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Sample records for ambrosia lake uranium

  1. Environmental Assessment of remedial action at the Ambrosia Lake uranium mill tailings site, Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-06-01

    This document assesses and compares the environmental impacts of various alternatives for remedial action at the Ambrosia Lake uranium mill tailings site located near Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico. The designated site covers 196 acres and contains 111 acres of tailings and some of the original mill structures. The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA), Public Law 95-604, authorizes the US Department of Energy to clean up the site to reduce the potential health impacts associated with the residual radioactive materials remaining at the site and at associated properties off the site. The US Environmental Protection Agency promulgated standards for th remedial action (40 CFR Part 192). Remedial action must be performed in accordance with these standards and with the concurrence of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The proposed action is to stabilize the tailings at their present location by consolidating the tailings and associated contaminated materials into a recontoured pile. A radon barrier would be constructed over the pile and various erosion protection measures would be taken to assure the long-term stability of the pile. Another alternative which would involve moving the tailings to a new location is also assessed in this document. This alternative would generally involve greater short-term impacts and costs but would result in stabilization of the tailings at an undeveloped location. The no action alternative is also assessed in this document.

  2. Environmental Assessment of remedial action at the Ambrosia Lake uranium mill tailings site, Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-06-01

    This document assesses and compares the environmental impacts of various alternatives for remedial action at the Ambrosia Lake uranium mill tailings site located near Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico. The designated site covers 196 acres and contains 111 acres of tailings and some of the original mill structures. The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA), Public Law 95-604, authorizes the US Department of Energy to clean up the site to reduce the potential health impacts associated with the residual radioactive materials remaining at the site and at associated properties off the site. The US Environmental Protection Agency promulgated standards for th remedial action (40 CFR Part 192). Remedial action must be performed in accordance with these standards and with the concurrence of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The proposed action is to stabilize the tailings at their present location by consolidating the tailings and associated contaminated materials into a recontoured pile. A radon barrier would be constructed over the pile and various erosion protection measures would be taken to assure the long-term stability of the pile. Another alternative which would involve moving the tailings to a new location is also assessed in this document. This alternative would generally involve greater short-term impacts and costs but would result in stabilization of the tailings at an undeveloped location. The no action alternative is also assessed in this document

  3. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings: Phillips/United Nuclear site, Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-10-01

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah, Inc., has reevaluated the Phillips/United Nuclear site in order to revise the December 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from 2.6 million dry tons of tailings at the Phillips/United Nuclear site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation also are factors. The four alternative actions presented in this engineering assessment range from millsite decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material, to removal of the tailings to remote disposal sites and decontamination of the tailings site. Cost estimates for the four options range from about $21,500,000 for stabilization in-place, to about $45,200,000 for disposal at a distance of about 15 mi. Three principal alternatives for the reprocessing of the Phillips/United Nuclear tailings were examined: heap leaching; treatment at an existing mill; and reprocessing at a new conventional mill constructed for tailings reprocessing.The cost of the uranium recovered would be about $87/lb of U 3 O 8 by either heap leach or conventional plant process. The spot market price for uranium was $25/lb early in 1981. Reprocessing the Phillips/United Nuclear tailings for uranium recovery does not appear to be economically attractive under present or foreseeable market conditions

  4. Radiological survey of the inactive uranium-mill tailings at Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haywood, F.F.; Christian, D.J.; Ellis, B.S.; Hubbard, H.M. Jr.; Lorenzo, D.; Shinpaugh, W.H.

    1980-06-01

    The inactive uranium-mill tailings pile at Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico, contains approximately 1520 Ci of 226 Ra in 2.4 million metric tons of tailings covering an area of 43 hectares. All of the former mill buildings were intact and, at the time of this survey, several were in use. The tailings have not been stabilized, but the crusty surface is reported to be resistant to wind erosion. The average gamma-ray exposure rate 1 m above the tailings is 720 μR/h while the average rate in the former mill area is 150 μR/h. The adjacent area, between the mill site, ponds, and tailings pile, has an average exposure rate of 230 μR/h. Gamma radiation measurements outside these areas, as well as the results of analyses of surface or near-surface sediment and soil samples, show fairly wide dispersion of contamination around the site. The subsurface distribution of 226 Ra in 18 holes drilled at the site, calculated from gamma-ray monitoring data, is presented graphically and compared with measured concentrations in two holes

  5. Remedial action plan and site conceptual design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings site at Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-11-01

    This volume deals with the main construction subcontract for the uranium mill tailings remedial action of Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico. Contents of subcontract documents AMB-4 include: bidding requirements; terms and conditions; specifications which cover general requirements and sitework; and subcontract drawings

  6. Geology and hydrology in the vicinity of the inactive uranium mill tailings pile, Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purtymun, W.D.; Wienke, C.L.; Dreesen, D.R.

    1977-06-01

    A study was made of the geology and hydrology of the immediate area around a uranium mill at Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico. The mill was in operation from June 1958 through April 1963 and produced 2.7 x 10 9 kg of tailings. The possible environmental consequences of this inactive tailings pile must first be delineated so that stabilization needs and future stabilization success can be properly assessed. The Ambrosia Lake area is underlain by over 1000 m of alternating shales, siltstones, and sandstones that dip gently to the northeast into the San Juan Basin. Water-bearing sandstones make up less than 25 percent of this sedimentary section. Water quality in the sandstones is fair to poor, with total dissolved solids ranging from 500 to 2000 mg/l. The present total volume of tailings is estimated at 1.5 x 10 6 m 3 and ranges in thickness from about 1 to 10 m. The tailings pile is underlain by the Mancos shale which dips to the northeast. The shale is about 120 m thick with three interbedded silty sandstones that are about 9 m in thickness. One of these sandstones outcrops beneath the western part of the pile; the eastern part of the pile is underlain by shale. Ground water in the shales and sandstones beneath the pile is recharged by runoff north of the pile and from three ponds located north, northeast, and east of the pile. The movement of water in shale and sandstones is to the southwest. Secondary recharge to the water in the shales and sandstone is from the basin within the tailings pile. Water in the southeast part of the tailings basin is forming a ground water mound above the underlying sediments. The major transport mechanisms of tailings and possible contaminants from the pile include wind erosion, surface water runoff, movement of ground water beneath the pile, and gaseous diffusion from the pile

  7. Summary of the engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings: Phillips/United Nuclear site, Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-10-01

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah, Inc., has reevaluated the Phillips/United Nuclear site in order to revise the December 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 2.6 million dry tons of tailings at the Phillips/United Nuclear site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation also are factors. The four alternative actions presented in this engineering assessment range from millsite decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material, to removal of the tailings to remote disposal sites and decontamination of the tailings site. Cost estimates for the four options range from about $21,500,000 for stabilization in-place, to about $45,200,000 for disposal at a distance of about 15 mi. Three principal alternatives for the reprocessing of the Phillips/United Nuclear tailings were examined: heap leaching; treatment at an existing mill; reprocessing at a new conventional mill constructed for tailings reprocessing. The cost of the uranium recovered would be about $87/lb of U 3 O 8 by either heap leach or conventional plant process. The spot market price for uranium was $25/lb early in 1981. Reprocessing the Phillips/United Nuclear tailings for uranium recovery does not appear to be economically attractive under present or foreseeable market conditions

  8. Phase II, Title I engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings, Phillips/United Nuclear Site, Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-12-01

    An engineering assessment was performed of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at the Phillips/United Nuclear site at Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico. Services included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings, and radiometric measurements to determine radium-contaminated materials, the evaluation of resulting radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigation of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas release from the 2.6 million tons of tailings at the Phillips/United Nuclear site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation are also factors. The estimated radiological health effects to the general population are considered to be minimal. The two alternative actions presented are: dike stabilization, fencing, and maintenance; and adding 2 ft of stabilization cover material. Both options include remedial action at off-site structures and on-site decontamination around the tailings pile. Cost estimates for the two options are $920,000 and $2,230,000, respectively

  9. Remedial action plan and site conceptual design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings site at Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, M.L.; Mitzelfelt, R.

    1991-11-01

    This Remedial Action Plan (RAP) has been developed to serve a dual purpose. It presents the series of activities that is proposed by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to stabilize and control radioactive materials at the inactive Phillips/United Nuclear uranium processing site designated as the Ambrosia Lake site in McKinley County, New Mexico. It also serves to document the concurrence of both State of New Mexico and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in the remedial action. This agreement, upon execution by the DOE and the state and concurrence by NRC, becomes Appendix B of the Cooperative Agreement

  10. Factors controlling localization of uranium deposits in the Dakota Sandstone, Gallup and Ambrosia Lake mining districts, McKinley County, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, Charles Thomas; Green, Morris W.

    1977-01-01

    Geologic studies were made at all of the uranium mines and prospects in the Dakota Sandstone of Early(?) and Late Cretaceous age in the Gallup mining district, McKinley County, New Mexico. Dakota mines in the adjacent Ambrosia Lake mining district were visited briefly for comparative purposes. Mines in the eastern part of the Gallup district, and in the Ambrosia Lake district, are on the Chaco slope of the southern San Juan Basin in strata which dip gently northward toward the central part of the basin. Mines in the western part of the Gallup district are along the Gallup hogback (Nutria monocline) in strata which dip steeply westward into the Gallup sag. Geologic factors which controlled formation of the uranium deposits in the Dakota Sandstone are: (1) a source of uranium, believed to be uranium deposits of the underlying Morrison Formation of Late Jurassic age; (2) the accessibility to the Dakota of uranium-bearing solutions from the Morrison; (3) the presence in the Dakota of permeable sandstone beds overlain by impermeable carbonaceous shale beds; and (4) the occurrence within the permeable Dakota sandstone beds of carbonaceous reducing material as bedding-plane laminae, or as pockets of carbonaceous trash. Most of the Dakota uranium deposits are found in the lower part of the formation in marginal-marine distributary-channel sandstones which were deposited in the backshore environment. However, the Hogback no. 4 (Hyde) Mine (Gallup district) occurs in sandy paludal shale of the backshore environment, and another deposit, the Silver Spur (Ambrosia Lake district), is found in what is interpreted to be a massive beach or barrier-bar sandstone of the foreshore environment in the upper part of the Dakota. The sedimentary depositional environment most favorable for the accumulation of uranium is that of backshore areas lateral to main distributary channels, where levee, splay, and some distributary-channel sandstones intertongue with gray carbonaceous shales and

  11. INDEPENDENT CONFIRMATORY SURVEY REPORT FOR THE SECTION 4 AREA AT THE RIO ALGOM AMBROSIA LAKE FACILITY AMBROSIA LAKE, NEW MEXICO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, W.C.

    2010-01-01

    The Rio Algom Mining (RAM) Limited Liability Corporation Ambrosia Lake site began processing uranium-bearing ore in 1958. Operating under U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Source Material License SUA-1473, the site processed approximately 33 million tons of ore through 1985 and continued to be an active uranium production facility through December 2002. Reclamation of the tailings began in 1989 and included the excavation and disposal of unlined evaporation pond residues, contaminated soil cleanup, construction of surface water erosion protection features and the demolition of the mill buildings (NRC 2006). Construction of the Section 4 evaporation ponds commenced in 1976 and was completed in 1979. The ponds were used to evaporate liquid wastes generated from RAM's processing mill. The ponds remained in active service until April 2004; reclamation activities included the pond sediments being relocated to the main tailings disposal area (KOMEX 2006). Other reclamation activities included the excavation and disposal of unlined evaporation pond residues, contaminated soil clean-up, completion of the majority of the required reclamations for Impoundments 1 and 2, construction of a rock apron on Impoundment 2 and demolition of the conventional milling structures and most support facilities. Additional activities at the site included the construction of erosion protection features adjacent to the tailings disposal facility. On January 19, 2005, the RAM submitted a Soil Decommissioning Plan for its Ambrosia Lake uranium mill tailings facility, specifically the evaporation ponds, to the NRC. The NRC requested, in several comment letters, that RAM provide additional information and a revised plan (NRC 2006). RAM issued a revised decommissioning plan (DP) that addresses the methods and procedures implemented to ensure soil remediation meets the requirements of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) and NRC regulations contained within the Code of

  12. Summary of the Phase II, Title I engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings, Phillips/United Nuclear Site, Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-12-01

    An engineering assessment was performed of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at the Phillips/United Nuclear site at Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico. Services included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiometric measurements to determine radium-contaminated materials, the evaluation of resulting radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigation of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas release from the 2.6 million tons of tailings at the Phillips/United Nuclear site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation are also factors. The estimated radiological health effects to the general population are considered to be minimal. The two alternative actions presented are: dike stabilization, fencing, and maintenance; and adding 2 ft of stabilization cover material. Both options include remedial action at off-site structures and on-site decontamination around the tailings pile. Cost estimates for the two options are $920,000 and $2,230,000, respectively

  13. The Ambrosia Lake project archaeological investigations of three small sites associated with the southern Chacoan outlier of Kin Nizhoni, McKinley County, New Mexico. [Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cullington, B.J. (ed.); Hammack, L.C.; Baugh, T.G. (Complete Archaeological Service Associates, Cortez, CO (United States))

    1990-03-15

    During the fall of 1987, Complete Archaeological Service Associates conducted mitigative excavations at three sites (LA50363, LA50364, and LA50371) in McKinley County, New Mexico. These sites are adjacent to the Phillips/United Nuclear Inactive Uranium Mill and Tailings site at Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico. The primary deposition at each of these sites appears to be related to a Pueblo II or Bonito Phase occupation. Temporal placement is based primarily on the cross dating of ceramics and archaeomagnetic determinations when possible. No tree-ring or radiocarbon samples are available from these sites. These Ambrosia Lake sites indicate that this area was occupied primarily by Pueblo II people who may have had close social, economic, and ceremonial ties with the people living at the nuclear community of Lower Nizhoni about 3 km south-southeast. The later component at LA50364 indicates a Pueblo III occupation by people who may have had similar ties to the people of the Kin Nizhoni nuclear community. The Ambrosia Lake sites, then, provide important information on the structure of subnuclear communities within the southern Chaco periphery.

  14. Site Observational Work Plan for the UMTRA project site at Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-02-01

    Ground water compliance for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project sites, including the Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico, site, is governed by the Uranium Mills Tailings Radiation Control Act (42 USC {section}7901 et seq.) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency`s Health and Environmental Protection Standards for Uranium and Thorium Mill Tailings (40 CFR Part 192; 60 FR 2854). The EPA standards describe specific conditions for which the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) may apply for supplemental standards for contaminated ground water rather than meeting background levels or numerical standards. To achieve compliance with Subpart A of the EPA standards the residual radioactive materials are currently being consolidated on the site by the DOE in a disposal cell, isolating them from direct human or ecological contact and further dispersion into the environment. Completion of the disposal cell is scheduled for early 1995. An environmental assessment and a Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) were completed in 1987. Concurrence with the UMTRA Surface Project Ambrosia Lake remedial action plan (RAP) was granted by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and state of New Mexico in 1990. The DOE deferred compliance with Subpart B of the EPA standards in the Surface Project RAP. This site observational work plan (SOWP) is the first document to address ground water compliance under Subpart B at the Ambrosia Lake site. The Ambrosia Lake UMTRA Project site is within the Grants Mineral Belt and was one of numerous uranium mills supplied by many local mines. Ground water contamination at the site occurred as a result of uranium mill operations. Contamination of ground water resulted from discharge of waste water, infiltration of water through the tailings pile, hydraulic placement of mill tailings in nearby mines, and water pumped from mine shafts.

  15. Final audit report of remedial action construction at the UMTRA Project Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico, site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    The final audit report for remedial action at the Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site consists of a summary of the radiological surveillances/audits, quality assurance (QA) in-process surveillances, and a QA final closeout inspection performed by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC). One radiological surveillance and three radiological audits were performed at the Ambrosia Lake site. The surveillance was performed on 12--16 April 1993 (DOE, 1993d). The audits were performed on 26--29 July 1993 (DOE, 1993b); 21--23 March 1994 (DOE, 1994d); and 1--2 August 1994 (DOE, 1994d). The surveillance and audits resulted in 47 observations. Twelve of the observations raised DOE concerns that were resolved on site or through subsequent corrective action. All outstanding issues were satisfactorily closed out on 28 December 1994. The radiological surveillance and audits are discussed in this report. A total of seven QA in-process surveillances were performed at the Ambrosia Lake UMTRA site are discussed. The DOE/TAC Ambrosia Lake final remedial action close-out inspection was conducted on 26 July 1995 (DOE, 1995a). To summarize, a total of 155 observations were noted during DOE/TAC audit and surveillance activities. Follow-up to responses required from the RAC for the DOE/TAC surveillance and audit observations indicated that all issues related to the Ambrosia Lake site were resolved and closed to the satisfaction of the DOE

  16. Long-term surveillance plan for the Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Ambrosia Lake disposal site in McKinley County, New Mexico, describes the US Department of Energy's (DOE) long-term care program for the disposal site. The DOE will carry out this program to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials

  17. Long-term surveillance plan for the Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico disposal site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Ambrosia Lake disposal site in McKinley County, New Mexico, describes the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) long-term care program for the disposal site. The DOE will carry out this program to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials.

  18. Long-term surveillance plan for the Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico disposal site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Ambrosia Lake disposal site in McKinley County, New Mexico, describes the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) long-term care program for the disposal site. The DOE will carry out this program to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials.

  19. Long-term surveillance plan for the Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-07-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Ambrosia Lake disposal site in McKinley County, New Mexico, describes the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) long-term care program for the disposal site. The DOE will carry out this program to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials

  20. Geology and ore deposits of the Section 23 Mine, Ambrosia Lake District, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granger, H.C.; Santos, E.S.

    1982-01-01

    The section 23 mine is one of about 18 large uranium mines opened in sandstones of the fluvial Westwater Canyon Member of the Jurassic Morrison Formation in the Ambrosia Lake mining district during the early 1960s. The Ambrosia Lake district is one of several mining districts within the Grants mineral belt, an elongate zone containing many uranium deposits along the southern flank of the San Juan basin. Two distinct types of ore occur in the mine. Primary ore occurs as peneconcordant layers of uranium-rich authigenic organic matter that impregnates parts of the reduced sandstone host rocks and which are typically elongate in an east-southeast direction subparallel both to the sedimentary trends and to the present-day regional strike of the strata. These are called prefault or trend ores because of their early genesis and their elongation and alinement. A second type of ore in the mine is referred to as postfault, stacked, or redistributed ore. Its genesis was similar to that of the roll-type deposits in Tertiary rocks of Wyoming and Texas. Oxidation, related to the development of a large tongue of oxidized rock extending from Gallup to Ambrosia Lake, destroyed much of the primary ore and redistributed it as massive accumulations of lower grade ores bordering the redox interface at the edge of the tongue. Host rocks in the southern half of sec. 23 (T. 14 N., R. 10 W.) are oxidized and contain only remnants of the original, tabular, organic-rich ore. Thick bodies of roll-type ore are distributed along the leading edge of the oxidized zone, and pristine primary ore is found only near the north edge of the section. Organic matter in the primary ore was derived from humic acids that precipitated in the pores of the sandstones and fixed uranium as both coffinite and urano-organic compounds. Vanadium, molybdenum, and selenium are also associated with the ore. The secondary or roll-type ores are essentially free of organic carbon and contain uranium both as coffinite and

  1. UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan, Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-02-01

    This water sampling and analysis plan (WSAP) provides the basis for ground water sampling at the Ambrosia Lake Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site during fiscal year 1994. It identifies and justifies the sampling locations, analytical parameters, detection limits, and sampling frequency for the monitoring locations and will be updated annually. The Ambrosia Lake site is in McKinley County, New Mexico, about 40 kilometers (km) (25 miles [mi]) north of Grants, New Mexico, and 1.6 km (1 mi) east of New Mexico Highway 509 (Figure 1.1). The town closest to the tailings pile is San Mateo, about 16 km ( 10 mi) southeast (Figure 1.2). The former mill and tailings pile are in Section 28, and two holding ponds are in Section 33, Township 14 North, Range 9 West. The site is shown on the US Geological Survey (USGS) map (USGS, 1980). The site is approximately 2100 meters (m) (7000 feet [ft]) above sea level

  2. Geology and ore deposits of Johnny M mine, Ambrosia Lake District

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falkowski, S.K.

    1980-01-01

    The Johnny M mine is one of very few mines in the Ambrosia Lake district with uranium ore in two members of the Morrison Formation (Jurassic); these members are the Westwater Canyon Sandstone and the Brushy Basin Shale. The Westwater Canyon ore is contained in the two upper sandstone units of the member, and the Brushy Basin ore is contained in the Poison Canyon sandstone (informal usage). The sedimentary features and structures in the Westwater Canyon sandstones indicate that the sediments were deposited by a system of aggrading braided streams, possibly at the distal end of coalescing alluvial fans. The Poison Canyon sandstone was probably the result of deposition in a complex environment of meandering and braided streams. Paleocurrent-direction indicators, such as fossilized-log orientation, foreset azimuths, and the axes of crossbeds and channel scours, suggest that the local palostream flow was to the east and southeast. The uranium mineralization is closely associated with 1) local accumulations of carbonaceous (humate) matter derived from the decay of organic material and 2) paleostream channels preserved in the rocks. The ore elements were derived from the leaching of volcanic air-fall tuffs and ash, which were introduced into the fluvial system during volcanic activity in the western United States. The mobile ore-element ions were reduce and concentrated by humic acids and bacteria present in the fluvial system and ultimately remobilized into the forms present today. The uranium is thus envisioned as forming either essentially on the surface as the sediments were being deposited or at very shallow depth

  3. The Ambrosia Lake project archaeological investigations of three small sites associated with the southern Chacoan outlier of Kin Nizhoni, McKinley County, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cullington, B.J. [ed.; Hammack, L.C.; Baugh, T.G. [Complete Archaeological Service Associates, Cortez, CO (United States)

    1990-03-15

    During the fall of 1987, Complete Archaeological Service Associates conducted mitigative excavations at three sites (LA50363, LA50364, and LA50371) in McKinley County, New Mexico. These sites are adjacent to the Phillips/United Nuclear Inactive Uranium Mill and Tailings site at Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico. The primary deposition at each of these sites appears to be related to a Pueblo II or Bonito Phase occupation. Temporal placement is based primarily on the cross dating of ceramics and archaeomagnetic determinations when possible. No tree-ring or radiocarbon samples are available from these sites. These Ambrosia Lake sites indicate that this area was occupied primarily by Pueblo II people who may have had close social, economic, and ceremonial ties with the people living at the nuclear community of Lower Nizhoni about 3 km south-southeast. The later component at LA50364 indicates a Pueblo III occupation by people who may have had similar ties to the people of the Kin Nizhoni nuclear community. The Ambrosia Lake sites, then, provide important information on the structure of subnuclear communities within the southern Chaco periphery.

  4. The Ambrosia Lake project archaeological investigations of three small sites associated with the southern Chacoan outlier of Kin Nizhoni, McKinley County, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cullington, B.J.

    1990-01-01

    During the fall of 1987, Complete Archaeological Service Associates conducted mitigative excavations at three sites (LA50363, LA50364, and LA50371) in McKinley County, New Mexico. These sites are adjacent to the Phillips/United Nuclear Inactive Uranium Mill and Tailings site at Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico. The primary deposition at each of these sites appears to be related to a Pueblo II or Bonito Phase occupation. Temporal placement is based primarily on the cross dating of ceramics and archaeomagnetic determinations when possible. No tree-ring or radiocarbon samples are available from these sites. These Ambrosia Lake sites indicate that this area was occupied primarily by Pueblo II people who may have had close social, economic, and ceremonial ties with the people living at the nuclear community of Lower Nizhoni about 3 km south-southeast. The later component at LA50364 indicates a Pueblo III occupation by people who may have had similar ties to the people of the Kin Nizhoni nuclear community. The Ambrosia Lake sites, then, provide important information on the structure of subnuclear communities within the southern Chaco periphery

  5. Radiological surveillance of Remedial Action activities at the processing site, Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico, April 12--16, 1993. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project's Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC) performed a radiological surveillance of the Remedial Action Contractor (RAC), MK-Ferguson and CWM Federal Environmental Services, Inc., at the processing site in Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico. The requirements and attributes examined during the audit were developed from reviewing working-level procedures developed by the RAC. Objective evidence, comments, and observations were verified based on investigating procedures, documentation, records located at the site, personal interviews, and tours of the site. No findings were identified during this audit. Ten site-specific observations, three good practice observations, and five programmatic observations are presented in this report. The overall conclusion from the surveillance is that the radiological aspects of the Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico, remedial action program are performed adequately. The results of the good practice observations indicate that the site health physics (HP) staff is taking the initiative to address and resolve potential issues, and implement suggestions useful to the UMTRA Project. However, potential exists for improving designated storage areas for general items, and the RAC Project Office should consider resolving site-specific and procedural inconsistencies

  6. Health implications of radionuclide levels in cattle raised near U mining and milling facilities in Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapham, S.C.; Millard, J.B.; Samet, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine radionuclide tissue levels in cattle raised near U mining and milling facilities. Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico, has been the site of extensive U mining for 30 y and contains several underground U mines, a processing mill, and two large U tailings piles. Ten cows were purchased from two grazing areas in Ambrosia Lake and ten control animals were purchased from Crownpoint, New Mexico. Muscle, liver, kidney, and bone tissue taken from these animals, and environmental samples, including water, grasses and soil collected from the animals' grazing areas, were analyzed for 238 U, 234 U, 230 Th, 226 Ra, 210 Pb, and 210 Po. Mean radionuclide levels in cattle tissue and environmental samples from Ambrosia Lake were higher in almost every comparison than those found in respective controls. Liver and kidney tissues were particularly elevated in 226 Ra and 210 Po. Radiation dose commitments from eating cattle tissue with these radionuclide concentrations were calculated. We concluded that the health risk to the public from eating exposed cattle is minimal, unless large amounts of this tissue, especially liver and kidney, are ingested

  7. Lake Way uranium deposit, Wiluna, Western Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    French, R.R.; Allen, J.H.

    1984-01-01

    The Lake Way uranium deposit, 16 km southeast of Wiluna, is in an area of granites with around 12 ppm uranium, and greenstones, near the edge of the playa Lake Way which is the drainage base for a large ancient drainage system. The deposit is carnotite in calcrete and is below or near the water table in areas of high salinity. The deposit has over 5000 tonnes U 3 O 8 , averages 1,55 m thick and is at depth of 0-10 meters. The deposit was discovered by an airborne radiometric survey. (author)

  8. The McClean Lake uranium project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaise, J.R.

    2001-01-01

    The McClean Lake Uranium Project, located in the northern part of Saskatchewan, consists of five uranium deposits, Jeb - Sue A - Sue B - Sue C - McClean, scattered in three different locations on the mineral lease. On 16 March 1995, COGEMA Resources Inc and its partners, Denison Mines Ltd and OURD (Canada) Co Ltd, made the formal decision to develop the McClean Lake Project. Construction of the mine and mill started during summer 1995 and should be finished by mid 1997. Mining of the first deposit, Jeb started in 1996, ore being currently mined. The start of the yellowcake production is scheduled to start this fall. (author)

  9. Uranium distribution in relation to sedimentary facies, Kern Lake, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merifield, P.M.; Carlisle, D.; Idiz, E.; Anderhalt, R.; Reed, W.E.; Lamar, D.L.

    1980-04-01

    Kern Lake has served as a sink for drainage from the southern Sierra Nevada and, in lesser amounts, from the southern Temblor Range. Both areas contain significant uranium source rocks. The uranium content in Holocene Kern Lake sediments correlates best with the mud (silt and clay) fraction. It correlates less well with organic carbon. Biotite grains could account for much of the uranium in the sand fraction, and perhaps the silt fraction as well. The data suggest that fixation of uranium by adsorption on mineral grains is a dominant process in this lake system. Further work is required to determine the importance of cation-exchange of uranium on clays and micas and of organically complexed uranium adsorbed to mineral surfaces. These findings also raise the question of whether uranium transport down the Kern River occurs largely as uranium adsorbed to mineral surfaces

  10. Uranium Geochemistry in Hypersaline Soda Lakes in Eastern Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linhoff, B. S.; Bennett, P.; Puntsag, T.

    2007-12-01

    Extremely high concentrations of uranium were discovered in water samples from hypersaline soda lakes in eastern Mongolia. The origin and fate of uranium in these lakes was examined using geochemical analyses and modeling, using samples collected from five lakes, six wells and one stream. Samples were analyzed for strontium and uranium isotopes, cations and trace metals, anions, alkalinity, and unstable field parameters. The lakes are small, shallow (chlorine to bromine ratios implying groundwater discharges to lake water and is subsequently evaporated. Evaporation is intense with lake waters having average chlorine concentrations 300 times that of well waters. Uranium in well samples is higher than typical for shallow groundwaters (7-101ppb) suggesting discharging groundwater as a probable source of uranium in lake water. Concentrations of uranium in lake water ranges from 57-14,900ppb making these lakes possibly the highest naturally occurring uranium concentration reported. Lake water alkalinity is strongly correlated to uranium abundance suggesting uranium is complexed with carbonate as the aqueous species UO2CO3. Consequently, the extremely high alkalinity of the most alkaline lake (pH = 9.8, 1288.8 meq alk/L) also has the highest uranium concentrations. Stable strontium isotopes were used to assess the degree of water rock interactions and the presence of 90Sr was checked for to test the possibility of input of nuclear fallout. 90Sr was not detected in lake water samples suggesting the high uranium is of natural origins. A large difference in the 87Sr/86Sr ratio was found between groundwater and lake water samples. Groundwater samples displayed large variation in the 87Sr/86Sr ratio (0.70612-0.709776) whereas lake water samples averaged a high radiogenic ratio (0.709432). The large variation in the strontium isotopes in groundwater samples suggests varying degrees of water rock interactions, however the least radiogenic samples likely are derived from

  11. Expansion of the uranium mines in the Elliot Lake area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-11-01

    This report forms the response of the government of Ontario to an earlier report issued by an Envrionmental Assessment Board. Specifically, the report deals with the rapid growth of the town of Elliot Lake due to expansion of several uranium mine-mill operations. Rapid growth of small communities presents considerable problems in providing housing, essential services, and educational facilities. Several specific actions taken by the government to help the town cope with rapid growth are presented. (O.T.)

  12. Chlorine-assisted leaching of Key Lake uranium ore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haque, K.E.

    1981-04-01

    Bench-scale chlorine-assisted leach tests were conducted on the Key Lake uranium ore. Leach tests conducted at 80 0 C on a slurry containing 50% solids during 10 hours of agitation gave the maximum extraction of uranium - 96% and radium-226 - 91%. Chlorine was added at 23.0 Kg Cl 2 /tonne of ore to maintain the leach slurry pH in the range of 1.5-1.0. To obtain residue almost free of radionuclides, hydrochloric acid leaches were conducted on the first stage leach residues. The second stage leach residue still was found to contain uranium - 0.0076% and radium-226 - 200 pCi/g of solids

  13. Estimating calibration equations for predicting Ra-226 soil concentrations using RTRAK in-situ detectors at the Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico, Umtra site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, R. O.; Meyer, H. R.; Miller, M. L.; Begley, C.

    1988-06-01

    This report describes a field study conducted at the Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico, UMTRA site to obtain data for calibrating the RTRAK Sodium Iodide (NaI) detectors for estimating concentrations of Ra-226 in surface soil. The statistical analyses indicate that the data are useful for estimating the calibration equations. Several statistical models are used to evaluate which model is best as a basis for the calibration equations. A procedure is provided for using the estimated calibration equations and extensive RTRAK measurements to estimate the average Ra-226 concentration on 100-m 2 land areas to determine whether additional remedial action is needed. The UMTRA Project office proposes to use the RTRAK for cleanup verification of surface Ra-226 contamination. The system enables 100% coverage of areas having undergone remedial action. The sensitivity of the system enables verification at less than 5 pCi/g averaged over 100 m 2 , as specified by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards (40 CFR Part 192). This analysis demonstrates RTRAK's ability to meet reasonable standards of statistical accuracy, using commonly accepted procedures. 5 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  14. Chlorine-assisted leaching of Rabbit Lake uranium ore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haque, K.E.

    1981-05-01

    Bench-scale chlorine-assisted leaching tests were conducted on the Rabbit Lake uranium ore. Maximum extractions of uranium (97%), and radium-226 (90%) were obtained from leach tests conducted on slurries containing 60% solids at 40 degree C for 18 hours of leaching. Chlorine requirement was found to be 25.0 kg/tonne of ore to maintain the acidity level of the leach slurry at pH 1.0. Hydrochloric acid leaches were conducted on the chlorine-assisted leach residue to reduce the radium level to 25 pCi/g from 140 pCi/g of solids, but the radium level of the second-stage leach residue was found to be 90 pCi/g of solids. Therefore multistage (3 or 4 stages) acid chloride leaching have been recommended to obtain tailings almost free of radionuclides

  15. Elliot Lake uranium mine reclamation, the first ten years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payne, R.A.

    2000-01-01

    In 1989, Rio Algom Limited finalized its plans for the closure and subsequent decommissioning of two of its then three operating mines in Elliot Lake as a result of market conditions. These two mines closed in August 1990. These mine closures had significant impacts. The principal mining operations of Rio Algom at that time were still in Elliot Lake and had been the very foundation of the company for about 40 years. The business impact on the Corporation was regarded as possibly severe. The resultant layoff of over 1,500 long-term, highly qualified, skilled and well-paid employees, a devastating blow to the affected employees and their families, would have a significant financial impact on the municipal economy, particularly as this announcement was seen as the first step in the early closure of all four operating mines in the region. At that time there was little precedence for such a high profile mine closure program and consequently the many unknowns relating to the mine decommissioning process, legislative requirements and society's expectations resulted in a perception of a significant yet ill-defined liability. In this atmosphere of understandable company, stakeholder and public concern, Rio Algom Limited embarked on what has turned out to be a long, rigorous, challenging yet ultimately reasonable and rewarding process of progressive reclamation of all its Elliot Lake mines, some ten in total (nine uranium, one copper). Over the past ten years, reclamation of all ten mines has been successfully completed, some $70 m plus has been expended in direct site reclamation works and the workforce has been reduced from over 2,500 to just 4. After ten years, the focus of attention is now on the long-term care, maintenance, monitoring and reporting required for the decommissioned mine sites, and the accomplishment of this in the best interests of all the stakeholders. (author)

  16. Rabbit Lake uranium mining a-zone, d-zone, eagle point: report of the environmental assessment panel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-11-01

    A report of the environmental assessment panel on Rabbit Lake, Saskatchewan. A review of the proposed development of the uranium mining facility at Rabbit Lake with respect to the environmental, health, safety, and socioeconomic impacts

  17. The Cigar Lake uranium deposit: An analogue for nuclear fuel waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodwin, B.W.; Cramer, J.J.; McConnell, D.B.

    1989-01-01

    Cigar Lake is the site of an ore deposit containing exceptionally high concentrations of uranium. This deposit has features analogous to those of concepts being developed internationally for the disposal of nuclear fuel waste deep in crystalline rock formations. An understanding of the geological history of the Cigar Lake deposit can therefore provide useful insight into the long term behaviour of nuclear waste vaults constructed in bedrock. For assessments that have been completed, studies at Cigar Lake can be used to provide validation support for certain aspects of the models and data. They may also provide support for the overall results of the assessments. In the discussion below, we focus on the second of these topics and examine how information from Cigar Lake contributes to the validation of environmental assessments of a geological disposal system. 7 refs, figs, tab

  18. Distribution of Iron-Oxidizing Bacteria in the Nordic Uranium Tailings Deposit, Elliot Lake, Ontario, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Silver, M.

    1987-01-01

    Iron-oxidizing bacteria are present within the top 2 m (but not always at the surface) and near the water table-capillary fringe of the vegetated Nordic uranium deposit, Elliot Lake, Ontario, Canada. They are distributed uniformly in the top 0.5 m of unvegetated tailings. The locations of these bacteria correlate with zones of pyrite oxidation as delineated in previous studies by the formation of soluble iron and sulfate. Heterotrophic bacteria are also present in the tailings, with greatest ...

  19. Alternative management techniques for the uranium mill tailings site at Salt Lake City, UT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, V.C.; Goldsmith, W.A.; Haywood, F.F.; Gantner, G.K.

    1976-01-01

    The concentrations of 226 Ra and other uranium-chain radionuclides present in tailings piles at uranium-milling sites are on the order of 10 3 times higher than those usually found in soil-surface minerals. The public radiation exposure attributable to these sites is primarily due to inhalation of 222 Rn progeny. This paper presents the radiological assessment of the uranium-milling site at Salt Lake City, Utah. Adverse health effects are estimated from present and projected public radiation exposures. Three alternative remedial action measures can be used to reduce radiation exposures: (1) decontamination of offsite areas contaminated by tailings materials; (2) covering the tailings with contamination-free material; and (3) removal of the tailings to a more remote location. These three measures are examined in terms of costs incurred and serious health effects avoided

  20. Summary of the engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings. Vitro site, Salt Lake City, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-04-01

    This report is a summary of a parent report (issued under separate cover) entitled Engineering Assessment of Inactive Uranium Mill Tailings for Vitro Site, Salt Lake City, Utah. Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has reevaluated the Vitro site in order to revise the April 1976 assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Salt Lake City, Utah. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 1.9 million tons of tailings at the Vitro site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation also are factors. The four alternative actions presented in this engineering assessment range from millsite and off-site decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material (Option 1), to removal of the tailings to remote disposal sites, and decontamination of the tailings site (Options II through IV). Cost estimates for the four options range from about $36,400,000 for stabilization in-place, to about $91,000,000 for disposal at a distance of about 85 mi. Three principal alternatives for the reprocessing of the Vitro tailings were examined: heap leaching; treatment at an existing mill; and reprocessing at a new conventional mill constructed for tailings reprocessing. The cost of the uranium recovered would be about $200/lb by heap leach and $130/lb by conventional plant processes. Spot market price for uranium was $28.00 in November 1980. Therefore, reprocessing the tailings for uranium recovery appears to be economically unattractive at present.

  1. Summary of the engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings. Vitro site, Salt Lake City, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-04-01

    This report is a summary of a parent report (issued under separate cover) entitled Engineering Assessment of Inactive Uranium Mill Tailings for Vitro Site, Salt Lake City, Utah. Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has reevaluated the Vitro site in order to revise the April 1976 assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Salt Lake City, Utah. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 1.9 million tons of tailings at the Vitro site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation also are factors. The four alternative actions presented in this engineering assessment range from millsite and off-site decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material (Option 1), to removal of the tailings to remote disposal sites, and decontamination of the tailings site (Options II through IV). Cost estimates for the four options range from about $36,400,000 for stabilization in-place, to about $91,000,000 for disposal at a distance of about 85 mi. Three principal alternatives for the reprocessing of the Vitro tailings were examined: heap leaching; treatment at an existing mill; and reprocessing at a new conventional mill constructed for tailings reprocessing. The cost of the uranium recovered would be about $200/lb by heap leach and $130/lb by conventional plant processes. Spot market price for uranium was $28.00 in November 1980. Therefore, reprocessing the tailings for uranium recovery appears to be economically unattractive at present

  2. Uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    Developments in the the uranium industry in Australia that took place during the quarter ended 30 June 1980 are reviewed. These include uranium mine production and uranium exploration. Prices for uranium oxide and uranium hexafluoride as at the end of June 1980 and figures for U 3 O 8 production and export from 1978 to March 1980 are listed

  3. The Cigar Lake uranium deposit: an analogue for nuclear fuel waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cramer, J.J.; McConnell, D.B.; Goodwin, B.W.

    1989-01-01

    Cigar Lake is the site of an ore deposit containing exceptionally high concentrations of uranium. This deposit has features that are analogous to features of concepts being developed internationally for the disposal of nuclear fuel waste deep in crystalline rock formations. An understanding of the geologic history of the Cigar Lake deposit can therefore provide useful insight into the long-term behaviour of nuclear waste vaults constructed in bedrock. There are at least two major ways in which investigations of the Cigar Lake analogue can contribute to environmental assessment studies: (1) Before an assessment is completed, reference to the observations from Cigar Lake may lead to the development of improved assessment models and data for the disposal system. (2) For assessments that have been completed, studies at Cigar Lake can be used to provide validation support for certain aspects of the models and data. They may also provide support for the overall results of the assessments. The second of these topics is developed

  4. Study on environmental background values of uranium in water of Dongting Lake system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhai Pengji; Kang Tiesheng

    1987-01-01

    Study on environmental background values in water is the base of evaluating water quality and also is the foundational work of studying the law of distribution, accumulation and transfer of the elements. Research on background values of U in water not only can understand radioactive level but also has actual significance for the general survey of U by water. In the work uranium contents were determined by fission track analytical technique in the filtered and unfiltered specimens of river water, reservoir water and spring water taken from more than one hundred sections located in Dongting Lake system and the statistical process of data were carried out by computer. The environmental background values in water of various river system were obtained and compared with the situation of home and abroad. The seasonal variety of uranium content and the level of U in reservoir, spring water and natural reserve were discussed

  5. Uranium-bearing and associated minerals in their geochemical and sedimentological context, Elliot Lake, Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theis, N.J.

    1976-01-01

    A detailed study of uranium-bearing minerals of the Rio Algom-Denison ore reef in the Elliot Lake, Ontario area was carried out. Regional trends in pebble size diminution in the quartz pebble conglomerates coincides with the regional direction of sediment transport. Quartz pebble size and pyrite grain size from the same sample are correlated, which indicates that the coarse granular pyrite is detrital. Electron microprobe analyses showed high yttrium content in the uraninite. Brannerite had a variable composition; although some may be detrital, most seems to have been formed by adsorption of uranium onto titanium. The mineralogy and geochemistry of the area have been controlled by the process of fluvial deposition. (LL)

  6. Uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuney, M.; Pagel, M.; Leroy, J.

    1992-01-01

    First, this book presents the physico-chemical properties of Uranium and the consequences which can be deduced from the study of numerous geological process. The authors describe natural distribution of Uranium at different scales and on different supports, and main Uranium minerals. A great place in the book is assigned to description and classification of uranium deposits. The book gives also notions on prospection and exploitation of uranium deposits. Historical aspects of Uranium economical development (Uranium resources, production, supply and demand, operating costs) are given in the last chapter. 7 refs., 17 figs

  7. Assessment of oxidative stress and histopathology in juvenile northern pike (Esox lucius) inhabiting lakes downstream of a uranium mill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Jocelyn M. [Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, 44 Campus Drive, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5B3 (Canada); Janz, David M., E-mail: david.janz@usask.ca [Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, 44 Campus Drive, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5B3 (Canada); Department of Veterinary Biomedical Sciences, Western College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, 52 Campus Drive, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5B4 (Canada)

    2009-05-17

    Lakes receiving effluent from the Key Lake uranium mill in northern Saskatchewan contain elevated trace metals, some of which are associated with increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cells and tissues causing oxidative stress. The potential for oxidative stress was assessed in juvenile (age 1+) northern pike (Esox lucius) collected from two exposure (high and low) and one reference lake near the Key Lake operation. The concentrations of total, reduced and oxidized glutathione and the ratio of oxidized to reduced glutathione in liver and kidney did not differ significantly among pike collected from exposure and reference lakes, with the exception of low exposure pike kidney that had significantly greater oxidized glutathione and ratio of oxidized to reduced glutathione. The concentrations of by-products of lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxyalkenal) were significantly greater in kidney of pike collected from the reference lake compared to both exposure lakes. The activity of the antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase in liver was greater in pike collected from the high exposure lake compared to the reference lake. Histopathological evaluations revealed greater pathology in reference lake pike as indicated by a greater number of pyknotic and fragmented nuclei and dilated tubules as well as a thickening of Bowman's capsule in kidney, and as a thickening of the primary filament epithelial padding in gills. In liver, hepatocyte morphology, including transsectional area and degree of vacuolation, differed among lakes without any clear signs of pathology. Trace metal analyses of muscle showed that eight elements (arsenic, cobalt, copper, iron, molybdenum, selenium, thallium, and uranium) were significantly elevated in pike collected from both exposure lakes compared to reference. These results provide only limited evidence of oxidative stress in exposure pike tissues and no evidence of histopathology despite indications that trace metals, most

  8. Assessment of oxidative stress and histopathology in juvenile northern pike (Esox lucius) inhabiting lakes downstream of a uranium mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, Jocelyn M.; Janz, David M.

    2009-01-01

    Lakes receiving effluent from the Key Lake uranium mill in northern Saskatchewan contain elevated trace metals, some of which are associated with increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cells and tissues causing oxidative stress. The potential for oxidative stress was assessed in juvenile (age 1+) northern pike (Esox lucius) collected from two exposure (high and low) and one reference lake near the Key Lake operation. The concentrations of total, reduced and oxidized glutathione and the ratio of oxidized to reduced glutathione in liver and kidney did not differ significantly among pike collected from exposure and reference lakes, with the exception of low exposure pike kidney that had significantly greater oxidized glutathione and ratio of oxidized to reduced glutathione. The concentrations of by-products of lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxyalkenal) were significantly greater in kidney of pike collected from the reference lake compared to both exposure lakes. The activity of the antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase in liver was greater in pike collected from the high exposure lake compared to the reference lake. Histopathological evaluations revealed greater pathology in reference lake pike as indicated by a greater number of pyknotic and fragmented nuclei and dilated tubules as well as a thickening of Bowman's capsule in kidney, and as a thickening of the primary filament epithelial padding in gills. In liver, hepatocyte morphology, including transsectional area and degree of vacuolation, differed among lakes without any clear signs of pathology. Trace metal analyses of muscle showed that eight elements (arsenic, cobalt, copper, iron, molybdenum, selenium, thallium, and uranium) were significantly elevated in pike collected from both exposure lakes compared to reference. These results provide only limited evidence of oxidative stress in exposure pike tissues and no evidence of histopathology despite indications that trace metals, most

  9. After twelve years of exploration Cluff Lake uranium within Amok's grasp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, L.M.

    1979-01-01

    Amok Ltd. recently began construction of a uranium mine and processing plant at Cluff Lake, Saskatchewan. The deposits occur in the Carswell Dome, a formation of basement rock intruding through the Athabaska sandstone which appears to have been caused by a meteorite impact approximately 467 million years ago. The uranium deposits are around 1 billion years old and are linked to organic compounds. Proven reserves are in the order of 23 000 million tonnes, averaging 7 percent U 3 O 8 but ranging from 0.3 to 45 percent. The D ore body, the richest, will be mined first in an open pit operation that will start up at 317 tpd in Sept. 1980. Special radiation protection precautions are necessary. Great care will be taken with mine wastes, waste water, and ore stockpiles to avoid groundwater contamination. High-grade ore can proceed directly to chemical treatment after crushing, while low-grade ore will receive gravity concentration. Sulphuric acid will be used to dissolve the uranium, followed by filtration, lime treatment to remove iron and aluminum, and neutralization with magnesium oxide to precipitate yellowcake. Radioactive wastes will be stored underground in concrete vaults; non-radioactive tailings will go to an impervious pond. (LL)

  10. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings. Vitro site, Salt Lake City, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-04-01

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has reevaluated the Vitro site in order to revise the April 1976 assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Salt Lake City, Utah. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 1.9 million tons of tailings at the Vitro site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation also are factors. The four alternative actions presented in this engineering assessment range from millsite and off-site decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material (Option I), to removal of the tailings to remote disposal sites, and decontamination of the tailings site (Options II through IV). Cost estimates for the four options range from about $36,400,000 for stabilization in-place, to about $91,000,000 for disposal at a distance of about 85 mi. Three principal alternatives for the reprocessing of the Vitro tailings were examined: heap leaching; treatment at an existing mill; and reprocessing at a new conventional mill constructed for tailings reprocessing. The cost of the uranium recovered would be about $200/lb by heap leach and $130/lb by conventional plant processes. Spot market price for uranium was $28.00 in November 1980. Therefore, reprocessing the tailings for uranium recovery appears to be economically unattractive at present

  11. Hydraulic connection affects uranium distribution in the Gas Hure salt lake, Qaidam Basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jibin; Jiang, Hongchen; Xu, Jianxin; Hussain, Syed Asim; Yuan, Xiaolong; Qin, Xiwei

    2018-02-01

    The widespread hydraulic connection is necessary for the formation of a salt lake. However, only limited studies have ever been carried out to investigate the influence of the hydraulic connection on the distribution of elements around certain salt lake. In this study, a total of 66 water samples (including river water, stream water, spring water, brine, intercrystalline brine, well water, and drilling brine) were collected around the Gas Hure salt lake (GSKLH) to investigate the relationship between hydraulic connection and uranium (U) distribution via hydrochemistry and isotope ( 234 U/ 238 U, δ 11 B) techniques. The results suggested that the GSKLH was recharged by water from the Kulamulekesay and Atetikan rivers, groundwater (borehole brine and some intercrystalline brine), and deep fluid (some intercrystalline brine), with each contributing 44.03%, 14.95%, and 41.02% of total recharge, respectively. The U-bearing rock was dominated mainly by silicates, carbonates, and evaporites in the high mountain area (region 1), overflow area (region 2), and plain area (region 3) of the GSKLH, respectively. In the GSKLH, the U distribution was strongly correlated with hydraulic connection and the U concentration was influenced by both groundwater flow system and flow velocity (represented by the γCl - /γCa 2+ ratio). Thus, U was enriched under the conditions of regional groundwater flow system and slow velocity in the GSKLH.

  12. Data report: Jean Lake Area, Nevada. National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.R.

    1982-05-01

    This report presents the results of detailed sampling of soils, rocks, and dry lake bed material from the area of Jean Dry Lake in southern Nevada. The study area is in the Kingman 1 0 x 2 0 quadrangle of the National Topographic Map Series. Samples were collected from 1000 sites. The target density of sampling was 16 sites per square mile in the lake bed and four sites per square mile for soil samples. Neutron activation analyses are presented for uranium and 16 other elements. Scintillometer readings are reported for each site. Analytical data and scintillometer measurements are presented in tables. Statistical summaries and a brief description of the results are given. Data from the sites (on microfiche in pocket) include; (1) elemental analyses (U, Th, Hf, Al, Ce, Dy, Eu, Fe, La, Lu, Mn, Sc, Sm, Na, Ti, and V); and (2) scintillometer readings. To make the data available for public use without further delay, this report is being issued without the normal technical and copy editing

  13. Uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackay, G.A.

    1978-01-01

    The author discusses the contribution made by various energy sources in the production of electricity. Estimates are made of the future nuclear contribution, the future demand for uranium and future sales of Australian uranium. Nuclear power growth in the United States, Japan and Western Europe is discussed. The present status of the six major Australian uranium deposits (Ranger, Jabiluka, Nabarlek, Koongarra, Yeelerrie and Beverley) is given. Australian legislation relevant to the uranium mining industry is also outlined

  14. Uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The development, prospecting, research, processing and marketing of South Africa's uranium industry and the national policies surrounding this industry form the headlines of this work. The geology of South Africa's uranium occurences and their positions, the processes used in the extraction of South Africa's uranium and the utilisation of uranium for power production as represented by the Koeberg nuclear power station near Cape Town are included in this publication

  15. Uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, E.D.J.

    1974-01-01

    A discussion is given of uranium as an energy source in The Australian economy. Figures and predictions are presented on the world supply-demand position and also figures are given on the added value that can be achieved by the processing of uranium. Conclusions are drawn about Australia's future policy with regard to uranium (R.L.)

  16. Uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toens, P.D.

    1981-03-01

    The geological setting of uranium resources in the world can be divided in two basic categories of resources and are defined as reasonably assured resources, estimated additional resources and speculative resources. Tables are given to illustrate these definitions. The increasing world production of uranium despite the cutback in the nuclear industry and the uranium requirements of the future concluded these lecture notes

  17. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings site Salt Lake City, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    This baseline risk assessment of groundwater contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Salt Lake City, Utah, evaluates potential public health or environmental impacts resulting from ground water contamination at the former uranium ore processing site. The tailings and other contaminated material at this site were placed in a disposal cell located at Clive, Utah, in 1987 by the US Department of Energy`s Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The second phase of the UMTRA Project is to evaluate residual ground water contamination at the former uranium processing site, known as the Vitro processing site. This risk assessment is the first site-specific document under the Ground Water Project. It will help determine the appropriate remedial action for contaminated ground water at the site.

  18. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings site Salt Lake City, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    This baseline risk assessment of groundwater contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Salt Lake City, Utah, evaluates potential public health or environmental impacts resulting from ground water contamination at the former uranium ore processing site. The tailings and other contaminated material at this site were placed in a disposal cell located at Clive, Utah, in 1987 by the US Department of Energy's Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The second phase of the UMTRA Project is to evaluate residual ground water contamination at the former uranium processing site, known as the Vitro processing site. This risk assessment is the first site-specific document under the Ground Water Project. It will help determine the appropriate remedial action for contaminated ground water at the site

  19. Distribution of iron-oxidizing bacteria in the nordic uranium tailings deposit, elliot lake, ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, M

    1987-04-01

    Iron-oxidizing bacteria are present within the top 2 m (but not always at the surface) and near the water table-capillary fringe of the vegetated Nordic uranium deposit, Elliot Lake, Ontario, Canada. They are distributed uniformly in the top 0.5 m of unvegetated tailings. The locations of these bacteria correlate with zones of pyrite oxidation as delineated in previous studies by the formation of soluble iron and sulfate. Heterotrophic bacteria are also present in the tailings, with greatest concentrations at the surface and near the water table-capillary fringe. Sulfate-reducing bacteria were detected in the soil and peat at the base of the tailings. The results of this study suggest that the establishment of vegetation directly upon the tailings surface does not arrest bacterial pyrite oxidation.

  20. Jarosite formation in the uranium processing circuit of Denison Mines Limited, Elliot Lake, Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutrizac, J.E.

    1985-04-01

    Jarosite precipitation occurs in several parts of the uranium processing circuit of Denison Mines Limited, Elliot Lake, Ontario. Extensive precipitation of jarosite takes place in the filter cloth and on the drum face of the secondary drum filters, and this precipitation causes severe operating difficulties. Precipitation of jarosite is also observed in the ion exchange beads, but it is not known whether the jarosite is responsible for the observed decrease in resin efficiency. The resin beads are also rimmed with significant quantities of silica, lead, phosphate, sulphate, etc. which could be responsible for the fouling of the resin. In every instance, potassium jarosite, containing only minor amounts of sodium or ammonium, was the observed species; the potassium likely originates from the acid leaching of muscovite in the ore. Potential methods of avoiding the jarosite problem are discussed, but these may not be compatible with the overall process requirements

  1. From uranium mine to fishing lake: Environmental remediation in France’s Limousin region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixit, Aabha

    2016-01-01

    Artificial lakes, fishing spots and solar farms dot the landscape in France’s Limousin region, where uranium operations have gradually come to an end. This transformation would not have been possible without stakeholder involvement, transparent processes and well-coordinated activities, said Yves Marignac, the coordinator of the French Pluralistic Expert Group (GEP), involved with remediation activities in the region. The local population had an important consultative role during the environmental remediation programme, and they now use the former mining sites for recreation. “A consultative approach to remediation management is key to having the people’s support when we had to deal with the closing of the uranium mining sites in Limousin,” Marignac said. Uniquely, the non-governmental organizations (NGOs) were the driving force behind broadening the scope of environmental remediation, he added. An important factor for any successful remediation project is public engagement in the decision-making process. The local communities have the most interest in successful environmental remediation, and they need to get satisfactory answers to questions on why, when and how will it impact them. “Their involvement is vital and necessary to ensure technically sound and socially acceptable decisions,” Marignac said

  2. From uranium mine to fishing lake: Environmental remediation in France’s Limousin region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixit, Aabha

    2016-01-01

    Artificial lakes, fishing spots and solar farms dot the landscape in France’s Limousin region, where uranium operations have gradually come to an end. This transformation would not have been possible without stakeholder involvement, transparent processes and well-coordinated activities, said Yves Marignac, the coordinator of the French Pluralistic Expert Group (GEP), involved with remediation activities in the region. The local population had an important consultative role during the environmental remediation programme, and they now use the former mining sites for recreation. “A consultative approach to remediation management is key to having the people’s support when we had to deal with the closing of the uranium mining sites in Limousin,” Marignac said. Uniquely, the non-governmental organizations (NGOs) were the driving force behind broadening the scope of environmental remediation, he added. An important factor for any successful remediation project is public engagement in the decision-making process. The local communities have the most interest in successful environmental remediation, and they need to get satisfactory answers to questions on why, when and how will it impact them. “Their involvement is vital and necessary to ensure technically sound and socially acceptable decisions,” Marignac said.

