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Sample records for ambrosia paniculata willd

  1. Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of the essential oil of Ambrosia peruviana Willd. from Venezuelan plains

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    Carlos A. Yánez C.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In Venezuela, are currently exploring new sources of natural antibacterial agents, due to increased bacterial resistance, including essential oils derived from plants. For this reason in the present study we determined the chemical composition of essential oil obtained from leaves collected on Ambrosia peruviana Willd Guasdualito, Apure State, Venezuela. The volatile compounds were isolated by hydrodistillation in a Clevenger trap and then subjected to qualitative analysis and quantitative by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC / MS on an HP GC-MS System, model 5973, finding as the major compound gamma-curcumeno (23.99% followed by curcumeno-ar (14.08%, bornyl acetate (10.35%, camphor (5.03% and epoxide oximene (4.79%. The antibacterial activity of essential oil by the agar diffusion method with discs against Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella typhi and Pseudomonas aeruginosa showed activity against S. aureus, E. faecalis, E. coli and S. Typhi, with MIC values of 350-500 micrograms/ mL. This research represents the first report of antibacterial activity of A. peruviana.

  2. The infestation by an exotic ambrosia beetle, Euplatypus parallelus (F. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Platypodinae of Angsana trees (Pterocarpus indicus Willd. in southern Thailand

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    Sara Bumrungsri

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available An exotic ambrosia beetle, Euplatypus parallelus (F. was collected from infested Pterocarpus indicus Willd. trees in Prince of Songkla University. Larvae and eggs were found in simple galleries with a single branch. Either a single male or a male and a female were found in each gallery. Half of these infested trees were previously attacked by long-horned beetles probably Aristobia horridula (Hope (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae, while some of them appeared to be healthy. Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht.:Fr. was isolated from frass, sapwood samples and insect larvae, and might be a cause of death of P.indicus.

  3. Antiviral and Immunostimulant Activities of Andrographis paniculata

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    Churiyah; Olivia Bunga Pongtuluran; Elrade Rofaani; Tarwadi,

    2015-01-01

    Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Nees is a medicinal plant which was reported to have anti HIV, anti pathogenic bacteria and immunoregulatory activities. The research purpose was to investigate the activity of Andrographis paniculata ethanol extract as antiviral and immunostimulant. A. paniculata leaves oven-dried, then grinded and macerated with ethanol 90%, and the extract then analyzed using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) to determine the content of active compounds androg...

  4. Antiviral and Immunostimulant Activities of Andrographis paniculata

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    Churiyah

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f. Nees is a medicinal plant which was reported to have anti HIV, anti pathogenic bacteria and immunoregulatory activities. The research purpose was to investigate the activity of Andrographis paniculata ethanol extract as antiviral and immunostimulant. A. paniculata leaves oven-dried, then grinded and macerated with ethanol 90%, and the extract then analyzed using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC to determine the content of active compounds andrographolide. The antiviral activity of the extract was determined by observing its ability on inhibiting virus load in A549 cells transfected with Simian Retro Virus (SRV by Real Time – Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR analysis. The immunostimulant activity of extract was determined by its ability to induce lymphocytes cell proliferation using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay. Our result indicated that the A. paniculata ethanol extract inhibited the SRV virus titer similar to the positive control Lamivudine, and it was not toxic to the A459 cell line. Furthermore, low concentration (1 μg/mL of A. paniculata extract could stimulated lymphocyte cell proliferation about 38% compared to the control lymphocyte cell without any treatment.

  5. Ragweed (Ambrosia sp. seeds in bird feed

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    Frick, G.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2005, the Swiss official feed inspection of Agroscope Liebefeld-Posieux Research Station (ALP was mandated to check bird feed and raw materials for the presence of Ambrosia sp. seeds. Indeed, such seeds were found in varying amounts when analyzed in the feed microscopy laboratory. The producers were informed, and a limit of intervention (50 mg.kg-1 ≈ 9 to 10 seeds.kg-1 was finally set for this undesirable component. The results of five years of controls show, at first, around 50% of contaminated samples. With appropriate measures, the level of contamination could be lowered in the following years. In parallel, the size of Ambrosia sp. seeds and the sieves to be used for routine analyses were checked. Ambrosia sp. seeds found in feed checked in Switzerland were seldom larger ("wider" than 3.5 mm and never smaller than 1.5 mm. Several EU Member States started their own control and monitoring programs. The results of studies from Germany, Slovenia and Denmark, presented by their feed microscopists at the IAG meetings, indicate the presence of Ambrosia sp. seeds in 21 to 75% of the products put on the market.

  6. Allelochemical phenolic acids from Gypsophila paniculata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of Gypsophila paniculata L. (Caryophyllaceae) resulted in the isolation of the phenolics p-coumaric acid (1), dihydroferulic acid (2), and syringic acid (3). In addition to their noted weak antimicrobial activity, compounds 1 and 3 are known to be potent exuded alleloc...

  7. Aspek Farmakologi Sambiloto (Andrographis paniculata Nees)

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    Widyawati, Tri

    2010-01-01

    Sambiloto (Andrographis paniculata Nees) is one of nine priority traditional medicine that should be examined in a good clinical trial. The chemistry constituents consist of flavonoide and lactone. It major constituents are lactones known as andrographolide. Following an oral administration of 20 mg andrographolide, maximum plasma levels were reached after 1,5–2 hours, and half life were 6,6 hours. This compound will be widely distributed in the body. Pharmacology effect of sambiloto are as a...

  8. New Diterpenoids from Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Nees

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Qi Zhang; Guo-Cai Wang; Wen-Cai Ye; Qian Li; Guang-Xiong Zhou; Xin-Sheng Yao

    2006-01-01

    To investigate diterpenoids from the aerial parts of Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Nees, three new ent-labdane diterpenoids, namely 19-norandrographolides A-C (compounds 1-3), were isolated from the ethanolic extract of A. paniculata. Their structures were established by HRESIMS and NMR spectral data in combination with X-ray crystallographic analysis.

  9. Distribution of Invasive Weed Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. in Croatia

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    Natalija Galzina

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. is an invasive alien plant in Europe that has been the subject of research of many scientific disciplines, particularly in last twenty years. In addition to being known as a noxious weed, it came into the public interest as a source of very strong allergenic pollen that causes allergic responses in 10% of the Croatian population, a figure similar to that of other European countries. The genus Ambrosia consists of about 40 species but in Europe just five of them are present. The most widespread is Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. It is present normally in row crops, particularly in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. fields. Furthermore, its presence is noticed along communication lines, in urban, industrial and building areas, and other non-agricultural areas. Distribution monitoring of Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. was conducted during three years, from 2004 to 2006, by recording its presence or absence in settlements of districts in the 21 counties of Croatia. Inland parts of Croatia are highly infested with Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. while in the coastal area it is mainly concentrated on bands along communication lines. In this area we observed individual (solitary plants. Systematic and well organized monitoring of the Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. spread and distribution in the coastal parts of Croatia would reduce its progression to the more southern parts and the Croatian islands.

  10. Labdane Diterpenoids from Coleus forskohlii (Willd.) Briq.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In order to investigate the active substances of Coleus forskohlii (Willd.) Briq., a new labdane diterpenoid, 12-hydroxy-8,13E-labdadien-15-0ic acid, together with two 8,13-epoxylabd-14-ene-11-one diterpenoids, 6-acetyl-1-deoxyforskolin and 6-acetyl-1,9-dideoxyforskolin, was isolated on the basis of various chromatographic techniques and spectroscopic methods.

  11. GALIUM RUTHENICUM WILLD. IN FLORA OF ROMANIA

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    CIOCÂRLAN VASILE

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A newly identified species in the vascular flora of Romania, namely Galium ruthenicum Willd. is published now. This taxa has been identified in Tulcea county, Dobrudja province. It is grown on sunny, rocky places.It is also mentioned the differences against Galium verum L., a morphologically close taxa in flora of Romania.

  12. New Sesquiterpenoids from Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.

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    Wenbing Ding

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A new pseudoguaianolide 1 and two new guaiane-type sesquiterpene glucosides 2 and 3, were isolated from the aerial parts of Ambrosia artemisiifolia L together with two known sesquiterpene dilactones 4 and 5. The new compounds were determined on the basis of spectroscopic and chemical methods to be 3β-acetoxy-4β-hydroxy-1α,7α, 10β,11αH-pseudoguaia-12,8β-olide (1, 1β,7β,9β,10β,13αH-guaia-4(5-en-12,6β-olide 9-O-β-d-glucoside (2 and 4β-hydroxy-1α,5α,7α,9αH-guaia-10(14,11(13-dien-12-acid 9-O-β-d-glucoside (3. The isolated compounds were evaluated for cytotoxicity against human promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 cell lines in vitro, but were all inactive.

  13. Isolation and identification of bioactive compounds in Andrographis paniculata (Chuanxinlian

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    Lin Bi-Fong

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f. Nees (Acanthaceae is a medicinal plant used in many countries. Its major constituents are diterpenoids, flavonoids and polyphenols. Among the single compounds extracted from A. paniculata, andrographolide is the major one in terms of bioactive properties and abundance. Among the andrographolide analogues, 14-deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide is immunostimulatory, anti-infective and anti-atherosclerotic; neoandrographolide is anti-inflammatory, anti-infective and anti-hepatotoxic; 14-deoxyandrographolide is immunomodulatory and anti-atherosclerotic. Among the less abundant compounds from A. paniculata, andrograpanin is both anti-inflammatory and anti-infective; 14-deoxy-14,15-dehydroandrographolide is anti-inflammatory; isoandrographolide, 3,19-isopropylideneandrographolide and 14-acetylandrographolide are tumor suppressive; arabinogalactan proteins are anti-hepatotoxic. The four flavonoids from A. paniculata, namely 7-O-methylwogonin, apigenin, onysilin and 3,4-dicaffeoylquinic acid are anti-atherosclerotic.

  14. Isolation and identification of bioactive compounds in Andrographis paniculata (Chuanxinlian)

    OpenAIRE

    Lin Bi-Fong; Chao Wen-Wan

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Nees (Acanthaceae) is a medicinal plant used in many countries. Its major constituents are diterpenoids, flavonoids and polyphenols. Among the single compounds extracted from A. paniculata, andrographolide is the major one in terms of bioactive properties and abundance. Among the andrographolide analogues, 14-deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide is immunostimulatory, anti-infective and anti-atherosclerotic; neoandrographolide is anti-inflammatory, a...

  15. Phylogeny of ambrosia beetle symbionts in the genus Raffaelea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreaden, Tyler J; Davis, John M; de Beer, Z Wilhelm; Ploetz, Randy C; Soltis, Pamela S; Wingfield, Michael J; Smith, Jason A

    2014-12-01

    The genus Raffaelea was established in 1965 when the type species, Raffaelea ambrosia, a symbiont of Platypus ambrosia beetles was described. Since then, many additional ambrosia beetle symbionts have been added to the genus, including the important tree pathogens Raffaelea quercivora, Raffaelea quercus-mongolicae, and Raffaelea lauricola, causal agents of Japanese and Korean oak wilt and laurel wilt, respectively. The discovery of new and the dispersal of described species of Raffaelea to new areas, where they can become invasive, presents challenges for diagnosticians as well as plant protection and quarantine efforts. In this paper, we present the first comprehensive multigene phylogenetic analysis of Raffaelea. As it is currently defined, the genus was found to not be monophyletic. On the basis of this work, Raffaelea sensu stricto is defined and the affinities of undescribed isolates are considered. PMID:25457944

  16. Thrombolytic and antimicrobial activities of andrographis paniculata - a preliminary investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An attempt has been made to investigate thrombolytic and antimicrobial activities of ethanolic extracts of Andrographis paniculata whole plant. Phytochemical constituents of A. paniculata were assessed by human erythrocyte and the results were compared with standard streptokinase (SK). Moreover, the plant extracts were compared with the antibiotic kanamycin to investigate antibacterial activity against several microorganisms. Glycosides, steroids, phenols, alkaloid and tannins were found in the ethanol extract of whole plant. Crude ethanol extract (P<0.05) and soluble fraction of ethanol extract (P<0.05) have shown thrombolytic properties. Crude ethanol extract, n-hexane soluble fractions and carbon tetrachloride soluble fraction of ethanol extract of the whole plant have shown antimicrobial activities against common gram positive and gram negative microorganisms. The results of current study justify thrombolytic and antimicrobial activities of A. paniculata. (author)

  17. The redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus: A threat to avocado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurel wilt (LW) is a disease caused by Raffaelea sp., a fungal symbiont associated with the recently-introduced redbay ambrosia beetle (RAB), Xyleborus glabratus. Impact of RAB as a vector of the disease to avocado is a threat to avocado production in the U.S. Since 2006, we have a) tested suscepti...

  18. Poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd. ex Klotzsch).

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    Islam, M Ashraful; Thorstensen, Tage; Clarke, Jihong Liu

    2015-01-01

    Genetic engineering is an important tool for introducing desired genes into poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd. ex Klotzsch). We describe in this chapter an Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation protocol for poinsettia. A detailed description of genetic transformation, antibiotic selection, subsequent regeneration via somatic embryogenesis, and rooting as well as molecular and morphological analyses is included. The methodology described here could facilitate the future engineering of poinsettia for research purpose as well as commercial production of poinsettia plants with improved resistance or novel traits. PMID:25416270

  19. A New Pseudo Sesquiterpenoid from the Seeds of Koelreuteria paniculata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    From the seeds of medicinal plant Koelreuteria paniculata, a new pseudo sesquiter- penoid with novel skeleton namely paniculoid 1 was isolated. The structure of 1 was established on the basis of extensive 2D NMR spectroscopy in conjugation with MS and IR spectral analysis.

  20. AN OVERVIEW ON ANDROGRAPHIS PANICULATA (BURM. F.) NEES

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    Ghosh Kumar Benoy; Datta Kumar Animesh; Mandal Aninda; Dubey Kumari Priyanka; Halder Sandip

    2012-01-01

    Andrographis paniculata (Burm. F.) Nees (Family: Acanthaceae) commonly known as Kalmegh (King of Bitters) is an important plant species in Ayurvedic medicine (prominent in 26 Ayurvedic formulations). An overview is conducted in the species considering all essential aspects namely, therapeutic uses, synonyms, common names, distribution, habitat, soil condition, cultivation, harvest, post harvest and storage, plant description, reproductive biology, cytological aspects, cytogenetical study, mol...

  1. A new ent-labdane diterpenoid from Andrographis paniculata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiong Yu Zou; Na Li; Chun Dan; Wen Long Deng; Shu Lin Peng; Li Sheng Ding

    2010-01-01

    A new ent-labdane diterpenoid,19-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-ent-labda-8(17),13-dien-15,16,19-triol,together with six known ent-labdane diterpenoids,was isolated from the aerial parts of Andrographis paniculata.The structure of the new compound was elucidated by extensive spectral analysis.

  2. Patterns of functional enzyme activity in fungus farming ambrosia beetles

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    De Fine Licht Henrik H

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction In wood-dwelling fungus-farming weevils, the so-called ambrosia beetles (Curculionidae: Scolytinae and Platypodinae, wood in the excavated tunnels is used as a medium for cultivating fungi by the combined action of digging larvae (which create more space for the fungi to grow and of adults sowing and pruning the fungus. The beetles are obligately dependent on the fungus that provides essential vitamins, amino acids and sterols. However, to what extent microbial enzymes support fungus farming in ambrosia beetles is unknown. Here we measure (i 13 plant cell-wall degrading enzymes in the fungus garden microbial consortium of the ambrosia beetle Xyleborinus saxesenii, including its primary fungal symbionts, in three compartments of laboratory maintained nests, at different time points after gallery foundation and (ii four specific enzymes that may be either insect or microbially derived in X. saxesenii adult and larval individuals. Results We discovered that the activity of cellulases in ambrosia fungus gardens is relatively small compared to the activities of other cellulolytic enzymes. Enzyme activity in all compartments of the garden was mainly directed towards hemicellulose carbohydrates such as xylan, glucomannan and callose. Hemicellulolytic enzyme activity within the brood chamber increased with gallery age, whereas irrespective of the age of the gallery, the highest overall enzyme activity were detected in the gallery dump material expelled by the beetles. Interestingly endo-β-1,3(4-glucanase activity capable of callose degradation was identified in whole-body extracts of both larvae and adult X. saxesenii, whereas endo-β-1,4-xylanase activity was exclusively detected in larvae. Conclusion Similar to closely related fungi associated with bark beetles in phloem, the microbial symbionts of ambrosia beetles hardly degrade cellulose. Instead, their enzyme activity is directed mainly towards comparatively more easily

  3. Treatment of quinoa (chenopodium quinoa Willd) with Colchicina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sample no. 559, coming from the Bank of Germoplasma of Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) of the Experimental Station at Patacamaya, located in the province Aroma of the La Paz department Bolivia, was treated with an aqueous solution of 0.4% of Colchicina. The treatment did not give the expected result, due, probably, to the very special behaviour of the Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) during the process of mitosis

  4. Pharmacognostical study on fruit of ziziphus xylopyrus (retz.) Willd

    OpenAIRE

    Singhal U; Goyal A; Solanki N S; Jain V K; Goyal P K

    2012-01-01

    Ziziphus xylopyrus (Retz.) willd known as katber is used traditionally in the treatment of various diseases like Bronchial Asthma, Thirst, Diarrhoea and as Aphrodisiac, Antimicrobial, Antiinflammatory Antinoceceptive and as Anticonvulsants. Present Paper deals with Pharmacognostic study of fruit part of Ziziphus xylopyrus (Retz.) willd.,for its identification and to distinguish it from the coexisting weeds and adulterants. The Secton of fruit has thick pericarp, hard and thick seeds and scler...

  5. Novo besouro-de-ambrosia em guanandi (Calophyllum brasiliense Cambessedes)

    OpenAIRE

    Wagner Calixto de Castro Morais*; Maria Eunice Paula de Souza; Norivaldo dos Anjos

    2011-01-01

    Calophyllum brasiliense, known as Guanandi, is a heliophytic tree, and native to the Americancontinent and show great historic importance in Brazil. There is some information about insectsassociated with this tree species, but very few specific records. The aim of this study was to describethe occurrence and damage of a new Ambrosia beetle attacking Guanandi tree. In order to getthis information, pieces of attacked Guanandi branch were collected and kept under observationfor a period of 39 da...

  6. Screening of cardioprotective activity of leaves of Andrographis paniculata against isoproterenol induced myocardial infarction in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Dipendra Kumar Sah; Nagarathana P.K.M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the present study was to investigate the cardioprotective effects of methanolic extract of leaves of Andrographis paniculata against Isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction (MI) in rats.Method: The rats were divided into five experimental groups viz., Normal control, ISO-treated (Disease control), Propranolol (10 mg/kg + ISO), Andrographis paniculata (100 mg/kg +ISO) and Andrographis paniculata (200 mg/kg + ISO). Myocardial infarction in rats was induced by the...

  7. Ambrosia airborne pollen concentration modelling and evaluation over Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamaoui-Laguel, Lynda; Vautard, Robert; Viovy, Nicolas; Khvorostyanov, Dmitry; Colette, Augustin

    2014-05-01

    Native from North America, Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. (Common Ragweed) is an invasive annual weed introduced in Europe in the mid-nineteenth century. It has a very high spreading potential throughout Europe and releases very allergenic pollen leading to health problems for sensitive persons. Because of its health effects, it is necessary to develop modelling tools to be able to forecast ambrosia air pollen concentration and to inform allergy populations of allergenic threshold exceedance. This study is realised within the framework of the ATOPICA project (https://www.atopica.eu/) which is designed to provide first steps in tools and estimations of the fate of allergies in Europe due to changes in climate, land use and air quality. To calculate and predict airborne concentrations of ambrosia pollen, a chain of models has been built. Models have been developed or adapted for simulating the phenology (PMP phonological modelling platform), inter-annual production (ORCHIDEE vegetation model), release and airborne processes (CHIMERE chemical transport model) of ragweed pollen. Airborne pollens follow processes similar to air quality pollutants in CHIMERE with some adaptations. The detailed methodology, formulations and input data will be presented. A set of simulations has been performed to simulate airborne concentrations of pollens over long time periods on a large European domain. Hindcast simulations (2000 - 2012) driven by ERA-Interim re-analyses are designed to best simulate past periods airborne pollens. The modelled pollen concentrations are calibrated with observations and validated against additional observations. Then, 20-year long historical simulations (1986 - 2005) are carried out using calibrated ambrosia density distribution and climate model-driven weather in order to serve as a control simulation for future scenarios. By comparison with multi-annual observed daily pollen counts we have shown that the model captures well the gross features of the pollen

  8. A REVIEW ON MEDICINAL PROSPECTIVES OF ANDROGRAPHIS PANICULATA NEES

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    Dhiman Anju

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Andrographis paniculata Nees (Acanthacae is a widely used medicinal plant in China, India, and South Asia. It contains andrographolide as major constituent which impart bitter taste of this herb. Other constituents include 14-deoxy-12-methoxyandrographolide, 14-deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide, 14-deoxyandrographolide. It is used in various ailments like throat infections, dysentery, cancer, hepatotoxicity, cough, cold, headache, edema, pain conditions, inflammation and muscular pain, arthritis, rheumatism, fibro myalgia, multiple sclerosis, depression, diarrhoea, dysentery, cholera, candida, lupus, diabetes, piles, fevers, fatigue, hepatitis, herpes, leprosy, loss of appetite, swollen lymph nodes and other lymphatic conditions, jaundice, malaria, dyspepsia, dermatitis, eczema, burns, pneumonia, bronchitis, tuberculosis, chicken pox, mumps, sluggish liver, spleen, kidneys and adrenal glands, sleeplessness, vaginitis, & constipation. The present review is an attempt to provide recent update on phytochemical and pharmacological profile of A. paniculata along with its toxicity and contraindications status.

  9. Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Meat Yield of Boer Goats Fed Diets Containing Leaves or Whole Parts of Andrographis paniculata

    OpenAIRE

    Yusuf, A. L.; Y.M. Goh; Samsudin, A. A.; A. R. Alimon; A. Q. Sazili

    2014-01-01

    The study was conducted to determine the effect of feeding diets containing Andrographis paniculata leaves (APL), whole Andrographis paniculata plant (APWP) and a control without Andrographis paniculata (AP0), on growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat yield of 24 intact Boer bucks. The results obtained indicated that inclusion of Andrographis paniculata significantly improved feed intake, weight gain, feed efficiency and live weight. The ratios of carcass to fat, lean to bone, l...

  10. Isolasi dan Identifikasi Andrografolida dari Herba Andrographis paniculata Ness

    OpenAIRE

    Suharmiati Suharmiati; Lestari Handayani

    2012-01-01

    Andrographolide is the main constituent of Andrographis paniculata Ness (AP) which was poorly soluble in water and bitter taste. As diterpenoid lactone andrographolide has many biological activities, some of them are immunostimulant, anti malaria, hepatoproccctor and anti mutagenic. The objective of this study were isolation and identification andrographolide from AP. In this study AP metanol extracted by percolation. Filtrate was collected and congealed ad viscous and was snaked by ethylacet...

  11. A REVIEW ON MEDICINAL PROSPECTIVES OF ANDROGRAPHIS PANICULATA NEES

    OpenAIRE

    Dhiman Anju; Goyal Jugnu; Sharma Kavita; Nanda Arun; Dhiman Sandeep

    2012-01-01

    Andrographis paniculata Nees (Acanthacae) is a widely used medicinal plant in China, India, and South Asia. It contains andrographolide as major constituent which impart bitter taste of this herb. Other constituents include 14-deoxy-12-methoxyandrographolide, 14-deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide, 14-deoxyandrographolide. It is used in various ailments like throat infections, dysentery, cancer, hepatotoxicity, cough, cold, headache, edema, pain conditions, inflammation and muscular pain, ar...

  12. Antibacterial Activity of Ethanol Extract of Andrographis paniculata

    OpenAIRE

    Mishra, U.S.; A. Mishra; Kumari, R.; P. N. Murthy; Naik, B. S.

    2009-01-01

    In the present study the ethanol extract of the aerial part of Andrographis paniculata was prepared and evaluated for antimicrobial activity against eleven bacterial strains by determining minimum inhibitory concentration and zone of inhibition. Minimum inhibitory concentration values were compared with control and zone of inhibition values were compared with standard ciprofloxacin in concentration 100 and 200 μg/ml. The results revealed that, the ethanol extract is potent in inhibiting bacte...

  13. KAJIAN KLINIK PEMBERIAN EKSTRAK SAMBILOTO (Andrographis paniculata) TERHADAP KERUSAKAN EPIDIDIMIS MENCIT JANTAN

    OpenAIRE

    Eddyman

    2013-01-01

    Telah dilakukan penelitian tentang pengaruh pemberian ekstrak etanol herba sambiloto (Andrographis paniculata) terhadap kerusakan Epididimis mencit jantan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh pemberian ekstrak etanol herba sambiloto (Andrographis paniculata) terhadap Epididimis mencit jantan dewasa. Penelitian dilakukan dengan menggunakan hewan coba (mencit jantan) sebanyak 4 kelompok dengan 3 kali ulangan. Setiap kelompok terdiri dari 5 mencit jantan dewasa yang diberi makan d...

  14. EFFECT OF ORAL IMMUNOSTIMULANT ANDROGRAPHIS PANICULATA AND RESISTANCE TO AEROMONAS HYDROPHILA IN CATLA CATLA

    OpenAIRE

    Innocent Xavier B.; Fathima Syed Ali M.; Sheeba; Sheeba S.

    2012-01-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the immunostimulant potential of Andrographis paniculata in fish Catla catla, post challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila. Fishes were divided into 2 groups, one received control diet, and another received Andrographis paniculata incorporated diet for 14 days. The heamatological parameters and serum protein level were analyzed between control and experimental. There is a significant increase in TEC (P

  15. Architecture of Ambrosia psilostachya DC. Individuals in different habitats

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    Maciej Korczyński

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Ambrosia psilostachya is a plant of North American origin, well-domesticated in Poland. It covers ruderal habitats and is found in crops and in city green areas. The density of ragweed shoots in the researched areas ranged from 55 to 111 per m2. The production of biomass of this species relates to the production of synanthropic communities and city lawns. The factor limiting the population is cutting which affects mostly the number of shoots per patch, less considerably the state of a single individual. Habitats affected by mechanical factors are the biggest source of pollen causing allergies .

  16. Novo besouro-de-ambrosia em guanandi (Calophyllum brasiliense Cambessedes

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    Wagner Calixto de Castro Morais*

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Calophyllum brasiliense, known as Guanandi, is a heliophytic tree, and native to the Americancontinent and show great historic importance in Brazil. There is some information about insectsassociated with this tree species, but very few specific records. The aim of this study was to describethe occurrence and damage of a new Ambrosia beetle attacking Guanandi tree. In order to getthis information, pieces of attacked Guanandi branch were collected and kept under observationfor a period of 39 days. Adult beetles emerged from the timber were collected and measured.Branch pieces were dissected to evaluate the damage caused by the Ambrosia beetle to thewood. We collected 113 adult beetles, identified as Premnobius cavipennis, Eichhoff with a bodylength ranging from 2.7 to 2.9 mm. The timber infested with P. cavipennis had tunnels (galleries andholes, with diameters ranging from 1.1 to 1.3 mm. Furthermore, we observed that the timber showedstains around the galleries, which were caused by a fungus introduced by this beetle into the wood.This study is the first record of attack and damage of P. cavipennis in the Guanandi tree.

  17. Spectrophotometric determination of total lactones in Andrographis paniculata Nees

    OpenAIRE

    Napaporn Jantakun; Penkae Wichitchote; Chantana Aromdee

    2005-01-01

    A spectrophotometric method for determination of total lactones in Andrographis paniculata was established by using dinitrobenzoic acid and potassium hydroxide solutions as colour forming agents. The absorbance of the solution was determined at 536 nm. The linearity range was 12-72 × 10-6 g.ml-1. The detection limit was 1.2 μg, the quantitation limit was 4.23 μg. The intraday variation had an average of slope 6082.97 g.ml-1, % RSD 0.10; an average intercept 0.2786, %RSD 3.66 (n=3). The interd...

  18. Antibacterial activity of ethanol extract of Andrographis paniculata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mishra U

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study the ethanol extract of the aerial part of Andrographis paniculata was prepared and evaluated for antimicrobial activity against eleven bacterial strains by determining minimum inhibitory concentration and zone of inhibition. Minimum inhibitory concentration values were compared with control and zone of inhibition values were compared with standard ciprofloxacin in concentration 100 and 200 μg/ml. The results revealed that, the ethanol extract is potent in inhibiting bacterial growth of both Gram-negative and Gram positive bacteria.

  19. Environmental Assessment of remedial action at the Ambrosia Lake uranium mill tailings site, Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-06-01

    This document assesses and compares the environmental impacts of various alternatives for remedial action at the Ambrosia Lake uranium mill tailings site located near Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico. The designated site covers 196 acres and contains 111 acres of tailings and some of the original mill structures. The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA), Public Law 95-604, authorizes the US Department of Energy to clean up the site to reduce the potential health impacts associated with the residual radioactive materials remaining at the site and at associated properties off the site. The US Environmental Protection Agency promulgated standards for th remedial action (40 CFR Part 192). Remedial action must be performed in accordance with these standards and with the concurrence of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The proposed action is to stabilize the tailings at their present location by consolidating the tailings and associated contaminated materials into a recontoured pile. A radon barrier would be constructed over the pile and various erosion protection measures would be taken to assure the long-term stability of the pile. Another alternative which would involve moving the tailings to a new location is also assessed in this document. This alternative would generally involve greater short-term impacts and costs but would result in stabilization of the tailings at an undeveloped location. The no action alternative is also assessed in this document.

  20. Environmental Assessment of remedial action at the Ambrosia Lake uranium mill tailings site, Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document assesses and compares the environmental impacts of various alternatives for remedial action at the Ambrosia Lake uranium mill tailings site located near Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico. The designated site covers 196 acres and contains 111 acres of tailings and some of the original mill structures. The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA), Public Law 95-604, authorizes the US Department of Energy to clean up the site to reduce the potential health impacts associated with the residual radioactive materials remaining at the site and at associated properties off the site. The US Environmental Protection Agency promulgated standards for th remedial action (40 CFR Part 192). Remedial action must be performed in accordance with these standards and with the concurrence of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The proposed action is to stabilize the tailings at their present location by consolidating the tailings and associated contaminated materials into a recontoured pile. A radon barrier would be constructed over the pile and various erosion protection measures would be taken to assure the long-term stability of the pile. Another alternative which would involve moving the tailings to a new location is also assessed in this document. This alternative would generally involve greater short-term impacts and costs but would result in stabilization of the tailings at an undeveloped location. The no action alternative is also assessed in this document

  1. The ambrosia symbiosis is specific in some species and promiscuous in others: evidence from community pyrosequencing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kostovčík, Martin; Bateman, C.C.; Kolařík, Miroslav; Stelinski, L.L.; Jordal, B.H.; Hulcr, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 1 (2015), s. 126-138. ISSN 1751-7362 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : ambrosia symbiosis * pyrosequencing Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 9.302, year: 2014

  2. APPROACHES ON THE INVASIVE ALIEN TAXA IN ROMANIA - AMBROSIA ARTEMISIIFOLIA (RAGWEED) II

    OpenAIRE

    Nicoleta IANOVICI

    2011-01-01

    In a previous paper we presented the localities in Romania where we identified populations of Ambrosia artemisiifolia. Between 2008-2011, investigations were continuing. Our data clearly show that Ambrosia is present throughout the country. The territories heavily infested are railway embankments, along traffic routes, gravel pits, building sites, forest edges, industrial areas, cemeteries and recreational areas. It is quite common to find ragweed in many private gardens, or flower pots in ur...

  3. The Action Programme Ambrosia in Germany – State of the art and future prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Starfinger, Uwe

    2012-01-01

    Common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) originally from North America occurs as an alien species in several European countries. In Germany it has spread only recently. Because of its negative impact on agriculture and human health, further spread is undesired. At the Julius Kühn-Institute, Federal Research Centre for Cultivated Plants an “Interdisciplinary working group Ambrosia” has launched an Action Programme Ambrosia early in 2007 in order to prevent further spread of this alien plant. F...

  4. Spatio-Temporal Distribution of Bark and Ambrosia Beetles in a Brazilian Tropical Dry Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo-Reis, Luiz Eduardo; Novais, Samuel Matos Antunes de; Monteiro, Graziela França; Flechtmann, Carlos Alberto Hector; Faria, Maurício Lopes de; Neves, Frederico de Siqueira

    2016-01-01

    Bark and the ambrosia beetles dig into host plants and live most of their lives in concealed tunnels. We assessed beetle community dynamics in tropical dry forest sites in early, intermediate, and late successional stages, evaluating the influence of resource availability and seasonal variations in guild structure. We collected a total of 763 beetles from 23 species, including 14 bark beetle species, and 9 ambrosia beetle species. Local richness of bark and ambrosia beetles was estimated at 31 species. Bark and ambrosia composition was similar over the successional stages gradient, and beta diversity among sites was primarily determined by species turnover, mainly in the bark beetle community. Bark beetle richness and abundance were higher at intermediate stages; availability of wood was the main spatial mechanism. Climate factors were effectively non-seasonal. Ambrosia beetles were not influenced by successional stages, however the increase in wood resulted in increased abundance. We found higher richness at the end of the dry and wet seasons, and abundance increased with air moisture and decreased with higher temperatures and greater rainfall. In summary, bark beetle species accumulation was higher at sites with better wood production, while the needs of fungi (host and air moisture), resulted in a favorable conditions for species accumulation of ambrosia. The overall biological pattern among guilds differed from tropical rain forests, showing patterns similar to dry forest areas. PMID:27271969

  5. Jasmonate-induced biosynthesis of andrographolide in Andrographis paniculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shiv Narayan; Jha, Zenu; Sinha, Rakesh Kumar; Geda, Arvind Kumar

    2015-02-01

    Andrographolide is a prominent secondary metabolite found in Andrographis paniculata that exhibits enormous pharmacological effects. In spite of immense value, the normal biosynthesis of andrographolide results in low amount of the metabolite. To induce the biosynthesis of andrographolide, we attempted elicitor-induced activation of andrographolide biosynthesis in cell cultures of A. paniculata. This was carried out by using methyl jasmonate (MeJA) as an elicitor. Among the various concentrations of MeJA tested at different time periods, 5 µM MeJA yielded 5.25 times more andrographolide content after 24 h of treatment. The accumulation of andrographolide was correlated with the expression level of known regulatory genes (hmgs, hmgr, dxs, dxr, isph and ggps) of mevalonic acid (MVA) and 2-C-methyl-d-erythritol-4-phosphate (MEP) pathways. These results established the involvement of MeJA in andrographolide biosynthesis by inducing the transcription of its biosynthetic pathways genes. The coordination of isph, ggps and hmgs expression highly influenced the andrographolide biosynthesis. PMID:25104168

  6. [Cloning and functional characterization of phytoene desaturase in Andrographis paniculata].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Qin-qin; Li, Li-xia; Zhan, Peng-lin; Wang, Qiang

    2015-10-01

    A full-length cDNA of phytoene desaturase (PDS) gene from Andrographis paniculata was obtained through RACE-PCR. The cDNA sequence consists of 2 224 bp with an intact ORF of 1 752 bp (GeneBank: KP982892), encoding a ploypeptide of 584 amino acids. Homology analysis showed that the deduced protein has extensive sequence similarities to PDS from other plants, and contains a conserved NAD ( H) -binding domain of plant dehydrase cofactor binding-domain in N-terminal. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that ApPDS was more related to PDS of Sesamum indicum and Pogostemon cablin. The semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed that ApPDS expressed in whole aboveground tissues with the highest expression in leaves. Virus induced gene silencing (VIGS) was performed to characterize the functional of ApPDS in planta. Significant photobleaching was not observed in infiltrated leaves, while the PDS gene has been down-regulated significantly at the yellowish area. To the best of our knowledge, this represents the first report of PDS gene cloning and functional characterization from A. paniculata, which lays the foundation for further investigation of new genes, especially that correlative to andrographolide biosynthetic pathway. PMID:26975098

  7. Bioassay Guided Isolation of Antibacterial Compounds from Andrographis paniculata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sule

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Chronic disease-causing bacteria of medical importance have developed resistance to antibiotics, hence, necessitating distinct and constant need for safe and efficient therapeutic agents. Plants are considered potent candidate for this aim. A way out of reducing antibiotic resistance and adverse effects on host is the employment of antibiotic resistance inhibitors of plant origin. Approach: About 5 kg pulverized Andrographis paniculata whole plant was macerated with MeOH at room temperature to get 305 g freeze dried MeOH extract. The bioautography of MeOH extract using Staphylococcus aureus and Proteus mirabilis as indicator organisms revealed the presence of two potent antibacterial compounds. MeOH extract was further fractionated and purified by silica gel column chromatography which led to the isolation of a diterpene lactone and an entlabdane diterpene glycoside upon crystallization with absolute ethanol. Results: Two antibacterial compounds viz., 3-O-β-D-glucosyl-14-deoxyandrographolide and 14-deoxyandrographolide were successfully isolated and characterized. Their structures were exclusively elucidated through spectroscopic methods (UV, IR, 1H- and 13C NMR. Conclusion: A. paniculata possesses antibacterial activity and could be potential source of a new class of antibiotics that might be useful for infectious disease chemotherapy and control.

  8. Ekstrak Sambiloto (Andrographis paniculata Menurunkan Jumlah Skizon, Mikrogamet, Makrogamet, dan Oosista Eimeria tenella (EXTRACT OF ANDROGRAPHIS PANICULATA DECREASED SCHIZONTS, MICROGAMETES, MACROGAMETES AND OOCYSTS NUMBER OF EIMERIA TENELLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    UMI CAHYANINGSIH

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to observe the effect of ethanol extract of Andrographis paniculata givenin grading doses to the schizonts, microgamete, macrogamete, and oocytes counts of Eimeria tenella inchicken caecum. A total of ninety day old broiler chicks were used in the study. At two weeks old the broilerswere divided into six groups. Each group consisted of 15 broilers, the 6 groups were: (i negative control(broilers did not receive any treatment; (ii positive control (each animal were infected with 104 E. tenellaoocytes; (iii medicine control (each animal were infected with 104 E. tenella oocytes and coccidiostat; (ivA1 (each animal were infected with 104 E. tenella oocytes and paniculata extract 90 mg/kg body weight; (vA2 (each animal were infected with 104 E. tenella oocytes and paniculata extract 180 mg/kg body weight;and (vi A3 (each animal were infected with 104 E. tenella oocytes and paniculata extract 360 mg/kg bodyweight. At day 6, 9, 13, 16, and 22 post infection three broilers from each group were sacrificed and theirceca were collected for histopathological examination. The results showed that paniculata extract at dose90 mg/kg body weight and 180 mg/kg body weight was able to decrease the numbers of shizont, microgamete,macrogamete, and oocytes of E. tenella in the chicken caecum.

  9. Antimicrobial Compounds from Leaf Extracts of Jatropha curcas, Psidium guajava, and Andrographis paniculata

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, M.M.; Ahmad, S. H.; Mohamed, M. T. M.; Ab Rahman, M. Z.

    2014-01-01

    The present research was conducted to discover antimicrobial compounds in methanolic leaf extracts of Jatropha curcas and Andrographis paniculata and ethanolic leaf extract of Psidium guajava and the effectiveness against microbes on flower preservative solution of cut Mokara Red orchid flowers was evaluated. The leaves were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A total of nine, 66, and 29 compounds were identified in J. curcas, P. guajava, and A. paniculata leaf extracts...

  10. Partial in vitro and in vivo red scorpion venom neutralization activity of Andrographis paniculata

    OpenAIRE

    Ranjana I Brahmane; Swanand S Pathak; Wanmali, Vikrant V.; Salwe, Kartik J.; S John Premendran; Bhawna B Shinde

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Red scorpion (Mesobuthus tamulus) is the most lethal among all poisonous species of scorpions. Envenoming by Mesobuthus tamulus is quite common along the western coast of India, without any established therapy. Andrographis paniculata is one of the plants that has long been used in traditional herbal medicine for the treatment of poisoning by animal bites. Hence, the study was planned to evaluate the ethanolic extract of Andrographis paniculata for the treatment of Mesobuthus tamul...

  11. EVALUATION OF ANDROGRAPHIS PANICULATA (BURMF) WALL EX NEES, LEAF EXTRACTS AND ANDROGRAPHOLIDE ON GASTROINTESTINAL PATHOGENS

    OpenAIRE

    R. Anitha; D. Raynukaa

    2013-01-01

    Andrographis paniculata (BurmF) Wall Ex Nees called as Kalmegh or "King of Bitters is used in southeast Asia for treating several ailments. The aim of this study was to determine the antibacterial activity of Andrographis paniculata leaf extracts. The agar diffusion and micro-dilution methods were used to determine the antibacterial activity of the Petroleum ether and chloroform extracts. Chloroform and petroleum ether extracts inhibited Shigella, Proteus vulgaris, Klebsiella pneumonia and Sa...

  12. Immunostimulant, cerebroprotective & nootropic activities of Andrographis paniculata leaves extract in normal & type 2 diabetic rats

    OpenAIRE

    P.Radhika; Annapurna, A.; Rao, S. Nageswara

    2012-01-01

    Background & objectives: A large number of plants have been recognized to be effective in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Persistent hyperglycaemia is associated with decreased function of immune system and cerebral ischaemia mainly due to increased oxidative stress and inflammatory response. Andrographis paniculata is a medicinal plant widely used in folk medicine for various purposes. In this study the effect of chronic administration (7 days) of methanolic extract of A. paniculata leav...

  13. HPTLC analysis of hepatoprotective diterpenoid andrographolide from Andrographis paniculata nees (kalmegh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raina Archana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A rapid, accurate and simple high performance thin layer chromatography method for quantitative estimation of andrographolide in Andrographis paniculata is described here. The assay combines separation of andrographolide on silica gel 60 F 254 HPTLC plates followed by scanning of the spots at 232 nm using a Camag Scanner 3. Thirty germplasm collections of Andrographis paniculata were evaluated for andrographolide content by this method. Andrographolide content ranged from 1.14% to 2.60%.

  14. Rhynchospora Guaramacalensis,una nueva especie de Rhynchospora sección Paniculatae (Cyperaceae) de Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Mark T. STRONG

    2006-01-01

    RESUMEN Se describe e ilustra a Rhynchospora guaramacalensis M.T.Strong, una especie nueva de Rhynchospora sección Paniculatae Boeck. (Cyperaceae) procedente del estado Trujillo, Venezuela. Se presenta una discusión de las diferencias entre este nuevo taxon y R. macrochaeta, especie a la cual está cercanamente relacionado.ABSTRACT The new species Rhynchospora guaramacalensis M.T.Strong is described in Rhynchospora section Paniculatae Boeck. (Cyperaceae) from Trujillo State, Venezuela. An illu...

  15. An in vitro study of anti-inflammatory activity of standardised Andrographis paniculata extracts and pure andrographolide

    OpenAIRE

    Low, Mitchell; Khoo, Cheang S; Münch, Gerald; Govindaraghavan, Suresh; Sucher, Nikolaus J

    2015-01-01

    Background The anti-inflammatory activity of Andrographis paniculata (Acanthaceae), a traditional medicine widely used in Asia, is commonly attributed to andrographolide, its main secondary metabolite. Commercial A. paniculata extracts are standardised to andrographolide content. We undertook the present study to investigate 1) how selective enrichment of andrographolide in commercial A. paniculata extracts affects the variability of non-standardised phytochemical components and 2) if variabi...

  16. Screening of cardioprotective activity of leaves of Andrographis paniculata against isoproterenol induced myocardial infarction in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipendra Kumar Sah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of the present study was to investigate the cardioprotective effects of methanolic extract of leaves of Andrographis paniculata against Isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction (MI in rats.Method: The rats were divided into five experimental groups viz., Normal control, ISO-treated (Disease control, Propranolol (10 mg/kg + ISO, Andrographis paniculata (100 mg/kg +ISO and Andrographis paniculata (200 mg/kg + ISO. Myocardial infarction in rats was induced by the administration of isoproterenol at a dose of 85mg/kg i.p., the rats in group IV and group V were pretreated with methanolic extract of Andrographis paniculata in the dose of 100mg/kg b.w. and 200mg/kg b.w. through oral route. Cardiac marker enzymes, lipid profile and antioxidant enzymes as biomarker of cardiotoxicity were determined in experimental animals.Result: Animals treated with flavonoid of leaves of Andrographis paniculata showed significant decrease in LDL-Cholesterol, total cholesterol, Triglycerides, AST, ALT, ALP, antioxidant enzymes viz., superoxide dismutase, catalase LPO and increase in HDL-Cholesterol and further was confirmed by histopathological study.Conclusion: The results of the study demonstrate that Andrographis paniculata strongly protected the myocardium against isoproterenol-induced infarction and suggest that the cardioprotective effects could be related to antioxidant activities.

  17. Suitability of California bay laurel and other species as potential hosts for the non-native redbay ambrosia beetle and granulate ambrosia beetle

    Science.gov (United States)

    The redbay ambrosia beetle (Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff) is a non-native invasive forest pest and vector of the pathogen that causes laurel wilt, a deadly disease of trees in the family Lauraceae in the southeastern United States (U.S.). Concern exists that X. glabratus and its fungal symbiont cou...

  18. Pharmacological screening of the essential oil of pavonia oderata willd.

    OpenAIRE

    Nakhare, Seema; Garg, S. C.; Bhagwat, A.W.

    1997-01-01

    Essential oil obtained from the rhizomes of pavonia odorata willd has been found to posses a number of interesting pharmacological actions on various parameters. The essential oil produced fall in blood pressure of anaesthethized dog and caused cardiac inhibition in frog's isolated heart. The essential oil caused relaxation of the rabbit's intestine and had no effect on rectus abdominus muscle of frog, but reduced the spasmogenic effect of acetylcholine and potassium.

  19. Sieben Jahre Aktionsprogramm Ambrosia in Bayern – eine Bestandsaufnahme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brix, Jutta

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Since 2005 the common ragweed, Ambrosia artemisiifolia, which was introduced from North America has also been found in Bavaria in larger stocks and has an increasing tendency to spread. After receiving the report of the Bavarian Ministry of Health, the Bavarian Parliament addressed the implications for health. There was consensus across all political groups to combat the plant. Under the auspices of the Ministry of Health the action programme “eradication campaign against ragweed” aimed at systematic control was set up in 2007 in cooperation with the Ministries of Agriculture (registration office at the State Research Center for Agriculture and the Interior (district administration authorities. The 96 district administration authorities, which each have a trained ragweed officer, report to the registration office on new verified ragweed locations with more than 100 plants. The reports of common ragweed stands are filed by citizens or through research by the district administration authorities, who are also responsible for supporting the fight against stocks. On behalf of the Bavarian Ministry of Health, the Working Group Biodiversity monitors the situation and finds many new locations. Since 2006, 279 new common ragweed stocks were registered. After control measures there are currently 190 known remaining stocks. Since 2007, however, the populated area has tripled. This means that the control measures need further improvement. This is especially true for the common ragweed stocks along roadsides where the plants have increased massively in recent years. Sustainable control has proved to be particularly difficult.

  20. Combining cutting and herbicide application for Ambrosia artemisiifolia control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sölter, Ulrike

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect on Ambrosia artemisiifolia (common ragweed of combining cutting and herbicide application was studied in pot experiments in Germany and Denmark in 2013. Single plants of common ragweed were established in 2 L pots in glasshouses. Two cutting treatments were conducted: cutting to 10 cm height at the beginning of male budding (BBCH 51-59 and no cutting. Clopyralid (in Germany: Lontrel 600, in Denmark: Matrigon, mesotrione (in Germany and Denmark: Callisto and glyphosate (in Germany: Clinic, in Denmark: Roundup Bio were applied at 4 doses at three different timings: on the day of cutting, one week and two weeks after cutting. The plants were harvested 5 weeks after the last herbicide application. At both sites clopyralid and mesotrione had a low efficacy on common ragweed when applied on developed plants with only minor differences in efficacy at the three timings. Application after cutting improved the efficacy of clopyralid at both sites and of mesotrione in Denmark. In Germany glyphosate had a higher efficacy on noncut plants in comparison to the cut plants, in Denmark it was vice versa. The highest dose of glyphosate provided higher control levels on developed plants than clopyralid and mesotrione at both sites. In Denmark the highest effects were obtained shortly after cutting with the maximum dose of each herbicide and declined with time between cutting and herbicide application. In summary the results demonstrated that herbicides can be applied shortly after cutting without loss of efficacy.

  1. Characterization of hypersensitivity reactions reported among Andrographis paniculata users in Thailand using Health Product Vigilance Center (HPVC) database

    OpenAIRE

    Suwankesawong, Wimon; Saokaew, Surasak; Permsuwan, Unchalee; Chaiyakunapruk, Nathorn

    2014-01-01

    Background Andrographis paniculata (andrographis) is one of the herbal products that are widely used for various indications. Hypersensitivity reactions have been reported among subjects receiving Andrographis paniculata in Thailand. Understanding of characteristics of patients, adverse events, and clinical outcomes is essential for ensuring population safety. This study aimed to describe the characteristics of hypersensitivity reactions reported in patients receiving andrographis containing ...

  2. The effects of Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f. Nees on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of midazolam in healthy volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malinee Wongnawa

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f. Nees has been widely used for centuries in Asia for the treatment of common coldand diarrhea. Although it was previously reported to inhibit cytochrome P450 in vitro, the potential to cause herb-druginteraction has been questioned. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of A. paniculata on the pharmacokineticsand pharmacodynamics of midazolam, a CYP3A4 probe drug, in normal healthy volunteers. The study was anopen-label, randomized, 2-phase crossover design with a 2-weeks washout period. Twelve healthy male volunteers received4 capsules of 250 mg A. paniculata 3 times a day orally for 7 days. Midazolam plasma concentration time profiles werecharacterized after a single oral dose of 7.5 mg midazolam on the day before and after A. paniculata medication. Pharmacodynamicsof midazolam were also evaluated. The results demonstrated that pretreatment with A. paniculata did not changemean pharmacokinetic parameters (Cmax, Tmax, AUC0-12, AUC0-”, T1/2, Cl/F of oral midazolam. Since midazolam is the mostsensitive substrate for CYP3A4, thus, herb-drug interaction caused by CYP3A4 inhibition after A. paniculata in healthyvolunteers was considered not clinically relevant. However, A. paniculata potentiated the effect of midazolam in loweringblood pressure and pulse rate. Therefore, co-administration of A. paniculata with midazolam should be warranted.

  3. Spectrophotometric method for the study of the antioxidant activity applied on Ziziphus jujuba and Hydrangea paniculata aqueous extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cacig Svetlana I.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant activity of water extracts from Ziziphus jujuba fruits and Hydrangea paniculata leaves, maintained in a refrigerator, was determined by the potassium permanganate method. The results presented in this paper indicate that the fruit extracts from Ziziphus jujuba had higher antioxidant activity than Hydrangea paniculata leaf extracts and that both fermentation processes had a strong effect on antioxidant activity.

  4. Spectrophotometric method for the study of the antioxidant activity applied on Ziziphus jujuba and Hydrangea paniculata aqueous extract

    OpenAIRE

    Cacig Svetlana I.; Szabo-Raluca Maria I.; Lupea Alfa Xenia D.

    2006-01-01

    Antioxidant activity of water extracts from Ziziphus jujuba fruits and Hydrangea paniculata leaves, maintained in a refrigerator, was determined by the potassium permanganate method. The results presented in this paper indicate that the fruit extracts from Ziziphus jujuba had higher antioxidant activity than Hydrangea paniculata leaf extracts and that both fermentation processes had a strong effect on antioxidant activity.

  5. Daily Ambrosia Pollen Concentration in the Air of Ankara,Turkey (1990-1999)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ayse KAPLAN; Nazmiye SAKIYAN; N Münevver PINAR

    2003-01-01

    The airborne ragweed pollen spectrum was investigated in the air of Ankara, Turkey for aperiod of ten years (1990-1999) using a Burkard seven-day volumetric recording trap. In our study period,long distance transported Ambrosia pollen has been registered. Daily pollen levels varied from low to highin Burge's system. In last three years, the pollen concentration of Ambrosia showed a clear increasingtendency. Our results prove that ragweed pollen may be an important threat for ragweed sensitive patientsin Ankara city in near future.

  6. Improvement in the yield and quality of kalmegh (Andrographis paniculata Nees) under the sustainable production system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Rajesh Kumar; Verma, Sanjeet K; Pankaj, Umesh; Gupta, Anand K; Khan, Khushboo; Shankar, Karuna

    2015-02-01

    Andrographis paniculata Nees is an annual erect herb with wide medicinal and pharmacological applications due to the presence of andrographolide and other active chemical constituents. The large-scale cultivation of the kalmegh is not in practice. The aim of this study was to establish sustainable production systems of A. paniculata cv CIM-Megha with the application of different bioinoculants and chemical fertilisers. A. paniculata herb and andrographolide yield in the dried leaves was found to be highest (218% and 61.3%, respectively) in treatment T3 (NPK+Bacillus sp.) compared with T1 (control). The soil organic carbon, soil microbial respiration, soil enzymes activity and available nutrients improved significantly with combined application of bioinoculants and chemical fertilisers. PMID:25348874

  7. Spectrophotometric determination of total lactones in Andrographis paniculata Nees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Napaporn Jantakun

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available A spectrophotometric method for determination of total lactones in Andrographis paniculata was established by using dinitrobenzoic acid and potassium hydroxide solutions as colour forming agents. The absorbance of the solution was determined at 536 nm. The linearity range was 12-72 × 10-6 g.ml-1. The detection limit was 1.2 μg, the quantitation limit was 4.23 μg. The intraday variation had an average of slope 6082.97 g.ml-1, % RSD 0.10; an average intercept 0.2786, %RSD 3.66 (n=3. The interday variation had an average of 6146 g.ml-1 with the %RSD of 6.30 and an average intercept 0.2628, %RSD 4.95 (n=4. The coefficients of determination were 0.998-0.999. The total lactones content, calculated as andrographolide, determined by this method was 8.61±0.52% (n=4 and by the official method, Thai Herbal Pharmacopoeia, was 8.12±0.34% (n=2. The results of the two methods do not differ significantly at P=0.05 (P(|t|>0.903 = 0.53

  8. Isolasi dan Identifikasi Andrografolida dari Herba Andrographis paniculata Ness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suharmiati Suharmiati

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Andrographolide is the main constituent of Andrographis paniculata Ness (AP which was poorly soluble in water and bitter taste. As diterpenoid lactone andrographolide has many biological activities, some of them are immunostimulant, anti malaria, hepatoproccctor and anti mutagenic. The objective of this study were isolation and identification andrographolide from AP. In this study AP metanol extracted by percolation. Filtrate was collected and congealed ad viscous and was snaked by ethylacetate - water (1:1. Ethylacetate fraction was congealed until crystal formed. Recrystallization with hot metanol repeatedly until pure andrographolide isolate. Identification of andrographolide isolate by thin layer chromatography (TLC, UV spectrophotometer, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR and Fourier Transform Infra Red. Result of this study showed that from one kilogram AP herbs dried is produced 0,43% andrographolide isolate as identic as andrographolide standard (Sigma. The continued research to develop phytopharmaca product that consist andrographolide or AP herbs is needed to minimize taste bitter or to increase solubility is water so that its useful in health services.

  9. Efek Antibakteri dari Rebusan Daun Sambiloto (Andrographis paniculata Nees dan Produk Herbal Sambiloto Terhadap Staphylococcus Aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriyan Sikumalay

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakSambiloto (Andrographis paniculata Nees merupakan tanaman obat yang memiliki berbagai khasiat, salah satunya sebagai antibakteri.  Staphylococcus aureus merupakan penyebab utama infeksi. Penggunaan Sambiloto di masyarakat saat ini mempunyai beberapa pilihan diantaranya dengan membuat rebusan langsung dari daun sambiloto ataupun dengan membeli produk herbal sambiloto yang dijual di pasaran. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah menentukan efek antibakteri dari rebusan daun sambiloto (Andrographis paniculata Nees dan produk herbal sambiloto terhadap Staphylococcus aureus. Jenis penelitian adalah eksperimental dengan sembilan kali pengulangan menggunakan metode difusi. Penelitian dilakukan di laboratorium Mikrobiologi Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Andalas Padang dari Maret  sampai Desember 2014. Sambiloto diekstrak dengan metode infusum. Kontrol yang digunakan adalah amoksisilin. Hasil penelitian memperlihatkan tidak ada daerah bebas kuman di sekitar cakram disk yang telah mengandung sambiloto. Kesimpulan hasil ini ialah rebusan daun sambiloto (Andrographis paniculata Nees dan produk herbal sambiloto tidak mempunyai efek antibakteri terhadap Staphylococcus aureus.Kata kunci: sambiloto, staphylococcus aureus, infusum AbstractBitter (Andrographis paniculata Nees is a medicinal plant that have various benefits, such as an antibacterial. Staphylococcus aureus is a major cause of infection. The use of bitter in today's society has several options such as by making direct decoction of the leaves of bitter or by buying herbal products of bitter sold in the market. The objective  of this study was to determine the antibacterial effect of decocted leaf of bitter (Andrographis paniculata Nees and herbal products of bitter against Staphylococcus aureus.This type of research was experimental with nine repetitions using diffusion method. This research was conducted in the laboratory of Microbiology Faculty of Medicine Andalas University Padang in March to

  10. New species of Geosmithia and Graphium associated with ambrosia beetles in Costa Rica

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kolařík, Miroslav; Hulcr, J.; Kirkendall, L.R.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 67, č. 1 (2015), s. 29-35. ISSN 1211-0981 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP506/11/2302 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : ambrosia fungi * Hypocreales * Scolytodes Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  11. Repeated evolution of crop theft in fungus-farming ambrosia beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulcr, Jiri; Cognato, Anthony I

    2010-11-01

    Ambrosia beetles, dominant wood degraders in the tropics, create tunnels in dead trees and employ gardens of symbiotic fungi to extract nutrients from wood. Specificity of the beetle-fungus relationship has rarely been examined, and simple vertical transmission of a specific fungal cultivar by each beetle species is often assumed in literature. We report repeated evolution of fungal crop stealing, termed mycocleptism, among ambrosia beetles. The mycocleptic species seek brood galleries of other species, and exploit their established fungal gardens by tunneling through the ambient mycelium-laden wood. Instead of carrying their own fungal sybmbionts, mycocleptae depend on adopting the fungal assemblages of their host species, as shown by an analysis of fungal DNA from beetle galleries. The evidence for widespread horizontal exchange of fungi between beetles challenges the traditional concept of ambrosia fungi as species-specific symbionts. Fungus stealing appears to be an evolutionarily successful strategy. It evolved independently in several beetle clades, two of which have radiated, and at least one case was accompanied by a loss of the beetles' fungus-transporting organs. We demonstrate this using the first robust phylogeny of one of the world's largest group of ambrosia beetles, Xyleborini. PMID:20633043

  12. Erhöhte Frosttoleranz und vorteilhafte Keimeigenschaften in europäischen Ambrosia artemisiifolia Populationen

    OpenAIRE

    Leiblein-Wild, Marion Carmen; Kaviani, Rana; Tackenberg, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Germination characteristics and frost tolerance of seedlings are crucial parameters for establishment and invasion success of plants. Within this study, we investigated germination characteristics of Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. populations from native and invasive ranges. We determined germination rates and speed under different temperature conditions. From these parameters we calculated minimal, optimal, and maximal temperature for germination. We also investigated the frost tolerance of seed...

  13. Comparison of ambrosia beetle communities in two host with laurel wilt: swampbay vs. avocado

    Science.gov (United States)

    The invasive redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), is an exotic wood-boring pest first detected in 2002 near Savannah, Georgia. The beetle’s dominant fungal symbiont, Raffaelea lauricola, is the pathogen that causes laurel wilt, a lethal disease of tre...

  14. Pharmacognostical Investigation and Physicochemical Analysis of Celastrus paniculatus Willd. Leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kalaskar Mohan G.; Saner Sachin Y.; Pawar Manohar V.; Rokade Dipak L; Surana Sanjay J

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Celastrus paniculatus Willd. is an important Indian medicinal plant and widely used in the treatment of the verity of disease and well explored scientifically for their pharmacological properties. The current study was therefore carried out to provide requisite pharmacognostic details about the plant. Methods: Pharmacognostic investigation of the fresh, powdered and anatomical sections of the leaves of Celastrus paniculatus Willd. was carried out to determine its morphological, anatomical, and phytochemical diagnostic features. Quantitative diagnostic characteristics, physicochemical properties and quantitative phytochemical measures were established. Results: The morphology of leave reveled, leaves are alternate, acute, acuminate or obtuse, rounded with cuncate base,; margin is finely crenate, venation is reticulate. The microscopy reveals the dorsiventral type of leave, with anomocytic stomata, covering (lower epidermis) and glandular (upper epidermis) trichomes. The collateral vascular bundle crowned with sclerenchymatous fiber, ideoblast of calcium oxalate. The Quantitative diagnostic characteristics such as leaf constant were measured. Physicochemical properties such as ash, extractive values and fluorescence analysis were established. Quantitative phytochemical revealed presence of carbohydrates, fixed oil, glycosides, cumarines, tannins, flavonoids, saponins, steroids and triterpenoids. Conclusion: The results of the study could be useful in setting some diagnostic indices for the identification and preparation of a monograph of the plant.

  15. Final audit report of remedial action construction at the UMTRA Project Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico, site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The final audit report for remedial action at the Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site consists of a summary of the radiological surveillances/audits, quality assurance (QA) in-process surveillances, and a QA final closeout inspection performed by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC). One radiological surveillance and three radiological audits were performed at the Ambrosia Lake site. The surveillance was performed on 12--16 April 1993 (DOE, 1993d). The audits were performed on 26--29 July 1993 (DOE, 1993b); 21--23 March 1994 (DOE, 1994d); and 1--2 August 1994 (DOE, 1994d). The surveillance and audits resulted in 47 observations. Twelve of the observations raised DOE concerns that were resolved on site or through subsequent corrective action. All outstanding issues were satisfactorily closed out on 28 December 1994. The radiological surveillance and audits are discussed in this report. A total of seven QA in-process surveillances were performed at the Ambrosia Lake UMTRA site are discussed. The DOE/TAC Ambrosia Lake final remedial action close-out inspection was conducted on 26 July 1995 (DOE, 1995a). To summarize, a total of 155 observations were noted during DOE/TAC audit and surveillance activities. Follow-up to responses required from the RAC for the DOE/TAC surveillance and audit observations indicated that all issues related to the Ambrosia Lake site were resolved and closed to the satisfaction of the DOE

  16. Anti-Diabetic Activity and Metabolic Changes Induced by Andrographis paniculata Plant Extract in Obese Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Tayyab Akhtar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Andrographis paniculata is an annual herb and widely cultivated in Southeast Asian countries for its medicinal use. In recent investigations, A. paniculata was found to be effective against Type 1 diabetes mellitus (Type 1 DM. Here, we used a non-genetic out-bred Sprague-Dawley rat model to test the antidiabetic activity of A. paniculata against Type 2 diabetes mellitus (Type 2 DM. Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1H-NMR spectroscopy in combination with multivariate data analyses was used to evaluate the A. paniculata and metformin induced metabolic effects on the obese and obese–diabetic (obdb rat models. Compared to the normal rats, high levels of creatinine, lactate, and allantoin were found in the urine of obese rats, whereas, obese-diabetic rats were marked by high glucose, choline and taurine levels, and low lactate, formate, creatinine, citrate, 2-oxoglutarate, succinate, dimethylamine, acetoacetate, acetate, allantoin and hippurate levels. Treatment of A. paniculata leaf water extract was found to be quite effective in restoring the disturbed metabolic profile of obdb rats back towards normal conditions. Thisstudy shows the anti-diabetic potential of A. paniculata plant extract and strengthens the idea of using this plant against the diabetes. Further classical genetic methods and state of the art molecular techniques could provide insights into the molecular mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus and anti-diabetic effects of A. paniculata water extract.

