catalase activity and catalase isoenzyme expression were also improved, while the malondialdehyde content in the seedlings was decreased (which means greater counteraction with environmental stress). After being treated with 4250 V for 10 s and 5950 V for 20 s, the seed germination was enhanced, but without an obvious change in seedling emergence. However, after treatment with 3400 V for 20 s and 5100 V for 10 s, the permeability of the seeds was decreased, resulting in a delay in seedling emergence. These results indicate that air plasma can change the physiological and biochemical characteristics of Andrographis paniculata seeds by modifying the seed coat, combined with the effects of the active plasma species, and that different treating doses have different effects.

  12. Phytochemical Screening and Antinociceptive and Antidiarrheal Activities of Hydromethanol and Petroleum Benzene Extract of Microcos paniculata Barks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moushome, Rafath Ara; Akter, Mst Irin; Aziz, Md Abdullah

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Microcos paniculata is traditionally used for treating diarrhea, wounds, cold, fever, hepatitis, dyspepsia, and heat stroke. Objective. To investigate the qualitative phytochemical constituents of hydromethanol (HMPB) and petroleum benzene extract of Microcos paniculata barks (PBMPB) and to evaluate their antinociceptive and antidiarrheal activities. Methods. Phytochemical constituents and antinociceptive and antidiarrheal activities were determined and evaluated by different tests such as Molisch's, Fehling's, Mayer's, Wagner's, Dragendorff's, frothing, FeCl3, alkali, Pew's, and Salkowski's test, general test of glycosides, Baljet and NH4OH test, formalin-induced paw licking, acetic acid-induced writhing, tail immersion, and hot plate tests, and castor oil and MgSO4 induced diarrheal tests. Results. These extracts revealed the presence of saponins, flavonoids, and triterpenoids and significantly ((⁎)P < 0.05, versus control) reduced paw licking and abdominal writhing of mice. At 30 min after their administration, PBMPB revealed significant increase in latency ((⁎)P < 0.05, versus control) in tail immersion test. In hot plate test, HMPB and PBMPB 200 mg/kg showed significant increase in response latency ((⁎)P < 0.05, versus control) at 30 min after their administration. Moreover, both extracts significantly ((⁎)P < 0.05, versus control) inhibited percentage of diarrhea in antidiarrheal models. Conclusion. Study results indicate that M. paniculata may provide a source of plant compounds with antinociceptive and antidiarrheal activities.

  13. Inhibition of ascitic ehrlich tumor cell growth by intraperitoneal injection of Pfaffia paniculata (Brazilian ginseng butanolic residue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Vieira

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the effects of the administration of butanolic residue (BR of Pfaffia paniculata by intraperitoneal route to Ehrlich ascitis tumor bearing mice. Initially, a toxicity study of P. paniculata BR was performed in which doses of 12.5; 25 and 50mg/Kg were administered by intraperitoneal injection for seven days to Swiss mice. The treatment did not show toxicity. Then, Swiss male mice received, by intraperitoneal injection, once a day, 12.5; 25 or 50mg/Kg of P. paniculata BR for seven days. This protocol started in the same day of tumor inoculation with 5X10(6 cells i.p. The treatment with butanolic residue of P.paniculata i.p caused a significant increase in the ascitic volume; however, a significant decrease in tumor cells number per ml (pNeste estudo, foi avaliado o efeito do tratamento intraperitoneal com Resíduo Butanólico de Pfaffia paniculata, sobre o crescimento do Tumor de Ehrlich, forma ascítica. Foram utilizados dois grupos de 15 camundongos cada, sendo um grupo controle e o outro grupo tratado com RB 50mg/Kg. Todos os animais foram inoculados intraperitonealmente, com 5X10(6 células tumorais O tratamento iniciou-se no mesmo dia da inoculação do tumor. Assim, os animais receberam diariamente, por via intraperitoneal, 0,1 ml de RB na concentrações 50 mg/Kg, ou PBS como controle. Após 7 dias da inoculação do tumor, os animais foram eutanasiados e foi colhido o fluído ascítico total, para a contagem do número de células tumorais presentes neste fluído e estudo da morfologia destas células . Neste experimento observou-se aumento significante da quantidade de fluido ascítico nos animais tratados com RB, e diminuição significativa em relação ao número de células tumorais/ml e células tumorais totais, presentes no fluído ascítico, comparativamente com os animais controle. Estes resultados sugerem efeito inibitório tópico do RB levando à morte as células neoplásicas.

  14. Evaluation of Andrographis paniculata Burm.f. (Family:Acanthaceae) extracts against Culex quinquefasciatus (Say.) and Aedes aegypti (Linn.) (Diptera:Culicidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marimuthu Govindarajan

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the larvicidal and ovicidal efficacy of different extracts of Andrographis paniculata (A. paniculata) against Culex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus) Say and Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti ) L. (Diptera:Culicidae). Methods:Larvicidal efficacy of the crude leaf extracts of A. paniculata with five different solvents like benzene, hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol and chloroform was tested against the early third instar larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti. The ovicidal activity was determined against two mosquito species to various concentrations ranging from 50-300 ppm under the laboratory conditions. Results:The benzene, hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol and chloroform leaf extract of A. paniculata was found to be more effective against Cx. quinquefasciatus than Ae. aegypti. The LC50 values were 112.19, 137.48, 118.67, 102.05, 91.20 ppm and 119.58, 146.34, 124.24, 110.12, 99.54 ppm respectively. Among five tested solvent, methanol and ethyl acetate crude extract was found to be most effective for ovicidal activity against two mosquito species. The extract of methanol and ethyl acetate exerted 100%mortality at 200 ppm against Cx. quinquefasciatus and at 250 ppm against Ae. aegypti. Conclusions:From the results it can be concluded the crude extract of A. paniculata was a potential for controlling Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti mosquitoes.

  15. Green ambrosia for Soil- Dry Cow Dung Powder: Rhexistasy to Biostasy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagla, Hemlata; Barot, Nisha

    2013-04-01

    "Greener ambrosia for Soil - Dry cow dung powder: Rhexistasy to Biostasy" Pedosphere, the soil with its biotic and abiotic component, is produced by lithosphere`s interactions with atmosphere, hydrosphere and biosphere. The theory of Biorhexistasy proposed by pedologist H. Erhart [1], describes two crucial climatic phases of soil i.e. Biostasy, period of soil formation and Rhexistasy, periods of soil erosion. Humus, the organic matter in soil, permits better aeration, enhances the absorption and releases nutrients, and makes the soil less susceptible to leaching and erosion [2], thus the agent of soil`s vitality. Mismanagement of soil, leads to the degradation of millions of acres of land through erosion, compaction, salinization and acidification. Among these threats salinity is a major abiotic stress reducing the yield of wide variety of crops all over the world [3]. It is been proved that Humic Acid (HA) treatment can ameliorate the deleterious effects of salt stress by increasing root growth, altering mineral uptake, and decreasing membrane damage, thus inducing salt tolerance in plants [4]. HA can be inexpensively incorporated into soils via different biowastes. Dry cow dung powder (DCP), is naturally available bio-organic, complex, polymorphic humified fecal matter, enriched with minerals, carbohydrates, fats, proteins, bile pigments, aliphatic - aromatic species such as HA, Fulvic Acid (FA) etc [5]. The microbial consortium enables DCP with considerable potentials for biodegradation and biotransformation of even saline soil and further contributes to many biogeochemical processes, boosting humus content of soil. Due to unambiguous biological, microbiological as well as chemical inert properties of DCP, it has been successfully utilized as a fertilizer and soil conditioner since ages in India, one of the leading agrarian countries of the world. Thus we summarize that DCP is one of the best contenders for the biostasy and desaliner of soil, aptly, soil

  16. Discordant phylogenies suggest repeated host shifts in the Fusarium-Euwallacea ambrosia beetle mutualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Kerry; Sink, Stacy; Libeskind-Hadas, Ran; Hulcr, Jiri; Kasson, Matthew T; Ploetz, Randy C; Konkol, Joshua L; Ploetz, Jill N; Carrillo, Daniel; Campbell, Alina; Duncan, Rita E; Liyanage, Pradeepa N H; Eskalen, Akif; Na, Francis; Geiser, David M; Bateman, Craig; Freeman, Stanley; Mendel, Zvi; Sharon, Michal; Aoki, Takayuki; Cossé, Allard A; Rooney, Alejandro P

    2015-09-01

    The mutualism between xyleborine beetles in the genus Euwallacea (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) and members of the Ambrosia Fusarium Clade (AFC) represents one of 11 known evolutionary origins of fungiculture by ambrosia beetles. Female Euwallacea beetles transport fusarial symbionts in paired mandibular mycangia from their natal gallery to woody hosts where they are cultivated in galleries as a source of food. Native to Asia, several exotic Euwallacea species were introduced into the United States and Israel within the past two decades and they now threaten urban landscapes, forests and avocado production. To assess species limits and to date the evolutionary diversification of the mutualists, we reconstructed the evolutionary histories of key representatives of the Fusarium and Euwallacea clades using maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood methods. Twelve species-level lineages, termed AF 1-12, were identified within the monophyletic AFC and seven among the Fusarium-farming Euwallacea. Bayesian diversification-time estimates placed the origin of the Euwallacea-Fusarium mutualism near the Oligocene-Miocene boundary ∼19-24 Mya. Most Euwallacea spp. appear to be associated with one species of Fusarium, but two species farmed two closely related fusaria. Euwallacea sp. #2 in Miami-Dade County, Florida cultivated Fusarium spp. AF-6 and AF-8 on avocado, and Euwallacea sp. #4 farmed Fusarium ambrosium AF-1 and Fusarium sp. AF-11 on Chinese tea in Sri Lanka. Cophylogenetic analyses indicated that the Euwallacea and Fusarium phylogenies were largely incongruent, apparently due to the beetles switching fusarial symbionts (i.e., host shifts) at least five times during the evolution of this mutualism. Three cospeciation events between Euwallacea and their AFC symbionts were detected, but randomization tests failed to reject the null hypothesis that the putative parallel cladogenesis is a stochastic pattern. Lastly, two collections of Euwallacea sp. #2 from Miami

  17. Anti-diabetic property of ethanolic extract of Andrographis paniculata in streptozotocin-diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang-Fan ZHANG; Benny Kwong-Huat TAN

    2000-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the anti-diabetic effect of a crude ethanolic extract of Andrographis paniculata in normal and streptozotocin ( STZ )-induced diabetic rats.METHODS & RESULTS: Oral administration of the extract at different doses (0.1, 0.2, and 0.4 g/body weight) significantly reduced the fasting serum glucose level in STZ-diabetic rats compared to the vehicle ( distilled water), but not in normal rots. This effect was dose-dependent. A similar result was seen with metfomnin (0.5 g/body weight). In the glucose tolerance test, an oral administration of the extract at the same doses suppressed the elevated glucose level in normal and diabetic rots, as did mefformin. The effects were also dose-respondent. In the long-term experiment, the extract ( 0.4 g/body weight ), mefformin ( 0.5 gz/body weight), and vehicle were given twice daily to diabetic rats for 14 d. On d 15, fasting serum glucose levels were found to be significantly lower in the extract-and mefformin-treated groups ( P<0.001 ) than in the vehicle-treated group. The mean food and water intakes over 14 days were significantly lower in the extract-treated group ( P < 0.05, P < 0.01, respectively) and also in the mefformin-treated group (both P < 0.001 ) when compared to the vehicle-treated group. No significant change in insulin level was observed among the 3 groups of diabetic rats. The extract, like mefformin, maintained the leptin levels after 14-d treatment, whereas this level was significantly decreased ( P < 0.05) in the vehicle-treated group. The activity of hepatic glucose-6-phosphatase (G-6-Pase) was significantly reduced by the extract as well as by mefformin (both P < 0.05). No significant difference in hepatic glycogen stores was noted among the 3 groups. The extract caused 49.8 % reduction of fasting serum triglyceride levels, compared to 27.7 % with metformin. However, neither the extract nor mefformin significantly affected serum cholesterol level. CONCLUSION: The ethanolic

  18. Anticonvulsant evaluation of Rauvolfia ligustrina Willd. ex Roem. & Schult., Apocynaceae, in rodents Avaliação anticonvulsivante de Rauvolfia ligustrina Willd. ex Roem. & Schult., Apocynaceae, em roedores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucindo J. Quintans-Júnior

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The Aim of this study was to evaluated the effects of the ethanol extract of Rauvolfia ligustrina Willd. ex Roem. & Schult., Apocynaceae, roots (EER in animal models of epilepsy. The EER increased the latency for convulsions significantly different from control (pO presente estudo buscou avaliar os efeitos do extrato etanólico das raízes de Rauvolfia ligustrina Willd. ex Roem. & Schult., Apocynaceae, (EER e sua possível atividade anticonvulsivante em roedores. No teste das convulsões induzidas pelo pentilenotetrazol (PTZ os animais tratados com EER, 250 mg/kg (i.p., apresentaram aumento significativo (p<0,05 da latência para o aparecimento das convulsões (328,9±47,5 quando comparado aos do grupo controle (103,5±21,8 e reduziu o número de óbitos. Esse efeito foi bloqueado pela administração do flumazenil. O EER produziu aumento significativo (p<0,05 na latência nos testes da picrotoxina (PIC e da estricnina (EST, nas maiores doses. No modelo do eletrochoque auricular o EER não produziu alterações significativas em nenhum dos parâmetros avaliados. Entretanto, no modelo do abrasamento induzido pelo PTZ, a administração com o EER produziu um efeito protetor, atenuando de forma significativa (p<0,05 o desenvolvimento e a severidade das crises convulsivas. Os resultados, sugerem que o EER induziu efeito anticonvulsivante em roedores e que o sistema GABAérgico pode estar envolvido nessa resposta.

  19. Effect of methanolic extract of Asparagus racemosus Willd. on lipopolysaccharide induced-oxidative stress in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Mohammad Parwez; Hussain, Arshad; Siddiqui, Hefazat Hussain; Wahab, Shadma; Adak, Manoranjan

    2015-03-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced oxidative stress and impairment of normal physiological function generally categorized by increased anxiety and reduced mobility. Therefore, the present study was to find out the effect Methanolic extract of Asparagus racemosus (MEAR ) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced oxidative stress in rats . LPS-induced oxidative stress in rats was measured by locomotor activity by photoactometer test, anxiety with elevated plus maze test and also studied the oxidative stress markers, nitric oxide and cytokines. The obtained data shows that LPS markedly exhausted (pAsparagus racemosus Willd. is a functionally newer type of cerebroprotective agent.

  20. Phytoremediation of synthetic wastewater by adsorption of lead and zinc onto Alpinia galanga Willd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanida Chairgulprasert

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Adsorption of Pb(II and Zn(II from aqueous solution onto a phytosorbent mixture of galangal (Alpinia galangaWilld leaves and pseudostem has been investigated in a batch system. Removal efficiency was optimized with respect topH, contact time, initial Pb(II and Zn(II concentration and phytosorbent dosage. Galangal exhibited a higher adsorptionefficiency for lead (95.2% than for zinc (66.9%. Both lead and zinc equilibrium sorption data were better represented by theFreundlich isotherm than the Langmuir isotherm and in each case followed second order kinetics.

  1. Highly oxygenated stigmastane-type steroids from the aerial parts of Vernonia anthelmintica Willd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Lei; Qi, Wei-Yan; Hussain, Syed Hamid; Gao, Kun; Arfan, Mohammad

    2012-06-01

    Nine new highly oxygenated stigmastane-type steroids, vernoanthelcin A-I (1-9), and two new stigmastane-type steroidal glycosides, vernoantheloside A and B (10 and 11) were isolated from the aerial parts of Vernonia anthelmintica Willd. The structures of compounds 1-11 were determined on the basis of IR, MS, 1D-NMR, and 2D-NMR, and their absolute configurations were deduced using single-crystal X-ray diffraction and the CD exciton chirality method. Compounds 1, 5, 7, 9 and 10 were tested for their effects on estrogen biosynthesis in human ovarian granulosa-like cells (KGN cells).

  2. 外来入侵豚草综合治理研究进展%Cai-taiAdvances in Integrated Control of Invasive Alien Plant Ambrosia artemisiifolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王娟; 邓旭; 谭济才

    2011-01-01

    Ambrosia is a kind of invasive alien weed, whose invasion not only threatens native biodiversity and ecosystems, but also causes considerable economic loss. In order to control the damage of Ambrosia effectively, on the basis of introducing mechanical, chemical and biological control methods, the insufficiencies of them were clarified and an integrated control measure was proposed.%豚草属(Ambrosia)是一种外来恶性杂草,它的入侵不仅威胁了当地生物多样性和生态系统,还导致巨大的经济损失.为有效控制其危害,在介绍豚草人工、化学、生物控制方法的基础上,针对各种方法不足之处.提出了综合控制措施.

  3. Yeast Associated with the Ambrosia Beetle, Platypus koryoensis, the Pest of Oak Trees in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Yeo Hong; Suh, Dong Yeon; Yoo, Hun Dal; Oh, Man Hwan; Kim, Seong Hwan

    2015-12-01

    Oak tree death caused by symbiosis of an ambrosia beetle, Platypus koryoensis, and an ophiostomatoid filamentous fungus, Raffaelea quercus-mongolicae, has been a nationwide problem in Korea since 2004. In this study, we surveyed the yeast species associated with P. koryoensis to better understand the diversity of fungal associates of the beetle pest. In 2009, a total of 195 yeast isolates were sampled from larvae and adult beetles (female and male) of P. koryoensis in Cheonan, Goyang, and Paju; 8 species were identified by based on their morphological, biochemical and molecular analyses. Meyerozyma guilliermondii and Candida kashinagacola were found to be the two dominant species. Among the 8 species, Candida homilentoma was a newly recorded yeast species in Korea, and thus, its mycological characteristics were described. The P. koryoensis symbiont R. quercusmongolicae did not show extracelluar CM-cellulase, xylanase and avicelase activity that are responsible for degradation of wood structure; however, C. kashinagacola and M. guilliermondii did show the three extracellular enzymatic activities. Extracelluar CM-cellulase activity was also found in Ambrosiozyma sp., C. homilentoma, C. kashinagacola, and Candida sp. Extracelluar pectinase activity was detected in Ambrosiozyma sp., C. homilentoma, Candida sp., and M. guilliermondii. All the 8 yeast species displayed compatible relationships with R. quercus-mongolicae when they were co-cultivated on yeast extract-malt extract plates. Overall, our results demonstrated that P. koryoensis carries the yeast species as a symbiotic fungal associate. This is first report of yeast diversity associated with P. koryoensis.

  4. Erhöhte Frosttoleranz und vorteilhafte Keimeigenschaften in europäischen Ambrosia artemisiifolia Populationen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leiblein-Wild, Marion Carmen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Germination characteristics and frost tolerance of seedlings are crucial parameters for establishment and invasion success of plants. Within this study, we investigated germination characteristics of Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. populations from native and invasive ranges. We determined germination rates and speed under different temperature conditions. From these parameters we calculated minimal, optimal, and maximal temperature for germination. We also investigated the frost tolerance of seedlings. The European populations were characterized by a higher fitness with higher germination rates and germination speed, increased biomass and higher frost tolerance of seedlings. Furthermore, the temperature niche width for germination was significantly broader for the European populations. The increased frost tolerance of the European populations might allow germination earlier in the year which may subsequently lead to higher biomass allocation – due to a longer growing period – and result in higher pollen and seed production. The increase in germination rates, germination speed and seedling frost tolerance might result in a higher fitness of the European populations which may facilitate further successful invasion and sharpen the existing problems.

  5. Northern range edge equilibrium of Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. not achieved in Western Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ortmans, W.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Description of the subject. The geographic distributions of a species, be it native or alien, is expected to be limited at some point by environmental conditions. In this situation, a range edge equilibrium (REE takes place, i.e., populations occurring beyond the edge have a growth rate reduced below replacement. The occurrence of REE has never been tested for an invasive species. In Western Europe, the invasive weed Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. has spread in most parts of southern and central France, where it can be found in very high densities in sunflower fields, but seems to be limited in its northwards expansion. It is currently unknown whether the range has reached a limit or not. Information about how the species responds to sunflower competition is also lacking. Objectives. This work addressed two questions: Has the northern part of A. artemisiifolia invaded range in Western Europe reached REE? How is A. artemisiifolia performance influenced by sunflower competition? Method. Plots were established in an agricultural field ca. 250 km north to the current invaded range, in Belgium. We planted A. artemisiifolia seedlings with or without sunflower competition. The following year, the population growth rates and the soil seed bank were assessed. Results. The species established populations with relatively high growth rates and soil seed bank. Sunflower competition did not have a significant impact on plant performance. Conclusions. The results invalidate the hypothesis of equilibrium at the current margin of A. artemisiifolia invaded range, and suggest a significant potential for invasion northwards.

  6. Paving the way for invasive species: road type and the spread of common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joly, Martin; Bertrand, Pascale; Gbangou, Roland Y; White, Marie-Catherine; Dubé, Jean; Lavoie, Claude

    2011-09-01

    Roads function as prime habitats and corridors for invasive plant species. Yet despite the diversity of road types, there is little research on the influence of these types on the spread of invaders. Common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia), a plant producing large amounts of allergenic pollen, was selected as a species model for examining the impact of road type on the spread of invasive plants. We examined this relationship in an agricultural region of Quebec, Canada. We mapped plant distribution along different road types, and constructed a model of species presence. Common ragweed was found in almost all sampling sites located along regional (97%) and local paved (81%) roads. However, verges of unpaved local roads were rarely (13%) colonized by the plant. A model (53% of variance explained), constructed with only four variables (paved regional roads, paved local roads, recently mown road verges, forest cover), correctly predicted (success rate: 89%) the spatial distribution of common ragweed. Results support the hypothesis that attributes associated with paved roads strongly favour the spread of an opportunistic invasive plant species. Specifically, larger verges and greater disturbance associated with higher traffic volume create propitious conditions for common ragweed. To date, emphasis has been placed on controlling the plant in agricultural fields, even though roadsides are probably a much larger seed source. Strategies for controlling the weed along roads have only focused on major highways, even though the considerable populations along local roads also contribute to the production of pollen. Management prioritizations developed to control common ragweed are thus questionable.

  7. A new allergen from ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) with homology to art v 1 from mugwort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Léonard, Renaud; Wopfner, Nicole; Pabst, Martin; Stadlmann, Johannes; Petersen, Bent O; Duus, Jens Ø; Himly, Martin; Radauer, Christian; Gadermaier, Gabriele; Razzazi-Fazeli, Ebrahim; Ferreira, Fatima; Altmann, Friedrich

    2010-08-27

    Art v 1, the major pollen allergen of the composite plant mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris) has been identified recently as a thionin-like protein with a bulky arabinogalactan-protein moiety. A close relative of mugwort, ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) is an important allergen source in North America, and, since 1990, ragweed has become a growing health concern in Europe as well. Weed pollen-sensitized patients demonstrated IgE reactivity to a ragweed pollen protein of apparently 29-31 kDa. This reaction could be inhibited by the mugwort allergen Art v 1. The purified ragweed pollen protein consisted of a 57-amino acid-long defensin-like domain with high homology to Art v 1 and a C-terminal proline-rich domain. This part contained hydroxyproline-linked arabinogalactan chains with one galactose and 5 to 20 and more alpha-arabinofuranosyl residues with some beta-arabinoses in terminal positions as revealed by high field NMR. The ragweed protein contained only small amounts of the single hydroxyproline-linked beta-arabinosyl residues, which form an important IgE binding determinant in Art v 1. cDNA clones for this protein were obtained from ragweed flowers. Immunological characterization revealed that the recombinant ragweed protein reacted with >30% of the weed pollen allergic patients. Therefore, this protein from ragweed pollen constitutes a novel important ragweed allergen and has been designated Amb a 4.

  8. A New Allergen from Ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) with Homology to Art v 1 from Mugwort*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Léonard, Renaud; Wopfner, Nicole; Pabst, Martin; Stadlmann, Johannes; Petersen, Bent O.; Duus, Jens Ø.; Himly, Martin; Radauer, Christian; Gadermaier, Gabriele; Razzazi-Fazeli, Ebrahim; Ferreira, Fatima; Altmann, Friedrich

    2010-01-01

    Art v 1, the major pollen allergen of the composite plant mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris) has been identified recently as a thionin-like protein with a bulky arabinogalactan-protein moiety. A close relative of mugwort, ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) is an important allergen source in North America, and, since 1990, ragweed has become a growing health concern in Europe as well. Weed pollen-sensitized patients demonstrated IgE reactivity to a ragweed pollen protein of apparently 29–31 kDa. This reaction could be inhibited by the mugwort allergen Art v 1. The purified ragweed pollen protein consisted of a 57-amino acid-long defensin-like domain with high homology to Art v 1 and a C-terminal proline-rich domain. This part contained hydroxyproline-linked arabinogalactan chains with one galactose and 5 to 20 and more α-arabinofuranosyl residues with some β-arabinoses in terminal positions as revealed by high field NMR. The ragweed protein contained only small amounts of the single hydroxyproline-linked β-arabinosyl residues, which form an important IgE binding determinant in Art v 1. cDNA clones for this protein were obtained from ragweed flowers. Immunological characterization revealed that the recombinant ragweed protein reacted with >30% of the weed pollen allergic patients. Therefore, this protein from ragweed pollen constitutes a novel important ragweed allergen and has been designated Amb a 4. PMID:20576600

  9. Effects of seed traits variation on seedling performance of the invasive weed, Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortmans, William; Mahy, Grégory; Monty, Arnaud

    2016-02-01

    Seedling performance can determine the survival of a juvenile plant and impact adult plant performance. Understanding the factors that may impact seedling performance is thus critical, especially for annuals, opportunists or invasive plant species. Seedling performance can vary among mothers or populations in response to environmental conditions or under the influence of seed traits. However, very few studies have investigated seed traits variations and their consequences on seedling performance. Specifically, the following questions have been addressed by this work: 1) How the seed traits of the invasive Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. vary among mothers and populations, as well as along the latitude; 2) How do seed traits influence seedling performance; 3) Is the influence on seedlings temperature dependent. With seeds from nine Western Europe ruderal populations, seed traits that can influence seedling development were measured. The seeds were sown into growth chambers with warmer or colder temperature treatments. During seedling growth, performance-related traits were measured. A high variability in seed traits was highlighted. Variation was determined by the mother identity and population, but not latitude. Together, the temperature, population and the identity of the mother had an effect on seedling performance. Seed traits had a relative impact on seedling performance, but this did not appear to be temperature dependent. Seedling performance exhibited a strong plastic response to the temperature, was shaped by the identity of the mother and the population, and was influenced by a number of seed traits.

  10. EU-COST Aktion über „Nachhaltige Bekämpfung von Ambrosia artemisiifolia in Europa“ (COST FA1203-SMARTER: Chancen und Herausforderungen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müller-Schärer, Heinz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The EU -COST Action FA1203 on «Sustainable management of Ambrosia artemisiifolia in Europe (SMARTER” was successfully launched in February 2013 and will last for four years. Thirty-three countries have already signed the Memorandum of Understanding and over 180 researchers with specialists in weed research, invasive alien species management, ecology, aerobiology, allergology and economics are registered participants of SMARTER. COST Actions interlink nationally funded research projects and enable and finance conferences, working groups, training schools and research exchanges. SMARTER aims to initiate and develop long-term and sustainable control methods, to integrate these into existing mechanical and chemical control measures, and to quantify the success of these measures both for agriculture and health. The focus is on biological control methods with insects and fungi (especially using alien species from the area of origin of Ambrosia and vegetation management to achieve a competitive plant cover. For this, we develop and parameterize models, starting from the population dynamics of Ambrosia, on the impact of control measures on the frequency and distribution of Ambrosia and finally on pollen counts and allergy occurrences, each with both ecological and economic components. The necessary data are derived from the many experiments that we carry out in well-coordinated studies across Europe. SMARTER will allow the various stakeholders to select optimal habitat- and region-specific combinations of control methods. After an introduction and overview of the structure and the state of the Action, we briefly describe two planned activities typical for our Action, a study on the population dynamics of Ambrosia in different climates and habitats in Europe as a basis for estimating the efficiency of control measures, and an interdisciplinary study to clarify the impact the of North American native Ambrosia leaf beetle Ophraella communa (Coleoptera

  11. Comparative efficacy of plant-derived essential oils for managing ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) and their corresponding mass spectral characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranger, Christopher M; Reding, Michael E; Oliver, Jason B; Schultz, Peter B; Moyseenko, James J; Youssef, Nadeer

    2011-10-01

    Ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) pose a significant challenge to producers of ornamental nursery stock. Conventional insecticides are commonly used for management purposes, but plant-derived essential oils also may discourage ambrosia beetles from initiating attacks. To identify promising commercially available products, field-based efficacy trials were conducted in Ohio in 2009 and 2010 with the following products: Armorex (Soil Technologies), Cinnacure (Proguard, Inc.), EcoTrol (EcoSMART Technologies, Inc.), and Veggie Pharm (Pharm Solutions, Inc.). Potted Magnolia virginiana L. were first injected with 75 ml of 5% ethanol to ensure ambrosia beetle pressure on experimental trees. Mixtures of each product (10% in water) and a water control were applied until runoff and attacks occurring under field conditions were quantified at 1, 4, 7, and 14 d after treatment (DAT). Ambrosia beetle attacks generally increased over time but at differing rates depending on the particular treatment. In 2009, Armorex and Veggie Pharm were associated with the lowest cumulative attacks 14 DAT. In 2010, Armorex and Cinnacure were associated with the fewest attacks 14 DAT. Solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to characterize the volatile compounds associated with each product. Allyl isothiocyanate, a compound with known repellent and insecticidal properties, was unique and predominant in Armorex. These experiments identified commercially available botanicals containing plant essential oils with activity against ambrosia beetles, along with demonstrating the usefulness of ethanol-injection to ensure ambrosia beetle pressure under field conditions. Characterizing the constituents of efficacious botanically based products could also lead to the development of improved botanical insecticides.

  12. Artefatos cumarínicos isolados de Polygala paniculata L. (Polygalaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G Pizzolatti

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A partir do fracionamento em coluna de gel de sílica do extrato clorofórmico de Polygala paniculata (Polygalaceae, foram isolados 7-metóxi-8-(1',2'-epóxi-3'-metil-3'-butenil-cumarina (1 e dois artefatos cumarínicos (2a-2b, formados a partir da abertura do anel epóxido de 1 durante o processo de isolamento. O tratamento de 1 com EtOH/SiO2, sob agitação e à temperatura ambiente durante 24 horas, resultou na formação dos respectivos artefatos: 7-metóxi-8-(1'-hidróxi-2-etóxi-3'-metil-3'-butenil-cumarina (2a e 7-metóxi-8-(1'-etóxi-2-hidróxi-3'-metil-3'-butenil-cumarina (2b. As estruturas químicas desses compostos foram determinadas através da análise de seus dados espectrais, incluindo RMN bidimensional.

  13. O-prenylated acridone alkaloids from the stems of Balsamocitrus paniculata (Rutaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happi, Emmanuel Ngeufa; Waffo, Alain François; Wansi, Jean Duplex; Ngadjui, Bonaventure Tchaleu; Sewald, Norbert

    2011-06-01

    Two new O-prenylated acridone alkaloids, balsacridone A (1) and B (2), together with eighteen known compounds were isolated from the methanol extract from the stems of Balsamocitrus paniculata, a Cameroonian medicinal plant. The structures of all compounds were determined by comprehensive analyses of their 1D and 2D NMR, mass spectral (EI and ESI) data, and chemical reactions. N-methyl-6-methoxybenzoxazolinone (16) was isolated for the first time from a natural source while compounds 13, 14, and 15 for the first time from this genus. Pure compounds were tested for their activity against bacteria, fungi, and plant pathogen oomycetes, using the paper disk agar diffusion assay. The agar diffusion test delivered low to missing antimicrobial activities, corresponding to MICs > 1 mg/mL. However, compounds 1-15 exhibited a strong suppressive effect on phagocytosis response upon activation with serum opsonized zymosan in the range of IC50 = 0.5-7.2 μM, and the acridone alkaloids (1-5), N-trans-p-coumaroyltyramine (13), and N-trans-pcoumaroyloctopamine (14) displayed weak cytotoxic activity against the human Caucasian prostate adenocarcinoma cell line PC-3, with IC₅₀ values ranging from 69.8 to 99.0 μM.

  14. Effects of Andrographitis Paniculata Extracts on the Expression of CD40 in Endothelial Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jie; LI Shusheng; WAN Lei

    2007-01-01

    In order to investigate the expression of CD40 in endothelial cells (ECs) in a variety of injured conditions and the interventional role of Andrographitis Paniculata isolate (API0134), the thoracic aorta ECs of guinea pigs were cultured in vitro until the third passage, incubated in the presence of media containing xanthine oxidase (XO) and xanthine (Xan) which produced oxygen free radical (OFR group); oxidized-LDL (ox-LDL group); XO, Xan and API0134 (OFR+API0134 group); or ox-LDL and API0134 (ox-LDL+API0134 group). The expression of CD40 in ECs was detected by immunofluorescence assay and reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR). The results showed as compared with the control group, the expression of CD40 in ECs in OFR group and ox-LDL group was increased (P<0.01), but attenuated significantly in OFR+ API0134 group and ox-LDL+API0134 group (P<0.05). It was suggested that API0134 could protect atherosclerosis by inhibiting the expression of CD40 molecule in injured ECs.

  15. Analysis of the anticancer phytochemicals in Andrographis paniculata Nees. under salinity stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talei, Daryush; Valdiani, Alireza; Maziah, Mahmood; Sagineedu, Sreenivasa Rao; Saad, Mohd Said

    2013-01-01

    Salinity causes the adverse effects in all physiological processes of plants. The present study aimed to investigate the potential of salt stress to enhance the accumulation of the anticancer phytochemicals in Andrographis paniculata accessions. For this purpose, 70-day-old plants were grown in different salinity levels (0.18, 4, 8, 12, and 16 dSm(-1)) on sand medium. After inducing a period of 30-day salinity stress and before flowering, all plants were harvested and the data on morphological traits, proline content and the three anticancer phytochemicals, including andrographolide (AG), neoandrographolide (NAG), and 14-deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide (DDAG), were measured. The results indicated that salinity had a significant effect on the aforementioned three anticancer phytochemicals. In addition, the salt tolerance index (STI) was significantly decreased, while, except for DDAG, the content of proline, the AG, and NAG was significantly increased (P ≤ 0.01). Furthermore, it was revealed that significant differences among accessions could happen based on the total dry weight, STI, AG, and NAG. Finally, we noticed that the salinity at 12 dSm(-1) led to the maximum increase in the quantities of AG, NAG, and DDAG. In other words, under salinity stress, the tolerant accessions were capable of accumulating the higher amounts of proline, AG, and NAG than the sensitive accessions.

  16. Leaves of orange jasmine (Murraya paniculata) as indicators of airborne heavy metal in Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titseesang, Teerawet; Wood, Timothy; Panich, Noppaporn

    2008-10-01

    Orange jasmine (Murraya paniculata) leaves were collected from three different sites in the area of Bangkok and in a remote area as a control site. The leaf samples were digested and the concentrations of Cu, Fe, Pb, Mn, Ni, Cr, and Zn were then quantified by using inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). All three Bangkok sites were polluted with heavy metals compared with the background site. Fe was found as the highest mean concentration of the metals studied, while Pb was the lowest. There was a high correlation coefficient between metals Cu-Mn, Cu-Zn, Cu-Pb, and Mn-Zn. However, Fe was not correlated with other metals. There was no significant difference in Pb between sites. The significant difference in other metals found in the study could be attributed to different anthropogenic activities between sites. The principal-component analysis (PCA) identified two factors according to the sources of metals making up the anthropogenic (traffic) and natural (soil) sources. Traffic emission was found to be the main source of metal pollution in the atmosphere of Bangkok.

  17. The Effect of Sonic Bloom Fertilizing Technology on The Seed Germination and Growth of Acacia mangium Willd Seedling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulyadi A T

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Acacia mangium Willd is one of the promising wood species, it is a fast growing species and can be used as raw materials for pulp, furniture and wood working. Musi Hutan Persada Company has planted Acacia mangium Willd in large scale for pulp processing raw materials and for wood working industry. The faculty of forestry of the Nusa Bangsa University in collaboration with the Musi Hutan Persada have examined  the effect of “Sonic Bloom” to the Acacia mangium Willd germination and seedling growth. The results of the research are the following : (1 The seed germination with “Sonic Bloom” provided percented of germination of 82%, better than those without “Sonic Bloom”, i.e. only 34%; (2 With Sonic Bloom,  the height of 80-days old seedling is 129.6 cm higher than those without “Sonic Bloom”of only 90.7 cm  ; (3 the diameter of 80-days old seedling with “Sonic Bloom” is 0,24 cm higher than those without “Sonic Bloom” harving diameters of only 0.19 cm.The study concludes that sonic bloom treatment is very useful for the seed germination and the growth of Acacia mangium Willd seedling Key Words : Sonic Bloom, persemaian, Acacia mangium, perkecambahan, bibit   Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE

  18. The combined effect of deficit irrigation by treated wastewater and organic amendment on quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hirich, Abdelaziz; Choukr-Allah, Redouane; Jacobsen, Sven-Erik

    2014-01-01

    and deficit irrigation with treated wastewater on quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) productivity. Three organic matter levels (0, 5, and 10 t ha−1) have been supplied as compost amendment combined with two deficit irrigation levels (50 and 100% of full irrigation). Statistical analysis revealed very highly...

  19. Ionic and osmotic relations in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) plants grown at various salinity level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hariadi, Yuda; Marandon, Karl; Tian, Yu;

    2011-01-01

    Ionic and osmotic relations in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) were studied by exposing plants to six salinity levels (0–500 mM NaCl range) for 70 d. Salt stress was administered either by pre-mixing of the calculated amount of NaCl with the potting mix before seeds were planted or by the grad......Ionic and osmotic relations in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) were studied by exposing plants to six salinity levels (0–500 mM NaCl range) for 70 d. Salt stress was administered either by pre-mixing of the calculated amount of NaCl with the potting mix before seeds were planted......Cl-induced activation of H+-ATPase is needed to restore otherwise depolarized membrane potential and prevent further K+ leak from the cytosol. Taken together, this work emphasizes the role of inorganic ions for osmotic adjustment in halophytes and calls for more in-depth studies of the mechanisms of vacuolar Na...

  20. [Comparative cytogenetic study of the forms of Macleaya cordata (Willd.) R. Br. from different localities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samatadze, T E; Zelenin, A V; Suslina, S N; Amosova, A V; Popov, K V; Zagumennikova, T N; Tsitsilin, A N; Bykov, V A; Muravenko, O V

    2012-01-01

    A comparative cytogenetic study of two introduced forms of Makleaya cordata (Willd.) R. Br. = syn. Bocconia cordata Willd. grown in different ecological and geographical regions (Moscow and Donetsk areas) was carried out. In the study, a complex of methods utilizing various chromosomal markers, i.e., C- and DAPI-banding technique, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with probes of26S and 5S rDNA, as well as estimation of the total area of C-positive regions (C-HCH) in prophase nucleoli and meiosis analysis, was used. In the karyotypes (2n = 20), each chromosome was identified on the basis of C-banding and FISH patterns and the chromosome ideograms were built. Pericentrometric and telomeric C-positive bands in chromosomes of the Moscow form karyotype were found to be smaller and intercalary bands, larger than the corresponding bands in the M. cordata form grown in Donetsk. It was found that the content of C-HCH in prophase nucleoli in the form of M. cordata grown in Donetsk was higher than in the form grown in Moscow. In both forms sites of 26S rDNA and 5s rDNA were localized on satellite chromosome 1 and on chromosome 4 respectively but the signals were more intensive in the plant form grown in Donetsk. The results of this study enable selecting M. cordata forms for use in pharmacology and recommending them for cultivation in various ecological and geographical regions.

  1. Notas taxonómicas sobre el género Centaurea (Asteraceae en la Península Ibérica. C. paniculata, C. hanryi y C. diffusa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devesa, Juan Antonio

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Morphologic variability in the Iberian Peninsula of Centaurea paniculata L. (Centaurea L. sect. Centaurea, an endemic species of SW Europe, is discussed. It is represented by three subspecies with well-defined areas: subsp. paniculata, subsp. leucophaea (Jord. Arcang. and subsp. oscensis, a new subspecies, whose chromosome number is counted (2n = 18. Moreover, the variability of C. hanryi Jord, an endemism of NE Spain and SE France is studied, and finally, the distribution in the Iberian Peninsula of the neophyte C. diffusa Lam. is commented.Se comenta la variabilidad morfológica en la Península Ibérica de Centaurea paniculata L. (Centaurea L. sect. Centaurea, un endemismo del SW de Europa, para el que reconocen tres subespecies con áreas bien definidas: C. paniculata subsp. paniculata, C. paniculata subsp. leucophaea (Jord. Arcang. y C. paniculata subsp. oscensis, una nueva subespecie para la que se estudia además el número cromosómico (2n = 18. También se comenta la variabilidad en el territorio de C. hanryi Jord., endémica del NE de España y SE de Francia y se comenta el área de distribución peninsular del neófito C. diffusa Lam.

  2. Constituintes Químicos de Penicillium sp, um Fungo Endofítico Isolado de Murraya paniculata (Rutaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Marinho, Andrey Moacir do Rosário; UNIVERSIDADE FEDERAL DE SÃO CARLOS; Marinho, Patrícia Santana Barbosa; Universidade Federal de São Carlos; Filho, Edson Rodrigues; Universidade Federal de São Carlos

    2009-01-01

    Penicillium sp, isolado como um fungo endofítico de Murraya paniculata, foi cultivado por 20 dias em arroz autoclavado de onde as substâncias ergosterol (1), peróxido de ergosterol (2), cerivisterol (3), uracila (4), dulcitol (5) e lactona do ácido mevalônico (6) foram produzidas e isoladas por procedimentos cromatográficos clássicos e identificadas por estudos espectroscópicos, principalmente EM e RMN 1D e 2D.

  3. Cloning, expression, and characterization of pollen allergens from Humulus scandens (Lour) Merr and Ambrosia artemisiifolia L

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ai-lin TAO; Shao-heng HE

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To clone the pollen allergen genes in Humulus scandens (Lour) Merr (LüCao in Chinese) and short ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L) for recombinant allergen production and immunotherapy. Methods: The allergen genes were selectively amplified in the weed pollen cDNA pool by using a special PCR profile, with the primers designed by a modeling procedure. Following truncated gene cloning and confirmation of the pollen source, unknown 3'cDNA ends were identified by using the 3'-RACE method. The gene function conferred by the full-length coding region was evaluated by a homologue search in the GenBank database. Recombinant proteins expressed in Escherichia coli pET-44 RosettaBlue cells were subsequently characterized by N-terminal end sequencing, IgE binding, and crossreactivity. Results: Three full-length cDNAs were obtained in each weed. Multiple alignment analysis revealed that the deduced amino acid sequences were 83% identical to each other and 56%-90% identical to panallergen profilins from other species. Five recombinant proteins were abundantly expressed in nonfusion forms and were confirmed by using the N-terminal end sequence identity.Sera from patients who were allergic to A artemisiifolia reacted not only with rAmb a 8(D03) derived from A artemisiifolia, but also with recombinant protein rHum s 1(LCM9) derived from H scandens, which confirmed the allergenicity and cross-reactivity of the recombinant proteins from the 2 sources. Comparison of the degenerate primers used for truncated gene cloning with the full-length cDNA demonstrated that alternative nucleotide degeneracy occurred. Conclusion: This study demonstrates a useful method for cloning homologous allergen genes across different species, particularly for little-studied species. The recombinant allergens obtained might be useful for the immunotherapeutic treatment of H scandens and/or A artemisiifolia pollen allergies.

  4. Fungus symbionts colonizing the galleries of the ambrosia beetle Platypus quercivorus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endoh, Rikiya; Suzuki, Motofumi; Okada, Gen; Takeuchi, Yuko; Futai, Kazuyoshi

    2011-07-01

    Isolations were made to determine the fungal symbionts colonizing Platypus quercivorus beetle galleries of dead or dying Quercus laurifolia, Castanopsis cuspidata, Quercus serrata, Quercus crispula, and Quercus robur. For these studies, logs from oak wilt-killed trees were collected from Kyoto Prefecture, Japan. Fungi were isolated from the: (1) entrances of beetle galleries, (2) vertical galleries, (3) lateral galleries, and (4) the larval cradle of P. quercivorus in each host tree. Among the fungus colonies which appeared on YM agar plates, 1,219 were isolated as the representative isolates for fungus species inhabiting in the galleries based on their cultural characteristics. The validity of the visual classification of the fungus colonies was checked and if necessary properly corrected using microsatellite-primed PCR fingerprints. The nucleotide sequence of the D1/D2 region of the large subunit nuclear rRNA gene detected 38 fungus species (104 strains) of which three species, i.e., Candida sp. 3, Candida kashinagacola (both yeasts), and the filamentous fungus Raffaelea quercivora were isolated from all the tree species. The two yeasts were most prevalent in the interior of galleries, regardless of host tree species, suggesting their close association with the beetle. A culture-independent method, terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis was also used to characterize the fungus flora of beetle galleries. T-RFLP patterns showed that yeast species belonging to the genus Ambrosiozyma frequently occurred on the gallery walls along with the two Candida species. Ours is the first report showing the specific fungi inhabiting the galleries of a platypodid ambrosia beetle.

  5. Natural terpenoids from Ambrosia species are active in vitro and in vivo against human pathogenic trypanosomatids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sülsen, Valeria P; Cazorla, Silvia I; Frank, Fernanda M; Laurella, Laura C; Muschietti, Liliana V; Catalán, Cesar A; Martino, Virginia S; Malchiodi, Emilio L

    2013-01-01

    Among the natural compounds, terpenoids play an important role in the drug discovery process for tropical diseases. The aim of the present work was to isolate antiprotozoal compounds from Ambrosia elatior and A. scabra. The sesquiterpene lactone (STL) cumanin was isolated from A. elatior whereas two other STLs, psilostachyin and cordilin, and one sterol glycoside, daucosterol, were isolated from A. scabra. Cumanin and cordilin were active against Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigotes showing 50% inhibition concentrations (IC50) values of 12 µM and 26 µM, respectively. Moreover, these compounds are active against bloodstream trypomastigotes, regardless of the T. cruzi strain tested. Psilostachyin and cumanin were also active against amastigote forms with IC50 values of 21 µM and 8 µM, respectively. By contrast, daucosterol showed moderate activity on epimastigotes and trypomastigotes and was inactive against amastigote forms. We also found that cumanin and psilostachyin exhibited an additive effect in their trypanocidal activity when these two drugs were tested together. Cumanin has leishmanicidal activity with growth inhibition values greater than 80% at a concentration of 5 µg/ml (19 µM), against both L. braziliensis and L. amazonensis promastigotes. In an in vivo model of T. cruzi infection, cumanin was more active than benznidazole, producing an 8-fold reduction in parasitemia levels during the acute phase of the infection compared with the control group, and more importantly, a reduction in mortality with 66% of the animals surviving, in comparison with 100% mortality in the control group. Cumanin also showed nontoxic effects at the doses assayed in vivo, as determined using markers of hepatic damage.

  6. Natural terpenoids from Ambrosia species are active in vitro and in vivo against human pathogenic trypanosomatids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria P Sülsen

    Full Text Available Among the natural compounds, terpenoids play an important role in the drug discovery process for tropical diseases. The aim of the present work was to isolate antiprotozoal compounds from Ambrosia elatior and A. scabra. The sesquiterpene lactone (STL cumanin was isolated from A. elatior whereas two other STLs, psilostachyin and cordilin, and one sterol glycoside, daucosterol, were isolated from A. scabra. Cumanin and cordilin were active against Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigotes showing 50% inhibition concentrations (IC50 values of 12 µM and 26 µM, respectively. Moreover, these compounds are active against bloodstream trypomastigotes, regardless of the T. cruzi strain tested. Psilostachyin and cumanin were also active against amastigote forms with IC50 values of 21 µM and 8 µM, respectively. By contrast, daucosterol showed moderate activity on epimastigotes and trypomastigotes and was inactive against amastigote forms. We also found that cumanin and psilostachyin exhibited an additive effect in their trypanocidal activity when these two drugs were tested together. Cumanin has leishmanicidal activity with growth inhibition values greater than 80% at a concentration of 5 µg/ml (19 µM, against both L. braziliensis and L. amazonensis promastigotes. In an in vivo model of T. cruzi infection, cumanin was more active than benznidazole, producing an 8-fold reduction in parasitemia levels during the acute phase of the infection compared with the control group, and more importantly, a reduction in mortality with 66% of the animals surviving, in comparison with 100% mortality in the control group. Cumanin also showed nontoxic effects at the doses assayed in vivo, as determined using markers of hepatic damage.

  7. Ozone affects pollen viability and NAD(P)H oxidase release from Ambrosia artemisiifolia pollen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasqualini, Stefania, E-mail: spas@unipg.it [Department of Applied Biology, University of Perugia, Perugia (Italy); Tedeschini, Emma; Frenguelli, Giuseppe [Department of Applied Biology, University of Perugia, Perugia (Italy); Wopfner, Nicole; Ferreira, Fatima [Department of Molecular Biology, CD Laboratory for Allergy Diagnosis and Therapy, University of Salzburg, Salzburg (Austria); D' Amato, Gennaro [Division of Respiratory and Allergic Diseases, ' A. Cardarelli' High Speciality Hospital, Naples (Italy); Ederli, Luisa [Department of Applied Biology, University of Perugia, Perugia (Italy)

    2011-10-15

    Air pollution is frequently proposed as a cause of the increased incidence of allergy in industrialised countries. We investigated the impact of ozone (O{sub 3}) on reactive oxygen species (ROS) and allergen content of ragweed pollen (Ambrosia artemisiifolia). Pollen was exposed to acute O{sub 3} fumigation, with analysis of pollen viability, ROS and nitric oxide (NO) content, activity of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAD[P]H) oxidase, and expression of major allergens. There was decreased pollen viability after O{sub 3} fumigation, which indicates damage to the pollen membrane system, although the ROS and NO contents were not changed or were only slightly induced, respectively. Ozone exposure induced a significant enhancement of the ROS-generating enzyme NAD(P)H oxidase. The expression of the allergen Amb a 1 was not affected by O{sub 3}, determined from the mRNA levels of the major allergens. We conclude that O{sub 3} can increase ragweed pollen allergenicity through stimulation of ROS-generating NAD(P)H oxidase. - Highlights: > O{sub 3} reduces the viability of ragweed pollen. > ROS and allergens of ragweed pollen were not affected by O{sub 3} exposure. > O{sub 3} enhances the activity of the ROS-generating enzyme NAD(P)H oxidase. > O{sub 3} increases ragweed pollen allergenicity through NAD(P)H-oxidase stimulation. - This study focuses on the effects of the atmospheric pollutant ozone on ROS content and NAD(P)H oxidase activity of ragweed pollen grains.

  8. Attraction of the redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus, to avocado, lychee, and essential oil Lures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendra, Paul E; Montgomery, Wayne S; Niogret, Jerome; Peña, Jorge E; Capinera, John L; Brar, Gurpreet; Epsky, Nancy D; Heath, Robert R

    2011-09-01

    The redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff, is an exotic wood-boring insect that vectors the mycopathogen responsible for laurel wilt, a lethal vascular disease of trees in the Lauraceae. High mortality has occurred in native Persea species in the southeastern U.S., and the vector-pathogen complex poses an imminent threat to the production of commercial avocado, P. americana, in south Florida. There is a critical need for effective attractants to detect, monitor, and control this invasive pest. This study combined field tests and laboratory bioassays to evaluate the response of female X. glabratus to host-based volatiles from wood of avocado (cultivars of West Indian, Guatemalan, and Mexican races); from wood of lychee (Litchi chinensis, a presumed non-host that is high in the sesquiterpene α-copaene, a putative attractant); and to commercial lures containing manuka and phoebe oils, two reported attractive baits. Volatile collections and GC-MS analyses were performed to quantify the sesquiterpene content of test substrates. In the field, traps baited with lychee wood captured more beetles than those with wood from avocado cultivars; traps baited with phoebe oil lures captured more beetles than those with manuka oil lures (the current monitoring tool). In field and laboratory tests, X. glabratus did not show a preference among avocado races in either attraction or host acceptance (initiation of boring). In choice tests, lychee was more attractive than avocado initially, but a higher percentage of beetles bored into avocado, suggesting that lychee emits more powerful olfactory/visual cues, but that avocado contains more of the secondary cues necessary for host recognition. Emissions of α-copaene, β-caryophyllene, and α-humulene were correlated with field captures, and lychee wood may be a source of additional semiochemicals for X. glabratus.

  9. Anti-malarial activities of Andrographis paniculata and Hedyotis corymbosa extracts and their combination with curcumin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swain Bijay K

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Herbal extracts of Andrographis paniculata (AP and Hedyotis corymbosa (HC are known as hepato-protective and fever-reducing drugs since ancient time and they have been used regularly by the people in the south Asian sub-continent. Methanolic extracts of these two plants were tested in vitro on choloroquine sensitive (MRC-pf-20 and resistant (MRC-pf-303 strains of Plasmodium falciparum for their anti-malarial activity. Methods Growth inhibition was determined using different concentrations of these plant extracts on synchronized P. falciparum cultures at the ring stage. The interactions between these two plant extracts and individually with curcumin were studied in vitro. The performance of these two herbal extracts in isolation and combination were further evaluated in vivo on Balb/c mice infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA and their efficacy was compared with that of curcumin. The in vivo toxicity of the plant derived compounds as well as their parasite stage-specificity was studied. Results The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50 of AP (7.2 μg/ml was found better than HC (10.8 μg/ml. Combination of these two herbal drugs showed substantial enhancement in their anti-malarial activity. Combinatorial effect of each of these with curcumin also revealed anti-malarial effect. Additive interaction between the plant extracts (AP + HC and their individual synergism with curcumin (AP+CUR, HC+CUR were evident from this study. Increased in vivo potency was also observed with the combination of plant extracts over the individual extracts and curcumin. Both the plant extracts were found to inhibit the ring stage of the parasite and did not show any in vivo toxicity, whether used in isolation or in combination. Conclusion Both these two plant extracts in combination with curcumin could be an effective, alternative source of herbal anti-malarial drugs.

  10. Effect of Naphthalene Acetic Acid on the Adventitious Rooting in Shoot Cuttings of Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f. Wall. ex Nees: An Important Therapeutical Herb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Sanower Hossain

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Andrographis paniculata is one of the most important therapeutical herbs, widely used in traditional medical systems for the treatment of diverse diseases for thousands of years. This study was carried out to assess the effect of 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA on adventitious rooting in A. paniculata shoot cuttings. The cuttings were treated with six concentrations of NAA (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, and 3.0 mM by applying soaking method and cuttings without hormone (soaking in distilled water were considered as control. The cuttings were then inoculated into peat moss in the planting tray and incubated under complete shade for root induction. Water was sprayed on peat moss once daily to moisten it. The results showed that different concentrations of NAA significantly (P≤0.05 affected the rooting characteristics of A. paniculata and 2.5 mM of NAA was found to be more effective to induce rooting in young apical shoot (YAS cuttings compared to other concentrations and old apical shoot (OAS. This study also postulates that adventitious rooting response depends on the juvenility of plant material and concentration of growth regulator. This report describes a technique for adventitious rooting in A. paniculata, which could be feasible to use for commercial scale propagation of this plant.

  11. Titers of 'Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus' in Murraya paniculata and Murraya-reared Diaphorina citri are much lower than in citrus and citrus-reared psyllids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huanglongbing, one of the most devastating diseases of citrus, is associated with the bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus vectored by the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri, in North America. Murraya paniculata is a common ornamental plant that is an alternate host of Ca. L. asiaticus an...

  12. Entomopathogenic fungi as a biological control agents for the vector of the laurel wilt disease, the redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The redbay ambrosia beetle (RAB), Xyleborus glabratus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) vectors the fungal pathogen, Raffaelea lauricola, which causes laurel wilt (LW), a lethal disease of trees in the family Lauraceae, including the most commercially important crop in this family, avocado, Pe...

  13. A phytopathogenic fungus manipulates release of host plant odors causing behavioral changes to its symbiont and vector, the redbay ambrosia beetle

    Science.gov (United States)

    The redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus, is the vector of a symbiotic fungus, Raffaelea lauricola that causes laurel wilt, a highly lethal disease to members of the Lauraceae. Pioneer Xyleborus glabratus beetles infect live trees with Raffaelea lauricola, and only when trees are declining be...

  14. Abundance in Persea americana of the Redbay Ambrosia Beetle, Xyleborus glabratus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), Vector of Laurel Wilt: A Case of Intra-guild Competition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus is a pest of plant species in the Lauraceae, including Persea borbonia, P. pallustris, P. americana, and others. Xyleborus glabratus infestation levels in P. borbonia maintain a high proportion compared to other species, such as Xylosandrus crassiuscu...

  15. Interruption of the semiochemical-based attraction of ambrosia beetles to ethanol-baited traps and ethanol-injected trap trees by verbenone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranger, Christopher M; Tobin, Patrick C; Reding, Michael E; Bray, Alicia M; Oliver, Jason B; Schultz, Peter B; Frank, Steven D; Persad, Anand B

    2013-06-01

    We examined the extent to which verbenone, a bark beetle antiaggregation pheromone, interrupted the semiochemical-based attraction of ambrosia beetles. Field trapping studies conducted in Ohio showed that a verbenone dispenser with a release rate of 50 mg/d at 25°C reduced the attraction of Anisandrus sayi Hopkins, Euwallacea validus (Eichhoff), Hypothenemus dissimilis (Zimmermann), Xylosandrus germanus (Blandford), and Xyleborinus saxesenii (Ratzeburg) to ethanol-baited traps. A verbenone dispenser attached to ethanol-injected Magnolia virginiana L. trap trees deployed in Ohio also reduced ambrosia beetle attacks compared to trap trees without a verbenone dispenser. Subsequent field trials demonstrated a direct relationship between distance from a verbenone dispenser and ambrosia beetle attacks on trap trees in Ohio in 2011 and 2012 and Tennessee in 2012, but not in Tennessee and Virginia in 2011. Assessment of the influence of verbenone on the probability of attacks above a density threshold found that although attacks occurred on trap trees regardless of their proximity to a verbenone dispenser, the higher density of attacks per tree occurred on trap trees farthest away from the verbenone source in Ohio and Tennessee. Verbenone alone could be somewhat useful for discouraging ambrosia beetle attacks on individual trees or on a small spatial scale, but deployment of verbenone might be most effective when integrated as part of a "push-pull" strategy.

  16. Association of the symbiotic fungi Fusarium euwallaceae, Graphium sp. and Acremonium sp., with the ambrosia beetle Euwallacea nr. fornicatus in avocado

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ambrosia beetle, Euwallacea nr. fornicatus (Coleoptera:Scolytinae), is a new invasive species to Israel. To date, the beetle has been recorded from 48 tree species representing 25 plant families. Amongst the most affected are avocado, castor-bean and box elder. Isolations from beetle heads revea...

  17. Evaluation of commercial formulations of entomopathogenic fungi to manage the redbay ambrosia beetle, vector of Laurel wilt, a lethal disease affecting avocados in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    The redbay ambrosia beetle (RAB), Xyleborus glabratus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) vectors the fungal pathogen, Raffaelea lauricola, which causes laurel wilt (LW), a lethal disease of trees in the family Lauraceae, including the most commercially important crop in this family, avocado, Pe...

  18. Risico’s van introductie van exotische plantensoorten, in het bijzonder uit het geslacht Ambrosia L., via import van zaden voor met name veevoer en vogelvoer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Denderen, van Daniël P.D.; Tamis, Wil L.M.; Valkenburg, van Johan L.C.H.