  3. A study of facilities relative to stabilization of uranium mill tailings at Elliot Lake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-06-01

    The total project capital cost of facilities to stabilize uranium mill tailings at Elliot Lake while producing 350,000 short tons per year of sulphuric acid and 266,000 short tons per year of triple superphosphate is approximately 153 million dollars. This includes pyrite flotation, roasting, acid and phosphate production, site preparation, utilities and project overhead. A new operating credit of 20.43 dollars per short ton of acid is estimated, achieved from the sale of steam and fertilizer. Two alternatives to the above were also examined, as follows: a) Production of 596,000 short tons per year of acid, and the sale of 246,000 short tons which are in excess of the Elliot Lake mill's requirement. The capital cost of this scheme is approximately 89 million dollars, with a net operating credit of 14.97 dollars per short ton of acid. b) Production of only 350,000 short tons per year of acid. This would entail disposal of the excess pyrite floated from the Rio Algom mills. The capital cost of this scheme is approximately 75 million dollars, with an operating cost of 10.47 dollars per short ton of acid

  4. Po-210 and Pb-210 in water and fish from Taboshar uranium mining Pit Lake, Tajikistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skipperud, L; Jørgensen, A G; Heier, L S; Salbu, B; Rosseland, B O

    2013-09-01

    Polonium-210 in water and (210)Pb and (210)Po in different fish organs from 3 different fish species in Taboshar Pit Lake (n = 13), located in the uranium mining area in Tajikistan, and in Kairakkum Reservoir (reference lake, n = 3), have been determined as part of a Joint project between Norway, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan. The average activity concentration of (210)Pb and (210)Po in liver, muscle and bone of Carassius auratus was higher than the concentration in similar tissues of C. carpio and Sander lucioperca from the reference site. The accumulation of (210)Po was higher than for (210)Pb, and the accumulation of (210)Po was highest in the liver of C. auratus (3673 ± 434 Bq kg(-1) ww). Although the average activity concentration of (210)Pb in liver and bones of C. auratus from Pit Lake were fairly similar, a huge variation in the liver activity concentrations (25-327 Bq kg(-1) ww) was found. The results confirm direct uptake of unsupported (210)Po into the liver, and that the distributions of (210)Po and (210)Pb in fish organs were different. The BCF (L/kg) for (210)Po in bone, liver and muscle clearly demonstrates high accumulation of (210)Po in C. auratus, especially in the liver. The average BCFs of liver, bone and muscle were >1.4 × 10(5), >2.5 × 10(4) and >1.4 × 10(4), respectively. All fish in the Pit Lake were found to be in the same trophic level, however, a linear correlation between log (210)Po in liver and δ(15)N could indicate biomagnification of (210)Po in liver of C. auratus. In regards to the recommended Annual Limit of Intake (ALI) for (210)Po, the concentration of (210)Po in muscle tissues of C. auratus is alarming, as there is a high probability for the local population at risk to exceed the recommended ALI through consumption of fish from Taboshar Pit Lake. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Po-210 and Pb-210 in water and fish from Taboshar uranium mining Pit Lake, Tajikistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skipperud, L.; Jørgensen, A.G.; Heier, L.S.; Salbu, B.; Rosseland, B.O.

    2013-01-01

    Polonium-210 in water and 210 Pb and 210 Po in different fish organs from 3 different fish species in Taboshar Pit Lake (n = 13), located in the uranium mining area in Tajikistan, and in Kairakkum Reservoir (reference lake, n = 3), have been determined as part of a Joint project between Norway, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan. The average activity concentration of 210 Pb and 210 Po in liver, muscle and bone of Carassius auratus was higher than the concentration in similar tissues of C. carpio and Sander lucioperca from the reference site. The accumulation of 210 Po was higher than for 210 Pb, and the accumulation of 210 Po was highest in the liver of C. auratus (3673 ± 434 Bq kg −1 ww). Although the average activity concentration of 210 Pb in liver and bones of C. auratus from Pit Lake were fairly similar, a huge variation in the liver activity concentrations (25–327 Bq kg −1 ww) was found. The results confirm direct uptake of unsupported 210 Po into the liver, and that the distributions of 210 Po and 210 Pb in fish organs were different. The BCF (L/kg) for 210 Po in bone, liver and muscle clearly demonstrates high accumulation of 210 Po in C. auratus, especially in the liver. The average BCFs of liver, bone and muscle were >1.4 × 10 5 , >2.5 × 10 4 and >1.4 × 10 4 , respectively. All fish in the Pit Lake were found to be in the same trophic level, however, a linear correlation between log 210 Po in liver and δ 15 N could indicate biomagnification of 210 Po in liver of C. auratus. In regards to the recommended Annual Limit of Intake (ALI) for 210 Po, the concentration of 210 Po in muscle tissues of C. auratus is alarming, as there is a high probability for the local population at risk to exceed the recommended ALI through consumption of fish from Taboshar Pit Lake

  6. Modelling of the underwater disposal of uranium mine tailings in Elliot Lake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halbert, B.E.; Scharer, J.M.; Chakravatti, J.L.; Barnes, E.

    1982-01-01

    Underwater disposal of uranium mine tailings from the Elliot Lake area operations offers potential advantages in controlling radon gas release, emission of airborne particulate matter, and acid production from pyrites in the tailings. In addition, the proximity of the three active properties, one owned by Denison Mines Limited and two by Rio Algom Limited, to a large deep lake has spurred interest in the concept. It has been estimated that the placement of approximately 150 million tonnes of tailings from future planned production would occupy less than 20% of the lake volume. To assess the applicability of the underwater tailings disposal concept, a multi-stage study was developed in conjunction with the regulatory agencies. The most important facet identified for investigation during the first-stage investigations was an assessment of the effects of underwater disposal on water quality in the Serpent River Basin watershed. To simulate the effects of underwater disposal, a computer simulation routine was developed and integrated with a water quality model previously developed for the Basin which predicts levels of total dissolved solids, ammonia, dissolved radium-226 and pH. The underwater disposal model component reflects the effects of direct input of tailings into the hypolimnion, the chemical/biological transformation of dissolved constituents in the water column, the reactions of pyritic tailings deposited on the bottom, and the flux of dissolved constituents from the tailings into the water column. To establish site-specific values for the underwater disposal model, field and laboratory experiments were utilized to evaluate rates of pyrite and ammonia oxidation, and pH-alkalinity relationships. The results of these studies and their use in the water quality model are discussed. In addition, the results of two model run simulations are presented. (author)

  7. Uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whillans, R.T.

    1981-01-01

    Events in the Canadian uranium industry during 1980 are reviewed. Mine and mill expansions and exploration activity are described, as well as changes in governmental policy. Although demand for uranium is weak at the moment, the industry feels optimistic about the future. (LL)

  8. Uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batley, G.C.; McKay, A.D.

    1986-01-01

    Production of uranium oxide in Australia for 1983 was 3786 t(3211 t U). Uranium exports for 1983 were 3273 t U 3 O 8 at an average f.o.b. value of $41.02/lb U 3 O 8 . Private exploration expenditure for uranium in Australia during the 1982-83 fiscal year was $36.5 million, 35% less than in 1981-82. In November 1983, the Government decided that uranium mining would be allowed only at the existing Ranger and Nabarlek mines and at the proposed Olympic Dam mine. Australia's Reasonably Assured Resources of uranium recoverable at less than US$80/kg U as at December 1983, totalled 474 000 t U. Australia's total now represents 30% of the Western world's low-cost RAR. In addition Australia has 235 000 t U in the low-cost Estimated Additional Resources Category 1, which represents 31% of the Western world's resources in this category

  9. Uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villarreal, E.

    1986-01-01

    After the increase in oil prices in 1973, several European countries increased their power programs. As a result some uranium mining companies from the FRG, Spain and France invested in exploration of radioactive minerals in Colombia hoping to find uranium resources needed to fuel European reactors. In the article a historic review of foreign investment in uranium in Colombia is made; some recommendations about joint-venture contracts used to regulate the work of the foreign companies are included. The four companies involved in exploration left the country in the early eighties, due to the difficulties in finding a large deposit and the difficult world situation of nuclear power

  10. Influence of uranium mill tailings on tree growth at Elliot Lake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, D.R.

    1978-01-01

    A four-year study was carried out to determine the ability of coniferous trees to aid in the reclamation of uranium tailings at Elliot Lake. Five species were planted: white cedar, white spruce, jack pine, scotch pine and red pine. More than 570 bare-root, two-year-old seedlings were planted on bare tailings and in areas of established grasses. A further division was made between areas of coarse and fine tailings. Over-all survival and growth of the trees has been far below expectations based on previous experience with several varieties of grasses. The criteria for assessment have been per cent survival and yearly growth as determined by plant height. Pine was superior, with 68% survival when planted in bare coarse tailings, 45% for vegetated coarse tailings and 34% for vegetated fine tailings. Cedar had the worst survival rates at 49%, 14% and 7% respectively. No species survived on bare fine tailings. The survival and growth of the coniferous trees have been related to species, environmental conditions and tailings properties. (author)

  11. Influence of uranium mill tailings on tree growth at Elliot Lake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, D.R.

    1978-01-01

    A four year study was carried out to determine the ability of coniferous trees to aid in the reclamation of uranium tailings at Elliot Lake. Five species were planted: white cedar, white spruce, jack pine, scotch pine and red pine. More than 570 bare-root, two-year-old seedlings were planted on bare tailings and in areas of established grasses. A further division was made between areas of coarse and fine tailings. Over-all survival and growth of the trees has been far below expectations based on previous experience with several varieties of grasses. The crieteria for assessment have been per cent survival and yearly growth as determined by plant height. Pine was superior, with 68% survival when planted in bare coarse tailings, 45% for vegetated coarse tailings and 34% for vegetated fine tailings. Cedar had the worst survival rates at 49%, 14% and 7% respectively. No species survived on bare fine tailings. The survival and growth of the coniferous trees have been related to species, environmental conditions and tailings properties. (auth)

  12. Determination of radon flux rates in a uranium mine (Cluff Lake, Saskatchewan)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-12-01

    The Atomic Energy Control Board contracted SENES Consultants Limited to design and implement a field program at Amok Limited's Cluff Lake uranium mine, with the overall objective of obtaining reliable radon flux data applicable for use in the VENTRAD computer model. The VENTRAD model was developed to model underground mine ventilation systems. To avoid the uncertainties inherent in localized flux measurements made on small surfaces, radon flux measurements were determined through measurement of incremental changes in the concentration of radon between the incoming and outgoing air in selected areas of the underground workings. The locations were selected throughout the mine in both ore and sterile rock. Average radon flux rates measured during three field campaigns were as follows: sterile rock decline 4 pCi/m 2 .second; sterile rock mainway 25 pCi/m 2 .second; worked-out stope 100 pCi/m 2 .second; active work stope 240 pCi/m 2 .second; and work face 14,000 pCi/m 2 .second. Data collected during the three field programs were used to validate the VENTRAD computer model. The results of the validation exercise suggest close agreement between predicted and measured air flow rates and radon concentrations were overestimated for areas immediately impacted by auxiliary ventilation fans and ore transfer mill holes which connect the ore extraction and haulage levels of the mine

  13. Radionuclide uptake by various plants growing on uranium tailings, Elliot Lake, Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dave, N.K.; Lim, T.P.; Cloutier, N.R.

    1984-02-01

    Detectable levels of Ra-226 (0.2 to 27.6 pCi/g), Ra-223 (<= 0.1 to 4.3 pCi/g) and Pb-210 (0.6 to 6.9 pCi/g) were measured in various species of vegetation growing on various uranium tailings in Elliot Lake. On the other hand levels of Th-232 (<= 0.1 pCi/g), Th-230 (<= 0.1 pCi/g) were near detection limits in the same vegetation samples. In tailings substrates, all radionuclides investigated were detectable: Ra-226 (8.8 to 552 pCi/g), Ra-223 (3.1 to 213 pCi/g), Pb-210 (5.4 to 441 pCi/g), Th-232 (1.6 to 15.4 pCi/g), Th-230 (4.9 to 62 pCi/g) and Th-228 (1.3 to 38 pCi/g). Lower Th than Ra and Pb levels in tailings substrate were believed to be the cause for the relatively lower Th levels measured in vegetation when compared to Ra and Pb concentrations. No correlation was observed between the level of a given radionuclide in tailings and in the vegetation growing on that tailings

  14. Uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkin, D.J.

    1982-01-01

    Developments in the Australian uranium industry during 1980 are reviewed. Mine production increased markedly to 1841 t U 3 O 8 because of output from the new concentrator at Nabarlek and 1131 t of U 3 O 8 were exported at a nominal value of $37.19/lb. Several new contracts were signed for the sale of yellowcake from Ranger and Nabarlek Mines. Other developments include the decision by the joint venturers in the Olympic Dam Project to sink an exploration shaft and the release of an environmental impact statement for the Honeymoon deposit. Uranium exploration expenditure increased in 1980 and additions were made to Australia's demonstrated economic uranium resources. A world review is included

  15. Uranium*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenthe, Ingmar; Drożdżyński, Janusz; Fujino, Takeo; Buck, Edgar C.; Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E.; Wolf, Stephen F.

    Uranium compounds have been used as colorants since Roman times (Caley, 1948). Uranium was discovered as a chemical element in a pitchblende specimen by Martin Heinrich Klaproth, who published the results of his work in 1789. Pitchblende is an impure uranium oxide, consisting partly of the most reduced oxide uraninite (UO2) and partly of U3O8. Earlier mineralogists had considered this mineral to be a complex oxide of iron and tungsten or of iron and zinc, but Klaproth showed by dissolving it partially in strong acid that the solutions yielded precipitates that were different from those of known elements. Therefore he concluded that it contained a new element (Mellor, 1932); he named it after the planet Uranus, which had been discovered in 1781 by William Herschel, who named it after the ancient Greek deity of the Heavens.

  16. Enumeration and characterization of microorganisms associated with the uranium ore deposit at Cigar Lake, Canada. Informal report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, A.J.; Joshi-Tope, G.; Gillow, J.B.; Dodge, C.J.

    1994-03-01

    The high-grade uranium deposit at Cigar Lake, Canada, is being investigated as a natural analog for the disposal of nuclear fuel waste. Geochemical aspects of the site have been studied in detail, but the microbial ecology has not been fully investigated. Microbial populations in an ore sample and in groundwater samples from the vicinity of the ore zone were examined to determine their effect on uranium mobility. Counts of the total number of bacteria and of respiring bacteria were obtained by direct microscopy, and the viable aerobic and anaerobic bacteria were assessed as colony forming units (CFUs) by the dilution plating technique. In addition, the population distribution of denitrifiers, fermenters, iron- and sulfur-oxidizers, iron- and sulfate-reducers, and methanogens was determined by the most probable number (MPN) technique

  17. Ragweed (Ambrosia) pollen source inventory for Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karrer, G; Skjøth, C A; Šikoparija, B; Smith, M; Berger, U; Essl, F

    2015-08-01

    This study improves the spatial coverage of top-down Ambrosia pollen source inventories for Europe by expanding the methodology to Austria, a country that is challenging in terms of topography and the distribution of ragweed plants. The inventory combines annual ragweed pollen counts from 19 pollen-monitoring stations in Austria (2004-2013), 657 geographical observations of Ambrosia plants, a Digital Elevation Model (DEM), local knowledge of ragweed ecology and CORINE land cover information from the source area. The highest mean annual ragweed pollen concentrations were generally recorded in the East of Austria where the highest densities of possible growth habitats for Ambrosia were situated. Approximately 99% of all observations of Ambrosia populations were below 745m. The European infection level varies from 0.1% at Freistadt in Northern Austria to 12.8% at Rosalia in Eastern Austria. More top-down Ambrosia pollen source inventories are required for other parts of Europe. A method for constructing top-down pollen source inventories for invasive ragweed plants in Austria, a country that is challenging in terms of topography and ragweed distribution. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battey, G.C.; McKay, A.D.

    1988-01-01

    Production for 1986 was 4899 t U 3 O 8 (4154 t U), 30% greater than in 1985, mainly because of a 39% increase in production at Ranger. Exports for 1986 were 4166 t U 3 O 8 at an average f.o.b. unit value of $40.57/lb U 3 O 8 . Private exploration expenditure for uranium in Australia during the 1985-86 fiscal year was $50.2 million. Plans were announced to increase the nominal capacity of the processing plant at Ranger from 3000 t/year U 3 O 8 to 4500 t and later to 6000 t/year. Construction and initial mine development at Olympic Dam began in March. Production is planned for mid 1988 at an annual rate of 2000 t U 3 O 8 , 30 000 t Cu, and 90 000 oz (2800 kg) Au. The first long-term sales agreement was concluded in September 1986. At the Manyingee deposit, testing of the alkaline solution mining method was completed, and the treatment plant was dismantled. Spot market prices (in US$/lb U 3 O 8 ) quoted by Nuexco were generally stable. From January-October the exchange value fluctuated from US$17.00-US$17.25; for November and December it was US$16.75. Australia's Reasonably Assured Resources of uranium recoverable at less than US$80/kg U at December 1986 were estimated as 462 000 t U, 3000 t U less than in 1985. This represents 30% of the total low-cost RAR in the WOCA (World Outside the Centrally Planned Economy Areas) countries. Australia also has 257 000 t U in the low-cost Estimated Additional Resources Category I, 29% of the WOCA countries' total resources in this category

  19. Uranium-series dating of some lake and dune deposits in south-east Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herczeg, A.L.

    1987-01-01

    A correction scheme developed over many years was used to obtain reliable dates for impure carbonates and gypsum from uranium disequilibrium analyses. The materials analyzed thus far and their sources are described. The results indicated that reliable dating can be obtained provided that there is no post-depositional alteration in the sample and that sufficient uranium is present. The object is to investigate further sites in order to reconstruct palaeohydrology and environments in Australia over the last 400000 years. 4 refs

  20. The centuries-old and thousand- year oscillations of uranium distribution in the Lake Baikal sediments, according to the neutron-fission (n,f)-autoradiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirichenko, Ivan; Zhmodik, Sergey; Belyanin, Dmitriy; Khlistov, Oleg

    2016-04-01

    The trace elements local distribution data, particularly (U, P, Br, Mo, BiSi et. all) in a lake and oceans bottom sediments reflects the conditions of those sediments formation, and correlates with changes in paleoclimatic conditions. In papers [Colman et all, 1995; Goldberg et all, 2000, etc.] established that the concentrations of some elements contained in the bottom sediments of Lake Baikal, in particular BiSi, Sr / Ba, Sr / Rb, Ti, U et al., reflect changes in insolation caused by periodic oscillations parameters Earth's orbit (Milankovitch cycles). At the same time, a bottom sediments of the largest continental lake (Lake Baikal), can keep a record of changes less periodicity. Our research focuses on the study of the spatial distribution of uranium with high resolution in the bottom sediments of Lake Baikal. The purpose of this research is determination the centure-old and thousand- old year oscillations in the concentration of uranium in the sediments of Lake Baikal. Fragments of the lake sediment columns taken from the axial part of the Akademicheskiy Ridge in Lake Baikal (stations coordinates St -8 (53 32'15"N 107 56'25"E); - and St11 - (53 33'51"N 108 00'05"E) were studied using complex of local analysis methods, such as: n, f - and n, β-autoradiography, SEM. The distributions of uranium and phosphorus in the authigenic component of sediments along the whole columns length (with the resolution of 10 micron which corresponds to the time resolution of about six months) have been studied by the autoradiography method. Statistical data analysis (Fourier and wavelet analysis) were used for detection oscillations in the uranium concentration Three main different factors of concentrators were established for uranium and phosphorus in the sediments of the Academic mountain range:1) sedimentation, 2) nutrient,3) diagenetic. The periodicity (range from 100 to 1,000 years), in the distribution of authigenic uranium in the sediment column were identified by

  1. A combined chemical, isotopic and microstructural study of pyrite from roll-front uranium deposits, Lake Eyre Basin, South Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingham, Edwina S.; Cook, Nigel J.; Cliff, John; Ciobanu, Cristiana L.; Huddleston, Adam

    2014-01-01

    The common sulfide mineral pyrite is abundant throughout sedimentary uranium systems at Pepegoona, Pepegoona West and Pannikan, Lake Eyre Basin, South Australia. Combined chemical, isotopic and microstructural analysis of pyrite indicates variation in fluid composition, sulfur source and precipitation conditions during a protracted mineralization event. The results show the significant role played by pyrite as a metal scavenger and monitor of fluid changes in low-temperature hydrothermal systems. In-situ micrometer-scale sulfur isotope analyses of pyrite demonstrated broad-scale isotopic heterogeneity (δ34S = -43.9 to +32.4‰VCDT), indicative of complex, multi-faceted pyrite evolution, and sulfur derived from more than a single source. Preserved textures support this assertion and indicate a genetic model involving more than one phase of pyrite formation. Authigenic pyrite underwent prolonged evolution and recrystallization, evidenced by a genetic relationship between archetypal framboidal aggregates and pyrite euhedra. Secondary hydrothermal pyrite commonly displays hyper-enrichment of several trace elements (Mn, Co, Ni, As, Se, Mo, Sb, W and Tl) in ore-bearing horizons. Hydrothermal fluids of magmatic and meteoric origins supplied metals to the system but the geochemical signature of pyrite suggests a dominantly granitic source and also the influence of mafic rock types. Irregular variation in δ34S, coupled with oscillatory trace element zonation in secondary pyrite, is interpreted in terms of continuous variations in fluid composition and cycles of diagenetic recrystallization. A late-stage oxidizing fluid may have mobilized selenium from pre-existing pyrite. Subsequent restoration of reduced conditions within the aquifer caused ongoing pyrite re-crystallization and precipitation of selenium as native selenium. These results provide the first qualitative constraints on the formation mechanisms of the uranium deposits at Beverley North. Insights into

  2. Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project 1994 environmental report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    This annual report documents the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project environmental monitoring and protection program. The UMTRA Project routinely monitors radiation, radioactive residual materials, and hazardous constituents at associated former uranium tailings processing sites and disposal sites. At the end of 1994, surface remedial action was complete at 14 of the 24 designated UMTRA Project processing sites: Canonsburg, Pennsylvania; Durango, Colorado; Grand Junction, Colorado; Green River Utah, Lakeview, Oregon; Lowman, Idaho; Mexican Hat, Utah; Riverton, Wyoming; Salt Lake City, Utah; Falls City, Texas; Shiprock, New Mexico; Spook, Wyoming, Tuba City, Arizona; and Monument Valley, Arizona. Surface remedial action was ongoing at 5 sites: Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico; Naturita, Colorado; Gunnison, Colorado; and Rifle, Colorado (2 sites). Remedial action has not begun at the 5 remaining UMTRA Project sites that are in the planning stage. Belfield and Bowman, North Dakota; Maybell, Colorado; and Slick Rock, Colorado (2 sites). The ground water compliance phase of the UMTRA Project started in 1991. Because the UMTRA Project sites are.` different stages of remedial action, the breadth of the UMTRA environmental protection program differs from site to site. In general, sites actively undergoing surface remedial action have the most comprehensive environmental programs for sampling media. At sites where surface remedial action is complete and at sites where remedial action has not yet begun, the environmental program consists primarily of surface water and ground water monitoring to support site characterization, baseline risk assessments, or disposal site performance assessments.

  3. Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project 1994 environmental report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-08-01

    This annual report documents the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project environmental monitoring and protection program. The UMTRA Project routinely monitors radiation, radioactive residual materials, and hazardous constituents at associated former uranium tailings processing sites and disposal sites. At the end of 1994, surface remedial action was complete at 14 of the 24 designated UMTRA Project processing sites: Canonsburg, Pennsylvania; Durango, Colorado; Grand Junction, Colorado; Green River Utah, Lakeview, Oregon; Lowman, Idaho; Mexican Hat, Utah; Riverton, Wyoming; Salt Lake City, Utah; Falls City, Texas; Shiprock, New Mexico; Spook, Wyoming, Tuba City, Arizona; and Monument Valley, Arizona. Surface remedial action was ongoing at 5 sites: Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico; Naturita, Colorado; Gunnison, Colorado; and Rifle, Colorado (2 sites). Remedial action has not begun at the 5 remaining UMTRA Project sites that are in the planning stage. Belfield and Bowman, North Dakota; Maybell, Colorado; and Slick Rock, Colorado (2 sites). The ground water compliance phase of the UMTRA Project started in 1991. Because the UMTRA Project sites are.' different stages of remedial action, the breadth of the UMTRA environmental protection program differs from site to site. In general, sites actively undergoing surface remedial action have the most comprehensive environmental programs for sampling media. At sites where surface remedial action is complete and at sites where remedial action has not yet begun, the environmental program consists primarily of surface water and ground water monitoring to support site characterization, baseline risk assessments, or disposal site performance assessments

  4. Uranium activity ratio in water and fish from pit lakes in Kurday, Kazakhstan and Taboshar, Tajikistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strømman, G.; Rosseland, B.O.; Skipperud, L.; Burkitbaev, L.M.; Uralbekov, B.; Heier, L.S.; Salbu, B.

    2013-01-01

    Kurday in Kazhakstan and Taboshar in Tajikistan were U mining sites operated during the 1950s and 1960s as part of the USSR nuclear weapon program. Today, they represent sources of potential U contamination of the environment. Within both mining sites, open pits from which U ore was extracted have been filled with water due to ground water inflow and precipitation. These artificial pit lakes contain fish consumed occasionally by the local people, and wild and domestic animals are using the water for drinking purposes. To assess the potential impact from U in these pit lakes, field work was performed in 2006 in Kurday and 2006 and 2008 in Taboshar. Results show that the U concentration in the lake waters were relatively high, about 1 mg/L in Kurday Pit Lake and about 3 mg/L in Taboshar Pit Lake. The influence of U-bearing materials on the lakes and downstream waters were investigated by measuring the U concentration and the 234 U/ 238 U activity ratios. In both Kurday and Taboshar, the ratios increased distinctively from about 1 at the pit lakes to >1.5 far downstream the lakes. The concentrations of 238 U in gill, liver, muscle and bones in fish from the pit lakes were much higher than in the reference fish. Peak concentration of U was seen in bones (13 mg/kg w.w.), kidney (9.1 mg/kg w.w.) and gills (8.9 mg/kg w.w.) from Cyprinus auratus caught in the Taboshar Pit Lake. Bioconcentration factors (BCF) calculated for organs from fish caught in the Taboshar Pit Lake, with the same tendency seen in the Kurday Pit Lake, showed that U accumulates most in bone (BCF = 4.8 L/kg w.w.), gills (BCF = 3.6 L/kg w.w.), kidney (BCF = 3.6 L/kg w.w.), and liver (BCF = 2.5 L/kg w.w.), while least was accumulated in the muscle (BCF = 0.12 L/kg w.w.)

  5. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Salt Lake City, Utah. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of two phases: the first is the Surface Project, and the second is the Ground Water Project. For the UMTRA Project site known as the Vitro site, near Salt Lake City, Utah, Surface Project cleanup occurred from 1985 to 1987. The UMTRA Project`s second phase, the Ground Water Project, evaluates the nature and extent of ground water contamination resulting from uranium processing and determines a strategy for ground water compliance with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water standards established for the UMTRA Project. A risk assessment is the process of describing a source of contamination and showing how that contamination may reach people and the environment. The amount of contamination people or the environment may be exposed to is calculated and used to characterize the possible health or environmental effects that may result from this exposure. This risk assessment report is the first site-specific document prepared for the UMTRA Ground Water Project at the Vitro site. The results of this report and further site characterization of the Vitro site will be used to determine what is necessary, if anything, to protect human health and the environment while complying with EPA standards.

  6. Elliot Lake study: factors affecting the uranium mine working environment prior to the introduction of current ventilation practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-03-01

    A study was carried out to assist in the retrospective assessment of the underground environment that existed in the Elliot Lake uranium mines in the late 1950's and early 1960's. The environmental conditions and work practices of the late 1950's were established by a combination of literature review and interviews with veteran miners. The practices of the 1950's were imitated in a pilot raise, and extensive measurements of the radiation environment were made. Realistic values of radon and thoron daughter production and removal rates were obtained. The computer model demonstrated that it could reproduce all the observed features of the radiation environment given realistic input parameters. A realistic time and space dependent computer model was used to calculate and compare the average expsoure of the miner in the 1950's with the exposure that would be expected from contemporary measurements, and with that of the miner today. The calculated exposure is about half of that expected from contemporary measurements, which gives assurance that previous exposures for pilot raise miners were not underestimated. Relative to today's miner, the average exposure of the typical raise miner of the 1950's is estimated as three times higher for radon daughters, equal for thoron daughters, equal for exposure to gamma radiation, but much higher for uranium and quartz dust

  7. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Salt Lake City, Utah. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of two phases: the first is the Surface Project, and the second is the Ground Water Project. For the UMTRA Project site known as the Vitro site, near Salt Lake City, Utah, Surface Project cleanup occurred from 1985 to 1987. The UMTRA Project's second phase, the Ground Water Project, evaluates the nature and extent of ground water contamination resulting from uranium processing and determines a strategy for ground water compliance with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water standards established for the UMTRA Project. A risk assessment is the process of describing a source of contamination and showing how that contamination may reach people and the environment. The amount of contamination people or the environment may be exposed to is calculated and used to characterize the possible health or environmental effects that may result from this exposure. This risk assessment report is the first site-specific document prepared for the UMTRA Ground Water Project at the Vitro site. The results of this report and further site characterization of the Vitro site will be used to determine what is necessary, if anything, to protect human health and the environment while complying with EPA standards

  8. Assessment of radiological impact of the inactive uranium-mill tailings pile at Salt Lake City, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haywood, F.F.; Goldsmith, W.A.; Perdue, P.T.; Fox, W.F.; Shinpaugh, W.H.

    1976-01-01

    One of the largest inactive uranium mill tailings piles in the United States is located within metropolitan Salt Lake City, Utah. A radiological survey was performed at this site during the fall of 1975. A series of field and laboratory analyses were performed to characterize the spread of contamination from the tailings pile to surrounding areas. These analyses provided a basis for discussion of the important pathways for transport of radioactivity to man. Measurements of radionuclide concentrations in soil indicated that radium had migrated up to one meter into soil beneath the tailings. Tailings material was found out to distances of several hundred meters, mostly in the prevailing wind directions. Elevated levels of 226 Ra, 238 U, 230 Th, and 210 Pb were found in sediments of streams running through the mill site; but in Jordan River samples, radionuclide concentrations were of the same magnitude as background samples collected in other parts of the Salt Lake Valley. Atmospheric dispersion of radon gas, which emanates from the pile continuously, was calculated. Potential health effects for continuous exposure to radon progeny and external gamma radiation from the pile in its current state were estimated using risk estimators presented in the BEIR report. For the 400,000 residents within 11 km (7 mi) of the pile, 0.4 cases of lung cancer per year were estimated. For the same population exposed to natural levels of radon progeny, 7.2 cases per year were estimated

  9. Summary of Groundwater Quality Impacts of Uranium Mining and Milling Activities in the Grants Mining District, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sample groundwater collection began in late February 1975 in the Ambrosia Lake-Bluewater area. It proceeded to Paguate Jackpile and was finally completed in the Gallup-Churchrock area in early March 1975.

  10. Biological processes for concentrating trace elements from uranium mine waters. Technical completion report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brierley, C.L.; Brierley, J.A.

    1981-12-01

    Waste water from uranium mines in the Ambrosia Lake district near Grants, New Mexico, USA, contains uranium, selenium, radium and molybdenum. The Kerr-McGee Corporation has a novel treatment process for waters from two mines to reduce the concentrations of the trace contaminants. Particulates are settled by ponding, and the waters are passed through an ion exchange resin to remove uranium; barium chloride is added to precipitate sulfate and radium from the mine waters. The mine waters are subsequently passed through three consecutive algae ponds prior to discharge. Water, sediment and biological samples were collected over a 4-year period and analyzed to assess the role of biological agents in removal of inorganic trace contaminants from the mine waters. Some of the conclusions derived from this study are: (1) The concentrations of soluble uranium, selenium and molybdenum were not diminished in the mine waters by passage through the series of impoundments which constituted the mine water treatment facility. Uranium concentrations were reduced but this was due to passage of the water through an ion exchange column. (2) The particulate concentrations of the mine water were reduced at least ten-fold by passage of the waters through the impoundments. (3) The sediments were anoxic and enriched in uranium, molybdenum and selenium. The deposition of particulates and the formation of insoluble compounds were proposed as mechanisms for sediment enrichment. (4) The predominant algae of the treatment ponds were the filamentous Spirogyra and Oscillatoria, and the benthic alga, Chara. (5) Adsorptive processes resulted in the accumulation of metals in the algae cells. (6) Stimulation of sulfate reduction by the bacteria resulted in retention of molybdenum, selenium, and uranium in sediments. 1 figure, 16 tables

  11. Uranium isotopes in waters and bottom sediments of rivers and lakes in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietrzak-Flis, Z.; Kaminska, I.; Chrzanowski, E.

    2004-01-01

    Activity concentrations of 238 U, 234 U and 235 U were determined in waters and bottom sediments in two main rivers in Poland (the Vistula and Odra rivers) with their tributaries, in four coastal rivers and six lakes. Concentration of 238 U and 233 U were compared with the concentrations of 226 Ra determined in another study. As compared with concentrations in coastal rivers and in lakes, enhanced concentrations of the radionuclides were observed in water and bottom sediments in the upper and middle courses of Vistula river, whereas in the Odra river the enhanced concentrations were present only in the bottom sediments. The enhanced concentrations in the Vistula river result from the discharge of coal mine waters from the Upper Silesian Coal Basin, and they indicate that the discharge was continued. The enhanced concentration in Odra river observed only in bottom sediments indicate that the discharge occurred in the past. The 234 U/ 238 U ratio for the bottom sediments was close to unity, indicating that these isotopes were close to equilibrium, whereas for water the average ratio was form 1.2 for lakes to 1.5 for the Vistula river, demonstrating the lack of equilibrium. (author)

  12. Uranium-bearing and associated minerals in their geochemical and sedimentological context, Elliot Lake, Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theis, N.J.

    1979-01-01

    The depositional energy environment of the Rio Algom-Denison ore reef was investigated on a regional scale using several parameters including pebble size. Regional trends of decreasing pebble size coincide with the regional direction of sediment transport. Pebble size was also used to characterize the depositional energy environment at the sample level. Quartz-pebble size and pyrite-grain size as determined from the same samples have a correlation coefficient of 0.93 which indicates that the coarse granular pyrite is detrital. Bulk chemical analyses of selected elements (U, Th, Pb, Ti, Ce, La, Y and Zr) which were chosen to reflect specific minerals (uraninite, brannerite, monazite and zircon), showed strong correlation with quartz-pebble size of the respective samples. Electron microprobe analyses of uraninite and brannerite are reported. The uraninites have typical pegmatitic compositions. Several types of brannerite are described; the conclusion reached is that although some brannerite may be detrital, most of it formed by adsorption of uranium onto titania collectors. Redistribution of some of the uranium has not changed the placer nature of the ore reef. Genesis of individual minerals (pyrite, uraninite, brannerite, zircon and monazite) is discussed. It is concluded that the mineralogy and its geochemical expression have been controlled by processes of fluvial deposition. As a result of the regional patterns in depositional environment, the ore reef shows a broad mineralogical zoning. Fluctuations in depositional energy have also produced lithologically related mineral zoning on a smaller scale. (author)

  13. Ra-226 concentrations in blueberries Vaccinium angustifolium Ait. near an inactive uranium tailings site in Elliot Lake, Ontario, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dave, N.K.; Lim, T.P.; Cloutier, N.R.

    1985-01-01

    Ra-226 concentrations were measured in blueberries growing around the Stanrock uranium tailings area near Elliot Lake, Ontario, Canada. Elevated levels of total Ra-226 ranging between 20 to 290 mBq g -1 were observed in samples collected within 500 m from the tailings. Highest levels, approx. 285 mBq g -1 , were observed in a sample collected on a tailings spill. For sites located more than 500 m away in the upwind direction, and those situated at distances greater than 1 km downwind from the waste pile, the total Ra-226 concentrations approached background levels which were measured as 2 to 6 mBq g -1 . Approximately 17% of the total Ra-226 measured was removable by washing the samples with distilled water. Wind dispersal of the tailings material and its deposition in the form of dust on blueberries was believed to be responsible for the external contamination. Based on the ICRP recommended dose limits for oral intake of Ra-226, it was calculated that approximately 160 kg a -1 , 3350 kg a -1 and 47 kg a -1 of washed blueberries from inside and outside the influenced zone, and from the tailings spill site, respectively, would need to be consumed before the individual annual limit for the general public was exceeded. (author)

  14. Comparison of the geochemical behaviour of plutonium, thorium and uranium in selected North American lakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahlgren, M.A.; Orlandini, K.A.

    1982-01-01

    The concentrations of all three elements were measured in both filtered water and suspended solids. The reduced (Pu +3 and Pu +4 ) and oxidized (PuO 2 + and PuO 2 2+ ) states of Pu were determined in replicate filtered water samples. Lakes were selected to represent a wide range of physical, chemical and biological conditions. The concentrations of Pu ranged from 1 x 10 -17 to 46 x 10 -17 M, of Th from 1.2 x 10 -12 to 620 x 10 -12 M, and of U from 4 x 10 -10 to 350 x 10 -10 M. The concentration of Pu was correlated with the concentration of Th (r = 0.7) in the lakes studied regardless of the proportion of Pu in the reduced form. There was no correlation between Pu and U concentrations in waters where the Pu was present in the oxidized form. The ratio of oxidized to reduced forms of Pu ranged from as high as 7 to -17 M in any lake water studied whereas that of reduced Pu ranged from about 2.8 x 10 -18 to 4.6 x 10 -16 M. Distribution coefficients (Ksub(dF)) were presented for each actinide. The distribution coefficients for each actinide were regressed against limnological parameters including mean depth, flushing time, pH, suspended solids, conductivity, total alkalinity, and dissolved organic carbon. The distribution coefficients for Pu(IV) and those of Th were found to be linear functions of the dissolved organic carbon content of the water. No significant correlations were found with other limnological parameters. A similar dependency of the distribution coefficient on dissolved organic carbon was observed for U in natural waters with low total alkalinity ( -4 M CaCO 3 ). When the alkalinity is > 0.5 mM and pH > 7.5, alkalinity rather than dissolved organic carbon appears to control the adsorption behaviour of U

  15. Plasticity of mycangia in Xylosandrus ambrosia beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, You; Ruan, Yong-Ying; Stanley, Edward L; Skelton, James; Hulcr, Jiri

    2018-03-23

    Insects that depend on microbial mutualists evolved a variety of organs to transport the microsymbionts while dispersing. The ontogeny and variability of such organs is rarely studied, and the microsymbiont's effects on the animal tissue development remain unknown in most cases. Ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae or Platypodinae) and their mutualistic fungi are an ideal system to study the animal-fungus interactions. While the inter-specific diversity of their fungus transport organ-mycangia-is well-known, their developmental plasticity has been poorly described. To determine the ontogeny of the mycangium and the influence of the symbiotic fungus on the tissue development, we dissected by hand or scanned with micro-CT the mycangia in various developmental stages in five Xylosandrus ambrosia beetle species that possess a large, mesonotal mycangium: Xylosandrus amputatus, Xylosandrus compactus, Xylosandrus crassiusculus, Xylosandrus discolor and Xylosandrus germanus. We processed 181 beetle samples from the USA and China. All five species displayed three stages of the mycangium development: (1) Young teneral adults had an empty, deflated and cryptic mycangium without fungal mass; (2) In fully mature adults during dispersal, the pro-mesonotal membrane was inflated, and most individuals developed a mycangium mostly filled with the symbiont, though size and symmetry varied; (3) After successful establishment of their new galleries, most females discharged the bulk of the fungal inoculum and deflated the mycangium. Experimental aposymbiotic individuals demonstrated that the pronotal membrane invaginated independently of the presence of the fungus, but the fungus was required for inflation. Mycangia are more dynamic than previously thought, and their morphological changes correspond to the phases of the symbiosis. Importantly, studies of the fungal symbionts or plant pathogen transmission in ambrosia beetles need to consider which developmental stage

  16. Uranium deposit research, 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruzicka, V.; LeCheminant, G.M.

    1984-01-01

    Research on uranium deposits in Canada, conducted as a prerequisite for assessment of the Estimated Additional Resources of uranium, revealed that (a) the uranium-gold association in rudites of the Huronian Supergroup preferably occurs in the carbon layers; (b) chloritized ore at the Panel mine, Elliot Lake, Ontario, occurs locally in tectonically disturbed areas in the vicinity of diabase dykes; (c) mineralization in the Black Sturgeon Lake area, Ontario, formed from solutions in structural and lithological traps; (d) the Cigar Lake deposit, Saskatchewan, has two phases of mineralization: monomineralic and polymetallic; (e) mineralization of the JEB (Canoxy Ltd.) deposit is similar to that at McClean Lake; (f) the uranium-carbon assemblage was identified in the Claude deposit, Carswell Structure; and (g) the Otish Mountains area, Quebec, should be considered as a significant uranium-polymetallic metallogenic province

  17. Herbarium collection-based phylogenetics of the ragweeds (Ambrosia, Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Michael D; Quiroz-Claros, Elva; Brush, Grace S; Zimmer, Elizabeth A

    2018-03-01

    Ambrosia (Asteraceae) is a taxonomically difficult genus of weedy, wind-pollinated plants with an apparent center of diversity in the Sonoran Desert of North America. Determining Ambrosia's evolutionary relationships has been the subject of much interest, with numerous studies using morphological characters, cytology, comparative phytochemistry, and chloroplast restriction site variation to produce conflicting accounts the relationships between Ambrosia species, as well as the classification of their close relatives in Franseria and Hymenoclea. To resolve undetermined intra-generic relationships within Ambrosia, we used DNA extracted from tissues obtained from seed banks and herbarium collections to generate multi-locus genetic data representing nearly all putative species, including four from South America. We performed Bayesian and Maximum-Likelihood phylogenetic analyses of six chloroplast-genome and two nuclear-genome markers, enabling us to infer monophyly for the genus, resolve major infra-generic species clusters, as well as to resolve open questions about the evolutionary relationships of several Ambrosia species and former members of Franseria. We also provide molecular data supporting the hypothesis that A. sandersonii formed through the hybridization of A. eriocentra and A. salsola. The topology of our chloroplast DNA phylogeny is almost entirely congruent with the most recent molecular work based on chloroplast restriction site variation of a much more limited sampling of 14 North American species of Ambrosia, although our improved sampling of global Ambrosia diversity enables us to draw additional conclusions. As our study is the first direct DNA sequence-based phylogenetic analyses of Ambrosia, we analyze the data in relation to previous taxonomic studies and discuss several instances of chloroplast/nuclear incongruence that leave the precise geographic center of origin of Ambrosia in question. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Reconnaissance study of uranium and fluorine contents of stream and lake waters, West Greenland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steenfelt, A.; Dam, E.

    1982-01-01

    The present study forms part of a current investigation on the applicability of geochemical methods in mineral exploration in Greenland. The sampling programme of 1981 comprised three parts: (1) A helicopter supported, low density, regional sampling (1 sample/30 km 2 ) of stream water and stream sediment in the area covered by map sheet 66 V.2, south-east of Soendre Stroemfjord. A total of 207 water samples was obtained. (2) Detailed sampling within a 20 km 2 area of lake and stream water (71 samples) from a camp at 66deg49'N, 25deg37'W, 25 km south-west of Soendre Stroemfjord. (3) Reconnaissance sampling, by boat, along the southern part of the west coast of Greenland. The aim of this reconnaissance was to obtain information on the character of the drainage systems and on the availability of sample media (water, stream sediment, aquatic moss) for geochemical exploration. A total of 195 water samples were collected. In addition, rust zones and areas of known mineralisation along the coast were sampled. (author)

  19. Progress report on a technical evaluation of four personal alpha-dosimeters in two underground uranium mines in the Elliot Lake area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigu, J.

    1981-12-01

    Four personal α-dosimeter prototypes were evaluated at several locations underground at two Elliot Lake uranium mines for periods of up to four weeks in duration. The dosimeters evaluated were: Track-etch: 16 units; H β H: 6 units; TDL/CAMPED: 6 units; α-Nuclear: 6 units. The factors evaluated were pump flow rate constancy, pump durability, reproducibility of results, agreement with grab-sampling tests, filter loading, contamination and mechanical and electrical problems, as well as preference by the miner wearing the dosimeter. No one dosimeter type was superior in all the factors evaluated, and the miners showed no preferences for a specific dosimeter

  20. Root Exudation in Common Ragweed (Ambrosia Artemisiifolia L.)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Figala, J.; Hohnová, Barbora; Moravcová, Dana; Lvončík, S.; Lojková, L.; Formánek, P.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 5 (2016), s. 1034-1037 ISSN 2278-1862 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : ambrosia artemisiifolia * root exudates * amino acids * aliphatic organic acids * allelopathy Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation

  1. New Sesquiterpenoids from Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenbing Ding

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A new pseudoguaianolide 1 and two new guaiane-type sesquiterpene glucosides 2 and 3, were isolated from the aerial parts of Ambrosia artemisiifolia L together with two known sesquiterpene dilactones 4 and 5. The new compounds were determined on the basis of spectroscopic and chemical methods to be 3β-acetoxy-4β-hydroxy-1α,7α, 10β,11αH-pseudoguaia-12,8β-olide (1, 1β,7β,9β,10β,13αH-guaia-4(5-en-12,6β-olide 9-O-β-d-glucoside (2 and 4β-hydroxy-1α,5α,7α,9αH-guaia-10(14,11(13-dien-12-acid 9-O-β-d-glucoside (3. The isolated compounds were evaluated for cytotoxicity against human promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 cell lines in vitro, but were all inactive.

  2. Uranium producers foresee new boom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIntyre, H.

    1979-01-01

    The status of uranium production in Canada is reviewed. Uranium resources in Saskatchewan and Ontario are described and the role of the Cluff Lake inquiry in securing a government decision in favour of further uranium development is mentioned. There have been other uranium strikes near Kelowna, British Columbia and in the Northwest Territories. Increasing uranium demand and favourable prices are making the development of northern resources economically attractive. In fact, all uranium currently produced has been committed to domestic and export contracts so that there is considerable room for expanding the production of uranium in Canada. (T.I.)

  3. Wood decay fungus Flavodon ambrosius (Basidiomycota: Polyporales) is widely farmed by two genera of ambrosia beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    You Li; Craig Christopher Bateman; James Skelton; Michelle Alice Jusino; Zachary John Nolen; David Rabern Simmons; Jiri Hulcr

    2017-01-01

    The ambrosia fungus Flavodon ambrosius is the primary nutritional mutualist of ambrosia beetles Ambrosiodmus and Ambrosiophilus in North America. F. ambrosius is the only known ambrosial basidiomycete, unique in its efficient lignocellulose degradation. F. ambrosius is associated with...

  4. Interaction of insecticide and media moisture on ambrosia beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) attacks on ornamental trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exotic ambrosia beetles, particularly Xylosandrus crassiusculus (Motschulsky) and Xylosandrus germanus (Blandford), are among the most economically damaging pests of ornamental trees in nurseries. Growers have had few tactics besides insecticide applications to reduce ambrosia beetle attacks but rec...

  5. Uranium industry update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poissonnet, M.

    1994-01-01

    Canada is the world's largest producer of uranium. With stockpiles becoming depleted, new sources of production will soon be needed. Production in Ontario was expected to cease in 1996, leaving decommissioning as the main activity there. Present production in Canada is almost entirely from the Athabasca basin in Saskatchewan, and mainly from three mines, Key Lake and Rabbit Lake (both owned by Cameco and Uranerz), and Cluff Lake (owned by Cogema). Following hearings in 1993, extensions to Cluff Lake and Rabbit Lake, and a new project at McClean Lake (by Minatco) received environmental approval, while the Midwest project as presented by Denison was rejected, but Cogema was revising it (at the time of the conference). An environmental impact statement for Cigar Lake was due to be submitted to the Assessment panel in October 1994. The author regrets that discussion of 'natural analogues' has created confusion between uranium mining and nuclear waste disposal in the public mind. 2 ills

  6. Uranium concentrations in lake and stream waters and sediments from selected sites in the Susitna River Basin, Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, D.E.

    1977-03-01

    During the summer of 1976, 141 water and 211 sediment samples were taken from 147 locations in the Susitna River basin in Alaska by the Geophysical Institute of the University of Alaska for the LASL. These samples were taken to provide preliminary information on the uranium concentrations in waters and sediments from the Susitna River basin and to test the analytical methods proposed for the NURE Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance for uranium in Alaska. The uranium determinations resulting from the fluorometric analysis of the water samples and the delayed-neutron counting of the sediment samples are presented. The low levels of uranium in the water samples, many of which were below the detectable limit of the LASL fluorometric technique, indicate that a more sensitive analytical method is needed for the analysis of Alaskan water samples from this area. An overlay showing numbered sample locations and overlays graphically portraying the concentrations of uranium in the water and sediment samples, all at 1:250,000 scale for use with existing USGS topographic sheets, are also provided as plates

  7. A qualitative evaluation of long-term processes governing the behaviour of uranium mill tailings placed in deep lakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKee, Paul; Snodgrass, William; Lush, D.L.; Ross, P.

    1982-03-01

    The emplacement of uranim mill tailings in deep lakes may provide an acceptable method of tailings disposal at certain sites in Canada. Disposal in a depositional environment typical of deep lakes appears to offer greater prospects for long-term stability than present methods of land-based management. From the regulatory point of view, it is necessary to know which factors should be taken into account in assessing the acceptability of such an approach. This report examines the environmental variables governing the behaviour of radionuclides and trace elements in the groundwater systems, lake water, and finally in the biosphere over the short and long-term. Physical, chemical and biological factors are each considered. Conclusions are presented in terms of points for and against disposal in deep lakes

  8. Ambrosia beetles associated with laurel wilt of avocado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus, is an exotic wood-boring pest first detected in 2002 near Savannah, Georgia. The beetle’s dominant fungal symbiont, Raffaelea lauricola, is the pathogen that causes laurel wilt, a lethal disease of trees in the family Lauraceae. Laurel wilt has since spr...

  9. Chemical ecology and lure development for redbay ambrosia beetle

    Science.gov (United States)

    The exotic redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff, has become a serious invasive pest in the U.S., currently established in nine southeastern states. Female beetles are the primary vectors of a pathogenic fungus (Raffaelea lauricola) that causes laurel wilt. This lethal vascular dise...

  10. Sensitisation to Ambrosia in Switzerland: a public health threat on the wait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackermann-Liebrich, U; Schindler, C; Frei, P; Probst-Hensch, N M; Imboden, M; Gemperli, A; Rochat, T; Schmid-Grendemeier, P; Bircher, A J

    2009-02-07

    Ambrosia artemisiifolia (short name = Ambrosia common ragweed) pollen is a potent allergen and has recently been found in Switzerland, spreading from the southwest of the country. The aim of this study is to describe Ambrosia sensitisation rates in the population-based SAPALDIA cohort (Swiss Study on Air Pollution And Lung Diseases In Adults) and to test whether an increase in these rates could be observed. Among the 6345 participants from 8 areas who provided blood samples in 1991 and 2002, 5823 had valid results for specific IgE against common inhalant allergens tested with Phadiatop. In 2002 Ambrosia sensitisation was measured and positive tests were analysed for Artemisia vulgaris (mugwort). Blood samples taken in 1991 in Ticino and Geneva were also tested for Ambrosia. Sensitisation rate (Phadiatop) did not increase significantly between the two surveys and sensitisation was found in 30% of the participants. A proportion of 7.9% showed specific IgE to Ambrosia pollen. The sensitisation rate in Lugano and Geneva had not changed substantially since 1991. Among those sensitised to Ambrosia 82% also showed specific IgE against Artemisia, suggesting a high rate of cross-reactivity. Only 1.3% were sensitized to Ambrosia alone. The incidence of asthma or hay fever in participants with specific IgE to Ambrosia pollen was not higher than in the general study population. Currently Ambrosia pollen does not appear to be an important cause of inhalant allergies in Switzerland. Sensitisation rates are low and have not increased since 1991. Due to cross-reactivity Ambrosia sensitisation may be a consequence of primary sensitisation to Artemisia. Elimination of Ambrosia plants is nevertheless mandatory to avoid a future increase.