  17. Anti-Diabetic Activity and Metabolic Changes Induced by Andrographis paniculata Plant Extract in Obese Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Muhammad Tayyab; Bin Mohd Sarib, Mohamad Syakir; Ismail, Intan Safinar; Abas, Faridah; Ismail, Amin; Lajis, Nordin Hj; Shaari, Khozirah

    2016-01-01

    Andrographis paniculata is an annual herb and widely cultivated in Southeast Asian countries for its medicinal use. In recent investigations, A. paniculata was found to be effective against Type 1 diabetes mellitus (Type 1 DM). Here, we used a non-genetic out-bred Sprague-Dawley rat model to test the antidiabetic activity of A. paniculata against Type 2 diabetes mellitus (Type 2 DM). Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (¹H-NMR) spectroscopy in combination with multivariate data analyses was used to evaluate the A. paniculata and metformin induced metabolic effects on the obese and obese-diabetic (obdb) rat models. Compared to the normal rats, high levels of creatinine, lactate, and allantoin were found in the urine of obese rats, whereas, obese-diabetic rats were marked by high glucose, choline and taurine levels, and low lactate, formate, creatinine, citrate, 2-oxoglutarate, succinate, dimethylamine, acetoacetate, acetate, allantoin and hippurate levels. Treatment of A. paniculata leaf water extract was found to be quite effective in restoring the disturbed metabolic profile of obdb rats back towards normal conditions. Thisstudy shows the anti-diabetic potential of A. paniculata plant extract and strengthens the idea of using this plant against the diabetes. Further classical genetic methods and state of the art molecular techniques could provide insights into the molecular mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus and anti-diabetic effects of A. paniculata water extract. PMID:27517894

  18. In vitro anti oxidant activity and acute oral toxicity of Terminalia paniculata bark ethanolic extract on Sprague Dawley rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ramgopal Mopuri; Balaji Meriga

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To ensure the safety and evaluate the anti oxidant activity of Terminalia paniculata (T.paniculata) ethanolic extract in Sprague Dawley rats. Methods: The solvent extracts (hexane, ethyl acetate and ethanol) of T. paniculata were subjected to phytochemical analysis and their DPPH radical scavenging activity was assayed. The oral acute toxicity was evaluated using ethanolic extract of T. paniculata. Results:Ethyl acetate and ethanolic extracts showed more phytochemicals, whereas highest DPPH scavenging activity was found in ethanolic extract. In an acute toxicity study, T. paniculata ethanolic extract was orally administered (1 000 mg/kg body weight) to rats and observed for 72 h for any toxic symptoms and the dose was continued up to 14 d. On the 15th day rats were sacrificed and blood samples were collected from control and test animals and analyzed for some biochemical parameters. We did not observe any behavioral changes in test groups in comparison with their controls. Also, there were no significant alterations in biochemical, hematological (hemoglobin content and blood cells count) and liver function parameters such as serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase, serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, total proteins, albumin and bilirubin levels between T. paniculata ethanolic extract treated and normal control groups. Conclusions:Together our results demonstrated that T. paniculata ethanolic possessed potent antioxidant activity and it was safer and non toxic to rats even at higher doses and therefore could be well considered for further investigation for its medicinal and therapeutic efficacy.

  19. INDUCED MACROMUTATION IN ANDROGRAPHIS PANICULATA (BURM. F. NEES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoy Kumar Ghosh

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Fourteen viable macromutants (viridis, lax branching, bushy, unbranched I and II, dark green leaf, broad leaf I and II, narrow leaf I and II, drooping leaf I and II, dwarf and early maturity were induced in Andrographis paniculata (Burm. F. Nees (Family: Acanthaceae at M2 following EMS (Ethyl methanesulfonate and dES (Diethyl sulfate treatments (0.25, 0.50 and 1.00% for 2h and 4h durations to dry seeds (moisture content 11.55%. Mutation frequency over M2 population was 2.82% and lax branching mutant was maximum (0.51%. EMS induced relatively higher (3.12%, spectrum 1 to 4 frequency of mutation than dES (2.46%, spectrum 1 to 3. The mutant trait(s were monogenic recessive mostly (viridis showed digenic mode of inheritance. All mutants bred true at M4. Meiotic analysis revealed 2n=50 chromosomes always in the plant types (control: 24.92II+0.51I/cell; mutants: 24.80II+0.40I to 25II/cell at MI; AI cells were cytologically balanced in all cases. Pollen fertility (control: 80.63%, mutants: 21.28% to 89.25% and viability (control: 72.24%, mutants: 27.55% to 59.04% were also assessed. DAPI staining was performed to assess pollen nuclei composition (3-nucleate stage in dark green leaf, broad leaf I and drooping leaf II as the mutants showed considerably lower pollen fertility and viability than normal plants. Results indicated that pollen developmental phase may be significant for reproductive outcome. Andrographolide (estimated from matured leaves by HPTLC content (control: 3.41%, mutants: 0.03 to 3.99% was significantly higher in bushy and broad leaf I and II than normal plants. The mutants induced were considered to be important genetic resources in the plant species.

  20. Ekstrak Sambiloto (Andrographis paniculata) Menurunkan Jumlah Skizon, Mikrogamet, Makrogamet, dan Oosista Eimeria tenella (EXTRACT OF ANDROGRAPHIS PANICULATA DECREASED SCHIZONTS, MICROGAMETES, MACROGAMETES AND OOCYSTS NUMBER OF EIMERIA TENELLA)

    OpenAIRE

    UMI CAHYANINGSIH; RESSY RIANDCI; DYAH ISWANTINI

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this research was to observe the effect of ethanol extract of Andrographis paniculata givenin grading doses to the schizonts, microgamete, macrogamete, and oocytes counts of Eimeria tenella inchicken caecum. A total of ninety day old broiler chicks were used in the study. At two weeks old the broilerswere divided into six groups. Each group consisted of 15 broilers, the 6 groups were: (i) negative control(broilers did not receive any treatment); (ii) positive control (each animal w...

  1. Pollination and breeding system of Canna paniculata(Cannaceae in a montane Atlantic Rainforest: asymmetric dependence on a hermit hummingbird

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Kiyoshi Maruyama

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We studied the pollination biology of Canna paniculata (Cannaceae, a plant species common in the Atlantic Rainforest of southeastern Brazil. The species presents specialized ornithophilous flowers, which in our study area are solely pollinated by the hermit hummingbird Phaethornis eurynome. Although C. paniculata is capable of bearing fruit after self-pollination, it requires pollinators for reproduction. We discuss the importance of hermit hummingbirds for the reproduction of specialized ornithophilous plants such as C. paniculata, including their asymmetric dependence on hermit hummingbirds - core pollinators in Neotropical forest ecosystems.

  2. EFFECTS OF 50% ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF ANDROGRAPHIS PANICULATA ON SEXUAL BEHAVIOR AND SERUM HORMONAL ASSAY IN MALE SPRAGUE DAWLEY RATS

    OpenAIRE

    Dasuki MS; Wan MH; Hasnan J; SitiAmrah S; D' Souza UJ

    2015-01-01

    Andrographis paniculata has been used for centuries as a medicinal herb for the treatment of various ailments. The present study was aimed to investigate the possible effect of A. paniculata extract on male sexual behavior parameters and sex hormone levels. Fifty Sprague Dawley male rats received 50% ethanolic extract of A. paniculata by gavaging for 10 weeks at the doses of 0.5, 1, 10, 100, 1000 mg/kg, while another 10 male rats were given distilled water. Sexual behavior study was carried o...

  3. Effect of Temperature and Light on Phytochemical Profiling and Antimicrobial Activity of Andrographis paniculata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Jaikumar

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Andrographis paniculata (Acanthaceae is an annual herb. It is found in Sri Lanka, and throughout the plains of India especially Tamilnadu, Maharashtra, Karnataka, and Orissa. Various medicinal properties like cholevetic, antidiarrheal, immunostimulant and anti-inflammatory have been attributed to this plant in the traditional system of Indian medicine. Further reported activities are hepatoprotective, antimalarial, anticancer, antihypertensive, antipyretic, antithrombotic and antidote for snake bites. The present study aimed to evaluate the anti-microbial activity for the isopropanol extract of A. paniculata against different bacterial strains such as E. coli, K. pneumoniae, P. vulgaris, S. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa, S. aureus by determining inhibitory concentration and zone of inhibition. Minimum inhibitory concentration and zone of inhibition values and the high bioactive metabolites production was observed in different extracts of A. paniculata under different physical stress (Light and temperatures. The results revealed that, the isopropanol extract of A. paniculata is potent for inhibiting bacterial growth and various secondary metabolites production in dark condition at 37°C than other tested parameters.

  4. Effect of Temperature and Light on Phytochemical Profiling and Antimicrobial Activity of Andrographis paniculata

    OpenAIRE

    B. Jaikumar; R. Sharmila

    2015-01-01

    Andrographis paniculata (Acanthaceae) is an annual herb. It is found in Sri Lanka, and throughout the plains of India especially Tamilnadu, Maharashtra, Karnataka, and Orissa. Various medicinal properties like cholevetic, antidiarrheal, immunostimulant and anti-inflammatory have been attributed to this plant in the traditional system of Indian medicine. Further reported activities are hepatoprotective, antimalarial, anticancer, antihypertensive, antipyretic, antithrombotic and antidote for sn...

  5. Efek Antibakteri dari Rebusan Daun Sambiloto (Andrographis paniculata Nees) dan Produk Herbal Sambiloto Terhadap Staphylococcus Aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Adriyan Sikumalay; Netti Suharti; Machdawaty Masri

    2016-01-01

    AbstrakSambiloto (Andrographis paniculata Nees) merupakan tanaman obat yang memiliki berbagai khasiat, salah satunya sebagai antibakteri.  Staphylococcus aureus merupakan penyebab utama infeksi. Penggunaan Sambiloto di masyarakat saat ini mempunyai beberapa pilihan diantaranya dengan membuat rebusan langsung dari daun sambiloto ataupun dengan membeli produk herbal sambiloto yang dijual di pasaran. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah menentukan efek antibakteri dari rebusan daun sambiloto (Andrograph...

  6. Hepatoprotective activity of Terminalia paniculata against paracetamol induced hepatocellular damage in Wistar albino rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eesha BR; Mohanbabu Amberkar V; Meena Kumari K; Sarath babu; Vijay M; Lalit M; Rajput R

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of Terminalia paniculata against paracetamol induced hepatic damage in rats. Methods:The plant material was shade dried, powdered and extracted with ethanol. Liv 52 and silymarin were used as standard drugs and 2%gum acacia as a control (vehicle). Alteration in the levels of biochemical markers of hepatic damage like AST, ALT, ALP and lipid peroxides were tested, and phytochemical tests were also performed. Results:Paracetamol (2 g/kg) increased the serum levels of alanine aminotransfer (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and the lipid peroxides. Treatment of Liv 52, silymarin and ethanolic extract of Terminalia paniculata (200 mg/kg) altered levels of biochemical marker and showed significant hepatoprotective activity. Ethanolic extract revealed the presence of phenolic compound and flavanoids. Our findings suggested that ethanolic bark extract of Terminalia paniculata possessed hepatoprotective activity in a dose dependent manner. Conclusions:Terminalia paniculata possesses hepatoprotective activity. It could be an effective and promising preventive agent against PCT induced hepatotoxicity.

  7. Fingerprint of Hedyotis diffusa Willd. by HPLC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ting; Yang, Yi-Hua; Yang, Ju-Yun; Chen, Ben-Mei; Duan, Ju-Ping; Yu, Shu-Yi; Ouyang, Hong-Tao; Cheng, Jun-Ping; Chen, Yu-Xiang

    2008-01-01

    A HPLC-MS fingerprint method has been developed based on the consistent chromatographic features of the major chemical constituents among 10 batches of Hedyotis diffusa Willd. Chromatographic separation was conducted on a Hypersil-Keystone Hypurity C(18) column using methanol:water:acetic acid as the mobile phase. Major compounds, including oleanolic acid, ursolic acid and ferulic acid, were analysed by HPLC-MS. Their analysis was ascertained by comparison with data derived from the standard compounds. The HPLC-MS fingerprint was successfully applied to analyse and differentiate samples from different geographical origins, or processing methods. H. diffusa was well distinguished from Hedyotis chrysotricha by HPLC-MS. Therefore the establishment of fingerprint of H. diffusa is critical in assessing and controlling its overall quality. PMID:18446772

  8. Assessment of the nutritional composition of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Verena; Du, Juan; Charrondière, U Ruth

    2016-02-15

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is an ancient crop which can play an important role for worldwide food security. The current review aimed at evaluating existing compositional data which were compiled according to international standards. A limited number of data were found that met the dataset quality criteria. In general, high variations in nutrient contents of quinoa were observed per 100g edible portion on fresh weight basis, for example: protein (9.1-15.7g), total fat (4.0-7.6g) and dietary fiber (8.8-14.1g). The variations of nutrient values among different varieties and among different data sources were considerable. The results show the nutritional potential of quinoa but they also demonstrate that more high-quality analytical data of quinoa are needed, especially for minerals and vitamins. PMID:26433286

  9. Breeding quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zurita-Silva, Andrés; Fuentes, Francisco; Zamora, Pablo;

    2014-01-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) originated in the Andean region of South America; this species is associated with exceptional grain nutritional quality and is highly valued for its ability to tolerate abiotic stresses. However, its introduction outside the Andes has yet to take off on a large...... scale. In the Andes, quinoa has until recently been marginally grown by small-scale Andean farmers, leading to minor interest in the crop from urban consumers and the industry. Quinoa breeding programs were not initiated until the 1960s in the Andes, and elsewhere from the 1970s onwards. New molecular...... tools available for the existing quinoa breeding programs, which are critically examined in this review, will enable us to tackle the limitations of allotetraploidy and genetic specificities. The recent progress, together with the declaration of "The International Year of the Quinoa" by the Food and...

  10. Antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of Tripleurospermum parviflorum (Willd. Pobed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuğçe Fafal Erdoğ an

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of n-hexane, methanol, ethanol, ethylacetate and water extracts ofTripleurospermum parviflorum(Willd. Pobed. were evaluatedin this study. The antimicrobial activities of the extracts were reported againstEscherichia coli ATCC 29998,Escherichia coli ATCC 25922,Escherichia coli ATCC 11230,Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538P,Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213,Enterobacter cloacae ATCC 13047, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212,Pseudomonas aeroginosa ATCC 27853 as bacteria and Candida albicansATCC 10239 as yeastlike fungi by disc diffusion method. Cytotoxicactivity of the extracts was tested in vitro against Brine shrimp. All of the extracts showed a range of activity against the tested bacteria and brine shrimp

  11. VARIEGATED WILD MEDICINAL PLANT OF ANDROGRAPHIS PANICULATA NESS (ACANTHACEAE) RECORDED IN KONDAPALLI, KRISHNA DISTRICT OF ANDHRA PRADESH

    OpenAIRE

    Alagesaboopathi, C.; Dwarakan, P.; Ramachandran, V S

    2001-01-01

    A preliminary survey of medicinal plants conducted surrounding forest region of Krishna District of Andhra Pradesh, among these abnormality of wild variegated Andrographis paniculata medicinal plant and its details are reported in this paper.

  12. Effect of tree species and end seal on attractiveness and utility of cut bolts to the redbay ambrosia beetle and granulate ambrosia beetle (coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayfield, A E; Hanula, J L

    2012-04-01

    The redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff, is a non-native invasive pest and vector of the fungus that causes laurel wilt disease in certain trees of the family Lauraceae. This study assessed the relative attractiveness and suitability of cut bolts of several tree species to X. glabratus. In 2009, female X. glabratus were equally attracted to traps baited with swampbay (Persea palustris (Rafinesque) Sargent) and camphortree (Cinnamomum camphora (L.) J. Presl), which were more attractive than avocado (Persea americana Miller), lancewood (Ocotea coriacea (Swartz) Britton), and sweetbay (Magnolia virginiana L.). These species were more attractive than loblolly bay (Gordonia lasianthus (L.) J. Ellis). X. glabratus entrance hole density and emergence from caged bolts were highest on swampbay and camphortree. In 2010, swampbay was significantly more attractive to X. glabratus than sassafras (Sassafras albidum (Nuttall) Nees), yellow poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L.), and eastern redbud (Cercis canadensis L.). Sassafras bolts end sealed with a liquid wax-and-water emulsion were more attractive to X. glabratus than end-sealed bolts of yellow poplar and redbud. Relative to unsealed bolts, end seal decreased X. glabratus entrance hole density on swampbay and decreased granulate ambrosia beetle (Xylosandrus crassiusculus (Motschulsky)) trap catch, entrance hole density, and adult emergence from swampbay. X. crassiusculus was not attracted to sassafras, yellow poplar, and redbud and was not more attracted to manuka oil than to unbaited traps. Sassafras was more attractive to X. glabratus than previously reported and supported reproducing populations of the insect. End sealing bolts with a wax-and-water emulsion may not be optimal for attracting and rearing ambrosia beetles in small logs. PMID:22606816

  13. Optimization of Microwave Assisted Extraction of Andrographolide from Andrographis paniculata and its Comparison with Refluxation Extraction Method

    OpenAIRE

    Manvitha Mohan; Salma Khanam; B G Shivananda

    2013-01-01

    A new method using Microwave assisted extraction technique has been developed for extraction of Andrographolide from Andrographis paniculata. Andrographis paniculata is a well-known plant of Ayurveda which is also known as king of bitters because of different bitter principles present in different parts of the plant and exhibits a wide spectrum of biological activities. The MAE conditions such as irradiation time, temperature and coarseness of powder were optimitized by means of orthogonal ar...

  14. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF HYPOGLYCEMIC EFFECT OF ETHANOLIC AND HOT WATER EXTRACTS OF ANDROGRAPHIS PANICULATA IN ALLOXAN INDUCED RAT

    OpenAIRE

    Subrata Kumar Biswas

    2012-01-01

    The aim of present study was to investigate the potential roles of ethanolic and hot water extracts of Andrographis paniculata on reducing the blood sugar level (BSL) in alloxan- induced rats. Oral administration of ethanolic (2 g/kg b. w.) and hot water (0.8 g/kg b. w.) extracts of Andrographis paniculata showed the antidiabetic properties and decreased the blood glucose level by 33.71% (p

  15. Spatial and harvesting influence on growth, yield, quality and economic potential of Kalmegh (Andrographis paniculata Wall Ex. Nees)

    OpenAIRE

    Sanjeev Kumar; Anil Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Andrographis paniculata, commonly known as Kalmegh, is used both in Ayurvedic and Unani system of medicines because of its immunological, antibacterial and hepatoprotective properties. This study was carried out to investigate the influence of four harvesting times (120,135,150 days after planting and at seed maturity) and four planting distances (30×15, 30×10, 20×15 and 20×10 cm) on growth, dry herbage biomass, seed yield and quality traits of Andrographis paniculata at CCS Haryana Agricultu...

  16. HPTLC analysis of hepatoprotective diterpenoid andrographolide from Andrographis paniculata nees (kalmegh)

    OpenAIRE

    Raina Archana; Kumar A; Pareek S

    2007-01-01

    A rapid, accurate and simple high performance thin layer chromatography method for quantitative estimation of andrographolide in Andrographis paniculata is described here. The assay combines separation of andrographolide on silica gel 60 F 254 HPTLC plates followed by scanning of the spots at 232 nm using a Camag Scanner 3. Thirty germplasm collections of Andrographis paniculata were evaluated for andrographolide content by this method. Andrographolide content ranged from 1.14% to...

  17. Antidiabetic and antihiperlipidemic effect of Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Nees and andrographolide in high-fructose-fat-fed rats

    OpenAIRE

    Agung Endro Nugroho; Mohamad Andrie; Ni Kadek Warditiani; Eka Siswanto; Suwidjiyo Pramono; Endang Lukitaningsih

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Nees originates from India and grows widely in many areas in Southeast Asian countries. Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Nees has shown an antidiabetic effect in type 1 DM rats. The present study investigates the purified extract of the plant and its active compound andrographolide for antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic effects in high-fructose-fat-fed rats, a model of type 2 DM rats. Materials and Methods: Hyperglycemia in rats was induce...

  18. Variation in Morphological Characteristics and Andrographolide Content in Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Nees of Central India

    OpenAIRE

    Pandey, A. K.; Mandal, A. K.

    2010-01-01

    Andrographis paniculata (king of bitters), commonly known as Kalmegh is used both in Ayurvedic and Unani system of medicines for a number of ailments related to digestion, hepatoprotection, hypoglycemic, and as anti-bacterial, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, vermicidal and antipyretic. A. paniculata collected from five locations of Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh were studies for their morphological characteristics and diterpene contents to find out superior genotype. The average amount of dry ...

  19. Site observational work plan for the UMTRA Project site at Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Ambrosia Lake Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site is within the Grants Mineral Belt and was one of numerous uranium mills supplied by many local mines. Ground water contamination at the site occurred as a result of uranium mill operations. The potential for impacts to human health and the environment from contaminated ground water currently does not exist. No domestic or livestock wells accessing ground water from the uppermost aquifer have been identified within a 5 mile radius from the site. Therefore, no current exposure pathways to humans, livestock, or wildlife exist, nor are any foreseen. The proposed ground water compliance strategy under consideration for application at the Ambrosia Lake site is to perform no remediation, based on the application of supplemental standards because the ground water has ''limited use.''

  20. Zingiber cassumunar, Guazuma ulmifolia, and Murraya paniculata Extracts as Antiobesity: In Vitro Inhibitory Effect on Pancreatic Lipase Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DYAH ISWANTINI

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Zingiber cassumunar Roxb. (Bangle, Guazuma ulmifolia Lamk. (Jati belanda, and Murraya paniculata (Kemuning have been used as slimming agents in jamu. A few researches have performed studies on their potency as antiobesity. The aim of this research was to investigate the potency of Z. cassumunar rhizome, G. ulmifolia, and M. paniculata leaf extracts as antiobesity agent based on in vitro inhibition activity of the extracts on pancreatic lipase activity. In this research, water content determination, phytochemical assay, toxicity assay and in vitro assay of inhibition activity on pancreatic lipase were performed toward single and mixture extracts of Z. cassumunar, G. ulmifolia, and M. paniculata resulted by water, ethanol, and saponin extractions. The results indicated that 100 ppm of ethanol extraction of Z. cassumunar had highest inhibition effect on the activity of pancreatic lipase (29.17%, followed by 100 ppm of water extraction of M. paniculata (25.66%, 60 ppm of ethanol extraction of G. ulmifolia leaves (25.13% and ethanol extraction mixture of Z. cassumunar, G. ulmifolia, and M. paniculata leaves with ratio of 25:25:25 (21.58%. These inhibition effects were higher than inhibitory effect of 100 ppm of Xenical®/orlistat as the positive control, with the inhibition value of 17.53%. Saponin crude extracts had lower inhibitory effect than the other extractions. It was suggested that ethanol extraction of Z. cassumunar, and G. ulmifolia and water extraction of M. paniculata had potency as antiobesity agent.

  1. Minireview: importance of herbicide-tolerant sunflower hybrids in suppressing common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) pollen production

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Reisinger; Gabor Kukorelli; Andras Bittsanszky; Tamas Komives

    2014-01-01

    Common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) is the number one weed in Hungary: it covers ca. 5% of the arable land, causing huge losses in row crops, especially in sunflowers. In addition, because of the high allergenicity of its pollen, common ragweed is a heavy burden on the health care system. This minireview discusses the importance of use of herbicide-tolerant sunflower hybrids in eliminating common ragweed from sunflower fields, with special emphasis on the efficacy of common ragweed contr...

  2. Yeast Associated with the Ambrosia Beetle, Platypus koryoensis, the Pest of Oak Trees in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Yun, Yeo Hong; Suh, Dong Yeon; Yoo, Hun Dal; Oh, Man Hwan; Kim, Seong Hwan

    2015-01-01

    Oak tree death caused by symbiosis of an ambrosia beetle, Platypus koryoensis, and an ophiostomatoid filamentous fungus, Raffaelea quercus-mongolicae, has been a nationwide problem in Korea since 2004. In this study, we surveyed the yeast species associated with P. koryoensis to better understand the diversity of fungal associates of the beetle pest. In 2009, a total of 195 yeast isolates were sampled from larvae and adult beetles (female and male) of P. koryoensis in Cheonan, Goyang, and Paj...

  3. Supplement to the UMTRA Project water sampling and analysis plan, Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Ambrosia Lake Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site is in McKinley County, New Mexico. As part of UMTRA surface remediation, residual radioactive materials were consolidated on the site in a disposal cell that was completed July 1995. The need for ground water monitoring was evaluated and found not to be necessary beyond the completion of the remedial action because the ground water in the uppermost aquifer is classified as limited use

  4. Effect of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria on Ambrosia rtemisiifolia L. seed germination

    OpenAIRE

    Vrbničanin Sava; Božić Dragana; Sarić Marija; Pavlović Danijela; Raičević Vera

    2011-01-01

    Soil bacteria are able either to stimulate or inhibit seed germination. If seed germination is stimulated, the seedlings of weed species emerge more uniformly, so that they could be killed in the next step of weed control. This investigation focused on testing the germination of Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. on several media: Pseudomonas fluorescens (B1), Azotobacter chroococcum (B2), Bacillus licheniformis (B3), B. pumilus (B4), B. amyloliquefaciens (B5). In ...

  5. Effect of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria on Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. Seed Germination

    OpenAIRE

    Sava Vrbničanin; Dragana Božić; Marija Sarić; Danijela Pavlović; Vera Raičević

    2011-01-01

    Soil bacteria are able either to stimulate or inhibit seed germination. If seed germination is stimulated, the seedlings of weed species emerge more uniformly, so that they could be killed in the next step of weed control. This investigation focused on testing the germination of Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. on several media: Pseudomonas fluorescens (B1), Azotobacter chroococcum (B2), Bacillus licheniformis (B3), B. pumilus (B4), B. amyloliquefaciens (B5). In control, seeds germinated in water. ...

  6. Site Observational Work Plan for the UMTRA project site at Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ground water compliance for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project sites, including the Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico, site, is governed by the Uranium Mills Tailings Radiation Control Act (42 USC section 7901 et seq.) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Health and Environmental Protection Standards for Uranium and Thorium Mill Tailings (40 CFR Part 192; 60 FR 2854). The EPA standards describe specific conditions for which the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) may apply for supplemental standards for contaminated ground water rather than meeting background levels or numerical standards. To achieve compliance with Subpart A of the EPA standards the residual radioactive materials are currently being consolidated on the site by the DOE in a disposal cell, isolating them from direct human or ecological contact and further dispersion into the environment. Completion of the disposal cell is scheduled for early 1995. An environmental assessment and a Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) were completed in 1987. Concurrence with the UMTRA Surface Project Ambrosia Lake remedial action plan (RAP) was granted by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and state of New Mexico in 1990. The DOE deferred compliance with Subpart B of the EPA standards in the Surface Project RAP. This site observational work plan (SOWP) is the first document to address ground water compliance under Subpart B at the Ambrosia Lake site. The Ambrosia Lake UMTRA Project site is within the Grants Mineral Belt and was one of numerous uranium mills supplied by many local mines. Ground water contamination at the site occurred as a result of uranium mill operations. Contamination of ground water resulted from discharge of waste water, infiltration of water through the tailings pile, hydraulic placement of mill tailings in nearby mines, and water pumped from mine shafts

  7. Plants remember past weather: a study for atmospheric pollen concentrations of Ambrosia, Poaceae and Populus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matyasovszky, István; Makra, László; Csépe, Zoltán; Sümeghy, Zoltán; Deák, Áron József; Pál-Molnár, Elemér; Tusnády, Gábor

    2015-10-01

    After extreme dry (wet) summers or years, pollen production of different taxa may decrease (increase) substantially. Accordingly, studying effects of current and past meteorological conditions on current pollen concentrations for different taxa have of major importance. The purpose of this study is separating the weight of current and past weather conditions influencing current pollen productions of three taxa. Two procedures, namely multiple correlations and factor analysis with special transformation are used. The 11-year (1997-2007) data sets include daily pollen counts of Ambrosia (ragweed), Poaceae (grasses) and Populus (poplar), as well as daily values of four climate variables (temperature, relative humidity, global solar flux and precipitation). Multiple correlations of daily pollen counts with simultaneous values of daily meteorological variables do not show annual course for Ambrosia, but do show definite trends for Populus and Poaceae. Results received using the two methods revealed characteristic similarities. For all the three taxa, the continental rainfall peak and additional local showers in the growing season can strengthen the weight of the current meteorological elements. However, due to the precipitation, big amount of water can be stored in the soil contributing to the effect of the past climate elements during dry periods. Higher climate sensitivity (especially water sensitivity) of the herbaceous taxa ( Ambrosia and Poaceae) can be definitely established compared to the arboreal Populus. Separation of the weight of the current and past weather conditions for different taxa involves practical importance both for health care and agricultural production.

  8. APPROACHES ON THE INVASIVE ALIEN TAXA IN ROMANIA - AMBROSIA ARTEMISIIFOLIA (RAGWEED II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta IANOVICI

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In a previous paper we presented the localities in Romania where we identified populations of Ambrosia artemisiifolia. Between 2008-2011, investigations were continuing. Our data clearly show that Ambrosia is present throughout the country. The territories heavily infested are railway embankments, along traffic routes, gravel pits, building sites, forest edges, industrial areas, cemeteries and recreational areas. It is quite common to find ragweed in many private gardens, or flower pots in urban areas. The few foci observed along riversides got there by household waste and construction waste. In many rural communities find it on the drainage ditches. Disturbed and neglected land (on city limits and outside the city, abandonment of land without subsequent turning of stubble and another wrong agricultural practice, absence of ruderal weed control are the main causes that favor the dissemination of our country. Intensity of anthropogenic influence is manifested mainly by transport of materials and soil movement during road rehabilitation and construction of highways. The recent observations show that could be expected to appear on agricultural fields, now being found only on the outskirts of cultivated land, at 5-6 meters from high traffic roads. Ambrosia benefits from human activities to spread. This implies a strong control strategy. The main objective of the fighting activities need to be to reduce damages caused by its pollen and to limit its expansion. If invasion by Ambrosia is left uncontrolled, increase of allergies could heavily augment the treatments. Knowledge about mechanical or chemical control of ragweed could be very important for road and rail services, agricultural institutions, farmers, staff responsible for managing natural areas, institutions that approves and oversees residential sites and factories, responsible personnel of the administrations from cities and rural localities. Reducing the population is more required than

  9. Avaliação do crescimento de Gypsophila paniculata durante o enraizamento in vitro Growth evaluation of Gypsophila paniculata during in vitro rooting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nair Bosa

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Gypsophila paniculata é uma flor de corte que pertence à família Caryophyllaceae. Conhecida popularmente por "mosquitinho", é comercializada para a confecção de arranjos e buquês. A propagação sexuada dessa espécie resulta em plantas desuniformes por ser geneticamente segregante. Por outro lado, a propagação vegetativa possibilita a disseminação de doenças, quando utiliza-se plantas infectadas. Assim, mediante a técnica de micropropagação, obtêm-se mudas em escala comercial, com manutenção da heterose e livre de patógenos. Com o objetivo de analisar o crescimento de plantas de Gypsophila paniculata durante o enraizamento in vitro em diferentes períodos de cultivo, avaliou-se a matéria fresca e seca da parte aérea e da raiz aos 4; 8; 12; 16; 20 e 24 dias. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos casualizados com seis repetições. Cada parcela constou de cinco plantas/frasco. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância e de regressão. Concluiu-se que o crescimento da parte aérea e da raiz foi progressivo ao longo do período de enraizamento. O surgimento dos primórdios da raiz ocorreu a partir dos oito dias de permanência no meio de enraizamento in vitro.Gypsophila paniculata is a cutting flower that belongs to the Caryophyllaceae family. Known popularly as 'mosquitinho' it is marketed for making arrangements and bouquets. The sexual propagation results in disuniform plants because of the genetic segregation. On the other hand, the vegetative propagation allows dissemination of plant pathogens when infected plants are used. Through the micropropagation technique it is possible to obtain the heterose fixation and pathogen free young plants on a commercial scale. In vitro rooting was analyzed in Gypsophila paniculata plants at different periods of cultivation. Fresh and dry aerial and rooting matter were evaluated at 4; 8; 12; 16; 20 and 24 days. The experimental units were arranged according to a randomized

  10. Spatial Distribution of Ambrosia Weediness in Soybean at Different Rates of Nitrogen Fertilization, based on Digital Imagery Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Vuković

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine distribution of ambrosia within soybean at different fertilization rates on experimental field Potok–Popovača (2005, technique of aerial digital imaging at ground level by digital RGB camera was applied. The digital imaging was carried out within multidiscipline research team: Faculty of Agriculture, Faculty of Geodesy and Croatian Centre for Demining. Area of cca. 4 ha (300x130m, was under long time research with 10 different rates of nitrogen fertilization. Based on interpretation of aerial digital imagery, the main object of this study was to determine ambrosia weediness in soybean at different rates of nitrogen fertilization, its spatial distribution within soybean, and nitrogen taking by ambrosia and soybean. Ambrosia detection from aerial digital RGB imagery and its spatial distribution have been defined. Bases to continue research by airborne multispectral digital imaging of experimental field within different crops during following years were provided. Digital imaging of field variants at diff erent fertilization rates, and ground samples (4 by experimental variant, including land surveying, was performed by digital RGB camera from 13th - 25th September, 2005. Interpretation of aerial digital imagery was made by field data analysis obtained by sampling plant material, in order to determine biomass, moisture and nitrogen content in both species. Comparison with field data shows that method of aerial digital RGB imagery interpretation is reliable mean of weed detection within immanent crop, and its spatial distribution at different fertilization rates – ambrosia distribution/variant.

  11. Rich radioprotective profiles of two indigenous medicinal plants Andrographis paniculata (Ap) and Swertia chirata (Sc)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The extracts of two indigenous medicinal plants, Andrographis paniculata (Ap) and Swertia chirata (Sc) were selected to study if they could prevent generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) during radiation exposure. Rat liver mitochondria exposed to γ-radiation (450Gy) resulted significant oxidative damage as exemplified by enhanced formation in various lipid peroxidation products, conjugated dienes (CD), lipid hydroperoxide (LOOH), TBARS as well as hydroxylnonenals. Simultaneous addition of Ap or Sc (50 mg/ml) extracts during radiation could significantly reverse such damage. Extracts showed high reducing equivalents, phenolic contents and displayed high scavenging activity with superoxide and hydroxyl radicals. The pulse radiolysis studies exhibited high reactivity with ABTS. Based on these observation, the plant extracts, Andrographis paniculata and Swertia chirata may emerge as effective radioprotective agents, protecting cells from radiation-induced injury. (author)

  12. EFFECT OF ORAL IMMUNOSTIMULANT ANDROGRAPHIS PANICULATA AND RESISTANCE TO AEROMONAS HYDROPHILA IN CATLA CATLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Innocent Xavier B.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to evaluate the immunostimulant potential of Andrographis paniculata in fish Catla catla, post challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila. Fishes were divided into 2 groups, one received control diet, and another received Andrographis paniculata incorporated diet for 14 days. The heamatological parameters and serum protein level were analyzed between control and experimental. There is a significant increase in TEC (P<0.05 and TLC (P<0.01 in immune-stimulant incorporated diet (IS. Remarkable increase in Hb content and serum protein was noticed as 2.42 to 3.2g% and 0.52 to 0.98g% respectively. The immunostimulant administered Cata catla when challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila showed decrease in TEC and drastic increase in TLC (P < 0.01 and lymphocyte as 58% when compared to control.

  13. EVALUATION OF ANDROGRAPHIS PANICULATA (BURMF WALL EX NEES, LEAF EXTRACTS AND ANDROGRAPHOLIDE ON GASTROINTESTINAL PATHOGENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Anitha

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Andrographis paniculata (BurmF Wall Ex Nees called as Kalmegh or "King of Bitters is used in southeast Asia for treating several ailments. The aim of this study was to determine the antibacterial activity of Andrographis paniculata leaf extracts. The agar diffusion and micro-dilution methods were used to determine the antibacterial activity of the Petroleum ether and chloroform extracts. Chloroform and petroleum ether extracts inhibited Shigella, Proteus vulgaris, Klebsiella pneumonia and Salmonella paratyphi A at concentration of 10 and 1mg/ml respectively. The antibacterial property exhibited by the extracts was due to the presence of Andrographolide which was confirmed by HPLC analysis. Standard Andrographolide inhibited all bacterium except E.coli which indicates that it is a broad spectrum antibacterial compound. Although Andrographolide was effective against various gastrointestinal pathogens it does not have any harmful effect on the native flora.

  14. Andrographis Paniculata (Burm. F.) Nees Induces Clinical and Sputum Conversion in Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Widhawati, Riswahyuni; Hanani, Endang; Zaini, Jamal

    2015-01-01

    AbstractThe aim of this study was to determine whether Andrographus paniculata capsule induces clinical and sputum conversion in pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) patients. Randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind pilot study was conducted to pulmonary tuberculosis patient who admitted to Pulmonology Polyclinic of Persahabatan Central General Hospital, Jakarta. A total of 44 pulmonary TB patients were randomly divided into two groups including one group received standard antituberculosis drugs ...

  15. A NORMATIVE STUDY OF NIGERIAN GROWN MAHA-TITA (KING OF BITTERS) - ANDROGRAPHIS PANICULATA NEES

    OpenAIRE

    Ameh, Sunday; Obodozie, Obiageri; Inyang, Uford; Abubakar, Mujitaba; Garba, Magaji

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study is to characterize the aerial parts of Andrographis paniculata - an intensely bitter herb grown in Nigeria from seeds obtained in India. The ultimate aim is to develop a suitable dosage form from the herb for use in Nigeria. The bitterness value; various physicochemical characteristics; tests for key phytochemicals; and thin layer chromatography (TLC) were carried out on the air-dried herb as prescribed in relevant standard texts. The mean bitterness value for both men an...

  16. Spectrophotometric determination of andrographolides in Andrographis paniculata nees and its formulation

    OpenAIRE

    Shah Karishma; Trivedi Priti; Shivprakash,; Pundarikakshudu K

    2007-01-01

    A simple, sensitive and reproducible spectrophotometric method was developed for the estimation of andrographolides in Andrographis paniculata ( Kalmegh ) and its formulation. The method is based on the condensation of g-unsaturated lactone ring of andrographolides and picric acid in alkaline medium which results in the formation of colored complex, that which could be measured at 494 nm. Linearity of the proposed method was found between 5-50 µg/ml. The powdered samples of A. panic...

  17. Isolasi Senyawa Alkaloida Dari Daun Tumbuhan Sambiloto (Andrographis Paniculata (Burm.F.) Ness)

    OpenAIRE

    Harianja, Saulina

    2011-01-01

    Isolasi senyawa alkaloida yang terdapat pada daun tumbuhan sambiloto (Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Ness.) dilakukan dengan maserasi dengan pelarut metanol. Ekstrak pekat metanol yang diperoleh dipekatkan dengan alat rotarievaporator. Ekstrak pelarut metanol selanjutnya diasamkan dengan asam asetat 2% hingga pH=4, kemudian dibasakan dengan NH4OH(p) hingga pH=10. Lalu diekstraksi partisi dengan kloroform dan dipekatkan. Ekstrak pekat kloroform yang merupakan alkaloid total dianalisis KLT, ...

  18. Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Wall. ex Nees: A Review of Ethnobotany, Phytochemistry, and Pharmacology

    OpenAIRE

    Md. Sanower Hossain; Zannat Urbi; Abubakar Sule; K. M. Hafizur Rahman

    2014-01-01

    As aboriginal sources of medications, medicinal plants are used from the ancient times. Andrographis paniculata is one of the highly used potential medicinal plants in the world. This plant is traditionally used for the treatment of common cold, diarrhoea, fever due to several infective cause, jaundice, as a health tonic for the liver and cardiovascular health, and as an antioxidant. It is also used to improve sexual dysfunctions and serve as a contraceptive. All parts of this plant are used ...

  19. A biochemical study on the gastroprotective effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Andrographis paniculata in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Saranya Panneerselvam; Geetha Arumugam

    2011-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the present study is to evaluate the gastroprotective effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Andrographis paniculata (HAEAP) in male albino wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Rats were pretreated with HAEAP (100,200,500mg/kg b. wt for 30 days) and then gastric ulcers were induced by ethanol, aspirin, pylorus ligation and cold restraint stress models. Ulcer score was determined in all the ulcer models. pH, gastric volume, titrable acidity, pepsin, mucin, myeloperoxidase, H +...

  20. Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology of Andrographis paniculata and Its Major Bioactive Phytoconstituent Andrographolide

    OpenAIRE

    Thanasekaran Jayakumar; Cheng-Ying Hsieh; Jie-Jen Lee; Joen-Rong Sheu

    2013-01-01

    Andrographis paniculata (Burm. F) Nees, generally known as “king of bitters,” is an herbaceous plant in the family Acanthaceae. In China, India, Thailand, and Malaysia, this plant has been widely used for treating sore throat, flu, and upper respiratory tract infections. Andrographolide, a major bioactive chemical constituent of the plant, has shown anticancer potential in various investigations. Andrographolide and its derivatives have anti-inflammatory effects in experimental models asthma,...

  1. Antibacterial activity of ethanol extract of Andrographis paniculata

    OpenAIRE

    Mishra U; Mishra A; Kumari R; Murthy P; Naik B

    2009-01-01

    In the present study the ethanol extract of the aerial part of Andrographis paniculata was prepared and evaluated for antimicrobial activity against eleven bacterial strains by determining minimum inhibitory concentration and zone of inhibition. Minimum inhibitory concentration values were compared with control and zone of inhibition values were compared with standard ciprofloxacin in concentration 100 and 200 μg/ml. The results revealed that, the ethanol extract is potent in inhibiting ...

  2. Therapeutic Potential of Andrographolide Isolated from the Leaves of Andrographis paniculata Nees for Treating Lung Adenocarcinomas

    OpenAIRE

    Yu-Tang Tung; Hsiao-Ling Chen; Hsin-Chung Tsai; Shang-Hsun Yang; Yi-Chun Chang; Chuan-Mu Chen

    2013-01-01

    Andrographolide is one of the major diterpene lactones found in Andrographis paniculata Nees and exhibits remarkable inhibitory effects on various cancers. In this study, the antipulmonary cancer effects of andrographolide were studied in a lung tumor mouse model induced by human vascular endothelial growth factor A 165 (hVEGF-A165). These results demonstrated that andrographolide significantly reduced the expression of hVEGF-A165 compared with a mock group in the Clara cells of the lungs. In...

  3. Cardiovascular effects of 14-deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide and Andrographis paniculata extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoopan, Nattaporn; Thisoda, Piengpen; Rangkadilok, Nuchanart; Sahasitiwat, Somjed; Pholphana, Nanthanit; Ruchirawat, Somsak; Satayavivad, Jutamaad

    2007-06-01

    Andrographis paniculata has been widely used as a traditional medicine for the treatment of common cold, diarrhea and hypertension. The three major active diterpenoids are andrographolide (AP1), 14-deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide (AP3) and neoandrographolide (AP4). It has been reported that AP3 has hypotensive and vasorelaxation effects. However, there is only limited information on the cardiovascular effects of the other diterpenoids and crude extracts containing different levels of AP3. Therefore, the present study investigated the effects of these diterpenoids, AP1, AP3, and AP4, isolated from A. paniculata, and different aqueous plant extracts on blood pressure, vascular and chronotropic responses by using conscious rats and their isolated aortas and right atria as the test models. Among the three major diterpenoids, AP3 was the most potent compound for inducing vasorelaxation and decreasing heart rate. In addition, Extract B (high level of AP3) had greater hypotensive effect in conscious rats than Extract A (low level of AP3). Verapamil, a Ca2+ channel blocker, also had a hypotensive effect less than that of Extract C containing a high level of AP3. At the doses and durations of Extract A and B which produced hypotension, the responses of the Extract A-treated aorta to norepinephrine, and the vascular muscarinic responses to acetylcholine of both extracts were decreased. However, repeated doses of both extracts did not alter cardiac beta-adrenoceptor and muscarinic responses of extract-treated rats to NE and ACh, respectively. The results of this study suggest that vascular smooth muscle is the major site of these hypotensive effects of both AP3 and A. paniculata extracts. Furthermore, the consumption of A. paniculata products containing high levels of AP3 may be responsible for causing hypotension in some patients taking this herbal drug. PMID:17650544

  4. Diversity of polyketides produced by Penicillium species isolated from Melia azedarach and Murraya paniculata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eight compounds comprising four groups of polyketides, the xanthone fusarindin, the mixed peptide alkaloid-polyketide GKK1032, the anthraquinones crysophanol, citreoveridin and janthinone, and the azaphylones dihydrocitrinone, citrinin and citrinin H-1, were identified in Penicillium species isolated as endophytic fungi from Melia azedarach and Murraya paniculata. The antibacterial activity of the azaphylones was tested and showed that citrinin H-1 is more active than citrinin. (author)

  5. The allelopathic effects of Festuca paniculata depend on competition in subalpine grasslands

    OpenAIRE

    Viard-Crétat, F.; Baptist, F.; Secher-Fromell, H.; Gallet, C.

    2012-01-01

    Allelopathy is recognized as an important process in plant-plant interactions, but how it affects plant communities growing in competitive conditions has not been assessed. This article investigates whether the allelopathic effect of Festuca paniculata is modified by competition between target plants in subalpine grasslands. We hypothesized that plants growing in mixed stands will be more affected by allelochemicals than the same species in monoculture. At Lautaret pass (Northern French Alps)...

  6. Scientific Opinion on the effect on public or animal health or on the environment on the presence of seeds of Ambrosia spp. in animal feed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, R.; Candresse, T.; Dormannsné Simon, E.;

    2010-01-01

    The European Commission requested EFSA to provide a scientific opinion on the effect on public or animal health or on the environment on the further distribution of Ambrosia spp. in the European Union and on the importance of feed materials, in particular bird feed, in the dispersion of Ambrosia...... spp. The genus Ambrosia (Asteraceae family) is distributed worldwide. Ambrosia artemisiifolia (common ragweed) has heavily colonised several areas of South-East Europe. Ambrosia spp., both in their native range and in invaded areas, are of public health concern due to the allergenic properties of...

  7. Atividade Antimicrobiana da Uncaria Tomentosa (Willd D. C.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Silva e Sá

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A Uncaria tomentosa (Willd D. C. (unha de gato é uma planta amplamente utilizada na medicina popular, originária da Amazônia. Possui atividades biológicas, como anti-inflamatória, antimutagênica e antioxidante. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a atividade antimicrobiana do extrato de U. tomentosa, seco e hidroalcoólico, obtido comercialmente, utilizando-se 12 cepas de microrganismos (6 Gram-positvas e 6 Gramnegativas. Os testes antimicrobianos foram realizados em ágar BHI pela técnica de difusão em ágar. Também foram determinadas a Concentração Inibitória Mínima (CIM e Concentração Microbicida Mínima (CMM. Os testes demonstraram que os extratos inibiram o crescimento de bactérias Gram-positivas e Gramnegativas, sendo o extrato hidroalcoólico mais eficiente que o extrato seco. Conclui-se que o extrato de U. tomentosa possui atividade antimicrobiana podendo ser utilizado como uma alternativa terapêutica de baixo custo.

  8. RESPONSES OF QUINOA (CHENOPODIUM QUINOA WILLD.) TO TWO CONDITIONS OF IRRIGATION IN COAST

    OpenAIRE

    La Rosa, R.; Macabilca, Y.; Mendoza, A.; Gutiérrez, A

    2008-01-01

    13 Artículo original Biologist (Lima). Vol. 6, Nº1, ene-jun 2008, 13-21 RESPUESTAS DE LA QUINUA (CHENOPODIUM QUINOA WILLD.) A DOS CONDICIONES DE RIEGO EN COSTA RESPONSES OF QUINOA (CHENOPODIUM QUINOA WILLD.) TO TWO CONDITIONS OF IRRIGATION IN COAST Rafael La Rosa1, Yesenia Macabilca2, Augusto Mendoza3 & Ana Gutiérrez 3 1 Laboratorio de Ecofisiología Vegetal; 2 Laboratorio de Bioquímica y Biología Molecular3; Centro de Investigaciones Agroecológicas Oquendo. Facultad...

  9. Festuca paniculata (L. Schinz & Thell. subsp. paui, nuevo taxon para la Península Ibérica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cebolla, Consuelo

    1990-05-01

    Full Text Available A new subspecies, Festuca paniculata (L. Schinz & Thell. subsp. paui Cebolla & Rivas Ponce (Poaceae is described.

    Se describe una subespecie nueva, Festuca paniculata (L. Schinz & Thell. subsp. paui Cebolla & Rivas Ponce (Poaceae.

  10. The differentially-expressed proteome in Zn/Cd hyperaccumulator Arabis paniculata Franch. in response to Zn and Cd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiao-Wen; Qiu, Rong-Liang; Ying, Rong-Rong; Tang, Ye-Tao; Tang, Lu; Fang, Xiao-Hang

    2011-01-01

    The Zn/Cd hyperaccumulator Arabis paniculata is able to tolerate high level of Zn and Cd. To clarify the molecular basis of Zn and Cd tolerance, proteomic approaches were applied to identify proteins involved in Zn and Cd stress response in A. paniculata. Plants were exposed to both low and high Zn or Cd levels for 10 d. Proteins of leaves in each treatment were separated by 2-DE (two-dimensional electrophoresis). Nineteen differentially-expressed proteins upon Zn treatments and 18 proteins upon Cd treatments were observed. Seventeen out of 19 of Zn-responsive proteins and 16 out of 18 of Cd-responsive proteins were identified using MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS (matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry). The most of identified proteins were known to function in energy metabolism, xenobiotic/antioxidant defense, cellular metabolism, protein metabolism, suggesting the responses of A. paniculata to Zn and Cd share similar pathway to certain extend. However, the different metal defense was also revealed between Zn and Cd treatment in A. paniculata. These results indicated that A. paniculata against to Zn stress mainly by enhancement of energy metabolism including auxin biosynthesis and protein metabolism to maintain plant growth and correct misfolded proteins. In the case of Cd, plants adopted antioxidative/xenobiotic defense and cellular metabolism to keep cellular redox homeostasis and metal-transportation under Cd stress. PMID:21074242

  11. EFFECTS OF 50% ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF ANDROGRAPHIS PANICULATA ON SEXUAL BEHAVIOR AND SERUM HORMONAL ASSAY IN MALE SPRAGUE DAWLEY RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dasuki MS

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Andrographis paniculata has been used for centuries as a medicinal herb for the treatment of various ailments. The present study was aimed to investigate the possible effect of A. paniculata extract on male sexual behavior parameters and sex hormone levels. Fifty Sprague Dawley male rats received 50% ethanolic extract of A. paniculata by gavaging for 10 weeks at the doses of 0.5, 1, 10, 100, 1000 mg/kg, while another 10 male rats were given distilled water. Sexual behavior study was carried out on day 45thof treatment by pairing with a naturally receptive female (1:1. At the end of treatment period, the male rats were sacrificed by ethyl ether inhalation. The bloods were centrifuged to obtain serum for determination of hormone levels. Results showed that sexual behavior parameters in treatment groups were found to be comparable with that of the control indicating no effect on sexual motivation and performance. Treatment of A. paniculata was significantly increased serum testosterone level, while FSH and LH concentrations remained statistically unchanged at any of the dose levels. Based on these findings, ingestion of A. paniculata did not induce any adverse effect on sexual behavior and improvement of testosterone observed might be contributed for therapeutic use of this plant as sex enhancer.

  12. Some aspects of chemical ecology of the sponges of the Caribbean, Axinyssa ambrosia and Aplysina insularis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axinyssamine hydrochloride (compound 1) was recently found in the marine sponge Axinyssa ambrosia at concentrations in the order of 10 mg/ml. Lethality assays using compound 1 against the coral Madracis mirabilis allowed determining that the mentioned compound is lethal to coral polyps at the natural concentration present in the sponge. Additionally, by performing exudation experiments in aquaria and chemical detection by HRGC-MS (scan and sim modes) it was found that the compounds ll-formamide-7β-H-eudesm-5-ene (2) and 4 α-formamidogorgon-ll-ene (3) are continually exuded by Axinyssa ambrosia creating a protective chemical barrier around the sponge. Exudation rates increase 3.80 and 2.47 fold respectively for each compound, under stress conditions or aggression. These results suggest that the sponge Axinyssa ambrosia may use the above-mentioned three metabolites as chemical defenses. Other experiments were carried out with the sponge Aplysina insularis in situ, under ecologically relevant conditions, with the purpose of determining if the chemical composition (Brominated metabolites) changes over variable time periods after inflicting wounds on the sponge surface. Metabolites were detected and identified by LC-MS. No evidence of chemical transformation of high molecular weight compounds into the compounds Aeroplysinin-l (4) and/or the dibromo cyclohexadienone (5) was obtained as a consequence of tissue damage, both in short (2,5 minutes) and long duration experiments (120 minutes). These results suggest that the conversion of high molecular weight compounds into small, active forms does not take place in Aplysina insularis as a chemical defense mechanism

  13. Ambrosia maritima L., Molluscicide végétal prometteur !

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidhom, MZ.

    1983-01-01

    Full Text Available Ambrosia maritima L., a promising molluscicide of plant origin !. Masses of granivorous birds destroy about 5-10 % of the rice crop produced in the central Niger delta. To the local species (ducks, ploceid birds and the quelea, which is the most abundant and noxious pest with numbers ranging from 18 million in January to 10 million in May-June add palearctic migratory birds, which are mainly ducks and stilt-birds. Bird control is necessarily undertaken but is inefficient due to the vastness of the region, difficult access to the sites, the number of birds and insufficient financial means.

  14. Ambrosia maritima L., Molluscicide végétal prometteur !

    OpenAIRE

    Sidhom, MZ.; GEERTS, S

    1983-01-01

    Ambrosia maritima L., a promising molluscicide of plant origin !. Masses of granivorous birds destroy about 5-10 % of the rice crop produced in the central Niger delta. To the local species (ducks, ploceid birds and the quelea, which is the most abundant and noxious pest with numbers ranging from 18 million in January to 10 million in May-June) add palearctic migratory birds, which are mainly ducks and stilt-birds. Bird control is necessarily undertaken but is inefficient due to the vastness ...

  15. Long-term surveillance plan for the Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico disposal site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Ambrosia Lake disposal site in McKinley County, New Mexico, describes the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) long-term care program for the disposal site. The DOE will carry out this program to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials.

  16. Long-term surveillance plan for the Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico disposal site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Ambrosia Lake disposal site in McKinley County, New Mexico, describes the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) long-term care program for the disposal site. The DOE will carry out this program to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials.

  17. Long-term surveillance plan for the Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Ambrosia Lake disposal site in McKinley County, New Mexico, describes the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) long-term care program for the disposal site. The DOE will carry out this program to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials

  18. Long-term surveillance plan for the Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Ambrosia Lake disposal site in McKinley County, New Mexico, describes the US Department of Energy's (DOE) long-term care program for the disposal site. The DOE will carry out this program to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials

  19. Effect of Hedyotis Diffusa Willd extract on tumor angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jiumao; Wei, Lihui; Xu, Wei; Hong, Zhenfeng; Liu, Xianxiang; Peng, Jun

    2011-01-01

    Inhibition of tumor angiogenesis has become an attractive target of anticancer chemotherapy. However, drug resistance and cytotoxicity against non-tumor associated endothelial cells limit the long-term use and the therapeutic effectiveness of angiogenesis inhibitors, thus increasing the necessity for the development of multi-target agents with minimal side effects. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formulas, which have relatively fewer side effects and have been used clinically to treat various types of diseases, including cancer, for thousands of years, are considered to be multi-component and multi-target agents exerting their therapeutic function in a more holistic way. Hedyotis Diffusa Willd (EEHDW) has long been used as an important component in several TCM formulas to treat various types of cancer. Although recently we reported that EEHDW promotes cancer cell apoptosis via activation of the mitochondrial-dependent pathway, the precise mechanism of its tumoricidalactivity still remains to be clarified. In the present study, we investigated the angiogenic effects of the ethanol extract of EEHDW. Cell cycle analysis was perfomed using flow cytometry. Cell viability was analyzed using MTT assay. We found that EEHDW inhibited angiogenesis in vivo in chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM). In addition, we observed that EEHDW dose- and time-dependently inhibited the prolife-ration of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) by blocking the cell cycle G1 to S progression. Moreover, EEHDW inhibited the migration and tube formation of HUVECs. Furthermore, EEHDW treatment down-regulated the mRNA and protein expression levels of VEGF-A in HT-29 human colon carcinoma cells and HUVECs. Our findings suggest that inhibiting tumor angiogenesis is one of the mechanisms by which EEHDW is involved in cancer therapy. PMID:21887465

  20. New Rare Sinapoyl Acylated Flavonoid Glycosides Obtained from the Seeds of Lepidium apetalum Willd

    OpenAIRE

    Lifeng Han; Pingping Shi; Yongzhe Dong; Tingting Wang; Xiaoxia Li; Jia Hao; Yi Zhang; Tao Wang

    2015-01-01

    Seven new rare sinapoyl acylated flavonoid glycosides, apetalumosides A1 (1), B8 (2), B9 (3), B10 (4), B11 (5), B12 (6), and C1 (7) were isolated from the seeds of Lepidium apetalum Willd. Their structures were elucidated by chemical and spectroscopic methods.

  1. Sensitivity of two quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) varieties to progressive drought stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Yujie; Liu, Fulai; Bendevis, Mira Arpe;

    2014-01-01

    Quinoa (ChenopodiumquinoaWilld.) is a highly nutritious Andean seed crop which shows great potential to grow under a range of hostile environments. The objective of this study was to investigate the differences of drought tolerance of a Bolivian (Achachino) and a Danish (Titicaca) variety, and...

  2. Simulation of Quinoa (Chenopodium Quinoa Willd.) response to soil salinity using the saltmed model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Razzaghi, Fatemeh; Plauborg, Finn; Ahmadi, Seyed Hamid;

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is a crop with high tolerance to salinity and drought and its response to varying soil moisture and salinity levels was studied in a field lysimeter experiment. Quinoa (cv. Titicaca) was irrigated with different concentrations of saline water (0, 10, 20, 30 and 40...

  3. Andrographis paniculata Extract and Andrographolide Modulate the Hepatic Drug Metabolism System and Plasma Tolbutamide Concentrations in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Haw-Wen Chen; Chin-Shiu Huang; Pei-Fen Liu; Chien-Chun Li; Chiung-Tong Chen; Cheng-Tzu Liu; Jia-Rong Chiang; Hsien-Tsung Yao; Chong-Kuei Lii

    2013-01-01

    Andrographolide is the most abundant terpenoid of A. paniculata which is used in the treatment of diabetes. In this study, we investigated the effects of A. paniculata extract (APE) and andrographolide on the expression of drug-metabolizing enzymes in rat liver and determined whether modulation of these enzymes changed the pharmacokinetics of tolbutamide. Rats were intragastrically dosed with 2 g/kg/day APE or 50 mg/kg/day andrographolide for 5 days before a dose of 20 mg/kg tolbutamide was g...

  4. Evaluation of health state and growth of Gypsophila paniculata L. and Gypsophila repens L. groving in soil in variable fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Warner

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of NPK fertilization on plant growth and roots yield of Gypsophila paniculata and Gypsophila repens was investigated. The nutrients were applied in different proportions. The health state of Gypsophila was also analyzed. The pathogens isolated from plants showing the diseases symptoms represented eight species: Alternaria dianthicola Neergaard; Fusarium avenaceum (Fr. Sacc.; Fusarium culmorum (W. G.Smith Sacc.; F.equiseti (Cola Sacc.; F.oxysporum Schlecht., Snyder et Hansen; F.sambucinum Fuck; Phytophthora sp. de Bary; Rhizoctonia solani K. Fusarium oxysporum and other species of fungi were isolated from Gypsophila paniculata, whilst from Gypsophila repens only Fusarium oxysporum was obtained.

  5. Fusarium symbionts of an ambrosia beetle (Euwallacea sp.) in southern Florida are pathogens of avocado, Persea americana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium dieback, a destructive disease of avocado (Persea americana), was reported in California and Israel in 2012. It is associated with an ambrosia beetle, Euwallacea sp., and damage caused by an unnamed symbiont of the beetle in Clade 3 of the Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC) designated p...

  6. Flood stress as a technicque to assess preventive insecticide and fungicide treatments for protecting trees against ambrosia beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    The exotic ambrosia beetles Xylosandrus germanus, Xylosandrus crassiusculus, and Xylosandrus compactus tunnel into the heartwood of trees where they cultivate and feed upon a symbiotic fungus. We assessed the effectiveness of flood stress as a tactic for making trees attractive and vulnerable to att...

  7. Efficacy and longevity of essential oil lures for capture of the redbay ambrosia beetle Xyleborus glabratus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The redbay ambrosia beetle Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff is an exotic wood-boring pest native to southeastern Asia. It carries a symbiotic fungus (Raffaelea lauricola) that causes laurel wilt, a lethal vascular disease of trees in the Lauraceae. First detected in Georgia in 2002, the beetle has spre...

  8. Fusarium euwallaceae sp. nov.—a symbiotic fungus of Euwallacea sp., an invasive ambrosia beetle in Israel and California

    Science.gov (United States)

    The invasive Asian ambrosia beetle Euwallacea sp. (Coleoptera, Scolytinae, Xyleborini) and a novel Fusarium sp. that it farms in its galleries as a source of nutrition seriously damage over 20 species of live trees and pose a serious threat to avocado production (Persea americana) in Israel and Cali...

  9. Redbay ambrosia beetle/Laurel wilt: Overview of projects at the USDA-ARS Subtropical Horticulture Research Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    ABSTRACT Laurel wilt, a deadly fungal disease of avocado and other trees in the Lauraceae, is vectored by the redbay ambrosia beetle (Xyleborus glabratus). First detected near Savannah, GA in 2002, the beetle and its obligatory pathogen have since spread to South Carolina and Florida. Currently, t...

  10. Fusarium euwallaceae, a novel species cultivated by a Euwallacea ambrosia beetle that threatens avocado production in Israel and California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avocado production in Israel and California, USA is facing a serious threat due to damage caused by an invasive Euwallacea ambrosia beetle and a novel Fusarium that it cultivates as a source of food. Adult female beetles possess mandibular mycangia within which they carry the Fusarium symbiont. At l...

  11. The invasive ambrosia beetle Euwallacea fornicates vectors an exotic symbiotic Fusarium species that threatens avocado production in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    The invasive ambrosia beetle (Euwallacea fornicatus Eichhoff) was first recorded in Israel in 2009, and it has been shown to vector an exotic fusarial pathogen. Multilocus molecular phylogenetic analyses indicate that the pathogen represents a novel symbiotic Fusarium sp. within Clade 3 of the Fusar...

  12. A pernicious agent affecting avocado in Israel: a novel symbiotic Fusarium sp. associated with the ambrosia beetle Euwallacea fornicatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since first recorded in Israel in 2009, the ambrosia beetle, Euwallacea fornicatus Eichhoff, has been shown to vector a fusarial pathogen of avocado (Persea Americana Miller) in its mandibular mycangia. Multilocus molecular phylogenetic analyses indicate the pathogen represents a novel symbiotic Fus...

  13. Acercamiento al género Murraya (Rutaceae y a la especie Murraya paniculata (L. Jack. Approach to Murraya (Rutaceae genus and Murraya paniculata (L. Jack. species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celia Magaly Casado Martín

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Murraya paniculata (L. Jack (Rutaceae es empleada tradicionalmente en algunas provincias de Cuba para el alivio del dolor y la inflamación asociados a enfermedades osteomioarticulares. No se reportan estudios en el país que profundicen en la composición química de esta especie o del género Murraya, ni tampoco relacionados con información etnomédica y actividades biológicas comprobadas. Objetivos: reunir y analizar información científica actualizada referente al género, y a esta especie en particular, como fuente natural de compuestos biológicamente activos que determinan sus potencialidades medicinales. Métodos: se incluyeron en el análisis artículos científicos y libros relacionados con los temas de composición química, usos tradicionales y evaluaciones farmacológicas, así como otros elementos de interés de plantas medicinales. Resultados: la información analizada puede servir de base para el desarrollo de nuevas investigaciones que avalen el empleo en la terapéutica de productos fitoterápicos de elevada eficacia, seguridad y calidad. La revisión de los resultados de otros grupos de investigación permite establecer estrategias racionales de investigación científica, que contribuyan al uso racional de los recursos que se encuentran en universidades y centros de investigación y salud. Conclusiones: los elementos encontrados en la bibliografía consultada permiten asegurar que la especie Murraya paniculata puede ser potencialmente empleada en fitoterapia, debido entre otras cosas, al importante número de metabolítos secundarios identificados con actividad farmacológica reconocida.Introduction: Murraya paniculata (L. Jacq (Rutaceae is traditionally used in some Cuban provinces for pain relief and inflammation associated to osteomyoarticulary diseases. There has been no reported studied at domestic level, which delves into neither the chemical composition of this species or of Murraya genus nor the

  14. UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan, Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This water sampling and analysis plan (WSAP) provides the basis for ground water sampling at the Ambrosia Lake Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site during fiscal year 1994. It identifies and justifies the sampling locations, analytical parameters, detection limits, and sampling frequency for the monitoring locations and will be updated annually. The Ambrosia Lake site is in McKinley County, New Mexico, about 40 kilometers (km) (25 miles [mi]) north of Grants, New Mexico, and 1.6 km (1 mi) east of New Mexico Highway 509 (Figure 1.1). The town closest to the tailings pile is San Mateo, about 16 km ( 10 mi) southeast (Figure 1.2). The former mill and tailings pile are in Section 28, and two holding ponds are in Section 33, Township 14 North, Range 9 West. The site is shown on the US Geological Survey (USGS) map (USGS, 1980). The site is approximately 2100 meters (m) (7000 feet [ft]) above sea level

  15. Effect of Gamma Rays and Salinity on Growth and Chemical Composition of Ambrosia maritima L. Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work achieved to study the effects of, mixture of salt 2:2:1 (Na Cl-CaCl2 and Mg SO4), concentration of (0, 2000, 4000 and 6000 ppm). on growth characters, some chemical components and some active ingredients in shoots of Ambrosia maritima plants, at different stages of growth, during two seasons. Pots 30 cm in diameter were filled of sand-loamy soils in appropriate concentration, all pots were irrigated with tap water. The exposed damsisa seeds to gamma rays, doses (0, 20, 40, and 80 Gy) before sowing together with control non irradiated seeds were sown in saline soils (0, 2000, 4000 and 6000 ppm). Soil salinity treatments caused a decrease in plant height, number of leaves, content of damsin, and an increase in fresh weigh, dry weight, total sugars, total chlorophyll, amino acids and ambrosine content. Also, Gamma rays caused an increase in most of growth parameters and most of chemical composition. It was observed that 40 or 80 Gy was more effective. We investigated the combined effect of levels of salinity and doses of radiation used, this interference improve growth parameters and chemical composition in ambrosia maritima plants and caused ascertain the role of gamma irradiation in plants tolerance to soil salinity and alleviation their harmful effect on plants.

