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Sample records for amboinicus lour spreng

  1. Aktivitas Antioksidan Ekstrak Etanol Daun Bangun-bangun (Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng.)

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    Sartika, Dewi

    2015-01-01

    Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. contain potential antioxidants such as flavonoids and polyphenols. The recent studies said that Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. has anti-inflammatory effect, hepatoprotective, radioprotektive and protect chromosome damage. these effects caused by antioxidant properties that can prevent free radical damage to the body cells. Antioxidant activity of ethanol extracts of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. The antioxidant activity of ethanol...

  2. Pharmacognostical studies on the leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour Spreng

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    Kaliappan Nirmala

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour Spreng belonging to the family Lamiaceae commonly known as Karpuravalli, Omavalli in Tamil, Patta ajavayin, Patharcur in Hindi, Country borage in English is a large succulent aromatic perennial herb. It is highly aromatic pubescent herb with distinctive smelling leaves. The plant is distributed throughout in India, cultivated in the gardens. The leaves of this plant have been used in malarial fever, hepatopathy, renal and vesical calculi, cough, chronic asthma, hiccough, bronchitis, anthelmintic, colic and convulsions. This paper deals with the micro morphological studies carried out on the leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus one of the WHO accepted parameter for identification of medicinal plants. For the better understanding of structural details Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM also employed.

  3. Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour. Spreng: Botanical, Phytochemical, Pharmacological and Nutritional Significance

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    Greetha Arumugam

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour. Spreng. is a perennial herb belonging to the family Lamiaceae which occurs naturally throughout the tropics and warm regions of Africa, Asia and Australia. This herb has therapeutic and nutritional properties attributed to its natural phytochemical compounds which are highly valued in the pharmaceutical industry. Besides, it has horticultural properties due to its aromatic nature and essential oil producing capability. It is widely used in folk medicine to treat conditions like cold, asthma, constipation, headache, cough, fever and skin diseases. The leaves of the plant are often eaten raw or used as flavoring agents, or incorporated as ingredients in the preparation of traditional food. The literature survey revealed the occurrence 76 volatiles and 30 non-volatile compounds belonging to different classes of phytochemicals such as monoterpenoids, diterpenoids, triterpenoids, sesquiterpenoids, phenolics, flavonoids, esters, alcohols and aldehydes. Studies have cited numerous pharmacological properties including antimicrobial, antiinflammatory, antitumor, wound healing, anti-epileptic, larvicidal, antioxidant and analgesic activities. Also, it has been found to be effective against respiratory, cardiovascular, oral, skin, digestive and urinary diseases. Yet, scientific validation of many other traditional uses would be appreciated, mainly to discover and authenticate novel bioactive compounds from this herb. This review article provides comprehensive information on the botany, phytochemistry, pharmacology and nutritional importance of P. amboinicus essential oil and its various solvent extracts. This article allows researchers to further explore the further potential of this multi-utility herb for various biomedical applications.

  4. Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng: Botanical, Phytochemical, Pharmacological and Nutritional Significance.

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    Arumugam, Greetha; Swamy, Mallappa Kumara; Sinniah, Uma Rani

    2016-03-30

    Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. is a perennial herb belonging to the family Lamiaceae which occurs naturally throughout the tropics and warm regions of Africa, Asia and Australia. This herb has therapeutic and nutritional properties attributed to its natural phytochemical compounds which are highly valued in the pharmaceutical industry. Besides, it has horticultural properties due to its aromatic nature and essential oil producing capability. It is widely used in folk medicine to treat conditions like cold, asthma, constipation, headache, cough, fever and skin diseases. The leaves of the plant are often eaten raw or used as flavoring agents, or incorporated as ingredients in the preparation of traditional food. The literature survey revealed the occurrence 76 volatiles and 30 non-volatile compounds belonging to different classes of phytochemicals such as monoterpenoids, diterpenoids, triterpenoids, sesquiterpenoids, phenolics, flavonoids, esters, alcohols and aldehydes. Studies have cited numerous pharmacological properties including antimicrobial, antiinflammatory, antitumor, wound healing, anti-epileptic, larvicidal, antioxidant and analgesic activities. Also, it has been found to be effective against respiratory, cardiovascular, oral, skin, digestive and urinary diseases. Yet, scientific validation of many other traditional uses would be appreciated, mainly to discover and authenticate novel bioactive compounds from this herb. This review article provides comprehensive information on the botany, phytochemistry, pharmacology and nutritional importance of P. amboinicus essential oil and its various solvent extracts. This article allows researchers to further explore the further potential of this multi-utility herb for various biomedical applications.

  5. In-vitro anti- inflammatory activity of aqueous extract of leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng.

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    Ravikumar, V R; Dhanamani, M; Sudhamani, T

    2009-04-01

    Aqueous extract of leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (lour.) Spreng, which is traditionally used in the treatment of cough and cold was screened for its anti- inflammatory activity by HRBC membrane stabilisation model. Aqueous extract (500 mcg/ml) showed significant anti-inflammatory activity as compared to that of hydrocortisone sodium.

  6. In-vitro anti- inflammatory activity of aqueous extract of leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng

    OpenAIRE

    Ravikumar, V.R.; Dhanamani, M.; Sudhamani, T.

    2009-01-01

    Aqueous extract of leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (lour.) Spreng, which is traditionally used in the treatment of cough and cold was screened for its anti- inflammatory activity by HRBC membrane stabilisation model. Aqueous extract (500 mcg/ml) showed significant anti-inflammatory activity as compared to that of hydrocortisone sodium.

  7. Constituintes voláteis de Mentha pulegium L. e Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour. Spreng Volatile constituents of Mentha pulegium L. and Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour. Spreng

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    R.A Oliveira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nesse trabalho foi investigado a composição química de óleos essenciais de duas plantas medicinais cultivadas em Ilhéus, Brasil, Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour. Spreng. (hortelã-grosso e Mentha pulegium L. (poejo. Os óleos essenciais foram extraídos das folhas frescas por hidrodestilação e foram analisados por CG/FID e CG-EM, na primavera e no inverno. P. amboinicus forneceu, tanto na primavera como no inverno, 0,10% de óleo sendo timol o componente majoritário. M. pulegium forneceu na primavera 0,20% de óleo e no inverno 0,09%. Os componentes majoritários dos óleos foram pulegona e trans-cariofileno; borneol, mentol e piperitona foram identificados em menores quantidades. No inverno foram observados maiores quantidades de mentol e isomentol. Acetatos de neoisomentila, de mentila e de isometila foram observados somente no inverno. Esse trabalho contribui para o conhecimento das espécies vegetais cultivadas na região do sul da BahiaThis work investigated the chemical composition of the essential oils of two medicinal plants grown in Ilhéus Municipality, Bahia State, Brazil: Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour. Spreng (Mexican mint and Mentha pulegium L. (pennyroyal. The essential oils were extracted from fresh leaves by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS, in the spring and in the winter. In both seasons, P. amboinicus yielded 0.10% oil and had thymol as major component. M. pulegium yielded 0.20% and 0.09% oil in the spring and winter, respectively. The major components were pulegone and trans-caryophyllene, whereas borneol, menthol and piperitone were identified at small quantities. Higher menthol and isomenthol levels were detected in the winter. In addition, neoisomenthyl, menthyl and isomenthyl acetates were only observed in the winter. This work contributes to the knowledge of plant species grown in southern Bahia

  8. Diuretic activity of leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour) Spreng in male albino rats.

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    Patel, Roshan; Mahobia, Naveen K; Gendle, Ravindra; Kaushik, Basant; Singh, Sudarshan K

    2010-03-01

    The shade-dried powder of leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour) Spreng was subjected to successive extraction using the various solvents (petroleum ether, chloroform, ethanol and water) in increasing order of polarity. The preliminary phytochemical analyses were carried out for all the extracts. The analyses of the leaves revealed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, glycosides, proteins, amino acids, flavonoids, quinine, tannins, phenolic compounds and terpenoids. Since the phytoconstituents present in the ethanolic and aqueous extracts were similar, both the extracts were selected for further study. The diuretic properties of ethanolic and aqueous extracts were evaluated by determination of urine volume and electrolyte concentration in male albino rats. Furosemide (10 mg/kg) was used as standard while normal saline (0.9%) was used as control. Both ethanolic and aqueous extracts (500 mg/kg) have shown significant increase in the volume of urine and urinary concentration of Na, K and Cl ions. Thus, from the is study it may be concluded that the leaves of P. amboinicus (Lour) Spreng possess diuretic activities.

  9. Diuretic activity of leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour Spreng in male albino rats

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    Roshan Patel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The shade-dried powder of leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour Spreng was subjected to successive extraction using the various solvents (petroleum ether, chloroform, ethanol and water in increasing order of polarity. The preliminary phytochemical analyses were carried out for all the extracts. The analyses of the leaves revealed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, glycosides, proteins, amino acids, flavonoids, quinine, tannins, phenolic compounds and terpenoids. Since the phytoconstituents present in the ethanolic and aqueous extracts were similar, both the extracts were selected for further study. The diuretic properties of ethanolic and aqueous extracts were evaluated by determination of urine volume and electrolyte concentration in male albino rats. Furosemide (10 mg/kg was used as standard while normal saline (0.9% was used as control. Both ethanolic and aqueous extracts (500 mg/kg have shown significant increase in the volume of urine and urinary concentration of Na, K and Cl ions. Thus, from the is study it may be concluded that the leaves of P. amboinicus (Lour Spreng possess diuretic activities.

  10. Induction of Apoptosis in Human Colon Cancer Cells by Methanol Fraction of Leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour) Spreng

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    Preeja G Pillai; P. Suresh; Gitanjali Mishra

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the cytotoxicity and apoptosis inducing activities of the methanol extract from leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour) Spreng in an attempt to determine whether the medicinal uses are supported by pharmacological effects. Cytotoxicity was determined by sulforhodamine B assay method. Cytotoxicity and apoptosis inducing effect were evaluated in- vitro using human colon cancer cell line, COLO 205. There was statistically significant cell growth inhibition at the doses of 10, 20, 40...

  11. Induction of Apoptosis in Human Breast Cancer (MCF7) Cells by n-Hexane Extract of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng.

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    Hasibuan, Poppy Anjelisa Z.

    2016-01-01

    The n-hexane extract of Plectranthus amboinicus, (Lour.) Spreng. reduced the proliferation of MCF7 cells. The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of the extract on human breast cancer cells viability and apoptosis. To detect apoptotic cells, MCF7 cells were stained with etydium bromide-acrydine orange (double staining method). Quantitative detectin of apoptotic cells was performed by fluorescens microscope. The growth of MCF7 was inhibited by treatment with n-h...

  12. Analgesic and Antiinflammatory Activities of the Aqueous Extract from Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. Both In Vitro and In Vivo.

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    Chiu, Yung-Jia; Huang, Tai-Hung; Chiu, Chuan-Sung; Lu, Tsung-Chun; Chen, Ya-Wen; Peng, Wen-Huang; Chen, Chiu-Yuan

    2012-01-01

    Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. is a native Labiatae plant of Taiwan. The plants are commonly used in Chinese folk medicine for the treatment of cough, fever, sore throats, mumps, and mosquito bite. The aim of this study was to investigate the analgesic and antiinflammatory properties of the aqueous extract from Plectranthus amboinicus (PA) in vivo and in vitro. PA inhibited pain induced by acetic acid and formalin, and inflammation induced by carrageenan. The anti-inflammatory effect of PA was related to modulating antioxidant enzymes' activities in the liver and decreasing the Malondialdehyde (MDA) level and the production of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and cyclooxygenase2 (COX-2) in edema-paw tissue in mice. In vitro studies show that PA inhibited the proinflammatory mediators in RAW 264.7 cells stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). PA blocked the degradation of IκB-α and nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65 subunit. Finally, the amount of carvacrol in the aqueous extract of PA was 1.88 mg/g extract. Our findings suggest that PA has analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. These effects were mediated by inhibiting the proinflammatory mediators through blocking NF-κB activation. Meanwhile, the effects observed in this study provide evidence for folkloric uses of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. in relieving pain and inflammation.

  13. Analgesic and Antiinflammatory Activities of the Aqueous Extract from Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour. Spreng. Both In Vitro and In Vivo

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    Yung-Jia Chiu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour. Spreng. is a native Labiatae plant of Taiwan. The plants are commonly used in Chinese folk medicine for the treatment of cough, fever, sore throats, mumps, and mosquito bite. The aim of this study was to investigate the analgesic and antiinflammatory properties of the aqueous extract from Plectranthus amboinicus (PA in vivo and in vitro. PA inhibited pain induced by acetic acid and formalin, and inflammation induced by carrageenan. The anti-inflammatory effect of PA was related to modulating antioxidant enzymes' activities in the liver and decreasing the Malondialdehyde (MDA level and the production of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, and cyclooxygenase2 (COX-2 in edema-paw tissue in mice. In vitro studies show that PA inhibited the proinflammatory mediators in RAW 264.7 cells stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS. PA blocked the degradation of IκB-α and nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65 subunit. Finally, the amount of carvacrol in the aqueous extract of PA was 1.88 mg/g extract. Our findings suggest that PA has analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. These effects were mediated by inhibiting the proinflammatory mediators through blocking NF-κB activation. Meanwhile, the effects observed in this study provide evidence for folkloric uses of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour. Spreng. in relieving pain and inflammation.

  14. Variability in growth, nutrition and phytochemical constituents of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour Spreng. as influenced by indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

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    Sevanan Rajeshkumar

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted under greenhouse nursery condition on the efficacy of seven indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM fungi in the improvement of growth, biomass, nutrition and phytochemical constituents, namely total phenols, ortho dihydroxy phenols, flavonoids, alkaloids, tannins and saponins, in the roots and leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour Spreng. Seedlings were raised in polythene bags containing soil inoculated with isolates of seven different indigenous AM fungi, viz. Acaulospora bireticulata, A. scrobiculata, Gigaspora margarita, Glomus aggregatum, G. mosseae, G. geosporum, and Scutellospora heterogama. P. amboinicus seedlings raised in the presence of AM fungi generally showed an increase in plant growth, nutritional status and phytochemical constituents over those grown in the absence of AM fungi. The extent of growth, biomass, nutritional status and phytochemical constituents enhanced by AM fungi varied with the species of AM fungi inhabiting the roots and leaves of P. amboinicus seedlings. Considering the various plant growth parameters, nutritional status of the plant, total phenols, ortho dihydroxy phenols, alkaloids , flavonoids , tannins, and saponins in the roots and leaves, it was observed that Gigaspora margarita is the best AM symbiont for P. amboinicus used in this experiment.

  15. Efficacy of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour. Spreng in a Murine Model of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Skin Abscesses

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    Francisco Fábio Martins de Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour. Spreng against MRSA clinical isolates. The in vitro antimicrobial activity of the hydroalcoholic extract (HE, the ethyl acetate (EA fraction and its subfractions were determined by broth microdilution and bioautography against MRSA clinical isolates. The microdilution checkerboard method was used to assess in vitro drug combination studies. To induce abscess formation, bacterial suspensions were added to Citodex and inoculated subcutaneously into male Swiss mice. The treatment protocol consisted of 2 doses of HE, the EA fraction or vancomycin introduced intraperitoneally into mice 3 and 12 h after infection. The EA fraction and its subfractions presented the lowest minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC, 0.25 to 0.5 mg/mL. The plant samples were bacteriostatic at 2x and 4x MIC and bactericidal at 100 mg/mL. The EA fraction presented synergism with vancomycin and an additive effect with ciprofloxacin. A significant reduction of abscess volume, bacterial cell counts in abscess slurries, and inflammatory scores was observed in the HE and EA fraction-treated groups. The samples were effective in treating the animals in a dose-dependent fashion. The present study proved the effectiveness of P. amboinicus fractions against MRSA using in vitro and in vivo assays.

  16. Efficacy of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng in a Murine Model of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Skin Abscesses.

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    de Oliveira, Francisco Fábio Martins; Torres, Alba Fabiola; Gonçalves, Thially Braga; Santiago, Gilvandete Maria Pinheiro; de Carvalho, Cibele Barreto Mano; Aguiar, Milena Braga; Camara, Lilia Maria Carneiro; Rabenhorst, Silvia Helena; Martins, Alice Maria Costa; Valença Junior, José Telmo; Nagao-Dias, Aparecida Tiemi

    2013-01-01

    The present work aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng against MRSA clinical isolates. The in vitro antimicrobial activity of the hydroalcoholic extract (HE), the ethyl acetate (EA) fraction and its subfractions were determined by broth microdilution and bioautography against MRSA clinical isolates. The microdilution checkerboard method was used to assess in vitro drug combination studies. To induce abscess formation, bacterial suspensions were added to Citodex and inoculated subcutaneously into male Swiss mice. The treatment protocol consisted of 2 doses of HE, the EA fraction or vancomycin introduced intraperitoneally into mice 3 and 12 h after infection. The EA fraction and its subfractions presented the lowest minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC, 0.25 to 0.5 mg/mL). The plant samples were bacteriostatic at 2x and 4x MIC and bactericidal at 100 mg/mL. The EA fraction presented synergism with vancomycin and an additive effect with ciprofloxacin. A significant reduction of abscess volume, bacterial cell counts in abscess slurries, and inflammatory scores was observed in the HE and EA fraction-treated groups. The samples were effective in treating the animals in a dose-dependent fashion. The present study proved the effectiveness of P. amboinicus fractions against MRSA using in vitro and in vivo assays.

  17. HPLC-based metabolomics to identify cytotoxic compounds from Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng against human breast cancer MCF-7Cells.

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    Yulianto, Wahid; Andarwulan, Nuri; Giriwono, Puspo Edi; Pamungkas, Joko

    2016-12-15

    The objective of this study was to identify the active compounds in Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng which play a role to inhibit viability of breast cancer MCF-7 cells using HPLC-based metabolomics approach. Five fractions of the plant extract were observed including ethanol, hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and water fraction. There were 45 HPLC chromatograms resulted from 5 fractions with 3 replications and 3 wavelengths detection. The chromatograms were compared to the data of IC50 from MTT assay of each fraction against human breast cancer MCF-7 cells using metabolomics. The OPLS analysis result promptly pointed towards a chloroform fraction at retention time of 40.16-41.28min that has the greatest contribution to the cytotoxic activity. The data of mass spectra indicated that an abietane diterpene namely 7-acetoxy-6-hydroxyroyleanone was the main compound that contributed to the cytotoxic activity. This metabolomics application method can be used as a quick preliminary guideline to uncover the most dominant compound related to the bioactivity.

  18. In vivo antimalarial activity of leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (lour) spreng on Plasmodium berghei yoelii.

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    Periyanayagam, K; Nirmala Devi, K; Suseela, L; Uma, A; Ismail, M

    2008-06-01

    An invivo study of aqueous extract of the leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus on Plasmodium berghei yoelii was conducted on laboratory infected albino mice and compared with standard drug chloroquine. Reduction of parasitemia at 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg of aqueous extract for 24 hrs, 48 hrs, 72 hrs and 96 hrs were determined. The reduction of parasitemia after 96 hrs was 100%, 67.9% and 76.2% for standard, 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg of aqueous extract respectively. The isolation of active principle responsible for the reduction of parasitemia may give a promising drug molecule.

  19. Effect of subinihibitory and inhibitory concentrations of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng essential oil on Klebsiella pneumoniae.

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    Gonçalves, Thially Braga; Braga, Milena Aguiar; de Oliveira, Francisco F M; Santiago, Gilvandete M P; Carvalho, Cibele B M; Brito e Cabral, Paula; de Melo Santiago, Thiago; Sousa, Jeanlex S; Barros, Eduardo Bedê; do Nascimento, Ronaldo Ferreira; Nagao-Dias, Aparecida T

    2012-08-15

    We evaluated the antimicrobial activity and some mechanisms used by subinhibitory and inhibitory concentrations of the essential oil, obtained from leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus, against a standard strain of Klebsiella pneumoniae and 5 multiresistant clinical isolates of the bacteria. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC), the rate of kill and the pH sensitivity of the essential oil were determined by microdilution tests performed in 96-well plates. Subinhibitory and inhibitory concentrations of the essential oil were tested in order to check its action on K. pneumoniae membrane permeability, capsule expression, urease activity and cell morphology. The MIC and MBC of the essential oil were 0.09±0.01%. A complete inhibition of the bacterial growth was observed after 2 h of incubation with twice the MIC of the essential oil. A better MIC was found when neutral or alkaline pH broth was used. Alteration in membrane permeability was found by the increase of crystal violet uptake when the bacteria were incubated with twice the MIC levels of the essential oil. The urease activity could be prevented when all the subinhibitory concentrations were tested in comparison to the untreated group (pamboinicus can be a good candidate for future research.

  20. Variação da quantidade de β-cariofileno em óleo essencial de Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour. Spreng., Lamiaceae, sob diferentes condições de cultivo Variation in the amount of β-caryophyllene in essential oil of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour. Spreng. Lamiaceae under different conditions of cultivation

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    Fabíola B. Carneiro

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a influência do adubo, da irrigação, da incidência solar, do horário de coleta e da idade da planta na quantidade de β-cariofileno no óleo essencial de Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour. Spreng., Lamiaceae. As plantas foram cultivadas em canteiros experimentais entre os meses de dezembro de 2006 a setembro de 2007. O substrato utilizado foi adubo orgânico (esterco bovino, adubo mineral 1 [NPK (nitrogênio, fósforo e potássio] e adubo mineral 2 (NPK com calcário sob diferentes tratamentos. A técnica analítica quantitativa utilizada foi a cromatografia gasosa (GC/FID. De acordo com os resultados obtidos nos meses de menor precipitação de chuvas obteve-se maior rendimento de óleo essencial, e os meses de maior precipitação de chuvas mostraram uma tendência de baixos rendimentos.This study aimed to evaluate the influence of fertilizer, irrigation, the incidence sun, the time of collection and the plant in the amount of β-caryophyllene in the essential oil of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour. Spreng., Lamiaceae. The plants were grown in experimental beds between the months of December 2006 to September 2007. The substrate was used organic fertilizer (esterco veal, fertilizer mineral 1 [NPK (nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium] and fertilizer mineral 2 (NPK with limestone under different treatments. The quantitative analytical technique was used to gas chromatography (GC/FID. According to the results obtained in months of lower precipitation of rainfall received are higher yield of essential oil, and the months of highest precipitation of rain showed a trend of low income.

  1. In Vitro and In Vivo Leishmanicidal Activity of Astronium fraxinifolium (Schott) and Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng against Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis

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    de Lima, Silvio César Gomes; Teixeira, Maria Jania; Lopes Júnior, José Evaldo Gonçalves; de Morais, Selene Maia; Torres, Alba Fabiola; Braga, Milena Aguiar; Rodrigues, Raphael Oliveira; Santiago, Gilvandete Maria Pinheiro; Martins, Alice Costa; Nagao-Dias, Aparecida Tiemi

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to evaluate antileishmanial activity of Astronium fraxinifolium and Plectranthus amboinicus. For the in vitro tests, essential oil of P. amboinicus (OEPA) and ethanolic extracts from A. fraxinifolium (EEAF) were incubated with 106  promastigotes of L. (Viannia) braziliensis. The OEPA was able to reduce the parasite growth after 48 h; nonetheless, all the EEAFs could totally abolish the parasite growth. For the in vivo studies, BALB/c mice were infected subcutaneously (s.c.) with 107  L. braziliensis promastigotes. Treatment was done by administering OEPA intralesionally (i.l.) for 14 days. No difference was found in lesion thickness when those animals were compared with the untreated animals. Further, golden hamsters were infected s.c. with 106  L. braziliensis promastigotes. The first protocol of treatment consisted of ethanolic leaf extract from A. fraxinifolium (ELEAF) administered i.l. for 4 days and a booster dose at the 7th day. The animals showed a significant reduction of lesion thickness in the 6th week, but it was not comparable to the animals treated with Glucantime. The second protocol consisted of 15 daily intralesional injections. The profiles of lesion thickness were similar to the standard treatment. In conclusion, in vivo studies showed a high efficacy when the infected animals were intralesionally treated with leaf ethanolic extract from A. fraxinifolium. PMID:24829921

  2. In vitro and in vivo leishmanicidal activity of Astronium fraxinifolium (Schott) and Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng against Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima, Silvio César Gomes; Teixeira, Maria Jania; Lopes, José Evaldo Gonçalves; de Morais, Selene Maia; Torres, Alba Fabiola; Braga, Milena Aguiar; Rodrigues, Raphael Oliveira; Santiago, Gilvandete Maria Pinheiro; Martins, Alice Costa; Nagao-Dias, Aparecida Tiemi

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to evaluate antileishmanial activity of Astronium fraxinifolium and Plectranthus amboinicus. For the in vitro tests, essential oil of P. amboinicus (OEPA) and ethanolic extracts from A. fraxinifolium (EEAF) were incubated with 10(6) promastigotes of L. (Viannia) braziliensis. The OEPA was able to reduce the parasite growth after 48 h; nonetheless, all the EEAFs could totally abolish the parasite growth. For the in vivo studies, BALB/c mice were infected subcutaneously (s.c.) with 10(7) L. braziliensis promastigotes. Treatment was done by administering OEPA intralesionally (i.l.) for 14 days. No difference was found in lesion thickness when those animals were compared with the untreated animals. Further, golden hamsters were infected s.c. with 10(6) L. braziliensis promastigotes. The first protocol of treatment consisted of ethanolic leaf extract from A. fraxinifolium (ELEAF) administered i.l. for 4 days and a booster dose at the 7th day. The animals showed a significant reduction of lesion thickness in the 6th week, but it was not comparable to the animals treated with Glucantime. The second protocol consisted of 15 daily intralesional injections. The profiles of lesion thickness were similar to the standard treatment. In conclusion, in vivo studies showed a high efficacy when the infected animals were intralesionally treated with leaf ethanolic extract from A. fraxinifolium.

  3. In Vitro and In Vivo Leishmanicidal Activity of Astronium fraxinifolium (Schott and Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour. Spreng against Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis

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    Silvio César Gomes de Lima

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work was to evaluate antileishmanial activity of Astronium fraxinifolium and Plectranthus amboinicus. For the in vitro tests, essential oil of P. amboinicus (OEPA and ethanolic extracts from A. fraxinifolium (EEAF were incubated with 106  promastigotes of L. (Viannia braziliensis. The OEPA was able to reduce the parasite growth after 48 h; nonetheless, all the EEAFs could totally abolish the parasite growth. For the in vivo studies, BALB/c mice were infected subcutaneously (s.c. with 107  L. braziliensis promastigotes. Treatment was done by administering OEPA intralesionally (i.l. for 14 days. No difference was found in lesion thickness when those animals were compared with the untreated animals. Further, golden hamsters were infected s.c. with 106  L. braziliensis promastigotes. The first protocol of treatment consisted of ethanolic leaf extract from A. fraxinifolium (ELEAF administered i.l. for 4 days and a booster dose at the 7th day. The animals showed a significant reduction of lesion thickness in the 6th week, but it was not comparable to the animals treated with Glucantime. The second protocol consisted of 15 daily intralesional injections. The profiles of lesion thickness were similar to the standard treatment. In conclusion, in vivo studies showed a high efficacy when the infected animals were intralesionally treated with leaf ethanolic extract from A. fraxinifolium.

  4. Uso de Infusión de oreganón Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng y del vinagre en la crianza de pollos Acriollados (Gallus gallus domesticus) mejorados.

    OpenAIRE

    Chiriboga, Chuchuca; Sánchez Quinche, Angel; Vargas González, Oliverio; Hurtado, Flores; Quevedo Guerrero, José

    2016-01-01

    La presente investigación se realizó en la Granja Santa Inés, perteneciente a la Universidad Técnica de Machala, utilizando para ello 160 pollos acriollados (Gallus gallus domesticus) mejorados, los mismos que se alojaron tratando de cumplir las mejores condiciones de manejo y sanidad, sin embargo para provocar desafíos no se administró vacunas, ni antibiótico en la granja. El objetivo fue determinar la eficacia del vinagre e infusión de oreganón Plectranthus amboinicus en la crianza de pollo...

  5. Chemical composition and larvicidal activity of the essential oil of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng against Anopheles stephensi: a malarial vector mosquito.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthilkumar, Annadurai; Venkatesalu, Venugopalan

    2010-10-01

    Essential oil of Plectranthus amboinicus was studied for its chemical composition and larvicidal potential against the malarial vector mosquito Anopheles stephensi. Totally 26 compounds were identified by GC and GC-MS. The major chemical compounds were carvacrol (28.65%) followed by thymol (21.66%), α-humulene (9.67%), undecanal (8.29%), γ-terpinene (7.76%), ρ-cymene (6.46%), caryophyllene oxide (5.85%), α-terpineol (3.28%) and β-selinene (2.01%). The larvicidal assay was conducted to record the LC(50) and LC(90) values and the larval mortality was observed after 12 and 24 h of exposure period. The LC(50) values of the oil were 33.54 (after 12 h) and 28.37 ppm (after 24 h). The LC(90) values of the oil were 70.27 (after 12 h) and 59.38 ppm (after 24 h). The results of the present study showed that the essential oil of P. amboinicus is one of the inexpensive and eco-friendly sources of natural mosquito larvicidal agent to control/reduce the population of malarial vector mosquito.

  6. Indole acetic acid production by fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. from the rhizosphere of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. and their variation in extragenic repetitive DNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethia, Bedhya; Mustafa, Mariam; Manohar, Sneha; Patil, Savita V; Jayamohan, Nellickal Subramanian; Kumudini, Belur Satyan

    2015-06-01

    Fluorescent Pseudomonas (FP) is a heterogenous group of growth promoting rhizobacteria that regulate plant growth by releasing secondary metabolic compounds viz., indole acetic acid (IAA), siderophores, ammonia and hydrogen cyanide. In the present study, IAA producing FPs from the rhizosphere of Plectranthus amboinicus were characterized morphologically, biochemically and at the molecular level. Molecular identification of the isolates were carried out using Pseudomonas specific primers. The effect of varying time (24, 48, 72 and 96 h), Trp concentrations (100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 μg x ml(-1)), temperature (10, 26, 37 and 50 ± 2 degrees C) and pH (6, 7 and 8) on IAA production by 10 best isolates were studied. Results showed higher IAA production at 72 h incubation, at 300 μg x ml(-1) Trp concentration, temperature 26 ± 2 degrees C and pH 7. TLC with acidified ethyl acetate extract showed that the IAA produced has a similar Rf value to that of the standard IAA. Results of TLC were confirmed by HPLC analysis. Genetic diversity of the isolates was also studied using 40 RAPD and 4 Rep primers. Genetic diversity parameters such as dominance, Shannon index and Simpson index were calculated. Out of 40 RAPD primers tested, 9 (2 OP-D series and 7 OP-E series) were shortlisted for further analysis. Studies using RAPD, ERIC, BOX, REP and GTG5 primers revealed that isolates exhibit significant diversity in repetitive DNA sequences irrespective of the rhizosphere.

  7. Interference of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour. Spreng essential oil on the anti-Candida activity of some clinically used antifungals Interferência do óleo essencial de Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour. Spreng sobre a atividade anti-Candida de alguns antifúngicos utilizados clinicamente

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    Rinalda de Araújo G. de Oliveira

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Plants with medicinal properties have been applied for a long in the traditional health care, so that sometimes their use takes place concomitantly to the use of industrialized drugs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the interference of Plectranthus amboinicus essential oil on the anti-Candida activity of some clinically used antifungals by the solid medium diffusion procedure. Assayed antifungals were amphotericin B (100 µg/mL, ketoconazole (50 µg/mL and itraconazole (50 µg/mL. C. albicans, C. tropicalis, C. guilliermondii, C. krusei and C. stellatoidea were used as test microorganisms. P. amboinicus essential oil showed MIC value for most assayed yeast strains. The essential oil when assayed in its MIC value showed some interference on the anti-Candida effectiveness of the assayed antifungals. It was noted yeast growth inhibition zones with different diameters when the antifungals were tested alone and combined with the essential oil. P. amboinicus essential oil showed prominent interference on the anti-yeast activity of itraconazole providing a synergic effect on C. albicans, C. tropicalis, C. krusei and C. stellatoidea. Also, the essential oil interfered on the anti-yeast activity of ketoconazole when interacting with C. albicans, C. guilliermondii and C. stellatoidea providing, respectively, an antagonic and synergic effect. On the other hand, it was found a small interference on the anti-yeast effect of amphotericin B. These data showed that combined use of medicinal plants and/or derivatives with industrialized drugs, particularly antimicrobials, could interfere on their expected therapeutic effects.As plantas com propriedades medicinais têm sido utilizadas por um longo tempo no cuidado tradicional de saúde, de modo que algumas vezes seu uso ocorre concomitantemente ao uso de drogas industrializadas. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a interferência do óleo essencial de Plectranthus amboinicus sobre atividade anti-Candida de

  8. Estudo anatômico comparado de órgãos vegetativos de boldo miúdo, Plectranthus ornatus Codd. e malvariço, Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. - Lamiaceae

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia Mauro; Celi de Paula Silva; Juliana Missima; Thiana Ohnuki; Renata B. Rinaldi; Melissa Frota

    2008-01-01

    Foi feita uma investigação anatômica dos órgãos vegetativos de Plectranthus ornatus, "boldo miúdo" e Plectranthus amboinicus, "malvariço", da família Lamiaceae. Foram estudados o limbo foliar, pecíolo e caule destas duas espécies. Ambas apresentam limbo foliar com tricomas tectores, com tricomas glandulares pedicelados em P. amboinicus e pedicelados e sésseis em P. ornatus. Justifica-se esta investigação, pelo fato de se tratar de espécies utilizadas, popularmente, como fitoterápico....

  9. The chemotherapeutic effect of essential oil of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour) on lung metastasis developed by B16F-10 cell line in C57BL/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjamalai, A; Grace, V M Berlin

    2013-01-01

    Current investigation is to evaluate the anticancer activity of the essential oil of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour) on B16F-10 melanoma cell line injected C57BL/6 mice, and it was simultaneously treated with the essential oil of P. amboinicus (Lour) (50 μg/dose) via i.p. for 21 days. The present investigation exhibited the potent chemotherapeutic/chemopreventive effect of the essential oil of P. amboinicus (Lour) over lung metastasis that developed. To our knowledge, this is the first report in evaluating the effect of essential oil of P. amboinicus (Lour) using lung cancer model.

  10. The transverse strength of acrylic resin after Coleus amboinicus, Lour extract solution immersion

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    Devi Rianti

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A laboratoric experimental study was conducted on the transverse strength of acrylic resin after Coleus amboinicus, Lour extract solution immersion. The aim of this study is to know the difference of acrylic resin transverse strengths caused by immersion time variations in a concentrate solution. The study was carried out on unpolished acrylic resin plates with 65 × 10 × 2,5 mm dimension; solution with 15% Coleus amboinicus, Lour extract, and 30, 60, 90 days immersion times to measure the transverse strength and sterilized aquadest was used as control. Acrylic resin plates transverse strength was measured using Autograph AG-10 TE. The data was analyzed using One-Way Anova and LSD with 5% degree of significance. The result showed that longer immersion time will decrease the transverse strength of the acrylic resin plates. After 90 days immersion time, the transverse strength decrease is still above the recommended standard transverse strength.

  11. PERUBAHAN MUTU DAN UMUR SIMPAN SUP DAUN TORBANGUN (Colues amboinicus Lour DALAM KEMASAN

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    Endang Warsiki

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTTorbangun leaves soup is one of the traditional diets commonly consumed by lactating mothers among the Batak society. The soup is believed to increase breast milk production and helps recovery process after the mother giving birth. Unfortunately, until now the soup is only served directly after cooking thereby limits its usefulness. Given the potential of the soup is quite important, the preservation of the cooked soup needs to be done so that the soup can be consumed at anytimeany time. This study aims to determine the shelf life of torbangun soup in a variety of packaging and at various storage temperatures. The soup is stored at three different temperatures (3-5oC, 10-12oC and 27-30oC and in 3 types of packaging namely polyethylene terephthalate (PET, polypropylene (PP and cans. Changes in product quality during storage are analyzed and estimated the shelf life of products. The results show that the soup stored at the 3-5oC and 10-12oC has longer shelf life compared to 27-30oC (day 8 vs day 3. In addition, the cans are the best packing among other packaging materials.Key words: torbangun leaf, Coleus amboinicus Lour, soup, shelf lifeABSTRAKSup daun Torbangun torbangun adalah salah satu makanan tradisional yang biasa dikonsumsi oleh ibu menyusuidi kalangan masyarakat Batak. Sup ini diyakini dapat meningkatkan produksi ASI dan membantu proses pemulihan setelah ibu melahirkan. Sayangnya, sampai saat ini sup daun torbangun hanya disajikan langsung setelah dimasak sehingga membatasi kegunaannya. Mengingat potensi sup ini cukup penting, penggunaan bahan pengawet pada sup matang perlu dilakukan agar sup ini dapat dikonsumsi kapan saja. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menentukan umur simpan sup torbangun dalam berbagai kemasan dan pada berbagai suhu penyimpanan. Pada penelitian ini sup disimpan pada tiga suhu berbeda (3-5oC, 10-12oC dan 27-30oC dan di simpan dalam tiga jenis kemasan yaitu polietilen tereftalat (PET, polypropylene (PP dan

  12. FORMULASI MINUMAN SUPLEMEN DAUN TORBANGUN (Coleus amboinicus Lour. UNTUK WANITA YANG MENDERITA PMS (PREMENSTRUAL SYNDROME

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    Pramadya Alfitra

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Torbangun (Coleus amboinicus Lour is one of Labiatae family containing a lot of micronutrients and active components. The plant is used as traditional medicine for relieving premenstrual syndromes (PMS. Based on the results of previous studies, a capsule containing 750 mg of dried Torbangun leaves can relieve PMS as well as commercial herbal, and better than placebo. Capsule supplement form seems less acceptable because it tastes like taking a drug. Therefore, it requires development for Torbangun supplement product in other forms, and one of them is a supplement drink. The study is aimed to formulate  a supplement drink from Torbangun leaves as the basic ingredients. Supplement drink formulation is made in trial and error by combining extract of torbangun leaves, sucrose, and lemon, obtaining three formulas: DT1 contains 10 g extract of torbangun leaves and 16 g sucrose, DT2 contains 10 g extract of torbangun leaves, 2 g lemon, 22 g sucrose, and DT3 contains 10 g extract of torbangun leaves, 4 g lemon, and 28 g sucrose. These formulas are then tested by organoleptic, physical, and chemical. The results show that the formula DT3 has the highest average score. Blanching treatment improves organoleptic properties of supplement drinks. Mean scores in color, aroma, and taste of the blanched supplement drink are different (p Key words: Torbangun leaves, premenstrual syndrome, supplement drink, blanching.

  13. Torbangun (Coleus amboinicus Lour): a Bataknese traditional cuisine perceived as lactagogue by Bataknese lactating women in Simalungun, North Sumatera, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damanik, Rizal

    2009-02-01

    Torbangun (Coleus amboinicus Lour) has been used as a breast milk stimulant (a lactagogue) by Bataknese people in Indonesia for hundreds of years. However, the traditional use of torbangun is not well documented, and scientific evidence is limited to establish coleus as a lactagogue. This Focus Group Discussion (FGD) study was conducted to gather information regarding the practice and cultural beliefs related to the traditional use of torbangun as a lactagogue. The main findings of this investigation were: (1) torbangun, which is considered nourishing, is usually given to the mother for one month after giving birth in order to restore her state of balance; (2) in the Bataknese culture, torbangun is perceived to serve several purposes which include enhancing breast milk production and acting as a uterine cleansing agent; and (3) the tradition has been practiced for hundreds of years, and its adherence is still strong.