  11. Uranium mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheeseman, E.W.

    1980-01-01

    The international uranium market appears to be currently over-supplied with a resultant softening in prices. Buyers on the international market are unhappy about some of the restrictions placed on sales by the government, and Canadian sales may suffer as a result. About 64 percent of Canada's shipments come from five operating Ontario mines, with the balance from Saskatchewan. Several other properties will be producing within the next few years. In spite of the adverse effects of the Three Mile Island incident and the default by the T.V.A. of their contract, some 3 600 tonnes of new uranium sales were completed during the year. The price for uranium had stabilized at US $42 - $44 by mid 1979, but by early 1980 had softened somewhat. The year 1979 saw the completion of major environmental hearings in Ontario and Newfoundland and the start of the B.C. inquiry. Two more hearings are scheduled for Saskatchewan in 1980. The Elliot Lake uranium mining expansion hearings are reviewed, as are other recent hearings. In the production of uranium for nuclear fuel cycle, environmental matters are of major concern to the industry, the public and to governments. Research is being conducted to determine the most effective method for removing radium from tailings area effluents. Very stringent criteria are being drawn up by the regulatory agencies that must be met by the industry in order to obtain an operating licence from the AECB. These criteria cover seepages from the tailings basin and through the tailings retention dam, seismic stability, and both short and long term management of the tailings waste management area. (auth)

  12. Fluids preserved in variably altered graphitic pelitic schists in the Dufferin Lake Zone, south-central Athabasca Basin, Canada: implications for graphite loss and uranium deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascal, Marjolaine; Boiron, Marie-Christine; Ansdell, Kevin; Annesley, Irvine R.; Kotzer, Tom; Jiricka, Dan; Cuney, Michel

    2016-06-01

    The Athabasca Basin (Canada) contains the highest grade unconformity-type uranium deposits in the world. Underlying the Athabasca Group sedimentary rocks of the Dufferin Lake Zone are variably graphitic, pelitic schists (VGPS), altered to chlorite and hematite (Red/Green Zone: RGZ). They were locally bleached near the unconformity during paleoweathering and/or later fluid interaction. Overall, graphite was lost from the RGZ and the bleached zone relative to the original VGPS. Fluid inclusions were examined in different generations of quartz veins, using microthermometry and Raman spectroscopy, to characterize and compare the different fluids that interacted with the RGZ and the VGPS. In the VGPS, CH4-, and N2-rich fluid inclusions, which homogenize into the vapor phase between -100 and -74 °C, and -152 and -125 °C, respectively, and CO2-rich fluid inclusions, homogenizing either into vapor or liquid between 20 and 28 °C, are present. Carbonic fluids could be the result of the breakdown of graphite to CH4 + CO2, whereas N2-rich fluid is interpreted to be the result of breakdown of feldspars/micas to NH4 ++N2. In the RGZ, the presence of fluid inclusions with low ice melting temperature (-38 to -16 °C) reflect the presence of CaCl2, and fluid inclusions with halite daughter minerals that dissolve between 190 and 240 °C indicate the presence of highly saline fluids. These fluids are interpreted to be derived from the Athabasca Basin. The circulation of carbonic fluids and brines occurred during two different events related to different P-T conditions of trapping. The carbonic fluids interacted with basement rocks during retrograde metamorphism of the basement rocks before deposition of the Athabasca Basin, whereas the brines circulated after the deposition of the Athabasca Basin. These latter fluids are similar to brines related to uranium mineralization at McArthur River and thus, in addition to possibly being related to graphite depletion in the RGZ, they could

  13. Position paper on the applicability of supplemental standards to the uppermost aquifer at the Uranium Mill Tailings Vitro Processing Site, Salt Lake City, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    This report documents the results of the evaluation of the potential applicability of supplemental standards to the uppermost aquifer underlying the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project, Vitro Processing Site, Salt Lake City, Utah. There are two goals for this evaluation: provide the landowner with information to make an early qualitative decision on the possible use of the Vitro property, and evaluate the proposed application of supplemental standards as the ground water compliance strategy at the site. Justification of supplemental standards is based on the contention that the uppermost aquifer is of limited use due to wide-spread ambient contamination not related to the previous site processing activities. In support of the above, this report discusses the site conceptual model for the uppermost aquifer and related hydrogeological systems and establishes regional and local background water quality. This information is used to determine the extent of site-related and ambient contamination. A risk-based evaluation of the contaminants` effects on current and projected land uses is also provided. Reports of regional and local studies and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) site investigations provided the basis for the conceptual model and established background ground water quality. In addition, a limited field effort (4 through 28 March 1996) was conducted to supplement existing data, particularly addressing the extent of contamination in the northwestern portion of the Vitro site and site background ground water quality. Results of the field investigation were particularly useful in refining the conceptual site model. This was important in light of the varied ground water quality within the uppermost aquifer. Finally, this report provides a critical evaluation, along with the related uncertainties, of the applicability of supplemental standards to the uppermost aquifer at the Salt Lake City Vitro processing site.

  14. Position paper on the applicability of supplemental standards to the uppermost aquifer at the Uranium Mill Tailings Vitro Processing Site, Salt Lake City, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-03-01

    This report documents the results of the evaluation of the potential applicability of supplemental standards to the uppermost aquifer underlying the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project, Vitro Processing Site, Salt Lake City, Utah. There are two goals for this evaluation: provide the landowner with information to make an early qualitative decision on the possible use of the Vitro property, and evaluate the proposed application of supplemental standards as the ground water compliance strategy at the site. Justification of supplemental standards is based on the contention that the uppermost aquifer is of limited use due to wide-spread ambient contamination not related to the previous site processing activities. In support of the above, this report discusses the site conceptual model for the uppermost aquifer and related hydrogeological systems and establishes regional and local background water quality. This information is used to determine the extent of site-related and ambient contamination. A risk-based evaluation of the contaminants' effects on current and projected land uses is also provided. Reports of regional and local studies and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) site investigations provided the basis for the conceptual model and established background ground water quality. In addition, a limited field effort (4 through 28 March 1996) was conducted to supplement existing data, particularly addressing the extent of contamination in the northwestern portion of the Vitro site and site background ground water quality. Results of the field investigation were particularly useful in refining the conceptual site model. This was important in light of the varied ground water quality within the uppermost aquifer. Finally, this report provides a critical evaluation, along with the related uncertainties, of the applicability of supplemental standards to the uppermost aquifer at the Salt Lake City Vitro processing site

  15. Patterns of functional enzyme activity in fungus farming ambrosia beetles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Fine Licht Henrik H

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction In wood-dwelling fungus-farming weevils, the so-called ambrosia beetles (Curculionidae: Scolytinae and Platypodinae, wood in the excavated tunnels is used as a medium for cultivating fungi by the combined action of digging larvae (which create more space for the fungi to grow and of adults sowing and pruning the fungus. The beetles are obligately dependent on the fungus that provides essential vitamins, amino acids and sterols. However, to what extent microbial enzymes support fungus farming in ambrosia beetles is unknown. Here we measure (i 13 plant cell-wall degrading enzymes in the fungus garden microbial consortium of the ambrosia beetle Xyleborinus saxesenii, including its primary fungal symbionts, in three compartments of laboratory maintained nests, at different time points after gallery foundation and (ii four specific enzymes that may be either insect or microbially derived in X. saxesenii adult and larval individuals. Results We discovered that the activity of cellulases in ambrosia fungus gardens is relatively small compared to the activities of other cellulolytic enzymes. Enzyme activity in all compartments of the garden was mainly directed towards hemicellulose carbohydrates such as xylan, glucomannan and callose. Hemicellulolytic enzyme activity within the brood chamber increased with gallery age, whereas irrespective of the age of the gallery, the highest overall enzyme activity were detected in the gallery dump material expelled by the beetles. Interestingly endo-β-1,3(4-glucanase activity capable of callose degradation was identified in whole-body extracts of both larvae and adult X. saxesenii, whereas endo-β-1,4-xylanase activity was exclusively detected in larvae. Conclusion Similar to closely related fungi associated with bark beetles in phloem, the microbial symbionts of ambrosia beetles hardly degrade cellulose. Instead, their enzyme activity is directed mainly towards comparatively more easily

  16. Canada: The largest uranium producer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowell, A.F.

    1985-01-01

    Despite all the current difficulties, previous erroneous forecasts and other mistakes, the longer term future looks good for uranium mining and for Canada's industry in particular. Saskatchewan continues to offer the most exciting new prospects, the huge and fabulously high grade Cigar Lake deposits being the most spectacular of the recent discoveries. Notwithstanding continuous mining for 30 years from Elliot Lake there still remain there significant uncommitted reserves which can be developed when the market for uranium is in better balance

  17. A Role for Intercept Traps in the Ambrosia Beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) IPM Strategy at Ornamental Nurseries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Invasive ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) cause significant damage to ornamental nursery tree crops throughout the Eastern U. S. Depending on surrounding habitat, some nurseries can undergo large influxes of ambrosia beetles from the forest to susceptible nursery stock. Eth...

  18. The Long Distance Transport of Airborne Ambrosia Pollen to the UK and the Netherlands from Central and South Europe

    OpenAIRE

    de Weger, L.A.; Pashley, C.H.; Šikoparija, B.; Skjøth, C.; Kasprzyk, I.; Grewling, Ł.; Thibaudon, M.; Magyar, D.; Smith, Matt

    2016-01-01

    The invasive alien species Ambrosia artemisiifolia (common or short ragweed) is increasing its range in Europe. In the UK and the Netherlands, airborne concentrations of Ambrosia pollen are usually low. However, more than 30 Ambrosia pollen grains per cubic metre of air (above the level capable to trigger allergic symptoms) were recorded in Leicester (UK) and Leiden (NL) on 4 and 5 September 2014. The aims of this study were to determine whether the highly allergenic Ambrosia pollen recorded ...

  19. Chemical ecology and serendipity: Developing attractants for Florida ambrosia beetle pests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two exotic ambrosia beetles have become established in southern Florida: Xyleborus glabratus, the redbay ambrosia beetle (RAB), and Euwallacea fornicatus, the tea shot hole borer (TSHB). Both pests vector pathogenic fungal symbionts; the former for laurel wilt and the latter for Fusarium dieback d...

  20. Western Canada uranium perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, R.E.

    1984-01-01

    The current situation in the exploration for uranium in British Columbia, the Yukon, the Northwest Territories, and Saskatchewan is reviewed. A moratorium on exploration has been in effect in British Columbia since 1980; it is due to expire in 1987. Only the Blizzard deposit appears to have any economic potential. The Lone Gull discovery in the Thelon Basin of the Northwest Territories has proven reserves of more than 35 million pounds U 3 O 8 grading 0.4%. Potentially prospective areas of the northern Thelon Basin lie within a game sanctuary and cannot be explored. Exploration activity in Saskatchewan continues to decline from the peak in 1980. Three major deposits - Cluff Lake, Rabbit Lake and Key Lake - are in production. By 1985 Saskatchewan will produce 58% of Canada's uranium, and over 13% of the western world's output. (L.L.) (3 figs, 2 tabs.)

  1. A plant taxonomic survey of the Uranium City region, Lake Athabasca north shore, emphasizing the naturally colonizing plants on uranium mine and mill wastes and other human-disturbed sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harms, V.L.

    1982-07-01

    A goal of this study was to acquire more complete baseline data on the existing flora of the Uranium City region, both in natural and human-disturbed sites. Emphasis was given to determining which plant species were naturally revegetating various abandoned uranium mine and mill waste disposal areas, other human-disturbed sites, and ecologically analogous sites. Another goal was to document the occurrence and distribution in the study region of rare and possibly endangered species. A further objective was to suggest regionally-occurring species with potential value for revegetating uranium mine and mill waste sites. Field investigations were carried out in the Uranium City region during August, 1981. During this time 1412 plant collections were made; a total of 366 plant species - trees, shrubs, forbs, graminoids, lichens, and bryophytes were recorded. The report includes an annotated checklist of plant species of the Uranium City region and a reference index of plant taxa indicating species that have high revegetation potential

  2. Ontario's uranium mining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Runnalls, O.J.C.

    1981-01-01

    This report traces the Ontario uranium mining industry from the first discovery of uranium north of Sault Ste. Marie through the uranium boom of the 1950's when Elliot Lake and Bancroft were developed, the cutbacks of the 1960s, the renewed enthusiasm in exploration and development of the 1970s to the current position when continued production for the domestic market is assured. Ontario, with developed mines and operational expertise, will be in a position to compete for export markets as they reopen. The low level of expenditures for uranium exploration and the lack of new discoveries are noted. The report also reviews and places in perspective the development of policies and regulations governing the industry and the jurisdictional relationships of the Federal and Provincial governments

  3. Depleted uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huffer, E.; Nifenecker, H.

    2001-02-01

    This document deals with the physical, chemical and radiological properties of the depleted uranium. What is the depleted uranium? Why do the military use depleted uranium and what are the risk for the health? (A.L.B.)

  4. Uranium demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roux, A.J.A.

    1976-01-01

    The estimated world resources of uranium as well as the estimated consumption of uranium over the next 25 years are briefly discussed. Attention is given to the prospecting of uranium in South Africa and elsewhere in the world

  5. The ambrosia symbiosis is specific in some species and promiscuous in others: evidence from community pyrosequencing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kostovčík, Martin; Bateman, C.C.; Kolařík, Miroslav; Stelinski, L.L.; Jordal, B.H.; Hulcr, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 1 (2015), s. 126-138 ISSN 1751-7362 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : ambrosia symbiosis * pyrosequencing Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 9.328, year: 2015

  6. The Key Lake project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Key Lake is located in the Athabasca sand stone basin, 640 kilometers north of Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada. The three sources of ore at Key Lake contain 70 100 tonnes of uranium. Features of the Key Lake Project were described under the key headings: work force, mining, mill process, tailings storage, permanent camp, environmental features, worker health and safety, and economic benefits. Appendices covering the historical background, construction projects, comparisons of western world mines, mining statistics, Northern Saskatchewan surface lease, and Key Lake development and regulatory agencies were included

  7. Spatio-Temporal Distribution of Bark and Ambrosia Beetles in a Brazilian Tropical Dry Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo-Reis, Luiz Eduardo; Novais, Samuel Matos Antunes de; Monteiro, Graziela França; Flechtmann, Carlos Alberto Hector; Faria, Maurício Lopes de; Neves, Frederico de Siqueira

    2016-01-01

    Bark and the ambrosia beetles dig into host plants and live most of their lives in concealed tunnels. We assessed beetle community dynamics in tropical dry forest sites in early, intermediate, and late successional stages, evaluating the influence of resource availability and seasonal variations in guild structure. We collected a total of 763 beetles from 23 species, including 14 bark beetle species, and 9 ambrosia beetle species. Local richness of bark and ambrosia beetles was estimated at 31 species. Bark and ambrosia composition was similar over the successional stages gradient, and beta diversity among sites was primarily determined by species turnover, mainly in the bark beetle community. Bark beetle richness and abundance were higher at intermediate stages; availability of wood was the main spatial mechanism. Climate factors were effectively non-seasonal. Ambrosia beetles were not influenced by successional stages, however the increase in wood resulted in increased abundance. We found higher richness at the end of the dry and wet seasons, and abundance increased with air moisture and decreased with higher temperatures and greater rainfall. In summary, bark beetle species accumulation was higher at sites with better wood production, while the needs of fungi (host and air moisture), resulted in a favorable conditions for species accumulation of ambrosia. The overall biological pattern among guilds differed from tropical rain forests, showing patterns similar to dry forest areas. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  8. Uranium deposits through time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derry, D.R.

    1980-01-01

    The distribution of different types of uranium deposits through geological time has been noted by various authors, especially as affecting deposits formed in the Precambrian era. While this is significant, it may have been oversimplified by grouping deposits within geological time limits that are very extensive when compared with Phanerozoic groupings. As more detailed information becomes available, we find that some of the higher-grade deposits have complicated histories involving several stages of concentration separated by long periods of time. A comparison of the proportion of uranium production and reserves contributed by individual classes (and geological ages) of deposits shows a changing trend in favour of the unconformity class. Possibly more attention should be paid to metallographic uranium areas and their localizations. Some areas, e.g. Gabon, West Africa and Baker Lake, N.W.T., have more than one type of uranium deposit. A further consideration is that much of the known uranium reserves in the non-Communist world lies within a dozen areas, each ranging between 3000 and 130 000 km 2 . It is possible that such uranium metallographic areas were localized by very ancient fracture systems, now not easily recognized, in the original Earth's crust

  9. Uranium exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Voto, R.H.

    1984-01-01

    This paper is a review of the methodology and technology that are currently being used in varying degrees in uranium exploration activities worldwide. Since uranium is ubiquitous and occurs in trace amounts (0.2 to 5 ppm) in virtually all rocks of the crust of the earth, exploration for uranium is essentially the search of geologic environments in which geologic processes have produced unusual concentrations of uranium. Since the level of concentration of uranium of economic interest is dependent on the present and future price of uranium, it is appropriate here to review briefly the economic realities of uranium-fueled power generation. (author)

  10. The weeding of Ambrosia artemisiifolia and sanitary risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zicari, Giuseppe; Soardo, Vincenzo; Rivetti, Daniela; Cerrato, Elena; Russo, Domenico

    2013-01-01

    Ambrosia artemisiifolia is a potentially allergenic annual herbaceous plant coming from North America and widespread in Italy, where it can be easily seen since May-April. Its pollination is mainly windborne and each plant is able to produce billions of pollen grains. The pollen peaks are in the hottest days in the absence of rain and wind. In susceptible individuals, the great amount of pollen produced by this species may cause rhinitis and severe asthma attacks. Some allergic subjects can manifest disorders already at a concentration of a few granules per cubic metre. Chemical control is often practiced on a large scale and uses herbicides. A major risk is the result of the unprofessional use of chemicals by the population, especially in residential or very busy areas (eg railways, urban areas). In this paper we propose preventive measures of chemical hazards that may be resulting from the excessive use of plant protection products.

  11. Canadian experience with uranium tailings disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Culver, K.B.

    1982-06-01

    During the first years of uranium production in Canada uranium tailings were discharged directly into valleys or lakes near the mill. Treatment with barium chloride to precipitate radium began in 1965 at the Nordic Mine at Elliot Lake, Ontario. In the mid-60s and early 70s water quality studies indicated that discharges from uranium tailings areas were causing degradation to the upper part of the Serpent River water system. Studies into acid generation, revegetation, and leaching of radium were initiated by the mining companies and resulted in the construction of treatment plants at a number of sites. Abandoned tailings sites were revegetated. At hearings into the expansion of the Elliot Lake operations the issue of tailings management was a major item for discussion. As a result federal and provincial agencies developed guidelines for the siting and development of urnaium tailings areas prior to issuing operating licences. Western Canadian uranium producers do not have the acid generation problem of the Elliot Lake operations. The Rabbit Lake mill uses settling ponds followed by filtration. High-grade tailings from Cluff Lake are sealed in concrete and buried. Uranium producers feel that the interim criteria developed by the Atomic Energy Control Board, if adopted, would have a harmful effect on the viability of the Canadian uranium industry

  12. Uranium tailings in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulden, R.S.; Bragg, K.

    1982-01-01

    The last few years have produced significant changes in the way uranium tailings are managed in Canada. This is due both to the development of new technology and to changes in regulatory approach. The interrelationships between these two areas are examined with particular attention paid to the long term and the development of close-out criteria. New technological initiatives are examined including dry placement techniques, pit disposal and deep lake disposal

  13. Co-occurrence of Artemisia and Ambrosia pollen seasons against the background of the synoptic situations in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stępalska, Danuta; Myszkowska, Dorota; Katarzyna, Leśkiewicz; Katarzyna, Piotrowicz; Katarzyna, Borycka; Kazimiera, Chłopek; Łukasz, Grewling; Idalia, Kasprzyk; Barbara, Majkowska-Wojciechowska; Małgorzata, Malkiewicz; Małgorzata, Nowak; Krystyna, Piotrowska-Weryszko; Małgorzata, Puc; Elżbieta, Weryszko-Chmielewska

    2017-04-01

    The Asteraceae family is one of the largest families, comprising 67 genera and 264 species in Poland. However, only a few genera, including Artemisia and Ambrosia are potential allergenic sources. The aim of the study was to estimate how often and to what degree Artemisia and Ambrosia pollen seasons co-occur intensifying human health risk, and how synoptic situations influence frequency of days with high pollen concentrations of both taxa. Artemisia and Ambrosia pollen data were collected, using the volumetric method, at 8 sites in Poland. Daily concentrations of Artemisia pollen equal to 30 grains or more and Ambrosia pollen equal to 10 grains or more were accepted as high values. Concentrations of more than 10 pollen grains were defined as high in the case of Ambrosia because its allergenicity is considered higher. High concentrations were confronted with synoptic situations. Analysis was performed on the basis of two calendars on circulation types of atmosphere in Poland (Niedźwiedź, 2006, 2015). Co-occurrence of Artemisia and Ambrosia pollen seasons is being found most often, when Ambrosia pollen season starts in the first half of August. If it happens in the last 10 days of August high pollen concentrations of Artemisia and Ambrosia do not occur at the same days. At three sites (Sosnowiec, Rzeszów, Lublin) high Ambrosia pollen concentrations during the Artemisia pollen season appear more often than in other sites under question. The high Artemisia pollen concentrations occur, when continental or polar maritime old air masses inflow into Poland. The impact of air masses on high Ambrosia pollen concentrations depends on site localizations. It is likely, that in the south-eastern part of Poland high Ambrosia pollen concentrations result from the pollen transport from east-south-south-westerly directions and the local sources. Co-occurrence of both taxa pollen seasons depends on the air masses inflow and appears more often in a south-eastern part of Poland.

  14. Ethanol and (-)-alpha-Pinene: attractant kairomones for bark and ambrosia beetles in the southeastern US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Daniel R; Rabaglia, Robert J

    2009-04-01

    In 2002-2004, we examined the flight responses of 49 species of native and exotic bark and ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae and Platypodidae) to traps baited with ethanol and/or (-)-alpha-pinene in the southeastern US. Eight field trials were conducted in mature pine stands in Alabama, Florida, Georgia, North Carolina, and South Carolina. Funnel traps baited with ethanol lures (release rate, about 0.6 g/day at 25-28 degrees C) were attractive to ten species of ambrosia beetles (Ambrosiodmus tachygraphus, Anisandrus sayi, Dryoxylon onoharaensum, Monarthrum mali, Xyleborinus saxesenii, Xyleborus affinis, Xyleborus ferrugineus, Xylosandrus compactus, Xylosandrus crassiusculus, and Xylosandrus germanus) and two species of bark beetles (Cryptocarenus heveae and Hypothenemus sp.). Traps baited with (-)-alpha-pinene lures (release rate, 2-6 g/day at 25-28 degrees C) were attractive to five bark beetle species (Dendroctonus terebrans, Hylastes porculus, Hylastes salebrosus, Hylastes tenuis, and Ips grandicollis) and one platypodid ambrosia beetle species (Myoplatypus flavicornis). Ethanol enhanced responses of some species (Xyleborus pubescens, H. porculus, H. salebrosus, H. tenuis, and Pityophthorus cariniceps) to traps baited with (-)-alpha-pinene in some locations. (-)-alpha-Pinene interrupted the response of some ambrosia beetle species to traps baited with ethanol, but only the response of D. onoharaensum was interrupted consistently at most locations. Of 23 species of ambrosia beetles captured in our field trials, nine were exotic and accounted for 70-97% of total catches of ambrosia beetles. Our results provide support for the continued use of separate traps baited with ethanol alone and ethanol with (-)-alpha-pinene to detect and monitor common bark and ambrosia beetles from the southeastern region of the US.

  15. Uranium in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    In 1988 Canada's five uranium producers reported output of concentrate containing a record 12,470 metric tons of uranium (tU), or about one third of total Western world production. Shipments exceeded 13,200 tU, valued at $Cdn 1.1 billion. Most of Canada's uranium output is available for export for peaceful purposes, as domestic requirements represent about 15 percent of production. The six uranium marketers signed new sales contracts for over 11,000 tU, mostly destined for the United States. Annual exports peaked in 1987 at 12,790 tU, falling back to 10,430 tU in 1988. Forward domestic and export contract commitments were more than 70,000 tU and 60,000 tU, respectively, as of early 1989. The uranium industry in Canada was restructured and consolidated by merger and acquisition, including the formation of Cameco. Three uranium projects were also advanced. The Athabasca Basin is the primary target for the discovery of high-grade low-cost uranium deposits. Discovery of new reserves in 1987 and 1988 did not fully replace the record output over the two-year period. The estimate of overall resources as of January 1989 was down by 4 percent from January 1987 to a total (measured, indicated and inferred) of 544,000 tU. Exploration expenditures reached $Cdn 37 million in 1987 and $59 million in 1988, due largely to the test mining programs at the Cigar Lake and Midwest projects in Saskatchewan. Spot market prices fell to all-time lows from 1987 to mid-1989, and there is little sign of relief. Canadian uranium production capability could fall below 12,000 tU before the late 1990s; however, should market conditions warrant output could be increased beyond 15,000 tU. Canada's known uranium resources are more than sufficient to meet the 30-year fuel requirements of those reactors in Canada that are now or are expected to be in service by the late 1990s. There is significant potential for discovering additional uranium resources. Canada's uranium production is equivalent, in

  16. Limno-chemical and microbiology aspects in Uranium Pit Mine Lake (Osamu Utsumi), in Antas and Bortolan reservoirs under the influence of effluent Ore Treatment Unit, Caldas - Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ronqui, Leilane B.; Nasciment, Marcos R.L. do; Roque, Claudio V.; Bruschi, Armando; Borba Junior, Palvo J.; Nascimento, Heliana A. F. do; Almeida, Tito C.M. de

    2013-01-01

    Due to high natural radioactivity there in Pocos de Caldas Plateau (Minas Gerais State, Brazil) and the existence of the first uranium mine in Brazil (Pit Mine Osamu Utsumi - Mineral Treatment Unit/Brazilian Nuclear Industries, MTU/BNI), which is characterized by an open-pit mine presents as increased environmental liability the formation of acid mine drainage, this study was conducted to evaluate the limno-chemicals and microbiology aspects (protozooplankton and bacterioplankton) belonging to uranium pit mine lake (PM) and evaluate the possible effects of acid effluents treated and discharged by MTU/BNI in Antas reservoir-AR and downstream of this, the Bortolan reservoir-BR. Besides the realization of abiotic and microbiology analysis of protozooplankton and bacterioplankton; was held standardization and deployment of the Fluorescence 'In Situ' Hybridization (FISH) technical using oligonucleotide probes for extremophile Archaea and Bacteria. According to the results, the PM showed the highest values for the chemical variables, lower pH values, lower protozooplankton density, however, protozooplanktonic high biomass showing the presence of tolerant species in this extreme environment. Antas and Bortolan reservoirs showed differences in the abiotic and biotic variables, AR showed suffer greater interference of acid effluents released at P41point and downstream of this at P14 point, lower protozooplankton biomass, lower bacterial density and pollution characteristics of inorganic sources. Using the FISH technique standard in this study to water bodies evaluated, it was possible to detect the presence of the extremophile bacteria of the Archaea domain in the three water bodies. The results of this study contribute to the knowledge of the pit mine lakes limnology which have become a major concern due to increased mining in the open. (author)

  17. Limno-chemical and microbiology aspects in Uranium Pit Mine Lake (Osamu Utsumi), in Antas and Bortolan reservoirs under the influence of effluent Ore Treatment Unit, Caldas - Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronqui, Leilane B.; Nasciment, Marcos R.L. do; Roque, Claudio V.; Bruschi, Armando; Borba Junior, Palvo J.; Nascimento, Heliana A. F. do, E-mail: leilanebio@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: pmarcos@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: cvroque@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: abruschi@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: jouber_borba@hotmail.com, E-mail: hazevedo@cnen.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (LAPOC/CNEN), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Laboratorio de Pocos de Caldas; Almeida, Tito C.M. de, E-mail: titoalmeida2008@gmail.com [Universidade do Vale do Itajai (CTT-Mar/UNIVALI), SC (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Tecnologicas da Terra e do Mar

    2013-07-01

    Due to high natural radioactivity there in Pocos de Caldas Plateau (Minas Gerais State, Brazil) and the existence of the first uranium mine in Brazil (Pit Mine Osamu Utsumi - Mineral Treatment Unit/Brazilian Nuclear Industries, MTU/BNI), which is characterized by an open-pit mine presents as increased environmental liability the formation of acid mine drainage, this study was conducted to evaluate the limno-chemicals and microbiology aspects (protozooplankton and bacterioplankton) belonging to uranium pit mine lake (PM) and evaluate the possible effects of acid effluents treated and discharged by MTU/BNI in Antas reservoir-AR and downstream of this, the Bortolan reservoir-BR. Besides the realization of abiotic and microbiology analysis of protozooplankton and bacterioplankton; was held standardization and deployment of the Fluorescence 'In Situ' Hybridization (FISH) technical using oligonucleotide probes for extremophile Archaea and Bacteria. According to the results, the PM showed the highest values for the chemical variables, lower pH values, lower protozooplankton density, however, protozooplanktonic high biomass showing the presence of tolerant species in this extreme environment. Antas and Bortolan reservoirs showed differences in the abiotic and biotic variables, AR showed suffer greater interference of acid effluents released at P41point and downstream of this at P14 point, lower protozooplankton biomass, lower bacterial density and pollution characteristics of inorganic sources. Using the FISH technique standard in this study to water bodies evaluated, it was possible to detect the presence of the extremophile bacteria of the Archaea domain in the three water bodies. The results of this study contribute to the knowledge of the pit mine lakes limnology which have become a major concern due to increased mining in the open. (author)

  18. Effect of tree species and end seal on attractiveness and utility of cut bolts to the redbay Ambrosia beetle and granulate Ambrosia beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert E. Mayfield; James L. Hanula

    2012-01-01

    The redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff, is a non-native invasive pest and vector of the fungus that causes laurel wilt disease in certain trees of the family Lauraceae. This study assessed the relative attractiveness and suitability of cut bolts of several tree species to X. glabratus. In 2009, female X. glabratus were equally attracted to traps...

  19. Suitability of California bay laurel and other species as hosts for the non-native redbay ambrosia beetle and granulate ambrosia beetle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert (Bud) Mayfield; Martin MacKenzie; Philip G. Cannon; Steve Oak; Scott Horn; Jaesoon Hwang; Paul E. Kendra

    2013-01-01

    The redbay ambrosia beetle Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff is a non-native vector of the pathogen that causes laurel wilt, a deadly disease of trees in the family Lauraceae in the southeastern U.S.A.Concern exists that X. glabratus and its fungal symbiont could be transported to the western U....

  20. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site in Lakeview, Oregon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    This Baseline Risk Assessment of Ground Water Contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site in Lake view, Oregon evaluates potential impacts to public health or the environment resulting from ground water contamination at the former uranium mill processing site

  1. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site in Lakeview, Oregon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-10-01

    This Baseline Risk Assessment of Ground Water Contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site in Lake view, Oregon evaluates potential impacts to public health or the environment resulting from ground water contamination at the former uranium mill processing site.

  2. Invasive Asian Fusarium – Euwallacea ambrosia beetle mutualists pose a serious threat to forests, urban landscapes and the avocado industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several species of the ambrosia beetle Euwallacea (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) cultivate Ambrosia Fusarium Clade (AFC) species in their galleries as a source of food. Like all other scolytine beetles in the tribe Xyleborini, Euwallacea are thought to be obligate mutualists with their fung...

  3. Vertical Distribution and Daily Flight Periodicity of Ambrosia Beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Florida Avocado Orchards Affected by Laurel Wilt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosia beetles have emerged as significant pests of avocado (Persea americana Miller) due to their association with pathogenic fungal symbionts, most notably Raffaelea lauricola, the causal agent of laurel wilt. We evaluated the interaction of ambrosia beetles with host avocado trees by documentin...

  4. Dominique-Janine extension, McClean Lake project, and midwest joint venture: report of the joint Federal-Provincial panel on uranium mining developments in Northern Saskatchewan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-10-01

    A report of the joint federal-provincial panel on uranium mining developments in northern Saskatchewan. The review of the projects have taken into consideration the impact upon the peoples living in northern Saskatchewan. Benefits will be seen in the form of employment, business opportunities and royalties while causing only a small incremental increase to existing environmental and health risks

  5. Minister approves first exports from Beverley Uranium project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2000-01-01

    The Minister for Industry, Science and Resources, Senator Nick Minchin, approved the first uranium exports from the Beverley uranium project in March 2001. Beverley, a sandstone-hosted uranium deposit located near Lake Frome in South Australia, is the first new uranium mine to come into production following a change in Australian uranium mining policy in 1996 allowing for the construction of new mines. Beverley is expected to generate ∼ $424 million in export revenue over its project life and provide a further boost to Australia's uranium mining sector

  6. Uranium peroxide precipitate drying temperature relationships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodgers, C.; Dyck, B., E-mail: chick_rodgers@cameco.com [Cameco Corp., Saskatoon, SK (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Cameco Corporation is in the process of revitalizing the mill at its Key Lake operation in northern Saskatchewan. The current Key Lake process employs ammonia stripping and ammonia precipitation. As part of the revitalization, the company is considering installing strong acid stripping in solvent extraction as used at its Rabbit Lake operation. This change would lead to using hydrogen peroxide for uranium precipitation. As part of the process evaluation, tests were carried out to study how changes in the temperature of an indirect fired dryer affected the properties of uranium peroxide [yellowcake] precipitate. This paper discusses the results of the test work, including the relationships between drying temperature and the following: (author)

  7. Australia's uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hampson, D.C.

    1980-01-01

    The subject is discussed as follows: structure of the uranium industry in Australia (export policies; development of mining programme; table of export contracts approved by Australian government, 1972; government policy towards the industry 1972-75 and since 1975); reserves (table of Australia's major uranium deposits; estimated world resources of uranium, excluding USSR, Eastern Europe and China; comparison of exploration expenditures and discovery of uranium in Australia and the USA); enrichment; resource potential; future demand (table of nuclear power reactors above 30 MW in operation or under construction, mid-1979; projection of Australian uranium production to 1990); government and union action. (U.K.)

  8. Bark and Ambrosia Beetles Show Different Invasion Patterns in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassati, Davide; Faccoli, Massimo; Haack, Robert A; Rabaglia, Robert J; Petrucco Toffolo, Edoardo; Battisti, Andrea; Marini, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    Non-native bark and ambrosia beetles represent a threat to forests worldwide. Their invasion patterns are, however, still unclear. Here we investigated first, if the spread of non-native bark and ambrosia beetles is a gradual or a discontinuous process; second, which are the main correlates of their community structure; third, whether those correlates correspond to those of native species. We used data on species distribution of non-native and native scolytines in the continental 48 USA states. These data were analyzed through a beta-diversity index, partitioned into species richness differences and species replacement, using Mantel correlograms and non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) ordination for identifying spatial patterns, and regression on distance matrices to test the association of climate (temperature, rainfall), forest (cover area, composition), geographical (distance), and human-related (import) variables with β-diversity components. For both non-native bark and ambrosia beetles, β-diversity was mainly composed of species richness difference than species replacement. For non-native bark beetles, a discontinuous invasion process composed of long distance jumps or multiple introduction events was apparent. Species richness differences were primarily correlated with differences in import values while temperature was the main correlate of species replacement. For non-native ambrosia beetles, a more continuous invasion process was apparent, with the pool of non-native species arriving in the coastal areas that tended to be filtered as they spread to interior portions of the continental USA. Species richness differences were mainly correlated with differences in rainfall among states, while rainfall and temperature were the main correlates of species replacement. Our study suggests that the different ecology of bark and ambrosia beetles influences their invasion process in new environments. The lower dependency that bark beetles have on climate

  9. Bark and Ambrosia Beetles Show Different Invasion Patterns in the USA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Rassati

    Full Text Available Non-native bark and ambrosia beetles represent a threat to forests worldwide. Their invasion patterns are, however, still unclear. Here we investigated first, if the spread of non-native bark and ambrosia beetles is a gradual or a discontinuous process; second, which are the main correlates of their community structure; third, whether those correlates correspond to those of native species. We used data on species distribution of non-native and native scolytines in the continental 48 USA states. These data were analyzed through a beta-diversity index, partitioned into species richness differences and species replacement, using Mantel correlograms and non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS ordination for identifying spatial patterns, and regression on distance matrices to test the association of climate (temperature, rainfall, forest (cover area, composition, geographical (distance, and human-related (import variables with β-diversity components. For both non-native bark and ambrosia beetles, β-diversity was mainly composed of species richness difference than species replacement. For non-native bark beetles, a discontinuous invasion process composed of long distance jumps or multiple introduction events was apparent. Species richness differences were primarily correlated with differences in import values while temperature was the main correlate of species replacement. For non-native ambrosia beetles, a more continuous invasion process was apparent, with the pool of non-native species arriving in the coastal areas that tended to be filtered as they spread to interior portions of the continental USA. Species richness differences were mainly correlated with differences in rainfall among states, while rainfall and temperature were the main correlates of species replacement. Our study suggests that the different ecology of bark and ambrosia beetles influences their invasion process in new environments. The lower dependency that bark beetles have

  10. Fungus cultivation by ambrosia beetles: Behavior and laboratory breeding success in three Xyleborine species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter Biedermann; Kier Klepzig; Taborsky Michael

    2009-01-01

    Fungus cultivation by ambrosia beetles is one of the four independently evolved cases of agriculture known in animals. Such cultivation is most advanced in the highly social subtribe Xyleborina (Scolytinae), which is characterized by haplodiploidy and extreme levels of inbreeding. Despite their ubiquity in forests worldwide, the behavior of these beetles remains poorly...

  11. Ethanol and (-)-a-pinene: attractants for bark and ambrosia beetles in southeastern USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. R. Miller; R. J. Rabaglia

    2009-01-01

    In 2002–2004, we examined the flight responses of 49 species of native and exotic bark and ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae and Platypodidae) to traps baited with ethanol and/or (−)-α-pinene in the southeastern US. Eight field trials were conducted in mature pine stands in Alabama, Florida, Georgia, North Carolina, and South...

  12. Detecting Symbioses in Complex Communities: the Fungal Symbionts of Bark and Ambrosia Beetles Within Asian Pines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skelton, James; Jusino, Michelle A; Li, You; Bateman, Craig; Thai, Pham Hong; Wu, Chengxu; Lindner, Daniel L; Hulcr, Jiri

    2018-02-24

    Separating symbioses from incidental associations is a major obstacle in symbiosis research. In this survey of fungi associated with Asian bark and ambrosia beetles, we used quantitative culture and DNA barcode identification to characterize fungal communities associated with co-infesting beetle species in pines (Pinus) of China and Vietnam. To quantitatively discern likely symbioses from coincidental associations, we used multivariate analysis and multilevel pattern analysis (a type of indicator species analysis). Nearly half of the variation in fungal community composition in beetle galleries and on beetle bodies was explained by beetle species. We inferred a spectrum of ecological strategies among beetle-associated fungi: from generalist multispecies associates to highly specialized single-host symbionts that were consistently dominant within the mycangia of their hosts. Statistically significant fungal associates of ambrosia beetles were typically only found with one beetle species. In contrast, bark beetle-associated fungi were often associated with multiple beetle species. Ambrosia beetles and their galleries were frequently colonized by low-prevalence ambrosia fungi, suggesting that facultative ambrosial associations are commonplace, and ecological mechanisms such as specialization and competition may be important in these dynamic associations. The approach used here could effectively delimit symbiotic interactions in any system where symbioses are obscured by frequent incidental associations. It has multiple advantages including (1) powerful statistical tests for non-random associations among potential symbionts, (2) simultaneous evaluation of multiple co-occurring host and symbiont associations, and (3) identifying symbionts that are significantly associated with multiple host species.

  13. Ethanol and (-)-?-pinene: attratant kairomones for bark ad ambrosia beetles in the Southeastern US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel R. Miller; Robert J. Rabaglia

    2009-01-01

    In 2002–2004, we examined the flight responses of 49 species of native and exotic bark and ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae and Platypodidae) to traps baited with ethanol and/or (?)-?-pinene in the southeastern US. Eight field trials were conducted in mature pine stands in Alabama, Florida, Georgia, North Carolina, and South Carolina. Funnel traps baited with...

  14. New species of Geosmithia and Graphium associated with ambrosia beetles in Costa Rica

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kolařík, Miroslav; Hulcr, J.; Kirkendall, L.R.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 67, č. 1 (2015), s. 29-35 ISSN 1211-0981 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP506/11/2302 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : ambrosia fungi * Hypocreales * Scolytodes Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  15. Exotic bark and ambrosia beetles in the USA: potential and current invaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert A. Haack; Robert J. Rabaglia

    2013-01-01

    Bark and ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) are among the most important insects affecting trees and forests worldwide. There are approximately 6000 scolytine species worldwide, with species found on all continents except Antarctica (Table 3.1) (Wood and Bright, 1992; Bright and Skidmore, 1997, 2002; Wood, 2007). The majority of species are found...

  16. Disjunct population of redbay ambrosia beetle and laurel wilt disease discovered in Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.J. Riggins; M. Hughes; J.A. Smith; R. Chapin

    2011-01-01

    Laurel wilt is an aggressive, non-native vascular wilt disease of redbay trees (Persea borbonia), sassafras (Sassafras albidum), and other plants within the Lauraceae family. The laurel wilt pathogen, (Raffaelea lauricola), is vectored by the redbay ambrosia beetle (Xyleborus glabratus), which...

  17. Ambrosia beetle communities in forest and agriculture ecosystems with laurel wilt disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    The invasive redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus, is an exotic wood-boring pest first detected in 2002 near Savannah, Georgia. The beetle’s dominant fungal symbiont, Raffaelea lauricola, is the pathogen that causes laurel wilt, a lethal disease of trees in the family Lauraceae. Redbay ambro...

  18. Development and survival of Aulacorthum solani, Macrosiphum euphorbiae and Uroleucon ambrosiae at six temperatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Conti, de B.F.; Bueno, V.H.P.; Sampaio, M.V.; Lenteren, van J.C.

    2011-01-01

    Temperature is one of the most important factors in determining the survival and developmental rate of aphids. The aim of this study was to evaluate the developmental time and survival of the aphid species Aulacorthum solani (Kaltenbach), Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas) and Uroleucon ambrosiae

  19. Residue age and tree attractiveness influence efficacy of insecticide treatments against ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Management of ambrosia beetles in ornamental nurseries relies, in part, on treatments of insecticides to prevent beetles from boring into trees emitting stress-induced ethanol. However, data on residual efficacy of commonly used pyrethroid insecticides is warranted to gauge the duration that trees ...

  20. Development of host-based lures for redbay ambrosia beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus, a species endemic to Southeast Asia, was first detected in the USA in 2002 near Savannah, GA. Since then, it has become a serious invasive pest, now established in nine southeastern states. Females vector Raffaelea lauricola, the fungus that causes ...

  1. Mycobiota associated with the ambrosia beetle Scolytodes unipunctatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kolařík, Miroslav; Hulcr, J.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 113, č. 1 (2009), s. 44-60 ISSN 0953-7562 Grant - others:PřF UK(CZ) GP206/08/P322 Program:GP Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : ambrosia fungi * custingophora * custingophora cecropiae Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.921, year: 2009

  2. Uranium prospecting and uranium supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kegel, K.E.

    1975-01-01

    Following of short historical survey, estimations of the uranium resources of the western world made in the middle of 1975 are presented and interpreted. The most common methods of prospecting and exploration of the mines and of production and processing of the uranium eres are described. A short survey of the situation of supply and demand is supplemented by a description of the activities of the two German companies in the field of uranium supply. (UA/AK) [de

  3. National uranium resource evaluation, Montrose Quadrangle, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodknight, C.S.; Ludlam, J.R.

    1981-06-01

    The Montrose Quadrangle in west-central Colorado was evaluated to identify and delineate areas favorable for the occurrence of uranium deposits according to National Uranium Resource Evaluation program criteria. General surface reconnaissance and geochemical sampling were conducted in all geologic environments in the quadrangle. Preliminary data from aerial radiometric and hydrogeochemical and stream-sediment reconnaissance were analyzed and brief followup studies were performed. Twelve favorable areas were delineated in the quadrangle. Five favorable areas contain environments for magmatic-hydrothermal uranium deposits along fault zones in the Colorado mineral belt. Five areas in parts of the Harding and Entrada Sandstones and Wasatch and Ohio Creek Formations are favorable environments for sandstone-type uranium deposits. The area of late-stage rhyolite bodies related to the Lake City caldera is a favorable environment for hydroauthigenic uranium deposits. One small area is favorable for uranium deposits of uncertain genesis. All near-surface Phanerozoic sedimentary rocks are unfavorable for uranium deposits, except parts of four formations. All near-surface plutonic igneous rocks are unfavorable for uranium deposits, except five areas of vein-type deposits along Tertiary fault zones. All near-surface volcanic rocks, except one area of rhyolite bodies and several unevaluated areas, are unfavorable for uranium. All near-surface Precambrian metamorphic rocks are unfavorable for uranium deposits. Parts of two wilderness areas, two primitive areas, and most of the subsurface environment are unevaluated

  4. Americium, plutonium and uranium contamination and speciation in well waters, streams and atomic lakes in the Sarzhal region of the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site, Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León Vintró, L; Mitchell, P I; Omarova, A; Burkitbayev, M; Jiménez Nápoles, H; Priest, N D

    2009-04-01

    New data are reported on the concentrations, isotopic composition and speciation of americium, plutonium and uranium in surface and ground waters in the Sarzhal region of the Semipalatinsk Test Site, and an adjacent area including the settlement of Sarzhal. The data relate to filtered water and suspended particulate from (a) streams originating in the Degelen Mountains, (b) the Tel'kem 1 and Tel'kem 2 atomic craters, and (c) wells on farms located within the study area and at Sarzhal. The measurements show that (241)Am, (239,240)Pu and (238)U concentrations in well waters within the study area are in the range 0.04-87mBq dm(-3), 0.7-99mBq dm(-3), and 74-213mBq dm(-3), respectively, and for (241)Am and (239,240)Pu are elevated above the levels expected solely on the basis of global fallout. Concentrations in streams sourced in the Degelen Mountains are similar, while concentrations in the two water-filled atomic craters are somewhat higher. Suspended particulate concentrations in well waters vary considerably, though median values are very low, at 0.01mBq dm(-3), 0.08mBq dm(-3) and 0.32mBq dm(-3) for (241)Am, (239,240)Pu and (238)U, respectively. The (235)U/(238)U isotopic ratio in almost all well and stream waters is slightly elevated above the 'best estimate' value for natural uranium worldwide, suggesting that some of the uranium in these waters is of test-site provenance. Redox analysis shows that on average most of the plutonium present in the microfiltered fraction of these waters is in a chemically reduced form (mean 69%; 95% confidence interval 53-85%). In the case of the atomic craters, the proportion is even higher. As expected, all of the americium present appears to be in a reduced form. Calculations suggest that annual committed effective doses to individual adults arising from the daily ingestion of these well waters are in the range 11-42microSv (mean 21microSv). Presently, the ground water feeding these wells would not appear to be contaminated with

  5. Americium, plutonium and uranium contamination and speciation in well waters, streams and atomic lakes in the Sarzhal region of the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site, Kazakhstan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leon Vintro, L. [School of Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland)], E-mail: luis.leon@ucd.ie; Mitchell, P.I.; Omarova, A. [School of Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Burkitbayev, M. [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Al-Faraby Kazakh National University, Almaty (Kazakhstan); Jimenez Napoles, H. [School of Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Priest, N.D. [School of Health and Social Sciences, Middlesex University, Enfield, EN3 4SA (United Kingdom)

    2009-04-15

    New data are reported on the concentrations, isotopic composition and speciation of americium, plutonium and uranium in surface and ground waters in the Sarzhal region of the Semipalatinsk Test Site, and an adjacent area including the settlement of Sarzhal. The data relate to filtered water and suspended particulate from (a) streams originating in the Degelen Mountains, (b) the Tel'kem 1 and Tel'kem 2 atomic craters, and (c) wells on farms located within the study area and at Sarzhal. The measurements show that {sup 241}Am, {sup 239,240}Pu and {sup 238}U concentrations in well waters within the study area are in the range 0.04-87 mBq dm{sup -3}, 0.7-99 mBq dm{sup -3}, and 74-213 mBq dm{sup -3}, respectively, and for {sup 241}Am and {sup 239,240}Pu are elevated above the levels expected solely on the basis of global fallout. Concentrations in streams sourced in the Degelen Mountains are similar, while concentrations in the two water-filled atomic craters are somewhat higher. Suspended particulate concentrations in well waters vary considerably, though median values are very low, at 0.01 mBq dm{sup -3}, 0.08 mBq dm{sup -3} and 0.32 mBq dm{sup -3} for {sup 241}Am, {sup 239,240}Pu and {sup 238}U, respectively. The {sup 235}U/{sup 238}U isotopic ratio in almost all well and stream waters is slightly elevated above the 'best estimate' value for natural uranium worldwide, suggesting that some of the uranium in these waters is of test-site provenance. Redox analysis shows that on average most of the plutonium present in the microfiltered fraction of these waters is in a chemically reduced form (mean 69%; 95% confidence interval 53-85%). In the case of the atomic craters, the proportion is even higher. As expected, all of the americium present appears to be in a reduced form. Calculations suggest that annual committed effective doses to individual adults arising from the daily ingestion of these well waters are in the range 11-42 {mu}Sv (mean 21 {mu

  6. Uranium resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    This is a press release issued by the OECD on 9th March 1976. It is stated that the steep increases in demand for uranium foreseen in and beyond the 1980's, with doubling times of the order of six to seven years, will inevitably create formidable problems for the industry. Further substantial efforts will be needed in prospecting for new uranium reserves. Information is given in tabular or graphical form on the following: reasonably assured resources, country by country; uranium production capacities, country by country; world nuclear power growth; world annual uranium requirements; world annual separative requirements; world annual light water reactor fuel reprocessing requirements; distribution of reactor types (LWR, SGHWR, AGR, HWR, HJR, GG, FBR); and world fuel cycle capital requirements. The information is based on the latest report on Uranium Resources Production and Demand, jointly issued by the OECD's Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) and the International Atomic Energy Agency. (U.K.)

  7. Uranium enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    GAO was asked to address several questions concerning a number of proposed uranium enrichment bills introduced during the 100th Congress. The bill would have restructured the Department of Energy's uranium enrichment program as a government corporation to allow it to compete more effectively in the domestic and international markets. Some of GAO's findings discussed are: uranium market experts believe and existing market models show that the proposed DOE purchase of a $750 million of uranium from domestic producers may not significantly increase production because of large producer-held inventories; excess uranium enrichment production capacity exists throughout the world; therefore, foreign producers are expected to compete heavily in the United States throughout the 1990s as utilities' contracts with DOE expire; and according to a 1988 agreement between DOE's Offices of Nuclear Energy and Defense Programs, enrichment decommissioning costs, estimated to total $3.6 billion for planning purposes, will be shared by the commercial enrichment program and the government

  8. New gSSR and EST-SSR markers reveal high genetic diversity in the invasive plant Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. and can be transferred to other invasive Ambrosia species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Meyer

    Full Text Available Ambrosia artemisiifolia L., (common ragweed, is an annual invasive and highly troublesome plant species originating from North America that has become widespread across Europe. New sets of genomic and expressed sequence tag (EST based simple sequence repeats (SSRs markers were developed in this species using three approaches. After validation, 13 genomic SSRs and 13 EST-SSRs were retained and used to characterize the genetic diversity and population genetic structure of Ambrosia artemisiifolia populations from the native (North America and invasive (Europe ranges of the species. Analysing the mating system based on maternal families did not reveal any departure from complete allogamy and excess homozygosity was mostly due the presence of null alleles. High genetic diversity and patterns of genetic structure in Europe suggest two main introduction events followed by secondary colonization events. Cross-species transferability of the newly developed markers to other invasive species of the Ambrosia genus was assessed. Sixty-five percent and 75% of markers, respectively, were transferable from A. artemisiifolia to Ambrosia psilostachya and Ambrosia tenuifolia. 40% were transferable to Ambrosia trifida, this latter species being seemingly more phylogenetically distantly related to A. artemisiifolia than the former two.

  9. Summary on uranium in Canada, 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruzicka, V.; LeCheminant, G.M.

    1985-01-01

    Field and laboratory investigations of recently discovered uranium occurrences and deposits have revealed that (a) the mineralization processes that formed the Cigar Lake deposit, Saskatchewan were similar to those reported for the McClean Lake deposit; (b) the recently discovered Boomerang Lake occurrence related to the sub-Thelon unconformity occurs in a geological environment similar to that hosting deposits related to the sub-Athabasca unconformity; (c) additional occurrences of mineralization similar to the Black Sturgeon Lake showing, Ontario, will be restricted to areas containing uraniferous igneous rocks adjacent to ferruginous metavolcanic rocks in areas affected by Keweenawan hydrothermal activity; (d) uranium occurrences in the Otish Basin, Labrador Trough, Central Mineral Belt of Labrador and the Nonacho Basin were formed by epigenetic processes

  10. Western states uranium resource survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tinney, J.F.

    1977-01-01

    ERDA's National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) program was established to provide a comprehensive description of uranium resources in the United States. To carry out this task, ERDA has contracted with various facilities, including universities, private companies, and state agencies, to undertake projects such as airborne radiometric surveys, geological and geochemical studies, and the development of advanced geophysical technology. LLL is one of four ERDA laboratories systematically studying uranium distribution in surface water, groundwater, and lake and stream sediments. We are specifically responsible for surveying seven western states. This past year we have designed and installed facilities for delayed-neutron counting and neutron-activation analysis, completed seven orientation surveys, and analyzed several thousand field samples. Full-scale reconnaissance surveys began last fall

  11. Uranium - a challenging mining business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stadelhofer, J.W.; Wedig, M.J.

    2007-01-01

    The main application of uranium is its use as a fuel for the nuclear electricity generation. Presently about 68,000 t (177 mill. lbs) of uranium are annually required, of which 41,500 (108 mill. lbs) are provided from fresh mine production whereas 26,500 t (69 mill. lbs) are stock drawdown supplies from civil or military sources. Two-thirds of production are recovered by underground mining and about 75% (30,350 t) of the world's uranium mine production are extracted from top ten mines. All major uranium mining companies are making efforts to enlarge their production capacities: The paramount Cameco's Cigar Lake project has been delayed due to mine water inflow. Production is expected to commence by latest in 2010; the nameplate capacity of 6000 t/a should be reached in 2011. AREVA reported plans to invest about Euro 500 to 600 mill. to double its uranium production by 2010. In 2006 Denison Mines and International Uranium Corporation announced that they have entered into an agreement to merge the two companies in order to create a mid-tier, North American-focused uranium producer with the potential annual production of more than 5.5 mill. lbs of U 3 O 8 by 2010. The skyrocketing global electricity demand, growing public acceptance and more favourable policies have initiated a new round of global development of the nuclear industry. Against this backdrop, about 30,000 t/a to 40,000 t/a of additional mine production will be required within the upcoming 20 years to substitute secondary uranium supplies and to meet the expected increased demand; new start-up junior mining companies (e.g. Paladin) will contribute to this increased production. (orig.)

  12. Feasibility study of the dissolution rates of uranium ore dust, uranium concentrates and uranium compounds in simulated lung fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, R.

    1986-01-01

    A flow-through apparatus has been devised to study the dissolution in simulated lung fluid of aerosol materials associated with the Canadian uranium industry. The apparatus has been experimentally applied over 16 day extraction periods to approximately 2g samples of < 38um and 53-75um particle-size fractions of both Elliot Lake and Mid-Western uranium ores. The extraction of uranium-238 was in the range 24-60% for these samples. The corresponding range for radium-226 was 8-26%. Thorium-230, lead-210, polonium-210, and thorium-232 were not significantly extracted. It was incidentally found that the elemental composition of the ores studied varies significantly with particle size, the radionuclide-containing minerals and several extractable stable elements being concentrated in the smaller size fraction. Samples of the refined compounds uranium dioxide and uranium trioxide were submitted to similar 16 day extraction experiments. Approximately 0.5% of the uranium was extracted from a 0.258g sample of unsintered (fluid bed) uranium dioxide of particle size < 38um. The corresponding figure for a 0.292g sample of uranium trioxide was 97%. Two aerosol samples on filters were also studied. Of the 88ug uranium initially measured on stage 2 of a cascade impactor sample collected from the yellow cake packing area of an Elliot Lake mill, essentially 100% was extracted over a 16 day period. The corresponding figure for an open face filter sample collected in a fuel fabrication plant and initially measured at 288ug uranium was approximately 3%. Recommendations are made with regard to further work of a research nature which would be useful in this area. Recommendations are also made on sampling methods, analytical methods and extraction conditions for various aerosols of interest which are to be studied in a work of broader scope designed to yield meaningful data in connection with lung dosimetry calculations

  13. Uranium exploration and evaluation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowie, S.H.U.

    1977-01-01

    Ground, carborne and airborne surveys for uranium commenced with GM-counters and developed to total-count scintillation counters which have subsequently been replaced to some extent by gamma spectrometers. Stabilisation of the last mentioned is important and has only been achieved recently. Hydrogeochemistry has been revitalised by the introduction of neutron activation analysis and has considerable promise of success in the discovery of surface and near-surface uranium deposits. Soil, stream sediment and lake sediment analyses also have potential particularly in follow-up surveys. One of the most encouraging methods of detecting relatively deeply buried uranium ore bodies is by measuring the radon content of air retained in soil or sub-soil; also that dissolved in stream or lake water. Helium, particularly 4 He, which is also a decay product of uranium but which has an infinite half-life could be measured along with radon. Theoretically this could not only give additional information on buried ore bodies, but on the depth of burial. Another possible technique for use in the detection of buried ore bodies is that of measuring the increased heat flow at surface which, in favourable circumstatnces, should be associated with significant uranium occurrences. Measurement of heat flow could either be by surface thermal sensors or by thermal infra-red scanning techniques from aircraft. For the purposes of preliminary surveys of large areas, airborne geochemical techniques offer considerable scope. Possibilities include the measurement of 222 Rn in the atmosphere. Alternatively, one or more of the decay products of radon could be measured. These are 210 Pb, 210 Bi and 210 Po. It is concluded that there is ample evidence to suggest that the more widespread application of known exploration methods, together with new techniques that can already be envisaged, will result in important new discoveries of uranium reserves

  14. Effect of tree species and end seal on attractiveness and utility of cut bolts to the redbay ambrosia beetle and granulate ambrosia beetle (coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayfield, A E; Hanula, J L

    2012-04-01

    The redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff, is a non-native invasive pest and vector of the fungus that causes laurel wilt disease in certain trees of the family Lauraceae. This study assessed the relative attractiveness and suitability of cut bolts of several tree species to X. glabratus. In 2009, female X. glabratus were equally attracted to traps baited with swampbay (Persea palustris (Rafinesque) Sargent) and camphortree (Cinnamomum camphora (L.) J. Presl), which were more attractive than avocado (Persea americana Miller), lancewood (Ocotea coriacea (Swartz) Britton), and sweetbay (Magnolia virginiana L.). These species were more attractive than loblolly bay (Gordonia lasianthus (L.) J. Ellis). X. glabratus entrance hole density and emergence from caged bolts were highest on swampbay and camphortree. In 2010, swampbay was significantly more attractive to X. glabratus than sassafras (Sassafras albidum (Nuttall) Nees), yellow poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L.), and eastern redbud (Cercis canadensis L.). Sassafras bolts end sealed with a liquid wax-and-water emulsion were more attractive to X. glabratus than end-sealed bolts of yellow poplar and redbud. Relative to unsealed bolts, end seal decreased X. glabratus entrance hole density on swampbay and decreased granulate ambrosia beetle (Xylosandrus crassiusculus (Motschulsky)) trap catch, entrance hole density, and adult emergence from swampbay. X. crassiusculus was not attracted to sassafras, yellow poplar, and redbud and was not more attracted to manuka oil than to unbaited traps. Sassafras was more attractive to X. glabratus than previously reported and supported reproducing populations of the insect. End sealing bolts with a wax-and-water emulsion may not be optimal for attracting and rearing ambrosia beetles in small logs.