  16. Ambrosia Beetle (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) Species, Flight, and Attack on Living Eastern Cottonwood Trees.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coyle, D R; D.C. Booth: M.S. Wallace

    2005-12-01

    ABSTRACT In spring 2002, ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) infested an intensively managed 22-ha tree plantation on the upper coastal plain of South Carolina. Nearly 3,500 scolytids representing 28 species were captured in ethanol-baited traps from 18 June 2002 to 18 April 2004. More than 88% of total captures were exotic species. Five species [Dryoxylon onoharaensum (Murayama), Euwallacea validus (Eichhoff), Pseudopityophthorus minutissimus (Zimmermann), Xyleborus atratus Eichhoff, and Xyleborus impressus Eichhoff]) were collected in South Carolina for the first time. Of four tree species in the plantation, eastern cottonwood, Populus deltoides Bartram, was the only one attacked, with nearly 40% of the trees sustaining ambrosia beetle damage. Clone ST66 sustained more damage than clone S7C15. ST66 trees receiving fertilization were attacked more frequently than trees receiving irrigation, irrigation_fertilization, or controls, although the number of S7C15 trees attacked did not differ among treatments. The study location is near major shipping ports; our results demonstrate the necessity for intensive monitoring programs to determine the arrival, spread, ecology, and impact of exotic scolytids.

  17. UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan, Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    This water sampling and analysis plan (WSAP) provides the basis for ground water sampling at the Ambrosia Lake Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site during fiscal year 1994. It identifies and justifies the sampling locations, analytical parameters, detection limits, and sampling frequency for the monitoring locations and will be updated annually. The Ambrosia Lake site is in McKinley County, New Mexico, about 40 kilometers (km) (25 miles [mi]) north of Grants, New Mexico, and 1.6 km (1 mi) east of New Mexico Highway 509 (Figure 1.1). The town closest to the tailings pile is San Mateo, about 16 km ( 10 mi) southeast (Figure 1.2). The former mill and tailings pile are in Section 28, and two holding ponds are in Section 33, Township 14 North, Range 9 West. The site is shown on the US Geological Survey (USGS) map (USGS, 1980). The site is approximately 2100 meters (m) (7000 feet [ft]) above sea level.

  18. De novo Assembly of Leaf Transcriptome in the Medicinal Plant Andrographis paniculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherukupalli, Neeraja; Divate, Mayur; Mittapelli, Suresh R; Khareedu, Venkateswara R; Vudem, Dashavantha R

    2016-01-01

    Andrographis paniculata is an important medicinal plant containing various bioactive terpenoids and flavonoids. Despite its importance in herbal medicine, no ready-to-use transcript sequence information of this plant is made available in the public data base, this study mainly deals with the sequencing of RNA from A. paniculata leaf using Illumina HiSeq™ 2000 platform followed by the de novo transcriptome assembly. A total of 189.22 million high quality paired reads were generated and 1,70,724 transcripts were predicted in the primary assembly. Secondary assembly generated a transcriptome size of ~88 Mb with 83,800 clustered transcripts. Based on the similarity searches against plant non-redundant protein database, gene ontology, and eukaryotic orthologous groups, 49,363 transcripts were annotated constituting upto 58.91% of the identified unigenes. Annotation of transcripts-using kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes database-revealed 5606 transcripts plausibly involved in 140 pathways including biosynthesis of terpenoids and other secondary metabolites. Transcription factor analysis showed 6767 unique transcripts belonging to 97 different transcription factor families. A total number of 124 CYP450 transcripts belonging to seven divergent clans have been identified. Transcriptome revealed 146 different transcripts coding for enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of terpenoids of which 35 contained terpene synthase motifs. This study also revealed 32,341 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) in 23,168 transcripts. Assembled sequences of transcriptome of A. paniculata generated in this study are made available, for the first time, in the TSA database, which provides useful information for functional and comparative genomic analysis besides identification of key enzymes involved in the various pathways of secondary metabolism. PMID:27582746

  19. Antioxidative response to Cd in a newly discovered cadmium hyperaccumulator, Arabis paniculata F.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Rong-Liang; Zhao, Xuan; Tang, Ye-Tao; Yu, Fang-Ming; Hu, Peng-Jie

    2008-12-01

    A hydroponic experiment was carried out to study the effect of cadmium (Cd) on growth, Cd accumulation, lipid peroxidation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) content and antioxidative enzymes in leaves and roots of Arabis paniculata F., a new Cd hyperaccumuator found in China. The results showed that 22-89 microM Cd in solution enhanced the growth of A. paniculata after three weeks, with 21-27% biomass increase compared to the control. Cd concentrations in shoots and roots increased with increasing Cd supply levels, and reached a maximum of 1662 and 8670 mg kg(-1) Cd dry weight at 178 microM Cd treatment, respectively. In roots, 22-89 microM Cd reduced the content of malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide (O(2)(-1)) and H(2)O(2) as well as the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and glutathione reductase (GR). In leaves, the contents of MDA, O(2)(-1) and H(2)O(2) remained unaffected by 22-89 microM Cd, while 178 microM Cd treatment significantly increased the MDA content, 69.5% higher than that of the control; generally, the activities of SOD, catalase (CAT), GPX and APX showed an increasing pattern with increasing Cd supply levels. Our present work concluded that A. paniculata has a great capability of Cd tolerance and accumulation. Moderate Cd treatment (22-89 microM Cd) alleviated the oxidative stress in roots, while higher level of Cd addition (178 microM) could cause an increasing generation of ROS, which was effectively scavenged by the antioxidative system. PMID:18992910

  20. A classical genetic solution to enhance the biosynthesis of anticancer phytochemicals in Andrographis paniculata Nees.

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    Alireza Valdiani

    Full Text Available Andrographolides, the diterpene lactones, are major bioactive phytochemicals which could be found in different parts of the medicinal herb Andrographis paniculata. A number of such compounds namely andrographolide (AG, neoandrographolide (NAG, and 14-deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide (DDAG have already attracted a great deal of attention due to their potential therapeutic effects in hard-to-treat diseases such as cancers and HIV. Recently, they have also been considered as substrates for the discovery of novel pharmaceutical compounds. Nevertheless, there is still a huge gap in knowledge on the genetic pattern of the biosynthesis of these bioactive compounds. Hence, the present study aimed to investigate the genetic mechanisms controlling the biosynthesis of these phytochemicals using a diallel analysis. The high performance liquid chromatography analysis of the three andrographolides in 210 F1 progenies confirmed that the biosynthesis of these andrographolides was considerably increased via intraspecific hybridization. The results revealed high, moderate and low heterosis for DDAG, AG and NAG, respectively. Furthermore, the preponderance of non-additive gene actions was affirmed in the enhancement of the three andrographolides contents. The consequence of this type of gene action was the occurrence of high broad-sense and low narrow-sense heritabilities for the above mentioned andrographolides. The prevalence of non-additive gene action suggests the suitability of heterosis breeding and hybrid seed production as a preferred option to produce new plant varieties with higher andrographolide contents using the wild accessions of A. paniculata. Moreover, from an evolutionary point of view, the occurrence of population bottlenecks in the Malaysian accessions of A. paniculata was unveiled by observing a low level of additive genetic variance (VA for all the andrographolides.

  1. Evaluation of antimicrobial efficacy of flavonoids and alkaloids of Andrographis paniculata nees

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    Keerti Gautam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The persistent increase in the number of antibiotic resistant strains of microorganisms has led to the development of more potent but more expensive antibiotics. Synthetic drugs are mostly associated with side effects and are generally costly, hence are not affordable to economically poor class of the society when long term treatment is required, thus interest has been developed in the use of herbal medicines which have been reported to have either very little or no side effects. Aims: Present work was carried out to assess the antimicrobial activity of A. paniculata against some multidrug resistant pathogenic bacteria. Materials and Methods: Different parts (leaf, stem, root of A. paniculata were collected and air dried and soxhlet extracted by using standard methods for flavonoid and alkaloid extraction. These extracts were then tested for antimicrobial activity using disc diffusion method. Minimum inhibitory concentration, Minimum bactericidal concentration and Total activity were also calculated. Statistical Analysis: Mean value and Standard Deviation were calculated for the test bacteria and fungi. Data were analysed by one-way analysis of variance and P values were considered significant at P < 0.05. Results: C. albicans was found to be the most susceptible organism followed by P. mirabilis, S. aureus, E. coli, P. aeruginosa and A. flavus. A. niger and T. mentegrophyte were observed to be resistant as none of the tested extracts showed activity against them. Free flavonoid extract of root showed best activity against C. albicans (IZ 14 mm, MIC 0.156, whereas leaf free flavonoid extract showed maximum 21 mm inhibition zone against P. mirabilis.The range of MIC and MBC was found to be 1.25-0.039 and 2.5-0.078 respectively. Conclusion: Results of the present study reveal that extracts of A. paniculata are showing great antimicrobial potential against tested microorganisms, and may be exploited for future antimicrobial drugs

  2. Pathogenic microorganisms survival in ambrosiaSobrevivência de micro-organismos patogênicos em ambrósia

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    Cláudio Dias Timm

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Ambrosia is a kind of dulce de leche homemade with milk, eggs and sugar. It is usually sold in free markets and it is largely consumed in South America. Food contamination by pathogenic microorganisms can occur during the food processing, in distribution centers, in retail markets or in the consumer’s homes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the survival in ambrosia of main pathogenic microorganisms eventually transmitted by dairy products. Ambrosia fractions were experimentally contaminated with Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotype Typhimurium, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus. Analysis to evaluate the microorganisms’ viability were made after storage for 0, 1, 2, 3, 5, 10, 20 and 30 days. Salmonella and L. monocytogenes were recovered from all samples during the 30 days of study. E. coli O157:H7 was isolated until the tenth day and S. aureus until the third day. It was demonstrated that important pathogenic microorganisms are able to survive up to 30 days in ambrosia, which makes this product a potential carrier of food-borne diseases. This work is the first study about the possibility of ambrosia transmitting relevant public-health danger pathogenic microorganisms. Ambrosia é um tipo de doce de leite preparado artesanalmente com leite, ovos e açúcar, comumente comercializado em feiras livres e muito consumido na América do Sul. A contaminação de alimentos por microrganismos patogênicos pode ocorrer durante as etapas de processamento, nos centros de distribuição, no mercado varejista ou na casa do consumidor. O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a sobrevivência em ambrosia dos principais microrganismos patogênicos eventualmente transmitidos por leite e derivados. Alíquotas de ambrosia foram experimentalmente contaminadas com Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica sorotipo Typhimurium, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes e Staphylococcus aureus. Foram realizadas

  3. Intergeneric somatic hybrid plantlets between Dianthus barbatus and Gypsophila paniculata obtained by electrofusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, M; Hoshino, Y; Mii, M

    1996-02-01

    Hypocotyl-derived protoplasts of Dianthus barbatus that had been pretreated with iodoacetamide were fused electrically with cell suspension culture-derived protoplasts of Gypsophila paniculata that could divide to form callus but could not regenerate shoots under the culture conditions used in this study. Electrofusion-derived calli which produced shoots were selected as putative somatic hybrids, and plantlets were subsequently regenerated from 2 of these selected calli. These plantlets, which in vitro produced flowers precociously, were identified as intergeneric somatic hybrids by nuclear ribosomal DNA analysis. Normal plants have not been established up to the present. PMID:24166164

  4. Cardiovascular Activity of Labdane Diterpenes from Andrographis paniculata in Isolated Rat Hearts

    OpenAIRE

    Khalijah Awang; Nor Hayati Abdullah; Hadi, A. Hamid A.; Yew Su Fong

    2012-01-01

    The dichloromethane (DCM) extract of Andrographis paniculata Nees was tested for cardiovascular activity. The extract significantly reduced coronary perfusion pressure by up to 24.5 ± 3.0 mm Hg at a 3 mg dose and also reduced heart rate by up to 49.5 ± 11.4 beats/minute at this dose. Five labdane diterpenes, 14-deoxy-12-hydroxyandrographolide (1), 14-deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide (2), 14-deoxyandrographolide (3), andrographolide (4), and neoandrographolide (5), were isolated from the a...

  5. MORFOLOGI FETUS MENCIT (MUS MUSCULUS L.) SETELAH PEMBERIAN EKSTRAK DAUN SAMBILOTO (ANDROGRAPHIS PANICULATA NEES)

    OpenAIRE

    IRIANI SETYAWATI

    2014-01-01

    This experiment was performed to examine the effects of Andrographis paniculata Nees leaves extract on foetus morphology if given during organogenesis period. Thirty pregnant mice were randomly divided into 5 groups for teratogenic effects. Extract was given orally by gavage with 0 (as control); 0,004 (equal to one time dose to human); 7,5; 15; and 22,5 g/g body weight/ day. Treatment was given from day 6 to day 13 of gestation (organogenesis period). Foetus were removed on day 18 of gestatio...

  6. Intraspecific Crossability in Andrographis paniculata Nees: A Barrier against Breeding of the Species

    OpenAIRE

    Alireza Valdiani; Mihdzar Abdul Kadir; Mohd Said Saad; Daryush Talei; Vahid Omidvar; Chia Sok Hua

    2012-01-01

    The ambiguity of crossability in Andrographis paniculata (AP) was pointed out in the present research. Accordingly, the effects of different style length and crossing time on intraspecific crossability of seven AP accessions in 21 possible combinations were investigated. The best results came out between 08:00 to 11:00 h for manual out-crossing of AP, while the time from 12:00 to 18:00 h showed a decreasing trend. Moreover, 12 mm style length was found as the most proper phenological stage in...

  7. COMPARATIVE LAXATIVE EVALUATION FOR ANDROGRAPHIS PANICULATA AND TERMINALIA CHEBULA IN EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODEL

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    Chandra Suresh

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Crude aqueous extract of A.paniculata (family: Acanthaceae and T.chebula (family: Combretaceae at doses 100 and 200 mg/kg respectively were investigated for laxative activity according to Cappaso et al. in albino rats that were compared with standard drug Bisacodyl (8mg/kg, p.o. in gum acacia. The rats were fasted for 12 hours before the experiment. After 8 hours of drug administration the faeces were collected and weighed. The extract was found to produce significant laxative activity in dose dependant manner. The activity may be contributed to the phytoconstituents present.

  8. Analysis of the Anticancer Phytochemicals in Andrographis paniculata Nees. under Salinity Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Daryush Talei; Alireza Valdiani; Mahmood Maziah; Sreenivasa Rao Sagineedu; Mohd Said Saad

    2013-01-01

    Salinity causes the adverse effects in all physiological processes of plants. The present study aimed to investigate the potential of salt stress to enhance the accumulation of the anticancer phytochemicals in Andrographis paniculata accessions. For this purpose, 70-day-old plants were grown in different salinity levels (0.18, 4, 8, 12, and 16 dSm−1) on sand medium. After inducing a period of 30-day salinity stress and before flowering, all plants were harvested and the data on morphological ...

  9. Partial in vitro and in vivo red scorpion venom neutralization activity of Andrographis paniculata

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    Ranjana I Brahmane

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Red scorpion (Mesobuthus tamulus is the most lethal among all poisonous species of scorpions. Envenoming by Mesobuthus tamulus is quite common along the western coast of India, without any established therapy. Andrographis paniculata is one of the plants that has long been used in traditional herbal medicine for the treatment of poisoning by animal bites. Hence, the study was planned to evaluate the ethanolic extract of Andrographis paniculata for the treatment of Mesobuthus tamulus envenoming. Materials and Methods: Ethanolic extract of the plant Andrographis paniculata was obtained using a soxhelet apparatus. Lyophilized venom sample of Mesobuthus tamulus was used. Swiss albino mice weighing 20-30 g were used in the study. Calculation of LD 99 of Mesobuthus tamulus venom was performed using Turner′s method. Acute toxicity of Mesobuthus tamulus venom and its neutralization by the plant extract at a dose of 1 g/kg and 2 g/kg in vivo was seen. Neutralization of the lethal venom effect of Mesobuthus tamulus by plant extract at the dose of 1 g/kg and 2 g/kg by Alam and Gome′s method (in vitro was also seen. Results: The LD 99 of Mesobuthus tamulus venom from this study was determined to be 25.12 ΅g/g and the LD 50 was 15.85 ΅g/g. In the acute toxicity and in vivo neutralization study, plant extract at the dose of 1 g/kg and 2 g/kg resulted in a mean survival of 62.667 min and 39.333 min, respectively. Neutralization of the lethal venom effect of Mesobuthus tamulus by the plant extract at the dose of 1 g/kg and 2 g/kg by Alam and Gome′s method (in vitro showed a mean survival of 49.667 min and 42.5 min, respectively. Conclusion: The ethanolic extract of Adrographis paniculata has some protective effect against the red scorpion venom in mice but does not offer any survival benefit.

  10. Vasorelaxant effect of diterpenoid lactones from Andrographis paniculata chloroform extract on rat aortic rings

    OpenAIRE

    R.N. Sriramaneni; Omar, Ameer Z.; Salman M Ibrahim; Sadikun Amirin; Asmawi Mohd Zaini

    2010-01-01

    Background: The aim of the present study is to evaluate the possible mechanism of the vasorelaxant effect of the Andrographis paniculata chloroform extract (APCE) and diterpenoids, such as, 14-deoxyandrographolide (DA) and 14-deoxy-11, 12-didehydroandrographolide (DDA), on rat aortic rings. Methods: DA and DDA (10 μM to 40 μM) induce relaxation in the aortic rings pre-contracted with KCl (80 mM). Results: The IC 50 values are 40.47 ± 1.44 and 37.43 ± 1.41%, respectively, and this inhibition i...

  11. COMPARATIVE LAXATIVE EVALUATION FOR ANDROGRAPHIS PANICULATA AND TERMINALIA CHEBULA IN EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODEL

    OpenAIRE

    Chandra Suresh; Sahu Shachi; Mangla Maurya

    2013-01-01

    Crude aqueous extract of A.paniculata (family: Acanthaceae) and T.chebula (family: Combretaceae) at doses 100 and 200 mg/kg respectively were investigated for laxative activity according to Cappaso et al. in albino rats that were compared with standard drug Bisacodyl (8mg/kg, p.o.) in gum acacia. The rats were fasted for 12 hours before the experiment. After 8 hours of drug administration the faeces were collected and weighed. The extract was found to produce significant laxative activity ...

  12. A new guaiane mannoside from a Eutypa-like fungus isolated from Murraya paniculata in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Afonso D.L.; Rodrigues-Filho, Edson [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCAR), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Souza, Antonia Q.L.; Henrique-Silva, Flavio [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCAR), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Genetica e Evolucao; Pereira, Jose O. [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (UFAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agrarias

    2008-07-01

    A Eutypa-like fungus was isolated from the stems of Murraya paniculata. The fungus was cultivated in liquid medium and produced the new guaiane-type sesquiterpenoid (1R,4S,5S,7R,10R)- 10-hydroxyguaianol 10-O-beta-mannopyranoside and the 3-hydroxy-5-phenylmethyl-(3S,5R)- tetrahydrofuran-2-one, a diastereomer of harzialactone A, obtained for the first time from a natural source. The structures of these metabolites were elucidated based on analysis of their spectroscopic data. (author)

  13. A new guaiane mannoside from a Eutypa-like fungus isolated from Murraya paniculata in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Eutypa-like fungus was isolated from the stems of Murraya paniculata. The fungus was cultivated in liquid medium and produced the new guaiane-type sesquiterpenoid (1R,4S,5S,7R,10R)- 10-hydroxyguaianol 10-O-beta-mannopyranoside and the 3-hydroxy-5-phenylmethyl-(3S,5R)- tetrahydrofuran-2-one, a diastereomer of harzialactone A, obtained for the first time from a natural source. The structures of these metabolites were elucidated based on analysis of their spectroscopic data. (author)

  14. Adaptogenic potential of andrographolide: An active principle of the king of bitters (Andrographis paniculata)

    OpenAIRE

    Thakur, Ajit Kumar; Chatterjee, Shyam Sunder; Kumar, Vikas

    2014-01-01

    Andrographolide is a major bioactive secondary plant metabolite isolated Andrographis paniculata (Burm. F.) Wall. Ex. Nees. (穿心蓮 chuān xīn lián), a well-known traditionally used medicinal herb. The aim of the study was to pharmacologically evaluate the beneficial effect of andrographolide on stress-induced thermoregulatory and other physiological responses in mice. A stress-induced hyperthermia test was conducted in mice. The test agents were orally administered once daily for 11 consecutive ...

  15. Study of the elemental composition of Chenopodium Quinoa Willd by fast neutron activation analysis and X ray fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By means of x-ray fluorescence and fast neutron activation analysis the nitrogen content has been determined in samples of roots, stems, leaf, flowers and grains from Quinua (Chenopodium Quinoa Willd), which was previously treated with fertilizer

  16. Anticancer Effects of 1,3-Dihydroxy-2-Methylanthraquinone and the Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Hedyotis Diffusa Willd against HepG2 Carcinoma Cells Mediated via Apoptosis

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yun-lan; Zhang, Jiali; Min, Dong; Hongyan, Zhou; Lin, Niu; Li, Qing-Shan

    2016-01-01

    Hedyotis Diffusa Willd, used in Traditional Chinese Medicine, is a treatment for various diseases including cancer, owing to its mild effectiveness and low toxicity. The aim of this study was to identify the main anticancer components in Hedyotis Diffusa Willd, and explore mechanisms underlying their activity. Hedyotis Diffusa Willd was extracted and fractionated using ethyl acetate to obtain the H-Ethyl acetate fraction, which showed higher anticancer activity than the other fractions obtain...

  17. Risico’s van introductie van exotische plantensoorten, in het bijzonder uit het geslacht Ambrosia L., via import van zaden voor met name veevoer en vogelvoer

    OpenAIRE

    Denderen, van, A.C.; Tamis, Wil L.M.; Valkenburg

    2010-01-01

    Import van landbouwproducten, in het bijzonder zaden, zijn een belangrijke bron voor de introductie van exotische plantensoorten. In dit artikel wordt ingegaan op twee studies naar het voorkomen van exotische planten, in het bijzonder uit het geslacht Ambrosia, in geïmporteerde partijen zaden. Met name van Alsemambrosia (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) is bekend dat het pollen een sterke hooikoortsreactie kan veroorzaken en derhalve gezondheidsrisico’s met zich meebrengt. In de eerste studie is geke...

  18. Is the recent decrease in airborne Ambrosia pollen in the Milan area due to the accidental introduction of the ragweed leaf beetle Ophraella communa?

    OpenAIRE

    Bonini, Maira; Šikoparija, B.; Prentović, M.; Cislaghi, G; Colombo, P.; Testoni, C.; Grewling, L.; Lommen, Suzanne T. E.; Müller-Schärer, Heinz; M. Smith

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to determine whether a significant decrease in airborne concentrations of Ambrosia pollen witnessed in the north-west of the Province of Milan in Northern Italy could be explained by environmental factors such as meteorology, or whether there is evidence to support the hypothesis that the decrease was related to the presence of large numbers of the oligophagous Ophraella communa leaf beetles that are used as a biological control agent against Ambrosia in other parts of the wor...

  19. Integration of Andrographis paniculata as Potential Medicinal Plant in Chir Pine (Pinus roxburghii Sarg. Plantation of North-Western Himalaya

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    Chandra Shekher Sanwal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The integration of Andrographis paniculata under Pinus roxburghii (Chir pine plantation has been studied to evaluate the growth and yield for its economic viability and conservation. It was grown on three topographical aspects, namely, northern, north-western, and western, at a spacing of 30 cm × 30 cm, followed by three tillage depths, namely, minimum (0 cm, medium (up to 10 cm, and deep (up to 15 cm tillage. The growth parameters, namely, plant height and number of branches per plant, were recorded as significantly higher on western aspect and lowest on northern aspect except for leaf area index which was found nonsignificant. However under all tillage practices all the growth parameters in both understorey and open conditions were found to be nonsignificant except for plant height which was found to be significantly highest under deep tillage and lowest under minimum tillage. The study of net returns for Andrographis paniculata revealed that it had positive average annual returns even in understorey conditions which indicate its possible economic viability under integration of Chir pine plantations. Hence net returns can be enhanced by integrating Andrographis paniculata and this silvimedicinal system can be suggested which will help utilizing an unutilized part of land and increase total productivity from such lands besides conservation of the A. paniculata in situ.

  20. Integration of Andrographis paniculata as Potential Medicinal Plant in Chir Pine (Pinus roxburghii Sarg.) Plantation of North-Western Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanwal, Chandra Shekher; Kumar, Raj; Bhardwaj, S D

    2016-01-01

    The integration of Andrographis paniculata under Pinus roxburghii (Chir pine) plantation has been studied to evaluate the growth and yield for its economic viability and conservation. It was grown on three topographical aspects, namely, northern, north-western, and western, at a spacing of 30 cm × 30 cm, followed by three tillage depths, namely, minimum (0 cm), medium (up to 10 cm), and deep (up to 15 cm) tillage. The growth parameters, namely, plant height and number of branches per plant, were recorded as significantly higher on western aspect and lowest on northern aspect except for leaf area index which was found nonsignificant. However under all tillage practices all the growth parameters in both understorey and open conditions were found to be nonsignificant except for plant height which was found to be significantly highest under deep tillage and lowest under minimum tillage. The study of net returns for Andrographis paniculata revealed that it had positive average annual returns even in understorey conditions which indicate its possible economic viability under integration of Chir pine plantations. Hence net returns can be enhanced by integrating Andrographis paniculata and this silvimedicinal system can be suggested which will help utilizing an unutilized part of land and increase total productivity from such lands besides conservation of the A. paniculata in situ. PMID:27563482

  1. Andrographia paniculata a Miracle Herbs for cancer treatment: In vivo and in vitro studies against Aflatoxin B1 Toxicity

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    Md. Sultan Ahmad

    2014-04-01

    Conclusion: In conclusion A. paniculata extracts significantly reduced the number of aberrant cells and frequencies of aberration per cell at each concentration and duration of exposure in vivo; similarly it reduced chromosomal aberrations and sister chromatid exchanges and replication index was enhanced in vitro that was statistically significant at <0.05 level.

  2. Effect of Flabellaria paniculata Cav. extracts on gastric ulcer in rats

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    Sofidiya Margaret O

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The leaves and root of Flabellaria paniculata (Malpighiaceae are frequently used in the treatment of wounds and ulcers in Nigerian folk medicine. The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of ethanolic extracts from the leaves (FPL and root (FPR of F. paniculata on gastric ulcers in rats. Methods The effect of FPL and FPR (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg was evaluated in ethanol and indomethacin gastric ulcer models. Control groups for FPL and FPR were orally treated with 3% Tween 20 and distilled water respectively. FPL was further investigated in pylorus ligation model. Misoprostol and cimetidine were used as reference. Results FPL significantly (P 50 of FPL was estimated to be 4570 mg/kg while that of FPR was 2754 mg/kg. The LD50 in intraperitoneal injection was estimated to be 1202.26 and 1380.38 mg/kg for FPL and FPR respectively. The phytochemical investigation showed that both extracts possess triterpenoids and saponin, while the presence of flavonoid was detected only in FPL. Conclusions The results of this study indicated that FPL and not FPR is effective against experimentally induced gastric ulcers. The presence of varied phytochemical constituents probably influenced the pharmacological differences between the two extracts.

  3. Constituintes químicos das folhas de Murraya paniculata (Rutaceae

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    Sumaia G. Mesquita

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A separação cromatográfica do extrato hexânico e da fase em CH2Cl2 do extrato etanólico das folhas de Murraya paniculata resultou no isolamento de um triterpeno (24-metileno-cicloartan-3β-ol, um fenilpropanóide (cafeato de metila e sete cumarinas preniladas [isomeranzina, acetato de murranganona, murrayatina, murrangatina, hidrato de meranzina, febalosina e murranganona]. Dentre as substâncias isoladas, as cumarinas foram detectadas anteriormente em M. paniculata ao passo que 24-metileno-cicloartan-3β-ol e cafeato de metila estão sendo descritos pela primeira vez no gênero Murraya. Os extratos e frações além das substâncias puras foram submetidos à avaliação do potencial antimicrobiano frente à Staphylococcus aureus e Escherichia coli indicando que somente a cumarina hidrato de meranzina mostrou fraca atividade.

  4. Larvicidal and Histopathological Effects of Andrographis paniculata Leaf Extract against Culex quinquefasciatus Larva

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    Wannee JIRAUNGKOORSKUL

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Andrographis paniculata leaf aqueous extract over 0.5, 1, 3, 5, and 24 h were determined to contain the highest amount of total phenolic compound and was used to evaluate mosquito larvicidal properties against Culex quinquefasciatus at varies concentrations (3.125, 6.25, 12.5, and 25 ppm by determining the median and 90 % lethal concentration, LC50 and LC90, respectively, within 24 h and by histological analysis. The results revealed that the total phenolic compound measurement in each time extraction were 7.97, 8.68, 7.16, 6.70, and 5.78 mg/g GAE, respectively. The one hour aqueous extract of A. paniculata leaf expressed the 24-h LC50 and LC90 values in C. quinquefasciatus which were 15.93 and 28.23 ppm, respectively. Dose dependent lesions were observed. Under histological analysis, midgut lesions, i.e., separation of the epithelial cells from the basement membrane, elongation protruding into the lumen, disruption of the brush border, and the appearance of several vesicles and cytoplasm masses were observed in this study. The present study reveals that the aqueous extract of this leaf has a suitable property for a larvicidal natural product, and may replace harmful chemical pesticides.

  5. Chemical Constituents with Free-Radical-Scavenging Activities from the Stem of Microcos paniculata

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    Yu Chen

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The free-radical-scavenging activities of various solvent extracts of Microcos paniculata were evaluated through in vitro model systems, such as 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, 2,2'-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate (ABTS and Co (II EDTA-induced luminol chemiluminescence by flow injection. In all three of these systems the ethyl acetate (EtOAc extract showed the highest free-radical-scavenging activity compared with the other three (n-BuOH, water and petroleum ether extracts. Free-radical-scavenging assay-guided chromatographic separation of the EtOAc extract, using a normal-phase and reverse-phase silica gel column chromatography yielded five compounds: a new triterpene named methyl 3b-O-p-hydroxy-E-cinnamoyloxy-2a,23-dihydroxyolean-12-en-28-oate (1, whose spectral data are presented for the first time, together with four known compounds, epicatechin (2, 3-trans-feruloyl maslinic acid (3, maslinic acid (4 and sucrose (5. All of the compounds were isolated from Microcos paniculata for the first time. The compounds were identified by spectroscopic methods. Among them, compound 2 displayed significant free-radical-scavenging activity which is similar to that of standard antioxidant ascorbic acid (VC and therefore may be a promising natural antioxidant.

  6. Spatiotemporal seed bank flora of peristrophe paniculata community in a semi arid desert of karachi, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seed bank studies of Peristrophe paniculata was carried out for two consecutive years at two different sites. Although, both the sites were dominated by P. paniculata, however differ in vegetation pattern. Site A possessed populations of annuals fully exposed to sunlight. While, site B possessed annuals along with perennials located in somewhat shady area. Input to the seed bank was mainly determined by the seed dispersal. Persistent seed bank was observed in annual plant species with increasing numbers in the third collection (i.e. after seed dispersal). On the other hand, perennial plants mostly exhibited transient nature of seed bank, with no or low numbers in some collections. Significant difference in seed numbers was observed on temporal and spatial scale. Seed densities were higher in the samples collected before rainfall and after dispersal of seeds at both the sites in both the years. High degree of similarity was observed between above and below ground vegetation; however this similarity was more pronounced at site B which was located in shady area, thus providing better soil moisture conditions for seed germination. Moreover, above and below ground vegetation was diverse and flourished in 2013, due to high germination rates, followed by heavy summer rains, providing ample amount of moisture along with high temperature. This study can be used to predict the above ground vegetation and vise versa. (author)

  7. In Vitro antibacterial and in Vivo cytotoxic activities of Grewia paniculata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmuda Nasrin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Grewia paniculata (Family: Malvaceae has been used to treat inflammation, respiratory disorders and fever. It is additionally employed for other health conditions including colds, diarrhea and as an insecticide in Bangladesh. The aim of the present study was to investigate the antibacterial and cytotoxic activities of different extracts of Grewia paniculata. Materials and Methods: The antibacterial activity was evaluated against both gram negative and gram positive bacteria using disc diffusion method by determination of the diameter of zone of inhibition. Cytotoxic activity was performed by brine shrimp (Artemia salina lethality bioassay. Results: In disc diffusion method, all the natural products (400 μg/disc showed moderate to potent activity against all the tested bacteria. The ethanol extract of bark (EEB and ethanol fraction of bark (EFB (400 μg/disc exhibited highest activity against Shigella dysenteriae with a zone of inhibition of 23±1.63 mm and  23±1.77 mm respectively. In the brine shrimp lethality bioassay all the extracts showed moderate cytotoxic activity when compared with the standard drug vincristin sulphate. For example, LC50 value of the ethanol fraction of bark (EFB was 3.01 μg/ml while the LC50 of vincristine sulphate was 0.52 μg/ml. Conclusions: The results suggest that all the natural products possess potent antibacterial and moderate cytotoxic.

  8. Anti-inflammatory effects of Brazilian ginseng (Pfaffia paniculata) on TNBS-induced intestinal inflammation: Experimental evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, C A R A; Tanimoto, A; Quaglio, A E V; Almeida, L D; Severi, J A; Di Stasi, L C

    2015-09-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic, relapsing, idiopathic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract. Clinical studies suggest that the initiation of IBD is multifactorial, involving genetics, the immune system and environmental factors, such as diet, drugs and stress. Pfaffia paniculata is an adaptogenic medicinal plant used in Brazilian folk medicine as an "anti-stress" agent. Thus, we hypothesised that the P. paniculata enhances the response of animals subjected to colonic inflammation. Our aim was to investigate the intestinal anti-inflammatory activity of P. paniculata in rats before or after induction of intestinal inflammation using trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS). The animals were divided into groups that received the vehicle, prednisolone or P. paniculata extract daily starting 14 days before or 7 days after TNBS induction. At the end of the procedure, the animals were killed and their colons were assessed for the macroscopic damage score (MDS), extent of the lesion (EL) and weight/length ratio, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and glutathione (GSH), cytokines and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels. Histological evaluation and ultrastructural analysis of the colonic samples were performed. Treatment with the 200mg/kg dose on the curative schedule was able to reduce the MDS and the EL. In addition, MPO activity was reduced, GSH levels were maintained, and the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and CRP were decreased. In conclusion, the protective effect of P. paniculata was related to reduced oxidative stress and CRP colonic levels, and due to immunomodulatory activity as evidenced by reduced levels of IL-1β, INF-γ, TNF-α and IL-6. PMID:26202807

  9. İnsan ve Hayvan Beslenmesinde Yeni Bir Bitki: Kinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.)/A New Crop for Human and Animal Nutrition: Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.)

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafa TAN; Yöndem, Zübeyde

    2014-01-01

    The Andean grain, quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is gaining increasing attention as a future food and forage crop in the world. There is a long history of safe use of the grain in South America. Archaeological studies have shown that quinoa was already known in 3000 B.C. The plant is cold and drought tolerant and it can be cultivated in high altitudes in the mountain areas. Apart from this, its grain is a rich source of a wide range of minerals, vitamins, oil and natural antioxidants. The...

  10. Desarrollo de un producto de panadería con harina de quinua (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) / Bakery product development with quinoa flour (Chenopodium quinoa Willd)

    OpenAIRE

    García García, Diana Paola

    2011-01-01

    Para este trabajo, se obtuvo harina de quinua de la variedad Nariño como materia prima en grano (Chenopodium quinoa Willd), para esto se adecuó la materia prima extrayendo las saponinas del grano y posterior secado con aire caliente. Se probó su uso en panificación utilizando mezclas de harina de quinua con harina de trigo, para conocer y aprovechar las ventajas a nivel nutricional de este grano tan poco conocido y comercializado, que puede ser fuente de proteína de calidad, utilizándose en p...

  11. Obtención de crudos de saponinas hipocolesteromizantes del Chenopodium quinoa Willd Obtention of crudes of saponins from chenopodium quinoa willd as anticholesteraemia agents

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo Hernández Royero

    1997-01-01

    Para su empleo como agente hipocolesteromizante, se procedió a la obtención de crudos de saponinas a partir de la cascarilla de granos de Chenopodium quinoa Willd (quinúa), mediante reflujo con etanol al 80 % v/v. Los diferentes lotes de saponinas brutas obtenidos presentaron un rendimiento promedio de 37,12 %, sobre la base del total de cascarilla (8,03 % de la masa de granos) y de 2,98 % sobre la base del total de granos. Estos productos reaccionaron fuertemente en las pruebas de Liebermann...

  12. Methylanthraquinone from Hedyotis diffusa WILLD induces Ca(2+)-mediated apoptosis in human breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zheng; Liu, Ming; Liu, Miao; Li, Jianchun

    2010-02-01

    Methylanthraquinone from Hedyotis diffusa WILLD exhibited potent anticancer activity in many kinds of cancer cells. However, the exact mechanism and signaling pathway involved in methylanthraquinone-induced apoptosis have not been fully elucidated. Therefore, we explored the mechanisms of methylanthraquinone-mediated apoptosis in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. When MCF-7 cells were co-incubated with methylanthraquinone, the percentage of apoptotic cell and S phase of cell cycle was markedly increased. In addition, a rise in intracellular calcium levels, phosphorylation of JNK and activation of calpain were found in MCF-7 cells after exposure to methylanthraquinone. With the methylanthraquinone-mediated reduction of mitochondrial membrane potential, cytochrome c was released from mitochondria to cytosol. Moreover, methylanthraquinone strongly induced cleavage of caspase-4, caspase-9 and caspase-7 in MCF-7 cells. These results suggested that methylanthraquinone from Hedyotis diffusa WILLD induced MCF-7 cells apoptosis via Ca(2+)/calpain/caspase-4 pathway. PMID:19686834

  13. Growth response to thinning in Quercus pyrenaica Willd. coppice stands in Spanish central mountain

    OpenAIRE

    Cañellas, Isabel; Río, Miren; Roig, Sonia; Montero, Gregorio

    2004-01-01

    Croissance de taillis de chêne tauzin (Quercus pyrenaica Willd.) soumis à différentes intensités d'éclaircie dans la chaîne montagneuse centrale de l'Espagne. Cet article présente la réponse de taillis de chêne tauzins (Quercuspyrenaica Willd.) à des éclaircies par le bas de différentes intensités. Au total, quatre traitements ont été appliqués: éclaircie faible, moyenne et forte en enlevant respectivement 25, 35 et 50 % de la surface terrière et un traitement sans éclaircie (contrôle). Les r...

  14. Hedyotis diffusa Willd extract inhibits HT-29 cell proliferation via cell cycle arrest

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Minghe; LIN, JIUMAO; Wei, Lihui; Xu, Wei; HONG, ZHENFENG; Cai, Qiaoyan; Peng, Jun; ZHU, DEZENG

    2012-01-01

    Hedyotis diffusa Willd (HDW) has long been used as an important component in several Chinese medicine formulae to clinically treat various types of cancer, including colorectal cancer (CRC). Previously, we reported that HDW inhibits CRC growth via the induction of cancer cell apoptosis and the inhibition of tumor angiogenesis. In the present study, to further elucidate the mechanism of HDW-mediated antitumor activity, we investigated the effect of HDW ethanol extract (EEHDW) on the proliferat...

  15. Chemical Profiles and Protective Effect of Hedyotis diffusa Willd in Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Renal Inflammation Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Jian-Hong Ye; Meng-Hua Liu; Xu-Lin Zhang; Jing-Yu He

    2015-01-01

    Protective effect of Hedyotis diffusa (H. diffusa) Willd against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced renal inflammation was evaluated by the productions of cytokines and chemokine, and the bioactive constituents of H. diffusa were detected by the ultra-fast liquid chromatography -diode array detector-quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry (UFLC-DAD-Q-TOF-MS/MS) method. As the results showed, water extract of H. diffusa (equal to 5.0 g/kg body weight) obviously protected renal tissues, signi...

  16. Micro Chemical (Elemental) Analysis of Leucas aspera (Willd) Link Employing SEM-EDAX

    OpenAIRE

    Sunkara Yashvanth; Satla Shobha Rani; S. S. Madhavendra

    2013-01-01

    The plant, Leucas aspera (Willd) Link is well known for its varied medicinal uses. Present study deals with its micro chemical (elemental) characterization using Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis (EDAX) detector fitted to Scanning Electron Microscope. The plant has very interesting morphology. Crystals of varied shape and inclusions/exudates were noticed within and on the leaf & stem surfaces. Various plant parts analysed were, stem surface, stem sections, stem inclusions, blebs on stem hairs,...

  17. Comparative pharmacognostical variations in stem, true root and aerial root of Tinospora cordifolia willd

    OpenAIRE

    Rohit Ajith Gokarn; Supriya Gokarn; Galib; Harisha, C. R.; Biswajyoti Patgiri

    2014-01-01

    Context: Amrita (Tinospora cordifolia Willd.) an often used perennial climber used in different clinical conditions and various researches are useful in understanding its potential, but comparative pharmacognostical study of stem, true root and aerial root is not available till date. Root of Amrita is often used in folklore medicine. As true root is not abundantly available, aerial roots may be considered in the place of true root. Objective: The present study was designed to evaluate the sim...

  18. Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa, Willd.) as a source of dietary fiber and other functional components

    OpenAIRE

    Ritva Ann-Mari Repo-Carrasco-Valencia; Lesli Astuhuaman Serna

    2011-01-01

    Four varieties of an Andean indigenous crop, quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.), were evaluated as a source of dietary fiber, phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity. The crops were processed by extrusion-cooking and the final products were analyzed to determine the dietary fiber, total polyphenols, radical scavenging activity, and in vitro digestibility of starch and protein. There were no significant differences in the contents of total dietary fiber between varieties of quinoa. In all ...

  19. QUANTITATIVE ESTIMATION OF SATVA EXTRACTED FROM DIFFERENT STEM SIZES OF GUDUCHI (TINOSPORA CORDIFOLIA (WILLD.) MIERS)

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma Rohit; Harisha, C R; Galib; Patgiri BJ; Prajapati P. K.

    2012-01-01

    Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers known as Guduchi in Sanskrit is an important drug of Ayurvedic system of medicine since ancient times. The plant is useful in wide range of diseases like Jwara (fever), Kamala (jaundice), Prameha (diabetes) etc. Guduchi Satva, the starchy material of the stem is well-known single drug formulation of Guduchi and is the potent one. Species of the plant, size of the stem, collection time, maturity or immaturity of plant may affect the percentage of Guduchi Sat...

  20. Genetic structure of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) from the Bolivian altiplano as revealed by RAPD markers

    OpenAIRE

    Del Castillo, C.; Winkel, T.; Mahy, Grégory; Bizoux, Jean-Philippe

    2007-01-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is a pseudocereal originated from the Andes important for small farmers’ food security as well as for commercial production. Recently, it has been claimed that in Bolivia genetic erosion could result from the marginalization of the crop in the north and from its commercial standardization in the south. The aim of this study was to quantify the hierarchical structure of the genetic variation present in eight quinoa field populations, consisting of cultivat...

  1. A New Crop for Salt Affected and Dry Agricultural Areas of Turkey: Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.)

    OpenAIRE

    Yazar, Attila; KAYA, Çiğdem İNCE

    2014-01-01

    Drought and salinity are two widespread environmental problems induced by climate change and improper applications in agriculture and have important adverse effects on agricultural production. To sustain crop production in such areas for food security, cultivating new crops that can growth under these unfavorable conditions is one of the measures. Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is an annual grain plant originated from the Andean region of South America. This plant has potential to be an a...

  2. Pharmacognostical evaluation of Launaea sarmentosa (Willd.) schultz-bip.ex Kuntze root

    OpenAIRE

    Salih, Yusriyya; Harisha, C. R.; Shukla, Vinay J.; Acharya, Rabinarayan

    2013-01-01

    Launaea sarmentosa (Willd) Schultz-Bip.ex Kuntze (Asteraceae), locally known as Kulhafila in the Maldives, is a creeping herb, native to tropical Indian coastlines. According to anecdotal evidence from locals in the Maldives, the roots of this plant are used as an ingredient of a popular medicinal preparation (Hilibeys) taken by mothers after childbirth. It is also used in various other ailments in different parts of the Maldives, as well as in India. So far, there has been no scientific docu...

  3. Pharmacognostical evaluation of Acacia catechu willd. heartwood with special reference to tyloses

    OpenAIRE

    Kinnari Dhruve; Harisha, C. R.; Prajapati, P. K.

    2011-01-01

    Acacia catechu (L.) willd, commonly known as Khadira, is widely used in Ayurveda for the treatment of diseases. A detailed investigation of fresh and powder of heartwood of A. catechu was carried out. The diagnostic characters of heartwood of this plant includes tylosis formation, fibers with prism, fibers with scleroids, fragment of border pitted vessels, starch grains with hylem along with yellowish dark brown colouring matter, lignified fibers and fibers passing through medullary rays. Phy...

  4. The Hedyotis diffusa Willd. (Rubiaceae): A Review on Phytochemistry, Pharmacology, Quality Control and Pharmacokinetics

    OpenAIRE

    Rui Chen; Jingyu He; Xueli Tong; Lan Tang; Menghua Liu

    2016-01-01

    Hedyotis diffusa Willd (H. diffusa) is a well-known Chinese medicine with a variety of activities, especially its anti-cancer effect in the clinic. Up to now, 171 compounds have been reported from H. diffusa, including 32 iridoids, 26 flavonoids, 24 anthraquinones, 26 phenolics and their derivatives, 50 volatile oils and 13 miscellaneous compounds. In vitro and in vivo studies show these phytochemicals and plant extracts to exhibit a range of pharmacological activities of anti-cancer, antioxi...

  5. EVALUATION OF THE DNA POLYMORPHISM OF SIX VARIETIES OF CHENOPODIUM QUINOA WILLD, USING AFLP

    OpenAIRE

    Nolasco, Oscar; Cruz, Wilbert; Santa Cruz, Carlos; Gutiérrez, Ana

    2013-01-01

    The grain of Chenopodium quinoaWilld. (Quinua) is important worldwide for its high nutritional value, being the principal source of proteins of the settlers of the Peruvian Bolivian altiplano. In the process of the care and maintenance of the species in the germplasm banks for quinua there have been programs developed to allow the evaluation of genetic variation to increase the quality of the grain, the resistance to diseases, and dryness tolerance and to modulate the content of ...

  6. Association of molecular markers with cold tolerance and green period in zoysiagrass (Zoysia Willd.)

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Hai-Lin; Xuan, Ji-Ping; Liu, Jian-Xiu; Zhang, Yuan-Ming; Zheng, Yi-Qi

    2012-01-01

    Cold tolerance and the green period are key traits in the breeding of zoysiagrass (Zoysia Willd.). Identification of molecular markers associated with cold tolerance and the green period of zoysiagrass will contribute to efficient selection of elite cultivars. These two traits were measured in 96 zoysiagrass accessions in 2004 and 2005–2006, respectively. The mapping population was screened with 29 pairs of simple sequence repeat (SSR) primers and 54 pairs of sequence-related amplified polymo...

  7. Seed quantity and quality in fruit heads of Aster lanceolatus Willd.: Implications for invasion success

    OpenAIRE

    Nešić Marija; Obratov-Petković Dragica; Skočajić Dragana; Bjedov Ivana

    2013-01-01

    Aster lanceolatus Willd. is a herbaceous perennial that is considered invasive in many European countries. In Serbia, this plant inhabits wet habitats and forms widespread monospecific stands. The objective of this research is to determine whether generative reproduction has an important role in the expansion of this species to new areas. In 13 different localities, fruit heads were collected from lateral and terminal parts of infructescence. Seed quantity ...

  8. Bredemeyera Willd. e Securidaca L. (Polygalaceae) na Região Sul do Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Raquel Lüdtke; Tatiana Teixeira de Souza-Chies; Silvia Teresinha Sfoggia Miotto

    2008-01-01

    In southern Brazil, the Polygalaceae family is represented by four genera, Bredemeyera Willd., Monnina Ruiz & Pav., Polygala L. e Securidaca L. This paper presents a taxonomic revision of Bredemeyera and Securidaca in southern Brazil. For this matter, this work was based on the bibliography revision and on the study of herbaria materials, besides were made collections in the Paraná, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul states. The genus Bredemeyera is distributed in the Central and South Amer...

  9. Hybrid analysis (barcode-high resolution melting for authentication of Thai herbal products, Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f. Wall.ex Nees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maslin Osathanunkul

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Andrographis paniculata Nees is a medicinal plant with multiple pharmacological properties. It has been used over many centuries as a household remedy. A. paniculata products sold on the markets are in processed forms so it is difficult to authenticate. Therefore buying the herbal products poses a high-risk of acquiring counterfeited, substituted and/or adulterated products. Due to these issues, a reliable method to authenticate products is needed. Materials and Methods: High resolution melting analysis coupled with DNA barcoding (Bar-HRM was applied to detect adulteration in commercial herbal products. The rbc L barcode was selected to use in primers design for HRM analysis to produce standard melting profile of A. paniculata species. DNA of the tested commercial products was isolated and their melting profiles were then generated and compared with the standard A. paniculata. Results: The melting profiles of the rbc L amplicons of the three closely related herbal species (A. paniculata, Acanthus ebracteatus and Rhinacanthus nasutus are clearly separated so that they can be distinguished by the developed method. The method was then used to authenticate commercial herbal products. HRM curves of all 10 samples tested are similar to A. paniculata which indicated that all tested products were contained the correct species as labeled. Conclusion: The method described in this study has been proved to be useful in aiding identification and/or authenticating A. paniculata. This Bar-HRM analysis has allowed us easily to determine the A. paniculata species in herbal products on the markets even they are in processed forms.

  10. Hybrid analysis (barcode-high resolution melting) for authentication of Thai herbal products, Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Wall.ex Nees

    OpenAIRE

    Maslin Osathanunkul; Chatmongkon Suwannapoom; Nuttaluck Khamyong; Danupol Pintakum; Santisuk Na Lamphun; Kanokporn Triwitayakorn; Kitisak Osathanunkul; Panagiotis Madesis

    2016-01-01

    Background: Andrographis paniculata Nees is a medicinal plant with multiple pharmacological properties. It has been used over many centuries as a household remedy. A. paniculata products sold on the markets are in processed forms so it is difficult to authenticate. Therefore buying the herbal products poses a high-risk of acquiring counterfeited, substituted and/or adulterated products. Due to these issues, a reliable method to authenticate products is needed. Materials and Methods: High reso...

  11. Inhibition of Group IIA Secretory Phospholipase A2 and its Inflammatory Reactions in Mice by Ethanolic Extract of Andrographis paniculata, a Well-known Medicinal Food

    OpenAIRE

    V Kishore; N S Yarla; Zameer, F.; Nagendra Prasad, M. N.; Santosh, M. S.; S S More; Rao, D.G.; Bhadrapura Lakkappa Dhananjaya

    2016-01-01

    Andrographis paniculata Nees is an important medicinal plant found in the tropical regions of the world, which has been traditionally used in Indian and Chinese medicinal systems. It is also used as medicinal food. A. paniculata is found to exhibit anti-inflammatory activities; however, its inhibitory potential on inflammatory Group IIA phospholipases A2 (PLA2) and its associated inflammatory reactions are not clearly understood. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the inhibitory/neut...

  12. The Antiaging Properties of Andrographis paniculata by Activation Epidermal Cell Stemness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Jiyoung; Roh, Kyung-Baeg; Li, Zidan; Liu, Guangrong; Tang, Jian; Shin, Seoungwoo; Park, Deokhoon; Jung, Eunsun

    2015-01-01

    Andrographis paniculata (A. paniculata, Chuanxinlian), a medicinal herb with an extremely bitter taste that is native to China and other parts of Southeast Asia, possesses immense therapeutic value; however, its therapeutic properties have rarely been applied in the field of skin care. In this study, we investigated the effect of an A. paniculata extract (APE) on human epidermal stem cells (EpSCs), and confirmed its anti-aging effect through in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo study. An MTT assay was used to determine cell proliferation. A flow cytometric analysis, with propidium iodide, was used to evaluate the cell cycle. The expression of integrin β1 (CD29), the stem cell marker, was detected with antibodies, using flow cytometry in vitro, and immunohistochemical assays in ex vivo. Type 1 collagen and VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). During the clinical study, skin hydration, elasticity, wrinkling, sagging, and dermal density were evaluated before treatment and at four and eight weeks after the treatment with the test product (containing the APE) on the face. The proliferation of the EpSCs, treated with the APE, increased significantly. In the cell cycle analysis, the APE increased the G2/M and S stages in a dose-dependent manner. The expression of integrin β1, which is related to epidermal progenitor cell expansion, was up-regulated in the APE-treated EpSCs and skin explants. In addition, the production of VEGF in the EpSCs increased significantly in response to the APE treatment. Consistent with these results, the VEGF and APE-treated EpSCs conditioned medium enhanced the Type 1 collagen production in normal human fibroblasts (NHFs). In the clinical study, the APE improved skin hydration, dermal density, wrinkling, and sagging significantly. Our findings revealed that the APE promotes a proliferation of EpSCs, through the up-regulation of the integrin β1 and VEGF expression. The VEGF

  13. The Antiaging Properties of Andrographis paniculata by Activation Epidermal Cell Stemness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiyoung You

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Andrographis paniculata (A. paniculata, Chuanxinlian, a medicinal herb with an extremely bitter taste that is native to China and other parts of Southeast Asia, possesses immense therapeutic value; however, its therapeutic properties have rarely been applied in the field of skin care. In this study, we investigated the effect of an A. paniculata extract (APE on human epidermal stem cells (EpSCs, and confirmed its anti-aging effect through in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo study. An MTT assay was used to determine cell proliferation. A flow cytometric analysis, with propidium iodide, was used to evaluate the cell cycle. The expression of integrin β1 (CD29, the stem cell marker, was detected with antibodies, using flow cytometry in vitro, and immunohistochemical assays in ex vivo. Type 1 collagen and VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. During the clinical study, skin hydration, elasticity, wrinkling, sagging, and dermal density were evaluated before treatment and at four and eight weeks after the treatment with the test product (containing the APE on the face. The proliferation of the EpSCs, treated with the APE, increased significantly. In the cell cycle analysis, the APE increased the G2/M and S stages in a dose-dependent manner. The expression of integrin β1, which is related to epidermal progenitor cell expansion, was up-regulated in the APE-treated EpSCs and skin explants. In addition, the production of VEGF in the EpSCs increased significantly in response to the APE treatment. Consistent with these results, the VEGF and APE-treated EpSCs conditioned medium enhanced the Type 1 collagen production in normal human fibroblasts (NHFs. In the clinical study, the APE improved skin hydration, dermal density, wrinkling, and sagging significantly. Our findings revealed that the APE promotes a proliferation of EpSCs, through the up-regulation of the integrin β1 and VEGF expression

  14. Health implications of radionuclide levels in cattle raised near U mining and milling facilities in Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was conducted to determine radionuclide tissue levels in cattle raised near U mining and milling facilities. Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico, has been the site of extensive U mining for 30 y and contains several underground U mines, a processing mill, and two large U tailings piles. Ten cows were purchased from two grazing areas in Ambrosia Lake and ten control animals were purchased from Crownpoint, New Mexico. Muscle, liver, kidney, and bone tissue taken from these animals, and environmental samples, including water, grasses and soil collected from the animals' grazing areas, were analyzed for 238U, 234U, 230Th, 226Ra, 210Pb, and 210Po. Mean radionuclide levels in cattle tissue and environmental samples from Ambrosia Lake were higher in almost every comparison than those found in respective controls. Liver and kidney tissues were particularly elevated in 226Ra and 210Po. Radiation dose commitments from eating cattle tissue with these radionuclide concentrations were calculated. We concluded that the health risk to the public from eating exposed cattle is minimal, unless large amounts of this tissue, especially liver and kidney, are ingested

  15. Inhibition of Helicobacter pylori and Its Associate Urease by Labdane Diterpenoids Isolated from Andrographis paniculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Rafik U; Dawane, Ashwini A; Pawar, Rajendra P; Gond, Dhananjay S; Meshram, Rohan J; Gacche, Rajesh N

    2016-03-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate anti-Helicobacter pylori and its associated urease activity of labdane diterpenoids isolated from Andrographis paniculata. A molecular docking analysis was performed by using ArgusLab 4.0.1 software. The results obtained indicate that compound A possesses strong inhibition to H. pylori, 28 ± 2.98 (minimum inhibitory concentration, 9 µg/mL), and its urease, 85.54 ± 2.62% (IC50 , 20.2 µg/mL). Compounds B, C, and D also showed moderate inhibition to H. pylori and its urease. The obtained results were in agreement with the molecular docking analysis of compounds. The phytochemicals under investigation were found to be promising antibacterial agents. Moreover, the isolated compounds can be considered as a resource for searching novel anti-H. pylori agents possessing urease inhibition. PMID:26648323

  16. The complete chloroplast genome sequence of the medicinal plant Andrographis paniculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ping; Shao, Yanhua; Li, Qian; Gao, Junli; Zhang, Runjing; Lai, Xiaoping; Wang, Deqin; Zhang, Huiye

    2016-07-01

    The complete chloroplast genome of Andrographis paniculata, an important medicinal plant with great economic value, has been studied in this article. The genome size is 150,249 bp in length, with 38.3% GC content. A pair of inverted repeats (IRs, 25,300 bp) are separated by a large single copy region (LSC, 82,459 bp) and a small single-copy region (SSC, 17,190 bp). The chloroplast genome contains 114 unique genes, 80 protein-coding genes, 30 tRNA genes and 4 rRNA genes. In these genes, 15 genes contained 1 intron and 3 genes comprised of 2 introns. PMID:25856518

  17. MORFOLOGI FETUS MENCIT (MUS MUSCULUS L. SETELAH PEMBERIAN EKSTRAK DAUN SAMBILOTO (ANDROGRAPHIS PANICULATA NEES

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    IRIANI SETYAWATI

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was performed to examine the effects of Andrographis paniculata Nees leaves extract on foetus morphology if given during organogenesis period. Thirty pregnant mice were randomly divided into 5 groups for teratogenic effects. Extract was given orally by gavage with 0 (as control; 0,004 (equal to one time dose to human; 7,5; 15; and 22,5 g/g body weight/ day. Treatment was given from day 6 to day 13 of gestation (organogenesis period. Foetus were removed on day 18 of gestation by caesarean section. Quantitative data were analyzed with Anova and Duncan's Multiple Range Test. The results showed that teratogenic effects increased in dose-related manner by causing foetus death and resorption, hemorrhage and clubfoot.

  18. Therapeutic Potential of Andrographolide Isolated from the Leaves of Andrographis paniculata Nees for Treating Lung Adenocarcinomas

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    Yu-Tang Tung

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Andrographolide is one of the major diterpene lactones found in Andrographis paniculata Nees and exhibits remarkable inhibitory effects on various cancers. In this study, the antipulmonary cancer effects of andrographolide were studied in a lung tumor mouse model induced by human vascular endothelial growth factor A165 (hVEGF-A165. These results demonstrated that andrographolide significantly reduced the expression of hVEGF-A165 compared with a mock group in the Clara cells of the lungs. In addition, andrographolide also decreased tumor formation by reducing VEGF, EGFR, Cyclin A, and Cyclin B expression on the transcriptional and translational levels. These results indicated that andrographolide treatment on the overexpression of VEGF can arrest the cell cycle, which induced pulmonary tumors in transgenic mice. In conclusion, the antiangiogenesis and chemotherapeutic potential of andrographolide may provide a cure for pulmonary tumors in the future.

  19. Cardiovascular Activity of Labdane Diterpenes from Andrographis paniculata in Isolated Rat Hearts

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    Khalijah Awang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The dichloromethane (DCM extract of Andrographis paniculata Nees was tested for cardiovascular activity. The extract significantly reduced coronary perfusion pressure by up to 24.5±3.0 mm Hg at a 3 mg dose and also reduced heart rate by up to 49.5±11.4 beats/minute at this dose. Five labdane diterpenes, 14-deoxy-12-hydroxyandrographolide (1, 14-deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide (2, 14-deoxyandrographolide (3, andrographolide (4, and neoandrographolide (5, were isolated from the aerial parts of this medicinal plant. Bioassay-guided studies using animal model showed that compounds, (2 and (3 were responsible for the coronary vasodilatation. This study also showed that andrographolide (4, the major labdane diterpene in this plant, has minimal effects on the heart.

  20. ANXIOLYTIC AND ANTIULCER ACTIVITY OF LEAVES OF ANDROGRAPHYS PANICULATA IN EXPERIMENTAL MODEL

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    Ravindra Patil

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Petroleum ether and Chloroform extract of Andrographis paniculata leaves was investigated for its potential to protect gastric mucosa against pylorus ligation induced ulcer and to find out the anxiolytic action in elevated plus maze model. Chloroform extract at the dose of 200mg/kg protected the gastric mucosa in the pylorus ligation ulcer induction significantly (p<0.001 when compared with that of the standard drug famotidine (10mg/kg and acts as a potent antiulcer effect. Elevated plus maze results were significant in alleviating the anxiety in the animals’ results in increased time spent and entries into the open arm compared with the standard drug diazepam (1mg/kg.

  1. Cardiovascular activity of labdane diterpenes from Andrographis paniculata in isolated rat hearts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awang, Khalijah; Abdullah, Nor Hayati; Hadi, A Hamid A; Fong, Yew Su

    2012-01-01

    The dichloromethane (DCM) extract of Andrographis paniculata Nees was tested for cardiovascular activity. The extract significantly reduced coronary perfusion pressure by up to 24.5 ± 3.0 mm Hg at a 3 mg dose and also reduced heart rate by up to 49.5 ± 11.4 beats/minute at this dose. Five labdane diterpenes, 14-deoxy-12-hydroxyandrographolide (1), 14-deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide (2), 14-deoxyandrographolide (3), andrographolide (4), and neoandrographolide (5), were isolated from the aerial parts of this medicinal plant. Bioassay-guided studies using animal model showed that compounds, (2) and (3) were responsible for the coronary vasodilatation. This study also showed that andrographolide (4), the major labdane diterpene in this plant, has minimal effects on the heart. PMID:22536026

  2. Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology of Andrographis paniculata and Its Major Bioactive Phytoconstituent Andrographolide

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    Thanasekaran Jayakumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Andrographis paniculata (Burm. F Nees, generally known as “king of bitters,” is an herbaceous plant in the family Acanthaceae. In China, India, Thailand, and Malaysia, this plant has been widely used for treating sore throat, flu, and upper respiratory tract infections. Andrographolide, a major bioactive chemical constituent of the plant, has shown anticancer potential in various investigations. Andrographolide and its derivatives have anti-inflammatory effects in experimental models asthma, stroke, and arthritis. In recent years, pharmaceutical chemists have synthesized numerous andrographolide derivatives, which exhibit essential pharmacological activities such as those that are anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antitumor, antidiabetic, anti-HIV, antifeedant, and antiviral. However, what is noteworthy about this paper is summarizing the effects of andrographolide against cardiovascular disease, platelet activation, infertility, and NF-κB activation. Therefore, this paper is intended to provide evidence reported in relevant literature on qualitative research to assist scientists in isolating and characterizing bioactive compounds.

  3. Artefatos cumarínicos isolados de Polygala paniculata L. (Polygalaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    M. G Pizzolatti; Cristiano, R.; F. D. Monache; Branco, A.

    2002-01-01

    A partir do fracionamento em coluna de gel de sílica do extrato clorofórmico de Polygala paniculata (Polygalaceae), foram isolados 7-metóxi-8-(1',2'-epóxi-3'-metil-3'-butenil)-cumarina (1) e dois artefatos cumarínicos (2a-2b), formados a partir da abertura do anel epóxido de 1 durante o processo de isolamento. O tratamento de 1 com EtOH/SiO2, sob agitação e à temperatura ambiente durante 24 horas, resultou na formação dos respectivos artefatos: 7-metóxi-8-(1'-hidróxi-2-etóxi-3'-metil-3'-buten...