    2010-01-01

    Import van landbouwproducten, in het bijzonder zaden, zijn een belangrijke bron voor de introductie van exotische plantensoorten. In dit artikel wordt ingegaan op twee studies naar het voorkomen van exotische planten, in het bijzonder uit het geslacht Ambrosia, in geïmporteerde partijen zaden. Met n

  19. RESPONSES OF QUINOA (CHENOPODIUM QUINOA WILLD. TO TWO CONDITIONS OF IRRIGATION IN COAST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    La Rosa, R.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available 13 Artículo original Biologist (Lima. Vol. 6, Nº1, ene-jun 2008, 13-21 RESPUESTAS DE LA QUINUA (CHENOPODIUM QUINOA WILLD. A DOS CONDICIONES DE RIEGO EN COSTA RESPONSES OF QUINOA (CHENOPODIUM QUINOA WILLD. TO TWO CONDITIONS OF IRRIGATION IN COAST Rafael La Rosa1, Yesenia Macabilca2, Augusto Mendoza3 & Ana Gutiérrez 3 1 Laboratorio de Ecofisiología Vegetal; 2 Laboratorio de Bioquímica y Biología Molecular3; Centro de Investigaciones Agroecológicas Oquendo. Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Matemática. Universidad Nacional Federico Villarreal. Calle San Marcos 351, Pueblo Libre, Lima – Perú. Teléfono 2193600 anexo 8373. Correo electrónico: rafolarosa@yahoo.es ABSTRACT Responses of Chenopodium quinoa Willd “quinoa” under two coast conditions of irrigation and its effects in production and quality of proteins were evaluated. In the current research we used seeds of variety “huancayo”, from Experimental Station “Santa Ana” of INIA (Institute Nacional de Investigaciones Agropecuarias– Huancayo. Irrigation was for drip, obtaining two treatments, i irrigation with 3 m3 of water, weekly, and ii without irrigation, while evaluations were done. Soil humidity, transpiration, relative water content (RWC, anatomy of mesophyll of leaves, quantification of proteins and starch, acid phosphatase activity and amilolytic activity were evaluated. Soil humidity is significant different after a month of irrigation. Transpiration was related with wind strength; hence this is not a good way to measure drought stress. RWC was similar in both treatments, it means that decrease in soil water not affect water level in leaves. Mesophylls were very similar in both conditions. Dry matter in vegetative period show no significant differences, but there were a tendency to accumulate more assimilates in irrigated plants. Therefore there were no difference in photosynthetic activity, so seeds received same quantity of assimilates; this fact means seeds

  20. Supplement to the site observational work plan for the UMTRA project site at Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide additional and more detailed information to supplement review of the site observational work plan (SOWP) (DOE, 1995) for the Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site. This document includes a discussion of the average linear velocity of the ground water in the alluvium and a discussion of the ground water quality of the alluvium, weathered Mancos Shale, and the Tres Hermanos-C Member of the Mancos Shale. The data from a 1989 aquifer test were analyzed using the curve-matching software AQTESOLV and then compared with the original results. A hydrograph of the ground water elevations in monitoring wells screened in the alluvium is presented to show how the ground water elevations change with time. Stiff and Piper diagrams were created to describe the changes in ground water geochemistry in the alluvium/weathered Mancos Sahel unit, the Tres Hermanos-C Sandstone unit, the Tres Hermanos-B Sandstone unit, and the Dakota Sandstone. Background information on other related topics such as site history, cell construction, soil characteristics, and well construction are presented in the SOWP. A geologic cross section depicts the conceptual model of the hydrostratigraphy and ground water chemistry of the Ambrosia Lake site. Hydrogeologic information of each hydrostratigraphic unit is presented.

  1. Supplement to the site observational work plan for the UMTRA Project Site at Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide additional and more detailed information to supplement review of the site observational work plan (SOWP) for the Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site. This document includes a discussion of (1) the average linear velocity of the ground water in the alluvium; (2) the ground water quality of the alluvium, weathered Mancos Shale, and the Tres Hermanos-C Member of the Mancos Shale; and (3) the fate and transport of contaminants from the uppermost aquifer to the Westwater Canyon Member of the Morrison Formation. The data from a 1989 aquifer test were analyzed using the curve-matching software AQTESOLV and then compared with the original results. A hydrograph of the ground water elevations in monitoring wells screened in the alluvium is presented to show how the ground water elevations change with time. Stiff and Piper diagrams were created to describe the changes in ground water geochemistry in the alluvium/weathered Mancos Shale unit, the Tres Hermanos-C Sandstone unit, the Tres Hermanos-B Sandstone unit, and the Dakota Sandstone. Background information on other related topics such as site history, cell construction, soil characteristics, and well construction are presented in the SOWP. Figure 1 is a geologic cross section depicting the conceptual model of the hydrostratigraphy and ground water chemistry of the Ambrosia Lake site. Table 1 presents hydrogeologic information of each hydrostratigraphic unit.

  2. Flood Stress as a Technique to Assess Preventive Insecticide and Fungicide Treatments for Protecting Trees against Ambrosia Beetles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher M. Ranger

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Ambrosia beetles tunnel into the heartwood of trees where they cultivate and feed upon a symbiotic fungus. We assessed the effectiveness of flood stress for making Cercis canadensis L. and Cornus florida L. trees attractive to attack as part of insecticide and fungicide efficacy trials conducted in Ohio and Virginia. Since female ambrosia beetles will not begin ovipositing until their symbiotic fungus is established within the host, we also assessed pre-treatment of trees with permethrin, azoxystrobin, and potassium phosphite on fungal establishment and beetle colonization success. Permethrin reduced attacks on flooded trees, yet no attacks occurred on any of the non-flooded trees. Fewer galleries created within flooded trees pre-treated with permethrin, azoxystrobin, and potassium phosphite contained the purported symbiotic fungus; foundress’ eggs were only detected in flooded but untreated trees. While pre-treatment with permethrin, azoxystrobin, and potassium phosphite can disrupt colonization success, maintaining tree health continues to be the most effective and sustainable management strategy.

  3. Sensitivity of two quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) varieties to progressive drought stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Yujie; Liu, Fulai; Bendevis, Mira Arpe

    2014-01-01

    in Achachino was significantly higher than CL and CT, which indicated that stomatal conductance declined before transpiration and leaf water potential were reduced. Such difference was found in Titicaca where reduction of leaf area had more effect on transpiration than stomatal closure. Slower growth rate......Quinoa (ChenopodiumquinoaWilld.) is a highly nutritious Andean seed crop which shows great potential to grow under a range of hostile environments. The objective of this study was to investigate the differences of drought tolerance of a Bolivian (Achachino) and a Danish (Titicaca) variety......, and especially drought-related adaption strategies. Soil water status was expressed as the fraction of transpirable soil water (FTSW). Relative stomatal conductance (RSC), relative transpiration (RT) and relative leaf water potential (RLW) were calculated by determining stomatal conductance, transpiration rate...

  4. Micro Chemical (Elemental Analysis of Leucas aspera (Willd Link Employing SEM-EDAX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunkara Yashvanth

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The plant, Leucas aspera (Willd Link is well known for its varied medicinal uses. Present study deals with its micro chemical (elemental characterization using Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis (EDAX detector fitted to Scanning Electron Microscope. The plant has very interesting morphology. Crystals of varied shape and inclusions/exudates were noticed within and on the leaf & stem surfaces. Various plant parts analysed were, stem surface, stem sections, stem inclusions, blebs on stem hairs, crystals of varied shape, root sections, abaxial and adaxial surfaces, flower, seed and seed caruncle. Lot of variation in elemental composition was observed in various plant parts. Major elements detected were Carbon, Oxygen, Calcium, Silica, and Aluminum. Other elements found were Iron, Sodium, potassium, Phosphorus and Chlorine.

  5. EVALUATION OF ANTIULCEROGENIC EFFECT OF ALCOHOLIC EXTRACT OF MAYTENUS EMARGINATA (WILLD. DING HOU LEAVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poonia Lalita

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Maytenus emarginata (Willd. Dind Hou belongs to family Celastraceae, is an evergreen tree that tolerates various types of stresses of the desert, locally known as “Kankero”. Maytenus emarginata has been used for fever, asthama, rheumatism and gastrointestinal disorders worldwide. The effect of alcoholic extract of leaves of Maytenus emarginata was investigated in rats to evaluate the anti-ulcer activity by using aspirin induced gastric ulcer pyloric ligation model. The parameters taken to assess anti-ulcer activity were volume of gastric secretion, pH, free acidity, total acidity and ulcer index. In present study the orally administered alcoholic extract significantly (P < 0.05 increases pH and decreases the volume of gastric acid secretion, free acidity, total acidity and ulcer index with respect to control at a dose of 125 and 187 mg/kg body weight. This study lend support to the traditional use of Maytenus emarginata as antiulcerogenic.

  6. Chemical and sensory evaluation of dark chocolate with addition of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Andrea B; Brandelli, Adriano; Macedo, Fernanda C; Pieta, Luiza; Klug, Tâmmila V; de Jong, Erna V

    2010-03-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) is a good source of vitamin E containing high quality protein. A dark chocolate with the addition of 12, 16 or 20% quinoa was developed. The protein concentration of the products increased as the percentage of quinoa increased. The product containing 20% quinoa showed only 9% increase in vitamin E, while the quantity of polyphenols decreased from 23.5 to 18 μmol pirocatechin/g. The amount of essential amino acids was improved in samples containing quinoa. Cysteine, tyrosine and methionine increased by 104, 72, 70%, respectively in chocolate containing 20% quinoa. The amino acid pattern was as per WHO standards, which was adequate to human needs. The chocolate with quinoa was approved by 92% of the sensory panel. All the samples showed an index of acceptance above 70%. Quinoa could be used at the levels evaluated in this study adding its potential health benefit to the dark chocolate.

  7. Characterisation of phenolics, betanins and antioxidant activities in seeds of three Chenopodium quinoa Willd. genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yao; Li, Xihong; Zhang, Bing; Chen, Peter X; Liu, Ronghua; Tsao, Rong

    2015-01-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is known for its exceptional nutritional value and potential health benefits. The present study identified the composition of different forms of extractable phenolics and betacyanins of quinoa cultivars in white, red and black, and how they contribute to antioxidant activities. Results showed that at least 23 phenolic compounds were found in either free or conjugated forms (liberated by alkaline and/or acid hydrolysis); the majority of which were phenolic acids, mainly vanillic acid, ferulic acid and their derivatives as well as main flavonoids quercetin, kaempferol and their glycosides. Betacyanins, mainly betanin and isobetanin, were confirmed for the first time to be the pigments of the red and black quinoa seeds, instead of anthocyanins. Darker quinoa seeds had higher phenolic concentration and antioxidant activity. Findings of these phenolics, along with betacyanins in this study add new knowledge to the functional components of quinoa seeds of different cultivar background.

  8. Innovations in Health Value and Functional Food Development of Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Brittany L; Rojas-Silva, Patricio; Rojo, Leonel E; Delatorre-Herrera, Jose; Baldeón, Manuel E; Raskin, Ilya

    2015-07-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd., Amaranthaceae) is a grain-like, stress-tolerant food crop that has provided subsistence, nutrition, and medicine for Andean indigenous cultures for thousands of years. Quinoa contains a high content of health-beneficial phytochemicals, including amino acids, fiber, polyunsaturated fatty acids, vitamins, minerals, saponins, phytosterols, phytoecdysteroids, phenolics, betalains, and glycine betaine. Over the past 2 decades, numerous food and nutraceutical products and processes have been developed from quinoa. Furthermore, 4 clinical studies have demonstrated that quinoa supplementation exerts significant, positive effects on metabolic, cardiovascular, and gastrointestinal health in humans. However, vast challenges and opportunities remain within the scientific, agricultural, and development sectors to optimize quinoa's role in the promotion of global human health and nutrition.

  9. Water relations and transpiration of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) under salinity and soil drying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Razzaghi, Fatemeh; Ahmadi, Seyed Hamid; Adolf, Verena Isabelle

    2011-01-01

    Drought and salinity are the two major factors limiting crop growth and production in arid and semi-arid regions. The separate and combined effects of salinity and progressive drought in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) were studied in a greenhouse experiment. Stomatal conductance (gs), leaf...... water potential (Wl), shoot and root abscisic acid concentration ([ABA]) and transpiration rate were measured in full irrigation (FI; around 95 % of water holding capacity (WHC)) and progressive drought (PD) treatments using the irrigation water with five salinity levels (0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 dS m)1......); the treatments are referred to as FI0, FI10, FI20, FI30, FI40; PD0, PD10, PD20, PD30, PD40, respectively. The measurements were carried out over 9 days of continuous drought. The results showed that increasing salinity levels decreased the total soil water potential (WT) and consequently decreased gs and Wl...

  10. Antihyperglycemic activity of the ethanolic seed extract of Vernonia anthelminticum willd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthikeyan A

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The investigation was carried out to study the effects of Vernonia anthelminticum Willd seed extract on blood glucose level. The antihyperglycemic efficacy of the ethanolic extract of the seed was evaluated in normal, glucose and alloxan induced diabetic rats. The extract exhibited significant hypoglycemic activity in all three animal models when compared with the control group. The activity was also comparable to that of the effect produced by a standard antidiabetic agent gliclazide, 25 mg/kg (p.o.. The results also indicated dose dependent effect. The hypoglycemia and antihyperglycaemia produced by the extract may be due to increased uptake of glucose at tissue level or increase in pancreatic beta-cell function or due to inhibition of intestinal absorption of glucose. The study indicated that the ethanolic extract is a potential antidiabetic agent and lends scientific support for its else′s in folk medicine.

  11. The influence of Aster x salignus Willd. Invasion on the diversity of soil yeast communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glushakova, A. M.; Kachalkin, A. V.; Chernov, I. Yu.

    2016-07-01

    The annual dynamics of yeast communities were studied in the soddy-podzolic soil under the thickets of Aster x salignus Willd., one of the widespread invasive plant species in central Russia. Yeast groups in the soils under continuous aster thickets were found to differ greatly from the yeast communities in the soils under the adjacent indigenous meadow vegetation. In both biotopes the same species ( Candida vartiovaarae, Candida sake, and Cryptococcus terreus) are dominants. However, in the soils under indigenous grasses, eurybiontic yeasts Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, which almost never occur in the soil under aster, are widespread. In the soil under aster, the shares of other typical epiphytic and pedobiontic yeast fungi (ascomycetic species Wickerhamomyces aniomalus, Barnettozyma californica and basidiomycetic species Cystofilobasidium macerans, Guehomyces pullulans) significantly increase. Thus, the invasion of Aster x salignus has a clear effect on soil yeast complexes reducing their taxonomic and ecological diversity.

  12. Efeitos de Diferentes Substratos no Desenvolvimento da Juremina (Desmanthus virgatus L Willd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilton de Brito Cavalcanti

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Different rooting average were tested to identify those would provide the best conditions for growth the jureminha (Desmanthus virgatus l. willd. Five different compositions for rooting average were (sand; soil; sand + soil; sand + manure; sand + soil + manure. The study was carried out from november of 2006 to december of 2007, in an area room temperature at Embrapa Semi-Arid, Petrolina, PE, Brazil. The substrate composed with sand + + soil rooting medium showing the highest rates. In relation to the development of the system to radicular of the jureminha verified that in treatment 3 (sand+ soil all had presented the biggest values in length terms. The growth in height of the plants was influenced by different analyzed substrata. Between substrate, optimum sand + soil was with ground.

  13. Prospección de lepidópteros antófagos asociados a Acacia macracantha Willd. (Fabaceae en el norte de Chile Survey of anthophagous lepidopteran larvae associated with Acacia macracantha Willd. (Fabaceae in northern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor A. Vargas

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Se efectuó una prospección de larvas de lepidópteros antófagos asociados a Acacia macracantha Willd. (Fabaceae en dos valles costeros del norte de Chile: Azapa y Chaca. Fueron registradas ocho especies, distribuidas en ocho géneros y cinco familias. La composición de especies del ensamble fue la misma en las dos localidades. Sin embargo, la abundancia del ensamble y la abundancia por especie fueron diferentes entre los valles.A survey of anthophagous lepidopteran larvae associated with Acacia macracantha Willd. (Fabaceae was made in two coastal valleys from northern Chile: Azapa and Chaca. Eight species, distributed in eight genera and five families, were recorded in the areas. Species composition was the same for both localities. However, assemblage abundance and species abundance were different between the valleys.

  14. Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. pollen simulations over the Euro-CORDEX domain: model description and emission calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    liu, li; Solmon, Fabien; Giorgi, Filippo; Vautard, Robert

    2014-05-01

    Ragweed Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. is a highly allergenic invasive plant. Its pollen can be transported over large distances and has been recognized as a significant cause of hayfever and asthma (D'Amato et al., 2007). In the context of the ATOPICA EU program we are studying the links between climate, land use and ecological changes on the ragweed pollen emissions and concentrations. For this purpose, we implemented a pollen emission/transport module in the RegCM4 regional climate model in collaboration with ATOPICA partners. The Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) regional climate model, i.e. RegCM4 was adapted to incorporate the pollen emissions from (ORCHIDEE French) Global Land Surface Model and a pollen tracer model for describing pollen convective transport, turbulent mixing, dry and wet deposition over extensive domains, using consistent assumption regarding the transport of multiple species (Fabien et al., 2008). We performed two families of recent-past simulations on the Euro-Cordex domain (simulation for future condition is been considering). Hindcast simulations (2000~2011) were driven by the ERA-Interim re-analyses and designed to best simulate past periods airborne pollens, which were calibrated with parts of observations and verified by comparison with the additional observations. Historical simulations (1985~2004) were driven by HadGEM CMPI5 and designed to serve as a baseline for comparison with future airborne concentrations as obtained from climate and land-use scenarios. To reduce the uncertainties on the ragweed pollen emission, an assimilation-like method (Rouǐl et al., 2009) was used to calibrate release based on airborne pollen observations. The observations were divided into two groups and used for calibration and validation separately. A wide range of possible calibration coefficients were tested for each calibration station, making the bias between observations and simulations within an admissible value then

  15. ANTIPROLIFERATIVE ACTIVITY OF ETHANOLIC FLOWER EXTRACT FROM NYMPHAEA PUBESCENS WILLD AGAINST HUMAN CERVICAL AND BREAST CARCINOMA IN VITRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selvakumari E

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nymphaea pubescens Willd (Nymphaeaceae is a fascinating aquatic plant mentioned in siddha system of medicine, in the treatment of bleeding piles, diabetes and as cardiotonic in palpitation of the heart. Nymphaea species was traditionally used for treating cancer. The present study was designed to evaluate the invitro antiproliferative activity of Nymphaea pubescens Willd. The ethanolic extract of different parts such as rhizome, leaf, flower and fruit was subjected for MTT assay. The ethanolic extract of flower part was found to be cytotoxic against human cervical carcinoma Hela cell lines and human breast carcinoma MCF cell lines. The IC50 value of ethanolic flower extract was 91.57µg/ml against Hela cell lines and 99.6µg/ml against MCF-7 cell lines. Significant results were observed thereby justifying the use of plant in the traditional system of medicine.

  16. Andrographis paniculata leaf extract prevents thioacetamide-induced liver cirrhosis in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daleya Abdulaziz Bardi

    Full Text Available This study investigated the hepatoprotective effects of ethanolic Andrographis paniculata leaf extract (ELAP on thioacetamide-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. An acute toxicity study proved that ELAP is not toxic in rats. To examine the effects of ELAP in vivo, male Sprague Dawley rats were given intraperitoneal injections of vehicle 10% Tween-20, 5 mL/kg (normal control or 200 mg/kg TAA thioacetamide (to induce liver cirrhosis three times per week. Three additional groups were treated with thioacetamide plus daily oral silymarin (50 mg/kg or ELAP (250 or 500 mg/kg. Liver injury was assessed using biochemical tests, macroscopic and microscopic tissue analysis, histopathology, and immunohistochemistry. In addition, HepG2 and WRL-68 cells were treated in vitro with ELAP fractions to test cytotoxicity. Rats treated with ELAP exhibited significantly lower liver/body weight ratios and smoother, more normal liver surfaces compared with the cirrhosis group. Histopathology using Hematoxylin and Eosin along with Masson's Trichrome stain showed minimal disruption of hepatic cellular structure, minor fibrotic septa, a low degree of lymphocyte infiltration, and minimal collagen deposition after ELAP treatment. Immunohistochemistry indicated that ELAP induced down regulation of proliferating cell nuclear antigen. Also, hepatic antioxidant enzymes and oxidative stress parameters in ELAP-treated rats were comparable to silymarin-treated rats. ELAP administration reduced levels of altered serum liver biomarkers. ELAP fractions were non-cytotoxic to WRL-68 cells, but possessed anti-proliferative activity on HepG2 cells, which was confirmed by a significant elevation of lactate dehydrogenase, reactive oxygen species, cell membrane permeability, cytochrome c, and caspase-8,-9, and, -3/7 activity in HepG2 cells. A reduction of mitochondrial membrane potential was also detected in ELAP-treated HepG2 cells. The hepatoprotective effect of 500 mg/kg of ELAP is proposed

  17. Uji aktivitas ekstrak rimpang lengkuas merah (alpinia galanga l. Willd) Terhadap Jamur Pityrosporum Ovale Dalam Sediaan Sampo Anti Ketombe

    OpenAIRE

    Harahap, Ernida Fermadani

    2015-01-01

    Dandruff is seborrheic capitis dry form what is commonly known as seborrheic sicca (dry), the dry scales layered fragile easily attached cover detached scalp epidermis. In addition to the use pirithion zinc, coal ta , salicylic acid, selenium sulfide, and ketoconazole, they also used natural ingredients derived from plants for handling dandruff. One is them is Java Galangal (Alpinia galanga L. Willd) that is used by Gonting Julu- North Sumatera society , by way of red galangal rhizome is rub...

  18. Biogeografia do gênero Mikania Willd. (Asteraceae no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Biogeography of the genus Mikania Willd. (Asteraceae in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Rejane Ritter

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available A distribuição geográfica das 39 espécies nativas de Mikania Willd. no Rio Grande do Sul foi estudada em duas escalas: uma escala regional, utilizando regiões fisiográficas como unidades, e uma escala continental, considerando regiões político-geográficas como unidades. A riqueza específica e a amplitude de distribuiçãoforam obtidas diretamente de matrizes de presença e ausência, relacionando espécies e regiões. A matriz regional foi analisada por dois métodos multivariados, uma análise de agrupamentos e uma análise de coordenadas principais, utilizando o complemento do coeficiente de Jaccard como elemento de comparação (dissimilaridade. Na escala regional as regiões mais ricas foram o Litoral e a Depressão Central, enquanto na escala continental, a maioria das espécies sul-rio-grandenses foram também encontradas no Sudeste do Brasil e no Sul da América do Sul. A análise multivariada evidenciou dois grupos principais no Estado, um oriental e outro ocidental. Em cada um desses grupos foram evidenciados dois subgrupos relacionados a características climáticas e geológicas do Estado.Os padrões de distribuição de Mikania confirmam o caráter tropical do gênero e as principais rotas de migração descritas para a flora do Sul do Brasil.The geographical distribution of the 39 species of Mikania Willd. native in Rio Grande do Sul was studied at two scales: a state-regional scale, using physiographic regions as units, and an american-continental scale, considering politic-geographic regions as units. Specific richness and distribution amplitude were obtained directly from presence and absence matrixes, relating species and regions. The state-regional matrix was also analysed by two multivariate methods, a cluster analysis and a principal coordinate analysis, using the complement of the Jaccard coefficient as a measure of dissimilarity. At the state-regional scale, the richest regions were the Coastal Plain and the

  19. Andrographolide: A Novel Antimalarial Diterpene Lactone Compound from Andrographis paniculata and Its Interaction with Curcumin and Artesunate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Kirti; Dash, Aditya P.; Dey, Nrisingha

    2011-01-01

    Andrographolide (AND), the diterpene lactone compound, was purified by HPLC from the methanolic fraction of the plant Andrographis paniculata. The compound was found to have potent antiplasmodial activity when tested in isolation and in combination with curcumin and artesunate against the erythrocytic stages of Plasmodium falciparum in vitro and Plasmodium berghei ANKA in vivo. IC50s for artesunate (AS), andrographolide (AND), and curcumin (CUR) were found to be 0.05, 9.1 and 17.4 μM, respectively. The compound (AND) was found synergistic with curcumin (CUR) and addictively interactive with artesunate (AS). In vivo, andrographolide-curcumin exhibited better antimalarial activity, not only by reducing parasitemia (29%), compared to the control (81%), but also by extending the life span by 2-3 folds. Being nontoxic to the in vivo system this agent can be used as template molecule for designing new derivatives with improved antimalarial properties. PMID:21760808

  20. Andrographolide: A Novel Antimalarial Diterpene Lactone Compound from Andrographis paniculata and Its Interaction with Curcumin and Artesunate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirti Mishra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Andrographolide (AND, the diterpene lactone compound, was purified by HPLC from the methanolic fraction of the plant Andrographis paniculata. The compound was found to have potent antiplasmodial activity when tested in isolation and in combination with curcumin and artesunate against the erythrocytic stages of Plasmodium falciparum in vitro and Plasmodium berghei ANKA in vivo. IC50s for artesunate (AS, andrographolide (AND, and curcumin (CUR were found to be 0.05, 9.1 and 17.4 μM, respectively. The compound (AND was found synergistic with curcumin (CUR and addictively interactive with artesunate (AS. In vivo, andrographolide-curcumin exhibited better antimalarial activity, not only by reducing parasitemia (29%, compared to the control (81%, but also by extending the life span by 2-3 folds. Being nontoxic to the in vivo system this agent can be used as template molecule for designing new derivatives with improved antimalarial properties.

  1. Gradual loss of genetic diversity of Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. populations in the invaded range of central Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kočiš-Tubić Nataša

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As an invasive allergenic weed, Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. causes serious public health and economic problems in invaded ranges of Europe. Over the last two decades, while expanding toward southern parts of Serbia, this common ragweed has become a very troublesome plant species in the whole country. Considering the importance of genetic studies in understanding of invasive species, our main objectives in this study were to analyze the genetic diversity and genetic structure of Ambrosia artemisiifolia populations from Central Serbia, a relatively recently invaded region. Comparing values of genetic measures obtained by microsatellite analyses, a number of differences were detected in genetic diversity between sampled populations. Allelic richness-r (ranged from 5.42 to 7.80, the mean number of alleles per locus-NA (5.8-8.4 and the mean number of rare alleles per locus-NR (2.8-5.8 have quite similar ranges across populations. We observed greater genetic variability in populations from the northern part of investigated area than in southern populations. Based on pairwise Fst values, AMOVA results and PCo Analysis, moderate differentiation among population was detected, while the STRUCTURE analysis clearly separated SR-Kru and SR-Les. Data obtained for analyses of differentiation and gradual losses of genetic diversity of sampled populations provides useful information about invasion dynamics of common ragweed in recently invaded region. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173002 and the Secretariat for Science and Tehnological Development, Province of Vojvodina (No. 114-457-2173/2011-01

  2. Erfahrungen mit der Bekämpfung von Ambrosia in der Schweiz – ein Rückblick

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bohren, Christian

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The dicotyledonous summer annual common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. is on the one hand a noxious arable weed and on the other hand an invasive neophyte with a great potential to spread. Various possibilities are known for control of common ragweed in agricultural fields with mechanical and chemical methods. Limits are set in sunflowers because sunflower and ragweed are botanically related. Because no weed control action results in 100% efficacy, common ragweed can propagate quickly in untreated corners of the field or in other disturbed soils. The legal obligation of reporting and control – introduced in Switzerland a couple of years ago – allowed the development of specific distribution maps and enhanced the quality of control measures. Facts and figures from the Canton of Geneva prove that the ragweed invasion has been stopped, but the species is not eradicated. The results of Geneva represent the results of good ragweed control in the whole country. Beside agriculture, traffic infrastructure, building sites, gravel pits and urban park and garden areas are sensible to ragweed invasion. This is why the formation of “Ambrosia Groups” helps to exchange experiences and to understand factors provoking the invasion. The responsibility of individuals helps to improve control efficiency even if financial funds are small. A sustainable control success depends on the efficiency to hamper seed production. The reduction of pollen quantity in the air in a long term is part of the earnings for the control effort. Actually, the publicity of common ragweed is fed by specialist information and its distribution in the media. It would be an interesting task to develop in our fast moving era an awareness level comparable to that of the stinging nettle.

  3. Inhibition of group IIA secretory phospholipase A2and its inflammatory reactions in mice by ethanolic extract of Andrographis paniculata, a well-known medicinal food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Kishore

    2016-01-01

    This study emphasis the anti-inflammatory effect of A. paniculata by inhibiting the inflammatory Group IIA sPLA2 and its associated inflammatory activities such as edema. It was found that there is a strong correlation between lipolytic activity and pro-inflammatory activity inhibition. Therefore, the study suggests that the extract processes potent anti-inflammatory agents, which could be developed as a potential therapeutic agent against inflammatory and related diseases.

  4. Pengaruh Ekstrak Daun Sambiloto (Andrographis paniculata) terhadap Struktur Mikroanatomi Hepar dan Kadar Glutamat Piruvat Transaminase Serum Mencit (Mus musculus) yang Terpapar Diazinon

    OpenAIRE

    TRI WULANDARI; MARTI HARINI; SHANTI LISTYAWATI

    2007-01-01

    Diazinon is a pesticide which is often using by farmer to kill insect as theenemy of the plant. The over using of pesticide may result in the remaining of diazinon residue in farming product. This residue can cause the damage of body tissue, especially liver. The aim of research were to find out the effect of leaves sambiloto (Andrographis paniculata Ness.) extract on microanatomic structure of liver and serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) level of mice (Mus musculus L.) expose...

  5. Anti-Infective Metabolites of a Newly Isolated Bacillus thuringiensis KL1 Associated with Kalmegh (Andrographis paniculata Nees.), a Traditional Medicinal Herb

    OpenAIRE

    Sudipta Roy; Sahana Yasmin; Subhadeep Ghosh; Somesankar Bhattacharya; Debdulal Banerjee

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to isolate endophytic bacteria possessing anti-infective property from Kalmegh (Andrographis paniculata Nees.), a well-known medicinal plant. A total of 23 strains were isolated from this plant among which the strain KL1, isolated from surface-sterilized leaf of this medicinal herb, showed broad-spectrum antagonism against an array of Gram-positive and -negative bacterial pathogens. Ethyl acetate extract of KL1-fermented media yielded a greenish amorphous substance re...

  6. Open label clinical trial to study adverse effects and tolerance to dry powder of the aerial part of andrographis paniculata in patients type 2 with diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Renu; Sulaiman, Siti Amrah; Mohamed, Mafauzy

    2005-01-01

    Adverse effects and tolerance to dry powder of aerial part of Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Nees were studied in 20 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus for a period of 12 weeks. Patients were given powdered A. paniculata starting with 600 mg daily, gradually increasing to a maximum of 1.8 gm daily. Parameters monitored included body weight, blood pressure, liver function tests, renal function tests, cardiac enzymes, haemogram, serum electrolytes, fasting blood glucose, HbA1c, blood cholesterol, serum triglycerides and blood hormone levels (triiodotyronine, thyroxine, thyrotropin, insulin, fasting cortisol). None of the above mentioned parameters showed significant change during the study period except for a fall in HbA1c by 5.46% (p<0.01) and fasting S. insulin by 20.93% (p<0.003). In conclusion, A. paniculata powder did not induced significant adverse events based on parameters observed in our study but significantly lowered HbA1c and fasting serum insulin in patients with type 2 diabetes.

  7. Abundance and dynamics of filamentous fungi in the complex ambrosia gardens of the primitively eusocial beetle Xyleborinus saxesenii Ratzeburg (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedermann, Peter H W; Klepzig, Kier D; Taborsky, Michael; Six, Diana L

    2013-03-01

    Insect fungus gardens consist of a community of interacting microorganisms that can have either beneficial or detrimental effects to the farmers. In contrast to fungus-farming ants and termites, the fungal communities of ambrosia beetles and the effects of particular fungal species on the farmers are largely unknown. Here, we used a laboratory rearing technique for studying the filamentous fungal garden community of the ambrosia beetle, Xyleborinus saxesenii, which cultivates fungi in tunnels excavated within dead trees. Raffaelea sulfurea and Fusicolla acetilerea were transmitted in spore-carrying organs by gallery founding females and established first in new gardens. Raffaelea sulfurea had positive effects on egg-laying and larval numbers. Over time, four other fungal species emerged in the gardens. Prevalence of one of them, Paecilomyces variotii, correlated negatively with larval numbers and can be harmful to adults by forming biofilms on their bodies. It also comprised the main portion of garden material removed from galleries by adults. Our data suggest that two mutualistic, several commensalistic and one to two pathogenic filamentous fungi are associated with X. saxesenii. Fungal diversity in gardens of ambrosia beetles appears to be much lower than that in gardens of fungus-culturing ants, which seems to result from essential differences in substrates and behaviours.

  8. SHADING AND SUBSTRATE ON THE PRODUCTION OF SEEDLINGS OF Erythrina velutina Willd.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laércio Wanderley dos Santos

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509812341Erythrina velutina Willd. (Fabaceae is used in traditional medicine in northeastern Brazil for its sudorificproperties, soothing, emollient, pectoral and local anesthetic. The aim of this study was to evaluate theeffect of substrate and shading on seedlings of Erythrina velutina. The experimental design was completelyrandomized in factorial scheme 5 x 2 (five substrates and two shades, with four replications and 10 plantsin each plot. The substrates were arisco, arisco + cattle manure 2:1 v/v, arisco + cattle manure 3:1 v/v, sand+ cattle manure 2:1 v/v, sand + cattle manure 3:1 v/v. The shadings were 0% shading (full sunlight and50% shading. The characteristics evaluated were stem diameter, height, leaf area, green and dry biomass ofroots and shoots, height/diameter and Dickson quality index.There was no significant difference in diameterbetween the different substrates. The environment in full sun favored the diameter and the root biomasswhereas the height was favored by shade. The substrates with cattle manure in its composition favorsthe development of plants of Erythrina velutina and higher seedling quality are produced in full sun andsubstrate arisco + cattle manure in the ratio 2:1

  9. Clinical efficacy of Coleus forskohlii (Willd.) Briq. (Makandi) in hypertension of geriatric population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagtap, Madhavi; Chandola, H M; Ravishankar, B

    2011-01-01

    Hypertension is the most common psychosomatic disorder affecting 972 million people worldwide. The present clinical study deals with the effect of Makandi (Coleus forskohlii (Willd.) Briq.) Ghana vati and tablets of its powder in hypertension found in the geriatric age group (50-80 years). A total of 49 hypertensive patients fulfilling the diagnostic criteria were registered in two groups-Group I (Ghana vati) and Group II (Churna tablet). Out of 27 enrolled patients of group I, 21 patients completed the treatment. In Group II, out of 22 registered patients, a total of 20 patients completed the treatment. The effect of the therapy was assessed on the basis of changes in the systolic and diastolic blood pressures, in both sitting and supine positions; with Manasa Bhava Pariksha, Manasa Vibhrama Pariksha, symptomatology, geriatric signs and symptoms, and a brief psychiatric rating scale. Analysis of the results showed that the treatment in both the groups had been found to be good. It can be stated that Makandi, either in Ghana vati form or in churna tablet form, is an effective remedy for the treatment of hypertension. On analyzing the overall effect, 76.19% patients in Group I and 75.00% patients in Group II were mildly improved. Comparatively the overall treatment with group I was found to be better.

  10. The Hedyotis diffusa Willd. (Rubiaceae: A Review on Phytochemistry, Pharmacology, Quality Control and Pharmacokinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Chen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Hedyotis diffusa Willd (H. diffusa is a well-known Chinese medicine with a variety of activities, especially its anti-cancer effect in the clinic. Up to now, 171 compounds have been reported from H. diffusa, including 32 iridoids, 26 flavonoids, 24 anthraquinones, 26 phenolics and their derivatives, 50 volatile oils and 13 miscellaneous compounds. In vitro and in vivo studies show these phytochemicals and plant extracts to exhibit a range of pharmacological activities of anti-cancer, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-fibroblast, immunomodulatory and neuroprotective effects. Although a series of methods have been established for the quality control of H. diffusa, a feasible and reliable approach is still needed in consideration of its botanical origin, collecting time and bioactive effects. Meanwhile, more pharmacokinetics researches are needed to illustrate the characteristics of H. diffusa in vivo. The present review aims to provide up-to-date and comprehensive information on the phytochemistry, pharmacology, quality control and pharmacokinetic characteristics of H. diffusa for its clinical use and further development.

  11. Investigation of Ethyl Acetate Extract/Fractions of Acacia nilotica willd. Ex Del as Potent Antioxidant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajbir Singh

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was planned to evaluate the antioxidant activity of ethyl acetate extract/fractions of Acacia nilotica Willd. Ex. Del extracted with different solvents of increasing and decreasing order of solvent polarity. The antioxidative activities, including the 1’-1’ diphenylpicryl-hydrazyl (DPPH radical-scavenging effects, hydroxyl radical scavenging potential, chelating ability, reducing power and lipid peroxidation inhibition in rat tissue homogenate were studied in vitro. It was found that the antioxidative effect provided by extract/fractions was strongly concentration dependent and increased on fractionating the extract into water and ethyl acetate fractions. In general, the antioxidative activity increased with increasing extract/fractions concentration to a certain extent, and then leveled off with further increase in antioxidant activity. From a comparison of the antioxidant potential and IC 50 values for different antioxidative reactions, it seemed that extract/fractions were more effective in scavenging DPPH and hydroxyl radicals than reducing, chelating heavy metals and lipid peroxidation inhibitory potential.

  12. Biological effects of hydrolyzed quinoa extract from seeds of Chenopodium quinoa Willd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneguetti, Quele Adriana; Brenzan, Mislaine Adriana; Batista, Marcia Regina; Bazotte, Roberto Barbosa; Silva, Daniel Rodrigues; Garcia Cortez, Diógenes Aparício

    2011-06-01

    An extract from seeds of Chenopodium quinoa Willd. (quinoa), termed hydrolyzed quinoa (HQ), was obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis from seeds of the quinoa variety BRS-Piabiru. Analysis of the physical and chemical properties of quinoa and HQ showed that the hydrolyzed extract is rich in essential amino acids, particularly those with branched chains (leucine, isoleucine, and valine). In addition, we evaluated the biological effects of HQ, particularly the toxicological potential. For this purpose, male Wistar rats were assigned randomly to four groups: (1) sedentary supplemented group, which received HQ (2,000 mg/kg); (2) sedentary control group, non-supplemented; (3) exercised supplemented group (i.e., rats subjected to aerobic physical exercise that received HQ [2,000 mg/kg]); and (4) exercised control group (i.e., rats subjected to aerobic physical exercise, non-supplemented). After 30 days, all groups were analyzed for levels of serum glucose, cholesterol, triacylglycerol, total protein, albumin, uric acid, and urea and activities of the enzymes alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase. Body weight gain, dietary intake, and lipid deposition were also analyzed. The results showed no hepatic and renal toxicity of HQ. Moreover, decreased food intake, body weight, fat deposition, and blood triacylglycerol level were observed in the supplemented groups (sedentary and exercised supplemented groups). These results suggest a potential use of HQ in human nutrition.

  13. Evaluation of growth and flowering of Chenopodium quinoa Willd. under Polish conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Gęsiński

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The material presented refers to the estimation of growth and the flowering (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. under Polish conditions. The species has been a South-American pseudocereal cultivated in the traditional form in the Andean region for over 5 thousand years. Its advantage, apart from low soil and climate requirements, is that it shows high nutritive value. The Chenopodium quinoa protein is especially valuable with its amino acid composition which is better balanced than that of wheat or maize. It shows a better share of egzogenic aminoacids. Field examinations were carried out in 1999-2001 at the Experiment Station of Cultivar Testing at Chrząstowo. The experiment involved two cultivars from two various growing regions: America and Europe. Analyses were made to include development stages, plant growth dynamics, inflorescences development dynamics, inflorescence habit and flowering. Differences were recorded in the growth and development models of the cultivars researched. The European cultivar had a short compact inflorescence with a short flowering period, reaching 120 cm. American cultivar plants were high (160 cm; they showed a slower continuous growth, loose big-in-size inflorescence, and a long period of flowering. The plants ended their growing season over the flowering stage or seed formation. The adequate growth, the course of flowering and, as a result, a stable yielding of the European cultivar make the group suitable for the cultivation under Polish conditions. This breeding group should also be the parent material for the cultivation of the Polish cultivar of Chenopodium quinoa.

  14. Characterisation of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. accessions for the saponin content in Mediterranean environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuditta De Santis

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Seeds of the Andean seed crop quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. usually contain saponins in the seed coat. Saponins give a bitter taste sensation and are a serious antinutritional factor, therefore selection of sweet genotypes with a very low saponin content in the seeds is a main breeding goal. The objective of this work was to identify, within germplasm lines of quinoa, previously selected for production and quality traits, superior genotypes low in saponins. For this purpose the total saponin content was determined in seeds of eight lines of quinoa and one variety (cv. Regalona Baer as a control, previously evaluated over a 2-year period in a Southern Italy environment. Significant variation for the saponin content was observed among the evaluated genotypes. The total saponin content ranged from 0.10 to 1.80%, with the Q12 genotype showing the lowest value, suggesting the possibility of selecting genotypes sweet to be used in subsequent genetic improvement programs. Based on these results, in fact, it was possible to identify, among the accessions previously selected, particularly suitable for growing in Mediterranean area, some genotypes with high yields of seed (2.5 tha–1, on average, high protein (17%, on average and fibres (13%, on average and low content in saponins (0.57%, on average.

  15. Nutrition facts and functional potential of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa willd.), an ancient Andean grain: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega-Gálvez, Antonio; Miranda, Margarita; Vergara, Judith; Uribe, Elsa; Puente, Luis; Martínez, Enrique A

    2010-12-01

    Quinoa, Chenopodium quinoa Willd., is an Amaranthacean, stress-tolerant plant cultivated along the Andes for the last 7000 years, challenging highly different environmental conditions ranging from Bolivia, up to 4.500 m of altitude, to sea level, in Chile. Its grains have higher nutritive value than traditional cereals and it is a promising worldwide cultivar for human consumption and nutrition. The quinoa has been called a pseudo-cereal for botanical reasons but also because of its unusual composition and exceptional balance between oil, protein and fat. The quinoa is an excellent example of 'functional food' that aims at lowering the risk of various diseases. Functional properties are given also by minerals, vitamins, fatty acids and antioxidants that can make a strong contribution to human nutrition, particularly to protect cell membranes, with proven good results in brain neuronal functions. Its minerals work as cofactors in antioxidant enzymes, adding higher value to its rich proteins. Quinoa also contains phytohormones, which offer an advantage over other plant foods for human nutrition.

  16. Ecophysiological Analysis of Drought and Salinity Stress Quinoa (Chenopodium Quinoa Willd.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bosque Sanchez, H.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available We have studied the relative influence of drought and salinity stress, with similar soil water potentials on growth, water relations and photosynthetic rate of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd., testing at the same time certain techniques of stress physiology studies. As treatments, we have imposed two levels of salinity stress (S1 = 3852, 8 mg. V-1 NaCI and S2 = 8051.2 mg. V-1 NaCI and two of levels of drought stress with-0.159 MPa (D1 and -0, 279 MPa (D2 of soil water potentials (f^, and the control (c treatment without stress (65 % of volumetric soil water content, i. e. ¥m = -0.059 MPa. Our results of the greenhouse experiment have shown that quinoa has better relative and absolute growth rate in saline conditions, and the plant have developed adaptations mechanisms to drought through higher water use efficiency and high root/shoot ratio. The stomatal resistance and leaf water potential were higher as higher were the stress conditions. The variable chlorophyll fluoresence to maximal chlorophyll fluorescence-ratio (Fv/Fm and the fluorescence quenching analysis (photochemical : qP and non-photochemical : qN have shown the plants under drought stress are less protected against photoinhibition. Finally the use of Dynamic Diffusion Porometer has limitations for studies of plants species with salt bladders as quinoa.

  17. EVALUATION OF THE DNA POLYMORPHISM OF SIX VARIETIES OF CHENOPODIUM QUINOA WILLD, USING AFLP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nolasco, Oscar

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The grain of Chenopodium quinoaWilld. (Quinua is important worldwide for its high nutritional value, being the principal source of proteins of the settlers of the Peruvian Bolivian altiplano. In the process of the care and maintenance of the species in the germplasm banks for quinua there have been programs developed to allow the evaluation of genetic variation to increase the quality of the grain, the resistance to diseases, and dryness tolerance and to modulate the content of saponins. A current question is to discriminate among the varieties using molecular sensitive technologies like the RAPDs, microsatellites, RFLP; our aim was to evaluate the polymorphism of six varieties of quinua using AFLP's technology (Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism. Varieties of quinua: Quillahuaman INIA (Q, Mantaro (M, Hualhuas (H, Real Boliviana (B, Salcedo INIA(S and Illpa INIA(I, were evaluated in combinations of five pairs of primers using adapters for EcoRI and MseI to determine their polymorphisms. Our results found three combinations of major polymorphism E33/M60, E32/M48 and E32/M61, that we were able to discriminate against the variety Mantaro (M as a variety removed from the others of the southern Peruvian altiplano – Bolivian, according to UPGMAanalysis. This combination of primers also discriminate the varieties Illpa INIA and Salcedo INIA as being varieties obtained by crossings for genetic improvement.

  18. Chromosomal localization of two novel repetitive sequences isolated from the Chenopodium quinoa Willd. genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolano, B; Gardunia, B W; Michalska, M; Bonifacio, A; Fairbanks, D; Maughan, P J; Coleman, C E; Stevens, M R; Jellen, E N; Maluszynska, J

    2011-09-01

    The chromosomal organization of two novel repetitive DNA sequences isolated from the Chenopodium quinoa Willd. genome was analyzed across the genomes of selected Chenopodium species. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis with the repetitive DNA clone 18-24J in the closely related allotetraploids C. quinoa and Chenopodium berlandieri Moq. (2n = 4x = 36) evidenced hybridization signals that were mainly present on 18 chromosomes; however, in the allohexaploid Chenopodium album L. (2n = 6x = 54), cross-hybridization was observed on all of the chromosomes. In situ hybridization with rRNA gene probes indicated that during the evolution of polyploidy, the chenopods lost some of their rDNA loci. Reprobing with rDNA indicated that in the subgenome labeled with 18-24J, one 35S rRNA locus and at least half of the 5S rDNA loci were present. A second analyzed sequence, 12-13P, localized exclusively in pericentromeric regions of each chromosome of C. quinoa and related species. The intensity of the FISH signals differed considerably among chromosomes. The pattern observed on C. quinoa chromosomes after FISH with 12-13P was very similar to GISH results, suggesting that the 12-13P sequence constitutes a major part of the repetitive DNA of C. quinoa.

  19. A COMPATIBLE ESTIMATION MODEL OF STEM VOLUME AND TAPER FOR Acacia mangium Willd. PLANTATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haruni Krisnawati

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the establishment of a compatible volume estimation model for Acacia mangium Willd on the basis of 279 felled sample trees collected from the A. mangium plantation stands in South Sumatra, Indonesia. The model comprises of a total volume model and a stem taper model, which is compatible in the sense of the total volume obtained by integration of the taper model being equal to that computed by the total volume model. Several well-known total volume functions were evaluated including constant form factor, combined variable, generalized combine variable, logarithmic, generalized logarithmic and Honer transformed variables. A logarithmic model was determined to be the best and was then used as the basis for deriving the taper model. Appropriate statistical procedures were used in model fitting to account for the problems of heteroscedasticity and autocorrelation that are associated with the construction of volume and taper functions. The simultaneous fitting method of the Seemingly Unrelated Regression (SUR improved the parameter estimates and goodness-of-fit statistics while ensuring numeric consistency among the component models and reducing the total squared error obtained by an independent fitting method. The developed model can be used to estimate total stem volume, merchantable volume to any merchantability diameter limit at any height, and (possibly height of any diameter based on only easily measurable parameters such as diameter at breast height and total tree height for the species analysed.

  20. Evaluation of biological activity of Uncaria tomentosa (Willd.) DC. using the chicken embryo model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilarski, Radosław; Bednarczyk, Marek; Gulewicz, Krzysztof

    2009-01-01

    The biological activity of Uncaria tomentosa (Willd.) DC. (cat's claw) was evaluated by application of the chicken embryo model. Among three groups of eggs (n = 360) with twelve-day old embryos, two were injected with different doses of cat's claw extracts (0.0492 and 0.492 mg/200 lambda). To the third control group 200 lambda of physiological salt was applied. All eggs were incubated in conventional forced-air apparatus until hatched. Hatchability, chicken weight and wholesomeness were analyzed. Selected parameters of blood including number of erythrocytes (RBC), number of leukocytes (WBC), mean red cell volume (MCV), hematocrit (HCT), hemoglobin concentration (HGB), mean amount of cell hemoglobin (MCH), mean cell hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) and embryo weight (MAS) were assayed and compared. Significant differences with ANOVA were observed for MCV (P = 0.002), MCHC (P = 0.00001) and MCH (P = 0.02). Applying the chicken embryo model brought new information about the biological activity of U. tomentosa showing an unfavourable effect on some morphological blood parameters.

  1. Uncaria tomentosa (Willd. ex. Roem. & Schult.) DC. and Eucalyptus globulus Labill. interactions when administered with diazepam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quílez, A M; Saenz, M T; García, M D

    2012-03-01

    The safety of natural drugs is defined by their side effects and toxicity as well as any interactions that may occur if taken together with other drugs. In particular, it is essential to identify synergies, antagonisms and other types of interference with other drugs so that the correct choice can be made from the range of phytomedicines available. The aim of this work was to investigate changes in the pharmacological effect of diazepam (2 mg/kg) on the CNS when administered together with a medicinal plant: Eucalyptus globulus Labill. (eucalyptus 6 mg/kg and 3.25 mg/kg) or Uncaria tomentosa (Willd. ex Roem. & Schult). DC. (cat's claw, 7.14 mg/kg and 3.54 mg/kg). Various different psychopharmacological effects were evaluated through assessing exploratory behavior, muscle relaxation and spontaneous motor activity. Both phytodrugs interacted with the benzodiazepine. Eucalyptus had an inhibitory effect at both doses and could be useful at the highest dose in cases where the desired effect of the depressant is moderate anxiolytic activity without marked muscle relaxation. Cat's claw, at both doses, enhanced the action of diazepam on spontaneous motor activity and, at the lowest dose, exploratory ability. These herbal drugs could be useful for their antiinflammatory activity in musculoskeletal pathologies treated with benzodiazepines.

  2. SOMBREAMENTO E SUBSTRATOS NA PRODUÇÃO DE MUDAS DE Erythrina velutina Willd.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laércio Wanderley dos Santos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Erythrina velutina Willd. (Fabaceae is used in traditional medicine in northeastern Brazil for its sudorific properties, soothing, emollient, pectoral and local anesthetic. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of substrate and shading on seedlings of Erythrina velutina. The experimental design was completely randomized in factorial scheme 5 x 2 (five substrates and two shades, with four replications and 10 plants in each plot. The substrates were arisco, arisco + cattle manure 2:1 v/v, arisco + cattle manure 3:1 v/v, sand + cattle manure 2:1 v/v, sand + cattle manure 3:1 v/v. The shadings were 0% shading (full sunlight and 50% shading. The characteristics evaluated were stem diameter, height, leaf area, green and dry biomass of roots and shoots, height/diameter and Dickson quality index.There was no significant difference in diameter between the different substrates. The environment in full sun favored the diameter and the root biomass whereas the height was favored by shade. The substrates with cattle manure in its composition favors the development of plants of Erythrina velutina and higher seedling quality are produced in full sun and substrate arisco + cattle manure in the ratio 2:1.

  3. PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL AND INVITRO CYTOTOXIC ACTIVITY OF THE LEAVES OF Asparagus racemosus Willd., (Liliaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Durai Prabakaran

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Asparagus racemosus Willd.(Shatavari is a well known plant in Ayurvedic systems of medicine. ‘Shatavari’ is a reputed classical drug and said to possess therapeutic properties as Rasayana drugs of Ayurveda. The present study is aimed at the development of phytochemical parameters and invitro cytotoxic activity of various extracts of the leaves of Asparagus racemosus plant. The plant material was successively extracted with solvents of increasing polarity namely n-Hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and ethanol in a soxhlet extractor. Preliminary phytochemical tests, fluorescence analysis, thin layer chromatography and high performance thin layer chromatographic studies were carried out for all the extracts. Chloroform, ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts were screened for invitro cytotoxic activity by MTT assay using EAC (Ehrlich’s Ascites Carcinoma cell line. The preliminary phytochemical analysis of various extracts of the leaves showed the presence of carbohydrates, tannins, phenolic compounds, sterols and flavonoids. The chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts showed significant cytotoxic activity when compared to ethanol extract against the above mentioned cancer cell line.

  4. Fragrant volatile oil composition of Nutmeg Geranium (Pelargonium × fragrans Willd.) from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Ram S; Padalia, Rajendra C; Chauhan, Amit

    2013-04-01

    Hydrodistilled essential oil of 'Nutmeg Geranium' (Pelargonium × fragrans Willd.), grown in foothills of northern India was analysed by capillary gas chromatography (GC/flame ionisation detector (FID)) and GC-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). A total of 51 constituents, representing 90.2% of the total oil composition were identified. The oil was mainly dominated by monoterpenoids (58.4%), followed by sesquiterpenoids (19.4%), and phenyl propanoids (10.1%). Major constituents of the essential oil were fenchone (10.7%), methyl eugenol (9.9%), α-pinene (9.4%), α-thujene (7.6%), limonene (6.4%), spathulenol (4.7%), sabinene (4.3%), linalool (4.2%), (E)-caryophyllene (4.2%), terpinen-4-ol (3.2%), β-pinene (2.9%), caryophyllene oxide (2.2%) and bicyclogermacrene (2.1%). This is the first report on essential oil composition of Nutmeg Geranium oil grown in India.

  5. Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa, Willd. as a source of dietary fiber and other functional components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritva Ann-Mari Repo-Carrasco-Valencia

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Four varieties of an Andean indigenous crop, quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd., were evaluated as a source of dietary fiber, phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity. The crops were processed by extrusion-cooking and the final products were analyzed to determine the dietary fiber, total polyphenols, radical scavenging activity, and in vitro digestibility of starch and protein. There were no significant differences in the contents of total dietary fiber between varieties of quinoa. In all cases, the contents of total and insoluble dietary fiber decreased during the extrusion process. At the same time, the content of soluble dietary fiber increased. The content of total phenolic compounds and the radical scavenging activity increased during the extrusion process in the case of all 4 varieties. There were significant differences between the varieties and the content of total polyphenols. The in vitro protein digestibility of quinoa varieties was between 76.3 and 80.5% and the in vitro starch digestibility was between 65.1 and 68.7%. Our study demonstrates that quinoa can be considered a good source of dietary fiber, polyphenols and other antioxidant compounds and that extrusion improves the nutritional value.

  6. Seed and Saponin Production of Organic Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. for different Tillage and Fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios BILALIS

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Field experiment was conducted to determine the effects of tillage systems and fertilization on growth, yield and quality of quinoa crop (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.. The experiment was laid out in a split-plot design with four replicates, two main plots [conventional tillage (CT and minimum tillage (MT] and three sub-plots (fertilization treatments: control, cow manure and compost. The soil porosity (45.5-49.75% and total nitrogen (0.144-0.173% were higher in soils subjected to MT system than under CT. In soil porosity, an interaction between fertilization and tillage system was found. The highest leaf area index (4.47-5.03, dry weight (8650-9290 kg ha-1 and root density (1.03-1.21 cm cm-3 were also found in MT. Moreover, there were significant differences between the organic fertilization treatments concerning the LAI, dry weight and root density. The highest seed yield (2485-2643 kg ha-1 and saponin content (0.42-0.45% were found in cow manure and compost treatments. Also, the highest saponin yield (7.70-12.05 kg ha-1 was found in the MT system. Saponin yield had positive and significant correlation with total N (r=0.866. In quinoa measurements, an interaction between fertilization and tillage system was not found. The present results indicated that MT and organic fertilization increase saponin yield of quinoa.

  7. WATER AND SODIUM CHLORIDE EFFECTS ON Mimosa Tenuiflora (WILLD. POIRET SEED GERMINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivonete Alves Bakke

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Water shortage and saline soils of the Brazilian semi-arid northeastern region are limiting factors to the development of many plants. Jurema preta (Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd. Poiret is a small, multiple use tree that abundantly colonizes unfavorable sites, including environments with severe water stress. This work had the objective of investigating the tolerance of jurema preta seeds to water and salt stresses during germination. Seeds germination in polyethylene glycol (PEG-6000 and sodium chloride (NaCl solutions was analyzed under five different osmotic potentials (0.0; -0.3, -0.6, -0.9 and -1.2MPa, in order to simulate water and salt stress, respectively, in four 100-seed replications for each treatment. Seeds were placed into 10cmx10cmx4cm boxes, and germination accomplished in BOD germinator adjusted to 30oC. The number of germinated seeds was monitored every 24 hours, and percentage and speed of seed germination were generated from these data. Mean percentage germination in the control treatment was ~95%, reducing to 63-53% at -0.9 to -1.2-MPa PEG solutions, and to 27- 9.5% at NaCl solutions at equivalent osmotic potentials. Velocity of germination index was more affected, and decreased up to 1/8 of the control, at -0.6 MPa. Jurema preta seeds showed lower tolerance to NaCl than to water stress, and this species can be classified as a glycophyte.

  8. Behavior of pubescent oak (Quercus pubescens Willd. wood to different thermal treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todaro L

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Quercus pubescens Willd. is a common oak species in the Mediterranean area, where it is currently exploited mainly for purposes such as firewood. To improve the technological properties of its wood, various steaming and/or heat treatments were applied to 160 wood samples from a southern Italian stand, cut from either sapwood or heartwood, while 20 samples served as controls. Steaming was carried out in an autoclave at 120 °C, whereas heat treatments were performed in an oven at 150 or 200 °C for 3 or 6 h. The equilibrium moisture content, swelling, mass loss, wood density, compression strength, color variation, and lignin content of the samples were measured and compared among treatments. The swelling and water adsorption of wood samples decreased due to the hydrothermal treatments. The mass loss was strictly related to the temperature and duration of the heat treatments, whereas it was not influenced by the steaming treatment. The average axial compression strength value was positively influenced by the combination of steaming and heat treatments. A significant and general darkening of color was also observed for the harshest treatments, while an increase of lignin content was detected mainly in the sapwood. Thus, pubescent oak wood subjected to steaming and heat treatments may acquire useful characteristics suitable for its industrial use.

  9. Entomofauna Associada a Galhos de Acacia mangium Willd. Roletados por Oncideres saga (Dalman (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gláucia Cordeiro

    2010-04-01

    Abstract. The study of the insects associated with branches and stems girdled by Oncideres saga (Dalman is important to know its possible natural enemies. Therefore, these work had the objective of register the insects associated with branches and stems girdled of Acacia mangium Willd. by this twig girdler beetle, in Coimbra, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Stems and branches of A. mangium were collected in January/2007 to April/2007. This material has been inspected, stored in plastic bags, and kept in a room with controlled conditions (25.4 ± 0.3°C and 66.7 ± 1.4%. It was noted the presence of a non-determined species of Scolytidae and the emergence of four species of Cerambycidae: Engyum quadrinotatum Thomsom; Eburodacrys sexmaculata (Olivier; Achryson surinamum (Linnaeus and Neoclytus pusillus (Laporte & Gory. It can be concluded that studies are needed with the objective of verify the behavior of these insects in relation with twig girdler O. saga.