  14. SUPLEMENTASI DAUN TORBANGUN (COLEUS AMBOINICUS LOUR UNTUK MENURUNKAN KELUHAN SINDROM PRAMENSTRUASI PADA REMAJA PUTRI (SUPPLEMENTATION OF TORBANGUN LEAVES [COLEUS AMBOINICUS LOUR] IN REDUCING THE COMPLAINST OF PRE-MENSTRUAL SYNDROME [PMS] AMONG TEENAGE G

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    Mazarina Devi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background: Torbangun leaves (Coleus ambonicus Lour is one of type of species from Labiatae family which contains a lot of micronutrient and active element which have been examined as beneficial for human health and quality of life. The plants containing iridoid and flavonoid as well as phytochemical which deal with reproduction hormone is applicable to traditional medication toward PMS cases. Methods: The present study was aimed to assess the efficacy of CAL leaves in the management of PMS. An experimental clinical trial was conducted in 35 teenagers with PMS. Three intervention groups were defined: CAL leaves; commercial preparation; and placebo. Participants were followed-up individually for 1 month. Result: The results showed average menarche occurred around age 13 years, with menstruation lasting 5 days. During each successive treatment cycle, participants experienced a lower pain intensity score. Chi Square test, after adjusting each cycle for baseline pain, treatment compliance and other variables, showed that the group receiving CAL extract had significantly reduced pain intensity (p<0.05 compared with commercial preparation and placebo. Conclusion: The torbangun leaves supplement can be used as treatment to relief symptoms of the premenstrual syndrome. [Penel Gizi Makan 2010, 33(2:180-194]   Keywords: Torbangun leaves (Coleus amboinicus Lour, pre-menstrual syndrome (PMS, teenage girls

  15. Investigation of phytochemicals and anti-convulsant activity of the plant Coleus amboinicus (lour.

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    Prasenjit Bhattacharjee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The present study has been designed to evaluate the comparative anticonvulsant activity of different parts of Coleus amboinicus as it has been mentioned in the various literatures regarding the use of this plant in the treatment of epilepsy, but no specific scientific reports are available in this regard. Materials and Methods: The in vitro anticonvulsant activity of leaf, stem and roots of C. amboinicus has been evaluated by maximal electric shock-induced seizures (MES and Pentylenetetrazole (PTZ-induced seizures models in Swiss albino mice. The drug/extracts were administered through intra-peritoneal route (100 mg/ml, in both experimental models and the effect was compared with Phenytoin in MES and PTZ-induced convulsion. Results: All the three studied extracts have shown significant anticonvulsant activity in both the models. However, the alcoholic leaf extract has shown highest activity by abolishing the MES-induced convulsions after 60 minutes of drug administration. The duration of convulsions in PTZ model was also significantly reduced (P < 0.001 compared to the control group. Conclusion: The alcoholic leaf extract of the C. amboinicus has shown the significant anticonvulsant activity in both the studied models, followed by stem and root extracts. The presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, and saponins in these extracts may be responsible for this activity.

  16. Avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana e antioxidante das espécies Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour. e Mentha x villosa (Huds.

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    Rosangela Correia Freitas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available O uso de plantas medicinais com potencial terapêutico tem motivado a realização de estudos através de ensaios experimentais que visam fornecer informações úteis e de extrema importância. Assim o presente trabalho objetivou avaliar a atividade antimicrobiana e antioxidante das espécies de Coleus amboinicus (Lour. e Mentha x villosa (Huds. A atividade antimicrobiana foi avaliada pelo método de difusão em disco, cepas bacterianas padronizadas Gram negativas Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922 e ATCC 35218, cepas Gram positivas Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923 e S. aureus ATCC 27853, assim como fungos padrões de Cryptococcus neoformans (pertencentes à coleção de microrganismos do CESMAC. Como controle positivo foi usado o imipenem e fluconazol e como controle negativo um disco com etanol absoluto. A determinação do potencial antioxidante foi realizada utilizando os métodos DPPH, FTC e determinação de compostos fenólicos. Os extratos etanólicos de C. amboinicus e M. x villosa apresentaram excelentes resultados tanto relacionado à atividade antimicrobiana quanto à antioxidante. Nossos resultados mostram a potencialidade das plantas analisadas na prevenção e no combate de doenças.

  17. Ensaios clínicos toxicológicos, fase I, de um fitoterápico composto (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi, Plectranthus amboinicus Lour e Eucalyptus globulus Labill Phase I clinical toxicological assays of a complex herbal medicine (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi, Plectranthus amboinicus Lour and Eucaliptus globulus Labill

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    Patrícia Trindade C. Paulo

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo, foram realizados ensaios clínicos toxicológicos, fase I, do produto fitoterápico composto pelas plantas medicinais Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi, Plectranthus amboinicus Lour e Eucalyptus globulus Labill. O estudo foi realizado no Hospital Universitário Lauro Wanderley/UFPB/PB e, para isto, foram selecionados 28 voluntários sadios, sendo 14 homens e 14 mulheres que ingeriram por via oral, ininterruptamente durante 8 semanas, 15 mL do produto, três vezes ao dia; e no 3º e 7º dia, 3ª e 6ª semanas e 24 h após a 8ª semana, foram feitas avaliações clínicas e laboratoriais para análise da toxicidade aguda e crônica. Os resultados obtidos demonstraram que os pacientes não apresentaram alterações clínicas, laboratoriais e reações adversas significantes, apenas pequenas alterações foram detectadas no sangue através da aspartato transaminase (AST e fosfatase alcalina no grupo feminino para um p In this study, phase I clinical toxicological assays of the herbal medicine composed of the medicinal plants Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi, Plectranthus amboinicus Lour and Eucaliptus globulus Labill were performed. The study was carried out at Hospital Universitário Lauro Wanderley/UFPB/PB/Brazil and for this purpose, 28 healthy volunteers were chosen, 14 men and 14 women who ingested 15 mL of the medicine per oral, with no interruption, three times a day; and on the 3rd and 7th days, on the 3rd and 6th weeks and 24h after the 8th week, clinical and laboratory evaluations were performed to analyze the acute and chronic toxicity. As results, the patients did not show significant clinical and laboratory alterations and adverse reactions, only little alterations were detected in blood through aspartate transaminase (AST and alkaline phosphatase in the female group to a p < 0.05; however, these values are according to the normality standard for adult individuals. It can be concluded that these data, complementary to those

  18. Plectranthus amboinicus and Centella asiatica Cream for the Treatment of Diabetic Foot Ulcers

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    Yuan-Sung Kuo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of a topical cream containing P. amboinicus (Lour. Spreng. (Lamiaceae and C. asiatica (L. Urban (Umbelliferae were evaluated and compared to effects of hydrocolloid fiber wound dressing for diabetic foot ulcers. A single-center, randomized, controlled, open-label study was conducted. Twenty-four type 1 or type 2 diabetes patients aged 20 years or older with Wagner grade 3 foot ulcers postsurgical debridement were enrolled between October 2008 and December 2009. Twelve randomly assigned patients were treated with WH-1 cream containing P. amboinicus and C. asiatica twice daily for two weeks. Another 12 patients were treated with hydrocolloid fiber dressings changed at 7 days or when clinically indicated. Wound condition and safety were assessed at days 7 and 14 and results were compared between groups. No statistically significant differences were seen in percent changes in wound size at 7- and 14-day assessments of WH-1 cream and hydrocolloid dressing groups. A slightly higher proportion of patients in the WH-1 cream group (10 of 12; 90.9% showed Wagner grade improvement compared to the hydrocolloid fiber dressing group but without statistical significance. For treating diabetic foot ulcers, P. amboinicus and C. asiatica cream is a safe alternative to hydrocolloid fiber dressing without significant difference in effectiveness.

  19. Plectranthus amboinicus and Centella asiatica Cream for the Treatment of Diabetic Foot Ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Yuan-Sung; Chien, Hsiung-Fei; Lu, William

    2012-01-01

    Effects of a topical cream containing P. amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. (Lamiaceae) and C. asiatica (L.) Urban (Umbelliferae) were evaluated and compared to effects of hydrocolloid fiber wound dressing for diabetic foot ulcers. A single-center, randomized, controlled, open-label study was conducted. Twenty-four type 1 or type 2 diabetes patients aged 20 years or older with Wagner grade 3 foot ulcers postsurgical debridement were enrolled between October 2008 and December 2009. Twelve randomly assigned patients were treated with WH-1 cream containing P. amboinicus and C. asiatica twice daily for two weeks. Another 12 patients were treated with hydrocolloid fiber dressings changed at 7 days or when clinically indicated. Wound condition and safety were assessed at days 7 and 14 and results were compared between groups. No statistically significant differences were seen in percent changes in wound size at 7- and 14-day assessments of WH-1 cream and hydrocolloid dressing groups. A slightly higher proportion of patients in the WH-1 cream group (10 of 12; 90.9%) showed Wagner grade improvement compared to the hydrocolloid fiber dressing group but without statistical significance. For treating diabetic foot ulcers, P. amboinicus and C. asiatica cream is a safe alternative to hydrocolloid fiber dressing without significant difference in effectiveness.

  20. Antimalarial activity of Malaysian Plectranthus amboinicus against Plasmodium berghei

    OpenAIRE

    Norazsida Ramli; Pakeer Oothuman Syed Ahamed; Hassan Mohamed Elhady; Muhammad Taher

    2014-01-01

    Context: Malaria is a mosquito-borne disease caused by parasitic protozoa from the genus of Plasmodium. The protozoans have developed resistance against many of current drugs. It is urgent to find an alternative source of new antimalarial agent. In the effort to discover new antimalarial agents, this research has been conducted on Plectranthus amboinicus. Aims: This study was conducted to evaluate the toxicity and antiplasmodial properties of P. amboinicus. Materials and Methods: Acute oral t...

  1. Allergic contact dermatitis to Plectranthus amboinicus masquerading as chronic leg ulcer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shyue-Luen; Chang, Ya-Ching; Yang, Chin-Hsun; Hong, Hong-Shang

    2005-12-01

    This report discusses a case of a 69-year-old woman who developed chronic non-healing leg ulcers after long-term topical use of Plectranthus amboinicus. The ulcer was proven to be allergic contact dermatitis to P. amboinicus by a patch test. The ulcer healed after discontinuation of P. amboinicus. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of allergic contact dermatitis to P. amboinicus masquerading as chronic leg ulcer.

  2. Potential Use of Plectranthus amboinicus in the Treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Jia-Ming Chang; Chun-Ming Cheng; Le-Mei Hung; Yuh-Shan Chung; Rey-Yuh Wu

    2007-01-01

    Plectranthus amboinicus (P. amboinicus) is a folk herb that is used to treat inflammatory diseases or swelling symptoms in Taiwan. We investigated therapeutic efficacy of P. amboinicus in treating Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) using collagen-induced arthritis animal model. Arthritis was induced in Lewis rats by immunization with bovine type II collagen. Serum anti-collagen IgG, IgM and C-reactive protein (CRP) were analyzed. To understand the inflammation condition of treated animals, production ...

  3. Antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic activity of plectranthus amboinicus on normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathaswamy, A H M; Koti, B C; Gore, Aparna; Thippeswamy, A H M; Kulkarni, R V

    2011-03-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic effects of ethanol extract of Plectranthus amboinicus in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced in Wistar rats by single intraperitoneal administration of alloxan monohydrate (150 mg/kg). Normal as well as diabetic rats were divided into groups (n=6) receiving different treatments. Graded doses (200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg) of ethanol extract of Plectranthus amboinicus were studied in both normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats for a period of 15 days. Glibenclamide (600 μg/kg) was used as a reference drug. Oral administration with graded doses of ethanol extract of Plectranthus amboinicus exhibited hypoglycemic effect in normal rats and significantly reduced the peak glucose levels after 120 min of glucose loading. In alloxan-induced diabetic rats, the daily oral treatment with ethanol extract of Plectranthus amboinicus showed a significant reduction in blood glucose. Besides, administration of ethanol extract of Plectranthus amboinicus for 15 days significantly decreased serum contents of total cholesterol, triglycerides whereas HDL-cholesterol, total proteins and calcium were effectively increased. Furthermore, effect of ethanol extract of Plectranthus amboinicus showed profound elevation of serum amylase and reduction of serum lipase. Histology examination showed ethanol extract of Plectranthus amboinicus exhibited almost normalization of damaged pancreatic architecture in rats with diabetes mellitus. Studies clearly demonstrated that ethanol extract of Plectranthus amboinicus leaves possesses hypoglycemic and antihyperlipidemic effects mediated through the restoration of the functions of pancreatic tissues and insulinotropic effect.

  4. Rcdisterona de Pfaffia tuberosa (Spreng. Hicken Ecdysterone from Pfaffia tuberosa (Spreng. Hicken

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    Nobushigue Nishimoto

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available As raízes secas da espécie brasileira Pfaffia tuberosa (Spreng. Hicken foram submetidas a extração com metanol. Deste extrato metanólico foram isolados a ecdisterona e o ácido oleanólico, através de processos de separação por HPLC e cromatografia em coluna. Tanto a ecdisterona como o ácido oleanólico foram identificados comparativamenve com os respec­tivos padrões. Análise quantitativa por HPLC mostrou 0,23% de ecdisterona. Este teor foi corsiderado baixo em relação a outra espécie, também brasileira, a Pfaffia iresinoides.In this paper, we wish to report the isolation and identification of ecdysterone from Pfaffia tuberosa (Spreng. Hicken. The roots of Pfaffia tuberosa (Spreng. Hicken were colected in the Mato Grosso State - Brazil. The dried and sliced roots (197g were extracted with hot MeOH. A suspension of the resulting MeOH extract in the water was treated with n-BuOH. The n-BuOH layer was concentrated in vacuo to give a brown viscous oil (5g, wich was chromatographed on silicagel (65g using CHCl3 - MeOH - H2O (80:20:10 lower phase, and 15ml fractions were collected. Fractions 11-13 were concentrated and the residual solid was recrystallized from EtOH to afford oleanolic acid (65mg. The crystalline residue obtained from fractions 44-56 was recrystallized from EtOAC-MeOH to give ecdysterone (87mg. Each compound was identified by direct comparison with an authentic sample. Further HPLC quantitative analysis showed lower content of ecdysterone (0,23% compared with that of Pfaffia iresinoides Spreng.

  5. A new Sequiterpenoid from Eupatorium adenophorum Spreng

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Lan; YANG Jie; CAO Ao-Cheng; LIU Yu-Mei; AN Yu; SHI Jian-Gong

    2006-01-01

    A new sequiterpenoid compound 8aα-hydroxy-1-isopropyl-4,7-dimethyl-1,2,3,4,6,8a-hexahydro-naphthalene-2,6-dione (1), together with seven known compounds anti-HH-dimer-coumarin (2), (-)-5-exo-hydroxy-borneol (3),O-hydroxyl cinnamic acid (4), 9β-hydroxy-ageraphorone (5), 10Hα-9-oxo-ageraphorone (6), 10Hβ-9-oxo-ageraphorone (7) and 9-oxo-10,11-dehydroageraphorone 8, was isolated from the leaves of Eupatorium adenophorum Spreng. The structures were elucidated by IR, 1H and 13C NMR, EIMS, HMBC and single-crystal X-ray spectral data.

  6. Antihyperglycemic and Antihyperlipidemic Activity of Plectranthus Amboinicus on Normal and Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Viswanathaswamy, A.H.M.; Koti, B. C.; Aparna Gore; Thippeswamy, A. H. M.; Kulkarni, R. V.

    2011-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic effects of ethanol extract of Plectranthus amboinicus in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced in Wistar rats by single intraperitoneal administration of alloxan monohydrate (150 mg/kg). Normal as well as diabetic rats were divided into groups (n=6) receiving different treatments. Graded doses (200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg) of ethanol extract of Plectranthus amboinicus were studied...

  7. Antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic activity of Plectranthus amboinicus on normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. M. Viswanathaswamy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to investigate the antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic effects of ethanol extract of Plectranthus amboinicus in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced in Wistar rats by single intraperitoneal administration of alloxan monohydrate (150 mg/kg. Normal as well as diabetic rats were divided into groups (n=6 receiving different treatments. Graded doses (200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg of ethanol extract of Plectranthus amboinicus were studied in both normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats for a period of 15 days. Glibenclamide (600 μg/kg was used as a reference drug. Oral administration with graded doses of ethanol extract of Plectranthus amboinicus exhibited hypoglycemic effect in normal rats and significantly reduced the peak glucose levels after 120 min of glucose loading. In alloxan-induced diabetic rats, the daily oral treatment with ethanol extract of Plectranthus amboinicus showed a significant reduction in blood glucose. Besides, administration of ethanol extract of Plectranthus amboinicus for 15 days significantly decreased serum contents of total cholesterol, triglycerides whereas HDL-cholesterol, total proteins and calcium were effectively increased. Furthermore, effect of ethanol extract of Plectranthus amboinicus showed profound elevation of serum amylase and reduction of serum lipase. Histology examination showed ethanol extract of Plectranthus amboinicus exhibited almost normalization of damaged pancreatic architecture in rats with diabetes mellitus. Studies clearly demonstrated that ethanol extract of Plectranthus amboinicus leaves possesses hypoglycemic and antihyperlipidemic effects mediated through the restoration of the functions of pancreatic tissues and insulinotropic effect.

  8. Potential Use of Plectranthus amboinicus in the Treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jia-Ming; Cheng, Chun-Ming; Hung, Le-Mei; Chung, Yuh-Shan; Wu, Rey-Yuh

    2010-03-01

    Plectranthus amboinicus (P. amboinicus) is a folk herb that is used to treat inflammatory diseases or swelling symptoms in Taiwan. We investigated therapeutic efficacy of P. amboinicus in treating Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) using collagen-induced arthritis animal model. Arthritis was induced in Lewis rats by immunization with bovine type II collagen. Serum anti-collagen IgG, IgM and C-reactive protein (CRP) were analyzed. To understand the inflammation condition of treated animals, production of TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β from peritoneal exudates cells (PEC) were also analyzed. P. amboinicus significantly inhibited the footpad swelling and arthritic symptoms in collagen-induced arthritic rats, while the serum anti-collagen IgM and CRP levels were consistently decreased. The production of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β were also decreased in the high dosage of P. amboinicus group. Here, we demonstrate the potential anti-arthritic effect of P. amboinicus for treating RA, which might confer its anti-rheumatic activity. This differs the pharmacological action mode of indomethacin.

  9. Potential Use of Plectranthus amboinicus in the Treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Ming Chang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Plectranthus amboinicus (P. amboinicus is a folk herb that is used to treat inflammatory diseases or swelling symptoms in Taiwan. We investigated therapeutic efficacy of P. amboinicus in treating Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA using collagen-induced arthritis animal model. Arthritis was induced in Lewis rats by immunization with bovine type II collagen. Serum anti-collagen IgG, IgM and C-reactive protein (CRP were analyzed. To understand the inflammation condition of treated animals, production of TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β from peritoneal exudates cells (PEC were also analyzed. P. amboinicus significantly inhibited the footpad swelling and arthritic symptoms in collagen-induced arthritic rats, while the serum anti-collagen IgM and CRP levels were consistently decreased. The production of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β were also decreased in the high dosage of P. amboinicus group. Here, we demonstrate the potential anti-arthritic effect of P. amboinicus for treating RA, which might confer its anti-rheumatic activity. This differs the pharmacological action mode of indomethacin.

  10. Antimalarial activity of Malaysian Plectranthus amboinicus against Plasmodium berghei

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    Norazsida Ramli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Malaria is a mosquito-borne disease caused by parasitic protozoa from the genus of Plasmodium. The protozoans have developed resistance against many of current drugs. It is urgent to find an alternative source of new antimalarial agent. In the effort to discover new antimalarial agents, this research has been conducted on Plectranthus amboinicus. Aims: This study was conducted to evaluate the toxicity and antiplasmodial properties of P. amboinicus. Materials and Methods: Acute oral toxicity dose at 5000 mg/kg was conducted to evaluate the safety of this extract. Twenty mice were divided into control and experimental group. All the mice were observed for signs of toxicity, mortality, weight changes and histopathological changes. Antimalarial activity of different extract doses of 50, 200, 400 and 1000 mg/kg were tested in vivo against Plasmodium berghei infections in mice (five mice for each group during early, established and residual infections. Results: The acute oral toxicity test revealed that no mortality or evidence of adverse effects was seen in the treated mice. The extract significantly reduced the parasitemia by the 50 (P = 0.000, 200 (P = 0.000 and 400 mg/kg doses (P = 0.000 in the in vivo prophylactic assay. The percentage chemo-suppression was calculated as 83.33% for 50 mg/kg dose, 75.62% for 200 mg/kg dose and 90.74% for 400 mg/kg dose. Body weight of all treated groups; T1, T2, T3 and T4 also showed enhancement after 7 days posttreatment. Statistically no reduction of parasitemia calculated for curative and suppressive test. Conclusion: Thus, this extract may give a promising agent to be used as a prophylactic agent of P. berghei infection.

  11. Antineoplasic effect of aqueous extract of plectranthus amboinicus in ehrlich ascites carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandao, Eduardo M; Brandão, Paulo H D M; Souza, Ivone A; Paiva, Gerson S; de C Carvalho, Marcos; Lacerda, Claudio M

    2013-01-01

    There are 46,000 new cases of peritoneal carcinomatosis per year in the USA and 17,700 in Brazil. New media, including plant derivatives, are being tested in its treatment. Plectranthus amboinicus is a medicinal plant widely used in Brazil, especially in the northeast region, for the treatment of various diseases, including cancer. This present study evaluates the intraperitoneal use of aqueous extracts of Plectranthus amboinicus (AEPa) at a dose of 200 mg / kg for the treatment of the ascitic form of Ehrlich carcinoma. It is concluded also the AEPa produced antineoplastic effect in ascitic form of Ehrlich carcinoma.

  12. Chemical constituents of Plectranthus amboinicus and the synthetic analogs possessing anti-inflammatory activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuan-Siao; Yu, Hui-Ming; Shie, Jiun-Jie; Cheng, Ting-Jen Rachel; Wu, Chung-Yi; Fang, Jim-Min; Wong, Chi-Huey

    2014-03-01

    This study demonstrates that compounds 1-4 from an extract of Plectranthus amboinicus inhibit the binding of AP-1 to its consensus DNA sequence. Thymoquinone (5) was further identified as a nonpolar ingredient from the hexane extract of P. amboinicus to suppress the expression of lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α). We then synthesized 2-alkylidenyl-4-cyclopentene-1,3-diones as the designed biomimetics of thymoquinone, and found that compounds 8a, 8b and 8d were more potent TNF-α inhibitors.

  13. Alkenes with antioxidative activities from Murraya koenigii (L.) Spreng.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qin-Ge; Xu, Kun; Sang, Zhi-Pei; Wei, Rong-Rui; Liu, Wen-Min; Su, Ya-Lun; Yang, Jian-Bo; Wang, Ai-Guo; Ji, Teng-Fei; Li, Lu-Jun

    2016-02-01

    Four new alkenes (1-4), and six known alkenes (5-12) were isolated from Murraya koenigii (L.) Spreng. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analyses and references. Compounds (1-12) were evaluated for antioxidative activities. Among them, compounds 1, 2, 4, and 7 exhibited significant antioxidative activities using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay with IC50=21.4-49.5 μM. The known compounds (5-12) were isolated from this plant for the first time.

  14. Preliminary phytochemical screening of the pericarp of Crataeva magna (Lour.) DC. - a medicinal tree

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Solomon Kiruba; Mony Mahesh; Zachariah Miller Paul; Solomon Jeeva

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the phytochemicals present in the pericarp of Crataeva magna (C. magna) (Lour.) DC. which is used as a traditional medicine by the inhabitants of Kanyakumari district. Methods: Phytochemical screening of the pericarp was done to determine the secondary metabolites in various solvents studied. Results: The phytochemical screening on the pericarp of C. magna (Lour.) DC. proved the presence of phytochemicals such as phenols, saponins and tannins. Conclusions: The findings of the present study recommended that the pericarp of C. magna (Lour.) DC. have potential antimicrobial compounds that may be of use for developing plant based drugs for various ailments.

  15. Cytotoxic Constituents from the Stems of Clausena lansium (Lour. Skeels

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    Shu Shan Du

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Six compounds were isolated from the stems of Clausena lansium (Lour. Skeels by repeated sillica gel column chromatography. Their chemical structures were elucidated on the basic of physicochemical and spectroscopic data. Among them, 8-geranyloxypsolaren (3 and 2-methoxy-1-(3-methyl-buten-1-yl-9H-carbazole-3-carbaldehyde (6 were isolated for the first time from this plant. These compounds were screened for cytotoxicity in human cervical cancer (Hela, leukemia (K562, lung cancer (A549, non-small lung carcinoma (H1299 and liver cancer (SMMC-7721. Within the series of cytotoxic tests, compounds 4–6 displayed potent cytotoxic activity against H1299 and SMMC-7721, with the IC50 values of 6.19 to 26.84 μg/mL.

  16. In vitro antioxidant studies of Dioscorea esculenta (Lour). Burkill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Manickam Murugan; Veerabahu Ramasamy Mohan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the total phenolic, flavonoid contents and in vitro antioxidant activity of methanol extract of Dioscorea esculenta (Lour). Burkill. Methods: Total phenolic content was estimated using the Folin Ciocalteu method. The flavonoid content was determined using aluminium chloride. In vitro antioxidant activities and reducing power capacity were determined using standard methods. Results: Total phenolic content in methanol extract of Dioscorea esculenta was found to be 0.79g/100g and flavonoids content was found to be 0.26 g/100g. The extract was screened for its potential antioxidant activities using tests such as DPPH radical scavenging activity, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, superoxide radical scavenging activity, ABTS radical cation scavenging activity and reducing power activity. Conclusions: The present studies confirm the methanol extracts have potential in vitro antioxidant activity. The phytochemical phenols and flavonoids could be the reason for its antioxidant activity.

  17. PATHORCHUR (COLEUS AROMATICUS: A REVIEW OF THE MEDICINAL EVIDENCE FOR ITS PHYTOCHEMISTRY AND PHARMACOLOGY PROPERTIES

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    Om Prakash Rout

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Coleus aromaticus Benth., (Fam. Lamiaceae, syn. Coleus amboinicus Lour. Spreng or Plectranthus ambonicus Lour, is commonly known as Indian/ country borage and ‘Pathorchur’ in Hindi and Bengali. It is recorded in the Indian system of medicine as one of the sources of Pashanabheda. It is large succulent aromatic perennial herb, shrubby below, hispidly villous or tomentose. It is found throughout India, Ceylon and Moluccas. The leaves of the plant are bitter, acrid and were being widely used traditionally for various purposes. The plant has been worked out very well and isolated several chemical constituents and had shown various biological properties. This review is an effort to compile all the information reported on its macroscopic, microscopic features, nutritional content, phytochemistry, pharmacology and therapeutic uses.

  18. Mosquitocidal and water purification properties of Cynodon dactylon, Aloe vera, Hemidesmus indicus and Coleus amboinicus leaf extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethanolic extracts of Cynodon dactylon, Aloe vera, Hemidesmus indicus and Coleus amboinicus were tested for toxicity to 3rd instar Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Aedes aegypti. Median lethal concentrations (LC50) were, respectively, 0.44%, 0.51%, 0.59% and 0.68%. Cynodon dactylon...

  19. Effects of shading on Vallisneria natans (Lour. H. Hara growth

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    Fox A.D.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Effects of surface shading were measured on above- and below-ground biomass and fruit production of Vallisneria natans (Lour. H. Hara plants grown from seed in replicated microcosm experiments, based on a control (no shading and four treatments (25%, 50%, 75% and 90% shading. Above- and below-ground biomass was significantly reduced at treatments above 50% shading and first pistillate and staminate florescence dates were significantly delayed above 75% and 50% shading, respectively. Ratios of mature to unripe fruits produced (both in number or dry weight did not differ between shading treatments, but dry weight fruit production was significantly reduced at 90% shading. We conclude that above 50% surface shading, V. natans plants suffer reductions in accumulated biomass and investment in sexual reproduction. We contend that recent expansions in the extent of the native floating water chestnut Trapa spp. at seasonally inundated wetlands in the Yangtze River floodplain could, by shading, have contributed to the reduction in annual biomass and seed production of V. natans, contributing to declines in distribution and abundance.

  20. Hydrothermal preparation of reduced graphene oxide-silver nanocomposite using Plectranthus amboinicus leaf extract and its electrochemical performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yuhong; Wang, Aiwu; Cai, Wen; Wang, Zhong; Peng, Feng; Liu, Zhong; Fu, Li

    2016-12-01

    Graphene based nanocomposites are receiving increasing attention in many fields such as material chemistry, environmental science and pharmaceutical science. In this study, a facial synthesis of a reduced graphene oxide-silver nanocomposite (RGO-Ag) was carried out from Plectranthus amboinicus leaf extract. The synthesized nanocomposite was characterized by using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, transmission electron microscope and UV-vis spectroscopy for structural confirmation. The reduction of graphene oxide and silver ions was achieved simultaneously due to the reducibility of the Plectranthus amboinicus leaf extract. We further investigated the electrochemical properties of the biosynthesized RGO-Ag nanocomposite. A nonenzymatic H2O2 electrochemical sensor was shown to be successfully fabricated by using biosynthesized RGO-Ag nanocomposite. Moreover, the fabricated electrochemical sensor also showed good selectivity.

  1. Phytotoxicity and Cytotoxicity of Essential Oil from Leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus, Carvacrol, and Thymol in Plant Bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Patrícia Fontes; Costa, Adilson Vidal; Alves, Thammyres de Assis; Galter, Iasmini Nicoli; Pinheiro, Carlos Alexandre; Pereira, Alexandre Fontes; Oliveira, Carlos Magno Ramos; Fontes, Milene Miranda Praça

    2015-10-21

    The essential oil of Plectranthus amboinicus and its chemotypes, carvacrol and thymol, were evaluated on the germination and root and aerial growth of Lactuca sativa and Sorghum bicolor and in acting on the cell cycle of meristematic root cells of L. sativa. The main component found in the oil by analysis in gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography flame ionization detection was carvacrol (88.61% in area). At a concentration of 0.120% (w v(-1)), the oil and its chemotypes retarded or inhibited the germination and decreased root and aerial growth in monocot and dicot species used in the bioassays. In addition, all substances caused changes in the cell cycle of the meristematic cells of L. sativa, with chromosomal alterations occurring from the 0.015% (w v(-1)) concentration. The essential oil of P. amboinicus, carvacrol, and thymol have potential for use as bioherbicides.

  2. Pharmacological evaluation of Musa seminifera Lour.fruit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sanjib Saha; Faroque Hossain; Md.Anisuzzman; Md.Khirul Islam

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:To study potential antioxidant,analgesic,antidiarrheal,and antibacterial activities of the ethanol extract of Musa seminifera Lour.fruit in different established in vivo and in vitro experimental models.METHODS:In vitro antioxidant activity was studied in 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging assay.Phenolic content was determined using Folin-Ciocalteu's reagent.Reducing ability was evaluated by ferric reducing power assay.Peripherally and centrally acting analgesic activity was studied in three different in vivo models,namely,acetic acid-induced writhing,hot-plate test,and tail-flick test in Swiss albino mice.In vivo antidiarrheal activity was evaluated in castor oil-and magnesium sulfate-induced diarrhea in mice.Gastrointestinal motility test was also carried out in mice.All studies in mice were undertaken at the doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight.Antibacterial activity was assessed by disk diffusion assay against some Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains.Acute toxicity test was conducted to assess the safe doses of the extract.RESULTS:The extract showed 50% inhibitory concentration value of 12.65 μg/mL in DPPH radicalscavenging assay.Phenolic content was found to be 589.83 mg gallic acid equivalent per 100 g of dried fruits extract.Reducing power was in a concentration-dependent manner,and strongly comparable with the standard ascorbic acid.The extract demonstrated significant inhibition of writhing in acetic acid-induced writhing test at both dose levels (P<0.01).The extract also raised pain threshold in both hot-plate and tail-flick test in a dose-dependent manner,and the results were statistically significant (P<0.01).The extract significantly (P<0.01) increased latent period,and decreased defecation in both castor oil-and magnesium sulfate-induced diarrhea.The extract also decreased gastrointestinal motility in mice.In disk diffusion assay,the extract showed potential antibacterial activity against all the

  3. Efek Anti Radang dan Toksisitas Akut Ekstrak Daun Jintan (Plectranthus amboinicus pada Tikus yang Diinduksi Arthritis

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    Lailatul Muniroh

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Tanaman Jintan (Plectranthus amboinicus dikenal sebagai tanaman bangun-bangun, dikenal sebagai salah satu tanaman berkhasiat obat bagi masyarakat Indonesia. Penelitian ini bertujuan menganalisis aktivitas ekstrak daun jintan dan mengetahui efek toksisitas akut pada tikus putih yang diinduksi arthritis. Ekstrak dari daun jintan segar disarikan dengan metode maserasi ethanol 96%, dan diencerkan dengan larutan CMC-Na. Tikus putih Wistar jantan dan betina, umur 2-3 bulan dibagi 5 kelompok: Kontrol, induksi arthritis (P1, induksi artritis dan ekstrak daun jintan dosis 19 g/kgBB (P2, induksi artritis dan ekstrak daun jintan dosis 38 g/kgBB (P3 dan kelompok obat allopurinol 2,5 mg/kgBB (P4. Seluruh kelompok tikus diinduksi arthritis menggunakan uric acid2% dan oxonic acid1,5% per oralselama 15 hari berturut-turut. Setelah terbentuk lesi arthritis, diberikan ekstrak daun jintan secara intra peritoneal selama 7 hari. Sampel serum darah diambil sebelum dan sesudah perlakuan untuk mengukur konsentrasi monosodium urea (MSU. Uji toksisitas akut menggunakan 4 kelompok tikus putih Wistar jantan dan betina yang diberi ekstrak daun jintan mulai dosis 1900 mg/kg BB, 3800 mg/kgBB dan 5000 mg/kgBB.Hasil penelitian menunjukkan ekstrak daun jintan secara kualitatif mempunyai kandungan senyawa Flavonoid, Saponin, Polifenol, Terpen dan Antrakuinon. Uji aktivitas ekstrak daun jintan memperlihatkan penurunan konsentrasi MSU (p 0,05 sebelum dan sesudah perlakuan. Uji toksisitas akut ekstrak daun jintan tidak menimbulkan kematian 50% (LD50 dan tidak menimbulkan gejala toksik, gangguan syarafi dan penurunan aktivitas pada semua kelompok perlakuan sehingga ekstrak daun jintan dapat digolongkan sebagai bahan yang “praktis tidak toksik”. Abstract Anti Inflammation Effects and Acute Toxicity of Jintan Leaves (Plectranthus amboinicus Extract on Arthritis Induced Rats.Jintan plant (Plectranthus amboinicus is known as bangun-bangun plant and known as one of medicinal

  4. SNP Typing for Germplasm Identification of Amomum villosum Lour. Based on DNA Barcoding Markers

    OpenAIRE

    Qionglin Huang; Zhonggang Duan; Jinfen Yang; Xinye Ma; Ruoting Zhan; Hui Xu; Weiwen Chen

    2014-01-01

    Amomum villosum Lour., produced from Yangchun, Guangdong Province, China, is a Daodi medicinal material of Amomi Fructus in traditional Chinese medicine. This herb germplasm should be accurately identified and collected to ensure its quality and safety in medication. In the present study, single nucleotide polymorphism typing method was evaluated on the basis of DNA barcoding markers to identify the germplasm of Amomi Fructus. Genomic DNA was extracted from the leaves of 29 landraces represen...

  5. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Plectranthus amboinicus leaf extract and its antimicrobial activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajitha, B.; Ashok Kumar Reddy, Y.; Sreedhara Reddy, P.

    2014-07-01

    This study reports the simple green synthesis method for the preparation of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) using Plectranthus amboinicus leaf extract. The pathway of nanoparticles formation is by means of reduction of AgNO3 by leaf extract, which acts as both reducing and capping agents. Synthesized Ag NPs were subjected to different characterizations for studying the structural, chemical, morphological, optical and antimicrobial properties. The bright circular fringes in SAED pattern and diffraction peaks in XRD profile reveals high crystalline nature of biosynthesized Ag NPs. Morphological studies shows the formation of nearly spherical nanoparticles. FTIR spectrum confirms the existence of various functional groups of biomolecules capping the nanoparticles. UV-visible spectrum displays single SPR band at 428 nm indicating the absence of anisotropic particles. The synthesized Ag NPs exhibited better antimicrobial property towards gram negative Escherichia coli and towards tested Penicillium spp. than other tested microorganisms using disc diffusion method. Finally it has proven that the synthesized bio-inspired Ag NPs have potent antimicrobial effect.

  6. Evaluation of nephroprotective, diuretic, and antioxidant activities of plectranthus amboinicus on acetaminophen-induced nephrotoxic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palani, S; Raja, S; Naresh, R; Kumar, B Senthil

    2010-05-01

    Plectranthus amboinicus (PA), commonly known as country borage, is a folkoric medicinal plant. Juice from its leaves is commonly used for illnesses including liver and renal conditions in the Asian sub-continent. Acetaminophen (APAP), used as an analgesic, produces liver and kidney necrosis in mammals at high doses. The aim of this study was to investigate the nephroprotective, diuretic, and antioxidant activities of the ethanol extract of PA at two doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg bw on APAP-induced toxicity in rats. This study shows that APAP significantly increases the levels of serum urea (UR), hemoglobin (Hb), total leukocyte count, creatinine, raised body weight, and reduced levels of neutrophils, granulocytes, uric acid, and platelet concentration. Ethanol extract of PA rescued these phenotypes by increasing anti-oxidative responses as assessed by biochemistry and histopathology. In addition, the ethanol extract of PA at two doses showed a significant diuretic activity by increased levels of total urine output and urinary elerolytes such as sodium and potassium. In conclusion, these data suggest that the ethanol extract of PA possess nephroprotective and antioxidant effects against APAP-induced nephrotoxicity and strong diuretics effect in rats.

  7. Chemical Composition and Nutraceutical Potential of Indian Borage (Plectranthus amboinicus Stem Extract

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    Praveena Bhatt

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The stem of Indian borage (Plectranthus amboinicus was found to be an antioxidant rich fraction as evaluated by in vitro models such as DPPH free radical scavenging, reducing power assay, superoxide anion radical scavenging, and total antioxidant capacity. The extract also exhibited antiplatelet aggregation ability, antibacterial activity, and antiproliferative effect against cancer cell lines: Caco-2, HCT-15, and MCF-7. Phytochemical evaluation of the extract revealed the occurrence of total phenolics (49.91 mg GAE/g extract, total flavonoids (26.6 mg RE/g extract, and condensed tannins (0.7 mg TAE/g extract. Among the major phenolics, rosmarinic acid (6.160 mg/g extract was predominant, followed by caffeic acid (0.770 mg/g extract, rutin (0.324 mg/g extract, gallic acid (0.260 mg/g extract, quercetin (0.15 mg/g extract, and p-coumaric acid (0.104 mg/g extract. The appreciable biological activity and presence of biomolecules in the methanolic extract of stem indicate its potential application as functional food ingredients and nutraceuticals.