  15. Uranium, depleted uranium, biological effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Physicists, chemists and biologists at the CEA are developing scientific programs on the properties and uses of ionizing radiation. Since the CEA was created in 1945, a great deal of research has been carried out on the properties of natural, enriched and depleted uranium in cooperation with university laboratories and CNRS. There is a great deal of available data about uranium; thousands of analyses have been published in international reviews over more than 40 years. This presentation on uranium is a very brief summary of all these studies. (author)

  16. Uranium loans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    When NUEXCO was organized in 1968, its founders conceived of a business based on uranium loans. The concept was relatively straightforward; those who found themselves with excess supplies of uranium would deposit those excesses in NUEXCO's open-quotes bank,close quotes and those who found themselves temporarily short of uranium could borrow from the bank. The borrower would pay interest based on the quantity of uranium borrowed and the duration of the loan, and the bank would collect the interest, deduct its service fee for arranging the loan, and pay the balance to those whose deposits were borrowed. In fact, the original plan was to call the firm Nuclear Bank Corporation, until it was discovered that using the word open-quotes Bankclose quotes in the name would subject the firm to various US banking regulations. Thus, Nuclear Bank Corporation became Nuclear Exchange Corporation, which was later shortened to NUEXCO. Neither the nuclear fuel market nor NUEXCO's business developed quite as its founders had anticipated. From almost the very beginning, the brokerage of uranium purchases and sales became a more significant activity for NUEXCO than arranging uranium loans. Nevertheless, loan transactions have played an important role in the international nuclear fuel market, requiring the development of special knowledge and commercial techniques

  17. Uranium extraction from gold-uranium ores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laskorin, B.N.; Golynko, Z.Sh.

    1981-01-01

    The process of uranium extraction from gold-uranium ores in the South Africa is considered. Flowsheets of reprocessing gold-uranium conglomerates, pile processing and uranium extraction from the ores are presented. Continuous counter flow ion-exchange process of uranium extraction using strong-active or weak-active resins is noted to be the most perspective and economical one. The ion-exchange uranium separation with the succeeding extraction is also the perspective one.

  18. The long distance transport of airborne Ambrosia pollen to the UK and the Netherlands from Central and south Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Weger, Letty A.; Pashley, Catherine H.; Šikoparija, Branko; Skjøth, Carsten A.; Kasprzyk, Idalia; Grewling, Łukasz; Thibaudon, Michel; Magyar, Donat; Smith, Matt

    2016-12-01

    The invasive alien species Ambrosia artemisiifolia (common or short ragweed) is increasing its range in Europe. In the UK and the Netherlands, airborne concentrations of Ambrosia pollen are usually low. However, more than 30 Ambrosia pollen grains per cubic metre of air (above the level capable to trigger allergic symptoms) were recorded in Leicester (UK) and Leiden (NL) on 4 and 5 September 2014. The aims of this study were to determine whether the highly allergenic Ambrosia pollen recorded during the episode could be the result of long distance transport, to identify the potential sources of these pollen grains and to describe the conditions that facilitated this possible long distance transport. Airborne Ambrosia pollen data were collected at 10 sites in Europe. Back trajectory and atmospheric dispersion calculations were performed using HYSPLIT_4. Back trajectories calculated at Leicester and Leiden show that higher altitude air masses (1500 m) originated from source areas on the Pannonian Plain and Ukraine. During the episode, air masses veered to the west and passed over the Rhône Valley. Dispersion calculations showed that the atmospheric conditions were suitable for Ambrosia pollen released from the Pannonian Plain and the Rhône Valley to reach the higher levels and enter the airstream moving to northwest Europe where they were deposited at ground level and recorded by monitoring sites. The study indicates that the Ambrosia pollen grains recorded during the episode in Leicester and Leiden were probably not produced by local sources but transported long distances from potential source regions in east Europe, i.e. the Pannonian Plain and Ukraine, as well as the Rhône Valley in France.

  19. Analysis of airborne ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. pollen in Timisoara, 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta IANOVICI

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Ambrosia artemisiifolia (ragweed is an annual, herbaceous, with high invasive potential, wind-pollinated plant that is important allergenic weed belonging to the Asteraceae plant family. Allergenic airpollen can interact with other components of environmental global change in a synergic way increasing the risks to public health. Analysis of the pollen count was performed on the basis of the data collected in Timişoara in the season of 2004. Airborne ragweed pollen concentrations, measured continuously with a volumetric method are compared with respect to both their quantitative and seasonal aspects. A weekly programmed Hirst spore-trap was used to sample airborne pollen grains, calibrated to handle a flow of 10 L/min of air, which roughly corresponds to a human breathing rhythm. In Timisoara the Lanzoni model was used. The daily quantities of pollen are expressed as numbers of pollen grains per cubic meter of air per day (PG/m3.The pollen seasons show 3 main parts: tree season (February–April, grass season (May–July, weed season (July–October. In September 65,71% of the total aeropollen concentration is due to Ambrosia. The highest concentration of ragweed pollen was 220 PG/m3.Ambrosia artemisiifolia have a pronounced invasive character. Since 1910, having been spread all over the country, it has become the most common weed in Romania. There is an urgent need to organize interventions to stop ragweed expansion and to clear the areas already polluted.

  20. Uranium mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The economic and environmental sustainability of uranium mining has been analysed by Monash University researcher Dr Gavin Mudd in a paper that challenges the perception that uranium mining is an 'infinite quality source' that provides solutions to the world's demand for energy. Dr Mudd says information on the uranium industry touted by politicians and mining companies is not necessarily inaccurate, but it does not tell the whole story, being often just an average snapshot of the costs of uranium mining today without reflecting the escalating costs associated with the process in years to come. 'From a sustainability perspective, it is critical to evaluate accurately the true lifecycle costs of all forms of electricity production, especially with respect to greenhouse emissions, ' he says. 'For nuclear power, a significant proportion of greenhouse emissions are derived from the fuel supply, including uranium mining, milling, enrichment and fuel manufacture.' Dr Mudd found that financial and environmental costs escalate dramatically as the uranium ore is used. The deeper the mining process required to extract the ore, the higher the cost for mining companies, the greater the impact on the environment and the more resources needed to obtain the product. I t is clear that there is a strong sensitivity of energy and water consumption and greenhouse emissions to ore grade, and that ore grades are likely to continue to decline gradually in the medium to long term. These issues are critical to the current debate over nuclear power and greenhouse emissions, especially with respect to ascribing sustainability to such activities as uranium mining and milling. For example, mining at Roxby Downs is responsible for the emission of over one million tonnes of greenhouse gases per year and this could increase to four million tonnes if the mine is expanded.'

  1. Chapter 6. Uranium extraction possibilities from natural uranium-bearing waters of complex salt composition. 6.2. Technology for uranium extraction from brine with a high content of ion-chlorine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khakimov, N.; Nazarov, Kh.M.; Mirsaidov, I.U.

    2011-01-01

    Present article is devoted to technology for uranium extraction from brine with a high content of ion-chlorine. The content of basic anions and cations in lake waters of Sasik-Kul deposit was defined. Results of X-ray spectral analysis of salt residual after water evaporation from Sasik-Kul lake was discussed. Investigations revealed that uranium extraction from brines containing ion-chlorine is possible. The developed basic process flow diagram of uranium extraction from Sasik-Kul Lake' brine consists of the following basic stages: evaporation, leaching, catching of formed gases (HCl), sorption, desorption, deposition, drying and tempering.

  2. Key Lake spill. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-03-01

    On January 5, 1984 contaminated water overflowed a storage reservoir at the Key Lake uranium mill onto the ice on a neighboring lake, into a muskeg area and onto a road. Outflow continued for two days, partially undercutting a retaining dyke. This report concludes the spill was the result of poor operation by the Key Lake Mining Corp.. The environmental impact will be minimal after cleanup. Improvements can be made in the regulatory process, and it is necessary to prepare for possible future mishaps

  3. The technology of uranium extraction from the brine with high chlorine-ion content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khakimov, N.; Nazarov, Kh.M.; Mirsaidov, I.U.; Negmatov, Sh.I.; Barotov, B.B.

    2010-01-01

    Present article is devoted to technology of uranium extraction from the brine with high chlorine-ion content. The research results on uranium extraction from the brine of Sasik-Kul Lake by means of sorption method were considered. The chemical composition of salt was determined. The process of uranium sorption was described and analyzed. The technology of uranium extraction from the brine with high chlorine-ion content was proposed.

  4. Sustainability aspects of the Beverley Uranium Mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Heathgate Resources Pty Ltd operates the technologically advanced in situ recovery (ISR) Beverley and Beverley North uranium mines, located about 550km north of Adelaide, South Australia, on the arid plains between the northern Flinders Ranges and Lake Frome. Sustainability of these operations is achieved through an environmental management strategy, developed in partnership with regulatory authorities.

  5. Uranium enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rae, H.K.; Melvin, J.G.

    1988-06-01

    Canada is the world's largest producer and exporter of uranium, most of which is enriched elsewhere for use as fuel in LWRs. The feasibility of a Canadian uranium-enrichment enterprise is therefore a perennial question. Recent developments in uranium-enrichment technology, and their likely impacts on separative work supply and demand, suggest an opportunity window for Canadian entry into this international market. The Canadian opportunity results from three particular impacts of the new technologies: 1) the bulk of the world's uranium-enrichment capacity is in gaseous diffusion plants which, because of their large requirements for electricity (more than 2000 kW·h per SWU), are vulnerable to competition from the new processes; 2) the decline in enrichment costs increases the economic incentive for the use of slightly-enriched uranium (SEU) fuel in CANDU reactors, thus creating a potential Canadian market; and 3) the new processes allow economic operation on a much smaller scale, which drastically reduces the investment required for market entry and is comparable with the potential Canadian SEU requirement. The opportunity is not open-ended. By the end of the century the enrichment supply industry will have adapted to the new processes and long-term customer/supplier relationships will have been established. In order to seize the opportunity, Canada must become a credible supplier during this century

  6. APPROACHES ON THE INVASIVE ALIEN TAXA IN ROMANIA - AMBROSIA ARTEMISIIFOLIA (RAGWEED II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta IANOVICI

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In a previous paper we presented the localities in Romania where we identified populations of Ambrosia artemisiifolia. Between 2008-2011, investigations were continuing. Our data clearly show that Ambrosia is present throughout the country. The territories heavily infested are railway embankments, along traffic routes, gravel pits, building sites, forest edges, industrial areas, cemeteries and recreational areas. It is quite common to find ragweed in many private gardens, or flower pots in urban areas. The few foci observed along riversides got there by household waste and construction waste. In many rural communities find it on the drainage ditches. Disturbed and neglected land (on city limits and outside the city, abandonment of land without subsequent turning of stubble and another wrong agricultural practice, absence of ruderal weed control are the main causes that favor the dissemination of our country. Intensity of anthropogenic influence is manifested mainly by transport of materials and soil movement during road rehabilitation and construction of highways. The recent observations show that could be expected to appear on agricultural fields, now being found only on the outskirts of cultivated land, at 5-6 meters from high traffic roads. Ambrosia benefits from human activities to spread. This implies a strong control strategy. The main objective of the fighting activities need to be to reduce damages caused by its pollen and to limit its expansion. If invasion by Ambrosia is left uncontrolled, increase of allergies could heavily augment the treatments. Knowledge about mechanical or chemical control of ragweed could be very important for road and rail services, agricultural institutions, farmers, staff responsible for managing natural areas, institutions that approves and oversees residential sites and factories, responsible personnel of the administrations from cities and rural localities. Reducing the population is more required than

  7. Machining of uranium and uranium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, T.O.

    1981-01-01

    Uranium and uranium alloys can be readily machined by conventional methods in the standard machine shop when proper safety and operating techniques are used. Material properties that affect machining processes and recommended machining parameters are discussed. Safety procedures and precautions necessary in machining uranium and uranium alloys are also covered. 30 figures

  8. Scientific Opinion on the effect on public or animal health or on the environment on the presence of seeds of Ambrosia spp. in animal feed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, R.; Candresse, T.; Dormannsné Simon, E.

    2010-01-01

    spp. The genus Ambrosia (Asteraceae family) is distributed worldwide. Ambrosia artemisiifolia (common ragweed) has heavily colonised several areas of South-East Europe. Ambrosia spp., both in their native range and in invaded areas, are of public health concern due to the allergenic properties...... pollen in animals. With regard to the effects on the environment of the further distribution of Ambrosia spp. in the European Union, the PLH Panel concluded that there is no direct evidence that Ambrosia spp. cause extinction of plant species. However, there are some indications that A. artemisiifolia...

  9. Uranium and thorium deposits of Northern Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, J.A.; Gould, K.L.

    1983-01-01

    This, the second edition of the uranium-thorium deposit inventory, describes briefly the deposits of uranium and/or thorium in northern Ontario, which for the purposes of this circular is defined as that part of Ontario lying north and west of the Grenville Front. The most significant of the deposits described are fossil placers lying at or near the base of the Middle Precambrian Huronian Supergroup. These include the producing and past-producing mines of the Elliot Lake - Agnew Lake area. Also included are the pitchblende veins spatially associated with Late Precambrian (Keweenawan) diabase dikes of the Theano Point - Montreal River area. Miscellaneous Early Precambrian pegmatite, pitchblende-coffinite-sulphide occurrences near the Middle-Early Precambrian unconformity fringing the Lake Superior basin, and disseminations in diabase, granitic rocks, alkalic complexes and breccias scattered throughout northern Ontario make up the rest of the occurrences

  10. Uranium concentrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boutonnet, G.

    1985-01-01

    Fabrication processes and main characteristics of the yellow coke are described. Choice of acidic or alkaline process, chemical reactions reagents, installation and efficiency are examined. Investment, cost and production are given. Extraction of uranium from phosphoric acid is briefly described [fr

  11. Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project Annual Environmental Monitoring Report calendar year 1992: Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1993-12-31

    This report describes environmental monitoring and compliance at eight UMTRA sites where remedial action was underway during 1992 and at the ten sites that were complete at the end of 1992. Volume I contains information for Ambrosia Lake, NM; Cannonsburg/Burrell, PA; Durango, CO; Falls City, TX; Grand Junction, CO; Green River, UT; and Gunnison, CO. Each site report contains a site description, compliance summary, environmental program information, environmental radiological and non-radiological program information, water resources protection, and quality assurance information.

  12. Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project Annual Environmental Monitoring Report calendar year 1992: Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report describes environmental monitoring and compliance at eight UMTRA sites where remedial action was underway during 1992 and at the ten sites that were complete at the end of 1992. Volume I contains information for Ambrosia Lake, NM; Cannonsburg/Burrell, PA; Durango, CO; Falls City, TX; Grand Junction, CO; Green River, UT; and Gunnison, CO. Each site report contains a site description, compliance summary, environmental program information, environmental radiological and non-radiological program information, water resources protection, and quality assurance information

  13. Uranium industry annual 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-04-01

    The Uranium Industry Annual 1996 (UIA 1996) provides current statistical data on the US uranium industry's activities relating to uranium raw materials and uranium marketing. The UIA 1996 is prepared for use by the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the uranium and nuclear electric utility industries, and the public. Data on uranium raw materials activities for 1987 through 1996 including exploration activities and expenditures, EIA-estimated reserves, mine production of uranium, production of uranium concentrate, and industry employment are presented in Chapter 1. Data on uranium marketing activities for 1994 through 2006, including purchases of uranium and enrichment services, enrichment feed deliveries, uranium fuel assemblies, filled and unfilled market requirements, uranium imports and exports, and uranium inventories are shown in Chapter 2. A feature article, The Role of Thorium in Nuclear Energy, is included. 24 figs., 56 tabs

  14. Uranium industry annual 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    The Uranium Industry Annual 1996 (UIA 1996) provides current statistical data on the US uranium industry`s activities relating to uranium raw materials and uranium marketing. The UIA 1996 is prepared for use by the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the uranium and nuclear electric utility industries, and the public. Data on uranium raw materials activities for 1987 through 1996 including exploration activities and expenditures, EIA-estimated reserves, mine production of uranium, production of uranium concentrate, and industry employment are presented in Chapter 1. Data on uranium marketing activities for 1994 through 2006, including purchases of uranium and enrichment services, enrichment feed deliveries, uranium fuel assemblies, filled and unfilled market requirements, uranium imports and exports, and uranium inventories are shown in Chapter 2. A feature article, The Role of Thorium in Nuclear Energy, is included. 24 figs., 56 tabs.

  15. Uranium industry annual, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-10-01

    In the Uranium Industry Annual 1991, data on uranium raw materials activities including exploration activities and expenditures, resources and reserves, mine production of uranium, production of uranium concentrate, and industry employment are presented in Chapter 1. Data on uranium marketing activities including domestic uranium purchases, commitments by utilities, procurement arrangements, uranium imports under purchase contracts and exports, deliveries to enrichment suppliers, inventories, secondary market activities, utility market requirements, and uranium for sale by domestic suppliers are presented in Chapter 2. A feature article entitled ''The Uranium Industry of the Commonwealth of Independent States'' is included in this report

  16. Surficial origin of North American pitchblende and related uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langford, F.F.

    1977-01-01

    The ubiquitous association of pitchblende uranium deposits with terrestrial sediments is believed to be the natural result of formation of the orebodies by surficial processes operating under continental conditions. The major uranium deposits of North America illustrate this. The quartz-pebble conglomerate uranium deposits of Elliot Lake, Ontario, have thorium-rich uranium minerals that indicate a detrital origin. With the development of an oxygenic atmosphere before 1,700 m.y. ago, uranium was transported in solution in meteoric surface and near-surface ground water, and produced pitchblende veins in fractures in the basement and in lava flows in terrestrial environments. This accounts for the closee association of fluvial sediments with the pitchblende deposits at Beaverlodge, Rabbit Lake, Baker Lake, and Great Bear Lake, Canada. The development of land plants about 300 m.y. ago produced favorable environments within the terrestrial sandstones themselves, and resulted in the tabular uranium orebodies of the Colorado Plateau. The close relation of tabular orebodies to sedimentation is apparent when compared to recent fluvial sedimentation. In Wyoming, the stratigraphic restriction of the boundary-roll deposits to a few zones in Eocene rocks results from their being remobilized tabular deposits

  17. Interaction of Insecticide and Media Moisture on Ambrosia Beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Attacks on Selected Ornamental Trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Steven D; Anderson, Amanda L; Ranger, Christopher M

    2017-12-08

    Exotic ambrosia beetles, particularly Xylosandrus crassiusculus (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) and Xylosandrus germanus (Blandford) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), are among the most damaging pests of ornamental trees in nurseries. Growers have had few tactics besides insecticide applications to reduce ambrosia beetle attacks but recent research has shown that attacks may be reduced by maintaining media moisture below a 50% threshold thereby reducing flood stress. We compared the efficacy of managing media moisture and insecticide applications for reducing ambrosia beetle attacks on three ornamental tree species in North Carolina. During trials in spring 2013 and 2015, flooded Cornus florida and Cornus kousa were heavily attacked despite sprays with permethrin, but nonflooded C. kousa or C. florida were not attacked. In spring 2015 trials, both nonflooded and flooded Styrax japonicus were heavily attacked regardless of permethrin applications. Although ethanol emissions were not measured, the apparently healthy nonflooded S. japonicus trees may have been exposed to an unknown physiological stress, such as low temperature injury, the previous winter, which predisposed them to beetle attack. However, ethanol levels within host tissues were not measured as part of the current study. X. crassiusculus (75%), Xyloborinus saxesenii Ratzburg (13%), and X. germanus (9%) were the most abundant species collected in ethanol baited traps deployed in 2015, while X. crassiusculus (63%) and X. germanus (36%) were the predominant species reared from attacked trees. Results indicate that managing media moisture levels at or below 50%, and maximizing tree health overall, may provide significant protection against Xylosandrus spp. attacks in flood intolerant tree species. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Biological aspects and life table of Uroleucon ambrosiae (Thomas, 1878 as a function of temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auad Alexander Machado

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The aphid Uroleucon ambrosiae (Thomas is considered a pest of hidroponically-grown lettuce, but basic and applied information on its control are scarce in Brazil. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of different temperatures on biological aspects and life history of U. ambrosiae (Thomas developing on hydroponic lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. crop. Newly emerged nymphs were placed on 4-cm discs of hydroponic lettuce, var. Verônica, which were maintained on 5-cm Petri dishes, at temperatures of 15, 20 and 25ºC and 14 h photophase, and inside a greenhouse, within micro-cages at room temperature. The duration of development in all nymphal stages varied inversely to temperature. Nymphs maintained at 20ºC and 25ºC, had similar development period. However, at fluctuating greenhouse temperatures (daily mean = 21ºC, different results were obtained, which was also true for the pre-reproductive, reproductive and post-reproductive periods. Daily and total fertilities at 20ºC were better in comparison to the other treatments. The highest mortality rate of aphids occurred under greenhouse conditions. The production of 1.28 nymphs per female per day, the time needed for the population to double in size (TD=2.77days, and the intrinsic rate of population increase (r m=0.25, were similar for in insects maintained at 20 and 25ºC. On the other hand, time interval between generations (T and the net reproductive rate (Ro were higher at 20ºC. In the greenhouse, even though T was similar to laboratory conditions at 20 and 25ºC, the R0, r m and l parameters were lower and TD was higher. Based on biological aspects, fertility and life expectancy tables, constant temperature of 20ºC is the most suitable for U. ambrosiae.

  19. Residue Age and Attack Pressure Influence Efficacy of Insecticide Treatments Against Ambrosia Beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reding, Michael E; Ranger, Christopher M

    2018-02-09

    Management of ambrosia beetles in ornamental nurseries relies, in part, on insecticide treatments to prevent beetles from boring into trees. However, data on residual efficacy of commonly used pyrethroid insecticides is needed to gauge the duration that trees are protected during spring when peak beetle pressure occurs. Residual efficacy of bifenthrin and permethrin trunk sprays was examined in field trials which used trees injected with 10% ethanol to ensure host attack pressure. Permethrin consistently reduced attacks by Xylosandrus germanus (Blandford; Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and other ambrosia beetles for at least 4 wk, while efficacy of bifenthrin was inconsistent and lasted only about 10 d. Since previous studies demonstrated attacks are positively correlated with host ethanol emissions, we injected trees with 2.5, 5, and 10% ethanol to determine if residual efficacy was affected by attack pressure. Preventive treatments with bifenthrin reduced ambrosia beetle attacks at all concentrations of injected ethanol compared to non-sprayed controls. There was no interaction between attack pressure and insecticide treatment with respect to total attacks or attacks by X. germanus. However, increasing attack pressure did increase the probability of attacks on insecticide treated trees by X. germanus and other Scolytinae. Results from our current study will improve the ability of growers to make decisions on frequency of protective sprays, but residual efficacy of insecticide treatments may decline as attack pressure increases. Cultural practices should therefore maximize host vigor and minimize attack pressure associated with stress-induced ethanol emissions. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  20. PREPARATION OF URANIUM MONOSULFIDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshioka, K.

    1964-01-28

    A process is given for preparing uranium monosulfide from uranium tetrafluoride dissolved in molten alkali metal chloride. A hydrogen-hydrogen sulfide gas mixture passed through the solution precipitates uranium monosulfide. (AEC)

  1. Recovery of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clemens, D.H.; Walker, R.W.; Hurwitz, M.J.

    1974-01-01

    A process for recovering uranium from an uranium bearing liquid which comprises contacting the liquid with a crosslinkedvinyl benzyl chloride polymer, thereafter eluting from the resin the uranium in salt form

  2. Suppressive Effect of Some Forage Plants on the Growth of Ambrosia artemisiifolia and Iva xanthiifolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senka Milanova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A pot trial in greenhouse conditions has been carried out to investigate the role ofsome plant species in suppression of Ambrosia artemisiifolia and Iva xanthiifolia growth.Screening of several plant species (Medicago sativa L., Lolium perenne L., Dactylis glomerataL. and Elymus repens (L. Gould – all from both turf and seeds was conducted. Theresults of the experiment showed that some perennial plants, especially L. perenne, D.glomerata and M. sativa, can be a reliable means of suppression of the growth and seedproduction of A. artemisiifolia and I. xanthiifolia. Moreover, simple greenhouse screeningturned to be a reliable method for predicting this potential suppressive role under certainconditions.

  3. Immunoproteomic characterization of Ambrosia artemisiifolia pollen allergens in canine atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ognjenovic, Jana; Milcic-Matic, Natalija; Smiljanic, Katarina; Vuckovic, Olga; Burazer, Lidija; Popovic, Nikola; Stanic-Vucinic, Dragana; Velickovic, Tanja Cirkovic

    2013-09-01

    Canine atopic dermatitis (CAD) is an immune system disorder that affects 10-15% of the canine population. Short ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) pollen represents one of the major seasonal sources of allergenic pollen proteins in Europe, particularly in the Pannonian valley of the Balkan region. In Serbia, about 66% of atopic dogs showed a positive intradermal skin test with its pollen extract, which is second to house dust mites. Therefore, characterization of Ambrosia artemisiifolia pollen components, in terms of defining major and minor allergens that induce clinically manifested allergic reaction in dogs, is important for valid diagnosis and efficient therapy. This study has, for the first time, characterized and identified major Ambrosia artemisiifolia allergens in CAD, using an immunoproteomic approach. To assess the prevalence of specific IgE in electrophoretically separated ragweed pollen proteins, individual reactivity of sera from dogs with CAD was analyzed and compared to the reactivity of sera from healthy dogs in the non-reducing conditions, which were found optimal for specific canine IgE detection. A specific IgE band (38 kDa) was recognized as the most dominant allergen in CAD, occurring in 81% of positive dog's sera. 2-D immunoblotting followed by a mass spectrometry peptide fingerprint analyses with pooled canine and human atopic sera, revealed that 38 kDa major Ambrosia atremisiifolia allergens in CAD were all five isoallergens of the Amb a 1 group (antigen E), including the previously named Amb a 2 (antigen K). In contrast to canine sera, human atopic sera also recognized lower mass allergens such as the β fragment of Amb a 1 and profilins (Amb a 8 variants). The most prominent ragweed proteins in CAD, represent, as in humans, variants of all five isoallergens of the Amb a 1 group (pectate lyase): Amb a 1.0101 and its natural variant E1XUL2, Amb a 1.0202, 1.0304, 1.0402 and the natural variant of Amb a 1.0501, E1XUM0, as well as the

  4. Uranium mineralogy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.K. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    The subject is discussed under the headings: introduction; U 4+ minerals (uraninite; coffinite; brannerite; ningyoite; lermontovite; U 4+ molybdates; U 4+ pyrochlores; U 4+ columbites; petscheckite and liandratite) minerals (uranyl oxide hydrates; uranyl silicates; uranyl phosphates and arsenates; uranyl vanadates; uranyl molybdates; uranyl sulphates; uranyl carbonates; uranyl selenates and tellurates). Appendices contain X-ray data and optical data for uranium minerals. (U.K.)

  5. Uranium industry annual, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    Uranium industry data collected in the EIA-858 survey provide a comprehensive statistical characterization of annual activities of the industry and include some information about industry plans over the next several years. This report consists of two major sections. The first addresses uranium raw materials activities and covers the following topics: exploration activities and expenditures, resources and reserves, mine production of uranium, production of uranium concentrate, and industry employment. The second major section is concerned with the following uranium marketing activities: uranium purchase commitments, uranium prices, procurement arrangements, uranium imports and exports, enrichment services, inventories, secondary market activities utility market requirements and related topics

  6. Comparing recent uranium supply scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, N.; Gufler, K.

    2014-01-01

    For more than one decade – even after the Fukushima accidents - an increase in global nuclear energy generation capacity is widely expected. At the same time a variety of uranium supply scenarios were published by industry, academics or international organizations, drawing different pictures of future uranium supply. They were created with the background of a uranium market facing several challenges. First an excursion in the uranium market price, in 2007, then reduced nuclear growth expectations after 2011, at least in non-Asian countries, also implying considerable changes to the supply side. For this publication a meta-study was carried out identifying, evaluating and comparing different recent scenarios on the availability of uranium. While there are some differences in the frame conditions (e.g. the expected uranium demand, the time fame, the considered mining projects,..), there are also notable similarities in these scenarios. This concerns long lead times for mine openings as well as the dependence on large mining projects (e.g. Olympic Dam, Cigar Lake). Generally, a decline in production in about 10 years is assumed, and thus the necessity of the timely development of mining projects is pointed out. In addition the omission of uranium from Russian nuclear weapons and the chances of keeping the changes in secondary supplies in balance with primary production have been widely discussed. Here, the production growth in Kazakhstan but also the role of the current market situation are central aspects. As another aspect the possible contribution from unconventional resources is of interest, particularly against the background of rising production costs for conventional resources. Finally, it shall be reflected how well older scenarios were able to map the reality and which trends could or could not be anticipated. It is relevant to identify which aspects in the development of mining capacities are essential for security of supply, and can therefore be regarded

  7. AREVA's uranium mining business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, V.

    2010-01-01

    'Full text:' In 2009, AREVA became the world's 1st uranium producer. Historically, since the closure of all uranium mines in France, AREVA's production was essentially coming from Canada and Niger. Most recently intense development in Kazakhstan contributed to AREVA's ascension to its current leading position. AREVA's production will continue to increase in Kazakhstan, in Canada and in Niger and preparations are under way for the launch of production in Namibia. AREVA plans to remain a major player in the long term, with its aggressive exploration program across the world. This is particularly true here in Canada with world class projects such as Shea Creek in the Western Athabasca Basin and Kiggavik in Nunavut that will add during the coming decades to AREVA's flagship state of the art uranium mill at McClean Lake and its participation in the two world largest uranium high-grade projects, the McArthur River mine and the Cigar Lake project scheduled for start-up in 2013.In 2009, AREVA became the world's 1st uranium producer. Historically, since the closure of all uranium mines in France, AREVA's production was essentially coming from Canada and Niger. Most recently intense development in Kazakhstan contributed to AREVA's ascension to its current leading position. AREVA's production will continue to increase in Kazakhstan, in Canada and in Niger and preparations are under way for the launch of production in Namibia. AREVA plans to remain a major player in the long term, with its aggressive exploration program across the world. This is particularly true here in Canada with world class projects such as Shea Creek in the Western Athabasca Basin and Kiggavik in Nunavut that will add during the coming decades to AREVA's flagship state of the art uranium mill at McClean Lake and its participation in the two world largest uranium high-grade projects, the McArthur River mine and the Cigar Lake project scheduled for

  8. Uranium Industry Annual, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Uranium Industry Annual provides current statistical data on the US uranium industry for the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the uranium and electric utility industries, and the public. The feature article, ''Decommissioning of US Conventional Uranium Production Centers,'' is included. Data on uranium raw materials activities including exploration activities and expenditures, resources and reserves, mine production of uranium, production of uranium concentrate, and industry employment are presented in Chapter 1. Data on uranium marketing activities including domestic uranium purchases, commitments by utilities, procurement arrangements, uranium imports under purchase contracts and exports, deliveries to enrichment suppliers, inventories, secondary market activities, utility market requirements, and uranium for sale by domestic suppliers are presented in Chapter 2

  9. Uranium Industry Annual, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-28

    The Uranium Industry Annual provides current statistical data on the US uranium industry for the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the uranium and electric utility industries, and the public. The feature article, ``Decommissioning of US Conventional Uranium Production Centers,`` is included. Data on uranium raw materials activities including exploration activities and expenditures, resources and reserves, mine production of uranium, production of uranium concentrate, and industry employment are presented in Chapter 1. Data on uranium marketing activities including domestic uranium purchases, commitments by utilities, procurement arrangements, uranium imports under purchase contracts and exports, deliveries to enrichment suppliers, inventories, secondary market activities, utility market requirements, and uranium for sale by domestic suppliers are presented in Chapter 2.

  10. Ethanol and (–)-α-pinene for detecting and monitoring bark and ambrosia beetles in the southeastern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel R. Miller; Robert J. Rabaglia; Christopher M. Crowe

    2011-01-01

    Our objective was to verify the need for separate traps baited with ethanol or ethanol and (–)-α-pinene for bark and ambrosia beetles in pine stands of the southeastern U.S. Eight trapping experiments were conducted in stands of mature pine in Alabama, Florida, Georgia, North Carolina, and South Carolina.

  11. Isolations from the redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus, confirm that the laurel wilt pathogen, Raffaelea lauricola, originated in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas C. Harrington; Hye Young Yun; Sheng-Shan Lu; Hideaki Goto; Dilzara N. Aghayeva; Stephen W. Fraedrich

    2011-01-01

    The laurel wilt pathogen Raffaelea lauricola was hypothesized to have been introduced to the southeastern USA in the mycangium of the redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus, which is native to Asia. To test this hypothesis adult X. glabratus were trapped in Taiwan and on Kyushu Island, Japan, in 2009, and dead beetles were sent to USA for isolation of fungal...

  12. Flood stress as a technicque to assess preventive insecticide and fungicide treatments for protecting trees against ambrosia beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    The exotic ambrosia beetles Xylosandrus germanus, Xylosandrus crassiusculus, and Xylosandrus compactus tunnel into the heartwood of trees where they cultivate and feed upon a symbiotic fungus. We assessed the effectiveness of flood stress as a tactic for making trees attractive and vulnerable to att...

  13. Trap deployments in black walnut tree canopies help inform monitoring strategies for bark and ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thousand cankers disease is caused by plant pathogenic Geosmithia morbida Kolarík, Freeland, Utley, and Tisserat; a fungus vectored primarily by the walnut twig beetle, Pityophthorus juglandis (Blackman). The role of other bark and ambrosia beetle species in persistence and spread of this disease r...

  14. Evaluation of flexible membrane liners as long-term barriers for uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-07-01

    The National Uranium Tailings Program has commissioned a study to evaluate flexible membrane liners (geomembranes) as long-term barriers for Canadian uranium mill tailings. This study reviews the common liner type and addresses flexible liners (polymeric membranes and asphalt) in detail. Liner fabrication, design, installation, and performance are reviewed. Conceptual designs are presented for basins to accommodate 20 years accumulation of uranium tailings from mills in Elliot Lake and southeastern Athabasca. Nine polymeric and three asphalt liner types have been considered with respect to the physical and chemical environment in the uranium producing areas of Canada. All materials indicate good chemical resistance to uranium wastes but are subject to installation problems

  15. Effect of Gamma Rays and Salinity on Growth and Chemical Composition of Ambrosia maritima L. Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moemen, A.M.E.

    2012-01-01

    This work achieved to study the effects of, mixture of salt 2:2:1 (Na Cl-CaCl 2 and Mg SO 4 ), concentration of (0, 2000, 4000 and 6000 ppm). on growth characters, some chemical components and some active ingredients in shoots of Ambrosia maritima plants, at different stages of growth, during two seasons. Pots 30 cm in diameter were filled of sand-loamy soils in appropriate concentration, all pots were irrigated with tap water. The exposed damsisa seeds to gamma rays, doses (0, 20, 40, and 80 Gy) before sowing together with control non irradiated seeds were sown in saline soils (0, 2000, 4000 and 6000 ppm). Soil salinity treatments caused a decrease in plant height, number of leaves, content of damsin, and an increase in fresh weigh, dry weight, total sugars, total chlorophyll, amino acids and ambrosine content. Also, Gamma rays caused an increase in most of growth parameters and most of chemical composition. It was observed that 40 or 80 Gy was more effective. We investigated the combined effect of levels of salinity and doses of radiation used, this interference improve growth parameters and chemical composition in ambrosia maritima plants and caused ascertain the role of gamma irradiation in plants tolerance to soil salinity and alleviation their harmful effect on plants.

  16. Ambrosia in Deutschland - lässt sich die Invasion aufhalten? Schlusswort und Ausblick

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Starfinger, Uwe

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In Germany, an interdisciplinary working group Ambrosia has been established in 2005. The group consists of experts in the fields of botany and ecology, plant protection, medicine and aerobiology. It has met annually and strives to reduce the occurrence and the impacts of annual ragweed in Germany. The conference in 2013 was organised on behalf of the interdisciplinary working group and of the consortium performing the EU project HALT Ambrosia. It has shown that the negative impacts of the ragweed invasion in Germany are severe and are likely to increase if no control measures are applied. There is sufficient information about ways to control ragweed in various situations (e.g., road verges, agricultural fields or urban-industrial sites. The fact that the species is still spreading is due not to a lack of information but to lacking implementation of control measures. The chance to halt the ragweed invasion in Germany depends on several factors, among them a clear legal specification for management measures.

  17. Ambrosia artemisiifolia as a potential resource for management of golden apple snails, Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Wenbing; Huang, Rui; Zhou, Zhongshi; He, Hualiang; Li, Youzhi

    2018-04-01

    Ambrosia artemisiifolia, an invasive weed in Europe and Asia, is highly toxic to the golden apple snail (GAS; Pomacea canaliculata) in laboratory tests. However, little is known about the chemical components of A. artemisiifolia associated with the molluscicidal activity or about its potential application for GAS control in rice fields. This study evaluated the molluscicidal activities of powders, methanol extracts, and individual compounds from A. artemisiifolia against GAS in rice fields and under laboratory conditions. Ambrosia artemisiifolia powders did not negatively affect the growth and development of rice but they reduced damage to rice caused by GAS. Extracts had moderate acute toxicity but potent chronic toxicity. The 24-h 50% lethal concentration (LC 50 ) of the extracts against GAS was 194.0 mg L -1 , while the weights, lengths and widths of GAS were significantly affected by exposure to a sublethal concentration (100 mg/mL). Psilostachyin, psilostachyin B, and axillaxin were identified as the most active molluscicide components in the aerial parts of A. artemisiifolia, and the 24-h LC 50 values of these purified compounds were 15.9, 27.0, and 97.0 mg/L, respectively. The results indicate that chemical compounds produced by A. artemisiifolia may be useful for population management of GAS in rice fields. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Gallery productivity, emergence, and flight activity of the redbay ambrosia beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maner, M Lake; Hanula, James L; Braman, S Kristine

    2013-08-01

    Flight and emergence of the redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff, were monitored from March 2011 through August 2012 using Lindgren funnel traps baited with manuka oil and emergence traps attached over individual beetle galleries on infested redbay (Persea borbonia (L.) Sprengel) trees. Of the 432 gallery entrances covered with emergence traps, 235 (54.4%) successfully produced at least two adults. Gallery success rates and time until adult emergence were highly variable and strongly depended on time of year galleries were initiated. Successful galleries produced 23.4 ± 2.50 (x ± SE) adult X. glabratus but one had 316 adults emerge from it. Galleries were active for an average of 231.9 ± 6.13 d but five were active for over 1 yr and one gallery produced beetles for 497 d. In total, 5,345 female and 196 males were collected during the study resulting in a sex ratio of ~27:1 (female:male) emerging from galleries. Ambrosia beetles other than X. glabratus were recovered from 18 galleries or ~4% of those studied. Beetles that attacked larger diameter trees were more likely to be successful and produce more brood. Lindgren trap captures reflected emergence trap collections but with a delay of about 1 mo between peaks in emergence and capture in traps. Peaks of activity occurred in fall 2011 and spring 2012, but at least some adult beetles were collected using both methods in every month of the year.

  19. Illumina sequencing of the chloroplast genome of common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erzsébet Nagy

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. is the most widespread weed and the most dangerous pollen allergenic plant in large areas of the temperate zone. Since herbicides like PSI and PSII inhibitors have their target genes in the chloroplast genome, understanding the chloroplast genome may indirectly support the exploration of herbicide resistance and development of novel control methods. The aim of the present study was to sequence and reconstruct for the chloroplast genome of A. artemisiifolia and establish a molecular dataset. We used an Illumina MiSeq protocol to sequence the chloroplast genome of isolated intact organelles of ragweed plants grown in our experimental garden. The assembled chloroplast genome was found to be 152,215 bp (GC: 37.6% in a quadripartite structure, where 80 protein coding genes, 30 tRNA and 4 rRNA genes were annotated in total. We also report the complete sequence of 114 genes encoded in A. artemisiifolia chloroplast genome supported by both MIRA and Velvet de novo assemblers and ordered to Helianthus annuus L. using the Geneious software. Keywords: Illumina sequencing, Chloroplast genome, cpDNA, Common ragweed, Ambrosia artemisiifolia

  20. Ambrosia Beetle (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) Species, Flight, and Attack on Living Eastern Cottonwood Trees.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coyle, D R; D.C. Booth: M.S. Wallace

    2005-12-01

    ABSTRACT In spring 2002, ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) infested an intensively managed 22-ha tree plantation on the upper coastal plain of South Carolina. Nearly 3,500 scolytids representing 28 species were captured in ethanol-baited traps from 18 June 2002 to 18 April 2004. More than 88% of total captures were exotic species. Five species [Dryoxylon onoharaensum (Murayama), Euwallacea validus (Eichhoff), Pseudopityophthorus minutissimus (Zimmermann), Xyleborus atratus Eichhoff, and Xyleborus impressus Eichhoff]) were collected in South Carolina for the first time. Of four tree species in the plantation, eastern cottonwood, Populus deltoides Bartram, was the only one attacked, with nearly 40% of the trees sustaining ambrosia beetle damage. Clone ST66 sustained more damage than clone S7C15. ST66 trees receiving fertilization were attacked more frequently than trees receiving irrigation, irrigation_fertilization, or controls, although the number of S7C15 trees attacked did not differ among treatments. The study location is near major shipping ports; our results demonstrate the necessity for intensive monitoring programs to determine the arrival, spread, ecology, and impact of exotic scolytids.

  1. Chlorination of uranium ore for extraction of uranium, thorium and radium and for pyrite removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skeaf, J.M.

    1979-01-01

    The high-temperature chlorination of uranium ore was investigated. The objective was to develop a process which is both economically viable and environmentally acceptable. Test work was directed toward obtaining high extractions of uranium, thorium and radium-226, as well as iron, sulphur and the rare earths, and consists of chlorinating samples of an Elliot Lake uranium ore at elevated temperatures and repulping the resulting calcine in dilute hydrochloric acid. The effect of temperature and chlorine throughput on the extraction of the various metals was investigated. The best conditions yielded extractions of uranium, iron and sulphur (all as chlorides) greater than 95 percent. Chlorine consumption varied between 6 and 16 percent by weight of the ore charge. (author)

  2. Pathogenic microorganisms survival in ambrosiaSobrevivência de micro-organismos patogênicos em ambrósia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Dias Timm

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Ambrosia is a kind of dulce de leche homemade with milk, eggs and sugar. It is usually sold in free markets and it is largely consumed in South America. Food contamination by pathogenic microorganisms can occur during the food processing, in distribution centers, in retail markets or in the consumer’s homes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the survival in ambrosia of main pathogenic microorganisms eventually transmitted by dairy products. Ambrosia fractions were experimentally contaminated with Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotype Typhimurium, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus. Analysis to evaluate the microorganisms’ viability were made after storage for 0, 1, 2, 3, 5, 10, 20 and 30 days. Salmonella and L. monocytogenes were recovered from all samples during the 30 days of study. E. coli O157:H7 was isolated until the tenth day and S. aureus until the third day. It was demonstrated that important pathogenic microorganisms are able to survive up to 30 days in ambrosia, which makes this product a potential carrier of food-borne diseases. This work is the first study about the possibility of ambrosia transmitting relevant public-health danger pathogenic microorganisms. Ambrosia é um tipo de doce de leite preparado artesanalmente com leite, ovos e açúcar, comumente comercializado em feiras livres e muito consumido na América do Sul. A contaminação de alimentos por microrganismos patogênicos pode ocorrer durante as etapas de processamento, nos centros de distribuição, no mercado varejista ou na casa do consumidor. O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a sobrevivência em ambrosia dos principais microrganismos patogênicos eventualmente transmitidos por leite e derivados. Alíquotas de ambrosia foram experimentalmente contaminadas com Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica sorotipo Typhimurium, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes e Staphylococcus aureus. Foram realizadas

  3. Provision by the uranium and uranium products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elagin, Yu.P.

    2005-01-01

    International uranium market is converted from the buyer market into the seller market. The prices of uranium are high and the market attempts to adapt to changing circumstances. The industry of uranium enrichment satisfies the increasing demands but should to increase ots capacities. On the whole the situation is not stable and every year may change the existing position [ru

  4. Uranium recovery from slags of metallic uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fornarolo, F.; Frajndlich, E.U.C.; Durazzo, M.

    2006-01-01

    The Center of the Nuclear Fuel of the Institute of Nuclear Energy Research - IPEN finished the program of attainment of fuel development for research reactors the base of Uranium Scilicet (U 3 Si 2 ) from Hexafluoride of Uranium (UF 6 ) with enrichment 20% in weight of 235 U. In the process of attainment of the league of U 3 Si 2 we have as Uranium intermediate product the metallic one whose attainment generates a slag contend Uranium. The present work shows the results gotten in the process of recovery of Uranium in slags of calcined slags of Uranium metallic. Uranium the metallic one is unstable, pyrophoricity and extremely reactive, whereas the U 3 O 8 is a steady oxide of low chemical reactivity, what it justifies the process of calcination of slags of Uranium metallic. The calcination of the Uranium slag of the metallic one in oxygen presence reduces Uranium metallic the U 3 O 8 . Experiments had been developed varying it of acid for Uranium control and excess, nitric molar concentration gram with regard to the stoichiometric leaching reaction of temperature of the leaching process. The 96,0% income proves the viability of the recovery process of slags of Uranium metallic, adopting it previous calcination of these slags in nitric way with low acid concentration and low temperature of leaching. (author)

  5. Partnerships Between Ambrosia Beetles and Fungi: Lineage-Specific Promiscuity Among Vectors of the Laurel Wilt Pathogen, Raffaelea lauricola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saucedo-Carabez, J R; Ploetz, Randy C; Konkol, J L; Carrillo, D; Gazis, R

    2018-04-20

    Nutritional mutualisms that ambrosia beetles have with fungi are poorly understood. Although these interactions were initially thought to be specific associations with a primary symbiont, there is increasing evidence that some of these fungi are associated with, and move among, multiple beetle partners. We examined culturable fungi recovered from mycangia of ambrosia beetles associated with trees of Persea humilis (silk bay, one site) and P. americana (avocado, six commercial orchards) that were affected by laurel wilt, an invasive disease caused by a symbiont, Raffaelea lauricola, of an Asian ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus. Fungi were isolated from 20 adult females of X. glabratus from silk bay and 70 each of Xyleborus affinis, Xyleborus bispinatus, Xyleborus volvulus, Xyleborinus saxesenii, and Xylosandrus crassiusculus from avocado. With partial sequences of ribosomal (LSU and SSU) and nuclear (β-tubulin) genes, one to several operational taxonomic units (OTUs) of fungi were identified in assayed individuals. Distinct populations of fungi were recovered from each of the examined beetle species. Raffaelea lauricola was present in all beetles except X. saxesenii and X. crassiusculus, and Raffaelea spp. predominated in Xyleborus spp. Raffaelea arxii, R. subalba, and R. subfusca were present in more than a single species of Xyleborus, and R. arxii was the most abundant symbiont in both X. affinis and X. volvulus. Raffaelea aguacate was detected for the first time in an ambrosia beetle (X. bispinatus). Yeasts (Ascomycota, Saccharomycotina) were found consistently in the mycangia of the examined beetles, and distinct, putatively co-adapted populations of these fungi were associated with each beetle species. Greater understandings are needed for how mycangia in ambrosia beetles interact with fungi, including yeasts which play currently underresearched roles in these insects.

  6. National Uranium Resource Evaluation: Durango Quadrangle, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theis, N.J.; Madson, M.E.; Rosenlund, G.C.; Reinhart, W.R.; Gardner, H.A.

    1981-06-01

    The Durango Quadrangle (2 0 ), Colorado, was evaluated using National Uranium Resource Evaluation criteria to determine environments favorable for uranium deposits. General reconnaissance, geologic and radiometric investigations, was augmented by detailed surface examination and radiometric and geochemical studies in selected areas. Eight areas favorable for uranium deposits were delineated. Favorable geologic environments include roscoelite-type vanadium-uranium deposits in the Placerville and Barlow Creek-Hermosa Creek districts, sandstone uranium deposits along Hermosa Creek, and vein uranium deposits in the Precambrian rocks of the Needle Mountains area and in the Paleozoic rocks of the Tuckerville and Piedra River Canyon areas. The major portions of the San Juan volcanic field, the San Juan Basin, and the San Luis Basin within the quadrangle were judged unfavorable. Due to lack of information, the roscoelite belt below 1000 ft (300 m), the Eolus Granite below 0.5 mi (0.8 km), and the Lake City caldera are unevaluated. The Precambrian Y melasyenite of Ute Creek and the Animas Formation within the Southern Ute Indian Reservation are unevaluated due to lack of access

  7. Uranium conversion; Urankonvertering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliver, Lena; Peterson, Jenny; Wilhelmsen, Katarina [Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI), Stockholm (Sweden)

    2006-03-15

    FOI, has performed a study on uranium conversion processes that are of importance in the production of different uranium compounds in the nuclear industry. The same conversion processes are of interest both when production of nuclear fuel and production of fissile material for nuclear weapons are considered. Countries that have nuclear weapons ambitions, with the intention to produce highly enriched uranium for weapons purposes, need some degree of uranium conversion capability depending on the uranium feed material available. This report describes the processes that are needed from uranium mining and milling to the different conversion processes for converting uranium ore concentrate to uranium hexafluoride. Uranium hexafluoride is the uranium compound used in most enrichment facilities. The processes needed to produce uranium dioxide for use in nuclear fuel and the processes needed to convert different uranium compounds to uranium metal - the form of uranium that is used in a nuclear weapon - are also presented. The production of uranium ore concentrate from uranium ore is included since uranium ore concentrate is the feed material required for a uranium conversion facility. Both the chemistry and principles or the different uranium conversion processes and the equipment needed in the processes are described. Since most of the equipment that is used in a uranium conversion facility is similar to that used in conventional chemical industry, it is difficult to determine if certain equipment is considered for uranium conversion or not. However, the chemical conversion processes where UF{sub 6} and UF{sub 4} are present require equipment that is made of corrosion resistant material.

  8. PRODUCTION OF URANIUM TETRACHLORIDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calkins, V.P.

    1958-12-16

    A process is descrlbed for the production of uranium tetrachloride by contacting uranlum values such as uranium hexafluoride, uranlum tetrafluoride, or uranium oxides with either aluminum chloride, boron chloride, or sodium alumlnum chloride under substantially anhydrous condltlons at such a temperature and pressure that the chlorldes are maintained in the molten form and until the uranium values are completely converted to uranlum tetrachloride.

  9. Uranium processing and properties

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Covers a broad spectrum of topics and applications that deal with uranium processing and the properties of uranium Offers extensive coverage of both new and established practices for dealing with uranium supplies in nuclear engineering Promotes the documentation of the state-of-the-art processing techniques utilized for uranium and other specialty metals

  10. Uranium enrichment plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagne, R.W.; Thomas, D.C.

    1977-01-01

    The status of existing uranium enrichment contracts in the US is reviewed and expected natural uranium requirements for existing domestic uranium enrichment contracts are evaluated. Uncertainty in natural uranium requirements associated with requirements-type and fixed-commitment type contracts is discussed along with implementation of variable tails assay

  11. Issues in uranium availability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schanz, J.J. Jr.; Adams, S.S.; Gordon, R.L.

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of this publication is to show the process by which information about uranium reserves and resources is developed, evaluated and used. The following three papers in this volume have been abstracted and indexed for the Energy Data Base: (1) uranium reserve and resource assessment; (2) exploration for uranium in the United States; (3) nuclear power, the uranium industry, and resource development

  12. Irradiated uranium reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gal, I.

    1961-12-01

    Task concerned with reprocessing of irradiated uranium covered the following activities: implementing the method and constructing the cell for uranium dissolving; implementing the procedure for extraction of uranium, plutonium and fission products from radioactive uranium solutions; studying the possibilities for using inorganic ion exchangers and adsorbers for separation of U, Pu and fission products

  13. Uranium enrichment plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, D.C.; Gagne, R.W.

    1978-01-01

    The following topics are covered: the status of the Government's existing uranium enrichment services contracts, natural uranium requirements based on the latest contract information, uncertainty in predicting natural uranium requirements based on uranium enrichment contracts, and domestic and foreign demand assumed in enrichment planning

  14. Uranium in surficial deposits and waters at Palmottu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahonen, L.; Blomqvist, R.; Ervanne, H.; Suksi, J.; Jaakkola, T.

    1994-01-01

    Occurrence of uranium in surficial formations in the vicinity of an underground U deposit was studied. Several water samples from the Lake Palmottu and nearby springs, three lake sediment cores and three peat cores were collected for the study. Uranium concentrations in the water samples varied from 1.4 to 6.9 mBq/l, reflecting the average concentration of near-surface waters in Finland. In some samples, however, the 234 U/ 238 U activity ratio and water chemistry suggest a partial mixing with deeper groundwaters. In the lake sediments, uranium concentrations increases from 53 Bq/kg in surface layer to five fold in the bottom layers deposited 9000 years ago. In peat cores large variations in uranium concentrations can be observed: from tens of Bq/kg to over 20 kBq/kg of peat ash. The large variation also in the 234 U/ 238 U activity ratio, from 0.79 to l.91, tends to indicate uranium migration to the peat from more than one uranium source. (orig.) (19 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.)