  10. Structural Elucidation and HPLC Analysis of Six Flavone Glycosides from Artemisia frigida Willd.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qing-hu; AO Wu-li-ji; DAI Na-yin-tai

    2013-01-01

    An investigation of the EtOAc-soluble fraction from the aerial parts ofArtemisiafrigida Willd.(A.frigida)led to the isolation of three new flavonoid glycosides together with three known compounds.Their structures were elucidated by spectral experiments.At the same time,high-performance liquid chromatographic(HPLC) method was used for the simultaneous determination of the six flavonoid glycosides from the aerial parts of A.frigida.The separation by gradient elution was performed on a Hypersil ODS-2 column(250 mm×4.6 mm,5 μm) at 30 ℃ with acetonitrile and water as the mobile phase,and monitored by absorbance at 276 nm.The parameters of linearity,precision,accuracy and specificity of the method were evaluated.The recovery of the method is 96.50%-98.01%,and linearity(r>0.9992) was obtained for all the flavonoid glycosides.A high degree of specificity as well as repeatability and reproducibility(relative standard deviation values less than 2.0%) were also achieved.This assay was applied to the determination of six flavonoid glycosides in ten samples.The results indicate that the developed assay method was ranid,accurate,reliable and could be readily utilized as a quantitative analysis method for A.frigida.

  11. Effects of extracts from Gynura bicolor (Roxb. & Willd. DC. on iron bioavailability in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Chung Wu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Gynura bicolor (Roxb. & Willd. DC. is widely distributed in certain areas of Asia and is very popular in vegetarian cuisine in Taiwan. This study investigates the effects of G. bicolor extracts with different polarities of 80 mg/kg body weight (BW G. bicolor alcohol extract, 80 mg/kg BW G. bicolor water extract, and 80 mg/kg BW G. bicolor ether extract on Fe bioavailability using the hemoglobin repletion efficiency assay. Wistar rats were assigned to five groups: a group receiving an iron-deficient (ID diet; a group receiving an ID diet supplemented with ferrous sulfate (20 mg Fe/kg BW; and three groups receiving ID diets supplemented with ferrous sulfate and one of G. bicolor alcohol extract, G. bicolor water extract, or G. bicolor water extract. The results indicated that the levels of hemoglobin, serum iron, serum ferritin, liver ferritin, hemoglobin regeneration efficiency, relative biological value, and hepcidin all were significantly higher than those of the ID diet group. Besides, the iron transporter divalent metal transporter-1 was significantly reduced, but iron release protein expression of ferroportin was significantly increased. It was concluded that G. bicolor extracts may promote iron bioavailability and regulate the expressions of divalent metal transporter-1 and ferroportin.

  12. Predicting the Potential Distribution of Polygala tenuifolia Willd. under Climate Change in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lin; Zhao, Yao; Pei, Lin; Zhao, Jiancheng

    2016-01-01

    Global warming has created opportunities and challenges for the survival and development of species. Determining how climate change may impact multiple ecosystem levels and lead to various species adaptations is necessary for both biodiversity conservation and sustainable biological resource utilization. In this study, we employed Maxent to predict changes in the habitat range and altitude of Polygala tenuifolia Willd. under current and future climate scenarios in China. Four representative concentration pathways (RCP2.6, RCP4.5, RCP6.0, and RCP8.5) were modeled for two time periods (2050 and 2070). The model inputs included 732 presence points and nine sets of environmental variables under the current conditions and the four RCPs in 2050 and 2070. The area under the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) was used to evaluate model performance. All of the AUCs were greater than 0.80, thereby placing these models in the “very good” category. Using a jackknife analysis, the precipitation in the warmest quarter, annual mean temperature, and altitude were found to be the top three variables that affect the range of P. tenuifolia. Additionally, we found that the predicted highly suitable habitat was in reasonable agreement with its actual distribution. Furthermore, the highly suitable habitat area was slowly reduced over time. PMID:27661983

  13. Podredumbres basales de Gypsophila paniculata (Caryophyllaceae: Agentes causales y su patogenicidad potencial sobre Dianthus caryophyllus (Caryophyllaceae Basal rots of Gypsophila paniculata (Caryophyllaceae: Causal agents and its potential pathogenicity on Dianthus caryophyllus (Caryophyllaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia María Wolcan

    Full Text Available Los objetivos del trabajo fueron identificar a los agentes causales de las podredumbres basales de Gypsophila paniculata en la Argentina y probar su posible patogenicidad sobre Dianthus caryophyllus . A partir de plantas con síntomas de «podredumbre de la corona» (la más importante se aislaron en orden decreciente: Fusarium solani , F. oxysporum , Phytophthora nicotianae , Rhizoctonia solani , F. graminearum , F. verticillioides, F. equiseti y Pythium sp. y de plantas con «podredumbre basal del tallo» F. graminearum , F. oxysporum y F. solani . Con distintas cepas de cada hongo se hicieron pruebas de patogenicidad mediante la infestación del suelo y el depósito de inóculo en heridas producidas en los tallos. En la «podredumbre de la corona» fueron patógenos P. nicotianae causando decaimiento rápido de la parte aérea y podredumbre blanda de la corona y R. solani causando una pudrición más lenta y tejidos desintegrados. F. graminearum fue el patógeno de la «podredumbre basal del tallo» de gipsofila, que se describe por primera vez en este hospedante , comprobando que el hongo penetra sólo por heridas del tallo. En condiciones de inoculación se confirmó que algunas cepas de R. solani y de F. graminearum aisladas de gipsofila pueden ser patógenas de clavel mientras que sólo algunas de P. nicotianae resultaron patógenas débiles.The aims of the paper were to determine the causal agents of basal rots of Gypsophila paniculata in Argentina, and to evaluate its possible pathogenicity on Dianthus caryophyllus. Fusarium solani, F. oxysporum , Phytophthora nicotianae , Rhizoctonia solani , F. graminearum , F. verticilloides, F. equiseti and Pythium sp. were isolated in decreasing order from plants with symptoms of «crown rot» (the major basal rot. F. graminearum , F. oxysporum and F. solani were isolated from plants with «basal stem rot». Inoculations of gypsophila were performed by soil infestation and by placing inoculum on

  14. Caracterización del proceso de fermentación del grano de Copoazú (Theobroma grandiflorum Willd. ex Spreng) / Characterization of fermentation process of Copoazú (Theobroma grandiflorum Willd. ex Spreng) Seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Castro Robayo, Zulma Rocío

    2010-01-01

    El copoazú (Theobroma grandiflorum Willd. ex Spreng) es una planta amazónica cuya la semilla se utiliza para obtener cupulate. La fermentación se convierte en el principal proceso de beneficio para la semilla, ya que contribuye a generar los precursores del aroma y sabor típicos del grano de la misma forma que sucede con el cacao. El presente trabajo tuvo como objetivo la caracterización de tres tipos de fermentación de semillas de copoazú: en el primero (FC1) se remociones a las 48, 96 y 120...

  15. STUDY ON QUALITY STANDARD OF THE DOMESTIC PFAFFIA PANICULATA%国产巴西人参药材质量标准研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王硕; 蓝鸣生; 陈路; 袁经权; 凌征柱

    2011-01-01

    [目的]建立国产巴西人参药材的质量标准.[方法]采用TLC法对国产巴西人参药材进行定性鉴别;用HPLC法对齐墩果酸进行定量研究.Kiomasil C-18 250x4.6 mm,5 μm 100A色谱柱,甲醇-水-乙酸(80∶20∶0.6)为流动相,流速1.0 ml·min-1,检测波长220 nm;柱温30℃;进样量20μl.[结果]在TLC色谱中能检出国产巴西人参.齐墩果酸在0.60~4.80 μg范围内线性关系良好(r=0.9995),平均回收率为99.70%,RSD为1.61%(n=6).测得国产巴西人参药材1.0 g水解后的齐墩果酸含量范围为3.4484~3.5157 mg,[结论]该方法简便、准确、快速、灵敏度高、重现性好,适用于巴西人参药材的质量控制.%[Objective] To establish the quality standard of the domestic Pfaffia Paniculata. [Methods] The domestic Pfaffia Paniculata were indentified by TLC.The oleanolic acid was determined by HPLC. A chromatographic column (Kromasil C-18 250×4.6mm 5μl 100A) was used with a mobile phase of the methanol- water - acetic acid (80 ∶ 20 ∶ 0.6), flow rate; l.0ml/min, UV detection wave length at 220nm; Column temperature 30℃; injection volume 20μl [Results] The domestic Pfaffia Paniculata could be detected by TLC. The oleanolic acid showed a good liner at a range of 0.60-4.80μg (r = 0.999 5), the average rate of recovery was 99.70% , RSD was 1.61% (N=6). The content of oleanolic acid in 1.0g hydrolysis domestic Pfaffia paniculata was 3.448 4-3.515 7mg. [Conclusion] This method is simple, accurate, fast, good in sensitivity and pre cision and can be used for the quality control of the domestic Pfaffia paniculata.

  16. 牻牛儿苗的化学成分研究%Chemical Constituents of Erodium Stephanianum Willd

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴秋月; 齐洁; 李默影; 许敏; 刘丽芳

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the chemical constituents of Erodium stephanianum Willd. Methods: The plant was extracted by 95% ethanol and the EtOAC extract was seperated and repeatedly purified by silica gel, Sephadex LH -20 column chromatographic method and recrystallization. The chemical structures of the isolated components were further e-lucidated by the physicochemical characters and MS, NMR spectral data. Results: Five compounds were isolated and e-lucidated as gallic acid ( Ⅰ ) , kaempferol (Ⅱ ) , kaempferol -3-O-β-D- glucopyranoside ( Ⅲ ) , corilagin (Ⅳ ) and ellagic acid ( Ⅴ ) . Conclusion: Kaempferol -3 - 0 - β - D - glucopyranoside is obtained from Erodium stephania-num Willd. for the first time. These results will be beneficial for the further investigation.%目的:研究牻牛儿苗(Erodium stephanianum Willd.)的化学成分.方法:采用硅胶、Sephadex LH - 20柱层析并结合重结晶等方法对牻牛儿苗的95%乙醇提取物的乙酸乙酯萃取部位进行分离纯化,再依据理化性质和波谱数据(包括NMR和MS)对所分的化合物进行结构鉴定.结果:分离并鉴定了5个化合物,分别为:没食子酸( gallic acid,Ⅰ)、山奈酚(kaempferol,Ⅱ)、山奈酚-3 -0 -β -D -吡喃葡萄糖苷(kaempferol -3 -O-β-D- glucopyranoside,Ⅲ)、柯里拉京(corilagin,Ⅳ)、鞣花酸(ellagic acid,Ⅴ).结论:化合物Ⅲ为首次从该植物中发现.实验结果可为牻牛儿苗的进一步研究开发提供依据.

  17. Antinociceptive properties of the hydroalcoholic extract and the flavonoid rutin obtained from Polygala paniculata L. in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapa, Fernanda da R; Gadotti, Vinicius M; Missau, Fabiana C; Pizzolatti, Moacir G; Marques, Maria Consuelo A; Dafré, Alcir L; Farina, Marcelo; Rodrigues, Ana Lúcia S; Santos, Adair R S

    2009-04-01

    The present study examined the antinociceptive effects of a hydroalcoholic extract of Polygala paniculata in chemical and thermal behavioural models of pain in mice. The antinociceptive effects of hydroalcoholic extract was evaluated in chemical (acetic-acid, formalin, capsaicin, cinnamaldehyde and glutamate tests) and thermal (tail-flick and hot-plate test) models of pain or by biting behaviour following intratecal administration of both ionotropic and metabotropic agonists of excitatory amino acids receptors glutamate and cytokines such as interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) in mice. When given orally, hydroalcoholic extract (0.001-10 mg/kg), produced potent and dose-dependent inhibition of acetic acid-induced visceral pain. In the formalin test, the hydroalcoholic extract (0.0001-0.1 mg/kg orally) also caused significant inhibition of both the early (neurogenic pain) and the late (inflammatory pain) phases of formalin-induced licking. However, it was more potent and efficacious in relation to the late phase of the formalin test. The capsaicin-induced nociception was also reduced at a dose of only 1.0 mg/kg orally. The hydroalcoholic extract significantly reduced the cinnamaldehyde-induced nociception at doses of 0.01, 0.1 and 1.0 mg/kg orally. Moreover, the hydroalcoholic extract (0.001-1.0 mg/kg orally) caused significant and dose-dependent inhibition of glutamate-induced pain. However, only rutin, but not phebalosin or aurapten, isolated from P. paniculata, administered intraperitoneally to mice, produced dose-related inhibition of glutamate-induced pain. Furthermore, the hydroalcoholic extract (0.1-100 mg/kg orally) had no effect in the tail-flick test. On the other hand, the hydroalcoholic extract caused a significant increase in the latency to response at a dose of 10 mg/kg orally, in the hot-plate test. The hydroalcoholic extract (0.1 mg/kg orally) antinociception, in the glutamate test, was neither affected by

  18. [Chemical and biological evaluation of quinua (Chenopodium quinoa Willd). Effect of the extraction of saponins by heat treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellería Rios, M L; Sgarbieri, V C; Amaya, J

    1978-09-01

    The changes in proximate composition, amino acid content and protein efficiency ratio (PER) caused by hot-water extraction of the saponins were studied in four Bolivian varieties of quinua (Chenopodium quinoa, Willd). Detectable saponin was eliminated with an extraction at 70 degrees C. Extraction at 87 degrees C also eliminated the saponins but, in addition, had the tendency of slightly increasing the protein amino acid content. The maximum PER obtained was 2.99 for the Blanca variety, followed by 2.72 for the Sajama variety, also extracted at 87 degrees C (casein gave a PER value of 3.21).

  19. Enraizaimento de estacas de Bougainvillea spectabilis Willd. com o uso de ácido indolbutírico

    OpenAIRE

    Elias Mendes Costa; Arcângelo Loss; Heitor Paulo Nascimento Pereira; Jander Ferreira Almeida

    2015-01-01

    O uso de ácido indolbutírico (IBA) como estimulador do enraizamento em estacas de Bougainvillea spectabilis Willd. pode propiciar aumento de raízes para a formação de mudas comercializáveis. Objetivou-se avaliar o enraizamento, a formação de brotos e a sobrevivência de estacas herbáceas, lenhosas e semi-lenhosas de Bougainvillea com o uso de ácido indolbutírico (IBA). As estacas foram coletadas e tratadas com o IBA (1000 e 2000 mg/l). Aos 56 dias avaliaram-se a porcentagem de estacas vivas, e...

  20. Prevalence of sensitization to weed pollens of Humulus scandens,Artemisia vulgaris, and Ambrosia artemisiifolia in northern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo-dong HAO; Yi-wu ZHENG; Birgitte GJESING; Xing-ai KONG; Jing-yuan WANG; Zhi-jing SONG; Xu-xin LAI

    2013-01-01

    Objective:Weed pollens are common sources of allergens worldwide.The prevalence of weed pollen sensitization is not yet fully known in China.The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of sensitization to weed allergens from Artemisia,Ambrosia,and Humulus in northern China.Methods:A total of 1144 subjects (aged from 5 to 68 years) visiting our clinic from June to October 2011 underwent intradermal testing using a panel of 25 allergen sources.Subjects with positive skin responses to any pollen were further tested for their serum concentrations of IgE antibodies against Artemisia vulgaris,Ambrosia artemisiifolia,and Humulus scandens,and against the purified allergens,Art v 1 and Amb a 1.Results:Of 1 144 subjects,170 had positive intradermal reactions to pollen and 144 donated serum for IgE testing.The prevalence of positive intradermal responses to pollens of Artemisia sieversiana,Artemisia annua,A.artemisiifolia,and H.scandens was 11.0%,10.2%,3.7%,and 6.6%,respectively.Among the intradermal positive subjects,the prevalence of specific IgE antigens to A.vulgaris was 58.3%,to A.artemisiifolia 14.7%,and to H.scandens 41.0%.The prevalence of specific IgE antigens to the allergen Art v 1 was 46.9%,and to Amb a 1 was 11.2%.The correlation between the presence of IgE antibodies specific to A.vulgaris and to the Art v 1 antigen was very high.Subjects with A.artemisiifolia specific IgE also had A.vulgaris specific IgE,but with relatively high levels of A.vulgaris IgE antibodies.There were no correlations between the presence of IgE antibodies to H.scandens and A.vulgaris or to H.scandens and A.artemisiifolia.Conclusions:The intradermal prevalence of weed pollen sensitization among allergic subjects in northern China is about 13.5%.Correlations of specific IgE antibodies suggest that pollen allergens from Artemisia and Humulus are independent sources for primary sensitization.

  1. AGE OF SEGREGATION OF JUVENILE AND MATURE Platanus x acerifolia (Ait. Willd WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darci Alberto Gatto

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This study determined the maturation age of Platanus x acerifolia (Ait. Willd., through anatomical characteristics of thewood by means of the segregation of the juvenile-mature wood. Three adult trees were elected, of appropriate trunk and with diameterlarger than at 40 cm (48, 41 and 46 cm the 1.30 m of height. Discs with 2 cm of thickness at 0.1 m of height of the trunk were used.From each disc it was removed a central part of 2 cm of width, that was divided at the pith in samples A and B . Only one samplewas selected and the initial wood of each growth ring was separated for maceration (method of Jeffrey. Departing from the pith, thelength, diameter and the lumen of thirty staple fibres in each growth ring were measured. The thickness of the walls of fibers was takenas the half of the difference of the diameter of the fiber and the lumen. The segregation of the two types of wood was defined by the radialvariation (pith-bark of the anatomical characteristics (length, diameter, width of the lumen and thickness of the wall of fibers,through two simple linear regressions. The results indicate that the fiber length is the best characteristic for defining the segregationage. The age of segregation of juvenile-mature wood was defined as 14 years-old. In turn, the anatomical parameters, diameter offibers, width of the lumen and thickness of the wall of fibers were found inadequate for estimating the age of segregation.

  2. Characterization of Salt Overly Sensitive 1 (SOS1) gene homoeologs in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maughan, P J; Turner, T B; Coleman, C E; Elzinga, D B; Jellen, E N; Morales, J A; Udall, J A; Fairbanks, D J; Bonifacio, A

    2009-07-01

    Salt tolerance is an agronomically important trait that affects plant species around the globe. The Salt Overly Sensitive 1 (SOS1) gene encodes a plasma membrane Na+/H+ antiporter that plays an important role in germination and growth of plants in saline environments. Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is a halophytic, allotetraploid grain crop of the family Amaranthaceae with impressive nutritional content and an increasing worldwide market. Many quinoa varieties have considerable salt tolerance, and research suggests quinoa may utilize novel mechanisms to confer salt tolerance. Here we report the cloning and characterization of two homoeologous SOS1 loci (cqSOS1A and cqSOS1B) from C. quinoa, including full-length cDNA sequences, genomic sequences, relative expression levels, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis, and a phylogenetic analysis of SOS1 genes from 13 plant taxa. The cqSOS1A and cqSOS1B genes each span 23 exons spread over 3477 bp and 3486 bp of coding sequence, respectively. These sequences share a high level of similarity with SOS1 homologs of other species and contain two conserved domains, a Nhap cation-antiporter domain and a cyclic-nucleotide binding domain. Genomic sequence analysis of two BAC clones (98 357 bp and 132 770 bp) containing the homoeologous SOS1 genes suggests possible conservation of synteny across the C. quinoa sub-genomes. This report represents the first molecular characterization of salt-tolerance genes in a halophytic species in the Amaranthaceae as well as the first comparative analysis of coding and non-coding DNA sequences of the two homoeologous genomes of C. quinoa.

  3. In vivo andin vitro phytochemical and antibacterial efficacy ofBaliospermum montanum(Willd.)Muell.Arg

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JohnsonM; WeselyEG; ZahirHussain MI; SelvanN

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the phytochemical and anti-bacterial potential of mother plantsin vivo andin vitro derived callus ofBaliospermum montanum (B. montanum) (Willd.) Muell.-Arg. leaves and root.Methods:Thein vitro derived rootlets and leaves segments ofB. montanum were cut into0.5-0.7 cm in length and cultured on Murashige and Skoog solid medium supplemented with 3% sucrose, gelled with0.7% agar and different concentration of2, 4-Deither alone or in combinations. The preliminary phytochemical screening was performed by Harborne method. Antibacterial efficacy was performed by well diffusion method and incubated for24 h at37 ℃.Results:The highest percentage of callus formation (leaves segments86.9±0.56; root segments78.7±0.51) was obtained on Murashige and Skoog’s basal medium supplemented with 3% sucrose and2.0 mg/L of 2, 4-Dichlorophenoxy acetic acid. The phytochemical study revealed the high quantity presence of steroids, triterpenoids, glycosides, saponins, alkaloids, flavanoids, phenolic compounds, tannins, sugars etc of root and leaves derived calli. The ethanol extract of leaves segment derived calli ofB. montanum showed the maximum solubility and antimicrobial activity with the MIC ranged from 100to 200 μL.Conclusions: The preliminary phytochemical study confirmed that the calli mediated tissues showed the higher percentage of metabolite constituents and extraction value compared to thein vivo leaves and roots. The present study observation suggested that a possibility to establish high yielding genotypes byin vitro culture for production of medicinally important bioactive compounds.

  4. Antimicrobial activity of berries and leaves essential oils of Macedonian Juniperus foetidissima Willd. (Cupressaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floresha Sela

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of leaves and berries essential oils from Juniperus foetidissima Willd. (Cupressaceae grown in R. Macedonia (RM was investigated. GC/FID/MS analysis was carried out and 93 components were identified, representing 89.7-96.5% of the oils. The major components of the berries essential oil were α-pinene (19.2%, limonene (24.9% and cedrol (23.1%, followed by smaller amounts of b-funebrene, trans-caryophyllene, germacrene D and d-cadinene. The composition of the leaves essential oil was variable depending on the region of collection. Accordingly, samples originated from southeastern RM contained essential oil with α-pinene (67.6% and limonene (10.0%, from central part of RM with limonene (17.9-27.1% and cedrol (28.8-33.9%, while samples from southwestern RM contained oil with terpinen-4-ol (19.1%, cis-thujone (8.3%, germacrene D (11.0% and d-cadinene (6.3% as predominant components in the oil. Antimicrobial screening of the essential oils was made by disc diffusion and broth dilution method against 16 bacterial strains of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and one strain of Candida albicans. The leaves essential oil showed stronger antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes and Haemophilus influenzae (MIC = 125 ml/ml and moderate activity against Campylobacter jejuni (MIC > 500 ml/ml. Other investigated bacterial strains and Candida albicans were completely resistant to the antimicrobial activity of J. foetidissima essential oils.

  5. Effects of the crude extract of Polygala tenuifolia Willd on human sperm in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi QIU; Lei-guang WANG; Yi-fang JIA; Dan-tong YANG; Mei-hua ZHANG; Yan-ping ZHANG; Li-hong ZHANG; Ling GAI

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to analyze sperm membrane changes and the spermicidal effect in treatment with the crude extract from Polygala tenuifolia Willd (PTW) in vitro. The root of PTW was extracted in distilled water. Normal human spermatozoa were used to assess the spermicidal activity (Sander-Cramer assay) of the extract from the PTW root. The hypo-osmotic swelling (HOS) test and the eosin Y (EY) staining were used to detect the integrity of sperm membrane and vitality. The sperm chromatin dispersion (SCD) test was performed to determine sperm DNA integrity. N-9 was used as a reference standard and semen added to physiological saline was used as the control. Semen samples were donated by 42 healthy fertile men. The crude extract from the root of PTW could immobilize and kill 100% spermatozoa within 20 s in vitro at the concentrations of 20.0 and 10.0 mg/ml; at the concentration of 5.0 mg/ml, spermatozoa were immobilized in (39.5卤3.2) s. In the groups of the crude extract from the root of PTW and N-9 solution, the rate of the normal HOS (tails swollen) and the white head (unstained) was 0%, and the rate of the abnormal HOS (tails unswollen) and red head (stained) was 100%. Sperm DNA fragmentation showed no change in exposure to the crude extract from the root of PTW and N-9 solution. The sperm revival test did not show any spermatozoa that recovered their motilities. The rapid spermicidal activity of the crude extract from the root of PTW in vitro may occur by the disruption of the sperm membrane integrity.

  6. Pharmacognostical and phytochemical evaluation of the leaves of Ziziphus xylopyrus (Retz Willd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upendra B Gandagule

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The fruit decoction of Ziziphus xylopyrus (Retz Willd. is used toward increase sterility in woman intended birth control in some parts of Rajasthan, India. This plant is widely used in Turkish medicines as a potent sedative. One to two inches of the fresh stem bark of this species are chewed with 1-2 peppers, and the sap swallowed once a day for 5 days in the treatment of cough. Standardization is one of the challenges in herbal medicine. It is essential to evaluate the herbal plants scientifically and proper documentation should be made to know their medicinal properties. Materials and Methods: Leaf samples of Z. xylopyrus were studied as recommended by World Health Organization for morphological, microscopic, physicochemical, phytochemical, powder characteristics and other methods for standardization. Results: Morphologically the leaves are obovate or orbicular in shape, pinnate venation having aromatic odour and pungent taste. Microscopically leaves showed the presence of ground tissue, vascular strand, xylem and phloem. The crystals are mostly rosette type. Microscopic examination of powder showed the presence of stomata, covering trichomes, sclerenchyma, collenchyma, epidermal cells and vascular strands. Phytochemical screening of the plant part with various solvents revealed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, steroids and sterol, glycosides, saponins, flavonoids, phenolic compounds, triterpenoids in it. Physicochemical parameters such as ash value extractive values were also determined and results showed that water soluble extractive value to be higher than alcohol soluble extractive value. Conclusion: Results may be helpful for further confirmation of selected species and in future these characters may be compared with the new batch of the same plant materials.

  7. Ecophysiological characteristics and cadmium accumulation in Downy Oak (Quercus pubescens Willd.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cocozza C

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals provoke environmental pollution with potentially toxic effects on human and plants systems. Recently, investigations are conducted on plants that may play a relevant role on pollutants absorption or stabilization, focusing on fast growing tree species in agronomic conditions; little is known on the effects of contaminants on tree species colonizing abandoned fields to be used in restoration ecology. The effects of Cd on photosynthetic performance and metal accumulation were investigated in Quercus pubescens Willd. seedlings grown in pots containing a mixture of sand, clay, turf and Cd-treatments (0, 25 and 75 mg kg-1 dry soil. The studied photosynthetic parameters (Asat= net phytosynthesis; Rday= day respiration; Γcomp= CO2 compensation point; Vcmax= maximum carboxylation rate; Jmax = electron transport rate; TPU = triose phosphate use; Ci/Ca = ratio of intercellular (Ci to ambient (Ca [CO2] (Ci/Ca; Jmax/Vcmax = ratio; (gsmax = maximum stomatal conductance; (lg = stomatal conductance estimated relative to the photosynthetic rate; (Fv/Fm = maximum quantum yield of PSII photochemistry; (ΔF/F’m = effective photochemical efficiency varied progressively with increasing Cd concentration in the soil, highlighting a negative impact on photosynthetic potential and PSII functioning. Approximately 10% of added Cd was found to be extractable from the substrate, at the maximum concentration applied, with about 12 and 0.75 as bioaccumulation and translocation factors, respectively. Analogously, Cd accumulated up to 34, 30 and 46 mg kg−1 in leaves, stem and roots, respectively. While it is not possible to extrapolate from the present study with seedlings to effects on mature pine trees, there are clear implications for regeneration in soils contaminated with heavy metals, which may lead to ecosystem deterioration.

  8. 超临界CO2萃取穿心莲内酯的实验研究%Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction of Andrographolide from Andrographis paniculata: Effect of the Solvent Flow Rate,Pressure,and Temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Andrographis paniculata Nees has been extensively used for traditional medicine and help against fever,dysentery,diarrhoea,inflammation,and sore throat. In this study,andrographolide,the main component of this plant was extracted from the leaves of A. paniculata using supercritical carbon dioxide. The operating pressures were varied from 7.50 to 20 MPa,the temperatures were varied from 30℃ to 60℃,and the flow rates were varied 3g sample of A. paniculata ground-dried leaves. The measured extraction rate was found to be about 0.0174g of andrographolide per gram of andrographolide present in the leaves per hour of operation. The future studies must focus on the interaction between the various operating parameters such as temperature,pressure,and flow rate of supercritical carbon dioxide.

  9. Effect of extraction pH on heat-induced aggregation, gelation and microstructure of protein isolate from quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiz, Geraldine Avila; Xiao, Wukai; Boekel, van Tiny; Minor, Marcel; Stieger, Markus

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of extraction pH on heat-induced aggregation, gelation and microstructure of suspensions of protein isolates extracted from quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd). Quinoa seed protein was extracted by alkaline treatment at various pH values (pH 8 (E

  10. Quantification of propagules of the laurel wilt fungus and other mycangial fungi from the redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, T C; Fraedrich, S W

    2010-10-01

    The laurel wilt pathogen, Raffaelea lauricola, is a fungal symbiont of the redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus, which is native to Asia and was believed to have brought R. lauricola with it to the southeastern United States. Individual X. glabratus beetles from six populations in South Carolina and Georgia were individually macerated in glass tissue grinders and serially diluted to quantify the CFU of fungal symbionts. Six species of Raffaelea were isolated, with up to four species from an individual adult beetle. The Raffaelea spp. were apparently within the protected, paired, mandibular mycangia because they were as numerous in heads as in whole beetles, and surface-sterilized heads or whole bodies yielded as many or more CFU as did nonsterilized heads or whole beetles. R. lauricola was isolated from 40 of the 41 beetles sampled, and it was isolated in the highest numbers, up to 30,000 CFU/beetle. Depending on the population sampled, R. subalba or R. ellipticospora was the next most frequently isolated species. R. arxii, R. fusca, and R. subfusca were only occasionally isolated. The laurel wilt pathogen apparently grows in a yeast phase within the mycangia in competition with other Raffaelea spp.

  11. ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAL COLONIZATION OF LARREA TRIDENTATA AND AMBROSIA DUMOSA ROOTS VARIES WITH PRECIPITATION AND SEASON IN THE MOJAVE DESERT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. E. APPLE; C. I. THEE; V. L. SMITH-LONGOZO; C. R. COGAR; C. E. WELLS; R. S. NOWAK

    2004-01-01

    The percentage of fine roots colonized by arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi varied with season and with species in the co-dominant shrubs Lurreu tridentutu and Ambrosia dumosu at a site adjacent to the Nevada Desert FACE (Free-Air CO{sub 2} Enrichment) Facility (NDFF) in the Mojave Desert. We excavated downward and outward from the shrub bases in both species to collect and examine fine roots (< 1.0 mm diameter) at monthly intervals throughout 2001 and from October 2002 to September 2003. Fungal structures became visible in cleared roots stained with trypan blue. We quantified the percent colonization of roots by AM fungi via the line intercept method. In both years and for both species, colonization was highest in fall, relatively low in spring when root growth began, increased in late spring, and decreased during summer drought periods. Increases in colonization during summer and fall reflect corresponding increases in precipitation. Spring mycorrhizal colonization is low despite peaks in soil water availability and precipitation, indicating that precipitation is not the only factor influencing mycorrhizal colonization. Because the spring decrease in mycorrhizal colonization occurs when these shrubs initiate a major flush of fine root growth, other phenological events such as competing demands for carbon by fine root initiation, early season shoot growth, and flowering may reduce carbon availability to the fungus, and hence decrease colonization. Another possibility is that root growth exceeds the rate of mycorrhizal colonization.

  12. Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Interaction of Andrographolide and Standardized Extract of Andrographis paniculata (Nees) with Nabumetone in Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balap, Aishwarya; Lohidasan, Sathiyanarayanan; Sinnathambi, Arulmozhi; Mahadik, Kakasaheb

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the herb-drug interaction of Andrographis paniculata Nees (Acanthaceae) and Andrographolide (AN) with nabumetone (NAB) in wistar rats. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions were studied after co-administration of APE and AN with NAB in Wistar rats. In pharmacokinetic studies, significant decrease in Cmax, AUC0-t and AUC0-∞ of 6-MNA after co-administration with pure AN and APE has been observed. Tmax of 6-MNA has been increased to 2 h from 1.5 h in AN + NAB treated group. Changes in mean residential time, clearance and volume of distribution of 6-MNA in APE + NAB treated group and AN + NAB treated group indicated interference of other components of APE other than AN. In pharmacodynamic study, significant decrease in antiarthritic activity of NAB on concomitant administration with APE and AN has been observed. The study concludes that NAB exhibits pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions with APE and AN in rats thus alarms the concomitant use of herbal preparations containing APE and AN with NAB. Further study is needed to understand the mechanism and predict the herb-drug interaction in humans. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Phytochemical Analysis and Modulation of Antibiotic Activity by Luehea paniculata Mart. & Zucc. (Malvaceae) in Multiresistant Clinical Isolates of Candida Spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calixto Júnior, João T.; Morais, Selene M.; Martins, Clécio G.; Vieira, Larissa G.; Morais-Braga, Maria Flaviana B.; Carneiro, Joara N. P.; Machado, Antonio J. P.; Menezes, Irwin R. A.; Tintino, Saulo R.; Coutinho, Henrique D. M.

    2015-01-01

    The high incidence of fungal infections has led to the continuous search for new drugs. Extracts of Luehea paniculata, a tree of multiple medicinal uses, were evaluated for anti-Candida activity, as well as its modulator potential of the Fluconazole antibiotic. Chemical prospecting of ethanol extracts of leaf and bark was carried out, the quantification of total phenols and flavonoids, characterized by the HPLC-DAD technique. The rosmarinic acid and the vitexin flavonoid were observed as major constituents in ELELP and ESWELP, respectively. Antioxidant activity was also evaluated by the method of scavenging the free radical DPPH, and quercetin was used as standard, obtaining IC50 values: 0.341 (mg/mL) for ELELP and 0.235 (mg/mL) for ESWELP. The microdilution assay was performed for antifungal activity against strains of Candida albicans, C. krusei, and C. tropicalis and showed minimum inhibitory concentrations values ≥1024 μg/mL. In the modulator action of extracts on Fluconazole against multiresistant clinical isolates of Candida (subinhibitory concentration minimum of 128 μg/mL), a significant synergism was observed, indicating that the extracts potentiated the antifungal effect against C. tropicalis, where antioxidant flavonoids could be responsible. This is the first report about modifying activity of the antibiotic action of a species of the genus Luehea. PMID:25821822

  14. Phytochemical analysis and modulation of antibiotic activity by Luehea paniculata Mart. & Zucc. (Malvaceae) in multiresistant clinical isolates of Candida spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calixto Júnior, João T; Morais, Selene M; Martins, Clécio G; Vieira, Larissa G; Morais-Braga, Maria Flaviana B; Carneiro, Joara N P; Machado, Antonio J P; Menezes, Irwin R A; Tintino, Saulo R; Coutinho, Henrique D M

    2015-01-01

    The high incidence of fungal infections has led to the continuous search for new drugs. Extracts of Luehea paniculata, a tree of multiple medicinal uses, were evaluated for anti-Candida activity, as well as its modulator potential of the Fluconazole antibiotic. Chemical prospecting of ethanol extracts of leaf and bark was carried out, the quantification of total phenols and flavonoids, characterized by the HPLC-DAD technique. The rosmarinic acid and the vitexin flavonoid were observed as major constituents in ELELP and ESWELP, respectively. Antioxidant activity was also evaluated by the method of scavenging the free radical DPPH, and quercetin was used as standard, obtaining IC50 values: 0.341 (mg/mL) for ELELP and 0.235 (mg/mL) for ESWELP. The microdilution assay was performed for antifungal activity against strains of Candida albicans, C. krusei, and C. tropicalis and showed minimum inhibitory concentrations values ≥1024 μg/mL. In the modulator action of extracts on Fluconazole against multiresistant clinical isolates of Candida (subinhibitory concentration minimum of 128 μg/mL), a significant synergism was observed, indicating that the extracts potentiated the antifungal effect against C. tropicalis, where antioxidant flavonoids could be responsible. This is the first report about modifying activity of the antibiotic action of a species of the genus Luehea.

  15. Improvement of friable callus production of Boerhaavia paniculata Rich and the investigation of its lipid profile by GC/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Joanne M M; Berkov, Strahill; Santos, Alberdan S

    2014-09-01

    In this study, a protocol to induce high amount of friable callus of Boerhaavia paniculata RICH and a lipidomics technique were applied to investigate the profile of lipids to relate to those present in the roots of this plant that presented anti-inflammatory activity in the crude hexane extract. The callus culture was induced from seeds in solidified Murashige and Skoog medium containing different amounts of glucose and different concentrations of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. The explants were kept in a germination chamber at 30±2°C with a photoperiod of 16 h under light intensity of 27 µmol m-2 s-1 for 4 weeks. The best results for friable callus formation and development of the biomass were obtained in the treatment containing 2.26 µM 2.4-D and glucose (1.5 %; w/v). Lipidomics techniques were applied in hexane fraction showing higher concentrations of the steroids β-sitosterol (3.53 mg/100 g dc-dry cells), and fatty acids, especially 2-hydroxy-tetracosanoic acid (0.34 mg/100 g dc), eicosanoic acid (86.25 mg/100 g dc), stearic acid (420.83 mg/100 g dc), tetradecanoic acid (10.74 mg/100 g dc) and linoleic acid (100.61 mg/100 g dc). The lipid profile of callus versus that found in the roots of wild plant is described in this work.

  16. Improvement of friable callus production of Boerhaavia paniculata Rich and the investigation of its lipid profile by GC/MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOANNE M.M. SOUZA

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a protocol to induce high amount of friable callus of Boerhaavia paniculata RICH and a lipidomics technique were applied to investigate the profile of lipids to relate to those present in the roots of this plant that presented anti-inflammatory activity in the crude hexane extract. The callus culture was induced from seeds in solidified Murashige and Skoog medium containing different amounts of glucose and different concentrations of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. The explants were kept in a germination chamber at 30±2°C with a photoperiod of 16 h under light intensity of 27 µmol m–2 s–1 for 4 weeks. The best results for friable callus formation and development of the biomass were obtained in the treatment containing 2.26 µM 2.4-D and glucose (1.5 %; w/v. Lipidomics techniques were applied in hexane fraction showing higher concentrations of the steroids β-sitosterol (3.53 mg/100 g dc–dry cells, and fatty acids, especially 2-hydroxy-tetracosanoic acid (0.34 mg/100 g dc, eicosanoic acid (86.25 mg/100 g dc, stearic acid (420.83 mg/100 g dc, tetradecanoic acid (10.74 mg/100 g dc and linoleic acid (100.61 mg/100 g dc. The lipid profile of callus versus that found in the roots of wild plant is described in this work.

  17. Some morphological and anatomical studies of leaves and flowers of Murraya paniculata (Jack) Linn. in vivo and in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Rosna Mat; Haron, Noorma Wati

    2008-04-01

    In the present study, various explants of Murraya paniculata (Jack) Linn., such as cotyledons, shoots and young stems were cultured on MS medium supplemented with various concentrations of Benzyl Amino Purine (BAP) under 25 +/- 1 degree C with 16 h light and 8 h dark and also 8 h light and 16 h dark to obtain complete plant regeneration. In vitro flowering was observed from shoot explants cultured on MS supplemented with 0.5-2.0 mg L(-1) Naphthalene Acetic Acid (NAA) and also on MS basal medium under similar conditions. The leaves and flowers obtained from both in vivo and in vitro conditions were examined and compared. Morphological studies such as leaf clearing, epidermal peeling were studied using light and scanning electron microscope. Macromorphological studies of the flowers produced from in vivo and in vitro conditions were also examined. Morphologically, there were no differences between in vivo and in vitro flowers except the flowers produced from tissue culture systems were smaller in size with protruding stigmas. Differences were also found in the number of layers of palisade cells and the presence or absence of epicuticle layer of the leaves. Leaves produced from tissue culture system were smaller in size with membranous texture. Stomata were present only on the abaxial surfaces of both in vivo and in vitro leaves but the stomata were raised above the epidermis in the latter.

  18. Protective effect of total flavonoids extracted from the leaves of Murraya paniculata (L.) Jack on diabetic nephropathy in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Jingtao; Yu, Xiaofeng; Qu, Shaochun; Li, Xuwen; Jin, Yongri; Sui, Dayuan

    2014-02-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effects of total flavonoids extracted from the leaves of Murraya paniculata (L.) Jack (TFMP) on diabetic nephropathy. High fat diet and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were treated with the TFMP (35 or 70 mg/kg) for 13 weeks. Changes of renal function parameters were examined at the end of administration. Some kidneys were collected for histological and immunohistochemistry studies, the other ones for biochemical parameters analysis. TFMP significantly decreased the levels of serum blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, creatinine clearance, interleukin-6, urinary albumin, 24h-urinary albumin excretion rate, kidney weight to body weight ratio and fasting blood glucose in diabetic rats. Meanwhile, the levels of triglycerides, total and LDL cholesterols in the TFMP treated diabetic rats were lower and the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level was higher than that in the diabetic rats. TFMP treatment significantly blocked the decrease of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase and increase of malondialdehyde levels in diabetic rats. Furthermore, the TFMP not only decreased the expression of TGF-β1 and CTGF protein, but also reduced diabetes-induced morphological alterations of the kidney. These results suggest that TFMP is a protective agent against renal damage in diabetic nephropathy.

  19. Colonization of Artificially Stressed Black Walnut Trees by Ambrosia Beetle, Bark Beetle, and Other Weevil Species (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Indiana and Missouri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Sharon E; Juzwik, Jennifer; English, James T; Ginzel, Matthew D

    2015-12-01

    Thousand cankers disease (TCD) is a new disease of black walnut (Juglans nigra L.) in the eastern United States. The disease is caused by the interaction of the aggressive bark beetle Pityophthorus juglandis Blackman and the canker-forming fungus, Geosmithia morbida M. Kolarik, E. Freeland, C. Utley & Tisserat, carried by the beetle. Other insects also colonize TCD-symptomatic trees and may also carry pathogens. A trap tree survey was conducted in Indiana and Missouri to characterize the assemblage of ambrosia beetles, bark beetles, and other weevils attracted to the main stems and crowns of stressed black walnut. More than 100 trees were girdled and treated with glyphosate (Riverdale Razor Pro, Burr Ridge, Illinois) at 27 locations. Nearly 17,000 insects were collected from logs harvested from girdled walnut trees. These insects represented 15 ambrosia beetle, four bark beetle, and seven other weevil species. The most abundant species included Xyleborinus saxeseni Ratzburg, Xylosandrus crassiusculus Motschulsky, Xylosandrus germanus Blandford, Xyleborus affinis Eichhoff, and Stenomimus pallidus Boheman. These species differed in their association with the stems or crowns of stressed trees. Multiple species of insects were collected from individual trees and likely colonized tissues near each other. At least three of the abundant species found (S. pallidus, X. crassiusculus, and X. germanus) are known to carry propagules of canker-causing fungi of black walnut. In summary, a large number of ambrosia beetles, bark beetles, and other weevils are attracted to stressed walnut trees in Indiana and Missouri. Several of these species have the potential to introduce walnut canker pathogens during colonization.

  20. Study on the Grading Standard of Andrographis paniculata Seeds%穿心莲种子质量分级标准研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何瑞; 童家贇; 张晓丽; 詹若挺; 陈蔚文

    2011-01-01

    [目的]制定穿心莲(Andrographis paniculata)种子质量分级标准.[方法]测定不同来源的穿心莲种子净度、千粒重、水分和发芽率等指标,使用SPSS软件,对千粒重、发芽率数据进行K-均值聚类分析,制定分级标准.[结果]以发芽率为主,综合水分、千粒重及净度4个指标初步制定了穿心莲种子质量分级标准,把穿心莲种子质量等级分为3个等级.[结论]该研究制定的质量分级标准具有生产实用性,可作为穿心莲种子的质量控制标准.%[Objective] To set up a quality grading standard of Andrographis paniculata seeds. [ Method] Seeds samples from different producing areas were tested on respects of quality, such as purity, 1 000-grain weight, moiature content and germination rate, etc.The statistical software SPSS was used to perform the K-means clustering on experimental data. [Result] A three grafte quality standard of Andrographis paniculata seeds was preliminarily set up mainly based on germination rate combining moisture content, 1 000-grain weight,and purity. [Conclusion] The established grading standard was of practical value and could be used as quality control standards for Andrographis paniculate seeds.

  1. Study on Germination Testing Standardization of Andrographis paniculata(Burm.f.)Nees Seed%穿心莲种子发芽试验标准化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    童家赟; 张晓丽; 何瑞; 詹若挺

    2011-01-01

    The influence of different conditions on Andrographis paniculata ( Burm.f.) Nees seed germination were tested in current work.The conditions included 5 temperature treatments (25.0,27.5,30.0,32.5 ℃ and 35.0 ℃ ) ,2 light treatments (0 and 500 lx), and 2 germinating-bed treatments (TP and TS).According to the germination performance under different condition, the optimum seed germination conditions of Andrographis paniculata were as follows: temperature 25.0 ℃ to 30.0 ℃, germinating-beds TP, under light.The first seedling-counting time was the 2 nd day after germination, the last time was the 7 th day.%通过发芽试验来探讨温度、光照及发芽床等因素对穿心莲(Andrographis paniculata(Burm.f.)Nees)种子萌发的影响.设25.0、27.5、30.0、32.5、35.0℃共5种恒温温度处理,设纸上(TP)和砂上(TS)2种发芽床处理,光照设0(全黑暗)和500 lx 2个处理.试脸结果表明:穿心莲种子发芽最适温度为25~30℃,发芽床可选择纸上(TP)法,对光照敏感,初次计数时间为发芽后第2天,末次计数时间为发芽后第7天.幼苗生长发育类型为子叶出土的双子叶农作物种子,幼苗鉴定只考虑初生根的发育状况.

  2. Evaluation of anti–bacterial and anti–oxidant potential of andrographolide and echiodinin isolated from callus culture of Andrographis paniculata Nees

    OpenAIRE

    Mohmmed Arifullah; Nima Dandu Namsa; Manabendra Mandal; Kishore Kumar Chiruvella; Paritala Vikrama; Ghanta Rama Gopal

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the anti–bacterial and anti–oxidant activity of andrographolide (AND) and echiodinin (ECH) of Andrographis paniculata. Methods: In this study, an attempt has been made to demonstrate the anti–microbial and antioxidant activity of isolated AND and ECH by broth micro–dilution method and 2,2–diphenyl–2–picryl–hydrazyl (DPPH) assay, respectively. Structure elucidation was determined by electro–spray ionization–MSD, NMR (1H and 13C) and IR spectra. Results: AND was eff...

  3. Ionic and osmotic relations in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) plants grown at various salinity levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariadi, Yuda; Marandon, Karl; Tian, Yu; Jacobsen, Sven-Erik; Shabala, Sergey

    2011-01-01

    Ionic and osmotic relations in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) were studied by exposing plants to six salinity levels (0-500 mM NaCl range) for 70 d. Salt stress was administered either by pre-mixing of the calculated amount of NaCl with the potting mix before seeds were planted or by the gradual increase of NaCl levels in the irrigation water. For both methods, the optimal plant growth and biomass was achieved between 100 mM and 200 mM NaCl, suggesting that quinoa possess a very efficient system to adjust osmotically for abrupt increases in NaCl stress. Up to 95% of osmotic adjustment in old leaves and between 80% and 85% of osmotic adjustment in young leaves was achieved by means of accumulation of inorganic ions (Na(+), K(+), and Cl(-)) at these NaCl levels, whilst the contribution of organic osmolytes was very limited. Consistently higher K(+) and lower Na(+) levels were found in young, as compared with old leaves, for all salinity treatments. The shoot sap K(+) progressively increased with increased salinity in old leaves; this is interpreted as evidence for the important role of free K(+) in leaf osmotic adjustment under saline conditions. A 5-fold increase in salinity level (from 100 mM to 500 mM) resulted in only a 50% increase in the sap Na(+) content, suggesting either a very strict control of xylem Na(+) loading or an efficient Na(+) removal from leaves. A very strong correlation between NaCl-induced K(+) and H(+) fluxes was observed in quinoa root, suggesting that a rapid NaCl-induced activation of H(+)-ATPase is needed to restore otherwise depolarized membrane potential and prevent further K(+) leak from the cytosol. Taken together, this work emphasizes the role of inorganic ions for osmotic adjustment in halophytes and calls for more in-depth studies of the mechanisms of vacuolar Na(+) sequestration, control of Na(+) and K(+) xylem loading, and their transport to the shoot.

  4. Morphology and histochemistry of glandular trichomes of Orobanche alba Stephan ex Willd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Sulborska

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Orobanche alba Stephan ex Willd is an achlorophyllous root parasite rare in Poland. It prefers dry and sunny slopes, xerothermic grasslands and pastures, mountain pastures, light scrubs, and rock fissures and ledges. The hosts of O. alba include Thymus polytrichus A. ern. ex Borbás, Clinopodium vulgare L. and Origanum vulgare L. The tick and fleshy 10-70 cm high stem in this species bears an inflorescence composed of zygomorphic, white or yellow “spotted” flowers covered by purple glandular trichomes. Glandular trichomes of this type are also borne on other parts of the plant, i.e. on the stem, scaly leaves, sepals, filaments, and the style. The secondary metabolites secreted by the glandular trichomes are related to defense of plants against the attack of herbivores and pathogens or act as attractants to pollinators or for fruit dispersal. The micromorphology and histochemistry of the glandular trichomes in O. alba were examined using scanning electron and light microscopes. In order to determine the type of secondary metabolites produced by the trichomes, the flowing histochemical assays were used: Sudan III and neutral red for detection of lipophilic compounds, IKI for detection of starch, and FeCl3 for detection of phenolic compounds. The peltate glandular trichomes of O. alba were characterised by a varied length (0.15‑0.48 mm and different activity phases. The trichome was composed of one larger basal epidermal cell, 1-3 hyaline stalk cells with a striated cuticle, a neck cell with a smooth cuticle on the surface, and a globose head formed of 8-18 secretory cells arranged in a circle. Many stalk cells of the trichomes, particularly those located on the corolla, contained anthocyanins, which give the trichomes dark carmine colour. In turn, the colour of the heads was dependent on trichome age: the heads were brown in older trichomes and yellow in younger hairs. Secretion was produced by both young and older trichomes. It penetrated

  5. Drought impact on Quercus pubescens Willd. isoprene emissions over the Mediterranean area: what future?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyrielle Genard-Zielinski, Anne; Boissard, Christophe; Ormeño, Elena; Lathière, Juliette; Guenet, Bertrand; Gauquelin, Thierry; Fernandez, Catherine

    2015-04-01

    Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds (BVOCs) released by plants mostly originate from their secondary metabolism. Their emissions are modulated, in terms of intensity and molecule diversity, by environmental conditions. Among BVOCs, isoprene has been especially studied due to its high emission fluxes and its contribution to tropospheric photochemistry, both in the gaseous and particulate phases. However, the way isoprene emissions are impacted by some abiotic factors, especially water stress, is still under debate. In a world facing climatic changes, global climate models expect air temperature and drought intensity to strengthen in the Mediterranean area by 2100. Our work focuses on the impact of water stress on isoprene emissions (ERiso) from Quercus pubescens Willd. This species covers large areas of the Mediterranean area where it appears to be the main isoprene emitter. An in situ experimentation was performed at the O3HP (Oak Observatory at OHP, southern France) in a pubescent oak forest with trees adapted to long lasting stress periods. We investigated during a whole seasonal cycle (from June 2012 to June 2013) the course of ERiso under both natural water stress (control treatment: C) and intensified water stress (stress treatment: S) by artificially reducing rain by 30% using a specific rain exclusion device. Restricted rain did not modify either the net CO2 assimilation or ERiso during the whole season. However, isoprene emission factors (Is) for trees under S were significantly higher (a factor of ˜ 2) than for trees growing under C in August (137.8 compared to 75.3 μgC.gDM-1.h-1 respectively) and September (75.3 compared to 40.2 μgC.gDM-1.h-1 respectively). Based on our experimental emission database, an appropriate isoprene emission algorithm (GZ2014) was developed using a statistic approach (an artificial neural network). Using ambient and edaphic environmental parameters integrated over up to 3 weeks, GZ2014 was found to represent more than 80% of

  6. North American Lauraceae: terpenoid emissions, relative attraction and boring preferences of redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus (coleoptera: curculionidae: scolytinae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul E Kendra

    Full Text Available The invasive redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus, is the primary vector of Raffaelea lauricola, a symbiotic fungus and the etiologic agent of laurel wilt. This lethal disease has caused severe mortality of redbay (Persea borbonia and swampbay (P. palustris trees in the southeastern USA, threatens avocado (P. americana production in Florida, and has potential to impact additional New World species. To date, all North American hosts of X. glabratus and suscepts of laurel wilt are members of the family Lauraceae. This comparative study combined field tests and laboratory bioassays to evaluate attraction and boring preferences of female X. glabratus using freshly-cut bolts from nine species of Lauraceae: avocado (one cultivar of each botanical race, redbay, swampbay, silkbay (Persea humilis, California bay laurel (Umbellularia californica, sassafras (Sassafras albidum, northern spicebush (Lindera benzoin, camphor tree (Cinnamomum camphora, and lancewood (Nectandra coriacea. In addition, volatile collections and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS were conducted to quantify terpenoid emissions from test bolts, and electroantennography (EAG was performed to measure olfactory responses of X. glabratus to terpenoids identified by GC-MS. Significant differences were observed among treatments in both field and laboratory tests. Silkbay and camphor tree attracted the highest numbers of the beetle in the field, and lancewood and spicebush the lowest, whereas boring activity was greatest on silkbay, bay laurel, swampbay, and redbay, and lowest on lancewood, spicebush, and camphor tree. The Guatemalan cultivar of avocado was more attractive than those of the other races, but boring response among the three was equivalent. The results suggest that camphor tree may contain a chemical deterrent to boring, and that different cues are associated with host location and host acceptance. Emissions of α-cubebene, α-copaene, α-humulene, and

  7. Effects of elevated CO2 on biomass and fungi associated with two ecotypes of ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runion, G Brett; Prior, Stephen A; Price, Andrew J; McElroy, J Scott; Torbert, H Allen

    2014-01-01

    Herbicide resistant weed populations have developed due to the repeated application of herbicides. Elevated concentrations of atmospheric CO2 can have positive effects on weed growth, but how rising CO2 might affect herbicide resistant weeds is not known. Ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.) ecotypes known to be resistant or susceptible to glyphosate herbicide were exposed to either ambient or elevated (ambient +200 μ mol mol(-1)) concentrations of CO2 in open top chambers. Plants were harvested following 8 weeks of CO2 exposure; at this time, they had begun to exhibit disease symptoms including spots on leaves and stems. Elevated CO2 significantly increased top, root, and total plant biomass. Also, glyphosate resistant plants had significantly greater top, root, and total biomass than plants susceptible to the herbicide. There were no significant CO2 by ecotype interactions. Fungi from 13 genera were associated with ragweed, several of which can be either pathogens (i.e., Alternaria, Fusarium, Rhizoctonia), aiding the decline in health of the ragweed plants, or saprophytes existing on dead plant tissues. The common foliar disease powdery mildew was significantly higher on susceptible compared with resistant ragweed. Susceptible plants also showed an increased frequency of Rhizoctonia on leaves and Alternaria on stems; however, Fusarium occurred more frequently on resistant ragweed leaves. Fungi were not affected by CO2 concentration or its interaction with ecotype. This study reports the first information on the effects of elevated CO2 on growth of herbicide resistant weeds. This is also the first study examining the impact of herbicide resistance and elevated CO2 on fungi associated with weeds. What effects herbicide resistance might have on plant diseases and how rising atmospheric CO2 might impact these effects needs to be addressed, not only with important weeds but also with crops.

  8. Fusarium euwallaceae sp. nov.--a symbiotic fungus of Euwallacea sp., an invasive ambrosia beetle in Israel and California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, S; Sharon, M; Maymon, M; Mendel, Z; Protasov, A; Aoki, T; Eskalen, A; O'Donnell, K

    2013-01-01

    The invasive Asian ambrosia beetle Euwallacea sp. (Coleoptera, Scolytinae, Xyleborini) and a novel Fusarium sp. that it farms in its galleries as a source of nutrition causes serious damage to more than 20 species of live trees and pose a serious threat to avocado production (Persea americana) in Israel and California. Adult female beetles are equipped with mandibular mycangia in which its fungal symbiont is transported within and from the natal galleries. Damage caused to the xylem is associated with disease symptoms that include sugar or gum exudates, dieback, wilt and ultimately host tree mortality. In 2012 the beetle was recorded on more than 200 and 20 different urban landscape species in southern California and Israel respectively. Euwallacea sp. and its symbiont are closely related to the tea shot-hole borer (E. fornicatus) and its obligate symbiont, F. ambrosium occurring in Sri Lanka and India. To distinguish these beetles, hereafter the unnamed xyleborine in Israel and California will be referred to as Euwallacea sp. IS/CA. Both fusaria exhibit distinctive ecologies and produce clavate macroconidia, which we think might represent an adaption to the species-specific beetle partner. Both fusaria comprise a genealogically exclusive lineage within Clade 3 of the Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC) that can be differentiated with arbitrarily primed PCR. Currently these fusaria can be distinguished only phenotypically by the abundant production of blue to brownish macroconidia in the symbiont of Euwallacea sp. IS/CA and their rarity or absence in F. ambrosium. We speculate that obligate symbiosis of Euwallacea and Fusarium, might have driven ecological speciation in these mutualists. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to describe and illustrate the novel, economically destructive avocado pathogen as Fusarium euwallaceae sp. nov. S. Freeman et al.

  9. Effects of Elevated CO2 on Biomass and Fungi Associated with Two Ecotypes of Ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Brett Runion

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Herbicide resistant weed populations have developed due to the repeated application of herbicides. Elevated concentrations of atmospheric CO2 can have positive effects on weed growth, but how rising CO2 might affect herbicide resistant weeds is not known. Ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. ecotypes known to be resistant or susceptible to glyphosate herbicide were exposed to either ambient or elevated (ambient + 200 µmol mol-1 concentrations of CO2 in open top chambers. Plants were harvested following 8 weeks of CO2 exposure; at this time, they had begun to exhibit disease symptoms including spots on leaves and stems. Elevated CO2 significantly increased top, root, and total plant biomass. Also, glyphosate resistant plants had significantly greater top, root, and total biomass than plants susceptible to the herbicide. There were no significant CO2 by ecotype interactions. Fungi from 13 genera were associated with ragweed, several of the which can be either pathogens (i.e., Alternaria, Fusarium, Rhizoctonia, aiding the decline in health of the ragweed plants, or saprophytes existing on dead plant tissues. The common foliar disease powdery mildew was significantly higher on susceptible compared with resistant ragweed. Susceptible plants also showed an increased frequency of Rhizoctonia on leaves and Alternaria on stems; however, Fusarium occurred more frequently on resistant ragweed leaves. Fungi were not affected by CO2 concentration or its interaction with ecotype. This study reports the first information on the effects of elevated CO2 on growth of herbicide resistant weeds. This is also the first study examining the impact of herbicide resistance and elevated CO2 on fungi associated with weeds. What effects herbicide resistance might have on plant diseases and how rising atmospheric CO2 might impact these effects needs to be addressed, not only with important weeds but also with crops.