  8. Rhizofiltration of lead using an aromatic medicinal plant Plectranthus amboinicus cultured in a hydroponic nutrient film technique (NFT) system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignatius, A; Arunbabu, V; Neethu, J; Ramasamy, E V

    2014-11-01

    Heavy metal contamination of water bodies and groundwater is a major concern of the modern world. Rhizofiltration--the use of plant root system to remove/extract pollutants from wastewater--has proven advantages over conventional methods of treatment. However, commercialization of this in situ remediation technology requires a better understanding of plant-metal interactions especially on the ability of different plant species to accumulate metals at different parts of the plant system which is critical for the successful remediation of contaminated medium. Many aquatic and terrestrial plants have been reported to accumulate heavy metals when grown hydroponically. Therefore, a batch experiment with different concentrations of lead and a nutrient film technique (NFT) experiment with recycling of wastewater were employed in this study in order to investigate the rhizofiltration of lead-containing wastewater using Plectranthus amboinicus, an aromatic medicinal plant. Results show that P. amboinicus is tolerant to a wide range of lead concentrations and nutrient deficiency. The plant accumulates considerable amount of lead, particularly in the roots, and translocation to the stem and leaf was limited, indicating that the use of leaves/above-ground parts of the plant for medicinal purposes is not hindered by its ability to remove lead from the soil or water. The study also suggests that the plant can be considered for the clean-up of lead-contaminated wastewater in combination with safe biomass disposal alternatives.

  9. Scanning electron microscopy of the leaf epidermis of Merostachys Spreng. (Poaceae: Bambusoideae Microscopia eletrônica de varredura da epiderme foliar de Merostachys Spreng. (Poaceae: Bambusoideae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doria Maria Saiter Gomes

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This study presents data on leaf micromorphology of 13 species of Merostachys Spreng. (Poaceae: Bambusoideae, a neotropical genus with numerous endemic species. Greatest species richness is found in Central and Southern Brazil, with 41 of the 46 species described. Species were collected in the field at the localities: Itatiaia National Park and Tijuca National Park, Rio de Janeiro State; Fontes do Ipiranga State Park, São Paulo state; Santa Teresa, Espírito Santo State and Rio Doce State Park, Minas Gerais State. Dried plant material came from the herbarium at the São Paulo Botany Institute. The presence of prickles, silica bodies and macro hairs may be especially useful in delimiting species.São apresentados dados relativos à micromorfologia foliar de 13 espécies de Merostachys Spreng. (Poaceae:Bambusoideae, um gênero neotropical, com numerosas espécies endêmicas, que tem sua maior diversidade nas regiões central e sul do Brasil, onde ocorrem 41 das 46 espécies descritas. O material coletado foi obtido nas seguintes localidades: Parque Nacional do Itatiaia e Parque Nacional da Tijuca (RJ; Parque Estadual das Fontes do Ipiranga (SP; Propriedade dos Irmãos Martinelli, Vargem Alta, Santa Teresa (ES e Parque Estadual do Rio Doce (MG. As espécies herborizadas são provenientes do herbário do Instituto de Botânica de São Paulo (SP. Atenção especial é dada à presença de cerdas, corpúsculos silicosos e macropêlos, características que podem ser úteis na delimitação das espécies.

  10. Antidiarrhoeal activity of carbazole alkaloids from Murraya koenigii Spreng (Rutaceae) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Suvra; Nayak, Anupam; Kar, Manoj; Banerjee, Samir K; Das, Ashes; Upadhyay, S N; Singh, R K; Banerji, Avijit; Banerji, Julie

    2010-01-01

    The bioassay guided fractionation of the n-hexane extract of the seeds of Murraya koenigii Spreng (Rutaceae) resulted in the isolation of three bioactive carbazole alkaloids, kurryam (I), koenimbine (II) and koenine (III). The structures of the compounds were confirmed from their (1)H-, (13)C-, and 2D-NMR spectral data. Of the three compounds (I) and (II) exhibited significant inhibitory activity against castor oil-induced diarrhoea and PGE(2)-induced enteropooling in rats. The compounds also produced a significant reduction in gastrointestinal motility in the charcoal meal test in Wistar rats.

  11. Enrichment and separation of chlorogenic acid from the extract of Eupatorium adenophorum Spreng by macroporous resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Boyan; Dong, Beitao; Yuan, Xiaofan; Kuang, Qirong; Zhao, Qingsheng; Yang, Mei; Liu, Jie; Zhao, Bing

    2016-01-01

    A simple and efficient chromatographic method for separation of chlorogenic acid from Eupatorium adenophorum Spreng extract was developed. The adsorption properties of nine macroporous resins were evaluated. NKA-II resin showed much better adsorption/desorption properties. The adsorption of chlorogenic acid on NKA-II resin at 25°C was well fitted to Langmuir isotherm model and pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The dynamic adsorption and desorption experiments were carried out on columns packed with NKA-II resin to optimize the separation process. The content of chlorogenic acid in the product increased to 22.17%, with a recovery yield of 82.41%.

  12. Chemical composition of volatile oils from leaves of Nectandra megapotamica Spreng. (Lauraceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romoff, Paulete; Ferreira, Marcelo J.P., E-mail: romoff@mackenzie.b [Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias e Humanidades; Padilla, Ricardo; Toyama, Daniela O.; Favero, Oriana A. [Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Biologicas e da Saude; Lago, Joao Henrique G. [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), Diadema, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Exatas e da Terra

    2010-07-01

    The volatile oils from Nectandra megapotamica Spreng. leaves, collected in February and August of 2007 and at 7:00 and 12:00 h (samples A - D), were extracted by hydrodistillation and the chemical composition was analyzed by GC-FID and GC/MS. A total of nineteen compounds were identified with predominance of oxygenated sesquiterpenes, among them, a-bisabolol, was the main constituent (62.3-69.4 %). After chromatographic separation procedures, this compound was purified from crude oil and its structure was confirmed by analysis of NMR data. This paper describes for the first time the composition of the leaves volatile oil from N. megapotamica. (author)

  13. Anatomia do xilema secundário de Mimosa incana (Spreng. Benth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Newton Cardoso Marchiori

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 São descritos os caracteres anatômicos do xilema secundário de Mimosa incana (Spreng. Benth. e fornecidas 29 medições de sua estrutura. A descrição é ilustrada com fotomicrografias. A estrutura anatômica indica um alto grau de especialização filogenética e reúne diversos caracteres indicativos da família Leguminosae, sub-família Mimosoideae e série Lepidotae Benth. Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4

  14. SNP typing for germplasm identification of Amomum villosum Lour. Based on DNA barcoding markers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qionglin Huang

    Full Text Available Amomum villosum Lour., produced from Yangchun, Guangdong Province, China, is a Daodi medicinal material of Amomi Fructus in traditional Chinese medicine. This herb germplasm should be accurately identified and collected to ensure its quality and safety in medication. In the present study, single nucleotide polymorphism typing method was evaluated on the basis of DNA barcoding markers to identify the germplasm of Amomi Fructus. Genomic DNA was extracted from the leaves of 29 landraces representing three Amomum species (A. villosum Lour., A. xanthioides Wall. ex Baker and A. longiligulare T. L. Wu by using the CTAB method. Six barcoding markers (ITS, ITS2, LSU D1-D3, matK, rbcL and trnH-psbA were PCR amplified and sequenced; SNP typing and phylogenetic analysis were performed to differentiate the landraces. Results showed that high-quality bidirectional sequences were acquired for five candidate regions (ITS, ITS2, LSU D1-D3, matK, and rbcL except trnH-psbA. Three ribosomal regions, namely, ITS, ITS2, and LSU D1-D3, contained more SNP genotypes (STs than the plastid genes rbcL and matK. In the 29 specimens, 19 STs were detected from the combination of four regions (ITS, LSU D1-D3, rbcL, and matK. Phylogenetic analysis results further revealed two clades. Minimum-spanning tree demonstrated the existence of two main groups: group I was consisting of 9 STs (ST1-8 and ST11 of A. villosum Lour., and group II was composed of 3 STs (ST16-18 of A. longiligulare T.L. Wu. Our results suggested that ITS and LSU D1-D3 should be incorporated with the core barcodes rbcL and matK. The four combined regions could be used as a multiregional DNA barcode to precisely differentiate the Amomi Fructus landraces in different producing areas.

  15. (210)Po and (210)Pb in medicinal plants in the region of Karnataka, Southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrashekara, K; Somashekarappa, H M

    2016-08-01

    The activity concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides (210)Po and (210)Pb were estimated in some selected medicinal plants and soil samples of coastal Karnataka in India. The mean activity concentrations of (210)Po and (210)Pb varied in the range of 4.7-42.9 Bq kg(-1) (dry weight) and 36.1-124 Bq kg(-1) (dry weight) in the soil samples, and 3.3-63.7 Bq kg(-1) (dry weight) and 12.0-406 Bq kg(-1) (dry weight), in the medicinal plant samples, respectively. The plants, Ocimum sanctum L. and Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng had significantly higher activity concentrations of (210)Po and (210)Pb than other species sampled. In spite of disequilibrium between them, these two radionuclides were well correlated in both soil and medicinal plants.

  16. Comparação entre os metais presentes em Croton floribundus Spreng. e Baccharis dracunculifolia DC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia A.Telles Macari

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Metals are very important in the vegetal fisiology, if so, it's necessary their quantification. In the soil the plants are acumulatives and detectors of metals. The medicinal plants Croton floribundus Spreng. and Baccharis dracunculifolia DC. were collected in the Floresta Nacional de Ipanema (FLONA - Iperó - SP. The analysis method used the Atomic Absorption Spectrometry.

  17. Foliar fertilization as an alternative to hand thinning fruit in chlorate treated Dimocarpus longan Lour. trees in Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longan, Dimocarpus longan Lour, is a member of the Sapindaceae, a family that also includes lychee, and rambutan. The discovery of potassium chlorate (KClO3) induced flowering solved the problem of alternate bearing and enabled the grower to produce off-season longan. Chlorate treatments commonly i...

  18. Kuidas maikrahv uued rõivad sai. Leopold von Pezoldi "Maikrahvi sissesõit Tallinna" ja Theodor Albert Sprengeli "Reformatsiooni algus Tallinnas" avalik konserveerimine = How the May King got his new clother. Public conservation of Leopold von Pezol

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Aas, Kristina, 1988-

    2015-01-01

    Ülevaade baltisaksa kunstnike Leopold von Pezoldi ja Theodor Albert Sprengeli maalidest Suurgildi hoones, nende varasematest restaureerimistest, avalikust konserveerimisest ja tehnilistest uuringutest.

  19. Adubação mineral do angico-amarelo (Peltophorum dubium (Spreng. Taub. Mineral fertilization of Peltophorum dubium (Spreng. Taub.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Venturin

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de se estudar as exigências nutricionais no desenvolvimento inicial de mudas de Peltophorum dubium (Spreng. Taub., foi realizado um experimento em casa de vegetação. Usou-se como substrato um latossolo vermelho-amarelo com baixa disponibilidade de nutrientes, utilizando-se 10 tratamentos, sob a técnica do elemento faltante. Foram aplicados um tratamento completo (com N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, B e Zn, outros com omissão de um nutriente por vez (-N, -P, -K, -Ca, -Mg, -S, -B e -Zn e uma testemunha (solo natural. Foram avaliadas as seguintes características: altura, diâmetro, peso de matéria seca da parte aérea e das raízes, e teor de nutrientes na matéria seca da parte aérea. Concluiu-se que as plantas do angico-amarelo apresentam elevada exigência nutricional; os nutrientes P, N, S e o Ca seguidos pelo Mg, K e pelo B são limitantes ao crescimento das plantas; as omissões de K, Ca e de Mg afetam a absorção de S pelas plantas.A greenhouse experiment was carried out with seedlings of the tropical tree Peltophorum dubium (Spreng. Taub. in order to study its nutritional requirements. As substrate an oxisol with low nutrient availability was used and distributed in 10 treatments: a complete one (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, B and Zn, the others lacking one element in each treatment (-N, -P, -K, -Ca, -Mg, -S, -B and -Zn and a control (natural soil. The following characteristcs were assessed: plant height and diameter growth, dry matter production and levels of nutrient into dry matter of shoots. It was concluded that seedlings are affected by the omission of all nutrients in the following order: P > N > S > Ca > Mg > K > B. The omission of K, Ca and Mg affects S absorption by plants.

  20. SNP Typing for Germplasm Identification of Amomum villosum Lour. Based on DNA Barcoding Markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jinfen; Ma, Xinye; Zhan, Ruoting; Xu, Hui; Chen, Weiwen

    2014-01-01

    Amomum villosum Lour., produced from Yangchun, Guangdong Province, China, is a Daodi medicinal material of Amomi Fructus in traditional Chinese medicine. This herb germplasm should be accurately identified and collected to ensure its quality and safety in medication. In the present study, single nucleotide polymorphism typing method was evaluated on the basis of DNA barcoding markers to identify the germplasm of Amomi Fructus. Genomic DNA was extracted from the leaves of 29 landraces representing three Amomum species (A. villosum Lour., A. xanthioides Wall. ex Baker and A. longiligulare T. L. Wu) by using the CTAB method. Six barcoding markers (ITS, ITS2, LSU D1–D3, matK, rbcL and trnH-psbA) were PCR amplified and sequenced; SNP typing and phylogenetic analysis were performed to differentiate the landraces. Results showed that high-quality bidirectional sequences were acquired for five candidate regions (ITS, ITS2, LSU D1–D3, matK, and rbcL) except trnH-psbA. Three ribosomal regions, namely, ITS, ITS2, and LSU D1–D3, contained more SNP genotypes (STs) than the plastid genes rbcL and matK. In the 29 specimens, 19 STs were detected from the combination of four regions (ITS, LSU D1–D3, rbcL, and matK). Phylogenetic analysis results further revealed two clades. Minimum-spanning tree demonstrated the existence of two main groups: group I was consisting of 9 STs (ST1–8 and ST11) of A. villosum Lour., and group II was composed of 3 STs (ST16–18) of A. longiligulare T.L. Wu. Our results suggested that ITS and LSU D1–D3 should be incorporated with the core barcodes rbcL and matK. The four combined regions could be used as a multiregional DNA barcode to precisely differentiate the Amomi Fructus landraces in different producing areas. PMID:25531885

  1. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil from Aeolanthus suaveolens Mart. ex Spreng

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euclésio Simionatto

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The essential oils from leaves (sample A and flowers (sample B of Aeolanthus suaveolens Mart. ex Spreng were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC, GC-MS, and chiral phase gas chromatography (CPGC. Six compounds have been identified from the essential oils, representing ca 94.3 and 93% of the oils corresponding to samples A and B, respectively. The major constituents of samples A and B essential oils were respectively, linalool (34.2%/34.9%, (--massoialactone (25.9%/17.0% and (E-beta-farnesene (25.4%/29.1%. The enantiomeric distribution of the monoterpene linalool was established by analysis on heptakis- (6-O-methyl-2,3-di-O-pentyl-beta-cyclodextrin capillary column. The antimicrobial activity of the essential oil from leaves and isolated compounds was also evaluated.

  2. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil from Aeolanthus suaveolens Mart. ex Spreng

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simionatto, Euclesio [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS), Campo Grande, MS (Brazil). Dept. de Hidraulica e Transportes]. E-mail: eusimionatto@yahoo.com.br; Porto, Carla; Stueker, Caroline Z.; Dalcol, Ionara I.; Silva, Ubiratan F. da [Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM), RS (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2007-07-01

    The essential oils from leaves (sample A) and flowers (sample B) of Aeolanthus suaveolens Mart. ex Spreng were obtained by hydro distillation and analyzed by GC, GC-MS, and chiral phase gas chromatography (CPGC). Six compounds have been identified from the essential oils, representing ca 94.3 and 93% of the oils corresponding to samples A and B, respectively. The major constituents of samples A and B essential oils were respectively, linalool (34.2%/34.9%), (-)-massoialactone (25.9%/17.0%) and (E)-beta-farnesene (25.4%/29.1%). The enantiomeric distribution of the monoterpene linalool was established by analysis on heptakis-(6-O-methyl-2,3-di-O-pentyl)-beta-cyclodextrin capillary column. The antimicrobial activity of the essential oil from leaves and isolated compounds was also evaluated. (author)

  3. Phytochemical and in vitro biological investigations of methanolic extracts of Enhydra fluctuans Lour

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sourov Kuri; Md Mustahsan Billah; S M Masud Rana; Zannatul Naim; Md Mahmodul Islam; Md Hasanuzzaman; Md Ramjan Ali; Rana Banik

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To study the phytochemical and biological properties (antioxidant, anthelmintic and thrombolytic) of methanolic extracts of Enhydra fluctuans Lour., a plant belonging to the Asteraceae family. Methods:The phytochemical evaluation was carried out by qualitative analysis. In vitro antioxidant activity of extract was studied using free radical scavenging assay, ability of reduction, total phenol and total flavonoid contents determination assays. The anthelmintic activity was determined using paralysis and death time of Pheretima posthuma (earthworm) and thrombolytic activity by clot disruption assay. Results:The phytochemical evaluation showed significant presence of flavonoids, triterpenes,carbohydrate, reducing sugars, saponins, phenols, diterpenes, protein and tannin. The antioxidant activity was found significant [IC50=(135.20±0.56) µg/mL] as compared to ascorbic acid [(130.00±0.76) µg/mL]. The reducing power was increased with concentration. Total phenol and total flavonoid contents were (153.08±0.38) mg/mL and (172.04±0.56) mg/mL respectively. The paralysis and death time of earthworms for different concentrations of extract were determined and compared with albendazole. The results showed that 10 mg/mL of the crude extract had similar effect with albendazole. Additionally, the crude extract showed a concentration depended relationship with its anthelmintic property. The clot lysis activity of crude extract was compared to the standard streptokinase’s clot lysis (40.13%) activity and found significant (31%). Conclusions: The study proves that the crude methanolic extract of Enhydra fluctuans Lour. has significant antioxidant, anthelmintic and thrombolytic activity containing wide range of phytochemicals.

  4. Extract of Allium tuberosum Rottler ex Spreng Promoted the Hair Growth through Regulating the Expression of IGF-1

    OpenAIRE

    Ki Moon Park; Dong Woo Kim; Seung Ho Lee

    2015-01-01

    Allium tuberosum Rottler ex Spreng (ATRES) has been used as a traditional medicine for the treatment of abdominal pain, diarrhea, and asthma. In this study, we investigated the hair growth promoting activities of ATRES on telogenic C57BL6/N mice. Hair growth was significantly increased in the dorsal skin of ethanol extract of ATRES treated mouse group compared with the control mouse group. To enrich the hair promoting activity, an ethanol-insoluble fraction was further extracted in sequence w...

  5. Analysis of total proteins in pollen of Humulus scandens Lour in Wuhan Region of China by two-dimensional electrophoresis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Dongdong; HE Shaoheng

    2007-01-01

    Total proteins in the pollen of Humulus scandens Lour,one of the most popular aeroallergens in China,were analyzed by two-dimensional electrophoresis in the current study.The proteins were extracted by Trichloracetic acid (TCA) method,and then separated by isoelectric focusing as the first dimension and SDS-PAGE as the second dimension.The spots of proteins were visualized by staining with Coomassie Brilliant Blue.After analysis with software (ImageMaster 2D),122 different proteins were detected;isoelectric point (pI),Molecular weight (MW) and relativevolume of each protein in the pollen were also discovered.This is the first high-resolution,two-dimensional protein map of the pollen ofHumulus scandens Lour in China.Our finding has built a solid foundation for identification,characterization,gene cloning and standardization of allergenic proteins in the pollen ofHumulus scandens Lour for further studies.

  6. Analysis of Volatile Components of Adenosma indianum (Lour. Merr. by Steam Distillation and Headspace Solid-Phase Microextraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Zeng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil of Adenosma indianum (Lour. Merr. plays an important role in its antibacterial and antiphlogistic activities. In this work, the volatile components were extracted by steam distillation (SD and headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME and analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. A total of 49 volatile components were identified by GC-MS, and the major volatile components were α-limonene (20.59–35.07%, fenchone (15.79–31.81%, α-caryophyllene (6.98–10.32%, β-caryophyllene (6.98–10.19%, and piperitenone oxide (1.96–11.63%. The comparison of the volatile components from A. indianum (Lour. Merr. grown in two regions of China was reported. Also, the comparison of the volatile components by SD and HS-SPME was discussed. The results showed that the major volatile components of A. indianum (Lour. Merr. from two regions of China were similar but varied with different extraction methods. These results were indicative of the suitability of HS-SPME method for simple, rapid, and solvent-free analysis of the volatile components of the medicinal plants.

  7. Assessing the Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oils from Brazilian Plants—Eremanthus erythropappus (Asteraceae, Plectrantuns barbatus, and P. amboinicus (Lamiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nara O. dos Santos

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oils obtained from three Brazilian plant species—leaves and branches of Eremanthus erythropappus (Asteraceae, leaves of Plectranthus barbatus, and leaves of P. amboinicus (Lamiaceae—were determined. Analysis by GC/MS and determination of Kovats indexes both indicated δ-elemene (leaves—42.61% and branches—23.41% as well as (−-α-bisabolol (leaves—24.80% and stem bark—66.16% as major constituents of E. erythropappus essential oils. The main components of leaves of P. barbatus were identified as (Z-caryophyllene (17.98%, germacrene D (17.35%, and viridiflorol (14.13%; whereas those of leaves of P. amboinicus were characterized as p-cymene (12.01%, γ-terpinene (14.74%, carvacrol (37.70%, and (Z-caryophyllene (14.07%. The antimicrobial activity against yeasts and bacteria was assessed in broth microdilution assays to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC necessary to inhibit microbial growth. In addition, the crude oil of branches of E. erythropappus was subjected to chromatographic separation procedures to afford purified (−-α-bisabolol. This compound displayed biological activity against pathogenic yeasts, thus suggesting that the antimicrobial effect observed with crude oils of E. erythropappus leaves and branches may be related to the occurrence of (−-α-bisabolol as their main component. Our results showed that crude oils of Brazilian plants, specifically E. erythropappus, P. barbatus, and P. amboinicus and its components, could be used as a tool for the developing novel and more efficacious antimicrobial agents.

  8. Assessing the Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oils from Brazilian Plants-Eremanthus erythropappus (Asteraceae), Plectrantuns barbatus, and P. amboinicus (Lamiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Nara O Dos; Mariane, Bruna; Lago, João Henrique G; Sartorelli, Patricia; Rosa, Welton; Soares, Marisi G; da Silva, Adalberto M; Lorenzi, Harri; Vallim, Marcelo A; Pascon, Renata C

    2015-05-11

    The chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oils obtained from three Brazilian plant species-leaves and branches of Eremanthus erythropappus (Asteraceae), leaves of Plectranthus barbatus, and leaves of P. amboinicus (Lamiaceae)-were determined. Analysis by GC/MS and determination of Kovats indexes both indicated δ-elemene (leaves-42.61% and branches-23.41%) as well as (-)-α-bisabolol (leaves-24.80% and stem bark-66.16%) as major constituents of E. erythropappus essential oils. The main components of leaves of P. barbatus were identified as (Z)-caryophyllene (17.98%), germacrene D (17.35%), and viridiflorol (14.13%); whereas those of leaves of P. amboinicus were characterized as p-cymene (12.01%), γ-terpinene (14.74%), carvacrol (37.70%), and (Z)-caryophyllene (14.07%). The antimicrobial activity against yeasts and bacteria was assessed in broth microdilution assays to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) necessary to inhibit microbial growth. In addition, the crude oil of branches of E. erythropappus was subjected to chromatographic separation procedures to afford purified (-)-α-bisabolol. This compound displayed biological activity against pathogenic yeasts, thus suggesting that the antimicrobial effect observed with crude oils of E. erythropappus leaves and branches may be related to the occurrence of (-)-α-bisabolol as their main component. Our results showed that crude oils of Brazilian plants, specifically E. erythropappus, P. barbatus, and P. amboinicus and its components, could be used as a tool for the developing novel and more efficacious antimicrobial agents.

  9. Carotenoids concentration of Gac (Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng.) fruit oil using cross-flow filtration technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Huỳnh Cang; Truong, Vinh; Debaste, Frédéric

    2014-11-01

    Gac (Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng.) fruit, a traditional fruit in Vietnam and other countries of eastern Asia, contains an oil rich in carotenoids, especially lycopene and β-carotene. Carotenoids in gac fruit oil were concentrated using cross-flow filtration. In total recycle mode, effect of membrane pore size, temperature, and transmembrane pressure (TMP) on permeate flux and on retention coefficients has been exploited. Resistance of membrane, polarization concentration, and fouling were also analyzed. Optimum conditions for a high permeate flux and a good carotenoids retention are 5 nm, 2 bars, and 40 °C of membrane pore size, TMP, and temperature, respectively. In batch mode, retentate was analyzed through index of acid, phospholipids, total carotenoids content (TCC), total antioxidant activity, total soluble solids, total solid content, color measurement, and viscosity. TCC in retentate is higher 8.6 times than that in feeding oil. Lipophilic antioxidant activities increase 6.8 times, while hydrophilic antioxidant activities reduce 40%. The major part of total resistance is due to polarization (55%) while fouling and intrinsic membrane contribute about 30% and 24%, respectively.

  10. Efeitos do sombreamento na anatomia foliar de Gallesia integrifolia (Spreng Harms e Schinnus terebinthifolius Raddi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Santos

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se estudo com o objetivo de analisar as alterações na anatomia foliar de Gallesia integrifolia (Spreng Harms e Schinnus terebinthifolius Raddi quando cultivadas em ambientes de sombra moderada ou densa, simulando as condições naturais encontradas em sistemas agroflorestais tradicionais do sul da Bahia, Brasil. Plantas das duas espécies, com aproximadamente um ano de idade, foram cultivadas em casa de vegetação sob quatro níveis de sombreamento (25%, 17%, 10% e 5%. Estudos anatômicos do limbo foliar foram realizados a partir de material incluído em parafina e seccionado em micrótomo rotativo. Os diferentes níveis de sombreamento ocasionaram alterações na estrutura do mesofilo de ambas as espécies, com diferenças significativas na espessura do parênquima paliçádico, limbo foliar, e densidade estomática. Nas condições em que o experimento foi realizado os resultados obtidos indicaram que G. integrifolia apresenta maior capacidade de aclimatação a ambientes de sombra moderada e densa do que S. terebinthifolius, sendo mais indicada para o cultivo em sistemas agroflorestais pré-estabelecidos.

  11. VOLUME INCREMENT OF Nectandra megapotamica (Spreng. MEZ ON A MIXED RAIN FOREST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Henrique da Silva Souza

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work, it is studied the growth of Nectandra megapotamica (Spreng. Mez species through a sampler compounded by eleven dominant trees selected from a rainforest in Nova Prata, Rio Grande do Sul. The mathematical model which better represents the growth trend in percentage volume was described as iv%=(b0+b1.ln d2, fitting individually per tree, being possible to describe the variations of slope (b1 and intercept (b0 coefficients between trees with the relation height – diameter (h/d, diameter increment measured on the last 5 cm on bore increment (id5 sampled on diameter breast height (d, exposition (EXPOS, corrected Basal Area Large (BALcor and crown length exposed to sunlight (Lc, considering the following expressions: b1= 0,41739 + 4,16179.id5 - 6,29332.h/d + 0,37823.EXPOS - 0,11519Ir + 5,80419.BALcor – 0,06858.Lc, with determination coefficient equal to 0,9979 and standard error in percentage of the mean of –1,73%, and b0= 2,62466 –13,37024.id5 + 22,08329.h/d – 1,33161.EXPOS + 0,34689.Ir –23,88899.BALcor + 0,25692.L, with determination coefficient fitting on 0,9907 and standard error in percentage of the mean of 2,71%.

  12. A taxonomic study on the diversity of Indian Knema Lour. (Myristicaceae

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    Dipanwita Banik

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A taxonomic study on the diversity of the genus Knema Lour. belonging to the family Myristicaceae R. Br. in India revealed the distribution of the ten taxa under four series in North East and Peninsular India and Andaman and Nicobar Islands including two endemic species. Knema ser. Obovoideae W.J. de Wilde is synonymised here under ser. Knema. Series Knema is represented by two species and ser. Glaucae W.J. de Wilde by one species in North East India, while ser. Laurinae W.J. de Wilde is represented by three species and two subspecies in North East India and Andaman and Nicobar Island, and ser. Glomeratae W.J. de Wilde by 2 species in South and NE India. This is the first taxonomic study on the genus in India. All the taxa are cited with updated nomenclature, diagnostic characters, distribution, phonological data, vernacular names, line drawings, photo plates and specimens examined in various herbaria. Taxonomic keys are provided for easy identification of these taxa.

  13. The response of epiphytic bacteria on Vallisneria natans (Lour.) Hara (Hydrocharitaceae) to increasing nutrient loadings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Xianlei; Yao, Ling; Gao, Guang; Xie, Yinfeng; Zhang, Yingying; Tang, Xiangming

    2016-06-01

    To investigate the effects of water column nutrient loading on epiphytic bacteria, we determined the abundance and community composition of epiphytic bacteria on the submerged macrophyte Vallisneria natans (Lour.) Hara during the growth season (June-October) under four different nutrient concentrations (nitrogen (N)-phosphorus (P) in mg L(-1) : 0.5-0.05, 1.0-0.1, 5.0-0.5, 10.0-1.0; hereafter NP-1, NP-2, NP-3, NP-4, respectively), using epifluorescence microscopy method and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis, respectively. Relative to low nutrient conditions (NP-1), there was no significant effect on the epiphytic bacterial community, and even a decrease in the number of epiphytic bacteria, which linked to the well growth status of host macrophytes at moderate nutrient conditions (NP-2). However, further nutrient enrichment induced significant increase in the abundance of epiphytic bacteria, and marked changes in the community structures of epiphytic bacteria. Furthermore, at high nutrient conditions, epiphytic bacterial communities varied widely temporally, and were not stable compared with those at the lower nutrient conditions. These results indicated that the effects of nutrient enrichment on epiphytic bacteria were nonlinear and dependent on the nutrient concentrations in the water.

  14. Caracterización del proceso de fermentación del grano de Copoazú (Theobroma grandiflorum Willd. ex Spreng) / Characterization of fermentation process of Copoazú (Theobroma grandiflorum Willd. ex Spreng) Seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Castro Robayo, Zulma Rocío

    2010-01-01

    El copoazú (Theobroma grandiflorum Willd. ex Spreng) es una planta amazónica cuya la semilla se utiliza para obtener cupulate. La fermentación se convierte en el principal proceso de beneficio para la semilla, ya que contribuye a generar los precursores del aroma y sabor típicos del grano de la misma forma que sucede con el cacao. El presente trabajo tuvo como objetivo la caracterización de tres tipos de fermentación de semillas de copoazú: en el primero (FC1) se remociones a las 48, 96 y 120...

  15. Chemical composition of the leaf essential oils of Murraya koenigii (L.) Spreng and Murraya paniculata (L.) Jack

    OpenAIRE

    Jasim Uddin Chowdhury; Mohammad Nazrul Islam Bhuiyan; Mohammed Yusuf

    2008-01-01

    The chemical composition of the leaf oils of Murraya koenigii (L.) Spreng and M. paniculata (L.) Jack from Bangladesh was studied by gas chromatography mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). M. koenigii oil contained 39 compounds of which the major is 3-carene (54.2%) followed by caryophyllene (9.5%). Oil of M. paniculata contained 58 compounds of which the major are caryophyllene oxide (16.6%), b-caryophyllene (11.8%), spathulenol (10.2%), b-elemene (8.9%), germacrene D (6.9%) and cyclooctene, 4-methyle...

  16. Chemical composition of the leaf essential oils of Murraya koenigii (L. Spreng and Murraya paniculata (L. Jack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasim Uddin Chowdhury

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of the leaf oils of Murraya koenigii (L. Spreng and M. paniculata (L. Jack from Bangladesh was studied by gas chromatography mass spectroscopy (GC-MS. M. koenigii oil contained 39 compounds of which the major is 3-carene (54.2% followed by caryophyllene (9.5%. Oil of M. paniculata contained 58 compounds of which the major are caryophyllene oxide (16.6%, b-caryophyllene (11.8%, spathulenol (10.2%, b-elemene (8.9%, germacrene D (6.9% and cyclooctene, 4-methylene-6-(1-propenylidene (6.4%. The compositions of both oils varied qualitatively and quantitatively.

  17. Effect of Plectranthus amboinicus Extract on BUN and Creatinine Levels and Cellular Response Proinflammatory Factors TNF-α and IL-1β on Gout Arthritis Patients

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    Lailatul Muniroh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to develop anti-cytokine-based treatment using extract of Plectranthus amboinicus applied to gout arthritis (GA patients. The research was quasi experimental, with a pretest-posttest randomized control group design. The samples were GA patientsin the Outpatient Installation of Internal Medicine in General Hospital Haji,Surabaya. The sample was comprised of 30 respondents. The respondents were divided into a treatment group and a control group. The treatment group was asked to take medicine from the hospital, coupled with Plectranthus amboinicus extract capsules, for 7 days, during which time patients’ joint inflammation was observed. The control group was provided with only medication from the hospital, and their joint inflammation was likewise observed. Blood samples were taken before and after treatment, to measure the levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN and creatinine, as well as the concentrations of TNF-α and IL-1β. There was a decrease in BUN and creatinine levels in the control group, but it was not significant, decreasing by 3% and 8%, respectively. The treatment group also showed elevated levels of BUN and creatinine, which also was not significant at 3% and 7%, respectively. There was a decrease in the concentration of TNF-α in the control group by 9% and 22%. The concentration of IL-1β in the control group increased by 18%, whereas,in the treatment group,it decreased by3%; however,the decreases in bothgroups were not significant.

  18. Predicting the Potential Invasive Distribution for Eupatorium adenophorum Spreng. in China%紫茎泽兰Eupatorium adenophorum Spreng.在中国入侵分布预测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MonicaPapes; A.Townsendpeterson

    2003-01-01

    Originating in Mexico, Eupatorium adenophorum Spreng., is a noxious weed long present as a non-native species in India, New Zealand, and Australia. In China, it is spreading rapidly, particularly in the southern and southwestern parts of the country, with serious economic and social consequences. A new method, ecological niche modeling, was applied for predicting its potential geographic range of invasion. Predicted potential distributional areas included the Chinese provinces where the plant is known to occur, as well as additional areas in central and eastern China that appear susceptible to further spread of this species.%原产于墨西哥的紫茎泽兰Eupatorium adenophorum Spreng.作为一个有害的外来物种在印度、新西兰和澳大利亚生长已有很长时间.在中国,尤其是在南方和西南地区其蔓延速度之快,带来了不可忽视的经济和社会后果.我们采用了生态位模拟新方法来预测紫茎泽兰可能入侵的范围.据此,预测的潜在分布区包括该植物在中国境内已分布的省份及未来华中、华东易受入侵的区域.

  19. Antioxidant activity, total phenolic, and total flavonoid of extracts from stems of Jasminum nervosum Lour

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    Wei, Xiangyong

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Guangxi traditional Chinese Medical University Universidad de Medicina Tradicional China de Guangxi This study evaluated the antioxidant activities of the extracts of Jasminum nervosum Lour. stems along with the effects of different extract solvents on total phenolics (TP, total flavonoids (TF, and antioxidant potential. The antioxidant activity of the extracts was assessed using the following methods: DPPH, ABTS+ both free radicals scavenging assays, and reducing assays. TP and TF were detected by spectrophotometric and HPLC methods. In former methods, the highest amount of TP content was ethy lacetate extract (EAE, expressed as gallic acid equivalents. The greatest TF content was in the n-butanol extract (BE, expressed as lutin equivalents. No significant difference was observed in the TP/TF content between these two extracts. The antioxidant activity and TP/TF content of three extracts seemed to follow the same trend. This implied that there is a good correlation between antioxidant activities and TP/TF content. But in HPLC methods, EAE contained the highest content of lutin and gallic acid, which decreased in the same order of EAE > BE > PE, the rank order of TP/TF content of EAE and BE were different according to antioxidant ability. The overall results showed that the EAE and BE were richer in phenolics and flavonoids than petroleum ether extract (PE, and may represent a good source of antioxidants.Este estudio evaluó las actividades antioxidantes de extractos de tallos de Jasminum nervosum Lour., y el efecto de diferentes disolventes de extracción en los fenoles totales (TP y flavonoides totales (TF, y su potencial antioxidante. La actividad antioxidante de los extractos fue evaluada usando los siguientes métodos: DPPH, ABTS+ y ensayos reductores. TP y TF fueron detectados por métodos espectroscópicos y por HPLC. Con el primer método, el contenido más alto de TP se obtuvo en el extracto con acetato de etilo (EAE, expresado como

  20. Anti-inflammatory sesquiterpene lactones from Lychnophora trichocarpha Spreng. (Brazilian Arnica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Fernanda C; Ferreira, Leidiane C; Souza, Maíra R; Grabe-Guimarães, Andrea; Paula, Carmen A; Rezende, Simone A; Saúde-Guimarães, Dênia A

    2013-03-01

    The aerial parts of Lychnophora trichocarpha Spreng. (Asteraceae) are used macerated in water or ethanol to treat inflammation, pain, rheumatism, contusions, bruises and insect bites in Brazilian traditional medicine. In this study, anti-inflammatory activity of ethanol extract from aerial parts of L. trichocarpha and its ethyl acetate fraction was investigated. Sesquiterpene lactones, lychnopholide (Lyc) and eremantholide C (EreC), isolated of ethyl acetate fraction, were also assayed for in vitro and in vivo anti-inflammatory activity. Topical treatment with ointments containing ethanol extract, its ethyl acetate fraction and sesquiterpene lactones significantly reduced carrageenan-induced mice paw oedema. In vitro assays demonstrated that Lyc inhibited interferon -γ/lipopolysaccharide -stimulated nitric oxide (NO) production in J774A.1 macrophages and increased production of IL-10 anti-inflammatory cytokine. The reduction of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) production by EreC was accompanied by an increased production of IL-10 in a concentration-dependent manner in J774A.1 macrophages. The anti-inflammatory effect of Lyc seems to involve the inhibition of production of NO and increased production of IL-10. The mechanism of the effect of EreC on the reduction of carrageenan-induced paw oedema may be attributed to inhibition of production of TNF-α and stimulation of IL-10 production. The results corroborate the use of ethanol extract from Lychnophora trichocarpha in folk medicine for anti-inflammatory action and indicate that the topical route is suitable for use.