  15. McClean Lake. Site Guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-09-01

    Located over 700 kilometers northeast of Saskatoon, Areva's McClean Lake site is comprised of several uranium mines and one of the most technologically advanced uranium mills in the world - the only mill designed to process high-grade uranium ore without dilution. Areva has operated several open-pit uranium mines at the McClean Lake site, and is evaluating future mines at and near the site. The McClean Lake mill has recently undergone a multimillion-dollar upgrade and expansion, which has doubled its annual production capacity of uranium concentrate to 24 million pounds. It is the only facility in the world capable of processing high-grade uranium ore without diluting it. The mill processes the ore from the Cigar Lake mine, the world's second largest and highest-grade uranium mine. The McClean Lake site operates 365 days a year on a week-in/week-out rotation schedule for workers, over 50% of whom reside in northern Saskatchewan communities. Tailings are waste products resulting from milling uranium ore. This waste is made up of leach residue solids, waste solutions and chemical precipitates that are carefully engineered for long-term disposal. The TMF serves as the repository for all resulting tailings. This facility allows proper waste management, which minimizes potential adverse environmental effects. Mining projections indicate that the McClean Lake mill will produce tailings in excess of the existing capacity of the TMF. After evaluating a number of options, Areva has decided to pursue an expansion of this facility. Areva is developing the Surface Access Borehole Resource Extraction (SABRE) mining method, which uses a high-pressure water jet placed at the bottom of the drill hole to extract ore. Areva has conducted a series of tests with this method and is evaluating its potential for future mining operations. McClean Lake maintains its certification in ISO 14001 standards for environmental management and OHSAS 18001 standards for occupational health

  16. Reduction of uranium hexafluoride to uranium tetrafluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, I.S.; Do, J.B.; Choi, Y.D.; Park, M.H.; Yun, H.H.; Kim, E.H.; Kim, Y.W.

    1982-01-01

    The single step continuous reduction of uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ) to uranium tetrafluoride (UF 4 ) has been investigated. Heat required to initiate and maintain the reaction in the reactor is supplied by the highly exothermic reaction of hydrogen with a small amount of elemental fluorine which is added to the uranium hexafluoride stream. When gases uranium hexafluoride and hydrogen react in a vertical monel pipe reactor, the green product, UF 4 has 2.5g/cc in bulk density and is partly contaminated by incomplete reduction products (UF 5 ,U 2 F 9 ) and the corrosion product, presumably, of monel pipe of the reactor itself, but its assay (93% of UF 4 ) is acceptable for the preparation of uranium metal with magnesium metal. Remaining problems are the handling of uranium hexafluoride, which is easily clogging the flowmeter and gas feeding lines because of extreme sensitivity toward moisture, and a development of gas nozzel for free flow of uranium hexafluoride gas. (Author)

  17. The uranium deposits of Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    The principal types of uranium deposits in Ontario are carbonatites and fenites, alkalic volcanic rocks, pegiatites, calc-silicate rocks, pyritic quartz-pebble conglomerates, polymictic conglomerates and some pelitic rocks, and various 'pitchblende' deposits including late Precambrian unconformities, possibly late Precambrian diabase dikes, and other unconformities: carbonates, sandstones, lignites, and semi-pelitic rocks of middle and upper Precambrian age. Only red unzoned pegmatite and the pyritic quartz-pebble conglomerate have supported production. Ontario reasonably assured and estimated resources in the economic and subeconomic categories in 1977 amounted to 553 000 tonnes U, and 1977 production was 4000 tonnes U. Measured, indicated, and inferred resources in the Elliot Lake - Agnew Lake area are at least 400 000 tonnes U. The latter deposits are also a significant thorium resource. Geological features reflecting major changes in physics and chemistry are prime controls on distribution of uranium deposits. Geological province and subprovince boundaries, major faults, higher metamorphic grades, domain boundaries related to quartz monzonite batholiths, alkalic complexes, and the distribution of carbonate rocks are examples of such geological features

  18. Eficacia antibacteriana in vitro de marco (Ambrosia arborescens Mill.) y paico (Chenopodium ambrosioides L.) en una formulación cosmética

    OpenAIRE

    Ibarra Martínez, Marco Vinicio; Paredes Paredes, Erika Alejandra

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the in vitro antibacterial activity of Ambrosia arborescens Mill. and Chenopodium ambrosioides L. in a cosmetic formulation. To carry out this investigation, the first step was to perform the quality control of drugs and later, to get the essential oil of Chenopodium ambrosioides L. by steam distillation and to get the soft extract of Ambrosia arborescens Mill., by percolation. The test of disc diffusion sensitivity was performed by the use of different...

  19. Nuclear Avenue: “Cyclonic Development”, Abandonment, and Relations in Uranium City, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Boschman; Bill Bunn

    2018-01-01

    The rise and abandonment of Uranium City constitutes an environmental history yet to be fully evaluated by humanities scholars. 1982 marks the withdrawal of the Eldorado Corporation from the town and the shuttering of its uranium mines. The population declined to approximately 50 from its pre-1982 population of about 4000. This article is inspired by findings from the authors’ initial field visit. As Uranium City is accessible only by air or by winter roads across Lake Athabasca, the goal of ...

  20. Genesis of uranium- and gold-bearing Precambrian quartz-pebble conglomerates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, F.C.

    1982-01-01

    This workshop was held to examine the origins of uranium bearing placer deposits of South Africa, Canada and the United States in order that future prospectors who are seeking new sources for uranium fuels could profit by knowledge of the geological events believed to have led to known deposits. Detailed descriptions of the sedimentology, petrology and geochemistry of Witwatersrand gold reefs and Blind River - Elliot Lake Uranium deposits are provided

  1. Environmental impact of uranium mining and milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dory, A.B.

    1981-08-01

    The Atomic Energy Control Board is now involved from the early planning stages in the development of uranium mine/mill facilities. As a result, new facilities (including tailings management areas) are designed and developed to meet a high standard. The impact of the mines and tailings areas in the Elliot Lake area on ground and surface waters and air quality is discussed in detail

  2. International uranium production. An eastern Canadian perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albino, G.R.

    1984-01-01

    The Eastern Canadian perspective on uranium production is based on 30 years of continuous mining at Elliot Lake and on the experience of selling uranium over the same time period, mainly to export markets. In Ontario the orebodies are basically contiguous, being part of the same large formation. All the mining is underground. Ore grades are low, but economic extraction is improved by continuity and uniformity of grades, stable ground conditions, and the ability to mine and mill on a large scale. Mining is being carried out by two companies, Denison and Rio Algom. It is unlikely that mine capacity will be increased. Government policies have significant effects on the Eastern Canadian uranium industry in particular, as to U.S. import policies. (L.L.)

  3. RL-1: a certified uranium reference ore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steger, H.F.; Bowman, W.S.

    1985-06-01

    A 145-kg sample of a uranium ore from Rabbit Lake, Saskatchewan, has been prepared as a compositional reference material. RL-1 was ground to minus 74 μm and mixed in one lot. Approximately one half of this ore was bottled in 100-g units, the remainder being stored in bulk. The homogeneity of RL-1 with respect to uranium and nickel was confirmed by neutron activation and X-ray fluorescence analytical techniques. In a 'free choice' analytical program, 13 laboratories contributed results for one or more of uranium, nickel and arsenic in one bottle of RL-1. Based on a statistical analysis of the data, the following recommended values were assigned: U, 0.201%; Ni, 185 μg/g; and As, 19.6 μg/g

  4. Environmental impact of uranium mining and milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dory, A.B.

    1981-08-01

    The author introduces the subject with an overview of the regulatory requirments and philosophy applied to uranium mines and mills. The special attention given to tailings management is highlighted, and a discussion of the basic environmental concerns is concluded with an itemizing of the main tasks facing the AECB. The extent of the environmental impact of uranium mining, milling and waste management is illustrated with specific details pertaining to mines in the Elliot Lake area. The author concludes that the impact on the ground and surface water system is not alarming, and the impact on air quality is not significant beyond a few hundred metres from the mining facilities. The publicly perceived impact is discussed, followed by a rationale for the continued licensing of new uranium mining operations complete with tailings management facilities

  5. Sieben Jahre obligatorische Bekämpfung von Ambrosia artemisiifolia in der Schweiz - ein Erfahrungsbericht aus dem Kanton Zürich

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popow, Gabriel

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Ambrosia artemisiifolia is a quarantine-organisme in Switzerland, which has to be combated compulsary since 2006. For animal feed, a critical value of 10 seeds of ambrosia per kilogram is tolerated. The quality improvement of feed for birds and small animals has led to a considerable decrease of ambrosia plants in gardens and green areas. The determined regulation since 2006 has been reliable. Greater populations of ambrosia in arable land have been reduced realy soon due to a combination of crop rotation and soil cultivation. A reduction of 95 % has been achieved after three years and of some 99 % after five years. Only crops being harvested before end of August have been cultivated (cereals, colza or crops in which combating of ambrosia is possible (by applying potent mixture of herbicides in corn or by fertilizing intensively pastures of clover and grass. The very positiv result has been achieved due to strong actions at an early stage of the invasion of ambrosia.

  6. URANIUM DECONTAMINATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckingham, J.S.; Carroll, J.L.

    1959-12-22

    A process is described for reducing the extractability of ruthenium, zirconium, and niobium values into hexone contained in an aqueous nitric acid uranium-containing solution. The solution is made acid-deficient, heated to between 55 and 70 deg C, and at that temperature a water-soluble inorganic thiosulfate is added. By this, a precipitate is formed which carries the bulk of the ruthenium, and the remainder of the ruthenium as well as the zirconium and niobium are converted to a hexone-nonextractable form. The rutheniumcontaining precipitate can either be removed from the solu tion or it can be dissolved as a hexone-non-extractable compound by the addition of sodium dichromate prior to hexone extraction.

  7. Natural uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammerich, Marc; Frot, Patricia; Gambini, Denis-Jean; Gauron, Christine; Moureaux, Patrick; Herbelet, Gilbert; Lahaye, Thierry; Pihet, Pascal; Rannou, Alain

    2014-08-01

    This sheet belongs to a collection which relates to the use of radionuclides essentially in unsealed sources. Its goal is to gather on a single document the most relevant information as well as the best prevention practices to be implemented. These sheets are made for the persons in charge of radiation protection: users, radioprotection-skill persons, labor physicians. Each sheet treats of: 1 - the radio-physical and biological properties; 2 - the main uses; 3 - the dosimetric parameters; 4 - the measurement; 5 - the protection means; 6 - the areas delimitation and monitoring; 7 - the personnel classification, training and monitoring; 8 - the effluents and wastes; 9 - the authorization and declaration administrative procedures; 10 - the transport; and 11 - the right conduct to adopt in case of incident or accident. This sheet deals specifically with natural uranium

  8. Reports on investigations of uranium anomalies. National Uranium Resource Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodknight, C.S.; Burger, J.A.

    1982-10-01

    During the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) program, conducted for the US Department of Energy (DOE) by Bendix Field Engineering Corporation (BFEC), radiometric and geochemical surveys and geologic investigations detected anomalies indicative of possible uranium enrichment. Data from the Aerial Radiometric and Magnetic Survey (ARMS) and the Hydrogeochemical and Stream-Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR), both of which were conducted on a national scale, yielded numerous anomalies that may signal areas favorable for the occurrence of uranium deposits. Results from geologic evaluations of individual 1 0 x 2 0 quadrangles for the NURE program also yielded anomalies, which could not be adequately checked during scheduled field work. Included in this volume are individual reports of field investigations for the following six areas which were shown on the basis of ARMS, HSSR, and (or) geologic data to be anomalous: (1) Hylas zone and northern Richmond basin, Virginia; (2) Sischu Creek area, Alaska; (3) Goodman-Dunbar area, Wisconsin; (4) McCaslin syncline, Wisconsin; (5) Mt. Withington Cauldron, Socorro County, New Mexico; (6) Lake Tecopa, Inyo County, California. Field checks were conducted in each case to verify an indicated anomalous condition and to determine the nature of materials causing the anomaly. The ultimate objective of work is to determine whether favorable conditions exist for the occurrence of uranium deposits in areas that either had not been previously evaluated or were evaluated before data from recent surveys were available. Most field checks were of short duration (2 to 5 days). The work was done by various investigators using different procedures, which accounts for variations in format in their reports. All papers have been abstracted and indexed

  9. Uranium management activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, D.; Marshall, E.; Sideris, T.; Vasa-Sideris, S.

    2001-01-01

    One of the missions of the Department of Energy's (DOE) Oak Ridge Office (ORO) has been the management of the Department's uranium materials. This mission has been accomplished through successful integration of ORO's uranium activities with the rest of the DOE complex. Beginning in the 1980's, several of the facilities in that complex have been shut down and are in the decommissioning process. With the end of the Cold War, the shutdown of many other facilities is planned. As a result, inventories of uranium need to be removed from the Department facilities. These inventories include highly enriched uranium (HEU), low enriched uranium (LEU), normal uranium (NU), and depleted uranium (DU). The uranium materials exist in different chemical forms, including metals, oxides, solutions, and gases. Much of the uranium in these inventories is not needed to support national priorities and programs. (author)

  10. Uranium industry annual 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The Uranium Industry Annual 1994 (UIA 1994) provides current statistical data on the US uranium industry's activities relating to uranium raw materials and uranium marketing during that survey year. The UIA 1994 is prepared for use by the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the uranium and nuclear electric utility industries, and the public. It contains data for the 10-year period 1985 through 1994 as collected on the Form EIA-858, ''Uranium Industry Annual Survey.'' Data collected on the ''Uranium Industry Annual Survey'' (UIAS) provide a comprehensive statistical characterization of the industry's activities for the survey year and also include some information about industry's plans and commitments for the near-term future. Where aggregate data are presented in the UIA 1994, care has been taken to protect the confidentiality of company-specific information while still conveying accurate and complete statistical data. A feature article, ''Comparison of Uranium Mill Tailings Reclamation in the United States and Canada,'' is included in the UIA 1994. Data on uranium raw materials activities including exploration activities and expenditures, EIA-estimated resources and reserves, mine production of uranium, production of uranium concentrate, and industry employment are presented in Chapter 1. Data on uranium marketing activities, including purchases of uranium and enrichment services, and uranium inventories, enrichment feed deliveries (actual and projected), and unfilled market requirements are shown in Chapter 2

  11. Uranium industry annual 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The Uranium Industry Annual 1998 (UIA 1998) provides current statistical data on the US uranium industry's activities relating to uranium raw materials and uranium marketing. It contains data for the period 1989 through 2008 as collected on the Form EIA-858, ''Uranium Industry Annual Survey.'' Data provides a comprehensive statistical characterization of the industry's activities for the survey year and also include some information about industry's plans and commitments for the near-term future. Data on uranium raw materials activities for 1989 through 1998, including exploration activities and expenditures, EIA-estimated reserves, mine production of uranium, production of uranium concentrate, and industry employment, are presented in Chapter 1. Data on uranium marketing activities for 1994 through 2008, including purchases of uranium and enrichment services, enrichment feed deliveries, uranium fuel assemblies, filled and unfilled market requirements, and uranium inventories, are shown in Chapter 2. The methodology used in the 1998 survey, including data edit and analysis, is described in Appendix A. The methodologies for estimation of resources and reserves are described in Appendix B. A list of respondents to the ''Uranium Industry Annual Survey'' is provided in Appendix C. The Form EIA-858 ''Uranium Industry Annual Survey'' is shown in Appendix D. For the readers convenience, metric versions of selected tables from Chapters 1 and 2 are presented in Appendix E along with the standard conversion factors used. A glossary of technical terms is at the end of the report. 24 figs., 56 tabs

  12. Eucalyptol is an attractant of the Redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhns, Emily H; Martini, Xavier; Tribuiani, Yolani; Coy, Monique; Gibbard, Christopher; Peña, Jorge; Hulcr, Jiri; Stelinski, Lukasz L

    2014-04-01

    The redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus, is an invasive wood-boring beetle that has become established in the southeastern United States. The beetle transmits the causal pathogen of lethal laurel wilt to susceptible host trees, which include redbay, an important forest community species, and avocado, a valuable food crop. By examining odors of redbay wood, we developed an artificial lure that captured X. glabratus in redbay forests. Eucalyptol was a critical component of the blend for beetle attraction, and eucalyptol alone in large quantities attracted X. glabratus. Furthermore, eucalyptol stimulated boring by X. glabratus into paper arenas. The results suggest that eucalyptol contributes to host selection behavior of X. glabratus and may be useful for management of this pathogen vector.

  13. Non-Native Ambrosia Beetles as Opportunistic Exploiters of Living but Weakened Trees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher M Ranger

    Full Text Available Exotic Xylosandrus spp. ambrosia beetles established in non-native habitats have been associated with sudden and extensive attacks on a diverse range of living trees, but factors driving their shift from dying/dead hosts to living and healthy ones are not well understood. We sought to characterize the role of host physiological condition on preference and colonization by two invaders, Xylosandrus germanus and Xylosandrus crassiusculus. When given free-choice under field conditions among flooded and non-flooded deciduous tree species of varying intolerance to flooding, beetles attacked flood-intolerant tree species over more tolerant species within 3 days of initiating flood stress. In particular, flood-intolerant flowering dogwood (Cornus florida sustained more attacks than flood-tolerant species, including silver maple (Acer saccharinum and swamp white oak (Quercus bicolor. Ethanol, a key host-derived attractant, was detected at higher concentrations 3 days after initiating flooding within stems of flood intolerant species compared to tolerant and non-flooded species. A positive correlation was also detected between ethanol concentrations in stem tissue and cumulative ambrosia beetle attacks. When adult X. germanus and X. crassiusculus were confined with no-choice to stems of flood-stressed and non-flooded C. florida, more ejected sawdust resulting from tunneling activity was associated with the flood-stressed trees. Furthermore, living foundresses, eggs, larvae, and pupae were only detected within galleries created in stems of flood-stressed trees. Despite a capability to attack diverse tree genera, X. germanus and X. crassiusculus efficiently distinguished among varying host qualities and preferentially targeted trees based on their intolerance of flood stress. Non-flooded trees were not preferred or successfully colonized. This study demonstrates the host-selection strategy exhibited by X. germanus and X. crassiusculus in non-native habitats

  14. Uranium health physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    This report contains the papers delivered at the Summer School on Uranium Health Physics held in Pretoria on the 14 and 15 April 1980. The following topics were discussed: uranium producton in South Africa; radiation physics; internal dosimetry and radiotoxicity of long-lived uranium isotopes; uranium monitoring; operational experience on uranium monitoring; dosimetry and radiotoxicity of inhaled radon daughters; occupational limits for inhalation of radon-222, radon-220 and their short-lived daughters; radon monitoring techniques; radon daughter dosimeters; operational experience on radon monitoring; and uranium mill tailings management

  15. Uranium: one utility's outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gass, C.B.

    1983-01-01

    The perspective of the Arizona Public Service Company (APS) on the uncertainty of uranium as a fuel supply is discussed. After summarizing the history of nuclear power and the uranium industries, a projection is made for the future uranium market. An uncrtain uranium market is attributed to various determining factors that include international politics, production costs, non-commercial government regulation, production-company stability, and questionable levels of uranium sales. APS offers its solutions regarding type of contract, choice of uranium producers, pricing mechanisms, and aids to the industry as a whole. 5 references, 10 figures, 1 table

  16. Liquefaction of uranium tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-02-01

    Numerical methods for assessing the liquefaction potential of soils are reviewed with a view to their application to uranium tailings. The method can be divided into two categories: total stress analysis, where changes in pore pressure are not considered in the soil model, and effective stress analysis, where changes in pore pressure are included in the soil model. Effective stress analysis is more realistic, but few computer programs exist for such analysis in two or three dimensions. A simple linearized, two-dimensional, finite element effective stress analysis which incorporates volumetric compaction due to shear motion is described and implemented. The new program is applied to the assessment of liquefaction potential of tailings in the Quirke Mine tailings area near Elliot Lake, Ontario. The results are compared with those of a total stress analysis. Both analyses indicate liquefaction would occur if a magnitude 6.0 earthquake were to occur near the area. However, the extent of liquefaction predicted by the effective stress analysis is much less than that predicted by the total stress analysis. The results of both methods are sensitive to assumed material properties and to the method used to determine the cyclic shear strength of the tailings. Further analysis, incorporating more in situ and/or laboratory data, is recommended before conclusions can be made concerning the dynamic stability of these tailings

  17. LIMNOLOGY, LAKE BASINS, LAKE WATERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petre GÂŞTESCU

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Limnology is a border discipline between geography, hydrology and biology, and is also closely connected with other sciences, from it borrows research methods. Physical limnology (the geography of lakes, studies lake biotopes, and biological limnology (the biology of lakes, studies lake biocoenoses. The father of limnology is the Swiss scientist F.A. Forel, the author of a three-volume entitled Le Leman: monographie limnologique (1892-1904, which focuses on the geology physics, chemistry and biology of lakes. He was also author of the first textbook of limnology, Handbuch der Seenkunde: allgemeine Limnologie,(1901. Since both the lake biotope and its biohydrocoenosis make up a single whole, the lake and lakes, respectively, represent the most typical systems in nature. They could be called limnosystems (lacustrine ecosystems, a microcosm in itself, as the American biologist St.A. Forbes put it (1887.

  18. Weathering and evaporation controls on dissolved uranium concentrations in groundwater - A case study from northern Burundi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, V E A; Vassolo, S I; Tiberghien, C; Baranyikwa, D; Miburo, D

    2017-12-31

    The potential use of groundwater for potable water supply can be severely compromised by natural contaminants such as uranium. The environmental mobility of uranium depends on a suite of factors including aquifer lithology, redox conditions, complexing agents, and hydrological processes. Uranium concentrations of up to 734μg/L are found in groundwater in northern Burundi, and the objective of the present study was to identify the causes for these elevated concentrations. Based on a comprehensive data set of groundwater chemistry, geology, and hydrological measurements, it was found that the highest dissolved uranium concentrations in groundwater occur near the shores of Lake Tshohoha South and other smaller lakes nearby. A model is proposed in which weathering and evapotranspiration during groundwater recharge, flow and discharge exert the dominant controls on the groundwater chemical composition. Results of PHREEQC simulations quantitatively confirm this conceptual model and show that uranium mobilization followed by evapo-concentration is the most likely explanation for the high dissolved uranium concentrations observed. The uranium source is the granitic sand, which was found to have a mean elemental uranium content of 14ppm, but the exact mobilization process could not be established. Uranium concentrations may further be controlled by adsorption, especially where calcium-uranyl‑carbonate complexes are present. Water and uranium mass balance calculations for Lake Tshohoha South are consistent with the inferred fluxes and show that high‑uranium groundwater represents only a minor fraction of the overall water input to the lake. These findings highlight that the evaporation effects that cause radionuclide concentrations to rise to harmful levels in groundwater discharge areas are not only confined to arid regions, and that this should be considered when selecting suitable locations for water supply wells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Effets de dix traitements sur la germination des akènes d'Ambrosia maritima L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schafer, JL.

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of ten treatments on the germination of Ambrosia maritima L. seeds. Stratification of Ambrosia maritima seeds at + 10°C for 7 days appeared to be the best practical method to break their embryonic dormancy with 80 % germination occuring 18 days following the treatment, compared to 17 % for the control. This experiment confirms the susceptibility of embryonic dormancy to low temperatures. Treatments with waterat + 80°C or concentrated H2S04 for 15 mn and mechanical treatments eliminating the inhibition effect of seed integuments also gave higher results (43 to 53 % germination rate. However, germination in the control group was significantly higher than in the group of seeds subjected to dry heat. Although the first results obtained on the field from these trials were satisfactory, further research is needed to confirm them.

  20. Simple and Efficient Trap for Bark and Ambrosia Beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) to Facilitate Invasive Species Monitoring and Citizen Involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steininger, M S; Hulcr, J; Šigut, M; Lucky, A

    2015-06-01

    Bark and ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae & Platypodinae) are among the most damaging forest pests worldwide, and monitoring is essential to damage prevention. Unfortunately, traps and attractants that are currently used are costly, and agencies rely on limited field personnel for deployment. The situation can be greatly aided by 1) the development of cost-effective trapping techniques, and 2) distribution of the effort through the Citizen Science approach. The goal of this study was to test a simple, effective trap that can be made and deployed by anyone interested in collecting bark and ambrosia beetles. Three trap types made from 2-liter soda bottles and, separately, four attractants were compared. Simple, one-window traps performed comparably at capturing species in traps painted or with multiple windows. A comparison of attractants in two-window traps found that 95% ethanol attracted the highest number of species but that Purell hand sanitizer (70% ethanol) and then Germ-X hand sanitizer (63% ethanol) were also effective. A perforated zip-top plastic bag containing Purell hanging over a trap filled with automobile antifreeze attracted the fewest species and individual specimens. Overall, >4,500 bark and ambrosia beetles, including 30 species were captured, representing a third of the regional species diversity. More than three quarters of the specimens were nonnative, representing nearly half of the known regional exotic species. These results suggest that simple one-window soda bottle traps baited with ethanol-based hand sanitizer will be effective and inexpensive tools for large-scale monitoring of bark and ambrosia beetles. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Two newly introduced tropical bark and ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) damaging figs (Ficus carica) in southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faccoli, Massimo; Campo, Giuseppe; Perrotta, Giancarlo; Rassati, Davide

    2016-07-14

    In summer 2014, the bark beetle Hypocryphalus scabricollis (Eichhoff) and the ambrosia beetle Xyleborus bispinatus Eichhoff, species new to Italy and Europe, respectively, were found for the first time in south-eastern Sicily (Italy). Large infestations of the two species were recorded in many plantations of common fig (Ficus carica L.) both in 2014 and 2015. Data concerning insect characteristics, taxonomy, and distribution are briefly reported.

  2. International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) national favourability studies: Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-08-01

    Exploration for mineral deposits in Canada resulted in the discovery of large uranium deposits, such as at Great. Bear Lake, Northwest Territories (1930), in the Elliot Lake area, Ontario (1949); Beaverlodge, Wollaston Lake Fold Belt and Carswell Structure in Saskatchewan (1946-1975) and many uranium occurrences in the Canadian Shield, in the Orogenic Belts and in the Platforms. Uranium output in Canada since 1942 until and including 1976 amounted to 112,000 tonnes U. Reasonably Assured uranium resources as of 1976 amounted to 167,000 tonnes U (at a price up to $40/lb. U 3 0 8 ) and 15,000 tonnes U (at a price more than $40 up to $60/lb. U 3 O 8 ). Estimated Additional uranium resources as of 1976 amounted to 392,000 tonnes U (at a price up to $40/lb. U-Og) and 264,000 tonnes U (at a price more than $40 up to $60/lb. U 3 0 8 ). Possible further potential beyond the above mentioned classes is tentatively estimated to be in the 6th category according to NEA/IAEA favourability classification. (author)

  3. Uranium Processing Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — An integral part of Y‑12's transformation efforts and a key component of the National Nuclear Security Administration's Uranium Center of Excellence, the Uranium...

  4. Price of military uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klimenko, A.V.

    1998-01-01

    The theoretical results about optimum strategy of use of military uranium confirmed by systems approach accounts are received. The numerical value of the system approach price of the highly enriched military uranium also is given

  5. Uranium in Niger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabelmann, E.

    1978-03-01

    This document presents government policy in the enhancement of uranium resources, existing mining companies and their productions, exploitation projects and economical outcome related to the uranium mining and auxiliary activities [fr

  6. Uranium mining in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    Known uranium deposits and the companies involved in uranium mining and exploration in Australia are listed. The status of the development of the deposits is outlined and reasons for delays to mining are given

  7. Uranium from phosphate ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurst, F.J.

    1983-01-01

    The following topics are described briefly: the way phosphate fertilizers are made; how uranium is recovered in the phosphate industry; and how to detect covert uranium recovery operations in a phsophate plant

  8. Industrial realities: Uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiron, H.

    1990-01-01

    In this special issue are examined ores and metals in France and in the world for 1988. The chapter on uranium gives statistical data on the uranium market: Demand, production, prices and reserves [fr

  9. Uranium mining in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    The mining of uranium in Australia is criticised in relation to it's environmental impact, economics and effects on mine workers and Aborigines. A brief report is given on each of the operating and proposed uranium mines in Australia

  10. Uranium: the recalcitrant commodity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowson, P.C.F.

    1989-01-01

    During the past year dollar prices of virtually every mineral commodity have risen considerably on the back of strong demand, falling stocks and rising capacity utilization. Uranium has experienced the same economic influences, but measures of conditions in uranium spot markets display drift and even further decline. Does this mean that uranium is not really a commodity after all, or have special factors been at work? Some of the economic features of the uranium market are re-examined in this context. (author)

  11. Uranium in fossil bones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koul, S.L.

    1978-01-01

    An attempt has been made to determine the uranium content and thus the age of certain fossil bones Haritalyangarh (Himachal Pradesh), India. The results indicate that bones rich in apatite are also rich in uranium, and that the radioactivity is due to radionuclides in the uranium series. The larger animals apparently have a higher concentration of uranium than the small. The dating of a fossil jaw (elephant) places it in the Pleistocene. (Auth.)

  12. PREPARATION OF URANIUM HEXAFLUORIDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawroski, S.; Jonke, A.A.; Steunenberg, R.K.

    1959-10-01

    A process is described for preparing uranium hexafluoride from carbonate- leach uranium ore concentrate. The briquetted, crushed, and screened concentrate is reacted with hydrogen fluoride in a fluidized bed, and the uranium tetrafluoride formed is mixed with a solid diluent, such as calcium fluoride. This mixture is fluorinated with fluorine and an inert diluent gas, also in a fluidized bed, and the uranium hexafluoride obtained is finally purified by fractional distillation.

  13. Radiation damage of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazarevic, Dj.

    1966-11-01

    Study of radiation damage covered the following: Kinetics of electric resistance of uranium and uranium alloy with 1% of molybdenum dependent on the second phase and burnup rate; Study of gas precipitation and diffusion of bubbles by transmission electron microscopy; Numerical analysis of the influence of defects distribution and concentration on the rare gas precipitation in uranium; study of thermal sedimentation of uranium alloy with molybdenum; diffusion of rare gas in metal by gas chromatography method

  14. Uranium mining in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackay, G.A.

    1978-01-01

    Western world requirements for uranium based on increasing energy consumption and a changing energy mix, will warrant the development of Australia's resources. By 1985 Australian mines could be producing 9500 tonnes of uranium oxide yearly and by 1995 the export value from uranium could reach that from wool. In terms of benefit to the community the economic rewards are considerable but, in terms of providing energy to the world, Australias uranium is vital

  15. Method for converting uranium oxides to uranium metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duerksen, W.K.

    1988-01-01

    A method for converting uranium oxide to uranium metal is described comprising the steps of heating uranium oxide in the presence of a reducing agent to a temperature sufficient to reduce the uranium oxide to uranium metal and form a heterogeneous mixture of a uranium metal product and oxide by-products, heating the mixture in a hydrogen atmosphere at a temperature sufficient to convert uranium metal in the mixture to uranium hydride, cooling the resulting uranium hydride-containing mixture to a temperature sufficient to produce a ferromagnetic transition in the uranium hydride, magnetically separating the cooled uranium hydride from the mixture, and thereafter heating the separated uranium hydride in an inert atmosphere to a temperature sufficient to convert the uranium hydride to uranium metal

  16. Australian uranium today

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisk, B.

    1978-01-01

    The subject is covered in sections, entitled: Australia's resources; Northern Territory uranium in perspective; the government's decision [on August 25, 1977, that there should be further development of uranium under strictly controlled conditions]; Government legislation; outlook [for the Australian uranium mining industry]. (U.K.)

  17. Uranium resources, 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    The specific character of uranium as energy resources, the history of development of uranium resources, the production and reserve of uranium in the world, the prospect regarding the demand and supply of uranium, Japanese activity of exploring uranium resources in foreign countries and the state of development of uranium resources in various countries are reported. The formation of uranium deposits, the classification of uranium deposits and the reserve quantity of each type are described. As the geological environment of uranium deposits, there are six types, that is, quartz medium gravel conglomerate deposit, the deposit related to the unconformity in Proterozoic era, the dissemination type magma deposit, pegmatite deposit and contact deposit in igneaus rocks and metamorphic rocks, vein deposit, sandstone type deposit and the other types of deposit. The main features of respective types are explained. The most important uranium resources in Japan are those in the Tertiary formations, and most of the found reserve belongs to this type. The geological features, the state of yield and the scale of the deposits in Ningyotoge, Tono and Kanmon Mesozoic formation are reported. Uranium minerals, the promising districts in the world, and the matters related to the exploration and mining of uranium are described. (Kako, I.)

  18. Recycling of reprocessed uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randl, R.P.

    1987-01-01

    Since nuclear power was first exploited in the Federal Republic of Germany, the philosophy underlying the strategy of the nuclear fuel cycle has been to make optimum use of the resource potential of recovered uranium and plutonium within a closed fuel cycle. Apart from the weighty argument of reprocessing being an important step in the treatment and disposal of radioactive wastes, permitting their optimum ecological conditioning after the reprocessing step and subsequent storage underground, another argument that, no doubt, carried weight was the possibility of reducing the demand of power plants for natural uranium. In recent years, strategies of recycling have emerged for reprocessed uranium. If that energy potential, too, is to be exploited by thermal recycling, it is appropriate to choose a slightly different method of recycling from the one for plutonium. While the first generation of reprocessed uranium fuel recycled in the reactor cuts down natural uranium requirement by some 15%, the recycling of a second generation of reprocessed, once more enriched uranium fuel helps only to save a further three per cent of natural uranium. Uranium of the second generation already carries uranium-232 isotope, causing production disturbances, and uranium-236 isotope, causing disturbances of the neutron balance in the reactor, in such amounts as to make further fabrication of uranium fuel elements inexpedient, even after mixing with natural uranium feed. (orig./UA) [de

  19. Uranium energy dependence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erkes, P.

    1981-06-01

    Uranium supply and demand as projected by the Uranium Institute is discussed. It is concluded that for the industrialized countries, maximum energy independence is a necessity. Hence it is necessary to achieve assurance of supply for uranium used in thermal power reactors in current programs and eventually to move towards breeders

  20. PROCESS OF RECOVERING URANIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, J.M.; Larson, C.E.

    1958-10-01

    A process is presented for recovering uranium values from calutron deposits. The process consists in treating such deposits to produce an oxidlzed acidic solution containing uranium together with the following imparities: Cu, Fe, Cr, Ni, Mn, Zn. The uranium is recovered from such an impurity-bearing solution by adjusting the pH of the solution to the range 1.5 to 3.0 and then treating the solution with hydrogen peroxide. This results in the precipitation of uranium peroxide which is substantially free of the metal impurities in the solution. The peroxide precipitate is then separated from the solution, washed, and calcined to produce uranium trioxide.

  1. High loading uranium plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiencek, T.C.; Domagala, R.F.; Thresh, H.R.

    1990-01-01

    Two embodiments of a high uranium fuel plate are disclosed which contain a meat comprising structured uranium compound confined between a pari of diffusion bonded ductile metal cladding plates uniformly covering the meat, the meat hiving a uniform high fuel loading comprising a content of uranium compound greater than about 45 Vol. % at a porosity not greater than about 10 Vol. %. In a first embodiment, the meat is a plurality of parallel wires of uranium compound. In a second embodiment, the meat is a dispersion compact containing uranium compound. The fuel plates are fabricated by a hot isostatic pressing process

  2. URANIUM SEPARATION PROCESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, E.K.; Katzin, L.I.; Wolf, M.J.

    1959-07-14

    The separation of uranium from a mixture of uranium and thorium by organic solvent extraction from an aqueous solution is described. The uranium is separrted from an aqueous mixture of uranium and thorium nitrates 3 N in nitric acid and containing salting out agents such as ammonium nitrate, so as to bring ihe total nitrate ion concentration to a maximum of about 8 N by contacting the mixture with an immiscible aliphatic oxygen containing organic solvent such as diethyl carbinol, hexone, n-amyl acetate and the like. The uranium values may be recovered from the organic phase by back extraction with water.

  3. Uranium uptake by plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, K.P.

    1997-01-01

    This paper highlights the transport of uranium present in the soil to plants. An increase in the uranium content in soil enhances its transport in various parts of plants. The transport of uranium from the soil to the grain follows the order: black gram>maize>lentil>chick-pea>rice>wheat. In certain vegetables and fruits, this order is: spinach>carrot>radish> brinjal>banana>tomato>beet. In vegetables and fruits, the stem reflects minimum percentage of uranium present in the soil. The uranium transport is appreciably high in arecanut plant. The chances of uranium transport to the human organs, are expected to be more through consumption of crops grown in uranium-rich soil. (author)

  4. Key Lake, a model of Canadian development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Runnalls, O.J.C.

    1987-01-01

    Canada ranks among the world's top four countries in terms of measured, indicated, and inferred uranium resources. Since 1984, Canada has been the world's largest uranium producer providing some 30% of the world's total. An important reason for this strong position is related to the discovery of high-grade near-surface uranium deposits in northern Saskatchewan in 1968 and subsequently. The history of the discovery of one such deposit near Key Lake made by the German-controlled Uranerz Exploration and Mining Limited is recounted briefly. The Key Lake mine became operational in 1983 and currently is the largest uranium-producing facility in the world. At present, less than 20% of the country's annual uranium output of approximately 11,000 tonnes U is required to provide fuel for the domestic nuclear power program. The excess, more than 9000 tonnes U annually, is planned to be exported abroad, primarily to customers in Western Europe, Eastern Asia and the United States. Given its strong resource base, large-scale exports from Canada should continue well into the next century. (orig.) [de

  5. Summertime nocturnal drainage flow in the San Mateo and Ambrosia lake air sheds of the grants basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gedayloo, T.; Barr, S.; Clements, W.E.; Wilson, S.K.

    1979-01-01

    An initial study of some fundamental meteorological properties of two major air sheds in the Grants Basin of northwestern New Mexico was conducted from May 18 to September 19, 1978. Three mechanical weather stations were used in conjunction with a few vertical wind soundings to develop a data set for the summer regime. Data collected between May 18 and July 30 is analyzed to investigate nocturnal drainage flows, daytime flows, and channeling of synoptic wind. Drainage wind averaging 2.5 m s -1 was found to exist in a surface layer not greater than 200 m deep on 60% of the nights investigated. This frequently occurring drainage flow is characterized by a strong decoupling from the upper level winds. Daytime winds, on the other hand, are representative of the synoptic flow patterns suggesting a rather rapid coupling after sunrise

  6. Geology of hydrothermal uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korolev, K.G.; Belov, V.K.; Putilov, G.S.

    1983-01-01

    Geological characteristics of hydrothermal phosphorus-uranium deposits placed in sedimentary, igneous-sedimentary, metamorphic and intrusion formations are presented. Attention is paid to mineral composition, texture and structure of ores, their genesis, tectonics. Geochemical peculiarities of ores and age of molybdenum-uranium and uranium deposits are described. Geological criteria and prospecting features of uranium and uranium-molybdenum deposits are given

  7. Recent activities and trend in the uranium market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwasny, R.; Aul, F.; Lohrey, K.

    2007-01-01

    Concerns about the impact of hydrocarbon use on climate and global warming are significantly growing. Furthermore, we are all well aware that security of supply is increasingly an issue. In this context, it is now principally recognised that nuclear energy has to be back on the agenda. All in all, the prospects for the nuclear power industry and thus for the uranium activities is very positive for the coming years. The changes that have taken place in the international uranium market during the past several years are remarkable. Since 2002, the uranium prices have increased more than tenfold. The spot market price of uranium began an increase from about USD 9/lb U 3 O 8 in mid 2001 following a fire at the Olympic Dam mill (Australia) in October 2001 and was propelled in subsequent years by a series of interrupting events, such as the mine shaft flooding at the McArthur River mine (Canada) in April 2003, the threat of the early shutdown of the Roessing mine (Namibia) and the Ranger mine (Australia) in 2003, the decision of Techsnabexport (Tenex, Russia) in October 2003 to terminate sales of UF6 to the US trading company Globe Nuclear Services and Supply GNSS Ltd. (GNSS), and finally the complete flooding at the developing Cigar Lake mine (Canada) in October 2006. With the emergence of hedge funds and investors, that began in late 2004, increased uranium demand and upward pressure on market prices were further stimulated. What about the recent events and trends in the uranium industry? Are the uranium producers and the utilities well prepared to meet all the challenges associated with developments in the uranium business? And what about the risks, uncertainties and other factors that could affect the developments in the uranium industry and uranium markets? (orig.)

  8. Recent activities and trend in the uranium market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwasny, R.; Aul, F.; Lohrey, K. [NUKEM GmbH, Alzenau (Germany)

    2007-11-15

    Concerns about the impact of hydrocarbon use on climate and global warming are significantly growing. Furthermore, we are all well aware that security of supply is increasingly an issue. In this context, it is now principally recognised that nuclear energy has to be back on the agenda. All in all, the prospects for the nuclear power industry and thus for the uranium activities is very positive for the coming years. The changes that have taken place in the international uranium market during the past several years are remarkable. Since 2002, the uranium prices have increased more than tenfold. The spot market price of uranium began an increase from about USD 9/lb U{sub 3}O{sub 8} in mid 2001 following a fire at the Olympic Dam mill (Australia) in October 2001 and was propelled in subsequent years by a series of interrupting events, such as the mine shaft flooding at the McArthur River mine (Canada) in April 2003, the threat of the early shutdown of the Roessing mine (Namibia) and the Ranger mine (Australia) in 2003, the decision of Techsnabexport (Tenex, Russia) in October 2003 to terminate sales of UF6 to the US trading company Globe Nuclear Services and Supply GNSS Ltd. (GNSS), and finally the complete flooding at the developing Cigar Lake mine (Canada) in October 2006. With the emergence of hedge funds and investors, that began in late 2004, increased uranium demand and upward pressure on market prices were further stimulated. What about the recent events and trends in the uranium industry? Are the uranium producers and the utilities well prepared to meet all the challenges associated with developments in the uranium business? And what about the risks, uncertainties and other factors that could affect the developments in the uranium industry and uranium markets? (orig.)

  9. Uranium of Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsalyuk, Yu.; Gurevich, D.

    2000-01-01

    Over 25 % of the world's uranium reserves are concentrated in Kazakhstan. So, the world's largest Shu-Sarysu uranium province is situated on southern Kazakhstan, with resources exceeding 1 billion tonnes of uranium. No less, than 3 unique deposits with resources exceeding 100,000 tonnes are situated here. From the economic point of view the most important thing is that these deposits are suitable for in-situ leaching, which is the cheapest, environmentally friendly and most efficient method available for uranium extracting. In 1997 the Kazatomprom National Joint-Stock Company united all Kazakhstan's uranium enterprises (3 mine and concentrating plants, Volkovgeologiya Joint-Stock Company and the Ulbinskij Metallurgical plant). In 1998 uranium production came to 1,500 tonnes (860 kg in 1997). In 1999 investment to the industry were about $ 30 million. Plans for development of Kazakhstan's uranium industry provide a significant role for foreign partners. At present, 2 large companies (Comeco (Canada), Cogema (France) working in Kazakhstan. Kazakatomprom continues to attract foreign investors. The company's administration announced that in that in next year they have plan to make a radical step: to sell 67 % of stocks to strategic investors (at present 100 % of stocks belongs to state). Authors of the article regard, that the Kazakhstan's uranium industry still has significant reserves to develop. Even if the scenario for the uranium industry could be unfavorable, uranium production in Kazakhstan may triple within the next three to four years. The processing of uranium by the Ulbinskij Metallurgical Plant and the production of some by-products, such as rhenium, vanadium and rare-earth elements, may provide more profits. Obviously, the sale of uranium (as well as of any other reserves) cannot make Kazakhstan a prosperous country. However, country's uranium industry has a god chance to become one of the most important and advanced sectors of national economy

  10. Bioremediation of uranium contamination with enzymatic uranium reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovley, D.R.; Phillips, E.J.P.

    1992-01-01

    Enzymatic uranium reduction by Desulfovibrio desulfuricans readily removed uranium from solution in a batch system or when D. desulfuricans was separated from the bulk of the uranium-containing water by a semipermeable membrane. Uranium reduction continued at concentrations as high as 24 mM. Of a variety of potentially inhibiting anions and metals evaluated, only high concentrations of copper inhibited uranium reduction. Freeze-dried cells, stored aerobically, reduced uranium as fast as fresh cells. D. desulfuricans reduced uranium in pH 4 and pH 7.4 mine drainage waters and in uraniumcontaining groundwaters from a contaminated Department of Energy site. Enzymatic uranium reduction has several potential advantages over other bioprocessing techniques for uranium removal, the most important of which are as follows: the ability to precipitate uranium that is in the form of a uranyl carbonate complex; high capacity for uranium removal per cell; the formation of a compact, relatively pure, uranium precipitate.

  11. Glyphosate resistance in Ambrosia trifida: Part 1. Novel rapid cell death response to glyphosate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Horn, Christopher R; Moretti, Marcelo L; Robertson, Renae R; Segobye, Kabelo; Weller, Stephen C; Young, Bryan G; Johnson, William G; Schulz, Burkhard; Green, Amanda C; Jeffery, Taylor; Lespérance, Mackenzie A; Tardif, François J; Sikkema, Peter H; Hall, J Christopher; McLean, Michael D; Lawton, Mark B; Sammons, R Douglas; Wang, Dafu; Westra, Philip; Gaines, Todd A

    2018-05-01

    Glyphosate-resistant (GR) Ambrosia trifida is now present in the midwestern United States and in southwestern Ontario, Canada. Two distinct GR phenotypes are known, including a rapid response (GR RR) phenotype, which exhibits cell death within hours after treatment, and a non-rapid response (GR NRR) phenotype. The mechanisms of resistance in both GR RR and GR NRR remain unknown. Here, we present a description of the RR phenotype and an investigation of target-site mechanisms on multiple A. trifida accessions. Glyphosate resistance was confirmed in several accessions, and whole-plant levels of resistance ranged from 2.3- to 7.5-fold compared with glyphosate-susceptible (GS) accessions. The two GR phenotypes displayed similar levels of resistance, despite having dramatically different phenotypic responses to glyphosate. Glyphosate resistance was not associated with mutations in EPSPS sequence, increased EPSPS copy number, EPSPS quantity, or EPSPS activity. These encompassing results suggest that resistance to glyphosate in these GR RR A. trifida accessions is not conferred by a target-site resistance mechanism. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Erhöhte Frosttoleranz und vorteilhafte Keimeigenschaften in europäischen Ambrosia artemisiifolia Populationen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leiblein-Wild, Marion Carmen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Germination characteristics and frost tolerance of seedlings are crucial parameters for establishment and invasion success of plants. Within this study, we investigated germination characteristics of Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. populations from native and invasive ranges. We determined germination rates and speed under different temperature conditions. From these parameters we calculated minimal, optimal, and maximal temperature for germination. We also investigated the frost tolerance of seedlings. The European populations were characterized by a higher fitness with higher germination rates and germination speed, increased biomass and higher frost tolerance of seedlings. Furthermore, the temperature niche width for germination was significantly broader for the European populations. The increased frost tolerance of the European populations might allow germination earlier in the year which may subsequently lead to higher biomass allocation – due to a longer growing period – and result in higher pollen and seed production. The increase in germination rates, germination speed and seedling frost tolerance might result in a higher fitness of the European populations which may facilitate further successful invasion and sharpen the existing problems.

  13. Genomic Mining of Phylogenetically Informative Nuclear Markers in Bark and Ambrosia Beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pistone, Dario; Mugu, Sigrid; Jordal, Bjarte Henry

    Deep level insect relationships are generally difficult to resolve, especially within taxa of the most diverse and species rich holometabolous orders. In beetles, the major diversity occurs in the Phytophaga, including charismatic groups such as leaf beetles, longhorn beetles and weevils. Bark and ambrosia beetles are wood boring weevils that contribute 12 percent of the diversity encountered in Curculionidae, one of the largest families of beetles with more than 50000 described species. Phylogenetic resolution in groups of Cretaceous age has proven particularly difficult and requires large quantity of data. In this study, we investigated 100 nuclear genes in order to select a number of markers with low evolutionary rates and high phylogenetic signal. A PCR screening using degenerate primers was applied to 26 different weevil species. We obtained sequences from 57 of the 100 targeted genes. Sequences from each nuclear marker were aligned and examined for detecting multiple copies, pseudogenes and introns. Phylogenetic informativeness (PI) and the capacity for reconstruction of previously established phylogenetic relationships were used as proxies for selecting a subset of the 57 amplified genes. Finally, we selected 16 markers suitable for large-scale phylogenetics of Scolytinae and related weevil taxa.

  14. Genomic Mining of Phylogenetically Informative Nuclear Markers in Bark and Ambrosia Beetles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Pistone

    Full Text Available Deep level insect relationships are generally difficult to resolve, especially within taxa of the most diverse and species rich holometabolous orders. In beetles, the major diversity occurs in the Phytophaga, including charismatic groups such as leaf beetles, longhorn beetles and weevils. Bark and ambrosia beetles are wood boring weevils that contribute 12 percent of the diversity encountered in Curculionidae, one of the largest families of beetles with more than 50000 described species. Phylogenetic resolution in groups of Cretaceous age has proven particularly difficult and requires large quantity of data. In this study, we investigated 100 nuclear genes in order to select a number of markers with low evolutionary rates and high phylogenetic signal. A PCR screening using degenerate primers was applied to 26 different weevil species. We obtained sequences from 57 of the 100 targeted genes. Sequences from each nuclear marker were aligned and examined for detecting multiple copies, pseudogenes and introns. Phylogenetic informativeness (PI and the capacity for reconstruction of previously established phylogenetic relationships were used as proxies for selecting a subset of the 57 amplified genes. Finally, we selected 16 markers suitable for large-scale phylogenetics of Scolytinae and related weevil taxa.

  15. A new allergen from ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) with homology to art v 1 from mugwort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Léonard, Renaud; Wopfner, Nicole; Pabst, Martin; Stadlmann, Johannes; Petersen, Bent O; Duus, Jens Ø; Himly, Martin; Radauer, Christian; Gadermaier, Gabriele; Razzazi-Fazeli, Ebrahim; Ferreira, Fatima; Altmann, Friedrich

    2010-08-27

    Art v 1, the major pollen allergen of the composite plant mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris) has been identified recently as a thionin-like protein with a bulky arabinogalactan-protein moiety. A close relative of mugwort, ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) is an important allergen source in North America, and, since 1990, ragweed has become a growing health concern in Europe as well. Weed pollen-sensitized patients demonstrated IgE reactivity to a ragweed pollen protein of apparently 29-31 kDa. This reaction could be inhibited by the mugwort allergen Art v 1. The purified ragweed pollen protein consisted of a 57-amino acid-long defensin-like domain with high homology to Art v 1 and a C-terminal proline-rich domain. This part contained hydroxyproline-linked arabinogalactan chains with one galactose and 5 to 20 and more alpha-arabinofuranosyl residues with some beta-arabinoses in terminal positions as revealed by high field NMR. The ragweed protein contained only small amounts of the single hydroxyproline-linked beta-arabinosyl residues, which form an important IgE binding determinant in Art v 1. cDNA clones for this protein were obtained from ragweed flowers. Immunological characterization revealed that the recombinant ragweed protein reacted with >30% of the weed pollen allergic patients. Therefore, this protein from ragweed pollen constitutes a novel important ragweed allergen and has been designated Amb a 4.

  16. Life history trait differentiation and local adaptation in invasive populations of Ambrosia artemisiifolia in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Meng; She, Deng-Ying; Zhang, Da-Yong; Liao, Wan-Jin

    2015-03-01

    Local adaptation has been suggested to play an important role in range expansion, particularly among invasive species. However, the extent to which local adaptation affects the success of an invasive species and the factors that contribute to local adaptation are still unclear. This study aimed to investigate a case of population divergence that may have contributed to the local adaptation of invasive populations of Ambrosia artemisiifolia in China. Common garden experiments in seven populations indicated clinal variations along latitudinal gradients, with plants from higher latitudes exhibiting earlier flowering and smaller sizes at flowering. In reciprocal transplant experiments, plants of a northern Beijing origin produced more seeds at their home site than plants of a southern Wuhan origin, and the Wuhan-origin plants had grown taller at flowering than the Beijing-origin plants in Wuhan, which is believed to facilitate pollen dispersal. These results suggest that plants of Beijing origin may be locally adapted through female fitness and plants from Wuhan possibly locally adapted through male fitness. Selection and path analysis suggested that the phenological and growth traits of both populations have been influenced by natural selection and that flowering time has played an important role through its direct and indirect effects on the relative fitness of each individual. This study evidences the life history trait differentiation and local adaptation during range expansion of invasive A. artemisiifolia in China.

  17. Effects of seed traits variation on seedling performance of the invasive weed, Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortmans, William; Mahy, Grégory; Monty, Arnaud

    2016-02-01

    Seedling performance can determine the survival of a juvenile plant and impact adult plant performance. Understanding the factors that may impact seedling performance is thus critical, especially for annuals, opportunists or invasive plant species. Seedling performance can vary among mothers or populations in response to environmental conditions or under the influence of seed traits. However, very few studies have investigated seed traits variations and their consequences on seedling performance. Specifically, the following questions have been addressed by this work: 1) How the seed traits of the invasive Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. vary among mothers and populations, as well as along the latitude; 2) How do seed traits influence seedling performance; 3) Is the influence on seedlings temperature dependent. With seeds from nine Western Europe ruderal populations, seed traits that can influence seedling development were measured. The seeds were sown into growth chambers with warmer or colder temperature treatments. During seedling growth, performance-related traits were measured. A high variability in seed traits was highlighted. Variation was determined by the mother identity and population, but not latitude. Together, the temperature, population and the identity of the mother had an effect on seedling performance. Seed traits had a relative impact on seedling performance, but this did not appear to be temperature dependent. Seedling performance exhibited a strong plastic response to the temperature, was shaped by the identity of the mother and the population, and was influenced by a number of seed traits.

  18. Northern range edge equilibrium of Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. not achieved in Western Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ortmans, W.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Description of the subject. The geographic distributions of a species, be it native or alien, is expected to be limited at some point by environmental conditions. In this situation, a range edge equilibrium (REE takes place, i.e., populations occurring beyond the edge have a growth rate reduced below replacement. The occurrence of REE has never been tested for an invasive species. In Western Europe, the invasive weed Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. has spread in most parts of southern and central France, where it can be found in very high densities in sunflower fields, but seems to be limited in its northwards expansion. It is currently unknown whether the range has reached a limit or not. Information about how the species responds to sunflower competition is also lacking. Objectives. This work addressed two questions: Has the northern part of A. artemisiifolia invaded range in Western Europe reached REE? How is A. artemisiifolia performance influenced by sunflower competition? Method. Plots were established in an agricultural field ca. 250 km north to the current invaded range, in Belgium. We planted A. artemisiifolia seedlings with or without sunflower competition. The following year, the population growth rates and the soil seed bank were assessed. Results. The species established populations with relatively high growth rates and soil seed bank. Sunflower competition did not have a significant impact on plant performance. Conclusions. The results invalidate the hypothesis of equilibrium at the current margin of A. artemisiifolia invaded range, and suggest a significant potential for invasion northwards.

  19. LASL approach to uranium geochemical reconnaissance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharp, R.R. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    The US ERDA, as part of the NURE program, has initiated a nationwide Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR). The aims of the NURE program are to provide data on which to base more accurate estimates of US uranium reserves for long-range planning and to aid in meeting the nation's projected uranium demands into the next century. The HSSR objective is to complete, by 1980, a reconnaissance of the nation's surface waters, ground waters, and stream and lake sediments, to aid in assessment of uranium reserves and identification of areas of interest for exploration. Patterned after extensive uranium reconnaissance done in many other countries, the LASL project is comprised of the following five components: (1) organization and planning, which includes management, design, and execution; (2) field sampling, which includes orientation studies, generation of specifications, and contracting and inspection of field work; (3) sample receiving and analysis, which includes development of methods and hardware, quality assurance, and archival storage; (4) data handling and presentation, including verification, storage, output, and plotting; and (5) data evaluation and publication, which incorporates geochemical, geological, statistical, and empirical evaluation and report writing. The LASL approach to each component and the current status in each state are described.