  10. Estrutura anatômica da madeira e qualidade do carvão de Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd. Poir Anatonical structure and charcoal quality of Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd. Poir. Wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth de Oliveira

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou determinar algumas características anatômicas e dimensões de fibras, elementos dos vasos, células do parênquima e dos raios da madeira da Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd. Poir. Determinaram-se, ainda, a fração parede das fibras e o porcentual das fibras, dos vasos, dos raios e das células parenquimatosas, bem como a densidade, rendimento e propriedades do carvão vegetal. Conclui-se que a madeira de Mimosa tenuiflora possui poros predominantemente solitários, geminados e múltiplos em agrupamento radial; poros distribuídos em porosidade difusa uniforme; parênquima axial paratraqueal vasicêntrico, vasicêntrico confluente, aliforme e aliforme confluente; raios multisseriados, bisseriados e, menos freqüentemente, unisseriados; e fibras de parede espessa e muito curtas. Obteve-se um rendimento de 39,68% em carvão vegetal, com teor de carbono fixo de 71,70%, densidade igual a 0,51g/cm³, carbono fixo de 71,79 e poder calórico de 6.866 cal/g.The objective of this work was to determine anatomical characteristics, and dimensions of fibers, vessels and parenchyma and ray cells of Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd. Poir wood. Fibers wall fraction, the percentage of fibers, vessels and ray and parenchyma cells, as well as density and charcoal production and properties were determined. The wood of Mimosa teniflora presents predominantly solitary, geminated and multiple porous in radial groups; porous distributed in uniform diffuse porosity; axial parenchyma paratracheal vasicentric, confluent vasicentric, aliform and confluent aliform; multiseriate, biseiat rays and, less frequently, uniseriate ones; very short fibers with thick walls. Charcoal yield was 39.68% with a 0.51g/cm³ density, 71.79% carbon content and 6886cal/g calorific value.

  11. Investigation of hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic and antioxidant activities of aqueous extract of Terminalia paniculata bark in diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Subramaniam Ramachandran; Aiyalu Rajasekaran; KT Manisenthilkumar

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic and antioxidant activities of aqueous extract of Terminalia paniculata bark (AETPB) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Methods: Acute toxicity was studied in rats after the oral administration of AETPB to determine the dose to assess hypoglycemic activity. In rats, diabetes was induced by injection of STZ (60 mg/kg, i.p.) and diabetes was confirmed 72 h after induction, and then allowed for 14 days to stabilize blood glucose level. In diabetic rats, AETPB was orally given for 28 days and its effect on blood glucose and body weight was determined on a weekly basis. At the end of the experimental day, fasting blood sample was collected to estimate the haemoglobin (Hb), glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c), serum creatinine, urea, serum glutamate-pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), serum glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT) and insulin levels. The liver and kidney were collected to determine antioxidants levels in diabetic rats. Results:Oral administration of AETPB did not exhibit toxicity and death at a dose of 2000 mg/kg. AETPB treated diabetic rats significantly (P<0.001, P<0.01 and P<0.05) reduced elevated blood glucose, HbA1c, creatinine, urea, SGPT and SGOT levels when compared with diabetic control rats. The body weight, Hb, insulin and total protein levels were significantly (P<0.001, P<0.01 and P<0.05) increased in diabetic rats treated with AETPB compared to diabetic control rats. In diabetic rats, AETPB treatment significantly reversed abnormal status of antioxidants and lipid profile levels towards near normal levels compared to diabetic control rats. Conclusions: Present study results confirm that AETPB possesses significant hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic and antioxidant activities in diabetic condition.

  12. Involvement of an ent-copalyl diphosphate synthase in tissue-specific accumulation of specialized diterpenes in Andrographis paniculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Rajesh Chandra; Garg, Anchal; Roy, Sudeep; Chanotiya, Chandan Singh; Vasudev, Prema G; Ghosh, Sumit

    2015-11-01

    Ent-labdane-related diterpene (ent-LRD) specialized (i.e. secondary) metabolites of the medicinal plant kalmegh (Andrographis paniculata) have long been known for several pharmacological activities. However, our understanding of the ent-LRD biosynthetic pathway has remained largely incomplete. Since ent-LRDs accumulate in leaves, we carried out a comparative transcriptional analysis using leaf and root tissues, and identified 389 differentially expressed transcripts, including 223 transcripts that were preferentially expressed in leaf tissue. Analysis of the transcripts revealed various specialized metabolic pathways, including transcripts of the ent-LRD biosynthetic pathway. Two class II diterpene synthases (ApCPS1 and ApCPS2) along with one (ApCPS1') and two (ApCPS2' and ApCPS2″) transcriptional variants that were the outcomes of alternative splicing of the precursor mRNA and alternative transcriptional termination, respectively, were identified. ApCPS1 and ApCPS2 encode for 832- and 817-amino acids proteins, respectively, and are phylogenetically related to the dicotyledons ent-copalyl diphosphate synthases (ent-CPSs). The spatio-temporal patterns of ent-LRD metabolites accumulation and gene expression suggested a likely role for ApCPS1 in general (i.e. primary) metabolism, perhaps by providing precursor for the biosynthesis of phytohormone gibberellin (GA). However, ApCPS2 is potentially involved in tissue-specific accumulation of ent-LRD specialized metabolites. Bacterially expressed recombinant ApCPS2 catalyzed the conversion of (E,E,E)-geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP), the general precursor of diterpenes to ent-copalyl diphosphate (ent-CPP), the precursor of ent-LRDs. Taken together, these results advance our understanding of the tissue-specific accumulation of specialized ent-LRDs of medicinal importance.

  13. Protective activity of andrographolide and arabinogalactan proteins from Andrographis paniculata Nees. against ethanol-induced toxicity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singha, Prajjal K; Roy, Somenath; Dey, Satyahari

    2007-04-20

    To find out the active principles against ethanol-induced toxicity in mice, Andrographis paniculata Nees. (Ap) was chosen and isolated andrographolide (ANDRO) and arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs). ANDRO was detected by HPTLC, FTIR and quantified by HPLC (10mg/g of Ap powder). AGPs was detected by beta-glucosyl Yariv staining of SDS-PAGE gel, FTIR and quantified by single radial gel diffusion assay with beta-glucosyl Yariv reagent (0.5mg/g Ap powder). The mice are pretreated intra-peritoneally (i.p.) with different doses (62.5, 125, 250, and 500mg/kg) of body weight of mice] of ANDRO and AGPs for 7 days and then ethanol (7.5g/kg of body weight) was injected, i.p. Besides, silymarin was used as standard hepatoprotective agent for comparative study with ANDRO and AGPs. The ameliorative activity of ANDRO and AGP against hepatic renal alcohol toxicity was measured by assessing GOT, GPT, ACP, ALP and LP levels in liver and kidney. It has been observed that pretreatment of mice with ANDRO and AGPs at 500mg/kg of body weight and 125mg/kg of body weight respectively could able to minimize the toxicity in compare to ethanol treated group as revealed by the different enzymatic assay in liver and kidney tissues and the results were comparable with silymarin. Hence, out of several ill-defined compounds present in Ap, ANDRO and AGPs are the potential bioactive compounds responsible for protection against ethanol-induced toxicity.

  14. Studies on effects ofAndrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) andAndrographis lineata nees (Family:Acanthaceae) extracts against two mosquitoesCulex quinquefasciatus (Say.) andAedes aegypti (Linn.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Renugadevi G; Ramanathan T; Shanmuga priya R; Thirunavukkarasu P

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the studies on effects ofAndrographis paniculata(A. paniculata) (Burm.f.) andAndrographis lineata(A. lineata) nees(Family:Acanthaceae) extracts against two mosquitoesCulex quinquefasciatus(Cx. quinquefasciatus)(Say.) andAedes aegypti(Ae. aegypti) (Linn.).Methods:The aqueous and petroleum ether extracts of two plant species,A. paniculata andA. lineate were examined against the larvae ofA. aegypti(L.) andCx. quinquefasciatus with gradually increasing concentrationie. from50 to200 ppm of solvent extracts and to test their activity in combination with each other.Results:In a24 h bioassay experiment with plant extracts, highest mortalities were recorded at200 ppm of concentrations for leaves ofA. lineta andA. paniculata individually.For combination effect, only150 ppm of the mixture of solvent extracts of petroleum ether: aqueous(1:1) extracts showed100% mortality after24 h of exposure. Conclusions:The results show that, insecticides of plant combination is ecofriend and has better larvicidal activity compared to individual extracts.

  15. In vitro antifungal potentials of bioactive compound oleic acid, 3-(octadecyloxy) propyl ester isolated from Lepidagathis cristata Willd. (Acanthaceae) inflorescence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maghdu Nainamohamed Abubacker; Palaniyappan Kamala Devi

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To identify bioactive compound oleic acid, 3-(octadecyloxy) propyl ester from Lepidagathis cristata Willd. (L. cristata) and to assess antifungal potentials of the isolated compound. Methods: Aqueous extracts of L. cristata inflorescence were used for this study. The major bioactive compound isolated was tested for antifungal activities. Results: The major bioactive compound oleic acid, 3-(octadecyloxy) propyl ester was isolated from the inflorescence of L. cristata. The bioactive compound was tested for antifungal potentials and found to be highly effective to plant pathogenic fungi Colletotrichum fulcatum NCBT 146, Fusarium oxysporum NCBT 156 and Rhizoctonia solani NCBT 196 as well as for the human pathogenic fungi Curvularia lunata MTCC 2030 and Microsporum canis MTCC 2820. Conclusions: The results justify the antifungal potentials of both plant and human pathogenic fungi. The plant bioactive compound will be helpful in herbal antifungal formulations.

  16. Antimicrobial activity and a comparative essential oil analysis of Centaurea pulcherrima Willd. var. pulcherrima extracted by hydrodistillation and microwave distillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahriman, N; Tosun, G; İskender, N Yılmaz; Alpay Karaoğlu, Ş; Yayli, N

    2012-01-01

    The essential oils of Centaurea pulcherrima Willd. var. pulcherrima (Asteraceae) were isolated by hydrodistillation (HD) and a microwave distillation (MD), than characterised by GC-FID and GC-MS. A total of 58 and 57 compounds were identified, constituting over 93.7%, and 91.6% of volatile oil composition of C. pulcherrima var. pulcherrima, respectively. Sesquiterpene hydrocarbons were shown to be the main group of constituents (HD: 42.4% versus MD: 51.5%). The major component of the oils of C. pulcherrima var. pulcherrima was germacrene D (HD, 17.8% versus MD, 23.2%). The antimicrobial activity of the isolated essential oils of the plant was also investigated, and they showed good antibacterial activity against to tested gram-positive bacteria, especially to M. smegmatis and a yeast-like fungus C. albicans.

  17. Uncaria tomentosa (Willd.) D.C.: cat's claw, uña de gato, or savéntaro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhard, K H

    1999-04-01

    Recently, Uncaria tomentosa (Willd.) D.C. has become known as a healing plant with an ethnomedicinal background. There have been several reports on its constituents, in particular, oxindole alkaloids. It was found that 2 chemotypes of Uncaria tomentosa with different alkaloid patterns occur in nature. The roots of one type contain pentacyclic oxindoles and the other contains tetracyclic oxindoles. This difference should be considered when the plant is to be used for medicinal applications. Tetracyclic oxindole alkaloids act on the central nervous system, whereas pentacyclic oxindole alkaloids affect the cellular immune system. Recent studies have shown that the tetracyclic alkaloids exert antagonistic effects on the action of the pentacyclic alkaloids. Mixtures of these 2 types of drugs are therefore unsuitable for medicinal uses.

  18. Radiological surveillance of Remedial Action activities at the processing site, Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico, April 12--16, 1993. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-04-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project`s Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC) performed a radiological surveillance of the Remedial Action Contractor (RAC), MK-Ferguson and CWM Federal Environmental Services, Inc., at the processing site in Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico. The requirements and attributes examined during the audit were developed from reviewing working-level procedures developed by the RAC. Objective evidence, comments, and observations were verified based on investigating procedures, documentation, records located at the site, personal interviews, and tours of the site. No findings were identified during this audit. Ten site-specific observations, three good practice observations, and five programmatic observations are presented in this report. The overall conclusion from the surveillance is that the radiological aspects of the Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico, remedial action program are performed adequately. The results of the good practice observations indicate that the site health physics (HP) staff is taking the initiative to address and resolve potential issues, and implement suggestions useful to the UMTRA Project. However, potential exists for improving designated storage areas for general items, and the RAC Project Office should consider resolving site-specific and procedural inconsistencies.

  19. Warfarin and coumarin-like Murraya paniculata extract down-regulate EpCAM-mediated cell adhesion: individual components versus mixture for studying botanical metastatic chemopreventives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Jingwei; Zhou, Suxia; Jiang, Zhou; Chi, Ting; Ma, Ji; Kuo, Minliang; Lee, Alan Yueh-Luen; Jia, Lee

    2016-08-02

    We recently defined cancer metastatic chemoprevention as utilizing safe and effective molecules to comprehensively prevent the spark of activation-adhesion-extravasation-proliferation metastatic cascade caused by circulating tumor cells (CTCs). The strategy focuses on preventing the most important starting point of the cascade. We identified an extract from a well-known medical plant Murraya paniculata, which inhibited both embryonic implantation to human endometrium as traditionally-used for abortion and CTC adhesion to human endothelium. Here, we separated and characterized five coumarin-containing components (Z1-Z5) from the botanic extract. Flow cytometry revealed that within 1-100 μg/mL, Z3 and Z5 down-regulated EpCAM expression in human colon HCT116, whereas, Z1 and Z2 did oppositely. Warfarin and Z1-Z5 component mixture (CM) also down-regulated EpCAM expression. The down-regulation of EpCAM by Z3, Z5, CM and warfarin was confirmed by western blotting, and caused inhibition on adhesion of cancer cells to human endothelial cells. Rat coagulation study showed that warfarin prolonged prothrombin time, whereas, Z3 did not. The present studies revealed that, for the first time, warfarin and coumarin-like components Z3, Z5 and CM from Murraya paniculata could directly inhibit EpCAM-mediated cell-cell adhesion.

  20. Micromorfologia da superfície do fruto de espécies de Mikania Willd. (Asteraceae ocorrentes no estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Micromorphology of fruit surfaces in species of Mikania Willd. (Asteraceae occurring in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Rejane Ritter

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available A micromorfologia da superfície dos frutos de 15 táxons de Mikania Willd. em microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV é apresentada neste trabalho. Buscaram-se caracteres que auxiliassem a separação de espécies próximas, ocorrentes no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Para algumas delas, estes caracteres mostraram valor taxonômico. As espécies estudadas foram divididas em quatro grupos, de acordo com o padrão encontrado. O padrão que apresentou paredes periclinais estriadas e paredes anticlinais com projeções verrucosas foi o mais constante nas espécies de Mikania Willd. analisadas.This work presents the surface micromorphology of fruits of 15 taxa of Mikania Willd. studied under scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The aim was to find characters to separate close species that occur in Rio Grande do Sul State. Such characters had taxonomic value for some of them. The species were separated into four groups according to the pattern. The pattern with striated periclinal and anticlinal walls with verrucose projections was the most constant in the species of Mikania Willd. analyzed.

  1. Inhibitory effect of Pterocarpus indicus Willd water extract on IgE/Ag-induced mast cell and atopic dermatitis-like mouse models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Hae-Sim; Kim, Wan-Joong; Lee, Myung-Hun; Kim, Sun-Young; Kim, Seo Ho; Lee, Kwang-Ho; Kim, Tack-Joong

    2016-05-01

    Pterocarpus indicus Willd has been widely used as a traditional medicine to treat edema, cancer, and hyperlipidemia, but its antiallergic properties and underlying mechanisms have not yet been studied. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antiallergic activity of Pterocarpus indicus Willd water extract (PIW) using activated mast cells and an atopic dermatitis (AD)-like mouse model. PIW decreased IgE/Ag-induced mast cell degranulation and the phosphorylation of Syk and downstream signaling molecules such as PLC-γ, Akt, Erk 1/2, JNK compared to stimulated mast cells. In DNCB-induced AD-like mice, PIW reduced IgE level in serum, as well as AD-associated scratching behavior and skin severity score. These results indicate that PIW inhibits the allergic response by reducing mast cell activation and may have clinical potential as an antiallergic agent for disorders such as AD.

  2. Prospección de lepidópteros antófagos asociados a Acacia macracantha Willd. (Fabaceae) en el norte de Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Vargas,Héctor A.; Parra,Luis E.

    2009-01-01

    Se efectuó una prospección de larvas de lepidópteros antófagos asociados a Acacia macracantha Willd. (Fabaceae) en dos valles costeros del norte de Chile: Azapa y Chaca. Fueron registradas ocho especies, distribuidas en ocho géneros y cinco familias. La composición de especies del ensamble fue la misma en las dos localidades. Sin embargo, la abundancia del ensamble y la abundancia por especie fueron diferentes entre los valles.

  3. EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT NITROGEN LEVELS ON THE GRAIN YIELD AND SOME YIELD COMPONENTS OF QUINOA (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) UNDER MEDITERRANEAN CLIMATIC CONDITIONS

    OpenAIRE

    GEREN, Hakan

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.), is a pseudo-cereal crop that has been cultivated in the Andean region in South America. The quinoa as a field crop has a great potential in the improvement of food for humans and animals even under the conditions of marginal lands. For getting high crop yields, nutrients in balanced amount are a basic requirement. Experiments were carried out at the Bornova experimental fields of Field Crops Dept. of Agriculture Fac., Ege Univ., Turkey during 2013 ...

  4. Dynamics of phytoestrogen, isoflavonoids, and its isolation from stems of Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Ohwi growing in Democratic People's Republic of Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Song-Chol Mun; Gwan-Sim Mun

    2015-01-01

    Four isoflavonoids were isolated from stems of Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Ohwi growing in Democratic People's Republic of Korea and identified as daidzein (1), genistin (2), daidzin (3), and puerarin (4), structures, which were elucidated by means of spectroscopic analysis. Isoflavonoids were isolated using silica gel chromatography and purified with organic solvents. Isoflavonoid contents in P. lobata were determined using reliable high-performance liquid chromatography. The results indicated ...

  5. Heavy metal accumulation by panicled goldenrain tree (Koelreuteria paniculata) and common elaeocarpus (Elaeocarpus decipens) in abandoned mine soils in southern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Dalun; ZHU Fan; YAN Wende; Fang Xi; XIANG Wenhua; DENG Xiangwen; WANG Guanjun; PENG Changhui

    2009-01-01

    Phytoremediation can be used as a sustainable technology for mine spoil remediation to remove heavy metals. This study investigated the concentrations of 7 heavy metal contaminations in soil and plant samples at an abandoned mine site. We found that, after vegetation remediation at the abandoned mine site, reduction rate for 7 heavy metals was in the range of 4.2%-86% and an over 50% reduction rate in four heavy metals (Zn, Mn, Cd, Ni) was achieved. Transfer coefficients of the panicled goldenrain tree (Koelreuteria paniculata Laxm) and the common elaeocarpus (Elaeocarpus decipens) for Zn, Mn, Ni, and Co were more than 1. Enrichment coefficients of both trees for Mn were higher than 1. Our results suggest that the panicled goldenrain tree and the common elaeocarpus tree may act as accumulators in remediation. Moreover, the wood vegetation remediation in abandoned mining areas play an important role in improving environmental conditions and removing heavy metal from contaminated soil.

  6. Chemical composition, antioxidant properties and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Murraya paniculata leaves from the mountains of Central Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Elisa Jorge; Ramis-Ramos, Guillermo; Heyden, Yvan Vander; Simó-Alfonso, Ernesto F; Lerma-García, María Jesús; Saucedo-Hernández, Yanelis; Monteagudo, Urbano; Morales, Yeni; Holgado, Beatriz; Herrero-Martínez, José Manuel

    2012-11-01

    The essential oil of Murraya paniculata L leaves from the mountains of the Central Region of Cuba, obtained by hydrodistillation, was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Eighteen compounds, accounting for 95.1% of the oil were identified. The major component was beta-caryophyllene (ca. 30%). The antioxidant activity of essential oil was evaluated against Cucurbita seed oil by peroxide, thiobarbituric acid and p-anisidine methods. The essential oil showed stronger antioxidant activity than that of butylated hydroxyanisole and butylated hydroxytoluene, but lower than that of propyl gallate. Moreover, this antioxidant activity was supported by the complementary antioxidant assay in the linoleic acid system and 2, 2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl. The essential oil also showed good to moderate inhibitory effects against Klebsiellapneumoniae and Bacillus subtilis.

  7. The Damages of Chelidonium argentaum Harming Murraya Paniculata and Prevention Methods%桔光绿天牛危害九里香的发生与防治

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦仲烈

    2003-01-01

    桔光绿天牛(Chelidonium argentaum)是柑桔类果树的主要害虫之一,对九里香(Murraya paniculata)也危害严重.一年发生1代,以幼虫蛀食树枝的木质部,造成树枝折断干枯,失去绿化和美化的作用.在卵期至初龄幼虫期间通过修剪,或使用敌杀死、敌敌畏药液注射入虫道内,可收到良好的防治效果.

  8. Anti-Infective Metabolites of a Newly Isolated Bacillus thuringiensis KL1 Associated with Kalmegh (Andrographis paniculata Nees.), a Traditional Medicinal Herb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Sudipta; Yasmin, Sahana; Ghosh, Subhadeep; Bhattacharya, Somesankar; Banerjee, Debdulal

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to isolate endophytic bacteria possessing anti-infective property from Kalmegh (Andrographis paniculata Nees.), a well-known medicinal plant. A total of 23 strains were isolated from this plant among which the strain KL1, isolated from surface-sterilized leaf of this medicinal herb, showed broad-spectrum antagonism against an array of Gram-positive and -negative bacterial pathogens. Ethyl acetate extract of KL1-fermented media yielded a greenish amorphous substance retaining anti-infective property. Solvent-extracted crude material was separated by thin-layer chromatography, and the active ingredient was located by autobiogram analysis. The purified anti-infective compound was found as anthracene derivative as analyzed by ultraviolet and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The strain was identified as Bacillus thuringiensis KL1 from cultural, physiochemical, and molecular aspects. The above results indicate the pharmaceutical potential of the candidate isolate.

  9. Bark and ambrosia beetles (Curculionidae: Scolytinae), their phoretic mites (Acari) and associated Geosmithia species (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) from Virgilia trees in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machingambi, Netsai M; Roux, Jolanda; Dreyer, Léanne L; Roets, Francois

    2014-01-01

    Bark and ambrosia beetles are ecologically and economically important phloeophagous insects that often have complex symbiotic relationships with fungi and mites. These systems are greatly understudied in Africa. In the present study we identified bark and ambrosia beetles, their phoretic mites and their main fungal associates from native Virgilia trees in the Cape Floristic Region (CFR) of South Africa. In addition, we tested the ability of mites to feed on the associated fungi. Four species of scolytine beetles were collected from various Virgilia hosts and from across the CFR. All were consistently associated with various Geosmithia species, fungi known from phloeophagous beetles in many parts of the world, but not yet reported as Scolytinae associates in South Africa. Four beetle species, a single mite species and five Geosmithia species were recovered. The beetles, Hapalogenius fuscipennis, Cryphalini sp. 1, and Scolytoplatypus fasciatus were associated with a single species of Elattoma phoretic mite that commonly carried spores of Geosmithia species. Liparthrum sp. 1 did not carry phoretic mites. Similar to European studies, Geosmithia associates of beetles from Virgilia were constant over extended geographic ranges, and species that share the same host plant individual had similar Geosmithia communities. Phoretic mites were unable to feed on their Geosmithia associates, but were observed to feed on bark beetle larvae within tunnels. This study forms the first African-centred base for ongoing global studies on the associations between arthropods and Geosmithia species. It strengthens hypotheses that the association between Scolytinae beetles and dry-spored Geosmithia species may be more ubiquitous than commonly recognised.

  10. The influence of stream channels on distributions of Larrea tridentata and Ambrosia dumosa in the Mojave Desert, CA, USA: Patterns, mechanisms and effects of stream redistribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwinning, S.; Sandquist, D.R.; Miller, D.M.; Bedford, D.R.; Phillips, S.L.; Belnap, J.

    2011-01-01

    Drainage channels are among the most conspicuous surficial features of deserts, but little quantitative analysis of their influence on plant distributions is available. We analysed the effects of desert stream channels ('washes') on Larrea tridentata and Ambrosia dumosa density and cover on an alluvial piedmont in the Mojave Desert, based on a spatial analysis of transect data encompassing a total length of 2775 m surveyed in 5 cm increments. Significant deviations from average transect properties were identified by bootstrapping. Predictably, shrub cover and density were much reduced inside washes, and elevated above average levels adjacent to washes. Average Larrea and Ambrosia cover and density peaked 1??2-1??6 m and 0??5-1??0 m from wash edges, respectively. We compared wash effects in runon-depleted (-R) sections, where washes had been cut off from runon and were presumably inactive, with those in runon-supplemented (+R) sections downslope from railroad culverts to help identify mechanisms responsible for the facilitative effect of washes on adjacent shrubs. Shrub cover and density near washes peaked in both + R and - R sections, suggesting that improved water infiltration and storage alone can cause a facilitative effect on adjacent shrubs. However, washes of < 2 m width in + R sections had larger than average effects on peak cover, suggesting that plants also benefit from occasional resource supplementation. The data suggest that channel networks significantly contribute to structuring plant communities in the Mojave Desert and their disruption has notable effects on geomorphic and ecological processes far beyond the original disturbance sites. ?? 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Larvicidal activity and GC-MS analysis of flavonoids of Vitex negundo and Andrographis paniculata against two vector mosquitoes Anopheles stephensi and Aedes aegypti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keerti Gautam

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Development of insect resistance to synthetic pesticides, high operational cost and environmental pollution have created the need for developing alternative approaches to control vector-borne diseases. In the present study, larvicidal activity of flavonoid extracts of different parts of Vitex negundo (Linnaeus and Andrographis paniculata (Nees have been studied against the late III or early IV instar larvae of Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi (Liston. Methods: Flavonoids were extracted from different parts of the selected plants using standard method. Bioassay test was carried out by WHO method for determination of larvicidal activity against mosquitoes. Different compounds of the most active extract were identified by the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS analysis. Results: Flavonoid extract of whole aerial part of A. paniculata was found to be inactive against the selected larvae of Ae. aegypti even at the concentration of 600 ppm, whereas it caused 70% mortality in An. stephensi at the concentration of 200 ppm. Flavonoid extract of flower-buds produced highest mortality (100% at the concentration of 600 ppm for the late III or early IV instar larvae of Ae. aegypti and at the concentration of 200 ppm for the larvae of An. stephensi. GC-MS analysis of the most active flavonoid extract from flower-buds of Vitex showed 81 peaks. Phenol (26.83% area, naphthalene (4.95% area, 2,3-dihydrobenzofuran (6.79% area, Phenol-2,4-Bis (1,1-dimethyl (4.49% area, flavones 4'-OH,5-OH,7-di-O-glucoside (0.25% area and 5-hydroxy- 3,6,7,3',4'-pentamethoxy flavones (0.80% area were present in major amount. Conclusion: Flavonoid extracts from different parts of two selected plants possess larvicidal activity against two selected mosquito species, hence, could be utilized for developing flavonoid-based, ecofriendly insecticide as an alternative to synthetic insecticides.

  12. Comparison of total phenolic content, scavenging activity and HPLC-ESI-MS/MS profiles of both young and mature leaves and stems of Andrographis paniculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Lee Suan; Yap, Ken Choy; Jaganath, Indu Bala

    2013-12-01

    The total phenolic content and radical scavenging activity of Andrographis paniculata has been investigated to estimate the amount of phenolic compounds and diterpene lactones, respectively in the plant extracts. The stem extracts exhibited higher total phenolic content and scavenging activity than those of the leaf extracts from both young and mature plants. A range of 19.6-47.8 mg extract of A. paniculata from different parts of the plant is equivalent to the scavenging activity exhibited by one mg of standard Trolox. HPLC-ESI-MS/MS was also used to identify simultaneously the phytochemicals from the leaves and stems of both young and mature plant samples. Of the identified compounds, seven of the sixteen diterpene lactones, three of the six flavonoids, five of the six phenolic acids and two cyclic acids are reported here for the first time for this species. Multivariate statistical approaches such as Hierarchiral Component Analysis (HCA) and Principle Component Analysis (PCA) have clustered the plant extracts into the leaf and stem groups, regardless of plant age. Further classification based on the phytochemical profiles revealed that mostly phenolic acids and flavonoids were from the young leaf extracts, and diterpenoids and their glycosides from the mature leaf extracts. However, the phytochemical profiles for the stems of both young and mature plants were not significantly different as presented in the dendrogram of HCA and the score plot of PCA. The marker for mature plants might be the m/z 557 ion (dihydroxyl dimethyl 19-[(beta-D-glucopyranosyl)oxy]-19-oxo-ent-labda-8(17),13-dien-16,15-olide), whereas the m/z 521 ion (propyl neoandrographolide) could be the marker for leaf extracts.

  13. The impact of an invasive ambrosia beetle on the riparian habitats of the Tijuana River Valley, California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M. Boland

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Tijuana River Valley is the first natural habitat in California to be substantially invaded by the Kuroshio Shot Hole Borer (KSHB, Euwallacea sp., an ambrosia beetle native to Southeast Asia. This paper documents the distribution of the KSHB in the riparian vegetation in the valley and assesses the damage done to the vegetation as of early 2016, approximately six months after the beetle was first observed in the valley. I divided the riparian habitats into 29 survey units so that the vegetation within each unit was relatively homogenous in terms of plant species composition, age and density. From a random point within each unit, I examined approximately 60 individuals of the dominant plant species for evidence of KSHB infestation and evidence of major damage such as limb breakage. In the 22 forested units,I examined the dominant arroyo and black willows (Salix lasiolepis Benth. and S. gooddingii C.R. Ball, and in the seven scrub units, I examined mule fat (Baccharis salicifolia (Ruiz & Pav. Pers.. Evidence of KSHB infestation was found in 25 of the 29 units. In the forest units, infestation rates ranged from 0 to 100% and were high (>60% in 16 of the units. In the scrub units, infestation rates ranged from 0 to 33%. Infestation rates were significantly correlated with the wetness of a unit; wetter units had higher infestation rates. Evidence of major physical damage was found in 24 units, and dense stands of willows were reduced to broken trunks in several areas. Overall, I estimated that more than 280,000 (70% of the willows in the valley were infested, and more than 140,000 had suffered major limb damage. In addition, I recorded evidence of KSHB infestation in the other common plant species in the valley; of the 23 species examined, 14 showed evidence of beetle attack. The four species with the highest rates of infestation were native trees in the Salicaceae family. The three species considered to be the worst invasive plants in the valley

  14. The impact of an invasive ambrosia beetle on the riparian habitats of the Tijuana River Valley, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, John M

    2016-01-01

    The Tijuana River Valley is the first natural habitat in California to be substantially invaded by the Kuroshio Shot Hole Borer (KSHB, Euwallacea sp.), an ambrosia beetle native to Southeast Asia. This paper documents the distribution of the KSHB in the riparian vegetation in the valley and assesses the damage done to the vegetation as of early 2016, approximately six months after the beetle was first observed in the valley. I divided the riparian habitats into 29 survey units so that the vegetation within each unit was relatively homogenous in terms of plant species composition, age and density. From a random point within each unit, I examined approximately 60 individuals of the dominant plant species for evidence of KSHB infestation and evidence of major damage such as limb breakage. In the 22 forested units,I examined the dominant arroyo and black willows (Salix lasiolepis Benth. and S. gooddingii C.R. Ball), and in the seven scrub units, I examined mule fat (Baccharis salicifolia (Ruiz & Pav.) Pers.). Evidence of KSHB infestation was found in 25 of the 29 units. In the forest units, infestation rates ranged from 0 to 100% and were high (>60%) in 16 of the units. In the scrub units, infestation rates ranged from 0 to 33%. Infestation rates were significantly correlated with the wetness of a unit; wetter units had higher infestation rates. Evidence of major physical damage was found in 24 units, and dense stands of willows were reduced to broken trunks in several areas. Overall, I estimated that more than 280,000 (70%) of the willows in the valley were infested, and more than 140,000 had suffered major limb damage. In addition, I recorded evidence of KSHB infestation in the other common plant species in the valley; of the 23 species examined, 14 showed evidence of beetle attack. The four species with the highest rates of infestation were native trees in the Salicaceae family. The three species considered to be the worst invasive plants in the valley, Ricinus

  15. The impact of an invasive ambrosia beetle on the riparian habitats of the Tijuana River Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The Tijuana River Valley is the first natural habitat in California to be substantially invaded by the Kuroshio Shot Hole Borer (KSHB, Euwallacea sp.), an ambrosia beetle native to Southeast Asia. This paper documents the distribution of the KSHB in the riparian vegetation in the valley and assesses the damage done to the vegetation as of early 2016, approximately six months after the beetle was first observed in the valley. I divided the riparian habitats into 29 survey units so that the vegetation within each unit was relatively homogenous in terms of plant species composition, age and density. From a random point within each unit, I examined approximately 60 individuals of the dominant plant species for evidence of KSHB infestation and evidence of major damage such as limb breakage. In the 22 forested units,I examined the dominant arroyo and black willows (Salix lasiolepis Benth. and S. gooddingii C.R. Ball), and in the seven scrub units, I examined mule fat (Baccharis salicifolia (Ruiz & Pav.) Pers.). Evidence of KSHB infestation was found in 25 of the 29 units. In the forest units, infestation rates ranged from 0 to 100% and were high (>60%) in 16 of the units. In the scrub units, infestation rates ranged from 0 to 33%. Infestation rates were significantly correlated with the wetness of a unit; wetter units had higher infestation rates. Evidence of major physical damage was found in 24 units, and dense stands of willows were reduced to broken trunks in several areas. Overall, I estimated that more than 280,000 (70%) of the willows in the valley were infested, and more than 140,000 had suffered major limb damage. In addition, I recorded evidence of KSHB infestation in the other common plant species in the valley; of the 23 species examined, 14 showed evidence of beetle attack. The four species with the highest rates of infestation were native trees in the Salicaceae family. The three species considered to be the worst invasive plants in the valley, Ricinus

  16. Quality control evaluation of Guduchi Satva (solid aqueous extract of Tinospora cordifolia (Willd. Miers: An herbal formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit Sharma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Herbal products represent complex biological mixture and achieving a reproducible pharmaceutical quality could be a very challenging task in standardisation of herbal products. Hence, methodical approach is required for standardisation, development of sufficient quality control profile and scientific validation of plant extracts, as is done in contemporary medicine. Ayurvedic physicians prescribe dried extract of Tinospora cordifolia (Willd. Miers known as ′Guduchi Satva′ in several febrile conditions. However, till today no published information is available on its analytical profile. Aims and Objectives: Present study is aimed to evaluate quality control parameters for Guduchi Satva. Materials and Methods: Fifteen batches of Guduchi Satva were prepared and findings were systematically recorded. Physicochemical parameters and qualitative tests for various functional groups, quantitative estimation of total alkaloids, fluorescence analysis, high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC profile, heavy metal analysis and microbial load of Guduchi Satva were carried out. Results: The average percentage of dried Satva obtained was 3.8%. Alkaloids, carbohydrates and starch were found present in Satva. Number of peaks obtained in HPTLC also corresponds to this finding. Percentage of total alkaloid content was 0.31%. No heavy metal and microbial load were detected in the sample. The present observation can be considered as standard for further studies on Satva.

  17. Effect of NaCl Salinity on Growth and Mineral Composition of Ziziphus spina-christi (L. Willd.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sohail

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Ziziphus spina-christi (L. Willd. is a fruit tree species growing wild in arid and semi-arid areas of Asia and Africa where rural populations intensively use its fruits, leaves, bark and wood. However, little is known about the effects of salinity, a widespread problem in these regions, on early growth and mineral composition of this species. This study was conducted under controlled conditions to contribute to filling this gap. Six weeks old seedlings of Z. spina-christi germinated in a full strength Hoagland solution were subjected to 0, 40, 80 and 160 mM NaCl. Compared to the unstressed control salinity levels of 80 and 160 mM reduced plant height, leaf number, leaf chlorophyll, total leaf area and dry matter by > 50%. Salinity levels of 40, 80 and 160 mM enhanced leaf water contents by 14, 16 and 17%, respectively and 160 mM NaCl raised the concentration of Na and Cl ions in leaf tissues 81- and 21-fold. The K/Na ratio, in contrast, was hardly affected by increasing salinity indicating adaptation or tolerance of Z. spina-christi to low or moderate NaCl salinity. These results suggest that Z. spina-christi could be an interesting species for re-vegetation of moderately degraded saline lands.

  18. Development and Utilization of Chenopodium quinoa Willd.%藜麦及其资源开发利用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖正春; 张广伦

    2014-01-01

    藜麦Chenopodium quinoa Willd.英文名:quinoa,原产于南美洲安第斯山区,是印加土著居民的主要传统食物,至今已有5000~7000多年的利用和种植历史.古代印加人将它称之为“粮食之母”.藜麦在20世纪80年代,被美国宇航局用于宇航员的太空食品.联合国粮农组织认为藜麦是唯一的单一植物即可满足人体基本营养需求的食物,正式推荐藜麦为最适宜人类的完美的全营养食品.本文对藜麦的植物形态、生态特性、营养价值以及在我国种植展望作了综合报道.

  19. Genetic diversity and comparison of physicochemical and nutritional characteristics of six quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa willd. genotypes cultivated in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Miranda

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was focused on the analysis of agronomical, nutritional, physicochemical, and antioxidant properties of six genetically different quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd genotypes cultivated in three distinctive geographical zones of Chile. Ancovinto and Cancosa genotypes from the northern Altiplano (19 ºS, Cáhuil and Faro from the central region (34 ºS, and Regalona and Villarica from the southern region (39 ºS are representative of high genetic differentiation among the pooled samples, in particular between Altiplano and the central-southern groups. A Common-Garden Assay at 30 ºS showed significant differences among seed origins in all morphometric parameters and also in yields. Altiplano genotypes had larger panicule length but no seed production. A significant influence of the different quinoa genotypes on chemical composition and functional properties was also observed. Protein concentration ranged from 11.13 to 16.18 g.100 g-1 d.m., while total dietary fiber content ranged from 8.07-12.08 g.100 g-1 d.m., and both were the highest in Villarrica ecotype. An adequate balance of essential amino acids was also observed. Sucrose was the predominant sugar in all genotypes. Antioxidant activity was high in all genotypes, and it was highest in Faro genotype (79.58% inhibition.

  20. Physical features, phenolic compounds, betalains and total antioxidant capacity of coloured quinoa seeds (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) from Peruvian Altiplano.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abderrahim, Fatima; Huanatico, Elizabeth; Segura, Roger; Arribas, Silvia; Gonzalez, M Carmen; Condezo-Hoyos, Luis

    2015-09-15

    Physical features, bioactive compounds and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of coloured quinoa varieties (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) from Peruvian Altiplano were studied. Quinoa seeds did not show a pure red colour, but a mixture which corresponded to different fractal colour values (51.0-71.8), and they varied from small to large size. Regarding bioactive compounds, total phenolic (1.23-3.24mg gallic acid equivalents/g) and flavonol contents (0.47-2.55mg quercetin equivalents/g) were highly correlated (r=0.910). Betalains content (0.15-6.10mg/100g) was correlated with L colour parameter (r=-0.569), total phenolics (r=0.703) and flavonols content (r=0.718). Ratio of betaxanthins to betacyanins (0.0-1.41) was negatively correlated with L value (r=-0.744). Whereas, high TAC values (119.8-335.9mmol Trolox equivalents/kg) were negatively correlated with L value (r=-0.779), but positively with betalains (r=0.730), as well as with free (r=0.639), bound (r=0.558) and total phenolic compounds (r=0.676). Unexploited coloured quinoa seeds are proposed as a valuable natural source of phenolics and betalains with high antioxidant capacity.

  1. GC-MS Profiling of Triterpenoid Saponins from 28 Quinoa Varieties (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) Grown in Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Meza, Ilce G; Aluwi, Nicole A; Saunders, Steven R; Ganjyal, Girish M

    2016-11-16

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) contains 2 to 5% saponins in the form of oleanane-type triterpenoid glycosides or sapogenins found in the external layers of the seeds. These saponins confer an undesirable bitter flavor. This study maps the content and profile of glycoside-free sapogenins from 22 quinoa varieties and 6 original breeding lines grown in North America under similar agronomical conditions. Saponins were recovered using a novel extraction protocol and quantified by GC-MS. Oleanolic acid (OA), hederagenin (HD), serjanic acid (SA), and phytolaccagenic acid (PA) were identified by their mass spectra. Total saponin content ranged from 3.81 to 27.1 mg/g among the varieties studied. The most predominant sapogenin was phytolaccagenic acid with 16.72 mg/g followed by hederagenin at 4.22 mg/g representing the ∼70% and 30% of the total sapogenin content. Phytolaccagenic acid and the total sapogenin content had a positive correlation of r(2) = 0.88 (p quinoa in food products. The multivariate analysis showed no correlations between origin of seeds and saponin profile and/or content.

  2. RASIO SEKS JERNANG (Daemonorops draco (Willd.Blume PADA POPULASI ALAMI DAN BUDIDAYA: IMPLIKASI UNTUK PRODUKSI BIJI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Revis Asra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Jernang (Daemonorops draco (Willd. Blume is a dioecious rattan species that produces resin on female individuals. The sex of jernang can only be identified from its inflorescences morphology. Sex survey was conducted in 5 populations of  jernang, 3 populations of which in the Bukit Tigapuluh National Park (BTNP, 1 population in the secondary forest in Jambi province and 1 population in the area of rubber plantation in Jambi province. Chi-Squared test on the sex ratio of  jernang showed that the ratio of the male to female in their natural habitat (Bengayoan and Tebo, 2 parts of the BTNP ecosystem and the Sepintun secondary forest was distorted from the normal ratio of 1:1, while the cultivated jernang in Nunusan population (BTNPT and Mandiangin were not significantly different from the normal sex ratio of 1:1. Female individuals from the cultivated population in the Mandiangin (planted in 1997 has an average number of stems per clump more on individual males (27.12 than females (26.92. The result of this study indicated that the D. draco has a good reproductive strategy and thus suitable for cultivation.

  3. Enraizaimento de estacas de Bougainvillea spectabilis Willd. com o uso de ácido indolbutírico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Mendes Costa

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available O uso de ácido indolbutírico (IBA como estimulador do enraizamento em estacas de Bougainvillea spectabilis Willd. pode propiciar aumento de raízes para a formação de mudas comercializáveis. Objetivou-se avaliar o enraizamento, a formação de brotos e a sobrevivência de estacas herbáceas, lenhosas e semi-lenhosas de Bougainvillea com o uso de ácido indolbutírico (IBA. As estacas foram coletadas e tratadas com o IBA (1000 e 2000 mg/l. Aos 56 dias avaliaram-se a porcentagem de estacas vivas, enraizadas e com brotos; o número de brotos e de raízes por estaca e o comprimento da maior raiz e maior broto. As menores porcentagens de enraizamento foram verificadas nas estacas sem o uso de IBA. Maiores diferenças foram verificadas para as estacas lenhosas. O uso do IBA favorece o enraizamento de estacas de Bougainvillea, com melhor desempenho para as estacas lenhosas e na concentração de 2000 mg/l de IBA

  4. Transposition of Alchornea castaneifolia (Willd. A. Juss. Seedlings from natural regeneration as a strategy for saplings production in nursery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheilly Raquelly Prado de Paula

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Alchornea castaneifolia (Willd. A. Juss. (Urana is a native species with potential for restoration of riparian vegetation and urban forestry. Given the difficulty of its propagation and the lack of knowledge about their behavior in nursery, this study aimed to evaluate the transposition of Alchornea castaneifolia from natural regeneration as a strategy for saplings production in nursery. The collecting took place in Porto Acre – AC, and selected 120 seedlings, which were divided into three height classes (15 cm and cultivated in four substrates (soil, sand, wasting açaí+soil, Plantmax in a completely randomized design in a 3x4 factorial design. We investigated the survival of seedlings and the growth in sand substrate to the characteristics height (H and collar diameter (DC, the relationship H/DC, dry mass of shoots, roots and total between the three height classes of the seedlings. The highest percentage of Alchornea castaneifolia seedlings survival was observed in the sand substrate (67%, followed by the wasting açaí+soil substrate (43%. Seedlings that showed greater growth in height, collar diameter and dry mass production were contained in the class above 15 cm in sand substrate. However, the 10-15 cm class of height presented 100% survival of seedlings in sand substrate and also provided high growth. It is therefore recommended the transposition of seedling in the 10-15 cm class using sand substrate for the propagation of Alchornea castaneifolia in nursery.

  5. Decay of oak Wood provoked by fungus Stereum hirsutum (Willd. ex Fr. S. F. Gray. and its' essential physiological requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirić Milenko

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available White rot fungi usually decompose cell walls of attacked wood destroying tissue elements (i.e. parenchyma cells, wood fibres, tension wood, tracheas etc in different amount, depending to wood-species as well as to its' zones. Different fungi secrete specific enzymes that are responsible for certain damages. As consequence, the wood structure use to be significantly and unfixable decomposed and changed. Microscopical analyses that have been run provided clear and indicative information relating to effects of fungal activity on wood tissue. Physiological requirements of fungi are for shore of the highest importance in understanding of mechanism of decaying process in the wood. The most important factors as like temperature and concentration of H ions, as well as main nutrients as sources of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus can affect the behaviour of wood decaying fungi. The impacts of these factors on the growth and production on mycelial mass of Stereum hirsutum (Willd. ex Fr. S.F. Gray., have been investigated. This fungus is one of the most frequent appearing on the Sessile- and Pedunculate Oak weakened trees or felled logs, behaving as parasite as well as saprophyte. As a causer of Oak sapwood white rot S. hirsutum causes significant damages of wood at forest- as well as at industrial storages.

  6. Application of novel loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) for rapid authentication of the herbal tea ingredient Hedyotis diffusa Willd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming; Wong, Yuk-Lau; Jiang, Li-Li; Wong, Ka-Lok; Wong, Yuen-Ting; Lau, Clara Bik-San; Shaw, Pang-Chui

    2013-12-01

    Hedyotis diffusa Willd. (Baihuasheshecao) is an ingredient of herbal teas commonly consumed in the Orient and tropical Asia for cancer treatment and health maintenance. In the market, this ingredient is frequently adulterated by the related species Hedyotis corymbosa (L.) Lam. The objective of this study is to develop a novel loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) technique to differentiate H. diffusa from its adulterant H. corymbosa. A set of four internal control primers (F3, FIP, BIP and B3) were designed based on six loci in the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) for LAMP of both H. diffusa and H. corymbosa. Two specific primers (S_F3 and S_FIP) were designed for specific LAMP detection of H. diffusa only. Our data showed that LAMP was successful for both H. diffusa and H. corymbosa in internal control. In contrast, only H. diffusa was detected in specific LAMP using the specific primers S_F3 and S_FIP. This study showed that LAMP was useful to differentiate H. diffusa from its adulterant H. corymbosa. This study is significant for the verification of the authenticity for better quality control of this common herbal tea ingredient. The strategy of including an internal control assures the quality of the concerned DNA region for LAMP.

  7. Effects of a hydroalcoholic extract of Turnera diffusa Willd. ex Schult., Turneraceae, in tests for adaptogenic activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia G. Bezerra

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to assess whether Turnera diffusa Willd. ex Schult., Turneraceae, (TD, plant known in popular medicine as tonic and aphrodisiac, has other effects that are characteristic of an adaptogen substance, such as improvement of the memory and reduction of the damage caused by stress. We carried out an initial screening to detect a possible toxicity of the plant. In that phase of the study we used tests of observational screening; evaluation of acute toxicity; measurement of motor activity and motor coordination, and sleeping time induced by pentobarbital, and observed that the extract presented low toxicity and no stimulant or depressant effect on the animals. We then performed specific tests for the evaluation of an adaptogen effect. TD did not protect the stomach of the animals from the formation of ulcers, neither did it alter the plasmatic levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH and corticosterone of the animals submitted to immobilization and cold. As regards the evaluation of memory in passive avoidance, TD did not inhibit scopolamine-induced amnesia. Additionally, the hydroalcoholic extract presented low antioxidant activity in vitro. In the models used, TD produced no changes in relation to a possible adaptogen effect.

  8. Cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of different extracts of Artemisia biennis Willd. on K562 and HL-60 cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Tayarani-Najaran

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Artemisia is a genus of herbs and small shrubs forms an important part of natural vegetation in Iran. It has been reported that several Artemisia species possess anti-proliferative effects. Considering the value of this genus in anti-cancer researches we have chosen Artemisia biennis for cytotoxic and mechanistic studies. Materials and Methods:In this study we have investigated the cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of petroleum ether, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, ethanol, and ethanol:water (1:1 v/v extracts of A. biennis Willd. on two cancer human cell lines (K562 and HL-60 and J774 as normal cells. Results: CH2Cl2 extract was found to have the highest anti-proliferative effect on cancer cells. IC50 values obtained in AlamarBlue® assay for CH2Cl2 extract were 64.86 and 54.31 µg/ml on K562 and HL-60 cells respectively. In flow cytometry histogram of the cells treated with CH2Cl2 extract, sub-G1 peak was induced. DNA fragmentation, increased in the level of Bax and cleavage of PARP protein all showed the induction of apoptosis with CH2Cl2 extract after 48 hr contact with cells. Conclusion: The results can corroborate the cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of the CH2Cl2 extract of A. biennis on the K562 and HL-60 cancer cell lines.

  9. 从布渣叶中制备异鼠李素-3-O-β-D-芸香糖苷的研究%Preparation of isorhamnetin-3-O-β-D-rutinoside from Microcos paniculata L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李坤平; 曾玉冰; 高崇凯; 李卫民

    2011-01-01

    Objective To obtain high purity of isorhamnetin-3-O-β-D-rutinoside from M. paniculata L.. Methods Firstly,the total flavonoids of M. paniculata L. was enriched and purified with macroporous resin. and then separated by Sephadex LH- 20 column chromatography. The purity of isorhamnetin-3-O-β-D-rutinoside was determined by TLC and HPLC. Its structure was demonstrated by IR, MS,1H-NMR and 13C-NMR spectral analysis. Results Isorhamnetin-3-O-β-D-rutinoside was successfully separated from M. paniculata L., and the purity was above 98. 0% . Conclusion This method is simple,convenient and effective , which can be used as a reference substance for the quality control of M. paniculata L. and its preparations.%目的 从布渣叶中分离制备高纯度异鼠李素-3-O-β-D-芸香糖苷.方法 采用大孔吸附树脂富集布渣叶总黄酮,用Sephadex LH-20凝胶柱从布渣叶总黄酮中分离化合物单体,并采用IR、MS和1H-NMR、13C-NMR对其进行结构鉴定,利用TLC和HPLC对其纯度进行测定.结果 从布渣叶中分离出异鼠李素-3-O-β-D-芸香糖苷,其质量分数大于98.0%.结论 该方法简便有效,可以从布渣叶中制备异鼠李素--3-O-β-D-芸香糖苷对照品.

  10. Ambrosia of Ancients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUOJIANYING

    2004-01-01

    IN 196 B.C. a Chinese philosopher observedto his ruler: "A lord's to ppriority is the welfare of his subjects; to the peopie, eating is foremost." Chinese ancients perceived clearly the essentiality of grain cultivation to the survival of the population and country as a whole. This is apparent in the premillennial term for "country" -sheji literally translated as god of land and grain.

  11. Macht Ambrosia krank?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bergmann, Karl-Christian

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available From a medical perspective, introduction and spread of ragweed in Germany are a disaster. The pollen of the species trigger allergic rhinitis and conjunctivitis that often lead to allergies against food items like celery or spices. In some cases this can lead to allergic asthma that at first appears during the ragweed pollen season in September and October, but can later prevail during the whole year. In addition, touching the plant can result in contact dermatitis. From a medical point of view, halting the spread of ragweed is important and necessary.

  12. 皱叶薄荷精油的化学分类特征%Analysis on Chemotype of Volatile Oil of Mentha crispata Schrad. ex Willd

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭晓恒; 刘涛; 宋登敏; 雨田; 严铸云

    2014-01-01

    This study was aimed to analyze the volatile oil of Mentha crispata Schrad. ex Willd. in order to provide evidence for its chemotype and guidance for its production application. The chemical analysis was detected by headspace GC-MS. The results showed that 64 chemical compounds were detected. It was concluded that the volatile oil of M. crispata Schrad. ex Willd. mainly contained eucalyptol (35.58%), limonene (16.92%) and pinene (15.33%). It was concluded that the analysis on composition characteristics and main compounds of M. crispata Schrad. ex Willd. can provide evidences in its production application and chemotype.%目的:对皱叶薄荷精油进行成分分析,为种源鉴定提供化学分类依据并为生产应用提供指导。方法:采用顶空气相法对皱叶薄荷全草进行化学分析。结果:共得到64个化学成分,且皱叶薄荷主要由桉油素(Eucalyptol ,35.58%)、柠檬烯(Limonene ,16.92%)及蒎烯(Pinene ,15.33%)组成。结论:通过分析皱叶薄荷精油的组成特征及主要成分,可为其生产应用及种源鉴定提供化学分类佐证。

  13. Consumo de Uroleucon ambrosiae (Thomas, 1878 (Hemiptera: Aphididae por larvas de Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861 (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae em casa-de-vegetação Consumption of Uroleucon ambrosiae (Thomas, 1878 (Hemiptera: Aphididae BY Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861 (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae larvae in greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander M. Auad

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Com esta pesquisa objetivou-se verificar o consumo de Uroleucon ambrosiae em diferentes densidades, por larvas de Chrysoperla externa provenientes de diferentes regimes alimentares, em casa-de-vegetação. Ninfas de 3º e 4º ínstares do afídeo foram separadas nas densidades 30, 40 e 50, e colocadas nas plantas de alface (35 dias de idade, as quais, foram envolvidas por gaiola de armação de ferro de 27x27x26 cm cobertas com tecido “voil” e acoplada nos tubos de PVC do cultivo hidropônico. Quatro horas após, uma larva de C. externa, de diferentes ínstares e previamente alimentadas com U. ambrosiae ou ovos de Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier, 1819, foi liberada próximo à colônia de afídeos, sendo a gaiola fechada imediatamente; o mesmo procedimento foi adotado sem que a larva fosse confinada. Após quarenta e oito horas, realizou-se a contagem do número de afídeos consumidos em cada densidade de presa disponível. A eficiência do predador, confinado em gaiola, foi de 12,46%, 13,63% e 25,76% para larvas de 1º, 2º e 3º ínstares previamente alimentadas com ovos de S. cerealella; 9,59% e 17,63% para aquelas de 2º e 3º ínstares alimentadas anteriormente com ninfas de U. ambrosiae, respectivamente e de 18,62% para larvas de 3º ínstar previamente alimentadas com ovos do lepidóptero no 1º ínstar e ninfas dos afídeos no 2º instar; no entanto, para larvas não confinadas, não foram verificadas diferenças significativas na eficiência. Nas densidades de 40 e 50 afídeos, as porcentagens de predação (18,30 e 18,72, respectivamente foram significativamente superiores quando comparada à densidade 30 (11,79; para testes sem confinamento, não houve influência da densidade da presa na resposta do predador. Assim, o alimento fornecido às larvas de C. externa antes de serem liberadas em casa-de-vegetação, o confinamento das mesmas e a densidade de U. ambrosiae disponível influenciaram o potencial de consumo do predador

  14. Anticancer Effects of 1,3-Dihydroxy-2-Methylanthraquinone and the Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Hedyotis Diffusa Willd against HepG2 Carcinoma Cells Mediated via Apoptosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Lan Li

    Full Text Available Hedyotis Diffusa Willd, used in Traditional Chinese Medicine, is a treatment for various diseases including cancer, owing to its mild effectiveness and low toxicity. The aim of this study was to identify the main anticancer components in Hedyotis Diffusa Willd, and explore mechanisms underlying their activity. Hedyotis Diffusa Willd was extracted and fractionated using ethyl acetate to obtain the H-Ethyl acetate fraction, which showed higher anticancer activity than the other fractions obtained against HepG2 cells with sulforhodamine B assays. The active component of the H-Ethyl acetate fraction was identified to be 1,3-dihydroxy-2-methylanthraquinone (DMQ with much high inhibitory rate up to 48.9 ± 3.3% and selectivity rate up to 9.4 ± 4.5 folds (p<0.01 at 125 μmol/L. HepG2 cells treated with the fraction and DMQ visualized morphologically using light and fluorescence microscopy. Annexin V--fluorescein isothiocyanate / propidium iodide staining flow cytometry, DNA ladder and cell cycle distribution assays. Mechanistic studies showed up-regulation of caspase-3, -8, and -9 proteases activities (p<0.001, indicating involvement of mitochondrial apoptotic and death receptor pathways. Further studies revealed that reactive oxygen species in DMQ and the fraction treated HepG2 cells increased (p<0.01 while mitochondrial membrane potential reduced significantly (p<0.001 compared to the control by flow cytometry assays. Western blot analysis showed that Bax, p53, Fas, FasL, p21 and cytoplasmic cytochrome C were up-regulated (p<0.01, while Bcl-2, mitochondrial cytochrome C, cyclin E and CDK 2 were down-regulated dose-dependently (p<0.01. The reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction showed that mRNA expressions of p53 and Bax increased (p<0.001 while that of Bcl-2 decreased (p<0.001. Pre-treatment with caspase-8 inhibitor Z-IETD-FMK, or caspase-9 inhibitor Z-LEHD-FMK, attenuated the growth-inhibitory and apoptosis-inducing effects of DMQ and the

  15. Determinación de características físicas en semillas de quinua (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) mediante procesamiento digital de imágenes

    OpenAIRE

    Percy Arapa Carcasi; Carlos Alberto Padrón Pereira

    2014-01-01

    Las propiedades físicas de las semillas influencian parámetros de trabajo en los equipos y son esenciales para el diseño de estos y de instalaciones para la recolección, cosecha, transporte, separación, secado, aireación, almacenamiento y procesamiento. En la determinación de propiedades físicas algunas dependen o se originan de las dimensiones ortogonales. Los granos o semillas de quinua (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) se caracterizan por su pequeño tamaño. El propósito de este trabajo fue deter...

  16. 我国叶子花属植物的应用前景及展望%The Application Prospect of Bougainvillea spectabilis Willd in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵玉梅; 任红梅

    2011-01-01

    论述了叶子花属植物的生物学特征,展望了叶子花属植物广阔的应用前景,旨在为进一步开发叶子花的观赏、医药、生物农药等价值提供依据.%The biological characters of Bougainville spectabilis Willd was expounded,its expensive prospection was prospeted,in order to provide some valuble reference to go deep study into view and admire ,medicine and biopesticide.

  17. Estudo fitoquímico e avaliação da atividade anticolinesterásica de extratos da casca da raiz da Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd.) Poiret

    OpenAIRE

    Neves, Maiane dos Santos

    2015-01-01

    Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd.) Poiret (jurema preta) é uma espécie da família Fabaceae nativa da Caatinga, encontrada largamente em todo nordeste brasileiro. Na medicina popular, as cascas do caule e da raiz da jurema preta são utilizadas no tratamento de diversas enfermidades, como queimaduras e inflamações, além de ser empregada tradicionalmente como bebida em rituais indígenas. Com relação à casca da raiz, há poucos estudos descritos na literatura sobre seu perfil químico e propriedades biológ...