  1. Cloning, expression, and characterization of pollen allergens from Humulus scandens (Lour) Merr and Ambrosia artemisiifolia L

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ai-lin TAO; Shao-heng HE

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To clone the pollen allergen genes in Humulus scandens (Lour) Merr (LüCao in Chinese) and short ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L) for recombinant allergen production and immunotherapy. Methods: The allergen genes were selectively amplified in the weed pollen cDNA pool by using a special PCR profile, with the primers designed by a modeling procedure. Following truncated gene cloning and confirmation of the pollen source, unknown 3'cDNA ends were identified by using the 3'-RACE method. The gene function conferred by the full-length coding region was evaluated by a homologue search in the GenBank database. Recombinant proteins expressed in Escherichia coli pET-44 RosettaBlue cells were subsequently characterized by N-terminal end sequencing, IgE binding, and crossreactivity. Results: Three full-length cDNAs were obtained in each weed. Multiple alignment analysis revealed that the deduced amino acid sequences were 83% identical to each other and 56%-90% identical to panallergen profilins from other species. Five recombinant proteins were abundantly expressed in nonfusion forms and were confirmed by using the N-terminal end sequence identity.Sera from patients who were allergic to A artemisiifolia reacted not only with rAmb a 8(D03) derived from A artemisiifolia, but also with recombinant protein rHum s 1(LCM9) derived from H scandens, which confirmed the allergenicity and cross-reactivity of the recombinant proteins from the 2 sources. Comparison of the degenerate primers used for truncated gene cloning with the full-length cDNA demonstrated that alternative nucleotide degeneracy occurred. Conclusion: This study demonstrates a useful method for cloning homologous allergen genes across different species, particularly for little-studied species. The recombinant allergens obtained might be useful for the immunotherapeutic treatment of H scandens and/or A artemisiifolia pollen allergies.

  2. Isolation and characterization of ellagitannins as the major polyphenolic components of Longan (Dimocarpus longan Lour) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudjaroen, Yuttana; Hull, William E; Erben, Gerhard; Würtele, Gerd; Changbumrung, Supranee; Ulrich, Cornelia M; Owen, Robert W

    2012-05-01

    Longan (Dimocarpus longan Lour, syn. Euphoria longan Lam.) represents an important fruit in Northern Thailand and has significant economic impact. The fruit is either consumed fresh or as commercially prepared dried and canned products. The canning industry in Thailand produces considerable quantities of waste products, in particular Longan seeds. Because these seeds may be an exploitable source of natural phenolic antioxidants, it was of interest to identify, purify and quantitate the major potential antioxidant phenolics contained therein. The polyphenolic fraction from ground Longan seeds was obtained by extraction with methanol after delipidation with hexane. The hexane extract contained predominantly long-chain fatty acids with major contributions from palmitic (35%) and oleic (28%) acids. The polyphenolic fraction (80.90 g/kg dry weight) was dominated by ellagic acid (25.84 g/kg) and the known ellagitannins corilagin (13.31 g/kg), chebulagic acid (13.06 g/kg), ellagic acid 4-O-α-l-arabinofuranoside (9.93 g/kg), isomallotinic acid (8.56 g/kg) and geraniin (5.79 g/kg). Structure elucidation was performed with mass spectrometry and complete assignment of (1)H and (13)C NMR signals. The methanol extracts exhibited strong antioxidant capacities with an IC(50) of 154 μg/ml for reactive oxygen species attack on salicylic acid and 78 μg/ml for inhibition of xanthine oxidase in the hypoxanthine/xanthine oxidase assay. The extracts were less effective in the 2-deoxyguanosine assay (IC(50)=2.46 mg/ml), indicating that gallates along with ellagic acid and its congeners exert their potential antioxidant effects predominantly by precipitation of proteins such as xanthine oxidase. This was confirmed for the pure compounds gallic acid, methyl gallate, ellagic acid and corilagin.

  3. Anticarcinogenesis effect of Gynura procumbens (Lour Merr on tongue carcinogenesis in 4NQO-induced rat

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    D. Agustina

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available In Indonesia Gynura procumbens (Lour Merr leaves have been long used as various cancers medication. Many in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated anticarcinogenesis of ethanol extract of Gynura procumbens leaves. The aim of this study was to investigate the anticarcinogenesis of the ethanol extract of Gynura procumbens leaves on 4 nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4NQO-induced rat tongue carcinogenesis. Fifty six 4 week old male Sprague Dawley rats were used in this study and divided into 7 groups. Group 1, 2 and 3 were lingually induced by 4NQO for 8 weeks. In groups 2 and 3 the extract was given simultaneously with or after 4NQO induction finished, each for 10 weeks and 26 weeks, respectively. Groups 4, 5 and 6 were induced by 4NQO for 16 weeks. However, in groups 5 and 6 the extract was given as well simultaneously with or after the 4NQO induction, each for 18 weeks, respectively. Group 7 served as the as untreated control group. The results from microscopical assessment showed that tongue squamous cell carcinomas (SCC developed in 100% (3/3 of group 1. However, only 33.3% (2/6 and 25% (2/8 of rats in groups 2 and 3, respectively demonstrated tongue SCC. Among groups 4, 5 and 6, no significant difference of tongue SCC incidence was observed. From these results it is apparent that the ethanol extract of Gynura procumbens leaves could inhibit the progression of 4NQOinduced rat tongue carcinogenesis in the initiation phase.

  4. Anti-tumour activities of fucoidan from the aquatic plant Utricularia aurea lour

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    Wilaiwan Chotigeat

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Fucoidan, a sulfated polysaccharide with several biological activities, is usually isolated from marine seaweeds or from echinoderms. Here, we report on the anti-tumour activity of fucoidan isolated from the aquatic plant Utricularia aurea Lour (Lentibulariaceae. A crude extract (CE prepared by incubating U.aurea with hot water at 95ºC for 12 hr was partially purified by Sephadex G-50, eluting with a 50mM sodium acetate buffer, at pH 5.0, containing 0.5M NaCl. Partially purified fucoidan (PPF had a 3- fold increase in fucose content when compared with the CE and a molecular weigÄt of 11.6 kDa as determined by Sephadex G-200. Chemical analysis showed that CE consisted of 62.5% glucuronic acid, 5.0% fucose, 1.7% sulfate and 12.0% proteins while PPF consisted of 65.0% glucuronic acid, 15.3% fucose, 2.1 % sulfate and 8.3% proteins.The anti-tumour activity of the CE and PPF was determined by the MTT test. The CE at 125 μg/mL fucoidan and PPF at 250 μg/mL inhibited the growth of KB cells (a nasopharynx tumour cell line, but did not inhibit that of normal fibroblast cells. The inhibition was postulated to occur via apoptosis as significantlymore apoptotic cells were found after treatment than in the untreated KB cells (P<0.05 by the TUNNEL (TdT-mediated dUTP Nick-End Labelling assay.

  5. 桂花花朵香气成分的研究进展%Research Progress of Flavoring Compositions in Osmanthus Fragrans Lour.Flower

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施婷婷; 杨秀莲; 王良桂

    2014-01-01

    桂花花朵的香味由一系列低分子量的挥发性化合物组成,并形成其独有的特征。对桂花花朵香气成分的物质种类、影响因素进行了简单介绍,并对其提取与分析方法的研究与应用进展进行了综述。%Floral scent of Osmanthus fragrans Lour.is a complex mixture of low molecular weight volatile compounds,which gives O.fragrans Lour.flower unique fragrance.In this article,the types and influence fac-tors of flavoring compositions in O.fragrans Lour.flower are summarized,the research and development of ex-traction and analytical methods of flavoring compositions in O.fragrans Lour.flower are reviewed.

  6. Acute and subacute oral toxicity assessment of the oil extracted from Attalea phalerata Mart ex Spreng. pulp fruit in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas de Lima, Fernando; Traesel, Giseli Karenina; Menegati, Sara Emilia Lima Tolouei; Santos, Ariany Carvalho Dos; Souza, Roosevelt Isaias Carvalho; de Oliveira, Vinícius Soares; Sanjinez-Argandoña, Eliana Janet; Cardoso, Claudia Andrea Lima; Oesterreich, Silvia Aparecida; Vieira, Maria do Carmo

    2017-01-01

    Attalea phalerata Mart. ex Spreng., popularly known as "bacuri", is a native plant from the brazilian Cerrado and used in folk medicine as a pulmonary decongestant, an anti-inflammatory for joints and antipyretic. There is an expectation about the use in chronic disease of the Attalea phalerata oil since its composition is high in carotenoids and beneficial fatty acids. The aim of the study was to evaluate the toxicological profile of the oil extracted from Attalea phalerata Mart. ex Spreng. pulp (APO). Acute and subacute toxicity studies were performed in male and female Wistar rats according to the OECD - Guidelines 425 and 407. For the acute toxicity, one single dose of the APO (2000mg/kg) was administered by gavage to five female rats. In the subacute toxicity, four different doses (125, 250, 500 and 1000mg/kg) of the APO were administered to male and female rats for 28 consecutive days. No deaths or behavioral changes were observed during both experiments as well as no changes in organ weights, hematological, histopathological parameters. The biochemical parameters showed changes in phosphatase alkaline and albumin levels, however these values are within the normal range for the species. A significant reduction in cholesterol and triglycerides was also observed in some of the animals treated with the APO. Therefore, the LD50 is higher than 2000mg/kg and the APO oil can be considered safe at the doses tested in rats. However, further assessments are required in order to proceed to clinical studies in humans.

  7. Complete Chloroplast Genome Sequence of Aquilaria sinensis (Lour. Gilg and the Evolution Analysis within the Malvalesorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying eWang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aquilaria sinensis (Lour. Gilg is an important medicinal woody plant producing agarwood, which is widely used in traditional Chinese medicine. High-throughput sequencing of chloroplast (cp genomes enhanced the understanding about evolutionary relationships within plant families. In this study, we determined the complete cp genome sequences for A. sinensis. The size of the A.sinensis cp genome was 159,565 bp. This genome included a large single-copy region of 87,482 bp, a small single-copy region of 19,857 bp, and a pair of inverted repeats (IRa and IRb of 26,113 bp each. The GC content of the genome was 37.11%. The A.sinensis cp genome encoded 113 functional genes, including 82 protein-coding genes, 27 tRNA genes, and 4 rRNA genes. Seven genes were duplicated in the protein-coding genes, whereas 11 genes were duplicated in the RNA genes. A total of 45 polymorphic simple-sequence repeat loci and 60 pairs of large repeats were identified. Most simple-sequence repeats were located in the noncoding sections of the large single-copy/small single-copy region and exhibited high A/T content. Moreover, 33 pairs of large repeat sequences were located in the protein-coding genes, whereas 27 pairs were located in the intergenic regions. Aquilaria sinensis cp genome bias ended with A/T on the basis of codon usage. The distribution of codon usage in A.sinensis cp genome was most similar to that in the Gonystylus bancanus cp genome. Comparative results of 82 protein-coding genes from 29 species of cp genomes demonstrated that A.sinensis was a sister species to G. bancanus within the Malvales order. Aquilaria sinensis cp genome presented the highest sequence similarity of >90% with the G. bancanus cp genome by using CGView Comparison Tool. This finding strongly supports the placement of A.sinensis as a sister to G. bancanus within the Malvales order. The complete A.sinensis cp genome information will be highly beneficial for further studies on this traditional

  8. Antibacterial Activity of Indian Borage (Plectranthus amboinicus Benth) Leaf Extracts in Food Systems and
Against Natural Microflora in Chicken Meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sandeep Kumar; Negi, Pradeep Singh

    2016-03-01

    The ability of acetone and ethyl acetate extracts of the leaves of a traditional Indian medicinal plant, Indian borage (Plectranthus amboinicus Benth) to prevent spoilage of artificially inoculated model food systems (cabbage and papaya) and natural microflora of chicken meat was evaluated. These extracts were able to reduce the bacterial counts in all food systems; however, the effective concentration varied with the complexity of the system (cabbage

  9. Effect ofBuchanania lanzan Spreng. bark extract on cyclophosphamide induced genotoxicity and oxidative stress in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ritesh Jain; Sanmati Kumar Jain

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To elucidate the effect of ethanolic extract ofBuchanania lanzan Spreng. (B. lanan) bark against cyclophosphamide induced genotoxicity and oxidative stress in mice.Methods:The prevalence of micronuclei in bone marrow, the extent of lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione and the status of the antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase and catalase in liver of mice were used as intermediate biomarkers for chemoprotection. Lipid peroxidation and associated compromised antioxidant defenses in cyclophosphamide treated mice were observed in the liver.Results: Pre-treatment withB. lanzan250, 500 and1 000mg/ kg,p.o., daily for7 days significantly reduced the chromosomal damage and lipid peroxidation with concomitant changes in antioxidants and detoxification systems.Conclusions: These results point out the presence of chemopreventive phytoconstituents in the crude extract offering protection against cyclophosphamide induced genotoxicity and oxidative stress in mice.

  10. Effect of microwave power on kinetics and characteristics of microwave vacuum-dried longan (Dimocarpus longan Lour.) pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Dongxiao; Zhang, Mingwei; Wei, Zhencheng; Tang, Xiaojun; Zhang, Ruifen; Liu, Lei; Deng, Yuanyuan

    2015-03-01

    The drying kinetics of longan (Dimocarpus longan Lour.) pulp processed by microwave vacuum under different microwave levels (2.67, 5.33, 8.00, and 10.67 W/g) was investigated (pressure controlled at -85 ± 2 kPa) in the present study. It was found that the drying rate of longan pulp was dependent on the microwave power, and the rehydration rate increased from 1.96 to 2.17 with the increase of microwave power from 2.67 to 10.67 W/g. Among nine selected thin layer models, the microwave vacuum drying of longan pulp was well represented by five models, which were Page, Modified Henderson and Pabis, Wang and Singh, Logarithmic, and Midilli models. Furthermore, the results of statistical analysis indicated that the Midilli model could describe the best experimental data. In addition, scanning electron microscope observation showed that the microwave vacuum-dried longan pulp had a porous structure.

  11. PERTUMBUHAN KALUS DAUN DEWA [Gynura procumbens (Lour Merr.] DENGAN KOMBINASI 2,4-DICHLOROPHENOXYACETIC ACID DAN KINETIN SECARA INVITRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samkhatin Khaniyah

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Tanaman daun dewa [Gynura procumbens (Lour Merr.] berguna untuk menurunkan kadar kolesterol darah, mengobati diabetes, tumor, dan sebagai obat anti kanker. Daun dewa mengandung senyawa metabolit sekunder yaitu flavonoid, saponin, dan minyak atsiri. Oleh karena itu, perlu adanya kultur in vitro yang diharapkan mampu meningkatkan jumlah metabolit sekunder, maka perlu dilakukan penelitian tentang induksi kalusdengan penambahan kombinasi 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid dan kinetin yang tepat dapat digunakan untuk menginduksi kalus daun dewa. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengkaji pengaruh konsentrasi 2,4-D dan Kinetin serta interaksi keduanya terhadap induksi kalus daun dewa. Analisis menggunakan anava dua arah dan uji lanjut Duncan. Parameter yang diamati adalah parameter persentase eksplan yang hidup, persentase berkalus, berat basah, kering kalus, serta tekstur dan warna kalus . Dari Uji Jarak Berganda Duncan diperoleh hasil tertinggi pada konsentrasi 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid 0.5 ppm dan konsentrasi kinetin 1 ppm sebesar 33.33% pada parameter persentase berkalus.Daun dewa [Gynura procumbens (Lour. Merr.] plant can be used to lower the blood cholesterol levels, to treat diabetes and tumors, and may be used as an anti-cancer drug. Daun dewa plant produces of secondary metabolites such as flavonoids, saponins, and essential oils. An in vitro culture is a necessity to increase the quantity of secondary metabolites using callus induction with the addition of a combination of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and kinetin to induce daun dewa callus. The research will ecamine the influence of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and Kinetin in various concentrations and their interaction on callus induction of daun dewa. Data were analyzed using advanced two-way anova and Duncan test. The test showed that the highest yeield was obtained from the combination of 0.5 ppm 2,4-D and 1 ppm kinetin, where 33.33% of plants had callus.

  12. Landslide susceptibility assessment and validation in the framework of municipal planning in Portugal: the case of Loures Municipality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillard, Clemence; Zezere, Jose

    2012-10-01

    The legislation that demands the evaluation of landslide susceptibility in Portugal at the municipal level is the National Ecological Reserve (NER). A methodology for the evaluation of landslide susceptibility to be used in municipal planning is applied in Loures Municipality (169.3 km²) located north of Lisbon (Portugal). A landslide inventory was made for the whole area interpreting orthophoto maps and aerial photographs and using standard geomorphologic techniques in field work. It consists of 686 polygons, each polygon representing a rotational, a deep translational or a shallow translational slide, and is integrated into a GIS database. Landslide susceptibility is evaluated using algorithms based on statistical/probabilistic analysis (Information Value Method) over unique-condition terrain units in a raster basis. Three susceptibility models are elaborated independently according to the type of slide (rotational, deep translational, shallow translational). The landslide susceptibility maps are prepared by sorting all pixels according to the pixel susceptibility value in descending order. The robustness and accuracy of the landslide susceptibility models are evaluated by prediction-rate curves, which are used for the quantitative interpretation of the landslide susceptibility maps. Unstable slopes that have to be included into the National Ecological Reserve are extracted from the three susceptibility maps following the general rules to draw the NER that state that the area to be included in the NER should guarantee the inclusion of at least 70 % of the landslides identified in the landslide inventory. The obtained results allow us to conclude that 70 % of the future landslides should occur in these areas, classified as most susceptible to landslides corresponding to 20.3 % of the total area of Municipality. Thus, the consideration of these 20.3 % as regards prevention and protection of landslide risk could potentially reduce damage resulting from 70

  13. Efek Relaksasi Ekstrak Etanol Daun Pugun Tanoh (Curanga fel-terrae (Lour.) Merr.) Terhadap Kontraksi Otot Polos Ileum Marmut (Cavia porcellus) Terisolasi Secara In Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Michi, Anddora

    2015-01-01

    Pugun Tanoh (Curanga fel-terrae (Lour.) Merr.) is a plant of Scropulariaceae family which is often used by the native people of Tiga Lingga village in Dairi Regency, North Sumatera Province, Indonesia to cure diarrhea and stomachache. This research aims to observe the relaxation effect of Pugun Tanoh leaf ethanol extract on the contraction of isolated guinea pig’s ileum by acetylcholine. This research was conducted using in vitro. The parameter measured in this research is the contract...

  14. Evaluación de la toxicidad aguda de extractos de plantas medicinales por un método alternativo (Evaluation of acute toxicity of extracts of medicinal plants by an alternative testing

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    Deodelsy Bermúdez Toledo:

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la toxicidad a dosis única de seis extractos de plantas medicinales: Psidium guajava L. (guayaba, Eucalyptus citriodoraHooker (eucalipto de limón, Cymbopogon citratus (DC Stapf (caña santa, hierba de limón, Hibiscus elatus Sw. (majagua, Justicia pectoralis Jacq. (tilo, Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour. Spreng (orégano francés mediante un método alternativo e internacionalmente validado y aceptado (procedimiento de dosis fijas en ratasSprague Dawley. El grupo tratado recibió por vía oral una dosis límite de 2000 mg/kg de masa corporal y el control negativocloruro de sodio 0,9%. En las condiciones del ensayo no se produjo mortalidad ni se manifestaron síntomas indicativos de toxicidad en los animales. Los estudios anatomopatológicos macroscópicos nomostraron ninguna alteración en los órganos estudiados. La DL50 de los extractos de estudio se encuentra por encima de 2000mg/kg de masa corporal, calificándose éstos, según el Sistema Global Armonizado, como “No clasificadas” (”No tóxicas”.A single dose toxicity study in six extracts of medicinal plants: Psidium guajava L. (guava, Eucalyptus citriodora Hooker (lemon eucalyptus, Cymbopogon citratus (DC Stapf (lemon grass, Hibiscus elatus Sw. (majagua, Justicia pectoralis Jacq. (linden, lectranthus amboinicus (Lour. Spreng (French oregano was done, using an alternative internationally validated and accepted method (Fix Dose Procedure in Sprague Dawley rats. The treated group received by oral route a dose limit of 2000 mg/kg of corporal mass and the controlnegative chloride of sodium 0.9%. Under the assay conditions didn't produced mortality neither they showed indicative symptoms oftoxicity in the animals. The macroscopic anatomopathology studies didn't show any alteration in the studied organs. The LD50 ofthe study extracts is above 2000 mg/kg of corporal mass, being qualified these, according to the Harmonized Global System,as "Not classified" ("Not toxic".

  15. Sacarose e nitrogênio na multiplicação in vitro de Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen Sucrose and nitrogen on in vitro multiplication of Pffafia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen

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    Joseila Maldaner

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen, conhecida como ginseng brasileiro, é uma planta extensivamente usada na medicina popular em decorrência de possuir propriedades fitoterápicas. Este trabalho teve como objetivo determinar a melhor combinação de concentração da sacarose (30, 45 e 60g L-1 e do nitrogênio (50, 75, 100 e 125% da concentração padrão do meio MS para a multiplicação in vitro de P. glomerata. Aos 30 dias de cultivo, verificou-se que concentrações entre 40 e 45g L-1 de sacarose e 50% de N propiciaram maior crescimento em altura e número de segmentos nodais por plântula. O número de brotações foi maior na concentração de 55g L-1 de sacarose combinada com 70% de N. A matéria seca de raízes, da parte aérea e do total da plântula foi maior na concentração de 45g L-1 de sacarose associada com 50% de N. No geral, a redução da concentração de N para 50% daquela padrão do meio MS, associada a um incremento na dose de sacarose para 45g L-1, favorece o crescimento em altura, número de segmentos nodais e brotações, bem como a produção de biomassa de P. glomerata cultivada in vitro, devido ao estímulo ao uso do carbono.Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen, known as brazilian ginseng, is an extensively used plant in folk medicine due to its phytotherapic characteristics. This work aimed to determine the best combination of sucrose (30, 45 and 60 g L-1 and nitrogen (50, 75, 100 and 125% of the strength of MS medium on micropropagation of P. glomerata. In 30 days of cultivation, sucrose ranging from 40 to 45g L-1 and nitrogen at 50% increased the height and the number of nodes. The number of shoots was greater at concentration of 55g L-1 sucrose combined with 70% N. The dry matter of roots, aerial parts, and of the whole seedling was increased on 50% N and 45g L-1 sucrose. Altogether the halved concentration of nitrogen and the increased concentration of sucrose to 45g L-1 increase the height, the number of nodes

  16. Efeitos biológicos da Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen e da Pfaffia paniculata (Martius Kuntze (Amaranthaceae Biological effects of Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen and Pfaffia paniculata (Martius Kuntze (Amaranthaceae

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    Diógenes Aparício Garcia Cortez

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available A Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen e da Pfaffia paniculata (Martius Kuntze (Amaranthaceae são plantas nativas da região alagada das ilhas de Porto Rico, Paraná, Brasil. São utilizadas na medicina popular como tônico, afrodisíaco e antidiabético. O extrato bruto metanólico, obtido das raízes das duas espécies, foi utilizado para avaliar a atividade moluscicida de caramujos (Biomphalaria glabrata. Além disso, o potencial hipoglicemiante da Pfaffia glomerata foi investigado em ratos tratados com aloxana. As saponinas do extrato bruto metanólico da P. glomerata e da P. paniculata foram analisadas em cromatografia em camada delgada e foi determinado o índice hemolítico. O extrato bruto metanólico obtido da Pfaffia glomerata apresentou maior conteúdo de saponinas hemolíticas e maior atividade moluscicida em relação à Pfaffia paniculata. Todavia, o tratamento com extrato de Pfaffia glomerata não promoveu efeitos significativos sobre os níveis glicêmicos.Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen. (Amaranthaceae and Pfaffia paniculata (Martius Kuntze are native plants found in the flooded area of the islands of Porto Rico, state of Paraná, Brazil. They are used in folk medicine as tonics, aphrodisiacs, and to treat diabetes. The methanolic extract obtained from roots of both species was used to evaluate the molluscicidal activity against the periwinkle Biomphalaria glabrata and the hypoglycemic activity of Pfaffia glomerata was investigated in rats with diabetes induced by alloxan. The saponins from the methanolic extract of P. glomerata and P. paniculata were analyzed by thin-layer chromatography and scum and the hemolitic index was measured. The methanolic extract obtained from Pfaffia glomerata showed higher content of hemolytic saponin than Pfaffia paniculata and presented molluscicidal activity against Biomphalaria glabrata from 200 ppm. However, the treatment with P. glomerata extract did not promote any significant effect on

  17. Nitrogênio e fósforo no crescimento de plantas de ginseng brasileiro [Pfaffia glomerata(Spreng. Pedersen] cultivadas in vitro Nitrogen and phosphorus on growth of brazilian ginseng [Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen] in vitro cultured plants

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    Denise Russowski

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available O ginseng brasileiro [Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen] apresenta propriedades medicinais marcantes e, por isso, atualmente, é largamente explorado de forma extrativista, tanto por parte dos coletores de ervas como pela indústria farmacêutica. Este trabalho objetivou caracterizar o efeito da variação isolada da concentração de N e P do meio MS no crescimento de plantas de P. glomerata cultivadas in vitro. Segmentos nodais de 1,0cm de comprimento e sem folhas, de plantas já estabelecidas in vitro, foram cultivados em meio MS contendo cinco concentrações (0, 25, 50, 100 e 150% da concentração padrão do meio de cultura MS de nitrogênio ou fósforo. Aos 15 dias após a inoculação (DAI, o número de raízes e o percentual de enraizamento são maiores na concentração de N e P equivalentes a 50% daquela do meio de cultura MS. Aos 40 DAI, o crescimento em altura das brotações, número de segmentos nodais, índice de área foliar, número de folhas, matéria seca de raízes, da parte aérea e total da planta é maior na concentração de N e P, em média, próxima a 80% daquela do meio de cultura MS.Brazilian ginseng [Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen] has expressionable medicinal properties, and therefore, nowadays it is extensively exploited either by the herb collectors as well as the pharmaceutical industry. The aim of this work was to characterize the effect of N and P concentrations from the MS medium on growth of P. glomerata in vitro cultured plants. 1-node segment without leaves, from in vitro cultivated plants, were grown on five levels (0, 25, 50, 100, and 150% of the strength of the MS medium of N and P. After 15 days of inoculation, root number and rooting percentage are greater on N and P levels of the MS medium with 50% strength. After 40 days of inoculation, growth, based on sprout height, number of nodal segments per plant, leave area index per plant, number of leaves per plant, dry weight of aerial parts, roots

  18. Benzilaminopurina (BAP e thidiazuron (TDZ na propagação in vitro de Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen Benzylaminopurine (BAP and thidiazuron (TDZ on in vitro propagation of Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen

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    R. Flores

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen, conhecida como ginseng brasileiro, é muito utilizada pela medicina popular devido suas propriedades fitoterápicas. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito de concentrações de BAP e de TDZ na propagação in vitro de dois acessos (BRA e JB-UFSM desta espécie. Segmentos nodais, provenientes de plantas assépticas, foram cultivados em meio Murashige e Skoog (MS suplementado com 0, 1 e 5 μM de BAP ou TDZ. Após 30 dias, as plantas foram transferidas para meio MS não suplementado com citocinina. Observou-se que a organogênese in vitro de P. glomerata é genótipo-dependente. O acesso BRA mostrou um maior potencial para a propagação in vitro em relação ao JB-UFSM. O cultivo dos segmentos nodais do acesso BRA em meio com 1 μM de TDZ, seguido pelo subcultivo dos brotos para meio isento de citocininas mostrou ser um método viável para a propagação in vitro devido à alta taxa de multiplicação e o bom desenvolvimento das plantas. No acesso JB-UFSM, o cultivo dos segmentos nodais em meio não acrescido de citocinina mostrou ser o método mais adequado para a produção de um grande número de plantas com alta qualidade.The plant Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen, known as Brazilian ginseng, is extensively used in folk medicine due to its phytotherapic characteristics. This work aimed to evaluate the effect of BAP and TDZ concentrations on the in vitro propagation of two sources (BRA and JB-UFSM of this species. Nodal segments originated from aseptically grown plants were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS medium supplemented with 0, 1 and 5 μM BAP or TDZ. After 30 days, the plants were transferred to MS medium without cytokinin. The in vitro organogenesis of P. glomerata is genotype-dependent. The source BRA had greater potential for in vitro propagation than JB-UFSM. The culture of BRA nodal segments on medium with 1 μM TDZ, followed by subcultivation of sprouts on cytokinin

  19. Desenvolvimento de frutos de Longan (Dimocarpus longan lour na região de Jaboticabal-SP Development of Longan (Dimocarpus longan lour fruits in the region of Jaboticabal-SP, Brazil

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    Natanael de Jesus

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve por objetivo avaliar o desenvolvimento de frutos de plantas de longan (Dimocarpus longan Lour na região de Jaboticabal, estabelecendo-se, portanto, a curva de crescimento dos frutos. As avaliações realizadas foram semanais, consistindo em medições do diâmetro longitudinal e transversal dos frutos marcados, a partir do momento da formação da polpa. Quinzenalmente, realizaram-se avaliações de características físicas: massa de fruto (g, casca (g, polpa (g semente (g, e químicas: acidez titulável (AT, sólidos solúveis (SS, ácido ascórbico (AA e ratio (SS/AT. Com os resultados obtidos, pode-se concluir que o ciclo de frutificação da Longan na região é entre 120 e 130 dias após antese, período em que o fruto estaria apto para o consumo. A curva do desenvolvimento dos frutos segue um padrão sigmoidal simples. Com relação aos atributos físicos e químicos, constatou-se que a planta 6 apresentou os melhores resultados, podendo ser recomendada como planta-matriz.This work was carried out to evaluate the development of longan (Dimocarpus longan Lour fruits in the region of Jaboticabal, and establish the fruit growth curve. Weekly evaluations were performed to measure longitudinal and transversal diameter of selected fruits after pulp formation. Every two weeks, physical and chemical parameters were evaluated: fruit, peel, pulp and seed mass (g; titrable acidity (TA, soluble solids (SS, ascorbic acid (AA and the ratio (SS/TA. Results indicate that longan reproductive cycle in the region is 120 to 130 days after anthesis, period after which the fruit is good for consumption, when the fruit development curve follows a simple sigmoidal pattern. Physical and chemical parameters have shown that the longan fruits analyzed here have a high consumption potential.

  20. 薯莨鞣质成分及生物活性的研究进展%Dioscorea Cirrhosae Lour Tannins Components and the Research Progress of Biological Activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李忠军; 杨燕军; 孟巨光

    2015-01-01

    Studies have shown that Dioscorea cirrhosae Lour contains many biological active ingredient , the tannins is one of the most important effective components .Based on the recent more than ten years on Dioscorea cirrhosae Lour tannins of the latest research results , this paper expounds the Dioscorea cirrhosae Lour tannins chemical extraction process , types, medicinal, and the research progress of biological activity .%研究表明,薯莨含有大量的生物活性成分,其中鞣质是最重要有效成分之一。结合近10年来有关薯莨鞣质最新研究成果,阐述了薯莨鞣质化学成分提取工艺、种类、药用及生物活性的研究进展。

  1. Renoprotective Effects of Vitex megapotamica (Spreng. Moldenke in C57BL/6 LDLr-Null Mice Undergoing High Fat Diet

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    Valdinei de Oliveira Araújo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Although Vitex megapotamica (Spreng. Moldenke is used in Brazilian folk medicine as hypolipidemic drug no study has been conducted to evaluate the effects of this species in an experimental model of atherosclerosis. So, the aim of this study was to evaluate the possible renoprotective activity of methanolic extract obtained from Vitex megapotamica (MEVM using C57BL/6 LDLr-null mice submitted to high fat diet (HFD. MEVM was orally administered at doses of 30, 100, and 300 mg/kg, for three weeks, starting from the 2nd week of HFD. Systolic blood pressure (SBP and diuretic activity were measured weekly. At the end of experiments the serum lipids, atherogenic index serum (AIS, oxidative stress, and markers of renal function were determined. HFD induced a significant increase in the systolic blood pressure, dyslipidemia, increase in AIS, and lipid peroxidation accompanied by an important reduction in renal function. Treatment with MEVM was able to prevent increase in SBP, total cholesterol, triglycerides, AIS, urea, and creatinine levels in LDLr-null mice. These effects were accompanied by a significant reduction in oxidative stress and renal injury. The data reported here support the potential of Vitex megapotamica as candidate to be an herbal medicine used in cardiovascular or renal diseases.

  2. Extract of Allium tuberosum Rottler ex Spreng Promoted the Hair Growth through Regulating the Expression of IGF-1

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    Ki Moon Park

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Allium tuberosum Rottler ex Spreng (ATRES has been used as a traditional medicine for the treatment of abdominal pain, diarrhea, and asthma. In this study, we investigated the hair growth promoting activities of ATRES on telogenic C57BL6/N mice. Hair growth was significantly increased in the dorsal skin of ethanol extract of ATRES treated mouse group compared with the control mouse group. To enrich the hair promoting activity, an ethanol-insoluble fraction was further extracted in sequence with n-hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, n-butanol, and distilled water. Interestingly, we found that extraction with n-butanol is most efficient in producing the hair promoting activity. In addition, the soluble fraction of the n-butanol extract was further separated by silica gel chromatography and thin layer chromatography (TLC resulting in isolating four single fractions which have hair growth regeneration potential. Furthermore, administration of ATRES extracts to dorsal skin area increased the number of hair follicles compared with control mouse group. Interestingly, administration of ATRES extract stimulated the expression of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 but not of keratin growth factor (KGF or vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF. Taken together, these results suggest that ATRES possesses strong hair growth promoting potential which controls the expression of IGF-1.

  3. Anti-herpes simplex virus activities of Eugenia caryophyllus (Spreng.) Bullock & S. G. Harrison and essential oil, eugenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tragoolpua, Y; Jatisatienr, A

    2007-12-01

    In this study, an extract from the flower buds of Eugenia caryophyllus (Spreng.) Bullock & S. G. Harrison and the essential oil, eugenol, were evaluated for their anti-herpes simplex virus properties on standard HSV-1(F), standard HSV-2(G) and ten HSV isolates. The plaque reduction assay showed that HSV-1(F), HSV-2(G), two HSV-1 isolates (2, 30) and four HSV-2 isolates (1, 2, 3, 21) were inhibited by E. caryophyllus. Only HSV-1 isolates 1 and 30 were inhibited by eugenol. Thus, strains or isolates of viruses may affect the range of inhibition. Moreover, particles of HSV standard strains were directly inactivated by E. caryophyllus and eugenol. The total virus yield of HSV standard strains and isolates at 30 h also declined after treatment with E. caryophyllus and eugenol. The E. caryophyllus extract exerted higher antiviral replication on HSV-2(G) than on HSV-1(F). The inhibition of the viral yield of HSV-1 isolates was higher than standard HSV-1(F) and standard HSV-2(G) was also inhibited more than most of the HSV-2 isolates. The anti-HSV activity of eugenol against HSV-1(F) and HSV isolates was stronger than with the E. caryophyllus crude extract. However, the percentage inhibition was more pronounced on HSV-1(F) than on HSV-2(G). Moreover, HSV-1(1) and HSV-2(1, 32) could not replicate when eugenol was included in the assay.

  4. Renoprotective Effects of Vitex megapotamica (Spreng.) Moldenke in C57BL/6 LDLr-Null Mice Undergoing High Fat Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Valdinei de Oliveira; Gasparotto, Francielly Mourão; Pires, Vanessa Aranega; Maciel, Aline Antunes; Ortmann, Caroline Flach; Cardozo Junior, Euclides Lara; Lourenço, Emerson Luiz Botelho; Gasparotto Junior, Arquimedes

    2015-01-01

    Although Vitex megapotamica (Spreng.) Moldenke is used in Brazilian folk medicine as hypolipidemic drug no study has been conducted to evaluate the effects of this species in an experimental model of atherosclerosis. So, the aim of this study was to evaluate the possible renoprotective activity of methanolic extract obtained from Vitex megapotamica (MEVM) using C57BL/6 LDLr-null mice submitted to high fat diet (HFD). MEVM was orally administered at doses of 30, 100, and 300 mg/kg, for three weeks, starting from the 2nd week of HFD. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diuretic activity were measured weekly. At the end of experiments the serum lipids, atherogenic index serum (AIS), oxidative stress, and markers of renal function were determined. HFD induced a significant increase in the systolic blood pressure, dyslipidemia, increase in AIS, and lipid peroxidation accompanied by an important reduction in renal function. Treatment with MEVM was able to prevent increase in SBP, total cholesterol, triglycerides, AIS, urea, and creatinine levels in LDLr-null mice. These effects were accompanied by a significant reduction in oxidative stress and renal injury. The data reported here support the potential of Vitex megapotamica as candidate to be an herbal medicine used in cardiovascular or renal diseases. PMID:25788962

  5. Local Anesthetic Activity from Extracts, Fractions and Pure Compounds from the Roots of Ottonia anisum Spreng. (Piperaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Kelvin S E; Marques, André M; Moreira, Davyson DE L; Velozo, Leosvaldo S; Sudo, Roberto T; Zapata-Sudo, Gisele; Guimarães, Elsie F; Kaplan, Maria Auxiliadora C

    2016-01-01

    Piperaceae species can be found worldwide in tropical and subtropical areas and many of them have been used for centuries in traditional folk medicine and in culinary. In Brazil, species of Piperaceae are commonly used in some communities as local anesthetic and analgesic. Countrified communities have known some species of the genus Ottonia as "anestesia" and it is a common habit of chewing leaves and roots of Ottonia species to relief toothache. The purpose of this study is to report our findings on new molecules entities obtained from the roots of Ottonia anisum Spreng, in which local anesthetic activity (sensory blockage) is demonstrated for the first time in vivo guinea pig model. Phytochemical investigation led to the isolation of three amides (pipercallosidine, piperine and valeramide) and in an enriched mixture of seven amides (valeramide, 4,5-dihydropiperlonguminine, N-isobutil-6-piperonil-2-hexenamide, piperovatine, dihydropipercallosidine, pipercallosidine and pipercallpsine). Our findings demonstrated the anesthetic potential for the methanolic extract from roots, its n-hexane partition and amides from O. anisum and it is in agreement with ethnobotanical survey.

  6. Local Anesthetic Activity from Extracts, Fractions and Pure Compounds from the Roots of Ottonia anisum Spreng. (Piperaceae

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    KELVIN S.E. LÓPEZ

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Piperaceae species can be found worldwide in tropical and subtropical areas and many of them have been used for centuries in traditional folk medicine and in culinary. In Brazil, species of Piperaceae are commonly used in some communities as local anesthetic and analgesic. Countrified communities have known some species of the genus Ottonia as "anestesia" and it is a common habit of chewing leaves and roots of Ottonia species to relief toothache. The purpose of this study is to report our findings on new molecules entities obtained from the roots of Ottonia anisum Spreng, in which local anesthetic activity (sensory blockage is demonstrated for the first time in vivo guinea pig model. Phytochemical investigation led to the isolation of three amides (pipercallosidine, piperine and valeramide and in an enriched mixture of seven amides (valeramide, 4,5-dihydropiperlonguminine, N-isobutil-6-piperonil-2-hexenamide, piperovatine, dihydropipercallosidine, pipercallosidine and pipercallpsine. Our findings demonstrated the anesthetic potential for the methanolic extract from roots, its n-hexane partition and amides from O. anisum and it is in agreement with ethnobotanical survey.