  20. LASL approach to uranium geochemical reconnaissance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharp, R.R. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    The US ERDA, as part of the NURE program, has initiated a nationwide Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR). The aims of the NURE program are to provide data on which to base more accurate estimates of US uranium reserves for long-range planning and to aid in meeting the nation's projected uranium demands into the next century. The HSSR objective is to complete, by 1980, a reconnaissance of the nation's surface waters, ground waters, and stream and lake sediments, to aid in assessment of uranium reserves and identification of areas of interest for exploration. Patterned after extensive uranium reconnaissance done in many other countries, the LASL project is comprised of the following five components: (1) organization and planning, which includes management, design, and execution; (2) field sampling, which includes orientation studies, generation of specifications, and contracting and inspection of field work; (3) sample receiving and analysis, which includes development of methods and hardware, quality assurance, and archival storage; (4) data handling and presentation, including verification, storage, output, and plotting; and (5) data evaluation and publication, which incorporates geochemical, geological, statistical, and empirical evaluation and report writing. The LASL approach to each component and the current status in each state are described

  1. Development of the disposal technology research component of the national uranium tailings program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melis, L.A.

    1983-03-01

    The National Technical Planning Group on Uranium Tailings Research, organized by CANMET in 1980, recommended the establishment of a National Uranium Tailings Program to develop research on the long-term abandonment of uranium mine tailings. This report deals with the disposal technology component of this program and attempts to provide recommendations with respect to potential research avenues in this area. A description of uranium tailings in Canada is provided in order to identify the current situation with uranium tailings management. Uranium mining sites described include the Elliot Lake and Bancroft area of Ontario, the northern Saskatchewan properties and the two abandoned sites in the North West Territories. The description of the sites was facilitated by subdividing the tailings into inactive sites, active sites, new tailings sites and areas of tailings in a close-out situation. Methods identified as promising include subsurface disposal, in-situ leaching, prevention of pyrite oxidation and reclamation studies at abandoned sites

  2. The discovery and character of Pleistocene calcrete uranium deposits in the Southern High Plains of west Texas, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Gosen, Bradley S.; Hall, Susan M.

    2017-12-18

    This report describes the discovery and geology of two near-surface uranium deposits within calcareous lacustrine strata of Pleistocene age in west Texas, United States. Calcrete uranium deposits have not been previously reported in the United States. The west Texas uranium deposits share characteristics with some calcrete uranium deposits in Western Australia—uranium-vanadium minerals hosted by nonpedogenic calcretes deposited in saline lacustrine environments.In the mid-1970s, Kerr-McGee Corporation conducted a regional uranium exploration program in the Southern High Plains province of the United States, which led to the discovery of two shallow uranium deposits (that were not publicly reported). With extensive drilling, Kerr-McGee delineated one deposit of about 2.1 million metric tons of ore with an average grade of 0.037 percent U3O8 and another deposit of about 0.93 million metric tons of ore averaging 0.047 percent U3O8.The west-Texas calcrete uranium-vanadium deposits occur in calcareous, fine-grained sediments interpreted to be deposited in saline lakes formed during dry interglacial periods of the Pleistocene. The lakes were associated with drainages upstream of a large Pleistocene lake. Age determinations of tephra in strata adjacent to one deposit indicate the host strata is middle Pleistocene in age.Examination of the uranium-vanadium mineralization by scanning-electron microscopy indicated at least two generations of uranium-vanadium deposition in the lacustrine strata identified as carnotite and a strontium-uranium-vanadium mineral. Preliminary uranium-series results indicate a two-component system in the host calcrete, with early lacustrine carbonate that was deposited (or recrystallized) about 190 kilo-annum, followed much later by carnotite-rich crusts and strontium-uranium-vanadium mineralization in the Holocene (about 5 kilo-annum). Differences in initial 234U/238U activity ratios indicate two separate, distinct fluid sources.

  3. Aqueous-chlorine leaching of typical Canadian uranium ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haque, K.E.

    1982-01-01

    Laboratory-scale aqueous-chlorine leaches were conducted on quartz-pebble conglomerates, pegmatite and vein-type ores. Optimum leach temperatures, pulp density and retention times were determined. Uranium extraction of 98 per cent was obtained from the Elliot Lake, Madawaska Mines of Bancroft and Rabbit Lake ores, 96 per cent from the Key Lake ore and 86 per cent from the Agnew Lake ore. However, tailings containing 15-20 pCi g -1 of radium-226 were obtained only from the Elliot Lake and Agnew lake quartz-pebble conglomerates and Bancroft pegmatite-type ores by second-stage leaches with HCl. The second-stage leach results indicate that multistage (3 or 4) acid-chloride or salt-chloride leaches might be effective to obtain tailings containing 15-20 pCi 226 Ra g -1 from the high-grade vein-type ores. Comparative reagent-cost estimates show that the sulphuric-acid leach process is far less expensive than aqueous chlorine leaching. Nevertheless, only the aqueous chlorine and acid-chloride leaches in stages are effective in producing tailings containing 15-20 pCi 226 Ra g -1 from the typical Canadian uranium ores. (Auth.)

  4. Honeymoon uranium project: final environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-03-01

    The Honeymoon joint venturers propose to develop a uranium deposit in the Lake Frome basin of South Australia. This will involve construction of a well field and treatment plant to mine and extract the uranium by solution mining techniques. The proposed mine is located on featureless saltbush plains where sheep grazing is the present land use. Residual impacts on the environment will be minor. Minimal radioactivity will remain near the surface. Mineralisation will be mobilised by the solutions injected into the basal sand aquifer and the acidity and radium content of the ground water will be increased. This water is already useless as a resource. Short term impacts will also be minor. Submissions received were mostly concerned with ground water and to a lesser extent, radiological aspects

  5. Building a Uranium Heap Leach Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnell, Henry

    2014-01-01

    Despite all these we have seen many HL successes and many interesting projects coming down the pipe. • Previous experience in Uranium with previous ROM projects in France (Bessines, Langone), Niger (Somair), Canada (Agnew Lake) and other locations had provided some basic background. • Heap leach based on copper experience with crushed ore has operated for many years in Brazil (Caetite). • Many gold operations for many decades in all climates and continents. • Copper at +20% of production, many in Chile, but also now in many other countries. • Uranium with agglomerated crushed ores is now becoming more prominent – Somair, Imouraren, Trekkopje. • Work also ongoing for Ranger, Rossing, and in consideration for other projects. • Other notable work in Nickel, and multi-metal such as Talvivaara

  6. Geochemical exploration for uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This Technical Report is designed mainly to introduce the methods and techniques of uranium geochemical exploration to exploration geologists who may not have had experience with geochemical exploration methods in their uranium programmes. The methods presented have been widely used in the uranium exploration industry for more than two decades. The intention has not been to produce an exhaustive, detailed manual, although detailed instructions are given for a field and laboratory data recording scheme and a satisfactory analytical method for the geochemical determination of uranium. Rather, the intention has been to introduce the concepts and methods of uranium exploration geochemistry in sufficient detail to guide the user in their effective use. Readers are advised to consult general references on geochemical exploration to increase their understanding of geochemical techniques for uranium

  7. Uranium purchases report 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Data reported by domestic nuclear utility companies in their responses to the 1991 and 1992 ''Uranium Industry Annual Survey,'' Form EIA-858, Schedule B ''Uranium Marketing Activities,are provided in response to the requirements in the Energy Policy Act 1992. Data on utility uranium purchases and imports are shown on Table 1. Utility enrichment feed deliveries and secondary market acquisitions of uranium equivalent of US DOE separative work units are shown on Table 2. Appendix A contains a listing of firms that sold uranium to US utilities during 1992 under new domestic purchase contracts. Appendix B contains a similar listing of firms that sold uranium to US utilities during 1992 under new import purchase contracts. Appendix C contains an explanation of Form EIA-858 survey methodologies with emphasis on the processing of Schedule B data

  8. Politics of Uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    Uranium is the most political of all the elements, the material for the production of both the large amounts of electricity and the most destructive weapons in the world. The problems that its dual potential creates are only now beginning to become evident. Author Norman Moss looks at this situation and sheds light on many of the questions that emerge. The nuclear issue always comes back to how much uranium there is, what can be done with it, and which countries have it. Starting with a concise history of uranium and explaining its technology in terms the nonspecialist can understand, The Politics of Uranium considers the political issues that technical arguments obscure. It tells the little-known story of the international uranium cartel, explains the entanglements of governments with the uranium trade, and describes the consequences of wrong decisions and blunders-especially the problems of nuclear waste. It also examines the intellectual and emotional roots of the anti-nuclear movement

  9. Titrimetric determination of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florence, T.M.

    1989-01-01

    Titrimetric methods are almost invariably used for the high precision assay of uranium compounds, because gravimetric methods are nonselective, and not as reliable. Although precipitation titrations have been used, for example with cupferron and ferrocyanide, and chelate titrations with EDTA and oxine give reasonable results, in practice only redox titrations find routine use. With all redox titration methods for uranium a precision of 01 to 02 percent can be achieved, and precisions as high as 0.003 percent have been claimed for the more refined techniques. There are two types of redox titrations for uranium in common use. The first involves the direct titration of uranium (VI) to uranium (IV) with a standard solution of a strong reductant, such as chromous chloride or titanous chloride, and the second requires a preliminary reduction of uranium to the (IV) or (III) state, followed by titration back to the (VI) state with a standard oxidant. Both types of redox titrations are discussed. 4 figs

  10. Uranium Newsletter. No. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-03-01

    The new Uranium Newsletter is presented as an IAEA annual newsletter. The organization of the IAEA and its involvement with uranium since its founding in 1957 is described. The ''Red Book'' (Uranium Resources, Production and Demand) is mentioned. The Technical Assistance Programme of the IAEA in this field is also briefly mentioned. The contents also include information on the following meetings: The Technical Committee Meeting on Uranium Deposits in Magmatic and Metamorphic Rocks, Advisory Group Meeting on the Use of Airborne Radiometric Data, and the Technical Committee Meeting on Metallogenesis. Recent publications are listed. Current research contracts in uranium exploration are mentioned. IAEA publications on uranium (in press) are listed also. Country reports from the following countries are included: Australia, Brazil, Canada, China (People's Republic of), Denmark, Finland, Germany (Federal Republic of), Malaysia, Philippines, Portugal, South Africa (Republic of), Spain, Syrian Arab Republic, United Kingdom, United States of America, Zambia, and Greece. There is also a report from the Commission of European Communities

  11. Process for continuous production of metallic uranium and uranium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Jr., Howard W.; Horton, James A.; Elliott, Guy R. B.

    1995-01-01

    A method is described for forming metallic uranium, or a uranium alloy, from uranium oxide in a manner which substantially eliminates the formation of uranium-containing wastes. A source of uranium dioxide is first provided, for example, by reducing uranium trioxide (UO.sub.3), or any other substantially stable uranium oxide, to form the uranium dioxide (UO.sub.2). This uranium dioxide is then chlorinated to form uranium tetrachloride (UCl.sub.4), and the uranium tetrachloride is then reduced to metallic uranium by reacting the uranium chloride with a metal which will form the chloride of the metal. This last step may be carried out in the presence of another metal capable of forming one or more alloys with metallic uranium to thereby lower the melting point of the reduced uranium product. The metal chloride formed during the uranium tetrachloride reduction step may then be reduced in an electrolysis cell to recover and recycle the metal back to the uranium tetrachloride reduction operation and the chlorine gas back to the uranium dioxide chlorination operation.

  12. Process for continuous production of metallic uranium and uranium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, H.W. Jr.; Horton, J.A.; Elliott, G.R.B.

    1995-06-06

    A method is described for forming metallic uranium, or a uranium alloy, from uranium oxide in a manner which substantially eliminates the formation of uranium-containing wastes. A source of uranium dioxide is first provided, for example, by reducing uranium trioxide (UO{sub 3}), or any other substantially stable uranium oxide, to form the uranium dioxide (UO{sub 2}). This uranium dioxide is then chlorinated to form uranium tetrachloride (UCl{sub 4}), and the uranium tetrachloride is then reduced to metallic uranium by reacting the uranium chloride with a metal which will form the chloride of the metal. This last step may be carried out in the presence of another metal capable of forming one or more alloys with metallic uranium to thereby lower the melting point of the reduced uranium product. The metal chloride formed during the uranium tetrachloride reduction step may then be reduced in an electrolysis cell to recover and recycle the metal back to the uranium tetrachloride reduction operation and the chlorine gas back to the uranium dioxide chlorination operation. 4 figs.

  13. New french uranium mineral species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branche, G.; Chervet, J.; Guillemin, C.

    1952-01-01

    In this work, the authors study the french new uranium minerals: parsonsite and renardite, hydrated phosphates of lead and uranium; kasolite: silicate hydrated of uranium and lead uranopilite: sulphate of uranium hydrated; bayleyite: carbonate of uranium and of hydrated magnesium; β uranolite: silicate of uranium and of calcium hydrated. For all these minerals, the authors give the crystallographic, optic characters, and the quantitative chemical analyses. On the other hand, the following species, very rare in the french lodgings, didn't permit to do quantitative analyses. These are: the lanthinite: hydrated uranate oxide; the α uranotile: silicate of uranium and of calcium hydrated; the bassetite: uranium phosphate and of hydrated iron; the hosphuranylite: hydrated uranium phosphate; the becquerelite: hydrated uranium oxide; the curite: oxide of uranium and lead hydrated. Finally, the authors present at the end of this survey a primary mineral: the brannerite, complex of uranium titanate. (author) [fr

  14. Uranium industry annual, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This report presents data on US uranium raw materials and marketing activities of the domestic uranium industry. It contains aggregated data reported by US companies on the ''Uranium Industry Annual Survey'' (1988), Form EIA-858, and historical data from prior data collections and other pertinent sources. The report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration (EIA), the independent agency for data collection and analysis with the US Department of Energy

  15. Pine Creek uranium province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bower, M.B.; Needham, R.S.; Page, R.W.; Stuart-Smith, P.G.; Wyborn, L.A.I.

    1985-01-01

    The objective of this project is to help establish a sound geological framework of the Pine Creek region through regional geological, geochemical and geophysical studies. Uranium ore at the Coronation Hill U-Au mine is confined to a wedge of conglomerate in faulted contact with altered volcanics. The uranium, which is classified as epigenetic sandstone type, is derived from a uranium-enriched felsic volcanic source

  16. Uranium in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-09-01

    In 1974 the Minister of Energy, Mines and Resources (EMR) established a Uranium Resource Appraisal Group (URAG) within EMR to audit annually Canada's uranium resources for the purpose of implementing the federal government's uranium export policy. A major objective of this policy was to ensure that Canadian uranium supplies would be sufficient to meet the needs of Canada's nuclear power program. As projections of installed nuclear power growth in Canada over the long term have been successively revised downwards (the concern about domestic security of supply is less relevant now than it was 10 years ago) and as Canadian uranium supply capabilities have expanded significantly. Canada has maintained its status as the western world's leading exporter of uranium and has become the world's leading producer. Domestic uranium resource estimates have increased to 551 000 tonnes U recoverable from mineable ore since URAG completed its last formal assessment (1982). In 1984, Canada's five primary uranium producers employed some 5800 people at their mining and milling operations, and produced concentrates containing some 11 170 tU. It is evident from URAG's 1984 assessment that Canada's known uranium resources, recoverable at uranium prices of $150/kg U or less, are more than sufficient to meet the 30-year fuelling requirements of those reactors that are either in opertaion now or committed or expected to be in-service by 1995. A substantial portion of Canada's identified uranium resources, recoverable within the same price range, is thus surplus to Canadian needs and available for export. Sales worth close to $1 billion annually are assured. Uranium exploration expenditures in Canada in 1983 and 1984 were an estimated $41 million and $35 million, respectively, down markedly from the $128 million reported for 1980. Exploration drilling and surface development drilling in 1983 and 1984 were reported to be 153 000 m and 197 000 m, respectively, some 85% of which was in

  17. Gold and uranium extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, G.S.; Davidson, R.J.

    1977-01-01

    A process for extracting gold and uranium from an ore containing them both comprising the steps of pulping the finely comminuted ore with a suitable cyanide solution at an alkaline pH, acidifying the pulp for uranium dissolution, adding carbon activated for gold recovery to the pulp at a suitable stage, separating the loaded activated carbon from the pulp, and recovering gold from the activated carbon and uranium from solution

  18. Submission to the Royal Commission on Health and Environmental Protection - Uranium Mining. Phase VII: public and worker health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seguin, H.

    1980-01-01

    This submission is intended to provide a brief resume of Elliot Lake's uranium mining/milling history, particularly with respect to the adverse effects on workers' health and the environment in general. Elliot Lake has pioneered various uranium mining and processing techniques. Its operations have also been directly linked with death and incapacities of workers and considerable destruction of the surrounding environment. The union believes that many unknowns continue to exist and that considerable research is required before various answers are available. It is for for these reasons that the union approaches uranium mining expansion and new developments with extreme caution

  19. International trade in uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two reports are presented; one has been prepared by the Uranium Institute and is submitted by the United Kingdom delegation, the other by the United States delegation. The report of the Uranium Institute deals with the influence of the government on international trade in uranium. This influence becomes apparent predominantly by export and import restrictions, as well as by price controls. The contribution submitted by the United States is a uranium market trend analysis, with pricing methods and contracting modes as well as the effect of government policies being investigated in the light of recent developments

  20. Uranium concentration in fossils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okano, J.; Uyeda, C.

    1988-01-01

    Recently it is known that fossil bones tend to accumulate uranium. The uranium concentration, C u in fossils has been measured so far by γ ray spectroscopy or by fission track method. The authors applied secondary ion mass spectrometry, SIMS, to detect the uranium in fossil samples. The purpose of this work is to investigate the possibility of semi-quantitative analyses of uranium in fossils, and to study the correlation between C u and the age of fossil bones. The further purpose of this work is to apply SIMS to measure the distribution of C u in fossil teeth

  1. analysis methods of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bekdemir, N.; Acarkan, S.

    1997-01-01

    There are various methods for the determination of uranium. The most often used methods are spectrophotometric (PAR, DBM and Arsenazo III) and potentiometric titration methods. For uranium contents between 1-300 g/LU potentiometric titration method based on oxidation-reduction reactions gives reliable results. PAR (1-pyridiyl-2-azo resorcinol) is a sensitive reagent for uranium, forming complexes in aqueous solutions. It is a suitable method for determination of uranium at concentrations between 2-400microgram U. In this study, the spectrophotometric and potentiometric analysis methods, used in the Nuclear Fuel Department will be discussed in detail and other methods and their principles will be briefly mentioned

  2. Uranium production from phosphates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketzinel, Z.; Folkman, Y.

    1979-05-01

    According to estimates of the world's uranium consumption, exploitation of most rich sources is expected by the 1980's. Forecasts show that the rate of uranium consumption will increase towards the end of the century. It is therefore desirable to exploit poor sources not yet in use. In the near future, the most reasonable source for developing uranium is phosphate rock. Uranium reserves in phosphates are estimated at a few million tons. Production of uranium from phosphates is as a by-product of phosphate rock processing and phosphoric acid production; it will then be possible to save the costs incurred in crushing and dissolving the rock when calculating uranium production costs. Estimates show that the U.S. wastes about 3,000 tons of uranium per annum in phosphoric acid based fertilisers. Studies have also been carried out in France, Yugoslavia and India. In Israel, during the 1950's, a small plant was operated in Haifa by 'Chemical and Phosphates'. Uranium processes have also been developed by linking with the extraction processes at Arad. Currently there is almost no activity on this subject because there are no large phosphoric acid plants which would enable production to take place on a reasonable scale. Discussions are taking place about the installation of a plant for phosphoric acid production utilising the 'wet process', producing 200 to 250,000 tons P 2 O 5 per annum. It is necessary to combine these facilities with uranium production plant. (author)

  3. METHOD OF ROLLING URANIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, C.S.

    1959-08-01

    A method is described for rolling uranium metal at relatively low temperatures and under non-oxidizing conditions. The method involves the steps of heating the uranium to 200 deg C in an oil bath, withdrawing the uranium and permitting the oil to drain so that only a thin protective coating remains and rolling the oil coated uranium at a temperature of 200 deg C to give about a 15% reduction in thickness at each pass. The operation may be repeated to accomplish about a 90% reduction without edge cracking, checking or any appreciable increase in brittleness.

  4. Vertical Distribution and Daily Flight Periodicity of Ambrosia Beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Florida Avocado Orchards Affected by Laurel Wilt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menocal, Octavio; Kendra, Paul E; Montgomery, Wayne S; Crane, Jonathan H; Carrillo, Daniel

    2018-03-08

    Ambrosia beetles have emerged as significant pests of avocado ((Persea americana Mill. [Laurales: Lauraceae])) due to their association with pathogenic fungal symbionts, most notably Raffaelea lauricola T.C. Harr., Fraedrich & Aghayeva (Ophiostomatales: Ophiostomataceae), the causal agent of the laurel wilt (LW) disease. We evaluated the interaction of ambrosia beetles with host avocado trees by documenting their flight height and daily flight periodicity in Florida orchards with LW. Flight height was assessed passively in three avocado orchards by using ladder-like arrays of unbaited sticky traps arranged at three levels (low: 0-2 m; middle: 2-4 m; high: 4-6 m). In total, 1,306 individuals of 12 Scolytinae species were intercepted, but six accounted for ~95% of the captures: Xyleborus volvulus (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), Xyleborinus saxesenii Ratzeburg (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), Euplatypus parallelus (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), Xyleborus bispinatus Eichhoff (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), Xyleborus affinis Eichhoff (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), and Hypothenemus sp. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). The primary vector of R. lauricola, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), was not detected. Females of X. volvulus showed a preference for flight at low levels and X. bispinatus for the low and middle levels; however, captures of all other species were comparable at all heights. At a fourth orchard, a baiting method was used to document flight periodicity. Females of X. saxesenii and Hypothenemus sp. were observed in flight 2-2.5 h prior to sunset; X. bispinatus, X. volvulus, and X. affinis initiated flight at ~1 h before sunset and Xylosandrus crassiusculus (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) at 30 min prior to sunset. Results suggest that ambrosia beetles in South Florida fly near sunset (when light intensity and wind speed decrease) at much greater heights than previously assumed and have species-specific patterns in host

  5. Uranium production, exploration and mine development in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vance, R. E

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Full text: Canada has been the world leader in uranium production since the early 1990's and production in 2005 was 11,629 te U. The Elliott Lake region of Ontario was once the centre of production, but after the last facilities closed in 1996, all production now comes from the Athabasca Basin in northern Saskatchewan. Average grades of the world's two largest high grade deposits at McArthur River and Cigar Lake are 10 to 100 times the grade of deposits mined elsewhere. McArthur River has been in production since late 1999 and first production from Cigar Lake is expected in 2007. If all expansion and probable mine openings come to fruition, annual Canadian production could amount to 16,000 te U by 2011. All currently operating uranium mines have been the subject of a comprehensive environmental assessment and review process. Uranium mining brings significant benefits to local area residents in northern Saskatchewan. Residents of northern Saskatchewan are active participants in Environmental Quality Committees. Recent survey results show the majority of Saskatchewan residents support the continuation of uranium mining in the province. The closed uranium mines in Canada have been successfully decommissioned and rehabilitated in particular in the Elliott Lake region of Ontario. The principle exploration target in Canada remains the Athabasca Basin, but activity has also been reported in several of the other territories and provinces. Natural Resources Canada estimates that some $CAN81M was spent on exploration in Canada in 2005. Under the Canadian Constitution, natural resources are owned by the provinces or by the federal government if they are on federal lands north of 60 0 C latitude. The provinces have jurisdiction over exploration activities within their borders and for most commodities have jurisdiction over mine development and production, operations, health and safety and environmental matters. Once a company starts to develop a deposit into a mine

  6. The uranium potential of the Bushveld igneous complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreoli, M.A.G.; Hart, R.J.; Brynard, H.J.; Camisani-Calzolari, F.A.G.M.

    1987-06-01

    A review of published literature supported by field observations on the uranium potential of the Bushveld Complex indicates that this geological region may host deposits with reserves in the range of a few thousand tons U 3 O 8 . The possibility that the Bushveld Complex or its cover rocks hosts, or has ever hosted in the past, giant uranium deposits such as those of Olympic Dam, Key Lake, Jabiluka or Rossing is considered to be unlikely. The potential for volcanogenic, caldera-type deposits in the Rooiberg Felsites remains at present untested. Recommendations for research currently sponsored by the AEC at the University of Pretoria are presented

  7. Trends in uranium supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, M.

    1976-01-01

    Prior to the development of nuclear power, uranium ores were used to a very limited extent as a ceramic colouring agent, as a source of radium and in some places as a source of vanadium. Perhaps before that, because of the bright orange and yellow colours of its secondary ores, it was probably used as ceremonial paint by primitive man. After the discovery of nuclear fission a whole new industry emerged, complete with its problems of demand, resources and supply. Spurred by special incentives in the early years of this new nuclear industry, prospectors discovered over 20 000 occurrences of uranium in North America alone, and by 1959 total world production reached a peak of 34 000 tonnes uranium from mines in South Africa, Canada and United States. This rapid growth also led to new problems. As purchases for military purposes ended, government procurement contracts were not renewed, and the large reserves developed as a result of government purchase incentives, in combination with lack of substantial commercial market, resulted in an over-supply of uranium. Typically, an over-supply of uranium together with national stockpiling at low prices resulted in depression of prices to less than $5 per pound by 1971. Although forecasts made in the early 1970's increased confidence in the future of nuclear power, and consequently the demand for uranium, prices remained low until the end of 1973 when OPEC announced a very large increase in oil prices and quite naturally, prices for coal also rose substantially. The economics of nuclear fuel immediately improved and prices for uranium began to climb in 1974. But the world-wide impact of the OPEC decision also produced negative effects on the uranium industry. Uranium production costs rose dramatically, as did capital costs, and money for investment in new uranium ventures became more scarce and more expensive. However, the uranium supply picture today offers hope of satisfactory development in spite of the many problems to be

  8. Uranium industry annual 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    Uranium production in the United States has declined dramatically from a peak of 43.7 million pounds U 3 O 8 (16.8 thousand metric tons uranium (U)) in 1980 to 3.1 million pounds U 3 O 8 (1.2 thousand metric tons U) in 1993. This decline is attributed to the world uranium market experiencing oversupply and intense competition. Large inventories of uranium accumulated when optimistic forecasts for growth in nuclear power generation were not realized. The other factor which is affecting U.S. uranium production is that some other countries, notably Australia and Canada, possess higher quality uranium reserves that can be mined at lower costs than those of the United States. Realizing its competitive advantage, Canada was the world's largest producer in 1993 with an output of 23.9 million pounds U 3 O 8 (9.2 thousand metric tons U). The U.S. uranium industry, responding to over a decade of declining market prices, has downsized and adopted less costly and more efficient production methods. The main result has been a suspension of production from conventional mines and mills. Since mid-1992, only nonconventional production facilities, chiefly in situ leach (ISL) mining and byproduct recovery, have operated in the United States. In contrast, nonconventional sources provided only 13 percent of the uranium produced in 1980. ISL mining has developed into the most cost efficient and environmentally acceptable method for producing uranium in the United States. The process, also known as solution mining, differs from conventional mining in that solutions are used to recover uranium from the ground without excavating the ore and generating associated solid waste. This article describes the current ISL Yang technology and its regulatory approval process, and provides an analysis of the factors favoring ISL mining over conventional methods in a declining uranium market

  9. Uranium industry annual 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    Uranium production in the United States has declined dramatically from a peak of 43.7 million pounds U{sub 3}O{sub 8} (16.8 thousand metric tons uranium (U)) in 1980 to 3.1 million pounds U{sub 3}O{sub 8} (1.2 thousand metric tons U) in 1993. This decline is attributed to the world uranium market experiencing oversupply and intense competition. Large inventories of uranium accumulated when optimistic forecasts for growth in nuclear power generation were not realized. The other factor which is affecting U.S. uranium production is that some other countries, notably Australia and Canada, possess higher quality uranium reserves that can be mined at lower costs than those of the United States. Realizing its competitive advantage, Canada was the world`s largest producer in 1993 with an output of 23.9 million pounds U{sub 3}O{sub 8} (9.2 thousand metric tons U). The U.S. uranium industry, responding to over a decade of declining market prices, has downsized and adopted less costly and more efficient production methods. The main result has been a suspension of production from conventional mines and mills. Since mid-1992, only nonconventional production facilities, chiefly in situ leach (ISL) mining and byproduct recovery, have operated in the United States. In contrast, nonconventional sources provided only 13 percent of the uranium produced in 1980. ISL mining has developed into the most cost efficient and environmentally acceptable method for producing uranium in the United States. The process, also known as solution mining, differs from conventional mining in that solutions are used to recover uranium from the ground without excavating the ore and generating associated solid waste. This article describes the current ISL Yang technology and its regulatory approval process, and provides an analysis of the factors favoring ISL mining over conventional methods in a declining uranium market.

  10. Playa Lakes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This digital dataset provides information about the spatial distribution of soil units associated with playa lakes. Specific soil types have been designated by the...

  11. Lake Cadagno

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonolla, Mauro; Storelli, Nicola; Danza, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    Lake Cadagno (26 ha) is a crenogenic meromictic lake located in the Swiss Alps at 1921 m asl with a maximum depth of 21 m. The presence of crystalline rocks and a dolomite vein rich in gypsum in the catchment area makes the lake a typical “sulphuretum ” dominated by coupled carbon and sulphur...... cycles. The chemocline lies at about 12 m depth, stabilized by density differences of salt-rich water supplied by sub-aquatic springs to the monimolimnion and of electrolyte-poor surface water feeding the mixolimnion. Steep sulphide and light gradients in the chemocline support the growth of a large...... in the chemocline. Small-celled PSB together with the sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfocapsa thiozymogenes sp. form stable aggregates in the lake, which represent small microenvironments with an internal sulphur cycle. Eukaryotic primary producers in the anoxic zones are dominated by Cryptomonas phaseolus...

  12. Reconstruction of vegetation and lake level at Moon Lake, North Dakota, from high-resolution pollen and diatom data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimm, E.C.; Laird, K.R.; Mueller, P.G. [Illinois State Museum, Springfield, IL (United States)]|[Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    1995-06-01

    High-resolution fossil-pollen and diatom data from Moon Lake, North Dakota, reveal major climate and vegetation changes near the western margin of the tall-grass prairie. Fourteen AMS radiocarbon dates provide excellent time control for the past {approximately}11,800 {sup 14}C years B.P. Picea dominated during the late-glacial until it abruptly declined {approximately}10,300 B.P. During the early Holocene ({approximately}10,300-8000 B.P.), deciduous trees and shrubs (Populus, Betula, Corylus, Quercus, and especially Ulmus) were common, but prairie taxa (Poaceae, Artemisia, and Chenopodiaceae/Amaranthaceae) gradually increased. During this period the diatoms indicate the lake becoming gradually more saline as water-level fell. By {approximately}8000 B.P., salinity had increased to the point that the diatoms were no longer sensitive to further salinity increases. However, fluctuating pollen percentages of mud-flat weeds (Ambrosia and Iva) indicate frequently changing water levels during the mid-Holocene ({approximately}8000-5000 B.P.). The driest millennium was 7000-6000 B.P., when Iva annua was common. After {approximately}3000 B.P. the lake became less-saline, and the diatoms were again sensitive to changing salinity. The Medieval Warm Period and Little Ice Age are clearly evident in the diatom data.

  13. Australia's Uranium and thorium resources and their global significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, I.B.; McKay, A.; Miezitis, Y.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Full text: Australia's world-leading uranium endowment appears to result from the emplacement of uranium enriched felsic igneous rocks in three major periods during the geological evolution of the continent. Australia has over 27% of the world's total reasonably assured uranium resources (RAR) recoverable at < US$80/kgU (which approximates recent uranium spot prices). Olympic Dam is the largest known uranium deposit, containing approximately 19% of global RAR (and over 40% of global inferred resources) recoverable at < US$80/kg U; the uranium is present at low concentrations and the viability of its recovery is underpinned by co-production of copper and gold. Most of Australia's other identified resources are within Ranger, Jabiluka, Koongarra, Kintyre and Yeelirrie, the last four of which are not currently accessible for mining. In 2004, Australia's three operating uranium mines - Ranger, Olympic Dam, and Beverley -produced 22% of global production. Canada was the only country to produce more uranium (29%) and Kazakhstan (9%) ranked third. Considerably increased uranium production has been recently foreshadowed from Australia (through developing a large open pit at Olympic Dam), Canada (mainly through opening of the Cigar Lake mine), and Kazakhstan (developing several new in situ leach mines). These increases should go a long way towards satisfying demand from about 2010. Olympic Dam has sufficient resources to sustain such increased production over many decades. Thorium is expected to be used in some future generations of nuclear reactors. Australia also has major (but incompletely quantified) resources of this commodity, mainly in heavy mineral sands deposits and associated with alkaline igneous rocks. It is inevitable that the international community will be looking increasingly to Australia to sustain its vital role in providing fuels for future nuclear power generation, given its world-leading identified resources, considerable potential for new

  14. Radioactivity levels in surface water of lakes around Izmir / Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doyurum, S.; Turkozu, D. A.; Aslani, M. A. A.; Aytas, S.; Eral, M.; Kaygun, A. K.

    2006-01-01

    Radioactivity presents in surface continental waters is mainly due to the presence of radioactive elements in the earth's crust, other artificial radionuclides have appeared due to such human activities as nuclear power plants, nuclear weapons testing and manufacture and use of radioactive sources It is well known that natural radionuclides can be effective as tracers for the different processes controlling the distribution of elements among dissolved and particulate phases in aquatic systems. The detection of high radionuclide concentrations was proposed as a public health problem in several areas and consequently studies into the risks of radionuclides were started in the 2000s. Especially, these radioactive substances in groundwater are an unwanted and involuntary risk factor from natural sources, not artificial sources. These radioactive substances include uranium, radon found in uranium series, and other radioactive substances such as radium and gross alpha. Uranium present in rock, soil, and natural materials, and is found in small quantities in air, water, and food that people always contact. In this project, lake water samples were collected from three lakes around Izmir-Turkey. In surface lake water samples, pH, mV and conductivity values were measured and alkaline content was determined titrimetrically. The uranium concentrations in the lake water samples were measured using uranium analyzer. The radioactivity concentrations related to gross radium isotopes, gross-? and gross-? activities in the surface lake water were determined. The correlation among some parameters for water samples and concentrations of uranium, activity concentration of gross radium isotopes, gross alpha and gross beta radioactivity are also discussed

  15. Uranium geochemistry, mineralogy, geology, exploration and resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Vivo, B.

    1984-01-01

    This book comprises papers on the following topics: history of radioactivity; uranium in mantle processes; transport and deposition of uranium in hydrothermal systems at temperatures up to 300 0 C: Geological implications; geochemical behaviour of uranium in the supergene environment; uranium exploration techniques; uranium mineralogy; time, crustal evolution and generation of uranium deposits; uranium exploration; geochemistry of uranium in the hydrographic network; uranium deposits of the world, excluding Europe; uranium deposits in Europe; uranium in the economics of energy; role of high heat production granites in uranium province formation; and uranium deposits

  16. Uranium and radium in Finnsjoen - an experimental approach for calculation of transfer factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, S.; Bergman, R.

    1981-01-01

    The radiological safety studies for underground disposal of HLW show that the future individual and collective doses to an important extent may originate from groundwater borne radium and uranium which reach the biosphere. Indications that the dispersion rates presently used give rise to overestimations of calculated doses justified an investigation for more realistic turnover rates of radium and uranium than those which now are in use. Within one of the sites selected for testing, the area around lake Finnsjoen, a small number of environmental samples were collected and analyzed with respect to radium and uranium and the new transfer coefficients between soil and lake water were derived. The dose rates obtained with the new transfer factors show a close agreement for radium and a slight increase for uranium compared with earlier calculations. (Auth.)

  17. Modeling and management of pit lake water chemistry 1: Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castendyk, D.N.; Eary, L.E.; Balistrieri, L.S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Review of pit lake literature in the context of pit lake predictions. • Review of approaches used to predict pit wall-rock runoff and leachate. • Review of approaches used to generate a pit lake water balance. • Review of approaches used to generate a hydrodynamic prediction. • Review of approaches used to generate a geochemical prediction of a future pit lake. - Abstract: Pit lakes are permanent hydrologic/landscape features that can result from open pit mining for metals, coal, uranium, diamonds, oil sands, and aggregates. Risks associated with pit lakes include local and regional impacts to water quality and related impacts to aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Stakeholders rely on predictive models of water chemistry to prepare for and manage these risks. This paper is the first of a two part series on the modeling and management of pit lakes. Herein, we review approaches that have been used to quantify wall-rock runoff geochemistry, wall-rock leachate geochemistry, pit lake water balance, pit lake limnology (i.e. extent of vertical mixing), and pit lake water quality, and conclude with guidance on the application of models within the mine life cycle. The purpose of this paper is to better prepare stakeholders, including future modelers, mine managers, consultants, permitting agencies, land management agencies, regulators, research scientists, academics, and other interested parties, for the challenges of predicting and managing future pit lakes in un-mined areas

  18. Elevated Uranium in Aquifers of the Jacobsville Sandstone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, H.; Gierke, J.

    2003-12-01

    The EPA has announced a new standard for uranium in drinking water of 30 parts per billion (ppb). This maximum contaminant level (MCL) takes effect for community water supplies December 2003. The EPA's ruling has heightened awareness among residential well owners that uranium in drinking water may increase the risk of kidney disease and cancer and has created a need for a quantified, scientific understanding of the occurrence and distribution of uranium isotopes in aquifers. The authors are investigating the occurrence of elevated uranium in northern Michigan aquifers of the Middle Proterozoic Jacobsville sandstone, a red to mottled sequence of sandstones, conglomerates, siltstones and shales deposited as basin fill in the 1.1 Ga Midcontinent rift. Approximately 25% of 300 well water samples tested for isotopic uranium have concentrations above the MCL. Elevated uranium occurrences are distributed throughout the Jacobsville sandstone aquifers stretching across Michigan's Upper Peninsula. However, there is significant variation in well water uranium concentrations (from 0.01 to 190 ppb) and neighboring wells do not necessarily have similar concentrations. The authors are investigating hydrogeologic controls on ground water uranium concentrations in the Jacobsville sandstone, e.g. variations in lithology, mineralogy, groundwater residence time and geochemistry. Approximately 2000' of Jacobsville core from the Amoco St. Amour well was examined in conjunction with the spectral gamma ray log run in the borehole. Spikes in equivalent uranium (eU) concentration from the log are frequently associated with clay and heavy mineral layers in the sandstone core. The lithology and mineralogy of these layers will be determined by analysis of thin sections and x-ray diffraction. A portable spectrometer, model GRS-2000/BL, will be used on the sandstone cliffs along Lake Superior to characterize depositional and lithologic facies of the Jacobsville sandstone in terms of

  19. Ozone affects pollen viability and NAD(P)H oxidase release from Ambrosia artemisiifolia pollen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasqualini, Stefania, E-mail: spas@unipg.it [Department of Applied Biology, University of Perugia, Perugia (Italy); Tedeschini, Emma; Frenguelli, Giuseppe [Department of Applied Biology, University of Perugia, Perugia (Italy); Wopfner, Nicole; Ferreira, Fatima [Department of Molecular Biology, CD Laboratory for Allergy Diagnosis and Therapy, University of Salzburg, Salzburg (Austria); D' Amato, Gennaro [Division of Respiratory and Allergic Diseases, ' A. Cardarelli' High Speciality Hospital, Naples (Italy); Ederli, Luisa [Department of Applied Biology, University of Perugia, Perugia (Italy)

    2011-10-15

    Air pollution is frequently proposed as a cause of the increased incidence of allergy in industrialised countries. We investigated the impact of ozone (O{sub 3}) on reactive oxygen species (ROS) and allergen content of ragweed pollen (Ambrosia artemisiifolia). Pollen was exposed to acute O{sub 3} fumigation, with analysis of pollen viability, ROS and nitric oxide (NO) content, activity of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAD[P]H) oxidase, and expression of major allergens. There was decreased pollen viability after O{sub 3} fumigation, which indicates damage to the pollen membrane system, although the ROS and NO contents were not changed or were only slightly induced, respectively. Ozone exposure induced a significant enhancement of the ROS-generating enzyme NAD(P)H oxidase. The expression of the allergen Amb a 1 was not affected by O{sub 3}, determined from the mRNA levels of the major allergens. We conclude that O{sub 3} can increase ragweed pollen allergenicity through stimulation of ROS-generating NAD(P)H oxidase. - Highlights: > O{sub 3} reduces the viability of ragweed pollen. > ROS and allergens of ragweed pollen were not affected by O{sub 3} exposure. > O{sub 3} enhances the activity of the ROS-generating enzyme NAD(P)H oxidase. > O{sub 3} increases ragweed pollen allergenicity through NAD(P)H-oxidase stimulation. - This study focuses on the effects of the atmospheric pollutant ozone on ROS content and NAD(P)H oxidase activity of ragweed pollen grains.

  20. Attraction of the redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus, to avocado, lychee, and essential oil Lures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendra, Paul E; Montgomery, Wayne S; Niogret, Jerome; Peña, Jorge E; Capinera, John L; Brar, Gurpreet; Epsky, Nancy D; Heath, Robert R

    2011-09-01

    The redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff, is an exotic wood-boring insect that vectors the mycopathogen responsible for laurel wilt, a lethal vascular disease of trees in the Lauraceae. High mortality has occurred in native Persea species in the southeastern U.S., and the vector-pathogen complex poses an imminent threat to the production of commercial avocado, P. americana, in south Florida. There is a critical need for effective attractants to detect, monitor, and control this invasive pest. This study combined field tests and laboratory bioassays to evaluate the response of female X. glabratus to host-based volatiles from wood of avocado (cultivars of West Indian, Guatemalan, and Mexican races); from wood of lychee (Litchi chinensis, a presumed non-host that is high in the sesquiterpene α-copaene, a putative attractant); and to commercial lures containing manuka and phoebe oils, two reported attractive baits. Volatile collections and GC-MS analyses were performed to quantify the sesquiterpene content of test substrates. In the field, traps baited with lychee wood captured more beetles than those with wood from avocado cultivars; traps baited with phoebe oil lures captured more beetles than those with manuka oil lures (the current monitoring tool). In field and laboratory tests, X. glabratus did not show a preference among avocado races in either attraction or host acceptance (initiation of boring). In choice tests, lychee was more attractive than avocado initially, but a higher percentage of beetles bored into avocado, suggesting that lychee emits more powerful olfactory/visual cues, but that avocado contains more of the secondary cues necessary for host recognition. Emissions of α-copaene, β-caryophyllene, and α-humulene were correlated with field captures, and lychee wood may be a source of additional semiochemicals for X. glabratus.

  1. Phenological Variation in Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. Facilitates Near Future Establishment at Northern Latitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalone, Romain; Lemke, Andreas; Štefanić, Edita; Kolseth, Anna-Karin; Rašić, Sanda; Andersson, Lars

    2016-01-01

    The invasive weed Ambrosia artemisiifolia (common ragweed) constitutes a great threat to public health and agriculture in large areas of the globe. Climate change, characterized by higher temperatures and prolonged vegetation periods, could increase the risk of establishment in northern Europe in the future. However, as the species is a short-day plant that requires long nights to induce bloom formation, it might still fail to produce mature seeds before the onset of winter in areas at northern latitudes characterized by short summer nights. To survey the genetic variation in flowering time and study the effect of latitudinal origin on this trait, a reciprocal common garden experiment, including eleven populations of A. artemisiifolia from Europe and North America, was conducted. The experiment was conducted both outside the range limit of the species, in Sweden and within its invaded range, in Croatia. Our main hypothesis was that the photoperiodic-thermal requirements of A. artemisiifolia constitute a barrier for reproduction at northern latitudes and, thus, halts the northern range shift despite expected climate change. Results revealed the presence of a north-south gradient in flowering time at both garden sites, indicating that certain European populations are pre-adapted to photoperiodic and thermal conditions at latitudes up to, at least, 60° N. This was confirmed by phenological recordings performed in a region close to the northern range limit, the north of Germany. Thus, we conclude that there exists a high risk for establishment and spread of A. artemisiifolia in FennoScandinavia in the near future. The range shift might occur independently of climate change, but would be accelerated by it.

  2. Natural terpenoids from Ambrosia species are active in vitro and in vivo against human pathogenic trypanosomatids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria P Sülsen

    Full Text Available Among the natural compounds, terpenoids play an important role in the drug discovery process for tropical diseases. The aim of the present work was to isolate antiprotozoal compounds from Ambrosia elatior and A. scabra. The sesquiterpene lactone (STL cumanin was isolated from A. elatior whereas two other STLs, psilostachyin and cordilin, and one sterol glycoside, daucosterol, were isolated from A. scabra. Cumanin and cordilin were active against Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigotes showing 50% inhibition concentrations (IC50 values of 12 µM and 26 µM, respectively. Moreover, these compounds are active against bloodstream trypomastigotes, regardless of the T. cruzi strain tested. Psilostachyin and cumanin were also active against amastigote forms with IC50 values of 21 µM and 8 µM, respectively. By contrast, daucosterol showed moderate activity on epimastigotes and trypomastigotes and was inactive against amastigote forms. We also found that cumanin and psilostachyin exhibited an additive effect in their trypanocidal activity when these two drugs were tested together. Cumanin has leishmanicidal activity with growth inhibition values greater than 80% at a concentration of 5 µg/ml (19 µM, against both L. braziliensis and L. amazonensis promastigotes. In an in vivo model of T. cruzi infection, cumanin was more active than benznidazole, producing an 8-fold reduction in parasitemia levels during the acute phase of the infection compared with the control group, and more importantly, a reduction in mortality with 66% of the animals surviving, in comparison with 100% mortality in the control group. Cumanin also showed nontoxic effects at the doses assayed in vivo, as determined using markers of hepatic damage.

  3. Let native species take their course: Ambrosia artemisiifolia replacement during natural or ;artificial; succession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentili, Rodolfo; Montagnani, Chiara; Gilardelli, Federica; Guarino, Maria Francesca; Citterio, Sandra

    2017-07-01

    Ambrosia artemisiifolia is able to dominate the early stages of vegetation succession in open/disturbed habitats, spreading out into available empty niches, after which it can be progressively replaced by perennial plants. In this study, we considered the time-span in which the species is suppressed during active (restoration actions) and passive (spontaneous) vegetation recovery. In particular, we envisaged that A. artemisiifolia growth and fitness may be strongly reduced and that the species may rapidly be suppressed within a short time during succession as a consequence of the increase of vegetation cover, both natural or artificially induced, in a disturbed area of northern Italy. Three different treatments were applied within an abandoned quarry area commonly invaded by A. artemisiifolia: (i) spontaneous succession i.e. (control), (ii) hayseed and (iii) a commercial seed mixture. We determined the effect of mixtures of grassland species, established from native hayseed or from a commercial seed mixture, on A. artemisiifolia growth and fitness traits over time in comparison to a non-seeded area left to spontaneous succession. The results demonstrated that, after the first growing season, compared with spontaneous succession, both commercial seed and hayseed resulted in a strong reduction of A. artemisiifolia abundance and growth rate, in terms of both vegetative and reproductive traits. After the second growing season, A. artemisiifolia was completely suppressed in the commercial seed treatment, and after the third growing season it was also suppressed in the spontaneous succession and hayseed treatments. This study indicated that both active and passive vegetation recovery (by niche filling and competitive exclusion) could be used as methods individually or in combination with other methods, such as mowing and biological control, to suppress A. artemisiifolia from anthropogenic habitats.

  4. Fungus symbionts colonizing the galleries of the ambrosia beetle Platypus quercivorus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endoh, Rikiya; Suzuki, Motofumi; Okada, Gen; Takeuchi, Yuko; Futai, Kazuyoshi

    2011-07-01

    Isolations were made to determine the fungal symbionts colonizing Platypus quercivorus beetle galleries of dead or dying Quercus laurifolia, Castanopsis cuspidata, Quercus serrata, Quercus crispula, and Quercus robur. For these studies, logs from oak wilt-killed trees were collected from Kyoto Prefecture, Japan. Fungi were isolated from the: (1) entrances of beetle galleries, (2) vertical galleries, (3) lateral galleries, and (4) the larval cradle of P. quercivorus in each host tree. Among the fungus colonies which appeared on YM agar plates, 1,219 were isolated as the representative isolates for fungus species inhabiting in the galleries based on their cultural characteristics. The validity of the visual classification of the fungus colonies was checked and if necessary properly corrected using microsatellite-primed PCR fingerprints. The nucleotide sequence of the D1/D2 region of the large subunit nuclear rRNA gene detected 38 fungus species (104 strains) of which three species, i.e., Candida sp. 3, Candida kashinagacola (both yeasts), and the filamentous fungus Raffaelea quercivora were isolated from all the tree species. The two yeasts were most prevalent in the interior of galleries, regardless of host tree species, suggesting their close association with the beetle. A culture-independent method, terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis was also used to characterize the fungus flora of beetle galleries. T-RFLP patterns showed that yeast species belonging to the genus Ambrosiozyma frequently occurred on the gallery walls along with the two Candida species. Ours is the first report showing the specific fungi inhabiting the galleries of a platypodid ambrosia beetle.

  5. Australia and uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    A brief justification of the Australian Government's decision to mine and export Australian Uranium is presented along with a description of the Alligator River Region in the Northern Territory where the major mines are to be located. Aboriginal interests and welfare in the region, the proposed Kakadu National Park and the economic benefits resulting from uranium development are also briefly covered. (J.R.)

  6. Preparation of uranium tetrafluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wirths, G.

    1981-01-01

    Uranium dioxide is converted to uranium tetrafluoride under stoichiometric excess of hydrogen fluoride. The water formed in the process and the unreacted hydrogen fluoride are cooled and the condensate fractionally distilled into water and approx. 40% hydrofluoric acid. The hydrofluoric acid and water-free hydrogen fluoride are fed back into the process. (WI) [de

  7. Uranium: biokinetics and toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menetrier, F.; Renaud-Salis, V.; Flury-Herard, A.

    2000-01-01

    This report was achieved as a part of a collaboration with the Fuel Cycle Direction. Its aim was to give the state of the art about: the behaviour of uranium in the human organism (biokinetics) after ingestion, its toxicity (mainly renal) and the current regulation about its incorporation. Both in the upstream and in the downstream of the fuel cycle, uranium remains, quantitatively, the first element in the cycle which is, at the present time, temporarily disposed or recycled. Such a considerable quantity of uranium sets the problem of its risk on the health. In the long term, the biosphere may be affected and consequently the public may ingest water or food contaminated with uranium. In this way, radiological and chemical toxicity risk may be activated. This report emphasizes: the necessity of confirming some experimental and epidemiological biokinetic data used or not in the ICRP models. Unsolved questions remain about the gastrointestinal absorption according to chemical form (valency state, mixtures...), mass and individual variations (age, disease) further a chronic ingestion of uranium. It is well established that uranium is mainly deposited in the skeleton and the kidney. But the skeleton kinetics following a chronic ingestion and especially in some diseases has to be more elucidated; the necessity of taking into account uranium at first as a chemical toxic, essentially in the kidney and determining the threshold of functional lesion. In this way, it is important to look for some specific markers; the problem of not considering chemical toxicity of uranium in the texts regulating its incorporation

  8. Ranger uranium project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    Details are given of an agreement between Peko-Wallsend Operations Ltd., Electrolytic Zinc Company of Australasia Limited, the Australian Atomic Energy Commission and Ranger Uranium Mines Pty. Ltd. regarding the management of the joint Ranger uranium project in the Northern Territory of Australia

  9. Rheinbraun's Australian uranium business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirschbaum, S.

    1989-01-01

    The leaflet argues against the mining activities of the Rheinische Braunkohlenwerke AG in Germany and especially against uranium mining in Australia. The ethno-ecological impact on flora and fauna, aborigines and miners are pointed out. Uranium mining and lignite mining are compared. (HSCH) [de

  10. Nuclear and uranium policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacNabb, G.M.; Uranium Canada Ltd., Ottawa, Ontario)

    The background of the uranium industry in Canada is described. Government policies with respect to ownership of the uranium mining industry, price stabilization, and especially reservation of sufficient supplies of nuclear fuels for domestic utilities, are explained. Canadian policy re nuclear exports and safeguards is outlined. (E.C.B.)

  11. Uranium dioxide pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zawidzki, T.W.

    1979-01-01

    Sintered uranium dioxide pellets composed of particles of size > 50 microns suitable for power reactor use are made by incorporating a small amount of sulphur into the uranium dioxide before sintering. The increase in grain size achieved results in an improvement in overall efficiency when such pellets are used in a power reactor. (author)

  12. Uranium: A Dentist's perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toor, R. S. S.; Brar, G. S.

    2012-01-01

    Uranium is a naturally occurring radionuclide found in granite and other mineral deposits. In its natural state, it consists of three isotopes (U-234, U-235 and U-238). On an average, 1% – 2% of ingested uranium is absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract in adults. The absorbed uranium rapidly enters the bloodstream and forms a diffusible ionic uranyl hydrogen carbonate complex (UO2HCO3+) which is in equilibrium with a nondiffusible uranyl albumin complex. In the skeleton, the uranyl ion replaces calcium in the hydroxyapatite complex of the bone crystal. Although in North India, there is a risk of radiological toxicity from orally ingested natural uranium, the principal health effects are chemical toxicity. The skeleton and kidney are the primary sites of uranium accumulation. Acute high dose of uranyl nitrate delays tooth eruption, and mandibular growth and development, probably due to its effect on target cells. Based on all previous research and recommendations, the role of a dentist is to educate the masses about the adverse effects of uranium on the overall as well as the dental health. The authors recommended that apart from the discontinuation of the addition of uranium to porcelain, the Public community water supplies must also comply with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards of uranium levels being not more than 30 ppb (parts per billion). PMID:24478959

  13. Uranium and transuranium analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regnaud, F.

    1989-01-01

    Analytical chemistry of uranium, neptunium, plutonium, americium and curium is reviewed. Uranium and neptunium are mainly treated and curium is only briefly evoked. Analysis methods include coulometry, titration, mass spectrometry, absorption spectrometry, spectrofluorometry, X-ray spectrometry, nuclear methods and radiation spectrometry [fr

  14. Uranium dioxide electrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willit, James L [Batavia, IL; Ackerman, John P [Prescott, AZ; Williamson, Mark A [Naperville, IL

    2009-12-29

    This is a single stage process for treating spent nuclear fuel from light water reactors. The spent nuclear fuel, uranium oxide, UO.sub.2, is added to a solution of UCl.sub.4 dissolved in molten LiCl. A carbon anode and a metallic cathode is positioned in the molten salt bath. A power source is connected to the electrodes and a voltage greater than or equal to 1.3 volts is applied to the bath. At the anode, the carbon is oxidized to form carbon dioxide and uranium chloride. At the cathode, uranium is electroplated. The uranium chloride at the cathode reacts with more uranium oxide to continue the reaction. The process may also be used with other transuranic oxides and rare earth metal oxides.