  18. Leaf degradation of Salix humboldtiana Willd: (Salicaceae and invertebrate colonization in a subtropical lake (Brazil Degradação foliar de Salix humboldtiana Willd: (Salicaceae e colonização por invertebrados em um lago subtropical (Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franko Telöken

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate leaf degradation and invertebrate colonization of Salix humboldtiana Willd. in a subtropical shallow lake on the coastal plain of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil; METHODS: Litter bags containing 6.85 g of leaves were incubated in the superficial layer of sediment in the littoral region for 1, 4, 7, 14, 32, 47 and 71 days; RESULTS: After 71 days, a loss of 51% of the initial leaf weight was observed (k = 0.0100 d-1. We estimated that it would take 300 days to lose 95% of the initial weight. A total of 16040 organisms and 35 taxa were identified. Caenidae (25.9%, Oligochaeta (19%, Ostracoda (13.8%, Hydracarina (9.8%, Tanypodinae (9.7% and Coenagrionidae (7.7% were the most highly represented taxa. We observed increases in density, richness and diversity of taxa over time, with a stabilizing trend noted in the taxa diversity. Regarding the functional trophic groups (FTGs, gathering-collectors accounted for 57.6% of the community, while predators (25%, scrapers (15.8%, filtering-collectors (0.88% and shredders (0.73% were also represented. The diversity and evenness of the FTGs had stabilized by day 14; CONCLUSIONS: S. humboldtiana detritus provides a favorable habitat for a sufficient duration to support a high density and diversity of aquatic invertebrates. The small percentage of shredders indicates the minor influence of the invertebrate community on the rate of detrital degradation. The main contribution of invertebrates to detrital processing comes from the consumption of fine particulate organic matter by gathering-collectors.OBJETIVOS: Avaliar a degradação foliar de Salix humboldtiana Willd. e a colonização pela comunidade de invertebrados aquáticos em um lago raso subtropical, planície costeira do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil; MÉTODOS: Bolsas de decomposição contendo 6,85 g de folhas foram incubadas na região litorânea, na superfície do sedimento, e retiradas após 1, 4, 7, 14, 32, 47 e 71 dias de decomposi

  19. Nutritional Aspects of Six Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. Ecotypes from three Geographical Areas of Chile Aspectos Nutricionales de Seis Ecotipos de Quínoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. de Tres Zonas Geográficas de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Miranda

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the diversity of the quinoa crop in Chile from a nutritional perspective. Nutritional properties, minerals, vitamins, and saponin content were assessed in seeds of six Chilean quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. ecotypes grown in three main production areas with distinctive climatic and edaphic conditions: Ancovinto and Cancosa in the North-Altiplano or High Plateau, Cáhuil and Faro in the central coastal area, and Regalona and Villarrica in the south of the country. There were significant differences (P La diversidad en el cultivo de la quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. de Chile fue explorada desde una perspectiva nutricional. En este contexto las propiedades nutricionales como también los contenidos de minerales, vitaminas y saponina fueron evaluados en las semillas de seis ecotipos chilenos de quínoa, cultivados en las tres principales zonas de producción con condiciones edafoclimáticas distintas: Ancovinto y Cancosa del altiplano del norte, Cáhuil y Faro de la zona costera central y, Regalona y Villarrica en el sur del país. Hubo diferencias significativas (P < 0.05 en todas las propiedades nutricionales de las semillas de todas las zonas. El ecotipo Villarrica tenia el mayor contenido de proteína (16.10 g 100 g-1 MS y de vitamina E y C (4.644 ± 0.240 y 23.065 ± 1.119 mg 100 g-1 MS, respectivamente. El mayor contenido de vitamina B1 (0.648 ± 0.006 mg 100 g-1 MS y B3 (1.569 ± 0.026 mg 100 g-1 MS fue encontrado en el ecotipo Regalona, y el mayor contenido de vitamina B2 (0.081 ± 0.002 mg 100 g-1 MS en el ecotipo Ancovinto. El K fue el mineral más abundante con un valor de 2325.56 mg 100 g-1 MS en el ecotipo Cancosa. El contenido de saponina fluctuó entre 0.84 g 100 g-1 MS en el ecotipo Villarrica y 3.91 g 100 g-1 MS en el ecotipo Cáhuil. Hubo diferencias significativas entre los ecotipos chilenos de quínoa cultivados bajo diferentes condiciones climáticas. No obstante, las semillas de quinoa de cualquier

  20. Selection of Reference Genes for Expression Study in Pulp and Seeds of Theobroma grandiflorum (Willd. ex Spreng.) Schum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz dos Santos, Lucas; Santana Silva, Raner José; Oliveira Jordão do Amaral, Daniel; Barbosa de Paula, Márcia Fabiana; Ludke Falcão, Loeni; Legavre, Thierry; Alves, Rafael Moyses

    2016-01-01

    Cupuassu (Theobroma grandiflorum [Willd. ex Spreng.] Schum) is a species of high economic importance in Brazil with great potential at international level due to the multiple uses of both its seeds and pulp in the industry of sweets and cosmetics. For this reason, the cupuassu breeding program focused on the selection of genotypes with high pulp and seed quality—selection associated with the understanding of the mechanisms involved in fruit formation. Gene expression is one of the most used approaches related to such understanding. In this sense, quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) is a powerful tool, since it rapidly and reliably quantifies gene expression levels across different experimental conditions. The analysis by qPCR and the correct interpretation of data depend on signal normalization using reference genes, i.e. genes presenting a uniform pattern of expression in the analyzed samples. Here, we selected and analyzed the expression of five genes from cupuassu (ACP, ACT, GAPDH, MDH, TUB) to be used as candidates for reference genes on pulp and seed of young, maturing and mature cupuassu fruits. The evaluation of the gene expression stability was obtained using the NormFinder, geNorm and BestKeeper programs. In general, our results indicated that the GAPDH and MDH genes constituted the best combination as reference genes to analyze the expression of cupuassu samples. To our knowledge, this is the first report of reference gene definition in cupuassu, and these results will support subsequent analysis related to gene expression studies in cupuassu plants subjected to different biotic or abiotic conditions as well as serve as a tool for diversity analysis based on pulp and seed quality. PMID:27501324

  1. Transcriptional Responses of Chilean Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) Under Water Deficit Conditions Uncovers ABA-Independent Expression Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Andrea; Zurita-Silva, Andres; Maldonado, Jonathan; Silva, Herman

    2017-01-01

    HIGHLIGHTS R49 genotype displayed best performance on selected physiological parameters and highest tolerance to drought.R49 drought over-represented transcripts has exhibited 19% of genes (306 contigs) that presented no homology to published databases.Expression pattern for canonical responses to drought such as ABA biosynthesis and other genes induced in response to drought were assessed by qPCR. Global freshwater shortage is one of the biggest challenges of our time, often associated to misuse, increased consumption demands and the effects of climate change, paralleled with the desertification of vast areas. Chenopodium quinoa (Willd.) represents a very promising species, due to both nutritional content and cultivation under water constraint. We characterized drought tolerance of three Chilean genotypes and selected Genotype R49 (Salares ecotype) based upon Relative Water Content (RWC), Electrolyte Leakage (EL) and maximum efficiency of photosystem II (Fv/Fm) after drought treatment, when compared to another two genotypes. Exploratory RNA-Seq of R49 was generated by Illumina paired-ends method comparing drought and control irrigation conditions. We obtained 104.8 million reads, with 54 million reads for control condition and 51 million reads for drought condition. Reads were assembled in 150,952 contigs, were 31,523 contigs have a reading frame of at least 300 nucleotides (100 aminoacids). BLAST2GO annotation showed a 15% of genes without homology to NCBI proteins, but increased to 19% (306 contigs) when focused into drought-induced genes. Expression pattern for canonical drought responses such as ABA biosynthesis and other genes induced were assessed by qPCR, suggesting novelty of R49 drought responses. PMID:28337209

  2. Oxidative stress and antioxidant responses to increasing concentrations of trivalent chromium in the Andean crop species Chenopodium quinoa Willd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scoccianti, Valeria; Bucchini, Anahi E; Iacobucci, Marta; Ruiz, Karina B; Biondi, Stefania

    2016-11-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd), an ancient Andean seed crop, exhibits exceptional nutritional properties and resistance to abiotic stress. The species' tolerance to heavy metals has, however, not yet been investigated nor its ability to take up and translocate chromium (Cr). This study aimed to investigate the metabolic adjustments occurring upon exposure of quinoa to several concentrations (0.01-5mM) of CrCl3. Young hydroponically grown plants were used to evaluate Cr uptake, growth, oxidative stress, and other biochemical parameters three and/or seven days after treatment. Leaves accumulated the lowest amounts of Cr, while roots and stems accumulated the most at low and at high metal concentrations, respectively. Fresh weight and photosynthetic pigments were reduced only by the higher Cr(III) doses. Substantially increased lipid peroxidation, hydrogen peroxide, and proline levels were observed only with 5mM Cr(III). Except for a significant decrease at day 7 with 5mM Cr(III), total polyphenols and flavonoids maintained control levels in Cr(III)-treated plants, whereas antioxidant activity increased in a dose-dependent manner. Maximum polyamine accumulation was observed in 1mM CrCl3-treated plants. Even though α- and γ-tocopherols also showed enhanced levels only with the 1mM concentration, tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT, EC 2.6.1.5) activity increased under Cr(III) treatment in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Taken together, results suggest that polyamines, tocopherols, and TAT activity could contribute to tolerance to 1mM Cr(III), but not to the highest concentration that, instead, generated oxidative stress.

  3. Transcriptional Responses of Chilean Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) Under Water Deficit Conditions Uncovers ABA-Independent Expression Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Andrea; Zurita-Silva, Andres; Maldonado, Jonathan; Silva, Herman

    2017-01-01

    HIGHLIGHTS R49 genotype displayed best performance on selected physiological parameters and highest tolerance to drought.R49 drought over-represented transcripts has exhibited 19% of genes (306 contigs) that presented no homology to published databases.Expression pattern for canonical responses to drought such as ABA biosynthesis and other genes induced in response to drought were assessed by qPCR. Global freshwater shortage is one of the biggest challenges of our time, often associated to misuse, increased consumption demands and the effects of climate change, paralleled with the desertification of vast areas. Chenopodium quinoa (Willd.) represents a very promising species, due to both nutritional content and cultivation under water constraint. We characterized drought tolerance of three Chilean genotypes and selected Genotype R49 (Salares ecotype) based upon Relative Water Content (RWC), Electrolyte Leakage (EL) and maximum efficiency of photosystem II (Fv/Fm) after drought treatment, when compared to another two genotypes. Exploratory RNA-Seq of R49 was generated by Illumina paired-ends method comparing drought and control irrigation conditions. We obtained 104.8 million reads, with 54 million reads for control condition and 51 million reads for drought condition. Reads were assembled in 150,952 contigs, were 31,523 contigs have a reading frame of at least 300 nucleotides (100 aminoacids). BLAST2GO annotation showed a 15% of genes without homology to NCBI proteins, but increased to 19% (306 contigs) when focused into drought-induced genes. Expression pattern for canonical drought responses such as ABA biosynthesis and other genes induced were assessed by qPCR, suggesting novelty of R49 drought responses.

  4. Antioxidant capacity, phenolic and vitamin C contents of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. as affected by sprouting and storage conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maura N. Laus

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant capacity (AC of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. cv. Real seeds and sprouts obtained after 4 days of seed germination at 20°C and 70% humidity was evaluated using trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC assays, able to highlight reducing activity and peroxyl radical scavenging capacity, respectively; phenolic content (PC was also measured. Both TEAC and ORAC assays revealed a significantly higher (about 2- and 2.8-fold, respectively AC of 4-day-old sprouts compared to seeds; consistently, also PC values of sprouts resulted about 2.6 times higher than seeds. In order to investigate the influence of storage on AC and PC, as well as on vitamin C content (VCC, 4-day-old sprouts were subjected for 7 days at 5°C to three different conditions of controlled atmosphere storage (CAS compared with air. Interestingly, whatever the CAS conditions, storage of quinoa sprouts up to 7 days induced an increase of AC evaluated in terms of reducing activity by TEAC assay. Consistently, an increase of PC and VCC was measured during storage, positively correlated to TEAC values. Moreover, a decrease of peroxyl radical scavenging activity, measured by ORAC, was observed after 7 days of storage, in accordance with a shift of AC towards the reducing activity component. Overall, these findings indicate that sprouting approach using quinoa may provide highly antioxidant-enriched seedlings that may improve nutritional quality of diet or of functional foods. Interestingly, antioxidant properties of quinoa sprouts may be deeply influenced by storage, able to increase reducing activity by increasing phenols and vitamin C.

  5. Construction of a quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) BAC library and its use in identifying genes encoding seed storage proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, M R; Coleman, C E; Parkinson, S E; Maughan, P J; Zhang, H-B; Balzotti, M R; Kooyman, D L; Arumuganathan, K; Bonifacio, A; Fairbanks, D J; Jellen, E N; Stevens, J J

    2006-05-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is adapted to the harsh environments of the Andean Altiplano region. Its seeds have a well-balanced amino acid composition and exceptionally high protein content with respect to human nutrition. Quinoa grain is a staple in the diet of some of the most impoverished people in the world. The plant is an allotetraploid displaying disomic inheritance (2n=4x=36) with a di-haploid genome of 967 Mbp (megabase pair), or 2C=2.01 pg. We constructed two quinoa BAC libraries using BamHI (26,880 clones) and EcoRI (48,000 clones) restriction endonucleases. Cloned inserts in the BamHI library average 113 kb (kilobase) with approximately 2% of the clones lacking inserts, whereas cloned inserts in the EcoRI library average 130 kb and approximately 1% lack inserts. Three plastid genes used as probes of high-density arrayed blots of 73,728 BACs identified approximately 2.8% of the clones as containing plastid DNA inserts. We estimate that the combined quinoa libraries represent at least 9.0 di-haploid nuclear genome equivalents. An average of 12.2 positive clones per probe were identified with 13 quinoa single-copy ESTs as probes of the high-density arrayed blots, suggesting that the estimate of 9.0x coverage of the genome is conservative. Utility of the BAC libraries for gene identification was demonstrated by probing the library with a partial sequence of the 11S globulin seed storage protein gene and identifying multiple positive clones. The presence of the 11S globulin gene in four of the clones was verified by direct comparison with quinoa genomic DNA on a Southern blot. Besides serving as a useful tool for gene identification, the quinoa BAC libraries will be an important resource for physical mapping of the quinoa genome.

  6. Hypoglycemic, vasorelaxant and hepatoprotective effects of Cochlospermum vitifolium (Willd.) Sprengel: a potential agent for the treatment of metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Salgado, J C; Ortiz-Andrade, R R; Aguirre-Crespo, F; Vergara-Galicia, J; León-Rivera, I; Montes, S; Villalobos-Molina, R; Estrada-Soto, S

    2007-02-12

    Cochlospermum vitifolium (Willd.) Sprengel is a Mexican medicinal plant that is used in the folk medicine for the treatment of hypertension, diabetes, hepatitis and related diseases. The purpose of the present study was to assess the pharmacological properties of different extracts from Cochlospermum vitifolium bark as potential agent for the treatment of some factors related with metabolic syndrome (MS), a complex disease produced for several pathophysiological factors such as visceral fat obesity, insulin resistance, hypertension, dyslipidemia and liver steatosis. Hexane (HECv), dichloromethane (DECv) and methanol (MECv) extracts were subjected to some pharmacological assays to determine their vasorelaxant and hypoglycemic activity. On the other hand, MECv was also evaluated to determine its hepatoprotective effect on sub-chronic experimental assay. HECv showed a significant endothelium-independent relaxation on rat aorta rings (intact endothelium: IC(50)=14.42+/-5.90 microg/mL, E(max)=92.71+/-8.9%; denuded endothelium: IC(50)=27.94+/-4.0 microg/mL, E(max)=78.68+/-4.6%) and MECv produced an endothelium-dependent relaxation (IC(50)=21.94+/-6.87 microg/mL, E(max)=79.12+/-7.80%) on this tissue. Furthermore, HECv (at a dose of 120 mg/kg) also showed a significant decrease of blood glucose levels (p<0.05) on normoglycemic rats. Moreover, MECv (at a dose of 100 mg/kg) also was administered to bile duct-obstructed rats to determine its hepatoprotective activity, showing a statistically significant decrease of serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (PGT, 45%) and alkaline phosphatase (APh, 15%) (p<0.05). Finally, we obtained a crystalline polyphenolic compound from MECv by spontaneous precipitation. Those crystals were identified as (+/-)-naringenin by X-ray diffraction, NMR, IR and GC-MS techniques. Results suggest that Cochlospermum vitifolium could be used as a potential agent against MS since it shows hypoglycemic, vasorelaxant and hepatoprotective properties.

  7. ESTRUTURA E DISTRIBUIÇÃO ESPACIAL DE Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd. Poir. EM DOIS FRAGMENTOS DE CAATINGA EM PERNAMBUCO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOÃO TAVARES CALIXTO JÚNIOR

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd. (jurema preta is a xerophytic species of the shrub-arboreal habit, indicative of secondary succession stage of recovery or progressive, widely disseminated by different caatinga physiognomies of northeastern Brazil, bringing great potential. For the few studies that address their environmental performance, this study aimed to investigate structural and ecological aspects of its population, based data in diameter and height, and characterize the spatial distribution pattern of this species in the study areas. The phytosociological survey was conducted in two areas with 2 and 80 hectares of caatinga at the Experimental Station of Embrapa Semiarid, Petrolina - PE. 10 units were plotted on a random sample measuring 8.0 x 40m, and included all individuals living in diameter at soil level K 3 cm, and measured the total height of the same. Were sampled 283 and 61 individuals in 100 and 80% of plots in areas I and II respectively, inserted mostly in the first diameter classes (3.0 - 6.0 cm and 6.1 - 9.0 cm and height (2.0 - 3.0 m and 3.1 - 4 m, without trend to standard reverse-J-shape in areas. The spatial distribution, measured by the Payandeh index, reached a value of 2.4 in area I and 7.8 in area II, indicating that the species has a aggregated distribution in both areas. The calculated values for the of Liocourt quotient in areas I and II respectively, got an average of 0.67 and 1.12 with great variation, showing unbalance, despite being in progressive process of natural regeneration.

  8. Antimicrobial and radical scavenging activity of le af and rhizome extract of Alpinia galanga (L. Willd (Zingiberaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yashoda Kambar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Alpinia galanga (L. Willd belonging to the family Zingiberaceae is widely distributed in tropical areas. The plant is used in food preparation and as medicine. The present study was carried out to determine antimicrobial and radical scavenging effect of leaf and rhizome extract of A. galanga. The powdered leaf and rhizome were extracted by soxhlet extraction using methanol. Antimicrobial activity of extracts was determined by Agar well diffusion assay against 15 clinical isolates of bacteria (from burn, dental caries and urinary tract infection and two fungi (Candida albicansand Cryptococcus neoformans. Radical scavenging activity of extracts was determined by DPPH free radical scavenging assay. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were estimated by Folin-Ciocalteau reagent and Aluminium chloride colorimetric estimation method respectively. Rhizome extract was found to possess high inhibitory activity against fungi and clinical isolates of bacteria. Inhibitoryactivity was marked against burn and dental caries isolates when compared to urinarytract isolates. Overall, Gram positive bacteria showed higher susceptibility to extracts. Among fungi, C. neoformanswas inhibited to higher extent. The extracts have shown dose dependent scavenging of free radicals. The rhizome extract (IC5032.34μg/ml was more efficient in scavenging free radicals than leaf extract as revealed by low IC50value. The content of total phenolics and flavonoids were high in rhizome extract when compared to leaf extract. Marked antimicrobial and radical scavenging potential of rhizome extract can be ascribed to high phenolic and flavonoid content. The plant can be used for the development of agents active against pathogenic microbes and radical induced damage.

  9. Transpiration of montane Pinus sylvestris L. and Quercus pubescens Willd. forest stands measured with sap flow sensors in NE Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Poyatos

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Stand transpiration was measured during the 2003 and 2004 growing seasons using heat dissipation sap flow sensors in a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. and a pubescent oak (Quercus pubescens Willd. forests located in a montane area of the Eastern Pyrenees (NE Spain. The first aim of the study was to assess the differences in quantitative estimates of transpiration (Ec and the response to evaporative demand of the two stands. Over the studied period of 2003, characterised by a severe drought episode during the summer, the oak stand (Ec was only 110 mm compared to the 239 mm transpired by the Scots pine stand, although the ratio of transpiration to reference evapotranspiration (Ec/ET0 in the oak stand compares well with the expected values predicted for low leaf area index (LAI oak forests in southern Europe. Scots pine showed a strong reduction in (Ec/ET0 as the drought developed, whereas pubescent oak was less affected by soil moisture deficits in the upper soil. As a second objective, and given the contrasting meteorological conditions between 2003 and 2004 summer periods, the interannual variability of transpiration was studied in the Scots pine plot. Rainfall during the summer months (June-September in 2003 was almost 40% less than in the same interval in 2004. Accordingly, transpiration was also reduced about 25% in 2003. Finally, Scots pine data from 2003 and 2004 was used to calibrate a simple transpiration model using ET0 and soil moisture deficit (SMD as input variables, and implicitly including stomatal responses to high vapour pressure deficits (Dd and soil water status.

  10. Optimization of tissue culture conditions for Pfaffia paniculata%珐菲亚组织培养条件的优化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李林轩; 凌征柱; 李翠; 彭凌; 韦坤华

    2013-01-01

    目的 优化珐菲亚组织培养快速繁殖技术.方法 分别以MS和1/2MS为基本培养基,采用正交设计研究植物生长调节剂多因素组合(6-BA、NAA、IBA和IAA)对珐菲亚继代增殖和诱导生根的影响.结果 MS+6-BA 1.5 mg/L+NAA0.1 mg/L+IBA 0.2 mg/L利于丛生芽继代增殖,30 d繁殖系数6.0以上;1/2 MS+NAA 1.0 mg/L+IBA 0.2 mg/L适于诱导生根获得再生植株,生根率100%;生根苗移栽于排水良好的沙床上,成活率98%.结论 本实验为保护珐菲亚的野生资源,发展人工栽培和探讨育种新途径奠定基础.%Objective To establish and optimize the technique of tissue culture and rapid propagation of Pfaffia paniculata.Methods Using MS and 1/2MS basic media,the effects of various combinations of plant growth regulators (6-BA,NAA,IBA,and IAA) on the seedlings subculture and rooting culture were studied by orthogonal design.Results The effective medium for cluster buds-inducing and subculture was MS + 6-BA 1.5 mg/L + NAA 0.1 mg/L + IBA 0.2 mg/L,and the propagation coefficient was over 6.0 per 30 d; The best rooting medium was 1/2 MS + NAA 1.0 mg/L + IBA 0.2 mg/L,and the rooting rate was 100%.The rooting seedlings were transplanted in well-drained sand bed and the survival rate was 98%.Conclusion The method in the experiment could provide a basis on protecting the mild resources ofP.paniculata exploring the artificial resources,and discussing the new way breedings.

  11. Comparative Study on Total DNA Extraction Methods of Bougainvillea spectabilis Willd.%三角梅总DNA提取方法比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄彦晶; 吴少华; 李房英; 曾黎辉

    2012-01-01

    To find a rapid,simple and effective total DNA extraction method for Bougainvillea spectobilis willd. ,four methods including DNA Isolation Kit method ,CTAB mini method ,improved SDS-KAC method ,improved CTAB method were compared.The total DNA was detected by spectrophotometer, agarose gel electrophoresis. The results showed that CTAB mini method was simple, timesaving, high-yield, high-purity.CTAB mini method was optimal for total DNA extraction in Bougainvillea spectobilis Willd., which was suitable for molecular biology researches.%为了选择一种快速、有效、简单的三角梅总DNA的提取方法,分别采用DNA提取试剂盒法、CTABmini法、改良SDS-KAC法、CTAB大量法提取三角梅嫩叶片的总DNA,用紫外分光光度计、琼脂糖凝胶电泳对所提取的总DNA进行检测。结果表明:CTABmini法提取的三角梅总DNA纯度高,浓度高,并且简单省时。CTABmini法是较为理想的三角梅总DNA提取方法,该法提取的总DNA适用于三角梅的分子生物学研究。

  12. 藜麦的主要营养成分、矿物元素及植物化学物质含量测定%Determination of main nutritional component,mineral element and phytochemical in Chenopodium quinoa Willd

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申瑞玲; 张文杰; 董吉林; 孙永敢

    2015-01-01

    Three South America Chenopodium quinoa Willd (black,red and ivory Chenopodium quinoa Willd)and a domestic Chenopodium quinoa Willd were used as experimental materials,and the main nutri-tional components,eight kinds of mineral elements(K,Na,Ca,Mg,Fe,Mn,Cu,Zn)and phytochemicals (polyphenols,flavonoids,saponins)content of them were measured.The results showed that the nutritional composition of these four kinds of Chenopodium quinoa Willd was slightly different.Compared with common grains(wheat,rice,corn and millet),Chenopodium quinoa Willd contains lower starch,richer protein and fat,and was a good source of dietary fiber,polyphenols and flavonoids.%以黑色、红色、乳白色3种进口南美藜麦和国产乳黄色藜麦为实验材料,对其所含主要营养素、8种矿物元素(K,Na,Ca,Mg,Fe,Mn,Cu,Zn)和植物化学物质(多酚、黄酮、皂苷)的含量进行测定。结果显示,4种藜麦的营养组成稍有差异;与常见谷物(小麦、稻米、玉米、小米)相比,藜麦中淀粉含量较低,蛋白质、脂肪含量丰富,可以作为膳食纤维、多酚、黄酮物质的良好来源。

  13. Changes in defense of an alien plant Ambrosia artemisiifolia before and after the invasion of a native specialist enemy Ophraella communa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuya Fukano

    Full Text Available The evolution of increased competitive ability hypothesis (EICA predicts that when alien plants are free from their natural enemies they evolve lower allocation to defense in order to achieve a higher growth rate. If this hypothesis is true, the converse implication would be that the defense against herbivory could be restored if a natural enemy also becomes present in the introduced range. We tested this scenario in the case of Ambrosia artemisiifolia (common ragweed - a species that invaded Japan from North America. We collected seeds from five North American populations, three populations in enemy free areas of Japan and four populations in Japan where the specialist herbivore Ophraella communa naturalized recently. Using plants grown in a common garden in Japan, we compared performance of O. communa with a bioassay experiment. Consistent with the EICA hypothesis, invasive Japanese populations of A. artemisiifolia exhibited a weakened defense against the specialist herbivores and higher growth rate than native populations. Conversely, in locations where the herbivore O. communa appeared during the past decade, populations of A. artemisiifolia exhibited stronger defensive capabilities. These results strengthen the case for EICA and suggest that defense levels of alien populations can be recuperated rapidly after the native specialist becomes present in the introduced range. Our study implies that the plant defense is evolutionary labile depending on plant-herbivore interactions.

  14. Predicting the potential distribution of invasive exotic species using GIS and information-theoretic approaches: A case of ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.)distribution in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Hao; CHEN LiJun; Thomas P. ALBRIGHT

    2007-01-01

    Invasive exotic species pose a growing threat to the economy, public health, and ecological integrity of nations worldwide. Explaining and predicting the spatial distribution of invasive exotic species is of great importance to prevention and early warning efforts. We are investigating the potential distribution of invasive exotic species, the environmental factors that influence these distributions, and the ability to predict them using statistical and information-theoretic approaches. For some species, detailed presence/absence occurrence data are available, allowing the use of a variety of standard statistical techniques. However, for most species, absence data are not available. Presented with the challenge of developing a model based on presence-only information, we developed an improved logistic regression approach using Information Theory and Frequency Statistics to produce a relative suitability map.This paper generated a variety of distributions of ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.) from logistic regression models applied to herbarium specimen location data and a suite of GIS layers including climatic, topographic, and land cover information. Our logistic regression model was based on Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC) from a suite of ecologically reasonable predictor variables. Based on the results we provided a new Frequency Statistical method to compartmentalize habitat-suitability in the native range. Finally, we used the model and the compartmentalized criterion developed in native ranges to "project" a potential distribution onto the exotic ranges to build habitat-suitability maps.

  15. A review of clinical efficacy, safety, new developments and adherence to allergen-specific immunotherapy in patients with allergic rhinitis caused by allergy to ragweed pollen (Ambrosia artemisiifolia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkalj, Mirjana; Banic, Ivana; Anzic, Srdjan Ante

    2017-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis is a common health problem in both children and adults. The number of patients allergic to ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) is on the rise throughout Europe, having a significant negative impact on the patients’ and their family’s quality of life. Allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) has disease-modifying effects and can induce immune tolerance to allergens. Both subcutaneous immunotherapy and sublingual immunotherapy with ragweed extracts/preparations have clear positive clinical efficacy, especially over pharmacological treatment, even years after the treatment has ended. AIT also has very good safety profiles with extremely rare side effects, and the extracts/preparations used in AIT are commonly well tolerated by patients. However, patient adherence to treatment with AIT seems to be quite low, mostly due to the fact that treatment with AIT is relatively time-demanding and, moreover, due to patients not receiving adequate information and education about the treatment before it starts. AIT is undergoing innovations and improvements in clinical efficacy, safety and patient adherence, especially with new approaches using new adjuvants, recombinant or modified allergens, synthetic peptides, novel routes of administration (epidermal or intralymphatic), and new protocols, which might make AIT more acceptable for a wider range of patients and novel indications. Patient education and support (eg, recall systems) is one of the most important goals for AIT in the future, to further enhance treatment success.

  16. Evaluation of anti-bacterial and anti-oxidant potential of andrographolide and echiodinin isolated from callus culture of Andrographis paniculata Nees

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammed Arifullah; Nima Dandu Namsa; Manabendra Mandal; Kishore Kumar Chiruvella; Paritala Vikrama; Ghanta Rama Gopal

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the anti-bacterial and anti-oxidant activity of andrographolide (AND) and echiodinin (ECH) of Andrographis paniculata. Methods:In this study, an attempt has been made to demonstrate the anti-microbial and anti-oxidant activity of isolated AND and ECH by broth micro-dilution method and 2,2-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) assay, respectively. Structure elucidation was determined by electro-spray ionization-MSD, NMR (1H and 13C) and IR spectra. Results: AND was effective against most of the strains tested including Mycobacteriumsmegmatis, showing broad spectrum of growth inhibition activity with Minimum inhibitory concentration values against Staphylococcus aureus (100 µg/mL), Streptococcus thermophilus (350 µg/mL) Bacillus subtilis (100 µg/mL), Escherichia coli (50 µg/mL), Mycobacterium smegmatis (200 µg/mL), Klebsiella pneumonia (100 µg/mL), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (200 µg/mL). ECH showed specific anti-bacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa at a concentration higher than 225 µg/mL. Both AND and ECH were not effective against the two yeast strains, Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae tested in this study. Conclusion:This preliminary study showed promising anti-bacterial activity and moderate free radical scavenging activity of AND and ECH, and it may provide the scientific rationale for its popular folklore medicines.

  17. Pengaruh Ekstrak Daun Sambiloto (Andrographis paniculata terhadap Struktur Mikroanatomi Hepar dan Kadar Glutamat Piruvat Transaminase Serum Mencit (Mus musculus yang Terpapar Diazinon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TRI WULANDARI

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Diazinon is a pesticide which is often using by farmer to kill insect as theenemy of the plant. The over using of pesticide may result in the remaining of diazinon residue in farming product. This residue can cause the damage of body tissue, especially liver. The aim of research were to find out the effect of leaves sambiloto (Andrographis paniculata Ness. extract on microanatomic structure of liver and serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT level of mice (Mus musculus L. exposed to diazinon. The research used Compelete Random Design with five treatments. The treatment of each group were using CMC 1% (placebo control, diazinon solution 40 mg/Kg BW (negative ontrol and the leaves sambiloto extract 12,6; 25,2 and 37,8 mg /kg BW. Diazinon solution was given within 10 days and continued with extract of sambiloto leaves also within 10 days. Parameter observed was the microanatomic structure of liver and serum GPT level. The data was analyzed of Analysis of Varians (Anova and continued with DMRT at significance 5%. The result of the research showed that the giving of the extract of sambiloto leaves in some dose variation degree is significantly influential to repair the microanatomic structure of liver and to decrease the serum GPT level was 37,8 mg/Kg BW.

  18. Total Coumarins from Hydrangea paniculata Protect against Cisplatin-Induced Acute Kidney Damage in Mice by Suppressing Renal Inflammation and Apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jie, Ma; Jingzhi, Yang; Dongjie, Wang; Dongming, Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Aim. Hydrangea paniculata (HP) Sieb. is a medical herb which is widely distributed in southern China, and current study is to evaluate renal protective effect of aqueous extract of HP by cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) in animal model and its underlying mechanisms. Materials and Methods. HP extract was prepared and the major ingredients were coumarin glycosides. AKI mouse models were established by single i.p. injection of 20 mg/kg cisplatin, and HP was orally administrated for total five times. The renal biochemical functions, pathological staining, kidney oxidative stress, and inflammatory status were measured. Apoptosis of tubular cells and infiltration of macrophages and neutrophils were also tested. Results. HP administration could improve the renal function by decreasing concentration of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine and attenuates renal oxidative stress and tubular pathological injury and apoptosis; further research demonstrated that HP could inhibit the overproduction of proinflammatory cytokines and regulate caspase and BCL-2 family proteins. HP also reduced renal infiltration of macrophages and neutrophils, and its effect might be by downregulating phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and stat3 signaling pathway. Conclusions. This present study suggests that HP could ameliorate cisplatin induced kidney damage by antioxidation and suppressing renal inflammation and tubular cell apoptosis.

  19. Phytochemical Screening and in Vitro Ovicidal, Larvacidal, and Nematicidal Effects of Murraya paniculata (L. Jack Extract on Gastrointestinal Parasites of Goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. E. Tresia

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In our previous research, kemuning leaves (Murraya paniculata L. Jack was shown to have the capability as an anthelmintic candidate for PE (Ettawa crossbred lactating dairy goats by reducing 43.67% of the egg per gram (EPG of Strongylida compared to 0.0005% in orally treated with Oxfendazole as a control. To confirm it, the aim of this in vitro study was to determine the effective dosage of kemuning leaves from two extraction methods (infuse and maceration to reduce the Trichostrongylidae and to evaluate the bioactive compounds of the leaves. The research was conducted using a randomized complete design with 11 treatments and 5 replications. The treatments consisted of control (0.0005% and 0.005% Oxfendazole, kemuning leaves infuse extract (KIE and maceration extract (KME each with level of 1%, 3%, 5%, and 7% (w/v. The results showed that the LT50 gradually decreased (shortening the lethal time and the mortality of Trichostrongylidae gradually increased associated with the increased concentration of treatment (P<0.01. The infusion of 7% kemuning extract demonstrated the highest efficiency in reducing the larval development, infective larvae, and the adult Trichostrongylidae by 93.16%, 94.39%, and 90%, respectively.  This treatment could be developed as the most prospective herbal anthelmintic drug in controlling the infection by Trichostrongylidae.

  20. The paradigm-shifting idea and its practice: from traditional abortion Chinese medicine Murraya paniculata to safe and effective cancer metastatic chemopreventives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhou; Pang, Yaqiong; Yu, Xiaobo; Zhou, Suxia; Qian, Jun; Zheng, Ning; Dong, Haiyan; Shi, Qing; Kuo, Minliang; Jia, Lee

    2016-04-19

    Recent large epidemiological studies demonstrated benefit of oral contraceptives in reducing cancer risk, and our analysis also showed molecular and cellular similarities between embryo implantation and CTCs adhesion-invasion to endothelium. We here hypothesize that abortion traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) may serve well for pre-metastatic chemoprevention. To test the hypothesis, we selected the safe and well-known abortifacient TCM Murraya paniculata and identified a most-promising extracted fraction G (containing flavonoids and coumarins) from its many raw ethanol/dichloromethane extracts by using the bioactivity-guided fast screen assay. G showed free radical scavenging effect, and specifically inhibited both embryo implantation to human endometrial bed and cancer HT29 cells to human endothelium in a concentration-dependent manner (1-30 μg/mL) without significant cytotoxicity demonstrated by its high adhesion inhibition ratio. The inhibition may result from its down-regulation on expression of integrin β1 and α6, and CD44 on HT29 cells, as well as E-selectin on endothelial cells. Furthermore, G inhibited invasion and migration of HT29 cells. Pretreatment followed by one-month oral administration of G to the immunocompetent mice inoculated with mouse melanoma cells produced significant inhibition on lung metastasis without marked side effects. Collectively, this paradigm-shifting study provides, for the first time, a new strategy to discover safe and effective pre-metastatic chemopreventives from abortion TCM.

  1. Research on Alloletroploid Segregation Phenomena of Single-gene Morphological Characters in Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.)%高原藜米(Chenopodium quinoa Willd.)单基因性状的异源四倍体分离现象

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贡布扎西; 吉万泉; 昌西; 白玛曲宗

    2014-01-01

    高原藜米(Chenopodium quinoa Willd.)是一个异源四倍体作物,但有些研究报道该作物在单个基因位点上的分离行为有二倍体分离特征.本研究在多年观察试验的基础上,2011-2012年两年在西藏不同海拔(南木林县:海拔4 000m;林芝:海拔2 800 m)条件下对雄性不育植株进行杂交所得的F1和F2代中分离产生了3种不同的单基因控制的性状特征进行了较大群体的观测试验.等位基因分离分析结果显示,在F1和F2的分离范围内出现了二体双基因和四体的遗传性状,在F2代减数分裂中出现的一定比例的畸变现象也显示了其不定的多价体形态,这些结果都表明了藜米的异源四倍体特征.这一特征产生的根本原因是某些基因位点重复和至少在有些同源染色体之间发生了联会现象.本研究发现,藜米某些基因位点发生的四倍体分离现象可能导致了藜米育种和遗传研究中的复杂性,对于指导该作物育种或生产都有一定的实际意义.四倍体分离,特别是其飘忽不定的现象,可能会使将来藜米基因图谱研究分析变的更加复杂,这一点在今后的研究中应给予足够的重视.

  2. Genetic relationships among fifteen species of Kobresia Willd. (Cyperaceae, tribe Cariceae) based on RAPD markers%基于RAPD标记的15种嵩草属(Kobresia Willd.)植物遗传关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵庆芳; 马世荣; 李巧峡; 王刚

    2007-01-01

    Plants of the genus Kobresia, are dominant alpine sedges of high ecological and economic importance. Phylogenetic relationships of Kobresia species have not been well resolved due to limitations in sample availability. Also, previous studies focused on morphological traits, which can be variable in changing habitats and environmental conditions. Here we examine 15 Kobresia species to estimate the genetic relationships in the genus and to reexamine previous phylogenetic efforts. Twenty-one RAPD primers were chosen to examine 47 accessions of the 15 species. The results indicate that the species cluster into three main groups. Previously the genus was divided into section Kobresia, section Elyna,and section Hemicarex, and these classifications were based upon inflorescence structure. Our molecular results generally correspond with section Kobresia and Hemicarex. However the molecular phylogeny does not match with section Elyna, indicating that Elyna is not a natural classification. Additionally,although K. maquensis has been previously classified as an independent species, our results suggest that it should be considered a synonym of K. setschwanensis. These results also show that RAPD markers are effective in constructing phylogenetic relationships among Kobresia species.%嵩草属(Kobresia Willd.)植物由于其形态结构的多样性及种内变异式样的复杂性,至今仍被认为是分类学上的"困难属".因此,对于该属系统学其他方面的证据,尤其分子方面的研究则显得极为重要和迫切.本文选用21个RAPD随机引物调查了15种嵩草属植物的遗传关系.结果表明:15种嵩草属植物聚为3类,认为嵩草组和异穗嵩草组的建立是比较自然的,而单穗嵩草组的划分并不自然.此外,分子结论并不支持前人发表的K.maquensis为独立新种,建议降为K.setschwanensis的异名.

  3. Varietal Response of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. to Striga gesnerioides (Willd. Vatke Race SG5 Infestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Baptiste NOUBISSIE TCHIAGAM

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The parasitic plant Striga gesnerioides (Willd Vatke is becoming a serious threat to cowpea production in Sub-Saharan Africa. At least 7 races of S. gesnerioides exhibiting specific virulence have been identified. The objectives of this study were to identify sources of resistance to S. gesnerioides race SG5 spreads in northern Cameroon and to study the inheritance of the resistance. Twelve accessions of cowpea, IT98K-205-8, IT98K-503-1, IT98K-1092-1, IT99K-216-1-1, IT98K-494-6, IT99K-529-4, IT99K-573-1-1, IT99K-573-2-1, IT00K-1207, IT03K-378-4, IT04K-227-4 and VYA were assessed in field trials for resistance to S. gesnerioides race SG5 in Maroua, northern Cameroon and the genetics of the resistance from two sources was elucidated in artificially infested pots. Data on resistant and susceptible cowpea plants were analyzed using the chi-square test to ascertain the goodness of fit to different genetic ratios. Tests of resistance using field screening techniques showed that among these varieties, four were susceptible, four tolerant, two partially resistant while IT99K-573-1-1 and IT98K-205-8 appeared completely resistant to Striga race SG5. On susceptible varieties, the mean number of emerged S. gesnerioides plants 9 weeks after sowing was 1.8 to 2.4 per cowpea plant, while completely resistant lines carried none. The cowpea genotypes showed significant differences for percentage of infected plants, the decimation rates and Striga height. On susceptible genotypes, the seeds yield losses due to Striga infestation varied from 28.4 to 36.6% while for the fodder yield these losses ranged between 23.63 to 41.03%. The analysis of F1 and F2 populations resulting from crossings between resistant varieties and the susceptible tester VYA demonstrated that resistance is was controlled by two factor inheritance with duplicate dominant genes (Rsg5a and Rsg5b for IT99K-573-1-1 and a single dominant gene (Rsg5 for IT98K-205-8. These two varieties provide newly

  4. Preliminary Studies of the Performance of Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) Genotypes under Irrigated and Rainfed Conditions of Central Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maliro, Moses F A; Guwela, Veronica F; Nyaika, Jacinta; Murphy, Kevin M

    2017-01-01

    The goal of sustainable intensification of agriculture in Malawi has led to the evaluation of innovative, regionally novel or under-utilized crop species. Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) has the potential to provide a drought tolerant, nutritious alternative to maize. We evaluated 11 diverse varieties of quinoa for their yield and agronomic performance at two locations, Bunda and Bembeke, in Malawi. The varieties originated from Ecuador, Chile and Bolivia in South America; the United States and Canada in North America; and, Denmark in Europe, and were chosen based on their variation in morphological and agronomic traits, and their potential for adaptation to the climate of Malawi. Plant height, panicle length, days to maturity, harvest index, and seed yield were recorded for each variety under irrigation at Bunda and Bembeke, and under rainfed conditions at Bunda. Plant height was significantly influenced by both genotype and environment. There were also significant differences between the two locations for panicle length whereas genotype and genotype × environment (G × E) interaction were not significantly different. Differences were found for genotype and G × E interaction for harvest index. Notably, differences for genotype, environment and G × E were found for grain yield. Seed yield was higher at Bunda (237-3019 kg/ha) than Bembeke (62-692 kg/ha) under irrigated conditions. The highest yielding genotype at Bunda was Titicaca (3019 kg/ha) whereas Multi-Hued was the highest (692 kg/ha) at Bembeke. Strong positive correlations between seed yield and (1) plant height (r = 0.74), (2) days to maturity (r = 0.76), and (3) biomass (r = 0.87) were found under irrigated conditions. The rainfed evaluations at Bunda revealed significant differences in seed yield, plant biomass, and seed size among the genotypes. The highest yielding genotype was Black Seeded (2050 kg/ha) followed by Multi-Hued (1603 kg/ha) and Bio-Bio (1446 kg/ha). Ecuadorian (257 kg/ha) was the

  5. Efeito de diferentes níveis de sombreamento no crescimento inicial de Unha de gato (Uncaria tomentosa Willd.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M.P Lunz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A unha de gato (Uncaria tomentosa Willd. é uma das muitas espécies de plantas com propriedades medicinais utilizadas pelas comunidades nativas da Amazônia para o tratamento de diversas doenças. Suas inúmeras propriedades medicinais têm provocado nos últimos anos o aumento da demanda por essa planta, a qual vem sendo explorada de forma indiscriminada e predatória. O conhecimento agronômico disponível atualmente sobre essa espécie é escasso; dessa forma, o objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes níveis de sombreamento no crescimento inicial da Unha de gato. O experimento foi realizado no viveiro da área experimental da Embrapa Acre, no município de Rio Branco, AC, no período de maio de 2009 a junho de 2010. Foram avaliados quatro tratamentos, constituídos por diferentes níveis de sombreamento (30%, 50% e 70% e pleno Sol, obtidos com tela sombrite preta, com as referidas capacidades de retenção da radiação solar. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados, com oito repetições, contendo duas plantas por parcela. As variáveis analisadas foram: altura da parte aérea, diâmetro do colo, biomassa do sistema radicular, biomassa aérea, biomassa total e partição de biomassa. O crescimento da Unha de gato foi modificado pela intensidade de sombreamento. A altura das plantas e a massa seca das raízes aumentaram linearmente com a intensidade de sombreamento. Sombreamentos entre 55 a 60% proporcionaram melhores crescimentos para as variáveis: diâmetro do coleto, massa seca da parte aérea e massa seca total. Não houve variação na distribuição de massa seca entre a parte aérea e o sistema radicular das plantas em função do sombreamento. Verificou-se que o sombreamento na faixa de 55 a 60% é o mais indicado para o seu crescimento inicial.

  6. Antinoceptive and Anti-inflammatory Activities of the Ethanolic Extract, Fractions and Flavones Isolated from Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd. Poir (Leguminosae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariluze P Cruz

    Full Text Available The bark of Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd. Poiret (Leguminosae family, popularly known as "jurema preta" in Brazil, is used by the population of Contendas of Sincorá (Bahia State, Brazil for the treatment of coughs and wound healing. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of the bark ethanol extract (EEMT and solvent soluble fractions (hexane-H, DCM-D, EtOAc-E and BuOH-B of the extract in vivo. Additionally, we synthesized 5,7-dihidroxy-4'-methoxyflavanone (isosakuranetin and isolated the compound sakuranetin, and both compounds were also tested. The anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive assays performed were: writhing test; nociception induced by intraplantar formalin injection; leukocyte recruitment to the peritoneal cavity; evaluation of vascular permeability (Evans blue test; and evaluation of mechanical hypernociception (von Frey test. Production of TNF-α, IL-10, myeloperoxidase and the expression of ICAM-1 were also evaluated. Statistical analysis was performed by one-way ANOVA followed by the Bonferroni post-test (n = 8, with P < 0.05. The EEMT showed antinociceptive activities in writhing test (100-200 mg/kg, in the second phase of the formalin test (50-200 mg/kg, and in mechanical hypernociception (100 mg/kg. EEMT showed an anti-inflammatory effect by reducing neutrophil migration to the peritoneal cavity and in the plantar tissue detected by the reduction of myeloperoxidase activity (100 mg/kg, reduction of IL-10 levels and expression of ICAM-1 in the peritoneal exudate and the mesentery (100 mg/kg, respectively. The four soluble EEMT fractions showed good results in tests for antinociceptive (H, D, E, B and anti-inflammation (H, D, E. Only sakuranetin showed reduction of the writhing and neutrophil migration (200 mg/kg. Thus, the EEMT and soluble fractions of M. tenuiflora bark demonstrated great antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities, as also sakuranetin. More studies

  7. Response of irritable bowel syndrome with constipation patients administered a combined quebracho/conker tree/M. balsamea Willd extract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kenneth Brown; Brandi Scott-Hoy; Linda W Jennings

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this case series was to retrospectively examine the symptom response of irritable bowel syndrome with constipation(IBS-C) patients administered an herbal extract in a real-world setting. Twenty-four IBS-C patients in a community office practice were provided a combination over-the-counter dietary supplement composed of quebracho(150 mg), conker tree(470 mg) and M. balsamea Willd(0.2 mL) extracts(Atrantil?) and chose to take the formulation for a minimum of 2 wk in an attempt to manage their symptoms. Patient responses to the supplement were assessed by visual analogue scale(VAS) for abdominal pain, constipation and bloating at baseline and at 2 wk as part of standard-of-care. Patient scores from VAS assessments recorded in medical chart data were retrospectively compiled and assessed for the effects of the combined extract on symptoms. Sign tests were used to compare changes from baseline to 2 wk of taking the extract. Significance was defined as P < 0.05. Twenty-one of 24 patients(88%) responded to the dietary supplement as measured by individual improvements in VAS scores for abdominal pain, bloating and constipation symptoms comparing scores prior to administration of the extract against those reported after 2 wk. There were also significant improvements in individual as well as mean VAS scores after 2 wk of administration of the combinedextract compared to baseline for abdominal pain [8.0(6.5, 9.0) vs 2.0(1.0, 3.0), P < 0.001], bloating [8.0(7.0, 9.0) vs 1.0(1.0, 2.0), P < 0.001] and constipation [6.0(3.0, 8.0) vs 2.0(1.0, 3.0), P < 0.001], respectively. In addition, 21 of 24 patients expressed improved quality of life while taking the formulation. There were no reported side effects to administration of the dietary supplement in this practice population suggesting excellent tolerance of the formulation. This pilot retrospective analysis of symptom scores from patients before and after consuming a quebracho/conker tree/M. balsamea Wil d extract may

  8. Estudo comparativo da madeira de Mimosa ophthalmocentra Mart. ex Benth e Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd.) Poir. (Fabaceae-Mimosoideae) na caatinga nordestina Comparative study of Mimosa ophthalmocentra Mart. ex Benth and Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd.) Poir. (Fabaceae-Mimosoideae) wood in the caatinga of Northeast Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Lazaro Benedito da Silva; Francisco de Assis Ribeiro dos Santos; Peter Gasson; David Cutler

    2011-01-01

    Pela importância econômica da madeira de algumas espécies do gênero Mimosa L. ocorrentes na caatinga nordestina e pelo fato de Mimosa ophthalmocentra Mart. ex Benth. (jurema-de-imbira), às vezes, ser confundida com Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd.) Poir. (jurema-preta) ou vice-versa, este trabalho objetivou apresentar novos dados referentes à anatomia e densidade básica da madeira das duas espécies, visando oferecer subsídio para identificação das duas espécies, identificar caracteres anatômicos da ...

  9. 穿心莲实时定量PCR分析中内参基因的选择%Selection of Reference Genes for Real-time Quantitative PCR in Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Nees

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李竹君; 郭健雄; 李永文; 何瑞; 魏洁书; 徐晖

    2013-01-01

    [目的]选择合适的内参基因用于穿心莲实时定量PCR分析中的校正.[方法]以穿心莲根、茎、幼叶、花、萌发种子和成熟叶片为实验材料,应用实时定量PCR技术分析18S rRNA、甘油醛-3-磷酸脱氢酶(GAPDH)、肌动蛋白(Actin)和泛素连接酶(UBC)4个常用内参基因在穿心莲不同组织中的表达水平,利用GeNorm和NormFinder软件进行数据分析.[结果]4个候选内参基因在穿心莲不同组织中表达的稳定性各异,其中UBC的表达水平最为稳定.[结论]可以选择UBC作为内参基因,用于穿心莲不同组织中基因表达水平的校正.%Objective To select a suitable reference gene for gene expression analysis in Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f. ) Nees by real-time quantitative PCR ( PCR) . Methods The transcription profiles of 4 most commonly-used reference genes of 18S rRNA, glyceraldehyde phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) , Actin and ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme ( UBC) were analyzed by PCR among roots, stems, young leaves, flowers, germinating seeds and mature leaves from A. paniculata. GeNorm and NormFinder software were used for data analysis. Results The expression stability of 4 candidate genes varied in different tissues of A. paniculata, and the expression level of UBC was most stable. Conclusion UBC could be used as a reference gene for the normalization of qPCR experimental data of different tissues from A. paniculata.

  10. Study on the effect of different treatment on the germination of Andrographis paniculata seed%不同处理方法对穿心莲种子萌发影响的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玲梅; 李明

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the main reasons of Andrographis paniculata seed dormancy, and find out a method of breaking the dormancy, improving the germination rate, and thus to provide the basis for standardized cultivation of Andrographis paniculata. Methods The Andrographis paniculata seed was pretreated by rubbing the seed coat, cutting the seed coat, warm or cold stratification, soaking into different concentrations of salicylic acid and different concentrations of potassium nitrate solution, and adding water-extraction of Andrographis seeds. Results Treatments of nibbing the seed coat, soaking in 0.5% - 5% KNO3, high temperature stratification at 30 t to 33 °C succeeded in promoting the germination,while the treatments of soaking in 0.1 -5 mol/L salicylic acid,cold stratification at 4 t and adding 0. 01 -0. 2 g/mL water-extraction of Andrographis seeds inhibited the germination. Conclusion There are chemicals of inhibiting the germination and external cause and physiological dormancy in the Andrographis paniculata seed.%目的 探索穿心莲种子休眠的主要原因,找出破除休眠、提高发芽率的方法,为穿心莲的规范化栽培提供依据.方法 采用摩擦种皮、刀割种皮、高低温层积、不同浓度水杨酸、不同质量浓度KN03浸种和添加穿心莲种子水提液的方法对穿心莲种子进行预处理.结果 摩擦或刀割种皮、0.5% ~5% KN03浸种、30~33℃高温层积均能促进穿心莲种子萌发;0.1~5 mol/L水杨酸浸种、4℃低温层积、0.01~0.2 g/mL穿心莲种子水提液处理均抑制发芽.结论 穿心莲种子内含有发芽抑制物,并且存在外致性和生理性休眠.

  11. Remedial action plan and site conceptual design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings site at Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico. Volume 1, Text, Appendices A, B, and C: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, M.L. [USDOE Albuquerque Operations Office, NM (United States). Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project Office; Mitzelfelt, R. [New Mexico Health and Environment Dept., Santa Fe, NM (United States). Environmental Improvement Div.

    1991-11-01

    This Remedial Action Plan (RAP) has been developed to serve a dual purpose. It presents the series of activities that is proposed by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to stabilize and control radioactive materials at the inactive Phillips/United Nuclear uranium processing site designated as the Ambrosia Lake site in McKinley County, New Mexico. It also serves to document the concurrence of both State of New Mexico and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in the remedial action. This agreement, upon execution by the DOE and the state and concurrence by NRC, becomes Appendix B of the Cooperative Agreement.

  12. Potential use of the facultative halophyte Chenopodium quinoa Willd. as substrate for biogas production cultivated with different concentrations of sodium chloride under hydroponic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcios, Ariel E; Weichgrebe, Dirk; Papenbrock, Jutta

    2016-03-01

    This project analyses the biogas potential of the halophyte Chenopodium quinoa Willd. In a first approach C. quinoa was grown with different concentrations of NaCl (0, 10 and 20 ppt NaCl) and the crop residues were used as substrate for biogas production. In a second approach, C. quinoa was grown with 0, 10, 20 and 30 ppt NaCl under hydroponic conditions and the fresh biomass was used as substrate. The more NaCl is in the culture medium, the higher the sodium, potassium, crude ash and hemicellulose content in the plant tissue whereas the calcium, sulfur, nitrogen and carbon content in the biomass decrease. According to this study, it is possible to produce high yields of methane using biomass of C. quinoa. The highest specific methane yields were obtained using the substrate from the plants cultivated at 10 and 20 ppt NaCl in both experiments.

  13. Effects of salinity and soil-drying on radiation use efficiency, water productivity, seed set and final yield of field-grown quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Razzaghi, Fatemeh; Ahmadi, S. H.; Jacobsen, S.-E.

    2012-01-01

    Drought and salinity reduce crop productivity especially in arid and semi-arid regions, and finding a crop which produces yield under these adverse conditions is therefore very important. Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is such a crop. Hence, a study was conducted in field lysimeters...... to investigate the effect of salinity and soil–drying on radiation use efficiency, yield and water productivity of quinoa. Quinoa was exposed to five salinity levels (0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 dS m)1) of irrigation water from flower initiation onwards. During the seed-filling phase the five salinity levels were...... matter. Increasing salinity from 20 to 40 dS m)1 did not further decrease the seed number per m2 and seed yield, which shows that quinoa (cv. Titicaca) acclimated to saline conditions when exposed to salinity levels between 20 and 40 dS m)1....

  14. HPLC quantification of uncarine D and the anti-plasmodial activity of alkaloids from leaves of Mitragyna inermis (Willd.) O. Kuntze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiot, Julien; Baghdikian, Béatrice; Boyer, Laurent; Mahiou, Valérie; Azas, Nadine; Gasquet, Monique; Timon-David, Pierre; Balansard, Guy; Ollivier, Evelyne

    2005-01-01

    An efficient system for the analysis of the total alkaloids extracted from leaves of Mitragyna inermis (Willd.) O. Kuntze (Rubiaceae) by HPLC using a reversed-phase column is described. The chromatographic conditions allowed the separation of indole and oxindole alkaloids in leaf extracts, and the quantification of uncarine D in samples collected in Burkina Faso and Mali. The HPLC method described was validated for its specificity, linearity and precision using an internal standard (naphthalene). The concentrations of uncarine D in various extracts were compared with their in vitro anti-plasmodial activity. The anti-proliferative activity on chloroquine-resistant strain (W2) of Plasmodium falciparum was not correlated with the concentration of uncarine D in leaves.

  15. Anxiogenic-like effects of Uncaria tomentosa (Willd.) DC. aqueous extract in an elevated plus maze test in mice: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigliani, María Celeste; Rosso, María Celeste; Zunino, Paula M; Baiardi, Gustavo; Ponce, Andrés Alberto

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of orally administered Uncaria tomentosa aqueous extracts (UTE) (Willd. ex Roem. & Schult.) DC. (Rubiaceae) during 7, 15, 30 and 90 days of treatment on the expression of anxiety, as expressed in the elevated plus maze test in male Albino Swiss mice. UTE revealed an anxiogenic effect in relation to the control group at 15 and 30 days, but it was reversed after 90 days of administration, without affecting the locomotor activity or any deleterious effects on the overall performance of the animal, either for its ambulation, or clinical status, and body weight and organ weight/body weight from liver, lung and kidney were unaffected. These biphasic effects are usually indicative of heterogeneity in sites of action due to the presence of many alkaloids (speciophylline, uncarine F and uncarine E) and flavanols (catechin and epigallocatechin) identified and isolated from UTE.

  16. Olgunlaşma Döneminin Kinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.)’da Ot Verimi ve Kalitesi ile Gaz ve Metan Üretimine Etkisi

    OpenAIRE

    KAPLAN, Mahmut; ÜKE, Özlem; KALE, Hasan; KAMALAK, Adem

    2016-01-01

    Çalışmanın amacı farklı olgunlaşma dönemlerinde (çiçeklenme öncesi, tam çiçeklenme ve tohum bağlama) hasat edilen kinoa bitkisinin (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) yeşil ve kuru ot verimi, besleme değeri, in vitro gaz ve metan üretimi, metabolik enerji (ME) ve organik madde sindirim derecesine (OMS) etkisini belirlemektir. Kinoa bitkisinin olgunlaşması araştırmada incelenen tüm parametreleri etkilemiştir (P≤0.01). Çalışma sonuçlarına göre olgunlaşma döneminin ilerlemesiyle yeşil ve kuru ot verimle...

  17. The Main Chemical Composition and in vitro Antifungal Activity of the Essential Oils of Ocimum basilicum Linn. var. pilosum (Willd. Benth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Wen Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The essential oils of the aerial parts of Ocimum basilicum Linn.var. pilosum (Willd. Benth., an endemic medicinal plant growing in China, was obtained by hydrodistillation and analysed by GC-MS. Fifteen compounds, representing 74.19% of the total oil were identified. The main components were as follows: linalool (29.68%, (Z-cinnamic acid methyl ester (21.49%, cyclohexene (4.41%, α- cadinol (3.99%, 2,4-diisopropenyl-1-methyl-1-vinylcyclohexane (2.27%, 3,5-pyridine-dicarboxylic acid, 2,6-dimethyl-diethyl ester (2.01%, β-cubebene (1.97%, guaia-1(10,11-diene (1.58%, cadinene (1.41% (E-cinnamic acid methyl ester (1.36% and β-guaiene (1.30%. The essential oils showed significant antifungal activity against some plant pathogenic fungi.

  18. Establishment and persistence of common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.) in disturbed soil as a function of an urban-rural macro-environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ZISKA, L. H.; GEORGE, K.; FRENZ, D. A.