  7. Wood anatomy of Mollinedia glabra (Spreng.) Perkins (Monimiaceae) in two Restinga Vegetation Formations at Rio das Ostras, RJ, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novaes, Fernanda da S; Callado, Cátia H; Pereira-Moura, Maria Verônica L; Lima, Helena R P

    2010-12-01

    This paper aimed to characterize the anatomical structure of the wood of specimens of Mollinedia glabra (Spreng.) Perkins growing in two contiguous formations of restinga vegetation at Praia Virgem, in the municipality of Rio das Ostras, RJ. Both the Open Palmae (OPS) and the Sandy Strip Closed Shrub (SSCS) formations are found in coastal regions that receive between 1,100 and 1,300 mm of rainfall per year. Sapwood samples were collected in both formations. Typical anatomical features for this species include: solitary vessels, radial multiples or clusters elements, that are circular to angular in outline, 5-15 barred scalariform perforation plates, wood parenchyma scanty, septate fiber-tracheids, and wide multiseriate rays with prismatic crystals. Statistical analyses indicated a significant increase in the frequency of vessel elements and an increase in fiber-tracheid diameters in OPS individuals. These characteristics are considered structural adaptations to increased water needs caused by a greater exposure to sunlight. Continuous pruning may be responsible for the tyloses observed in OPS plants. The greater lengths and higher frequencies of the rays in SSCS trees may be due to the greater diameters of their branches. Our results suggest that M. glabra develops structural adaptations to the restinga micro-environmental variations during its development.

  8. Isolation andin vivo hepatoprotective activity ofMelothria heterophylla (Lour.) Cogn. against chemically induced liver injuries in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Arijit Mondal; Tapan Kumar Maity; Dilipkumar Pal; Santanu Sannigrahi; Jagadish Singh

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To investigate hepatoprotective activity of ethanol extract of Melothria heterophylla Lour Cogn.(EEMH) againstCCl4-induced hepatic damage in rats.Methods:β-sitosterol was isolated by column chromatography and characterized spectroscopically. Two different doses (200 and400mg/kg bw) ofEEMHwere administered orally in alternate days. The hepatoprotective activity was studied in liver by measuring biochemical parameters such as serum aspartate amino transferase (AST), alanine amino transferase(ALT), alkaline phosphatase(ALP), total protein and total bilirubin. Lipid peroxidation product and different antioxidant enzyme activities were assessed in liver homogenate.Results:EEMH reduced all biochemical parameters and lipid peroxidation, as well as it increased the antioxidant enzyme activities in comparison with silymarin. The protective effect of the extract on CCl4 induced damage was confirmed by histopathological examination of the liver.Conclusions: This result strongly supports the protective effect ofEEMH against acute liver injury, and may be attributed to its antioxidative activity.

  9. Analysis of Chemical Constituents of Melastoma dodecandrum Lour. by UPLC-ESI-Q-Exactive Focus-MS/MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinfeng Wang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The ethnic drug Melastoma dodecandrum Lour. (MDL is widely distributed throughout South China, and is the major component of Gong Yan Ping Tablets/Capsules and Zi Di Ning Xue San. Although the pharmacological effects of MDL have been well documented, its chemical profile has not been fully determined. In this study, we have developed a rapid and sensitive UPLC-ESI-Q-Exactive Focus-MS/MS method to characterize the chemical constituents of MDL in the positive and negative ionization modes. A comparison of the chromatographic and spectrometric data obtained using this method with data from databases, the literature and reference standards allowed us to identify or tentatively characterize 109 compounds, including 26 fatty acids, 26 organic acids, 33 flavonoids, six tannins, 10 triterpenoids, two steroids and six other compounds. Notably, 55 of the compounds characterized in this study have never been detected before in this plant. The information obtained in this study therefore enriches our understanding of the chemical composition of MDL and could be used in quality control, pharmacological research and the development of drugs based on MDL. In addition, this study represents the first reported comprehensive analysis of the chemical constituents of MDL.

  10. Assessment of haemolytic, cytotoxic and free radical scavenging activities of an underutilized fruit, Baccaurea ramiflora Lour. (Roxb.) Muell. Arg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Manas Ranjan; Dey, Priyankar; Chaudhuri, Tapas Kumar; Goyal, Arvind Kr; Sarker, Dilip De; Sen, Arnab

    2016-02-01

    Baccaurea ramiflora Lour. (Roxb.) Muell. Arg. is an underutilized juicy fruit bearing plant found in sub-Himalayan area, South China, Indo-Burma region, etc. The fruit is considered to be nutritive, and in this study, we evaluated its antioxidant, haemolytic and cytotoxic properties. The juice was examined for the quenching activity of hydroxyl radical, nitric oxide, singlet oxygen, peroxynitrite, total antioxidant activity (TAA), erythrocyte membrane stabilizing activity (EMSA) along with quantification of phenolic and flavonoid contents and also tested for its potential activity as iron chelator, inhibitor of lipid peroxidation and total reducing power. Principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) were also performed to correlate antioxidant capacities with the phenolic and flavonoid content. Haemolytic activity on murine erythrocyte and MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) cytotoxic test was performed on murine splenocytes, thymocytes, hepatocytes and peritoneal exudates macrophage to examine the cytotoxic effect of its juice. The result exhibited its potent free radical scavenging activity. In case of TAA, DPPH (2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl), EMSA and lipid peroxidation, the fruit juice was found to have significant (P cytotoxic test confirms that the juice does not contain any cytotoxic effect and the fruit is safe for consumption. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra analysis exhibited high possibility of presence of flavonoid compounds in the juice.

  11. Metabolic profiling and in vitro assessment of anthelmintic fractions of Picria fel-terrae Lour.

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    Rasika Kumarasingha

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Anthelmintic resistance is widespread in gastrointestinal nematode populations, such that there is a consistent need to search for new anthelmintics. However, the cost of screening for new compounds is high and has a very low success rate. Using the knowledge of traditional healers from Borneo Rainforests (Sarawak, Malaysia, we have previously shown that some traditional medicinal plants are a rich source of potential new anthelmintic drug candidates. In this study, Picria fel-terrae Lour. plant extract, which has previously shown promising anthelmintic activities, was fractionated via the use of a solid phase extraction cartridge and each isolated fraction was then tested on free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and the parasitic nematode Haemonchus contortus. We found that a single fraction was enriched for nematocidal activity, killing ≥90% of C. elegans adults and inhibiting the motility of exsheathed L3 of H. contortus, while having minimal cytotoxic activity in mammalian cell culture. Metabolic profiling and chemometric analysis of the effective fraction indicated medium chained fatty acids and phenolic acids were highly represented.

  12. Rosmarinic Acid, a New Polyphenol from Baccaurea ramiflora Lour. Leaf: A Probable Compound for Its Anti-Inflammatory Activity

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    Talambedu Usha

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite several pharmacological applications of Baccaurea ramiflora Lour., studies on the influence of its polyphenol content on pharmacological activity such as anti-inflammatory properties have been scarce. Here we evaluated in vitro antioxidant activity, poyphenolics by HPLC and the anti-inflammatory potential of the methanolic leaf extract of Baccaurea ramiflora (BME and its protective effects in carrageenan-induced paw edema model of inflammation in rats. The BME extract contained 79.06 ± 0.03 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE/g total polyphenols, 28.80 ± 0.01 mg quercetin equivalent (QE/g flavonoid and 29.42 ± 0.01 μg cathechin equivalent/g proanthocyanidin respectively and rosmarinic acid (8 mg/kg as a main component was identified by HPLC. Results demonstrate that administration of BME at the dose of 200 mg/kg can reduce paw edema by over 63%, and it exhibits a dose-response effect. Depending on concentration, the extract exerted scavenging activity on DPPH radical (IC50 36.4 μg/mL, significantly inhibited IL-1β (4.4 pg/mg protein and TNF-α (0.21 ng/μg protein. Therefore, we conclude BME causes a substantial reduction of inflammation in in vivo models. We propose that rosmarinic acid and similar phenolic compounds may be useful in the therapy of inflammation-related injuries.

  13. Opportunities for Phytoremediation and Bioindication of Arsenic Contaminated Water Using a Submerged Aquatic Plant:Vallisneria natans (lour.) Hara.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guoliang; Liu, Xingmei; Brookes, Philip C; Xu, Jianming

    2015-01-01

    The identification of plants with high arsenic hyperaccumulating efficiency from water is required to ensure the successful application of phytoremediation technology. Five dominant submerged plant species (Vallisneria natans (Lour.) Hara., Potamageton crispus L., Myriophyllum spicatum L., Ceratophyllum demersum L. and Hydrilla verticillata (L.f.) Royle) in China were used to determine their potential to remove As from contaminated water. V. natans had the highest accumulation of As among them. The characteristics of As accumulation, transformation and the effect of phosphate on As accumulation in V. natans were then further studied. The growth of V. natans was not inhibited even when the As concentration reached 2.0 mg L(-1). After 21 d of As treatment, the bioconcentration factor (BCF) reached 1300. The As concentration in the environment and exposure time are major factors controlling the As concentration in V. natans. After being absorbed, As(V) is efficiently reduced to As(III) in plants. The synthesis of non-enzymic antioxidants may play an important role under As stress and increase As detoxication. In addition, As(V) uptake by V. natans was negatively correlated with phosphate (P) uptake when P was sufficiently supplied. As(V) is probably taken up via P transporters in V. natans.

  14. Plectranthus amboinicus leaf extract mediated synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles and its control of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus biofilm and blood sucking mosquito larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, S.; Vinoj, G.; Malaikozhundan, B.; Shanthi, S.; Vaseeharan, B.

    2015-02-01

    In this study, zinc oxide nanoparticles were biologically synthesized using the leaf extract of Plectranthus amboinicus (Pam-ZnO NPs). The synthesized Pam-ZnO NPs were characterized by UV-Vis spectrophotometer, FTIR, TEM and XRD analysis. TEM analysis of Pam-ZnO NPs showed the average size of about 20-50 nm. Pam-ZnO NPs control the growth of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus biofilms (MRSA ATCC 33591) at the concentration of 8-10 μg/ml. Confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) images revealed that Pam-ZnO NPs strongly inhibited the biofilm forming ability of S. aureus. In addition, Pam-ZnO NPs showed 100% mortality of fourth instar mosquito larvae of Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus and Culex tritaeniorhynchus at the concentration of 8 and 10 μg/ml. The histopathological studies of Pam-ZnO NPs treated A. stephensi and C. quinquefasciatus larvae revealed the presence of damaged cells and tissues in the mid-gut. The damaged tissues suffered major changes including rupture and disintegration of epithelial layer and cellular vacuolization. The present study conclude that Pam-ZnO NPs showed effective control of S. aureus biofilms and mosquito larvae by damaging the mid gut cells.

  15. Study on the Cytotoxic, Genotoxic and Clastogenic Potential of Attalea phalerata Mart. ex Spreng. Oil Pulp In Vitro and In Vivo Experimental Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas de Lima, Fernando; Lima Tolouei Menegati, Sara Emilia; Karenina Traesel, Giseli; Souza de Araújo, Flávio Henrique; Honaiser Lescano, Caroline; Moraes Peixoto, Sara; Mao Silva, Felipe Ariel; Heredia Vieira, Silvia Cristina; do Carmo Vieira, Maria; Oesterreich, Silvia Aparecida

    2016-01-01

    Attalea phalerata Mart. ex Spreng. (Arecaceae), popularly known as "bacuri", is used in Brazilian folk medicine. Its oil is used orally to relieve pulmonary congestion and joint pain. In topical applications, it is applied as an effective hair tonic and anti-dandruff. The in natura pulp and its nuts are used as food because of its nutritional value. Despite its use in folk medicine, there is a lack of data regarding its in vivo/in vitro cytotoxic/genotoxic and clastogenic effects. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the cytotoxic, genotoxic and clastogenic effects of Attalea phalerata Mart. ex Spreng. oil (APMO) in vitro and in vivo. For the analysis of cytotoxic potential, the Artemia salina and MTT (3-(4,5-dimethizzol-zyl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assays were performed. Possible cytotoxic, genotoxic and clastogenic effects of APMO intake were determined by performing the comet and micronucleus assays. Male and female Wistar rats were orally treated with doses of 125, 250, 500 or 1000 mg.kg-1 of the APMO daily for 28 consecutive days (four weeks). The results showed that the APMO did not induce cell death in the experiments of Artemia salina and MTT, indicating that it has no cytotoxicity. The APMO did not cause significant damage to the DNA of the rats in the four doses used when compared to the negative control group (saline + Tween® 80). The APMO did not present any significant increase in micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MNPCEs) for the four tested doses. When compared to the positive control group, all groups (comet and micronucleus tests) were statistically different. These data suggest that the administration of Attalea phalerata Mart oil. ex Spreng does not cause cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and clastogenicity in experimental models in vitro and in vivo following oral administration in this study.

  16. Study on the Cytotoxic, Genotoxic and Clastogenic Potential of Attalea phalerata Mart. ex Spreng. Oil Pulp In Vitro and In Vivo Experimental Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima Tolouei Menegati, Sara Emilia; Karenina Traesel, Giseli; Souza de Araújo, Flávio Henrique; Honaiser Lescano, Caroline; Moraes Peixoto, Sara; Mao Silva, Felipe Ariel; Heredia Vieira, Silvia Cristina; do Carmo Vieira, Maria; Oesterreich, Silvia Aparecida

    2016-01-01

    Attalea phalerata Mart. ex Spreng. (Arecaceae), popularly known as “bacuri”, is used in Brazilian folk medicine. Its oil is used orally to relieve pulmonary congestion and joint pain. In topical applications, it is applied as an effective hair tonic and anti-dandruff. The in natura pulp and its nuts are used as food because of its nutritional value. Despite its use in folk medicine, there is a lack of data regarding its in vivo/in vitro cytotoxic/genotoxic and clastogenic effects. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the cytotoxic, genotoxic and clastogenic effects of Attalea phalerata Mart. ex Spreng. oil (APMO) in vitro and in vivo. For the analysis of cytotoxic potential, the Artemia salina and MTT (3-(4,5-dimethizzol-zyl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assays were performed. Possible cytotoxic, genotoxic and clastogenic effects of APMO intake were determined by performing the comet and micronucleus assays. Male and female Wistar rats were orally treated with doses of 125, 250, 500 or 1000 mg.kg-1 of the APMO daily for 28 consecutive days (four weeks). The results showed that the APMO did not induce cell death in the experiments of Artemia salina and MTT, indicating that it has no cytotoxicity. The APMO did not cause significant damage to the DNA of the rats in the four doses used when compared to the negative control group (saline + Tween® 80). The APMO did not present any significant increase in micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MNPCEs) for the four tested doses. When compared to the positive control group, all groups (comet and micronucleus tests) were statistically different. These data suggest that the administration of Attalea phalerata Mart oil. ex Spreng does not cause cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and clastogenicity in experimental models in vitro and in vivo following oral administration in this study. PMID:27764219

  17. Check-List of the Genus Biarum Schott in the Flora of Turkey, with a New Record for Turkey: Biarum syriacum (Spreng.) H.Riedl

    OpenAIRE

    AKAN, Hasan; BALOS, Mehmet Maruf

    2008-01-01

    A check-list of the genus Biarum Schott in the Flora of Turkey is presented, with 10 taxa, of which 2 are endemic to Turkey. A list of taxonomical changes that have occurred since the publication of the Flora of Turkey, Supplement II is given. In addition, Biarum syriacum (Spreng.) H.Riedl is recorded for the first time (C6 Gaziantep) from Turkey. In this paper an expanded morphological description of this species is provided. Moreover, an image of a type specimen, a photograph of a plant fro...

  18. Produção de biomassa de Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen e Plantago major L. em cultivo solteiro e consorciado Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen and Plantago major L. biomass production in single culture and intercropped

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Xavier do Nascimento

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a capacidade produtiva da Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen e de Plantago major L., em cultivo solteiro e consorciado. Os tratamentos em estudo foram três e quatro fileiras de plantas de tansagem por canteiro, duas fileiras de fáfia espaçadas de 36 cm ou de 54 cm, três fileiras de tansagem alternadas com duas fileiras de fáfia (36 cm-T3F36 e quatro fileiras de tansagem alternadas com duas fileiras de fáfia (54 cm-T4F54. Foi utilizado o delineamento blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições. Os espaçamentos entre plantas foram de 40 cm para fáfia e de 30 cm para tansagem. O tipo de cultivo e os espaçamentos entre fileiras não influenciaram significativamente a produção de massa fresca e seca da parte aérea e das raízes da fáfia. Na tansagem foi observado efeito significativo da forma de cultivo em todas as características avaliadas e do número de fileiras para o número de pendões. As alturas máximas das plantas de fáfia foram de 185 cm e 183 cm, aos 172 e 164 dias após o transplante, sob cultivo solteiro, nos espaçamentos de 54 cm e 36 cm, respectivamente. A razão de área equivalente (RAE, para o consórcio T3F36 foi de 1,07 e para o T4F54 foi de 1,50. No caso de recomendação agronômica, optar-se-ía pelo consórcio T4F54.This study aimed to evaluate the production of Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen and Plantago major biomass in sole culture and intercropped. The treatments in study were three and four rows of plants of common plant for plat, two rows of Pfaffia glomerata spaced of 36 cm or 54 cm, three rows of common plant alternated with two rows of Pfaffia glomerata (36 cm-T3F3(6 and four alternated rows of common plant with two rows of Pfaffia glomerata (54 cm-T4F54. The experimental was desigm randomized blocks, with four replications. The spacing between plants was 40 cm for Pfaffia glomerata and 30 cm for common plant. The culture type and spacing between rows did not

  19. Species diversity of Fergusonina Malloch gall flies (Diptera: Fergusoninidae) forming leaf bud galls on snow gum (Eucalyptus pauciflora Sieb. ex Spreng. complex), with a description of a new species from Tasmania

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new species of Fergusonina (Diptera: Fergusoninidae) fly is described from terminal leaf bud galls (TLBGs) from the Eucalyptus pauciflora Sieb. ex Spreng. (snow gum) species complex. Fergusonina tasmaniensis Nelson sp.n. is the first species from the genus Fergusonina to be described from Tasmania...

  20. Selection of Reference Genes for Expression Study in Pulp and Seeds of Theobroma grandiflorum (Willd. ex Spreng.) Schum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz dos Santos, Lucas; Santana Silva, Raner José; Oliveira Jordão do Amaral, Daniel; Barbosa de Paula, Márcia Fabiana; Ludke Falcão, Loeni; Legavre, Thierry; Alves, Rafael Moyses

    2016-01-01

    Cupuassu (Theobroma grandiflorum [Willd. ex Spreng.] Schum) is a species of high economic importance in Brazil with great potential at international level due to the multiple uses of both its seeds and pulp in the industry of sweets and cosmetics. For this reason, the cupuassu breeding program focused on the selection of genotypes with high pulp and seed quality—selection associated with the understanding of the mechanisms involved in fruit formation. Gene expression is one of the most used approaches related to such understanding. In this sense, quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) is a powerful tool, since it rapidly and reliably quantifies gene expression levels across different experimental conditions. The analysis by qPCR and the correct interpretation of data depend on signal normalization using reference genes, i.e. genes presenting a uniform pattern of expression in the analyzed samples. Here, we selected and analyzed the expression of five genes from cupuassu (ACP, ACT, GAPDH, MDH, TUB) to be used as candidates for reference genes on pulp and seed of young, maturing and mature cupuassu fruits. The evaluation of the gene expression stability was obtained using the NormFinder, geNorm and BestKeeper programs. In general, our results indicated that the GAPDH and MDH genes constituted the best combination as reference genes to analyze the expression of cupuassu samples. To our knowledge, this is the first report of reference gene definition in cupuassu, and these results will support subsequent analysis related to gene expression studies in cupuassu plants subjected to different biotic or abiotic conditions as well as serve as a tool for diversity analysis based on pulp and seed quality. PMID:27501324

  1. Pharmacological studies on Buchanania lanzan Spreng.-A focus on wound healing with particular reference to anti-biofilm properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ashok Pattnaik; Ratul Sarkar; Amrita Sharma; Kirendra Kumar Yadav; Alekh Kumar; Paramita Roy; Avijit Mazumder; Sanmoy Karmakar; Tuhinadri Sen

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the wound healing activity of the methanolic root extract of Buchanania lanzan Spreng. (B. lanzan), with a focus on antimicrobial and anti-biofilm properties. Methods: The extract was evaluated for its wound healing properties (excision and incision models) as evident from the analysis of tensile strength and wound contraction. The extract was also screened for antibacterial properties against different Gram positive and Gram negative bacterial strains. B. lanzan was also studied for its effect on biofilm formation and disruption of preformed biofilms. The synergistic effect of B. lanzan was determined in combination with gentamicin. Results:Topical application of B. lanzan (10%w/w ointment) significantly increased (40.84%) the tensile strength in the incision wound model. B. lanzan also showed significant wound healing activity in excision model and such significant activity was observed from the 9th day. Whereas Soframycin displayed significant wound healing activity from the 6th day. It was found that root extracts of B. lanzan revealed significant inhibition against all tested pathogens. B. lanzan displayed antimicrobial activity against Gram positive (MIC 0.625 mg/mL) and Gram negative (MIC 0.625-1.25 mg/mL). B. lanzan was able to reduce biofilm formation and also caused disruption of preformed biofilms in a manner similar to ciprofloxacin. However, gentamicin was found to be ineffective against biofilms formed by Gram negative organism. According to the fractional inhibitory concentration index, B. lanzan displayed synergistic activity when it was combined with gentamicin. Conclusions:From this study it may be concluded that the root extract of B. lanzan revealed significant wound healing potential, which was supported and well correlated with pronounced antibacterial activity of the tested plant parts.

  2. The Prevention of Tipburn on Chinese Cabbage (Brassica rapa L. var. pekinensis (Lour. Olson with Foliar Fertilizers and Biostimulators

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    Borkowski Jan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Investigations were carried out in 2008-2010 on Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. var. pekinensis (Lour. Olson. The main problem in cultivation of this vegetable is physiological disorder – tipburn. It is connected with low level of calcium in young leaves and with water deficiency. In 2008, seeds of Chinese cabbage were sown twice, in April and July. In July, the day temperature was high (25-30 °C and relative air humidity was low (35-50%. In these conditions, the young leaves were injured heavily. Rotting was caused by the activity of bacteria Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum (Jones Hauben et al. However, three times foliar application of 1.5% calcium nitrate or 1.5% Wapnovit significantly reduced the tipburn. Also spraying with 0.03% of Tytanit (containing ions of titanium or with 2.5% of Biochikol 020 PC (containing chitosan gave similar effect. In these conditions, application of 1.5% K-300 (containing potassium oxide and ammonium nitrate exacerbated symptoms of tipburn. Application of Wapnovit or Tytanit reduced instantly rotting of heads contrary to the application of their mixture. In autumn cultivation, when the relative air humidity was 80-100%, spraying with 1.5% solution of K-300 significantly decreased injuries in comparison to control. Application of Wapnovit, K-300, Biochikol, Tytanit or the mixture of Biochikol and calcium nitrate eliminated rotting. In experiments done in the springs of 2009 and 2010, when weather conditions were less favorable for tipburn appearance, a severity of it was lower but application of K-300 increased it appearance. In these experiments, Biochikol and Wapnovit eliminated rotting of heads. The results of three years of study have shown that calcium nitrate, Wapnovit, Tytanit and Biochikol limited occurrence of tipburn and bacterial rotting of Chinese cabbage, but the weather conditions during cultivation had the greatest impact on the severity of tipburn.

  3. Effect of Extraction Solvents and Drying Methods on the Physicochemical and Antioxidant Properties of Helicteres hirsuta Lour. Leaves

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    Hong Ngoc Thuy Pham

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Helicteres hirsuta Lour. (H. hirsuta L. is widely distributed in southeast Asian countries and has been used traditionally as a medicinal plant. However, optimal conditions for preparation of dried materials for further processing and suitable solvents for the extraction of bioactive compounds have not been investigated. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of different extraction solvents and different drying conditions on the physicochemical properties and antioxidant capacity of the H. hirsuta L. leaves. The results showed that both extraction solvents and drying conditions had a significant impact on physicochemical and antioxidant properties of H. hirsuta L. leaves. Among the five solvents investigated, water could extract the highest level of solid content and phenolic compounds, whereas methanol was more effective for obtaining flavonoids and saponins than other solvents. The leaves dried under either hot-air drying at 80 °C (HAD80, or vacuum drying at 50 °C (VD50 yielded the highest amount of total phenolic compounds (7.77 and 8.33 mg GAE/g, respectively and total flavonoid content (5.79 and 4.62 mg CE/g, respectively, and possessed the strongest antioxidant power, while leaves dried using infrared drying at 30 °C had the lowest levels of bioactive compounds. Phenolic compounds including flavonoids had a strong correlation with antioxidant capacity. Therefore, HAD80 and VD50 are recommended for the preparation of dried H. hirsuta L. leaves. Water and methanol are suggested solvents to be used for extraction of phenolic compounds and saponins from H. hirsuta L. leaves for the potential application in the nutraceutical and pharmaceutical industries.

  4. Teratogenic effect of Euratorium adenophorum spreng extract in rats%紫茎泽兰醇提取物对大鼠致畸作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李厚勇; 王蕊; 张振铃; 徐明; 王蓉; 修海迪

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨紫茎泽兰醇提取物对大鼠致畸作用.方法 按照《农药登记毒理学试验方法》,将孕鼠随机分为5组,紫茎泽兰高、中、低剂量组(分别于孕第6~16d经口灌胃给予1 000、500、200 mg/kg紫茎泽兰醇提取物),阴性对照组(蒸馏水),阳性对照组(阿司匹林300 mg/kg).于妊娠第20d处死孕鼠,观察孕鼠生殖情况和胎鼠生长发育、骨骼内脏畸形情况.结果 紫茎泽兰中、高剂量组吸收胎率分别为15.08%和7.62%,与阴性对照组比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),其它各剂量紫茎泽兰组孕鼠进食、活动、体重增长、死胎率均未见明显影响;与阴性对照组比较,胎鼠体重、身长、尾长无明显差异(P>0.05);胎鼠外观、骨骼、内脏检查均未发现明显畸形.结论 紫茎泽兰醇提取物具有一定胚胎毒性,无明显致畸作用.%Objective To study the teratogenicity of Euratorium adenophorwn spreng extract in rats. Methods According to toxicological test methods of pesticides for registration,the pregnant rats were divided into 5 groups;three Euratorium adenophorwn spreng extract dosage groups(1000,500,200 mg/kg) .negative control group and positive control group(300 mg/kg aspirin). Euratorium adenophorum spreng extract and aspirin were given orally from 6th to 16th day of gestation. The pregnant rats were sacrificed on the 20th day of gestation. Embryonic and fetal developmental parameters were surveyed. The appearance, viscera and skeleton of the fetuses were examined. Results Absorbed fetus rate in moderate and high dose groups was 7. 62% and 15. 08% .showing obvious increases compared with negative control group. There was no difference in the rate of fetal mortality and weight gain in all treated and negative control group. The weight, body length and tail length showed no significant difference between the treated groups and negative control group. Euratorium adenophorum spreng extract didn' t induce obvious

  5. Screening of plants acting against Heterometrus laoticus scorpion venom activity on fibroblast cell lysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uawonggul, Nunthawun; Chaveerach, Arunrat; Thammasirirak, Sompong; Arkaravichien, Tarinee; Chuachan, Chattong; Daduang, Sakda

    2006-01-16

    The aqueous extracts of 64 plant species, listed as animal- or insect-bite antidotes in old Thai drug recipes were screened for their activity against fibroblast cell lysis after Heterometrus laoticus scorpion venom treatment. The venom was preincubated with plant extract for 30 min and furthered treated to confluent fibroblast cells for 30 min. More than 40% efficiency (test/control) was obtained from cell treatment with venom preincubated with extracts of Andrographis paniculata Nees (Acanthaceae), Barringtonia acutangula (L.) Gaertn. (Lecythidaceae), Calamus sp. (Palmae), Clinacanthus nutans Lindau (Acanthaceae), Euphorbia neriifolia L. (Euphorbiaceae), Ipomoea aquatica Forssk (Convolvulaceae), Mesua ferrea L. (Guttiferae), Passiflora laurifolia L. (Passifloraceae), Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. (Labiatae), Ricinus communis L. (Euphorbiaceae), Rumex sp. (Polygonaceae) and Sapindus rarak DC. (Sapindaceae), indicating that they had a tendency to be scorpion venom antidotes. However, only Andrographis paniculata and Barringtonia acutangula extracts provided around 50% viable cells from extract treatments without venom preincubation. These two plant extracts are expected to be scorpion venom antidotes with low cytotoxicity.

  6. Screening of medicinal plants for induction of somatic segregation activity in Aspergillus nidulans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos Ruiz, A; De la Torre, R A; Alonso, N; Villaescusa, A; Betancourt, J; Vizoso, A

    1996-07-05

    Knowledge about mutagenic properties of plants commonly used in traditional medicine is limited. A screening for genotoxic activity was carried out in aqueous or alcoholic extracts prepared from 13 medicinal plants widely used as folk medicine in Cuba: Lepidium virginicum L. (Brassicaceae): Plantago major L. and Plantago lanceolata L. (Plantaginaceae); Ortosiphon aristatus Blume, Mentha x piperita L., Melissa officinalis L. and Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. (Lamiaceae); Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf (Poaceae); Passiflora incarnata L. (Passifloraceae); Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Zingiberaceae); Piper auritum HBK. (Piperaceae); Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Anacardeaceae) and Momordica charantia L. (Cucurbitaceae). A plate incorporation assay with Aspergillus nidulans was employed, allowing detection of somatic segregation as a result of mitotic crossing-over, chromosome malsegregation or clastogenic effects. Aspergillus nidulans D-30, a well-marked strain carrying four recessive mutations for conidial color in heterozygosity, which permitted the direct visual detection of segregants, was used throughout this study. As a result, only in the aqueous extract of one of the plants screened (Momordica charantia) a statistical significant increase in the frequency of segregant sectors per colony was observed, and consequently, a genotoxic effect is postulated.

  7. Comparative study of the assay of Artemia salina L. and the estimate of the medium lethal dose (LD50 value) in mice, to determine oral acute toxicity of plant extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logarto Parra, A; Silva Yhebra, R; Guerra Sardiñas, I; Iglesias Buela, L

    2001-09-01

    Artemia salina L. (Artemiidae), the brine shrimp larva, is an invertebrate used in the alternative test to determine toxicity of chemical and natural products. In this study the Medium Lethal Concentrations (LC50 value) of 20 plant extracts, Aloe vera (L.) Burm. F. (Aloeaceae), Artemisia absinthium L. (Asteraceae); Citrus aurantium L. (Rutaceae); Cymbopogon citratus (DC. Ex Nees) Stapf (Poaceae); Datura stramonium L. (Solanaceae); Justicia pectoralis Jacq. (Acanthaceae); Musa x paradisiaca L. (Musaceae); Ocimum basilicum L.; O. gratissimum L.; O. tenuiflorum L. (Lamiaceae); Pimenta dioica (L.) Merr. (Myrtaceae); Piper auritum Kunth (Piperaceae); Plantago major L. (Plantaginaceae); Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. (Lamiaceae); Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae); Senna alata (L.) Roxb. (Fabaceae); Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (L.) Vahl (Verbenaceae); and Thuja occidentalis L. (Cupressaceae), were determined using Artemia salina L. (Artemiidae), with the objective of relating the results to the LD50 values reported in mice (tested at three concentrations: 10, 100, and 1000 microg/mL, for each extract). We found good correlation between the in vivo and the in vitro tests (r = 0.85 p < 0.05), and this method is a useful tool for predicting oral acute toxicity in plant extracts.

  8. Determination of Total Reducing Saccharide in Hainan Dioscorea Esculenta ( Lour. ) brukill%海南毛薯干粉中总还原糖含量的测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何娇; 黄广民

    2012-01-01

    Using glucose as standard and DNS as color developing reagent, the content of total reducing saccharide in Hainan Dioscorea esculenta (Lour.) brukill was determined by spectrophotometry. The re- suits showed that the maximum absorption wavelength of the sample was 480nm. The maximum recovery rate was determined as 101.9% , and the minimum was 99.7%. The relative error was ± 1.9%. The content of total reducing saecharide and starch in Hainan Dioscorea esculenta (Lour.) brukill was 71.08% and 63.97% , respectively.%以葡萄糖为标准溶液,以3,5-二硝基水杨酸为显色剂,用分光光度法测定海南毛薯干粉中总还原糖含量.结果表明:在波长480 nm处有最大吸收峰,测定回收率最大为101.9%,最小为99.7%,相对误差为±1.9%.实测得毛薯干粉中总还原糖含量为71.08%,毛薯中淀粉含量为63.97%.

  9. Reflexiones sobre el Solutrense portugués: a propósito de la industria Paleolítico superior de Correio-Mor (Loures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soledad CORCHÓN RODRÍGUEZ

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO: A propósito de quatro pecas paleolíticas identificadas na gruta do Correio-Mor (Loures, cuja historia das investigaçôes, fases de ocupaçâo e sequência estratigráfica se descrevem, apresentam-se, sucessivamente as características tipológicas dos exemplares e procede-se à correspondente integraçâo, no quadro dos conjuntos solutrenses mais importantes da regiáo estremenha e alto-ribatejana (Salemas, Vale Almoinha, Caldeiráo e de outras áreas do país. Tais considerandos, permitiram, a discussáo da sequência cronológica e tipológico-industrial do Solutrense em Portugal comparando tais resultados com os conhecidos em outras áreas peninsulares, designadamente a Cornija Cantábrica e o litoral mediterrânico.ABSTRACT: The identification of four palaeolithic artifacts found on the Correio-Mor cave (Loures is described along with the phases of the settlement's occupation and the stratigraphie sequence. The artifacts are integrated on the major Solutrean assemblages found in the Massif Calcareous of the Estremadura region (Salemas, Vale Almoinha and Caldeiráo and in othet tegions of the country. Results enabled the discussion the chronology sequence and industrial sequence of the Solutrean period in Portugal and its comparison with other peninsular areas, namely the Cantabrian Region and the Mediterranean coast.

  10. Assessment of physical vulnerability of buildings and analysis of landslide risk at the municipal scale - application to the Loures municipality, Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillard-Gonçalves, C.; Zêzere, J. L.; Pereira, S.; Garcia, R. A. C.

    2015-09-01

    This study offers a semi-quantitative assessment of the physical vulnerability of buildings to landslides in the Loures municipality, as well as an analysis of the landslide risk computed as the product of the vulnerability by the economic value of the buildings and by the landslide hazard. The physical vulnerability assessment, which was based on a questionnaire sent to a pool of Portuguese and European researchers, and the assessment of the subjectivity of their answers are innovative contributions of this work. The generalization of the vulnerability to the smallest statistical subsection was validated by changing the map unit and applying the vulnerability to all the buildings of a test site (approximately 800 buildings), which were inventoried during fieldwork. The economic value of the buildings of the Loures municipality was calculated using an adaptation of the Portuguese Tax Services formula. The hazard was assessed by combining the susceptibility of the slopes, the spatio-temporal probability and the frequency-magnitude relationship of the landslide. Finally, the risk was mapped for different landslide magnitudes and different spatio-temporal probabilities. The highest landslide risk was found for the landslide with a depth of 3 m in the landslide body, and a height of 1m in the landslide foot.

  11. Phylogeny of Eupatorium adenophorum Spreng in Asteracea Basing on Chloroplast Sequences%基于叶绿体序列分析紫茎泽兰在菊科的系统发育

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭秀芳; 杜向红; 牛善策; 聂小军; 张迎新; 万方浩; 宋卫宁

    2011-01-01

    In order to analyze the taxonomic status of Eupatorium adenophorum Spreng in Asteracea,the chloroplast rpl16 , psbA-trnH and trnL-F of Eupatorium adenophorum Spreng were amplified and sequenced. All the sequences were analyzed basing on sequence alignment with other chloroplast genes of Asteracea species in GenBank. Phylogenetic analysis was conducted with Mega 4. 0 software. Phylogenetic relationships were estimated by neighbor-joining method. The results indicated that,The Composite plants can be classified as two classes in the phylogenetic systematic. The class contained Chrysanthemum indicum and Leucanthemum vulgare was far related to Eupatorium adenophorum Spreng; Eupatorium adenophorum Spreng had the closest taxonomic status with other plants of the genus Eupatorium and Guizotia abyssinica, and it was much closer than that between Helianthus annuus and Parthenium argentatum and the relation between Eupatorium adenophorum Spreng and Lactuca sativa, Leucanthemum vulgare and Chrysanthemum indicum was far. So our molecular evidences indicate that Eupatorium adenophorum Spreng belongs to the genus Eupatorium; The sequences of the combined dataset (rpl16 + psbA-trnH + trnL-F)ranged from 2 140 bp to 2 203 bp in length. The sequences were aligned and final sequences were 2 399 bp in length,including 381 variable sites and 190 parsim-info sites. Analyses of three separate and combined datasets provided a good amount of informative characters and resolved the systematical relationships of Eupatorium adenophorum Spreng well.%为研究紫茎泽兰(Eupatorium adentophorum spreng)在菊科的系统发育,利用通用引物对紫茎泽兰叶绿体DNA的rpl16内含子及psbA-trnH与trnL-F两个基因间隔区进行PCR扩增并测序,将其序列分别与GenBank中部分菊科(Asteraceae)植物的基因序列进行比对分析.应用Mega 4.0软件进行分子遗传进化分析,采用邻接法构建系统进化树.结果表明,菊科植物在系统分类上呈现出两大类

  12. Wood anatomy of Mollinedia glabra (Spreng. Perkins (Monimiaceae in two Restinga Vegetation Formations at Rio das Ostras, RJ, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda da S. Novaes

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aimed to characterize the anatomical structure of the wood of specimens of Mollinedia glabra (Spreng. Perkins growing in two contiguous formations of restinga vegetation at Praia Virgem, in the municipality of Rio das Ostras, RJ. Both the Open Palmae (OPS and the Sandy Strip Closed Shrub (SSCS formations are found in coastal regions that receive between 1,100 and 1,300 mm of rainfall per year. Sapwood samples were collected in both formations. Typical anatomical features for this species include: solitary vessels, radial multiples or clusters elements, that are circular to angular in outline, 5-15 barred scalarifor perforation plates, ood parenchya scanty, septate fiber-tracheids, and wide multiseriate rays with prismatic crystals. Statistical analyses indicated a significant increase in the frequency of vessel elements and an increase in fiber-tracheid diameters in OPS individuals. These characteristics are considered structural adaptations to increased water needs caused by a greater exposure to sunlight. Continuous pruning may be responsible for the tyloses observed in OPS plants. The greater lengths and higher frequencies of the rays in SSCS trees ay be due to the greater diaeters of their branches. ur results suggest that . glabra develops structural adaptations to the restinga micro-environmental variations during its development.Este trabalho objetiva caracterizar a estrutura anatômica do lenho de Mollinedia glabra, ocorrente em duas formações vegetais contíguas na restinga da Praia Virgem, município de Rio das Ostras, RJ. Essas formações Arbustiva Aberta de Pal-mae (AAP e Arbustiva Fechada do Cordão Arenoso (AFCA estão sobre cordão arenoso e recebem precipitações anuais de 1.100-1.300 mm. Foram obtidas amostras do lenho das duas forações. São características anatôicas gerais da espécie: elementos de vasos solitários, em arranjos radiais ou cachos, de seção de circular a angular; placa de perfuração es

  13. The Effect of Magnesium Deficiency on Photosynthesis of Longan(Dimocarpus long ana Lour.)Seedlings%缺镁对龙眼光合作用的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李延; 刘星辉; 庄卫民

    2001-01-01

    缺镁胁迫下,龙眼(Dimocarpus longana Lour.)幼苗叶片光合色素含量、叶绿体对光吸收能力、表观量子产量和羧化效率下降;光补偿点和CO2 补偿点提高,光饱和点和CO2饱和点下降;Chl.a荧光动力学参数Fv/Fo、Fv /Fm和Fd/Fs的降低说明缺镁龙眼PSⅡ活性下降;F685/F736比值的下降则表明缺镁降低了激发能在两个光系统之间分配的调节能力。就缺镁对龙眼光合作用影响的机理进行了讨论。%The effect of magnesium deficiency on photosynthesis of longan(Dimocarpus longana Lour.)seedlings was studied using hydroponic ex periment.Magnesium deficiency led to the decline of the contents of chlorophyll and carotenoid,the capability of light energy absorption of chloroplast as well as maximum photosynthesis at both light and CO2 saturation conditions.On the other hand,the apparent quantum yield,carboxylation efficiency and both light and CO2 compensation points turned out to become higher as magnesium become de ficient.The results of chlorophyll a fluorescence induction measurement showed a decrease of Fv/Fo,Fv/Fm and Fd/Fs in magnesium deficient longan leaves,indic ating that primary light energy conversion ability and potential photosynthetic activities of PSⅡ were inhibited.The decrease in F684/F736 under ma gnesium deficiency condition suggested that the regulation of excitation energy distribution between PSⅡ and PSⅠ was reduced.The discussion was made on the re sponsive mechanism of longan to magnesium deficiency.