  15. EPR of uranium ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ursu, I.; Lupei, V.

    1984-02-01

    A review of the electron paramagnetic resonance data on the uranium ions is given. After a general account of the electronic structure of the uranium free atoms and ions, the influence of the external fields (magnetic field, crystal fields) is discussed. The main information obtained from EPR studies on the uranium ions in crystals are emphasized: identification of the valence and of the ground electronic state, determination of the structure of the centers, crystal field effects, role of the intermediate coupling and of the J-mixing, role of the covalency, determination of the nuclear spin, maqnetic dipole moment and electric quadrupole moment of the odd isotopes of uranium. These data emphasize the fact that the actinide group has its own identity and this is accutely manifested at the beginning of the 5fsup(n) series encompassed by the uranium ions. (authors)

  16. Jabiluka uranium project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    The Jabiluka uranium and gold deposit located in the Northern Territory of Australia is the world's largest known primary uranium deposits and as such has the potential to become one of the most important uranium projects in the world. Despite the financial and structural challenges facing the major owner Pancontinental Mining Limited and the changing political policies in Australia, Jabiluka is well situated for development during the 1990's. With the availability of numerous financial and development alternatives, Jabiluka could, by the turn of the century, take its rightful place among the first rank of world uranium producers. The paper discusses ownership, location, property rights, licensing, environmental concerns, marketing and development, capital costs, royalties, uranium policy considerations, geologic exploration history, regional and site geology, and mining and milling operations

  17. Environmental conditions of two abandoned uranium mill tailings sites in northern Saskatchewan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalin, M.

    Two abandoned uranium mill tailings sites near Uranium City, Saskatchewan, have been studied in an attempt to follow the natural rehabilitation processes. The Gunnar site is a largely terrestrial environment while the Lorado mill tailings were discharged mainly into Nero Lake. This report describes the ecological conditions of both sites, potential long-term environmental degradation, and possible measures to assist the recovery of both areas

  18. Cluff Lake mill operations - a historical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnell, H.A.; Doell, E.; Corpus, E.

    2000-01-01

    The Cluff Lake operation started uranium production in 1980 and has produced over 50 million pounds of uranium since that time. The plant started with high grade ore (+30% U) processing and went through a series of modifications to its present operating status: Phase 1 - High-grade ore (+30% U) processing with acid leach and iron cake precipitation followed by direct yellowcake precipitation. Lower grade ore was concentrated in a gravity circuit to +30% U; Phase 1 1/2 - Reprocessing Phase 1 gravity tailings (+1% U) in an acid leach circuit with solvent extraction purification prior to yellowcake precipitation; Reprocessing of the Phase 1 leach tails (58 g/t Au) to recover gold in a Cyanide/CIP circuit followed by additional uranium recovery, and destruction and recycle of cyanide by volatilization; and Phase 2 - Treatment of the lower grade ore (0.5 to 1% U) at an increased tonnage with an acid leach, CCD, SX circuit as it is found in the existing plant. This paper will review the various processing circuits used during the phases of the Cluff Lake Mill from first uranium production to the present operation. (author)

  19. Efficacy of traps, lures, and repellents for Xylosandrus compactus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and other ambrosia beetles on Coffea arabica plantations and Acacia koa nurseries in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. G. Burbano; M.G. Wright; N.E. Gillette; S. Mori; N. Dudley; N. Jones; M. Kaufmann

    2012-01-01

    The black twig borer, Xylosandrus compactus (Eichhoff) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), is a pest of coffee and many endemic Hawaiian plants. Traps baited with chemical attractants commonly are used to capture ambrosia beetles for purposes of monitoring, studying population dynamics, predicting outbreaks, and mass trapping to reduce damage...

  20. Influence of trap distance from a source population and multiple traps on captures and attack densities of the redbay ambrosia beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    James L. Hanula; Albert (Bud) Mayfield; Laurie S. Reid; Scott Horn

    2016-01-01

    The redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff, is the principal vector of laurel wilt disease in North America. Lures incorporating essential oils of manuka plants (Leptospermum scoparium J. R. Forster & G. Forster) or cubeb seeds (Piper cubeba L.f.) are the most effective in-flight...

  1. Influence of climatic conditions and elevation on the spatial distribution and abundance of Trypodendron ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin M. Reich; John E. Lundquist; Robert E. Acciavati

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to model the influence of temperature and precipitation on the distribution and abundance of the ambrosia beetles in the genus Trypodendron. Although these beetles do not attack and kill healthy trees, their gallery holes and accompanying black and gray stain associated with symbiotic ambrosial fungi can cause significant economic losses...

  2. Competition between biological control fungi and fungal symbionts of ambrosia beetles Xylosandrus crassiusculus and X. germanus (Coleoptera:Cuculionidae): mycelial interactions and impact on beetle brood production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosia beetles Xylosandrus crassiusculus and X. germanus are among the most important exotic pests of orchards and nurseries in the US and are difficult to control using conventional insecticides because of their cryptic habits. The use of biological control agents may prove effective by targetin...

  3. Entomopathogenic fungi as a biological control agents for the vector of the laurel wilt disease, the redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The redbay ambrosia beetle (RAB), Xyleborus glabratus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) vectors the fungal pathogen, Raffaelea lauricola, which causes laurel wilt (LW), a lethal disease of trees in the family Lauraceae, including the most commercially important crop in this family, avocado, Pe...

  4. Risico’s van introductie van exotische plantensoorten, in het bijzonder uit het geslacht Ambrosia L., via import van zaden voor met name veevoer en vogelvoer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Denderen, van Daniël P.D.; Tamis, Wil L.M.; Valkenburg, van Johan L.C.H.

    2010-01-01

    Import van landbouwproducten, in het bijzonder zaden, zijn een belangrijke bron voor de introductie van exotische plantensoorten. In dit artikel wordt ingegaan op twee studies naar het voorkomen van exotische planten, in het bijzonder uit het geslacht Ambrosia, in geïmporteerde partijen zaden. Met

  5. Climate-change-induced range shifts of three allergenic ragweeds (Ambrosia L.) in Europe and their potential impact on human health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Karen; Thyrring, Jakob; Borchsenius, Finn

    2017-01-01

    Invasive allergenic plant species may have severe health-related impacts. In this study we aim to predict the effects of climate change on the distribution of three allergenic ragweed species (Ambrosia spp.) in Europe and discuss the potential associated health impact. We built species distributi...

  6. Evaluation of commercial formulations of entomopathogenic fungi to manage the redbay ambrosia beetle, vector of Laurel wilt, a lethal disease affecting avocados in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    The redbay ambrosia beetle (RAB), Xyleborus glabratus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) vectors the fungal pathogen, Raffaelea lauricola, which causes laurel wilt (LW), a lethal disease of trees in the family Lauraceae, including the most commercially important crop in this family, avocado, Pe...

  7. Uranium in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-09-01

    Canadian uranium exploration and development efforts in 1985 and 1986 resulted in a significant increase in estimates of measured uranium resources. New discoveries have more than made up for production during 1985 and 1986, and for the elimination of some resources from the overall estimates, due to the sustained upward pressure on production costs and the stagnation of uranium prices in real terms. Canada possesses a large portion of the world's uranium resources that are of current economic interest and remains the major focus of inter-national uranium exploration activity. Expenditures for uranium exploration in Canada in 1985 and 1986 were $32 million and $33 million, respectively. Although much lower than the $130 million total reported for 1979, expenditures for 1987 are forecast to increase. Exploration and surface development drilling in 1985 and 1986 were reported to be 183 000 m and 165σ2 000 m, respectively, 85 per cent of which was in Saskatchewan. Canada has maintained its position as the world's leading producer and exporter of uranium. By the year 2000, Canada's annual uranium requirements will be about 2 100 tU. Canada's known uranium resources are more than sufficient to meet the 30-year fuel requirements of those reactors in Canada that are either in operation now or expected to be in service by the late 1990s. A substantial portion of Canada's identified uranium resources is thus surplus to Canadian needs and available for export. Annual sales currently approach $1 billion, of which exports account for 85 per cent. Forward domestic and export contract commitments totalled 73 000 tU and 62 000 tU, respectively, as of early 1987

  8. Flood Stress as a Technique to Assess Preventive Insecticide and Fungicide Treatments for Protecting Trees against Ambrosia Beetles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher M. Ranger

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Ambrosia beetles tunnel into the heartwood of trees where they cultivate and feed upon a symbiotic fungus. We assessed the effectiveness of flood stress for making Cercis canadensis L. and Cornus florida L. trees attractive to attack as part of insecticide and fungicide efficacy trials conducted in Ohio and Virginia. Since female ambrosia beetles will not begin ovipositing until their symbiotic fungus is established within the host, we also assessed pre-treatment of trees with permethrin, azoxystrobin, and potassium phosphite on fungal establishment and beetle colonization success. Permethrin reduced attacks on flooded trees, yet no attacks occurred on any of the non-flooded trees. Fewer galleries created within flooded trees pre-treated with permethrin, azoxystrobin, and potassium phosphite contained the purported symbiotic fungus; foundress’ eggs were only detected in flooded but untreated trees. While pre-treatment with permethrin, azoxystrobin, and potassium phosphite can disrupt colonization success, maintaining tree health continues to be the most effective and sustainable management strategy.

  9. Fate and transport modelling of uranium in Port Hope Harbour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinilla, C.E.; Garisto, N.; Peters, R.

    2010-01-01

    Fate and transport modelling of contaminants in Port Hope Harbour and near-shore Lake Ontario was undertaken in support of an ecological and human health risk assessment. Uranium concentrations in the Harbour and near-shore Lake Ontario due to groundwater and storm water loadings were estimated with a state-of-the-art 3D hydrodynamic and contaminant transport model (ECOMSED). The hydrodynamic model was simplified to obtain a first estimate of the flow pattern in the Harbour. The model was verified with field data using a tracer (fluoride). The modelling results generally showed good agreement with the tracer field data. (author)

  10. Trace element patterns in lichens following uranium mine closures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fahselt, D.; Wu, T.W.; Mott, B.

    1995-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis was used to determine trace elements in Cladina mitis (Sandst). Hale ampersand Culb. along transects extending from uranium mines at Elliot Lake and Agnew Lake in central Ontario, Canada. Levels of 11 elements were reported and the presence of uranium (U) was confirmed, although U concentrations were much less than in Cladina rangiferina 10 years earlier. Among the elements identified in lichen thalli was Th, which occurred in higher concentrations than U. All trace elements, including the two radionuclides, were found in deteriorating thallus parts as well as living podetia, and five of these seem to have originated as airborne particulates from minesites. In spite of mine closures, levels of Th and U remained higher near sources of ore dust and there was little relationship between radionuclide concentrations in thallus and substrate. 24 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  11. Uranium tipped ammunition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, P.

    1993-01-01

    During the uranium enrichment process required to make nuclear weapons or fuel, the concentration of the 'fissile' U-235 isotope has to be increased. What is left, depleted uranium, is about half as radioactive as natural uranium, but very dense and extremely hard. It is used in armour piercing shells. External radiation levels from depleted uranium (DU) are low. However DU is about as toxic as lead and could be harmful to the kidneys if eaten or inhaled. It is estimated that between 40 and 300 tonnes of depleted uranium were left behind by the Allied armies after the Gulf war. The biggest hazard would be from depleted uranium shells which have hit Iraqui armoured vehicles and the resulting dust inhaled. There is a possible link between depleted uranium shells and an illness known as 'Desert Storm Syndrome' occurring in some Gulf war veterans. As these shells are a toxic and radioactive hazard to health and the environment their use and testing should be stopped because of the risks to troops and those living near test firing ranges. (UK)

  12. Purification of uranium metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Kenji; Shikama, Tatsuo; Ochiai, Akira.

    1993-01-01

    We developed the system for purifying uranium metal and its metallic compounds and for growing highly pure uranium compounds to study their intrinsic physical properties. Uranium metal was zone refined under low contamination conditions as far as possible. The degree of the purity of uranium metal was examined by the conventional electrical resistivity measurement and by the chemical analysis using the inductive coupled plasma emission spectrometry (ICP). The results show that some metallic impurities evaporated by the r.f. heating and other usual metallic impurities moved to the end of a rod with a molten zone. Therefore, we conclude that the zone refining technique is much effective to the removal of metallic impurities and we obtained high purified uranium metal of 99.99% up with regarding to metallic impurities. The maximum residual resistivity ratio, the r.r.r., so far obtained was about 17-20. Using the purified uranium, we are attempting to grow a highly pure uranium-titanium single crystals. (author)

  13. Uranium deposits in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilpolt, R.H.; Simov, S.D.

    1979-01-01

    Africa is not only known for its spectacular diamond, gold, copper, chromium, platinum and phosphorus deposits but also for its uranium deposits. At least two uranium provinces can be distinguished - the southern, with the equatorial sub-province; and the south Saharan province. Uranium deposits are distributed either in cratons or in mobile belts, the first of sandstone and quartz-pebble conglomerate type, while those located in mobile belts are predominantly of vein and similar (disseminated) type. Uranium deposits occur within Precambrian rocks or in younger platform sediments, but close to the exposed Precambrian basement. The Proterozoic host rocks consist of sediments, metamorphics or granitoids. In contrast to Phanerozoic continental uranium-bearing sediments, those in the Precambrian are in marginal marine facies but they do contain organic material. The geology of Africa is briefly reviewed with the emphasis on those features which might control the distribution of uranium. The evolution of the African Platform is considered as a progressive reduction of its craton area which has been affected by three major Precambrian tectonic events. A short survey on the geology of known uranium deposits is made. However, some deposits and occurrences for which little published material is available are treated in more detail. (author)

  14. The uranium in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The uranium is a natural element omnipresent in the environment, with a complex chemistry more and more understood. Many studies are always today devoted to this element to better improve the uranium behavior in the environment. To illustrate this knowledge and for the public information the CEA published this paper. It gathers in four chapters: historical aspects and properties of the uranium, the uranium in the environment and the impacts, the metrology of the uranium and its migration. (A.L.B.)

  15. Assessment of contamination of the Issyk-Kul' valley natural waters with uranium mine wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palesski, S.V.; Nikolaeva, I.V.; Saprykin, A.I.; Gavshin, V.M.

    2003-01-01

    The Lake Issyk-Kul' of the central Tyan-Shan is characterized by increased natural uranium content. Uranium-carbon deposit situated on the southern bank of the Lake can be the reason of chemical and radioactive contamination of this unique basin by exploitation wastes. In order to estimate possible danger, a project 'Assessment and prognosis of environmental changes in Lake Issyk-Kul' (Kyrgyzstan)' was developed and supported by the Program of the European Commission 'Copernicus-2' (2001-2003). According to this project the water assays were sampled from different depths near the banks of the Lake and from low-debit sources draining the dumping grounds of the uranium-carbon deposit. Elemental and isotopic examinations of these water samples were performed using an ELEMENT HR-ICP-MS (Finnigan Mat). The results obtained are the evidence that the ecological status of the Lake Issyk-Kul'is not damaged at present. Wastewaters from the uranium-carbon mine do not make decisive contribution into the natural radioactive background. (authors)

  16. Assessment of contamination of the Issyk-Kul' valley natural waters with uranium mine wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palesski, S. V.; Nikolaeva, I. V.; Saprykin, A. I.; Gavshin, V. M.

    2003-05-01

    The Lake Issyk-Kul' of the central Tyan-Shan is characterized by increased natural uranium content. Uranium-carbon deposit situated on the southern bank of the Lake can be the reason of chemical and radioactive contamination of this unique basin by exploitation wastes. ln order to estimate possible danger, a project “Assessment and prognosis of environmental changes in Lake Issyk-Kul' (Kyrghyzstan)” was developed and supported by the Program ofthe European Commission “Copernicus-2” (2001-2003). According to this project the water assays were sampled from different depths near the banks of the Lake and from low-debit sources draining the dumping grounds of the uranium-carbon deposit. Elemental and isotopic examinations of these water samples were performed using an ELEMENT HR-ICP-MS (Finnigan Mat). The results obtained are the evidence that the ecological status of the Lake Issyk-Kul'is not damaged at present. Wastewaters from the uranium-carbon mine do not make decisive contribution into the natural radioactive background.

  17. Uranium resource assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The objective of this investigation is to examine what is generally known about uranium resources, what is subject to conjecture, how well do the explorers themselves understand the occurrence of uranium, and who are the various participants in the exploration process. From this we hope to reach a better understanding of the quality of uranium resource estimates as well as the nature of the exploration process. The underlying questions will remain unanswered. But given an inability to estimate precisely our uranium resources, how much do we really need to know. To answer this latter question, the various Department of Energy needs for uranium resource estimates are examined. This allows consideration of whether or not given the absence of more complete long-term supply data and the associated problems of uranium deliverability for the electric utility industry, we are now threatened with nuclear power plants eventually standing idle due to an unanticipated lack of fuel for their reactors. Obviously this is of some consequence to the government and energy consuming public. The report is organized into four parts. Section I evaluates the uranium resource data base and the various methodologies of resource assessment. Part II describes the manner in which a private company goes about exploring for uranium and the nature of its internal need for resource information. Part III examines the structure of the industry for the purpose of determining the character of the industry with respect to resource development. Part IV arrives at conclusions about the emerging pattern of industrial behavior with respect to uranium supply and the implications this has for coping with national energy issues

  18. Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program. Annual status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-12-01

    The FY 1983 project accomplishments are: completed the Remedial Action Plan and Phase I engineering design for the Canonsburg processing site; completed remedial action on an additional 52 vicinity properties and the inclusion of an additional 303 properties in the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project; executed cooperative agreements with four states and the Navajo Nation; published the draft environmental impact statement for Salt Lake City site; and issued the approved Project Plan

  19. Depleted uranium management alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hertzler, T.J.; Nishimoto, D.D.

    1994-08-01

    This report evaluates two management alternatives for Department of Energy depleted uranium: continued storage as uranium hexafluoride, and conversion to uranium metal and fabrication to shielding for spent nuclear fuel containers. The results will be used to compare the costs with other alternatives, such as disposal. Cost estimates for the continued storage alternative are based on a life-cycle of 27 years through the year 2020. Cost estimates for the recycle alternative are based on existing conversion process costs and Capital costs for fabricating the containers. Additionally, the recycle alternative accounts for costs associated with intermediate product resale and secondary waste disposal for materials generated during the conversion process.

  20. Vacuum fusion of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stohr, J.A.

    1957-01-01

    After having outlined that vacuum fusion and moulding of uranium and of its alloys have some technical and economic benefits (vacuum operations avoid uranium oxidation and result in some purification; precision moulding avoids machining, chip production and chemical reprocessing of these chips; direct production of the desired shape is possible by precision moulding), this report presents the uranium fusion unit (its low pressure enclosure and pumping device, the crucible-mould assembly, and the MF supply device). The author describes the different steps of cast production, and briefly comments the obtained results

  1. Uranium absorption study pile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raievski, V.; Sautiez, B.

    1959-01-01

    The report describes a pile designed to measure the absorption of fuel slugs. The pile is of graphite and comprises a central section composed of uranium rods in a regular lattice. RaBe sources and BF 3 counters are situated on either side of the center. A given uranium charge is compared with a specimen charge of about 560 kg, and the difference in absorption between the two noted. The sensitivity of the equipment will detect absorption variations of about a few ppm boron (10 -6 boron per gr. of uranium) or better. (author) [fr

  2. Uranium mining and milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Floeter, W.

    1976-01-01

    In this report uranium mining and milling are reviewed. The fuel cycle, different types of uranium geological deposits, blending of ores, open cast and underground mining, the mining cost and radiation protection in mines are treated in the first part of this report. In the second part, the milling of uranium ores is treated, including process technology, acid and alkaline leaching, process design for physical and chemical treatment of the ores, and the cost. Each chapter is clarified by added figures, diagrams, tables, and flowsheets. (HK) [de

  3. Uranium in coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Facer, J.F. Jr.

    1979-05-01

    United States production of coal in 1977 was 695 million short tons of which 477 million tons were burned in power plants. The ash from these power plants was about 67 million tons containing an estimated 900 tons U 3 O 8 , assuming 14 percent ash from the type of coal used by utilities and 12 ppM U contained in ash. Perhaps 1 to 3 percent of the domestic uranium requirement could be met from coal ash, provided processing technology could be developed for uranium recovery at acceptable costs. However, the environmental problems for disposal of the slimy leached ash would be enormous. The average uranium grade of coal in the United States is less than half of that of the Earth's crust. Burning the coal concentrates the contained uranium in the ash from 2 to 20 times. However, even at 20 times concentration, the percent uranium in coal ash is less than 1/100 of the grade of the uranium ore being processed today from conventional deposits. Although it is conceivable that some coal ash might contain enough uranium to make the ash an economic source of uranium, this is not now the case for ash from any major coal-fired power plant in the United States. During 1963 to 67, about 180,000 tons of uranium-bearing carbonaceous rock from the southwestern part of the Williston Basin were mined and processed to recover about 1 million pounds of U 3 O 8 . None of this material has been mined since 1967. The uranium reserves of the area are small, and the environmental problems with calcining the lignitic material may be prohibitive. Some other uraniferous coal and lignite could be mined and processed as a uranium ore, but less than half of one percent of the domestic $30 reserves are in coal. A few samples of mid-continent coal have been reported to contain about 100 ppM U but little is known about the size of such deposits or the likelihood that they will be mined and used for power plant fuel to produce a high-uranium ash

  4. Investigations in hydrogeochemical samples for uranium exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnakumar, M.

    2015-01-01

    The primary mandate of Atomic Minerals Directorate for Exploration and Research (AMD) is to explore and establish the uranium and other atomic mineral resources required for the country's nuclear power programme. During the geochemical exploration, a large number of ground, surface, spring, stream and lake water samples are collected and analysed for various parameters. These include physical parameters such as temperature, pH, Eh, electrical conductivity etc., and concentrations of uranium and multi-ions at mg/L to ng/L using state-of-the-art instrumental analytical techniques. Hydrogeochemical analysis is considered to be a cost effective and rapid exploration tool for getting sub-surface information leading to finding of concealed uranium deposits. Water samples from a bore well, dug well, stream, spring which is in dynamic equilibrium with the rocks are collected in a white, thick walled, non-transparent, non-recycled and air-tight container, stored and analysed within eight hours if possible to avoid change in Eh-pH conditions and precipitation-dissolution of trace elements

  5. Evolution of ore-bearing material sources of endogenous uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazansk, V.I.; Laverov, N.P.; Tugarinov, A.I.

    1976-01-01

    Considered are the regularities of changes in types and conditions of uranium deposit formation in connection with the general development of the earth crust tectonic structures. Out of pre-Kembrian uranium deposits considered are Vitwatersrand conglomerates, hydrothermal deposits in pre-Kembrian iron quartzites in the areas of regional fractures in exocontacts of big multiphase granitoid massifs of Proterozoic age and in the fundament folded structures. The hydrothermal-metamorphogen theory is supported of the origin of uranium-bearing sodium metasomatite of Proterozoic, including uranium deposits in the area of the Atabaska lake. Four genetic classes of Palaeozoic deposits are considered. Four periods are singled out in the development of Palaeozoic uranium provinces. Most of the Palaeozoic deposits are shown to be of polygenous origin. Mesozoic deposits are also polygenous, but the combination of ore substance sources in them is more complex

  6. Cost study on waste management at three model Canadian uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-03-01

    A waste management cost study was initiated to determine the capital and operating costs of three different uranium waste management systems which incorporate current technologies being used in Canadian uranium mining operations. Cost estimates were to be done to a thirty percent level of accuracy and were to include all waste management related costs of a uranium ore processing facility. Each model is based on an annual uranium production of 1,923,000 kg U (5,000,000 lbs U 3 O 8 ) with a total operating life of 20 years for the facility. The three models, A, B, and C, are based on three different uranium ore grades, 0.10 percent U 3 O 8 , 0.475 percent U 3 O 8 and 1.5 percent U 3 O 8 respectively. Yellowcake production is assumed to start in January 1984. Model A is based on a conceptual 7,180 tonne per day uranium ore processing facility and waste management system typical of uranium operations in the Elliot Lake area of northern Ontario with an established infrastructure. Model B is a 1.512 tonne per day operation based on a remote uranium operation typical of the Athabasca Basin properties in northern Saskatchewan. Model C is a 466 tonne per day operation processing a high-grade uranium ore containing arsenic and heavy metal concentrations typical of some northern Saskatchewan deposits

  7. Possible uranium sources of Streltsovsky uranium ore field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Lisheng

    2005-01-01

    The uranium deposit of the Late Jurassic Streltsovaky caldera in Transbaikalia of Russia is the largest uranium field associated with volcanics in the world, its uranium reserves are 280 000 t U, and it is the largest uranium resources in Russia. About one third of the caldera stratigraphic pile consists of strongly-altered rhyolites. Uranium resources of the Streltsovsky caldera are much larger than any other volcanic-related uranium districts in the world. Besides, the efficiency of hydrothermal alteration, uranium resources appear to result from the juxtaposition of two major uranium sources; highly fractionated peralkaline rhyolites of Jurassic age in the caldera, and U-rich subalkaline granites of Variscan age in the basement in which the major uranium-bearing accessory minerals were metamict at the time of the hydrothermal ore formation. (authors)

  8. Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edsall, Thomas A.; Mac, Michael J.; Opler, Paul A.; Puckett Haecker, Catherine E.; Doran, Peter D.

    1998-01-01

    The Great Lakes region, as defined here, includes the Great Lakes and their drainage basins in Minnesota, Wisconsin, Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and New York. The region also includes the portions of Minnesota, Wisconsin, and the 21 northernmost counties of Illinois that lie in the Mississippi River drainage basin, outside the floodplain of the river. The region spans about 9º of latitude and 20º of longitude and lies roughly halfway between the equator and the North Pole in a lowland corridor that extends from the Gulf of Mexico to the Arctic Ocean.The Great Lakes are the most prominent natural feature of the region (Fig. 1). They have a combined surface area of about 245,000 square kilometers and are among the largest, deepest lakes in the world. They are the largest single aggregation of fresh water on the planet (excluding the polar ice caps) and are the only glacial feature on Earth visible from the surface of the moon (The Nature Conservancy 1994a).The Great Lakes moderate the region’s climate, which presently ranges from subarctic in the north to humid continental warm in the south (Fig. 2), reflecting the movement of major weather masses from the north and south (U.S. Department of the Interior 1970; Eichenlaub 1979). The lakes act as heat sinks in summer and heat sources in winter and are major reservoirs that help humidify much of the region. They also create local precipitation belts in areas where air masses are pushed across the lakes by prevailing winds, pick up moisture from the lake surface, and then drop that moisture over land on the other side of the lake. The mean annual frost-free period—a general measure of the growing-season length for plants and some cold-blooded animals—varies from 60 days at higher elevations in the north to 160 days in lakeshore areas in the south. The climate influences the general distribution of wild plants and animals in the region and also influences the activities and distribution of the human

  9. [Gas exchange features of Ambrosia artemisiifolia leaves and fruits and their correlations with soil heavy metals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zu, Yuangang; Wang, Wenjie; Chen, Huafeng; Yang, Fengjian; Zhang, Zhonghua

    2006-12-01

    Ambrosia artemisiifolia can survive well in the habitats of heavy human disturbance and partial soil pollution. Weather its photosynthetic features benefit their survival is worthwhile to concern. With a refuse dump in Changchun City (43 degrees 50'N, 125 degrees 23'E) as study site, this paper analyzed the contents of soil Cu, Pb, Zn, Mn, Cr, Co, Ni, Cd, As, Sb and Hg at ten plots, and measured in situ the gas exchange in A. artemisiifolia leaves and young fruits. The results showed that the study site was slightly contaminated by Ni, but the contents of other soil heavy metals were approached to or substantially lower than their threshold values. The net photosynthetic rate of leaves ranged from 1.88 to 9.41 micromol x m(-2) x s(-1), while that of young fruits could be up to 2. 81 micromol x m(-2) s(-1). Averagely, the respiration rate, stomatal conductance, photosynthetic rate, and water utilization efficiency of leaves were 1.81 micromol x m(-2) x s(-1), 75.7 mmol x m(-2) x s(-1), 6.05 micromol x m(-2) x s(-1), and 4.72 micromol CO2 x mmol(-1) H2O, being 5.26, 0.64, 1.31 and 1.69 times as much as those of young fruits, respectively, indicating that the respiratory and photosynthetic capacities and water use efficiency of A. artemisiifolia young fruits were equivalent to or higher than those of its leaves. Many test heavy metals, such as Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, As, Sb and Hg, had no significant effects on the gas exchange features of leaves and fruits, but there were significant correlations of Ni and Cr with the stomatal conductance and water use efficiency of leaves and young fruits, Cr with the gross photosynthesis of leaves, and As with the stomatal conductance of young fruits, suggesting that a majority of test soil heavy metals had no direct effects on the gas exchange in A. artemisiifolia leaves and fruits, but soil Ni, Cr and As with the contents approached to or substantially lower than the threshold values could affect the gas exchange features of A

  10. Uranium in alkaline rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, M.; Wollenberg, H.; Strisower, B.; Bowman, H.; Flexser, S.; Carmichael, I.

    1978-04-01

    Geologic and geochemical criteria were developed for the occurrence of economic uranium deposits in alkaline igneous rocks. A literature search, a limited chemical analytical program, and visits to three prominent alkaline-rock localities (Ilimaussaq, Greenland; Pocos de Caldas, Brazil; and Powderhorn, Colorado) were made to establish criteria to determine if a site had some uranium resource potential. From the literature, four alkaline-intrusive occurrences of differing character were identified as type-localities for uranium mineralization, and the important aspects of these localities were described. These characteristics were used to categorize and evaluate U.S. occurrences. The literature search disclosed 69 U.S. sites, encompassing nepheline syenite, alkaline granite, and carbonatite. It was possible to compare two-thirds of these sites to the type localities. A ranking system identified ten of the sites as most likely to have uranium resource potential

  11. PURIFICATION OF URANIUM FUELS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedrach, L.W.; Glamm, A.C.

    1959-09-01

    An electrolytic process of refining or decontaminating uranium is presented. The impure uranium is made the anode of an electrolytic cell. The molten salt electrolyte of this cell comprises a uranium halide such as UF/sub 4/ or UCl/sub 3/ and an alkaline earth metal halide such as CaCl/sub 2/, BaF/sub 2/, or BaCl/sub 2/. The cathode of the cell is a metal such as Mn, Cr, Co, Fe, or Ni which forms a low melting eutectic with U. The cell is operated at a temperature below the melting point of U. In operation the electrodeposited uranium becomes alloyed with the metal of the cathode, and the low melting alloy thus formed drips from the cathode.

  12. Uranium market activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, J.A.

    1975-01-01

    Results are summarized from the 1974 ERDA annual survey of buyers and sellers and from a survey of uranium price data which provided information on additional domestic buying activity during the first half of 1975 through 1982

  13. Uranium industry seminar: proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The eleventh annual Uranium Industry Seminar, sponsored by the Grand Junction Area Office of the US Department of Energy (DOE), was held in Grand Junction, Colorado, on October 21 and 22, 1981. There were 491 registered attendees as compared to 700 attending the previous year. The attendees were largely from uranium and other energy resource companies, electric utility firms, energy consultants and service companies, and governmental agencies. In addition, there were representatives present from Indian tribes, universities, the media, DOE laboratories, and foreign countries and organizations. Papers presented at the seminar dealt with uranium policies, exploration, resources, supply, enrichment, and market conditions. There also were papers on the National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program and international activities. Thirteen papers included in this report have been abstracted and indexed

  14. Uranium extraction from seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bals, H.G.

    1978-01-01

    Problems and work of other institutes in the field of uranium extraction from sea water are presented. UEB developments, UEB processes, and work done to realize the UEB concept are discussed. (HK) [de

  15. Uranium dioxide pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zawidzki, T.W.

    1982-01-01

    A process for the preparation of a sintered, high density, large crystal grain size uranium dioxide pellet is described which involves: (i) reacting a uranyl nitrate of formula UO 2 (NO 3 ) 2 .6H 2 O with a sulphur source, at a temperature of from about 300 deg. C to provide a sulphur-containing uranium trioxide; (ii) reacting the thus-obtained modified uranium trioxide with ammonium nitrate to form an insoluble sulphur-containing ammonium uranate; (iii) neutralizing the thus-formed slurry with ammonium hydroxide to precipitate out as an insoluble ammonium uranate the remaining dissolved uranium; (iv) recovering the thus-formed precipitates in a dry state; (v) reducing the dry precipitate to UO 2 , and forming it into 'green' pellets; and (vi) sintering the pellets in a hydrogen atmosphere at an elevated temperature

  16. Uranium in alkaline rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, M.; Wollenberg, H.; Strisower, B.; Bowman, H.; Flexser, S.; Carmichael, I.

    1978-04-01

    Geologic and geochemical criteria were developed for the occurrence of economic uranium deposits in alkaline igneous rocks. A literature search, a limited chemical analytical program, and visits to three prominent alkaline-rock localities (Ilimaussaq, Greenland; Pocos de Caldas, Brazil; and Powderhorn, Colorado) were made to establish criteria to determine if a site had some uranium resource potential. From the literature, four alkaline-intrusive occurrences of differing character were identified as type-localities for uranium mineralization, and the important aspects of these localities were described. These characteristics were used to categorize and evaluate U.S. occurrences. The literature search disclosed 69 U.S. sites, encompassing nepheline syenite, alkaline granite, and carbonatite. It was possible to compare two-thirds of these sites to the type localities. A ranking system identified ten of the sites as most likely to have uranium resource potential.

  17. Uranium Research in Senegal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanouté, Mamadou

    2015-01-01

    The work of mining companies have so far not proved economic uranium resources, but they have nevertheless contributed greatly to a better understanding of the geology, particularly in Eastern Senegal, on the upper Precambrian basin including which equivalents exist throughout West Africa (the uranium belt of Zaire) prospected by CEA-COGEMA teams. The researches carried out in Senegal, but also in Guinea and Mali helped establish a detailed map and understand the course of geological history. With new exploration techniques and data of airborne geophysical (radiometric) provided by the Mining Sector Support Programme (PASMI 9th EDF 9 ACP SE 09), AREVA, at the end of the first period validity of the exploration permit increased significantly, the resources. Prospects are favorable to a doubling of resources; objective of a uranium mine in Senegal. Synergies are possible and desirable with joint exploitation of uranium deposits located in Mali, near the border with Senegal.

  18. Uranium industry seminar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The tenth annual Uranium Industry Seminar, sponsored by the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Grand Junction Office, was held in Grand Junction, Colorado, on October 22 and 23, 1980. There were 700 registered attendees as compared to 833 attending the previous year. The attendees were drawn largely from uranium and other energy resource companies, electric utility firms, energy consultants and service companies, and governmental agencies. In addition, there were representatives present from Indian tribes, universities, the media, DOE laboratories, and foreign countries and organizations. There were 14 papers presented at the seminar by speakers from the Department of Energy, US Geological Survey, and Bendix Field Engineering Corporation which is the on-site prime contractor for DOE's Grand Junction Office. The topics the papers dealt with were uranium policies, exploration, respources, supply, enrichment, and market conditions. There also were papers describing the National Uranium Resource Evaluation program and international activities. All 14 papers in this Proceedings have been abstracted and indexed

  19. The uranium market prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, R.

    1981-01-01

    A historical analysis of the uranium market points out the cyclical nature of the market and suggests that the spot price, exploration levels, and mill capacity utilization rate are dependent on economic factors. An examination of the current uranium market suggests that the effects of the forecasted surplus supply, the diminishing returns in exploration and the long lead times and high costs of development may mean that future production levels are uncertain. The general prospects for the uranium industry are also uncertain because of barriers to trade, environmental regulations and public opinion. The paper concludes that by the use of long term contracts, appropriate inventory policy and greater discussion between producers and consumers the prospects for the uranium market can be made more certain and further imbalances in demand and supply can be avoided. (author)

  20. Uranium in granites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maurice, Y.T.

    1982-01-01

    Recent research activities of the Canadian Uranium in Granites Study are presented in 18 papers and 3 abstracts. 'Granites' is used as a generic term for granitoids, granitic rocks, and plutonic rocks

  1. Uranium determination in zirconium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serdeiro, N.H.; Bianco de Salas, G.H.; Correia, R.J.

    1987-01-01

    The method used for the spectrometric uranium determination with 2-(2-thiolase)-5-diethylaminophenol was modified for its application in the zirconium samples analysis with an uranium content of the 0.1% order. The samples, previously dissolved in nitric acid, were submitted to a separative stage of liquid-liquid extraction, with a trioctylphosphine (TOPO) oxide diluted in cyclohexane. A sodium fluoride aqueous solution was necessary to be aggregated in the spectrometric determination so as to complex the zirconium vestiges, which could be present, originated by the Zr/U high relation of the initial sample. Under the established working conditions, different spectrometric assays, dyes absorption spectra and its uranium complex, complex stability, PH influence determination of the dyes-uranium relation, calculation of the complex's apparent formation constant and its molar absorption, were performed. (Author)

  2. Uranium purchases report 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Data reported by domestic nuclear utility companies in their responses to the 1991 through 1993 ''Uranium Industry Annual Survey,'' Form EIA-858, Schedule B,'' Uranium Marketing Activities,'' are provided in response to the requirements in the Energy Policy Act 1992. Appendix A contains an explanation of Form EIA-858 survey methodologies with emphasis on the processing of Schedule B data. Additional information published in this report not included in Uranium Purchases Report 1992, includes a new data table. Presented in Table 1 are US utility purchases of uranium and enrichment services by origin country. Also, this report contains additional purchase information covering average price and contract duration. Table 2 is an update of Table 1 and Table 3 is an update of Table 2 from the previous year's report. The report contains a glossary of terms

  3. Uranium hexafluoride purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, Eneas F. de

    1986-01-01

    Uranium hexafluoride might contain a large amount of impurities after manufacturing or handling. Three usual methods of purification of uranium hexafluoride were presented: selective sorption, sublimation, and distillation. Since uranium hexafluoride usually is contaminated with hydrogen fluoride, a theoretical study of the phase equilibrium properties was performed for the binary system UF 6 -HF. A large deviation from the ideal solution behaviour was observed. A purification unity based on a constant reflux batch distillation process was developed. A procedure was established in order to design the re boiler, condenser and packed columns for the UF 6 -HF mixture separation. A bench scale facility for fractional distillation of uranium hexafluoride was described. Basic operations for that facility and results extracted from several batches were discussed. (author)

  4. Hydrogen in uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darras, R.; Caillat, R.

    1959-01-01

    Hydrogen impairs the properties of metals, in particular this can assume considerable importance with uranium when used as a fuel material. Hydrogen can be associated with uranium in two distinct ways: either dissolved in the metal, or in the form of a hydride. The solubility of hydrogen in uranium depends on the allotropic form of the metal; it is in addition greater in molten than in solid uranium. Two types of hydride, both given by the formula UH 3 , have been identified. The first, the α-type. is stable at low temperature. It is generally accompanied by small amounts of the β-type, into which it is wholly transformed above 140 deg.C. Reprint of a paper published in Progress in Nuclear Energy, Series V, Vol. 2, 'Metallurgy and Fuels', p. 19-27

  5. Uranium Location Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — A GIS compiled locational database in Microsoft Access of ~15,000 mines with uranium occurrence or production, primarily in the western United States. The metadata...

  6. US uranium market developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krusiewski, S.V.; Thomas, D.C.

    1981-01-01

    Domestic uranium delivery commitments for the 1981 to 1990 period reached a peak in the July 1980 survey and then declined in the January 1981 survey and again in the July 1981 survey. However, there are sizable sales contracts through the mid-1980s. In the latter part of this decade, unfilled requirements increase which can provide a needed market for domestic producers. Older contracts are helping to keep the average contract prices, including market price settlements, rather stable. However, average market price settlements decreased from data reported in January 1981, but some of these deliveries represent settlement of litigation. Foreign uranium procurement is scheduled to exceed deliveries of US uranium to foreign buyers in the 1981 to 1990 period. However, the actual use of foreign uranium has been quite low as US enrichment services customers have preferred to buy US uranium. Based on over four and one-half years of data, only about 7% foreign uranium has been brought to the Department of Energy for enrichment. Inventories of natural and enriched uranium in buyers' hands continue to increase. This is a concern to the uranium-producing industry. However, the industry should not be concerned about DOE-owned inventories, which are needed to supply Government requirements. There is absolutely no plan to dispose of DOE inventories on the commercial market. Capital expenditures reached a peak of $800 million in 1979. This decreased to $780 million in 1980, although higher expenditures were planned for the year. A very sharp reduction in plans for 1981, from $830 to $450 million, has been reported. A further reduction to $350 million is planned for 1982. However, it is interesting to note that the planned expenditures for 1982 are above the expenditures for 1975, a period of industury expansion

  7. Recovery of uranium values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowden, G.A.

    1982-01-01

    A process is provided for the recovery of uranium from an organic extractant phase containing an amine. The extractant phase is contacted in a number of mixing stages with an acidic aqueous stripping phase containing sulphate ions, and the phases are passed together through a series of mixing stages while maintaining a dispersion of droplets of one phase in the other. Uranium is precipitated from the final stage by raising the pH. An apparatus having several mixing chambers is described

  8. Uranium determination in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prudenzo, E.J.; Puga, Maria J.; Cerchietti, Maria L.R.; Arguelles, Maria G.

    2005-01-01

    In our laboratory, a procedure has been assessed to determine uranium content of water in normal situations. The method proposed without sample pre-treatment, is simple and rapid. Uranium mass is measured by fluorimetry. For calculation of detection limit (Ld) and quantification level (Lq) we used blank samples and the results were analyzed for different statistical test. The calculation of total propagated uncertainty and sources contribution on real samples are presented. (author)

  9. Uranium project. Geochemistry prospection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, J.

    1983-01-01

    Geochemistry studies the distribution of the chemicals elements in the terrestrial crust and its ways to migrate. The terminology used in this report is the following one: 1) Principles of the prospection geochemistry 2) Stages of the prospection geochemistry 3)utility of the prospection geochemistry 4) geochemistry of uranium 5) procedures used within the framework of uranium project 6) Average available 7) Selection of the zones of prospection geochemistry 8) Stages of the prospection, Sample preparation and analisis 9) Presentation of the results

  10. Worldwide developments in uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoellen, E.E.

    1987-01-01

    World uranium production will continue to change in most major producing nations. Canadian production will increase and will be increasingly dominated by western producers as eastern Canadian high-cost production declines. Australian production will increase as major projects come into operation before 2000. US production will stabilize through the end of the century. South African production will be dependent upon the worldwide support for economic sanctions. China's entry into the world market injects yet another variable into the already cloudy supply picture. Many risks and uncertainties will face uranium producers through the 1980s. Recognizing that the uranium industry is not a fast-growing market, many existing and potential producers are seeking alternate investment courses, causing a restructuring of the world uranium production industry in ways not anticipated even a few years ago. During the restructuring process, world uranium production will most likely continue to exceed uranium consumption, resulting in a further buildup of world uranium inventories. Inventory sales will continue to redistribute this material. As inventory selling runs its course, users will turn to normal sources of supply, stimulating additional production to meet needs. Stimulation in the form of higher prices will be determined by how fast producers are willing and able to return to the market. Production costs are expected to have an increasing impact as it has become apparent that uranium resources are large in comparison to projected consumption. Conversely, security-of-supply issues have seemed to be of decreasing magnitude as Canada, Australia, and other non-US producers continue to meet delivery commitments

  11. U for uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    The Beisa Mine is unique in South Africa - it is the only underground mine with uranium as its main product and gold as a by-product. At the rate of 1,2 Mt/a, the life of Beisa is estimated on 26 years. Beisa's metallurgical plant is designed to handle initially a monthly throughput of 100 000t of ore, from which uranium, gold and silver will be extracted

  12. Uranium leads political stakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, D.

    2009-01-01

    Until the announcement by the federal Environment Minister Peter Garrett that the government would permit uranium mining at Beverly Four Mile, South Australia, there had been little news flow from the sector over the past year. Uranium was the first to turn down, even before the United States sub-prime mortgage crisis began to cause shock waves through the global economy, a report by BGF Equities analyst Warwick Grigor shows.

  13. Uranium purchases report 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-07-01

    US utilities are required to report to the Secretary of Energy annually the country of origin and the seller of any uranium or enriched uranium purchased or imported into the US, as well as the country of origin and seller of any enrichment services purchased by the utility. This report compiles these data and also contains a glossary of terms and additional purchase information covering average price and contract duration. 3 tabs

  14. Ranger uranium environmental enquiry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-07-01

    The submission is divided into three sections. Section A considers the international implications of the development of uranium resources including economic and resource aspects and environmental and social aspects. Section B outlines the government's position on export controls over uranium and its effect on the introduction of nuclear power in Australia. Section C describes the licensing and regulatory functions that would be needed to monitor the environmental and health aspects of the Ranger project. (R.L.)

  15. Uranium - the nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, E.E.N.

    1976-01-01

    A brief history is presented of Canadian uranium exploration, production, and sales. Statistics show that Canada is a good customer for its own uranium due to a rapidly expanding nuclear power program. Due to an average 10 year lag between commencement of exploration and production, and with current producers sold out through 1985, it is imperative that exploration efforts be increased. (E.C.B.)

  16. Uranium tailings bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holoway, C.F.; Goldsmith, W.A.; Eldridge, V.M.

    1975-12-01

    A bibliography containing 1,212 references is presented with its focus on the general problem of reducing human exposure to the radionuclides contained in the tailings from the milling of uranium ore. The references are divided into seven broad categories: uranium tailings pile (problems and perspectives), standards and philosophy, etiology of radiation effects, internal dosimetry and metabolism, environmental transport, background sources of tailings radionuclides, and large-area decontamination

  17. Canada's uranium industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Runnalls, O.J.C.

    The history of uranium mining, exploration, and trade in Canada is outlined. Past complex variations in market conditions are analyzed and future prospects for production and demand are forecast. Canadian and world resources of uranium are compared. Export policies and their rationales are explained. The Canadian nuclear fuel industry is described and fuel performance in-reactor is shown to be excellent. (E.C.B.)

  18. URANIUM SEPARATION PROCESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, W.L.

    1962-04-17

    A method of separating uranium oxides from PuO/sub 2/, ThO/sub 2/, and other actinide oxides is described. The oxide mixture is suspended in a fused salt melt and a chlorinating agent such as chlorine gas or phosgene is sparged through the suspension. Uranium oxides are selectively chlorinated and dissolve in the melt, which may then be filtered to remove the unchlorinated oxides of the other actinides. (AEC)

  19. Engineering report on drilling in the Owens Lake area, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-07-01

    The Owens Lake Drilling Project was conducted by Bendix Field Engineering Corporation in support of the Department of Energy's (DOE) National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) program. This project consisted of eight drill holes ranging in depth from 420 to 3.500 feet (128.02 to 1,066.80 m). A total of 19,205 feet (5,853.68 m) was drilled, of which 135.5 feet (41.30 m) were cored. The purpose of the Owens Lake project was to test the uranium potential of the Coso formation, Pliocene (upper) and Pleistocene (lower) in areas downdip from known zones of mineralization. This project started on June 22, 2979 and continued until February 21, 1980. Restoration and seeding started on February 22, 1980 and was completed on March 1, 1980. Engineering details, statistics, individual borehole histories, and geophysical logs of the eight holes drilled in Owens Lake, California drilling program are presented

  20. Responding to non-technical challenges in the uranium mining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shpyth, A.

    1997-01-01

    The modern uranium mining industry in Saskatchewan has been working with northerners, governments, and educational institutions for nearly 20 years to bring about one of the highest levels of northern and aboriginal participation in an industrial sector in Canada. It has accomplished this in the face of challenges - those arising from the demographics of the north, continuously rising expectations, and the at times difficult demands from evolving aboriginal political institutions. Every second apprenticeship vacancy at Key Lake is to be awarded to an employee of aboriginal ancestry. Saskatchewan dominates uranium mining because of the high grade of its deposits. Even though Key Lake, Rabbit Lake and Cluff Lake are coming near the end of their lives, they will be replaced by: McArthur River (with average grade 15% U 3 O 8 ), Cigar Lake (9%), McClean Lake (3.5), Midwest (4.5). Without doubt, the grade and size of these new deposits will contribute to the competitiveness of the Saskatchewan uranium mining industry; but so too will the workforce

  1. The Streltsovskoye uranium district

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ischukova, L.P.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the geology of the Streltsovskoye uranium district located in south-eastern Zabaikalie region, Chita Province, Siberia, Russia. This district hosts Russia's only currently active uranium production centre. The uranium ore was discovered from 1963 to 1967 by drilling below fluorite veins which had minor associated uranium mineralization and radioactive anomalies. The uranium occurs as large scale vein stockwork deposits of hydrothermal origin within a volcano-tectonic caldera formed by continental volcanism of Late Mesozoic age. Rocks occurring in the caldera include basalt and trachydacite, overlain by rhyolite, and with associated interbedded sediments. The ore bodies occur in steeply dipping faults, with the greatest concentrations located where faults along the margins of the caldera intersect steeply dipping, cross cutting, northeasterly and northwesterly striking faults. The Streltsovskoye caldera extends over an area of 150 km 2 and is underlain by a large batholith. The 19 identified uranium deposits occurred in structural features that cut through the caldera sequence and extend into the basement rocks. The caldera has a maximum thickness of 1400 metres. Details of several deposits are given, including descriptions of mineralization and associated alteration. (author). 10 figs

  2. Production of uranium peroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caropreso, F.E.; Kreuz, D.F.

    1977-01-01

    A process is claimed of recovering uranium values as uranium peroxide from an aqueous uranyl solution containing dissolved vanadium and sodium impurities by treating the uranyl solution with hydrogen peroxide in an amount sufficient to have an excess of at least 0.5 parts H 2 O 2 per part of vanadium (V 2 O 5 ) above the stoichiometric amount required to form the uranium peroxide, the hydrogen peroxide treatment is carried out in three sequential phases consisting of I, a precipitation phase in which the hydrogen peroxide is added to the uranyl solution to precipitate the uranium peroxide and the pH of the reaction medium maintained in the range of 2.5 to 5.5 for a period of from about 1 to 60 minutes after the hydrogen peroxide addition; II, a digestion phase in which the pH of the reaction medium is maintained in the range of 3.0 to 7.0 for a period of about 5 to 180 minutes and III, a final phase in which the pH of the reaction medium is maintained in the range of 4.0 to 7.0 for a period of about 1 to 60 minutes during which time the uranium peroxide is separated from the reaction solution containing the dissolved vanadium and sodium impurities. The excess hydrogen peroxide is maintained during the entire treatment up until the uranium peroxide is separated from the reaction medium

  3. Analytical method of uranium (IV) and uranium (VI) in uranium ores and uranium-bearing rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Zhuqin; Zheng Yongfeng; Li Qingzhen; Zhong Miaolan; Gu Dingxiang

    1995-11-01

    The best conditions for keeping the original valences of uranium during the dissolution and separation procedure of geological samples (especially those micro uranium-bearing rock) were studied. With the exist of high concentration protectants, the sample was decomposed with concentration HF at 40 +- 5 degree C. The U(VI) was dissolved completely and formed stable complex UO 2 F 2 , the U(IV) was precipitated rapidly and carried by carrier. Quantitative separation was carried out immediately with suction. The decomposition of sample and separation of solid/liquid phases was completed within two minutes. After separation, the U(IV) and U(VI) were determined quantitatively with laser fluorescence or voltametry respectively according to the uranium content. The limit of detection for this method is 0.7 μg/g, RSD is 10.5%, the determinate range of uranium is 2 x 10 -6 ∼10 -1 g/g. The uranium contents and their valence state ratio were measured for more than one hundred samples of sand stone and granite, the accuracy and precision of these results are satisfactory for uranium geological research. (12 tabs.; 11 refs.)

  4. Automated uranium titration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, M.; Kato, Y.

    1983-01-01

    An automated titration system based on the Davies-Gray method has been developed for accurate determination of uranium. The system consists of a potentiometric titrator with precise burettes, a sample changer, an electronic balance and a desk-top computer with a printer. Fifty-five titration vessels are loaded in the sample changer. The first three contain the standard solution for standardizing potassium dichromate titrant, and the next two and the last two contain the control samples for data quality assurance. The other forty-eight measurements are carried out for sixteen unknown samples. Sample solution containing about 100 mg uranium is taken in a titration vessel. At the pretreatment position, uranium (VI) is reduced to uranium (IV) by iron (II). After the valency adjustment, the vessel is transferred to the titration position. The rate of titrant addition is automatically controlled to be slower near the end-point. The last figure (0.01 mL) of the equivalent titrant volume for uranium is calculated from the potential change. The results obtained with this system on 100 mg uranium gave a precision of 0.2% (RSD,n=3) and an accuracy of better than 0.1%. Fifty-five titrations are accomplished in 10 hours. (author)

  5. Uranium-scintillator device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, S.D.

    1979-01-01

    The calorimeter subgroup of the 1977 ISABELLE Summer Workshop strongly recommended investigation of the uranium-scintillator device because of its several attractive features: (1) increased resolution for hadronic energy, (2) fast time response, (3) high density (i.e., 16 cm of calorimeter per interaction length), and, in comparison with uranium--liquid argon detectors, (4) ease of construction, (5) simple electronics, and (6) lower cost. The AFM group at the CERN ISR became interested in such a calorimeter for substantially the same reasons, and in the fall of 1977 carried out tests on a uranium-scintillator (U-Sc) calorimeter with the same uranium plates used in their 1974 studies of the uranium--liquid argon (U-LA) calorimeter. The chief disadvantage of the scintillator test was that the uranium plates were too small to fully contain the hadronic showers. However, since the scintillator and liquid argon tests were made with the plates, direct comparison of the two types of devices could be made

  6. Uranium control in phosphogypsum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurst, F.J.; Arnold, W.D.

    1980-01-01

    In wet-process phosphoric acid plants, both previous and recent test results show that uranium dissolution from phosphate rock is significantly higher when the rock is acidulated under oxidizing conditions than under reducing conditions. Excess sulfate and excess fluoride further enhance the distribution of uranium to the cake. Apparently the U(IV) present in the crystal lattice of the apatite plus that formed by reduction of U(IV) by FE(II) during acidulation is trapped or carried into the crystal lattice of the calcium sulfate crystals as they form and grow. The amount of uranium that distributes to hemihydrate filter cake is up to seven times higher than the amount that distributes to the dihydrate cake. About 60% of the uranium in hemihydrate cakes can be readily leached after hydration of the cake, but the residual uranium (20 to 30%) is very difficult to remove economically. Much additional research is needed to develop methods for minimizing uranium losses to calcium filter cakes

  7. Eldorado Port Hope refinery - uranium production (1933-1951)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsenault, J.E.