  4. Determination of phytochemicals, antioxidant activity and total phenolic content in Andrographis paniculata using chromatographic methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurzawa, Marzanna; Filipiak-Szok, Anna; Kłodzińska, Ewa; Szłyk, Edward

    2015-07-15

    Antioxidant activity, total phenolics content and selected phytochemicals (alkaloids and andrographolides) were determined in Andrographis paniculata and in dietary supplements containing this plant. Antioxidant activity was measured by FRAP, CUPRAC and DPPH procedures and ranged from 503.36 to 6164.09μmol TE/100g d.m. depending on methods, part of plant and kind of dietary supplement. The total phenolics (175.13-1723.79mg GAE/100g) and andrographolides content (19.44-85.13mg/g) in the studied samples were correlated with antioxidant activities determined by CUPRAC, FRAP and DPPH (r>0.95, p<0.05 level). Purine alkaloids: caffeine, theobromine, theophylline and indole alkaloids: harmine, harmane, harmol, yohimbine, brucine and strychnine were detected in the studied samples by different chromatographic techniques (HPLC-DAD, LC-MS/MS, GC-MS). The total alkaloids content in APs-roots and APs-leaves varies from 50.71±0.36mg/g d.m. to 78.71±0.48mg/g d.m., respectively, whereas for dietary supplements (Pn and DK) TAC was found between 19.52±0.15mg/g and 22.18±0.15mg/g d.m.. The highest concentration of andrographolides was found in A. paniculata leaves, whereas the lowest in dietary supplement Pn. Moreover principal component analysis, cluster analysis and one-way ANOVA follow by Duncan's tests were also performed. PMID:26050926

  5. Adaptogenic potential of andrographolide: An active principle of the king of bitters (Andrographis paniculata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Ajit Kumar; Chatterjee, Shyam Sunder; Kumar, Vikas

    2015-01-01

    Andrographolide is a major bioactive secondary plant metabolite isolated Andrographis paniculata (Burm. F.) Wall. Ex. Nees. ( chuān xīn lián), a well-known traditionally used medicinal herb. The aim of the study was to pharmacologically evaluate the beneficial effect of andrographolide on stress-induced thermoregulatory and other physiological responses in mice. A stress-induced hyperthermia test was conducted in mice. The test agents were orally administered once daily for 11 consecutive days, and treatment effects on body weight changes, basal rectal temperature, and foot-shock-triggered hyperthermic responses were quantified on Day 1, Day 5, Day 7, and Day 10 of the experiments. Pentobarbital-induced hypnosis was quantified on the 11(th) day of treatment. Observations made during a pilot dose finding experiment revealed that, like A. paniculata extracts, pure andrographolide also possess adaptogenic properties. Observed dose-dependent efficacies of 3 mg/kg/d, 10 mg/kg/d, and 30 mg/kg/d andrographolide in the pilot experiment were reconfirmed by conducting two further analogous experiments using separate groups of either male or female mice. In these confirmatory experiments, efficacies of andrographolide were compared with that of 5 mg/kg/d oral doses of the standard anxiolytic diazepam. Significantly reduced body weights and elevated core temperatures of the three vehicle-treated control groups observed on the 5(th) day and subsequent observational days were completely absent even in the groups treated with the lowest andrographolide dose (3 mg/kg/d) or diazepam (5 mg/kg/d). Benzodiazepine-like potentiation of pentobarbital hypnosis was observed in andrographolide-treated animals. These observations reveal that andrographolide is functionally a diazepam-like desensitizer of biological mechanisms, and processes involved in stress trigger thermoregulatory and other physiological responses. PMID:26151008

  6. Effect of Fertilizer Application on Indigenous Medicinal Plant Andrographis paniculata Nees (Sega-gyi)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experiments were carried out to assess the effect of fertilizer application on indigenous medicinal plant Andrographis paniculata Nees (Sega-gyi) on yield components such as plant heigh (cm), fresh weight of whole plant (g), dry weigth of whole plant (g), dry weigth of leave per plant (g), mineral elemental contents of the leaves (N, P, K, Ca and Mg) and medically active compound andrographolide of the leaves from the green-house experiment. Various methods applied in the growth of medicinal plant A. paniculata Nees (Sega-gyi), comprised the dripping (Dropwise) and the spraying methods of the prepared blue green algae (BGA) Spirulina, the composite mixture of prepared BGA+ soil, mineral fertilizer + soil and soil itself as control. In all the fertilizer treatments, the dripping (Dropwise) method using the BGA biofertilizer gave rise to the highest growth of 100 cm when the average fresh weigth of the whole plant was 440g. Andrographolide crystals were isolated, identified and confirmed by chromatographic techniques. A single standard HPLC peak by UV detection (225 nm) indication a retention time of 4.36 min and its melting point (232 C) were found to correspond to the literature values. Analytical results of the leaves of Sega-gyi by the dripping (Dropwise) method indicated the presence of 2.12% andrographolide and also the mineral elements with the composition of N (22.78), P (1.93), K (16.15), Ca (23.70) and Mg (4.85) mg/g. Although the mechanism of micro-algal plant growth regulatory action has not yet been studied, from this research work it was observed that the BGA biofertilizer promotes plant growth, improves the soil physical conditions, and also enhance the yield of medicinally active compound andrographolide.

  7. Hybrid analysis (barcode-high resolution melting) for authentication of Thai herbal products, Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Wall.ex Nees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osathanunkul, Maslin; Suwannapoom, Chatmongkon; Khamyong, Nuttaluck; Pintakum, Danupol; Lamphun, Santisuk Na; Triwitayakorn, Kanokporn; Osathanunkul, Kitisak; Madesis, Panagiotis

    2016-01-01

    Background: Andrographis paniculata Nees is a medicinal plant with multiple pharmacological properties. It has been used over many centuries as a household remedy. A. paniculata products sold on the markets are in processed forms so it is difficult to authenticate. Therefore buying the herbal products poses a high-risk of acquiring counterfeited, substituted and/or adulterated products. Due to these issues, a reliable method to authenticate products is needed. Materials and Methods: High resolution melting analysis coupled with DNA barcoding (Bar-HRM) was applied to detect adulteration in commercial herbal products. The rbcL barcode was selected to use in primers design for HRM analysis to produce standard melting profile of A. paniculata species. DNA of the tested commercial products was isolated and their melting profiles were then generated and compared with the standard A. paniculata. Results: The melting profiles of the rbcL amplicons of the three closely related herbal species (A. paniculata, Acanthus ebracteatus and Rhinacanthus nasutus) are clearly separated so that they can be distinguished by the developed method. The method was then used to authenticate commercial herbal products. HRM curves of all 10 samples tested are similar to A. paniculata which indicated that all tested products were contained the correct species as labeled. Conclusion: The method described in this study has been proved to be useful in aiding identification and/or authenticating A. paniculata. This Bar-HRM analysis has allowed us easily to determine the A. paniculata species in herbal products on the markets even they are in processed forms. SUMMARY We propose the use of DNA barcoding combined with High Resolution Melting analysis for authenticating of Andrographis paniculata products.The developed method can be used regardless of the type of the DNA template (fresh or dried tissue, leaf, and stem).rbcL region was chosen for the analysis and work well with our samplesWe can easily

  8. An Effective Vacuum Assisted Extraction Method for the Optimization of Labdane Diterpenoids from Andrographis paniculata by Response Surface Methodology

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    Ya-Qi Wang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available An effective vacuum assisted extraction (VAE technique was proposed for the first time and applied to extract bioactive components from Andrographis paniculata. The process was carefully optimized by response surface methodology (RSM. Under the optimized experimental conditions, the best results were obtained using a boiling temperature of 65 °C, 50% ethanol concentration, 16 min of extraction time, one extraction cycles and a 12:1 liquid-solid ratio. Compared with conventional ultrasonic assisted extraction and heat reflux extraction, the VAE technique gave shorter extraction times and remarkable higher extraction efficiency, which indicated that a certain degree of vacuum gave the solvent a better penetration of the solvent into the pores and between the matrix particles, and enhanced the process of mass transfer. The present results demonstrated that VAE is an efficient, simple and fast method for extracting bioactive components from A. paniculata, which shows great potential for becoming an alternative technique for industrial scale-up applications.

  9. Variation in Morphological Characteristics and Andrographolide Content in Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f. Nees of Central India

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    A.K. Pandey

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Andrographis paniculata (king of bitters, commonly known as Kalmegh is used both in Ayurvedic and Unani system of medicines for a number of ailments related to digestion, hepatoprotection, hypoglycemic, and as anti-bacterial, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, vermicidal and antipyretic. A. paniculata collected from five locations of Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh were studies for their morphological characteristics and diterpene contents to find out superior genotype. The average amount of dry weight per individual was between 16.58 to 18.92 g. The average andrographolide content varied from 1.07 to 2.24 percent in dried leaves. The differences in growth characteristics among the plants collected from different locations were not significant. However, andrographolide content among the plants from different locations were statistically significant. The results indicated that those populations are potentially important sources for breeding, improvement of cultivars and best sources for obtaining higher drug yield.

  10. Optimization of Microwave Assisted Extraction of Andrographolide from Andrographis paniculata and its Comparison with Refluxation Extraction Method

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    Manvitha Mohan

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A new method using Microwave assisted extraction technique has been developed for extraction of Andrographolide from Andrographis paniculata. Andrographis paniculata is a well-known plant of Ayurveda which is also known as king of bitters because of different bitter principles present in different parts of the plant and exhibits a wide spectrum of biological activities. The MAE conditions such as irradiation time, temperature and coarseness of powder were optimitized by means of orthogonal array design. The results suggested that the selected parameters were statistically significant. A comparative study was carried out to know the yield of andrographolide from the extracts prepared by microwave assisted extraction and refluxation using methanol and water as solvents. The amount of Andrographolide was estimated using HPTLC method. The results indicate that the extracts prepared by Microwave assisted extraction contained more amount of andrographolide when compared with refluxation extraction method.

  11. Aqueous Extract of Kalmegh (Andrographis paniculata Leaves as Green Inhibitor for Mild Steel in Hydrochloric Acid Solution

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    Ambrish Singh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The inhibition of the corrosion of mild steel in hydrochloric acid solution by the extract of Kalmegh (Andrographis paniculata leaves extract has been studied using weight loss, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, linear polarization, and potentiodynamic polarization techniques. Inhibition was found to increase with increasing concentration of the extract. The effect of temperature, immersion time, and acid concentration on the corrosion behavior of mild steel in 1 M HCl with addition of extract was also studied. The inhibition was assumed to occur via adsorption of the inhibitor molecules on the metal surface. The adsorption of the molecules of the extract on the mild steel surface obeyed the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The protective film formed on the metal surface was analyzed by FTIR spectroscopy. The results obtained showed that the extract of Kalmegh (Andrographis paniculata leaves extract could serve as an effective inhibitor of the corrosion of mild steel in hydrochloric acid media.

  12. Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Andrographis paniculata by Rapid Resolution Liquid Chromatography/Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Jian-Fei Qin; Zhi-Yuan Jiang; Zhao Jin; Shi-Ping Liu; Yong-Xi Song

    2013-01-01

    A rapid resolution liquid chromatography/time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (RRLC-TOF/MS) method was developed for qualitative and quantitative analysis of the major chemical constituents in Andrographis paniculata. Fifteen compounds, including flavonoids and diterpenoid lactones, were unambiguously or tentatively identified in 10 min by comparing their retention times and accurate masses with standards or literature data. The characteristic fragmentation patterns of flavonoids and diter...

  13. Andrographis Paniculata shows anti-nociceptive effects in an animal model of sensory hypersensitivity associated with migraine

    OpenAIRE

    Greco, Rosaria; Siani, Francesca; Demartini, Chiara; Zanaboni, Annamaria; Nappi, Giuseppe; Davinelli, Sergio; Scapagnini, Giovanni; Tassorelli, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Administration of nitroglycerin (NTG) to rats induces a hyperalgesic condition and neuronal activation of central structures involved in migraine pain. In order to identify therapeutic strategies for migraine pain, we evaluated the anti-nociceptive activity of Andrographis Paniculata (AP), a herbaceous plant, in the hyperalgesia induced by NTG administration in the formalin test. We also analyzed mRNA expression of cytokines in specific brain areas after AP treatment. Male Sprague-Dawley rats...

  14. Anti-scorpion venom activity of Andrographis paniculata: A combined and comparative study with anti-scorpion serum in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Ranjana S Kale; Satish E Bahekar; Nagpure, Shailesh R.; Salwe, Kartik J.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study is to evaluate the anti-scorpion venom (ASV) property of Andrographis paniculata in comparison with anti-redscorpion venom serum and this study aimed to determine its combined effect with anti-redscorpion venom serum. Materials and Methods: Ethanolic extract of the plant AP was obtained using soxhlet apparatus. Swiss albino mice weighing 20-30g were used. Lyophilized venom sample of Mesobuthus tamulus and Lyophilized monovalent enzyme refined immuno...

  15. An Effective Vacuum Assisted Extraction Method for the Optimization of Labdane Diterpenoids from Andrographis paniculata by Response Surface Methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Ya-Qi Wang; Zhen-Feng Wu; Gang Ke; Ming Yang

    2014-01-01

    An effective vacuum assisted extraction (VAE) technique was proposed for the first time and applied to extract bioactive components from Andrographis paniculata. The process was carefully optimized by response surface methodology (RSM). Under the optimized experimental conditions, the best results were obtained using a boiling temperature of 65 °C, 50% ethanol concentration, 16 min of extraction time, one extraction cycles and a 12:1 liquid-solid ratio. Compared with conventional ultrasonic a...

  16. Harnessing the medicinal properties of Andrographis paniculata for diseases and beyond: a review of its phytochemistry and pharmacology

    OpenAIRE

    Okhuarobo, Agbonlahor; Falodun, Joyce Ehizogie; Erharuyi, Osayemwenre; Imieje, Vincent; Falodun, Abiodun; Langer, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Andrographis paniculata Wall (family Acanthaceae) is one of the most popular medicinal plants used traditionally for the treatment of array of diseases such as cancer, diabetes, high blood pressure, ulcer, leprosy, bronchitis, skin diseases, flatulence, colic, influenza, dysentery, dyspepsia and malaria for centuries in Asia, America and Africa continents. It possesses several photochemical constituents with unique and interesting biological properties. This review describes the past and pres...

  17. Aqueous Extract of Kalmegh (Andrographis paniculata) Leaves as Green Inhibitor for Mild Steel in Hydrochloric Acid Solution

    OpenAIRE

    Ambrish Singh; Singh, V. K.; M.A. Quraishi

    2010-01-01

    The inhibition of the corrosion of mild steel in hydrochloric acid solution by the extract of Kalmegh (Andrographis paniculata) leaves extract has been studied using weight loss, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, linear polarization, and potentiodynamic polarization techniques. Inhibition was found to increase with increasing concentration of the extract. The effect of temperature, immersion time, and acid concentration on the corrosion behavior of mild steel in 1 M HCl with addition of...

  18. Comparative study of alpha amylase inhibitory activity of flavonoids of Vitex negundo Linn. and Andrographis paniculata Nees

    OpenAIRE

    Keerti Gautam; Padma Kumar; Chitra Jain

    2013-01-01

    Background: One important therapeutic approach for the treatment of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus is by decreasing the postprandial increase of glucose. This is possible by inhibiting certain carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes like alpha-amylase. Aim: The objective of the present study was to evaluate the alpha amylase inhibitory activity of flavonoids extracts of different parts of Vitex negundo Linn and Andrographis paniculata Nees. Materials and Methods: In the present study, the percentage inhib...

  19. Ekstrak Daun Sambiloto (Andrographis paniculata) Dalam Mengendalikan Pertumbuhan Bakteri Aeromonas hydrophila, Edwarsiella tarda dan Jamur Saprolegnia sp. Secara In Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Sinaga, Lihardo

    2016-01-01

    This study was aimed to know antimicrobial potential of extract of sambiloto’s Leaf (Andrographis paniculata) against bacteria Aeromonas hydrophila, Edwardsiella tarda and Saprolegnia sp. and to know the extract toxicity to brine shrimp (Artemia salina). Sambiloto’s leaf was extracted using methanol, ethyl acetate and n-Hexane. Antimicrobial activity test was done using diffusion discs method to know the compunds contained in the extract phytochemical test was conducted. The chemical compound...

  20. Agrobacterium-Mediated Stable Transformation of Medicinal Plant Andrographis paniculata Callus Expressing β-glucuronidase (GUS) Gene

    OpenAIRE

    Erly Marwani; Agustina Tangapo; Fenny Martha Dwivany

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to establish a stable genetic transformation in callus culture of Andrographispaniculata mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. The leaf disks of A. paniculata were infected with A. tumefaciensLBA4404 carrying a binary vector pCAMBIA1304 that contain β-glucuronidase (GUS) and hygromycinphosphotransferase (hpt) genes. The infection was conducted by dipping method for one hour, followed byco-cultivation in the dark for three days. To examine transient GUS express...

  1. Protective effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Andrographis paniculata on ischaemia-reperfusion induced myocardial injury in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Ojha, Shreesh Kumar; Bharti, Saurabh; Joshi, Sujata; Kumari, Santosh; Arya, Dharamvir Singh

    2012-01-01

    Background & objectives: Protecting myocardium from ischaemia-reperfusion (I-R) injury is important to reduce the complication of myocardial infarction (MI) and interventional revascularization procedures. In the present study, the cardioprotective potential of hydroalcoholic extract of Andrographis paniculata was evaluated against left anterior descending coronary artery (LADCA) ligation-induced I-R injury of myocardium in rats. Methods: MI was induced in rats by LADCA ligation for 45 min fo...

  2. Andrographis paniculata extract protect against isoproterenol-induced myocardial injury by mitigating cardiac dysfunction and oxidative injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojha, Shreesh; Bharti, Saurabh; Golechha, Mahaveer; Sharma, Ashok K; Rani, Neha; Kumari, Santosh; Arya, Dharamvir Singh

    2012-01-01

    Present study evaluated the cardioprotective effect of Andrographis paniculata (100, 200 or 400 mg/kg) against isoproterenol (85 mg/kg, b.w.)-induced cardiotoxicity referred as myocardial infarction in rats. Isoproterenol significantly (p heart rate, contractility and relaxation and increased left ventricular end diastolic pressure. Isoproterenol also significantly (p heart against cardiotoxic effects of isoproterenol by boosting endogenous antioxidant network, restoring ventricular function and maintaining structural integrity of heart. PMID:22568041

  3. Evaluation of health state and growth of Gypsophila paniculata L. and Gypsophila repens L. groving in soil in variable fertilization

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Warner; Wojciech Antkowiak

    2013-01-01

    The influence of NPK fertilization on plant growth and roots yield of Gypsophila paniculata and Gypsophila repens was investigated. The nutrients were applied in different proportions. The health state of Gypsophila was also analyzed. The pathogens isolated from plants showing the diseases symptoms represented eight species: Alternaria dianthicola Neergaard; Fusarium avenaceum (Fr.) Sacc.; Fusarium culmorum (W. G.Smith) Sacc.; F.equiseti (Cola) Sacc.; F.oxysporum Schlecht., Snyder et Hansen;...

  4. Discordant phylogenies suggest repeated host shifts in the Fusarium-Euwallacea ambrosia beetle mutualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Kerry; Sink, Stacy; Libeskind-Hadas, Ran; Hulcr, Jiri; Kasson, Matthew T; Ploetz, Randy C; Konkol, Joshua L; Ploetz, Jill N; Carrillo, Daniel; Campbell, Alina; Duncan, Rita E; Liyanage, Pradeepa N H; Eskalen, Akif; Na, Francis; Geiser, David M; Bateman, Craig; Freeman, Stanley; Mendel, Zvi; Sharon, Michal; Aoki, Takayuki; Cossé, Allard A; Rooney, Alejandro P

    2015-09-01

    The mutualism between xyleborine beetles in the genus Euwallacea (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) and members of the Ambrosia Fusarium Clade (AFC) represents one of 11 known evolutionary origins of fungiculture by ambrosia beetles. Female Euwallacea beetles transport fusarial symbionts in paired mandibular mycangia from their natal gallery to woody hosts where they are cultivated in galleries as a source of food. Native to Asia, several exotic Euwallacea species were introduced into the United States and Israel within the past two decades and they now threaten urban landscapes, forests and avocado production. To assess species limits and to date the evolutionary diversification of the mutualists, we reconstructed the evolutionary histories of key representatives of the Fusarium and Euwallacea clades using maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood methods. Twelve species-level lineages, termed AF 1-12, were identified within the monophyletic AFC and seven among the Fusarium-farming Euwallacea. Bayesian diversification-time estimates placed the origin of the Euwallacea-Fusarium mutualism near the Oligocene-Miocene boundary ∼19-24 Mya. Most Euwallacea spp. appear to be associated with one species of Fusarium, but two species farmed two closely related fusaria. Euwallacea sp. #2 in Miami-Dade County, Florida cultivated Fusarium spp. AF-6 and AF-8 on avocado, and Euwallacea sp. #4 farmed Fusarium ambrosium AF-1 and Fusarium sp. AF-11 on Chinese tea in Sri Lanka. Cophylogenetic analyses indicated that the Euwallacea and Fusarium phylogenies were largely incongruent, apparently due to the beetles switching fusarial symbionts (i.e., host shifts) at least five times during the evolution of this mutualism. Three cospeciation events between Euwallacea and their AFC symbionts were detected, but randomization tests failed to reject the null hypothesis that the putative parallel cladogenesis is a stochastic pattern. Lastly, two collections of Euwallacea sp. #2 from Miami

  5. Effects of Atmospheric Pressure Air Plasma Pretreatment on the Seed Germination and Early Growth of Andrographis paniculata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this paper is to demonstrate whether air plasma can change the seed germination characteristics, seedling emergence, as well as biochemical reactivity, in Andrographis paniculata (A. paniculata) seedlings by modifying the seed coat and finding a beneficial treatment dose. Eight treatment doses and one control were used to conduct electrical conductivity determination, a germination test, a seedling emergence test and a biochemical assay. The results showed that after being treated with air plasma excited at 5950 V for 10 s, the permeability of the seeds was improved significantly, resulting in the acceleration of seed germination and seedling emergence. In the meantime, the catalase activity and catalase isoenzyme expression were also improved, while the malondialdehyde content in the seedlings was decreased (which means greater counteraction with environmental stress). After being treated with 4250 V for 10 s and 5950 V for 20 s, the seed germination was enhanced, but without an obvious change in seedling emergence. However, after treatment with 3400 V for 20 s and 5100 V for 10 s, the permeability of the seeds was decreased, resulting in a delay in seedling emergence. These results indicate that air plasma can change the physiological and biochemical characteristics of Andrographis paniculata seeds by modifying the seed coat, combined with the effects of the active plasma species, and that different treating doses have different effects

  6. Pfaffosidic Fraction from Hebanthe paniculata Induces Cell Cycle Arrest and Caspase-3-Induced Apoptosis in HepG2 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tereza Cristina da Silva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hebanthe paniculata roots (formerly Pfaffia paniculata and popularly known as Brazilian ginseng show antineoplastic, chemopreventive, and antiproliferative properties. Functional properties of these roots and their extracts are usually attributed to the pfaffosidic fraction, which is composed mainly by pfaffosides A–F. However, the therapeutic potential of this fraction in cancer cells is not yet entirely understood. This study aimed to analyze the antitumoral effects of the purified pfaffosidic fraction or saponinic fraction on the human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cell line. Cellular viability, proliferation, and apoptosis were evaluated, respectively, by MTT assay, BrdU incorporation, activated caspase-3 immunocytochemistry, and DNA fragmentation assay. Cell cycle was analyzed by flow cytometry and the cell cycle-related proteins were analyzed by quantitative PCR and Western blot. The cells exposed to pfaffosidic fraction had reduced viability and cellular growth, induced G2/M at 48 h or S at 72 h arrest, and increased sub-G1 cell population via cyclin E downregulation, p27KIP1 overexpression, and caspase-3-induced apoptosis, without affecting the DNA integrity. Antitumoral effects of pfaffosidic fraction from H. paniculata in HepG2 cells originated by multimechanisms of action might be associated with cell cycle arrest in the S phase, by CDK2 and cyclin E downregulation and p27KIP1 overexpression, besides induction of apoptosis through caspase-3 activation.

  7. Agrobacterium-Mediated Stable Transformation of Medicinal Plant Andrographis paniculata Callus Expressing β-glucuronidase (GUS Gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erly Marwani

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to establish a stable genetic transformation in callus culture of Andrographispaniculata mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. The leaf disks of A. paniculata were infected with A. tumefaciensLBA4404 carrying a binary vector pCAMBIA1304 that contain β-glucuronidase (GUS and hygromycinphosphotransferase (hpt genes. The infection was conducted by dipping method for one hour, followed byco-cultivation in the dark for three days. To examine transient GUS expression, the co-cultivated leaf disks wereassayed for β-glucuronidase activity and to obtain stable transformed callus, the co-cultivated leaf disks wereselected on the callus induction medium which contain 20 mg/l hygromycin for selection. The transformedcallus was periodically subcultured every three weeks into the fresh selection medium over the 15 weeksperiod. To test a stable transformation, the callus was subjected to PCR analysis for GUS gene detection. Theresults indicated that the co-cultivated leaf disks expressed GUS activity and proliferated to produce callus onthe selective medium. Analysis of PCR on the transformed callus indicated the presence 976 bp fragment thatconfi rmed the presence of β-glucuronidase gene. These fi ndings imply that the β-glucuronidase was stablyintegrated into A. paniculata callus culture.Keywords: Andrographis paniculata, Agrobacterium tumefaciens, andrographollide, transformed callus,β-glucuronidase gene.

  8. EFFECTS OF ADDROGRAPHIS PANICULATA (NEES. ON ARSENIC- INDUCED ALTERED GLUCOSE HOMEOSTASIS AND OXIDATIVE IMPAIRMENT IN PANCREAS OF SWISS MICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MANDAVA V. RAO

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of Andrographis paniculata (Nees. on arsenic-induced changes in biochemical and cellular antioxident sytem was studies in adult female mice. Daily oral administration of arsenic trioxide (0.5 and 1.0mg/kg b.w for 30days induced a significant increase in blood glucose level which was associated with impaired glucose tolrence. Arsenic treatment also resulted in elevated level panreatic tissue specific makers such as activities of amylase and lipase in serum indicating pancreatic dysfunction. Interestingly, this biochemical dysfuntion was accompanied by a marked dose related enchancement of lipid peroxidation indicating significant induction of oxidative damage. Additional evidence such as deletion in reduced gluatathione levels and alterations in enzymic antioxidant defences like superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase in pancreas suggested induction of oxidative stress. Concomitant administration of Adrographis paniculata (50 mg/kg b.w. with arsenic significant restored all these parameters. These results suggest that Adrographis paniculata is capable to reducing arsenic-induce cellular oxidative and inflammatory changes in pancreas.

  9. Effects of Atmospheric Pressure Air Plasma Pretreatment on the Seed Germination and Early Growth of Andrographis paniculata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Jiayun; He, Rui; Zhang, Xiaoli; Zhan, Ruoting; Chen, Weiwen; Yang, Size

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this paper is to demonstrate whether air plasma can change the seed germination characteristics, seedling emergence, as well as biochemical reactivity, in Andrographis paniculata (A. paniculata) seedlings by modifying the seed coat and finding a beneficial treatment dose. Eight treatment doses and one control were used to conduct electrical conductivity determination, a germination test, a seedling emergence test and a biochemical assay. The results showed that after being treated with air plasma excited at 5950 V for 10 s, the permeability of the seeds was improved significantly, resulting in the acceleration of seed germination and seedling emergence. In the meantime, the catalase activity and catalase isoenzyme expression were also improved, while the malondialdehyde content in the seedlings was decreased (which means greater counteraction with environmental stress). After being treated with 4250 V for 10 s and 5950 V for 20 s, the seed germination was enhanced, but without an obvious change in seedling emergence. However, after treatment with 3400 V for 20 s and 5100 V for 10 s, the permeability of the seeds was decreased, resulting in a delay in seedling emergence. These results indicate that air plasma can change the physiological and biochemical characteristics of Andrographis paniculata seeds by modifying the seed coat, combined with the effects of the active plasma species, and that different treating doses have different effects.

  10. [Selective enrichment of iridoid glucosides in Hedyotis diffusa Willd. by tandem solid phase extraction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng; Guo, Zhimou; Zhang, Feifang; Xue, Xingya; Liang, Xinmiao

    2009-07-01

    A method for selective enrichment of iridoid glucosides in Hedyotis diffusa Willd. by tandem solid phase extraction (SPE) was developed. Oligo(ethylene glycol) (OEG) is a novel type of separation material made in this laboratory. The differences of the surface chemical structures between OEG material and ODS material resulted in their different retention capabilities for iridoid glucosides. Based on the differences, an OEG-ODS solid phase extraction method was designed for selective enrichment of iridoid glucosides. The water extract (150.28 mg) of Hedyotis diffusa Willd. was precipitated by ethanol, and an aliquot (27.03 mg) of the product from the supernatant solution was loaded onto an OEG cartridge and rinsed by 5 mL water. Then, the rinsing solution was loaded onto an ODS cartridge. After it was washed by 5 mL water and eluted by 5 mL methanol, 4.01 mg final product was obtained from the methanol eluent. All the products were characterized by ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC), and 14 representative peaks of iridoid glucosides were found. The enrichment results were proved effective by directly comparing the chromatograms each step. To further characterize the enrichment efficiency, the changes of the peak area of iridoid glucosides were investigated. The results showed that the content of 14 iridoid glucosides in the final product reached 6.10 times its original proportion in water extraction product and their recovery was 50.1% on average. Therefore, the iridoid glucosides can be enriched by the tandem solid phase extraction method from water extracting-ethanol precipitating solution of Hedyotis diffusa Willd. with a good selectivity and an acceptable recovery. The proposed method has the advantages of high enrichment efficiency and simple operation. PMID:19938499

  11. Minireview: importance of herbicide-tolerant sunflower hybrids in suppressing common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia pollen production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Reisinger

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia is the number one weed in Hungary: it covers ca. 5% of the arable land, causing huge losses in row crops, especially in sunflowers. In addition, because of the high allergenicity of its pollen, common ragweed is a heavy burden on the health care system. This minireview discusses the importance of use of herbicide-tolerant sunflower hybrids in eliminating common ragweed from sunflower fields, with special emphasis on the efficacy of common ragweed control of two acetolactate-synthase inhibitor postemergence herbicides (imazamox and tribenuron methyl in several sunflower hybrids that carry the resistance gene against such herbicides. Common ragweed control by these herbicides was excellent: they suppressed the growth of the weed plant until the canopy closure of the crop (8-leaf stage. Common ragweed plants germinating after this date were unable to compete with the crop: although they survived, they remained small (ca. 70% reduction in height, produced ca. 90% less male inflorescences (source of the allergenic pollen, and caused no significant reduction in the crop yield. In order to stop the seed production by the few late-germinating weed plants we recommend a mechanical common measure (row-cultivator in late August.

  12. Yeast Associated with the Ambrosia Beetle, Platypus koryoensis, the Pest of Oak Trees in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Yeo Hong; Suh, Dong Yeon; Yoo, Hun Dal; Oh, Man Hwan; Kim, Seong Hwan

    2015-12-01

    Oak tree death caused by symbiosis of an ambrosia beetle, Platypus koryoensis, and an ophiostomatoid filamentous fungus, Raffaelea quercus-mongolicae, has been a nationwide problem in Korea since 2004. In this study, we surveyed the yeast species associated with P. koryoensis to better understand the diversity of fungal associates of the beetle pest. In 2009, a total of 195 yeast isolates were sampled from larvae and adult beetles (female and male) of P. koryoensis in Cheonan, Goyang, and Paju; 8 species were identified by based on their morphological, biochemical and molecular analyses. Meyerozyma guilliermondii and Candida kashinagacola were found to be the two dominant species. Among the 8 species, Candida homilentoma was a newly recorded yeast species in Korea, and thus, its mycological characteristics were described. The P. koryoensis symbiont R. quercusmongolicae did not show extracelluar CM-cellulase, xylanase and avicelase activity that are responsible for degradation of wood structure; however, C. kashinagacola and M. guilliermondii did show the three extracellular enzymatic activities. Extracelluar CM-cellulase activity was also found in Ambrosiozyma sp., C. homilentoma, C. kashinagacola, and Candida sp. Extracelluar pectinase activity was detected in Ambrosiozyma sp., C. homilentoma, Candida sp., and M. guilliermondii. All the 8 yeast species displayed compatible relationships with R. quercus-mongolicae when they were co-cultivated on yeast extract-malt extract plates. Overall, our results demonstrated that P. koryoensis carries the yeast species as a symbiotic fungal associate. This is first report of yeast diversity associated with P. koryoensis. PMID:26839506

  13. Erhöhte Frosttoleranz und vorteilhafte Keimeigenschaften in europäischen Ambrosia artemisiifolia Populationen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leiblein-Wild, Marion Carmen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Germination characteristics and frost tolerance of seedlings are crucial parameters for establishment and invasion success of plants. Within this study, we investigated germination characteristics of Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. populations from native and invasive ranges. We determined germination rates and speed under different temperature conditions. From these parameters we calculated minimal, optimal, and maximal temperature for germination. We also investigated the frost tolerance of seedlings. The European populations were characterized by a higher fitness with higher germination rates and germination speed, increased biomass and higher frost tolerance of seedlings. Furthermore, the temperature niche width for germination was significantly broader for the European populations. The increased frost tolerance of the European populations might allow germination earlier in the year which may subsequently lead to higher biomass allocation – due to a longer growing period – and result in higher pollen and seed production. The increase in germination rates, germination speed and seedling frost tolerance might result in a higher fitness of the European populations which may facilitate further successful invasion and sharpen the existing problems.

  14. Radiological survey of the inactive uranium-mill tailings at Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haywood, F.F.; Christian, D.J.; Ellis, B.S.; Hubbard, H.M. Jr.; Lorenzo, D.; Shinpaugh, W.H.

    1980-06-01

    The inactive uranium-mill tailings pile at Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico, contains approximately 1520 Ci of /sup 226/Ra in 2.4 million metric tons of tailings covering an area of 43 hectares. All of the former mill buildings were intact and, at the time of this survey, several were in use. The tailings have not been stabilized, but the crusty surface is reported to be resistant to wind erosion. The average gamma-ray exposure rate 1 m above the tailings is 720 ..mu..R/h while the average rate in the former mill area is 150 ..mu..R/h. The adjacent area, between the mill site, ponds, and tailings pile, has an average exposure rate of 230 ..mu..R/h. Gamma radiation measurements outside these areas, as well as the results of analyses of surface or near-surface sediment and soil samples, show fairly wide dispersion of contamination around the site. The subsurface distribution of /sup 226/Ra in 18 holes drilled at the site, calculated from gamma-ray monitoring data, is presented graphically and compared with measured concentrations in two holes.

  15. Effects of seed traits variation on seedling performance of the invasive weed, Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortmans, William; Mahy, Grégory; Monty, Arnaud

    2016-02-01

    Seedling performance can determine the survival of a juvenile plant and impact adult plant performance. Understanding the factors that may impact seedling performance is thus critical, especially for annuals, opportunists or invasive plant species. Seedling performance can vary among mothers or populations in response to environmental conditions or under the influence of seed traits. However, very few studies have investigated seed traits variations and their consequences on seedling performance. Specifically, the following questions have been addressed by this work: 1) How the seed traits of the invasive Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. vary among mothers and populations, as well as along the latitude; 2) How do seed traits influence seedling performance; 3) Is the influence on seedlings temperature dependent. With seeds from nine Western Europe ruderal populations, seed traits that can influence seedling development were measured. The seeds were sown into growth chambers with warmer or colder temperature treatments. During seedling growth, performance-related traits were measured. A high variability in seed traits was highlighted. Variation was determined by the mother identity and population, but not latitude. Together, the temperature, population and the identity of the mother had an effect on seedling performance. Seed traits had a relative impact on seedling performance, but this did not appear to be temperature dependent. Seedling performance exhibited a strong plastic response to the temperature, was shaped by the identity of the mother and the population, and was influenced by a number of seed traits.

  16. Life history trait differentiation and local adaptation in invasive populations of Ambrosia artemisiifolia in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Meng; She, Deng-Ying; Zhang, Da-Yong; Liao, Wan-Jin

    2015-03-01

    Local adaptation has been suggested to play an important role in range expansion, particularly among invasive species. However, the extent to which local adaptation affects the success of an invasive species and the factors that contribute to local adaptation are still unclear. This study aimed to investigate a case of population divergence that may have contributed to the local adaptation of invasive populations of Ambrosia artemisiifolia in China. Common garden experiments in seven populations indicated clinal variations along latitudinal gradients, with plants from higher latitudes exhibiting earlier flowering and smaller sizes at flowering. In reciprocal transplant experiments, plants of a northern Beijing origin produced more seeds at their home site than plants of a southern Wuhan origin, and the Wuhan-origin plants had grown taller at flowering than the Beijing-origin plants in Wuhan, which is believed to facilitate pollen dispersal. These results suggest that plants of Beijing origin may be locally adapted through female fitness and plants from Wuhan possibly locally adapted through male fitness. Selection and path analysis suggested that the phenological and growth traits of both populations have been influenced by natural selection and that flowering time has played an important role through its direct and indirect effects on the relative fitness of each individual. This study evidences the life history trait differentiation and local adaptation during range expansion of invasive A. artemisiifolia in China. PMID:25362583

  17. Thermal, mechanical and chemical control of ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia in different habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sölter, Ulrike

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A small plot field experiment with transplanted ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia into gravel and grassland and a large scale field experiment on a roadside banquette in Brandenburg with a natural ragweed infestation were carried out. Thermal control treatments were hot air (gravel and grassland and hot water (roadside and flaming, the mechanical treatment was mowing and the chemical treatment was the application of the herbicide combination MCPA and Dicamba. The gravel and grassland experiment was conducted at two growth stages of ragweed (BBCH 16-18 and 22-29, at the roadside ragweed was at BBCH 50-65. Dry matter yield of ragweed was assessed 9 weeks after the treatments were conducted in gravel and grassland and 4 weeks after the treatment at the roadside. In gravel and grassland the best eradication at both growth stages by thermal control was achieved by hot air in comparison to the untreated plots (significant at P <0.05. And at the roadside significant lower dry matter was determined by hot water and flaming in comparison to the untreated plots (significant at P <0.05. The results of these experiments demonstrated the efficiency of thermal control methods based on hot air and hot water as an alternative to herbicide control and mowing in habitats where herbicide application is not allowed or mowing gives no sufficient eradication results, like on roadside banquettes.

  18. Geology and ore deposits of the Section 23 mine, Ambrosia Lake District, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Section 23 mine is one of about 18 large uranium mines opened in sandstones of the fluvial Westwater Canyon Member of the Jurassic Morrison Formation, in the Ambrosia Lake uranium district, during the early 1960s. Two distinct types of unoxidized ore occur in the mine. One type consists of uranium-rich authigenic organic matter that impregnates parts of the reduced sandstone host rocks. This type of ore occurs as peneconcordant layers which are typically elongate east-southeast, subparallel both to the sedimentary trends and to the regional strike of the host rock. A second type of ore is essentially devoid of organic matter and occurs in thick zones which conform to interfaces that separate oxidized from reduced parts of the host rocks. Genesis of the second type of ore is similar to that of roll-type deposits in Tertiary rocks of Wyoming and Texas. Organic matter in the primary ores was probably introduced into the host rock as humic acids that precipitated in the pores of the sandstone. This material is inferred first to have fixed uranium as urano-organic compounds but with further diagenesis, to have released some of the uranium to form coffinite. Vanadium, molybdenum, and selenium are associated with primary ore and may also have been fixed by the organic matter. The secondary or roll-type ores contain uranium mostly in the form of coffinite and only rarely as uraninite. They also contain vanadium and selenium but are virtually devoid of molybdenum

  19. Chemical and sensory evaluation of dark chocolate with addition of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.)

    OpenAIRE

    Schumacher, Andrea B.; Brandelli, Adriano; Macedo, Fernanda C.; Pieta, Luiza; Klug, Tâmmila V.; de Jong, Erna V.

    2010-01-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) is a good source of vitamin E containing high quality protein. A dark chocolate with the addition of 12, 16 or 20% quinoa was developed. The protein concentration of the products increased as the percentage of quinoa increased. The product containing 20% quinoa showed only 9% increase in vitamin E, while the quantity of polyphenols decreased from 23.5 to 18 μmol pirocatechin/g. The amount of essential amino acids was improved in samples containing quinoa. Cys...

  20. Behavior of pubescent oak (Quercus pubescens Willd.) wood to different thermal treatments

    OpenAIRE

    Todaro L; Rita A; Negro F; Moretti N; Saracino A; Zanuttini R

    2015-01-01

    Quercus pubescens Willd. is a common oak species in the Mediterranean area, where it is currently exploited mainly for purposes such as firewood. To improve the technological properties of its wood, various steaming and/or heat treatments were applied to 160 wood samples from a southern Italian stand, cut from either sapwood or heartwood, while 20 samples served as controls. Steaming was carried out in an autoclave at 120 °C, whereas heat treatments were performed in an oven at 150 or 200 °C ...

  1. Analiza dna hibridnih platana (Platanus acerifolia /Aiton/ Willd.) drvoreda grada Sarajeva

    OpenAIRE

    Hukić, Emira; Dounavi, Aikaterini; Ballian, Dalibor

    2008-01-01

    U ovom članku prikazano je istraživanje tri skupine stabala hibridne platane (Platanus acerifolia /Aiton/ Willd.) iz aleja sa Sarajevskog područja, točnije s lokalitetima: Ilidža, Nedžarići, Dobrinja. Platane su zasađenu u različitim razdobljima, početkom 20 stoljeća, potom osamdesetih godina pred Olimpijske igre u Sarajevu, te neposredno nakon domovinskog rata u Bosni i Hercegovini. Kao kontrola u ovom istraživanju uporabljena je istočnjačka platana (Platanus orientalis L.) podrijetlom sa Ci...

  2. Effect of methanolic extract of Asparagus racemosus Willd. on lipopolysaccharide induced-oxidative stress in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Mohammad Parwez; Hussain, Arshad; Siddiqui, Hefazat Hussain; Wahab, Shadma; Adak, Manoranjan

    2015-03-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced oxidative stress and impairment of normal physiological function generally categorized by increased anxiety and reduced mobility. Therefore, the present study was to find out the effect Methanolic extract of Asparagus racemosus (MEAR ) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced oxidative stress in rats . LPS-induced oxidative stress in rats was measured by locomotor activity by photoactometer test, anxiety with elevated plus maze test and also studied the oxidative stress markers, nitric oxide and cytokines. The obtained data shows that LPS markedly exhausted (pAsparagus racemosus Willd. is a functionally newer type of cerebroprotective agent. PMID:25730806

  3. Evaluation of Andrographis paniculata Burm.f. (Family:Acanthaceae) extracts against Culex quinquefasciatus (Say.) and Aedes aegypti (Linn.) (Diptera:Culicidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marimuthu Govindarajan

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the larvicidal and ovicidal efficacy of different extracts of Andrographis paniculata (A. paniculata) against Culex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus) Say and Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti ) L. (Diptera:Culicidae). Methods:Larvicidal efficacy of the crude leaf extracts of A. paniculata with five different solvents like benzene, hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol and chloroform was tested against the early third instar larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti. The ovicidal activity was determined against two mosquito species to various concentrations ranging from 50-300 ppm under the laboratory conditions. Results:The benzene, hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol and chloroform leaf extract of A. paniculata was found to be more effective against Cx. quinquefasciatus than Ae. aegypti. The LC50 values were 112.19, 137.48, 118.67, 102.05, 91.20 ppm and 119.58, 146.34, 124.24, 110.12, 99.54 ppm respectively. Among five tested solvent, methanol and ethyl acetate crude extract was found to be most effective for ovicidal activity against two mosquito species. The extract of methanol and ethyl acetate exerted 100%mortality at 200 ppm against Cx. quinquefasciatus and at 250 ppm against Ae. aegypti. Conclusions:From the results it can be concluded the crude extract of A. paniculata was a potential for controlling Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti mosquitoes.

  4. Immunomodulation Potential of Andrographis Paniculata and Tinospora Cordifolia Methanolic Extracts in Combination Forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Yadav

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This work mainly focuses on the immunomodulatory effect of different drug combinations (DC-I to DC-V of methanolic extracts of aerial parts of Andrographis paniculata (AP and mature stems of Tinospora cordifolia (TC.Materials and Methods: The  coarse  powder  (40-mesh  of  shade  dried  aerial parts of AP and mature stems of TC  (500g each  was  subjected  separately to successive extraction with 1000ml each of petroleum ether (60-80oC followed by methanol. The doses of DC-I to DC-V were selected and were administered orally at doses of 200 mg/kg body weight to Albino Wistar rats and compared with the control group and standard drug i.e.  cyclophosphamide (100mg/kg respectively.Results: Results suggest that although all the five tested combinations (DC-I to DC-V prepared using different proportion of methanol extracts of A. paniculata and T. cordifolia (100:Zero, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75 and Zero:100 showed a significant  increase  in macrophase count,  neutrophil  adhesion(NA,  haemagglutinating  antibody (HA  titre  and delayed  type  hypersensitivity  (DTH  response. In rats immunized with sheep RBC,  DC-I to DC-V enhanced  the humoral  antibody  response  to  the  antigen  and  significantly potentiated  the cellular immunity by facilitating the footpad thickness response to sheep RBC in sensitized rats on chosen experimental models.Conclusion: The values of macrophase, NA, HA, DTH and cellular responses of combination DC-II at a 200 mg/kg body weight were statistically significant as compared to other combinations. Combination DC-II exhibited best immunostimulant potential, indicating that it has promising immunomodulatory activity, as proposed from commercial point of view.

  5. Anti-diabetic property of ethanolic extract of Andrographis paniculata in streptozotocin-diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang-Fan ZHANG; Benny Kwong-Huat TAN

    2000-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the anti-diabetic effect of a crude ethanolic extract of Andrographis paniculata in normal and streptozotocin ( STZ )-induced diabetic rats.METHODS & RESULTS: Oral administration of the extract at different doses (0.1, 0.2, and 0.4 g/body weight) significantly reduced the fasting serum glucose level in STZ-diabetic rats compared to the vehicle ( distilled water), but not in normal rots. This effect was dose-dependent. A similar result was seen with metfomnin (0.5 g/body weight). In the glucose tolerance test, an oral administration of the extract at the same doses suppressed the elevated glucose level in normal and diabetic rots, as did mefformin. The effects were also dose-respondent. In the long-term experiment, the extract ( 0.4 g/body weight ), mefformin ( 0.5 gz/body weight), and vehicle were given twice daily to diabetic rats for 14 d. On d 15, fasting serum glucose levels were found to be significantly lower in the extract-and mefformin-treated groups ( P<0.001 ) than in the vehicle-treated group. The mean food and water intakes over 14 days were significantly lower in the extract-treated group ( P < 0.05, P < 0.01, respectively) and also in the mefformin-treated group (both P < 0.001 ) when compared to the vehicle-treated group. No significant change in insulin level was observed among the 3 groups of diabetic rats. The extract, like mefformin, maintained the leptin levels after 14-d treatment, whereas this level was significantly decreased ( P < 0.05) in the vehicle-treated group. The activity of hepatic glucose-6-phosphatase (G-6-Pase) was significantly reduced by the extract as well as by mefformin (both P < 0.05). No significant difference in hepatic glycogen stores was noted among the 3 groups. The extract caused 49.8 % reduction of fasting serum triglyceride levels, compared to 27.7 % with metformin. However, neither the extract nor mefformin significantly affected serum cholesterol level. CONCLUSION: The ethanolic

  6. Hedyotis Diffusa Willd extract induces apoptosis via activation of the mitochondrion-dependent pathway in human colon carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jiumao; Chen, Youqin; Wei, Lihui; Chen, Xuzhen; Xu, Wei; Hong, Zhenfeng; Sferra, Thomas J; Peng, Jun

    2010-11-01

    Hedyotis Diffusa Willd has been used as a major component in several Chinese medicine formulations for the clinical treatment of colorectal cancer. However, the molecular mechanism of the anti-cancer activity of Hedyotis Diffusa Willd remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the cellular effects of the ethanol extract of Hedyotis Diffusa Willd (EEHDW) in the HT-29 human colon carcinoma cell line. We found that EEHDW inhibited the growth of HT-29 cells demonstrating EEHDW-induced cell morphological changes and reduced cell viability in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Furthermore, we observed that EEHDW treatment resulted in DNA fragmentation, loss of plasma membrane asymmetry, collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential, activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3, and increase of the ratio of pro-apoptotic Bax to anti-apoptotic Bcl-2, suggesting that the HT-29 cell growth inhibitory activity of EEHDW was due to mitochondrion-mediated apoptosis, which may partly explain the anti-cancer activity of Hedyotis Diffusa Willd. PMID:20878081

  7. Dock leaf beetle, Gastrophysa viridula Deg., herbivory on Mossy Sorrel, Rumex confertus Willd: Induced plant volatiles and beetle orientation responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    The invasive weed Rumex confertus Willd. (mossy sorrel) is fed upon and severely defoliated by Gastrophysa viridula Deg. (dock leaf beetle), a highly promising biological control agent for this weed. We report volatile organic compound (VOC) induction when one leaf on R. confertus was damaged by G. ...

  8. The Effect of Sonic Bloom Fertilizing Technology on The Seed Germination and Growth of Acacia mangium Willd Seedling

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    Mulyadi A T

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Acacia mangium Willd is one of the promising wood species, it is a fast growing species and can be used as raw materials for pulp, furniture and wood working. Musi Hutan Persada Company has planted Acacia mangium Willd in large scale for pulp processing raw materials and for wood working industry. The faculty of forestry of the Nusa Bangsa University in collaboration with the Musi Hutan Persada have examined  the effect of “Sonic Bloom” to the Acacia mangium Willd germination and seedling growth. The results of the research are the following : (1 The seed germination with “Sonic Bloom” provided percented of germination of 82%, better than those without “Sonic Bloom”, i.e. only 34%; (2 With Sonic Bloom,  the height of 80-days old seedling is 129.6 cm higher than those without “Sonic Bloom”of only 90.7 cm  ; (3 the diameter of 80-days old seedling with “Sonic Bloom” is 0,24 cm higher than those without “Sonic Bloom” harving diameters of only 0.19 cm.The study concludes that sonic bloom treatment is very useful for the seed germination and the growth of Acacia mangium Willd seedling Key Words : Sonic Bloom, persemaian, Acacia mangium, perkecambahan, bibit   Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE

  9. 芳香石豆兰的繁殖生态学%Reproductive ecology of Bulbophyllum ambrosia (Orchidaceae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈玲玲; 高江云

    2011-01-01

    芳香石豆兰(Bulbophyllum ambrosia)是分布于我国南方石灰岩山热带季节性雨林中的一种常见附生兰科植物,附着生长于岩石或树干上,野外监测发现其自然不结实.对芳香石豆兰繁殖生态学的研究表明,不同于石豆兰属其他具有蝇类传粉综合征的种类,其花具有香味和花蜜,中华蜜蜂(Apis cerana cerana)是芳香石豆兰唯一的有效传粉者,具有较高的访问频率,自然种群中有较高的花粉块移出率和柱头花粉块沉降率,在中华蜜蜂的传粉过程中,芳香石豆兰铰链结构的唇瓣起着重要作用.人工授粉试验表明,芳香石豆兰自交授粉不结实,异交授粉结实率达90%以上,芳香石豆兰为自交不亲和的繁育系统.芳香石豆兰具有较强的克隆生长能力,同一个体花期内有大量的花同时开放,其传粉者中华蜜蜂平均单次访花(4.29±0.40)朵(n=66),造成了严重的同株异花传粉.芳香石豆兰附生于石灰岩山顶岩石或树干上,种群密度较低,使得不同个体之间花粉交流困难,自交不亲和的特性导致了芳香石豆兰自然不结实.本研究结果为开展芳香石豆兰的有效保护提供了依据.%Aims Bulbophyllum ambrosia is an epiphytic orchid growing on rocks and trees in limestone seasonal rainforests and is commonly distributed in southern China. We found no fruit set of B. ambrosia during long-term monitoring of species diversity, reproductive phenology and pollinators of local orchid species in Green Stone Forest Park. Our objective was to determine barriers to fruit set in B. ambrosia.Methods Flowering phenology and natural fruit-set were monitored once a week for three years. Floral morphology was studied during flowering time. We also investigated the rate of pollinia removal and deposition over two flowering seasons. To determine the self-compatibility system, different hand-pollination treatments were conducted over three years at the study site. We also

  10. Hedyotis diffusa Willd extract suppresses Sonic hedgehog signaling leading to the inhibition of colorectal cancer angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jiumao; Wei, Lihui; Shen, Aling; Cai, Qiaoyan; Xu, Wei; Li, Huang; Zhan, Youzhi; Hong, Zhenfeng; Peng, Jun

    2013-02-01

    Sonic hedgehog (SHH) signaling pathway promotes the process of angiogenesis, contributing to the growth and progression of many human malignancies including colorectal cancer (CRC), which therefore has become a promising target for cancer chemotherapy. Hedyotis diffusa Willd (HDW), as a well-known traditional Chinese herbal medicine, has long been used in China for the clinic treatment of various cancers. Recently, we reported that HDW can inhibit colorectal cancer growth in vivo and in vitro via suppression of the STAT3 pathway. In addition, we demonstrated the anti-angiogenic activity of HDW in vitro. To further elucidate the mechanism of the tumoricidal activity of HDW, by using a CRC mouse xenograft model we evaluated the in vivo effect of the ethanol extract of HDW (EEHDW) on tumor angiogenesis, and investigated the underlying molecular mechanisms. We found that EEHDW could significantly reduce intratumoral microvessel density (MVD), indicating its activity of antitumor angiogenesis in vivo. EEHDW suppressed the activation of SHH signaling in CRC xenograft tumors since it significantly decreased the expression of key mediators of SHH pathway. EEHDW treatment inhibited the expression of the critical SHH signaling target gene VEGF-A as well as its specific receptor VEGFR2. Taken together, we propose for the first time that Hedyotis diffusa Willd inhibits colorectal cancer growth in vivo via inhibition of SHH-mediated tumor angiogenesis. PMID:23291612

  11. Hedyotis diffusa Willd inhibits colorectal cancer growth in vivo via inhibition of STAT3 signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Qiaoyan; Lin, Jiumao; Wei, Lihui; Zhang, Ling; Wang, Lili; Zhan, Youzhi; Zeng, Jianwei; Xu, Wei; Shen, Aling; Hong, Zhenfeng; Peng, Jun

    2012-01-01

    Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3), a common oncogenic mediator, is constitutively activated in many types of human cancers; therefore it is a major focus in the development of novel anti-cancer agents. Hedyotis diffusa Willd has been used as a major component in several Chinese medicine formulas for the clinical treatment of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the precise mechanism of its anti-tumor activity remains largely unclear. Using a CRC mouse xenograft model, in the present study we evaluated the effect of the ethanol extract of Hedyotis diffusa Willd (EEHDW) on tumor growth in vivo and investigated the underlying molecular mechanisms. We found that EEHDW reduced tumor volume and tumor weight, but had no effect on body weight gain in CRC mice, demonstrating that EEHDW can inhibit CRC growth in vivo without apparent adverse effect. In addition, EEHDW treatment suppressed STAT3 phosphorylation in tumor tissues, which in turn resulted in the promotion of cancer cell apoptosis and inhibition of proliferation. Moreover, EEHDW treatment altered the expression pattern of several important target genes of the STAT3 signaling pathway, i.e., decreased expression of Cyclin D1, CDK4 and Bcl-2 as well as up-regulated p21 and Bax. These results suggest that suppression of the STAT3 pathway might be one of the mechanisms by which EEHDW treats colorectal cancer. PMID:22754353

  12. Hedyotis diffusa Willd extract inhibits HT-29 cell proliferation via cell cycle arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Minghe; Lin, Jiumao; Wei, Lihui; Xu, Wei; Hong, Zhenfeng; Cai, Qiaoyan; Peng, Jun; Zhu, Dezeng

    2012-08-01

    Hedyotis diffusa Willd (HDW) has long been used as an important component in several Chinese medicine formulae to clinically treat various types of cancer, including colorectal cancer (CRC). Previously, we reported that HDW inhibits CRC growth via the induction of cancer cell apoptosis and the inhibition of tumor angiogenesis. In the present study, to further elucidate the mechanism of HDW-mediated antitumor activity, we investigated the effect of HDW ethanol extract (EEHDW) on the proliferation of HT-29 human colon carcinoma cells. We found that EEHDW reduced HT-29 cell viability and survival in a dose- and time-dependent manner. We also observed that EEHDW treatment blocked the cell cycle, preventing G1 to S progression, and reduced mRNA expression of pro-proliferative PCNA, Cyclin D1 and CDK4, but increased that of anti-proliferative p21. Our findings suggest that Hedyotis diffusa Willd may be an effective treatment for CRC via the suppression of cancer cell proliferation. PMID:23139718

  13. Bredemeyera Willd. e Securidaca L. (Polygalaceae na Região Sul do Brasil

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    Raquel Lüdtke

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available In southern Brazil, the Polygalaceae family is represented by four genera, Bredemeyera Willd., Monnina Ruiz & Pav., Polygala L. e Securidaca L. This paper presents a taxonomic revision of Bredemeyera and Securidaca in southern Brazil. For this matter, this work was based on the bibliography revision and on the study of herbaria materials, besides were made collections in the Paraná, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul states. The genus Bredemeyera is distributed in the Central and South America and Occidental India and is represented in Brazil, by 14 species. Securidaca is predominantly neotropical, with 24 species confirmed for the Brazilian flora. The genus Bredemeyera is represented by B. floribunda Willd., a liana which arrives until the Paraná state. Also constituted by lianas, the genus Securidaca in represented by three species in southern Brazil: Securidaca lanceolata A. St.-Hil. & Moq., S. macrocarpa A. W. Benn. e S. rivinaefolia A. St.-Hil. & Moq. Of the confirmed taxa, the only one that occurs in all states of southern Brazil is Securidaca lanceolata, exclusive of the Mata Atlântica, meanwhile, S. rivinaefolia occurs only in Paraná, in the frontier region with Mato Grosso do Sul state. Analytical keys, descriptions, illustrations, data on geographic distribution, habitat and comments are presented.

  14. Comparative anatomy of gall development on Gypsophila paniculata induced by bacteria with different mechanisms of pathogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalupowicz, L; Barash, I; Schwartz, M; Aloni, R; Manulis, S

    2006-07-01

    Galls induced on Gypsophila paniculata by Pantoea agglomerans pv. gypsophilae (Pag) and Agrobacterium tumefaciens (At), bacteria with different mechanisms of pathogenicity, were compared morphologically and anatomically. The pathogenicity of Pag is dependent on the presence of an indigenous plasmid that harbors hrp gene cluster, genes encoding Hop virulence proteins and biosynthetic genes for auxin (IAA) and cytokinins (CKs), whereas that of At involves host transformation. The Pag-induced gall was rough, brittle and exhibited limited growth, in contrast to the smooth, firm appearance and continuous growth of the At-induced gall. Anatomical analysis revealed the presence of cells with enlarged nuclei and multiple nucleoli, giant cells and suberin deposition in Pag that were absent from At-induced galls. Although circular vessels were observed in both gall types, they were more numerous and the vascular system was more organized in At. An aerenchymal tissue was observed in the upper part of the galls. Ethylene emission from Pag galls, recorded 6 days after inoculation, was eight times as great as that from non-infected controls. In contrast, a significant decrease in ethylene production was observed in Gypsophila cuttings infected with Pag mutants deficient in IAA and CK production. The results presented are best accounted for by the two pathogens having distinct pathogenicity mechanisms that lead to their differential recognition by the host as non-self (Pag) and self (At). PMID:16477460

  15. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of the aqueous extract of Cussonia paniculata stem Bark

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    Adeolu A. Adedapo

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The aqueous extract of the stem bark of Cussonia paniculata was investigated for its anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities in animal models. The extract at 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight reduced significantly, the formation of oedema induced by carrageenan and histamine. In the acetic acid-induced writhing model, the extract showed a good analgesic effect characterized by reduction in the number of writhes when compared to the control. The extract caused dose-dependent decrease of licking time and licking frequency in rats injected with 2.5% formalin, signifying its analgesic effect. These results were also comparable to those of indomethacin and cyproheptadine, the reference drugs used in this study. Acute toxicity test showed that the plant caused 80% mortality in rats hence it is a toxic plant. Though the study has provided some justification for the folkloric use of the plant in several communities for conditions such as stomach-ache, pain and inflammations but caution should be exercised in its use for medicinal purpose.

  16. Artefatos cumarínicos isolados de Polygala paniculata L. (Polygalaceae

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    M. G Pizzolatti

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A partir do fracionamento em coluna de gel de sílica do extrato clorofórmico de Polygala paniculata (Polygalaceae, foram isolados 7-metóxi-8-(1',2'-epóxi-3'-metil-3'-butenil-cumarina (1 e dois artefatos cumarínicos (2a-2b, formados a partir da abertura do anel epóxido de 1 durante o processo de isolamento. O tratamento de 1 com EtOH/SiO2, sob agitação e à temperatura ambiente durante 24 horas, resultou na formação dos respectivos artefatos: 7-metóxi-8-(1'-hidróxi-2-etóxi-3'-metil-3'-butenil-cumarina (2a e 7-metóxi-8-(1'-etóxi-2-hidróxi-3'-metil-3'-butenil-cumarina (2b. As estruturas químicas desses compostos foram determinadas através da análise de seus dados espectrais, incluindo RMN bidimensional.

  17. Chemical Constituents from Leaves of Andrographis paniculata%穿心莲的化学成分

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王国才; 胡永美; 张晓琦; 叶文才

    2005-01-01

    目的:研究穿心莲(Andrographis paniculata)叶中的活性成分.方法:用各种色谱方法进行分离纯化,根据理化性质和波谱数据鉴定化合物的结构.结果:从穿心莲叶中分离得到6个化合物,分别鉴定为:8-甲基新穿心莲内酯苷元(8-methylandrograpanin,Ⅰ)、3-脱氢脱氧穿心莲内酯(3-dehydrodeoxyandrographolide,Ⅱ)、新穿心莲内酯苷元(andrograpanin,Ⅲ)、8(17),13-ent-labdadien-15→16-lactone -19-oic acid(Ⅳ)、β-谷甾醇(Ⅴ)和胡萝卜苷(Ⅵ).结论:化合物Ⅱ和Ⅲ为新天然产物,化合物Ⅳ和Ⅴ为首次从该植物中分离得到.

  18. Effect of Andrographis paniculata and Psidium guajava leaves on growth performance and carcass of broiler chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watanasit, S.

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available A six-week experiment was conducted to study the effects of Andrographis paniculata (AP and Psidium guajava (PG on the growth performance and carcass quality of broiler chickens. Six hundred one-day-old (mixed sex broiler chicks were used in ten dietary treatments, in a completely randomized design experiment. There were three replications in each treatment with 20 chicks per pen. The dietary treatments were 1 basal diet (control, 2 basal diet + antibiotic, 3 basal diet + 0.2% AP, 4 basal diet + 0.4% AP, 5 basal diet + 0.2% PG, 6 basal diet + 0.4% PG, 7 basal diet + 0.2% AP + 0.2% PG, 8 basal diet + 0.2% AP + 0.4% PG, 9 basal diet + 0.4% AP + 0.2% PG and 10 basal diet + 0.4% AP + 0.4% PG From 0-3, 3-6 and 0-6 weeks, feed intake, body weight gain, feed conversion ratio and mortality rate were not significantly different (P>0.05 among treatments. There was no significant difference (P>0.05 in percentages of eviscerated carcass, breast and leg among chicken fed different diets However, percentage of abdominal fat of male chicken fed basal diet + 0.2% AP + 0.2% PG were lower (P<0.05 than other treatments while female chickens fed the same diet were not statistically different.

  19. A study using Andrographis paniculata in diet on growth performance of Betong chicken: Starting period

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    Waree, W.

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available An eight-week experiment was conducted to study using Andrographis paniculata (AP on the growth performance of Betong chickens (0-8 weeks of age. Three hundred and fifteen head of 1 day old (mixed sex betong chicks were randomly allotted to 7 dietary treatments, in a completely randomized design experiment. There were three replications in each treatment with 15 chicks per pen. The dietary treatments were 1 basal diet (control, 2 basal diet + 0.1% AP, 3 basal diet + 0.2% AP, 4 basal diet + 0.3% AP, 5 basal diet + 0.5% AP, 6 basal diet + 0.6% AP and 7 basal diet + antibiotic 0.2%, respectively. The results showed no significant (P>0.05 difference among treatments in terms of weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion, mortality rate and feed cost when AP was included up to 0.1-0.3 % of the diet compared with basal diet and basal diet + antibiotic. However, at levels higher than 0.5% AP, it tended to lower growth performance and feed intake thus causing inferior feed conversion ratio. Feed cost was also dramatically increased with the increasing levels of AP in the diet. No significant difference in mortality rate was found among groups. The average mortality was 1.37%.

  20. The Effect of Extracts of Andrographis paniculata Aerial Parts on Rat Thoracic Aorta

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    S Raghava Naidu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Andrographis paniculata (AP, (Burf. Nees. of Acanthaceae, has been used for centuries in Asia to treat GI tract and upper respiratory tract infections, fever, herpes, sore throat, and a variety of other chronic and infectious diseases. AP has cardio protective property and is familiarly known as "King of Bitters". The present study was aimed to investigate the vasorelaxant effect of different solvent extracts of AP on rat thoracic aorta. Petroleum ether, chloroform, and methanol extracts of AP are used in this study. Experiments are performed on male Sprague-Dawley (SD rats for possible vasorelaxing activity of AP. Cumulative dose response curves are recorded by using isometric force displacement transducer Model FT-03 and it is connected to Grass Polygraph Model 79D. Additionally, HPLC study of chloroform extract of AP is conducted and compared with commercially available standard andrographolide. Petroleum ether and chloroform extract of AP is first suspended in 1% (v/v DMSO then volume made up with Krebs solution. The average of responses to each concentration of the agonist is plotted on the ordinate the logarithm of the concentration of the agonist on the abscissa. Among all these extracts of AP, chloroform extract 80 and 160 μg/mL is found to be the highly significant (P< 0.001 vasorelaxant effect on norepinephrine induced contraction on rat thoracic aortic ring preparations.