    2006-09-28

    No data are available on whether rising carbon dioxide concentration [CO2] or increased air temperature can alter the establishment and persistence of common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.) within a plant community following soil disturbance. To determine ragweed longevity, we exposed disturbed soil with a common seed bank population to an in situ temperature and [CO2] gradient along an urban-rural transect beginning in early 2002. No other consistent differences in meteorological variables (e.g. wind speed, humidity, PAR, tropospheric ozone) as a function of urbanization were documented over the course of the study (2002-2005). Above-ground measurements of biomass over this period demonstrated that ragweed along the transect responded to urban induced increases in [CO2]/temperature with peak biomass being observed at this location by the end of 2003. However, by the Fall of 2004, and continuing through 2005, urban ragweed populations had dwindled to a few plants. The temporal decline in ragweed populations was not associated with increased disease, herbivory or auto-allelopathy, but was part of a demographic reduction in the total number of annual plant species observed for the urban location. In a separate experiment, we showed that such a demographic shift is consistent with CO2/temperature induced increases in biomass and litter accumulation, with a subsequent reduction in germination / survival of annual plant species. Overall, these data indicate that [CO2]/temperature differences associated with urbanization may increase initial ragweed productivity and pollen production, but suggest that long-term, multi-year persistence of ragweed in the urban macro-environment may be dependent on other factors.

  19. Climate-change-induced range shifts of three allergenic ragweeds (Ambrosia L.) in Europe and their potential impact on human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscarella, Robert; Borchsenius, Finn

    2017-01-01

    Invasive allergenic plant species may have severe health-related impacts. In this study we aim to predict the effects of climate change on the distribution of three allergenic ragweed species (Ambrosia spp.) in Europe and discuss the potential associated health impact. We built species distribution models based on presence-only data for three ragweed species, using MAXENT software. Future climatic habitat suitability was modeled under two IPCC climate change scenarios (RCP 6.0 and RCP 8.5). We quantify the extent of the increase in ‘high allergy risk’ (HAR) areas, i.e., parts of Europe with climatic conditions corresponding to the highest quartile (25%) of present day habitat suitability for each of the three species. We estimate that by year 2100, the distribution range of all three ragweed species increases towards Northern and Eastern Europe under all climate scenarios. HAR areas will expand in Europe by 27–100%, depending on species and climate scenario. Novel HAR areas will occur mostly in Denmark, France, Germany, Russia and the Baltic countries, and overlap with densely populated cities such as Paris and St. Petersburg. We conclude that areas in Europe affected by severe ragweed associated allergy problems are likely to increase substantially by year 2100, affecting millions of people. To avoid this, management strategies must be developed that restrict ragweed dispersal and establishment of new populations. Precautionary efforts should limit the spread of ragweed seeds and reduce existing populations. Only by applying cross-countries management plans can managers mitigate future health risks and economical consequences of a ragweed expansion in Europe. PMID:28321366

  20. Chemical constituents and pharmacological activities of Polygala tenuifolia Willd.:research advances%远志化学及药理作用研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘大伟; 康利平; 马百平

    2012-01-01

    远志(Polygala tenuifolia Willd.),又名细叶远志,是传统中药远志最重要的基源植物,具有益智安神、消痰驱肿之功效.远志中化学成分主要包含三萜皂苷类、糖酯类、(咄)酮类,也含有少量的生物碱、香豆素、木质素等.研究表明,远志在抗痴呆、脑保护、镇静、抗惊厥、抗抑郁、祛痰镇咳、保护心脑血管等方面具有良好活性.同时,远志具有刺激性及毒性,但通过炮制、配伍能够使其刺激性及毒性降低.本文主要对远志的化学成分及其药理活性进行总结,为远志的研究与应用提供参考.%Polygala tenuifolia Willd., the main source of traditional Chinese medicine "Yuanzhi", is used as expectorant, tonic, sedative and preventing dementia agents. P. Tenuifolia has been reported to be enriched with triterpenoid saponins, oligosaccharide esters, xanthones, and also contains a small amount of alkaloids, coumarins, lignins, etc.. These substances show various bioactivities, such as anti-dementia, brain protection, sedative hypnotic, anticonvulsant, antidepressant, cough expectorant, antibacterial, anticancer, and analgesic activities, etc.. Studies also show that P. Tenuifolia has pungency and toxicity but which can be reduced through processing and compatibility. In this paper, the chemical constituents and pharmacological activities of P. Tenuifolia are summarized, aiming at providing help for its research and application.

  1. Anti-diabetic effect of a combination of andrographolide-enriched extract of Andrographis paniculata (Burm f.) Nees and asiaticoside-enriched extract of Centella asiatica L. in high fructose-fat fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugroho, Agung Endro; Lindawati, Novena Yety; Herlyanti, Kyky; Widyastuti, Lina; Pramono, Suwidjiyo

    2013-12-01

    Traditionally, a combination of medicinal plants is commonly used for lowering blood glucose in diabetic patients in order to provide additional benefits of the single drug. A. paniculata and C. asiatica are two traditional medicines form South Asian and Southeast Asain countries consumed by people for treating daibates mellitus and its complications. Hyperglycemia in the rats was stimulated by high fructose-fat diet that consists of 36% fructose, 15% lard, and 5% egg yolks in 0.36 g/200 g body weight for 70 days. The rats were orally administered with the combination of andrographolide-enriched extract of A. paniculata (AEEAP) leaves and asiaticoside-enriched extract of C. asiatica (AEECA) herbs from day 70 for 7 days. Antidiabetic activity was evaluated by estimating mainly the blood glucose levels and other parameters such as HDL, LDL, cholesterol and triglyceride. The results showed that combination at the ratio of 70:30 exhibited a promosing antidiabetic effect in high-fat-fructose-fed rat, and exhibited sinergistic effects on blood cholesterol and HDL levels. It can be concluded that its antidiabetic effect was better than that of single treatment of AEEAP or AEECA. That combination was also potential to develop as a blood glucose-lowering agent for diabetic patients.

  2. 5%九里香黄酮可溶性粉剂对菜蚜的田间药效试验%Field Trials of 5% Flavonoids Soluble Powder of Murraya Paniculata against Lipaphis Erysimi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    连春枝; 陈国德; 钱军; 苟志辉; 骆焱平

    2014-01-01

    5% flavonoids soluble powder from Murraya paniculata is prepared and tested field trials against Lipaphis erysimi. The results shows that 5% flavonoids soluble powder is diluted 400-fold,the control effect is 84.83% , and is the same as azadirachtin. Due to the productive resources of Murraya paniculata, the flavonoids will have broad application space.%从九里香中提取黄酮,制备成5%可溶性粉剂,以菜蚜为供试害虫,进行田间药效试验。结果表明:5%九里香黄酮可溶性粉剂稀释400倍的防效为84.83%,与对照药剂印楝素的效果相当。由于九里香资源丰富,该黄酮将有广阔的应用空间。

  3. 大叶碎米荠胶囊治疗腰肌劳损76例临床观察%Clinical observation on Cardamine Macrophylla Willd.Capsule in the treatment of 76 patients with lumbar muscle strain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周凯; 李东辉; 刘江舟; 周效思

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To study curative effect of Cardamine Macrophylla Willd. Capsule in the treatment of lumbar muscle strain. Methods: 147 patients who met the full diagnostic criteria were divided into treatment group (76 cases) and control group (71 cases). The treatment group were treated with Cardamine Macrophylla Willd. Capsule per os, while the control group were treated with Western medicine Piroxicam Tablets per os. The comprehensive curative effects of the two groups were summarized after 15 days. Results: The total effective rate of the treatment group was 93.42%, and that of the control group was 74.65%, the curative effect was found to be better in the treatment group than that in the control group (P<0.05). Conclusion: The curative effect in the treatment group treated with Cardamine Macrophylla Willd. Capsule (per os) was significantly better than that in the control group treated with Piroxicam Tablets (per os).%目的:观察大叶碎米荠(Cardamine macrophylla Willd.)治疗腰肌劳损的临床疗效.方法:将我院符合诊断标准的腰肌劳损147例患者分为治疗组(76例)和对照组(71例),治疗组以口服大叶碎米荠胶囊治疗,对照组予口服吡罗昔康治疗.15 d后对两组综合疗效进行比较.结果:治疗组总有效率为93.42%,对照组为74.65%,两组总有效率比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论:口服大叶碎米荠治疗腰肌劳损的疗效明显,优于吡罗昔康对照组.

  4. Origin of intraformational folds in the Jurassic Todilto Limestone, Ambrosia Lake uranium mining district, McKinley and Valencia counties, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, M.W.

    1982-01-01

    The Todilto Limestone of Middle Jurassic age in the Ambrosia Lake uranium mining district of McKinley and Valencia Counties, New Mexico, is the host formation for numerous small- to medium-sized uranium deposits in joints, shear zones, and fractures within small- to large-scale intraformational folds. The folds probably were formed as a result of differential sediment loading when eolian sand dunes of the overlying Summerville Formation of Middle Jurassic age migrated over soft, chemically precipitated, lime muds of the Todilto shortly after their deposition in a regressive, mixed fresh and saline lacustrine or marine environment of deposition. Encroachment of Summerville eolian dunes over soft Todilto lime muds was apparently a local phenomenon and was restricted to postulated beltlike zones which trended radially across the Todilto coastline toward the receding body of water. Intraformational folding is believed to be confined to the pathways of individual eolian dunes or clusters of dunes within the dune belts. During the process of sediment loading by migrating sand dunes, layers of Todilto lime mud were differentially compacted, contorted, and dewatered, producing both small- and large-scale plastic deformation structures, including convolute laminations, mounds, rolls, folds, and small anticlines and synclines. With continued compaction and dewatering, the mud, in localized areas, reached a point of desaturation at which sediment plasticity was lost. Prolonged loading by overlying dune sands thus caused faulting, shearing, fracturing, and jointing of contorted limestone beds. These areas or zones of deformation within the limestone became the preferred sites of epigenetic uranium mineralization because of the induced transmissivity created by sediment rupture. Along most of the prograding Todilto coastline, adjacent to the eolian dune belts, both interdune and coastal sabkha environments dominated during Todilto-Summerville time. Sediments in coastal areas

  5. 九里香精油的抑菌活性及成分分析%The Antifungal Activities and Composition Analysis of the EssentiaI Oil from Murraya paniculata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢远倩; 王兰英; 骆焱平

    2011-01-01

    [Aims] Murraya paniculata has broad application value in Pharmaceuticals and agrochemicals, the antifungal activity and components analysis of essential oil of M. paniculata were studied. [Methods] Essential oil was extrated by supercritical CO2 fluid extraction, the antifungal activity was determinated by using growth rate methods, and components were analyzed by GC-MS. [Results] The essential oil of M. paniculata showed excellent antifungal activity at 0.5 g/L. Especially, the EC50s were 0.2611 and 0.2677 g/L against Colletotrichum musae and C. gloeosporioides, respectively. 20 Compounds were identified by GC-MS. The major constituents of essential oil were n-hexadecanoicacid(28.76%), l-(l,5-dimethyl-4-hexenyl)-4-methyl benzene(22.38%) and N-(l-methyl-3-oxobutylidene)-4-methoxyaniline(20.11%). [Conclusions] The essential oil exhibited very good antifungal activity against Colletotrichum, which was important to further research and develop.%[目的]九里香具有广泛应用价值,研究了精油的抑菌活性及成分.[方法]超临界CO2萃取九里香精油,以生长速率法测定精油的抑菌活性,利用气相色谱-质谱法进行成分分析.[结果]质量浓度为0.5 g/L的九里香精油对供试病菌有较好的抑制作用,对香蕉炭疽菌和芒果炭疽菌的EC50.值分别为0.2611、0.2677 g/L.鉴定出20种化合物,其中主要成分为n-棕榈酸(28.76%)、1-(1,5-二甲基-4-己烯基)-4-甲苯(22.38%)、N-(1-甲基-3-氧-亚丁基)-4-甲氧基苯胺(20.1 1%).[结论]九里香对炭疽菌有较好的抑菌活性,具有进一步研究的价值.

  6. Studies on the Allelopathy and GAP Management of Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Nees%穿心莲化感作用与GAP栽培规范的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾令杰; 刘意; 褚晨亮; 何洋

    2011-01-01

    目的 研究穿心莲的化感作用,为GAP栽培管理提供依据.方法 以表面皿培养法试验穿心莲根际土壤浸提液及穿心莲内酯对照品溶液对穿心莲种子及三叶鬼针草种子萌发的抑制作用:以HPLC法对穿心莲根际土壤浸提液进行了分析鉴定.结果 穿心莲根际土壤浸提液及穿心莲内酯对照品溶液均能显著抑制三叶鬼针草和穿心莲种子的萌发,其抑制作用随着浓度的增大而增强;结果表明,穿心莲内酯是其根际土壤浸提液中的一主要成分.结论 穿心莲在其生长过程中释放了化感物质进入了其根际土壤,对穿心莲和其他植物产生化感作用,穿心莲内酯为其中的主要化感物质之一.%Objective To investigate allelopathy of Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Nees for its GAP management.Methods With watch glass culture, the inhibitory effects of andrographlide and the rhizosphere extract of Andrographis paniculata on seed germination of the herb itself and Bidens pilosa were conducted, and with HPLC method, the main constituents of the rhizosphere extract were analysed.Results The results showed that both of andrographlide and the rhizosphere extract had significant inhibitory effects on the germinations of Bidens pilosa seeds and itself; the effects strengthened with increasing of their concentrations.Andrographlide is one kind of main constituents in the rhizosphere extract indicated by HPLC analysis.Conclusion In the growth period, Andrographis paniculata release some alleochemicals into the soil, and andrographlide is one of the main allelochemical.

  7. 栾树幼苗对土壤中多环芳烃的富集及再分配%The accumulation and redistribution of PAHs from soil in Koelreuteria paniculata seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑威; 闫文德; 梁小翠; 朱凡

    2011-01-01

    在温室盆栽条件下,设置对照(CK)、低(L1)、中(L2)、高(L3)不同污染浓度土壤,研究栾树幼苗PAHs的吸收累积情况及在其体内的再分配.结果如下:栾树幼苗可以吸收积累土壤中的PAHs.随土壤中PAHs浓度的增大,其体内的PAHs总含量及根、干、叶中的PAHs均呈递增趋势,L1、L2、L3处理组根、干、叶中PAHs含量均显著高于对照组.随着处理浓度的增大,栾树叶中PAHs占体内PAHs总量的比例呈逐渐降低趋势,而根中PAHs占总量的比例呈上升趋势,干中PAHs含量所占比例相对稳定.%Koelreuteria paniculata seedlings have been planted in polluted soil in greenhouse, and the polluted soil have different concentrations: control (CK), low (LI), medium (L2), high (L3). The accumulation of PAHs from soil and of redistribution in the body of Koelreuteria Paniculata seedlings have been studied. The results are as follows: Koelreuteria paniculata seedlings can absorb PAHs in soils. With the increasing of concentration of PAHs in soil, the content of PAHs in seedlings body, root, stem and leaves showed an increasing trend, PAHs content in root, stem, leaf in LI, L2 and L3 treatments were significantly higher than in CK. The proportion of PAHs in leaves to total PAHs in body was higher in lower polluted soil than in higher polluted soil, and which in root has the opposite trend. The proportion of PAHs in stem to total PAHs in body was similar in different polluted soil.

  8. Control biológico de hongos fitopatógenos causantes de pudrición basal en plantas de Gypsophila paniculata y Limonium sinuatum, mediante aplicación de Trichoderma sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruíz Villegas Adriana

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo se planteó bajo la necesidad de controlar las pérdidas de Gypsophila paniculata (variedades: Million star y Perfecta y Limonium sinuatum (Statice, variedad: Purple wing, causadas por hongos patógenos presentes en el suelo de la finca Flores La Mana Ltda. del grupo GR.Chía S.A. En campo se probó la eficiencia de cuatro productos biológicos comerciales y se comparó con el manejo químico establecido en la finca. La eficiencia se evaluó en términos de porcentaje de plantas perdidas y control de las poblaciones de patógenos
    durante 24 semanas. Aunque el análisis estadístico no demostró diferencias entre los tratamientos, el tratamiento
    químico fue el más eficiente en las semanas críticas de infección (cuando se da la mayor pérdida de plantas, con una ventaja del 3,36% sobre el tratamiento biológico en Limonium sinuatum y del 2,09% en Gypsophila paniculata (Million_star. Los tratamientos biológicos más efectivos fueron FITODERMA y T-22 ROOT SHIELD, presentando diferencias del 1 y 2% ante los productos BIOPAK-F Y TRICHO-D. Por costos el producto más indicado fue BIOPAK-F, teniendo en cuenta su dosis y eficiencia. En las muestras de suelo y monitoreo de plantas afectadas, se encontraron los hongos Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium solani y Fusarium roseum, junto a bacterias de los géneros Erwinia spp. y Pseudomonas spp., causantes de daño en tallos y raíces. No se reportó la presencia de Rhizocthonia spp. y Pythium spp. Se determinó que el control con Trichoderma spp. permite mantener poblaciones estables de patógenos entre 12 y 24 semanas, posibles de controlar mientras que el manejo químico reduce eficientemente dichas poblaciones en 12 semanas, pero en 24 semanas se alcanzan nuevamente niveles poblacionales elevados. La rotación del cultivo favoreció el mantenimiento de las plantas de Gypsophila paniculata (Perfecta, y la pérdida fue debido al ataque de organismos plaga como sinfílidos y

  9. Preliminary Observation on Developmental Characteristics of Adventitious Buds of Artemisia frigida Willd.%冷蒿不定芽发育特性的初步观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李姗姗; 宛涛; 蔡萍; 伊卫东; 韩轩

    2013-01-01

    对冷蒿不定芽的分布、着生特点、萌生数量及形态结构特征等发育特性的初步观察表明:冷蒿不定芽主要着生于根颈、地表枝条上,其大小、数量以及分布情况各异;不定芽主要产生于返青期到结实期,冷蒿现蕾期和开花期是不定芽萌生的旺盛时期,在根颈处分别有19个和25个,地表枝条上有66个和75个.光镜和扫描电镜观察表明,不定芽具有芽鳞片,包裹着幼叶、叶原基和叶生长点,芽和叶片的表皮被有大量的白色绢毛,发育中的芽体由灰白色转变为绿色,最终发育成叶片和枝条.%The developmental characteristics of adventitious buds of Artemisia frigida Willd. were observed. The results show that the adventitious buds of Artemisia frigida Willd. mainly grow on the rhizome and ground branches,whose size, amount and distribution were different; adventitious buds occurred in May to November, budding stage and flowering stage were period of adventitious buds occurring, there were 19 and 25 adventitious buds on the rhizome and 66 and 75 adventitious buds on the ground branches; by the optical stereoscope and canning electron microscope, the adventitious buds had bud scale, young leaves, leaf primordium and growing tip wrapped in it, the surface of buds and leaves had plenty of white silk wool, the buds turned off-white to green during development, finally formed leaf and branch.

  10. Pelidnota filippiniae Soula, 2009 (Coleoptera: Melolonthidae: Rutelinae: um novo desfolhador de acácia-australiana, Racosperma mangium (Willd. Pedley (Fabaceae, na Amazônia Oriental, Brasil Pelidnota filippiniae Soula, 2009 (Coleoptera: Melolonthidae: Rutelinae: a new defoliator of Australian wattle, Racosperma mangium (Willd. (Fabaceae, in the eastern Amazon, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Mehl Lunz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Plantios de acácia-australiana, Racosperma mangium (Willd. Pedley (Fabaceae, são opção para reflorestamentos comerciais na Amazônia. O trabalho objetiva, pela primeira vez, reportar e descrever injúrias causadas por Pelidnota filippiniae Soula, 2009 (Coleoptera: Melolonthidae: Rutelinae em plantio experimental em Dom Eliseu, Pará. Observações mensais foram feitas de 2006 a 2009. A maior incidência ocorreu no início do período chuvoso, em outubro e novembro, nos primeiros anos do plantio, quando diferentes intensidades de desfolha foram observadas. Embora danos significativos não tenham sido constatados, P. filippiniae tem potencial para causar prejuízos à cultura. Recomendam-se monitoramentos mensais nesse período e a catação manual do inseto para evitar maiores danos.Plantations of Australian acacia, Racosperma mangium (Willd. Pedley (Fabaceae, are option for commercial reforestations in the Amazon. The work aims, for the first time, report and describe injuries caused by Pelidnota filippiniae Soula, 2009 (Coleoptera: Melolonthidae: Rutelinae in experimental plantation in Dom Eliseu County, Pará State, Brazil. Monthly observations were made from 2006 to 2009. Outbreaks occurred at the beginning of the rainy season, in October and November, in the early years of plantation when were observed different intensities of defoliation. Although significant damages have not been recorded, P. filippiniae has the potential to cause damages to this crop. Monthly monitorings and insect-picking are recommended during this period to avoid further damages.

  11. Separation of five compounds from leaves of Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Nees by off-line two-dimensional high-speed counter-current chromatography combined with gradient and recycling elution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Liu, Qi; Yu, Jingang; Zeng, Hualiang; Jiang, Shujing; Chen, Xiaoqing

    2015-05-01

    An off-line two-dimensional high-speed counter-current chromatography method combined with gradient and recycling elution mode was established to isolate terpenoids and flavones from the leaves of Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Nees. By using the solvent systems composed of n-hexane/ethyl acetate/methanol/water with different volume ratios, five compounds including roseooside, 5,4'-dihydroxyflavonoid-7-O-β-d-pyranglucuronatebutylester, 7,8-dimethoxy-2'-hydroxy-5-O-β-d-glucopyranosyloxyflavon, 14-deoxyandrographiside, and andrographolide were successfully isolated. Purities of these isolated compounds were all over 95% as determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Their structures were identified by UV, mass spectrometry, and (1) H NMR spectroscopy. It has been demonstrated that the combination of off-line two-dimensional high-speed counter-current chromatography with different elution modes is an efficient technique to isolate compounds from complex natural product extracts.

  12. ED-XRF spectrometric analysis of comparative elemental composition of in vivo and in vitro roots of Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Wall. ex Nees-a multi-medicinal herb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behera, P.R., E-mail: priyaranjan2004@gmail.co [Plant Cell and Tissue culture Facility, Post-Graduate Department of Botany, Utkal University, Vani Vihar, Bhubaneswar 751004, Orissa (India); Plant Biotechnology Lab, Institute of Minerals and Materials Technology (CSIR), Bhubaneswar 751013, Orissa (India); Nayak, P., E-mail: pranati_nayak_23@yahoo.co.i [Plant Cell and Tissue culture Facility, Post-Graduate Department of Botany, Utkal University, Vani Vihar, Bhubaneswar 751004, Orissa (India); Plant Biotechnology Lab, Institute of Minerals and Materials Technology (CSIR), Bhubaneswar 751013, Orissa (India); Barik, D.P., E-mail: barikdp@yahoo.co [Plant Cell and Tissue culture Facility, Post-Graduate Department of Botany, Utkal University, Vani Vihar, Bhubaneswar 751004, Orissa (India); Rautray, T.R., E-mail: trrautray@gmail.co [Ion Beam Laboratory, Institute of Physics, Bhubaneswar 751013, Orissa (India); Thirunavoukkarasu, M., E-mail: mtarasu@yahoo.co [Plant Biotechnology Lab, Institute of Minerals and Materials Technology (CSIR), Bhubaneswar 751013, Orissa (India); Chand, P.K., E-mail: pkchanduubot@yahoo.co.i [Plant Cell and Tissue culture Facility, Post-Graduate Department of Botany, Utkal University, Vani Vihar, Bhubaneswar 751004, Orissa (India)

    2010-12-15

    The multi-elemental composition of in vitro-proliferated root tissues of Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Wall. ex Nees was compared with that of the naturally grown in vivo plants. Trace elements namely Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se, Rb, Sr and Pb in addition to two macro-elements K and Ca were identified and quantified in root tissues of both sources using the energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (ED-XRF) technique. ED-XRF analysis was performed using Mo K X-rays generated from a secondary molybdenum target. The elemental content of in vitro roots was found to be at par with that of naturally grown plants of the same species. This opens up a possibility of exploiting in vitro root cultures as a viable, alternative and renewable source of phytochemicals of relevance, besides providing a means for conservation of the valuable natural resources.

  13. Characterization of seventy polymethoxylated flavonoids (PMFs) in the leaves of Murraya paniculata by on-line high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to photodiode array detection and electrospray tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jia-Yu; Li, Ning; Che, Yan-Yun; Zhang, Yun; Liang, Shen-Xuan; Zhao, Ming-Bo; Jiang, Yong; Tu, Peng-Fei

    2011-12-15

    A sensitive HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS method was established to screen and identify the polymethoxylated flavonoids (PMFs) in the leaves of Murraya paniculata (L.) Jack. 16 PMF standards were first to be analyzed in positive mode by the CID-MS/MS. For polymethoxylated flavones, the fragments of [M+H-n×15](+) produced by loss of one or more methyl radicals from the protonated molecule, as well as [M+H-16](+), [M+H-28](+), [M+H-29](+), [M+H-31](+), [M+H-33](+), [M+H-43](+), [M+H-44](+), [M+H-46](+) and [M+H-61](+) fragment ions were detected, which could be taken as their diagnostic characters. For polymethoxylated flavanones and chalcones, their [M+H](+) ions usually underwent RDA cleavage fragmentation of the C-ring prior to the similar loss of diagnostic fragment ions as polymethoxylated flavones, which could be adopted as a shortcut to distinguish them from ordinary flavones rapidly. For the PMF glycosides, the neutral loss of the similar fragments with polymethoxylated flavones from their [aglycone+H](+) could be adopted as a simple method to screen them out from complex mixture. Based on these characterizations of PMFs and the results of EIC-MS/MS experiment, 70 PMFs including 45 flavones, 17 flavanones or chalcones and 8 PMFs glycosides were screened out from the complex extract of the leaves of M. paniculata. Among them, 16 compounds were unambiguously identified by comparison with reference substances. The results indicated that the developed analysis method could be employed as a rapid, effective technique for structural characterization of PMFs.

  14. Gomose da acácia-negra causada por Ceratocystis fimbriata Ell. & Halst. Gummosis of Acacia decurrens Willd. Caused by Ceratocystis fimbriata Ell. & Halst.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan José Antunes Ribeiro

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available É relatada a ocorrência, pela primeira vez no Brasil, de Ceratocystis fimbriata Ell. & Halst. sobre acácia-negra. Testes de inoculação cruzada foram efetuados em casa de vegetação com o isolado obtido de acácia-negra (Acacia decurrens Willd. e outro de mangueira (Mangifera indica L.. Observou-se que ambos os isolados foram patogênicos à acácia-negra e à mangueira.Several plants of Acacia decurrens showed wilting and subsequent branche drying. The branches showed wood splitting and gum exudation. The transversally cut wood showed ashy colored pith, that desenvolved numerous perithecia when kept in a humid chamber. These perithecia were transferred aseptically to potato-dextrose-agar and the culture was classified as Ceratocystis fimbriata Ell. & Halst. Four mounth old Acacia plants inoculated with the isolate died after 14 days. The fungus was again isolated from these dead plants. Cross inoculation tests with isolate of C. fimbriata from Acacia and mango (Mangifera indica L. showed pathogenic effects for both hosts.

  15. Nutritional and sensory characteristics of gluten-free quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd)-based cookies development using an experimental mixture design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Isabelle L; de Souza, Evandro Leite; Felex, Suênia Samara Santos; Madruga, Marta Suely; Yamashita, Fábio; Magnani, Marciane

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a gluten-free formulation of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.)-based cookies using experimental design of mixture to optimize a ternary mixture of quinoa flour, quinoa flakes and corn starch for parameters of colour, specific volume and hardness. Nutritional and sensory aspects of the optimized formulation were also assessed. Corn starch had a positive effect on the lightness of the cookies, but increased amounts of quinoa flour and quinoa flakes in the mixture resulted in darker product. Quinoa flour showed a negative effect on the specific volume, producing less bulky cookies, and quinoa flour and quinoa flakes had a positive synergistic effect on the hardness of the cookies. According the results and considering the desirability profile for colour, hardness and specific volume in gluten-free cookies, the optimized formulation contains 30 % quinoa flour, 25 % quinoa flakes and 45 % corn starch. The quinoa-based cookie obtained was characterized as a product rich in dietary fibre, a good source of essential amino acids, linolenic acid and minerals, with good sensory acceptability. These findings reports for the first time the application of quinoa processed as flour and flakes in mixture with corn starch as an alternative ingredient for formulations of gluten-free cookies-type biscuits.

  16. Effect of extraction pH on heat-induced aggregation, gelation and microstructure of protein isolate from quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Geraldine Avila; Xiao, Wukai; van Boekel, Martinus; Minor, Marcel; Stieger, Markus

    2016-10-15

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of extraction pH on heat-induced aggregation, gelation and microstructure of suspensions of protein isolates extracted from quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd). Quinoa seed protein was extracted by alkaline treatment at various pH values (pH 8 (E8), 9 (E9), 10 (E10) and 11 (E11)), followed by acid precipitation. The obtained protein isolates were freeze dried. The protein isolates E8 and E9 resulted in a lower protein yield as well as less protein denaturation. These isolates also had a higher protein purity, more protein bands at higher molecular weights, and a higher protein solubility in the pH range of 3-4.5, compared to the isolates E10 and E11. Heating the 10%w/w protein isolate suspensions E8 and E9 led to increased aggregation, and semi-solid gels with a dense microstructure were formed. The isolate suspensions E10 and E11, on the other hand, aggregated less, did not form self-supporting gels and had loose particle arrangements. We conclude that extraction pH plays an important role in determining the functionality of quinoa protein isolates.

  17. THE DIFFERENCE OF MACHINING PROPERTIES OF TIMO (Timonius sericeus (Desf K. Schum. And KABESAK WOOD (Acacia leucophloea (Roxb. Willd. FROM EAST NUSA TENGGARA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heny Rianawati

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Machining properties is one of the parameters to determine the quality of the wood. Tests on machining properties of wood are important to know the easiness level of workmanship as raw materials of furniture industry, construction wood and other wood products. This research was aimed at determining the difference of machining properties between timo wood (Timonius sericeus (Desf K. Schum. and kabesak wood (Acacia leucophloea (Roxb. Willd. from the village of Reknamo, Kupang district, East Nusa Tenggara. Testing procedures were based on ASTM D1666 including: planning, shaping, sanding, drilling and turning. The observation of qualities of the machining were done visually by calculating the percentage of defects that arise on the surface of the samples after the machining process, then the qualities were classified into five quality classes. The results showed that the machining properties of timo wood and kabesak wood were very good and belonging to the quality of class I. The significant difference between the machining properties of both the timbers is in the sanding properties, where the average free defect of sanding timo wood is 85% while kabesak wood is 84.5%. Both timo and kabesak wood are suitable as raw material, for the variety of furniture and molding products.

  18. Evaluation of allelopathic impact of aqueous extract of root and aerial root of Tinospora cordifolia (Willd. miers on some weed plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Abdul RAOOF

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The present laboratory experimental study was conducted to evaluate the allelopathic potential of Tinospora cordifolia (Willd. Miers on seed germination and seedling growth of weed plants (Chenopodium album L. Chenopodium murale L., Cassia tora L. and Cassia sophera L.. Root and aerial root aqueous extracts of Tinospora at 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0% concentrations were applied to determine their effect on seed germination and seedling growth of test plants under laboratory conditions. Germination was observed for 15 days after that the root length and shoot length was measured. Dry weight was measured after oven drying the seedlings. The aqueous extracts from root and aerial root had inhibitory effect on seed germination of test plants. Aqueous extracts from root and aerial root significantly inhibited not only germination and seedling growth but also reduced dry weight of the seedlings. Root length, shoot length of weed species decreased progressively when plants were exposed to increasing concentration (0.5, 1, 2 and 4%. Aqueous extract of aerial root shows the least inhibition. The pH of aqueous extracts of different parts of T. cordifolia does not show any major change when the concentration increases.

  19. Dynamics of phytoestrogen, isoflavonoids, and its isolation from stems of Pueraria lobata (Willd. Ohwi growing in Democratic People's Republic of Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song-Chol Mun

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Four isoflavonoids were isolated from stems of Pueraria lobata (Willd. Ohwi growing in Democratic People's Republic of Korea and identified as daidzein (1, genistin (2, daidzin (3, and puerarin (4, structures, which were elucidated by means of spectroscopic analysis. Isoflavonoids were isolated using silica gel chromatography and purified with organic solvents. Isoflavonoid contents in P. lobata were determined using reliable high-performance liquid chromatography. The results indicated that the contents of puerarin and genistin in the roots are higher than those in the stems (6.19% and 0.04% vs. 1.15% and 0.02%, whereas the stems have higher contents of daidzin and daidzein than the roots (3.17% and 0.06% vs. 1.72% and 0.05%. Accordingly, the root part of the plant is useful for the isolation of puerarin and the stem part for daidzin. This study suggests that the stem of P. lobata is useful as an alternative source of puerarin, daidzin, genistin, and daidzein. In addition, collection of the stem will not sacrifice the plant and thus is beneficial to the natural ecosystems.

  20. Adventitious shoot regeneration of Platanus acerifolia Willd.facilitated by Timentin, an antibiotic for suppression of Agrobacterium tumefaciens in genetic transformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhi-neng; Liu Guo-feng; Fang Fang; Bao Man-zhu

    2007-01-01

    The effects of Timentin and cefotaxime (Cef) on shoot regeneration of the London plane tree (Platanus acerifolia Willd.) and their use for the suppression of Agrobacterium tumefaciens in Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation were compared.Shoot regeneration was significantly reduced on the media with Cef at concentrations from 100 to 500 mg·L-1. Timentin showed negative effect on plant regeneration at concentrations of 100 and 500 mg·L-1; however, 300 mg·L-1 Timentin was shown to facilitate shoot regeneration significantly and the regeneration frequency increased from 64% (control) to 88%. Effective suppression of A.tumefaciens could be obtained with 500 mg·L-1 Cef, but plant regeneration was completely inhibited at this level. The A. tumefaciens on infected P. acerifolia leaf tissues was visually undetectable after three subcultures on a medium with 300 mg·L-1 Timentin. Considering the effect of Cef and Timentin on plant regeneration and suppression of Agrobacteria, Timentin at 300 mg·L-1 is the preferred application in A. tumefaciens-mediated transformation of P.acerifolia.

  1. Isolation and characterization of endophytic bacteria from huanglongbing's hidden host plant-Murraya paniculata%柑橘黄龙病隐症寄主九里香内生细菌分离及功能鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷幼平; 李佳; 林亚玉; 陈世伟; 王中康

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] Our goal is to analyze the bacterial endophytic diversity in Murraya paniculata, which was huanglongbing's hidden host plant, and find the endophytic bacteria that may have potential to suppress the HLB pathogen.[Methods] The endophytic bacteria were isolated from surface-sterilized M.paniculata midribs of leaves and phloem of stems by plating and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP).The functions of 14 culturable bacteria had been tested using different substrates and cultural medium.[Results] By the artificial anaerobic culture, we obtained 26 strains that were grouped into 9 genus according to GenBank.Enterobacter sp.(IF=19.23%) and Bacillus sp.(IF=38.46%) were the dominant bacterial population in M.paniculata.However, the bacterial colony number of endophytic bacteria in the stems was higher than in the leaves.The endophytic bacteria 16S rDNA library of M.paniculata was established.Coverage C of the clone library was 94.97% and the rarefaction curve of the clone library tended to plateau, which indicate that the library are large enough to reflect the bacterial endophytic diversity of the respective samples.179 positive clones in 16S rRNA gene library were chosen and digested by restriction endonuclease Hae Ⅲ, Msp Ⅰ , Rsa I respectively.Twenty OTUs (Operational taxonomic units) were observed based on the similarity of the RFLP banding profiles.In the observed clones, 63.69% of the clones were Serratia sp., which means that the Serratia sp.was absolute preponderant endophytic bacteria in M.paniculata.The functional analysis of the 14 endophytic bacteria showed that 9 isolates can produce IAA and 3 of them had amylolysis activity.The frequency of endophytic bacteria which can produce ACC deaminase, siderophore and protein activity was 1, 8 and 2 respectively.Three of bacteria isolates with N-fixation ability were screened by using N-free medium and nifH.gene and 4 of endophytic bacteria cansynthesis antibiotic (phlD).A total of 4

  2. ADUBAÇÃO ORGÂNICA EM CONDIÇÕES DE IRRIGAÇÃO SUPLEMENTAR E SEU EFEITO NA PRODUTIVIDADE DA QUINUA (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) NO PLANALTO DA BOLÍVIA

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto Miranda Casas

    2012-01-01

    A quinua (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) é um grão andino, com elevado valor proteico (14%), sendo um dos principais cultivos que geram rendas para os agricultores do Planalto Boliviano. A cultura desenvolve-se em condições de baixa temperatura, precipitação pluvial e fertilidade e, embora tenha um bom desenvolvimento em condições com limitações ambientais e de solo, os rendimentos usualmente observados no Planalto Boliviano são baixos. A presente pesquisa teve como objetivo avaliar a produtividad...

  3. Evaluación de las características del fruto de huizache (Acacia farnesiana (L.) Willd.) para su posible uso en curtiduría o alimentación animal

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    El huizache (Acacia farnesiana (L.) Willd.) es una especie silvestre distribuida en el estado de Jalisco y en México, que podría ser utilizada como forraje. Se realizó un estudio para determinar análisis químico proximal (AQP), perfil de aminoácidos y degradabilidad de la materia in situ, en borregos pelibuey fistulados, utilizando el fruto (cáscara y semilla) del huizache, sin tratamiento alguno y con extracción previa de taninos. Los taninos fueron evaluados por los métodos ALCA y número de...

  4. Soil water effect on crop growth, leaf gas exchange, water and radiation use efficiency of Saccharum spontaneum L. ssp. aegyptiacum (Willd. Hackel in semi-arid Mediterranean environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Scordia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Great effort has been placed to identify the most suited bioenergy crop under different environments and management practices, however, there is still need to find new genetic resources for constrained areas. For instance, South Mediterranean area is strongly affected by prolonged drought, high vapour pressure deficit (VPD and extremely high temperatures during summertime. In the present work we investigated the soil water effect on crop growth and leaf gas exchange of Saccharum spontaneum L. ssp. aegyptiacum (Willd. Hackel, a perennial, rhizomatous, herbaceous grass. Furthermore, the net increase of biomass production per unit light intercepted [radiation use efficiency (RUE] and per unit water transpired [water use efficiency (WUE] was also studied. To this end a field trial was carried out imposing three levels of soil water availability (I100, I50 and I0, corresponding to 100%, 50% and 0% of ETm restutition under a semi-arid Mediterranean environment. Leaf area index (LAI, stem height, biomass dry matter yield, CO2 assimilation rate, and transpiration rate resulted significantly affected by measurement time and irrigation treatment, with the highest values in I100 and the lowest in I0. RUE was the highest in I100 followed by I50 and I0; on the other hand, WUE was higher in I0 than I50 and I100. At LAI values greater than 2.0, 85% photosynthetically active radiation was intercepted by the Saccharum stand, irrespective of the irrigation treatment. Saccharum spontaneum spp. aegyptiacum is a potential species for biomass production in environment characterized by drought stress, high temperatures and high VPD, as those of Southern Europe and similar semi-arid areas.

  5. Determinación de características físicas en semillas de quinua (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. mediante procesamiento digital de imágenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Percy Arapa Carcasi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Las propiedades físicas de las semillas influencian parámetros de trabajo en los equipos y son esenciales para el diseño de estos y de instalaciones para la recolección, cosecha, transporte, separación, secado, aireación, almacenamiento y procesamiento. En la determinación de propiedades físicas algunas dependen o se originan de las dimensiones ortogonales. Los granos o semillas de quinua (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. se caracterizan por su pequeño tamaño. El propósito de este trabajo fue determinar características físicas en semillas de quinua mediante procesamiento digital de imágenes. Se usaron computadoras, cámaras digitales y un escáner. Se utilizaron dos muestras de quinua procesada. Con la primera muestra se ensayaron los programas PHOTO-PAINT, Photoshop, Paint, SmartGrain y GrainScan para comparación. Con Photoshop se determinó el color en porción de granos y de harina. Con la segunda muestra se midieron dimensiones con PHOTO-PAINT, que no ofreció diferencias con Photoshop y Paint, para la determinación de las características físicas. Hubo diferencias estadísticas significativas (p 0,05 entre los programas (PHOTO-PAINT, SmartGrain y GrainScan. Los valores de las coordenadas colorimétricas en la muestra de semillas de quinua fueron L* 70, a* 8 y b* 44 y en la harina L* 71, a* 3 y b* 34. La segunda muestra presentó valores promedios de largo 2,3638; ancho 2,0129 y espesor 1,0605 mm.

  6. 藜麦研究现状与发展前景%Research Status and Development Prospect of Chenopodium quinoa Willd

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李娜娜; 裴艳婷; 宫永超; 蒲艳艳; 刘保民; 辛富刚; 刘世华; 丁汉凤

    2016-01-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.),belonging to Chenopodiaceae,is an annual herba-ceous crop,originates from the Andes Mountains of South America,and is a staple food of the Incas aborigi-nal.In recent years,quinoa has been commonly concerned due to its nutrition and many utility values.The biological characteristics,nutritional value and the progress on saline -alkaline tolerance,drought resistance and chemical component of quinoa at home and abroad were summarized.The status of introduction and plant-ing and problems existed in popularization of quinoa at home were pointed out.The development and applica-tion prospects were outlooked.It could provide the reference for research and development of quinoa.%藜麦(Chenopodium quinoa Willd.)是一种一年生的藜科草本作物,发源于南美洲的安第斯山脉,是印加土著居民的主要传统食物。近年来,藜麦以其极高的营养价值和多种利用价值引起了人们的普遍关注。本文概述了藜麦的生物学特性、营养价值和国内外对藜麦耐盐碱、抗旱、化学成分等方面的研究进展,阐述了国内藜麦引种种植现状及推广存在的问题,并对其发展应用前景进行展望,以期为藜麦研究开发提供参考依据。

  7. Salt Tolerance Analysis and Nutritional Evaluation of Golden Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.)%金藜麦耐盐性分析及营养评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜奇彦; 牛风娟; 胡正; 张辉

    2015-01-01

    对我国沿海地区新收集种质资源金藜麦(Chenopodium quinoa Willd.)进行了耐盐性及营养品质评价.结果表明:金藜麦在对盐胁迫相对敏感的芽期和苗期表现出相对较高的耐盐性;子粒蛋白质含量为14.2%,蛋白营养价值优于牛奶以及小麦、水稻、玉米、大豆等作物;子粒中富含维生素B、E等以及钙、锰、铁、铜、锌等矿质元素,特别是钙含量高这190.16 mg/100g,是小米钙含量的35倍;且金藜麦子粒含有丰富的必需脂肪酸,如亚油酸(3.58 g/100g)和亚麻酸(0.44 g/100g),天然抗氧化剂维生素E含量为7.66 mg/100g.这些研究结果表明,新收集的金藜麦种质资源具有较高的营养价值和耐盐性,将为我国藜麦研究和种植提供重要的种质资源.

  8. Variation in salinity tolerance of four lowland genotypes of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) as assessed by growth, physiological traits, and sodium transporter gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Carrasco, Karina; Antognoni, Fabiana; Coulibaly, Amadou Konotie; Lizardi, Susana; Covarrubias, Adriana; Martínez, Enrique A; Molina-Montenegro, Marco A; Biondi, Stefania; Zurita-Silva, Andrés

    2011-11-01

    Chenopodium quinoa (Willd.) is an Andean plant showing a remarkable tolerance to abiotic stresses. In Chile, quinoa populations display a high degree of genetic distancing, and variable tolerance to salinity. To investigate which tolerance mechanisms might account for these differences, four genotypes from coastal central and southern regions were compared for their growth, physiological, and molecular responses to NaCl at seedling stage. Seeds were sown on agar plates supplemented with 0, 150 or 300mM NaCl. Germination was significantly reduced by NaCl only in accession BO78. Shoot length was reduced by 150mM NaCl in three out of four genotypes, and by over 60% at 300mM (except BO78 which remained more similar to controls). Root length was hardly affected or even enhanced at 150mM in all four genotypes, but inhibited, especially in BO78, by 300mM NaCl. Thus, the root/shoot ratio was differentially affected by salt, with the highest values in PRJ, and the lowest in BO78. Biomass was also less affected in PRJ than in the other accessions, the genotype with the highest increment in proline concentration upon salt treatment. Free putrescine declined dramatically in all genotypes under 300mM NaCl; however (spermidine+spermine)/putrescine ratios were higher in PRJ than BO78. Quantitative RT-PCR analyses of two sodium transporter genes, CqSOS1 and CqNHX, revealed that their expression was differentially induced at the shoot and root level, and between genotypes, by 300mM NaCl. Expression data are discussed in relation to the degree of salt tolerance in the different accessions.

  9. Low-temperature effect on enzyme activities involved in sucrose-starch partitioning in salt-stressed and salt-acclimated cotyledons of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Mariana; Hilal, Mirna; González, Juan A; Prado, Fernando E

    2009-04-01

    The effect of low temperature on growth, sucrose-starch partitioning and related enzymes in salt-stressed and salt-acclimated cotyledons of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) was studied. The growth of cotyledons and growing axes in seedlings grown at 25/20 degrees C (light/dark) and shifted to 5/5 degrees C was lower than in those only growing at 25/20 degrees C (unstressed). However, there were no significant differences between low-temperature control and salt-treated seedlings. The higher activities of sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS, EC 2.4.1.14) and soluble acid invertase (acid INV, EC 3.2.1.25) were observed in salt-stressed cotyledons; however, the highest acid INV activity was observed in unstressed cotyledons. ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (ADP-GPPase, EC 2.7.7.27) was higher in unstressed cotyledons than in stressed ones. However, between 0 and 4days the highest value was observed in salt-stressed cotyledons. The lowest value of ADP-GPPase was observed in salt-acclimated cotyledons. Low temperature also affected sucrose synthase (SuSy, EC 2.4.1.13) activity in salt-treated cotyledons. Sucrose and glucose were higher in salt-stressed cotyledons, but fructose was essentially higher in low-temperature control. Starch was higher in low-temperature control; however, the highest content was observed at 0day in salt-acclimated cotyledons. Results demonstrated that low temperature induces different responses on sucrose-starch partitioning in salt-stressed and salt-acclimated cotyledons. Data also suggest that in salt-treated cotyledons source-sink relations (SSR) are changed in order to supply soluble sugars and proline for the osmotic adjustment. Relationships between starch formation and SuSy activity are also discussed.

  10. Genetic diversity analysis in blackgram (Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper) using AFLP and transferable microsatellite markers from azuki bean (Vigna angularis (Willd.) Ohwi & Ohashi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, S K; Gopalakrishna, T

    2009-02-01

    Genetic diversity in 20 elite blackgram (Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper) genotypes was studied using microsatellite and AFLP markers. Thirty-six microsatellite markers from azuki bean (Vigna angularis (Willd.) Ohwi & Ohashi) were successfully amplified across the 20 blackgram genotypes and 33 microsatellite markers showed polymorphism. A total of 137 microsatellite alleles were generated with an average of 4.1 alleles per locus. The number of alleles ranged from two to nine and the polymorphic information content value for the microsatellite markers varied from 0.10 to 0.87 with an average of 0.49. Microsatellite markers were highly informative and a combination of only three microsatellite markers (CEDG264, CEDG173, and CEDG044) was sufficient to discriminate all 20 blackgram genotypes. In the case of AFLP, 11 primer pairs generated 324 polymorphic marker fragments. The polymorphic information content values for AFLP primer combinations ranged from 0.21 to 0.34 with an average of 0.29. Similarity measures and clustering analyses were made using microsatellite and AFLP data separately. The resulting dendrograms distributed the 20 blackgram genotypes into five main clusters. The dendrograms were comparable with each other with the Mantel test between the cophenetic matrices of microsatellite data and AFLP data showing moderate correlation (r = 0.64). The results of the principal components analysis were well congruent with the dendrograms. In the dendrograms as well as in the principal components analyses, genotype Trombay wild (Vigna mungo var. silvestris) was placed separately from rest of the genotypes. This study demonstrated that the azuki bean microsatellite markers are highly polymorphic and informative and can be successfully used for genome analysis in blackgram. Results indicate that sufficient variability is present in the blackgram genotypes and would be helpful in the selection of suitable parents for breeding purposes and gene mapping studies.

  11. Changes in chromosome structure, mitotic activity and nuclear DNA content from cells of Allium Test induced by bark water extract of Uncaria tomentosa (Willd.) DC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuraś, Mieczysław; Nowakowska, Julita; Sliwińska, Elwira; Pilarski, Radosław; Ilasz, Renata; Tykarska, Teresa; Zobel, Alicja; Gulewicz, Krzysztof

    2006-09-19

    The influence of water extract of Uncaria tomentosa (Willd.) DC bark on the meristematic cells of the root tips of Allium cepa L., e.g. cells of Allium Test, was investigated. The experiment was carried out in two variants: (1) continuous incubation at different concentrations (2, 4, 8 and 16 mg/ml) of the extract for 3, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72h; and (2) 24-h incubation in three concentrations of the extract (4, 8 or 16 mg/ml), followed by post-incubation in distilled water for 3, 6, 12, 24 and 48h. During the continuous incubation, the mitotic activity was reduced (2 and 4 mg/ml) or totally inhibited (8 and 16 mg/ml), depending on the concentration of the extract. All the concentrations resulted in gradual reduction of the mitotic activity. In the concentration of 2 mg/ml, the mitotic activity reached its lowest value after 12h (2 mg/ml) and after 24h in 4 mg/ml, followed by spontaneous intensification of divisions during further incubation. Instead, in higher concentrations of the extracts (8 and 16 mg/ml), the mitotic activity was totally inhibited within 24h and did not resume even after 72h. Incubation caused changes in the phase index, mainly as an increase in the number of prophases. After 24h of incubation, in all phases, condensation and contraction of chromosomes were observed. During post-incubation, divisions resumed in all concentrations, reaching even higher values than the control. Cytometric analysis showed that the extract caused inhibition of the cell cycle at the border between gap(2) and beginning of mitosis (G(2)/M).

  12. New ribosome-inactivating proteins with polynucleotide:adenosine glycosidase and antiviral activities from Basella rubra L. and bougainvillea spectabilis Willd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolognesi, A; Polito, L; Olivieri, F; Valbonesi, P; Barbieri, L; Battelli, M G; Carusi, M V; Benvenuto, E; Del Vecchio Blanco, F; Di Maro, A; Parente, A; Di Loreto, M; Stirpe, F

    1997-12-01

    New single-chain (type 1) ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) were isolated from the seeds of Basella rubra L. (two proteins) and from the leaves of Bougainvillea spectabilis Willd. (one protein). These RIPs inhibit protein synthesis both in a cell-free system, with an IC50 (concentration causing 50% inhibition) in the 10(-10) M range, and by various cell lines, with IC50S in the 10(-8)-10(-6) M range. All three RIPs released adenine not only from rat liver ribosomes but also from Escherichia coli rRNA, polyadenylic acid, herring sperm DNA, and artichoke mottled crinkle virus (AMCV) genomic RNA, thus being polynucleotide:adenosine glycosidases. The proteins from Basella rubra had toxicity to mice similar to that of most type 1 RIPs (Barbieri et al., 1993, Biochim Biophys Acta 1154: 237-282) with an LD50 (concentration that is 50% lethal) Bougainvillea spectabilis had an LD50 > 32 mg.kg-1. The N-terminal sequence of the two RIPs from Basella rubra had 80-93% identity, whereas it differed from the sequence of the RIP from Bougainvillea spectabilis. When tested with antibodies against various RIPs, the RIPs from Basella gave some cross-reactivity with sera against dianthin 32, and weak cross-reactivity with momordin I and momorcochin-S, whilst the RIP from Bougainvillea did not cross-react with any antiserum tested. An RIP from Basella rubra and one from Bougainvillea spectabilis were tested for antiviral activity, and both inhibited infection of Nicotiana benthamiana by AMCV.

  13. Establecimiento in vitro y cultivo de células de la uña de gato (Uncaria tomentosa (Willd. D.C.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Alvarenga Venutolo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available La Uncaria tomentosa (Willd. D.C., (uñade gato es una liana del bosque tropical,que se distribuye en forma natural en lazona Atlántica de Costa Rica, a alturasmenores de 600 msnm. La infusión dela corteza de la raíz forma parte delacervo de la medicina tradicional deCosta Rica para aliviar diversas dolencias,como son: la gastritis, la artritis; además,funciona como fortificante del sistemainmunológico y, recientemente, para tratarel cáncer y el VIH.El cultivo in vitro sedesarrolló como una herramienta para lamicropropagación de plantas en la zonade Guápiles (Pococí, como estrategiade conservación para la explotacióncomercial sostenible de la especie. En esteartículo se describen los protocolos para elestablecimiento y la micropropagación apartir de microestacas, en un medio M & S(1962 con 2 mg/L de BA, 3% de sacarosay 7 g/L de agar; así como la germinaciónin vitro en el mismo medio M & S (1962semi sólido (1,8 g/L de Phyta-Gel.Se probó el cultivo en medio líquido, en jarrasfermentadoras y en sistemas de inmersióntemporal automatizado (RITA®, y fueefectivo el método de inmersión cada treshoras, durante tres minutos. Se describe elproceso de aclimatación, el crecimiento ydesarrollo de las vitroplantas.

  14. Bornova Ekolojik Koşullarında Farklı Sıra Arası Uzaklıkların Kinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.)'da Tane Verimi ve Bazı Verim Özellikleri Üzerine Etkisi

    OpenAIRE

    GEREN, Hakan; KAVUT, Yaşar Tuncer; ALTINBAŞ, Metin

    2015-01-01

    his study was conducted to determine the effects of different row spacings (17.5 cm, 35 cm, 52.5 cm, 70 cm) on the grain yield and some other yield characteristics of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) grown under T

  15. The Antibacterial Test in vitro of Andrographis paniculata Aqueous Extract Used Combination with 10 Kinds of Clinical Common Antimicrobial Agents%穿心莲水提物与10种临床常用抗菌药联用的体外抑菌试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张国祖; 贾艳华; 刘梅; 张帅帅; 郭振环; 李荣誉; 陈献忠

    2012-01-01

    为研究穿心莲水提物与临床常用10种抗菌药联用对鸡致病性大肠杆菌的体外抑菌效果,本试验采用传统的水提法制备穿心莲中药液并浓缩至浓度为1 g/mL,用琼脂平板稀释法测定穿心莲水提物分别与阿莫西林、头孢曲松等10种常用抗菌药物联用对临床分离的10株鸡致病性大肠杆菌的体外抑菌作用.结果表明,穿心莲和头孢曲松、穿心莲和氟苯尼考联用100%呈现协同作用;穿心莲和头孢噻呋联用90%呈现协同作用,10%呈现无关作用;穿心莲和大观霉素联用80%呈现协同作用,20%呈现无关作用;穿心莲和林可霉素联用50%呈现协同作用,40%为无关或颉颃作用,10%为无关作用;穿心莲与阿莫西林、安普霉素、阿米卡星、多西环素、恩诺沙星联用以无关或颉颃作用为主.以上结果表明,在体外,穿心莲与头孢曲松、头孢噻呋、大观霉素、氟苯尼考联用对鸡致病性大肠杆菌呈现协同作用,与阿莫西林、安普霉素、阿米卡星、林可霉素、多西环素、恩诺沙星联用呈现无关或颉颃作用.%To study the antibacterial effect in vitro of Andrographis aqueous extract associated with clinical qommonly used 10 kinds of antimicrobial agents to the chicken pathogenic Escherichia colt. Andrographis prepared by the traditional water extraction liquid and concentrated to a concentration of 1 g/mL,determined the invitro inhibitory effect of Andrographis aqueous extract respectively, associated with amoxicilhn, ceftriaxone, and other 10 kinds of commonly used clinical antimicrobial drugs, using the agar dilution method, to the clinical 10 chicken pathogenic Escherichia coli. The results show that Andrographis paniculata and ceftriaxone, Andrographis paniculata and florfenicol associated with 100% showing a synergistic effect; Andrographis paniculata and ceftiofur associated with 90% showing a synergistic effect, 10% showing unrelated; Andrographis

  16. Analysis of Contents on Saccharide in Bupleurum scorzonerifolium Willd from Different Original Places%不同产地狭叶柴胡糖类物质含量的比较分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王斌; 张腾霄; 刘利军; 马艳秋; 迟云超; 樊铁波

    2011-01-01

    分别采用3,5-二硝基水杨酸法和蒽酮-硫酸比色法比较了7个不同产地的狭叶柴胡(Bupleurum scorzonerifolium Willd)中还原糖、多糖和总糖的含量.结果表明,同种柴胡由于受不同产地或不同的生长环境的影响,其糖类物质含量差别较大,河北产地的柴胡糖类物质含量最高,其次为黑龙江明水野生柴胡.采用上述分析方法简便、快速、可靠,为建立柴胡的多指标质量评价体系提供了科学参考.%The contents of reducing saccharide, polysaccharide and total saccharide in Bupleurum scorzonerifolium Willd, which were derived from seven different representative places of origin, were compared by 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid method and anthrone - suliuric acid colorimetry, 1 he results showed that the contents ol saccharide had an obvious distinction among the samples. Highest content of saccharide in B. Scorzonerifolium from Heibei was found, the second was form Mingshui city in Heilongjian. This study could provide a simple, rapid and scientific evidence to construct a multiple indicator system for evaluating the quality of B. Scorzonerifolium.

  17. Chemical composition and larvicidal activity of leaf essential oil from Clausena anisata (Willd.)Hook. f. exBenth (Rutaceae) against three mosquito species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marimuthu Govindarajan

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To determine the mosquito larvicidal activity of leaf essential oil and their chemical constituents fromClausena anisata(C. anisata) (Willd.) Hook. f. ex Benth. against Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti andAnopheles Stephensi.Methods:Essential oil was obtained by hydro-distillation and the chemical composition of the leaf essential oil was analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The mosquitoes were reared in the vector control laboratory and twenty late III instar larvae of three mosquito species were exposed to based on the wide range and narrow range tests, essential oil was tested at50, 100, 150, 200 and 250 ppm and each compound was tested at various concentration (5-75 ppm) and were assayed in the laboratory by using the protocol ofWHO 2005; the 24 hLC50 values of theC. anisata leaf essential oil and their major compounds were determined following Probit analysis.Results:The oil contained were mainly β-pinene (32.8%), sabinene(28.3%), germacrene-D (12.7%), estragole (6.4%) and linalool(5.9%). The essential oil from the leaves ofC. anisataexhibited significant larvicidal activity, with24 hLC50 values of140.96, 130.19 and119.59ppm, respectively. The five pure constituents extracted from theC. anisata leaf essential oil were also tested individually against three mosquito larvae. The LC50values of β-pinene, sabinene, germacrene-D, estragole and linalool appeared to be most effective againstAnopheles stephensi(LC50-23.17, 19.67, 16.95, 11.01, 35.17ppm) followed byAedes aegypti (LC50-27.69, 21.20,18.76, 12.70, 38.64 ppm) and Culex quinquefasciatus(LC50-32.23, 25.01, 21.28, 14.01, 42.28).Conclusions:The essential oil of C. anisata contains five major compounds and has remarkable larvicidal properties, which may be considered as a potent source for the production of natural larvicides.