    2008-01-01

    Since the discovery of pitchblende in 1930 by Gilbert LaBine at Great Bear Lake (GBL), North West Territories, uranium has played a central role in the growth of the Canadian mining sector and it in turn has propelled the country into it's present position as the world's top uranium producer. The rich ore mined there was used originally by Eldorado Gold Mines Limited to build a business based on the extraction of radium, which was selling at $70,000 a gram at the time, and silver which was present in the ore in commercial amounts. The mine site on GBL became known as Port Radium. In 1933 Eldorado brought a refinery on-line at Port Hope, Ontario nearly 4,000 miles away from the mine, and began to produce radium, silver and uranium products. Initially uranium played a minor role in the business and the products were sold into the ceramics industry to manufacture a variety of crockery with long-lasting colours. In addition, there were sales and loans of uranium products to research laboratories that were exploring nuclear energy for possible use in weapons and power generation, as the potential for this was clearly understood from 1939 onwards. These laboratories included the National Research Council (George Laurence), Columbia University (Enrico Fermi) and International Chemical Industries (J.P. Baxter). With the beginning of World War II the radium business suffered from poor sales and by 1940 the mine was closed but the refinery continued operation, using accumulated stockpiles. By 1942 uranium had become a strategic material, the mine was reopened, and the refinery began to produce large quantities of uranium oxide destined for The Manhattan Project. As events unfolded Eldorado was unable to produce sufficient ore from GBL so that a large quantity of ore from the Belgian Congo was also processed at Port Hope. Ultimately, as a result of the efforts of this enterprise, World War II was finally ended by use of atomic weapons. After World War II the refinery

  8. Recovery of uranium by chlorination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komoto, Shigetoshi; Taki, Tomihiro

    1988-01-01

    The recovery of uranium from uraniferous phosphate by conventional process is generally uneconomic, except that uranium is recovered as a by-product. If an economical process by which uranium is recovered efficiently as a chief product is discovered, uraniferous phosphate will be used effectively as uranium ore. By using chiorination which will be expected to be favorable in comparison with conventional process, the recovery of uranium from uraniferous phosphate has been carried out. The paper describes the reaction machanism and general characteristics of the uranium chiorination, and the research done so for. (author)

  9. A survey of the weevils of Ukraine. Bark and ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Platypodinae and Scolytinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikulina, Tatyana; Mandelshtam, Mikhail; Petrov, Alexander; Nazarenko, Vitalij; Yunakov, Nikolai

    2015-01-22

    Our knowledge of Ukrainian bark and ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae and Platypodinae) is summarized as a baseline for future studies of the fauna, with a checklist including information on distribution, host trees, biology and taxonomy. One hundred twenty-two species are recorded from Ukraine, of which seven are recorded for the first time. One species is recorded for the first time from Europe. Previous records of 24 species are considered dubious and requiring confirmation. In contrast to the Palaearctic Catalogue (Knížek 2011b), we consider Anisandrus maiche to be first described by Kurentsov (1941) rather than by Eggers (1942); A. maiche (Eggers, 1942) is a junior synonym of A. maiche (Kurentsov, 1941). 

  10. Characterizing restriction enzyme-associated loci in historic ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) voucher specimens using custom-designed RNA probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanchez Barreiro, Fatima; Garrett Vieira, Filipe Jorge; Martin, Michael David

    2017-01-01

    , samples with degraded DNA are generally unsuitable for RRL methods. Given that ancient and historic specimens can provide key temporal perspectives to evolutionary questions, we explored how custom-designed RNA probes could enrich for RRL loci (Restriction Enzyme-Associated Loci baits, or REALbaits......). Starting with Genotyping-by-Sequencing (GBS) data generated on modern common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.) specimens, we designed 20,000 RNA probes to target well-characterized genomic loci in herbarium voucher specimens dating from 1835-1913. Compared to shotgun sequencing, we observed enrichment...... of the targeted loci at 19-151-fold. Using our GBS capture pipeline on a dataset of 38 herbarium samples, we discovered 22,813 SNPs, providing sufficient genomic resolution to distinguish geographic populations. For these samples, we found that dilution of REALbaits to 10% of their original concentration still...

  11. The Effect of Field Dodder (Cuscuta campestris Yunck. on Morphological and Fluorescence Parameters of Giant Ragweed (Ambrosia trifida L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sava Vrbničanin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the parasitic flowering plant known as field dodder (Cuscuta campestrisYunck. on morphological and fluorescence parameters of infested giant ragweed(Ambrosia trifida L. plants was examined under controlled conditions. The parameters ofchlorophyll fluorescence (Fo, Fv/Fm, ΦPSII, Fv, Fm, ETR and IF were measured on infested (Iand non-infested (N A. trifida plants over a period of seven days, beginning with the day ofinfestation. Morphological parameters (plant height, dry and fresh weight were measuredon the last day of fluorescence measurements. C. campestris was found to affect the height,fresh and dry weight of the infested A. trifida plants, causing significant reduction in plantheight and dry weight. Field dodder also affected several parameters of chlorophyll fluorescence(Fo, Fv/Fm, ΦPSII and Fv in infested A. trifida plants.

  12. Process for electrolytically preparing uranium metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Paul A.

    1989-01-01

    A process for making uranium metal from uranium oxide by first fluorinating uranium oxide to form uranium tetrafluoride and next electrolytically reducing the uranium tetrafluoride with a carbon anode to form uranium metal and CF.sub.4. The CF.sub.4 is reused in the fluorination reaction rather than being disposed of as a hazardous waste.

  13. Oxidation of uranium and uranium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orman, S.

    1976-01-01

    The corrosion behaviour of uranium in oxygen, water and water + oxygen mixtures is compared and contrasted. A considerable amount of work, much of it conflicting, has been published on the U + H 2 O and U + H 2 O + O 2 systems. An attempt has been made to summarise this data and to explain the reasons for the lack of agreement between the experimental results. The evidence for the mechanism involving OH - ion diffusion as the reacting entity in both the U + H 2 O and U + O 2 + H 2 O reactions is advanced. The more limited corrosion data on some lean uranium alloys and on some higher addition alloys referred to as stainless materials is summarised together with some previously unreported results obtained with these materials at AWRE. The data indicates that in the absence of oxygen the lean alloys behave in a similar manner to uranium and evolve hydrogen in approximately theoretical quantities. But the stainless alloys absorb most of the product hydrogen and assessments of reactivity based on hydrogen evolution would be very inaccurate. The direction that future corrosion work on these materials should take is recommended

  14. Erfahrungen mit der Bekämpfung von Ambrosia in der Schweiz – ein Rückblick

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bohren, Christian

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The dicotyledonous summer annual common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. is on the one hand a noxious arable weed and on the other hand an invasive neophyte with a great potential to spread. Various possibilities are known for control of common ragweed in agricultural fields with mechanical and chemical methods. Limits are set in sunflowers because sunflower and ragweed are botanically related. Because no weed control action results in 100% efficacy, common ragweed can propagate quickly in untreated corners of the field or in other disturbed soils. The legal obligation of reporting and control – introduced in Switzerland a couple of years ago – allowed the development of specific distribution maps and enhanced the quality of control measures. Facts and figures from the Canton of Geneva prove that the ragweed invasion has been stopped, but the species is not eradicated. The results of Geneva represent the results of good ragweed control in the whole country. Beside agriculture, traffic infrastructure, building sites, gravel pits and urban park and garden areas are sensible to ragweed invasion. This is why the formation of “Ambrosia Groups” helps to exchange experiences and to understand factors provoking the invasion. The responsibility of individuals helps to improve control efficiency even if financial funds are small. A sustainable control success depends on the efficiency to hamper seed production. The reduction of pollen quantity in the air in a long term is part of the earnings for the control effort. Actually, the publicity of common ragweed is fed by specialist information and its distribution in the media. It would be an interesting task to develop in our fast moving era an awareness level comparable to that of the stinging nettle.

  15. Presence and Prevalence of Raffaelea lauricola, Cause of Laurel Wilt, in Different Species of Ambrosia Beetle in Florida, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploetz, Randy C; Konkol, Joshua L; Narvaez, Teresa; Duncan, Rita E; Saucedo, Ramon J; Campbell, Alina; Mantilla, Julio; Carrillo, Daniel; Kendra, Paul E

    2017-04-01

    We summarize the information available on ambrosia beetle species that have been associated in Florida with Raffaelea lauricola T.C. Harr., Fraedrich & Aghayeva, the primary symbiont of Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff and cause of laurel wilt. In total, 14 species in Ambrosiodmus, Euwallacea, Premnobius, Xyleborus, Xyleborinus, and Xylosandrus were either reared from laurel wilt-affected host trees or trapped in laurel wilt-affected stands of the same, and assayed for R. lauricola. In six collections from native species in the southeastern United States [Persea borbonia (L.), Persea palustris (Raf.) Sarg., and Persea humilis Nash] and four from avocado (Persea americana Mill.), extracted mycangia or heads (taxa with mandibular mycangia) or intact bodies (taxa with mycangia in other locations) were surface-disinfested before assays on a semi-selective medium for the isolation of Raffaelea (CSMA+). Raffaelea lauricola was identified based on its characteristic phenotype on CSMA+, and the identity of a random subset of isolates was confirmed with taxon-specific microsatellite markers. The pathogen was recovered from 34% (246 of 726) of the individuals that were associated with the native Persea spp., but only 6% (58 of 931) of those that were associated with avocado. Over all studies, R. lauricola was recovered from 10 of the ambrosia beetle species, but it was most prevalent in Xyleborus congeners. This is the first record of R. lauricola in Ambrosiodmus lecontei Hopkins, Xyleborinus andrewesi (Blandford), and Xyleborus bispinatus Eichhoff. The potential effects of R. lauricola's promiscuity are discussed. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Influence of uranium hydride oxidation on uranium metal behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, N.; Hambley, D.; Clarke, S.A.; Simpson, K.

    2013-01-01

    This work addresses concerns that the rapid, exothermic oxidation of active uranium hydride in air could stimulate an exothermic reaction (burning) involving any adjacent uranium metal, so as to increase the potential hazard arising from a hydride reaction. The effect of the thermal reaction of active uranium hydride, especially in contact with uranium metal, does not increase in proportion with hydride mass, particularly when considering large quantities of hydride. Whether uranium metal continues to burn in the long term is a function of the uranium metal and its surroundings. The source of the initial heat input to the uranium, if sufficient to cause ignition, is not important. Sustained burning of uranium requires the rate of heat generation to be sufficient to offset the total rate of heat loss so as to maintain an elevated temperature. For dense uranium, this is very difficult to achieve in naturally occurring circumstances. Areas of the uranium surface can lose heat but not generate heat. Heat can be lost by conduction, through contact with other materials, and by convection and radiation, e.g. from areas where the uranium surface is covered with a layer of oxidised material, such as burned-out hydride or from fuel cladding. These rates of heat loss are highly significant in relation to the rate of heat generation by sustained oxidation of uranium in air. Finite volume modelling has been used to examine the behaviour of a magnesium-clad uranium metal fuel element within a bottle surrounded by other un-bottled fuel elements. In the event that the bottle is breached, suddenly, in air, it can be concluded that the bulk uranium metal oxidation reaction will not reach a self-sustaining level and the mass of uranium oxidised will likely to be small in relation to mass of uranium hydride oxidised. (authors)

  17. Australia's uranium export potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosher, D.V.

    1981-01-01

    During the period 1954-71 in Australia approximately 9000 MT of U 3 O 8 was produced from five separate localities. Of this, 7000 MT was exported to the United Kingdom and United States and the balance stockpiled by the Australian Atomic Energy Commission (AAEC). Australia's uranium ore reserves occur in eight deposits in three states and the Northern Territory. However, 83% of Australia's reserves are contained in four deposits in lower Proterozoic rocks in the East Alligator River region of the Northern Territory. The AAEC has calculated Australia's recoverable uranium reserves by eliminating estimated losses during the mining and milling of the ores. AAEC has estimated reasonably assured resources of 289,000 MT of uranium at a recovery cost of less than US$80 per kilogram uranium. The companies have collectively announced a larger ore reserve than the Australian Atomic Energy Commission. This difference is a result of the companies adopting different ore reserve categories. On August 25, 1977, the federal government announced that Australia would develop its uranium resources subject to stringent environmental controls, recognition of Aboriginal Land Rights, and international safeguards. Australian uranium production should gradually increase from 1981 onward, growing to 10,000 to 15,000 MT by 1985-86. Further increases in capacity may emerge during the second half of the 1980s when expansion plans are implemented. Exploration for uranium has not been intensive due to delays in developing the existing deposits. It is likely that present reserves can be substantially upgraded if more exploration is carried out. 6 figures, 3 tables

  18. Pyrophoric behaviour of uranium hydride and uranium powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Guyadec, F.; Génin, X.; Bayle, J. P.; Dugne, O.; Duhart-Barone, A.; Ablitzer, C.

    2010-01-01

    Thermal stability and spontaneous ignition conditions of uranium hydride and uranium metal fine powders have been studied and observed in an original and dedicated experimental device placed inside a glove box under flowing pure argon. Pure uranium hydride powder with low amount of oxide (Oxidation mechanisms are proposed.

  19. Uranium Supply Strategy of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Shangxiong; Zhang Decun; Zhang Yi

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: With the rapid development of nuclear power in the next few years, uranium demand will increase accordingly. Overseas uranium development will be the major channel to meet the future requirement of NPP demand in China.

  20. Collect method of uranium hexafluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moura, S.C.; Bustillos, O.W.V.

    1991-01-01

    A collect method of uranium hexafluoride was designed, constructed and assembled in Analytical Laboratory from Instituto de Energia Atomica, Sao Paulo, Brazil. This method of collect is main for quality control of uranium hexafluoride. (author)

  1. The case against uranium mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robotham, F.P.

    1980-01-01

    Australia is a potential uranium supplier. The case against uranium mining is presented. Biological effects of radiation, risks involved in reactor operation and the problems of waste disposal are discussed

  2. Workshop on radon and radon daughters in urban communities associated with uranium mining and processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    This meeting of Atomic Energy Control Board staff, representatives of other government departments, and consultants was called to exchange information on steps taken to lower radiation levels in houses in communities such as Elliot Lake, Uranium City, and Port Hope. Discussions covered the sources of radon and radon daughters in these houses, radon measurement techniques, and remedial methods that worked or were not successful

  3. International uranium market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neff, T.L.; Jacoby, H.D.

    1980-12-01

    Discussed in this report are 1) how one might think about uranium demand, resources and supply, 2) how producers and consumers see the market and are likely to behave, including specifics about export and import commitments, and 3) how these actors are brought together in the international market. The general conclusion is that much of current anxiety about future uranium supply results primarily from a brief but difficult period in the mid- to late-1970's; and that current conditions and trends are favorable (at least to consumers) that there is now little basis for concern. Inventories contractual positions and producer commitments--when compared with realistic (or even unrealistic) demand estimates--imply a buyer's market for at least the next decade. The result will be considerable increases in market flexibility and resilience to shock, and real prices that are low relative to those of the past few years. There is a need to reconsider assumptions about desired directions of technological development, for many current programs were planned in an era of pessimism about uranium supply and process. Similar questions must be raided about nonproliferation policies that depend on some level of control of fuel supplies by the industrial nations. With a soft and more diversified uranium market, leverage that may have existed in the past is rapidly being eroded. Finally, as world prices turn soft, there may be significant problems created for U.S. uranium producers, who have relatively high costs in relation to several large-scale foreign suppliers

  4. Uranium hexafluoride handling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The United States Department of Energy, Oak Ridge Field Office, and Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., are co-sponsoring this Second International Conference on Uranium Hexafluoride Handling. The conference is offered as a forum for the exchange of information and concepts regarding the technical and regulatory issues and the safety aspects which relate to the handling of uranium hexafluoride. Through the papers presented here, we attempt not only to share technological advances and lessons learned, but also to demonstrate that we are concerned about the health and safety of our workers and the public, and are good stewards of the environment in which we all work and live. These proceedings are a compilation of the work of many experts in that phase of world-wide industry which comprises the nuclear fuel cycle. Their experience spans the entire range over which uranium hexafluoride is involved in the fuel cycle, from the production of UF 6 from the naturally-occurring oxide to its re-conversion to oxide for reactor fuels. The papers furnish insights into the chemical, physical, and nuclear properties of uranium hexafluoride as they influence its transport, storage, and the design and operation of plant-scale facilities for production, processing, and conversion to oxide. The papers demonstrate, in an industry often cited for its excellent safety record, continuing efforts to further improve safety in all areas of handling uranium hexafluoride

  5. Uranium tailings sampling manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feenstra, S.; Reades, D.W.; Cherry, J.A.; Chambers, D.B.; Case, G.G.; Ibbotson, B.G.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this manual is to describe the requisite sampling procedures for the application of uniform high-quality standards to detailed geotechnical, hydrogeological, geochemical and air quality measurements at Canadian uranium tailings disposal sites. The selection and implementation of applicable sampling procedures for such measurements at uranium tailings disposal sites are complicated by two primary factors. Firstly, the physical and chemical nature of uranium mine tailings and effluent is considerably different from natural soil materials and natural waters. Consequently, many conventional methods for the collection and analysis of natural soils and waters are not directly applicable to tailings. Secondly, there is a wide range in the physical and chemical nature of uranium tailings. The composition of the ore, the milling process, the nature of tailings depositon, and effluent treatment vary considerably and are highly site-specific. Therefore, the definition and implementation of sampling programs for uranium tailings disposal sites require considerable evaluation, and often innovation, to ensure that appropriate sampling and analysis methods are used which provide the flexibility to take into account site-specific considerations. The following chapters describe the objective and scope of a sampling program, preliminary data collection, and the procedures for sampling of tailings solids, surface water and seepage, tailings pore-water, and wind-blown dust and radon

  6. Oxidants for uranium leaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, E.; Ring, B.

    2007-01-01

    Most uranium ores are leached with sulfuric acid under oxidising conditions. This paper reviews the oxidants that have been traditionally used in uranium leaching and discusses their merits in the context of overall flow sheet considerations. Options for alternative oxidants are also discussed. In acid leaching, ferric ion in solution oxidises insoluble uranium(IV) to soluble uranium (VI). Though ferric ion may be added directly, usually an oxidant is added to the circuit to convert ferrous ion to ferric ion in the liquor so that leaching can continue. The most common oxidants are pyrolusite and sodium chlorate. Pyrolusite is relatively cheap but introduces manganese ions into the liquor and consumes twice as much acid as sodium chlorate. Sodium chlorate is a slow reacting oxidant at low temperatures and acidities, and introduces chloride into the leach liquor. Caro's acid, is a non-polluting reagent that was used successfully at the Nabarlek uranium mine, and provided very good control of oxidising conditions. Other oxidants that are now being considered to overcome the disadvantages of pyrolusite and sodium chlorate are oxygen, hydrogen peroxide and SO 2 /O 2 . Some performance data for these oxidants are presented

  7. Uranium hexafluoride handling. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-31

    The United States Department of Energy, Oak Ridge Field Office, and Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., are co-sponsoring this Second International Conference on Uranium Hexafluoride Handling. The conference is offered as a forum for the exchange of information and concepts regarding the technical and regulatory issues and the safety aspects which relate to the handling of uranium hexafluoride. Through the papers presented here, we attempt not only to share technological advances and lessons learned, but also to demonstrate that we are concerned about the health and safety of our workers and the public, and are good stewards of the environment in which we all work and live. These proceedings are a compilation of the work of many experts in that phase of world-wide industry which comprises the nuclear fuel cycle. Their experience spans the entire range over which uranium hexafluoride is involved in the fuel cycle, from the production of UF{sub 6} from the naturally-occurring oxide to its re-conversion to oxide for reactor fuels. The papers furnish insights into the chemical, physical, and nuclear properties of uranium hexafluoride as they influence its transport, storage, and the design and operation of plant-scale facilities for production, processing, and conversion to oxide. The papers demonstrate, in an industry often cited for its excellent safety record, continuing efforts to further improve safety in all areas of handling uranium hexafluoride. Selected papers were processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  8. Uranium resources, production and demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    Nuclear power-generating capacity will continue to expand, albeit at a slower pace than during the past fifteen years. This expansion must be matched by an adequately increasing supply of uranium. This report compares uranium supply and demand data in free market countries with the nuclear industry's natural uranium requirements up to the year 2000. It also reviews the status of uranium exploration, resources and production in 46 countries

  9. The Toxicity of Depleted Uranium

    OpenAIRE

    Briner, Wayne

    2010-01-01

    Depleted uranium (DU) is an emerging environmental pollutant that is introduced into the environment primarily by military activity. While depleted uranium is less radioactive than natural uranium, it still retains all the chemical toxicity associated with the original element. In large doses the kidney is the target organ for the acute chemical toxicity of this metal, producing potentially lethal tubular necrosis. In contrast, chronic low dose exposure to depleted uranium may not produce a c...

  10. Designated Wildlife Lakes - points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This is a point shapefile of Designated Wildlife Lakes in Minnesota. This shapefile was created by converting lake polygons from the Designated Wildlife Lakes...

  11. Great Lakes Bathymetry

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathymetry of Lakes Michigan, Erie, Saint Clair, Ontario and Huron has been compiled as a component of a NOAA project to rescue Great Lakes lake floor geological and...

  12. Bathymetry of Lake Superior

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathymetry of Lake Superior has been compiled as a component of a NOAA project to rescue Great Lakes lake floor geological and geophysical data and make it more...

  13. Bathymetry of Lake Ontario

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathymetry of Lake Ontario has been compiled as a component of a NOAA project to rescue Great Lakes lake floor geological and geophysical data and make it more...

  14. Bathymetry of Lake Michigan

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathymetry of Lake Michigan has been compiled as a component of a NOAA project to rescue Great Lakes lake floor geological and geophysical data and make it more...

  15. Bathymetry of Lake Huron

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathymetry of Lake Huron has been compiled as a component of a NOAA project to rescue Great Lakes lake floor geological and geophysical data and make it more...

  16. Uranium. Resources, production and demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The events characterising the world uranium market in the last several years illustrate the persistent uncertainly faced by uranium producers and consumers worldwide. With world nuclear capacity expanding and uranium production satisfying only about 60 per cent of demand, uranium stockpiles continue to be depleted at a high rate. The uncertainty related to the remaining levels of world uranium stockpiles and to the amount of surplus defence material that will be entering the market makes it difficult to determine when a closer balance between uranium supply and demand will be reached. Information in this report provides insights into changes expected in uranium supply and demand until well into the next century. The 'Red Book', jointly prepared by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the International Atomic Energy Agency, is the foremost reference on uranium. This world report is based on official information from 59 countries and includes compilations of statistics on resources, exploration, production and demand as of 1 January 1997. It provides substantial new information from all of the major uranium producing centres in Africa, Australia, Eastern Europe, North America and the New Independent States, including the first-ever official reports on uranium production in Estonia, Mongolia, the Russian Federation and Uzbekistan. It also contains an international expert analysis of industry statistics and worldwide projections of nuclear energy growth, uranium requirements and uranium supply

  17. Sandstone-type uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finch, W.I.; Davis, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    World-class sandstone-type uranium deposits are defined as epigenetic concentrations of uranium minerals occurring as uneven impregnations and minor massive replacements primarily in fluvial, lacustrine, and deltaic sandstone formations. The main purpose of this introductory paper is to define, classify, and introduce to the general geologic setting for sandstone-type uranium deposits

  18. Yeguang granite and uranium metallogeny

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong Wenshu

    1988-03-01

    The geological, petrologic and geochemical characteristics of rock body of yeguang granite are discussed with emphasis on clarification of occurrence of uranium in rock body and uranium deposit characteristics related to rock body, based on extensive field observations and laboratory test. View points are presented that granite refers to genetic series of terrestial crust transformation tye and uranium deposit is hot water deposit

  19. Uranium immobilization and nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffy, C.J.; Ogard, A.E.

    1982-02-01

    Considerable information useful in nuclear waste storage can be gained by studying the conditions of uranium ore deposit formation. Further information can be gained by comparing the chemistry of uranium to nuclear fission products and other radionuclides of concern to nuclear waste disposal. Redox state appears to be the most important variable in controlling uranium solubility, especially at near neutral pH, which is characteristic of most ground water. This is probably also true of neptunium, plutonium, and technetium. Further, redox conditions that immobilize uranium should immobilize these elements. The mechanisms that have produced uranium ore bodies in the Earth's crust are somewhat less clear. At the temperatures of hydrothermal uranium deposits, equilibrium models are probably adequate, aqueous uranium (VI) being reduced and precipitated by interaction with ferrous-iron-bearing oxides and silicates. In lower temperature roll-type uranium deposits, overall equilibrium may not have been achieved. The involvement of sulfate-reducing bacteria in ore-body formation has been postulated, but is uncertain. Reduced sulfur species do, however, appear to be involved in much of the low temperature uranium precipitation. Assessment of the possibility of uranium transport in natural ground water is complicated because the system is generally not in overall equilibrium. For this reason, Eh measurements are of limited value. If a ground water is to be capable of reducing uranium, it must contain ions capable of reducing uranium both thermodynamically and kinetically. At present, the best candidates are reduced sulfur species

  20. Uranium industry in the USSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikipelov, B.V.; Chernov, A.G.

    1990-01-01

    A brief historical account of the Soviet production of natural and enriched uranium is given. The geological and geographical location of major uranium deposits are mentioned. The processing of natural ores including in-situ leaching (ISL) is also briefly described. Gas centrifuges play a large part in uranium enrichment. The role of Techsnabexport for the export of nuclear materials is explained

  1. Uranium content of Philippine coals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De la Rosa, A.M.; Sombrito, E.Z.; Nuguid, Z.S.; Bulos, A.M.; Bucoy, B.M.; De la Cruz, M.

    1984-01-01

    Uranium content of coal samples from seven areas in the Philippines, i.e. Cebu, Semirara, Bislig, Albay, Samar, Malangas and Polilio Is. was found to contain trace quantities of uranium. The mean value of 0.401 ppm U is lower than reported mean uranium contents for coal from other countries. (ELC)

  2. Uranium extraction from underground deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfe, C.R.

    1982-01-01

    Uranium is extracted from underground deposits by passing an aqueous oxidizing solution of carbon dioxide over the ore in the presence of calcium ions. Complex uranium carbonate or bicarbonate ions are formed which enter the solution. The solution is forced to the surface and the uranium removed from it

  3. Uranium distribution in Baikal sediments using SSNTD method for paleoclimate reconstruction

    CERN Document Server

    Zhmodik, S M; Nemirovskaya, N A; Zhatnuev, N S

    1999-01-01

    First data on local distribution of uranium in the core of Lake Baikal floor sediments (Academician ridge, VER-95-2, St 3 BC, 53 deg. 113'12'N/108 deg. 25'01'E) are presented in this paper. They have been obtained using (n,f)-radiography. Various forms of U-occurrence in floor sediments are shown, i.e. evenly disseminated, associated with clayey and diatomaceous components; micro- and macroinclusions of uranium bearing minerals - microlocations with uranium content 10-50 times higher than U-concentrations associated with clayey and diatomaceous components. Relative and absolute U-concentration can be determined for every mineral. Signs of various order periodicity of U-distribution in the core of Lake Baikal floor sediments have been found. Using (n,f)-radiography method of the study of Baikal floor sediment permits gathering of new information that can be used at paleoclimate reconstruction.

  4. Bark and ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae and Platypodinae infesting mango trees (Mangifera indica L. in Southern Thailand, with two new species recorded for Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wisut Sittichaya

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Fifteen species of ambrosia beetles and two bark beetle belonging to the curculionid subfamilies Scolytinae andPlatypodinae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae were collected from three infested mango trees (Mangifera indica L. in theresearch orchards of the Faculty of Natural Resources, Prince of Songkla University, Songkhla Province. Two species,Arixyleborus grandis (Schedl and Xyleborinus sculptilis (Schedl, are recorded for the first time in Thailand.

  5. Geology and uranium favorability of the Sonora Pass region, Alpine and Tuolumne Counties, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapp, J.S.; Short, W.O.

    1981-06-01

    Uranium mineralization at the Juniper Mine is restricted to host rocks of the Relief Peak Formation and is most common in coarse-grained lithic sandstone, conglomerate, and lithic wacke. The richest beds contain as much as 0.5% U/sub 3/O/sub 8/. Uranium is present as coffinite, uraninite, and unidentified minerals. Thorium/uranium ratios are generally low and erratic. Equivalent uranium determinations are low in comparison with chemical uranium values, indicating that uranium mineralization of the Juniper Mine is geologically young. Core drilling at 16 localities shows that widely separated exposures of the Relief Peak Formation have very similar lithology, geochemistry, and stratigraphy. Some sections are similar to the Juniper Mine section. Core from the bottom of drill hole SP-1 contains 83 ppM uranium, the greatest known concentration outside the mine area. Significant uranium deposits may be concealed beneath the thick Tertiary volcanic cover of the region. The quartz latitic Eureka Valley Tuff is fairly widespread in east-central California and western Nevada. It contains 12 to 14 ppM uranium and stratigraphically overlies the Relief Peak Formation. It is permeable and contains abundant alkali metals and volcanic glass. Because of its petrology, geochemistry, and position, this formation is the most likely source for uranium mineralization of the Sonora Pass region. It should be examined as a potential source rock in other areas with special regard to its relationship to carbonaceous sedimentary formations. The uraniferous granite pegmatitite dike that crops out in the Niagara Creek area appears too small to be a significant source rock. The most favorable rocks in the Sonora Pass region occur near the Juniper Mine and west of it, in the Dardanelles, the Whittakers Dardanelles, and the area of the Big Meadow Quadrangle. Potential uranium host rocks crop out in areas along the crest of the Sierra Nevada from Lake Tahoe to Yosemite.

  6. Geology and uranium favorability of the Sonora Pass region, Alpine and Tuolumne Counties, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapp, J.S.; Short, W.O.

    1981-06-01

    Uranium mineralization at the Juniper Mine is restricted to host rocks of the Relief Peak Formation and is most common in coarse-grained lithic sandstone, conglomerate, and lithic wacke. The richest beds contain as much as 0.5% U 3 O 8 . Uranium is present as coffinite, uraninite, and unidentified minerals. Thorium/uranium ratios are generally low and erratic. Equivalent uranium determinations are low in comparison with chemical uranium values, indicating that uranium mineralization of the Juniper Mine is geologically young. Core drilling at 16 localities shows that widely separated exposures of the Relief Peak Formation have very similar lithology, geochemistry, and stratigraphy. Some sections are similar to the Juniper Mine section. Core from the bottom of drill hole SP-1 contains 83 ppM uranium, the greatest known concentration outside the mine area. Significant uranium deposits may be concealed beneath the thick Tertiary volcanic cover of the region. The quartz latitic Eureka Valley Tuff is fairly widespread in east-central California and western Nevada. It contains 12 to 14 ppM uranium and stratigraphically overlies the Relief Peak Formation. It is permeable and contains abundant alkali metals and volcanic glass. Because of its petrology, geochemistry, and position, this formation is the most likely source for uranium mineralization of the Sonora Pass region. It should be examined as a potential source rock in other areas with special regard to its relationship to carbonaceous sedimentary formations. The uraniferous granite pegmatitite dike that crops out in the Niagara Creek area appears too small to be a significant source rock. The most favorable rocks in the Sonora Pass region occur near the Juniper Mine and west of it, in the Dardanelles, the Whittakers Dardanelles, and the area of the Big Meadow Quadrangle. Potential uranium host rocks crop out in areas along the crest of the Sierra Nevada from Lake Tahoe to Yosemite

  7. Uranium deposits of Zaire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitmut, D.; Malu wa Kalenga

    1979-01-01

    Since April 1960, following the closing of the Shinkolobwe mine, the Republic of Zaire has ceased to be a producer of uranium. Nevertheless, Gecamines (Generale des carrieres et mines du Zaire), a wholly state-owned company, is continuing its research on uranium occurrences which have been discovered in its concession in the course of aerial radiometric prospecting. The most recent campaign was the one carried out in 1969 and 1972 by Hunting Company. On-the-ground verification of these shows has not yet resulted in the discovery of a workable deposit. There are other sectors cutting across Zaire which might well contain uranium deposits: this is true of the sedimentary phosphates of the region of Lower Zaire as well as of the frontier region between Zaire and the Central African Empire. However, no detailed exploration work has yet been carried out. (author)

  8. Process for recovering uranium

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacWood, G. E.; Wilder, C. D.; Altman, D.

    1959-03-24

    A process useful in recovering uranium from deposits on stainless steel liner surfaces of calutrons is presented. The deposit is removed from the stainless steel surface by washing with aqueous nitric acid. The solution obtained containing uranium, chromium, nickel, copper, and iron is treated with an excess of ammonium hydroxide to precipitnte the uranium, iron, and chromium and convert the nickel and copper to soluble ammonio complexions. The precipitated material is removed, dried and treated with carbon tetrachloride at an elevated temperature of about 500 to 600 deg C to form a vapor mixture of UCl/ sub 4/, UCl/sub 5/, FeCl/sub 3/, and CrCl/sub 4/. The UCl/sub 4/ is separated from this vapor mixture by selective fractional condensation at a temperature of about 500 to 400 deg C.

  9. The Kintyre uranium project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, B.

    1997-01-01

    The Kintyre Uranium Project is being developed by Canning Resources Pty Ltd, a subsidiary of Rio Tinto (formerly CRA). The work on the project includes the planning and management of a number of background environmental studies. The company has also commissioned studies by external consultants into process technologies, mining strategies and techniques for extracting the uranium ore from the waste rock. In addition, Canning Resources has made a detailed assessment of the worldwide market potential for Australian uranium in the late 1990s and into the 21st century. The most significant factor affecting the future of this project is the current product price. This price is insufficient to justify the necessary investment to bring this project into production

  10. Uranium market and resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capus, G.; Arnold, T.

    2005-01-01

    Under the combined effect of various factors, such as interrogations related to facing the climatic changes, the increasing prices of oil versus announced decrease of its resources, the major geopolitical evolution and the remarkable development of Asia, we live nowadays a revival of nuclear power in the very front of stage. In tis context, the following question is posed: could the nuclear fission be a sustainable source of energy when taking into consideration the availability of uranium resources? The article aims at pinpointing the knowledge we have about the world uranium resources, their limits of uncertainty and the relation between knowledge resources and market evolution. To conclude, some susceptible tracks are proposed to improve the using process of uranium resources particularly in softening the impact of high prices

  11. Australian uranium resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battey, G.C.; Miezitis, Y.; McKay, A.D.

    1987-01-01

    Australia's uranium resources amount to 29% of the WOCA countries (world outside centrally-planned-economies areas) low-cost Reasonably Assured Resources and 28% of the WOCA countries low-cost Estimated Additional Resources. As at 1 January 1986, the Bureau of Mineral Resources estimated Australia's uranium resources as: (1) Cost range to US$80/kg U -Reasonably Assured Resources, 465 000 t U; Estimated Additional Resources, 256 000 t U; (2) Cost range US$80-130/kg U -Reasonably Assured Resources, 56 000 t U; Estimated Additional Resources, 127 000 t U. Most resources are contained in Proterozoic unconformity-related deposits in the Alligator Rivers uranium field in the Northern Territory (Jabiluka, Ranger, Koongarra, Nabarlek deposits) and the Proterozoic stratabound deposit at Olympic Dam on the Stuart Shelf in South Australia

  12. Uranium exploration in Ecuador

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severne, B.; Penaherrera, P.F.; Fiallos, V.S.

    1981-01-01

    The 600-km segment of the Andean Cordillera in Ecuador includes zones that can be correlated, geologically, with uranium districts elsewhere in the Andes. It is believed that these essentially unexplored zones have the potential for economic uranium mineralization. Exploration activity to date has been limited, although it has involved both geochemical and radiometric techniques to evaluate geological concepts. Minor uranium occurrences (with chemical analyses up to 100 ppm) have been encountered, which provide further incentive to commence large-scale systematic exploration. It is recognized that a very large exploration budget and considerable technical expertise will be required to ensure exploration success. Consequently, participation by groups of proven capability from other countries will be sought for Ecuador's national exploration programme. (author)

  13. Uranium Enrichment, an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coates, J.H.

    1994-01-01

    This general presentation on uranium enrichment will be followed by lectures on more specific topics including descriptions of enrichment processes and assessments of the prevailing commercial and industrial situations. I shall therefore avoid as much as possible duplications with these other lectures, and rather dwell on: some theoretical aspects of enrichment in general, underlying the differences between statistical and selective processes, a review and comparison between enrichment processes, remarks of general order regarding applications, the proliferation potential of enrichment. It is noteworthy that enrichment: may occur twice in the LWR fuel cycle: first by enriching natural uranium, second by reenriching uranium recovered from reprocessing, must meet LWR requirements, and in particular higher assays required by high burn up fuel elements, bears on the structure of the entire front part of the fuel cycle, namely in the conversion/reconversion steps only involving UF 6 for the moment. (author). tabs., figs., 4 refs

  14. Uranium extraction technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    In 1983 the Nuclear Energy Agency of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD/NEA) and the IAEA jointly published a book on Uranium Extraction Technology. A primary objective of this report was to document the significant technological developments that took place during the 1970s. The purpose of this present publication is to update and expand the original book. It includes background information about the principle of the unit operations used in uranium ore processing and summarizes the current state of the art. The publication also seeks to preserve the technology and the operating 'know-how' developed over the past ten years. This publication is one of a series of Technical Reports on uranium ore processing that have been prepared by the Division of Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Waste Management at the IAEA. A complete list of these reports is included as an addendum. Refs, figs and tabs

  15. Uranium ore processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritcey, G.M.; Haque, K.E.; Lucas, B.H.; Skeaff, J.M.

    1983-01-01

    The authors have developed a complete method of recovering separately uranium, thorium and radium from impure solids such as ores, concentrates, calcines or tailings containing these metals. The technique involves leaching, in at least one stage. The impure solids in finely divided form with an aqueous leachant containing HCl and/or Cl 2 until acceptable amounts of uranium, thorium and radium are dissolved. Uranium is recovered from the solution by solvent extraction and precipitation. Thorium may also be recovered in the same manner. Radium may be recovered by at least one ion exchange, absorption and precipitation. This amount of iron in the solution must be controlled before the acid solution may be recycled for the leaching process. The calcine leached in the first step is prepared in a two stage roast in the presence of both Cl 2 and a metal sulfide. The first stage is at 350-450 0 and the second at 550-700 0

  16. Great Lakes Science Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Since 1927, Great Lakes Science Center (GLSC) research has provided critical information for the sound management of Great Lakes fish populations and other important...

  17. The uranium International trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez U, L.A.

    1993-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is the understanding of how the present dynamic of uranium International trade is developed, the variables which fall into, the factors that are affecting and conditioning it, in order to clarify which are going to be the outlook in the future of this important resource in front of the present ecological situation and the energetic panorama of XXI Century. For this purpose, as starting point, the uranium is considered as a strategic material which importance take root in its energetic potential as alternate energy source, and for this reason in Chapter I, the general problem of raw materials, its classification and present situation in the global market is presented. In Chapter II, by means of a historical review, is explain what uranium is, how it was discovered, and how since the end of the past Century and during the last three decades of present, uranium pass of practically unknown element, to the position of a strategic raw material, which by degrees, generate an International market, owing to its utilization as a basic resource in the generation of energy. Chapter III, introduce us in the roll played by uranium, since its warlike applications until its utilization in nuclear reactors for the generation of electricity. Also is explain the reason for this change in the perception at global level. Finally, in Chapter IV we enter upon specifically in the present conditions of the International market of this mineral throughout the trends of supply and demand, the main producers, users, price dynamics, and the correlation among these economical variables and other factors of political, social and ecological nature. All of these with the purpose to found out, if there exist, a meaning of the puzzle that seems to be the uranium International trade

  18. Tempo de busca e de manuseio de larvas de Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861 (Neuroptera, Chrysopidae alimentadas com Uroleucon ambrosiae (Thomas, 1878 (Hemiptera, Aphididae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander M. Auad

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Searching and handling time of Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861 (Neuroptera, Chrysopidae larvae fed on Uroleucon ambrosiae (Thomas, 1878 (Hemiptera, Aphididae. The objective of this research was to determine the searching and handling times of three larval instars of C. externa fed on U. ambrosiae at densities of 30, 40 and 50 per vial, with the feeding of the larvae at the preceding instars being U. ambrosiae nymphs or Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier, 1819 eggs. The larvae were maintained at 25 ± 2 ºC, 70 ± 10% RH and a 14-h photophase. A completely randomized design in a 6 x 3 factorial scheme with 12 replicates was adopted. The shortest searching time was found for the 2nd and 3rd instar larvae of C. externa, and this parameter was variable depending on the feeding given to the larvae previously. The handling time was similar for the 1st, 2nd and 3rd instar larvae. The longest searching time was found at an aphid density of 30, as compared to densities of 40 and 50 prey, with which there were no significant differences. Prey density did not have any influence on handling time.

  19. Uranium 2000 : International symposium on the process metallurgy of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozberk, E.; Oliver, A.J.

    2000-01-01

    The International Symposium on the Process Metallurgy of Uranium has been organized as the thirtieth annual meeting of the Hydrometallurgy Section of the Metallurgical Society of the Canadian Institute of Mining, Metallurgy and Petroleum (CIM). This meeting is jointly organized with the Canadian Mineral Processors Division of CIM. The proceedings are a collection of papers from fifteen countries covering the latest research, development, industrial practices and regulatory issues in uranium processing, providing a concise description of the state of this industry. Topics include: uranium industry overview; current milling operations; in-situ uranium mines and processing plants; uranium recovery and further processing; uranium leaching; uranium operations effluent water treatment; tailings disposal, water treatment and decommissioning; mine decommissioning; and international regulations and decommissioning. (author)

  20. Production of sized particles of uranium oxides and uranium oxyfluorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knudsen, I.E.; Randall, C.C.

    1976-01-01

    A process is claimed for converting uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ) to uranium dioxide (UO 2 ) of a relatively large particle size in a fluidized bed reactor by mixing uranium hexafluoride with a mixture of steam and hydrogen and by preliminary reacting in an ejector gaseous uranium hexafluoride with steam and hydrogen to form a mixture of uranium and oxide and uranium oxyfluoride seed particles of varying sizes, separating the larger particles from the smaller particles in a cyclone separator, recycling the smaller seed particles through the ejector to increase their size, and introducing the larger seed particles from the cyclone separator into a fluidized bed reactor where the seed particles serve as nuclei on which coarser particles of uranium dioxide are formed. 9 claims, 2 drawing figures

  1. Corrosion-resistant uranium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovis, Jr., Victor M.; Pullen, William C.; Kollie, Thomas G.; Bell, Richard T.

    1983-01-01

    The present invention is directed to the protecting of uranium and uranium alloy articles from corrosion by providing the surfaces of the articles with a layer of an ion-plated metal selected from aluminum and zinc to a thickness of at least 60 microinches and then converting at least the outer surface of the ion-plated layer of aluminum or zinc to aluminum chromate or zinc chromate. This conversion of the aluminum or zinc to the chromate form considerably enhances the corrosion resistance of the ion plating so as to effectively protect the coated article from corrosion.

  2. Uranium Conversion & Enrichment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karpius, Peter Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-02-06

    The isotopes of uranium that are found in nature, and hence in ‘fresh’ Yellowcake’, are not in relative proportions that are suitable for power or weapons applications. The goal of conversion then is to transform the U3O8 yellowcake into UF6. Conversion and enrichment of uranium is usually required to obtain material with enough 235U to be usable as fuel in a reactor or weapon. The cost, size, and complexity of practical conversion and enrichment facilities aid in nonproliferation by design.

  3. Uranium Transport Modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bostick, William D.

    2008-01-01

    Uranium contamination is prevalent at many of the U.S. DOE facilities and at several civilian sites that have supported the nuclear fuel cycle. The potential off-site mobility of uranium depends on the partitioning of uranium between aqueous and solid (soil and sediment) phases. Hexavalent U (as uranyl, UO 2 2+ ) is relatively mobile, forming strong complexes with ubiquitous carbonate ion which renders it appreciably soluble even under mild reducing conditions. In the presence of carbonate, partition of uranyl to ferri-hydrate and select other mineral phases is usually maximum in the near-neutral pH range ∼ 5-8. The surface complexation reaction of uranyl with iron-containing minerals has been used as one means to model subsurface migration, used in conjunction with information on the site water chemistry and hydrology. Partitioning of uranium is often studied by short-term batch 'equilibrium' or long-term soil column testing ; MCLinc has performed both of these methodologies, with selection of method depending upon the requirements of the client or regulatory authority. Speciation of uranium in soil may be determined directly by instrumental techniques (e.g., x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, XPS; x-ray diffraction, XRD; etc.) or by inference drawn from operational estimates. Often, the technique of choice for evaluating low-level radionuclide partitioning in soils and sediments is the sequential extraction approach. This methodology applies operationally-defined chemical treatments to selectively dissolve specific classes of macro-scale soil or sediment components. These methods recognize that total soil metal inventory is of limited use in understanding bioavailability or metal mobility, and that it is useful to estimate the amount of metal present in different solid-phase forms. Despite some drawbacks, the sequential extraction method can provide a valuable tool to distinguish among trace element fractions of different solubility related to mineral phases

  4. Uranium ore dressing process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Floter, W.; Schoning, G.; Landsiedel, K.

    1982-01-01

    A process for dressing uranium ore containing water-soluble substances is claimed. In a mixture of crushed ore and water the solid material and water are partly separated. The first fraction, which contains the smaller grain-size portion of the solid material and the major part of the water is passed through a water softening means for removal of undesired ions. The second fraction, which contains the coarser grain-size portion of the solid material and most of the solids of the first fraction from which undesired ions have been at least partly removed is leached. The liquid is processed to obtain the dissolved uranium compounds

  5. Uranium ore deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelelli, Victorio.

    1984-01-01

    The main uranium deposits and occurrences in the Argentine Republic are described, considering, in principle, their geologic setting, the kind of 'model' of the mineralization and its possible origin, and describing the ore species present in each case. The main uraniferous accumulations of the country include the models of 'sandstong type', veintype and impregnation type. There are also other kinds of accumulations, as in calcrete, etc. The main uranium production has been registered in the provinces of Mendoza, Salta, La Rioja, Chubut, Cordoba and San Luis. In each case, the minerals present are mentioned, having been recognized 37 different species all over the country (M.E.L.) [es

  6. Uranium exploration techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, C.E.

    1984-01-01

    The subject is discussed under the headings: introduction (genetic description of some uranium deposits; typical concentrations of uranium in the natural environment); sedimentary host rocks (sandstones; tabular deposits; roll-front deposits; black shales); metamorphic host rocks (exploration techniques); geologic techniques (alteration features in sandstones; favourable features in metamorphic rocks); geophysical techniques (radiometric surveys; surface vehicle methods; airborne methods; input surveys); geochemical techniques (hydrogeochemistry; petrogeochemistry; stream sediment geochemistry; pedogeochemistry; emanometry; biogeochemistry); geochemical model for roll-front deposits; geologic model for vein-like deposits. (U.K.)

  7. Uranium conversion wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vicente, R.; Dellamano, J.C.

    1989-12-01

    A set of mathematical equations was developed and used to estimate the radiological significance of each radionuclide potentially present in the uranium refining industry effluents. The equations described the evolution in time of the radionuclides activities in the uranium fuel cycle, from mining and milling, through the yellowcake, till the conversion effluents. Some radionuclides that are not usually monitored in conversion effluents (e.g. Pa-231 and Ac-227) were found to be potentially relevant from the radiological point of view in conversion facilities, and are certainly relevant in mining and milling industry, at least in a few waste streams. (author) [pt

  8. Joining uranium to steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, M.A.

    1976-05-01

    A method has been devised which will allow the joining of uranium to steel by fusion welding through the use of an intermediate material. Uranium-0.5 titanium was joined to AISI 304L stainless steel by using a vanadium insert. Also, a method is now available for selecting possible filler metals when two entirely dissimilar metals need to be joined. This method allows a quantitative ranking to be made of the possible filler metals and thus the most likely candidate can be selected

  9. The uranium market 1980 - 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darmayan, Philippe

    1980-01-01

    The Supply and Demand Committee of the Uranium Institute was established to monitor continuously information and developments bearing on the uranium market and to publish from time to time reports giving its views on the supply and demand outlook. The last Uranium institute supply and demand report was published in July 1979 and a summary was given by Mr. Erkes at the last Uranium Institute symposium. Its main conclusions were that from 1979 to 1990 the flexibilities of the market were such as to offer adequate scope to producers and consumers of uranium to ensure a balance between supply and demand. Is that conclusion still valid one and a half years later [fr

  10. Uranium enriched granites in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, M.R.; Aakerblom, G.

    1980-01-01

    Granites with uranium contents higher than normal occur in a variety of geological settings in the Swedish Precambrian, and represent a variety of granite types and ages. They may have been generated by (1) the anatexis of continental crust (2) processes occurring at a much greater depth. They commonly show enrichement in F, Sn, W and/or Mo. Only in one case is an important uranium mineralization thought to be directly related to a uranium-enriched granite, while the majority of epigenetic uranium mineralizations with economic potential are related to hydrothermal processes in areas where the bedrock is regionally uranium-enhanced. (Authors)

  11. Uranium sorption by tannin resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olivares Rieumont, S.; Martinez Luzardo, J.; Torres Hernandez, J.; Lima Cazorla, D. de la Rosa.

    1998-01-01

    The sorption of uranium by immobilised Eucalyptus Saligna Sm. and Lysiloma latisiliqua L tannins was investigated. Immobilization condition were analyzed. These resins resulted suitable adsorbent for the concentration of uranium from aqueous systems. The sorption of uranium is pH dependent. At pH 5.5 maximum in sorption capacity is registered. The presence of appreciable amount of sodium chloride do not have any effect on uranium removal. Carbonate and calcium ions in concentrations similar to these that could be found in sea water and other natural water do not decrease the uranium uptake. Tannin resins can be used several times without an appreciable decay of their sorption capacity

  12. Fault rocks and uranium mineralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong Hangshou.

    1991-01-01

    The types of fault rocks, microstructural characteristics of fault tectonite and their relationship with uranium mineralization in the uranium-productive granite area are discussed. According to the synthetic analysis on nature of stress, extent of crack and microstructural characteristics of fault rocks, they can be classified into five groups and sixteen subgroups. The author especially emphasizes the control of cataclasite group and fault breccia group over uranium mineralization in the uranium-productive granite area. It is considered that more effective study should be made on the macrostructure and microstructure of fault rocks. It is of an important practical significance in uranium exploration

  13. Recovery of uranium from seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirotsu, Takahiro; Takagi, Norio; Katoh, Shunsaku

    1995-01-01

    Present status of the development of chelating adsorbents for the recovery of uranium from seawater is outlined with emphasis on the research by the author. Uranium is estimated to exist as stable tri (carbonate) uranylate (6) ion in seawater in a very low concentration. The adsorbent for uranium from seawater in a very low concentration. The adsorbent for uranium from seawater should have high selectivity and affinity for uranium around pH 8. The required characteristics for uranium adsorbent are examined. Various chelating adsorbents have been proposed for the uranium adsorbent and their structures are discussed. Amidoxime type adsorbents have the highest adsorbing power for uranium among the adsorbents hitherto developed and fibrous amidoxime adsorbents are most promising for the practical application. Synthesis, structure and suitable shape of the amidoxime adsorbents are discussed. Uranium adsorption behavior and the amount of saturated adsorption are examined theoretically based on the complexation of an amidoxime monomer and the formula for the adsorption equiliburium is derived. The adsorption and recovery process for uranium from seawater is composed of adsorption, desorption, separation and concentration and finally, uranium is recovered as the yellow cake. A floating body mooring system is proposed by Nobukawa. (T.H.)

  14. Types of hydrogenic uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondrat'eva, I.A.; Lisitsin, A.K.; Komarova, G.V.

    1980-01-01

    Principles of uranium deposit systematics are considered. Systematization, presented in this paper, is based on a regularity that the main industrial exogenic epigenetic uranium concentrations are formed in zones of reduction geochemical barriers. Types of uranium-bearing ground waters and nature of uranium reducing agents were taken into account during systematization. Hydrogenic uranium deposits are related to 3 types: formed by ground (1 type), stratal (2 type) and vein (3 type) waters. By the nature of uranium reducing agents 2 deposit subtypes are marked out: A - in rocks with syngenetic reducing agents, B - in rocks with epigenetic reducing agents. Uranium deposits are also differentiated by nature of reducing agents distribution in ore-containing rocks [ru

  15. Uranium deposits in granitic rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimori, R.K.; Ragland, P.C.; Rogers, J.J.W.; Greenberg, J.K.

    1977-01-01

    This report is a review of published data bearing on the geology and origin of uranium deposits in granitic, pegmatitic and migmatitic rocks with the aim of assisting in the development of predictive criteria for the search for similar deposits in the U.S. Efforts were concentrated on the so-called ''porphyry'' uranium deposits. Two types of uranium deposits are primarily considered: deposits in pegmatites and alaskites in gneiss terrains, and disseminations of uranium in high-level granites. In Chapter 1 of this report, the general data on the distribution of uranium in igneous and metamorphic rocks are reviewed. Chapter 2 contains some comments on the classification of uranium deposits associated with igneous rocks and a summary of the main features of the geology of uranium deposits in granites. General concepts of the behavior of uranium in granites during crustal evolution are reviewed in Chapter 3. Also included is a discussion of the relationship of uranium mineralization in granites to the general evolution of mobile belts, plus the influence of magmatic and post-magmatic processes on the distribution of uranium in igneous rocks and related ore deposits. Chapter 4 relates the results of experimental studies on the crystallization of granites to some of the geologic features of uranium deposits in pegmatites and alaskites in high-grade metamorphic terrains. Potential or favorable areas for igneous uranium deposits in the U.S.A. are delineated in Chapter 5. Data on the geology of specific uranium deposits in granitic rocks are contained in Appendix 1. A compilation of igneous rock formations containing greater than 10 ppM uranium is included in Appendix 2. Appendix 3 is a report on the results of a visit to the Roessing area. Appendix 4 is a report on a field excursion to eastern Canada

  16. Uranium mineralizations in Niger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duchemin, Ch.; Gerbeaud, O.; James, O.; Le Goux, F.; Pouradier, A.; Salabert, J.; Wagani, I.; Breton, G.; Feybesse, J.L.; Parize, O.; Wattinne, A.; Flotte, N.; Brouand, M.

    2009-01-01

    The authors report the analysis of mineralizations located in the Tim Mersoi basin in Niger where sediments deposited between the Paleozoic and the Cretaceous era. They analyse and describe the tectonic evolution of this area during different periods, and focus on some specific uranium mineralisation sites

  17. Method to extract uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barreiro, A.J.; Hollemann, R.A.; Lyon, W.L.; Randell, C.C.

    1978-01-01

    The invented method to clean the commercial wet-method phosphoric acid - as pretreatment stage in the recovery of uranium - can be carried out at low capital and operational costs and requires little maintenance. In order to recover 0.2 g uranium which are contained in 1 litre of phosphoric acid solution obtained from the wet process, the solution is firstly largely cleared and cleaned. A cleaning agent, essentially of hydrocarbon with a boiling point between 150 and 300 0 C, reacts with the remaining slurry-forming impurities in the acid and enables these to be separated off in a solvent-extraction mixer separator with the slurry. Kerosine is used as cleaning agent in wet-process phosphoric acid with humus impurities. The same process can also be used with oxidation or reduction extraction separation methods to obtain uranium from industrial crude wet phosphoric acid solutions. Comparing a flow sheet each of a known method of separating uranium and the new one as according to the invention, one can see the attained simplification and probable cost reduction. (RW) [de

  18. Ranger uranium project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    This agreement between the Commonwealth of Australia, Peko-Wallsend Operations Ltd., Electrolytic Zinc Company of Australasia Limited, and the Australian Atomic Energy Commission sets out articles under which the Ranger uranium project in the Northern Territory of Australia is to be operated

  19. Ranger uranium project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    Details of alterations to the Atomic Energy Act 1953 are described which authorize the Australian Atomic Energy Commission, Peko-Wallsend Operations Ltd., and Electrolytic Zinc Company of Australasia Limited to carry out uranium mining operations in the Alligator Rivers region of the Northern Territory of Australia

  20. Uranium extraction from seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koske, P.H.; Ohlrogge, K.; Denzinger, H.

    1982-01-01

    Besides basic considerations about the problem of Uranium extraction from seawater system studies on process engineering and marine technology approaches are presented. In addition the present and future developments in the Federal Republic of Germany are discussed in somewhat more detail. (orig.) [de