  1. Identification of creat (Andrographis paniculata Ness as basic for concervation and make use of germ plasm

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    BAMBANG PUJIASMANTO

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available This research is to learn the creat potention for cultivated as medical material producer plant. So that, the limited creat as medical material not occur. The method of research which used is survey. The survai include identification and creat distribution pattern. There was used vegetative analysis with quadrat method. The research result showed that 1 in creat habitat find out 11 species of tree, 20 species herba (include creat, and 16 species grasses, 2 The highest of importance value indeks Tectona grandis L. (tree group, Andrographis paniculata Ness (herb group, and Portulaca oleraceae L. (grasses group, 3 Distribution pattern of creat is clumped, and the herb others is uniform, 4 The creat growth on the common under shading Tectona grandis L. tree. The results of this research are domestication concept and theories which to basic the cultivated technology packet of creat wild plant which the statue increased be medical material produce crop. In the next ,expected can used for get conclusion policy of medical crop and planning, especially on creat propertion of creat medical material.

  2. Preferentially Cytotoxic Constituents of Andrographis paniculata and their Preferential Cytotoxicity against Human Pancreatic Cancer Cell Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sullim; Morita, Hiroyuki; Tezuka, Yasuhiro

    2015-07-01

    In the course of our search for anticancer agents based on a novel anti-austerity strategy, we found that the 70% EtOH extract of the crude drug Andrographis Herba (aerial parts of Andrographis paniculata), used in Japanese Kampo medicines, killed PANC-1 human pancreatic cancer cells preferentially in nutrient-deprived medium (NDM). Phytochemical investigation of the 70% EtOH extract led to the isolation of 21 known compounds consisting of six labdane-type diterpenes (11, 15, 17-19, 21), six flavones (5, 7, 10, 12, 14, 20), three flavanones (2, 6, 16), two sterols (3, 8), a fatty acid (1), a phthalate (4), a triterpene (9), and a monoterpene (13). Among them, 14-deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide (17) displayed the most potent preferential cytotoxicity against PANC-1 and PSN-1 cells with PC50 values of 10.0 μM and 9.27 μM, respectively. Microscopical observation, double staining with ethidium bromide (EB) and acridine orange (AO), and flow cytometry with propidium iodide/annexin V double staining indicated that 14-deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide (17) triggered apoptosis-like cell death in NDM with an amino acids and/or serum-sensitive mode. PMID:26410998

  3. In vitro Antibacterial Activity of Camellia sinensis and Andrographis paniculata against Vancomycin Resistant Enterococci

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    Pallavi Thakur

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The herbal extracts of Camellia sinensis (Cs and Andrographis paniculata (Ap with standard F/P ratio (flavonoid/ polyphenol of 0.26-0.27 were used for evaluation of anti-microbial efficacy against Vancomycin Resistant Enterococci (VRE. The bioactivity fingerprints useful for standardizing both extracts were found to be coherent with respect to their Diphenyl picryl hydrazyl radical scavenging potential (IC50 = ~ 30µg/ml. In vitro efficacy analysis of Cs and Ap extracts using exponentially growing culture of VRE revealed Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC as 200µg/mL and 50µg/mL respectively. The comparative analysis of their Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC revealed that 5X concentration of Cs as against 10X concentration of Ap was required to achieve zero microbial count. Such analysis indicated that both extracts would be useful for future analysis. In vivo pre-clinical evaluation studies are underway for utilization of identified herbal leads for trials on humans.

  4. Mechanisms of cardiovascular activity of Andrographis paniculata in the anaesthetized rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, C Y; Tan, B K

    1997-04-01

    The cardiovascular activities of crude water extract (WE) of Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Nees (Acanthaceae), its three semi-purified ethyl acetate (FA), n-butanol (FB) and aqueous (FC) fractions, as well as andrographolide, a major plant constituent, were elucidated in anaesthetized Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats for the very first time. FA and andrographolide, which possesses multiple pharmacological activities, elicited no drop in mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), while WE, FB and FC produced a significant fall in MAP in a dose-dependent manner without significant decrease in heart rate. The ED50 values for WE, FB and FC were 11.4, 5.0 and 8.6 mg/kg-respectively. These suggested that the hypotensive substance(s) of the crude water extract was concentrated in FB. Pharmacological antagonist studies were consequently only tested in FB (5 mg/kg). The hypotensive action of FB was not mediated through effects on the beta-adrenoceptor, muscarinic cholinergic receptor and angiotensin-converting enzyme, for it was not affected by propranolol, atropine and captapril, respectively. However, it seems to work via alpha-adrenoceptors, autonomic ganglion and histaminergic receptors, since the hypotensive effect of FB was negated or attenuated in the presence of phentolamine, hexamethonium as well as pyrilamine and cimetidine. PMID:9174969

  5. Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f. Wall. ex Nees: A Review of Ethnobotany, Phytochemistry, and Pharmacology

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    Md. Sanower Hossain

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As aboriginal sources of medications, medicinal plants are used from the ancient times. Andrographis paniculata is one of the highly used potential medicinal plants in the world. This plant is traditionally used for the treatment of common cold, diarrhoea, fever due to several infective cause, jaundice, as a health tonic for the liver and cardiovascular health, and as an antioxidant. It is also used to improve sexual dysfunctions and serve as a contraceptive. All parts of this plant are used to extract the active phytochemicals, but the compositions of phytoconstituents widely differ from one part to another and with place, season, and time of harvest. Our extensive data mining of the phytoconstituents revealed more than 55 ent-labdane diterpenoids, 30 flavonoids, 8 quinic acids, 4 xanthones, and 5 rare noriridoids. In this review, we selected only those compounds that pharmacology has already reported. Finally we focused on around 46 compounds for further discussion. We also discussed ethnobotany of this plant briefly. Recommendations addressing extraction process, tissue culture, and adventitious rooting techniques and propagation under abiotic stress conditions for improvement of phytoconstituents are discussed concisely in this paper. Further study areas on pharmacology are also proposed where needed.

  6. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using methanolic root extracts of Diospyros paniculata and their antimicrobial activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, N Hanumanta; N, Lakshmidevi; Pammi, S V N; Kollu, Pratap; S, Ganapaty; P, Lakshmi

    2016-05-01

    Since the discovery and subsequent widespread use of antibiotics, a variety of bacterial species of human and animal origin have developed numerous mechanisms that render bacteria resistant to some, and in certain cases to nearly all antibiotics, thereby limiting the treatment options and compromising effective therapy. In the present study, the green synthesis of nanoparticles is carried out by the reduction of silver acetate in the presence of crude methanolic root extracts of Diospyros paniculata, a member of family Ebenaceae. The UV-Vis absorption spectrum of the biologically reduced reaction mixture showed the surface plasmon peak at 428nm, a characteristic peak of silver nanoparticles. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis confirmed the face-centered cubic crystalline structure of metallic silver. The average diameter of Ag NPs is about 17nm from Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) which is in good agreement with the average crystallite size (19nm) calculated from XRD analysis. Further the study has been extended to the antimicrobial activity against test pathogenic Gram (+), Gram (-) bacterial and fungal strains. The biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles showed promising activity against all the tested pathogenic strains and the activity has been enhanced with the increased dose levels. PMID:26952458

  7. Analysis of the Anticancer Phytochemicals in Andrographis paniculata Nees. under Salinity Stress

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    Daryush Talei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Salinity causes the adverse effects in all physiological processes of plants. The present study aimed to investigate the potential of salt stress to enhance the accumulation of the anticancer phytochemicals in Andrographis paniculata accessions. For this purpose, 70-day-old plants were grown in different salinity levels (0.18, 4, 8, 12, and 16 dSm−1 on sand medium. After inducing a period of 30-day salinity stress and before flowering, all plants were harvested and the data on morphological traits, proline content and the three anticancer phytochemicals, including andrographolide (AG, neoandrographolide (NAG, and 14-deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide (DDAG, were measured. The results indicated that salinity had a significant effect on the aforementioned three anticancer phytochemicals. In addition, the salt tolerance index (STI was significantly decreased, while, except for DDAG, the content of proline, the AG, and NAG was significantly increased (P≤0.01. Furthermore, it was revealed that significant differences among accessions could happen based on the total dry weight, STI, AG, and NAG. Finally, we noticed that the salinity at 12 dSm−1 led to the maximum increase in the quantities of AG, NAG, and DDAG. In other words, under salinity stress, the tolerant accessions were capable of accumulating the higher amounts of proline, AG, and NAG than the sensitive accessions.

  8. Quantitative Estimation of Andrographolide by Reverse Phase-High Liquid Chromatography Method from Andrographis Paniculata Nees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilip Bhaskar Jadhao

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:Reverse Phase High performance liquid chromatographic method with UV array detection was established for the determination of Andrographolide. The Andrographolide was separated using isocratic solvent system consisting of isopropyl alcohol, formic acid and water (70:10:20 v/v at flow rate of 1.0 ml/min and the detection wavelength of 223 nm. The method was validated for linearity, precision, accuracy, limit of detection (LOD, and limit of quantitation (LOQ. The linearity of the proposed method was obtained in the range of 4.5-70 μg/ml for andrographolide with regression coefficient of 0.9999. Intraday and interday precision studies showed the relative standard deviation less than 2.5%. The accuracy of the proposed method was determined by a recovery study conducted at 3 different levels. The average recovery was 97-99%. The LOD and LOQ were 0.03 and 0.05 μg/ml for andrographolide, respectively. The contents of andrographolide obtained in the dried leaves powder was within the ranges of 0.98 – 1.15% w/w, respectively. The proposed method is simple, sensitive yet reproducible. It is therefore suitable for routine analysis of andrographolide in A. Paniculata Nees.

  9. Ozone affects pollen viability and NAD(P)H oxidase release from Ambrosia artemisiifolia pollen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasqualini, Stefania, E-mail: spas@unipg.it [Department of Applied Biology, University of Perugia, Perugia (Italy); Tedeschini, Emma; Frenguelli, Giuseppe [Department of Applied Biology, University of Perugia, Perugia (Italy); Wopfner, Nicole; Ferreira, Fatima [Department of Molecular Biology, CD Laboratory for Allergy Diagnosis and Therapy, University of Salzburg, Salzburg (Austria); D' Amato, Gennaro [Division of Respiratory and Allergic Diseases, ' A. Cardarelli' High Speciality Hospital, Naples (Italy); Ederli, Luisa [Department of Applied Biology, University of Perugia, Perugia (Italy)

    2011-10-15

    Air pollution is frequently proposed as a cause of the increased incidence of allergy in industrialised countries. We investigated the impact of ozone (O{sub 3}) on reactive oxygen species (ROS) and allergen content of ragweed pollen (Ambrosia artemisiifolia). Pollen was exposed to acute O{sub 3} fumigation, with analysis of pollen viability, ROS and nitric oxide (NO) content, activity of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAD[P]H) oxidase, and expression of major allergens. There was decreased pollen viability after O{sub 3} fumigation, which indicates damage to the pollen membrane system, although the ROS and NO contents were not changed or were only slightly induced, respectively. Ozone exposure induced a significant enhancement of the ROS-generating enzyme NAD(P)H oxidase. The expression of the allergen Amb a 1 was not affected by O{sub 3}, determined from the mRNA levels of the major allergens. We conclude that O{sub 3} can increase ragweed pollen allergenicity through stimulation of ROS-generating NAD(P)H oxidase. - Highlights: > O{sub 3} reduces the viability of ragweed pollen. > ROS and allergens of ragweed pollen were not affected by O{sub 3} exposure. > O{sub 3} enhances the activity of the ROS-generating enzyme NAD(P)H oxidase. > O{sub 3} increases ragweed pollen allergenicity through NAD(P)H-oxidase stimulation. - This study focuses on the effects of the atmospheric pollutant ozone on ROS content and NAD(P)H oxidase activity of ragweed pollen grains.

  10. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings: Phillips/United Nuclear site, Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah, Inc., has reevaluated the Phillips/United Nuclear site in order to revise the December 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from 2.6 million dry tons of tailings at the Phillips/United Nuclear site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation also are factors. The four alternative actions presented in this engineering assessment range from millsite decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material, to removal of the tailings to remote disposal sites and decontamination of the tailings site. Cost estimates for the four options range from about $21,500,000 for stabilization in-place, to about $45,200,000 for disposal at a distance of about 15 mi. Three principal alternatives for the reprocessing of the Phillips/United Nuclear tailings were examined: heap leaching; treatment at an existing mill; and reprocessing at a new conventional mill constructed for tailings reprocessing.The cost of the uranium recovered would be about $87/lb of U3O8 by either heap leach or conventional plant process. The spot market price for uranium was $25/lb early in 1981. Reprocessing the Phillips/United Nuclear tailings for uranium recovery does not appear to be economically attractive under present or foreseeable market conditions

  11. Effect of Naphthalene Acetic Acid on the Adventitious Rooting in Shoot Cuttings of Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Wall. ex Nees: An Important Therapeutical Herb

    OpenAIRE

    Md. Sanower Hossain; Zannat Urbi

    2016-01-01

    Andrographis paniculata is one of the most important therapeutical herbs, widely used in traditional medical systems for the treatment of diverse diseases for thousands of years. This study was carried out to assess the effect of 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) on adventitious rooting in A. paniculata shoot cuttings. The cuttings were treated with six concentrations of NAA (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, and 3.0 mM) by applying soaking method and cuttings without hormone (soaking in distilled water)...

  12. 一种新的多金属超富集植物--圆锥南芥(Arabis paniculata L.)%A New Found Pb/Zn/Cd Hyperaccumulator-Arabis Paniculata L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤叶涛; 仇荣亮; 曾晓雯; 方晓航

    2005-01-01

    野外调查和营养液培养试验表明,圆锥南芥(Arabis Paniculata L.)具有超量富集Pb/Zn/Cd的能力,是国内首次发现的Pb/Zn/Cd多金属超富集植物,它的出现填补了国内多金属超富集植物的空白,为重金属复合污染土壤的植物修复提供了新的种质资源.

  13. Anticancer Effects of 1,3-Dihydroxy-2-Methylanthraquinone and the Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Hedyotis Diffusa Willd against HepG2 Carcinoma Cells Mediated via Apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yun-Lan; Zhang, Jiali; Min, Dong; Hongyan, Zhou; Lin, Niu; Li, Qing-Shan

    2016-01-01

    Hedyotis Diffusa Willd, used in Traditional Chinese Medicine, is a treatment for various diseases including cancer, owing to its mild effectiveness and low toxicity. The aim of this study was to identify the main anticancer components in Hedyotis Diffusa Willd, and explore mechanisms underlying their activity. Hedyotis Diffusa Willd was extracted and fractionated using ethyl acetate to obtain the H-Ethyl acetate fraction, which showed higher anticancer activity than the other fractions obtained against HepG2 cells with sulforhodamine B assays. The active component of the H-Ethyl acetate fraction was identified to be 1,3-dihydroxy-2-methylanthraquinone (DMQ) with much high inhibitory rate up to 48.9 ± 3.3% and selectivity rate up to 9.4 ± 4.5 folds (pHedyotis Diffusa Willd showed potential anticancer effects. Furthermore, the mechanisms of action may involve mitochondrial apoptotic and death receptor pathways. PMID:27064569

  14. Risico’s van introductie van exotische plantensoorten, in het bijzonder uit het geslacht Ambrosia L., via import van zaden voor met name veevoer en vogelvoer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Denderen, van Daniël P.D.; Tamis, Wil L.M.; Valkenburg, van Johan L.C.H.

    2010-01-01

    Import van landbouwproducten, in het bijzonder zaden, zijn een belangrijke bron voor de introductie van exotische plantensoorten. In dit artikel wordt ingegaan op twee studies naar het voorkomen van exotische planten, in het bijzonder uit het geslacht Ambrosia, in geïmporteerde partijen zaden. Met n

  15. Abundance in Persea americana of the Redbay Ambrosia Beetle, Xyleborus glabratus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), Vector of Laurel Wilt: A Case of Intra-guild Competition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus is a pest of plant species in the Lauraceae, including Persea borbonia, P. pallustris, P. americana, and others. Xyleborus glabratus infestation levels in P. borbonia maintain a high proportion compared to other species, such as Xylosandrus crassiuscu...

  16. Association of the symbiotic fungi Fusarium euwallaceae, Graphium sp. and Acremonium sp., with the ambrosia beetle Euwallacea nr. fornicatus in avocado

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ambrosia beetle, Euwallacea nr. fornicatus (Coleoptera:Scolytinae), is a new invasive species to Israel. To date, the beetle has been recorded from 48 tree species representing 25 plant families. Amongst the most affected are avocado, castor-bean and box elder. Isolations from beetle heads revea...

  17. Evaluation of commercial formulations of entomopathogenic fungi to manage the redbay ambrosia beetle, vector of Laurel wilt, a lethal disease affecting avocados in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    The redbay ambrosia beetle (RAB), Xyleborus glabratus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) vectors the fungal pathogen, Raffaelea lauricola, which causes laurel wilt (LW), a lethal disease of trees in the family Lauraceae, including the most commercially important crop in this family, avocado, Pe...

  18. An Asian ambrosia beetle Euwallacea fornicatus and its novel symbiotic fungus Fusarium sp. pose a serious threat to the Israeli avocado industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ambrosia beetle Euwallacea fornicatus Einchoff was first recorded in Israel in 2009. A novel unnamed symbiotic species within Clade 3 of the Fusarium solani species complex, carried in the mandibular mycangia of the beetle, is responsible for the typical wilt symptoms inflicted on avocado (Perse...

  19. Volatile chemicals from host and non-host trees of the redbay ambrosia beetle Xyleborus glabratus, threatening the Floridian avocado production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The redbay ambrosia beetle Xyleborus glabratus (Coleoptera: Scolytinae) is an invasive pest introduced in spreading in Southeastern US. The beetle carries a symbiotic fungus which causes laurel wilt, a vascular disease killing of host trees of the Laureacea family as 6 weeks. We compare the chemical...

  20. Supplement to the site observational work plan for the UMTRA Project Site at Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this document is to provide additional and more detailed information to supplement review of the site observational work plan (SOWP) for the Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site. This document includes a discussion of (1) the average linear velocity of the ground water in the alluvium; (2) the ground water quality of the alluvium, weathered Mancos Shale, and the Tres Hermanos-C Member of the Mancos Shale; and (3) the fate and transport of contaminants from the uppermost aquifer to the Westwater Canyon Member of the Morrison Formation. The data from a 1989 aquifer test were analyzed using the curve-matching software AQTESOLV and then compared with the original results. A hydrograph of the ground water elevations in monitoring wells screened in the alluvium is presented to show how the ground water elevations change with time. Stiff and Piper diagrams were created to describe the changes in ground water geochemistry in the alluvium/weathered Mancos Shale unit, the Tres Hermanos-C Sandstone unit, the Tres Hermanos-B Sandstone unit, and the Dakota Sandstone. Background information on other related topics such as site history, cell construction, soil characteristics, and well construction are presented in the SOWP. Figure 1 is a geologic cross section depicting the conceptual model of the hydrostratigraphy and ground water chemistry of the Ambrosia Lake site. Table 1 presents hydrogeologic information of each hydrostratigraphic unit

  1. Supplement to the site observational work plan for the UMTRA project site at Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this document is to provide additional and more detailed information to supplement review of the site observational work plan (SOWP) (DOE, 1995) for the Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site. This document includes a discussion of the average linear velocity of the ground water in the alluvium and a discussion of the ground water quality of the alluvium, weathered Mancos Shale, and the Tres Hermanos-C Member of the Mancos Shale. The data from a 1989 aquifer test were analyzed using the curve-matching software AQTESOLV and then compared with the original results. A hydrograph of the ground water elevations in monitoring wells screened in the alluvium is presented to show how the ground water elevations change with time. Stiff and Piper diagrams were created to describe the changes in ground water geochemistry in the alluvium/weathered Mancos Sahel unit, the Tres Hermanos-C Sandstone unit, the Tres Hermanos-B Sandstone unit, and the Dakota Sandstone. Background information on other related topics such as site history, cell construction, soil characteristics, and well construction are presented in the SOWP. A geologic cross section depicts the conceptual model of the hydrostratigraphy and ground water chemistry of the Ambrosia Lake site. Hydrogeologic information of each hydrostratigraphic unit is presented

  2. Total flavonoids of Hedyotis diffusa Willd inhibit inflammatory responses in LPS-activated macrophages via suppression of the NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, YunLong; Lin, Yanyan; LI, YACHAN; LI, CANDONG

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways play a central role in inflammatory responses. Total flavonoids of Hedyotis diffusa Willd (TFHDW) are active compounds derived from Hedyotis diffusa Willd, which has been long used in Chinese traditional medicine for the treatment of various inflammatory diseases, including ulcerative colitis and bronchitis; however, the precise mechanisms underlying the effects of TFHDW are largely unknown. In the presen...

  3. Effects of Andrographis paniculata and Orthosiphon stamineus Extracts on the Glucuronidation of 4-Methylumbelliferone in Human UGT Isoforms

    OpenAIRE

    Sabariah Ismail; Nur Aziah Hanapi; Mohd Rohaimi Ab Halim; Verawan Uchaipichat; Mackenzie, Peter I

    2010-01-01

    The effects of Andrographis paniculata and Orthosiphon stamineus extracts on the in vitro glucuronidation of 4-methylumbelliferone (4MU) by recombinant human UGTs, UGT1A1, UGT1A3, UGT1A6, UGT1A7, UGT1A8, UGT1A10, UGT2B7 and UGT2B15 were determined. The potential inhibitory effects of both of the extracts on the activity of each of the UGT isoforms were investigated using 4MU as the substrate. Incubations contained UDP-glucuronic acid (UDPGA) as the cofactor, MgCl2, cell lysate of respective i...

  4. Effects of Andrographis paniculata and Orthosiphon stamineus Extracts on the Glucuronidation of 4-Methylumbelliferone in Human UGT Isoforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabariah Ismail

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The effects of Andrographis paniculata and Orthosiphon stamineus extracts on the in vitro glucuronidation of 4-methylumbelliferone (4MU by recombinant human UGTs, UGT1A1, UGT1A3, UGT1A6, UGT1A7, UGT1A8, UGT1A10, UGT2B7 and UGT2B15 were determined. The potential inhibitory effects of both of the extracts on the activity of each of the UGT isoforms were investigated using 4MU as the substrate. Incubations contained UDP-glucuronic acid (UDPGA as the cofactor, MgCl2, cell lysate of respective isoform, and 4MU at the approximate apparent Km or S50 value of each isoform. Final concentrations of Andrographis paniculata and Orthosiphon stamineus extracts used were 0.025, 0.25, 2.5, 25 and 50 μg/mL and 0.01, 0.10, 1.0, 10 and 50 μg/mL respectively. Both extracts variably inhibited the activity of most of the isoforms in a concentration dependent manner. Andrographis paniculata extract was the better inhibitor of all the isoforms studied (IC50 1.70 μg/mL for UGT1A3, 2.57 μg/mL for UGT1A8, 2.82 μg/mL for UGT2B7, 5.00 μg/mL for UGT1A1, 5.66 μg/mL for UGT1A6, 9.88 μg/mL for UGT1A7 and 15.66 μg/mL for UGT1A10. Both extracts showed less than 70% inhibition of UGT2B15, so the IC50 values were >50μg/mL. The inhibition of human UGTs by Andrographis paniculata and Orthosiphon stamineus extracts in vitro suggests a potential for drug-herbal extract interactions in the therapeutic setting.

  5. Andrographolide: A Novel Antimalarial Diterpene Lactone Compound from Andrographis paniculata and Its Interaction with Curcumin and Artesunate

    OpenAIRE

    Kirti Mishra; Dash, Aditya P.; Nrisingha Dey

    2011-01-01

    Andrographolide (AND), the diterpene lactone compound, was purified by HPLC from the methanolic fraction of the plant Andrographis paniculata. The compound was found to have potent antiplasmodial activity when tested in isolation and in combination with curcumin and artesunate against the erythrocytic stages of Plasmodium falciparum in vitro and Plasmodium berghei ANKA in vivo. IC50s for artesunate (AS), andrographolide (AND), and curcumin (CUR) were found to be 0.05, 9.1 and 17.4 μM, re...

  6. 穿心莲的药理作用研究进展%Pharmacological progress of Andrographis Paniculata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李荣; 肖顺汉

    2008-01-01

    穿心莲Andrographis Paniculata(Burm.f)Nees为爵床科植物的干燥地上部分,能"清热解毒,消炎退肿,治咽喉炎症,痢疾,高热",属清热解毒药.本文就其解热抗炎,抗病毒感染,治疗心血管疾病,免疫调节作用,抗癌作用,治疗消化系统疾病及抗生育等方面的研究进展综述如下.

  7. Changes in the contents of four active diterpenoids at different growth stages in Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f. Nees (Chuanxinlian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pholphana Nanthanit

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The therapeutic activities of Andrographis paniculata are attributed to four major active diterpenoids: andrographolide (AP1, 14-deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide (AP3, neoandrographolide (AP4, and 14-deoxyandrographolide (AP6. This study aims to quantify the four active diterpenoids in various plant organs of A. paniculata at different growth stages in greenhouse and field experiments, with a developed HPLC-diode array detector (HPLC-DAD method for simultaneous determination of these diterpenoids. Methods Plants were grown in greenhouse and in field conditions, harvested at different growth stages, and separated into different organs for determination of the four active diterpenoids by an HPLC-DAD method. Results The most abundant diterpenoid was AP6 between seedling and vegetative stages in the greenhouse experiment (13.38 to 23.71 mg/g in 2006 and 10.67 to 24.54 mg/g in 2007. High levels of AP6 were also detected in leaves at the transfer stage in the greenhouse experiment (36.05 ± 0.69 mg/g and field experiment (30.59 ± 1.39 mg/g. The levels of AP6 then decreased as plants matured. The highest content of AP4 was in cotyledons (16.65 ± 4.48 mg/g at the transfer stage. The highest contents of AP1 were detected in leaves at seed-forming stage in greenhouse experiment (24.72 ± 1.89 mg/g and vegetative stage in field experiment (43.16 ± 0.92 mg/g. Flowers of A. paniculata contained high levels of AP1 (21.42 ± 3.74 mg/g. AP3 and AP4 were at low levels in leaves at all growth stages. Conclusion In A. paniculata, AP6 was at the highest level in leaves at transfer stage in both greenhouse and field experiments. AP1 was at the highest level in leaves at vegetative stage and seed-forming stage in field and greenhouse experiments, respectively. The contents of AP3 and AP4 in leaves were low at all growth stages.

  8. Entomofauna Associada a Galhos de Acacia mangium Willd. Roletados por Oncideres saga (Dalman (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gláucia Cordeiro

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available O estudo da entomofauna associada aos galhos e fustes roletados por Oncideres saga (Dalman é importante para conhecermos seus possíveis inimigos naturais. Portanto, este trabalho teve como objetivo registrar os insetos associados aos galhos e fustes de Acacia mangium Willd. roletados por O. saga, em Coimbra-MG. Galhos e fustes roletados de A. mangium foram coletados de janeiro a abril de 2007. Este material foi vistoriado, armazenados em sacolas, feitas com tela plástica, e mantidos em sala com condições controladas (25,4±0,3°C e 66,7±1,4%. Constatou-se a presença de uma espécie, não determinada, de Scolytidae e a emergência de quatro espécies de Cerambycidae: Engyum quadrinotatum Thomsom; Eburodacrys sexmaculata (Olivier; Achryson surinamum (Linnaeus e Neoclytus pusillus (Laporte & Gory. Isto posto, fica evidenciada a necessidade de estudos com o objetivo de verificar qual o comportamento destes insetos em relação ao serrador O. saga.Insects associated with branches of Acacia mangium Willd. girdled by Oncideres saga (Dalman (Coleoptera: CerambycidaeAbstract. The study of the insects associated with branches and stems girdled by Oncideres saga (Dalman is important to know its possible natural enemies. Therefore, these work had the objective of register the insects associated with branches and stems girdled of Acacia mangium Willd. by this twig girdler beetle, in Coimbra, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Stems and branches of A. mangium were collected in January/2007 to April/2007. This material has been inspected, stored in plastic bags, and kept in a room with controlled conditions (25.4 ± 0.3°C and 66.7 ± 1.4%. It was noted the presence of a non-determined species of Scolytidae and the emergence of four species of Cerambycidae: Engyum quadrinotatum Thomsom; Eburodacrys sexmaculata (Olivier; Achryson surinamum (Linnaeus and Neoclytus pusillus (Laporte & Gory. It can be concluded that studies are needed with the objective of

  9. RESPONSES OF QUINOA (CHENOPODIUM QUINOA WILLD. TO TWO CONDITIONS OF IRRIGATION IN COAST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    La Rosa, R.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available 13 Artículo original Biologist (Lima. Vol. 6, Nº1, ene-jun 2008, 13-21 RESPUESTAS DE LA QUINUA (CHENOPODIUM QUINOA WILLD. A DOS CONDICIONES DE RIEGO EN COSTA RESPONSES OF QUINOA (CHENOPODIUM QUINOA WILLD. TO TWO CONDITIONS OF IRRIGATION IN COAST Rafael La Rosa1, Yesenia Macabilca2, Augusto Mendoza3 & Ana Gutiérrez 3 1 Laboratorio de Ecofisiología Vegetal; 2 Laboratorio de Bioquímica y Biología Molecular3; Centro de Investigaciones Agroecológicas Oquendo. Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Matemática. Universidad Nacional Federico Villarreal. Calle San Marcos 351, Pueblo Libre, Lima – Perú. Teléfono 2193600 anexo 8373. Correo electrónico: rafolarosa@yahoo.es ABSTRACT Responses of Chenopodium quinoa Willd “quinoa” under two coast conditions of irrigation and its effects in production and quality of proteins were evaluated. In the current research we used seeds of variety “huancayo”, from Experimental Station “Santa Ana” of INIA (Institute Nacional de Investigaciones Agropecuarias– Huancayo. Irrigation was for drip, obtaining two treatments, i irrigation with 3 m3 of water, weekly, and ii without irrigation, while evaluations were done. Soil humidity, transpiration, relative water content (RWC, anatomy of mesophyll of leaves, quantification of proteins and starch, acid phosphatase activity and amilolytic activity were evaluated. Soil humidity is significant different after a month of irrigation. Transpiration was related with wind strength; hence this is not a good way to measure drought stress. RWC was similar in both treatments, it means that decrease in soil water not affect water level in leaves. Mesophylls were very similar in both conditions. Dry matter in vegetative period show no significant differences, but there were a tendency to accumulate more assimilates in irrigated plants. Therefore there were no difference in photosynthetic activity, so seeds received same quantity of assimilates; this fact means seeds

  10. Effect of Nutrition on Deformation Disease in Gypsophila paniculata Mother Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Yephet, Y; Reuven, M; Zviebil, A; Szmulewich, Y; Lavkovits, I; Markovits, T; Soriano, S; Bar-Yosef, B

    2006-07-01

    ABSTRACT Deformation disease of Gypsophila paniculata mother plants reduces cutting yields as much as 50% but does not kill the mother plants. In preliminary experiments, fertigation of G. paniculata mother plants with a 20:20:20 compound fertilizer (N, P, K, plus microelements) at an N concentration of 720 mg/liter reduced the expression of deformation disease compared with the conventional N concentration of 360 mg/liter. The current study determined which component of the compound fertilizer reduced the disease. Experiments were carried out in 10-liter buckets packed with naturally infested 0- to 8-mm black tuff (Scoria = crushed volcanic stones). Irrigation was applied once a day at 0.5 liter per bucket with the nutrient under test being added at 1.0 liter per bucket via the water once a week. Treatments included: (i) four levels of 20:20:20 fertilizer; (ii) four levels of each of N, P, K, and Fe-Zn-Mn mixture (ME) corresponding to their concentrations in the compound fertilizer; (iii) different N sources (20:20:20, (NH(4))(2)SO(4), KNO(3), NH(4)NO(3), urea); and (iv) three pHs of the irrigation water at each of three NO(3) and NH(4) application levels. Increasing the 20:20:20 fertilizer concentration reduced the disease level from 82 to 96% with N at 180 mg/liter to 6 to 10% with N at 720 mg/liter. When either P, K, or ME was the sole variable, increasing concentrations had no significant effect on the disease, but elevating a mixed source nitrogen concentration from 0 to 180, 360, and 720 mg/liter (as 50% urea, 40% NH(4)NO(3), and 10% KNO(3)) significantly reduced deformation similar to that observed with increasing concentrations of the 20:20:20 fertilizer. mong tested N sources, NH(4) was the most effective in reducing the disease (almost to zero at an N concentration of 360 g/liter). Low disease incidence (0 to 10%) was always associated with effluent pH of 6 or lower. Irrigating with acidified water pH 5.5) in the presence of N, as NH(4) at 180 mg

  11. Vasorelaxant effect of diterpenoid lactones from Andrographis paniculata chloroform extract on rat aortic rings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R N Sriramaneni

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the present study is to evaluate the possible mechanism of the vasorelaxant effect of the Andrographis paniculata chloroform extract (APCE and diterpenoids, such as, 14-deoxyandrographolide (DA and 14-deoxy-11, 12-didehydroandrographolide (DDA, on rat aortic rings. Methods: DA and DDA (10 μM to 40 μM induce relaxation in the aortic rings pre-contracted with KCl (80 mM. Results: The IC 50 values are 40.47 ± 1.44 and 37.43 ± 1.41%, respectively, and this inhibition is antagonized by increasing the Ca 2+ concentration in the Kreb′s medium. The results indicate that APCE, DA, and DDA may have a calcium anatgonist property. APCE, DA, and DDA also relax norepinephrene (NE-induced sustained contractions with IC 50 values 41.63 ± 1.19, 49.22 ± 2.76, and 37.46 ± 1.41% and this relaxant effect is unaffected by the removal of the endothelium or by the presence of indomethacin and Nω-nitro-L-arginine (L-NAME. Moreover, DA and DDA inhibit the phasic and tonic contractions induced by NE in a concentration-dependent manner and show the most potent inhibition on phasic contraction (P < 0.01. Conclusion: This study shows that APCE, DA, and DDA pre-treatment presents a more potent inhibition compared to post-treatment, after the tension has reached a steady state. These results suggest that the vasorelaxation of APCE, DA, and DDA direct the inhibition of the calcium influx. The vasorelaxant effect is more active in the calcium independent pathway and more sensitive in the intial stage of contraction.

  12. EFFICACY OF ANDROGRAPHIS PANICULATA ON ETHYLENE GLYCOL INDUCED NEPHROLITHIASIS IN ALBINO RATS

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    Prathibhakumari P.V.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Nephrolithiasis is the third most common disorder of the urinary system with high recurrence rate. Clinical treatment of lithiasis is costly and can cause harmful side effects and hence nowadays phytotherapy have higher clinical significance in kidney stone management. Aim of the study is to investigate the antilithiatic property of the methanol extract of Andrographis paniculata (MEAP in experimentally induced nephrolithiatic rats. Nephrolithiasis was induced in Wistar albino rats by administering the dose of 0.75% ethylene glycol for a period of 28 days. The experimental animals were divided into nine groups. Group I served as normal control. Group II received standard antilithiatic drug and group III as the lithiatic control. Group IV and V indicated as preventive regime, received 400mg/kg and 200mg/kg body weight MEAP and group VI, VII, VIII and IX indicated curative regime of which VI and IX received 400mg/kg extract and VII and VIII at 200mg/kg body weight of MEAP. At the end of the experimental period, serum (creatinine, blood urea, BUN, uric acid urine (protein, calcium and phosphorus and kidney (calcium and phosphorus were analyzed. All the elevated biochemical parameters in EG received group were declined in the MEAP treated groups at dosage of 200 and 400mg/kg. Urinary protein, phosphorus and calcium also declined in both MEAP treatment groups than the lithiatic groups. Serum creatinine declined significantly in high dose received group than its low dose in both post and co treatment groups. A dose dependent effect was observed in all the serum parameters except BUN. Kidney phosphorus and calcium of preventive regime which received MEAP at a high dose of 400mg/kg showed a clear dose dependent effect than the curative regimes. The result of the present study suggests the usefulness of MEAP against nephrolithiasis.

  13. Anti-malarial activities of Andrographis paniculata and Hedyotis corymbosa extracts and their combination with curcumin

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    Swain Bijay K

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Herbal extracts of Andrographis paniculata (AP and Hedyotis corymbosa (HC are known as hepato-protective and fever-reducing drugs since ancient time and they have been used regularly by the people in the south Asian sub-continent. Methanolic extracts of these two plants were tested in vitro on choloroquine sensitive (MRC-pf-20 and resistant (MRC-pf-303 strains of Plasmodium falciparum for their anti-malarial activity. Methods Growth inhibition was determined using different concentrations of these plant extracts on synchronized P. falciparum cultures at the ring stage. The interactions between these two plant extracts and individually with curcumin were studied in vitro. The performance of these two herbal extracts in isolation and combination were further evaluated in vivo on Balb/c mice infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA and their efficacy was compared with that of curcumin. The in vivo toxicity of the plant derived compounds as well as their parasite stage-specificity was studied. Results The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50 of AP (7.2 μg/ml was found better than HC (10.8 μg/ml. Combination of these two herbal drugs showed substantial enhancement in their anti-malarial activity. Combinatorial effect of each of these with curcumin also revealed anti-malarial effect. Additive interaction between the plant extracts (AP + HC and their individual synergism with curcumin (AP+CUR, HC+CUR were evident from this study. Increased in vivo potency was also observed with the combination of plant extracts over the individual extracts and curcumin. Both the plant extracts were found to inhibit the ring stage of the parasite and did not show any in vivo toxicity, whether used in isolation or in combination. Conclusion Both these two plant extracts in combination with curcumin could be an effective, alternative source of herbal anti-malarial drugs.

  14. A NORMATIVE STUDY OF NIGERIAN GROWN “MAHA-TITA (KING OF BITTERS - ANDROGRAPHIS PANICULATA NEES

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    Ameh, Sunday

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to characterize the aerial parts of Andrographis paniculata - an intensely bitter herb grown in Nigeria from seeds obtained in India. The ultimate aim is to develop a suitable dosage form from the herb for use in Nigeria. The bitterness value; various physicochemical characteristics; tests for key phytochemicals; and thin layer chromatography (TLC were carried out on the air-dried herb as prescribed in relevant standard texts. The mean bitterness value for both men and women was 2.86 ± 1.74 x 103 units per g. The male value (2.07 ± 1.42 x 103 tended to be lower than the female?s (3.52 ± 1.82 x 103. The results of the physicochemical tests expressed in %w/w were: loss on drying (10.64 ± 0.36, total ash (14.10 ± 4.49, water extractability (30.37 ± 2.63 and acid insoluble ash (1.00 ± 0.06, which were similar to those reported for the Asian plant. The results of the macroscopic examination were also similar to those described in the literature for the Asian plant. The phytochemical tests reveal the presence of glycosides, saponins, tannins and alkaloids, but not of anthraquinones. Normal phase TLC of the drug yielded 5 spots as against 6 yielded by reverse TLC. The results provide useful quantitative and descriptive data that are essential for identifying and characterizing the Nigerian grown herb for pharmaceutical production.

  15. Micro Chemical (Elemental Analysis of Leucas aspera (Willd Link Employing SEM-EDAX

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    Sunkara Yashvanth

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The plant, Leucas aspera (Willd Link is well known for its varied medicinal uses. Present study deals with its micro chemical (elemental characterization using Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis (EDAX detector fitted to Scanning Electron Microscope. The plant has very interesting morphology. Crystals of varied shape and inclusions/exudates were noticed within and on the leaf & stem surfaces. Various plant parts analysed were, stem surface, stem sections, stem inclusions, blebs on stem hairs, crystals of varied shape, root sections, abaxial and adaxial surfaces, flower, seed and seed caruncle. Lot of variation in elemental composition was observed in various plant parts. Major elements detected were Carbon, Oxygen, Calcium, Silica, and Aluminum. Other elements found were Iron, Sodium, potassium, Phosphorus and Chlorine.

  16. Antihyperglycemic activity of the ethanolic seed extract of Vernonia anthelminticum willd

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    Karthikeyan A

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The investigation was carried out to study the effects of Vernonia anthelminticum Willd seed extract on blood glucose level. The antihyperglycemic efficacy of the ethanolic extract of the seed was evaluated in normal, glucose and alloxan induced diabetic rats. The extract exhibited significant hypoglycemic activity in all three animal models when compared with the control group. The activity was also comparable to that of the effect produced by a standard antidiabetic agent gliclazide, 25 mg/kg (p.o.. The results also indicated dose dependent effect. The hypoglycemia and antihyperglycaemia produced by the extract may be due to increased uptake of glucose at tissue level or increase in pancreatic beta-cell function or due to inhibition of intestinal absorption of glucose. The study indicated that the ethanolic extract is a potential antidiabetic agent and lends scientific support for its else′s in folk medicine.

  17. Estudo fitoquímico, alelopático e antimicrobiano de Acacia longifolia Andr. (Willd.).

    OpenAIRE

    Peitz, Cristina; Kerber, Vitor Alberto, 1960-; Miguel, Obdúlio Gomes, 1952-

    2003-01-01

    Resumo: Acacia longifolia (Andr.) Willd. é uma espécie nativa da Austrália, encontrada na região Sul do Brasil, utilizada como ornamento e fixadora de dunas de areia. Por meio de CLAE semipreparativa realizada com a fração Acetato de Etila obtida a partir de um extrato etanólico das flores foi isolada uma substância pura. A análise espectroscópica (UV, 1H e 13C RMN) seguida de hidrólise e CCD comparativa da porção osídica com açucares conhecidos permitiu a identificação desta substância como ...

  18. Characterisation of phenolics, betanins and antioxidant activities in seeds of three Chenopodium quinoa Willd. genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yao; Li, Xihong; Zhang, Bing; Chen, Peter X; Liu, Ronghua; Tsao, Rong

    2015-01-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is known for its exceptional nutritional value and potential health benefits. The present study identified the composition of different forms of extractable phenolics and betacyanins of quinoa cultivars in white, red and black, and how they contribute to antioxidant activities. Results showed that at least 23 phenolic compounds were found in either free or conjugated forms (liberated by alkaline and/or acid hydrolysis); the majority of which were phenolic acids, mainly vanillic acid, ferulic acid and their derivatives as well as main flavonoids quercetin, kaempferol and their glycosides. Betacyanins, mainly betanin and isobetanin, were confirmed for the first time to be the pigments of the red and black quinoa seeds, instead of anthocyanins. Darker quinoa seeds had higher phenolic concentration and antioxidant activity. Findings of these phenolics, along with betacyanins in this study add new knowledge to the functional components of quinoa seeds of different cultivar background. PMID:25053071

  19. The influence of Aster x salignus Willd. Invasion on the diversity of soil yeast communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glushakova, A. M.; Kachalkin, A. V.; Chernov, I. Yu.

    2016-07-01

    The annual dynamics of yeast communities were studied in the soddy-podzolic soil under the thickets of Aster x salignus Willd., one of the widespread invasive plant species in central Russia. Yeast groups in the soils under continuous aster thickets were found to differ greatly from the yeast communities in the soils under the adjacent indigenous meadow vegetation. In both biotopes the same species ( Candida vartiovaarae, Candida sake, and Cryptococcus terreus) are dominants. However, in the soils under indigenous grasses, eurybiontic yeasts Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, which almost never occur in the soil under aster, are widespread. In the soil under aster, the shares of other typical epiphytic and pedobiontic yeast fungi (ascomycetic species Wickerhamomyces aniomalus, Barnettozyma californica and basidiomycetic species Cystofilobasidium macerans, Guehomyces pullulans) significantly increase. Thus, the invasion of Aster x salignus has a clear effect on soil yeast complexes reducing their taxonomic and ecological diversity.

  20. Phosphorus and water use efficiency of Acacia senegal (L.) Willd provenances in Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experiment was conducted to screen Acacia senegal (L.) Willd provenances collected from within the gum arabic belt, for their combined high water use efficiency (WUE) and high phosphorus use efficiency (PUE). Thirteen provenances were collected and their seedlings grown in a field naturally containing 22.1 kg/ha P. An additional 21.5 kg/ha P was applied to half the seedlings. Irrigation was applied when 75% of the available water was depleted. The results indicated that there was no significant response to the applied P, but that the provenances differed widely in their response to the limited water supply. Provenances collected from clayey soils had a higher WUE than those collected from sandy sites, probably because of better adaptation to the experimental site. (author). 2 figs, 4 tabs

  1. Characterisation and determination of in vitro antioxidant potential of betalains from Talinum triangulare (Jacq.) Willd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swarna, J; Lokeswari, T S; Smita, M; Ravindhran, R

    2013-12-15

    Talinum triangulare (Jacq.) Willd is an erect, succulent, perennial herb belonging to the family Portulacaceae. Under extreme environmental conditions, the plant produces betalain pigments which get accumulated in the stem region. Hence, in the present study, the betaxanthin and betacyanin patterns from different samples of T. triangulare have been investigated by applying high-performance liquid chromatography photo-diode array detection (HPLC-PDA) coupled with positive ion electro-spray mass spectrometry. Two betacyanins and two betaxanthins were identified in aqueous methanolic extract of flower, stem and leaf. Betanin, isobetanin, immonium conjugates of betalamic acid with dopamine and tyrosine were elucidated. The total betalain content was estimated by photometric analysis. In vitro antioxidant activity for the betalain extract determined by various methods revealed potent scavenging ability. The current work may possibly be considered beneficial in utilisation of the plant T. triangulare as a natural colourant in food and beverage industries. PMID:23993629

  2. EVALUATION OF ANTIULCEROGENIC EFFECT OF ALCOHOLIC EXTRACT OF MAYTENUS EMARGINATA (WILLD. DING HOU LEAVES

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    Poonia Lalita

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Maytenus emarginata (Willd. Dind Hou belongs to family Celastraceae, is an evergreen tree that tolerates various types of stresses of the desert, locally known as “Kankero”. Maytenus emarginata has been used for fever, asthama, rheumatism and gastrointestinal disorders worldwide. The effect of alcoholic extract of leaves of Maytenus emarginata was investigated in rats to evaluate the anti-ulcer activity by using aspirin induced gastric ulcer pyloric ligation model. The parameters taken to assess anti-ulcer activity were volume of gastric secretion, pH, free acidity, total acidity and ulcer index. In present study the orally administered alcoholic extract significantly (P < 0.05 increases pH and decreases the volume of gastric acid secretion, free acidity, total acidity and ulcer index with respect to control at a dose of 125 and 187 mg/kg body weight. This study lend support to the traditional use of Maytenus emarginata as antiulcerogenic.

  3. In vitro antioxidant potential of methanol extract of the medicinal plant, Acacia caesia (L.) Willd

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Thambiraj J; Paulsamy S

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The in vitro antioxidant capability of methanolic leaf extract of the medicinal plant,Acacia caesia (L.) Willd (Mimosaceae) was evaluated by different assaying. Methods: The in vitro antioxidant activity was evaluated for total antioxidant, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, hydroxyl radical scavenging and metal chelating activities. Ascorbic acid and butylated hydroxy toluene (BHT) were kept as standards. Results: IC50 values observed for DPPH, hydroxyl radical scavenging and metal chelating assays were 109, 177 and 295 μg/ml respectively. Conclusions: The results clearly indicate that the methanolic leaf extract of the study species is effective in scavenging free radicals and has the potential to be powerful antioxidant.

  4. Photoperiod Adaptation of Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendevis, Mira Arpe

    The global interest in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is rapidly increasing, both as a result of its nutritional qualities but also due to its potential as an alternative crop in regions, such as the Mediterranean and Western Australia, where increasing soil salinity and extended periods of...... drought are the major constraints on agricultural productivity. However, quinoa originates from the Andean region and the majority of available cultivars are facultative short day plants and exhibit severely reduced, or completely disrupted, seed production under day lengths longer than 12 hours. The...... inherent photoperiod sensitivity poses a challenge to future success of quinoa in regions outside its centre of origin. The existence of day length neutral quinoa cultivars provide an attractive alternative for cultivation in regions outside the tropical zone, as well as a valuable tool to compare adaptive...

  5. Water use efficiency studies of Acacia senegal (L.) Willd provenances in Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experiment was conducted in 1989 to screen Acacia senegal L. Willd provenances collected from within the natural gum belt for high water use efficiency. Thirteen provenances were tested for water use efficiency and consequently 6 out of them were selected for further screening. The selection was based on their performance in the preliminary screening. Both the preliminary and the detailed study revealed that provenances 7, 3 and 11 combine high dry matter production with high water use efficiency. Water use efficiency and dry matter production appears to be negatively correlated with root length density and root/shoot ratios. Provenances 7 which exhibited the highest water use efficiency and dry matter yield had the lowest root/shoot ratio and also a low root length density. Based on these studies provenance 7 can be considered a suitable candidate for introduction into gum-belt of Sudan through for rehabilitation of this region. (author). 5 refs, 1 fig., 3 tabs

  6. Seed quantity and quality in fruit heads of Aster lanceolatus Willd.: Implications for invasion success

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    Nešić Marija

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aster lanceolatus Willd. is a herbaceous perennial that is considered invasive in many European countries. In Serbia, this plant inhabits wet habitats and forms widespread monospecific stands. The objective of this research is to determine whether generative reproduction has an important role in the expansion of this species to new areas. In 13 different localities, fruit heads were collected from lateral and terminal parts of infructescence. Seed quantity and germination parameters were determined for seeds in the fruit heads. The results showed that the position of the fruit heads did not have a major impact on germination parameters. However, germination parameters differed among the localities. The findings of this study suggest that A. lanceolatus produces a great amount of viable seeds that germinate in an amount sufficient to ensure a successful spread of this invasive species to new areas. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 43007: Studying climate change and its influence on the environment: impacts, adaptation and mitigation

  7. Prospección de lepidópteros antófagos asociados a Acacia macracantha Willd. (Fabaceae en el norte de Chile Survey of anthophagous lepidopteran larvae associated with Acacia macracantha Willd. (Fabaceae in northern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor A. Vargas

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Se efectuó una prospección de larvas de lepidópteros antófagos asociados a Acacia macracantha Willd. (Fabaceae en dos valles costeros del norte de Chile: Azapa y Chaca. Fueron registradas ocho especies, distribuidas en ocho géneros y cinco familias. La composición de especies del ensamble fue la misma en las dos localidades. Sin embargo, la abundancia del ensamble y la abundancia por especie fueron diferentes entre los valles.A survey of anthophagous lepidopteran larvae associated with Acacia macracantha Willd. (Fabaceae was made in two coastal valleys from northern Chile: Azapa and Chaca. Eight species, distributed in eight genera and five families, were recorded in the areas. Species composition was the same for both localities. However, assemblage abundance and species abundance were different between the valleys.

  8. Effect of Naphthalene Acetic Acid on the Adventitious Rooting in Shoot Cuttings of Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f. Wall. ex Nees: An Important Therapeutical Herb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Sanower Hossain

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Andrographis paniculata is one of the most important therapeutical herbs, widely used in traditional medical systems for the treatment of diverse diseases for thousands of years. This study was carried out to assess the effect of 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA on adventitious rooting in A. paniculata shoot cuttings. The cuttings were treated with six concentrations of NAA (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, and 3.0 mM by applying soaking method and cuttings without hormone (soaking in distilled water were considered as control. The cuttings were then inoculated into peat moss in the planting tray and incubated under complete shade for root induction. Water was sprayed on peat moss once daily to moisten it. The results showed that different concentrations of NAA significantly (P≤0.05 affected the rooting characteristics of A. paniculata and 2.5 mM of NAA was found to be more effective to induce rooting in young apical shoot (YAS cuttings compared to other concentrations and old apical shoot (OAS. This study also postulates that adventitious rooting response depends on the juvenility of plant material and concentration of growth regulator. This report describes a technique for adventitious rooting in A. paniculata, which could be feasible to use for commercial scale propagation of this plant.

  9. RAGWEED (AMBROSIA ARTEMISIIFOLIA L. – AGRONOMIC AND PUBLIC-HEALTH PROBLEM IN BARANYA REGION

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    Sanda Rašić

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia is very allergeni plant species causing a big health problem to a sensitive person. Moreover, due its high cover values ragweed is also a problem in agricultural and non-agricultural areas. By the floristic surveys (reléve method Br.-Bl, 1964 it is determined that ragweed cover a significant part of investigated territory. Floristic records (106, performed during August and beginning of September identified ragweed populations with significant number of units per area. High cover values were recorded in sunflower and stubbles, and these places are considered a focus problem. High values were also registered in ruderal habitats, and along roads and canals. Field investigations confirmed the doubts that ragweed occupies and invades more and more areas. Besides agronomic problem, ragweed is also a significant public health problem. Pollen of this weed species is exceptionally strong aeroallergen, causing big problems among sensitive persons during the summer time. Therefore, detailed aerobiological investigations (2003–2008 were performed using the volumetric method (Burkard pollen and spore trap in order to identify parameters of pollination. Ragweed pollen was mostly present in the air at the end of summer. This is the period when the allergic reaction among the sensitive persons is most registered. Pollination starts in July and finishes in October according to six year aerobiology monitoring. Length of pollination in the investigated area lasted on the average from 74 to 94 days, with the peak between 22th of August and 3rd of September. Total daily pollen counts varied from year to year from 143 pollen grains per m3 of air to 439 pollen grains per m3 of air. Meteorological parameters have a significant influence for amount of pollen grains in the air. It is proved that concentration of the pollen in the air is getting higher along with higher temperature, but it the relative humidity increases concentration

  10. Environmental scanning electron microscopy of the surface of normal and vitrified leaves of Gypsophila paniculata (Babies Breath) cultured in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gribble, K; Sarafis, V; Nailon, J; Holford, P; Uwins, P

    1996-06-01

    Leaf surfaces of non-tissue-cultured, vitrified and non-vitrified plantlets of Gypsophila paniculata (Babies Breath) were examined using an environmental scanning electron microscope. Non-tissue-cultured plants had a complete epidermal surface, recessed stomata and wax present on the leaf surface. The surface of tissue-cultured plantlets appeared similar to non-tissue-cultured plants excepting stomata were slightly protruding and less wax appeared to be present. In both non-tissue-cultured and tissue-cultured plants stomata were found both opened and closed and were observed closing. In contrast vitrified plantlets had abnormal, malformed stomata which appeared non-functional. The ventral surfaces of leaves seemed more normal than the dorsal, this may be due to the former receiving more light. Additionally, discontinuities were found in the epidermis. Often epidermal holes were found in association with stomatal apertures. It is suggested that the main cause of desiccation of vitrified G. paniculata plantlets ex vitro is due to loss of water from the discontinuity in epidermis and not because of non-functional stomata. Liquid water could be seen through the epidermal holes indicating that at least some of the extra water in vitrified plantlets is contained in the intercellular spaces. PMID:24178169

  11. Spatial and harvesting influence on growth, yield, quality and economic potential of Kalmegh (Andrographis paniculata Wall Ex. Nees

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    Sanjeev Kumar

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Andrographis paniculata, commonly known as Kalmegh, is used both in Ayurvedic and Unani system of medicines because of its immunological, antibacterial and hepatoprotective properties. This study was carried out to investigate the influence of four harvesting times (120,135,150 days after planting and at seed maturity and four planting distances (30×15, 30×10, 20×15 and 20×10 cm on growth, dry herbage biomass, seed yield and quality traits of Andrographis paniculata at CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar, India in the two years 2005 and 2006. The treatments were laid out in a split plot design with three replications. The maximum values for dry herbage biomass yield (5.14 t ha^(-1, net returns (760.00 EUR ha^(-1, B:C ratio (2.59, andrographolide content (2.63% and total yield (135.00 kg ha^(-1 were detected 135 days after planting with an optimum planting distance of 30×15 cm. However, the maximum iron content was estimated 120 days after planting. The highest dry herbage (4.58 t ha^(-1 and maximum seed yield (19.7 kg ha^(-1 were registered at plants that were lined out with a distance of 20×10 cm.

  12. Amelioratory effect of Andrographis paniculata Nees on liver, kidney, heart, lung and spleen during nicotine induced oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neogy, Sreeparna; Das, Subhasis; Mahapatra, Santanu Kar; Mandal, Nirjal; Roy, Somenath

    2008-05-01

    The ameliorative properties of bioactive compound andrographolide (ANDRO), aqueous extract of Andrographis paniculata (AE-AP) and vitamin E (vit.E) were tested against nicotine induced liver, kidney, heart, lung and spleen toxicity. A group of male Wistar rats were intraperitoneally administered vehicle, nicotine (1mg/kg body weight/day), nicotine+ANDRO (250mg/kg body weight/day), nicotine+AE-AP (250mg/kg body weight/day) and nicotine+vit.E (50mg/kg body weight/day) for the period of 7 days. The significantly increased levels of lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation and the decreased antioxidant enzyme status were noted in nicotine treated group as compared to vehicle treated group. ANDRO, AE-AP and vit.E significantly reduced the lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation and increased the antioxidant enzyme status. This indicates A. paniculata and vit.E may act as putative protective agent against nicotine induced tissue injury and may pave a new path to develop suitable drug therapy. PMID:21783869

  13. Andrographis paniculata Extract and Andrographolide Modulate the Hepatic Drug Metabolism System and Plasma Tolbutamide Concentrations in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haw-Wen Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Andrographolide is the most abundant terpenoid of A. paniculata which is used in the treatment of diabetes. In this study, we investigated the effects of A. paniculata extract (APE and andrographolide on the expression of drug-metabolizing enzymes in rat liver and determined whether modulation of these enzymes changed the pharmacokinetics of tolbutamide. Rats were intragastrically dosed with 2 g/kg/day APE or 50 mg/kg/day andrographolide for 5 days before a dose of 20 mg/kg tolbutamide was given. APE and andrographolide reduced the AUC0–12 h of tolbutamide by 37% and 18%, respectively, compared with that in controls. The protein and mRNA levels and enzyme activities of CYP2C6/11, CYP1A1/2, and CYP3A1/2 were increased by APE and andrographolide. To evaluate whether APE or andrographolide affected the hypoglycemic action of tolbutamide, high-fat diet-induced obese mice were used and treated in the same manner as the rats. APE and andrographolide increased CYP2C6/11 expression and decreased plasma tolbutamide levels. In a glucose tolerance test, however, the hypoglycemic effect of tolbutamide was not changed by APE or andrographolide. These results suggest that APE and andrographolide accelerate the metabolism rate of tolbutamide through increased expression and activity of drug-metabolizing enzymes. APE and andrographolide, however, do not impair the hypoglycemic effect of tolbutamide.

  14. Quality control evaluation of Guduchi Satva (solid aqueous extract of Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers): An herbal formulation

    OpenAIRE

    Rohit Sharma; Hetal Amin; Shukla, V. J.; Dhiman Kartar; Galib, R.; Prajapati, P. K.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Herbal products represent complex biological mixture and achieving a reproducible pharmaceutical quality could be a very challenging task in standardisation of herbal products. Hence, methodical approach is required for standardisation, development of sufficient quality control profile and scientific validation of plant extracts, as is done in contemporary medicine. Ayurvedic physicians prescribe dried extract of Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers known as ′Guduchi Satva′ in se...

  15. New locality of Orobanche coerulescens Stephan ex Willd. (Orobanchaceae at the NW limit of its geographical range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Piwowarczyk

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A new locality of Orobanche coerulescens Stephan ex Willd. in the Wyżyna Małopolska upland (Garb Pińczowski hummock in central Poland is presented. Over 290 specimens were recorded in a xerothermic grassland of the class Festuco-Brometea comprising species of the class Koelerio glaucae-Corynephoretea canescentis on alkaline, sandy soil. O. coerulescens is extinct at the majority of its localities in Poland and only two localities are known at present.

  16. New locality of Orobanche coerulescens Stephan ex Willd. (Orobanchaceae) at the NW limit of its geographical range

    OpenAIRE

    Renata Piwowarczyk; Alojzy Przemyski

    2011-01-01

    A new locality of Orobanche coerulescens Stephan ex Willd. in the Wyżyna Małopolska upland (Garb Pińczowski hummock) in central Poland is presented. Over 290 specimens were recorded in a xerothermic grassland of the class Festuco-Brometea comprising species of the class Koelerio glaucae-Corynephoretea canescentis on alkaline, sandy soil. O. coerulescens is extinct at the majority of its localities in Poland and only two localities are known at present.

  17. Antimikrobiální aktivita extraktů z .I.Rhaponticum carthamoides./I. (Willd.) Iljin

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kokoška, L.; Polesný, Z.; Rada, V.; Nepovím, Aleš

    L'ubovnianske kúpele: Slovakofarma, 2001. s. 17-18. [Liečivé rastliny v novom Miléniu. 27.09.2001-28.09.2001, L'ubovnianske kúpele] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA521/99/D019 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : Rhaponticum carthamoides (Willd.) Iljin Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry

  18. Uji aktivitas ekstrak rimpang lengkuas merah (alpinia galanga l. Willd) Terhadap Jamur Pityrosporum Ovale Dalam Sediaan Sampo Anti Ketombe

    OpenAIRE

    Harahap, Ernida Fermadani

    2015-01-01

    Dandruff is seborrheic capitis dry form what is commonly known as seborrheic sicca (dry), the dry scales layered fragile easily attached cover detached scalp epidermis. In addition to the use pirithion zinc, coal ta , salicylic acid, selenium sulfide, and ketoconazole, they also used natural ingredients derived from plants for handling dandruff. One is them is Java Galangal (Alpinia galanga L. Willd) that is used by Gonting Julu- North Sumatera society , by way of red galangal rhizome is rub...

  19. Could deficit irrigation be a sustainable practice for quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) in the Southern Bolivian Altiplano?

    OpenAIRE

    GEERTS, S; Raes, D; Garcia, M.; Condori, O.; Mamani, J.; Miranda, R.; Cusicanqui, J.; C. Taboada; Yucra, E.; Vacher, Jean

    2008-01-01

    The application of deficit irrigation (DI) to stabilize yield and to increase water productivity of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) raises questions in the and Southern Altiplano of Bolivia where water resources are limited and often saline. Rainfed quinoa and quinoa with irrigation restricted to the flowering and early grain filling were studied during the growing seasons of 2005-2006 and 2006-2007 in a location with (Irpani) and without (Mejillones) water contribution from a shallow wate...

  20. Acute effect of high-dose isoflavones from Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Ohwi on lipid and bone metabolism in ovariectomized mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hee Joon; Jun, Hee-jin; Lee, Ji Hae; Jia, Yaoyao; Hoang, Minh Hien; Shim, Jae-Hoon; Park, Kwan-Hwa; Lee, Sung-Joon

    2012-12-01

    We investigated the acute metabolic effects of isoflavones from Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Ohwi (IPL) in ovariectomized (OVX) mice. After 4 weeks of IPL feeding at 500 mg/day/kg body weight (OVX500), plasma 17β-estradiol concentrations were significantly higher (+25%, p menopausal symptoms in mice. Further studies will confirm the effects of IPL in humans. PMID:22422661

  1. Regional-scale stand density management diagrams for Pyrenean oak (Quercus pyrenaica Willd.) stands in north-west Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Castaño-Santamaría J; Barrio-Anta M; Álvarez-Álvarez P

    2013-01-01

    Stand Density Management Diagrams are useful tools for designing and evaluating alternative density management regimes without the need of implementing any silvicultural action, and allowing the future stand conditions to be predicted prior to implementing management schedules. In this study, stand density management diagrams were developed for Pyrenean oak (Quercus pyrenaica Willd.) stands in north-west Spain by including data on stand volume, stand aboveground biomass, stand stem biomass an...

  2. Redox properties of a standardized extract of Chenopodium quinoa Willd fruit pericarp modify rat liver GST activities

    OpenAIRE

    María Eugenia Letelier; Daniel Rojas-Sepúlveda; Carlos Andrés Gallardo-Garrido

    2016-01-01

    Research of antioxidant properties of herbal thiol compounds is scarce. The main non-enzymatic antioxidant compounds in animal cell are GSH and cysteine. Therefore, in this work, we studied the redox effects of a Chenopodium quinoa Willd (Quinoa) coats extract previously titrated in its polyphenol and thiol compounds. The effects of quinoa extract on rat liver cytosolic and microsomal GSH-transferase was tested. The catalytic active form of this enzyme is its disulphide dimer, and then its re...

  3. Antimicrobial and radical scavenging activity of le af and rhizome extract of Alpinia galanga (L.) Willd (Zingiberaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Yashoda Kambar; Vivek M. N; Prashith Kekuda T. R; Raghavendra H.L

    2014-01-01

    Alpinia galanga (L.) Willd belonging to the family Zingiberaceae is widely distributed in tropical areas. The plant is used in food preparation and as medicine. The present study was carried out to determine antimicrobial and radical scavenging effect of leaf and rhizome extract of A. galanga. The powdered leaf and rhizome were extracted by soxhlet extraction using methanol. Antimicrobial activity of extracts was determined by Agar well diffusion assay against 15 clinical isolates of bacteria...