  14. Semi-quantitative assessment of the physical vulnerability of buildings for the landslide risk analysis. A case study in the Loures municipality, Lisbon district, Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillard-Gonçalves, Clémence; Zêzere, José Luis; Pereira, Susana; Garcia, Ricardo

    2016-04-01

    The physical vulnerability of the buildings of Loures (a Portuguese municipality) to landslides was assessed, and the landslide risk was computed as the product of the landslide hazard by the vulnerability and the market economic value of the buildings. First, the hazard was assessed by combining the spatio-temporal probability and the frequency-magnitude relationship of the landslides, which was established by plotting the probability of a landslide area. The susceptibility of deep-seated and shallow landslides was assessed by a bi-variate statistical method and was mapped. The annual and multiannual spatio-temporal probabilities were estimated, providing a landslide hazard model. Then, an assessment of buildings vulnerability to landslides, based on an inquiry of a pool of landslide European experts, was developed and applied to the study area. The inquiry was based on nine magnitude scenarios and four structural building types. A sub-pool of the landslide experts who know the study area was extracted from the pool, and the variability of the answers coming from the pool and the sub-pool was assessed with standard deviation. Moreover, the average vulnerability of the basic geographic entities was compared by changing the map unit and applying the vulnerability to all the buildings of a test site (included in the study area), the inventory of which was listed on the field. Next, the market economic value of the buildings was calculated using an adaptation of the Portuguese Tax Services approach. Finally, the annual and multiannual landslide risk was computed for the nine landslide magnitude scenarios and different spatio-temporal probabilities by multiplying the potential loss (Vulnerability × Economic Value) by the hazard probability. As a rule, the vulnerability values given by the sub-pool of experts who know the study area are higher than those given by the European experts, namely for the high magnitude landslides. The obtained vulnerabilities vary from 0

  15. Atividade antioxidante e toxicidade preliminar do extrato e frações obtidas das folhas e cascas do caule de Dasyphyllum tomentosum (Spreng. Cabrera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.S. Paula

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Dasyphyllum tomentosum (Spreng. Cabrera, açucará ou espinho-de-agulha, pertence à família Asteraceae, a qual compreende muitas espécies com propriedades terapêuticas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar extratos e frações de folhas e de cascas do caule de D. tomentosum, com relação as atividade antioxidante, citotóxica e hemolítica em testes in vitro. Todas as amostras apresentaram atividade antioxidante pelo método de inibição de DPPH, com destaque para a fração acetato de etila obtida das folhas cuja atividade foi comparável à dos padrões ácido ascórbico e rutina. Com relação à redução do complexo fosfomolibdênio, observou-se que esta mesma fração foi semelhante somente a rutina enquanto a fração obtida das cascas do caule apresentou resultado superior. Não foi observada atividade citotóxica e hemolítica frente aos modelos utilizados com os extratos e frações. Os resultados obtidos demonstram o potencial antioxidante da espécie sem apresentar toxicidade.

  16. Development and significance of SCAR marker QG12-5 for Canarium album (Lour.) Raeusch by molecular cloning from improved RAPD amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, J L; Yin, Z C; Mei, Z Q; Wei, C L; Chen, H C; Wu, X S; Fu, J J

    2016-08-26

    Sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) is a valuable molecular marker for the genetic identification of any species. This marker is mainly derived from molecular cloning of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). We have previously reported the use of an improved RAPD technique for the genetic characterization of different samples of Canarium album (Lour.) Raeusch (C. album). In this study, DNA fragments were amplified using improved RAPD amplified from different samples of C. album. The amplified DNA fragment was excised, purified from an agarose gel and cloned into a pGM-T vector; subsequently, a positive clone, called QG12-5 was identified by PCR amplification and enzymatic digestion and sequenced by Sanger di-deoxy sequencing method. This clone was revealed consisting of 510 nucleotides of C. album. The SCAR marker QG12-5 was developed using specifically designed PCR primers and optimized PCR conditions. This SCAR marker expressed seven continuous "TATG" [(TATG)n] tandem repeats, which was found to characterize C. album. Subsequently, this novel SCAR marker was deposited in GenBank with accession No. KT359568. Therefore, we successfully developed a C. album-specific SCAR marker for the identification and authentication of different C. album species in this study.

  17. Genetic Diversity and Genetic Structure of Different Types of Natural Populations in Osmanthus fragrans Lour. and the Relationships with Sex Ratio, Population Structure, and Geographic Isolation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaoqing Hu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Osmanthus fragrans Lour., an evergreen small tree, has the rare sexual system of androdioecy (coexistence of males and hermaphrodites, once with wide-spread natural distribution in the areas of the South Yangzi river basin. However, due to excessive human utilization, natural distribution became fragmented and the number and size of natural populations reduced sharply. With four different types of natural populations from the same region as research object, we aim to provide a comparative analysis on the relationships among genetic diversity, sexual system, population structure and size, and geographic isolation by ISSR. In genetic parameters of Ne, He, and I, the LQGC population had the highest value and the LQZGQ population had the lowest value. These indicated that LQGC population showed the highest genetic diversity, followed by QDH and JN population, and LQZGQ population exhibited the lowest genetic diversity. Genetic diversity in populations is closely related to population structure, reproduction mode, and sex ratio. However, there seems to be no obvious correlation between genetic diversity and population size. The results of AMOVA showed that genetic variations mostly occurred within populations. It indicates that no significant genetic differentiation among populations occurs, and geographic isolation has no significant effect on genetic diversity.

  18. Impact of Precooling and Controlled-Atmosphere Storage on γ-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA) Accumulation in Longan (Dimocarpus longan Lour.) Fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Molin; Ndeurumio, Kessy H; Zhao, Lei; Hu, Zhuoyan

    2016-08-24

    Longan (Dimocarpus longan Lour.) fruit cultivars 'Chuliang' and 'Shixia' were analyzed for γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) accumulation after precooling and in controlled-atmosphere storage. Fruit were exposed to 5% O2 plus 3%, 5%, or 10% CO2 at 4 °C, and GABA and associated enzymes, aril firmness, and pericarp color were measured. Aril softening and pericarp browning were delayed by 5% CO2 + 5% O2. GABA concentrations and glutamate decarboxylase (GAD; EC 4.1.1.15) activities declined during storage at the higher-CO2 treatments. However, GABA aminotransferase (GABA-T; EC 2.6.1.19) activities in elevated CO2-treated fruit fluctuated during storage. GABA concentrations increased after precooling treatments. GAD activity and GABA-T activity were different between cultivars after precooling. GABA concentrations in fruit increased after 3 days of 10% CO2 + 5% O2 treatment and then declined as storage time increased. GABA accumulation was associated with stimulation of GAD activity rather than inhibition of GABA-T activity.

  19. CYTOTOXIC ACTIVITY OF N-HEXANE, CHLOROFORM AND CARBON TETRACHLORIDE FRACTIONS OF THE ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF LEAVES AND STEMS OF BACCAUREA RAMIFLORA (LOUR..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apurba Sarker Apu et al.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to find out the cytotoxic activity of the n-hexane, chloroform and carbon tetrachloride fractions of the ethanolic extracts of the leaves and stems of Baccaurea ramiflora (Lour.. Ethanolic extracts of the leaves and stems of Baccaurea ramiflora were subjected to solvent-solvent partitioning using n-hexane, chloroform and carbon tetrachloride to obtain n-hexane leaves fraction, chloroform leaves fraction, n-hexane stems fraction, chloroform stems fraction and carbon tetrachloride stems fraction. Each fraction was assayed for their cytotoxic effect using brine shrimp lethality bioassay. Among the fractions, the n-hexane fractions of leaves and stems showed significant cytotoxic effects having LC50 values of 7.79 µg/ml (95% confidence interval 6.48-9.37 and 5.78 µg/ml (95% confidence interval 4.76-6.99 respectively as compared to vincristine sulfate (LC50= 2.81 µg/ml (95% confidence interval 1.97-4.01 which was used as positive control. The results support the traditional uses of B. ramiflora for various medicinal purposes and thus demand the isolation and identification of active principles and thorough bioassay.

  20. Genetic diversity and genetic structure of different types of natural populations in Osmanthus fragrans Lour. and the relationships with sex ratio, population structure, and geographic isolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shaoqing; Wu, Shuai; Wang, Yiguang; Zhao, Hongbo; Zhang, Yuanyan

    2014-01-01

    Osmanthus fragrans Lour., an evergreen small tree, has the rare sexual system of androdioecy (coexistence of males and hermaphrodites), once with wide-spread natural distribution in the areas of the South Yangzi river basin. However, due to excessive human utilization, natural distribution became fragmented and the number and size of natural populations reduced sharply. With four different types of natural populations from the same region as research object, we aim to provide a comparative analysis on the relationships among genetic diversity, sexual system, population structure and size, and geographic isolation by ISSR. In genetic parameters of N e , H e , and I, the LQGC population had the highest value and the LQZGQ population had the lowest value. These indicated that LQGC population showed the highest genetic diversity, followed by QDH and JN population, and LQZGQ population exhibited the lowest genetic diversity. Genetic diversity in populations is closely related to population structure, reproduction mode, and sex ratio. However, there seems to be no obvious correlation between genetic diversity and population size. The results of AMOVA showed that genetic variations mostly occurred within populations. It indicates that no significant genetic differentiation among populations occurs, and geographic isolation has no significant effect on genetic diversity.

  1. Components Analysis of Amino Acids and Mineral Elements in Rhizome of Dioscorea Cirrhosa Lour.%薯莨块茎中氨基酸及矿质元素成分分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓菲; 秦培文; 胡世伟; 纪丽丽; 范润珍; 宋文东

    2011-01-01

    [目的]分析测定薯莨(Dioscorea cirrhosae Lour.)块茎中的氨基酸和矿质元素的种类及含量,评价薯莨的营养价值,为薯莨的开发利用提供理论依据.[方法]采用高效液相色谱法测定氨基酸含量;采用电感耦合等离子质谱法测定矿质元素含量.[结果]测得氨基酸16种,必需氨基酸占氨基酸总量的37.98%,其中天冬氨酸、谷氨酸、亮氨酸含量较高,居于前3位,蛋氨酸含量最低;薯莨块茎中富含K、Ca、Na、P和Mg 5种常量元素和B、Mn、Mo、Co、Ni、Cr、Cu、Se、Fe、Sr、Zn、Ba、Cd和Li 14种微量元素.[结论]测得署莨块茎中富含多种营养成分及药效成分,该研究为薯莨的开发利用提供了理论依据.%[ Objective] To analyze and determine the compositions of amino acids and mineral elements in Rhizoma Dioscorea Cirrhosae tuber,so as to provide theoretical evidence for the development of rhizome of Dioscorea cirrhosa Lout. [ Method ] Contents of amino acids were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography and that of mineral elements were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. [ Result ] Sixteen amino acids were obtained and lowest in methianine,the content of essential amino acids was 37.98% ,of which the content of as partic acid,glutamic acid and leucine ranked the first,second and third respectively. Dioscorea cirrhosa Lour. tuber were rich in five constant elements K,Ca,Na, P and Mg as well as fourteen trace elements B, Mn, Mo, Co, Ni, Cr, Cu, Se, Fe, Sr, Zn, Ba, Cd and Li. [ Conclusion ] Dioscorea cirrhosa Lour. tuber are rich in plenty of nutrient components and pharmacodynamic elements, and this case provides theoretical evidence for the development of Dioscorea cirrhosa Lour. tuber.

  2. Anti-Inflammatory Potential of Ethanolic Leaf Extract of Eupatorium adenophorum Spreng. Through Alteration in Production of TNF-α, ROS and Expression of Certain Genes

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    Ashim K. Chakravarty

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Search for a novel anti-inflammatory agent from a herbal source, such as Eupatorium adenophorum Spreng., a plant from the Eastern Himalayas, is of prime interest in the present investigation. Inflammation causes tissue destruction and development of diseases such as asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, and so forth. The ethanolic leaf extract of E. adenophorum (EEA was administered intravenously and in other cases topically at the site of delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH reaction in mouse foot paw induced with dinitrofluorobenzene. EEA can effectively inhibit DTH reaction and bring back normalcy to the paw much earlier than the controls. Efficacy of EEA on regulatory mechanisms for inflammation has also been considered. Intravenous administration of EEA increased the number of CD4+ T cells in spleen and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α in serum of DTH mice. Initially it was difficult to reconcile with the anti-inflammatory role of EEA and simultaneous induction of TNF-α, an established pro-inflammatory cytokine. EEA induces higher expression of TNF-α gene and amount of the cytokine in serum. We discussed the other role of TNF-α, its involvement in repairing tissue damage incurred in course of inflammatory reaction. EEA also induces TGF-β encoding a cytokine involved in tissue repair mechanism. EEA inhibits expression of another pro-inflammatory cytokine gene IL-1β and downregulates cycloxygenase 2 (COX2 gene responsible for metabolism of inflammatory mediators like prostaglandins. Furthermore, anti-inflammatory role of EEA is also revealed through its inhibition of hydroxyl radical generation. Notably EEA does not necessarily affect the expression of other inflammation-related genes such as IL-6, IL-10 and IKK. The present study reports and analyzes for the first time the anti-inflammatory property of the leaf extract of E. adenophorum.

  3. Estudio de la composición química de las semillas y aceites seminales de Ligustrum lucidum Ait y Ligustrum sinense Lour

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    Nolasco, S. M.

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available The fruits of Ligustrum lucidum Ait and Ligustrum sinense Lour were harvested in Olavarria (Province of Buenos Aires, Argentine. The seeds and extracted oils were analysed for characteristics and composition. The seed contained 8,7-10 and 10,7 % (dry basis, respectively. The physicochemical characteristics of the crude oils were: refractive index 1,4647 and 1,4640 (at 25ºC, iodine value 93,7 and 88,8, saponification index 167 and 154, unsaponifiable matter 11 and 18 %, and free fatty acid content of 4,8 and 9,2 (mg KOH/g, respectively. Gas chromatographic analysis of the oils revealed high levels of oleic acid (57,8 and 51,10%, about 25,1 and 29,6 % of saturated acids, respectively, most of them consisting of palmitic acid, but they have a significant content of acid of more than 18 atoms of carbon. The residual seed meals contained low level of crude protein and of available lysine (2.45, 3.65, g/16g N, respectively. Total and phytic acid phosphorous, calcium, ash, crude fiber, and polysaccharides (non presence of starch contents are reported.Frutos de Ligustrum lucidum Ait y Ligustrum sinense Lour fueron cosechados en Olavarría (provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina y sus semillas separadas en forma manual. Las semillas se agotaron con n-hexano, obteniendo los aceites crudos con rendimientos del 8,7-10% y 10,7 % (base seca, respectivamente. Los aceites crudos se examinaron en sus características fisicoquímicas (Índice de refracción: 1,4647 y 1,4640 (a 25ºC, Indice de iodo: 93,7 y 88,8, Indice de saponificación: 167 y 154, insaponificable: 11 y 18 %, Indice de acidez: 4,8 y 9,2 (mgKOH/g respectivamente. El análisis por cromatografía gaseosa de los ésteres metílicos reveló alto porcentaje de ácido oleico (57,8 y 51,1%, alrededor de un 25,1 y 29,6 % de ácidos saturados, respectivamente, predominando el ácido palmítico, pero con un significativo contenido de ácidos de más de 18 átomos de carbono. Las harinas residuales de

  4. Potential of Spectral Reflectance as Postharvest Classification Tool for Flower Development of Calla Lily (Zantedeschia aethiopica (L. Spreng. Potencial de la Reflectancia Espectral como Herramienta para la Clasificación Poscosecha del Desarrollo Floral en Cala (Zantedeschia aethiopica (L. Spreng.

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    Antonio J . Steidle Neto

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Unsuitable postharvest management is one of the most serious problems that floriculture has to face. An option for reducing postharvest losses is to use automatic systems for flower sorting and classification, which yield consistent results, reduce costs and speed up these tasks. The objective of this work was show the potential of spectral reflectance to distinguish different postharvest development stages of calla lily flowers, Zantedeschia aethiopica (L. Spreng., aiming the use of this technology within automatic systems for flower classification. The measuring equipment was a spectrometer connected to a portable computer and configured for reflectance data acquisition in the 400 to 1000 nm range. Based on the results, it was verified a differentiation between the spectral reflectance curves of calla lily flowers, with gradual decreases on the measured values according to the increase of the senescence stages. Thus, the spectral reflectance has potential to be used in the development of automatic systems for postharvest classification of calla lily flowers.El manejo poscosecha inadecuado es uno de los problemas más serios que la floricultura tiene que enfrentar. Una opción para reducir las pérdidas poscosecha es emplear sistemas automáticos para ordenar y clasificar las flores, los cuales permiten resultados consistentes, reducen gastos y aceleran estas tareas. El objetivo de este trabajo fue demostrar el potencial de la reflectancia espectral para discriminar las diferentes fases de desarrollo poscosecha de flores de cala (Zantedeschia aethiopica [L.] Spreng., visando el uso de esta tecnología en sistemas automáticos para la clasificación de flores. El equipo de medición fue un espectrómetro conectado a un computador portátil y configurado para la adquisición de datos de reflectancia comprendidos en la región espectral de 400 a 1000 nm. Con base en los resultados, se constató una diferencia entre las curvas de reflectancia

  5. Avaliação do efeito de polietilenoglicóis no perfil de extratos de Mikania glomerata Spreng., Asteraceae, e Passiflora edulis Sims, Passifloraceae Evaluation of PEG effects on the extracts obtaining from Passiflora edulis Sims, Passifloraceae, and Mikania glomerata Spreng., Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge de Medeiros

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Os polietilenoglicóis (PEG são polímeros hidrossolúveis capazes de reduzir a constante dielétrica de solventes como a água, e assim são utilizados como cossolventes para solubilização de diferentes fármacos. Atualmente, o PEG tem sido empregado satisfatoriamente na obtenção de extratos de matérias-primas vegetais por favorecer a extração de substâncias com polaridades semelhantes às extraídas pelos solventes hidroetanólicos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da concentração e da massa molar de PEG (400 e 4000 g/mol sobre a extração de flavonoides totais a partir de Passiflora edulis Sims, Passifloraceae, (maracujá e de cumarina a partir da Mikania glomerata Spreng., Asteraceae, (guaco. Este estudo revelou que o aumento da concentração de PEG promoveu um aumento na capacidade extrativa de flavonoides totais e cumarina a partir da Passiflora edulis e Mikania glomerata respectivamente, comportamento atribuído a alterações da constante dielétrica. Apesar de elevar a capacidade extrativa, os líquidos extratores contendo PEG exigiram elevada relação planta:solvente para alcançar teores extrativos semelhante ao solvente hidroetanólico utilizado, com exceção da extração de flavonoides totais com PEG 4000 g/mol a partir da Passilfora edulis.Polyethylene glycols (PEG are hydrosoluble polymers able to reducing dielectric constant of solvents like water and thus are used as cosolvents to enhance the aqueous solubility of several drugs. Actually, the PEG have been successful applied to obtain extracts of plant raw material once can facilitate the extraction of substances with polarities similar to those extracted by hydroethanol solvents. In this study, the objective was to evaluate the effect of PEG concentration and molecular weight (400 and 4000 g/mol on the extraction of total flavonoids from Passiflora edulis Sims, Passifloraceae, and coumarin from Mikania glomerata Spreng., Asteraceae. The results

  6. Biosynthesis, Antibacterial Activity and Anticancer Effects Against Prostate Cancer (PC-3) Cells of Silver Nanoparticles Using Dimocarpus Longan Lour. Peel Extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yan; Du, Zhiyun; Ma, Shijing; Cheng, Shupeng; Jiang, Sen; Liu, Yue; Li, Dongli; Huang, Huarong; Zhang, Kun; Zheng, Xi

    2016-06-01

    Metal nanoparticles, particularly silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), are developing more important roles as diagnostic and therapeutic agents for cancers with the improvement of eco-friendly synthesis methods. This study demonstrates the biosynthesis, antibacterial activity, and anticancer effects of silver nanoparticles using Dimocarpus Longan Lour. peel aqueous extract. The AgNPs were characterized by UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscope (FTIR). The bactericidal properties of the synthesized AgNPs were observed via the agar dilution method and the growth inhibition test. The cytotoxicity effect was explored on human prostate cancer PC-3 cells in vitro by trypan blue assay. The expressions of phosphorylated stat 3, bcl-2, survivin, and caspase-3 were examined by Western blot analysis. The longan peel extract acted as a strong reducing and stabilizing agent during the synthesis. Water-soluble AgNPs of size 9-32 nm was gathered with a face-centered cubic structure. The AgNPs had potent bactericidal activities against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria with a dose-related effect. AgNPs also showed dose-dependent cytotoxicity against PC-3 cells through a decrease of stat 3, bcl-2, and survivin, as well as an increase in caspase-3. These findings confirm the bactericidal properties and explored a potential anticancer application of AgNPs for prostate cancer therapy. Further research should be focused on the comprehensive study of molecular mechanism and in vivo effects on the prostate cancer.

  7. The anti-tubercular activity of Melia azedarach L. and Lobelia chinensis Lour. and their potential as effective anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis candidate agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Won Hyung Choi; In Ah Lee

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the anti-mycobacterial activity of Melia azedarach L. (M. azedarach) and Lobelia chinensis Lour. (L. chinensis) extracts against the growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis). Methods: The anti-M. tuberculosis activity of M. azedarach and L. chinensis extracts were evaluated using different indicator methods such as resazurin microtiter assay (REMA) and mycobacteria growth indicator tube (MGIT) 960 system assay. The M. tuberculosis was incubated with various concentrations (50–800 mg/mL) of the ex-tracts for 5 days in the REMA, and for 4 weeks in MGIT 960 system assay. Results: M. azedarach and L. chinensis extracts showed their anti-M. tuberculosis ac-tivity by strongly inhibiting the growth of M. tuberculosis in a concentration-dependent manner in the REMA and the MGIT 960 system assay. Particularly, the methanol extract of M. azedarach and n-hexane extract of L. chinensis consistently exhibited their effects by effectively inhibiting the growth of M. tuberculosis in MGIT 960 system for 4 weeks with a single-treatment, indicating higher anti-M. tuberculosis activity than other extracts, and their minimum inhibitory concentrations were measured as 400 mg/mL and 800 mg/mL, respectively. Conclusions: These results demonstrate that M. azedarach and L. chinensis extracts not only have unique anti-M. tuberculosis activity, but also induce the selective anti-M. tuberculosis effects by consistently inhibiting or blocking the growth of M. tuberculosis through a new pharmacological action. Therefore, this study suggests the potential of them as effective candidate agents of next-generation for developing a new anti-tuberculosis drug, as well as the advantage for utilizing traditional medicinal plants as one of effective strategies against tuberculosis.

  8. Molecular cloning, characterization and expression analysis of the gene encoding 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate reductoisomerase from Aquilaria sinensis (Lour.) Gilg

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Juan Liu; Yanhong Xu; Liang Liang; Jianhe Wei

    2015-06-01

    The major constituents of agarwood oils are sesquiterpenes that are obtained from isoprenoid precursors through the plastidial methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathway and the cytosolic mevalonate pathway. In this study, a novel full-length cDNA of 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate reductoisomerase (DXR), which was the second key enzyme in the plastid MEP pathway of sesquiterpenes biosynthesis was isolated from the stem of Aquilaria sinensis (Lour.) Gilg by the methods of reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) technique for the first time, and named as AsDXR. The full-length cDNA of AsDXR was 1768 bp, containing a 1437 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a polypeptide of 478 amino acids with a molecular weight of 51.859 kD and the theoretical isoelectric point of 6.29. Comparative and bioinformatic analysis of the deduced AsDXR protein showed extensive homology with DXRs from other plant species, especially Theobroma cacao and Gossypium barbadense, and contained a conserved transit peptide for plastids, and extended pro-rich region and a highly conserved NADPH-binding motif owned by all plant DXRs. Southern blot analysis indicated that AsDXR belonged to a small gene family. Tissue expression pattern analysis revealed that AsDXR expressed strongly in root and stem, but weakly in leaf. Additionally, AsDXR expression was found to be activated by exogenous elicitor of MeJA (methyl jasmonate). The contents of three sesquiterpenes ($\\alpha$-guaiene, $\\alpha$-humulene and $\\delta$-guaiene) were significantly induced by MeJA. This study enables us to further elucidate the role of AsDXR in the biosynthesis of agarwood sesquiterpenes in A. sinensis at the molecular level.

  9. 地稔凝集素的提取及凝血活性的研究%Study on the Extraction and Agglutination of Lectin from Melastoma dodecandrum Lour

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓政东; 程爱芳; 李秀丽

    2015-01-01

    为研究和利用地稔的促凝血活性物质,以地稔为试材,提取地稔凝集素,研究pH、温度和糖等理化因素对凝血活性的影响。结果表明:经硫酸铵沉淀及透析提取的地稔凝集素具有红细胞凝集活性;碱性条件下,抑制作用明显,而酸性条件有较强促进作用;温度对凝集素凝血活性影响很小;半乳糖有明显促进作用。%In order to study and utilize the procoagulant activity substances from Melastoma dodecandrum Lour ,taking Melastoma dodecandrum Lour as material ,extraction of lectin and the effect of physical and chem‐ical agents on agglutinating activity were studied ,such as pH ,temperature and sugar .The results showed that the lectin extracted by ammonium sulfate precipitation and dialysis had agglutinating activity .Alkaline condi‐tions had significantly inhibited the agglutinating activity .While acidic conditions had a strong role in promo‐ting .The effect of temperature on agglutinating activity was little .Galactose had an obvious effect on promo‐ting .

  10. Effect of the water extract of Macrosolen cochinchinensis (Lour.) Tiegh.leaves on7,12-dimethylbenz [a] antracene induced female mice liver carcinogensis%Effect of the water extract of Macrosolen cochinchinensis (Lour.) Tiegh.leaves on 7,12-dimethylbenz [a] antracene induced female mice liver carcinogensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Adam Hermawan; Retno urwanti; Nina Artant; Edy Meiyanto

    2011-01-01

    Liver cancer is the third most common cause of death from cancer worldwide.Recently,natural products were used widely as an alternative therapy for liver cancer.Previous study reported Macrosolen cochnichinensis (Lour.) Tiegh.that grows in the host star fruit inhibited breast cancer cells growth in vitro.This study aims to observe the effect of water extract of M.cochinchinensis leaves (MCE) on Balb/c mice hepatocyte after initiation of 7,12-dimethylbenz [a] anthracene (DMBA) as a liver cancer model inducer.The experiment consisted of four mice groups,corn oil solvent control group,the DMBA dose 20 mg/kgBW p.o.ten times twice a week,DMBA+MCE dose 250 mg/kgBW,and DMBA+MCE 750 mg/kgBW.Extract which was dissolved into 0.5% CMC-Na was administered daily by the oral route 1 week before,during and terminated 1 week after the DMBA induction.At the end of the study,rat livers were collected and stained with Haematoxyllene and Eosin (H&E) method.Administration of MCE could not inhibit hepatic carcinogenesis in DMBA-induced female mice.There was no difference in liver tissue histopathology profile between the extract treatment group and DMBA control group.

  11. Sacarose e período de cultivo in vitro na aclimatização ex vitro de ginseng brasileiro (Pfaffia glomerata Spreng. Pedersen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skrebsky Etiane Caldeira

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen é uma planta extensivamente usada na medicina popular em decorrência de possuir propriedades fitoterápicas. Devido à sua baixa capacidade fotossintética, as plantas cultivadas in vitro requerem uma fonte extra de carboidratos para suprir suas necessidades metabólicas. O tempo de cultivo in vitro influencia as taxas de crescimento das raízes e da parte aérea de P. glomerata. Este trabalho teve como objetivos avaliar os efeitos da sacarose e do período de cultivo in vitro na aclimatização ex vitro de plântulas de P. glomerata. Os tratamentos consistiram de uma combinação bifatorial (5x2 entre cinco concentrações de sacarose (15, 30, 45, 60 e 75g L-1 e dois períodos de cultivo in vitro (25 e 32 dias após a inoculação. No cultivo in vitro, a parcela experimental consistiu de um tubo de ensaio contendo 10mL de meio MS e um segmento nodal, obtidos de plântulas mantidas in vitro, de 1,0cm de comprimento e sem folhas. O procedimento de aclimatização consistiu de quatro fases sucessivas de cultivo ex vitro: (i abertura dos tubos de ensaio e exposição das plântulas ao ambiente de câmara climatizada por três dias; (ii transplantio para substrato Plantmax e cultivo em condições de câmara climatizada por 21 dias; (iii transferência das mudas para ambiente natural parcialmente sombreado, com duração de 24 dias; e (iv transplantio para solo em condições de cultivo a campo. O maior crescimento das plantas obtido pelo aumento da disponibilidade de sacarose (concentrações entre 45 e 60g L-1 no cultivo in vitro contribuiu para a aclimatização. Independente do período de retirada das plantas do cultivo in vitro, as mudas obtiveram adequada aclimatização. O procedimento de aclimatização foi 100% eficiente na produção de mudas de P. glomerata.

  12. "Phloem sap analysis of Schleichera oleosa (Lour) Oken, Butea monosperma (Lam) Taub. and Ziziphus mauritiana (Lam) and hemolymph of Kerria lacca (Kerr) using HPLC and tandem mass spectrometry".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vashishtha, Amit; Rathi, Brijesh; Kaushik, Sandeep; Sharma, K K; Lakhanpaul, Suman

    2013-10-01

    Females of lac insects especially of Kerria lacca (Kerr) secret a resin known as lac for their own protection, which has tremendous applications. Lac insect completes its lifecycle on several host taxa where it exclusively feeds on phloem sap but Schleichera oleosa (Lour.) Oken, Butea monosperma (Lam.) and Ziziphus mauritiana (Lam.) are its major hosts. Analysis of phloem sap constituents as well as hemolymph of lac insect is important because it ultimately gets converted into lac by insect intervention. Main phloem sap constituent's viz. sugars and free amino acids and hemolymph of lac insect were analyzed using HPLC and tandem mass spectrometry, respectively. The results were transformed to relative percentage of the total sugars and free amino acids analyzed in each sample for comparison among lac insect hemolymph and the phloem sap of the three different host taxa. Sucrose (58.9 ± 3.6-85.6 ± 0.9) and trehalose (62.3 ± 0.4) were the predominant sugars in phloem sap of three taxa and hemolymph of lac insect, respectively. Glutamic acid (33.1 ± 1.4-39.8 ± 1.4) was found to be main amino acid among the phloem sap of three taxa while tyrosine (61 ± 2.6) was the major amino acid in hemolymph of lac insect. The relative percentage of non-essential amino acids (60.8 %-69.9 %) was found to be more in all the three host taxa while essential amino acids (30.1 %-35.4 %) were present at a lower relative percentage. In contrast to this, the relative percentage of essential amino acids (81.9 %) was observed to be higher as compared to non-essential amino acids (17.7 %) in lac insect hemolymph. These results led to the detection of lac insect's endosymbionts. Moreover, this study revealed a clue regarding the importance of development of a synthetic diet for this insect so that a precise pathway of lac biosynthesis could be investigated for thorough understanding.

  13. 金橘脚腐病病原菌鉴定%Identification of the pathogen causing foot rot of Fortunella margarita (Lour.)Swingle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱丽; 赵小龙; 吴礽超; 李红叶

    2011-01-01

    金橘[ Fortunella margarita( Lout.)Swingle]为芸香科( Rutaceae)柑橘亚科(Aurantioideae)金柑属(Fortunella)多年生常绿木本植物,原产于我国,全国各柑橘产区均有栽培.广西桂林阳朔地区盛产金橘,随着金橘树栽培面积的扩大,病害逐渐加重.其中,尤以金橘脚腐病最为突出.金橘脚腐病主要发生在近地面的根茎部,表现为皮层组织腐烂、流胶;轻者植株生长衰退、果小、产量降低、品质变劣,重者全株枯死,给当地果农造成巨大经济损失.脚腐病在世界各柑橘产区均有发生,一般认为引起柑橘脚腐的病原是疫霉属(Phytophthora spp.)真菌,在不同国家或地区,种类有所不同.%Foot rot of kumquat [Fortunella margarita (Lour. ) Swingle] is a big problem in Guilin, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, where kumquat is one of the main cash crops. The affected trees decline gradually and finally wilt as the lesion girding the trunk. The suspected pathogen isolates of Phytophthora citrophtho-ra, which identified by morphology, were always obtained from affected trunks. The pathogenicity of those isolates were confirmed by inoculating the representative isolate GLC15 on kumquat seedlings, shoots and branches . The identification was further confirmed by alignment the sequences of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and translation elongation factor 1 alpha gene (TEF-lot) , amplified by PCR. The sequences were deposited in GenBank with accession numbers GU133068 (ITS) and HQ637486 (TEF-la), while the pathogen culture was deposited in Institute of Biotechnology, Zhejiang University.