  18. Antioxidant responses of damiana (Turnera diffusa Willd) to exposure to artificial ultraviolet (UV) radiation in an in vitro model; part ii; UV-B radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano-Melgar, Lluvia de Abril Alexandra; Alcaraz-Meléndez, Lilia; Méndez-Rodríguez, Lía C; Puente, María Esther; Rivera-Cabrera, Fernando; Zenteno-Savín, Tania

    2014-05-01

    Introducción: Los efectos de la radiación ultravioleta tipo B (UV-B) sobre las plantas medicinales se han investigado recientemente en el contexto del cambio climático, pero las modificaciones que genera la radiación UV-B podrían emplearse para modificar el contenido de compuestos antioxidantes, incluyendo los compuestos fenólicos. Objetivo: Generar información sobre el efecto de una alta exposición a UV-B artificial en el contenido antioxidante de damiana (Turnera diffusa, Willd) en un modelo in vitro. Método: Plántulas de damiana en cultivo de tejidos (medio Murashige-Skoog) fueron irradiadas con UV-B artificial en 3 diferentes dosis: (1) 0,5 ± 0,1 mW cm-2 (alto) por 2 h diarias, (2) 1 ± 0,1 mW cm-2 (severa) por 2 h diarias, o (3) 1 ± 0,1 mW cm-2 durante 4 horas diarias por 3 semanas. Se cuantificó la concentración de pigmentos fotosintéticos (clorofilas a y b, carotenoides), vitaminas (C y E) y compuestos fenólicos totales, la actividad enzimática de la superóxido dismutasa (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1) y las peroxidasas totales (POX, EC 1.11.1), así como la capacidad antioxidante total y la peroxidación de lípidos para evaluar el efecto de la alta radiación UV-B artificial en el contenido antioxidante de damiana in vitro. Resultados: Dosis altas y severas de radiación UV-B artificial modificaron el contenido antioxidante incrementando el contenido de vitamina C y disminuyendo el contenido de compuestos fenólicos totales, además de modificar el daño oxidativo de plantas de damiana en un modelo in vitro. Conclusión: La radiación UV-B modifica el contenido antioxidante en damiana en un modelo in vitro, dependiendo de la intensidad y el tiempo de exposición.

  19. 传统中药白花蛇舌草的抗肿瘤活性研究%Anti-tumor activity of Hedyotis diffusa Willd. in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王英锋; 郑宜; 库宝善; 姚海燕; 姚广印; 万阳丽

    2013-01-01

    The whole plant with root ofHedyotis diffusa Willd.(AE) has been demonstrated to have anti-inflammatory,antioxidant,and anti-bacterial activities.In our study,we aim to examine the anti-tumor effect of alcoholic extract of AE in mice implanted with sarcoma S 180 cells (SBT mice).We also compared the immune system function and the life span of SBT mice with that of control mice.We found that AE displayed a significant inhibitory effect on solid tumor growth,as well as increased the life span.At the dose of 10 mg/kg body weight,both tumor weight and volume were decreased significantly.We also measured several immune function markers,inlcuding spleen index (SI),thymus index (TI) and parameters of hematological.We observed no reduce in these markers,indicating that AE could inhibit tumor growth without affecting immune function in SBT mice.%研究了传统中药白花蛇舌草的乙醇提取有效部位对S180小鼠模型的肿瘤生长抑制作用、免疫系统及小鼠生存天数的影响.该醇提部位能有效抑制S180小鼠的肿瘤生长,并延长荷瘤小鼠的生存天数.通过灌胃给药,醇提有效部位在10 mg/kg的剂量下与阳性对照药物环磷酰胺(20 mg/kg)相比,能够有效降低荷瘤小鼠体内的肿瘤大小与重量.对荷瘤小鼠的脾指数,胸腺指数及血常规参数研究表明,该醇提有效部位对荷瘤小鼠未见明显的毒副作用.总之,研究结果表明白花蛇舌草的醇提部位具有有效的抗肿瘤活性.

  20. Efeito genotóxico e antiproliferativo de Mikania cordifolia (L. F. Willd. (Asteraceae sobre o ciclo celular de Allium cepa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.G. Dias

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available As plantas com potencial medicinal têm sido muito utilizadas para o tratamento de doenças no Brasil. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito genotóxico e antiproliferativo de infusões de Mikania cordifolia (L.F. Willd. sobre o ciclo celular de Allium cepa L. Foram coletadas duas populações no município de Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, e, para cada uma, foram preparados dois tratamentos em duas concentrações: 4g/500mL e 16g/500mL, além de um controle positivo composto por 10% de glifosato em 90% água, um herbicida amplamente utilizado com conhecido potencial genotóxico, e de um controle negativo composto por água destilada. Após período de 24 horas, as radículas foram coletadas das infusões, fixadas em etanol-ácido acético (3:1 por 24 horas e estocadas em etanol 70%. Foram analisadas células em todas as fases do ciclo celular de A. cepa, totalizando 2500, para cada grupo de bulbos. Os índices mitóticos (IM foram calculados e submetidos à análise estatística pelo teste χ² a 5%. Os resultados mostraram que, em ambas as populações de M. cordifolia, houve redução do IM de todos os tratamentos em relação ao controle negativo. Em ambas as populações, obteve-se aumento nos valores dos índices mitóticos em função do aumento da concentração da infusão. Ocorreram aberrações cromossômicas em ambas as populações estudadas. Concluiu-se que as infusões de M. cordifolia, nas concentrações estudadas, possuem efeito antiproliferativo e mutagênico sobre o ciclo celular de A. cepa.

  1. High Efficient Cultivation of Cassava Intercropped with Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Nee%木薯间作套种穿心莲高效栽培技术①

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆柳英; 李灿荣; 曾文丹; 谢向誉; 严华兵

    2016-01-01

    As the important tuber crop in the world, cassava is the guarantee of food security in the tropics, and the important industrial raw materials of starch. In order to promote the development of the cassava industry and improve the planting comparative economic efficiency of cassava, we summarizes a set of mature cultivation techniques according to the experience of planting management of the cassava intercropping A ndrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Nee in pingnan. It will provide a technical support for the standardized cultivation and production of cassava.%木薯作为全球重要的薯类作物,既是热带地区粮食安全的保障,也是重要的淀粉工业原料。为促进木薯产业的发展,提高木薯种植比较经济效益,根据我区木薯间作套种中药材穿心莲在平南县的种植管理经验,总结出一套成熟的木薯间作套种穿心莲栽培技术,为木薯间作套种规范化栽培和生产提供技术支撑。

  2. Metabolomic comparative analysis of the phloem sap of curry leaf tree (Bergera koenegii), orange jasmine (Murraya paniculata), and Valencia sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) supports their differential responses to Huanglongbing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killiny, Nabil

    2016-11-01

    Orange jasmine, Murraya paniculata and curry leaf tree, Bergera koenegii are alternative hosts for Diaphorina citri, the vector of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas), the pathogen of huanglongbing (HLB) in citrus. D. citri feeds on the phloem sap where CLas grows. It has been shown that orange jasmine was a better host than curry leaf tree to D. citri. In addition, CLas can infect orange jasmine but not curry leaf tree. Here, we compared the phloem sap composition of these 2 plants to the main host, Valencia sweet orange, Citrus sinensis. Phloem sap was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry after trimethylsilyl derivatization. Orange jasmine was the highest in proteinogenic, non-proteinogenic amino acids, organic acids, as well as total metabolites. Valencia was the highest in mono- and disaccharides, and sugar alcohols. Curry leaf tree was the lowest in most of the metabolites as well as total metabolites. Interestingly, malic acid was high in Valencia and orange jasmine but was not detected in the curry leaf. On the other hand, tartaric acid which can prevent the formation of malic acid in Krebs cycle was high in curry leaf. The nutrient inadequacy of the phloem sap in curry leaf tree, especially the amino acids could be the reason behind the longer life cycle and the low survival of D. citri and the limitation of CLas growth on this host. Information obtained from this study may help in cultivation of CLas and development of artificial diet for rearing of D. citri.

  3. The Antifungal Activities and Composition Analysis of Murra ya paniculata Column Chromatography%九里香层析物的抑菌活性及成分分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    骆焱平; 卢远倩; 夏治琴; 王兰英

    2011-01-01

    With petroleum ether as eluent, 27 group fractions were separated from the chloroform extract of Murraya paniculata (L. ) Jacks with silica gel column. The antifungal activities of the 27 group fractions against five pathogens were tested with growth rate methods? The results showed that the fraction 26 exhibited excellent antifungal activity against pathogens at the concentration of 0. 5 g/L, especially, the inhibitor effect against Colletotrichum musae was 89. 46% and EC50 was 0. 078 6%以石油醚为洗脱液,对九里香氯仿萃取物进行硅胶柱层析分离,得到27个组分.采用生长速率法测定九里香层析物对5种供试病原菌的抑制作用.结果表明,在质量浓度为0.5 g/L时,组分26对5种供试病原菌有较好的抑制活性,对香蕉炭疽菌的抑制率达到89.46%,对香蕉炭疽菌的EC50为0.078 6 g/L.GC-MS分析表明,组分26的主要成分是7-甲氧基-8-异戊烯基香豆素,占92.00%.

  4. Preference of Quinoa Moth: Eurysacca Melanocampta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae for Two Varieties of Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. in Olfactometry Assays Preferencia de la Polilla de la Quinua: Eurysacca melanocampta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae por dos Variedades de Quinua (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. en Ensayos de Olfatometría

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan  F Costa

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Insects are attracted to plants by visual and olfactory cues. The quinoa moth, Eurysacca melanocampta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae, is the main insect pest of the quinoa crop, Chenopodium quinoa Willd. (Chenopodiales: Chenopodiaceae, in the southern Peruvian Andes, causing grain yield losses. The aim of this study was to investigate the behavioural response of adult quinoa moths to olfactory stimuli. Specifically, the objectives of this study were: 1 to determine the capacity of E. melanocampta adults of searching for quinoa plants using plant olfactory cues; 2 to determine the preference of E. melanocampta females for the odours derived from two varieties of quinoa: Amarilla de Marangani and Blanca de Junín; and 3 to assess the attraction of male quinoa moths to E. melanocampta females and the host plant in olfactometric bioassays. Adults preferred quinoa plant odour sources in choice tests when distilled water was used as a control (P La atracción de insectos hacia las plantas es causada tanto por estímulos visuales como olfativos. La polilla de la quinua, Eurysacca melanocampta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae, es la principal plaga en el cultivo de quinua, Chenopodium quinoa Willd. (Chenopodiales: Chenopodiaceae, en los Andes del sur peruano causando pérdidas en la producción de granos. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar las respuestas conductuales frente a estímulos olfativos de adultos de la polilla de la quinua. Específicamente, los objetivos del estudio fueron: 1 estudiar la capacidad de búsqueda de plantas de quinua de los adultos de E. melanocampta utilizando plantas como estímulos olfativos; 2 determinar la preferencia de hembras de E. melanocampta por olores derivados de plantas de dos variedades de quinua: Amarilla de Marangani y Blanca de Junín; y 3 estudiar la atracción de los machos hacia hembras de E. melanocampta y hacia las plantas hospederas en bioensayos de olfatometría. Los adultos eligieron fuentes

  5. Genetic diversity and comparison of physicochemical and nutritional characteristics of six quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa willd. genotypes cultivated in Chile Diversidade genética e comparação das características físico-químicas e nutricionais de seis genótipos de quinoa (Chenopodiumquinoa Willd. cultivados no Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Miranda

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was focused on the analysis of agronomical, nutritional, physicochemical, and antioxidant properties of six genetically different quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd genotypes cultivated in three distinctive geographical zones of Chile. Ancovinto and Cancosa genotypes from the northern Altiplano (19 ºS, Cáhuil and Faro from the central region (34 ºS, and Regalona and Villarica from the southern region (39 ºS are representative of high genetic differentiation among the pooled samples, in particular between Altiplano and the central-southern groups. A Common-Garden Assay at 30 ºS showed significant differences among seed origins in all morphometric parameters and also in yields. Altiplano genotypes had larger panicule length but no seed production. A significant influence of the different quinoa genotypes on chemical composition and functional properties was also observed. Protein concentration ranged from 11.13 to 16.18 g.100 g-1 d.m., while total dietary fiber content ranged from 8.07-12.08 g.100 g-1 d.m., and both were the highest in Villarrica ecotype. An adequate balance of essential amino acids was also observed. Sucrose was the predominant sugar in all genotypes. Antioxidant activity was high in all genotypes, and it was highest in Faro genotype (79.58% inhibition.O presente estudo teve como objetivo a análise das propriedades agronômicas, físicas, nutricionais e antioxidantes de seis genótipos diferentes de quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd, cultivados em três distintas zonas geográficas do Chile. Ancovinto e Cancosa, provenientes do norte do Altiplano (19 ºS, Cahuil e Faro, originários do centro (34 ºS, e Regalona e Villarica, do sul (39 ºS, foram representativos da alta diferenciação genética das amostras combinadas, em particular entre Altiplano e os grupos centro-sul. O ensaio do jardim de coleção a 30 ºS mostrou diferenças significativas entre as origens das sementes em todos os parâmetros morfom

  6. Respostas de Acacia mangium Willd e Sclerolobium paniculatum Vogel a fungos micorrízicos arbusculares nativos provenientes de áreas degradadas pela mineração de bauxita na Amazônia Responses of Acacia mangium Willd and Sclerolobium paniculatum Vogel to native arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi from remaining areas of bauxite mining in Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ney Freitas Marinho

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available A resposta de Acacia mangium Willd (mangium e Sclerolobium paniculatum Vogel (tachi à inoculação de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (FMA, oriundos de áreas em recuperação após a extração de bauxita, foi avaliada em experimento com delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com 14 tratamentos (duas espécies leguminosas e sete tipos de solo e três repetições. Avaliou-se o número de esporos no solo, a colonização micorrízica, a matéria seca total, o P acumulado, a dependência micorrízica das mudas, e a abundância e a freqüência de espécies. O número de propágulos infectivos (NPI foi estudado em delineamento em blocos casualizados, com oito diluições de solo inóculo, cinco repetições e uma planta isca (Brachiaria decumbens Stapf. Utilizou-se substrato da mistura de um Planossolo mais areia lavada e fosfato de rocha araxá (0,60 g/kg. O número de esporos aumentou em função do tempo de cobertura das leguminosas. A colonização micorrízica foi mais intensa no tachi. Os valores de matéria seca dessa espécie foram inferiores aos de mangium, que por sua vez extraiu em torno de seis vezes mais P do substrato. Em geral, mangium, ao contrário do tachi, foi facultativa à presença dos FMA, sugerindo sua utilização na recuperação de áreas degradadas sem inoculação prévia. Dentre as 39 espécies de FMA identificadas, Glomus macrocarpum Tul. & Tul. apresentou maior índice de abundância e freqüência (IAF e maior NPI, destacando-se entre as espécies pioneiras, ao passo que outras apareceram apenas em estádios sucessionais mais avançados das áreas em recuperação.The responses of Acacia mangium Willd (mangium and Sclerolobium paniculatum Vogel (tachi to arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF inoculation collected from areas under reclamation after bauxite mining, was evaluated in an completely randomized design distributed in 14 treatments (two legume, species and seven soil types, with three replicates. Evaluated

  7. Alterações morfofisiológicas em folhas de Coffea arabica L. cv. "Oeiras" sob influência do sombreamento por Acacia mangium Willd Morphophysiological alterations in leaves of Coffea arabica L. cv. 'Oeiras' shaded by Acacia mangium Willd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inês Angélica Cordeiro Gomes

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Diferenças na disponibilidade de radiação podem causar modificações na estrutura e função das folhas do cafeeiro, que podem responder de maneira diferencial à radiação por alterações morfológicas, anatômicas, de crescimento e na taxa fotossintética. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar características morfofisiológicas de cafeeiros (Coffea arabica L. cv. "Oeiras" sombreados por acácia (Acacia mangium Willd. na época seca e chuvosa no sul de Minas Gerais. As maiores taxas fotossintéticas e maiores espessuras da epiderme adaxial foram observadas na estação chuvosa nas linhas de cafeeiros a pleno sol. O sombreamento influenciou em menor espessura das folhas e em espaços intercelulares maiores no tecido esponjoso. Foi também verificada mudança na forma dos cloroplastos, os quais apresentaram-se mais alongados em folhas de cafeeiros a pleno sol quando relacionados aos arborizados.Light availability is one of the most important environmental factors affecting leaf structure and functions in coffee plants that can respond differently to radiation by changes in leaf anatomy, morphology, growth and photosynthetic rate. The objective of this research was evaluate some morphophysiological aspects in leaves of coffee (Coffea arabica L. cv. 'Oeiras' cropped under shelter trees in the south of Minas Gerais during the rainy and dry season. The shade caused lower leaves thickness and higher intercellular spaces in spongious tissue. There was also verified a change in chloroplast shape, which showed more elongated in coffee tree kept at full sunlight in relation to that ones maintained on shading.

  8. 比色法测定白花蛇舌草中总黄酮含量的研究%Study on Quantitative Determination of Total Flavonoids in Hedyotis diffusa Willd by Colorimetry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨悠; 许军; 刘燕华; 熊俭

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To select a kind of colorimetry as the best detection method of determination of total flavonoids in Hedyotis diffusa Willd. Methods: Take rutin as the standard sample, the paper compared three detection methods,which are direct method,aluminum nitrate method and aluminunl chloride method,and confirmed which is the best detection method as determination of total flavonoids in Hedyotis diffusa Willd. Results: To compare, confirmed aluminum chloride method had the best result for quantitative determination of total flavonoids in Hedyotis diffusa Willd. If the determination wavelength was 410 nm. the standard sample and the concentration of analyte was within the range of 0.05mg-0.3mg,the result showed a good linear relationhip between absorbance and the concentration of analyte,with the correlation coefficient R = 0.0094. The average recovery of this method was 99.84% with RSD of 1.31% ( n =5).The stability,precision and repetition of this method were excellent. Conclusion: the most of the indicators of Aluminum chloride colorimetry are better than the other two methods and this method is easily operated,accurate and have shorter analysis time,so Aluminum chloride colorimetry is more suitable for the determination of total flavonoids diffusa in Hedyotis diffusa Willd.%目的:选择一种比色法作为白花蛇舌草总黄酮的最优测定方法.方法:以芦丁为标准品,通过直接测定法、硝酸铝法、氯化铝法3种检测方法的比较,确定一种检测方法作为白花蛇舌草总黄酮的测定最优方法.结果:经过比较,选择氯化铝法作为测定白花蛇舌草总黄酮含量更好,在410nm波长下测定,样品在0.05mg~0.3mg范围内,其浓度与吸光度呈良好的线性关系,相关系数R=0.9997,平均加样回收率为99.84%,RsD=1.31%(n=5),稳定性、精密度和重现性均理想.结论:氯化铝显色法的大部分指标都好于其他两种比色法,且分析时间较短,准确度高,因此三氯化铝比色

  9. 冷蒿的开花动态与花粉活力及柱头可授性研究%Observation on the Flowering Dynamic, Pollen Viability and Stigma Receptivity in Artemisia frigida Willd.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雅荣; 宛涛; 蔡萍; 伊卫东

    2012-01-01

    Flowering dynamic was observed in test field, pollen viability of Artemisia frigida Willd. Was evaluated with TTC method, and stigma receptivity of Artemisia frigida Willd. Was evaluated with benzidine-H2O2 method. The results showed that flowers in inflorescence of Artemisia frigida Willd. Bloomed from up to down and outer florets bloomed before others, then middle florets bloomed later. The pollen viability of Artemisia frigida Willd. Was lower at initial stage, higher on the 2nd or 3rd day after flowering, and then reduced evidently, but a few pollen viability still existed until inflorescence withered. The life-span of pollen was about 20 days. The stigma receptivity of outer female flowers appeared on the first flowering day, and lasted longer, the highest on the 2nd or 3rd day after flowering. The stigma receptivity of middle flowers appeared latter than the outer female flowers, but the stigma receptivity were highest on the 2nd or 3rd day after flowering and lasted longer. The best stage of stigma receptivity and pollination was on the 2nd or 3rd day after flowering.%在试验地观察了冷蒿的开花动态,用TTC法测定了冷蒿花序花粉的活力,采用联苯胺—过氧化氢法测定了其柱头的可授性.结果表明,冷蒿花序的开花顺序是自上而下的,小花的开放是自外轮至中央小花.冷蒿的花粉活力在盛花期开花之初很低,第2~3d花粉活力较高,随后活力明显下降,但直至其花序枯萎,少量的花粉仍具有部分活力.花粉寿命较长,约为20d.冷蒿边缘雌花柱头的可授性在开花当天就具有,并且持续时间较长,在第2~3d可授性最强.中央两性小花柱头可授性要稍晚于边缘小花,但是在开花后第2~3d可授性也达到最高,其可授性时间也较长.柱头可授性的最佳时期为开花后第2~3d.冷蒿的最佳授粉期在开花后2~3d左右.

  10. 火绒草黄酮类成分的分离与鉴定(Ⅱ)%Isolation and identification of flavonoids from Leontopodium leontopodioides (Willd.)Beauv.( Ⅱ )

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈秋; 王涛; 葛丹丹; 贺伟; 吴春华; 张祎

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the chemical constituents from Leontopodium leontopodioides (Willd. ) Beauv. Methods The compounds were isolated by chromatographic methods such as silica gel, ODS, Sepha-dex LH-20 and HPLC,and identified by the chemical and physical methods,especially spectral analysis. Results Seven flavonoids were isolated. The structures of them were identified as apigenin(l) ,kaempferol-3-O-(6"-O-acetyl) -β-D-glucopyranoside (2), kaempferol-3-0-( 6"-O-trans-p-coumaroyl) -β-D-glucopyranoside (3) ,kaempferol-3-O-( 6"-O-cw-p-coumaroyl) -β-Z)-glucopyranoside (4), quercetin-7-0-β-D-glucoside (5), quercetin-3-methyloxy-7-0-β-Z)-glucopyranoside ( 6 ), and quercetagetin-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside ( 7 ), respectively. Conclusions Compound 1 is obtained from the plant for the first time,and compounds 2-7 are obtained from Leontopodium genus for the first time.%目的 对火绒草的化学成分进行研究,为进一步开发利用该植物资源提供依据.方法 采用反复正相硅胶、反相ODS、Sephadex LH- 20等柱色谱以及高效液相色谱法等手段进行分离纯化,并通过理化性质与光谱分析鉴定化合物的结构.结果 从火绒草体积分数为70%的乙醇溶液提取物中又分离鉴定了7个黄酮类化合物,分别为芹菜素(apigenin,1)、山柰酚-3-O-(6″-O-乙酰基)-β-D-吡喃葡萄糖苷[ kaempferol-3-O-(6″-O-acetyl)-β-D-glucopyranoside,2]、山柰酚-3-O-(6"-O-反式对香豆酰基)-β-D-吡喃葡萄糖苷[ kaempferol-3-O-(6″-O-trans-p-coumaroyl)-β-D-glucopyranoside,3]、山柰酚-3-O-(6"- O-顺式对香豆酰基)-β-D-吡喃葡萄糖苷[ kaempferol-3-O-(6″-O-cis-p-coumaroyl)-β-D-glucopyranoside,4]、槲皮素-7-O-β-D-吡喃葡萄糖苷( quercetin-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside,5)、槲皮素-3-甲氧基-7-O-β-D-吡喃葡萄糖苷(quercetin-3 -methoxy-7 -O-β-D-glucopyranoside,6)、槲皮万寿菊素-7-O-β-D-吡喃葡萄糖苷(quercetagetin-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside,7).结论 化合物1为首次从火绒草

  11. 北葶苈子黄酮苷类成分研究Ⅱ%Flavonoid Glycosides from Seeds of Lepidium apetalum Willd. (Ⅱ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石萍萍; 李晓霞; 宗琪; 韩立峰; 王涛; 张祎

    2015-01-01

    In order to understand the chemical constituents of Lepidium apetalum Willd., eight flavonoid glycosides were obtained from 50% EtOH extract of its seeds. On the basis of physicochemical and spectral data, they were identified as quercetin-3-O-β-d-glucoside (1), quercetin-3-O-β-d-glucuronide (2), quercetin-3,7-di-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (3), quercetin-3-O-β-d-glucosyl(1→2)-β-d-glucoside (4), quercetin-3-O-[2-O-(6-O-E-sinapoyl)-β-d-glucopyranosyl]-β-d-glucopyranoside (5), quercetin-3-O-[(6-O-trans-caffeoyl)-β-d-glucopyranosyl(1→2)-β-d-glucopyranosyl]-7-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (6), isorhamnetin-3-O-sophoroside (7) and isorhamnetin-3-O-[2-O-(6-O-E-sinapoyl)-β-d-glucopyranosyl]-β-d-glucopyranoside (8). Among them, compound 3 was isolated from this species for the ifrst time, and compounds 2, 4, 6 and 7 were obtained from Lepidium genus for the ifrst time. Meanwhile, the NMR data of compound 6 was reported ifrstly.%为了解北葶苈子的化学成分,从其50%乙醇提取物中分离鉴定了8个单体成分,经理化性质和波谱数据分析,分别鉴定为:槲皮素-3-O-β-D-吡喃葡萄糖苷(1)、槲皮素-3-O-β-D-葡萄糖醛酸苷(2)、槲皮素-3,7-二-O-β-D-葡萄糖苷(3)、槲皮素-3-O-β-D-葡萄糖-(1→2)-β-D-葡萄糖苷(4)、quercetin-3-O-[2-O-(6-O-E-sinapoyl)-β-D-glucopyranosyl]-β-D-glucopyranoside (5)、槲皮素-3-O-[(6-O-trans-咖啡酰基)-β-D-吡喃葡萄糖基(1→2)-β-D-吡喃葡萄糖]-7-O-β-D-吡喃葡萄糖苷(6)、isorhamnetin-3-O-sophoroside (7)和异鼠李素-3-O-β-D-[2-O-(6-O-芥子酰基)-β-D-吡喃葡萄糖基]-吡喃葡萄糖苷(8)。化合物3为首次从该种中分离得到,化合物2、4、6、7为首次从独行菜属中分离得到,且化合物6的NMR数据为首次报道。

  12. Experimental Study on the Electrical Conductivity for Determination of Andrographis paniculata Seed Vigor%电导法测定穿心莲种子活力的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓丽; 何瑞; 童家赟; 詹若挺

    2012-01-01

    目的应用电导法测定穿心莲种子活力.方法 选取发芽率高于80%的9个不同产地穿心莲种子为材料,测定20℃恒温浸泡不同时间的穿心莲种子浸泡液电导率,并与发芽率活力指标进行相关分析.结果 电导法测定穿心莲种子活力的适宜浸泡时间为6h;种子浸出液电导率与发芽率存在中度负相关的线性关系(r=-0.643 3).结论 穿心莲种子发芽率与电导率的相关性并不显著.%Objective To estimate Andrographis paniculta seed vigor by electrical conductivity Methods Andrographis paniculata seeds were collected from nine regions which the experimental germination rate were over 80% selected as testing material. The testing seeds were soaked in pure water at 20°C and the electrical conductivity of soaking fluid was measured during different time, and the correlation between the conductivity rate and the germination percentage were analysed. Results The appropriate time for measurement of the electrical conductivity was 6 hours after soaking seeds, and the conductivity rate was negatively relevant to the germination percentage (r=-0.6433). Conclusion There were no significant correlation between the conductivity rate and the germination percentage.

  13. Estudo comparativo da madeira de Mimosa ophthalmocentra Mart. ex Benth e Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd. Poir. (Fabaceae-Mimosoideae na caatinga nordestina Comparative study of Mimosa ophthalmocentra Mart. ex Benth and Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd. Poir. (Fabaceae-Mimosoideae wood in the caatinga of Northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazaro Benedito da Silva

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Pela importância econômica da madeira de algumas espécies do gênero Mimosa L. ocorrentes na caatinga nordestina e pelo fato de Mimosa ophthalmocentra Mart. ex Benth. (jurema-de-imbira, às vezes, ser confundida com Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd. Poir. (jurema-preta ou vice-versa, este trabalho objetivou apresentar novos dados referentes à anatomia e densidade básica da madeira das duas espécies, visando oferecer subsídio para identificação das duas espécies, identificar caracteres anatômicos da madeira relacionando-os com o ambiente caatinga e apresentar o potencial energético que sua madeira possui. O estudo anatômico e a determinação da densidade da madeira foram realizados com amostras ao nível do peito (1,30 m acima do solo e em dois galhos com diferentes diâmetros, de espécimes ocorrentes nos municípios de Serra Talhada e Sertânia, Pernambuco, Brasil. As espécies apresentam distinção expressa através do tipo de casca, coloração do cerne e do alburno, além das características peculiares da madeira. Mimosa ophthalmocentra apresenta camadas de crescimento distintas, constituídas por linhas de parênquima axial contendo cristais, parênquima axial escasso e menor quantidade de raios por mm². Já Mimosa tenuiflora apresenta camadas de crescimento distintas, porém sem cristais, parênquima axial vasicêntrico, em faixas ou aliforme confluente, e maior percentagem de raios. Ambas apresentam algumas estruturas da madeira com as características anatômicas comuns às diversas espécies do gênero Mimosa, contribuindo assim para uma melhor caracterização do gênero. Pelos parâmetros anatômicos da madeira e pela elevada densidade básica (>0,84 g/cm³, concluiu-se que as duas espécies apresentam perspectivas seguras para a produção de álcool combustível e carvão vegetal desde a fase de lenho juvenil. Mimosa ophthalmocentra apresenta maior potencial energético, pela maior percentagem de fibras e por possuir par

  14. Isolation, Purification and Structural Elucidation of Steroids from Cirsium setosum (Willd.) MB%小蓟中甾体类化合物的分离及结构鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙珍; 李泠钨; 院珍珍; 王阿利; 李金杰; 尚小雅

    2012-01-01

    The petroleum ether-soluble fraction of pooled ethanol extracts from the aboveground parts of Cirsium setosum (Willd.) MB was further fractionated by silica gel column chromatography, Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography and preparative HPLC. The resulting sub-fractions were structurally identified by one-dimensional, two-dimensional NMR and MS spectroscopies. Four steroids were obtained, including ergosta-4, 24 (28)-diene-3-one (1), stigmast-4-en-3-one (2), stigmasterol (3) and fl-sitosterol (4). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report showing the presence of Compounds 1 and 2 in the genus Cirsium and the presence of Compounds 1, 2 and 3 in Cirsium setosum (Willd.) MB. None of these identified compounds showed cytotoxic activity at a concentration of 1 ×10^5 mol/L as determined by in vitro MTT assay.%对小蓟乙醇粗提物中显示细胞毒活性的石油醚萃取部位进行化学成分的研究。运用硅胶、凝胶和反相高效液相等色谱方法进行分离纯化;应用-维、二维NMR和Ms等波谱学方法对纯化的物质进行结构鉴定。结果表明:从小蓟乙醇提取物的石油醚萃取部位分离鉴定了4个甾体类化合物,分别为:麦角甾-4,24(28)-二烯-3-酮(化合物1)、豆甾-4-烯-3-酮(化合物2)、豆甾醇(化合物3)和β-谷甾醇(化合物4)。化合物1和12为首次从蓟属中分离得到,除化合物4外,其余3个化合物均是首次从小蓟中分离得到;在体外MTT法的细胞毒活性测试中,所筛选的化合物在1×10^5mol/L的浓度条件下均未显示出细胞毒活性。

  15. 荒漠十字花科植物粗果庭芥的核型分析%Karyotype Analysis of the Desert Cruciferous Plant Alyssum asycarpum Steph.ex Willd.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玲; 赵恩峰; 曾幼玲

    2012-01-01

    [目的]分析新疆荒漠十字花科植物粗果庭芥(Alyssum dasycarpum Steph.ex Willd.)的核型特征.[方法]以粗果庭芥根尖细胞为实验材料,采用常规压片法对细胞染色体数目、大小核型及倍性进行分析.[结果]该物种的染色体数目为2n=16,基数=8,二倍体;全部为中着丝粒染色体(m),染色体长度比为2.283,臂比>2的染色体比为0,核型公式为2n=2x=16 =16 m,染色体组型属Stebbins核型分类中的“1B”类型,不对称系数为57.07%,低于60%,对称性高;核型分析过程中,未观察到随体存在.[结论]推测粗果庭芥在系统演化上可能属于较原始的种类.%[Objective] To analyze the karyotype characteristics of cruciferous plant Alyssum dasycarpum Steph. ex Willd. from the desert area in Xinjiang. [ Method]The somatic cells of root - tips from this species as experimental materials were used to observe the chromosome number, karyotype and ploidy characteristic by root - tip squashing method. [ Result] The chromosome number is 2n = 16; The basic chromosome number is confirmed to be x =8; And this species is diploid; All of them are metacentric (m) chromosomes; The ratio of the longest chromosome to the shortest chromosome (Lc/Sc) is 2.283; The percentage of chromosomes with arm ratio (P. C. A) >2 is 0; the karyotype formula of this species is 2n = 2x = 16 = 16m, which belongs to "1B" type of Stebbins karyotype classification; And the index of the karyotype asymmetry ( As. K% ) is 57.07% and is lower than 60% , so the karyotype symmetry of this species is higher; The satellite on the chromosome of this species is never found in the process of the karyotype analysis. [ Conclusion ] These results revealed karyotype of Alyssum dasycarpum is symmetrical to a higher degree, indicating that Alyssum dasycarpum belongs to a relatively primitive type and relatively old or the original plant in evolutionary processes.

  16. A Research Review of Invasive Mechanism of Alien Plant Ambrosia Artemisiifolia and Its Present Situation%外来植物豚草的入侵机理研究进展及其现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柏祥; 刘传才; 塔莉; 王连龙

    2015-01-01

    从外来植物的入侵性和生境的可入侵性两方面综述了外来植物豚草的入侵机理研究进展,分析了豚草在秦皇岛地区的现状,以中国环境管理干部学院新校区为例调查了人类活动干扰对豚草的影响。豚草的入侵性与其自身所具有的生理生态学特性密切相关,生境的可入侵性则与其群落特征和受干扰程度等因素有关。目前豚草是秦皇岛地区自然群落的建群种,没有表现出入侵性。新校区调查结果表明:豚草在自然群落中零星分布,但受到人类活动干扰的生境中豚草表现出一定的优势度。因此,在豚草防治中应防止人类活动的过度干扰影响,以保护当地的生态环境。%A research review was presented on invasive mechanism of alien plant Ambrosia art-emisiifolia in terms of its invasiveness and the habitat invisibility. The present situation of the plant was analyzed in Qinhuangdao region, and the new campus was taken as an example to inves-tigate the effects of human activity disturbance on A. artemisiifolia. The invasiveness of A. artemisiifolia was closely related to its ecophysiological characteristics, while the habitat invisibility was impacted by community characteristics and disturbance degree. In present, the plant was a community construction species in this region, and showed no invasion. The investigated results showed that A. artemisiifolia distributed sporadically in the natural community. However, in the habitat disturbed by human activities, the plant had relatively high advantage. Therefore, excessive human activity disturbance should be prevented to control the invasive plant, by which to protect the local ecological environment.

  17. 千里香枝中39个多甲氧基黄酮的HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS分析%Characterization of thirty-nine polymethoxylated flavonoids (PMFs) in the branches of Murraya paniculata by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张加余; 卢建秋; 高晓燕; 张倩; 李宁; 屠鹏飞; 乔延江

    2013-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the polymethoxylated flavonoids (PMFs) in the branches of Murraya paniculata (L.) Jack.METHODS:A sensitive HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS method was established to screen PMFs in the branches of M.paniculata based on the analysis of six PMF standards in the positive mode by CID-MS/MS.RESULTS:The diagnostic fragmentation pathways for polymethoxylated flavones,polymethoxylated flavanones,polymethoxylated chalcones and PMF glycosides were summarized,respectively.According to the MS fragmentation pathways,39 PMFs,including 24 flavones,10 flavanones or chalcones and 5 PMFs glycosides were screened.CONCLUSION:The results indicated that the developed analytical method could be employed as a rapid,effective technique for the chemical screening of PMFs in TCMs extracts.%目的:定性分析千里香枝中的多甲氧基黄酮类成分.方法:建立一种灵敏的HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS方法,筛选千里香枝中的多甲氧基黄酮.结果:分别研究总结了多甲氧黄酮、二氢黄酮、查耳酮以及多甲氧基黄酮苷的诊断性断裂途径.结合这些特征和EIC-MS/MS实验,筛选了39个多甲氧基黄酮类成分,包括24个多甲氧基黄酮、10个多甲氧基二氢黄酮或查耳酮、5个多甲氧基黄酮苷.结论:本研究为从复杂物质体系中筛选多甲氧基黄酮提供了一种快速有效的方法.

  18. The Bioassay of Methanol Extracts from Eupatorium catarium and Murraya paniculata on Inhibition of Oidium heveae%假臭草和九里香甲醇提取液对橡胶树白粉病菌抑菌活性的测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    古鑫; 范志伟; 沈奕德; 李晓霞; 黄乔乔; 程汉亭; 刘丽珍; 韩佳宇

    2012-01-01

    为筛选防治橡胶树白粉病安全有效的植物源杀菌剂,采用孢子萌发抑制法测定22种植物甲醇提取液对橡胶树白粉病菌孢子的抑菌活性.结果表明,假臭草和九里香提取液浓度在0.1 g/mL时,对橡胶树白粉病菌孢子的萌发抑制率分别为43.98%和47.62%,极显著优于其它植物和对照.进一步测定假臭草和九里香提取液的EC50和EC75值,以及其盆栽试验的防治效果与橡胶树叶片丙二醛(MDA)、过氧化氢酶(CAT)、超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)和苯丙氨酸解氨酶(PAL)的活性.结果表明,假臭草和九里香对病原菌孢子的EG50值分别为0.26 g/mL和0.20 g/mL,EC75值分别为1.12 g/mL和0.99 g/mL.假臭草和九里香提取液浓度在EC75值时,防病效果分别为20.00%和18.67%,显著高于对照.假臭草和九里香提取液处理后,橡胶树叶片的MDA含量极显著低于对照,CAT、SOD和PAL活性则显著或极显著高于对照.由此可见,假臭草和九里香提取液不仅能抑制病原菌的萌发和生长,而且能提高橡胶树的抗病性.%Rubber tree powdery mildew disease, caused by Oidium heveae, is one of the significant leaf diseases in rubber trees. To find the botanical fungicide that could effectively control the disease, the spore germinating inhibition method was used to determine the effect of methanol extracts from 22 plant species on antifungal activity in this test. The results showed that extracts from Eupatorium catarium and Murraya paniculata in a concentration of 0.1 g/mL inhibited the germination of the spore by 43.98% and 47.62%, respectively, which were significantly more effective than those from other plants and the control. The ECX and EC-n of methanol extracts from E. catarium and M. paniculata had control effect on potted plant materials and the activities of MDA, CAT, SOD, and PAL in rubber leaves after controlling the disease were further measured. The results showed that the ECss of extracts from E. catarium and

  19. Análisis espacio-temporal de los vasos primaverales de Quercus robur L. y Quercus pyrenaica Willd.: Respuesta al estrés climático en la transición atlántico-mediterránea

    OpenAIRE

    Souto Herrero, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    En esta Tesis Doctoral se estudiaron los elementos conductores primaverales de Quercus robur L. y Q. pyrenaica Willd. con el objetivo de valorar su potencial dendroecológico. Mediante su empleo se trató de identificar los factores climáticos más relevantes que controlan el crecimiento en la transición entre las regiones biogeográficas atlántica y mediterránea en el noroeste de la Península Ibérica. Para abordar este trabajo se aplicaron técnicas dendrocronológicas tales como la medición de la...

  20. Effects of light intensity on the phenotypic plasticity of invasive species Ambrosia trifida%不同光强对入侵种三裂叶豚草表型可塑性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王蕊; 孙备; 李建东; 王国骄; 孙佳楠; 王欣若; 钟日亭

    2012-01-01

    通过人工遮光,研究了不同光照强度下入侵植物三裂叶豚草的形态、生物量分配以及光合特性的表型可塑性.结果表明:与对照相比,遮光条件下,三裂叶豚草的株高、冠宽、单株叶面积、比叶面积和叶生物量比重显著增加,总生物量、单位叶面积生物量和根冠比减小;在全光照条件下,其冠宽和单株叶面积较小,根冠比较大,有利于高温强光下减少水分散失,表现出对不同光强较强的形态和生物量可塑性.遮光使三裂叶豚草叶片的日均净光合速率、蒸腾速率和气孔导度下降,胞间CO2浓度上升.正午光照最强时,低遮光处理植株的净光合速率、蒸腾速率和气孔导度最大.中遮光和高遮光条件下,其叶绿素含量显著增加,叶绿素a/b显著减小,有利于提高三裂叶豚草的光能利用效率,以适应弱光环境.%Through artificial shading, this paper studied the phenotypic plasticity of invasive species Ambrosia trifida in its morphology, biomass allocation, and photosynthesis characteristics in response to different light intensities. As compared with the control, shading increased the stem height, crown width, leaf area, specific leaf area, and the proportion of leaf biomass in total biomass of A. trifida significantly, but decreased the total biomass, biomass per unit leaf area, and root to shoot ratio. Under natural light condition, the crown width and leaf area were smaller and the root to shoot ratio was larger, which benefited the decrease of water loss under high temperature and high light intensity and manifested the stronger phenotypic plasticity of A. trifida in its morphology and biomass allocation in response to different light intensities. Under shading, the mean daily net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, and stomatal conductance decreased, while the stomatal CO2 concentration increased. At noon when the light intensity was the highest, the photosynthetic rate, transpiration

  1. Simultaneous determination of phenolic compounds and saponins in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) by a liquid chromatography-diode array detection-electrospray ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Caravaca, Ana María; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto; Caboni, Maria Fiorenza

    2011-10-26

    A new liquid chromatography methodology coupled to a diode array detector and a time-of-flight mass spectrometer has been developed for the simultaneous determination of phenolic compounds and saponins in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd). This method has allowed the simultaneous determination of these two families of compounds with the same analytical method for the first time. A fused-core column C18 has been used, and the analysis has been performed in less than 27 min. Both chromatographic and electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry parameters have been optimized to improve the sensitivity and to maximize the number of compounds detected. A validation of the method has also been carried out, and free and bound polar fractions of quinoa have been studied. Twenty-five compounds have been tentatively identified and quantified in the free polar fraction, while five compounds have been tentatively identified and quantified in the bound polar fraction. It is important to highlight that 1-O-galloyl-β-D-glucoside, acacetin, protocatechuic acid 4-O-glucoside, penstebioside, ethyl-m-digallate, (epi)-gallocatechin, and canthoside have been tentatively identified for the first time in quinoa. Free phenolic compounds have been found to be in the range of 2.746-3.803 g/kg of quinoa, while bound phenolic compounds were present in a concentration that varies from 0.139 and 0.164 g/kg. Indeed, saponins have been found to be in a concentration that ranged from 5.6 to 7.5% of the total composition of whole quinoa flour.

  2. Actividad de la fitasa y comparación en la composición química, contenido de ácido fítico en cuatro variedades de quinua (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Rosero

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Quinua (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. es una planta que ha sido cultivada en las regiones andinas de Bolivia, Perú, Ecuador y Colombia. Su importancia se debe al alto contenido de proteínas y de aminoácidos esenciales en su grano. El objetivo principal en la investigación fue encontrar la relación entre el ácido fítico y la actividad de la fítasa en las variedades de quinua Nariño procedente de Colombia (QC, quinua Anapquis (QBA y quinua -IICA 020 Oruro (QB procedentes de Bolivia, y quinua Huancavelica de Perú (QP. Se encontraron diferencias significativas en las proporciones de proteína, grasa, fibra y ceniza entre las cuatro variedades. El análisis de los aminoácidos esenciales mostró que las variedades de quinua tienen altas concentraciones de arginina, leucina, fenilalanina y lisina, y tirosina como aminoácidos semi-esenciales. La fracción de grasa presentó concentraciones altas de ácido oleico, linoleico, a-linolénico y ácido palmítico. Las variedades presentaron altos contenidos de P y Ca. El ácido fítico en QC (19.64% fue significativamente más bajo que en las otras variedades. En la variedad QC (1052 FTU/kg se encontraron altas proporciones de actividad de la fítasa. Se encontró relación significativa y negativa (r = -0.89 entre la actividad de la fítasa y el ácido fítico en todas las variedades.

  3. QUINOA (CHENOPODIUM QUINOA WILLD: DIGESTIBILIDADE IN VITRO, DESENVOLVIMENTO E ANÁLISE SENSORIAL DE PREPARAÇÕES DESTINADAS A PACIENTES CELÍACOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. I. A. CASTRO

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available

    A quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd é um pseudocereal isento de glúten, oriundo dos Andes, onde tem sido cultivado há milhares de anos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi desenvolver e avaliar sensorialmente algumas preparações contendo quinoa em grãos, flocos e farinha, destinadas ao paciente celíaco, e determinar a digestibilidade in vitro de sua proteína, submetida ou não ao tratamento térmico. As amostras foram avaliadas sensorialmente através de um teste de aceitação utilizando a escala hedônica nominal de 9 pontos. O método utilizado na análise da digestibilidade protéica in vitro foi o da queda de pH após 10 minutos, com a adição das enzimas tripsina e pancreatina às amostras de quinoa, tratadas e não tratadas termicamente. Das sete preparações testadas, seis foram bem aceitas, já que apresentaram um Índice de Aceitabilidade maior que 70%. Os flocos e grãos de quinoa, após serem testados termicamente, tiveram sua digestibilidade otimizada. Portanto, a quinoa e seus derivados podem ser considerados uma boa opção para a alimentação dos indivíduos portadores da doença celíaca.

  4. Morphological and physiological responses of two varieties of a highland species (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) growing under near-ambient and strongly reduced solar UV-B in a lowland location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Juan A; Rosa, Mariana; Parrado, María F; Hilal, Mirna; Prado, Fernando E

    2009-08-03

    Morphological and physiological responses of seedlings to different solar UV-B irradiances were evaluated in two varieties of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.), a crop species from Andean region of South America. Cristalina and Chucapaca varieties were grown at 1965m a.s.l in a glasshouse under natural light conditions for 18 days, and then transferred to outdoors under near-ambient (+UV-B) and strongly reduced (-UV-B) solar UV-B radiation. Exposition to -UV-B increased cotyledon area and seedling height in Cristalina variety whereas leaf number decreased compared to +UV-B. By contrast Chucapaca variety was not affected by UV-B treatments. Seedling fresh weight (FW), root length and leaf thickness did not show significant differences between +UV-B and -UV-B treatments. Mesophyll tissue was slightly affected by solar UV-B reduction. Chlorophyll content was differentially affected by UV-B treatments. Under +UV-B the highest value was observed in Cristalina variety, while in Chucapaca it was observed under -UV-B treatment. Chlorophyll content was slightly higher in leaves than in cotyledons, but there was no difference in the distribution pattern. Chlorophyll a/b ratio and carotenoid content did not show significant differences between UV-B treatments. Leaf UVB-absorbing compounds showed significant differences between UV-B treatments in Chucapaca only, while there were no significant differences in Cristalina variety. UVB-absorbing compounds of cotyledons did not show significant differences between +UV-B and -UV-B treatments. Sucrose, glucose and fructose showed different distribution patterns in cotyledons and leaves of the two varieties under near-ambient and strongly reduced UV-B. Results demonstrated that varieties of quinoa exhibit different morphological and physiological responses to changes in solar UV-B irradiance, but these responses cannot be used to predict the sensitivity to solar UV-B during a short-term exposition. Also, this study can be useful to

  5. Study on the anti-inflammatory effect of total flavonoids from Opuntia monacantha(Willd.) Haw%仙人掌总黄酮抗炎作用的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何可; 陈兴颖; 宛燕飞; 李英伦

    2011-01-01

    为考察两种不同工艺(水提醇沉,超声波醇提)提取的仙人掌总黄酮的抗炎作用,通过冰醋酸致小白鼠腹腔毛细血管通透性增加,棉球致小白鼠肉芽肿以及蛋清致大白鼠足跖肿胀的炎症模型,观察两种仙人掌总黄酮对不同炎症的作用效果。结果显示,水提醇沉高剂量组和超声波醇提高剂量组的仙人掌总黄酮均能极显著抑制冰醋酸所致的小白鼠腹腔毛细血管通透性增加(P〈0.01),且高剂量水提醇沉总黄酮的作用效果优于阳性药物地塞米松磷酸钠的作用效果;水提醇沉和超声波醇提总黄酮的各个剂量都能极显著抑制棉球所致小白鼠肉芽肿(P〈0.01),其中水提醇沉高剂量和超声波醇提低剂量的作用效果与地塞米松磷酸钠的作用效果相近,但超声波醇提总黄酮毒性过大,不适于临床运用。水提醇沉总黄酮的各剂量均能不同程度地抑制蛋清引起的大白鼠足趾肿胀,高剂量可极显著降低肿胀率(P〈0.01),作用效果与地塞米松磷酸钠接近。试验结果证明,仙人掌总黄酮对于急、慢性炎症均具有良好的抑制作用。%To investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of total flavonoids from Opuntia monacantha(Willd.) Haw,total flavonoids was extracted with two different methods including water extraction alcohol precipitation method(WEAP) and ultrasonic wave-alcohol extraction method(UWAE).The anti-inflammatory effect was investigated through three models including acetic acid-induced peritoneal capillary permeability in mice,cotton-pellet granuloma of the mice and egg white-induced rat paw oedema.In result high-dosage of total flavonoids prepared from WEAP and UWAE methods had both significant inhibitory effects on penetration of capillary vessel in mice(P0.01).Moreover,compared with dexamethasone so-dium phosphate,high-dosage of WEAP had a better anti-inflammatory effect.Different doses of total flavonoids

  6. Efectos de la gestión selvícola pasada y presente sobre la diversidad genética actual y futura de Quercus pyrenaica Willd. en Sierra Nevada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Valbuena Carabaña

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Quercus pyrenaica Willd. es un roble mediterráneo-occidental, ampliamente distribuido en la península ibérica que presenta una extraordinaria capacidad de rebrote, especialmente de raíz. Tradicionalmente ha sido aprovechado para leñas en monte bajo y, menos frecuentemente, adehesado para el uso ganadero. El abandono de la gestión tradicional mayoritaria ha puesto de manifiesto el estado de degradación de sus masas (falta decrecimiento, puntisecado, ausencia de fructificación, que de forma teórica se había atribuido al agotamiento de las cepas y a la falta de diversidadgenética. Sin embargo, el análisis reciente mediante marcadores moleculares microsatélites de numerosos rebollares, incluidos los que aquí se presentan, permite descartar la supuesta falta de variabilidad genética. No obstante, la falta de concordancia entre la estructuras forestales de montes bajos y adehesados y el origen asexual o sexual de sus pies, junto a la heterogeneidad en el tamaño y composición de las cepas dificulta la interpretación de la estructura clonal actual en cada monte. Este trabajo, en el que se evalúa el estado de conservación de los recursos genéticos de Q.pyrenaica en uno de los territorios más intensamente aprovechados por el hombre a lo largo de la historia, ilustra la importante resiliencia que presenta la especie frente al manejo tradicional en monte bajo. Mediante el estudio de tres rodales localizados en el mismo robledal en el Parque Nacional de Sierra Nevada, se analiza el efecto de la gestión pasada (en monte bajo y adehesado y presente (en un rodal de monte bajo resalveado sobre la diversidad genética y la estructura clonal de la especie. Además, se evalúa la evolución futura de la diversidad genética a través del análisis del regenerado en los tres rodales en función del manejo selvícola que han experimentado. A pesar de que los montes bajos presentan mayores niveles de diversidad genética para la cohorte adulta

  7. Diterpenes from Coleus forskohlii (WILLD.) BRIQ. (Labiatae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Yupei; Xu, Lingling; Lu, Yang; Wang, Xiaobing; Zheng, Qitai; Kong, Lingyi; Niwa, Masatake

    2008-01-01

    Three new minor labdane diterpene glycosides, forskoditerpenoside C, D, and E (1-3), and a novel labdane diterpene forskoditerpene A (4) were isolated from the ethanol extract of the whole plant of Coleus forskohlii. Their structures and relative stereochemistry were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analyses including 1D-, 2D-NMR, and HR-ESI-MS experiments. Compounds 1-3 showed an unusual 8,13-epoxy-labd-14-en-11-one glycoside pattern. They showed relaxative effects on isolated guinea pig tracheal spirals in vitro. Compound 4 with a cyclopropyl, confirmed by a single-crystal X-ray diffraction determination, is the first known labdane derivative with a spiro element.

  8. Triterpene saponins from Chenopodium quinoa Willd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuljanabhagavad, Tiwatt; Thongphasuk, Piyanut; Chamulitrat, Walee; Wink, Michael

    2008-06-01

    Twenty triterpene saponins (1-20) have been isolated from different parts of Chenopodium quinoa (flowers, fruits, seed coats, and seeds) and their structures have been elucidated by analysis of chemical and spectroscopic data including 1D- and 2D-NMR. Four compounds (1-4) were identified: 3beta-[(O-beta-d-glucopyranosyl-(1-->3)-alpha-l-arabinopyranosyl)oxy]-23-oxo-olean-12-en-28-oic acid beta-d-glucopyranoside (1), 3beta-[(O-beta-d-glucopyranosyl-(1-->3)-alpha-l-arabinopyranosyl)oxy]-27-oxo-olean-12-en-28-oic acid beta-d-glucopyranoside (2), 3-O-alpha-l-arabinopyranosyl serjanic acid 28-O-beta-d-glucopyranosyl ester (3), and 3-O-beta-d-glucuronopyranosyl serjanic acid 28-O-beta-d-glucopyranosyl ester (4). The following known compounds have not previously been reported as saponin constituents from the flowers and the fruits of this plant: two bidesmosides of serjanic acid (5,6), four bidesmosides of oleanolic acid (7-10), five bidesmosides of phytolaccagenic acid (11-15), four bidesmosides of hederagenin (16-19), and one bidesmoside of 3beta,23,30-trihydroxy olean-12-en-28-oic acid (20). The cytotoxicity of these saponins and their aglycones was tested in HeLa cells. Induction of apoptosis in Caco-2 cells by bidesmosidic saponins 1-4 and their aglycones I-III was determined by flow cytometric DNA analysis. The saponins with an aldehyde group were most active. The relationships between structure and cytotoxic activity of saponins and their aglycones are discussed.

  9. Himatanthus Willd. ex Schult. (Apocynaceae: Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana P Soares

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Himatanthus Wild. ex Schult. (Apocynaceae includes about 13 species and five subspecies widely distributed in South America, especially Brazil. The phytochemical reports on this genus have revealed mainly triterpenes and iridoids. The plants are traditionally used as anthelmintic, antitumor, and antiinflammatory agents. The most used parts of the plant are its bark, leaves, and latex. This review emphasizes the phytochemical constituents and medicinal properties, which may help in future research. The research was conducted with data obtained from books about medicinal plants, theses, dissertations, and articles in refereed journals.

  10. Extraction and gelatinization characteristics of Chenopodium quinoa Willd starch based on ridge analysis%基于岭脊分析的藜麦淀粉提取及糊化特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付丽红; 李晓斌

    2016-01-01

    为优化藜麦淀粉碱法提取工艺,以藜麦为试验材料,采用岭脊分析法研究料液比、NaOH 质量分数和浸提时间对淀粉提取率的影响,并对藜麦淀粉的颗粒形貌、化学结构及淀粉糊化特性进行研究。结果表明,碱法提取藜麦淀粉的优化工艺参数为料液比1:5 g/mL、NaOH质量分数0.2%和浸提时间5.5 h,淀粉提取率为98.94%±0.26%;藜麦淀粉为限制性膨胀淀粉,形态多呈不规则形,具有-OH、-CH2、-CHO、C-O-C和吡喃环典型淀粉分子官能团;随静置时间增加,淀粉透光率降低,凝沉体积增加,12 h后基本稳定;藜麦淀粉糊第四次冻融循环后达到稳定状态;对淀粉凝胶质构特性分析,硬度、内聚性、弹性、胶黏性和咀嚼性5个指标都随藜麦淀粉糊浓度增加而增大;流变性分析表明藜麦淀粉糊为假塑性流体,其弹性优于黏性。该文系统研究藜麦淀粉提取工艺和糊化特性,拓展了新的淀粉资源,同时也为藜麦淀粉的生产和应用提供一定的借鉴和参考。%Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.), which is a pseudocereal or pseudograin, has been recognized as a complete food due to high nutritional value. Recently, quinoa has attracted more and more attention. Starch is main nutritional constituent of quinoa. In order to understand the gelatinization characteristics of starch, quinoas were collected from Xinzhou City in Shanxi Province. The granule morphology, functional group, swelling power, transparencies, freezing thawing stability, texture and rheological characteristics of starch granules were investigated in this study. Firstly, the quinoa starches were obtained by alkali extraction method. The cardinal parameters of extracting technique have been studied including solid-liquid ratio, sodium hydroxide (NaOH) concentration and extraction time. The ridge analysis was used to find the condition on a set of design variables that maximize or

  11. 酶-热水浸提法提取藜麦麸水溶性非淀粉多糖工艺研究%Extraction process of water-soluble non-starch polysaccharides from Chenopodium quinoa willd bran by enzyme-water method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申瑞玲; 张文杰; 董吉林

    2016-01-01

    Using Cheopodium quinoa willd bran,the extraction process of water-soluble non-starch polysaccha-rides (NSP)was studied by enzyme-water method.Phenol-sulfate method was used to measure the yield of NSP.The optimal extraction conditions were determinated through single factor assay and orthogonal assay.The results showed that the optimal extraction conditions were material-liquid ratio(w /v)1 16,the addition of viscozyme 2.0 mg/g,extraction temperature 90 ℃,extraction time 100 min.Under the experiment conditions, the yield of NSP was 7.55%.Compared with other extraction methods,the extraction yield of water-soluble NSP was higher,to the use of Cheopodium quinoa willd bran more fully.And because extraction solvent was water,there was no strong acid alkali waste liquid generated in extraction process,which would not cause en-vironmental pollution.%以藜麦麸为原料,采用酶-热水浸提法对藜麦麸水溶性非淀粉多糖(NSP)提取工艺进行研究.利用苯酚-硫酸法测定 NSP 的得率,通过单因素试验和正交试验确定最佳提取工艺条件:料液比(w /v)为116,复合多糖酶添加量为2.0 mg/g,浸提温度为90℃,浸提时间为100 min.该试验条件下藜麦麸水溶性 NSP 得率为7.55%.与其他提取方法相比,该法提取水溶性 NSP 的得率较高,对藜麦麸的利用更加充分,且浸提溶剂为水,在提取过程中没有强酸强碱性废液产生,不会造成环境污染.

  12. 光呼吸条件下栾树和辣椒光合电子流的分配研究%Investigation on Allocation of Photosynthetic Electron Fluxes for Goldenrain Tree (Koelreuteria paniculata Laxm.) and Capsicum (Capsicum annuum L.)under Photorespiratory Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶子飘; 康华靖; 陶月良; 王立新

    2011-01-01

    In order to evaluate the photosynthetic electron transport and allocation for goldenrain tree (Koelreu-teria paniculata) and capsicum (Capsicum annuum), gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence for them at CO2 concentration of 380 urnd-mol-1 and 30 ℃ under photorespiratory condition, using a gas analyzer Li-6400, were measured. The results showed that the photosynthetic electron flows to fix CO2, photorespiration and others associated with electron-consuming processes were 72.68, 45.68 and 29.40 umol-m-2.s-1 for goldenrain tree at saturation irradiance, respectively; the photosynthetic electron flows to fix CO2, photorespiration and others associated with electron-consuming processes were 142.24,40.24 and 131.52 umol-mV for capsicum at irradiance of 2 000 umol-m-2.s-1, respectively. The calculated results suggest that the electron flows both in fixation of CO2 and photorespiration are overestimated by method of Valentini and Epron under photorespiratory conditions. At the same time, the role of photorespiration in protecting photosynthetic organism for goldenrain tree and capsicum is overestimated under photorespiratory conditions.%用Li-6400光合仪同时测定了栾树和辣椒在温度为30℃、CO2浓度为380 μmol·mol-1下的气体交换和叶绿素荧光数据.结果表明,栾树在饱和光合有效辐射时光合电子用于碳同化、光呼吸和其他途径的量分别为72.68、45.68和29.40μmol·m-2·s-1;辣椒在光合有效辐射为2 000 μmol·m-2·s-1时光合电子用于碳同化、光呼吸和其他途径的量分别为142.24、40.24和131.52 μmol·m-2·s-1.揭示了在光呼吸条件下用Valentini和Epron等方法高估了辣椒和栾树的光合电子用于光呼吸的量,同时也高估了光呼吸在辣椒和栾树中的保护作用.