  4. Transpiration of montane Pinus sylvestris L. and Quercus pubescens Willd. forest stands measured with sap flow sensors in NE Spain

    OpenAIRE

    R. Poyatos; P. Llorens; Gallart, F.

    2005-01-01

    Stand transpiration was measured during the 2003 and 2004 growing seasons using heat dissipation sap flow sensors in a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and a pubescent oak (Quercus pubescens Willd.) forests located in a montane area of the Eastern Pyrenees (NE Spain). The first aim of the study was to assess the differences in quantitative estimates of transpiration (Ec) and the response to evaporative demand of the two stands. Over the studied period of 2003, characterised by a severe drough...

  5. Biological aspects and life table of Uroleucon ambrosiae (Thomas, 1878 as a function of temperature Aspectos biológicos e tabela de vida de Uroleucon ambrosiae (Thomas em função da temperatura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Machado Auad

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The aphid Uroleucon ambrosiae (Thomas is considered a pest of hidroponically-grown lettuce, but basic and applied information on its control are scarce in Brazil. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of different temperatures on biological aspects and life history of U. ambrosiae (Thomas developing on hydroponic lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. crop. Newly emerged nymphs were placed on 4-cm discs of hydroponic lettuce, var. Verônica, which were maintained on 5-cm Petri dishes, at temperatures of 15, 20 and 25ºC and 14 h photophase, and inside a greenhouse, within micro-cages at room temperature. The duration of development in all nymphal stages varied inversely to temperature. Nymphs maintained at 20ºC and 25ºC, had similar development period. However, at fluctuating greenhouse temperatures (daily mean = 21ºC, different results were obtained, which was also true for the pre-reproductive, reproductive and post-reproductive periods. Daily and total fertilities at 20ºC were better in comparison to the other treatments. The highest mortality rate of aphids occurred under greenhouse conditions. The production of 1.28 nymphs per female per day, the time needed for the population to double in size (TD=2.77days, and the intrinsic rate of population increase (r m=0.25, were similar for in insects maintained at 20 and 25ºC. On the other hand, time interval between generations (T and the net reproductive rate (Ro were higher at 20ºC. In the greenhouse, even though T was similar to laboratory conditions at 20 and 25ºC, the R0, r m and l parameters were lower and TD was higher. Based on biological aspects, fertility and life expectancy tables, constant temperature of 20ºC is the most suitable for U. ambrosiae.O afídeo Uroleucon ambrosiae (Thomas é considerado praga em alface de cultivo hidropônico, mas conhecimentos básicos e aplicados que auxiliam no seu controle, são escassos no Brasil. O objetivo do trabalho foi determinar o efeito

  6. Effects of 60Co γ-rays radiation on biological characters of Platanus acerifolia Willd. weed and seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dry seeds of Platanus acerifolia Willd. were irradiated by different doses of 60Co γ-rays, and the effect of the radiation on M1 were investigated. Results showed that the seed germination rate, emerged seedling rate and survival seedling rate of Platanus aceriflia Willd. Decreased with dose increase at the dose of 50-400 Gy, as well as the plant height, fresh weight and length of root. The radiation inhibited the seeding growth significantly. Compared with CK, the true leaf emerging time of samples irradiated at 50-250 Gy was late for 2, 5, 9 and 14d, respectively. But the young seedlings of samples treated at 300-400 Gy were severely twisted and abnormal, and gradually died after 15d. Based on the data of seeding rate and root growth, it is concluded that the semi-lethal radiation dose of Platanus acerifolia Willd. dry seed was 50 Gy, and the suitable dose range for radiation breeding was 50 to 250 Gy. (authors)

  7. Biogeografia do gênero Mikania Willd. (Asteraceae no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Biogeography of the genus Mikania Willd. (Asteraceae in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Rejane Ritter

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available A distribuição geográfica das 39 espécies nativas de Mikania Willd. no Rio Grande do Sul foi estudada em duas escalas: uma escala regional, utilizando regiões fisiográficas como unidades, e uma escala continental, considerando regiões político-geográficas como unidades. A riqueza específica e a amplitude de distribuiçãoforam obtidas diretamente de matrizes de presença e ausência, relacionando espécies e regiões. A matriz regional foi analisada por dois métodos multivariados, uma análise de agrupamentos e uma análise de coordenadas principais, utilizando o complemento do coeficiente de Jaccard como elemento de comparação (dissimilaridade. Na escala regional as regiões mais ricas foram o Litoral e a Depressão Central, enquanto na escala continental, a maioria das espécies sul-rio-grandenses foram também encontradas no Sudeste do Brasil e no Sul da América do Sul. A análise multivariada evidenciou dois grupos principais no Estado, um oriental e outro ocidental. Em cada um desses grupos foram evidenciados dois subgrupos relacionados a características climáticas e geológicas do Estado.Os padrões de distribuição de Mikania confirmam o caráter tropical do gênero e as principais rotas de migração descritas para a flora do Sul do Brasil.The geographical distribution of the 39 species of Mikania Willd. native in Rio Grande do Sul was studied at two scales: a state-regional scale, using physiographic regions as units, and an american-continental scale, considering politic-geographic regions as units. Specific richness and distribution amplitude were obtained directly from presence and absence matrixes, relating species and regions. The state-regional matrix was also analysed by two multivariate methods, a cluster analysis and a principal coordinate analysis, using the complement of the Jaccard coefficient as a measure of dissimilarity. At the state-regional scale, the richest regions were the Coastal Plain and the

  8. The Effect of Field Dodder (Cuscuta campestris Yunck. on Morphological and Fluorescence Parameters of Giant Ragweed (Ambrosia trifida L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sava Vrbničanin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the parasitic flowering plant known as field dodder (Cuscuta campestrisYunck. on morphological and fluorescence parameters of infested giant ragweed(Ambrosia trifida L. plants was examined under controlled conditions. The parameters ofchlorophyll fluorescence (Fo, Fv/Fm, ΦPSII, Fv, Fm, ETR and IF were measured on infested (Iand non-infested (N A. trifida plants over a period of seven days, beginning with the day ofinfestation. Morphological parameters (plant height, dry and fresh weight were measuredon the last day of fluorescence measurements. C. campestris was found to affect the height,fresh and dry weight of the infested A. trifida plants, causing significant reduction in plantheight and dry weight. Field dodder also affected several parameters of chlorophyll fluorescence(Fo, Fv/Fm, ΦPSII and Fv in infested A. trifida plants.

  9. [Spread of Ambrosia elatior in rural areas (investigation performed during the years 1985 and 1986 in southern Drome)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couturier, P

    1987-06-01

    The settings of Ambrosia development are not only construction zones, waste grounds, road works; a country extension has been observed; more and more varied lands under cultivation (cereals, sunflowers, peach-trees...) are overgrown and the advance, toward South Drome and Ardèche since few years, clearly indicates that all the Rhone Valley is under threat. Several forms of spreading are possible, sometimes very unexpected, so, for instance, the irrigation by spraying. The struggle must associate the mowing when it is easy (town zones, verges...), selective weed-killer use and a good farming rotation (country zones). A better information of town councils about those problems is also absolutely necessary for us. PMID:3454180

  10. Erfahrungen mit der Bekämpfung von Ambrosia in der Schweiz – ein Rückblick

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bohren, Christian

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The dicotyledonous summer annual common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. is on the one hand a noxious arable weed and on the other hand an invasive neophyte with a great potential to spread. Various possibilities are known for control of common ragweed in agricultural fields with mechanical and chemical methods. Limits are set in sunflowers because sunflower and ragweed are botanically related. Because no weed control action results in 100% efficacy, common ragweed can propagate quickly in untreated corners of the field or in other disturbed soils. The legal obligation of reporting and control – introduced in Switzerland a couple of years ago – allowed the development of specific distribution maps and enhanced the quality of control measures. Facts and figures from the Canton of Geneva prove that the ragweed invasion has been stopped, but the species is not eradicated. The results of Geneva represent the results of good ragweed control in the whole country. Beside agriculture, traffic infrastructure, building sites, gravel pits and urban park and garden areas are sensible to ragweed invasion. This is why the formation of “Ambrosia Groups” helps to exchange experiences and to understand factors provoking the invasion. The responsibility of individuals helps to improve control efficiency even if financial funds are small. A sustainable control success depends on the efficiency to hamper seed production. The reduction of pollen quantity in the air in a long term is part of the earnings for the control effort. Actually, the publicity of common ragweed is fed by specialist information and its distribution in the media. It would be an interesting task to develop in our fast moving era an awareness level comparable to that of the stinging nettle.

  11. Andrographis paniculata leaf extract prevents thioacetamide-induced liver cirrhosis in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daleya Abdulaziz Bardi

    Full Text Available This study investigated the hepatoprotective effects of ethanolic Andrographis paniculata leaf extract (ELAP on thioacetamide-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. An acute toxicity study proved that ELAP is not toxic in rats. To examine the effects of ELAP in vivo, male Sprague Dawley rats were given intraperitoneal injections of vehicle 10% Tween-20, 5 mL/kg (normal control or 200 mg/kg TAA thioacetamide (to induce liver cirrhosis three times per week. Three additional groups were treated with thioacetamide plus daily oral silymarin (50 mg/kg or ELAP (250 or 500 mg/kg. Liver injury was assessed using biochemical tests, macroscopic and microscopic tissue analysis, histopathology, and immunohistochemistry. In addition, HepG2 and WRL-68 cells were treated in vitro with ELAP fractions to test cytotoxicity. Rats treated with ELAP exhibited significantly lower liver/body weight ratios and smoother, more normal liver surfaces compared with the cirrhosis group. Histopathology using Hematoxylin and Eosin along with Masson's Trichrome stain showed minimal disruption of hepatic cellular structure, minor fibrotic septa, a low degree of lymphocyte infiltration, and minimal collagen deposition after ELAP treatment. Immunohistochemistry indicated that ELAP induced down regulation of proliferating cell nuclear antigen. Also, hepatic antioxidant enzymes and oxidative stress parameters in ELAP-treated rats were comparable to silymarin-treated rats. ELAP administration reduced levels of altered serum liver biomarkers. ELAP fractions were non-cytotoxic to WRL-68 cells, but possessed anti-proliferative activity on HepG2 cells, which was confirmed by a significant elevation of lactate dehydrogenase, reactive oxygen species, cell membrane permeability, cytochrome c, and caspase-8,-9, and, -3/7 activity in HepG2 cells. A reduction of mitochondrial membrane potential was also detected in ELAP-treated HepG2 cells. The hepatoprotective effect of 500 mg/kg of ELAP is proposed

  12. Tempo de busca e de manuseio de larvas de Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861 (Neuroptera, Chrysopidae alimentadas com Uroleucon ambrosiae (Thomas, 1878 (Hemiptera, Aphididae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander M. Auad

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Searching and handling time of Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861 (Neuroptera, Chrysopidae larvae fed on Uroleucon ambrosiae (Thomas, 1878 (Hemiptera, Aphididae. The objective of this research was to determine the searching and handling times of three larval instars of C. externa fed on U. ambrosiae at densities of 30, 40 and 50 per vial, with the feeding of the larvae at the preceding instars being U. ambrosiae nymphs or Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier, 1819 eggs. The larvae were maintained at 25 ± 2 ºC, 70 ± 10% RH and a 14-h photophase. A completely randomized design in a 6 x 3 factorial scheme with 12 replicates was adopted. The shortest searching time was found for the 2nd and 3rd instar larvae of C. externa, and this parameter was variable depending on the feeding given to the larvae previously. The handling time was similar for the 1st, 2nd and 3rd instar larvae. The longest searching time was found at an aphid density of 30, as compared to densities of 40 and 50 prey, with which there were no significant differences. Prey density did not have any influence on handling time.

  13. The Ambrosia Lake project archaeological investigations of three small sites associated with the southern Chacoan outlier of Kin Nizhoni, McKinley County, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the fall of 1987, Complete Archaeological Service Associates conducted mitigative excavations at three sites (LA50363, LA50364, and LA50371) in McKinley County, New Mexico. These sites are adjacent to the Phillips/United Nuclear Inactive Uranium Mill and Tailings site at Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico. The primary deposition at each of these sites appears to be related to a Pueblo II or Bonito Phase occupation. Temporal placement is based primarily on the cross dating of ceramics and archaeomagnetic determinations when possible. No tree-ring or radiocarbon samples are available from these sites. These Ambrosia Lake sites indicate that this area was occupied primarily by Pueblo II people who may have had close social, economic, and ceremonial ties with the people living at the nuclear community of Lower Nizhoni about 3 km south-southeast. The later component at LA50364 indicates a Pueblo III occupation by people who may have had similar ties to the people of the Kin Nizhoni nuclear community. The Ambrosia Lake sites, then, provide important information on the structure of subnuclear communities within the southern Chaco periphery

  14. Variability of features in half-sib posterity as a basis in plant breeding of the species Koelreuteria paniculata Laxm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ocokoljić Mirjana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the comparative morphophysiological analysis of the seedlings Koelreuteria paniculata Laxm. produced in a generative manner by using one line of the oldest half-sib tree and two lines of younger half-sib trees, data regarding the seedlings' features and the variability of the plant breeding are presented. Recorded parameters are the indexes which point to the influence of age over biological reproduction. This paper also puts forward that the variability of the seedlings exerts an influence on the selection of mother trees, and provides the technology of production of breeding plants with desired features and its practical usage in landscape architecture, horticulture and forestry. Namely, by selecting the superior genotypes and with their breeding, different sorts of koelreuteria (China-tree could be synthesized and thanks to the high level of general adaptability would provide reciprocally high productivity of studied parameters and be the base material for plants for specific purposes. .

  15. Gold nanoparticles: sonocatalytic synthesis using ethanolic extract of Andrographis paniculata and functionalization with polycaprolactone-gelatin composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, Punuri Jayasekhar; Saranya, Sibyala; Sharma, Pragya; Tamuli, Ranjan; Bora, Utpal

    2012-09-01

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were synthesized by sonication using ethanolic leaf extract of Andrographis paniculata. We investigated the optimum parameters for AuNP synthesis and functionalization with polycaprolactone-gelatin (PCL-GL) composites. The AuNPs were characterized with various biophysical techniques such as TEM, XRD, FT-IR and EDX spectroscopy. TEM images showed that nanoparticles were spherical in shape with a size range from 5 to 75 nm. EDX analysis revealed the presence of molecular oxygen and carbon on the surface of AuNPs. The synthesized AuNPs were tested for their effect on HeLa (human cervical cancer) and MCF-7 (human breast cancer) cell lines and found to be nontoxic and biocompatible, which are potential carriers for hydrophobic drugs.

  16. Andrographolide: A Novel Antimalarial Diterpene Lactone Compound from Andrographis paniculata and Its Interaction with Curcumin and Artesunate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirti Mishra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Andrographolide (AND, the diterpene lactone compound, was purified by HPLC from the methanolic fraction of the plant Andrographis paniculata. The compound was found to have potent antiplasmodial activity when tested in isolation and in combination with curcumin and artesunate against the erythrocytic stages of Plasmodium falciparum in vitro and Plasmodium berghei ANKA in vivo. IC50s for artesunate (AS, andrographolide (AND, and curcumin (CUR were found to be 0.05, 9.1 and 17.4 μM, respectively. The compound (AND was found synergistic with curcumin (CUR and addictively interactive with artesunate (AS. In vivo, andrographolide-curcumin exhibited better antimalarial activity, not only by reducing parasitemia (29%, compared to the control (81%, but also by extending the life span by 2-3 folds. Being nontoxic to the in vivo system this agent can be used as template molecule for designing new derivatives with improved antimalarial properties.

  17. Eclipta yellow vein virus enhances chlorophyll destruction, singlet oxygen production and alters endogenous redox status in Andrographis paniculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Asifa; Luqman, Suaib; Masood, Nusrat; Singh, Dhananjay Kumar; Saeed, Sana Tabanda; Samad, Abdul

    2016-07-01

    The infection of Eclipta yellow vein virus [EcYVV-IN, Accession No. KC476655], recently reported for the first time, on Andrographis paniculata was studied for redox-mediated alteration mechanism in infected plants. A. paniculata, an important medicinal plant, is used in traditional Indian, Chinese and modern system of medicine. Andrographolide, one of the foremost components of this plant, is known for its varied pharmacological properties. Our investigation provides insight into the effect of virus-induced changes in the singlet oxygen quenching due to the alteration in pigment content (chlorophyll and carotenoids) as well as activation of plant secondary metabolism along with defense activation leading to changes in enzymatic and non-enzymatic redox status. Due to infection, a reduction in carotenoid content was observed which leads to reduced quenching of singlet oxygen. An increased level of enzymatic (SOD and APX) and non-enzymatic antioxidant (DPPH, FRAP, RP, NO, TAC and TP) activities were also observed in virus-infected plants with a positive correlation (>0.9). However, CAT activity was diminished which could be either due to its proteolytic degradation or inactivation by superoxide anions (O(2-.)), NO or peroxynitrite radicals. A significant (p < 0.05) increase in total phenolic content was observed in the infected plants while no considerable difference was seen in the total flavonoid content. Our results highlighted the alteration in redox status caused by virus-induced biotic stress on the plants and could be useful for understanding the after effects of viral infection This study could also be helpful in developing biomimetic methods for improving the production of secondary metabolites of pharmaceutical importance. PMID:27035255

  18. Chemical Profiles and Protective Effect of Hedyotis diffusa Willd in Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Renal Inflammation Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Jian-Hong; Liu, Meng-Hua; Zhang, Xu-Lin; He, Jing-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Protective effect of Hedyotis diffusa (H. diffusa) Willd against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced renal inflammation was evaluated by the productions of cytokines and chemokine, and the bioactive constituents of H. diffusa were detected by the ultra-fast liquid chromatography-diode array detector-quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry (UFLC-DAD-Q-TOF-MS/MS) method. As the results showed, water extract of H. diffusa (equal to 5.0 g/kg body weight) obviously protected renal tissues, significantly suppressed the productions of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, as well as significantly promoted the production of IL-10 in serum and renal tissues. According the chemical profiles of H. diffusa, flavonoids, iridoid glycosides and anthraquinones were greatly detected in serum from H. diffusa extract treatment mice. Two main chemotypes, including eight flavonoids and four iridoid glycosides were found in renal tissues from H. diffusa extract treatment mice. The results demonstrated that water extract of H. diffusa had protective effect on renal inflammation, which possibly resulted from the bioactive constituents consisting of flavonoids, iridoids and anthraquinones. PMID:26580602

  19. Chemical Profiles and Protective Effect of Hedyotis diffusa Willd in Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Renal Inflammation Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Hong Ye

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Protective effect of Hedyotis diffusa (H. diffusa Willd against lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced renal inflammation was evaluated by the productions of cytokines and chemokine, and the bioactive constituents of H. diffusa were detected by the ultra-fast liquid chromatography -diode array detector-quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry (UFLC-DAD-Q-TOF-MS/MS method. As the results showed, water extract of H. diffusa (equal to 5.0 g/kg body weight obviously protected renal tissues, significantly suppressed the productions of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, interleukin (IL-1β, IL-6, and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1, as well as significantly promoted the production of IL-10 in serum and renal tissues. According the chemical profiles of H. diffusa, flavonoids, iridoid glycosides and anthraquinones were greatly detected in serum from H. diffusa extract treatment mice. Two main chemotypes, including eight flavonoids and four iridoid glycosides were found in renal tissues from H. diffusa extract treatment mice. The results demonstrated that water extract of H. diffusa had protective effect on renal inflammation, which possibly resulted from the bioactive constituents consisting of flavonoids, iridoids and anthraquinones.

  20. Structural Elucidation and HPLC Analysis of Six Flavone Glycosides from Artemisia frigida Willd.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qing-hu; AO Wu-li-ji; DAI Na-yin-tai

    2013-01-01

    An investigation of the EtOAc-soluble fraction from the aerial parts ofArtemisiafrigida Willd.(A.frigida)led to the isolation of three new flavonoid glycosides together with three known compounds.Their structures were elucidated by spectral experiments.At the same time,high-performance liquid chromatographic(HPLC) method was used for the simultaneous determination of the six flavonoid glycosides from the aerial parts of A.frigida.The separation by gradient elution was performed on a Hypersil ODS-2 column(250 mm×4.6 mm,5 μm) at 30 ℃ with acetonitrile and water as the mobile phase,and monitored by absorbance at 276 nm.The parameters of linearity,precision,accuracy and specificity of the method were evaluated.The recovery of the method is 96.50%-98.01%,and linearity(r>0.9992) was obtained for all the flavonoid glycosides.A high degree of specificity as well as repeatability and reproducibility(relative standard deviation values less than 2.0%) were also achieved.This assay was applied to the determination of six flavonoid glycosides in ten samples.The results indicate that the developed assay method was ranid,accurate,reliable and could be readily utilized as a quantitative analysis method for A.frigida.

  1. Performance of Azolla caroliniana Willd. and Salvinia auriculata Aubl. on fish farming effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo, J J; Penha, J

    2011-02-01

    The increasing release of untreated fish farming effluents into water courses that flow to the Pantanal wetlands in Mato Grosso (Brazil) may drive this ecosystem to eutrophication. Therefore, the growth of Azolla caroliniana Willd. and Salvinia auriculata Aubl. in fish farming effluent and their effect on its quality were evaluated for 48 days in a greenhouse. The results were compared to those obtained in a nutrient rich solution (Hoagland ½ medium). Azolla caroliniana showed lower relative growth rate in fish farming effluent (0.020 d-1) than in Hoagland ½ medium (0.029 d-1). However, S. auriculata grew slightly better in fish farming effluent (0.030 d-1) than in Hoagland ½ medium (0.025 d-1). The species apparently contributed to reduce nitrate and phosphate concentration in Hoagland ½ medium. However, in fish farming effluent, only electrical conductivity and pH were reduced by plants compared to the control without plants. Thus, A. caroliniana and S. auriculata show low potential for improving effluent quality. PMID:21437397

  2. Entomofauna Associada a Galhos de Acacia mangium Willd. Roletados por Oncideres saga (Dalman (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gláucia Cordeiro

    2010-04-01

    Abstract. The study of the insects associated with branches and stems girdled by Oncideres saga (Dalman is important to know its possible natural enemies. Therefore, these work had the objective of register the insects associated with branches and stems girdled of Acacia mangium Willd. by this twig girdler beetle, in Coimbra, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Stems and branches of A. mangium were collected in January/2007 to April/2007. This material has been inspected, stored in plastic bags, and kept in a room with controlled conditions (25.4 ± 0.3°C and 66.7 ± 1.4%. It was noted the presence of a non-determined species of Scolytidae and the emergence of four species of Cerambycidae: Engyum quadrinotatum Thomsom; Eburodacrys sexmaculata (Olivier; Achryson surinamum (Linnaeus and Neoclytus pusillus (Laporte & Gory. It can be concluded that studies are needed with the objective of verify the behavior of these insects in relation with twig girdler O. saga.

  3. Comparative pharmacognostical variations in stem, true root and aerial root of Tinospora cordifolia willd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit Ajith Gokarn

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Amrita (Tinospora cordifolia Willd. an often used perennial climber used in different clinical conditions and various researches are useful in understanding its potential, but comparative pharmacognostical study of stem, true root and aerial root is not available till date. Root of Amrita is often used in folklore medicine. As true root is not abundantly available, aerial roots may be considered in the place of true root. Objective: The present study was designed to evaluate the similarities between stem, true root, aerial root and to substantiate the use of aerial root in place of true root. Materials and Methods: Macroscopic, microscopic and histochemical study of fresh samples of stem, aerial root and true root of Amrita was carried out. Results: The distinctive character of stem shows dominant pericyclic fibre and pith. True root is devoid of pith where as aerial root has condensed pith consisting of lignified parenchyma. Conclusion: Specific individual characters of stem and true root and similar characters of aerial root were evident.

  4. QUANTITATIVE ESTIMATION OF SATVA EXTRACTED FROM DIFFERENT STEM SIZES OF GUDUCHI (TINOSPORA CORDIFOLIA (WILLD. MIERS

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    Sharma Rohit

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Tinospora cordifolia (Willd. Miers known as Guduchi in Sanskrit is an important drug of Ayurvedic system of medicine since ancient times. The plant is useful in wide range of diseases like Jwara (fever, Kamala (jaundice, Prameha (diabetes etc. Guduchi Satva, the starchy material of the stem is well-known single drug formulation of Guduchi and is the potent one. Species of the plant, size of the stem, collection time, maturity or immaturity of plant may affect the percentage of Guduchi Satva. Keeping these points in view, an attempt has been made to estimate quantitative variation in Guduchi Satva by using three different sizes of the stem. The results of this study revealed the yield of Guduchi Satva was more in medium size of the stem (1.6-2.0cm than thin size (1.0-1.5cm and thick size (2.1-2.5cm. These findings can be considered in further Pharmaceutical validation of Guduchi Satva.

  5. Parietaria pensylvanicu Mühlenb. ex Willd. - potentialities of migration from park habitats to segetal communities

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    Anna K. Sawilska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Parietaria pensvlvanica Mühlenb ex. Willd is a species native to North America, whose occurrence in Poland was first reported in Bydgoszcz in 1991. Its biology and ecology has been researched since 1996. The present paper discusses measurements and phenological observations carried out on four selected populations during the vegetation season in 1997. The aim of the research was to determine potentialities of the migration of P. pensylvanica from park habitats to segetal communities, on the basis of a defined life strategy of the examined populations. The analysis focused on the dynamics of density and biomass as well as on the weight of 1000 nucules, against the habitat conditions. The findings demonstrated that the investigated species was characterised by a set of life strategy properties referred to as C-S-R or S-R, and was subject to the "r"-type selection. P. pensylvanica has become an integral part of the Bydgoszcz flora and is likely to expand into segetal communities of agricultural and vegetable crops.

  6. Behavior of pubescent oak (Quercus pubescens Willd. wood to different thermal treatments

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    Todaro L

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Quercus pubescens Willd. is a common oak species in the Mediterranean area, where it is currently exploited mainly for purposes such as firewood. To improve the technological properties of its wood, various steaming and/or heat treatments were applied to 160 wood samples from a southern Italian stand, cut from either sapwood or heartwood, while 20 samples served as controls. Steaming was carried out in an autoclave at 120 °C, whereas heat treatments were performed in an oven at 150 or 200 °C for 3 or 6 h. The equilibrium moisture content, swelling, mass loss, wood density, compression strength, color variation, and lignin content of the samples were measured and compared among treatments. The swelling and water adsorption of wood samples decreased due to the hydrothermal treatments. The mass loss was strictly related to the temperature and duration of the heat treatments, whereas it was not influenced by the steaming treatment. The average axial compression strength value was positively influenced by the combination of steaming and heat treatments. A significant and general darkening of color was also observed for the harshest treatments, while an increase of lignin content was detected mainly in the sapwood. Thus, pubescent oak wood subjected to steaming and heat treatments may acquire useful characteristics suitable for its industrial use.

  7. Pharmacognostical evaluation of Acacia catechu willd. heartwood with special reference to tyloses

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    Kinnari Dhruve

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Acacia catechu (L. willd, commonly known as Khadira, is widely used in Ayurveda for the treatment of diseases. A detailed investigation of fresh and powder of heartwood of A. catechu was carried out. The diagnostic characters of heartwood of this plant includes tylosis formation, fibers with prism, fibers with scleroids, fragment of border pitted vessels, starch grains with hylem along with yellowish dark brown colouring matter, lignified fibers and fibers passing through medullary rays. Physicochemical studies revealed loss on drying (7.15%, total ash (2.8%, acid insoluble ash (0.04%, alcohol-soluble extractive (15.78%, water-soluble extractive (12.00% and tannin content in raw drug is (08.28%. Quantitative microscopy includes tyloses, parenchyma length and circumferences. Preliminary analysis of various functional groups revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannin, saponins, carbohydrate, starch, steroid and proteins. The information generated by this particular study will provide relevant pharmacognostical and physicochemical data needed for proper identification and authentication of heartwood of this particular species.

  8. Pharmacognostical evaluation of Launaea sarmentosa (Willd.) schultz-bip.ex Kuntze root.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salih, Yusriyya; Harisha, C R; Shukla, Vinay J; Acharya, Rabinarayan

    2013-01-01

    Launaea sarmentosa (Willd) Schultz-Bip.ex Kuntze (Asteraceae), locally known as Kulhafila in the Maldives, is a creeping herb, native to tropical Indian coastlines. According to anecdotal evidence from locals in the Maldives, the roots of this plant are used as an ingredient of a popular medicinal preparation (Hilibeys) taken by mothers after childbirth. It is also used in various other ailments in different parts of the Maldives, as well as in India. So far, there has been no scientific documentation of this plant. The only source of information available is held by natives and traditional medical practitioners. The present study was conducted on the root of L. sarmentosa for its pharmacognostical and phytochemical characteristics as per Ayurvedic Pharmacopoea of India (API) parameters. The microscopic characteristics of the root show prismatic crystals, multiseriate medullary rays, laticiferous cells, and pitted parenchyma. Qualitative analyses, such as loss on drying, ash value, pH, etc., were conducted. Preliminary phytochemical screening shows the presence of alkaloids, tannin, steroids, etc. PMID:24049412

  9. Cytotoxic activity of the methanolic extract of Turnera diffusa Willd on breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avelino-Flores, María Del Carmen; Cruz-López, María del Carmen; Jiménez-Montejo, Fabiola E; Reyes-Leyva, Julio

    2015-03-01

    Turnera diffusa Willd, commonly known as Damiana, is employed in traditional medicine as a stimulant, aphrodisiac, and diuretic. Its leaves and stems are used for flavoring and infusion. Damiana is considered to be safe for medicinal use by the FDA. Pharmacological studies have established the hypoglycemic, antiaromatase, prosexual, estrogenic, antibacterial, and antioxidant activity of T. diffusa. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the possible cytotoxic effect of extracts and organic fractions of this plant on five tumor cell lines (SiHa, C-33, Hep G2, MDA-MB-231, and T-47D) and normal human fibroblasts. The results show that the methanolic extract (TdM) displayed greater activity on MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells (with an IC50 of 30.67 μg/mL) than on the other cancer cell lines. Four organic fractions of this extract exhibited activity on this cancer cell line. In the most active fraction (F4), two active compounds were isolated, arbutin (1) and apigenin (2). This is the first report of a cytotoxic effect by T. diffusa on cancer cells. The IC50 values suggest that the methanolic extract of T. diffusa has potential as an anticancer therapy. PMID:25299247

  10. The Hedyotis diffusa Willd. (Rubiaceae: A Review on Phytochemistry, Pharmacology, Quality Control and Pharmacokinetics

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    Rui Chen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Hedyotis diffusa Willd (H. diffusa is a well-known Chinese medicine with a variety of activities, especially its anti-cancer effect in the clinic. Up to now, 171 compounds have been reported from H. diffusa, including 32 iridoids, 26 flavonoids, 24 anthraquinones, 26 phenolics and their derivatives, 50 volatile oils and 13 miscellaneous compounds. In vitro and in vivo studies show these phytochemicals and plant extracts to exhibit a range of pharmacological activities of anti-cancer, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-fibroblast, immunomodulatory and neuroprotective effects. Although a series of methods have been established for the quality control of H. diffusa, a feasible and reliable approach is still needed in consideration of its botanical origin, collecting time and bioactive effects. Meanwhile, more pharmacokinetics researches are needed to illustrate the characteristics of H. diffusa in vivo. The present review aims to provide up-to-date and comprehensive information on the phytochemistry, pharmacology, quality control and pharmacokinetic characteristics of H. diffusa for its clinical use and further development.

  11. The Hedyotis diffusa Willd. (Rubiaceae): A Review on Phytochemistry, Pharmacology, Quality Control and Pharmacokinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rui; He, Jingyu; Tong, Xueli; Tang, Lan; Liu, Menghua

    2016-01-01

    Hedyotis diffusa Willd (H. diffusa) is a well-known Chinese medicine with a variety of activities, especially its anti-cancer effect in the clinic. Up to now, 171 compounds have been reported from H. diffusa, including 32 iridoids, 26 flavonoids, 24 anthraquinones, 26 phenolics and their derivatives, 50 volatile oils and 13 miscellaneous compounds. In vitro and in vivo studies show these phytochemicals and plant extracts to exhibit a range of pharmacological activities of anti-cancer, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-fibroblast, immunomodulatory and neuroprotective effects. Although a series of methods have been established for the quality control of H. diffusa, a feasible and reliable approach is still needed in consideration of its botanical origin, collecting time and bioactive effects. Meanwhile, more pharmacokinetics researches are needed to illustrate the characteristics of H. diffusa in vivo. The present review aims to provide up-to-date and comprehensive information on the phytochemistry, pharmacology, quality control and pharmacokinetic characteristics of H. diffusa for its clinical use and further development. PMID:27248992

  12. EVALUATION OF THE DNA POLYMORPHISM OF SIX VARIETIES OF CHENOPODIUM QUINOA WILLD, USING AFLP

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    Nolasco, Oscar

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The grain of Chenopodium quinoaWilld. (Quinua is important worldwide for its high nutritional value, being the principal source of proteins of the settlers of the Peruvian Bolivian altiplano. In the process of the care and maintenance of the species in the germplasm banks for quinua there have been programs developed to allow the evaluation of genetic variation to increase the quality of the grain, the resistance to diseases, and dryness tolerance and to modulate the content of saponins. A current question is to discriminate among the varieties using molecular sensitive technologies like the RAPDs, microsatellites, RFLP; our aim was to evaluate the polymorphism of six varieties of quinua using AFLP's technology (Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism. Varieties of quinua: Quillahuaman INIA (Q, Mantaro (M, Hualhuas (H, Real Boliviana (B, Salcedo INIA(S and Illpa INIA(I, were evaluated in combinations of five pairs of primers using adapters for EcoRI and MseI to determine their polymorphisms. Our results found three combinations of major polymorphism E33/M60, E32/M48 and E32/M61, that we were able to discriminate against the variety Mantaro (M as a variety removed from the others of the southern Peruvian altiplano – Bolivian, according to UPGMAanalysis. This combination of primers also discriminate the varieties Illpa INIA and Salcedo INIA as being varieties obtained by crossings for genetic improvement.

  13. Management of Madhumehajanya Vrana (diabetic wound) with Katupila (Securinega leucopyrus [Willd] Muell.) Kalka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajmeer, Ahamed Shahan; Dudhamal, Tukaram S.; Gupta, Sanjay Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Prevalence of diabetes and its complications have been a burden to the society from the ancient times, in the present and also will be in the future unless proper measures are taken to prevent its manifestation. There have been an increasing number of death associated-amputation cases which are mainly caused by nonhealing wounds. These facts urge researchers to develop new, more effective wound treatments for diabetic patients. Aim: To evaluate and compare the effect of Katupila Kalka (Securinega leucopyrus [Willd.] Muell. leaf paste) and Tila Taila (Sesamum indicum oil) in Madhumehajanya Vrana (diabetic wounds/ulcers) with Betadine ointment. Materials and Methods: A total of 23 patients of Madhumehajanya Vrana were chosen and randomly divided into two groups (Group A and B). Patients of Group A were treated with local application of Katupila Kalka with Tila Taila, whereas, in Group B, Betadine ointment was applied on the affected parts, once a day in the morning for 30 days. The relief in signs and symptoms were assessed on scoring pattern. Results: In Group A, diabetic wounds treated with Katupila paste got healed within 28 days with minimal scar formation without any complications, whereas in Group B, wound was healed completely only in two patients within 28 days. In both the groups, no patients reported any adverse drug reaction during the entire course of treatment as well as in follow-up period. Conclusion: Study concluded that the drug Katupila Kalka possesses Vrana Ropana (wound healing) activity with fine scaring.

  14. Seed and Saponin Production of Organic Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. for different Tillage and Fertilization

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    Dimitrios BILALIS

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Field experiment was conducted to determine the effects of tillage systems and fertilization on growth, yield and quality of quinoa crop (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.. The experiment was laid out in a split-plot design with four replicates, two main plots [conventional tillage (CT and minimum tillage (MT] and three sub-plots (fertilization treatments: control, cow manure and compost. The soil porosity (45.5-49.75% and total nitrogen (0.144-0.173% were higher in soils subjected to MT system than under CT. In soil porosity, an interaction between fertilization and tillage system was found. The highest leaf area index (4.47-5.03, dry weight (8650-9290 kg ha-1 and root density (1.03-1.21 cm cm-3 were also found in MT. Moreover, there were significant differences between the organic fertilization treatments concerning the LAI, dry weight and root density. The highest seed yield (2485-2643 kg ha-1 and saponin content (0.42-0.45% were found in cow manure and compost treatments. Also, the highest saponin yield (7.70-12.05 kg ha-1 was found in the MT system. Saponin yield had positive and significant correlation with total N (r=0.866. In quinoa measurements, an interaction between fertilization and tillage system was not found. The present results indicated that MT and organic fertilization increase saponin yield of quinoa.

  15. Ecophysiological Analysis of Drought and Salinity Stress Quinoa (Chenopodium Quinoa Willd.

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    Bosque Sanchez, H.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available We have studied the relative influence of drought and salinity stress, with similar soil water potentials on growth, water relations and photosynthetic rate of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd., testing at the same time certain techniques of stress physiology studies. As treatments, we have imposed two levels of salinity stress (S1 = 3852, 8 mg. V-1 NaCI and S2 = 8051.2 mg. V-1 NaCI and two of levels of drought stress with-0.159 MPa (D1 and -0, 279 MPa (D2 of soil water potentials (f^, and the control (c treatment without stress (65 % of volumetric soil water content, i. e. ¥m = -0.059 MPa. Our results of the greenhouse experiment have shown that quinoa has better relative and absolute growth rate in saline conditions, and the plant have developed adaptations mechanisms to drought through higher water use efficiency and high root/shoot ratio. The stomatal resistance and leaf water potential were higher as higher were the stress conditions. The variable chlorophyll fluoresence to maximal chlorophyll fluorescence-ratio (Fv/Fm and the fluorescence quenching analysis (photochemical : qP and non-photochemical : qN have shown the plants under drought stress are less protected against photoinhibition. Finally the use of Dynamic Diffusion Porometer has limitations for studies of plants species with salt bladders as quinoa.

  16. Evaluation of growth and flowering of Chenopodium quinoa Willd. under Polish conditions

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    Krzysztof Gęsiński

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The material presented refers to the estimation of growth and the flowering (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. under Polish conditions. The species has been a South-American pseudocereal cultivated in the traditional form in the Andean region for over 5 thousand years. Its advantage, apart from low soil and climate requirements, is that it shows high nutritive value. The Chenopodium quinoa protein is especially valuable with its amino acid composition which is better balanced than that of wheat or maize. It shows a better share of egzogenic aminoacids. Field examinations were carried out in 1999-2001 at the Experiment Station of Cultivar Testing at Chrząstowo. The experiment involved two cultivars from two various growing regions: America and Europe. Analyses were made to include development stages, plant growth dynamics, inflorescences development dynamics, inflorescence habit and flowering. Differences were recorded in the growth and development models of the cultivars researched. The European cultivar had a short compact inflorescence with a short flowering period, reaching 120 cm. American cultivar plants were high (160 cm; they showed a slower continuous growth, loose big-in-size inflorescence, and a long period of flowering. The plants ended their growing season over the flowering stage or seed formation. The adequate growth, the course of flowering and, as a result, a stable yielding of the European cultivar make the group suitable for the cultivation under Polish conditions. This breeding group should also be the parent material for the cultivation of the Polish cultivar of Chenopodium quinoa.

  17. Effects of extracts from Gynura bicolor (Roxb. & Willd. DC. on iron bioavailability in rats

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    Chih-Chung Wu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Gynura bicolor (Roxb. & Willd. DC. is widely distributed in certain areas of Asia and is very popular in vegetarian cuisine in Taiwan. This study investigates the effects of G. bicolor extracts with different polarities of 80 mg/kg body weight (BW G. bicolor alcohol extract, 80 mg/kg BW G. bicolor water extract, and 80 mg/kg BW G. bicolor ether extract on Fe bioavailability using the hemoglobin repletion efficiency assay. Wistar rats were assigned to five groups: a group receiving an iron-deficient (ID diet; a group receiving an ID diet supplemented with ferrous sulfate (20 mg Fe/kg BW; and three groups receiving ID diets supplemented with ferrous sulfate and one of G. bicolor alcohol extract, G. bicolor water extract, or G. bicolor water extract. The results indicated that the levels of hemoglobin, serum iron, serum ferritin, liver ferritin, hemoglobin regeneration efficiency, relative biological value, and hepcidin all were significantly higher than those of the ID diet group. Besides, the iron transporter divalent metal transporter-1 was significantly reduced, but iron release protein expression of ferroportin was significantly increased. It was concluded that G. bicolor extracts may promote iron bioavailability and regulate the expressions of divalent metal transporter-1 and ferroportin.

  18. PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL AND INVITRO CYTOTOXIC ACTIVITY OF THE LEAVES OF Asparagus racemosus Willd., (Liliaceae

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    K. Durai Prabakaran

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Asparagus racemosus Willd.(Shatavari is a well known plant in Ayurvedic systems of medicine. ‘Shatavari’ is a reputed classical drug and said to possess therapeutic properties as Rasayana drugs of Ayurveda. The present study is aimed at the development of phytochemical parameters and invitro cytotoxic activity of various extracts of the leaves of Asparagus racemosus plant. The plant material was successively extracted with solvents of increasing polarity namely n-Hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and ethanol in a soxhlet extractor. Preliminary phytochemical tests, fluorescence analysis, thin layer chromatography and high performance thin layer chromatographic studies were carried out for all the extracts. Chloroform, ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts were screened for invitro cytotoxic activity by MTT assay using EAC (Ehrlich’s Ascites Carcinoma cell line. The preliminary phytochemical analysis of various extracts of the leaves showed the presence of carbohydrates, tannins, phenolic compounds, sterols and flavonoids. The chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts showed significant cytotoxic activity when compared to ethanol extract against the above mentioned cancer cell line.

  19. Processing of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa, Willd): effects on in vitro iron availability and phytate hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia, S; Svanberg, U; Sandberg, A S; Ruales, J

    1999-05-01

    The effect of different processing techniques was studied on in vitro iron availability and phytate hydrolysis in high and low saponin content quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa, Willd) seeds. Water slurries of ungerminated and germinated quinoa flour were processed by cooking, soaking, and fermentation using Lactobacillus plantarum as starter. Iron solubility under physiological conditions (in vitro) was measured and used as an estimation of iron availability. Phytate (inositol hexaphosphate/IP6) and its degradation products were analysed by an HPLC method. The IP6 + IP5 content was reduced by cooking with 4 to 8%, germination with 35 to 39%, soaking with 61 to 76% and by fermentation with 82 to 98%. The highest reduction, about 98%, was obtained after fermentation of the germinated flour. Cooking had no effect on the amount of soluble iron. Iron solubility increased, however, two to four times after soaking and germination, three to five times after fermentation and five to eight times after fermentation of the germinated flour samples and was highly correlated to the reduction of IP6 + IP5 (P quinoa varieties with regard to phytate reduction and iron solubility. The pH in fermented samples was reduced from 6.5 to about 3.5, due to lactic acid formation. PMID:10627836

  20. Purification and properties of S-alkyl-L-cysteine lyase from seedlings of Acacia farnesiana Willd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazelis, M; Creveling, R K

    1975-06-01

    1. An S-alkyl-L-cysteine lyase (EC 4.4.1.6) was purified to apparent homogeneity from extracts of acetone-dried powders of the hypocotyls of etiolated 5-day-old seedlings of Acacia farnesiana Willd. 2. The enzyme catalyses a beta-elimination reaction and will utilize both the thioether and sulphoxide form of the substrate. 3. There is a braod specificity with regard to the alkyl substituent, but cystathionine is utilized very poorly. 4. The pH optimum is 7.8 and the Km value for the probable natural substrate L-djenkolate is 0.3 mM. 5. Both sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis and ultracentirfugal analysis give a molecular weight of about 144000. 6. One mol of pyridoxal phosphate is bound/mol of enzyme. 7. The energy of activation with L-djenkolate as the substrate is 53.1 kJ/mol. 8. The enzyme has a partial specific volume of 0.56 and S20,w 7.26S. PMID:241329

  1. Inhibitory Effects of Ethyl Acetate Extract of Andrographis paniculata on NF-κB Trans-Activation Activity and LPS-Induced Acute Inflammation in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Wen-Wan Chao; Yueh-Hsiung Kuo; Shie-Liang Hsieh; Bi-Fong Lin

    2011-01-01

    This study was to investigate anti-inflammatory effect of Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Nees (Acanthaceae) (AP). The effects of ethyl acetate (EtOAc) extract from AP on the level of inflammatory mediators were examined first using nuclear factor kappa B (NF- κ B) driven luciferase assay. The results showed that AP significantly inhibited NF- κ B luciferase activity and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF- α ), interleukin 6 (IL-6), macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2) and nitric oxide (NO)...

  2. Assessment on Functionality and Viability of Beta Cells Following Repetitive Dosage Administration of Ethanolic Extracts of Andrographis paniculata on Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Zaini, A; A Mariam; Amirin, S; Abdul Razak, K

    2010-01-01

    The study was done at the aim to assess the functionality and viability of the beta cells of the streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats model following repetitive dosage of administration of ethanolic extracts of Andrographis paniculata. Materials and Methods: The diabetic rats were treated with the extracts for fourteen days and at the dose given was 500 mg/kg twice daily. The assessments were made on fasting blood glucose, insulin, and immunohistochemical aspect of beta cells before and after...

  3. Anti-Infective Metabolites of a Newly Isolated Bacillus thuringiensis KL1 Associated with Kalmegh (Andrographis paniculata Nees.), a Traditional Medicinal Herb

    OpenAIRE

    Sudipta Roy; Sahana Yasmin; Subhadeep Ghosh; Somesankar Bhattacharya; Debdulal Banerjee

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to isolate endophytic bacteria possessing anti-infective property from Kalmegh (Andrographis paniculata Nees.), a well-known medicinal plant. A total of 23 strains were isolated from this plant among which the strain KL1, isolated from surface-sterilized leaf of this medicinal herb, showed broad-spectrum antagonism against an array of Gram-positive and -negative bacterial pathogens. Ethyl acetate extract of KL1-fermented media yielded a greenish amorphous substance re...

  4. In Vitro anti-diabetic activity of aqueous extract of the medicinal plants Nigella sativa, Eugenia jambolana, Andrographis paniculata and Gymnema sylvestre

    OpenAIRE

    Arunachalam Sathiavelu; Sundaramoorthy Sangeetha; Rastogi Archit; Sathiavelu Mythili

    2013-01-01

    Objective: In vitro analysis of the anti-diabetic effect of aqueous extracts of the medicinal plants Nigella sativa, Eugenia jambolana, Andrographis paniculata, Gymnema sylvestre. Methods: Aqueous extracts of the plants were prepared by maceration. They were then tested for inhibition of alpha-amylase activity by DNSA colour reagent. They were tested for their ability to hinder diffusion of glucose across a dialysis membrane. Results: The aqueous extract of Nigella sativa showed maximum inhib...

  5. Anti-malarial activities of Andrographis paniculata and Hedyotis corymbosa extracts and their combination with curcumin

    OpenAIRE

    Swain Bijay K; Dash Aditya P; Mishra Kirti; Dey Nrisingha

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Herbal extracts of Andrographis paniculata (AP) and Hedyotis corymbosa (HC) are known as hepato-protective and fever-reducing drugs since ancient time and they have been used regularly by the people in the south Asian sub-continent. Methanolic extracts of these two plants were tested in vitro on choloroquine sensitive (MRC-pf-20) and resistant (MRC-pf-303) strains of Plasmodium falciparum for their anti-malarial activity. Methods Growth inhibition was determined using diff...

  6. Evaluation of the anaphylactoid potential of Andrographis paniculata extracts using the popliteal lymph node assay and P815 cell degranulation in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Xuguang; Wen, Ya; Liu, Shasha; Luo, Jiabo; Tan, Xiaomei; Li, Zhiheng; Lu, Xinhua; Long, Xiaoying

    2015-01-01

    Background The anaphylactoid reactions induced by andrographis injection have repeatedly been reported. The aim of our study was to evaluate the immuno-sensitizing potential of extracts from Andrographis paniculata Nees and to screen for the constituent that is responsible for inducing the anaphylactoid reaction. Methods In the direct popliteal lymph node assay (D-PLNA), female BALB/c mice were randomly divided into several groups with ten mice per group according to the experiment design, th...

  7. Two phases of response to long-term moderate heat: Variation in thermotolerance between Arabidopsis thaliana and its relative Arabis paniculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ting; Liu, Peile; Zheng, Guowei; Li, Weiqi

    2016-02-01

    Long-term moderate heat is often experienced by plants and will become even more common in the future due to global warming. However, the responses of plants to this stress have not been characterised. In the present study, growth between Arabidopsis thaliana and its relative Arabis paniculata upon long-term exposure to moderate heat was compared. It was found that the latter was more tolerant than the former, and the patterns of physiological and biochemical responses of both plants presented two phases. The early phase involved no significant visible morphological and physiological changes. It occurred during the first third of the heat treatment and was extended when the stress was attenuated. During the later phase, the plants died or were damaged. Heat shock proteins were dramatically induced at the early phase and gradually decreased at the later phase in A. thaliana. By contrast, the levels were induced and maintained in A. paniculata. Profiling of membrane lipids found that the two plants exhibited opposite patterns of lipid remodelling at the early phase: A. paniculata synthesised phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylinositol and showed a rapid decrease in the degree of lipid unsaturation, while A. thaliana degraded its lipids at the early phase and showed an accelerated degradation at the later phase. These biochemical adjustments during the early phase could favor the thermotolerance of A. paniculata. These results suggest that this species could thus be a model for the study of resistance to long-term moderate heat, through a strategy by which plants can adapt to long-term moderate heat. PMID:26782026

  8. Validation of a high performance liquid chromatography method for quantitation of L-proline in 20 % tincture from Murraya paniculata L. Jack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The search for analytical methods that may monitor the quality of drugs is an issue of great interest in the pharmaceutical field, even more if they are directed to studying chemical markers of medicinal plants, their extracts and phytomedicines. To validate a high-resolution liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for the quantitative determination of the L-proline amino acid as a marker substance in Murraya paniculata L. Jack tincture

  9. Inhibition of group IIA secretory phospholipase A2and its inflammatory reactions in mice by ethanolic extract of Andrographis paniculata, a well-known medicinal food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Kishore

    2016-01-01

    This study emphasis the anti-inflammatory effect of A. paniculata by inhibiting the inflammatory Group IIA sPLA2 and its associated inflammatory activities such as edema. It was found that there is a strong correlation between lipolytic activity and pro-inflammatory activity inhibition. Therefore, the study suggests that the extract processes potent anti-inflammatory agents, which could be developed as a potential therapeutic agent against inflammatory and related diseases.

  10. 海南穿心莲野生资源调查初报%A Preliminary Report on Wild Resource of Andrographis paniculata in Hainan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎明; 陈光宙; 陈道运; 王清隆; 张燕

    2013-01-01

    通过参阅相关文献,搜集整理研究基础资料,并进行实地走访,了解穿心莲的野生分布、种质类型、数量、人工栽培和偏方利用等情况,并从穿心莲的种类、分布及生长状况等方面对海南各地野生的穿心莲资源进行调查研究,为穿心莲的进一步开发利用提供依据.%Through referring relevant literatures,collecting research basic data and interviewing,the wild distribution,germplasm types,quantity,artificial cultivation and folk prescription use of Andrographis paniculata were investigated,wild A.paniculata in Hainan were studied from aspects of species,distribution and growth status,which will provide reference for further development and utilization of A.paniculata.

  11. Characterization of a Plasmopara species on Ambrosia artemisiifolia, and notes on P. halstedii, based on morphology and multiple gene phylogenies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Young-Joon; Kiss, Levente; Vajna, László; Shin, Hyeon-Dong

    2009-10-01

    Common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) is an invasive and highly allergenic plant species, on which two species, Plasmopara halstedii and Plasmopara angustiterminalis, have been recognized to cause downy mildew disease. In this study, morphological and molecular patterns of seven Plasmopara specimens collected from A. artemisiifolia in Canada, Hungary, and USA were compared with those of P. halstedii and P. angustiterminalis from Helianthus and Xanthium, respectively. Analyses of partial sequences of three genes, namely those for the large subunit (28S) of rDNA, cytochrome c oxidase subunit II (COX2), and NADH dehydrogenase subunit I (ND1) of mtDNA, were carried out to examine the phylogenetic relationships among these specimens using both Bayesian and maximum parsimony methods. All the phylogenetic analyses revealed that the downy mildew pathogens infecting A. artemisiifolia in Hungary and North America clearly represent a lineage distinct from other Plasmopara taxa investigated. The shape of sporangia and the width of trunks and branches also allowed the separation of the specimens parasitic to A. artemisiifolia from P. halstedii on Helianthus annuus and P. angustiterminalis on Xanthium strumarium. Surprisingly, the Hungarian and the Canadian specimens were more closely related to each other than to those from the USA based on COX2 and ND1 mtDNA data, although the D1/D2/D3 sequences of 28S rDNA were identical in all these Plasmopara specimens. The regional distribution of the mtDNA haplotypes seen in this study suggests a transatlantic migration has occurred and would be interesting to follow up with a more detailed sampling. To investigate the diversity within P. halstedii sensu lato, infecting different host plant species, specimens from six asteraceous genera, Ambrosia, Flaveria, Helianthus, Siegesbeckia, Solidago, and Xanthium, were also included in molecular analyses. These represented six distinct lineages according to the host plant genera. These

  12. Invasive alien species giant ragweed (Ambrosia trifida L.) and its risk assessment%外来入侵物种三裂叶豚草(Ambrosia trifida L.)及其风险分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏守辉; 曲哲; 张朝贤; 李咏军; 李香菊

    2006-01-01

    外来入侵物种严重威胁着农业生产、生态安全及人类健康,已成为世界各国广泛关注和研究的热点.本文对外来杂草三裂叶豚草(Ambrosia trifida L.)的起源和分布、生物生态学特性、经济和生态影响及其控制管理措施等进行了系统综述.根据生物生态学特性、潜在风险及管理控制的难度等指标,初步建立了外来杂草的风险评估体系.应用该体系对三裂叶豚草进行了风险评估,得出其风险值为83,属高度危险的检疫性有害生物.

  13. Características Físico-Químicas, Nutricionais e Formas de Consumo da Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.)

    OpenAIRE

    João T. Borges; Renata C. Bonomo; Cláudia D. Paula; Ludmilla C Oliveira; Márcia C. Cesário

    2010-01-01

    A quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) é uma planta da família Chenopodiaceae, cultivada em diferentes regiões na América do Sul, especialmente nos Andes, tendo sido recentemente introduzida na Europa, América do Norte, Ásia e África. No Brasil, seu consumo é limitado devido ao alto custo do grão importado, ao desconhecimento da população e à baixa disponibilidade de cultivares adaptadas às condições locais. O presente trabalho tem por objetivo revisar os aspectos relacionados à com...

  14. [Chemical and biological evaluation of quinua (Chenopodium quinoa Willd). Effect of the extraction of saponins by heat treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellería Rios, M L; Sgarbieri, V C; Amaya, J

    1978-09-01

    The changes in proximate composition, amino acid content and protein efficiency ratio (PER) caused by hot-water extraction of the saponins were studied in four Bolivian varieties of quinua (Chenopodium quinoa, Willd). Detectable saponin was eliminated with an extraction at 70 degrees C. Extraction at 87 degrees C also eliminated the saponins but, in addition, had the tendency of slightly increasing the protein amino acid content. The maximum PER obtained was 2.99 for the Blanca variety, followed by 2.72 for the Sajama variety, also extracted at 87 degrees C (casein gave a PER value of 3.21). PMID:572664

  15. Nitratos, oxalatos y alcaloides en dos etapas fenológicas de quinua (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) en riego y temporal

    OpenAIRE

    Arturo Gutiérrez Larrazabal; Marcos Soto Hernández; Cándido López Castañeda; Germán D. Mendoza Martínez; Armando García Velásquez; Ma. Carmen Mendoza Castillo

    2004-01-01

    El objetivo del presente estudio fue caracterizar 10 variedades de quinua (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) y una variedad de quelite cenizo (Chenopodium album L.), de diferente color de planta y producción de materia seca en la parte aérea, por su contenido de nitratos y oxalatos en planta completa (NPC, OPC), en hojas (NH, OH) y en tallos (NT, OT), y la presencia de alcaloides en planta completa en las etapas de botón floral y floración en condiciones de riego y temporal o se...

  16. Water relations and transpiration of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) under salinity and soil drying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Razzaghi, Fatemeh; Ahmadi, Seyed Hamid; Adolf, Verena Isabelle;

    2011-01-01

    Drought and salinity are the two major factors limiting crop growth and production in arid and semi-arid regions. The separate and combined effects of salinity and progressive drought in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) were studied in a greenhouse experiment. Stomatal conductance (gs), leaf...... reached 0.42 or lower, but under the saline conditions of PD10 and PD20, the threshold values of RAW were 0.67 and 0.96, respectively. In conclusion, due to the additive effect of osmotic and matric potential during soil drying on soil water availability, quinoa should be re-irrigated at higher RAW in...

  17. Podredumbres basales de Gypsophila paniculata (Caryophyllaceae: Agentes causales y su patogenicidad potencial sobre Dianthus caryophyllus (Caryophyllaceae Basal rots of Gypsophila paniculata (Caryophyllaceae: Causal agents and its potential pathogenicity on Dianthus caryophyllus (Caryophyllaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia María Wolcan

    Full Text Available Los objetivos del trabajo fueron identificar a los agentes causales de las podredumbres basales de Gypsophila paniculata en la Argentina y probar su posible patogenicidad sobre Dianthus caryophyllus . A partir de plantas con síntomas de «podredumbre de la corona» (la más importante se aislaron en orden decreciente: Fusarium solani , F. oxysporum , Phytophthora nicotianae , Rhizoctonia solani , F. graminearum , F. verticillioides, F. equiseti y Pythium sp. y de plantas con «podredumbre basal del tallo» F. graminearum , F. oxysporum y F. solani . Con distintas cepas de cada hongo se hicieron pruebas de patogenicidad mediante la infestación del suelo y el depósito de inóculo en heridas producidas en los tallos. En la «podredumbre de la corona» fueron patógenos P. nicotianae causando decaimiento rápido de la parte aérea y podredumbre blanda de la corona y R. solani causando una pudrición más lenta y tejidos desintegrados. F. graminearum fue el patógeno de la «podredumbre basal del tallo» de gipsofila, que se describe por primera vez en este hospedante , comprobando que el hongo penetra sólo por heridas del tallo. En condiciones de inoculación se confirmó que algunas cepas de R. solani y de F. graminearum aisladas de gipsofila pueden ser patógenas de clavel mientras que sólo algunas de P. nicotianae resultaron patógenas débiles.The aims of the paper were to determine the causal agents of basal rots of Gypsophila paniculata in Argentina, and to evaluate its possible pathogenicity on Dianthus caryophyllus. Fusarium solani, F. oxysporum , Phytophthora nicotianae , Rhizoctonia solani , F. graminearum , F. verticilloides, F. equiseti and Pythium sp. were isolated in decreasing order from plants with symptoms of «crown rot» (the major basal rot. F. graminearum , F. oxysporum and F. solani were isolated from plants with «basal stem rot». Inoculations of gypsophila were performed by soil infestation and by placing inoculum on

  18. Phase II, Title I engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings, Phillips/United Nuclear Site, Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-12-01

    An engineering assessment was performed of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at the Phillips/United Nuclear site at Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico. Services included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings, and radiometric measurements to determine radium-contaminated materials, the evaluation of resulting radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigation of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas release from the 2.6 million tons of tailings at the Phillips/United Nuclear site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation are also factors. The estimated radiological health effects to the general population are considered to be minimal. The two alternative actions presented are: dike stabilization, fencing, and maintenance; and adding 2 ft of stabilization cover material. Both options include remedial action at off-site structures and on-site decontamination around the tailings pile. Cost estimates for the two options are $920,000 and $2,230,000, respectively.

  19. ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAL COLONIZATION OF LARREA TRIDENTATA AND AMBROSIA DUMOSA ROOTS VARIES WITH PRECIPITATION AND SEASON IN THE MOJAVE DESERT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. E. APPLE; C. I. THEE; V. L. SMITH-LONGOZO; C. R. COGAR; C. E. WELLS; R. S. NOWAK

    2004-01-01

    The percentage of fine roots colonized by arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi varied with season and with species in the co-dominant shrubs Lurreu tridentutu and Ambrosia dumosu at a site adjacent to the Nevada Desert FACE (Free-Air CO{sub 2} Enrichment) Facility (NDFF) in the Mojave Desert. We excavated downward and outward from the shrub bases in both species to collect and examine fine roots (< 1.0 mm diameter) at monthly intervals throughout 2001 and from October 2002 to September 2003. Fungal structures became visible in cleared roots stained with trypan blue. We quantified the percent colonization of roots by AM fungi via the line intercept method. In both years and for both species, colonization was highest in fall, relatively low in spring when root growth began, increased in late spring, and decreased during summer drought periods. Increases in colonization during summer and fall reflect corresponding increases in precipitation. Spring mycorrhizal colonization is low despite peaks in soil water availability and precipitation, indicating that precipitation is not the only factor influencing mycorrhizal colonization. Because the spring decrease in mycorrhizal colonization occurs when these shrubs initiate a major flush of fine root growth, other phenological events such as competing demands for carbon by fine root initiation, early season shoot growth, and flowering may reduce carbon availability to the fungus, and hence decrease colonization. Another possibility is that root growth exceeds the rate of mycorrhizal colonization.

  20. AGE OF SEGREGATION OF JUVENILE AND MATURE Platanus x acerifolia (Ait. Willd WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darci Alberto Gatto

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This study determined the maturation age of Platanus x acerifolia (Ait. Willd., through anatomical characteristics of thewood by means of the segregation of the juvenile-mature wood. Three adult trees were elected, of appropriate trunk and with diameterlarger than at 40 cm (48, 41 and 46 cm the 1.30 m of height. Discs with 2 cm of thickness at 0.1 m of height of the trunk were used.From each disc it was removed a central part of 2 cm of width, that was divided at the pith in samples A and B . Only one samplewas selected and the initial wood of each growth ring was separated for maceration (method of Jeffrey. Departing from the pith, thelength, diameter and the lumen of thirty staple fibres in each growth ring were measured. The thickness of the walls of fibers was takenas the half of the difference of the diameter of the fiber and the lumen. The segregation of the two types of wood was defined by the radialvariation (pith-bark of the anatomical characteristics (length, diameter, width of the lumen and thickness of the wall of fibers,through two simple linear regressions. The results indicate that the fiber length is the best characteristic for defining the segregationage. The age of segregation of juvenile-mature wood was defined as 14 years-old. In turn, the anatomical parameters, diameter offibers, width of the lumen and thickness of the wall of fibers were found inadequate for estimating the age of segregation.

  1. Pharmacognostical and phytochemical evaluation of the leaves of Ziziphus xylopyrus (Retz Willd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upendra B Gandagule

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The fruit decoction of Ziziphus xylopyrus (Retz Willd. is used toward increase sterility in woman intended birth control in some parts of Rajasthan, India. This plant is widely used in Turkish medicines as a potent sedative. One to two inches of the fresh stem bark of this species are chewed with 1-2 peppers, and the sap swallowed once a day for 5 days in the treatment of cough. Standardization is one of the challenges in herbal medicine. It is essential to evaluate the herbal plants scientifically and proper documentation should be made to know their medicinal properties. Materials and Methods: Leaf samples of Z. xylopyrus were studied as recommended by World Health Organization for morphological, microscopic, physicochemical, phytochemical, powder characteristics and other methods for standardization. Results: Morphologically the leaves are obovate or orbicular in shape, pinnate venation having aromatic odour and pungent taste. Microscopically leaves showed the presence of ground tissue, vascular strand, xylem and phloem. The crystals are mostly rosette type. Microscopic examination of powder showed the presence of stomata, covering trichomes, sclerenchyma, collenchyma, epidermal cells and vascular strands. Phytochemical screening of the plant part with various solvents revealed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, steroids and sterol, glycosides, saponins, flavonoids, phenolic compounds, triterpenoids in it. Physicochemical parameters such as ash value extractive values were also determined and results showed that water soluble extractive value to be higher than alcohol soluble extractive value. Conclusion: Results may be helpful for further confirmation of selected species and in future these characters may be compared with the new batch of the same plant materials.