  14. 潺槁木姜子地上部位化学成分%Chemical constituents from the aerial parts of Litsea glutinosa (Lour.)C.B.Rob.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐有伟; 周洪雷; 任冬梅; 娄红祥; 沈涛

    2016-01-01

    Objective To study the chemical constituents from the aerial parts of Litsea glutinosa (Lour.)C.B.Rob. Methods The obtained compounds were isolated by different chromatographic methods,including silica gel,Sephadex LH-20 and high performance liquid chromatography,and then their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectro-scopic analyses,particularly the nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.Results Five compounds were isolated from the EtOAc partition of the 95% EtOH extract of the aerial parts of Litsea glutinosa,and their structures were identified as pubinernoid A (I),vomifoliol (II),atroside (III),1,2-dihydro-6,8-dimethoxy-7-1-(3,5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxy-phenyl)-N1 ,N2-bis-[2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethyl]-2,3-naphthalene dicarboxamide (IV),and daucosterol (V). Conclusion Compounds I-IV are isolated from Litsea glutinosa for the first time,and compounds I-III are obtained from the genus of Litsea for the first time.%目的:对樟科木姜子属植物潺槁木姜子[Litsea glutinosa (Lour.)C.B.Rob.]地上部位的化学成分进行研究。方法采用硅胶柱色谱、Sephadex LH-20凝胶柱色谱、高效液相色谱等技术对潺槁木姜子的化学成分进行分离,并采用核磁共振波谱等技术确证化合物的结构。结果从潺槁木姜子95%乙醇提取物乙酸乙酯部分获得5个化合物,并鉴定为 pubinernoid A (I)、吐叶醇(II)、滨藜叶分药花苷(III)、1,2-dihydro-6,8-dimethoxy-7-1-(3,5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxyphenyl)-N1,N2-bis-[2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethyl]-2,3-naphthalene dicarboxamide (IV)和胡萝卜苷(V)。结论化合物 I ~IV 为首次从潺槁木姜子中分离得到,并且化合物 I ~III 为首次从木姜子属植物中分离得到。

  15. Oxidação fenólica, tipo de explante e meios de cultura no estabelecimento in vitro de canafístula (Peltophorum dubium (Spreng. Taub..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiana Scherer Bassan

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A canafístula, Peltophorum dubium (Spreng. Taub. é uma espécie florestal nativa e com ampla dispersão geográfica, desempenhando um papel pioneiro nas áreas abertas, em capoeiras e matas degradadas. Apresenta um rápido crescimento e se adapta facilmente, sendo muito recomendada para reflorestamento homogêneo. A madeira é utilizada em construções civis, indústria de móveis, construção naval e militar. A micropropagação é uma técnica utilizada com bastante sucesso, apresentando, entre outras vantagens, um rápido aumento no número de plantas geneticamente idênticas partindo de plantas selecionadas. Os objetivos do trabalho são avaliar a influência da luz no controle da oxidação fenólica dos explantes de canafístula (Peltophorum dubium (Spreng., determinar o meio nutritivo e o tipo de explante mais adequado para o estabelecimento in vitro de canafístula (Peltophorum dubium (Spreng.. Foram realizados dois experimentos. No primeiro, ápices caulinares foram cultivados em meio base MS a 25 ± 3°C, por 7 dias no escuro e, posteriormente, sob fotoperíodo de 16 horas de luz e intensidade luminosa de 20 μmol.m2.s-1, fornecida por lâmpada fluorescente branca durante 21 dias ou permaneceram na câmara de crescimento com exposição à luz durante todo o experimento. Foi empregado o delineamento inteiramente casualizado com cinco repetições contendo quatro unidades experimentais (UE. A oxidação fenólica foi observada após 21 dias de cultivo. Não ocorreu oxidação fenólica em nenhum dos tratamentos analisados. No segundo experimento, ápices caulinares e segmentos nodais foram cultivados em meio base MS e meio WPM. Os explantes foram mantidos em sala de crescimento com fotoperíodo de 16 horas de luz e intensidade luminosa de 20 μmol.m2.s-1, fornecidas por lâmpada fluorescente branca fria e temperatura de 25 ± 3°C. A UE foi composta por um frasco de vidro de 150 mL contendo 30 mL de meio nutritivo e um explante. O

  16. Avaliação in vivo do efeito hipocolesterolêmico e toxicológico preliminar do extrato bruto hidroalcoólico e decocção da Vitex megapotamica (Spreng Moldenke (V. montevidensis Cham. Evaluation of prospective hypocholesterolemic effect and preliminary toxicology of crude extract and decoction from Vitex megapotamica (Spreng Moldenke (V. montevidensis Cham. in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Paula Brandt

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available As doenças cardiovasculares (DC estão, de modo geral, associadas a elevados níveis séricos de lipídeos, atingindo homens e mulheres, sem distinção de idade. Entre as propriedades atribuídas pela medicina popular à Vitex megapotamica (Spreng Moldenke (V. montevidensis Cham -Tarumã estão a de reduzir os níveis séricos de colesterol e triglicerídeo. O principal objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar o potencial hipocolesterolêmico e hipolipidêmico da V. megapotamica, bem como fazer um estudo toxicológico preliminar. Para tanto, foi realizada indução hiperlipidêmica usando um modelo que preconiza o emprego de propiltiuracil 1,25 mg/300 g de peso e colesterol 200 mg/kg de peso, aplicados via oral em ratos machos pesando 300 ± 10 g. Foi administrado, por via oral, aos animais hiperlipidêmicos previamente induzidos 300 mg/kg de extrato hidroalcoólico das folhas de V. megapotamica ou 300 mL da decocção da casca da planta. Após o final de cada tratamento, o perfil lipídico foi ensaiado, bem como os níveis de glicose, quando relevante. Nossos resultados confirmaram o efeito hipolipidêmico do extrato hidroalcoólico e da decocção pela redução dos níveis séricos de colesterol e triacilglicerol nas concentrações, via e forma utilizadas. Além disso, foi possível verificar que não houve lesão cardíaca, hepática ou renal pelo extrato e decocção utilizados nas avaliações toxicológicas preliminares ensaiadas.The cardiovascular diseases are, in general, associated with high levels of serum lipids which have high incidence in middle-age men and women. Among other properties characterized by popular medicine, the Vitex megapotamica (Spreng Moldenke (V. montevidensis Cham - Tarumã, decreases the serum cholesterol and triacylglycerol levels. The main proposition of the present study was to evaluate the hypocholesterolemic and hipolipidaemic potential of V. megapotamica and to analyze the preliminary toxicity. It was an

  17. Alelopathic effect of aqueous extracts of leucena (Leucaena leucocephala Wit leave and fruit on germination and root growth of canafistula (Peltophorum dubium Spreng/ Efeito alelopático do extrato aquoso de folha e de fruto de leucena (Leucaena leucocephala Wit sobre a germinação e crescimento de raiz da canafístula (Peltophorum dubium Spreng.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Maria Teixeira Fortes

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays exotic plants represent a big threat to biodiversity because when they are present in favorable environments, they can influence the development of native plants, as well as they can change the natural functions of the environment. Wrong management practices are some of the main factors that support the environment invasions by exotic species. Leucena (Leucaena leucocephala Wit. is an exotic species that takes part in Itaipu Dam recuperation riparian areas. Exotic species may have allelopathic effects. The objective of this study has been to verify allelopathic effects of aqueous extracts of leucena leaves and fruits upon germination and root growth of canafistula (Peltophorum dubium Spreng., a native species. Twelve treatments with four replications have been used, divided in two stages, six treatments each. The utilized treatments were: water, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80% and 100% extract. All the seeds were scared mechanically. The germinated seeds have been counted daily. The length of the roots has been evaluated at the third and seventh day of experiment. The fruit extract presented more allelopathic effects than the leaves extract. The roots were sensitive both to the fruits and leaves extract.Atualmente as plantas exóticas representam uma grande ameaça à biodiversidade pois, quando presente em ambientes que lhe são favoráveis, influenciam no desenvolvimento das plantas nativas, além de alterar o funcionamento natural daquele ambiente. Práticas de manejo erradas são um dos principais fatores que favorecem a invasão do ambiente pelas espécies exóticas. A leucena (Leucaena leucocephala Wit. é uma espécie exótica que foi introduzida na recuperação da mata ciliar da Hidrelétrica de Itaipu, e pode possuir efeitos alelopáticos. Objetivou-se neste trabalho verificar a presença de efeitos alelopáticos do extrato aquoso de folha e fruto da leucena sobre a germinação e crescimento de raiz da canafístula (Peltophorum dubium

  18. The ecological and biological characteristics and sowing propagation of Ochna integerrima(Lour.) Merr%金莲木(Ochna integerrima(Lour.)Merr.)的生态生物学特征及其播种繁殖技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁莲莲; 王少平; 任海; 刘楠; 范桑桑; 张佩霞

    2013-01-01

    金莲木(Ochna integerrima (Lour.) Merr.)是金莲木科落叶灌木或小乔木,是潜在的优良园林绿化树种。文章从其形态解剖特征、光合生理生态特征及播种繁殖技术方面进行了系统的研究。结果表明:金莲木为中性偏阳性树种,光合速率日进程呈单峰曲线,无午休现象;其光饱和点(LSP)和光补偿点(LCP)分别在800μmol·m-2·s-1及52.2μmol·m-2·s -1左右。在高于光饱和点的光强下,其叶片的光合速率并未出现明显下降趋势,同时还维持了较高的蒸腾速率。金莲木叶绿素荧光参数显示其具有较高的能量利用效率,叶绿素a/b比值(5.677꞉1)略高于理论值(3꞉1),表明它能有效吸收光能并传到光反应中心。播种前金莲木种子宜进行浸泡处理,浸泡24 h处理后其发芽率高且发芽较早,播种在泥炭土中的种子较沙土中的种子发芽要早且萌发周期短,但在沙土中播种的种子最终的发芽率要相对较高。因此,金莲木适合生长在水热充沛、土壤相对肥沃的热带亚热带地区,栽培时要尽量选择土层肥沃的壤土或砂质壤土。%Ochna integerrima (Lour.) Merr. is a deciduous shrub or small tree species of Ochnaceae family with potentials to be used for landscape greening. We examined the species’ ecological, biological and physiological characteristics and sowing propagation, and found that it was a shade intolerant mesophyte species. Its diurnal net photosynthetic rate in leaves showed a single peaked curve without midday depression. Its light saturation point was 800 μmol·m-2·s-1 and light compensation point was 52.2 μmol·m-2·s-1. When the light intensity was higher than light saturation point, the photosynthetic rate did not decline significantly and kept high transpiration rate. The chlorophyll fluorescence parameters showed that this species had a relatively high level of energy use efficiency. Its chlorophyll a/b ratio(5

  19. 茉莉酸甲酯影响阳春砂挥发性萜类代谢和基因转录%Methyl Jasmonate Affects Metabolism and Gene Transcription of Volatile Terpenoids from Amomum villosum Lour

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王焕; 杨锦芬; 邓可; 何雪莹; 詹若挺; 唐梁

    2014-01-01

    目的:研究茉莉酸甲酯对阳春砂挥发性萜类合成的影响,深入了解挥发性萜类生物合成的分子调控机制。方法:用不同浓度茉莉酸甲酯溶液喷施阳春砂的叶片和果实,用微波法提取果实中的挥发性萜类成分,应用气相色谱-质谱(GC-MS)联用技术检测挥发性萜类成分的变化,通过转录组测序构建cD-NA文库并进行生物信息学分析。结果:果皮和种子团中分别检测到20种和33种挥发性萜类成分,600μmol·L-1 MeJA喷果24 h后果皮和种子团中大部分挥发性萜类成分的积累量明显增加,如乙酸龙脑酯、樟脑和龙脑等;而200μmol·L-1 MeJA喷施叶片或果实对果皮及种子团中不同挥发性萜类含量的影响存在差异,且200μmol·L-1 MeJA喷施果实比喷施叶片更能提高种子团中挥发性萜类成分的积累量。此外,转录组测序共获得68168个Unigene,通过与公共数据库比对,共有48627个Unigene获得注释。对KEGG代谢通路的注释结果进行初步分析,发现挥发性萜类代谢密切相关的Unigene有208个,MYC2类转录因子(JA信号转导的重要调控因子)相关的Unigene有22个。结论:MeJA能有效调控阳春砂中挥发性萜类成分的代谢,转录组测序获得了多个与挥发性萜类合成相关的候选基因,为深入开展阳春砂挥发性萜类生物合成相关功能基因的发掘及调控研究提供了丰富的数据资源。%This study was aimed to reveal the effects and molecular regulation mechanism of methyl jasmonate (Me-JA) on volatile terpenoids from Amomum villosum Lour. After the leaves and fruits of A momum villosum Lour. were treated with different concentrations of MeJA, the volatile terpenoids of fresh fruits from A . villosum Lour. were ex-tracted with microwave method and analyzed by GC-MS. Then, leaves and fruits treated with MeJA were sequenced by Illumina. The transcriptome data was analyzed by bioinformatic

  20. Crescimento de plântulas de Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen cultivadas in vitro sob dois níveis de nitrogênio e sacarose, durante seis subculturas sucessivas e aclimatização Growth of Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen in vitro cultured plantlets on two levels of nitrogen and sucrose, during six successive subcultures and acclimatization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseila Maldaner

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho objetivou avaliar o crescimento de ginseng brasileiro (Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen cultivado in vitro sob dois níveis de nitrogênio e sacarose, durante seis subculturas sucessivas e aclimatização. Como fonte de explantes, utilizou-se segmentos nodais de plantas previamente estabelecidas in vitro. Foram testados dois tratamentos: 100% da concentração padrão de N do meio MS + 30g L-1 sacarose; e 50% da concentração padrão de N do meio MS + 45g L-1 sacarose. Durante as seis subculturas sucessivas, os explantes de plantas cultivadas por 30 dias em ambos os tratamentos foram transferidos, respectivamente, para a subcultura seguinte nos mesmos tratamentos. Ao final da 6ª subcultura, as plântulas foram transferidas para substrato Plantmax® Hortaliças e submetidas à aclimatização em sala de crescimento. Durante as subculturas, observou-se flutuações nas respostas de crescimento das plântulas às duas condições nutricionais testadas. A altura da maior brotação, a média da altura das brotações e o total de segmentos nodais por plântula, respectivamente em quatro, quatro e três subculturas, foram maiores em 100% da concentração padrão de N do meio MS + 30g L-1 sacarose do que em 50% da concentração padrão de N do meio MS + 45g L-1 sacarose. Por outro lado, as matérias secas de raízes, da parte aérea e do total das plântulas, respectivamente em duas, duas e três subculturas, foram maiores em 100% da concentração padrão de N do meio MS + 30g L-1 sacarose. Concluiu-se que o aumento da concentração de sacarose associado à redução da concentração do N estimula a produção de biomassa, enquanto o meio MS padrão estimula o crescimento em altura e número de segmentos nodais. As diferenças quanto à produção de biomassa observadas no cultivo in vitro não se refletiram no processo de aclimatização ex vitro, onde o meio MS padrão proporcionou maior crescimento em altura e n

  1. Toxicological screening of Mikania glomerata Spreng., Asteraceae, extract in male Wistar rats reproductive system, sperm production and testosterone level after chronic treatment Triagem toxocológica do extrato de Mikania glomerata Spreng., Asteraceae, no sistema reprodutor, produção espermática e nível de testosterona em machos de ratos Wistar após tratamento crônico

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    Rita de Cássia da Silveira e Sá

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Some compounds present in therapeutic plants may be responsible for the occurrence of adverse side effects. Coumarin and flavonoids are substances found in many plant species that showed antifertility activity in female rats and dogs, respectively. Mikania glomerata Spreng., Asteraceae, known as guaco in Brazil, is a plant largely used in folk medicine and its leaves are reported to have coumarin and flavonoids. This work analyzes the effect of chronic administration of M. glomerata on the reproductive system of male rats. Thirty-day-old Wistar rats were treated with M. glomerata hydroalcoholic extract at a dose of 3.3 g/kg of body weight for ninety days. Body and organ weights, gamete concentration on the epididymis cauda, serum testosterone level and food consumption were evaluated. No significant alteration was observed in any of the variables analyzed, suggesting the absence of toxic action or antifertility activity of the M. glomerata hydroalcoholic extract.As plantas medicinais podem apresentar na sua constituição compostos capazes de causar efeitos adversos no organismo. Cumarina e flavonoides são substâncias encontradas em muitas espécies vegetais, cuja interferência na fertilidade de ratas e cadelas, respectivamente, foi evidenciada em estudos prévios. Mikania glomerata Spreng., Asteraceae, (guaco é uma planta usada no tratamento de doenças respiratórias e em suas folhas foi detectada a presença de cumarina e flavonoides. Neste estudo, avaliou-se o efeito do extrato hidroalcoólico, preparado com partes aéreas de guaco, no sistema reprodutor de ratos submetidos a tratamento crônico. Ratos Wistar (trinta dias de idade foram tratados com extrato hidroalcoólico de guaco na dose de 3,3 g/kg de peso corporal durante noventa dias. O peso corporal e de órgãos, a produção de espermatozoides, a concentração de testosterona plasmática e o consumo de ração foram avaliados. Não foi observada nenhuma alteração significativa

  2. Koenimbin, a natural dietary compound of Murraya koenigii (L Spreng: inhibition of MCF7 breast cancer cells and targeting of derived MCF7 breast cancer stem cells (CD44+/CD24-/low: an in vitro study

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    Ahmadipour F

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Fatemeh Ahmadipour,1 Mohamed Ibrahim Noordin,1 Syam Mohan,2 Aditya Arya,1 Mohammadjavad Paydar,3 Chung Yeng Looi,3 Yeap Swee Keong,4 Ebrahimi Nigjeh Siyamak,4 Somayeh Fani,1 Maryam Firoozi,5 Chung Lip Yong,1 Mohamed Aspollah Sukari,6 Behnam Kamalidehghan1 1Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 2Medical Research Center, Jazan University, Jazan, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 3Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 4UPM-MAKNA Cancer Research Laboratory, Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Malaysia; 5Department of Medical Genetics, National Institute for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Tehran, Iran; 6Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Malaysia Background: Inhibition of breast cancer stem cells has been shown to be an effective therapeutic strategy for cancer prevention. The aims of this work were to evaluate the efficacy of koenimbin, isolated from Murraya koenigii (L Spreng, in the inhibition of MCF7 breast cancer cells and to target MCF7 breast cancer stem cells through apoptosis in vitro. Methods: Koenimbin-induced cell viability was evaluated using the MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Nuclear condensation, cell permeability, mitochondrial membrane potential, and cytochrome c release were observed using high-content screening. Cell cycle arrest was examined using flow cytometry, while human apoptosis proteome profiler assays were used to investigate the mechanism of apoptosis. Protein expression levels of Bax, Bcl2, and heat shock protein 70 were confirmed using Western blotting. Caspase-7, caspase-8, and caspase-9 levels were measured, and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB activity was assessed using a high-content screening assay. Aldefluor™ and mammosphere formation assays were used to evaluate the effect of koenimbin on MCF7

  3. 白木香内生真菌的分离鉴定及其抑菌活性%Isolation, Identification and Antimicrobial Activity of Endophytic Fungi in Aquilaria sinensis (Lour.) Gilg

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    张秀环; 梅文莉; 陈苹; 邓媛元; 戴好富

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, 42 strains of endophytic fungi were isolated from the resin formation section and healthy xylem of Aquilaria sinensis (Lour.) Gilg. Among them, 33 strains with sporulation were morphologically classified into 7 genera, 4 families and 3 orders, and the rest 9 strains were tentatively identified as Mycelia sterilia. The antimicrobial activities of the isolates to 3 bacterial pathogens and 2 tumor cells were tested by cylinder plate method and MTT. The results indicated that the endophytic fungi in the resin formation section had more species than those in the healthy xylem, and Acremonium was the dominant genus in the endophytic fungi from the healthy xylem, while Penicillium was the dominant genus in the endophytic fungi from the resin formation section. 26 strains of the isolates (61.9%) could exhibit antimicrobial activities to at least one of the tested pathogens. 7 strains of the isolates (16.7%) showed cytotoxic activities to the tested tumor cells. Antimicrobial strains mainly distributed in the genera of Penicillium and Acremonium. The strains belonging to Acremonium represented stronger inhibitory activities and their antibacterial components are worthy for further study.%从白木香Aquilaria sinensis (Lour.) Gilg木质部的树脂形成部位和健康部位中共分离获得 42 株内生真菌,经初步鉴定,产孢的 33 株分属于 3 目4科7属,其余未产孢的 9 株暂归为无孢菌群.采用杯碟法和MTT法分别测定了各菌株的发酵上清液对 3 种病原菌的体外抑菌活性和 2 种肿瘤细胞的体外细胞毒活性.结果表明,白木香木质部健康部位内生真菌以枝顶孢霉属为优势属,而树脂形成部位的内生真菌种类比健康部位要多,且以青霉属为优势属.其中 26 株至少能抑制一种指示菌,占总数的61.9%;7 株对指示瘤株具有细胞毒活性,占总数的16.7%.抑菌活性菌株主要分布在枝顶孢霉属和青霉属.枝顶孢霉属菌株抑菌活性较强

  4. 孝顺竹肉桂醇脱氢酶基因的克隆及表达研究%A Study on the Cloning and Expression of a Cinnamoyl Alcohol Dehydrogenas Gene in Bambusa multiplex (Lour.)Raeuschel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卞林玲; 范军; 程备久; 项艳; 高健

    2011-01-01

    肉桂醇脱氢酶(cinnamoyl alcohol dehydrogenas,CAD)是木质素生物合成过程中的一类关键酶.采用RT-PCR及RACE方法从孝顺竹笋中分离出CAD基因家族的一个基因,cDNA全长是1131 bp(GenBank注册号为GU985522),含有一个1 107 bp的读码框,编码一个368 aa的蛋白,分子量约为39 kD.序列分析结果表明,其编码的氨基酸含有CAD类基因所具有的醇脱氢酶GroES-like结构域和锌结合脱氧酶结构域,与禾本科植物水稻、玉米等有很高的相似性,与水稻相似性高达97.0%.系统进化树分析同样表明,克隆的孝顺竹CAD基因与水稻的CAD基因的亲缘关系最为接近.组织特异性表达分析显示,CAD基因在孝顺竹笋中表达量最高,在茎、叶和杆箨中亦有低水平表达.本研究将为更深入的研究孝顺竹CAD基因的分子调控研究奠定基础.%Cinnamoyl Alcohol Dehydrogenas is a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of lignin. A gene of CAD gene family was cloned by RT-PCR and SMART RACE RT-PCR from the shoots of Bambusa multiplex (Lour. ) Raeuschel ( GenBank accession number: GU985522). The cloned CAD gene of Bambusa multiplex ( Lour. ) Raeuschel, with the cDNA length of 1 131 bp, contained an open reading frame of 1 107 bp which encoded a polypeptide of 368 amino acids with predicted molecular mass of 39 kD. The results of sequence analysis showed that the deduced polypeptide contained alcohol dehydrogenase GroES-like domain and zinc-binding dehydrogenase in the conserved sequences of the CAD family. It was highly homologous to the CAD proteins from O. sativa and Zea mays and its identity to CAD proteins from O. sativa was up to 97.0 %. The phylogenetic tree analysis also indicated that cloned CAD gene has most close relationship with the CAD gene in O. sativa. Tissue specific expression showed that CAD expressed in leaf, sheath, young stem and bamboo shoots, much higher in bamboo shoots. All the study will provide a theoretical basis for further studying

  5. Influências da variação sazonal e tipos de secagem nas características da droga vegetal - raízes de Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen (Amaranthaceae

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    C.L.S. Vigo

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Analisou-se a variação sazonal e a influência de diferentes tipos de secagem (sol, sombra e estufa no teor de saponinas e nas características físico-químicas da droga vegetal - raízes de Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen (Amaranthaceae. A avaliação sazonal apontou a ocorrência de diferenças significativas nos teores de extrativos (maior no inverno: 61,1%±1,9, saponinas totais (maior no inverno: 17,1±0,2%, e entre cinzas totais (maiores no inverno e primavera: 6,5±0,4 e 6,5±1,0%, respectivamente e cinzas insolúveis em ácido(maiores no verão e outono: 0,57±0,11 e 0,44±0,18%, repectivamente. Quanto à variação sazonal do teor de saponinas, o valor do lote colhido no inverno foi maior do que nas outras estações, confirmando o conceito geral de maior ocorrência de ativos em órgãos subterrâneos no inverno. Quanto à influência dos métodos de secagem, o lote seco ao sol forneceu maior teor de extrativos (61,2±2,3% do que os lotes secos na sombra e em estufa, contradizendo a regra geral de que a radiação solar degrada os ativos vegetais. Esse mesmo perfil de dados ocorreu com relação ao teor de saponinas, pois o lote seco ao sol mostrou maior valor(15,4% do que daqueles secos na sombra ou em estufa (14,4 e 11,6%, respectivamente. Desta forma, verificou-se que, de fato, ocorre variação sazonal nas raízes de P. glomerata, particularmente, no que diz respeito aos teoes de extrativos, cinzas e saponinas totais, sendo que essas variações indicam maior concentração de ativos nos períodos de inverno e primavera. Dentre os métodos de secagem testados, o emprego do sol parece favorecer os teores de saponinas e de extrativos, embora tal conclusão mereça ser melhor investigada.

  6. 印度传统药用植物可因氏越橘的研究综述%An update on Murraya koenigii Spreng:a multifunctional Ayurvedic herb

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Priyanka Gupta; Alok Nahata; Vinod K. Dixit

    2011-01-01

    可因氏越橘又名调料九里香(Murra ya koenigii,芸香科,九里香属),是一种常用的药用植物,在印度阿育吠陀医学中有数百年的使用历史.这种植物的叶子、果实、根及树皮均富含咔唑生物碱.已有的很多研究报道这些生物碱具有多种药理活性如抗肿瘤、抗病毒、抗炎、止泻、利尿、抗氧化等.除了这些药理活性,该植物还具有多种多样的生物活性.可因氏越橘作为一种能够治疗多种疾病的有价值的药用植物,有关其植物化学及药理学的研究数量众多,因此有必要对其作一系统的综述.本文对有关可因氏越橘的植物化学、药理学、临床及基础研究进行了系统的整理,以期更全面地发掘其作为药用植物的价值.%Murraya koenigii Spreng (Rutaceae),a medicinally important herb of Indian origin,has been used for centuries in the Ayurvedic system of medicine.Leaves,fruits,roots and bark of this plant are a rich source of carbazole alkaloids.These alkaloids have been reported for their various pharmacological activities such as antitumor,antiviral,anti-inflammatory,antidiarrhoeal,diuretic and antioxidant activities.Apart from these activities,the plant is reported to possess a wide spectrum of biological activities.Phytochemistry and pharmacology of this plant make a demand of an exhaustive review of its potential as a valuable therapeutic agent for the treatment and management of various ailments frequently affecting humans.The present review gives a detailed description of the phytochemical,pharmacological,clinical and pre-clinical works carried out on this medicinal herb and also throws light on its therapeutic potential.

  7. 几个影响储良龙眼果实大小的因素的相关性分析%Analysis of Correlation among Several Influences of Affecting "Chu-liang" Longan [ Euphoria longan( Lour.) Steud.] Fruit Size

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林盛; 罗革彬; 唐燕琼; 罗志文; 李向宏; 胡福初; 周文静; 张利民

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to study the correlation among several influences of affecting "Chu-liang" Longgan fruits. [Method] The single fruit weight,fruit weight per fruiting sucker,fruit sucker diameter,leaf-umbrella length,leaf-umbrella width,leaf weight,the number of leaves and the number of fruits and so on of Hainan 6 year-old ' Chuliang' longan plants, repeating 6 times, were observed, and then analyzed them by correlation regression analysis and mutivariate gradually regression analysis. [Result] The partial regression coefficients of the number of leaves (positive effect) and the number of fruits(negative effect) to single fruit weight were most significant,but there was not significance for the other indices. The fruit number and single fruit weight were extremely significantly correlated with the fruit weight per fruiting sucker. The fruit sucker diameter was no significant correlated with the fruit weight per fruiting sucker. [ Conclusion ] The study provides a theoretic basis for blossom and fruit thinning during the production of "Chu-liang" longan.%[目的]探讨几个影响储良龙眼[ Euphoria longan(Lour.) Steud.]果实大小的因素的相关性.[方法]采取单株小区,6次重复,对海南6年生储良龙眼的单果重、单穗果重、果枝粗度、叶蓬长度、叶蓬宽度、叶重、叶片数和果实个数等性状指标进行观测,并对其进行相关回归分析和多元逐步回归分析.[结果]叶片数和果实个数对单果重的偏回归系数均达到极显著,果实个数对单果重为负效应;果枝粗度、叶蓬长度、叶蓬宽度和叶重等对单果重的偏回归系数不显著;果实个数和单果重对每穗果重的偏回归系数均达到极显著;果枝粗度等对每穗果重的偏回归系数不显著.[结论]该研究可以为储良龙眼生产中疏花疏果确定留果量提供理论依据.

  8. 遮光度对白木香种子萌发和幼苗生长的影响%Study on the Effects of Shading on Seed Germination and Seedling Growth of Aquilaria sinensis (Lour.) Glg

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁莲珍; 史富强; 侯云萍; 徐玉梅

    2015-01-01

    采用遮光网探讨不同遮光度对白木香种子萌发和幼苗生长的影响。结果表明:遮光度75%、50%条件下,白木香种子萌发时间最早,萌发率达到80%以上;自然光( CK)条件下,萌发率最低,萌发时间最迟。不同遮光度对白木香幼苗生长有极显著影响,遮光度75%、50%条件下,白木香幼苗存活率较高,生长较迅速;遮光度90%条件下,白木香幼苗存活率最高,但生长较差;自然光( CK)条件下,白木香幼苗存活率低,生长慢。说明在白木香育苗过程中,适当的遮光能够促进白木香种子的萌发和苗木的生长。%Using the shading net to probe into the different shading degrees on the effects of seed germination and seedling growth of Aquilaria sinensis( Lour.) Glg.The results showed that seed germination in the earliest time,germination rate reached more than 80%on the 75%,50%of shading degrees;under the natural light (CK),germination rate was the lowest and germination time was the latest.Different shading degrees of seedling growth of A.sinensis had significantly effects,on the shading degree is 75% and 50%, seedling survival rate was higher,and growth was rapid;in the shading degree 90%,seedling survival rate was the highest,but poor growth;and under the natural light ( CK) ,seedling survival rate is low,slow growth.These instruct that appropriate shading can pro-mote seed germination and seedling growth in the breeding process of A.sinensis.

  9. Analysis of Essential Oil Compounds from Different Species Osmanthus fragrans Lour. by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry%不同品种桂花挥发油成分的GC-MS分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈虹霞; 王成章; 孙燕

    2012-01-01

    采用水蒸气蒸馏法提取了江西地区金桂、银桂和四季桂3种桂花的挥发油,通过气相色谱-质谱联用法分析鉴定了3种桂花挥发油的化学成分及其含量。金桂挥发油中的主要成分是氧化芳樟醇、香叶醇、α-紫罗兰酮、β-紫罗兰酮、二氢猕猴桃内酯和邻苯二甲酸二丁酯等;主要香气成分为香叶醇、α-紫罗兰酮、β-紫罗兰酮、丁位癸内酯和芳樟醇及其氧化物。银桂挥发油的主要成分是氧化芳樟醇、环氧芳樟醇、丁位癸内酯、β-紫罗兰醇、β-紫罗兰酮、二氢猕猴桃内酯、邻苯二甲酸二异丁酯和邻苯二甲酸二丁酯等;主要香气成分为β-紫罗兰醇、β-紫罗兰酮、丁位癸内酯和氧化芳樟醇。四季桂挥发油的主要成分是香叶醇、茶香螺烷、β-紫罗兰醇、4-(2,6,6-三甲基-环己-1-己烯)-丁烷-2-醇、邻苯二甲酸二丁酯和丁位癸内酯等;主要香气成分为β-紫罗兰醇、香叶醇和茶香螺烷。%The essential oils from 3 varieties Osmanthusfragrans Lour. in Jiang Xi province were obtained by hydrodistillation and analysed by GC-MS. Main compounds of O. fragrans var. thunbergii were linalool oxide, geraniol, α-ionone, β-ionone, dihydroactinidiolide, butyl phthalate, etc. Main aroma components were geraniol, α-ionone, β-ionone, δ-decalactone and linalool oxide. The compounds of O. fragrans were linalool oxide, epoxylinalol, decalactone, α-ionol, β-ionone, diisobutyl phthalate, etc. Main aroma components were β-ionone, diisobutyl phthalate and linalool oxide. The compounds of 0. fragrans var. semperflorens were geraniol, theaspirane, βionol, dihydroactinidiolide, decalactone, 4-( 2,6, 6-Trimethyl-cyclohex-1- enyl)-butan-2-ol, etc. Main aroma components were β-ionol, geraniol and theaspirane.

  10. 黄河三角洲东营市河口区柽柳资源调查及综合开发%Investigation and comprehensive exploitation of Tamarix chinensis Lour.resources in Hekou district, Dongying city, the Yellow River delta

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭庆梅; 孙稚颖; 韩琳娜; 李佳; 周凤琴; 李国强; 刘玉新

    2011-01-01

    目的 调查黄河三角洲滨海湿地柽柳资源分布和利用情况.方法 应用野外样地调查的方法,对东营市河口区的柽柳林资源进行了综合调查,共调查了16个样地,65个样方.调查范围涉及柽柳物种、分布、群落结构和蕴藏量等.结果 本区含盐量15‰以上的区域,柽柳以优势植物出现,主要植物群落为柽柳—盐地碱蓬群落、柽柳群落;在含盐量15‰以下的区域,植物物种与群落类型相对丰富,以柽柳为优势植物或伴生植物出现;植物群落主要有:柽柳—芦苇群落、柽柳—补血草群落、盐地碱蓬群落、芦苇群落、芦苇—盐地碱蓬群落等.柽柳的蕴藏量为1.44×108 kg.结论 提出了柽柳综合开发利用的建议.%Objective To survey the distribution and usage of Tamarix chinensis Lour, resources in Hek-ou district, Dongying city, the Yellow River delta. Methods Using wild field sample surveying, 65 samples, 16 standard plots had been set up. The research scope covered species, distribution, community structure and reserves. Results In the area of that the soil salt were above 15%o, Tamarix chinensis was main species, the main types of vegetation were Form. Tamarix chinensis-Suaeda salsa, Form. Tamarix chinensis. In the area of that the soil salt were under 15%o, Tamarix chinensis was main species or companion species, the main types of vegetation were Form. Tamarix chinensis-Phragmites commnnis, Form. Tamarix chinensis-Limonium sinense; Form. Suaeda salsa and so on. The reserves of Tamarix chinensis Lour, were 1. 44 ×108 kg. Conclusion A certain number of suggestions on constructing the engineering of artificial combination forest have been proposed on the analysis of plant resources in the ar- ea.

  11. 紫茎泽兰的水浸提液对干香柏和藏柏种子萌发的影响%Effect of Water-extracted Solution of Eupatorium Adenophorum Spreng on Seeds Germination of Cupressus torulosa and Cupre

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟书华; 樊传章; 张光飞

    2011-01-01

    将在常温下浸泡48 h紫茎泽兰(Eupatorium adenophorumSpreng)的根、茎、叶、花各部位的水浸提液原液,以自来水作为对照,利用培养皿滤纸法研究紫茎泽兰各部位提取液对干香柏和藏柏种子萌发的影响,实验结果表明,紫茎泽兰各部位水浸提液对干香柏和藏柏种子萌发都具有化感克异作用,高浓度水浸提液的抑制作用强于低浓度的抑制作用.%48-hour-water-extracted solution at a natural temperature respectively from the root,stem,leaf and flower of Eupatorium Adenophorum Spreng was sprayed on the seeds of Cupressus torulosa and Cupressus duclouxiana Hichel making contrast of tap water to see

  12. Sistema reprodutivo de Anadenanthera peregrina (L. Speg e Vochysia haenkiana (Spreng. Mart. em fragmento de cerrado na Chapada dos Guimarães - MT Reprodutive system of Anadenanthera peregrina and Vochysia haenkiana in a fragment of "Cerrado forest" from Chapada dos Guimarães - MT, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reginaldo Brito da Costa

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo objetivou avaliar o sistema reprodutivo das espécies Anadenanthera peregrina (L. Speg. e Vochysia haenkiana (Spreng. Mart. Foram estudados aspectos do sistema de cruzamento, complementados pelas observações de maturação dos frutos e a germinação das sementes em função dos tipos de cruzamentos testados. As síndromes de dispersão das sementes foram também avaliadas através das características morfológicas dos frutos e sementes. O estudo foi realizado em um fragmento de cerrado com aproximadamente 32 ha, no município de Chapada dos Guimarães, MT, a 15(010' S, 55(035' W, e à altitude de 450m. O delineamento experimental utilizado na determinação do sistema de cruzamento para cada espécie foi o de blocos ao acaso, com seis tratamentos para a espécie Vochysia haenkiana e cinco tratamentos para Anadenanthera peregrina, ambas com três repetições. O sistema de cruzamento detectado para as duas espécies foi o preferencialmente alogâmico, porém, com a possibilidade, não desprezível, de produção de frutos/sementes por autofertilização, sugerindo um aumento gradual de autocompatibilidade genética como estratégia de geração de descendência no ambiente florestal fragmentado. A polinização cruzada em Anadenanthera peregrina é favorecida tanto pelo alto grau de auto-incompatibilidade genética quanto pela protandria detectada. O padrão de maturação dos frutos e sementes e o período de dispersão das sementes foram distintos em ambas as espécies, ocorrendo, entretanto, durante ou no final da estação seca, facilitando a distribuição dos propágulos anemocóricos. A germinação em ambas as espécies foi rápida e em alta percentagem.The study of the breeding system of Anadenanthera peregrina (L. Speg. and Vochysia haenkiana (Spreng. Mart. was the main purpose of this work. It was also studied fruit maturation, seed dispersal and seed germination to characterize the reproductive system of these

  13. Four New 2-(2-Phenylethylchromone Derivatives from Chinese Agarwood Produced via the Whole-Tree Agarwood-Inducing Technique

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    Yang-Yang Liu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Four new 2-(2-phenylethylchromone derivatives (1–4 were isolated from the EtOH extract of Chinese agarwood produced via the whole-tree agarwood-inducing technique, coming from Aquilaria sinensis (Lour. Spreng. (Thymelaeaceae. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic methods, such as UV, IR, MS, 1D as well as 2D NMR. All of the isolates were then assessed for their anti-inflammatory activities on lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO production in RAW 264.7. Compound 1 exhibited significant inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 4.6 μM.

  14. 紫茎泽兰乙醇提取物对五龄思茅松毛虫肠道细菌的抑制作用%Inhibition Effects of Ethanol Extracts from Eupatorium adenophorum Spreng on Intestinal Bacteria from 5th Instar Larvae of Dendrolimus kikuchii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱丽丽; 刘绍雄; 王金华; 李彪; 张敬宜; 熊智

    2012-01-01

    以思茅松毛虫五龄幼虫肠道细菌为供试菌,采用牛津杯法测定紫茎泽兰不同部位乙醇提取物的抑菌效果.结果表明:紫茎泽兰不同部位乙醇提取物除茎提取物外,对5种思茅松毛虫肠道细菌(共10株)均有不同程度的抑制作用,抑制作用大小顺序为叶>根>茎.在相同质量浓度下,叶提取物对5种肠道细菌的抑菌作用大小顺序为雷金斯堡约克氏菌(Yokenella regensburgei)>弗氏柠檬酸杆菌(Citrobacter freundii)>产酸克雷伯氏杆菌(Klebsiella oxytoca)>克雷伯氏杆菌(K lebsiella peneumoniae)>苏云金芽孢杆菌(Bacillus thuringiensis),其对雷金斯堡约克氏菌、产酸克雷伯氏杆菌以及弗氏柠檬酸杆菌的最低抑菌质量浓度为0.125 g/mL,对其余2种细菌的最低抑菌质量浓度分别为0.25 g/mL、0.5 g/mL.根提取液对雷金斯堡约克氏菌和克雷伯氏杆菌无抑制作用,在相同质量浓度下,其对其余3种细菌的抑制作用大小顺序与叶提取液相同,最低抑菌质量浓度为0.25 g/mL.紫茎泽兰乙醇提取物具有良好的抑菌效果,可用于开发新型的植物源生物农药.%The Oxford cup method was used to measure the inhibition effects of ethanol extracts from different parts of Eupatorium adenophorum Spreng on intestinal bacteria from 5th instar larvae of Dendrolimu kikuchii. The results showed that except stems the ethanol extracts from leaves and roots of E. Adenophorum exhibited inhibition effects on 10 strains of intestinal bacteria and the effect order of different parts was leaves>roots>stems. Under the same concentration of leaf extracts, the order of inhibition effects on intestinal bacteria was Yokenella regensburgei^> Citrobacter freundii^> Klebsiella oxytoca^>Klebsiella peneumoniae~>Bacillus thuringiensis. The minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) was 0. 125 g/mL on Yokenella regensburgei,Klebsiella oxytoca and Citrobacter freundii ,0. 25 and 0. 5 g/mL on other 2 bacterial species

  15. Overexpression of HMGR and DXR from Amomum villosum Lour . Affects the Biosynthesis of Terpenoids in Tobacco%阳春砂和在烟草中单独及共同过量表达调控萜类化合物的生物合成

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王焕; 魏洁书; 杨锦芬; 詹若挺; 陈蔚文; 叶圆

    2014-01-01

    HMGR and DXR are key enzymes of terpenoids biosynthesis pathway. This study was aimed to discuss the effects of overexpression of HMGR and DXR from A momum villosum Lour. on the biosynthesis of terpenoids in transgenic tobacco. The real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) was used to analyze the expression level of AvHMGR and AvDXR. Then, enzyme activities of HMGR and DXR were determined by spectrometer using the substrate-specific method. Different terpenoids were detected by GC-MS. The results showed that individual overex-pression of HMGR/DXR can inhibit the enzyme activities of HMGR and DXR but promote the biosynthesis of men-thene, neophytediene, cembrenene and sterol. The co-overexpression of HMGR and DXR had different enzyme activ-ities and can promote the biosynthesis of sterol and phytol, but inhibit the biosynthesis of neophytadiene. It was con-cluded that the overexpression of HMGR and DXR had diverse effects when regulating the biosynthesis of different terpenoids. This study provided the basis for using A vHMGR and A vDXR to regulate the metabolism of terpenoids.%目的:HMGR 和DXR 分别是萜类生物合成途径---MVA和MEP途径的关键酶,本研究探讨阳春砂A vHMGR 和A vDXR 在转基因烟草中的过量表达对不同萜类化合物生物合成的影响。方法:采用实时荧光定量 PCR(RT-qPCR)技术分析A vHMGR 和 A vDXR 的表达水平,应用专一底物法测定 HMGR 和DXR 的酶活性,利用气相色谱-质谱(GC-MS)联用技术检测不同萜类化合物的变化。结果:A vHMGR 或A vDXR 单独过量表达抑制了HMGR 和DXR 的活性,提高了五针松烯、新植二烯、薄荷烯和甾醇的含量;而A vHMGR 和A vDXR 共同过量表达对不同植株中酶活性的影响有差异,提高了甾醇和植醇的含量,但抑制了新植二烯的积累。结论:A vHMGR 和A vDXR 单独或共同过量表达对烟草中不同萜类化合物的合成调控存在差异,同时也证明

  16. Biological activity of fucoidan from leafy bladderwort (Utricularia aurea Lour.

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    Chotigeat, W.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Fucoidan extracted from aquatic plant Utricularia aurea was 1.3% of dry weight and comprised glucuronic acid 62.5% and fucose 4.98% of the crude extract and 28.74% of the fucose was sulfate. The fucoidan was investigated for antibacterial activity. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC of crude fucoidan against Vibrio harveyi and Escherichia coli was 20 and 10 mg/ml. Moreover, the fucoidan had anticoagulant activity. The crude fucoidan had activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT at 4.47 IU/mg.

  17. Biological activity of fucoidan from leafy bladderwort (Utricularia aurea Lour.)

    OpenAIRE

    Chotigeat, W.; Phongdara, A.; Choosawad, D.

    2005-01-01

    Fucoidan extracted from aquatic plant Utricularia aurea was 1.3% of dry weight and comprised glucuronic acid 62.5% and fucose 4.98% of the crude extract and 28.74% of the fucose was sulfate. The fucoidan was investigated for antibacterial activity. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of crude fucoidan against Vibrio harveyi and Escherichia coli was 20 and 10 mg/ml. Moreover, the fucoidan had anticoagulant activity. The crude fucoidan had activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) at ...