  13. Study on optimizing the extraction of Bougainvillea Spectabilis Willd red pigment by the quadratic general rotary design%二次通用旋转试验设计优化三角梅红色素提取工艺的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李永强; 杨士花; 毕晓菲; 高斌; 付晓萍; 刘海波

    2010-01-01

    三角梅(Bougainvillea Spectabilis Willd)为紫茉莉科(Nyctaginaceae)宝巾花属(Bougainvillea)藤状灌木,在我国分布比较广泛.随着社会的发展和人们生活水平的提高,人们的食品安全意识以及保健意识也在日益提高,因此开发利用动植物天然食用色素资源,日益受到人们的普遍重视.三角梅花色为紫红或玫瑰红,是开发天然食用色素的良好资源.本研究采用二次通用旋转试验设计,对三角梅红色素的提取工艺进行了优化,建立了色素提取率与提取温度、液料比、提取时间的二次回归数学模型,并利用该模型探讨了各因素对色素提取率的影响.结果表明:各因素对色素提取率作用大小依次为:提取时间>液料比>提取温度,三角梅红色素的最优提取工艺为:提取温度为40℃,液料比为15:1,提取时间为20min.本研究为三角梅红色素的开发利用提供了理论依据.

  14. Diversidad, fluctuación poblacional y plantas huésped de escolitinos (Coleoptera: Curculionidae asociados con el agroecosistema cacao en Tabasco, México Diversity, dynamic population and host plants of bark and ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae associated to the cocoa agroecosystem in Tabasco, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Pérez-De La Cruz

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la diversidad de escolitinos asociados con el agroecosistema cacao en Tabasco, México durante el año 2007. Los insectos adultos fueron recolectados en 4 localidades con trampas de alcohol etílico, trampas de atracción luminosa y captura directa sobre sus plantas huésped. Se recolectaron 19 263 ejemplares, pertenecientes a 51 especies y 26 géneros. Araptus hymenaeae y Cnesinus squamosus son nuevos registros para México. La máxima diversidad de insectos capturados con los 3 métodos de recolecta se obtuvo en El Bajío (H'=2.45 y Dmg=4.83, la mínima en Río Seco (H'=2.29 y Km. 21 (Dmg=3.85, y el máximo valor de equidad (J lo obtuvo El Bajío (0.67. El índice de similitud de Sorensen (Is mostró que los sitios de estudio tienden a presentar la misma composición de especies. Los índices de diversidad, equidad y similitud, aplicados a la fauna de escolitinos capturados con cada uno de los métodos empleados, mostraron diferencias, excepto en las trampas de alcohol. La fluctuación presenta picos poblacionales marcados al inicio y al final del año de estudio. Las plantas en las que se recolectó el mayor número de especies fueron Theobroma cacao (16 y Swietenia macrophylla (13.The bark and ambrosia beetle diversity in cocoa agroecosystems was studied during 2007 in Tabasco, Mexico. Adult insects were gathered in 4 localities with ethanol and light traps and by direct collecting in their host plants. 19 263 specimens were gathered, belonging to 51 species and 26 genera. Araptus hymenaeae and Cnesinus squamosus are new records for Mexico. The maximum diversity of insects captured with the 3 collecting methods was obtained in El Bajío (H'=2.45 and Dmg=4.83, the minimum in Río Seco (H'=2.29 and Km. 21 (Dmg=3.85, and the maximum value of justness (J was obtained in El Bajío (0.67. The Sorensen similarity index (Is showed that the study places present the same species composition. The diversity, justness and similarity indices

  15. 采用UPLC-ESI-MS快速测定博落回各器官中王要生物碱的含量%Rapid determination of main alkaloids from organs of Macleagua cordata(Willd) R.Br.by UPLC-ESI-MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟明; 黄可龙; 曾建国; 黎霜; 余金明; 张丽

    2011-01-01

    An ultra-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-MS) analysis method was developed for systematic determination of the main alkaloids in the organs of Macleagua cordata(Willd) R.Br.. After a simple ultrasound-assisted extraction step, the proposed method was applied to quantify eight alkaloids in the roots, stems, leaves and fruits of Macleagua cordata. The retention time, relative molecular mass and fragmentation behavior were obtained. A new compound of cryptopine was separated and identified from the fruits of the plant with literature review. The results show that the correlation coefficients is 0.992 5-0.998 3 in the linear range. The average recovery of the investigated alkaloids is 96.6%-104.0%, and the relative standard deviation is less than 4.3%, with the lower limit of detection values of 0.123-1.270 μg/L. The present method has the advantages of simple operation and rapid determination, and it is a powerful tool for quantification of alkaloids in M.cordata.%采用超高效液相色谱-电喷雾质谱联用(UPLC-ESI-MS)技术,对中药博落回各器官中的主要生物碱成分进行系统分析.样品经超声萃取后,通过UPLC-ESI-MS快速测定了8种生物碱在根、茎、叶和果荚中的含量,获得相应化合物的保留时间、相对分子质量和离子碎片等信息,并从博落回果荚中分离、鉴定隐品碱.在此基础上,建立种快速、灵敏、准确测定博落回中多种生物碱成分的新方法.研究结果表明:这8种生物碱含量在一定范围内呈线性关系,相关系数为0.992 5-0.998 3,平均加标回收率为96.6%~104.0%,相对标准偏差均小于4.3%,检出限为0.123~1.270 μg/L.

  16. Isolation of flavonoids from the aerial parts of Polygala tenuifolia Willd.and their antioxidant activities%远志地上部分10个黄酮类成分的分离及抗氧化活性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史天星; 李宇光; 姜勇; 屠鹏飞

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to isolate the chemical constituents of the aerial parts of Polygala tenuifolia Willd.and to determine their antioxidant activities.Ten flavonoids were isolated and purified by silica gel,Sephadex LH-20,and ODS column chromatography,and semi-preparative HPLC.Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis and identified as isorhamnetin-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (1),isorhamnetin-3-O-β-D-galactopyranoside (2),quercetin-3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl (1→2)-β-D-galactopyranoside (3),quercetin-3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl (1→2)-β-D-glucopyranoside (4),linarin (5),quercetin-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (6),5,7-dihydroxy-8-methxoyflavone-7-O-β-D-glucuronoside (7),isorhamnetin (8),kaempferol (9) and quercetin (10).All these compounds were isolated from this plant for the first time,and compounds 1-5 and 7 were isolated from the genus of Polygala for the first time.The antioxidant activities of the isolated compounds were evaluated by DPPH free radical scavenging assay,and compounds 3,4,6,8,9 and 10 showed potent antioxidant activities.%研究远志地上部分的化学成分并测试其抗氧化活性.运用硅胶、Sephadex LH-20、ODS及半制备液相,从远志地上部分中分离得到10个黄酮类化合物.用DPPH自由基清除试验测定了其抗氧化活性.分离所得化合物经光谱数据分析鉴定其结构分别为:异鼠李素-3-O-β-D-吡喃葡萄糖苷(1),异鼠李素-3-O-β-D-吡喃半乳糖苷(2),槲皮素-3-O-β-D-吡喃葡萄糖(1→2)-β-D-吡喃半乳糖苷(3),槲皮素-3-O-β-D-吡喃葡萄糖(1→2)-β-D-吡喃葡萄糖苷(4),蒙花苷(5),槲皮素-3-O-β-D-吡喃葡萄糖苷(6),5,7-二羟基-3-甲氧基黄酮-7-O-β-D-葡萄糖醛酸(7),异鼠李素(8),山奈酚(9)和槲皮素(10).所有化合物均为首次从该植物中分离得到,化合物1-5和7均为首次从该属植物中分离得到.活性测试结果表明,化合物3、4、6、8、9和10表现出一定的抗氧化活性.

  17. Characterization of diferuloylated pectic polysaccharides from quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa WILLD.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wefers, Daniel; Gmeiner, Bianca M; Tyl, Catrin E; Bunzel, Mirko

    2015-08-01

    In plants belonging to the order of Caryophyllales, pectic neutral side chains can be substituted with ferulic acid. The ability of ferulic acid to form intra- and/or intermolecular polysaccharide cross-links by dimerization was shown by the isolation and characterization of diferulic acid oligosaccharides from monocotyledonous plants. In this study, two diferulic acid oligosaccharides were isolated from the enzymatic hydrolyzate of seeds of the dicotyledonous pseudocereal quinoa by gel permeation chromatography and preparative HPLC and unambiguously identified by LC-MS(2) and 1D/2D NMR spectroscopy. The isolated oligosaccharides are comprised of 5-5- and 8-O-4-diferulic acid linked to the O2-position of the nonreducing residue of two (1→5)-linked arabinobioses. To get insight into the structure and the degree of phenolic acid substitution of the diferuloylated polysaccharides, polymeric sugar composition, glycosidic linkages, and polysaccharide-bound monomeric phenolic acids and diferulic acids were analyzed. This study demonstrates that diferulic acids are involved into intramolecular and/or intermolecular cross-linking of arabinan chains and may have a major impact on cell wall architecture of quinoa and other dicotyledonous plants of the order of Caryophyllales.

  18. Variability of traits quinoa introduced genotypes (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.)

    OpenAIRE

    Dražić, Slobodan; ŽIVANOVIĆ, Tomislav; Maletić, Radojka; Glamočlija, Đorđe; Žarković, Branka; Dražić, Milena

    2013-01-01

    We analyzed variability and influence of investigated factors on grain yield of quinoa during three year period (2009, 2010, 2011). The experiment was conducted at two locations (Nova Pazova and Surduk), using two introduced genotypes of quinoa: KVL 37 and KVL 52. We detected that location and genotype had important impact. Grain yield varied according to years of study (1224 kg/ha to 1671 kg/ha). Results of regression and correlation analysis indicate on variation of the impact of plant heig...

  19. Development of pharmacognostic profile of Alpinia galanga,Willd. (Zingiberaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrikant Sharma

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Alpinia galanga, Rosc. (Zingiberaceae, commonly known as Kulanjan, Greater galangal, well known Ayurvedic herb and found throughout India. It is an Indian folkloric Ayurveda medicine primarily used as a medicine due to its anti-bronchitis, anti-inflammatory, intermittent fever, anti-cough, gastric disorder anti-bacterial, properties; The aim of present study was to gather information for the systematic identification and authentication of this particular species and pharmacognostic standardization of aerial part (leaves and underground part (Rhizome of this plant as per WHO guidelines. The result obtained in the present investigation might be useful in the drug industry for the identification, authentication & quality of the commercial samples supplied by suppliers. The present study may also be used for making monographs on this plant for different pharmacopoeias & official books.

  20. Anti-inflammatory activity of root of Alpinia galanga willd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asim Kumar Ghosh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of the study is to evaluate the acute and chronic anti-inflammatory activities of root extract of Alpinia galanga in rodents. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out using albino rats of either sex (150-200 g. An extract of the root of A. galanga was prepared using absolute alcohol and distillation in a Soxhlet apparatus. The acute anti-inflammatory effects of this extract were evaluated using carrageenan-, bradykinin-, and 5-HT-induced rat paw edema. The chronic anti-inflammatory effects were evaluated using formaldehyde-induced rat paw edema. Results and Analysis: Inhibition of inflammation was seen to be 32.22% in carrageenan-induced, 37.70% in 5-HT-induced, and 35.21% in bradykinin-induced anti-inflammatory models. In chronic inflammatory model, a progressive inhibition of 34.73% (3 rd day, 37.50% (5 th day, 38.83% (7 th day, 44.66% (9 th day, 49.59% (11 th day, and 55.75% (13 th day was observed with study compound. The efficacy was comparable with the standard drugs. Conclusion: It can be thus concluded that A. galanga has anti-inflammatory properties and probably acts by blocking histaminic and serotonin pathways. It may be an effective alternative to NASAIDs and corticosteroid in inflammatory disorders.

  1. Chemical constituents isolated from the wood of Senna reticulata Willd. (Leguminoseae); Constituintes quimicos do caule de Senna reticulata Willd. (Leguminoseae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Rogerio Nunes dos; Silva, Maria Goretti de Vasconcelos [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Organica e Inorganica]. E-mail: mgvsilva@ufc.br; Braz Filho, Raimundo [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense (UENF), Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil). Setor de Quimica de Produtos Naturais

    2008-07-01

    The phytochemical investigation of the wood extracts of Senna reticulata (Leguminoseae) yielded six anthraquinones: chrysophanol, physcion, aloe-emodin, 1,3,8-trihydroxyanthraquinone, 3-methoxy-1,6,8-trihydroxyanthraquinone, emodin and the chrysophanol-10,10' bianthrone. The triterpenes {alpha} and {beta}-amirin, the steroids {beta}-sitosterol and stigmasterol as well as the flavonoid kaempferol were also identified. The structures were established by spectral analysis, including two-dimensional NMR techniques. It is the first report of 1,3,8-trihydroxyanthraquinone and 3-methoxy-1,6,8-trihydroxyanthraquinone in higher plants. (author)

  2. Genetic improvement of the quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa willd) by mutagenesis; Mejoramiento genetico de la quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa willd) por mutagenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez A, M

    1992-02-15

    As a continuation of the obtained advances of the AB173 project, where its had the studies about germination of the quinoa seed in laboratory and in field emergency, of four varieties (Sierra Blanca, Isluga, Barandales and Lipez) treated with 10 gamma radiation doses of Co, in this report the results are presented obtained on the response of the doses in three variables of agronomic importance: 1) height of the plant, 2) population's density and 3) grain yield. At the end one carries out a regression analysis in each one of the varieties, in the emergency variables in field, population's density and grain yield. The obtained results reveal, in general form that the four varieties respond in different form, as much among them as before those different radiation dose. (Author)

  3. Quinoa from Valley (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.: Valuable source of genetic resistance to powdery mildew(Peronospora farinosa Willd.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Julio

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to identify quinoa resistant cultivars to powdery mildew (Peronospora farinosa of high yield and large grain size, 36 cultivars were evaluated under two different fungicide applications and a control in the Valle Bajo from Cochabamba. We determined the realtive Area under Develop Progress Curve of Peronosporafarinosa (AUDPCPF relative, the yield and another eleven quantitative variables. The results showed that cultivars 01Tardía, 08Tardía, 12Tardía, 04Tardía, 11Tardía 10Tardía, 19Tardía y 18Tardía were susceptible and the cultivars H172, A26, A03, A16, A22, A14 and H171 were resistant. The cultivars A40, H177, A26, H172, A25, A1 y H176 showed yields from 3.4 to 6.34 t ha-1. The cultivars 15 Tardía, 03 Tardía, 14 Tardía, H173, H171, A25, H176 and H172 with chemical control strategy and the tricobalreacted favorably against powdery mildew, which was associated with levels of resistance in each cultivar. Finally, there was a high significant negative correlation between the variables AUDPCPF relative and physiological maturity, plant length, panicle length, stem diameter, panicle diameter and weight of 100 seeds. This showed that when the attack of mildewis severe, also affects the grains yield.

  4. AKTIVITAS ANTIOKSIDAN EKSTRAK UMBI AKAR GINSENG JAWA (Talinum triangulare Willd. [Antioxidant Activity of Javanese Ginseng (Talinum triangulare Willd. Root Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teti Estiasih1

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant activity of some extracts of javanese ginseng root was investigated. Javanese ginseng root extracts were prepared by solvent extraction using methanol, ethanol (96%, ethanol (70%, acetone, and hexane. Total antioxidant activity of the extracts was measured by ferric thiocyanate method, whereas radical scavenging capacity and reducing power were measured by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and the reducing potential methods, respectively. The result showed that the highest total antioxidant activity was observed in acetone and methanol extracts. It was supposed that the ability of these extracts for partitioning at the interface of the emulsion in the tested oxidation system was the highest among other extracts, therefore it had the best activity to inhibit oxidation. The highest radical scavenging capacity measured by EC50 was observed in acetone extract. The type of phenolic compounds of this extract was suggested to be responsible for the highest radical scavenging capacity. Different phenomena occurred for reducing power. Methanol extract had the highest reducing power and the least is hexane and acetone extract. It was suggested that each extracts comprised different types of phenolic based on different polarity of solvents used for extraction. The antioxidant compounds of javanese ginseng root extracts were primary antioxidant based on these ability to scavenge free radical. It could be concluded that acetone was the best solvent for antioxidant extraction of javanese ginseng root. However, all tested antioxidant mechanisms in this research showed that vitamin E (1000 ppm had better activity than javanese ginseng root extracts (1000 ppm for all types of solvent. Javanese ginseng extracts might contain other compounds that not responsible for antioxidant activity, therefore at the same concentration the activity were lower than vitamin E.

  5. Study on Characteristics in Photosynthesis,Transpiration and Water Use Efficiency of Tamarix hispida Willd.in the Lower Reaches of the Tarim River%塔里木河下游刚毛柽柳光合作用﹑蒸腾作用及水分利用效率特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王燕凌; 刘君; 李文兵; 李芳

    2015-01-01

    maintained a certain level of photosynthe_sis during the daytime.The study showed that Tamarix hispida in an arid environment could improve water use efficiency by reducing transpiration rate and maintain a relatively high photosynthetic rate to adapt the desert environment.%【目的】研究不同地下水位条件下和不同季节塔河下游刚毛柽柳净光合速率﹑蒸腾速率和水分利用效率的日变化规律和特点,为阐明荒漠植物抗逆途径的多样性提供理论依据。【方法】利用 LI —6400便携式光合作用测定系统,于8月初测定塔河下游三个不同地下水位样点刚毛柽柳(Tamarix hispida Willd.)净光合速率(Pn)﹑蒸腾速率(E)和水分利用效率(WUE)的日变化及同一地下水位条件下6﹑8﹑10月初不同季节各指标的日变化,比较分析测定指标的变化规律和指标间的关系。【结果】随着地下水位的下降,各样点刚毛柽柳的净光合速率日平均值呈下降趋势,地下水位分别为6.03﹑6.68和8.0 m 的 A﹑B﹑C 样点 Pn 日平均值分别为12.85﹑9.43和9.71 mol∕(mg.s),且 A﹑B 两样点的 Pn 值在上午时段远大于下午时段,C 样点上午时段 Pn 值明显下降,下午时段与 A﹑B 两样点相近;蒸腾速率日均值也随地下水位的下降呈下降趋势,而水分利用率日均值呈上升趋势,A﹑B﹑C 三样点的 E 日均值分别为6.61﹑5.02和3.54 mmol∕(mg.s),WUE 日平均值分别为1.72﹑1.66和2.42 mmolCO2∕mol H2 O,在地下水位最低的 C 样点 WUE 比水分条件较好的 A 样点提高了28.9%。在水分状况较好的同一水位条件 A 样点,8月初刚毛柽柳 Pn 日均值可达12.85 mol∕(mg.s),而6月初和10月初分别要比 8月初降低了24.3%和131.1%;E 的日均值也 8月初最大,分别比6﹑10月初高出227.5%和251.1%;WUE 日均值则是6月初最高,8月初最低。【结论】塔河下游刚毛柽柳在地下水位下降为近7~8.0 m 的干旱环境下,通过降低蒸腾

  6. IMPORTANT FINDINGS ON PLANTS HAVING ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTY: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purkayastha Sanhita

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Plants have certain biologically active molecules and many of the present drug discoveries are based on these molecules found in the plants used in traditional system of medicine. In this review paper 20 plants (Emblica officinalis Linn., Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.Nees, Curcuma domestica Valet, Trigonella foenumgraecum Linn., Camellia sinensis assamica (Masters Kitomura, Centella asiatica (L.Urban, Mangifera indica Linn., Hypericum perforatum L., Cymbopogon citratus(DCStaf, Vitex negundo Linn., Hemidesmus indicus R.Br., Catharanthus roseus(Linn.G.Don, Euphorbia hirta Linn., Prunus persica (Linn.Stokes, Oxalis corniculata Linn., Withania somnifera, Tinospora cordifolia (Willd. Miers ex Hook. F. & Thoms, Amaranthus spinosus L.,Alternanthera sessilis (L. R. Br. ex. DC., Garcinia cowa Roxb. are viewed which have antioxidant property. Studies on these plants may throw light on various therapeutic potential and uses of these herbs and plants.

  7. Sesquiterpene lactones from the Yugoslavian wild growing plant families Asteraceae and Apiaceae (REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MILUTIN STEFANOVIC

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available 1. Introduction 2. Results 3. Asteraceae 3.1. Genus Artemisia L. 3.1.1. Artemisia annua L. 3.1.2. Artemisia vulgaris L. 3.1.3. Artemisia absinthium L. (warmwood 3.1.4. Artemisia scoparia W. et K. 3.1.5. Artemisia camprestris L. 3.2. Genus Ambrosia L. 3.2.1. Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. (the common rag weed 3.3. Genus Tanacetum L. (syn. Chrysanthemum L. 3.3.1. Tanacetum parthenium L. (feverfew 3.3.2. Tanacetum serotinum L. 3.3.3. Tanacetum vulgare L. (tansy 3.3.4. Tanacetum macrophyllum Willd. 3.3.5. Tanacetum corymbosum L. 3.4. Genus Telekia Baumg. 3.4.1. Telekia speciosa (Schreb. Baumg. 3.5. Genus Inula L. 3.5.1. Inula helenium L. 3.5.2. Inula spiraeifolia L. 3.6. Genus Eupatorium L. 3.6.1. Eupatorium cannabinum L. 3.7. Genus Achillea L. 3.7.1. Achillea abrotanoides Vis. 3.7.2. Achillea millefolium subsp. pannonica 3.7.3. Achillea crithmifolia W. et K. 3.7.4. Achillea clypeolata Sibth. et Sm. 3.7.5. Achillea serbica Nyman 3.7.6. Achillea depressa Janka 3.8. Genus Anthemis L. 3.8.1. Anthemis carpatica Willd. 3.8.2. Anthemis cretica L. subsp. cretica 3.9. Genus Centaurea L. 3.9.1. Centaurea derventana Vis. et Panc. 3.9.2. Centaurea kosaninii Hayek 3.9.3. Centaurea solstitialis L. 4. Apiaceae 4.1. Genus Laserpitium L. 4.1.1. Laserpitium siler L. 4.1.2. Laserpitium marginatum L. 4.1.3. Laserpitium latifolium L. 4.1.4. Laserpitium alpinum W. K. 4.2. Genus Angelica L. 4.2.1. Angelica silvestris L. 4.3. Genus Peucedanum L. 4.3.1. Peucedanum austriacum (Jacq. Koch

  8. Floristic study of Cheondeungsan Mountain in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ro-Young Lee

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of native plants of Cheondeungsan Mountain (807 m, N 37°05'00“–37°05'30”, E 128°00'0“–128°02'0” in Chungcheongbuk-do was determined and the major flora were identified. During field investigations carried out from May 2011 to October 2011, 87 families, 254 genera, and 369 taxonomic groups (327 species, 4 subspecies, 33 varieties, and 5 forms were confirmed, and the distribution of 219 taxonomic groups was discovered for the first time. The distribution of four endemic plants of Korea, including Ajuga spectabilis Nakai and Salvia chanryoenica Nakai, and that of Penthorum chinense Pursh, a Grade V specific plant species, was found. There were 20 taxa of naturalized plants at Cheondeungsan; the growth and development of plants that are harmful to the ecosystem, such as Ambrosia artemisiifolia L., Ambrosia trifida L., Eupatorium rugosum Houtt., and Aster pilosus Willd., was observed around the forest paths and lowlands.

  9. Tannins Dynamic of 15 Tropical Trees and Shrubs%15种热带乔灌木单宁含量动态分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李茂; 字学娟; 周汉林; 徐铁山; 刘国道

    2011-01-01

    Tannin contents of 15 tropical trees and shrubs were observed from March 2009 to Feb. 2010. Tannin levels of forage plants were ranked as: Ficus hispida L. F. (0. 39%), Erythrina variegata Linn. (0.77%); Cratylia argentea (Desv. ) Kuntze (0.78%); Dendrolobium triangulate (Retz. ) Schindl. (1. 16%); Cajanuscajan (Linn. ) Huth (1. 29%); Senna bicapsularis (Linn. ) Roxb. (1. 38%); Microcos paniculata Linn. (1.56%); Codariocalyx gyroides (Roxb. Ex Link) Hassk. (1.57%); Ficus auriculata Lour. (1. 62%); Senna didymobotrya (Fresen. ) H. S. Irwin et Barneby (1. 82%); Flemingia macro-phylla (Willd. ) Prain (1. 91%); Cratoxylum cochinchinense (Lour. ) Blume (2. 14%); Leucaena leuco-cephala (Lam.) de Wit (2.34%); Acacia fame siana (Linn.) Willd. (2.67%); Flueggea virosa (Roxb. Ex Willd.) Voigt (2. 80%). There were significant monthly dynamic of tannin contents in all tested tropical trees and shrubs leaves, related to species, growing period and environment. Additionally, utilization and tannin physiology were also discussed in this paper.%通过对15种热带乔灌木不同月份(2009年3月至2010年2月)单宁含量的测定,以期明确部分木本饲用植物单宁含量及其动态变化趋势.结果表明:15种热带乔灌木单宁平均含量由低到高顺序如下:对叶榕(Ficus hispida L.f.)(0.39%)<刺桐(Erythrina variegata Linn.)(0.77%)<克拉豆(Cratylia argentea( Desv.)Kuntze) (0.78%)<假木豆(Dendrolobium triangulare (Retz.) Schindl.)(1.16%)<木豆(Cajanus ca jan (Linn.)Huth)(1.29%)<双荚决明(Senna bicapsularis (Linn.) Roxb.)(1.38%)<破布叶(Microcos paniculata Linn.)(1.56%)<圆叶舞草(Codariocalyx gyroides (Roxb.ex Link) Hassk.)(1.57%)<大果榕(Ficus auriculata Lour.)(1.62%)<长穗决明(Senna did ymobotr ya( Fresen.)H.S.Irwin et Barneby)(1.82%)<大叶千斤拔(Flemingia macrophylla (Willd.) Prain)( 1.91%)<黄牛木(Cratoxylum cochinchinense (Lour.) Blume) (2.14%)<银合欢(Leucaena leucocephala( Lam

  10. Effect of dark chocolate on arterial function in healthy individuals: cocoa instead of ambrosia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlachopoulos, Charalambos; Alexopoulos, Nikolaos; Stefanadis, Christodoulos

    2006-06-01

    Cocoa has been consumed for at least 2500 years, and for long time it has been regarded as a medicine. Arterial function is of paramount importance for the proper function and integrity of the cardiovascular system. Dark chocolate and flavonoid-rich cocoa have beneficial acute and short-term effects on endothelial function and wave reflections in normal individuals, in adults with cardiovascular risk factors, and in patients with coronary artery disease. Furthermore, dark chocolate and flavonoid-rich cocoa may have a blood pressure-lowering effect. These effects can be attributed to flavonoids and are mainly mediated through increased nitric oxide bioavailability. Further research is needed to demonstrate whether these effects of chocolate on arterial function are translated into clinical benefit.

  11. Glyphosate resistance in giant ragweed (Ambrosia trifida L.) from Mississippi is partly due to reduced translocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    A giant ragweed population from a glyphosate-resistant (GR) soybean field in Mississippi was suspected to be resistant to glyphosate. Greenhouse and laboratory studies were conducted to confirm and quantify the magnitude of glyphosate resistance in the giant ragweed population and to elucidate the p...

  12. 75 FR 27690 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for Ambrosia...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-18

    ... germination? What are the key factors determining why the species occupies the particular areas it occupies... portions (rhizomes) of A. pumila plants (see step number 4 in the Methods section of the proposed...

  13. Chemical constituents from Pfaffia paniculata%巴西人参的化学成分研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高辉; 马小军; 温学森; 陈迪华; 斯建勇

    2009-01-01

    目的 研究巴西人参Pfaffia paniculata根的化学成分,阐明其药效物质基础.方法 利用薄层色谱、硅胶柱色谱、Sephadex LH-20凝胶色谱等进行分离纯化,利用波谱技术和理化常数鉴定化合物结构.结果 分离得到12个化合物,分别鉴定为蜕皮甾酮(Ⅰ)、3-甲氧基-4-羟基-苯甲酸(Ⅱ)、齐墩果酸-3-O-β-D-葡萄糖醛酸苷(Ⅲ)、齐墩果酸-28-O-β-D-吡喃葡萄糖酯苷(Ⅳ)、齐墩果酸(Ⅴ)、豆甾醇-β-D-葡萄糖苷(Ⅵ)、豆甾醇(Ⅶ)、胡萝卜苷(Ⅷ)、β-谷甾醇(Ⅸ)、20,22-异丙亚二氧基-β-蜕皮激素(Ⅹ)、1-O-β-D-吡喃葡萄糖基-(2S,3S,4R)-2-[2'R-羟基-十六碳酰胺]-十八碳-4-烯-1,3-二醇(Ⅺ)、齐墩果酸-3-O-β-D-葡萄糖醛酸甲酯苷(ⅩⅡ).结论 化合物Ⅱ、Ⅲ、Ⅸ、Ⅹ、ⅩⅡ为首次从本属植物中分离得到,化合物Ⅰ、Ⅳ、Ⅴ为首次从该植物中分离得到.

  14. Phytochemical screening and antimicrobial activities of the constituents isolated from Koelreuteria paniculata leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghahari, Somayeh; Alinezhad, Heshmatollah; Nematzadeh, Ghorban Ali; Ghahari, Sajjad

    2015-01-01

    Methanolic extract of Golden rain leaves was fractionated by column chromatography on silica gel and 18 fractions were obtained. Antimicrobial activities of fractions were investigated against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa as quality control bacteria and fungus Pyricularia grisea which causes Blast disease in rice. Fractions showed more antibacterial activity at 0.04 g/mL concentration only on B. subtilis and S. aureus as gram positive bacteria. Also, three fractions indicated excellent antifungal effect on fungus P. grisea. Moreover, in the present study, fractions that showed very good effect on microorganisms were used for gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis to identify different phytochemicals.

  15. First Report of Dodder Transmission of Huanglongbing from Naturally Infected Murraya paniculata to Citrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huanglongbing (HLB) or “greening” disease of citrus is caused by phloem-limited, uncultured bacteria in the genus “Candidatus Liberibacter”. HLB is one of the most destructive diseases of citrus worldwide and is considered so dangerous to a U.S. citrus production that the USDA has listed “Ca. Liberi...

  16. Low incidence of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus in Diaphorina citri and its host plant Murraya paniculata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huanglongbing (HLB) is one of the most devastating diseases of citrus worldwide. Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus is the prevalent species of three HLB-associated Liberibacter species, which is vectored by the psyllid Diaphorina citri. The vector and the bacteria have host plants outside Citrus, ...

  17. Evaluation of quality of quinua seed (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) improved by mutagenesis; Evaluacion de calidad de semilla de quinua (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) mejorada por mutagenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avila R, S.; Reyes G, A. [UAEM, Facultad de Quimica, 50120 Toluca, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Cruz T, E. De la [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    It was carried out the physical and bromatological characterization of the seed of quinua of the varieties Sajama Barandales and Amarilla de Marangani; mutant lines 20R{sub 1}10, 94, 20R{sub 3}33, 20R{sub 2}27, 20R{sub 3}42 and 20R{sub 3}7 as well as of the advanced line obtained by conventional improvement 640304. The evaluated variables were seed size (diameter and thickness in mm), weight in grams of 100 seeds and density in grams by liter, finding that the genotype 20R{sub 3}33 present excellent characteristics respect with these variables. In the bromatological analysis it was determined the percentage of humidity, ashy, raw fiber, ethereal extract, proteins and carbohydrates, highlighting that the genotypes 20R{sub 3}33, 20R{sub 3}42 and witness present good values of protein content (16.8%, 15.57% and 15.9% respectively), overcoming to the cereals (corn, wheat and rice). (Author)

  18. Evaluation of the development and yielding potential of Chenopodium quinoa Willd. under the climatic conditions of Europe. Part one: accomodation of Chenopodium quinoa (Willd. to different conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Gęsiński

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on the evaluation of selected varieties of Chenopodium quinoa, their requirements were identified; it was shown which varieties demonstrated the best effects in what conditions. It was found that the best varieties for Europe's conditions were E-DK-4-PQCIP and RU-5-PQCIP. E-DK-4-PQCIP variety showed the best effects under the conditions of cluster II which included e.g. Bydgoszcz (Poland and cluster IV which included Southern European countries (Greece and Italy, while the best effects found in RU-5-PQCIP variety were identified in cluster I which included Sweden. E-DK-4-PQCIP variety in cluster II showed a very high yield of green matter and a mean seed yield, and in cluster IV - a very high seed yield and a high yield of green matter.

  19. Estudo preliminar da atividade antibacteriana das cascas de Erythrina velutina Willd., Fabaceae (Leguminosae Preliminary study of the antibacterial activity of Erythrina velutina Willd. Fabaceae (Leguminosae bark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Virtuoso

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available A Erythrina velutina é popularmente conhecida como suinã, mulungu, corticeira, mulungu-da-catinga dentre outros. Das várias espécies distribuídas pelo mundo cerca de doze estão no Brasil. A casca é utilizada, principalmente no nordeste brasileiro, pelas propriedades sudorífica, calmante, emoliente, peitoral, anestésica local e outras. Considerando-se que não existem estudos sobre o potencial microbiológico das cascas de Erythrina velutina este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliá-lo preliminarmente contra oito bactérias patogênicas. Foram utilizados os métodos de difusão em disco e concentração inibitória mínima para o extrato etanólico bruto e difusão em disco para a fração hexano. A atividade contra o Staphylococcus aureus e Streptococcus pyogenes foi evidenciada para ambas as amostras. A viabilidade de futuras pesquisas com outras frações e substâncias isoladas na busca de novas alternativas, visando uma terapêutica racional a partir de fontes naturais foi apontada pelos resultados.Erythrina velutina is popularly known as suinã, mulungu, corticeira, mulungu-da-catinga among others. Of the several species spread around the world about twelve are found in Brazil. Mainly in the Brazilian northeast the bark is used due to its sudorific, sedative, emollient, pectoral and topical anesthetic properties. Considering that there are no studies about the antibacterial potential of Erythrina velutina, this research aimed at evaluating, at least preliminarily, bark activity against eight pathogenic bacteria. The crude ethanol extract was tested by the disk diffusion method and minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC and the hexane fraction by the disk diffusion method. Both samples demonstrated activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes. The results pointed to the viability of future research on other fractions and substances isolated from Erythrina velutina in search for new rational therapeutic alternatives based on natural sources.

  20. Genetic Differentiation between Quercus frainetto Ten. and Q. pubescens Willd. in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Lucian CURTU

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about genetic differences among Quercus frainetto and Q. pubescens, two species of section Dascia Kotschy (subgenus Lepidobalanus, white oaks that reach in Romania the margins of their natural distribution range. A set of genomic SSRs (simple sequence repeats and EST (expressed sequence tags-SSRs was used to estimate the genetic differentiation among four natural populations of the two species. Q. pubescens had higher values of genetic diversity than Q. frainetto, although the differences were not significant. Two out of seven marker-loci, QrZAG112 and QpZAG110, displayed very high FST values. Averaged across loci, the genetic differentiation was high and significant (FST = 0.067. Genetic distances were much higher among species than among populations within species. A Bayesian analysis indicated that two is the most appropriate number of genetic clusters. Using a blind procedure (i.e. based on multilocus genotypes only the vast majority of sampled individuals (90% could be assigned to the cluster corresponding to their phenotypes. When information about sampling localities was introduced in the assignment test, all individual trees were correctly classified. The higher degree of admixture in Q. frainetto as compared to Q. pubescens may be explained by different rates of introgressive hybridization.

  1. Seed bank estimation and regeneration studies of Calophyllum apetalum Willd., from Western Ghats of Karnataka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. N. Prasanna Kumar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the seed production, modes of dispersal and regeneration patterns of threatened tree species are crucial for the management of their genetic diversity. The seed bank estimation of Calophyllum apetalum was assessed from three different locations of Western Ghats of Karnataka, using two factorial completely randomized design. The results revealed the seeds are dispersed by hydrochory and mammalochory. The post seed dispersal, seed bank estimation studies yielded a high seed density near the base of tree trunks, but it was varied between the distances and locations. The results revealed seed densities are insignificant among the forest ranges and significant with the distances. The in-situ regeneration studies revealed an insignificant relationship between the mean regeneration among the forest ranges and the distances. Also, the ex-situ regeneration studies resulted an insignificant relationship among forest ranges and the distances from which the seeds were collected. The highest seed germination through ex-situ regeneration suggested it, as a best suitable method of conservation of this species.

  2. Puerarin, isolated from Pueraria lobata (Willd.), protects against diabetic nephropathy by attenuating oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaohui; Zheng, Ni; Chen, Zhaoni; Huang, Wansu; Liang, Tao; Kuang, Hai

    2016-10-15

    In this study, we evaluated the effect of puerarin (PR) on diabetic nephropathy (DN) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. The fasting blood glucose (FBG), blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine (Scr), as well as 24-hour urine protein levels were effectively ameliorated in DN mice treated with PR (20, 40, 80mg/kg/day). Furthermore, PR treatment markedly resulted in down-regulation of interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in kidney. Interestingly, the activities of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) and catalase (CAT) were increased by PR. An improvement in kidney tissue damage could be observed after PR administration. Further ultrastructural investigation revealed a dramatically ameliorative effect of PR on mitochondrial damage. Meanwhile, the silent information regulator 1 (SIRT1), forkhead box protein O1 (FOXO1) and alpha subunit of peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1 (PGC-1α) expressions were significantly up-regulated at protein level by PR administration in renal cortex. However, the protein expression of nuclear-factor kappa B (NF-κB) was down-regulated in PR groups. Our present study demonstrates the hypoglycemic and renal protective effects of PR in DN mice, which support its anti-diabetic property. PR exerts its renal protection effect probably via the mechanism of attenuating SIRT1/FOXO1 pathway for renal protection.

  3. Responses of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. seeds stored under different germination temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andressa Strenske

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this experiment, we assessed the germination and vigor of quinoa seeds packed in paper bags and stored at room temperature for 36, 85, 119, 146, 177 and 270 days. The seeds were harvested under experimental conditions in Marechal Candido Rondon, Paraná, during the 2012/13 growing seasons. Four replicates of 100 seeds each were established for each storage time, and the seeds were evaluated, on paper, based on the BOD under the following experimental temperature conditions: alternating temperatures of 20 and 30°C and a constant temperature of 25°C. The seeds from both treatments were subject to seven-hour photoperiods and 25°C under continuous darkness. The germinated seeds were counted daily for eight days after sowing, and we evaluated the percentages of normal and abnormal seedlings and the germination index. The experimental design was completely randomized using a split-plot design. Increasing the storage time decreased the percentage of germinated seeds and seed vigor due to the increased number of abnormal seedlings. Over the 430-day study period, quinoa seed germination completely declined under the experimental conditions. The final number of germinating seeds should be evaluated 7 days after the beginning of the germination test.

  4. Biochar reduces copper toxicity in Chenopodium quinoa Willd. In a sandy soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buss, Wolfram; Kammann, Claudia; Koyro, Hans-Werner

    2012-01-01

    Mining, smelting, land applications of sewage sludge, the use of fungicides containing copper (Cu), and other human activities have led to widespread soil enrichment and contamination with Cu and potentially toxic conditions. Biochar (BC) can adsorb several substances, ranging from herbicides to plant-inhibiting allelochemicals. However, the range of potential beneficial effects on early-stage plant growth with regard to heavy metal toxicity is largely unexplored. We investigated the ameliorating properties of a forestry-residue BC under Cu toxicity conditions on early plant growth. Young quinoa plants () were grown in the greenhouse in the presence of 0, 2, and 4% BC application (w/w) added to a sandy soil with 0, 50, or 200 μg g Cu supplied. The plants without BC showed severe stress symptoms and reduced growth shortly after Cu application of 50 μg g and died at 200 μg Cu g. Increasing BC concentrations in the growth medium significantly increased the plant performance without Cu toxicity or under Cu stress. At the 4% BC application rate, the plants with 200 μg g Cu almost reached the same biomass as in the control treatment. In the presence of BC, less Cu entered the plant tissues, which had reduced Cu concentrations in the order roots, shoots, leaves. The amelioration effect also was reflected in the plant-soil system CO gas exchange, which showed clear signs of improvement with BC presence. The most likely ameliorating mechanisms were adsorption of Cu to negatively charged BC surfaces and an improvement of the water supply. Overall, BC seems to be a beneficial amendment with the potential to ameliorate Cu toxicity in sandy soils. Further research with a broad spectrum of different soil types, BCs, and crop plants is required.

  5. Antioxidant and immunoregulatory activity of polysaccharides from quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yang; Shi, Zhenxing; Ren, Guixing

    2014-10-23

    The water-extractable (QWP) and the alkali-extractable (QAP) polysaccharides from quinoa (named QWP and QAP, respectively) and their four polysaccharide sub-fractions (QWP-1, QWP-2, QAP-1 and QAP-2), were isolated and purified by anion-exchange and gel filtration chromatography. QWP-1 and QWP-2 were composed of Rha, Ara, Gal and GalA. QAP-1 and QAP-2 were composed of Rha, Ara, Man, Gal and GalA. Antioxidant and immunoregulatory activities of the polysaccharides were evaluated. The results showed that QWP-1, QWP-2, QAP-1 and QAP-2 had significant antioxidant and immunoregulatory activities. The results suggest that QWP-1, QWP-2, QAP-1 and QAP-2 could be used as potential antioxidants and immunomodulators.

  6. Effect of processing for saponin removal on fungal contamination of quinoa seeds (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappier, Ursula; Fernández Pinto, Virginia; Larumbe, Gabriela; Vaamonde, Graciela

    2008-07-15

    Incidence of fungal contamination of quinoa seeds from three locations (Salar de Uyuni, Bolivia; Salta and Tucumán provinces, Argentina) was analyzed in samples with and without treatment to remove saponins (wet method). In processed samples, the percentage of infection was reduced. Distribution of the different fungal genera was not homogeneous in the three locations (p<0.05), although Penicillium and Aspergillus were the most prevalent contaminants, regardless the geographic origin of the samples. Other genera, such as Eurotium, Fusarium, Phoma, Ulocladium, Mucor and Rhizopus were less frequently isolated. Absidia, Alternaria, Cladosporium, Dreschlera, Epicoccum and Monascus were sporadically encountered. Significant differences (p<0.05) in the distribution of fungal genera in samples with and without saponins from each location were observed. In all cases, processing caused a decrease of Aspergillus incidence, while increased the proportion of Penicillium, Eurotium, Mucor and Rhizopus indicating that these genera were part of the internal mycota. A. flavus and A. niger were the dominating species of genus Aspergillus. A similar pattern of prevalent Penicillium species was observed in samples with and without saponins, since P. aurantiogriseum, P.chrysogenum, P. citrinum and P. crustosum were always present in high number, although their relative density was variable according to the geographic origin of samples. Mycotoxin-producing ability of most representative species was also determined. Toxigenic strains of A. flavus (aflatoxins and cyclopiazonic acid), A. parasiticus (aflatoxins), P. citrinum (citrinin) and P. griseofulvum (cyclopiazonic acid) were found. None of the A. niger isolates was ochratoxin A producer. The above mentioned mycotoxins were not detected in the samples analyzed.

  7. Responses of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) to salinity and temperature regimes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adolf, Verena Isabelle

    Water scarcity, soil salinity and high temperatures are the major causes of yield losses worldwide. The halophytic crop quinoa that originates in the South American Andes, provides very nutritious seeds and can tolerate high levels of soil salinity. It is therefore considered an option to sustain...... crop production in other salt affected areas worldwide. The large genetic variability within the species may allow the selection of varieties for cultivation under various climatic conditions. In the study, intra-species differences of quinoa’s tolerance to salinity in terms of biomass production...... and a number of physiological traits were assessed. The Mediterranean region increasingly suffers from soil salinization, and could therefore benefit from quinoa cultivation. However, highly salt tolerant quinoa cultivars originate in the cool Andean highland. Hence, for a successful production of quinoa...

  8. Protective Antioxidant Enzyme Activities are Affected by Drought in Quinoa (Chenopodium Quinoa Willd)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fghire, Rachid; Ali, Oudou Issa; Anaya, Fatima

    2013-01-01

    of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), polyphenoloxydase (PPO), peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT), measured at flowering in quinoa, subjected to varying levels of drought stress. Drought levels were 100, 50 and 33% of evapotranspiration (ETc), and rainfed. Compared to full water supply (100%ETc...... increased in all treatments. These results suggest that antioxidant enzymes play important roles in reducing oxidative stress in quinoa plant exposed to drought stress....

  9. Potentially synbiotic fermented beverage with aqueous extracts of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) and soy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, F; Rossi, E A; Gomes, R G; Sivieri, K

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a potentially synbiotic beverage fermented with Lactobacillus casei LC-1 based on aqueous extracts of soy and quinoa with added fructooligosaccharides (FOS). Five formulations with differing proportions of soy and quinoa extracts were tested. The viability of the microorganism, the pH, and the acidity of all formulations were monitored until the 28th day of storage at 5 ℃. The chemical composition of the extracts and beverages and the rheological and sensory properties of the final products were analyzed. Although an increase in acidity and a decrease in pH were observed during the 28 days of storage, the viability of the probiotic microorganism was maintained at 10(8) CFU·mL(-1) in all formulated beverages throughout the storage period. An increase in viscosity and consistency in the formulations with higher concentrations of quinoa (F1 and F2) was observed. Formulation F4 (70% soy and 30% quinoa extracts) showed the least hysteresis. Formulations F4 and F5 (100% soy extract) had the best sensory acceptance while F4 resulted in the highest intention to purchase from a group of 80 volunteers. For chemical composition, F3 (50% soy and 50% quinoa extracts) and F4 showed the best results compared to similar fermented beverages. The formulation F4 was considered the best beverage overall.

  10. Simple sequence repeat marker development and genetic mapping in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, D E; Kopp, O R; Jellen, E N; Mallory, M A; Pattee, J; Bonifacio, A; Coleman, C E; Stevens, M R; Fairbanks, D J; Maughan, P J

    2008-04-01

    Quinoa is a regionally important grain crop in the Andean region of South America. Recently quinoa has gained international attention for its high nutritional value and tolerances of extreme abiotic stresses. DNA markers and linkage maps are important tools for germplasm conservation and crop improvement programmes. Here we report the development of 216 new polymorphic SSR (simple sequence repeats) markers from libraries enriched for GA, CAA and AAT repeats, as well as 6 SSR markers developed from bacterial artificial chromosome-end sequences (BES-SSRs). Heterozygosity (H) values of the SSR markers ranges from 0.12 to 0.90, with an average value of 0.57. A linkage map was constructed for a newly developed recombinant inbred lines (RIL) population using these SSR markers. Additional markers, including amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs), two 11S seed storage protein loci, and the nucleolar organizing region (NOR), were also placed on the linkage map. The linkage map presented here is the first SSR-based map in quinoa and contains 275 markers, including 200 SSR. The map consists of 38 linkage groups (LGs) covering 913 cM. Segregation distortion was observed in the mapping population for several marker loci, indicating possible chromosomal regions associated with selection or gametophytic lethality. As this map is based primarily on simple and easily-transferable SSR markers, it will be particularly valuable for research in laboratories in Andean regions of South America.

  11. Study of some physicochemical and functional properties of quinoa (chenopodium quinoa willd) protein isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abugoch, Lilian E; Romero, Nalda; Tapia, Cristián A; Silva, Jorge; Rivera, Mónica

    2008-06-25

    The amino acid composition and the physicochemical and functional properties of quinoa protein isolates were evaluated. Protein isolates were prepared from quinoa seed by alkaline solubilization (at pH 9, called Q9, and at pH 11, called Q11) followed by isoelectric precipitation and spray drying. Q9 and Q11 had high levels of essential amino acids, with high levels of lysine. Both isolates showed similar patterns in native/SDS-PAGE and SEM. The pH effect on fluorescence measurements showed decreasing fluorescence intensity and a shift in the maximum of emission of both isolates. Q9 showed an endotherm with a denaturation temperature of 98.1 degrees C and a denaturation enthalpy of 12.7 J/g, while Q11 showed no endotherm. The protein solubility of Q11 was lower than that of Q9 at pH above 5.0 but similar at the pH range 3.0-4.0. The water holding capacity (WHC) was similar in both isolates and was not affected by pH. The water imbibing capacity (WIC) was double for Q11 (3.5 mL of water/g isolate). Analysis of DSC, fluorescence, and solubility data suggests that there is apparently denaturation due to pH. Some differences were found that could be attributed to the extreme pH treatments in protein isolates and the nature of quinoa proteins. Q9 and Q11 can be used as a valuable source of nutrition for infants and children. Q9 may be used as an ingredient in nutritive beverages, and Q11 may be used as an ingredient in sauces, sausages, and soups.

  12. Influence of pearling process on phenolic and saponin content in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Caravaca, Ana Maria; Iafelice, Giovanna; Verardo, Vito; Marconi, Emanuele; Caboni, Maria Fiorenza

    2014-08-15

    The aim of this work was to obtain sweet quinoa seeds by a pearling process. Thus, two different pearling degrees (20% and 30%) were tested. Moreover, the effect of pearling process on saponins and phenolic content in quinoa were evaluated. To this end, GC-MS methodology was used to identify and quantify the saponins and reversed phase-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to DAD and mass spectrometer detectors was applied to study the phenolic composition. As expected, whole quinoa had the highest saponins and phenolics contents. An abrasion degree of 30% was necessary to obtain sweet quinoa (with a total saponin content lower than 110 mg/100 g). Obviously, this process caused a decrease of 21.5% and 35.2% of free and bound phenolic compounds, respectively. However, this decrease was lower if compared with other cereals. Thus, pearling process is a promising sustainable method to obtain sweet quinoa with a "green" approach.

  13. Detection and subcellular localization of dehydrin-like proteins in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carjuzaa, P; Castellión, M; Distéfano, A J; del Vas, M; Maldonado, S

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the dehydrin content in mature embryos of two quinoa cultivars, Sajama and Baer La Unión. Cultivar Sajama grows at 3600-4000 m altitude and is adapted to the very arid conditions characteristic of the salty soils of the Bolivian Altiplano, with less than 250 mm of annual rain and a minimum temperature of -1 degrees C. Cultivar Baer La Unión grows at sea-level regions of central Chile and is adapted to more humid conditions (800 to 1500 mm of annual rain), fertile soils, and temperatures above 5 degrees C. Western blot analysis of embryo tissues from plants growing under controlled greenhouse conditions clearly revealed the presence of several dehydrin bands (at molecular masses of approximately 30, 32, 50, and 55 kDa), which were common to both cultivars, although the amount of the 30 and 32 kDa bands differed. Nevertheless, when grains originated from their respective natural environments, three extra bands (at molecular masses of approximately 34, 38, and 40 kDa), which were hardly visible in Sajama, and another weak band (at a molecular mass of approximately 28 kDa) were evident in Baer La Unión. In situ immunolocalization microscopy detected dehydrin-like proteins in all axis and cotyledon tissues. At the subcellular level, dehydrins were detected in the plasma membrane, cytoplasm and nucleus. In the cytoplasm, dehydrins were found associated with mitochondria, rough endoplasmic reticulum cisternae, and proplastid membranes. The presence of dehydrins was also recognized in the matrix of protein bodies. In the nucleus, dehydrins were associated with the euchromatin. Upon examining dehydrin composition and subcellular localization in two quinoa cultivars belonging to highly contrasting environments, we conclude that most dehydrins detected here were constitutive components of the quinoa seed developmental program, but some of them (specially the 34, 38, and 40 kDa bands) may reflect quantitative molecular differences associated with the adaptation of both cultivars to contrasting environmental conditions.

  14. Antioxidant and Immunoregulatory Activity of Polysaccharides from Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yao

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The water-extractable (QWP and the alkali-extractable (QAP polysaccharides from quinoa (named QWP and QAP, respectively and their four polysaccharide sub-fractions (QWP-1, QWP-2, QAP-1 and QAP-2, were isolated and purified by anion-exchange and gel filtration chromatography. QWP-1 and QWP-2 were composed of Rha, Ara, Gal and GalA. QAP-1 and QAP-2 were composed of Rha, Ara, Man, Gal and GalA. Antioxidant and immunoregulatory activities of the polysaccharides were evaluated. The results showed that QWP-1, QWP-2, QAP-1 and QAP-2 had significant antioxidant and immunoregulatory activities. The results suggest that QWP-1, QWP-2, QAP-1 and QAP-2 could be used as potential antioxidants and immunomodulators.

  15. Anticancer activity of the Uncaria tomentosa (Willd.) DC. preparations with different oxindole alkaloid composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilarski, Radosław; Filip, Beata; Wietrzyk, Joanna; Kuraś, Mieczysław; Gulewicz, Krzysztof

    2010-12-01

    The activity of Uncaria tomentosa preparations on cancer cells was studied using in vitro and in vivo models. IC (50) values were calculated for preparations with different quantitative and qualitative oxindole alkaloid composition: B/W(37) --bark extracted in water at 37 °C, B/W(b)--bark extracted in boiling water, B/50E(37) --bark extracted in 50% ethanol at 37 °C, B/E(b)--bark extracted in boiling 96% ethanol, B/96E(37) --bark extracted in 96% ethanol at 37 °C and B/SRT--bark extracted in water and dichloromethane. Generally, the results obtained showed a high correlation between the total oxindole alkaloid content (from 0.43% to 50.40% d.m.) and the antiproliferative activity of the preparations (IC(50) from >1000 μg/ml to 23.57 μg/ml). B/96E(37) and B/SRT were the most cytotoxic preparations, whereas the lowest toxicity was observed for B/W(37). B/96E(37) were shown to be active against Lewis lung carcinoma (LL/2) [IC(50) =25.06 μg/ml], cervical carcinoma (KB) [IC(50) =35.69 μg/ml] and colon adenocarcinoma (SW707) [IC(50) =49.06 μg/ml]. B/SRT was especially effective in inhibiting proliferation of cervical carcinoma (KB) [IC(50) =23.57 μg/ml], breast carcinoma (MCF-7) [IC(50) =29.86 μg/ml] and lung carcinoma (A-549) [IC(50) =40.03 μg/ml]. Further animal studies on mice bearing Lewis lung carcinoma showed significant inhibition of tumor growth by B/W(37) administered for 21 days at daily doses of 5 and 0.5 mg (p=0.0009). There were no significant changes in the cell cycles of tumor cells with the exception of cell decrease at the G₂/M phase after the administration of B/96E(37) at a daily dose of 0.5 mg and the G(1)/G(0) cells cycle arrest demonstrated after the B/SRT therapy at a daily-dose of 0.05 mg. All tested preparations were non-toxic and well tolerated.

  16. Antioxidant activity of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Uncaria tomentosa (Willd.) DC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilarski, Radosław; Zieliński, Henryk; Ciesiołka, Danuta; Gulewicz, Krzysztof

    2006-03-01

    The antioxidant properties of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of the Uncaria tomentosa bark were evaluated. The analysis included trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), peroxyl radical-trapping capacity (PRTC), superoxide radical scavenging activity (SOD) and quantitation of total tannins (TT) and total phenolic compounds (TPC). The obtained results indicate high antioxidant capacity of the studied materials in comparison to the other extracts of fruits, vegetables, cereals and medicinal plants. Higher antioxidant activity and total phenolic compounds of the alcoholic preparations -- TEAC=0.57 mmol of Trolox/g, PRTC=0.52 mmol of Trolox/g and SOD=0.39 U/mg than of the aqueous preparation -- TEAC=0.34 mmol of Trolox/g, PRTC=0.19 mmol of Trolox/g and SOD=0.10 U/mg were observed. These results might suggest higher medical suitability of alcoholic extracts. However, the highly elevated level of tannins in alcoholic extracts may cause undesirable gastric effects.

  17. Alpha-glucosidase inhibitory and antiplasmodial properties of terpenoids from the leaves of Buddleja saligna Willd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chukwujekwu, Jude C; Rengasamy, Kannan R R; de Kock, Carmen A; Smith, Peter J; Slavětínská, Lenka Poštová; van Staden, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    In our continuing search for biologically active natural product(s) of plant origin, Buddleja saligna, a South African medicinal plant, was screened in line with its traditional use for antidiabetic (yeast alpha glucosidase inhibitory) and antiplasmodial (against a chloroquine sensitive strain of Plasmodium falciparum (NF54)) activities. The hexane fraction showed the most promising activity with regards to its antidiabetic (IC(50) = 260 ± 0.112 µg/ml) and antiplasmodial (IC(50) = 8.5 ± 1.6 µg/ml) activities. Using activity guided fractionation three known terpenoids (betulonic acid, betulone and spinasterol) were isolated from this species for the first time. The compounds displayed varying levels of biological activities (antidiabetic: 27.31 µg/ml ≥ IC(50) ≥ 5.6 µg/ml; antiplasmodial: 14 µg/ml ≥ IC(50) ≥ 2 µg/ml) with very minimal toxicity.

  18. A New Flavonol Triglycoside and Other Flavonol Glycosides from Astragalus armatus Willd. (Fabaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assia Khalfallah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available From the aerial parts of Astragalus armatus, a new acylated flavonol triglycoside, isorhamnetin-3-O-(5'''-p-hydroxybenzoyl-β-apiofuranosyl-(1→2[ α -rhamnopyranosyl-(1→6]- β -galactopyranoside (1 which we named astrarmatuside, has been isolated and structurally elucidated together with seven known flavonol glycosides: tamarixetin-3-O- α -apiofuranosyl-(1→2[ α -rhamnopyranosyl-(1→6]- β -galactopyranoside (2 (m illettias p ec oside D , isorhamnetin-3-O-β-apiofuranosyl-(1→2[α-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→6]-β-galacto-pyranoside (3, kaempferol-3-O-α-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2[α-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→6]-β-glucopyranoside (4, kaempferol-3-O-α-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2[α-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→6]-β-galactopyranoside (mauritianin (5, isorhamnetin-3-O-α-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2[α-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→6]-β-galactopyranoside (6, kaempferol-3-O-α-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→6]-β-glucopyranoside (nikotiflorin (7 and isorhamnetin-3-O-α-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→6]-β-glucopyranoside (narcissin (8 . The structures of the isolated compounds were established by means of 2D NMR experiments, HPLC-DADMS, HR-MS and UV spectral analyses. Pivotal role in the structure elucidation and in particular in the determination of sugar sequence, played HSQC-TOCSY and ROESY experiments whereas those of the known compounds (2–8 were established by spectral comparison with those published in the literature.

  19. Studies on the flora of the Guianas. 3. A survey of Habenaria Willd. in Suriname (Orchidaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Snuverink, J.H.; Westra, L.Y.Th.

    1983-01-01

    This is a preliminary survey of the Habenaria species now known from Suriname. A key and descriptions, as well as analytical drawings of the flowers are provided. The descriptions are based not only on collections from Suriname, but also on material from the other Guianas.

  20. [Determination of aucubin in Plantago asiatica L., P. major L. and P. depressa Willd. by HPLC].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Y; Cha, M; Chao, A; Yuan, C

    1991-12-01

    A HPLC method for the determination of aucubin in P. asiatica, P. major and P. depressa was established. The mobile phase is MeOH-H2O (17:83). Good in producibility and high in rate of recovery, this method provides an effective way for the study of Plantago.