  2. Rapid in vitro multiplication of the ethnomedicinal shrub, Acacia caesia (L.) Willd. (Mimosaceae) from leaf explants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Thambiraj J; Paulsamy S

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To develop an efficient protocol for in vitro multiplication of the ethnomedicinal shrub Acacia caesia (A. caesia) L. Willd., Methods: Leaf explants were inoculated on MS medium supplemented with TDZ and NAA for callus induction. Subculturing experiments were conducted by using leaf derived calli for shoot proliferation on MS medium fortified with various growth regulators like IBA, TDZ, BAP and GA3. The regenerated shoots were rooted in half strength MS medium supplemented with various concentrations of IBA, IAA and Kn. After roots were developed, the plantlets were transplanted to pots filled with garden soil, sand and vermicompost and kept in growth chamber with 70%-80%humidity under16h photoperiod. After acclimatization, the plantlets were transferred to the garden and survival percentage was calculated. Data were statistically analyzed and means were compared using Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (P<0.05). Results: An in vitro multiplication protocol was developed for the locally demanded medicinal plant species, A. caesia by using leaf explant. The study revealed that the callus formation was effective in MS medium containing TDZ and NAA at 1.5 and 0.3 mg/L respectively. Shoot induction was most successful in MS medium supplemented with combination of the auxin, IBA and cytokinin, TDZ at 2.0 and 0.5 mg/L respectively. A single leaf explant was capable of producing 12 shoots/callus after 30 days of culture. The other supplementation in MS medium with IBA and Kn at 2.0 and 0.4 mg/L respectively produced higher rooting frequency, roots/shoot and root length. The survivability rate of leaf callus derived plantlets was significantly higher (84%) in the hardening medium composed by garden soil, sand and vermicompost (1:1:1) by volume. Conclusions: A significant progress has been made in the in vitro regeneration system of this medicinally important plant species, A.caesia.

  3. Sedative activity of methanolic extract of Glochidion multiloculare (Rottler ex Willd) Voigt leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, M Sekendar; Al Mamun, M Abdullah; Abu Sayeed, Mohammed; Rahman, Mohammad S; Rashid, Mohammad A

    2014-04-01

    Bangladesh is a good repository of medicinal plants. Traditional healers utilize them for treating many pathological states. Unfortunately, very few of them have been scientifically evaluated to know about the deep inside. The current study here is designed to evaluate the in vivo sedative activity of the leaves of Glochidion multiloculare (Rottler ex Willd) Voigt. With this purpose, the plant leaves were collected and powdered for extraction with methanol. Initially, the plant extract was subjected to brine shrimp lethality bioassay to monitor the presence of bioactive molecules. Later on, different neuropharmacological studies including hole cross, open field, thiopental-sodium induced sleeping time and Elevated-Plus Maze (EPM) tests were conducted to investigate sedative action. In the brine shrimp lethality bioassay, the LC50 value of the extract was found 37.19 μg mL(-1), whereas the standard vincristine sulphate showed the LC50 10.50 μg mL(-1). The moderate toxicity of the extract on brine shrimp indicated the existence of bioactive secondary metabolites in this extract. Besides, the extract decreased the locomotor activity of mice in hole cross, open field and EPM test indicating the CNS depression capability of the plant. Moreover, the extract was very much effective for prolonging the sleeping time (103 min) with quick onset of action (22 min) in comparison to the control group. The efficacy of the plant extract was found closer to the common sedative drug diazepam. Further investigations are required to explore the underlying mechanism of the sedative action and isolate bioactive principles. PMID:25911846

  4. Phosphorus use efficiency of the gum arabi tree (Acacia senegal (L) Willd) in Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was conducted to identify gum arabic tree (Acacia senegal L. Willd) provenances with high efficiency for phosphorus uptake and use. Thirteen provenances were collected from different habitats with the gum belt of the Sudan. A preliminary trial was conducted during the period 1989-1992 at the Gezira Agricultural Research Station in Wad Medani. This study revealed that there are clear genotypic differences in phosphorus use efficiency, nitrogen yield and dry matter production. All the provenances tested also exhibited a high ability for survival under the dry climatic conditions as prevailing in the gum belt of Sudan. Based on differences in phosphorus use efficiency observed in the preliminary study, 4 provenances were selected for a detailed study. Provenance 11 and 2 represented the highly efficient group, provenance 7 the moderately efficient group and provenance 13 the low efficient group. The detailed study revealed that provenance 11 is superior to all others in terms of biomass production as well as in phosphorus use efficiency. Although the ability to take up phosphorus was low, this was compensated by having a high root length density enabling the tree to take up a quantity of phosphorus similar to that taken up by other provenances. The high ability to convert the absorbed phosphorus into a greater quantity of dry matter made this provenance the best in phosphorus use efficiency. These results suggest that provenance 11 may be a suitable candidate to be introduced into the gum belt of Sudan in support of its rehabilitation programme. (author). 13 refs, 4 figs, 5 tabs

  5. Effects of the crude extract of Polygala tenuifolia Willd on human sperm in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi QIU; Lei-guang WANG; Yi-fang JIA; Dan-tong YANG; Mei-hua ZHANG; Yan-ping ZHANG; Li-hong ZHANG; Ling GAI

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to analyze sperm membrane changes and the spermicidal effect in treatment with the crude extract from Polygala tenuifolia Willd (PTW) in vitro. The root of PTW was extracted in distilled water. Normal human spermatozoa were used to assess the spermicidal activity (Sander-Cramer assay) of the extract from the PTW root. The hypo-osmotic swelling (HOS) test and the eosin Y (EY) staining were used to detect the integrity of sperm membrane and vitality. The sperm chromatin dispersion (SCD) test was performed to determine sperm DNA integrity. N-9 was used as a reference standard and semen added to physiological saline was used as the control. Semen samples were donated by 42 healthy fertile men. The crude extract from the root of PTW could immobilize and kill 100% spermatozoa within 20 s in vitro at the concentrations of 20.0 and 10.0 mg/ml; at the concentration of 5.0 mg/ml, spermatozoa were immobilized in (39.5卤3.2) s. In the groups of the crude extract from the root of PTW and N-9 solution, the rate of the normal HOS (tails swollen) and the white head (unstained) was 0%, and the rate of the abnormal HOS (tails unswollen) and red head (stained) was 100%. Sperm DNA fragmentation showed no change in exposure to the crude extract from the root of PTW and N-9 solution. The sperm revival test did not show any spermatozoa that recovered their motilities. The rapid spermicidal activity of the crude extract from the root of PTW in vitro may occur by the disruption of the sperm membrane integrity.

  6. Ecophysiological characteristics and cadmium accumulation in Downy Oak (Quercus pubescens Willd.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cocozza C

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals provoke environmental pollution with potentially toxic effects on human and plants systems. Recently, investigations are conducted on plants that may play a relevant role on pollutants absorption or stabilization, focusing on fast growing tree species in agronomic conditions; little is known on the effects of contaminants on tree species colonizing abandoned fields to be used in restoration ecology. The effects of Cd on photosynthetic performance and metal accumulation were investigated in Quercus pubescens Willd. seedlings grown in pots containing a mixture of sand, clay, turf and Cd-treatments (0, 25 and 75 mg kg-1 dry soil. The studied photosynthetic parameters (Asat= net phytosynthesis; Rday= day respiration; Γcomp= CO2 compensation point; Vcmax= maximum carboxylation rate; Jmax = electron transport rate; TPU = triose phosphate use; Ci/Ca = ratio of intercellular (Ci to ambient (Ca [CO2] (Ci/Ca; Jmax/Vcmax = ratio; (gsmax = maximum stomatal conductance; (lg = stomatal conductance estimated relative to the photosynthetic rate; (Fv/Fm = maximum quantum yield of PSII photochemistry; (ΔF/F’m = effective photochemical efficiency varied progressively with increasing Cd concentration in the soil, highlighting a negative impact on photosynthetic potential and PSII functioning. Approximately 10% of added Cd was found to be extractable from the substrate, at the maximum concentration applied, with about 12 and 0.75 as bioaccumulation and translocation factors, respectively. Analogously, Cd accumulated up to 34, 30 and 46 mg kg−1 in leaves, stem and roots, respectively. While it is not possible to extrapolate from the present study with seedlings to effects on mature pine trees, there are clear implications for regeneration in soils contaminated with heavy metals, which may lead to ecosystem deterioration.

  7. Effect of Different Row Spacings on the Grain Yield and Some Yield Characteristics of Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) under Bornova Ecological Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    GEREN, Hakan; KAVUT, Yaşar Tuncer; ALTINBAŞ, Metin

    2015-01-01

    his study was conducted to determine the effects of different row spacings (17.5 cm, 35 cm, 52.5 cm, 70 cm) on the grain yield and some other yield characteristics of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) grown under T

  8. Differentiation of photoperiod-induced ABA and soluble sugar responses of two quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa willd.) cultivars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendevis, Mira Arpe; Sun, Yujie; Shabala, Sergey;

    2014-01-01

    Adaptation of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) to new regions demands acclimation to day-length, in addition to a host of other abiotic factors. To further elucidate the effects of photoperiod on development of quinoa, two differently adapted cultivars, Achachino (short day) from Bolivia and...

  9. Effect of extraction pH on heat-induced aggregation, gelation and microstructure of protein isolate from quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiz, Geraldine Avila; Xiao, Wukai; Boekel, van Tiny; Minor, Marcel; Stieger, Markus

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of extraction pH on heat-induced aggregation, gelation and microstructure of suspensions of protein isolates extracted from quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd). Quinoa seed protein was extracted by alkaline treatment at various pH values (pH 8 (E

  10. Connaissances endogènes et études phytochimiques de Flacourtia flavescens Willd. (Flacourtia indica (Burm f. Merr.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toukourou, F.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Endogenous Knowledge and Phytochemical Study of Flacourtia flavescens Willd. (Flacourtia indica (Burm f. Merr.. Flacourtia flavescens Willd., also called Flacourtia indica (Burm f. Merr. (Flacourtiaceae is a source of income. In terms of food, the leaves of this plant consumed at the seedling stage; young leaves are used in the preparation of soups; the fruits are well appreciated by children in the countryside and cities where they abound. The different parts of the plant are included in many different therapeutics treatments. Their decoction and alcoholic extract of plant are used and an excellent energy drinks. In order to sick for nutritional and therapeutic properties of F. flavescens; studies were conducted on leaves and roots collected at two different stages. This study revealed that F. flavescens contain proteins, lipids, sugars and polyphenols with amounts ranging from 0.09% to 13.98%. Calcium, magnesium, phosphorus and sodium contents are between 0.5% (male leaves and 5.25% (male and female leaves. Iron and zinc are almost as traces. The screening of active principles revealed the presence of alkaloids, anthraquinones, anthocyanins, flavonoids, saponins, tannins and polyphenols, triterpenes and steroids and the absence of coumarin. The issue of present study revealed that F. flavescens is a species that should be reevaluated.

  11. Pengaruh Suplementasi Acacia mangium Willd pada Pennisetum purpureum terhadap Karakteristik Fermentasi dan Produksi Gas Metana in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Santoso

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available An in vitro study was conducted to determine the effect of Acacia mangium Willd supplementation to Pennisetum purpureum on fermentation characteristics, protozoal numbers, nutrients degradability and in vitro methane production. Treatments consisted of four composite substrates with P. purpureum and A. mangium Willd ratios at 100:0 (0%, 85:15 (15%, 70:30 (30%, and 55:45 (45%. Crude saponin and total tannin contents of A. mangium were 1.67% and 4.51%, respectively. Methane and gas productions decreased linearly (P<0.01 in response to acacia levels. Addition of A. mangium at 15%, 30% and 45% decreased CH4 production by 16.2%, 26.8% and 61.1%, respectively as compared to the control. There were linear decreases in total VFA and acetate concentrations (P<0.01, and propionate production (P<0.05 in response to increase in acacia addition. Total protozoal populations increased linearly (P<0.05 with added acacia. In vitro dry matter and organic matter degradabilities of substrate decreased linearly (P<0.01 with acacia addition. It is concluded that methane production is not essentially associated with protozoal population. A. mangium has a potential use for mitigation of enteric methane production.

  12. Remedial action plan and site conceptual design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings site at Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Remedial Action Plan (RAP) has been developed to serve a dual purpose. It presents the series of activities that is proposed by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to stabilize and control radioactive materials at the inactive Phillips/United Nuclear uranium processing site designated as the Ambrosia Lake site in McKinley County, New Mexico. It also serves to document the concurrence of both State of New Mexico and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in the remedial action. This agreement, upon execution by the DOE and the state and concurrence by NRC, becomes Appendix B of the Cooperative Agreement

  13. 超临界CO2萃取穿心莲内酯的实验研究%Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction of Andrographolide from Andrographis paniculata: Effect of the Solvent Flow Rate,Pressure,and Temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Andrographis paniculata Nees has been extensively used for traditional medicine and help against fever,dysentery,diarrhoea,inflammation,and sore throat. In this study,andrographolide,the main component of this plant was extracted from the leaves of A. paniculata using supercritical carbon dioxide. The operating pressures were varied from 7.50 to 20 MPa,the temperatures were varied from 30℃ to 60℃,and the flow rates were varied 3g sample of A. paniculata ground-dried leaves. The measured extraction rate was found to be about 0.0174g of andrographolide per gram of andrographolide present in the leaves per hour of operation. The future studies must focus on the interaction between the various operating parameters such as temperature,pressure,and flow rate of supercritical carbon dioxide.

  14. Growth of Gypsophila paniculata According to the Pruning Time and Ridge Position in Sub-alpine Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was carried out to investigate the growth of Gypsophila paniculata affected by pruning time (July 10, July 18, and July 25) and ridge position (middle or window side) under south-north oriented plastic house in sub-alpine area. The average night temperature was similar between the two ridges, but the average day temperature and soil temperature were higher at the middle ridge; particularly, there was distinct difference after late October. Also the accumulative solar radiation was higher at the middle ridge than the window side ridge owing to the shading by neighboring plastic house and the structure of plastic house. The root activity, photosynthetic rate and transpiration rate of plants surveyed in late October were inclined to be more increased at the middle than the window side ridge. The flowering traits at the pruning time of July 10 and July 18 were similar between the two ridges, but the flower malformation rate was higher at the middle ridge. On the other hand, in case of the pruning time of July 25, the blooming was advanced by 13 days, and the flowering traits such as flower stalk length and branch number were better; also, the flower malformation and rosette formation rate decreased at the middle ridge, because of its higher air and soil temperature and the accumulative solar radiation

  15. Nain-e Havandi Andrographis paniculata present yesterday, absent today: a plenary review on underutilized herb of Iran's pharmaceutical plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdiani, Alireza; Kadir, Mihdzar Abdul; Tan, Soon Guan; Talei, Daryush; Abdullah, Mohd Puad; Nikzad, Sonia

    2012-05-01

    Nain-e Havandi (Andrographis paniculata Nees.) (AP) is an annual herbaceous plant belonging to the family Acanthacea. Only a few species of Andrographis genus out of 28 are medicinally concerned of which AP is the most important. Knowledge about the arrival of AP to Iran is extremely lacking but most probably it has been imported from India. However, evidence implies the familiarity of Iran's folkloric medicine with this plant, but it has been disappeared from contemporary medicine for unknown reasons. Presence of active ingredients from diterpenoids group such as andrographolide, neoandrographolide and 14-deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide has given incredible unique medicinal properties to the plant. Traditionally, Nain-e Havandi has been used in the role of a non-farm plant as a remedy for skin problems, flu, respiratory disease, and snakebite in East and Southeast Asia for centuries. Recently, it has been utilized as a treatment for HIV, hepatitis, diabetes, cancer and kidney disorders. Intensive cultivation of the herb started only in the past decade in countries such as China, India, Thailand, Indonesia, West Indies, Mauritius and to some extent, in Malaysia. Availability of different ecological zones in Iran complies with reestablishment of AP in tropical and temperate regions of the country. This is killing two birds with one stone, supporting the conservational and economic aspects. PMID:22198549

  16. A polysaccharide from Andrographis paniculata induces mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis in human hepatoma cell line (HepG2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yanmei; Xiong, Hua; Xiong, Huihua; Lu, Tao; Zhu, Feng; Luo, Zhiyong; Yuan, Xianglin; Wang, Yihua

    2015-07-01

    In the present study, we investigated the effects and action mechanisms of a purified polysaccharide (APWP) from Andrographis paniculata, on human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) HepG2 cells. The results showed that APWP was able to suppress the proliferation of HepG2 cells via inducing apoptosis. Western blot analysis revealed that dose-dependent increase in proapoptotic Bax protein and no change in antiapoptotic Bcl-2 protein in APWP-treated cells. Furthermore, exposure of tumor cells to APWP resulted in a loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and the release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria to the cytosol. Besides, caspase-9 and caspase-3 were activated while caspase-8 was not affected in HepG2 cells followed by APWP treatment. All these results point clearly to the involvement of mitochondria-mediated signaling pathway in APWP-induced apoptosis and strongly suggest that APWP seems to be safe and effective in the prevention and treatment of HCC. PMID:25652470

  17. Andrographis Paniculata shows anti-nociceptive effects in an animal model of sensory hypersensitivity associated with migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Rosaria; Siani, Francesca; Demartini, Chiara; Zanaboni, Annamaria; Nappi, Giuseppe; Davinelli, Sergio; Scapagnini, Giovanni; Tassorelli, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Administration of nitroglycerin (NTG) to rats induces a hyperalgesic condition and neuronal activation of central structures involved in migraine pain. In order to identify therapeutic strategies for migraine pain, we evaluated the anti-nociceptive activity of Andrographis Paniculata (AP), a herbaceous plant, in the hyperalgesia induced by NTG administration in the formalin test. We also analyzed mRNA expression of cytokines in specific brain areas after AP treatment. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were pre-treated with AP extract 30 minutes before NTG or vehicle injection. The data show that AP extract significantly reduced NTG-induced hyperalgesia in phase II of the test, 4 hours after NTG injection. In addition, AP extract reduced IL-6 mRNA expression in the medulla and mesencephalon and also mRNA levels of TNFalpha in the mesencephalic region. These findings suggest that AP extract may be a potential therapeutic approach in the treatment of general pain, and possibly of migraine. PMID:27027895

  18. Proteomic analysis of the salt-responsive leaf and root proteins in the anticancer plant Andrographis paniculata Nees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daryush Talei

    Full Text Available Separation of proteins based on the physicochemical properties with different molecular weight and isoelectric points would be more accurate. In the current research, the 45-day-old seedlings were treated with 0 (control and 12 dS m(-1 of sodium chloride in the hydroponic system. After 15 days of salt exposure, the total protein of the fresh leaves and roots was extracted and analyzed using two-dimensional electrophoresis system (2-DE. The analysis led to the detection of 32 induced proteins (19 proteins in leaf and 13 proteins in the root as well as 12 upregulated proteins (four proteins in leaf and eight proteins in the root in the salt-treated plants. Of the 44 detected proteins, 12 were sequenced, and three of them matched with superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase and ribulose-1, 5-bisphosphate oxygenase whereas the rest remained unknown. The three known proteins associate with plants response to environmental stresses and could represent the general stress proteins in the present study too. In addition, the proteomic feedback of different accessions of A. paniculata to salt stress can potentially be used to breed salt-tolerant varieties of the herb.

  19. In silico and in vitro Studies on Begomovirus Induced Andrographolide Biosynthesis Pathway in Andrographis Paniculata for Combating Inflammation and Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Asifa; Sharma, Pooja; Khan, Feroz; Ajayakumar, P V; Shanker, Karuna; Samad, Abdul

    2016-07-01

    Andrographolide and neoandrographolide are major bioactive molecules of Andrographis paniculata, a well-known medicinal plant. These molecules exhibited varying degrees of anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities in-vitro and in-vivo. Role of begomovirus protein C2/TrAP in biosynthesis of andrographolide was identified through molecular modeling, docking and predicted results were substantiated by in vitro studies. Homology molecular modeling and molecular docking were performed to study the binding conformations and different bonding behaviors, in order to reveal the possible mechanism of action behind higher accumulation of andrographolide. It was concluded that C2/TrAP inhibit the activation of SNF1-Related Protein Kinase-1 (SnRK1) in terpenoid pathway and removes the negative regulation of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR) by SnRK1, leading to higher accumulation of andrographolide and neoandrographolide in begomovirus infected plants. The binding site residues of SnRK1 docked with C2/TrAP were found to be associated with ATP binding site, substrate binding site and activation loop. Predicted results were also validated by HPTLC. This study provides important insights into understanding the role of viral protein in altering the regulation of biosynthesis of andrographolide and could be used in future research to develop biomimetic methods for increasing the production of such phytometabolites having anti-cancerous and anti-inflammatory properties. PMID:27492239

  20. Intra-specific hybridization: generator of genetic diversification and heterosis in Andrographis paniculata Nees. A bridge from extinction to survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdiani, Alireza; Kadir, Mihdzar Abdul; Saad, Mohd Said; Talei, Daryush; Tan, Soon-Guan

    2012-08-15

    Andrographis paniculata (AP) has been stated as a low-diverse, endangered and red-listed plant species. Self-pollinated mating system, being an introduced species and experiencing a bottleneck as well as over exploitation cause such a consequence. Inter and intra-specific hybridizations have been suggested as essential techniques for generating genetic diversity. To test the effect of intra-specific hybridization on diversification and heterosis of AP, seven accessions were outcrossed manually in all 21 possible combinations. Three types of markers including morphological, phytochemical and RAPD markers were employed to evaluate the mentioned hypothesis. The results revealed that hybridization acted as a powerful engine for diversification of AP as it caused heterotic expression of the studied traits, simultaneously. Initially, it seems that additive and non-additive gene effects both can be considered as the genetic basis of heterosis in AP for the investigated traits. Agronomic and morphological traits were differentiated from each other, while positive heterosis was recorded mainly for agronomic traits but not for the morphological traits. Intra-specific hybridization increased the genetic diversity in AP population. Nevertheless, a part of this variation could also be attributed to the negative heterosis. The current exploration demonstrated the first ever conducted manual intra-specific hybridization among AP accessions in a mass scale. However, the 17 RAPD primers produced a monomorph pattern, but perhaps increasing the number of markers can feature a new genetic profile in this plant. PMID:22683537

  1. Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Andrographis paniculata by Rapid Resolution Liquid Chromatography/Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Fei Qin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A rapid resolution liquid chromatography/time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (RRLC-TOF/MS method was developed for qualitative and quantitative analysis of the major chemical constituents in Andrographis paniculata. Fifteen compounds, including flavonoids and diterpenoid lactones, were unambiguously or tentatively identified in 10 min by comparing their retention times and accurate masses with standards or literature data. The characteristic fragmentation patterns of flavonoids and diterpenoid lactones were summarized, and the structures of the unknown compounds were predicted. Andrographolide, dehydroandrographolide and neoandrographolide were further quantified as marker substances. It was found that the calibration curves for all analytes showed good linearity (R2 > 0.9995 within the test ranges. The overall limits of detection (LODs and limits of quantification (LOQs were 0.02 μg/mL to 0.06 μg/mL and 0.06 μg/mL to 0.2 μg/mL, respectively. The relative standard deviations (RSDs for intra- and inter-day precisions were below 3.3% and 4.2%, respectively. The mean recovery rates ranged from 96.7% to 104.5% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs less than 2.72%. It is concluded that RRLC-TOF/MS is powerful and practical in qualitative and quantitative analysis of complex plant samples due to time savings, sensitivity, precision, accuracy and lowering solvent consumption.

  2. A new approach used to explore associations of current Ambrosia pollen levels with current and past meteorological elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matyasovszky, István; Makra, László; Csépe, Zoltán; Deák, Áron József; Pál-Molnár, Elemér; Fülöp, Andrea; Tusnády, Gábor

    2015-09-01

    The paper examines the sensitivity of daily airborne Ambrosia (ragweed) pollen levels of a current pollen season not only on daily values of meteorological variables during this season but also on the past meteorological conditions. The results obtained from a 19-year data set including daily ragweed pollen counts and ten daily meteorological variables are evaluated with special focus on the interactions between the phyto-physiological processes and the meteorological elements. Instead of a Pearson correlation measuring the strength of the linear relationship between two random variables, a generalised correlation that measures every kind of relationship between random vectors was used. These latter correlations between arrays of daily values of the ten meteorological elements and the array of daily ragweed pollen concentrations during the current pollen season were calculated. For the current pollen season, the six most important variables are two temperature variables (mean and minimum temperatures), two humidity variables (dew point depression and rainfall) and two variables characterising the mixing of the air (wind speed and the height of the planetary boundary layer). The six most important meteorological variables before the current pollen season contain four temperature variables (mean, maximum, minimum temperatures and soil temperature) and two variables that characterise large-scale weather patterns (sea level pressure and the height of the planetary boundary layer). Key periods of the past meteorological variables before the current pollen season have been identified. The importance of this kind of analysis is that a knowledge of the past meteorological conditions may contribute to a better prediction of the upcoming pollen season. PMID:25376632

  3. A new approach used to explore associations of current Ambrosia pollen levels with current and past meteorological elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matyasovszky, István; Makra, László; Csépe, Zoltán; Deák, Áron József; Pál-Molnár, Elemér; Fülöp, Andrea; Tusnády, Gábor

    2015-09-01

    The paper examines the sensitivity of daily airborne Ambrosia (ragweed) pollen levels of a current pollen season not only on daily values of meteorological variables during this season but also on the past meteorological conditions. The results obtained from a 19-year data set including daily ragweed pollen counts and ten daily meteorological variables are evaluated with special focus on the interactions between the phyto-physiological processes and the meteorological elements. Instead of a Pearson correlation measuring the strength of the linear relationship between two random variables, a generalised correlation that measures every kind of relationship between random vectors was used. These latter correlations between arrays of daily values of the ten meteorological elements and the array of daily ragweed pollen concentrations during the current pollen season were calculated. For the current pollen season, the six most important variables are two temperature variables (mean and minimum temperatures), two humidity variables (dew point depression and rainfall) and two variables characterising the mixing of the air (wind speed and the height of the planetary boundary layer). The six most important meteorological variables before the current pollen season contain four temperature variables (mean, maximum, minimum temperatures and soil temperature) and two variables that characterise large-scale weather patterns (sea level pressure and the height of the planetary boundary layer). Key periods of the past meteorological variables before the current pollen season have been identified. The importance of this kind of analysis is that a knowledge of the past meteorological conditions may contribute to a better prediction of the upcoming pollen season.

  4. North American Lauraceae: terpenoid emissions, relative attraction and boring preferences of redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus (coleoptera: curculionidae: scolytinae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul E Kendra

    Full Text Available The invasive redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus, is the primary vector of Raffaelea lauricola, a symbiotic fungus and the etiologic agent of laurel wilt. This lethal disease has caused severe mortality of redbay (Persea borbonia and swampbay (P. palustris trees in the southeastern USA, threatens avocado (P. americana production in Florida, and has potential to impact additional New World species. To date, all North American hosts of X. glabratus and suscepts of laurel wilt are members of the family Lauraceae. This comparative study combined field tests and laboratory bioassays to evaluate attraction and boring preferences of female X. glabratus using freshly-cut bolts from nine species of Lauraceae: avocado (one cultivar of each botanical race, redbay, swampbay, silkbay (Persea humilis, California bay laurel (Umbellularia californica, sassafras (Sassafras albidum, northern spicebush (Lindera benzoin, camphor tree (Cinnamomum camphora, and lancewood (Nectandra coriacea. In addition, volatile collections and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS were conducted to quantify terpenoid emissions from test bolts, and electroantennography (EAG was performed to measure olfactory responses of X. glabratus to terpenoids identified by GC-MS. Significant differences were observed among treatments in both field and laboratory tests. Silkbay and camphor tree attracted the highest numbers of the beetle in the field, and lancewood and spicebush the lowest, whereas boring activity was greatest on silkbay, bay laurel, swampbay, and redbay, and lowest on lancewood, spicebush, and camphor tree. The Guatemalan cultivar of avocado was more attractive than those of the other races, but boring response among the three was equivalent. The results suggest that camphor tree may contain a chemical deterrent to boring, and that different cues are associated with host location and host acceptance. Emissions of α-cubebene, α-copaene, α-humulene, and

  5. Summary of the engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings: Phillips/United Nuclear site, Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah, Inc., has reevaluated the Phillips/United Nuclear site in order to revise the December 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 2.6 million dry tons of tailings at the Phillips/United Nuclear site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation also are factors. The four alternative actions presented in this engineering assessment range from millsite decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material, to removal of the tailings to remote disposal sites and decontamination of the tailings site. Cost estimates for the four options range from about $21,500,000 for stabilization in-place, to about $45,200,000 for disposal at a distance of about 15 mi. Three principal alternatives for the reprocessing of the Phillips/United Nuclear tailings were examined: heap leaching; treatment at an existing mill; reprocessing at a new conventional mill constructed for tailings reprocessing. The cost of the uranium recovered would be about $87/lb of U3O8 by either heap leach or conventional plant process. The spot market price for uranium was $25/lb early in 1981. Reprocessing the Phillips/United Nuclear tailings for uranium recovery does not appear to be economically attractive under present or foreseeable market conditions

  6. Effects of elevated CO2 on biomass and fungi associated with two ecotypes of ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runion, G Brett; Prior, Stephen A; Price, Andrew J; McElroy, J Scott; Torbert, H Allen

    2014-01-01

    Herbicide resistant weed populations have developed due to the repeated application of herbicides. Elevated concentrations of atmospheric CO2 can have positive effects on weed growth, but how rising CO2 might affect herbicide resistant weeds is not known. Ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.) ecotypes known to be resistant or susceptible to glyphosate herbicide were exposed to either ambient or elevated (ambient +200 μ mol mol(-1)) concentrations of CO2 in open top chambers. Plants were harvested following 8 weeks of CO2 exposure; at this time, they had begun to exhibit disease symptoms including spots on leaves and stems. Elevated CO2 significantly increased top, root, and total plant biomass. Also, glyphosate resistant plants had significantly greater top, root, and total biomass than plants susceptible to the herbicide. There were no significant CO2 by ecotype interactions. Fungi from 13 genera were associated with ragweed, several of which can be either pathogens (i.e., Alternaria, Fusarium, Rhizoctonia), aiding the decline in health of the ragweed plants, or saprophytes existing on dead plant tissues. The common foliar disease powdery mildew was significantly higher on susceptible compared with resistant ragweed. Susceptible plants also showed an increased frequency of Rhizoctonia on leaves and Alternaria on stems; however, Fusarium occurred more frequently on resistant ragweed leaves. Fungi were not affected by CO2 concentration or its interaction with ecotype. This study reports the first information on the effects of elevated CO2 on growth of herbicide resistant weeds. This is also the first study examining the impact of herbicide resistance and elevated CO2 on fungi associated with weeds. What effects herbicide resistance might have on plant diseases and how rising atmospheric CO2 might impact these effects needs to be addressed, not only with important weeds but also with crops. PMID:25309569

  7. Fusarium euwallaceae sp. nov.--a symbiotic fungus of Euwallacea sp., an invasive ambrosia beetle in Israel and California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, S; Sharon, M; Maymon, M; Mendel, Z; Protasov, A; Aoki, T; Eskalen, A; O'Donnell, K

    2013-01-01

    The invasive Asian ambrosia beetle Euwallacea sp. (Coleoptera, Scolytinae, Xyleborini) and a novel Fusarium sp. that it farms in its galleries as a source of nutrition causes serious damage to more than 20 species of live trees and pose a serious threat to avocado production (Persea americana) in Israel and California. Adult female beetles are equipped with mandibular mycangia in which its fungal symbiont is transported within and from the natal galleries. Damage caused to the xylem is associated with disease symptoms that include sugar or gum exudates, dieback, wilt and ultimately host tree mortality. In 2012 the beetle was recorded on more than 200 and 20 different urban landscape species in southern California and Israel respectively. Euwallacea sp. and its symbiont are closely related to the tea shot-hole borer (E. fornicatus) and its obligate symbiont, F. ambrosium occurring in Sri Lanka and India. To distinguish these beetles, hereafter the unnamed xyleborine in Israel and California will be referred to as Euwallacea sp. IS/CA. Both fusaria exhibit distinctive ecologies and produce clavate macroconidia, which we think might represent an adaption to the species-specific beetle partner. Both fusaria comprise a genealogically exclusive lineage within Clade 3 of the Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC) that can be differentiated with arbitrarily primed PCR. Currently these fusaria can be distinguished only phenotypically by the abundant production of blue to brownish macroconidia in the symbiont of Euwallacea sp. IS/CA and their rarity or absence in F. ambrosium. We speculate that obligate symbiosis of Euwallacea and Fusarium, might have driven ecological speciation in these mutualists. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to describe and illustrate the novel, economically destructive avocado pathogen as Fusarium euwallaceae sp. nov. S. Freeman et al. PMID:23928415

  8. North American Lauraceae: terpenoid emissions, relative attraction and boring preferences of redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus (coleoptera: curculionidae: scolytinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendra, Paul E; Montgomery, Wayne S; Niogret, Jerome; Pruett, Grechen E; Mayfield, Albert E; MacKenzie, Martin; Deyrup, Mark A; Bauchan, Gary R; Ploetz, Randy C; Epsky, Nancy D

    2014-01-01

    The invasive redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus, is the primary vector of Raffaelea lauricola, a symbiotic fungus and the etiologic agent of laurel wilt. This lethal disease has caused severe mortality of redbay (Persea borbonia) and swampbay (P. palustris) trees in the southeastern USA, threatens avocado (P. americana) production in Florida, and has potential to impact additional New World species. To date, all North American hosts of X. glabratus and suscepts of laurel wilt are members of the family Lauraceae. This comparative study combined field tests and laboratory bioassays to evaluate attraction and boring preferences of female X. glabratus using freshly-cut bolts from nine species of Lauraceae: avocado (one cultivar of each botanical race), redbay, swampbay, silkbay (Persea humilis), California bay laurel (Umbellularia californica), sassafras (Sassafras albidum), northern spicebush (Lindera benzoin), camphor tree (Cinnamomum camphora), and lancewood (Nectandra coriacea). In addition, volatile collections and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) were conducted to quantify terpenoid emissions from test bolts, and electroantennography (EAG) was performed to measure olfactory responses of X. glabratus to terpenoids identified by GC-MS. Significant differences were observed among treatments in both field and laboratory tests. Silkbay and camphor tree attracted the highest numbers of the beetle in the field, and lancewood and spicebush the lowest, whereas boring activity was greatest on silkbay, bay laurel, swampbay, and redbay, and lowest on lancewood, spicebush, and camphor tree. The Guatemalan cultivar of avocado was more attractive than those of the other races, but boring response among the three was equivalent. The results suggest that camphor tree may contain a chemical deterrent to boring, and that different cues are associated with host location and host acceptance. Emissions of α-cubebene, α-copaene, α-humulene, and calamenene were

  9. Cubeb Oil Lures: Terpenoid Emissions, Trapping Efficacy, and Longevity for Attraction of Redbay Ambrosia Beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendra, Paul E; Niogret, Jerome; Montgomery, Wayne S; Deyrup, Mark A; Epsky, Nancy D

    2015-02-01

    Redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff, is an exotic wood borer and the primary vector of Raffaelea lauricola, a symbiotic fungus that causes laurel wilt. This lethal disease has decimated native redbay [Persea borbonia (L.) Sprengel] and swampbay [Persea palustris (Rafinesque) Sargent] throughout southeastern U.S. forests, and currently threatens avocado (Persea americana Miller) in Florida. To curtail the spread of laurel wilt, effective attractants are needed for early detection of the vector. Phoebe oil lures were the best known attractant for X. glabratus, but they are no longer available. The current detection system uses manuka oil lures, but previous research indicated that manuka lures have a short field life in Florida. Recently, cubeb oil was identified as a new attractant for X. glabratus, and cubeb bubble lures are now available commercially. This study compared trapping efficacy and field longevity of cubeb and manuka lures with phoebe lures that had been in storage since 2010 over a 12-wk period in south Florida. In addition, terpenoid emissions were quantified from cubeb and manuka lures aged outdoors for 12 wk. Captures were comparable with all three lures for 3 wk, but by 4 wk, captures with manuka were significantly less. Equivalent captures were obtained with cubeb and phoebe lures for 7 wk, but captures with cubeb were significantly greater from 8 to 12 wk. Our results indicate that cubeb bubble lures are the most effective tool currently available for detection of X. glabratus, with a field life of 3 months due to extended low release of attractive sesquiterpenes, primarily α-copaene and α-cubebene. PMID:26470139

  10. Morphology and histochemistry of glandular trichomes of Orobanche alba Stephan ex Willd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Sulborska

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Orobanche alba Stephan ex Willd is an achlorophyllous root parasite rare in Poland. It prefers dry and sunny slopes, xerothermic grasslands and pastures, mountain pastures, light scrubs, and rock fissures and ledges. The hosts of O. alba include Thymus polytrichus A. ern. ex Borbás, Clinopodium vulgare L. and Origanum vulgare L. The tick and fleshy 10-70 cm high stem in this species bears an inflorescence composed of zygomorphic, white or yellow “spotted” flowers covered by purple glandular trichomes. Glandular trichomes of this type are also borne on other parts of the plant, i.e. on the stem, scaly leaves, sepals, filaments, and the style. The secondary metabolites secreted by the glandular trichomes are related to defense of plants against the attack of herbivores and pathogens or act as attractants to pollinators or for fruit dispersal. The micromorphology and histochemistry of the glandular trichomes in O. alba were examined using scanning electron and light microscopes. In order to determine the type of secondary metabolites produced by the trichomes, the flowing histochemical assays were used: Sudan III and neutral red for detection of lipophilic compounds, IKI for detection of starch, and FeCl3 for detection of phenolic compounds. The peltate glandular trichomes of O. alba were characterised by a varied length (0.15‑0.48 mm and different activity phases. The trichome was composed of one larger basal epidermal cell, 1-3 hyaline stalk cells with a striated cuticle, a neck cell with a smooth cuticle on the surface, and a globose head formed of 8-18 secretory cells arranged in a circle. Many stalk cells of the trichomes, particularly those located on the corolla, contained anthocyanins, which give the trichomes dark carmine colour. In turn, the colour of the heads was dependent on trichome age: the heads were brown in older trichomes and yellow in younger hairs. Secretion was produced by both young and older trichomes. It penetrated

  11. Study on Germination Testing Standardization of Andrographis paniculata(Burm.f.)Nees Seed%穿心莲种子发芽试验标准化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    童家赟; 张晓丽; 何瑞; 詹若挺

    2011-01-01

    The influence of different conditions on Andrographis paniculata ( Burm.f.) Nees seed germination were tested in current work.The conditions included 5 temperature treatments (25.0,27.5,30.0,32.5 ℃ and 35.0 ℃ ) ,2 light treatments (0 and 500 lx), and 2 germinating-bed treatments (TP and TS).According to the germination performance under different condition, the optimum seed germination conditions of Andrographis paniculata were as follows: temperature 25.0 ℃ to 30.0 ℃, germinating-beds TP, under light.The first seedling-counting time was the 2 nd day after germination, the last time was the 7 th day.%通过发芽试验来探讨温度、光照及发芽床等因素对穿心莲(Andrographis paniculata(Burm.f.)Nees)种子萌发的影响.设25.0、27.5、30.0、32.5、35.0℃共5种恒温温度处理,设纸上(TP)和砂上(TS)2种发芽床处理,光照设0(全黑暗)和500 lx 2个处理.试脸结果表明:穿心莲种子发芽最适温度为25~30℃,发芽床可选择纸上(TP)法,对光照敏感,初次计数时间为发芽后第2天,末次计数时间为发芽后第7天.幼苗生长发育类型为子叶出土的双子叶农作物种子,幼苗鉴定只考虑初生根的发育状况.

  12. Study on the Grading Standard of Andrographis paniculata Seeds%穿心莲种子质量分级标准研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何瑞; 童家贇; 张晓丽; 詹若挺; 陈蔚文

    2011-01-01

    [目的]制定穿心莲(Andrographis paniculata)种子质量分级标准.[方法]测定不同来源的穿心莲种子净度、千粒重、水分和发芽率等指标,使用SPSS软件,对千粒重、发芽率数据进行K-均值聚类分析,制定分级标准.[结果]以发芽率为主,综合水分、千粒重及净度4个指标初步制定了穿心莲种子质量分级标准,把穿心莲种子质量等级分为3个等级.[结论]该研究制定的质量分级标准具有生产实用性,可作为穿心莲种子的质量控制标准.%[Objective] To set up a quality grading standard of Andrographis paniculata seeds. [ Method] Seeds samples from different producing areas were tested on respects of quality, such as purity, 1 000-grain weight, moiature content and germination rate, etc.The statistical software SPSS was used to perform the K-means clustering on experimental data. [Result] A three grafte quality standard of Andrographis paniculata seeds was preliminarily set up mainly based on germination rate combining moisture content, 1 000-grain weight,and purity. [Conclusion] The established grading standard was of practical value and could be used as quality control standards for Andrographis paniculate seeds.

  13. Radiological surveillance of Remedial Action activities at the processing site, Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico, April 12--16, 1993. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project's Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC) performed a radiological surveillance of the Remedial Action Contractor (RAC), MK-Ferguson and CWM Federal Environmental Services, Inc., at the processing site in Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico. The requirements and attributes examined during the audit were developed from reviewing working-level procedures developed by the RAC. Objective evidence, comments, and observations were verified based on investigating procedures, documentation, records located at the site, personal interviews, and tours of the site. No findings were identified during this audit. Ten site-specific observations, three good practice observations, and five programmatic observations are presented in this report. The overall conclusion from the surveillance is that the radiological aspects of the Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico, remedial action program are performed adequately. The results of the good practice observations indicate that the site health physics (HP) staff is taking the initiative to address and resolve potential issues, and implement suggestions useful to the UMTRA Project. However, potential exists for improving designated storage areas for general items, and the RAC Project Office should consider resolving site-specific and procedural inconsistencies

  14. Detection of ambrosia beetles using a pan-sharpened image generated from ALOS/AVNIR-2 and ALOS/PRISM imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rei Sonobe

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: The ambrosia beetle, Platypus quercivorus, is a vector of Japanese oak wilt, which causes massive mortality of oak trees in Japan. ALOS/AVNIR-2 true color images can be used to help detect areas of oak wilt, although such detection by inventory surveys is not realistic. Applying pan-sharpening techniques, a higher spatial resolution multispectral image can be generated from lower-resolution multispectral images and higher-resolution panchromatic images. In this study, some pan-sharpening algorithms were considered and evaluated for the detection of damage points.Area of study: The oak forests in Kanazawa prefecture, Japan.Materials and methods: The ALOS/AVNIR-2 and ALOS/PRISM sensors were used. The pan-sharpening algorithms adopted were: Brovey transformation, Modified IHS transformation, Wavelet transformation, Ehlers fusion and High Pass Filter Resolution Merge. Four types of quantitative spectral analyses and visual detection were conducted to evaluate these algorithms.Main results: The Brovey transformation was the most useful algorithm to detect damage points, although it had an issue with the preservation of spectral characteristics.Research highlights: The detection rate of damage points was improved in 50% by applying the Brovey algorithm to a 10 m panchromatic image and 62.5 m multispectral image.Key words: ambrosia beetle; oak wilt; pan-sharpening; satellite imagery; visual detection.

  15. Acumulación y concentración de nitrógeno, fosforo y potasio en gypsophila paniculata l. cv. perfecta

    OpenAIRE

    Medina, Gladys Adriana; Orozco de Amezquita, Martha; Bolivar, Juan Leonardy; Ramirez, Pedro Jose

    2011-01-01

    Sobre las necesidades nutricionales de G. paniculata L. bajo condiciones de invernadero en la Sabana de Bogotá, no existe suficiente información publicada. Por lo tanto, teniendo en cuenta la importancia de esta especie para el sector floricultor, el presente trabajo pretende determinar las concentraciones y la acumulación de nitrógeno, fosforo y potasio en todos los órganos de la planta a lo largo del ciclo de vida. De tal forma, que ello permita ampliar cl conocimiento bio1ogico de la espec...

  16. Regional-scale stand density management diagrams for Pyrenean oak (Quercus pyrenaica Willd. stands in north-west Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castaño-Santamaría J

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Stand Density Management Diagrams are useful tools for designing and evaluating alternative density management regimes without the need of implementing any silvicultural action, and allowing the future stand conditions to be predicted prior to implementing management schedules. In this study, stand density management diagrams were developed for Pyrenean oak (Quercus pyrenaica Willd. stands in north-west Spain by including data on stand volume, stand aboveground biomass, stand stem biomass and carbon pools. Data were obtained from Third National Forest Inventory plots (n=1860. The large geographical area analyzed in this study was classified by provenance regions, which were compared in terms of biomass production in order to define areas with similar characteristics for use as management units. The comparisons identified 6 independent groups. Different stand-level models and the associated diagrams for the aforementioned stand variables were therefore developed for each group.

  17. In vitro antifungal potentials of bioactive compound oleic acid, 3-(octadecyloxy) propyl ester isolated from Lepidagathis cristata Willd. (Acanthaceae) inflorescence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maghdu Nainamohamed Abubacker; Palaniyappan Kamala Devi

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To identify bioactive compound oleic acid, 3-(octadecyloxy) propyl ester from Lepidagathis cristata Willd. (L. cristata) and to assess antifungal potentials of the isolated compound. Methods: Aqueous extracts of L. cristata inflorescence were used for this study. The major bioactive compound isolated was tested for antifungal activities. Results: The major bioactive compound oleic acid, 3-(octadecyloxy) propyl ester was isolated from the inflorescence of L. cristata. The bioactive compound was tested for antifungal potentials and found to be highly effective to plant pathogenic fungi Colletotrichum fulcatum NCBT 146, Fusarium oxysporum NCBT 156 and Rhizoctonia solani NCBT 196 as well as for the human pathogenic fungi Curvularia lunata MTCC 2030 and Microsporum canis MTCC 2820. Conclusions: The results justify the antifungal potentials of both plant and human pathogenic fungi. The plant bioactive compound will be helpful in herbal antifungal formulations.

  18. Antilithiatic effect of Asparagus racemosus Willd on ethylene glycol-induced lithiasis in male albino Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christina, A J M; Ashok, K; Packialakshmi, M; Tobin, G C; Preethi, J; Murugesh, N

    2005-11-01

    The ethanolic extract of Asparagus racemosus Willd. was evaluated for its inhibitory potential on lithiasis (stone formation), induced by oral administration of 0.75% ethylene glycolated water to adult male albino Wistar rats for 28 days. The ionic chemistry of urine was altered by ethylene glycol, which elevated the urinary concentration of crucial ions viz. calcium, oxalate, and phosphate, thereby contributing to renal stone formation. The ethanolic extract, however, significantly (p crystallization. The high serum creatinine level observed in ethylene glycol-treated rats was also reduced, following treatment with the extract. The histopathological findings also showed signs of improvement after treatment with the extract. All these observations provided the basis for the conclusion that this plant extract inhibits stone formation induced by ethylene glycol treatment. PMID:16357948

  19. Effects of growth retardants and fumigations with ozone and sulfur dioxide on growth and flowering of Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cathey, H.M.; Heggestad, H.E.

    1973-01-01

    Eight cultivars of poinsettia, Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd., were evaluated for sensitivity to ..cap alpha..-cyclopropyl-..cap alpha.. (4-methoxyphenyl)-5-pyrimidine methanol (ancymidol) and protection from ozone and sulfur dioxide injury afforded by applications of ancymidol and (2-chloroethyl) trimethyl ammonium chloride (chlormequat). Foliar sprays of ancymidol were at least 80 to 500 times and the soil drench 1000 times more active than chlormequat in retarding stem elongation. The diam of the bracts was reduced, but branching increased more on plants treated with ancymidol than on untreated plants. The cv. Annette Hegg (AH) was more sensitive to ozone fumigations than was Eckespoint C-1' (C-1). Sulfur dioxide also caused more injury to AH than to C-1. Ancymidol and chlormequat reduced visible injury induced by ozone and sulfur dioxide.

  20. Effect of different dates of transplanting and harvesting on the morphology and andrographolide content in Andrographis paniculata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K. Phurailatpam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} (Abstract selected from presentation in National Conference on Biodiversity of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants: Collection, Characterization and Utilization, held at Anand, India during November 24-25, 2010   An experiment was conducted at Directorate of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Research, Anand on the effect of different dates of transplanting and different dates of harvesting on the change in the morphology and chemical content in three accessions of Andrographis paniculata. Same aged seedlings were transplanted at four different dates at 15 days interval. The plants were harvested at three different dates at 90, 105 and 120 days after transplanting (DAT. Morphological data and chemical data were collected at different intervals. It was observed that different dates of ransplanting significantly influenced the plant height, number of leaves per plant, fresh and dry herbage, stem and leaf yields and andrographolide yield. Andorgrapholide content in leaf decreased with delayed transplanting; but in stems, andrographolide content increased with delayed transplanting. Andrographolide yield in leaves and herbage increased with early transplanting whereas in stems, delayed transplanting resulted in more

  1. Involvement of an ent-copalyl diphosphate synthase in tissue-specific accumulation of specialized diterpenes in Andrographis paniculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Rajesh Chandra; Garg, Anchal; Roy, Sudeep; Chanotiya, Chandan Singh; Vasudev, Prema G; Ghosh, Sumit

    2015-11-01

    Ent-labdane-related diterpene (ent-LRD) specialized (i.e. secondary) metabolites of the medicinal plant kalmegh (Andrographis paniculata) have long been known for several pharmacological activities. However, our understanding of the ent-LRD biosynthetic pathway has remained largely incomplete. Since ent-LRDs accumulate in leaves, we carried out a comparative transcriptional analysis using leaf and root tissues, and identified 389 differentially expressed transcripts, including 223 transcripts that were preferentially expressed in leaf tissue. Analysis of the transcripts revealed various specialized metabolic pathways, including transcripts of the ent-LRD biosynthetic pathway. Two class II diterpene synthases (ApCPS1 and ApCPS2) along with one (ApCPS1') and two (ApCPS2' and ApCPS2″) transcriptional variants that were the outcomes of alternative splicing of the precursor mRNA and alternative transcriptional termination, respectively, were identified. ApCPS1 and ApCPS2 encode for 832- and 817-amino acids proteins, respectively, and are phylogenetically related to the dicotyledons ent-copalyl diphosphate synthases (ent-CPSs). The spatio-temporal patterns of ent-LRD metabolites accumulation and gene expression suggested a likely role for ApCPS1 in general (i.e. primary) metabolism, perhaps by providing precursor for the biosynthesis of phytohormone gibberellin (GA). However, ApCPS2 is potentially involved in tissue-specific accumulation of ent-LRD specialized metabolites. Bacterially expressed recombinant ApCPS2 catalyzed the conversion of (E,E,E)-geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP), the general precursor of diterpenes to ent-copalyl diphosphate (ent-CPP), the precursor of ent-LRDs. Taken together, these results advance our understanding of the tissue-specific accumulation of specialized ent-LRDs of medicinal importance. PMID:26475187

  2. Role of leucine in isoprenoid metabolism. Incorporation of (3-/sup 13/C)leucine and of (2-/sup 3/H,4-/sup 14/C)-. beta. ,. beta. -dimethyl-acrylic acid into phytosterols by tissue cultures of Andrographis paniculata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anastasis, P.; Freer, I.; Overton, K.; Rycroft, D.; Singh, S.B. (Glasgow Univ. (UK). Dept. of Chemistry)

    1985-02-01

    (3-/sup 13/C)Leucine is incorporated into phytosterols by tissue cultures of Andrographis paniculata by breakdown to acetyl-CoA and its subsequent incorporation via (3S)-3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) and mevalonic acid; (2-/sup 3/H,4-/sup 14/C)-..beta..,..beta..-dimethylacrylic acid also is not incorporated intact.

  3. In Vitro anti-diabetic activity of aqueous extract of the medicinal plants Nigella sativa, Eugenia jambolana, Andrographis paniculata and Gymnema sylvestre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arunachalam Sathiavelu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In vitro analysis of the anti-diabetic effect of aqueous extracts of the medicinal plants Nigella sativa, Eugenia jambolana, Andrographis paniculata, Gymnema sylvestre. Methods: Aqueous extracts of the plants were prepared by maceration. They were then tested for inhibition of alpha-amylase activity by DNSA colour reagent. They were tested for their ability to hinder diffusion of glucose across a dialysis membrane. Results: The aqueous extract of Nigella sativa showed maximum inhibition of alpha-amylase activity and a strong hindrance to diffusion of glucose across a dialysis membrane. Andrographis paniculata showed both a strong inhibition of alpha-amylase and a significant hindrance to the diffusion of glucose across the dialysis membrane. Gymnema sylvestre showed low inhibition of -amylase activity, but it showed maximum hindrance to the diffusion of glucose across the dialysis membrane. Nigella sativa was found to possess maximum anti-diabetic properties. Conclusions: The findings indicate that all the above plants possess antidiabetic properties too varying degrees. They can be used to develop natural drugs which may be used in lieu of commonly used strong allopathic drugs which possess a number of harmful side effects.

  4. Three Salts of Labdanic Acids from Andrographis paniculata (Acanthaceae)%穿心莲中的三个二萜酸盐

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟德新; 宣利江; 徐亚明; 白东鲁

    2001-01-01

    从穿心莲(Andrographis paniculata Nees.)水溶性部位分离得到3个新的二萜酸盐:穿心莲酸镁、穿心莲酸二钠和穿心莲酸二钾葡萄糖甙.同时,首次从穿心莲中分得鸟嘌呤核苷、尿嘧啶核苷、6-epiharpagide、procumbide、三色堇黄苷和芹菜素-7-氧-葡萄糖甙.通过波谱解析和化学方法确定了它们的结构.%Three salts of labdanic acids, named as magnesium andrographate, disodium andrographate and dipotassium andrographate 19-O-β-D-glucoside were isolated from the hydrophilic extract of Andrographis paniculata Nees. (Acanthaceae), together with guanosine, uridine, 6-epiharpagide, procumbide, violanthin and apigenin 7-O-β-D-glucoside. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic analysis and chemical transformation.

  5. Schizonticidal effect of a combination of Amaranthus spinosus L. and Andrographis paniculata Burm. f./Nees extracts in Plasmodium berghei-infected mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiwuk Susantiningsih

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Amaranthus spinosus and Andrographis paniculata are traditionally used as antimalarial herbs, but the combination of both has not yet been tested. The aim of this study was to determine the schizonticidal anti-malaria effect of a combination in Plasmodium berghei-infected mice.Methods: Male mice (Balb/c strain weighing 28-30 g, 7-8 weeks old, were randomly devided into 5 groups of 4 animals each. Group A: controls (nil and 4 treatment groups (B, C, D, and E. Group B: Amarathus 10 mg/kgBW, group C: Andrographis 2 mg/kgBW, group D: combination of Amaranthus + Andrographis 10 mg + 2 mg/kgBW. All treatment with plant extracts was administered orally, once per day for 7 days. Group E was given chloroquine 10 mg/kgBW, once a day orally, for 3 days.Results: The body weigh increased only in group D, hemoglobin concentration increased significantly vs controls (p < 0.05 in treatment groups C, D, and E, and blood schizonticidal activity was seen in all treatment groups, highest at almost 90% in groups D and E. Survival rate was 100% in all groups.Conclusion: The combination of Amaranthus and Andrographis (10 mg + 2 mg/kgBW exerts the same blood schizonticidal activity as chloroquine 10 mg/kgBW. (Med J Indones. 2012;21:66-70Keywords: Amaranthus spinosus, Andrographis paniculata, Balb/c mice, Plasmodium berghei, schizonticidal effect

  6. Warfarin and coumarin-like Murraya paniculata extract down-regulate EpCAM-mediated cell adhesion: individual components versus mixture for studying botanical metastatic chemopreventives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Jingwei; Zhou, Suxia; Jiang, Zhou; Chi, Ting; Ma, Ji; Kuo, Minliang; Lee, Alan Yueh-Luen; Jia, Lee

    2016-01-01

    We recently defined cancer metastatic chemoprevention as utilizing safe and effective molecules to comprehensively prevent the spark of activation-adhesion-extravasation-proliferation metastatic cascade caused by circulating tumor cells (CTCs). The strategy focuses on preventing the most important starting point of the cascade. We identified an extract from a well-known medical plant Murraya paniculata, which inhibited both embryonic implantation to human endometrium as traditionally-used for abortion and CTC adhesion to human endothelium. Here, we separated and characterized five coumarin-containing components (Z1-Z5) from the botanic extract. Flow cytometry revealed that within 1-100 μg/mL, Z3 and Z5 down-regulated EpCAM expression in human colon HCT116, whereas, Z1 and Z2 did oppositely. Warfarin and Z1-Z5 component mixture (CM) also down-regulated EpCAM expression. The down-regulation of EpCAM by Z3, Z5, CM and warfarin was confirmed by western blotting, and caused inhibition on adhesion of cancer cells to human endothelial cells. Rat coagulation study showed that warfarin prolonged prothrombin time, whereas, Z3 did not. The present studies revealed that, for the first time, warfarin and coumarin-like components Z3, Z5 and CM from Murraya paniculata could directly inhibit EpCAM-mediated cell-cell adhesion. PMID:27480614

  7. Phenological aspects of Thelypteris interrupta (Willd.) K. Iwats. (Thelypteridaceae) in a fragment of Atlantic Forest in Paraíba, northeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Rafael de Paiva Farias; Sergio Romero da Silva Xavier

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzed the phenological aspects of a population of Thelypteris interrupta (Willd.) K. Iwats. that occurs in a fragment of Atlantic Forest in the state of Paraíba, Brazil. A population of this species was delimited in a field and observed for 12 months, during which phenological data was recorded and then compared to seasonal climatological data. The results revealed that climatic seasonality did not influence phenological events in T. interrupta. Moreover, there were no differenc...

  8. Hedyotis diffusa Willd Inhibits Colorectal Cancer Growth in Vivo via Inhibition of STAT3 Signaling Pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Jun Peng; Wei Xu; Aling Shen; Zhenfeng Hong; Jianwei Zeng; Youzhi Zhan; Ling Zhang; Lili Wang; Lihui Wei; Jiumao Lin; Qiaoyan Cai

    2012-01-01

    Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3), a common oncogenic mediator, is constitutively activated in many types of human cancers; therefore it is a major focus in the development of novel anti-cancer agents. Hedyotis diffusa Willd has been used as a major component in several Chinese medicine formulas for the clinical treatment of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the precise mechanism of its anti-tumor activity remains largely unclear. Using a CRC mous...

  9. Evaluation of allelopathic impact of aqueous extract of root and aerial root of Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) miers on some weed plants

    OpenAIRE

    K. M. Abdul RAOOF; M. Badruzzaman SIDDIQUI

    2012-01-01

    The present laboratory experimental study was conducted to evaluate the allelopathic potential of Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers on seed germination and seedling growth of weed plants (Chenopodium album L. Chenopodium murale L., Cassia tora L. and Cassia sophera L.). Root and aerial root aqueous extracts of Tinospora at 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0% concentrations were applied to determine their effect on seed germination and seedling growth of test plants under laboratory conditions. Germinati...

  10. EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT NITROGEN LEVELS ON THE GRAIN YIELD AND SOME YIELD COMPONENTS OF QUINOA (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) UNDER MEDITERRANEAN CLIMATIC CONDITIONS

    OpenAIRE

    GEREN, Hakan

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.), is a pseudo-cereal crop that has been cultivated in the Andean region in South America. The quinoa as a field crop has a great potential in the improvement of food for humans and animals even under the conditions of marginal lands. For getting high crop yields, nutrients in balanced amount are a basic requirement. Experiments were carried out at the Bornova experimental fields of Field Crops Dept. of Agriculture Fac., Ege Univ., Turkey during 2013 ...

  11. Resonses of two main Andean crops, quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) and papa amarga (Solanum juzepczukii Buk.) to drought on the Bolivian Altiplano : significance of local adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    Vacher, Jean-Joinville

    1998-01-01

    The Bolivian altiplano is a vast plateau that lies at an average altitude of 4000 m. It is one of the main agricultural regions of Bolivia. Intense drought and frequent frost have forced peasants to select crops that are resistant to water deficit and low temperature. This study analyses the responses to drought of the main crops on the Altiplano; quinoas (#Chenopodium quinoa# Willd Sajama' and Sisa') and papa amarga (bitter potato) #Solanum juzepczukii Buk. Luki'). The effects of drought on ...

  12. MODELO TERRITORIAL DE PRODUCCIÓN DEL DAWE (CHENOPODIUM QUINUA WILLD): PROTOCOLOS-SELLOS CAMPESINOS, UNA EXPERIENCIA DE SOBERANÍA ALIMENTARIA EN EL SUR DE CHILE

    OpenAIRE

    Thomet, Max

    2010-01-01

    The Objective of this paper is to present the experience of Mapuches' farmers in creating their owner certification system to protect and control the marketing and agricultural, gastronomic and cultural attributes of the quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) This crops has been described from the arrival of the colons at middle of XVI century. Diverse documents like letters, binnacles of trips and botanical identifications by the first naturalists of this period detailed its morphological charac...

  13. Transpiration of montane Pinus sylvestris L. and Quercus pubescens Willd. forest stands measured with sap flow sensors in NE Spain

    OpenAIRE

    R. Poyatos; P. Llorens; Gallart, F.

    2005-01-01

    Stand transpiration was measured during the 2003 and 2004 growing seasons using heat dissipation sap flow sensors in a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and a pubescent oak (Quercus pubescens Willd.) forest located in a montane area of the Eastern Pyrenees (NE Spain). The first aim of the study was to assess the differences in quantitative estimates of transpiration (Ec) and the response to evaporative demand of the two stands. Over the studied period of 2003, characterised by a severe drought...

  14. Mechanism of Lipid-Lowering Effect of Paniculata Total Alkaloids%布渣叶总生物碱降血脂作用机制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯亮

    2015-01-01

    目的 探讨布渣叶总生物碱降血脂作用机制研究. 方法 采用高脂饲料构建高脂血症的大鼠动物模型, 采用灌胃的形式给予不同浓度的布渣叶总生物碱, 通过检测大鼠载脂蛋白、 相关酶类及活性物质, 初步探讨布渣叶总生物碱的降脂作用机制. 结果 布渣叶总生物碱可升高载脂蛋白AI ( ApoAI) , ApoAI/载脂蛋白B ( ApoB) 的比值, 与模型组相比差异具有统计学意义 (P<0. 05); 提高超氧化物歧化酶 (SOD) 的活性, 降低丙二醛 (MDA) 的含量, 与模型组相比差异具有统计学意义 (P<0. 05); 提高卵磷脂胆固醇酰基转移酶 (LCAT) 的活性, 提高一氧化氮 (NO) 的水平, 降低C反应蛋白 (CRP), 且组间相比具有统计学差异 (P<0. 05). 结论 布渣叶总生物碱通过升高高密度脂蛋白胆固醇升高ApoAI, 激活LCAT, 从而促进胆固醇的逆转运, 提高SOD活性, 增强机体康脂质过氧化能力, 促进NO生成, 改善血管内皮功能,具有从多方位调节血脂的作用.%Objective To investigate the mechanism of lipid-lowering effect of paniculata total alkaloids. Methods Animal models of hyperlipidemia rats were constructed by using the high-fat diet. Different concentrations of paniculata total alkaloids were ad-ministered in the form of gavage. Lipid-lowering effect of paniculata total alkaloids was studied by detecting rat apolipoprotein, associ-ated enzymes and active substances. Results The paniculata total alkaloids increased apolipoprotein AI ( ApoAI) , ApoAI / ratio of apolipoprotein B (ApoB). There was statistically significant difference compared with that of the model group (P<0. 05), it also in-creased superoxide dismutase ( SOD) activity and decreased malondialdehyde ( MDA) content. They were significantly different com-pared with those of the model group (P<0. 05), it improved lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) activity, increased Nitric ox-ide (NO) levels and reduced C-reactive protein

  15. 2-hydroxy-3-methylanthraquinone from Hedyotis diffusa Willd induces apoptosis in human leukemic U937 cells through modulation of MAPK pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Nan; Li, Dong-Yang; Niu, Hui-Yan; Zhang, Yi; He, Ping; Wang, Jia-He

    2013-06-01

    The herb of Hedyotis diffusa Willd (H. diffusa Willd), an annual herb distributed in northeastern Asia, has been known as a traditional oriental medicine for the treatment of cancer. Recently, Chinese researchers have discovered that two anthraquinones isolated from a water extract of H. diffusa Willd showed apoptosis-inducing effects against cancer cells. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for this phenomenon are poorly understood. The current study determines the role of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) in human leukemic U937 cells apoptosis induced by 2-hydroxy-3-methylanthraquinone from H. diffusa. Our results showed that 2-hydroxy-3-methylanthraquinone decreased phosphorylation-ERK1/2 (p-ERK1/2), and increased p-p38MAPK, but did not affect expressions of p-JNK1/2 in U937 cells. Moreover, treatment of U937 cells with 2-hydroxy-3-methylanthraquinone resulted in activation of caspase-3. Furthermore, PD98059 (ERK1/2 inhibitor) significantly enhanced 2-hydroxy-3-methylanthraquinone-induced apoptosis in U937 cells, whereas caspase-3 inhibitor or SB203580 (p-p38MAPK inhibitor), decreased apoptosis in U937 cells. Taken together, our study for the first time suggests that 2-hydroxy-3-methylanthraquinone is able to enhance apoptosis of U937 cells, at least in part, through activation of p-p38MAPK and downregulation of p-ERK1/2. Moreover, the triggering of caspase-3 activation mediated apoptotic induction. PMID:23550028

  16. Subcellular Distribution and Chemical Forms of Cd in Arabis paniculata Franch.%镉在圆锥南芥(Arabis paniculata Franch.)中的亚细胞分布及其化学形态

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于方明; 汤叶涛; 周小勇; 胡鹏杰; 曾晓雯; 赵璇; 仇荣亮

    2007-01-01

    通过水培的方式,采用差速离心技术和化学试剂逐步提取法研究了Cd在圆锥南芥(Arabis paniculata Franch.)叶片和根中的亚细胞分布和化学形态.研究结果表明,在Cd处理浓度为1.0 mg·L-1时,圆锥南芥叶片中的Cd主要贮藏在细胞壁和细胞核中,而根系中Cd的分布顺序为:细胞壁>核糖体>细胞核>叶绿体>线粒体;10.0 mg·L-1Cd处理时,叶片中的Cd主要集中在细胞壁以及细胞核中,根系中核糖体含量最高,占全量的53.92%.这说明圆锥南芥叶片富集的Cd主要贮存在细胞壁以及细胞核中,而根系富集的Cd主要分布在核糖体与细胞壁中.化学形态结果表明Cd处理水平的变化对圆锥南芥Cd的化学形态有明显的影响.1.0 mg·L-1Cd处理时,圆锥南芥叶片中以水提取态Cd为主,根系中乙醇提取态Cd的含量最高;当Cd提高到10.0 mg·L-1时,叶片和根系中Cd均以NaCl提取态含量最高,说明随着Cd浓度的增加,Cd与蛋白质、果胶酸等形态结合是圆锥南芥减轻Cd毒害的主要机制.

  17. Aktivitäten der Bundesländer zur Verhinderung der Ausbreitung der Beifuß- Ambrosie (Ambrosia artemisiifolia in Deutschland

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    Nawrath, Stefan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the seventh year after the publication of the Federal Programme of Action aiming at the prevention of the spread of ragweed, an assessment based on 14 criteria is made to which extent the tasks of the programme were implemented by the states. It was validated whether a monitoring system could be established. Since common ragweed is not homogeneously distributed in Germany, the requirement to implement measures against the species differs between the federal states. Thus, the population size of common ragweed was estimated for each of the 16 German federal states first and after that the states were classified depending on the size of the species’ occurrences. Requirements for action were formulated. At present, the largest ragweed stands occur in the federal state Brandenburg, followed by Bavaria, Baden-Württemberg, Rhineland–Palatinate and Hesse. The most extensive measures were conducted in Bavaria, Baden-Württemberg, Berlin and Brandenburg. The investigation shows that the scope of the measures does not correlate with the extent of Ambrosia occurrences in the states in every case. Since ragweed pollen coming from extensive plant populations can be spread by wind, and since ragweed spread will not stop at administrative borders, it should be the goal to achieve a nationwide equal as possible high level of activities. If the measures against common ragweed will not be intensified, further spread of the species is likely. The historic opportunity, to prevent the spread of Ambrosia in an early phase of the propagation process with even relatively little effort and thus protection of the health of the population, then would be wasted.

  18. Simultaneous determination of andrographolide, dehydroandrographolide and neoandrographolide in dog plasma by LC-MS/MS and its application to a dog pharmacokinetic study of Andrographis paniculata tablet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fang-fang; Fu, Shu-jun; Gu, Sheng-pan; Wang, Zhi-min; Wang, Zhen-zhong; He, Xin; Xiao, Wei

    2015-05-15

    In this study, a sensitive and rapid liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated to simultaneously determinate andrographolide (AP), dehydroandrographolide (DP), and neoandrographolide (NP) in plasma of beagle dogs after oral administration of Andrographis paniculata tablet (A. paniculata). The analytes and bilobalide (internal standard) were separated on an Agilent ZORBAX XDB-C18 column (50mm×2.1mm, 3.5μm) by using gradient elution consisting of methanol and water at a flow rate of 0.50mL/min in 7min. Multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode was performed to quantify data under monitoring precursor-product ion transitions of m/z 348.8→286.9, 330.9→107.9, 479.1→160.8 and 325.0→163.0 for AP, DP, NP and internal standard (IS) at negative ion mode, respectively. This method was developed at linearity ranging from 0.50 to 250ng/mL for AP, 1.00 to 500ng/mL for DP and 0.20 to 100ng/mL for NP. The accuracy of each analyte ranged between 94.8% and 107.1% and the precision was within 14.6%. No significant matrix effect was observed. AP, DP and NP were stable during sample storage, preparation and analytic procedures. Furthermore, this method was successfully applied in the investigation of the pharmacokinetic profile of AP, DP and NP in beagle dogs after oral administration of A. paniculata tablet (49.5mg for AP, 7.0mg for DP, 22.0mg for NP). Biological half-life (t1/2) was 2.08±0.99, 3.13±1.19 and 1.07±0.38h for AP, DP and NP, respectively. The areas under curves (AUC0-t) of AP, DP and NP was 494.50±150.64, 26.01±8.72 and 78.78±18.29ngh/mL, respectively. PMID:25864014

  19. Chemical constituents from roots of Andrographis paniculata%穿心莲根的化学成分研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐冲; 王峥涛

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the chemical constituents of the roots of Andrographis paniculata, 28 compounds were isolated and identified from the 80% ethanol extract. There are 20 flavonoids: 5, 5'-dihydroxy-7, 8, 2'trimetroxyflavone (1), 5-hydroxy-7, 8, 2', 6'-tetramethoxyflavone (2), 5, 3'-dihydroxy-7, 8, 4'-trimethoxyflavone (3), 2'-hydroxy-5, 7, 8-trimethoxyflavone (4), 5-hydroxy-7, 8, 2', 3', 4'-pentamethoxyflavone (6), wightin (7), 5, 2', 6'-trihydroxy-7-methoxyflavone 2'-O-,6-D-glucopyranoside (8), 5, 7, 8, 2'-tetramethoxyflavone (10), 5-hydroxy7, 8-dimethoxyflavanone (11), 5-hydroxy-7, 8-dimethoxyflavone (12), 5, 2'-dihydroxy-7, 8-dimethoxyflavone (13), 5-hydroxy-7, 8, 2', 5'-tetramethoxyflavone (14), 5-hydroxy-7, 8, 2', 3'-tetramethoxyflavone (15), 5-hydroxy7, 8, 2'-trimethoxyflavone (16), 5, 4'-dihydroxy-7, 8, 2', 3'-tetramethoxyflavone (17), dihydroneobaicalein (18), andrographidine A (19), andrographidine B (20), andrographidine C (21) and 5, 2'-dihydroxy-7, 8-dimethoxyflavone 2'-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (22); three diterpenoids: andrograpanin (23), neoandrographolide (24) and andrographolide (25); two phenylpropanoids: trans-cinnamic acid (26) and 4-hydroxy-2-methoxycinnamaldehyde (5); and oleanolic acid (9), β-sitosterol (27) and p-daucosterol (28). Compound 1 is a new flavone, compound 4 is a new natural product, compounds 2, 3 and 5 were isolated from the Androggraphis genus for the first time and compounds 6-9 were isolated from this plant for the first time.%为研究常用中药爵床科植物穿心莲(Andrographis paniculata)根的化学成分,运用各种色谱方法从安徽临泉产穿心莲根的80%乙醇提取物中分离并鉴定了28个化合物,其中20个黄酮:5,5'-二羟基-7,8,2'-三甲氧基黄酮(1)、5-羟基-7,8,2',6'-四甲氧幕黄酮(2)、5,3'-dihydroxy-7,8,4',-trimethoxynavone(3)、2'-羟基-5,7,8-三甲氧基黄酮(4)、5-羟基-7,8,2',3',4'-五甲氧基黄酮(6)、wightin(7)、5,2',6'-trihydroxy-7-methoxyflavone2'-O

  20. Anti-Infective Metabolites of a Newly Isolated Bacillus thuringiensis KL1 Associated with Kalmegh (Andrographis paniculata Nees.), a Traditional Medicinal Herb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Sudipta; Yasmin, Sahana; Ghosh, Subhadeep; Bhattacharya, Somesankar; Banerjee, Debdulal

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to isolate endophytic bacteria possessing anti-infective property from Kalmegh (Andrographis paniculata Nees.), a well-known medicinal plant. A total of 23 strains were isolated from this plant among which the strain KL1, isolated from surface-sterilized leaf of this medicinal herb, showed broad-spectrum antagonism against an array of Gram-positive and -negative bacterial pathogens. Ethyl acetate extract of KL1-fermented media yielded a greenish amorphous substance retaining anti-infective property. Solvent-extracted crude material was separated by thin-layer chromatography, and the active ingredient was located by autobiogram analysis. The purified anti-infective compound was found as anthracene derivative as analyzed by ultraviolet and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The strain was identified as Bacillus thuringiensis KL1 from cultural, physiochemical, and molecular aspects. The above results indicate the pharmaceutical potential of the candidate isolate. PMID:26997870

  1. Influência do cloreto de cálcio no crescimento de explantes de Gypsophila paniculata L. (Caryophyllaceae, cultivados in vitro Influence of calcium chloride on the growth of Gypsophila paniculata L. (Caryophyllaceae explants, cultivated in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Jun Takane

    1994-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por finalidade verificar a influência do Cloreto de Cálcio (CaCl12 no crescimento de explantes de Gypsophila paniculata L., cultivados em meio de cultura a fim de fornecer subsídios para a micropropagação desta cultura. Foram utilizados como explantes somente as gemas apicais das plantas em fase de crescimento vegetativo. Os explantes foram inoculados em meio de cultura MS (Murashigue & Skoog modificado com diferentes concentrações de CaCl2: a 440; b 880; c 1.760; d 2.640 e e 3.520 mg/1. Os explantes foram deixados em câmara de crescimento sob uma temperatura constante de 25°C ± 2°C sob fotoperíodo de 16 horas. Os explantes do meio de cultura MS com 1.760 mg/1 de CaCl2 foram os de melhor resultado, com crescimento vigoroso e presença de coloração verde intensa nas folhas. Os explantes do meio de cultura MS com 440 mg/1 de CaCl2 não apresentaram um crescimento satisfatório, com estiolamento e coloração verde pouco intensa nas folhas; os explantes do meio de cultura MS com 3.520 mg/1 de CaCl2, também não apresentaram um crescimento satisfatório, pois com 10 dias de inoculação já se percebia uma menor indução no crescimento, podendo tal efeito ser conseqüência de dois fatores: excesso de cálcio no meio de cultura ou a toxidez ocasionada pelo cloro.Shoot tips from plants still in the vegetative growth phase were used as explants. They were sterilised with tetraciclin 1% for four minutes, sodium hypochloridre (commercial sanitary water with 5% of active cloride 20% (v/v for 15 minutes and alcohol 70 GL for 2 minutes. The explants were inoculated in a growth medium MS (Murashigue & Skoog, with different concentrations of CaCl2: a 440; b 880; c 1,760; d 2,640 and e 3,520 mg/1. Explants were kept in a growth chamber at constant temperature (25°C ± 2°C with a photo period of 16 hours. The explants in the medium modified with 1,760 mg/1 of CaCl2, presented the best results, with a vigorous growth and

  2. Determination of six components of Andrographis paniculata extract and one major metabolite of andrographolide in rat plasma by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Yang, Wenqing; Wang, Guanglin; Tang, Pingming; Sai, Yang

    2014-03-01

    Andrographis paniculata (AP) has been widely used in Asian countries to treat many kinds of diseases for several decades. Hutchison Medipharma Ltd. developed an aqueous ethanol extract of A. paniculata (APE) named as HMPL-004 to treat inflammatory bowel diseases. The representative chemical components of HMPL-004 include andrographolide (AND), neoandrographolide (NAND), 14-deoxyandrographolide (DAND), 14-deoxy-11,12-didehydro-andrographolide (DDAND), apigenin-7-O-β-d-glucuronopyranoside (AODG) and chlorogenic acid (CLA). HM5013620 is the major circulating metabolite of AND. The purpose of this study was to develop a bioanalytical method to determine all seven compounds in rat plasma using liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The assay was fully validated according to FDA guidelines. The LC-MS/MS detection was operated in the negative mode, and the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode was used for the quantification. The analyte extraction was performed by protein precipitation with acetonitrile after adding a small volume (2% of the total volume) of 10% formic acid into plasma to stabilize AND under bench-top condition (ice-bath). The linear ranges of the analytes were 8-2000ng/mL for DDAND and 4-2000ng/mL for others. Validation results demonstrate that AND, NAND, DAND, DDAND, CLA, AODG and HM5013620 can be rapidly, accurately, precisely and robustly quantified in rat plasma. Furthermore, the method was successfully applied to characterize the pharmacokinetic profiles of all seven compounds in Sprague-Dawley rats after a single oral administration of 750mg of HMPL-004. PMID:24508679

  3. Larvicidal activity and GC-MS analysis of flavonoids of Vitex negundo and Andrographis paniculata against two vector mosquitoes Anopheles stephensi and Aedes aegypti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keerti Gautam

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Development of insect resistance to synthetic pesticides, high operational cost and environmental pollution have created the need for developing alternative approaches to control vector-borne diseases. In the present study, larvicidal activity of flavonoid extracts of different parts of Vitex negundo (Linnaeus and Andrographis paniculata (Nees have been studied against the late III or early IV instar larvae of Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi (Liston. Methods: Flavonoids were extracted from different parts of the selected plants using standard method. Bioassay test was carried out by WHO method for determination of larvicidal activity against mosquitoes. Different compounds of the most active extract were identified by the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS analysis. Results: Flavonoid extract of whole aerial part of A. paniculata was found to be inactive against the selected larvae of Ae. aegypti even at the concentration of 600 ppm, whereas it caused 70% mortality in An. stephensi at the concentration of 200 ppm. Flavonoid extract of flower-buds produced highest mortality (100% at the concentration of 600 ppm for the late III or early IV instar larvae of Ae. aegypti and at the concentration of 200 ppm for the larvae of An. stephensi. GC-MS analysis of the most active flavonoid extract from flower-buds of Vitex showed 81 peaks. Phenol (26.83% area, naphthalene (4.95% area, 2,3-dihydrobenzofuran (6.79% area, Phenol-2,4-Bis (1,1-dimethyl (4.49% area, flavones 4'-OH,5-OH,7-di-O-glucoside (0.25% area and 5-hydroxy- 3,6,7,3',4'-pentamethoxy flavones (0.80% area were present in major amount. Conclusion: Flavonoid extracts from different parts of two selected plants possess larvicidal activity against two selected mosquito species, hence, could be utilized for developing flavonoid-based, ecofriendly insecticide as an alternative to synthetic insecticides.

  4. Quality control evaluation of Guduchi Satva (solid aqueous extract of Tinospora cordifolia (Willd. Miers: An herbal formulation

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    Rohit Sharma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Herbal products represent complex biological mixture and achieving a reproducible pharmaceutical quality could be a very challenging task in standardisation of herbal products. Hence, methodical approach is required for standardisation, development of sufficient quality control profile and scientific validation of plant extracts, as is done in contemporary medicine. Ayurvedic physicians prescribe dried extract of Tinospora cordifolia (Willd. Miers known as ′Guduchi Satva′ in several febrile conditions. However, till today no published information is available on its analytical profile. Aims and Objectives: Present study is aimed to evaluate quality control parameters for Guduchi Satva. Materials and Methods: Fifteen batches of Guduchi Satva were prepared and findings were systematically recorded. Physicochemical parameters and qualitative tests for various functional groups, quantitative estimation of total alkaloids, fluorescence analysis, high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC profile, heavy metal analysis and microbial load of Guduchi Satva were carried out. Results: The average percentage of dried Satva obtained was 3.8%. Alkaloids, carbohydrates and starch were found present in Satva. Number of peaks obtained in HPTLC also corresponds to this finding. Percentage of total alkaloid content was 0.31%. No heavy metal and microbial load were detected in the sample. The present observation can be considered as standard for further studies on Satva.

  5. Pigment identification, antioxidant activity, and nutrient composition of Tinospora cordifolia (willd.) Miers ex Hook. f & Thoms fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohammad Imtiyaj; Harsha, P S C Sri; Giridhar, P; Ravishankar, G A

    2011-05-01

    The stem, leaf, and root of Tinospora cordifolia (willd.) have been highly exploited for medicinal preparations; however, the nutritional and nutraceutical potential of its attractive red berries (fruits) have not so far been studied. Pigments, berberine (107.0 mg/100 g) and lycopene (50.8 mg/100 g), were identified in the deseeded fruit. Total phenol content in the fruit was 3.2 mg gallic acid equivalent/g. The IC(50) of DPPH· (82, and 468 ppm) and OH· (100, and 1,000 ppm) scavenging activity, and the EC(50) of reducing power (2,616, and 1,472 ppm) of hexane and methanol extracts, respectively, were observed. Oxygen radical absorbance capacities of the fruit extracts (150 and 300 ppm) were 1,107 and 2,614 μM trolox equivalent/g, respectively. Nutrient composition including carbohydrate (18.4%), proteins (1.5%), lipids (6%) of which ∼62% was unsaturated fatty acids, vitamins like ascorbic acid (0.24 μg), niacin (0.7 mg), and tocopherols (2.4 mg) in 100 g fruits were determined. Potassium content was 1.2 g/100 g dry tissue of berries. These findings show that components of T. cordifolia fruit could be bioactive and used in food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetics. PMID:21155657

  6. Application of novel loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) for rapid authentication of the herbal tea ingredient Hedyotis diffusa Willd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming; Wong, Yuk-Lau; Jiang, Li-Li; Wong, Ka-Lok; Wong, Yuen-Ting; Lau, Clara Bik-San; Shaw, Pang-Chui

    2013-12-01

    Hedyotis diffusa Willd. (Baihuasheshecao) is an ingredient of herbal teas commonly consumed in the Orient and tropical Asia for cancer treatment and health maintenance. In the market, this ingredient is frequently adulterated by the related species Hedyotis corymbosa (L.) Lam. The objective of this study is to develop a novel loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) technique to differentiate H. diffusa from its adulterant H. corymbosa. A set of four internal control primers (F3, FIP, BIP and B3) were designed based on six loci in the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) for LAMP of both H. diffusa and H. corymbosa. Two specific primers (S_F3 and S_FIP) were designed for specific LAMP detection of H. diffusa only. Our data showed that LAMP was successful for both H. diffusa and H. corymbosa in internal control. In contrast, only H. diffusa was detected in specific LAMP using the specific primers S_F3 and S_FIP. This study showed that LAMP was useful to differentiate H. diffusa from its adulterant H. corymbosa. This study is significant for the verification of the authenticity for better quality control of this common herbal tea ingredient. The strategy of including an internal control assures the quality of the concerned DNA region for LAMP. PMID:23870990

  7. Enraizaimento de estacas de Bougainvillea spectabilis Willd. com o uso de ácido indolbutírico

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    Elias Mendes Costa

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available O uso de ácido indolbutírico (IBA como estimulador do enraizamento em estacas de Bougainvillea spectabilis Willd. pode propiciar aumento de raízes para a formação de mudas comercializáveis. Objetivou-se avaliar o enraizamento, a formação de brotos e a sobrevivência de estacas herbáceas, lenhosas e semi-lenhosas de Bougainvillea com o uso de ácido indolbutírico (IBA. As estacas foram coletadas e tratadas com o IBA (1000 e 2000 mg/l. Aos 56 dias avaliaram-se a porcentagem de estacas vivas, enraizadas e com brotos; o número de brotos e de raízes por estaca e o comprimento da maior raiz e maior broto. As menores porcentagens de enraizamento foram verificadas nas estacas sem o uso de IBA. Maiores diferenças foram verificadas para as estacas lenhosas. O uso do IBA favorece o enraizamento de estacas de Bougainvillea, com melhor desempenho para as estacas lenhosas e na concentração de 2000 mg/l de IBA

  8. NUTRIENT ACCUMULATION IN THE ABOVEGROUND BIOMASS, IN THE LITTER LAYER AND PHYLLODIES DECOMPOSITION OF Acacia mangium Willd.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieter Liebsch

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Nutrient concentrations and contents in the shoot (leaves, branches, bark and wood in a five-years-old stand of Acacia mangium Willd. (mangium, decomposition rate of mangium phyllodies (modified leaves and nutrient efficiency use were evaluated in a forest stand in Seropédica, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. The species presented a high nutrient use efficency and accumulated 135 t.ha-1 of above ground biomass, containing: 544.9 kg.ha-1 of N, 281.7 kg.ha-1 of Ca, 242.9 kg.ha-1 of K, 47 kg.ha-1 of Mg and 35.2 kg. ha-1 of P. There was an accumulation of 12.7 t.ha-1 of litter and this layer contained 251.0, 5.7, 14.6, 102.7 and 22.7 kg.ha-1, respectively, of N, P, K, Ca and Mg.  The decomposition constant (k estimated for the phyllodies decomposition was 0,00165 g.g-1.day-1 and the half-live was 421 days. The accumulation of litter on the ground may represent an advantage as nutrient supply for succeeding crops or disadvantage as fuel in areas subject to frequent fire.

  9. Physical features, phenolic compounds, betalains and total antioxidant capacity of coloured quinoa seeds (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) from Peruvian Altiplano.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abderrahim, Fatima; Huanatico, Elizabeth; Segura, Roger; Arribas, Silvia; Gonzalez, M Carmen; Condezo-Hoyos, Luis

    2015-09-15

    Physical features, bioactive compounds and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of coloured quinoa varieties (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) from Peruvian Altiplano were studied. Quinoa seeds did not show a pure red colour, but a mixture which corresponded to different fractal colour values (51.0-71.8), and they varied from small to large size. Regarding bioactive compounds, total phenolic (1.23-3.24mg gallic acid equivalents/g) and flavonol contents (0.47-2.55mg quercetin equivalents/g) were highly correlated (r=0.910). Betalains content (0.15-6.10mg/100g) was correlated with L colour parameter (r=-0.569), total phenolics (r=0.703) and flavonols content (r=0.718). Ratio of betaxanthins to betacyanins (0.0-1.41) was negatively correlated with L value (r=-0.744). Whereas, high TAC values (119.8-335.9mmol Trolox equivalents/kg) were negatively correlated with L value (r=-0.779), but positively with betalains (r=0.730), as well as with free (r=0.639), bound (r=0.558) and total phenolic compounds (r=0.676). Unexploited coloured quinoa seeds are proposed as a valuable natural source of phenolics and betalains with high antioxidant capacity. PMID:25863614

  10. Transposition of Alchornea castaneifolia (Willd. A. Juss. Seedlings from natural regeneration as a strategy for saplings production in nursery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheilly Raquelly Prado de Paula

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Alchornea castaneifolia (Willd. A. Juss. (Urana is a native species with potential for restoration of riparian vegetation and urban forestry. Given the difficulty of its propagation and the lack of knowledge about their behavior in nursery, this study aimed to evaluate the transposition of Alchornea castaneifolia from natural regeneration as a strategy for saplings production in nursery. The collecting took place in Porto Acre – AC, and selected 120 seedlings, which were divided into three height classes (15 cm and cultivated in four substrates (soil, sand, wasting açaí+soil, Plantmax in a completely randomized design in a 3x4 factorial design. We investigated the survival of seedlings and the growth in sand substrate to the characteristics height (H and collar diameter (DC, the relationship H/DC, dry mass of shoots, roots and total between the three height classes of the seedlings. The highest percentage of Alchornea castaneifolia seedlings survival was observed in the sand substrate (67%, followed by the wasting açaí+soil substrate (43%. Seedlings that showed greater growth in height, collar diameter and dry mass production were contained in the class above 15 cm in sand substrate. However, the 10-15 cm class of height presented 100% survival of seedlings in sand substrate and also provided high growth. It is therefore recommended the transposition of seedling in the 10-15 cm class using sand substrate for the propagation of Alchornea castaneifolia in nursery.

  11. RASIO SEKS JERNANG (Daemonorops draco (Willd.Blume PADA POPULASI ALAMI DAN BUDIDAYA: IMPLIKASI UNTUK PRODUKSI BIJI

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    Revis Asra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Jernang (Daemonorops draco (Willd. Blume is a dioecious rattan species that produces resin on female individuals. The sex of jernang can only be identified from its inflorescences morphology. Sex survey was conducted in 5 populations of  jernang, 3 populations of which in the Bukit Tigapuluh National Park (BTNP, 1 population in the secondary forest in Jambi province and 1 population in the area of rubber plantation in Jambi province. Chi-Squared test on the sex ratio of  jernang showed that the ratio of the male to female in their natural habitat (Bengayoan and Tebo, 2 parts of the BTNP ecosystem and the Sepintun secondary forest was distorted from the normal ratio of 1:1, while the cultivated jernang in Nunusan population (BTNPT and Mandiangin were not significantly different from the normal sex ratio of 1:1. Female individuals from the cultivated population in the Mandiangin (planted in 1997 has an average number of stems per clump more on individual males (27.12 than females (26.92. The result of this study indicated that the D. draco has a good reproductive strategy and thus suitable for cultivation.

  12. Development and Utilization of Chenopodium quinoa Willd.%藜麦及其资源开发利用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖正春; 张广伦

    2014-01-01

    藜麦Chenopodium quinoa Willd.英文名:quinoa,原产于南美洲安第斯山区,是印加土著居民的主要传统食物,至今已有5000~7000多年的利用和种植历史.古代印加人将它称之为“粮食之母”.藜麦在20世纪80年代,被美国宇航局用于宇航员的太空食品.联合国粮农组织认为藜麦是唯一的单一植物即可满足人体基本营养需求的食物,正式推荐藜麦为最适宜人类的完美的全营养食品.本文对藜麦的植物形态、生态特性、营养价值以及在我国种植展望作了综合报道.

  13. Genetic diversity and comparison of physicochemical and nutritional characteristics of six quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa willd. genotypes cultivated in Chile

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    Margarita Miranda

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was focused on the analysis of agronomical, nutritional, physicochemical, and antioxidant properties of six genetically different quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd genotypes cultivated in three distinctive geographical zones of Chile. Ancovinto and Cancosa genotypes from the northern Altiplano (19 ºS, Cáhuil and Faro from the central region (34 ºS, and Regalona and Villarica from the southern region (39 ºS are representative of high genetic differentiation among the pooled samples, in particular between Altiplano and the central-southern groups. A Common-Garden Assay at 30 ºS showed significant differences among seed origins in all morphometric parameters and also in yields. Altiplano genotypes had larger panicule length but no seed production. A significant influence of the different quinoa genotypes on chemical composition and functional properties was also observed. Protein concentration ranged from 11.13 to 16.18 g.100 g-1 d.m., while total dietary fiber content ranged from 8.07-12.08 g.100 g-1 d.m., and both were the highest in Villarrica ecotype. An adequate balance of essential amino acids was also observed. Sucrose was the predominant sugar in all genotypes. Antioxidant activity was high in all genotypes, and it was highest in Faro genotype (79.58% inhibition.

  14. Leucas aspera (Willd.) Link Essential Oil from India: β-Caryophyllene and 1-Octen-3-ol Chemotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Rajesh K

    2016-03-01

    Leucas aspera (Willd.) Link (Lamiaceae) is an annual, branched herb used in traditional medicine as an antipyretic and insecticide. The hydro-distilled essential oil was obtained from the aerial parts of L. aspera growing wild in North West Karnataka region of India and analyzed by gas chromatography equipped with flame ionization detector and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Forty-three compounds were identified, representing 98.1% of the total oil. The main constituents were identified as β-caryophyllene (34.2%), 1-octen-3-ol (14.8%), α-humulene (6.3%), α-pinene (5.8%), epi-α-bisabolol (4.6%) and limonene (4.5%). The oil was found to be rich in sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (47.7%), followed by others (long chain hydrocarbons (LCH), oxygenated LCH and phenyl derivative constituents) (20.2%), monoterpene hydrocarbons (14.8%), oxygenated sesquiterpenes (14.8%) and oxygenated monoterpenes (0.6%) type compounds. PMID:26620424

  15. Preference of Quinoa Moth: Eurysacca Melanocampta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) for Two Varieties of Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) in Olfactometry Assays Preferencia de la Polilla de la Quinua: Eurysacca melanocampta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) por dos Variedades de Quinua (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) en Ensayos de Olfatometría

    OpenAIRE

    Juan  F Costa; Walter Cosio; Maritza Cardenas; Erick Yábar; Ernesto Gianoli

    2009-01-01

    Insects are attracted to plants by visual and olfactory cues. The quinoa moth, Eurysacca melanocampta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is the main insect pest of the quinoa crop, Chenopodium quinoa Willd. (Chenopodiales: Chenopodiaceae), in the southern Peruvian Andes, causing grain yield losses. The aim of this study was to investigate the behavioural response of adult quinoa moths to olfactory stimuli. Specifically, the objectives of this study were: 1) to determine the capacity of E. me...

  16. Consumo de Uroleucon ambrosiae (Thomas, 1878 (Hemiptera: Aphididae por larvas de Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861 (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae em casa-de-vegetação Consumption of Uroleucon ambrosiae (Thomas, 1878 (Hemiptera: Aphididae BY Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861 (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae larvae in greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander M. Auad

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Com esta pesquisa objetivou-se verificar o consumo de Uroleucon ambrosiae em diferentes densidades, por larvas de Chrysoperla externa provenientes de diferentes regimes alimentares, em casa-de-vegetação. Ninfas de 3º e 4º ínstares do afídeo foram separadas nas densidades 30, 40 e 50, e colocadas nas plantas de alface (35 dias de idade, as quais, foram envolvidas por gaiola de armação de ferro de 27x27x26 cm cobertas com tecido “voil” e acoplada nos tubos de PVC do cultivo hidropônico. Quatro horas após, uma larva de C. externa, de diferentes ínstares e previamente alimentadas com U. ambrosiae ou ovos de Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier, 1819, foi liberada próximo à colônia de afídeos, sendo a gaiola fechada imediatamente; o mesmo procedimento foi adotado sem que a larva fosse confinada. Após quarenta e oito horas, realizou-se a contagem do número de afídeos consumidos em cada densidade de presa disponível. A eficiência do predador, confinado em gaiola, foi de 12,46%, 13,63% e 25,76% para larvas de 1º, 2º e 3º ínstares previamente alimentadas com ovos de S. cerealella; 9,59% e 17,63% para aquelas de 2º e 3º ínstares alimentadas anteriormente com ninfas de U. ambrosiae, respectivamente e de 18,62% para larvas de 3º ínstar previamente alimentadas com ovos do lepidóptero no 1º ínstar e ninfas dos afídeos no 2º instar; no entanto, para larvas não confinadas, não foram verificadas diferenças significativas na eficiência. Nas densidades de 40 e 50 afídeos, as porcentagens de predação (18,30 e 18,72, respectivamente foram significativamente superiores quando comparada à densidade 30 (11,79; para testes sem confinamento, não houve influência da densidade da presa na resposta do predador. Assim, o alimento fornecido às larvas de C. externa antes de serem liberadas em casa-de-vegetação, o confinamento das mesmas e a densidade de U. ambrosiae disponível influenciaram o potencial de consumo do predador

  17. QUINOA (CHENOPODIUM QUINOA WILLD): DIGESTIBILIDADE IN VITRO, DESENVOLVIMENTO E ANÁLISE SENSORIAL DE PREPARAÇÕES DESTINADAS A PACIENTES CELÍACOS

    OpenAIRE

    L. I. A. CASTRO; C. M. V. REAL; I. S. C. PIRES; C. V. PIRES; N. A.V.D. PINTO; Miranda, L. S.; B. C. ROSA; P. A. DIAS

    2008-01-01

    A quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) é um pseudocereal isento de glúten, oriundo dos Andes, onde tem sido cultivado há milhares de anos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi desenvolver e avaliar sensorialmente algumas preparações contendo quinoa em grãos, flocos e farinha, destinadas ao paciente celíaco, e determinar a digestibilidade in vitro de sua proteína, submetida ou ...

  18. Efeito genotóxico e antiproliferativo de Mikania cordifolia (L. F.) Willd. (Asteraceae) sobre o ciclo celular de Allium cepa L.

    OpenAIRE

    Dias, M G; T.S. Canto-Dorow; A.P.D. Coelho; S.B. Tedesco

    2014-01-01

    As plantas com potencial medicinal têm sido muito utilizadas para o tratamento de doenças no Brasil. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito genotóxico e antiproliferativo de infusões de Mikania cordifolia (L.F.) Willd. sobre o ciclo celular de Allium cepa L. Foram coletadas duas populações no município de Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, e, para cada uma, foram preparados dois tratamentos em duas concentrações: 4g/500mL e 16g/500mL, além de um controle positivo composto por 10% de glifos...

  19. Determinación de características físicas en semillas de quinua (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) mediante procesamiento digital de imágenes

    OpenAIRE

    Percy Arapa Carcasi; Carlos Alberto Padrón Pereira

    2014-01-01

    Las propiedades físicas de las semillas influencian parámetros de trabajo en los equipos y son esenciales para el diseño de estos y de instalaciones para la recolección, cosecha, transporte, separación, secado, aireación, almacenamiento y procesamiento. En la determinación de propiedades físicas algunas dependen o se originan de las dimensiones ortogonales. Los granos o semillas de quinua (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) se caracterizan por su pequeño tamaño. El propósito de este trabajo fue deter...

  20. Estructura genética de la quinua (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) del Altiplano boliviano, según lo revelado por los marcadores RAPD

    OpenAIRE

    Del Castillo, C.; Winkel, Thierry; Mahy, G.; Bizoux, J.P.

    2013-01-01

    La Quinua (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) es un pseudocereal originario de los Andes importante para la seguridad alimentaria de los pequeños agricultores, así como para la producción comercial. Recientemente, se ha afirmado que la erosión genética en Bolivia podría ser el resultado de la marginación del cultivo en el Altiplano norte y de su estandarización comercial en el Altiplano sur. El objetivo de este estudio fue cuantificar la estructura jerárquica de la variación genética presente en ocho...

  1. Gomose da acácia-negra causada por Ceratocystis fimbriata Ell. & Halst. Gummosis of Acacia decurrens Willd. Caused by Ceratocystis fimbriata Ell. & Halst.

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan José Antunes Ribeiro; Margarida Fumikoito; Osvaldo Paradela Filho; Jairo Lopes de Castro

    1988-01-01

    É relatada a ocorrência, pela primeira vez no Brasil, de Ceratocystis fimbriata Ell. & Halst. sobre acácia-negra. Testes de inoculação cruzada foram efetuados em casa de vegetação com o isolado obtido de acácia-negra (Acacia decurrens Willd.) e outro de mangueira (Mangifera indica L.). Observou-se que ambos os isolados foram patogênicos à acácia-negra e à mangueira.Several plants of Acacia decurrens showed wilting and subsequent branche drying. The branches showed wood splitting and gum exuda...

  2. Anticancer Effects of 1,3-Dihydroxy-2-Methylanthraquinone and the Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Hedyotis Diffusa Willd against HepG2 Carcinoma Cells Mediated via Apoptosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Lan Li

    Full Text Available Hedyotis Diffusa Willd, used in Traditional Chinese Medicine, is a treatment for various diseases including cancer, owing to its mild effectiveness and low toxicity. The aim of this study was to identify the main anticancer components in Hedyotis Diffusa Willd, and explore mechanisms underlying their activity. Hedyotis Diffusa Willd was extracted and fractionated using ethyl acetate to obtain the H-Ethyl acetate fraction, which showed higher anticancer activity than the other fractions obtained against HepG2 cells with sulforhodamine B assays. The active component of the H-Ethyl acetate fraction was identified to be 1,3-dihydroxy-2-methylanthraquinone (DMQ with much high inhibitory rate up to 48.9 ± 3.3% and selectivity rate up to 9.4 ± 4.5 folds (p<0.01 at 125 μmol/L. HepG2 cells treated with the fraction and DMQ visualized morphologically using light and fluorescence microscopy. Annexin V--fluorescein isothiocyanate / propidium iodide staining flow cytometry, DNA ladder and cell cycle distribution assays. Mechanistic studies showed up-regulation of caspase-3, -8, and -9 proteases activities (p<0.001, indicating involvement of mitochondrial apoptotic and death receptor pathways. Further studies revealed that reactive oxygen species in DMQ and the fraction treated HepG2 cells increased (p<0.01 while mitochondrial membrane potential reduced significantly (p<0.001 compared to the control by flow cytometry assays. Western blot analysis showed that Bax, p53, Fas, FasL, p21 and cytoplasmic cytochrome C were up-regulated (p<0.01, while Bcl-2, mitochondrial cytochrome C, cyclin E and CDK 2 were down-regulated dose-dependently (p<0.01. The reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction showed that mRNA expressions of p53 and Bax increased (p<0.001 while that of Bcl-2 decreased (p<0.001. Pre-treatment with caspase-8 inhibitor Z-IETD-FMK, or caspase-9 inhibitor Z-LEHD-FMK, attenuated the growth-inhibitory and apoptosis-inducing effects of DMQ and the

  3. Germinação de sementes de Parkia pendula (Willd. Benth. ex Walp. (fabaceae em diferentes temperaturas Germination of Parkia pendula (Willd. Benth. ex Walp. (fabaceae seeds in different temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jociane Rosseto

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Parkia pendula (Willd. Benth. ex Walp. é uma espécie arbórea da Amazônia brasileira, pertencente à família Fabaceae, de importância regional, porém pouco conhecida, considerando-se as informações técnicas, mas muito explorada comercialmente. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a germinação das sementes em diferentes temperaturas. As sementes foram submetidas às temperaturas constantes de 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 e 40 ºC com quatro repetições de 25 sementes, colocadas para germinar em papel-toalha, na forma de rolo, mantidos em sacos plásticos transparentes em câmara de germinação sob fotoperíodo de 8 h. Foi utilizado o delineamento inteiramente casualizado com seis tratamentos e quatro repetições. A germinação foi avaliada durante sete dias, sendo consideradas germinadas as sementes que emitiram raízes maiores que 5 mm e as que formaram plântulas normais. Analisaram-se as seguintes características: germinação (%, tempo médio de germinação e formação de plântulas normais, comprimento e massa seca de plântulas. Verificou-se que as sementes de Parkia pendula germinaram em todas as temperaturas estudadas. Entretanto, a formação de plântulas foi inibida nas temperaturas de 15, 20 e 40 ºC. A temperatura de 30 ºC foi considerada a mais favorável para a germinação e formação de plântulas dessa espécie.The Parkia pendula (Willd. Benth. ex Walp. is a forest species of the Brazilian Amazon, belonging to the Fabaceae family, of regional importance. However, little is known about its species, despite its common commercial use. The objective of this work was to evaluate the germination of seeds in different temperatures. Temperatures of 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 and 40 ºC were utilized. The six treatments were completely randomized, with four repetitions of 25 seeds kept in paper towel to germinate and kept in transparent plastic bags in a germination chamber with photoperiod of eight hours. The method used was

  4. Nutritional Aspects of Six Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. Ecotypes from three Geographical Areas of Chile Aspectos Nutricionales de Seis Ecotipos de Quínoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. de Tres Zonas Geográficas de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Miranda

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the diversity of the quinoa crop in Chile from a nutritional perspective. Nutritional properties, minerals, vitamins, and saponin content were assessed in seeds of six Chilean quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. ecotypes grown in three main production areas with distinctive climatic and edaphic conditions: Ancovinto and Cancosa in the North-Altiplano or High Plateau, Cáhuil and Faro in the central coastal area, and Regalona and Villarrica in the south of the country. There were significant differences (P La diversidad en el cultivo de la quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. de Chile fue explorada desde una perspectiva nutricional. En este contexto las propiedades nutricionales como también los contenidos de minerales, vitaminas y saponina fueron evaluados en las semillas de seis ecotipos chilenos de quínoa, cultivados en las tres principales zonas de producción con condiciones edafoclimáticas distintas: Ancovinto y Cancosa del altiplano del norte, Cáhuil y Faro de la zona costera central y, Regalona y Villarrica en el sur del país. Hubo diferencias significativas (P < 0.05 en todas las propiedades nutricionales de las semillas de todas las zonas. El ecotipo Villarrica tenia el mayor contenido de proteína (16.10 g 100 g-1 MS y de vitamina E y C (4.644 ± 0.240 y 23.065 ± 1.119 mg 100 g-1 MS, respectivamente. El mayor contenido de vitamina B1 (0.648 ± 0.006 mg 100 g-1 MS y B3 (1.569 ± 0.026 mg 100 g-1 MS fue encontrado en el ecotipo Regalona, y el mayor contenido de vitamina B2 (0.081 ± 0.002 mg 100 g-1 MS en el ecotipo Ancovinto. El K fue el mineral más abundante con un valor de 2325.56 mg 100 g-1 MS en el ecotipo Cancosa. El contenido de saponina fluctuó entre 0.84 g 100 g-1 MS en el ecotipo Villarrica y 3.91 g 100 g-1 MS en el ecotipo Cáhuil. Hubo diferencias significativas entre los ecotipos chilenos de quínoa cultivados bajo diferentes condiciones climáticas. No obstante, las semillas de quinoa de cualquier

  5. Ethanol Extract of Hedyotis diffusa Willd Affects Immune Responses in Normal Balb/c Mice In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Yu-Jui; Lin, Jing-Pin; Hsiao, Yung-Ting; Chou, Guan-Ling; Tsai, Yu-Hsiang; Chiang, Su-Yin; Lin, Jaung-Geng; Chung, Jing-Gung

    2015-01-01

    Numerous clinical anticancer drugs are obtained from natural plants and Hedyotis diffusa Willd (EEHDW) has been used as a major component in Traditional Chinese medicine formulas since a long time. Ethanol extracts of EEHDW have been shown to possess various biological activities including anticancer function in vitro. Our earlier studies have shown that EEHDW affects immune responses in WEHI-3-generated leukemia mice, but EEHDW has not been reported to affect immune responses in a normal mouse model. Herein, we investigated whether EEHDW could affect immune responses on normal murine cells in vivo. Normal BALB/c mice were orally treated with or without EEHDW at 0, 16, 32, and 64 mg/kg or 32 mg/kg by i.p. for 3 weeks, then were weighed, and blood, liver and spleen samples were collected for further experiments. Results indicated that EEHDW did not significantly affect body and liver weight but significantly increased the spleen weight by i.p. treatment when compared to control groups. Flow cytometric assays indicated that EEHDW promoted CD11b levels at 16, 32 and 64 mg/kg oral treatment, CD19 levels at 16, 32, 64 mg/kg oral treatment and i.p. treatment, and Mac-3 levels at 16, 32 and 64 mg/kg oral treatment, however, it did not significantly affect the levels of CD3. Oral treatment with 16 and 32 mg/kg of EEHDW significantly decreased macrophage phagocytosis from PBMC; 32 mg/kg of EEHDW by i.p. treatment significantly increased phagocytosis activity of macrophages obtain from the peritoneal cavity. EEHDW at 32 mg/kg by i.p. treatment led to an increase of NK cell activities compared to oil control groups. EEHDW at 32 mg/kg of EEHDW by i.p. treatment increased B- and T-cell proliferation. Based on these observations, EEHDW seems to have promoted immune responses in this murine model. PMID:26130790

  6. Potential of mosquito fern (Azolla caroliniana Willd.) plants as a biofilter for cadmium removal from waste water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sajwam, K.S.; Ornes, W.H. [Savannah State College, GA (United States)]|[Univ. of South Carolina, Aiken, SC (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The aquatic vascular Mosquito Fern (Azolla Caroliania Willd.) was investigated as a potential biological filter for removal of Cd from waste water. Mosquito Fern plants were grown in and harvested weekly from 0.10 M Hoagland nutrient solutions containing 0.01, 0.04, and 1.03 {mu}g Cd mL{sup -1} or 0.50 M Hoagland nutrient solutions containing 0.02, 1.0, and 9.14,{mu}g Cd mL{sup -1}. Dry weights of plants significantly increased when exposed to all three Cd concentrations in 0. 10 M Hoagland solution through week three then decreased thereafter. However, in plants exposed to Cd treatments in 0.50 M Hoagland solution, dry weights increased through week one and decreased thereafter. Tissue Cd concentrations in plants grown in 0.10 M Hoagland solution increased during the first two weeks followed by decreases in week 3 and 4. However, tissue Cd increased through week 3 in plants grown in 0.50 M Hoagland solutions. Cadmium exposure to plants grown in 0.10 M Hoagland solution seemed to increase the tissue P concentrations in plants exposed to the lowest concentration of Cd. Tissue P in both control and treated plants in 0.50 M Hoagland solution seemed to increase over time with exception of the medium level (1 {mu}g Cd mL{sup -1}). These results suggest that Mosquito Fern would be useful for absorbing Cd from nutrient-rich water when the solution concentration was in the range of as low as 0.01 and as high as 9.14 {mu}g Cd mL{sup -1}. However, the harvest regime would have to be every one or two weeks to sustain plant vigor and realize maximum uptake of Cd from solution.

  7. PROPERTIES OF THE SESQUITERPENE LACTONES OF in vitro CULTIVATED Saussurea discolor (WILLD. DC. AND S. porcii DEGEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Marchenko

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Using the UV- and IR-spectroscopy methods in the plantstuff of Saussurea discolor (Willd. DC. and S. porcii Degen, that are infrequent species of the genus of Saussurea DC., the existence of the sesquiterpene lactones in them was determined. Similar results for the plants cultivated in vitro were received. The contents of the sesquiterpene lactones are approximate to the same ones in the intact plants. It was found as well that the plants of S. discolor have their higher total content. We elaborated the separation criterions (under 5-days extraction of chloroform, purification (using the adsorption chromatography column and fractionation (applying thin layer chromatography for the amounts of the sesquiterpene lactones. By thin layer chromatography there were detected the qualitative differences of their spectrum for the explants of plants, grown in vitro and for the S. discolor and S. porcii wild plants. The plant material of both investigated species differs besides by the quantitative content of the main components of the sesquiterpene lactones. All the investigated materials showed maximum amounts of Rf 0,36 and 0,95 components. By diffusion in agar method the existence of the antimicrobial activity of the sesquiterpene lactones was detected. The test-system was Bacillus subtilis. This property was conditioned mainly by the action of the components of Rf 0,36 and 0,95. The results give evidence for the ability of S. discolor and S. porcii to synthesize the sesquiterpene lactones. The cultivated in vitro plants could be as their sources. So the sesquiterpene lactones of S. discolor and S. porcii have the antimicrobial activity.

  8. Antimicrobial and radical scavenging activity of le af and rhizome extract of Alpinia galanga (L. Willd (Zingiberaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yashoda Kambar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Alpinia galanga (L. Willd belonging to the family Zingiberaceae is widely distributed in tropical areas. The plant is used in food preparation and as medicine. The present study was carried out to determine antimicrobial and radical scavenging effect of leaf and rhizome extract of A. galanga. The powdered leaf and rhizome were extracted by soxhlet extraction using methanol. Antimicrobial activity of extracts was determined by Agar well diffusion assay against 15 clinical isolates of bacteria (from burn, dental caries and urinary tract infection and two fungi (Candida albicansand Cryptococcus neoformans. Radical scavenging activity of extracts was determined by DPPH free radical scavenging assay. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were estimated by Folin-Ciocalteau reagent and Aluminium chloride colorimetric estimation method respectively. Rhizome extract was found to possess high inhibitory activity against fungi and clinical isolates of bacteria. Inhibitoryactivity was marked against burn and dental caries isolates when compared to urinarytract isolates. Overall, Gram positive bacteria showed higher susceptibility to extracts. Among fungi, C. neoformanswas inhibited to higher extent. The extracts have shown dose dependent scavenging of free radicals. The rhizome extract (IC5032.34μg/ml was more efficient in scavenging free radicals than leaf extract as revealed by low IC50value. The content of total phenolics and flavonoids were high in rhizome extract when compared to leaf extract. Marked antimicrobial and radical scavenging potential of rhizome extract can be ascribed to high phenolic and flavonoid content. The plant can be used for the development of agents active against pathogenic microbes and radical induced damage.

  9. Transpiration of montane Pinus sylvestris L. and Quercus pubescens Willd. forest stands measured with sap flow sensors in NE Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Poyatos

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Stand transpiration was measured during the 2003 and 2004 growing seasons using heat dissipation sap flow sensors in a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. and a pubescent oak (Quercus pubescens Willd. forests located in a montane area of the Eastern Pyrenees (NE Spain. The first aim of the study was to assess the differences in quantitative estimates of transpiration (Ec and the response to evaporative demand of the two stands. Over the studied period of 2003, characterised by a severe drought episode during the summer, the oak stand (Ec was only 110 mm compared to the 239 mm transpired by the Scots pine stand, although the ratio of transpiration to reference evapotranspiration (Ec/ET0 in the oak stand compares well with the expected values predicted for low leaf area index (LAI oak forests in southern Europe. Scots pine showed a strong reduction in (Ec/ET0 as the drought developed, whereas pubescent oak was less affected by soil moisture deficits in the upper soil. As a second objective, and given the contrasting meteorological conditions between 2003 and 2004 summer periods, the interannual variability of transpiration was studied in the Scots pine plot. Rainfall during the summer months (June-September in 2003 was almost 40% less than in the same interval in 2004. Accordingly, transpiration was also reduced about 25% in 2003. Finally, Scots pine data from 2003 and 2004 was used to calibrate a simple transpiration model using ET0 and soil moisture deficit (SMD as input variables, and implicitly including stomatal responses to high vapour pressure deficits (Dd and soil water status.

  10. Selection of Reference Genes for Expression Study in Pulp and Seeds of Theobroma grandiflorum (Willd. ex Spreng.) Schum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz dos Santos, Lucas; Santana Silva, Raner José; Oliveira Jordão do Amaral, Daniel; Barbosa de Paula, Márcia Fabiana; Ludke Falcão, Loeni; Legavre, Thierry; Alves, Rafael Moyses

    2016-01-01

    Cupuassu (Theobroma grandiflorum [Willd. ex Spreng.] Schum) is a species of high economic importance in Brazil with great potential at international level due to the multiple uses of both its seeds and pulp in the industry of sweets and cosmetics. For this reason, the cupuassu breeding program focused on the selection of genotypes with high pulp and seed quality—selection associated with the understanding of the mechanisms involved in fruit formation. Gene expression is one of the most used approaches related to such understanding. In this sense, quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) is a powerful tool, since it rapidly and reliably quantifies gene expression levels across different experimental conditions. The analysis by qPCR and the correct interpretation of data depend on signal normalization using reference genes, i.e. genes presenting a uniform pattern of expression in the analyzed samples. Here, we selected and analyzed the expression of five genes from cupuassu (ACP, ACT, GAPDH, MDH, TUB) to be used as candidates for reference genes on pulp and seed of young, maturing and mature cupuassu fruits. The evaluation of the gene expression stability was obtained using the NormFinder, geNorm and BestKeeper programs. In general, our results indicated that the GAPDH and MDH genes constituted the best combination as reference genes to analyze the expression of cupuassu samples. To our knowledge, this is the first report of reference gene definition in cupuassu, and these results will support subsequent analysis related to gene expression studies in cupuassu plants subjected to different biotic or abiotic conditions as well as serve as a tool for diversity analysis based on pulp and seed quality. PMID:27501324

  11. To identify Hedyotis diffusa Willd. and Hedyotis carymbasa(L.) Lam. by Macro photography%白花蛇舌草与水线草饮片的微距图像鉴别

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林海; 冯倩茹; 邓广海; 龚又明; 郑显辉

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To identify Hedyotis diffusa Willd. and Hedyotis carymbasa (L.) Lam. by Macro photography Method: Take the Macro photos of every place of Hedyotis diffusa Willd. and Hedyotis carymbasa (L.) Lam. by Macro photography. Results: Gather the photos from inflorescence, stem, leaf of Hedyotis diffusa Willd. and Hedyotis carymbasa(L.) Lam. . Conclusion:The Macro photography of inflorescence, leaf can be regard as the identification basis between Hedyotis diffusa Willd. and Hedyotis carymbasa(L.) Lam. .%目的:通过微距图像鉴别白花蛇舌草与水线草。方法:通过微距摄像采集白花蛇舌草与水线草各部位图像。结果:采集到白花蛇舌草与水线草的花序、茎、叶等微距图像。结论:白花蛇舌草和水线草的花序和叶的微距图像可作为其鉴别依据。

  12. Hedyotis diffusa Willd Inhibits Colorectal Cancer Growth in Vivo via Inhibition of STAT3 Signaling Pathway

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    Jun Peng

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3, a common oncogenic mediator, is constitutively activated in many types of human cancers; therefore it is a major focus in the development of novel anti-cancer agents. Hedyotis diffusa Willd has been used as a major component in several Chinese medicine formulas for the clinical treatment of colorectal cancer (CRC. However, the precise mechanism of its anti-tumor activity remains largely unclear. Using a CRC mouse xenograft model, in the present study we evaluated the effect of the ethanol extract of Hedyotis diffusa Willd (EEHDW on tumor growth in vivo and investigated the underlying molecular mechanisms. We found that EEHDW reduced tumor volume and tumor weight, but had no effect on body weight gain in CRC mice, demonstrating that EEHDW can inhibit CRC growth in vivo without apparent adverse effect. In addition, EEHDW treatment suppressed STAT3 phosphorylation in tumor tissues, which in turn resulted in the promotion of cancer cell apoptosis and inhibition of proliferation. Moreover, EEHDW treatment altered the expression pattern of several important target genes of the STAT3 signaling pathway, i.e., decreased expression of Cyclin D1, CDK4 and Bcl-2 as well as up-regulated p21 and Bax. These results suggest that suppression of the STAT3 pathway might be one of the mechanisms by which EEHDW treats colorectal cancer.

  13. Changes in defense of an alien plant Ambrosia artemisiifolia before and after the invasion of a native specialist enemy Ophraella communa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuya Fukano

    Full Text Available The evolution of increased competitive ability hypothesis (EICA predicts that when alien plants are free from their natural enemies they evolve lower allocation to defense in order to achieve a higher growth rate. If this hypothesis is true, the converse implication would be that the defense against herbivory could be restored if a natural enemy also becomes present in the introduced range. We tested this scenario in the case of Ambrosia artemisiifolia (common ragweed - a species that invaded Japan from North America. We collected seeds from five North American populations, three populations in enemy free areas of Japan and four populations in Japan where the specialist herbivore Ophraella communa naturalized recently. Using plants grown in a common garden in Japan, we compared performance of O. communa with a bioassay experiment. Consistent with the EICA hypothesis, invasive Japanese populations of A. artemisiifolia exhibited a weakened defense against the specialist herbivores and higher growth rate than native populations. Conversely, in locations where the herbivore O. communa appeared during the past decade, populations of A. artemisiifolia exhibited stronger defensive capabilities. These results strengthen the case for EICA and suggest that defense levels of alien populations can be recuperated rapidly after the native specialist becomes present in the introduced range. Our study implies that the plant defense is evolutionary labile depending on plant-herbivore interactions.

  14. Predicting the potential distribution of invasive exotic species using GIS and information-theoretic approaches: A case of ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.)distribution in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Hao; CHEN LiJun; Thomas P. ALBRIGHT

    2007-01-01

    Invasive exotic species pose a growing threat to the economy, public health, and ecological integrity of nations worldwide. Explaining and predicting the spatial distribution of invasive exotic species is of great importance to prevention and early warning efforts. We are investigating the potential distribution of invasive exotic species, the environmental factors that influence these distributions, and the ability to predict them using statistical and information-theoretic approaches. For some species, detailed presence/absence occurrence data are available, allowing the use of a variety of standard statistical techniques. However, for most species, absence data are not available. Presented with the challenge of developing a model based on presence-only information, we developed an improved logistic regression approach using Information Theory and Frequency Statistics to produce a relative suitability map.This paper generated a variety of distributions of ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.) from logistic regression models applied to herbarium specimen location data and a suite of GIS layers including climatic, topographic, and land cover information. Our logistic regression model was based on Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC) from a suite of ecologically reasonable predictor variables. Based on the results we provided a new Frequency Statistical method to compartmentalize habitat-suitability in the native range. Finally, we used the model and the compartmentalized criterion developed in native ranges to "project" a potential distribution onto the exotic ranges to build habitat-suitability maps.

  15. Effect of chipping on emergence of the redbay ambrosia beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) and recovery of the laurel wilt pathogen from infested wood chips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, D J; Smith, J A; Ploetz, R; Hulcr, J; Stelinski, L L

    2013-10-01

    Significant mortality ofredbay trees (Persea borbonia (L.) Spreng.) in the southeastern United States has been caused by Raffaelea lauricola, T.C. Harr., Fraedrich, & Aghayeva (Harrington et al. 2008), a fungal symbiont of the exotic redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus, Eichhoff (Fraedrich et al. 2008). This pathogen causes laurel wilt, which is an irreversible disease that can kill mature trees within a few weeks in summer. R. lauricola has been shown to be lethal to most native species of Lauraceae and cultivated avocado (Persea americana Mill.) in the southeastern United States. In this study, we examined the survival of X. glabratus and R. lauricola in wood chips made from infested trees by using a standard tree chipper over a 10-wk period. After 2 wk, 14 X. glabratus were recovered from wood chips, whereas 339 X. glabratus emerged from nonchipped bolts. R. lauricola was not found 2 d postchipping from wood chips, indicating that the pathogen is not likely to survive for long inside wood chips. In contrast, R. lauricola persisted in dead, standing redbay trees for 14 mo. With large volumes of wood, the potential for infested logs to be moved between states or across U.S. borders is significant. Results demonstrated that chipping wood from laurel wilt-killed trees can significantly reduce the number of X. glabratus and limit the persistence of R. lauricola, which is important for sanitation strategies aimed at limiting the spread of this disease. PMID:24224251

  16. Correlative Studies on Chemistry and Pharmacodynamics Estimation of Quality of Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Nees%穿心莲药材质量的化学和药效学评价相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘波; 吴瑕; 杨薇; 张磊

    2012-01-01

    目的:为中药质量药理学评价方法体系的建立提供正面依据.方法:采用高效液相检测五个批次穿心莲药材中穿心莲内酯和脱水穿心莲内酯的含量;采用二甲苯所致小鼠耳肿胀试验表征药材的抗炎作用;采用细菌脂多糖所致大鼠发热试验表征药材的解热作用;根据上述结果分析用化学和药效学方法评估穿心莲药材质量的相关性.结果:不同批次药材的穿心莲内酯和脱水穿心莲内酯含量存在差异,其总含量分别为3.92%、3.89%、4.61%、3.67%、3.41%;上述药材均存在一定的抗炎和解热作用,且指标成分含量最高组的药效作用最为明显.结论:采用化学或药效学方法均可对药材质量进行评价,而在药效成分与质控指标成分一致时,两种方法评价结论呈正相关.%Objective; To provide reference for the quality evaluation of Chinese medicine by pharmacological methods. Methods: HPLC was applied to the determination of andrographolide and dehydroanddrographolide in 5batches of Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f. ) Nees. The model mice of ear swelling was induced by xylene for studying the anti-inflammatory activity of Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f. ) Nees, and the model of rat fever was induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for studying the antipyretic activity. The correlation between quality control factors and pharmacological elements was studied on the basis of the experimental results. Results; There was difference in the content of andrographolide and dehydroandrographolide. The contents were 3. 92% , 3. 89% , 4. 61% , 3. 67% and 3. 41% in the 5batches of Andrographis paniculata ( Burm. f. ) Nees respectively. All the Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f. ) Nees had certain anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activities. The batch of Andrographis paniculata ( Burm. f. ) Nees with highest content of target element had most significant pharmacological activities. Conclusion; Both chemical and

  17. 白花蛇舌草弱极性和中等极性组分HPLC指纹谱分析%HPLC Fingerprinting Analysis of Minor Polar and Middle Polar Components from Hedyotis diffusa Willd

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田宝勇; 李存满; 王文淑

    2013-01-01

    The analytical method was established to investigate the minor polar and middle polar components from Hedyotis diffusa Willd.The similarity and cluster analysis methods were applied to study the HPLC fingerprint of the minor polar and middle polar components of Hedyotis diffusa Willd.and its substitutes for quality control from different places.The obvious effect of hierarchical clustering has been obtained by HPLC fingerprint analysis with the minor polar and middle polar extracts of Hedyotis diffusa Willd.from different places including reference herb.And its substitutes from different places have favorable hierarchical clustering.The components from its substitutes differ greatly with those of Hedyotis diffusa Willd..Therefore,the diversities of the minor polar and middle polar components of Hedyotis diffusa Willd.from different places were observed using the similarity and cluster analysis methods.%建立了白花蛇舌草药材弱极性和中等极性组分HPLC特征指纹图谱的分析方法,通过相似度和聚类分析,对不同产地、正伪品种进行了质量评价.结果表明,白花蛇舌草样品同一产地化学组成相似,具有一定的地域性,伪品水线草化学组成与其相差甚远.因此,采用相似度和聚类分析能够反映出白花蛇舌草药材弱极性和中等极性组分具有地域性差异,为白花蛇舌草药材产地选择及质量控制提供依据.

  18. 藜麦的主要营养成分、矿物元素及植物化学物质含量测定%Determination of main nutritional component,mineral element and phytochemical in Chenopodium quinoa Willd

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申瑞玲; 张文杰; 董吉林; 孙永敢

    2015-01-01

    Three South America Chenopodium quinoa Willd (black,red and ivory Chenopodium quinoa Willd)and a domestic Chenopodium quinoa Willd were used as experimental materials,and the main nutri-tional components,eight kinds of mineral elements(K,Na,Ca,Mg,Fe,Mn,Cu,Zn)and phytochemicals (polyphenols,flavonoids,saponins)content of them were measured.The results showed that the nutritional composition of these four kinds of Chenopodium quinoa Willd was slightly different.Compared with common grains(wheat,rice,corn and millet),Chenopodium quinoa Willd contains lower starch,richer protein and fat,and was a good source of dietary fiber,polyphenols and flavonoids.%以黑色、红色、乳白色3种进口南美藜麦和国产乳黄色藜麦为实验材料,对其所含主要营养素、8种矿物元素(K,Na,Ca,Mg,Fe,Mn,Cu,Zn)和植物化学物质(多酚、黄酮、皂苷)的含量进行测定。结果显示,4种藜麦的营养组成稍有差异;与常见谷物(小麦、稻米、玉米、小米)相比,藜麦中淀粉含量较低,蛋白质、脂肪含量丰富,可以作为膳食纤维、多酚、黄酮物质的良好来源。

  19. Dose and time-dependent sub-chronic toxicity study of hydroethanolic leaf extract of Flabellaria paniculata Cav. (Malpighiaceae in rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abidemi James Akindele

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Flabellaria paniculata Cav. (Malpighiaceae is a climbing shrub, the preparations of which are used in the treatment of wounds and ulcers in Nigeria and Ghana. This study investigated the sub-chronic toxicity profile of the hydroethanolic leaf extract of Flabellaria paniculata (HLE-FP. HLE-FP was administered p.o. (20, 100 and 500 mg/kg for 30 and 60 days to different groups of rats. Control animals received 10 ml/kg distilled water. In the group of animals for reversibility study, HLE-FP administration ceased on the 60th day and animals were monitored for a further 15 days. Results showed that oral treatment with HLE-FP for 30 days caused significant (p0.05 differences in relative organ weights between control and treatment groups were observed. HLE-FP-treated rats showed significant (p< 0.05 increases in Hb, PCV and RBC on day 30 and significant (p< 0.05 increases in MCV and MCH indices on day 60 compared to control. There were significant (p< 0.05 elevations in serum K+, urea and creatinine compared to control. The liver function tests showed slightly but non-significant alterations when compared to control. Biochemical findings were supported by histopathological observations of vital organs including the kidney and liver. Toxicities observed in respect of kidney function were irreversible at 15 days of stoppage of treatment. In the acute toxicity study, HLE-FP given p.o. caused no lethality at 5000 mg/kg but behavioural manifestations like restlessness, generalized body tremor, feed and water refusal were observed. The i.p. LD50 was estimated to be 2951.2 mg/kg. Findings in this study showed that HLE-FP is relatively non-toxic on acute exposure and generally safe on sub-chronic administration, but could be deleterious on the kidneys on prolonged oral exposure at a high dose. Thus, caution should be exercised with i

  20. 油料植物白檀果实中油脂的积累规律%Oil accumulation law in Symplocos paniculata fruits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘强; 刘倩倩; 蒋丽娟; 陈景震; 罗明亮; 易心钰; 赵志伟

    2015-01-01

    In order to provide a theoretical basis for high-yield cultivation management and learning the best fruit harvesting period, oil constituents in Symplocos paniculata fruit were analyzed and the tissue structure was observed by microscop at different development stages. The results showed that oil was accumulated as“S”curve from the 10th day after flowing, and the highest oil content was up to 36.6%. Fatty acid in S. paniculata fruit oil was mainly composed of palmitic acid, oleic acid, stearic acid, linoleic acid and linolenic acid. The content of saturated fatty acids was increased at ifrst and then decreased, and the lowest content was 20%. But the content of unsaturated fatty acids kept rising along with fruits growing up, and the highest content was up to 79%. Oil was accumulated mainly in mesocarp, endosperm and embryo in the forms of oil cells and oil bodies, and endosperm was the major oil accumulation part.%为给定向高产栽培管理及确定果实的最佳采收时期提供理论依据,对不同发育阶段白檀果实进行油脂组分分析和组织结构显微观察。结果显示,白檀果实油从花后第10天开始呈“S”型积累,最大含油率可达36.6%;白檀果实油脂肪酸主要成分是棕榈酸、油酸、硬脂酸、亚油酸和亚麻酸,饱和脂肪酸含量呈先升后降的变化,最低含量为20%,而不饱和脂肪酸相对含量不断增长,最高含量可达79%;白檀果实油脂积累的主要场所是中果皮、胚乳和胚3个部位,以油体和油细胞的形式贮藏,其中,胚乳是果实中最主要的油脂积累部位。