  18. Trachylobane and kaurane diterpenes from Croton floribundus spreng

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchoa, Paula Karina S.; Silva Junior, Jose Nunes da; Silveira, Edilberto Rocha; Lima, Mary Anne S., E-mail: mary@dqoi.ufc.br [Departamento de Quimica Organica e Inorganica, Centro de Ciencias, Universidade Federal do Ceara, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Braz-Filho, Raimundo [Laboratorio de Ciencias Quimicas, Centro de Ciencias Tecnologicas, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense, Campo dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil); Costa-Lotufo, Leticia Veras; Araujo, Ana Jersia; Moraes, Manoel Odorico de; Pessoa, Claudia do O [Departamento de Farmacologia e Fisiologia, Centro de Ciencias da Saude, Universidade Federal do Ceara, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)

    2013-09-01

    A new trachylobane diterpene ent-trachyloban-18,19-diol (1) was isolated from root bark of Croton floribundus, along with known diterpenes ent-trachyloban-19-oic acid (2), 15{beta}-hydroxy-ent-trachyloban-19-oic acid (3), ent-trachyloban-19-ol (4), ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid (5), ent-kaur-16-ene-6{alpha},19-diol (6) and ent-16{alpha}-hydroxykaur-11-en-19-oic acid (7). ent-trachyloban-18,19-diol (1) was submitted to derivatization reactions affording four new compounds (8-11). Cytotoxic activity of diterpenes 1, 3, 4, 7-11 against three human cancer cell lines was evaluated. No compounds showed cytotoxic potential with IC{sub 50} values greater than 25 {mu}g/mL. Compound 6 was evaluated against five human cancer cell lines, showing moderate effect against three cancer cell lines, MDA-MB-435, HCT-8 and HCT-116, with IC{sub 50} values of 14.32, 13.47 and 12.1 {mu}g/mL, respectively. (author)

  19. Trachylobane and kaurane diterpenes from Croton floribundus spreng

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    Paula Karina S. Uchôa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A new trachylobane diterpene ent-trachyloban-18,19-diol (1 was isolated from root bark of Croton floribundus, along with known diterpenes ent-trachyloban-19-oic acid (2, 15b-hydroxy-ent-trachyloban-19-oic acid (3, ent-trachyloban-19-ol (4, ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid (5, ent-kaur-16-ene-6a,19-diol (6 and ent-16a-hydroxykaur-11-en-19-oic acid (7. ent-trachyloban-18,19-diol (1 was submitted to derivatization reactions affording four new compounds (8-11. Cytotoxic activity of diterpenes 1, 3, 4, 7-11 against three human cancer cell lines was evaluated. No compounds showed cytotoxic potential with IC50 values greater than 25 mg/mL. Compound 6 was evaluated against five human cancer cell lines, showing moderate effect against three cancer cell lines, MDA-MB-435, HCT-8 and HCT-116, with IC50 values of 14.32, 13.47 and 12.1 mg/mL, respectively.

  20. 种龄、种内竞争及环境因子对紫茎泽兰种子萌发影响的研究%Effects of seed age, intraspecific competition, ambient condition on seed germination of Eupatorium adenophorum Spreng

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王霞霞; 李; 李君; 吴篆芳; 曹坳程

    2013-01-01

    紫茎泽兰(Eupatorium adenophorum Spreng),菊科多年生草本或半灌木植物,是世界性入侵杂草,也是目前危害我国最为严重的外来入侵杂草之一,对我国西南地区农业、畜牧业的良好发展以及生态环境造成了严重的危害。种子繁殖是紫茎泽兰初始建群,尤其是远距离传播的主要途径。环境对种子萌发具有决定性作用,对于物种的生存具有重要意义。因此,本试验通过室内生测法分析了紫茎泽兰种子保存时间、种内竞争及环境温度、盐分胁迫及水分胁迫等因素对紫茎泽兰种子萌发的影响。结果表明:紫茎泽兰种子寿命较长,存放2.5年的种子萌发率仍可达45.67%;紫茎泽兰种子萌发时种内竞争作用较强,能够显著降低其种子的萌发势和萌发率;紫茎泽兰种子萌发所需的温度范围较宽,在12~30℃温度范围内均可萌发,且随环境温度的升高,种子萌发越快,萌发率越高,高温(30℃/22℃)处理下种子萌发率可达到90.33%;同时发现,紫茎泽兰种子萌发对环境中的盐分浓度十分敏感,0.25%的盐质量分数即可达到种子的致死水平,1%的盐质量分数处理即可使种子完全丧失萌发能力。紫茎泽兰种子较耐水淹环境,浸水处理6 d的种子的萌发率仍高达65.68%。由此表明,紫茎泽兰种子不适应盐碱环境,而适宜于温暖潮湿的自然环境。这为探析紫茎泽兰种子萌发活动生理提供了一定的基础资料,同时,也为有效、安全的防除紫茎泽兰提供了科学依据。%Eupatorium adenophorum Spreng, an asteraceae perennial herb or subshrub, is an invasive weed around the world, as well as one of the worst invasive alien plant to China. It brings great harm to the local farm, husbandry, and the ecological environment, especially in the Southwest of China. Seed propagation is the main way for the initial establishment, especially in

  1. Use of Medical Plants in Schools Communities from Sinop, Mato Grosso.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. M. Urtado

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This study was conducted in Sinop, Mato Grosso, on two school communities. It was applied semi-structured questionnaires with questions focused on socioeconomic and the use of medicinal plants. It has as finality proved the effective use of medicinal plants on the everyday and a levy of the most used plant. The general profile of the respondents has shown that the women detain the major part of the knowledge, and that pass this uses to the future generations and friends, and find these plants on specialty stores, backyards, supermarket, root stores, bush and fairs. The plants that were found more frequently was (Ruta graveolens L., Babosa (Aloe vera L., Erva-Cidreira (Lippia alba Mill., Erva-Santa-Maria (Chenopodium ambrosioides L., Boldo (Plectranthus amboinicus Spreng., Hortel(Menta x vilosa Huds. e Terramicina (Alternanthera dentata Moench..Keywords: medical plants, Sinop, school.

  2. Semeadura direta de canafístula (Peltophorum dubium (Spreng.taub. No enriquecimento de capoeiras Direct seeding of canafistula (Peltophorum dubium (Spreng. taub. To regenerate shrubs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilmar Luciano Mattei

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o comportamento da canafistula (Peltophorumdubium, em semeadura direta a campo, em área de capoeira originada após o abandono do local utilizado com cultivos agrícolas sucessivos. No local foram roçadas faixas de 1,5 m, a cada 3 m. A semeadura foi realizada em setembro de 1997. Visando proteger os pontos semeados, foram utilizados diferentes tipos de protetores (copos de plástico e copos de papel, sem fundo e laminado de madeira, fixados sobre os pontos semeados com três sementes cada. As sementes foram escarificadas mecanicamente a 1.725 rpm, durante 60 segundos, com lixa Norton 60. O delineamento foi em blocos casualizados, com seis repetições. As variáveis avaliadas foram emergência, sobrevivência, número de pontos com plantas, densidade a 1 ano e altura das plantas aos 18 meses. Os resultados obtidos aos nove meses demonstraram que a utilização de qualquer um dos protetores físicos contribuiu para o estabelecimento de plantas em mais de 80% dos pontos semeados, e em mais de 75%, um ano após a semeadura, quando utilizado o laminado, o que indica que a semeadura direta é uma alternativa de implantação para a espécie, possibilitando transformar as áreas de capoeiras em um sistema agroflorestal ou mesmo silvipastoril, no futuro.This work aimed to evaluate the development of Peltophorum dubium by direct seeding on a succesively cropped field. Seeding was performed in rows of 1.5 m, three meters apart, on September 1977. To protect the seed-spots shelters, bottomless paper and plastic cups were used and wood slates were fixed on them. Seeds were mechanically scarified for 60 seconds. The variables evaluated were emergence, seedling survival, number of seed-spots with plants plant density at one year and plant height at the 18th month. Results at the 9th month showed that the seed-spot shelters contributed for plant establishment in 80% of the seed-spots and in more than 75% of them one year after seeding, when wood slates were used. Direct seeding is a viable alternative for this species which will allow the transformation of shrub areas into an agroforest or even silvipastural system in the near future.

  3. Hypnotic effect of ecdysterone isolated from Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen Efeito hipinótico de ecdisterona isolada de Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen

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    Raquel Fenner

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study the depressant effect of fractions from P. glomerata was initially evaluated using the mice barbiturate sleeping time test as reference. The fractions tested were the CHCl3, the EtOAc, the n-BuOH and the aqueous fraction obtained from P. glomerata subterraneous parts. Only the pretreatment with the lipophilic fraction (CHCl3: EtOAc, 1:1, w/w increased the barbiturate sleeping time (i.p 500 mg/kg; v.o. 1000 mg/kg. Ecdysterone, the main substance isolated from this lipophilic fraction, was identified by spectroscopic methods and its content in the ethanol extract was determined as 1.4% (w/w by HPLC. In order to investigate the hypothesis of ecdysterone displaying a depressant effect on nervous central system, an evaluation toward the hypnotic-sedative and anxiolytic effects of this drug was carried out. Ecdysterone 100 mg/kg, i.p, increased the barbiturate sleeping time without provoking hypothermia; when administered by oral route its minimal effective dose was 400 mg/kg. On the other hand, ecdysterone (100 mg/kg, i.p; 400 mg/kg, p.o did not impair motor coordination and was ineffective on pentylenetetrazole-induced convulsion, elevated plus-maze and step-down inhibitory avoidance tests, indicating that at these doses the drug does not present an anxiolytic profile and does not cause manifest neurotoxic effects as well. In conclusion, the lipophilic fraction from P. glomerata presents a hypnotic effect being ecdysterone one of the compounds responsible for this CNS activity.Neste trabalho foi avaliado, em roedores, o efeito depressor das frações clorofórmio (CHCl3, acetato de etila (EtOAc e n-butanol, obtidas das partes subterrâneas de Pfaffia glomerata, empregando-se o teste de tempo de sono barbitúrico como referência. Somente a fração lipofílica (CHCl3:EtOAc, 1:1, m/m (i.p. 500 mg/kg; v.o. 1000 mg/kg potenciou o tempo de sono induzido por pentobarbital. A ecdisterona foi isolada e identificada como constituinte majoritário (1,4% m/m desta fração, através de cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência e métodos espectroscópicos, respectivamente. Este composto potenciou o tempo de sono barbitúrico (100 mg/kg, i.p.; 400 mg/kg, v.o, sem causar hipotermia. Nestas mesmas doses, a ecdisterona não alterou a performance dos animais no rota-rod, esquiva inibitória e labirinto em cruz-elevado, além de não alterar o padrão de convulsões induzidas por pentilenotetrazol. Este perfil indica que esta substância, nestas doses, não apresenta perfil ansiolítico ou neurotóxico. Estes resultados indicam que a ecdisterona é o componente responsável pela ação hipnótica apresentada pela fração lipofílica obtida das partes subterrâneas de P. glomerata.

  4. Pego do Diabo (Loures, Portugal: dating the emergence of anatomical modernity in westernmost Eurasia.

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    João Zilhão

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Neandertals and the Middle Paleolithic persisted in the Iberian Peninsula south of the Ebro drainage system for several millennia beyond their assimilation/replacement elsewhere in Europe. As only modern humans are associated with the later stages of the Aurignacian, the duration of this persistence pattern can be assessed via the dating of diagnostic occurrences of such stages. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using AMS radiocarbon and advanced pretreatment techniques, we dated a set of stratigraphically associated faunal samples from an Aurignacian III-IV context excavated at the Portuguese cave site of Pego do Diabo. Our results establish a secure terminus ante quem of ca. 34,500 calendar years ago for the assimilation/replacement process in westernmost Eurasia. Combined with the chronology of the regional Late Mousterian and with less precise dating evidence for the Aurignacian II, they place the denouement of that process in the 37th millennium before present. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings have implications for the understanding of the emergence of anatomical modernity in the Old World as a whole, support explanations of the archaic features of the Lagar Velho child's anatomy that invoke evolutionarily significant Neandertal/modern admixture at the time of contact, and counter suggestions that Neandertals could have survived in southwest Iberia until as late as the Last Glacial Maximum.

  5. Comparison on characterization of longan (Dimocarpus longan Lour.) polyphenoloxidase using endogenous and exogenous substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jian; Zhang, Ezhen; Xu, Liangxiong; Li, Zhichun; Wang, Zhenxing; Li, Changbao

    2010-09-22

    Longan polyphenoloxidase (PPO) was extracted and partially purified using ammonium sulfate precipitation and dialysis. The PPO characterizations were compared using endogenous substrate (-)-epicatechin and exogenous substrate catechol. The optimal pH and optimal temperature for the PPO activity were different when reacting with both substrates. The addition of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid disodium salt into both substrate-enzyme systems exhibited the same lowest inhibition of the PPO activity. L-ascorbic acid and L-cysteine were the best inhibitors to endogenous substrate-enzyme system, while L-ascorbic acid and glutathione were most effective inhibitors to exogenous substrate-enzyme system. Cupric (Cu2+), ferric (Fe3+), and ferrous (Fe2+) ions accelerated the enzymatic-catalyzed reactions of both substrates. Kinetic analysis indicated that longan PPO strongly bound endogenous substrate but possessed a higher catalytic efficiency to exogenous substrate, and moreover, (-)-epicatechin was determined as the optimal substrate for longan PPO. This study is useful to exactly illuminate the enzymatic-catalyzed browning mechanism of postharvest longan fruit.

  6. Antioxidant and Anticancer Activities of Wampee (Clausena lansium (Lour. Skeels Peel

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    K. Nagendra Prasad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant activities of wampee peel extracts using five different solvents (ethanol, hexane, ethyl acetate, butanol and water were determined by using in-vitro antioxidant models including total antioxidant capability, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging activity, reducing power, and superoxide scavenging activity. Ethyl acetate fraction (EAF exhibited the highest antioxidant activity compared to other fractions, even higher than synthetic antioxidant butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT. In addition, the EAF exhibited strong anticancer activities against human gastric carcinoma (SGC-7901, human hepatocellular liver carcinoma (HepG-2 and human lung adenocarcinoma (A-549 cancer cell lines, higher than cisplatin, a conventional anticancer drug. The total phenolic content of wampee fraction was positively correlated with the antioxidant activity. This is the first report on the antioxidant and anticancer activities of the wampee peel extract. Thus, wampee peel can be used potentially as a readily accessible source of natural antioxidants and a possible pharmaceutical supplement.

  7. A new megastigmane diglycoside from Litsea glutinosa (Lour.) C. B. Rob

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yun-Song; Huang, Rong; Zhang, Hong-Bing; Yang, Jing-Hua, E-mail: yangjh@ynu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Medicinal Chemistry for Natural Resource, Ministry of Education, School of Chemical Science and Technology, Yunnan University (China); Liao, Zhen [Yunnan Academy of Tobacco Science (China); Li, Yan [State Key Laboratory of Phytochemistry and Plant Resources in West China, Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China)

    2011-09-15

    Phytochemical study on the leaves and twigs of afforded the new megastigmane diglycoside (6S, 7E, 9R)-6, 9-dihydroxy-4, 7-megastigmadien-3-one-9-O-[{alpha}-L-arabinofuranosyl-(1 ->6)]- {beta}-D-glucopyranoside (1), along with glycosides (6S, 7E, 9R)-roseoside (2), (7'R, 8'R)- 3, 5'-dimethoxy-9, 9'-dihydroxy-4, 7'-epoxylignan 4'-b-D-glucopyranoside (3), (7'R, 8'S)- dihydrodehydrodiconifenyl alcohol 9'-O-{beta}-D-xylopyranoside (4) and pinoresinol 3-O-{beta}-Dglucopyranoside (5). Their structures were established on the basis of extensive spectroscopic and chemical methods. Compounds 2-5 were reported for the first time in this species. Compound 1 was evaluated for cytotoxic activities against human tumor cell lines (myeloid leukemia HL-60, hepatocellular carcinoma SMMC-7721, lung cancer A-549, breast cancer MCF-7 and colon cancer SW480 cells), for which it was proved to be inactive (IC{sub 50} > 40 {mu}M). (author)

  8. Effect of Rotula aquatica Lour. on ethylene-glycol induced urolithiasis in rats.

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    Christina A.J.M

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the alcoholic extract of Rotula aquatica (Boraginaceae against ethylene glycolinduced urolithiasis in albino rats is summarized in this study. Lithiasis was induced in rats by administrating 1% ethylene glycol in drinking water for 28 days and was manifested by high urinary calcium, phosphate, oxalate, protein, uric acid, creatinine and low urinary magnesium content. The alcoholic extract of Rotula aquatica was administered in 200 mg/kg body weight orally for 28 days along with 1% ethylene glycol. Urinary calcium, phosphate, oxalate, protein, uric acid, creatinine was reduced and urinary magnesium level was elevated. It also increased the urine volume, thereby reducing the tendency for crystallization. The histopathological studies confirmed the induction of lithiasis as microcrystal deposition was observed in section of kidney from animals treated with ethylene glycol. This was reduced, however, after treatment with the extract. These observations enable us to conclude that alcoholic extract of Rotula aquatica is effective against ethylene-glycol induced urolithiasis in albino rats.

  9. Effects of shading on Vallisneria natans (Lour.) H. Hara growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fox, Anthony David; Meng, F; Shen, X

    2013-01-01

    , but dry weight fruit production was significantly reduced at 90% shading. We conclude that above 50% surface shading, V. natans plants suffer reductions in accumulated biomass and investment in sexual reproduction. We contend that recent expansions in the extent of the native floating water chestnut Trapa...

  10. Isolation and prebiotic activity of inulin-type fructan extracted from Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng) Pedersen roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caleffi, Edilainy Rizzieri; Krausová, Gabriela; Hyršlová, Ivana; Paredes, Larry Ladislao Ramos; dos Santos, Marcelo Müller; Sassaki, Guilherme Lanzi; Gonçalves, Regina Aparecida Correia; de Oliveira, Arildo José Braz

    2015-09-01

    Pfaffia glomerata (Amaranthaceae) is popularly known as "Brazilian ginseng." Previous studies have shown that fructose is the major carbohydrate component present in its roots. Inulin-type fructans, polymers of fructose, are the most widespread and researched prebiotics. Here, we isolated and chemically characterized inulin extracted from P. glomerata roots and investigated its potential prebiotic effect. Fructans were isolated and their structures were determined using colorimetric, chromatography, polarimetry, and spectroscopic analysis. The degree of polymerization (DP) was determined, and an in vitro prebiotic test was performed. The structure of inulin was confirmed by chromatography and spectroscopic analysis and through comparison with existing data. Representatives from the genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium utilized inulin from P. glomerata, because growth was significantly stimulated, while this ability is strain specific. The results indicated that inulin extracted from P. glomerata roots represents a promising new source of inulin-type prebiotics.

  11. Otimização da micropropagação de Pfaffia tuberosa (Spreng. Hicken

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    Flores Rejane

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou otimizar o protocolo de micropropagação de Pfaffia tuberosa, uma espécie medicinal encontrada em várias regiões do Brasil. O tratamento da planta matriz com benomyl (0,1% e o uso sucessivo de soluções com detergente comercial (duas gotas/100mL de água, durante dois minutos, etanol (70%, por 10 segundos, hipoclorito de sódio (1% + detergente comercial (duas gotas/100mL de água, por 10 minutos e HgCl2 (0,1%, por 5 minutos na etapa de desinfestação dos explantes foram eficazes para a limpeza e regeneração de plantas. As plantas devem ser subcultivadas para um novo meio MS a cada 30 dias de cultivo. Explantes provenientes de segmentos nodais apresentaram uma maior taxa de multiplicação quando comparados com os apicais. Não foi observado declínio na taxa de propagação no decorrer de cinco subcultivos in vitro. As mudas apresentaram um índice elevado de sobrevivência durante a fase de aclimatização.

  12. Evaluation of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of Euphorbia heyneana Spreng

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ganga Rao Battu; Sambasiva Rao Ethadi; Veda Priya G; Swathi Priya K; Chandrika K; Venkateswara Rao A; Satya Obbala Reddy

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To assess the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of the alcoholic extract of Euphorbia heyneana (E. heyneana) in carrageenan induced inflammation in rats. Methods:In vitro antioxidant activity was evaluated for superoxide radical, hydroxyl radical and DPPH radical scavenging activity. Three doses 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg were tested for anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenan induced rat paw oedema model and paw thickness was measured every one hour up to 6 hours. Results:The alcoholic extract of E. heyneana produced dose dependent inhibition of superoxide radical, hydroxyl radical and DPPH radicals. In carrageenan induced inflammation model, all three doses produced significant percentage inhibition of rat paw oedema and 800 mg/kg dose produced maximum percent inhibition of rat paw oedema (47.06%) among the three doses compared to control group. Conclusions:It can be concluded that alcoholic extract of E. heyneana shows good in vitro antioxidant and in-vivo anti-inflammatory activities in rats.

  13. MODELO DE INCREMENTO PARA ÁRVORES SINGULARES – Nectandra megapotamica (Spreng. Mez

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    Peter Spathelf

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available No setor florestal, os modelos de crescimento e incremento são utilizados para predizer o crescimento de uma árvore, de um povoamento ou de uma floresta. Nas florestas heterogêneas e de várias idades do Rio Grande do Sul, modelos de árvores individuais são apropriados. O presente trabalho foi estabelecido para contribuir para a formulação de um modelo de incremento de uma espécie da Floresta Estacional Decidual do Rio Grande do Sul: a Nectandra megapotamica. A coleta de dados foi realizada no distrito de Vale Vêneto, próximo a Santa Maria, nos anos de 1994 e 1997. A vegetação foi classificada em diferentes estágios sucessionais e nesses estágios, instaladas unidades amostrais permanentes (uap. Em cada uap, todas as árvores com DAP ≥ 5 cm foram identificadas, numeradas e medidas. Adicionalmente, a posição sociológica e variáveis do sítio foram estimadas. Em cada uap, calcularam-se a área basal individual, área basal por ha e área basal das árvores maiores que a concorrida (BAL. Em seguida, estabeleceram-se funções de crescimento utilizando o procedimento stepwise. A fórmula geral do modelo é: Incremento (g/ano = f (Dimensões, Concorrência, Sítio. O melhor modelo para Nectandra megapotamica é: ICA = 0,002084 + 0,000001039 x DAP² – 0,0003498 x Degradação – 0,000375 x P.S. – 0,00000904 x Pedregosidade – 0,0000103 x BAL.

  14. ESTRUTURA POPULACIONAL E POTENCIAL DE REGENERAÇÃO DE Attalea phalerata Mart. ex Spreng. (ACURI

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    Raquel Rejane Bonato Negrelle

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aiming to provide basis for the establishment of Attalea phalerata sustainable harvesting management plan, the results of the evaluation of the population structure and its respective natural regeneration potential are presented. Based on the obtained data, it was evaluated the potential capacity of fruit and oil yielding, related to the studied area. The research was performed in a 1ha plot representative of Acuri Dense Forest, located at RPPN SESC PANTANAL (Barão de Melgaço Mun., Mato Grosso state, Brazil. A total of 1164 individuals were registered, being 462 representatives of reproductive adults and 209 representatives of immature adults. 123 individuals were included as young and 370 as seedlings. The population had an inverted- J age structure, characteristic of stable populations with constant regeneration potentiality. The minimum immediate potential productivity was ca. 323 up to 970 Kg ha-1 for the mesocarp oil and 370 up to 601 Kg ha-1 for the kernel oil. The maximum immediate potential productivity was ca. 970 up to 2910 Kg ha-1 for the mesocarp oil and 1109 up to 1802 Kg ha-1 for kernel oil.

  15. POPULATION STRUCTURE AND REGENERATION POTENCIALITY OF Attalea phalerata Mart. ex Spreng. (ACURI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Rejane Bonato Negrelle

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509812356Aiming to provide basis for the establishment of Attalea phalerata sustainable harvesting managementplan, the results of the evaluation of the population structure and its respective natural regeneration potentialare presented. Based on the obtained data, it was evaluated the potential capacity of fruit and oil yielding,related to the studied area. The research was performed in a 1ha plot representative of Acuri Dense Forest,located at RPPN SESC PANTANAL (Barão de Melgaço Mun., Mato Grosso state, Brazil. A total of1164 individuals were registered, being 462 representatives of reproductive adults and 209 representativesof immature adults. 123 individuals were included as young and 370 as seedlings. The population hadan inverted- J age structure, characteristic of stable populations with constant regeneration potentiality.The minimum immediate potential productivity was ca. 323 up to 970 Kg ha-1 for the mesocarp oil and370 up to 601 Kg ha-1 for the kernel oil. The maximum immediate potential productivity was ca. 970 up to2910 Kg ha-1 for the mesocarp oil and 1109 up to 1802 Kg ha-1 for kernel oil.

  16. Population structure and density of Attalea phalerata Mart. ex Spreng. (Arecaceae in a semideciduous forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aelton Biasi Giroldo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The structure of a population can be seen as the result of biotic and abiotic interacting forces. The studies of population characteristics are vital to improve the understanding of ecosystem functioning. In this study, we attempted to answer the two following questions: What are the population structure of Attalea phalerata? and Are there any influence of reproducers presence, canopy openness, declivity, basal area and soil coverage on recruitment of individuals in this population? We distinguished four ontogenetic stages in A. phalerata. Reproducers and virgins were sampled by using 25 plots (400 m², juveniles and seedlings were sampled in sub-plots (100 m². We found 2,328 Attalea phalerata individuals per hectare, first two ontogenetic stages accounted for 89.8% of the total, describing a relatively stable population. None of the analyzed factors were affecting the natural regeneration of Attalea phalerata in the fragment. The density and distribution pattern found for the population are probably signs of formation of oligarchic forests, moreover, the species seems to be able to colonize clearings and open areas.

  17. Antioxidant, analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of Leucas cephalotes (Roxb.ex Roth Spreng

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    Bhukya Baburao

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The whole plant of the methanolic extract from Leucas cephalotes was screened for invitro antioxidant (using the DPPH method, invivo analgesic (using hot plate test in mice and anti-inflammatory (using rat paw edema test activities. The methanolic extract of Leucas cephalotes (MELC scavenged the DPPH radicals in a dose-dependent manner. The IC50 value to scavenge DPPH radicals was found to be 421.3µg/ml. A significant (pO extrato metanólico total de Leucas cephalotes foi submetido à triagem para as atividades antioxidante in vitro (utilizando o método DPPH, analgésica (utilizando teste da placa quente, em camundongos e antiinflamatória (utilizando teste de edema da pata de rato, nas doses de 200 e 400 mg/kg. O extrato metanólico de Leucas cephalotes (MELC inativou radicais difenil picril hidrazila (DPPH de forma dose-dependente. O IC50 para essa atividade foi de 421,3 µg/mL. Observou-se atividade analgésica significativa (p<0,0005 a 60 minutos, com 200 mg/kg, e, com 400 mg/kg, observou-se atividade máxima. A resposta antiinflamatória máxima foi produzida, respectivamente, em 3 h e 2 h, com doses de 200 e 400 mg/kg. Estes resultados sugerem que o extrato metanólico de Leucas cephalotes apresenta efeitos analgésico e antiinflamatório significativos, comparáveis aos fármacos padrão.

  18. Seasonal influence on the essential oil production of Nectandra megapotamica (Spreng. Mez

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcio de Paula Amaral

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the seasonal influence on the yield and chemical composition of the essential oil (EO of Nectandra megapotamica. Fresh young (YL and old leaves (OL obtained from three trees in each season (Nov/2010 to Sep/2011 collected in Santa Maria-RS were hydrodistilled in triplicate. The chemical composition was determined by the gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS and the yield on dry basis was evaluated by two-way ANOVA (seasons, development stage. Spring (Sp and summer (Su showed higher average incomes (0.45 and 0.33%, which occurred when flowering, fruiting, and growth of YL and senescence of OL took place, while autumn (Au presented the lowest yield (0.25% during the rustification of OL. The highest yield was obtained for the YL in Sp (0.59% and the lowest for the OL in Au (0.21%. The major constituents of the EO were independent from the season and were identified as α-pinene, bicyclogermacrene, β-pinene, germacrene D, and limonene. Seasonality and phenology influenced the production of EO probably due to morphological and metabolic alterations in the leaves as well as due to the needs of the tree, such as attraction and/or protection.

  19. Population structure and genetic diversity in natural populations of Theobroma speciosum Willd. Ex Spreng (Malvaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giustina, L D; Luz, L N; Vieira, F S; Rossi, F S; Soares-Lopes, C R A; Pereira, T N S; Rossi, A A B

    2014-02-14

    The genus Theobroma found in the Amazon region is composed of 22 species, including Theobroma speciosum, better known as cacauí. These species are constantly threatened by forest fragmentation caused by human activities and require conservation strategies and management aimed at preserving them in their natural environments. The main objective of this study was to analyze the population structure and genetic diversity within and between natural populations of T. speciosum by using ISSR molecular markers to understand the population structure of the species. Four natural populations belonging to the Amazon rainforest (BAC, CRO, FLA, and PNA), located in the State of Mato Grosso, were selected. Amplification reactions were performed using 15 ISSR primers. A total of 101 loci were found, of which 54.46% were polymorphic at the species level. The BAC population showed higher genetic diversity (H=0.095 and I=0.144) and higher percentage of polymorphism (28.71%). The populations showed an FST value of 0.604, indicating marked genetic differentiation. The highest genetic variation was found between populations. Gene flow was low between populations, indicating genetic isolation between populations.

  20. Standardisation and automation of blasting and drilling jumbos; Standardisierung und Automatisierung von Spreng- und Ankerbohrwagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thyrock, K.; Prinz, F. [Deutsche Steinkohle AG (DSK), Herne (Germany)

    2007-02-01

    Standardisation and innovation in the DSK are the aspects of a task with the aim of making powerful and cost-effective machines and tools available to the mines within the framework of a comprehensive technical strategy. Standardisation successfully reduces the costs of acquisitions, storage, logistics and maintenance. Innovations compensate for know-how losses, produce higher performances and increase the economic effects of standardisation e.g. in maintenance. (orig.)

  1. Antioxidant properties of Lippia javanica (Burm.f.) Spreng. / C. Pretorius

    OpenAIRE

    Pretorius, Corlea

    2010-01-01

    The evolution of aerobic metabolic processes unavoidably led to the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS have the ability to cause harmful oxidative damage to biomolecules. Increased ROS generation and subsequent oxidative stress have been associated with aging and neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s diseases as a result of the extreme sensitivity of the central nervous system to damage from ROS. Antioxidant defence systems have co–evolve...

  2. The selects of bearberry (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (l. spreng. from natural populations in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Malinowska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Five plants of bearberry selected from natural stands in Poland and one from a Botanical Garden were propagated by cuttings. The clonal plants were first kept under observation for two years planted on different substrates in containers and were afterwards field cultivated for three subsequent years. The existence of a significant differentiation within these Arctostaphylos uva-ursi clones was proved. Two selects of good ornamental features as well as with high concentration of medicinal substance - arbutin were chosen. Plants started fruiting in the fourth year of growth and the area covered by a single plant exceeded 2 m2 after five years of cultivation.

  3. Chemical constituents of Pseudobrickellia brasiliensis leaves(Spreng. R.M. King & H. Rob. (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L.L. DE AMORIM

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Pseudobrickelliabrasiliensisis aspecies endemic toBrazil, popularlyknown as “arnica”/ “arnica-do-campo”/ “arnica-do-mato” and used for itsanalgesicand anti-inflammatoryproperties. The objective of this research was thephytochemical studyof the essential oilandhexaneandethyl acetateextracts of the leaves of this species. The essential oilwasextracted byhydrodistillation using a Clevengerapparatusand was analyzed byGC/MS, 25components were identified, with a predominance ofmonoterpenes. The extractswere subjected toclassicalchromatographyand the fractionswere analyzed byGC/MS, 1D 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and 13C-NMR-DEPT 135.α-amyrin, α-amyrin acetate, β-amyrin, β-amyrin acetate, lupeol, lupeolacetate, pseudotaraxasterol andtaraxasterol (triterpenes, andkaurenoicacid (diterpene were identified.Theseterpenesarechemo-taxonomicallyrelated to theEupatorieaetribe(Asteraceae and may be responsible for the anti-inflammatory activity attributed to the plant.

  4. Old sleeping Sicilian beauty: seed germination in the palaeoendemic Petagnaea gussonei (Spreng.) Rauschert (Saniculoideae, Apiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Castro, O; Gianguzzi, L; Carucci, F; De Luca, A; Gesuele, R; Guida, M

    2015-09-01

    Petagnaea gussonei (Apiaceae) is a perennial herbaceous species endemic to northeast Sicily (Nebrodi Mountains). It is considered a remnant of the Sicilian Tertiary flora, and is endangered according to the Red List. There is no information in the literature about the germinability of its seeds, even though seed production is know to occur. The aim of this study was to obtain data to better understand seed germination of this species and its biological implications. Thus, several approaches were employed: vitality analyses, gibberellic acid supply, germination and soil microbial flora analyses via end-point and qPCR. The results suggest that seed germination occurs after ca. 1.5 years at a rate of ca. 11%. The seeds can be classified as physiologically dormant, and probably require prolonged cold stratification for germination. Because seed germination is low, it is likely that agamic reproduction represents an important mean for its conservation and survival. These results have important implications for P. gussonei survival and should be considered in possible re-introduction attempts aimed at restoring threatened populations.

  5. Phytochemical screening and antimicrobial activity of roots of Murraya koenigii (Linn. Spreng. (Rutaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manisha Vats

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Murraya koenigii, family Rutaceae, commonly known as Curry leaf plant is a highly valued plant for its medicinal value and characteristic aroma. The plant is a rich source of carbazole alkaloids. The petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts of roots of the plant were screened for phytochemical properties and antimicrobial activity for Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcus luteus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger. Phytochemical screening showed the presence of carbohydrates, alkaloids, steroids and flavonoids in the root extracts of the plant. The study shows that all the extracts possess remarkable antibacterial activity. Additionally, petroleum ether and chloroform extracts also had antifungal activity.

  6. Using of Bangun-Bangun Leafs (Coleus Amboinicus, L on Red Sugar Block to Upgrading Milk Production of Frisian Holstein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelzi Fati

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Science and technology for the Community Activities Program (IBM granting wake leaf meal in urea red sugar  block has been implemented in a herd prosperous green valley village Kampung Manggis, Western District of Padang Panjang, Municipality of Leopold. This activity aims to increase the milk production of dairy cows through the application of technology utilization wake leaf meal in urea  red sugar block. The benefits of this activity is to assist farmers in improving milk production per day, so that milk production can increase the impact on increasing revenue. To achieve the goal of service to the community mentioned above, it has been conducted lectures, live demonstrations on the making lick candy made from leaf shapes. Six cows used as a demonstration, two dairy cows with urea red sugar block containing 2.5% leaf shapes, two dairy cows with urea red sugar block containing leaf shapes 5% and two cows with urea red sugar block containing leaves wake up 7.5%. Wake up dried leaves with the help of sunlight and then made ready for use in the flour mixture forming urea red sugar block which serves as a feed supplement in dairy cattle. Evaluation activities indicate that the application of urea  red sugar block starchy wake leaves 5% can increase the production of milk 2 liters / day / head (average increase 10%.Of this service activities can be concluded that the use of leaf meal wake up in 5% urea red sugar  block can increase milk production of dairy cows 2 liters / day / head compared with 2.5%, 7.5%.

  7. Lactagogue effects of Torbangun, a Bataknese traditional cuisine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damanik, Rizal; Wahlqvist, Mark L; Wattanapenpaiboon, N

    2006-01-01

    Coleus amboinicus Lour (CA) has been used as a breast milk stimulant (a lactagogue) by Bataknese people in Indonesia for hundreds of years. However, the traditional use of CA is not well documented, and scientific evidence is limited to establish CA as a lactagogue. This investigation was conducted to elucidate the effect of traditional use of CA during the first month of lactation on quantity and quality of the breast milk. The results collected from the study show that CA supplementation increased breast milk production without compromising the nutritional quality of the breast milk. Lactating women receiving CA supplementation had a 65% increase in milk volume during the last two weeks of supplementation (from Day 14 to Day 28). This increase was greater than that of lactating women receiving Molocco+B12 tablets (10%) or Fenugreek seeds (20%). The residual effects of CA supplementation were seen even after the supplementation had ended for one month. Results of the present study confirmed the belief and the practice amongst the Bataknese people that CA can be used as a lactagogue in humans, and the use of CA might be suitable for lactating women in general.

  8. Adjuvant effect of an extract from Cochinchina momordica seeds on the immune responses to ovalbumin in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Chenwen; HU Songhua; Rajput Zahid Iqbal

    2007-01-01

    The seed of the Momordica cochinchinensis (Lour.)Spreng as a traditional Chinese medicine has been utilized in China for more than 1 200 years.It is traditionally used for the treatment of inflammatory swelling,scrofula,tinea,diarrhea as well as suppurative skin infections such as sore,carbuncles,furuncles and boils in both humans and animals.In this study,an extract from Cochinchina momordica seeds(ECMS)is evaluated for its adjuvant effect and safety.The results suggest that when co-administered with ECMS in Balb/c mice,ovalbumin(OVA,10μg)may induce significantly higher specific antibody production than OVA used alone(P<0.05).Analysis of antibody isotypes indicates that the ECMS can promote the production of both IgG1 and IgG2a,concanavalin A,lipopolysaccharides or OVA are significantly higher in mice immunized with OVA mixed with ECMS than immunized with OVA alone or mixed with aluminum hydroxide(P<0.05).No local reactions and negative effects on the body weight gain occurred after the injection of OVA mixed with various amounts of ECMS in mice.Therefore,the ECMS is safe for injection and can be used as a potential vaccine adjuvant biasing the production of IgG2a in mice.

  9. 香港大榄郊野公园的植物组成与植被数量分类%Floristic Composition and Quantitative Classification in Tai Lam Country Park,Hong Kong

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾绮微; 李海生; 陈桂珠; 叶创兴; 黄颂诗; 黄超弘

    2008-01-01

    通过对香港大榄郊野公园森林群落的样地调查,利用组平均法和除趋势对应分析两种方法,对样方进行聚类与排序分析.把35个样地划分为11个植被类型,森林群落可划分为台湾相思(Acacia confusa Merr.)林、红胶木(Lophostemon confertus (R. Br.) Peter G. Wilson ex J. T. Waterh.)林、木荷(Schima superba Gardner ex Champ.)林、柠檬桉(Eucalyptus citriodora Hook.)林、湿地松+鸭脚木(Pinus elliottii Engelm.+ Schefflera octophylla (Lour.) Harms.)林、土沉香(Aquilaria sinensis (Lour.) Spreng.)林、毛叶桉(Eucalyptus torelliana F. Muell.)林; 灌木群落分为山油柑+越南叶下珠(Acronychia pedunculata (L.) Miq.+ Phyllanthus cochinchinensis (Lour.) Spreng.)矮树灌丛、豺皮樟+桃金娘(Litsea rotoundifolia (Nees) Hemsl. var. oblongifolia (Nees) C. K. Allen+Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Alton) Hassk.)矮树灌丛、大头茶(Gordonia axillaris (Roxb. ex Ker Gawl.) D. Dietr.)矮树灌丛、桃金娘+芒萁(Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Alton) Hassk.+Dicranopteris dichotoma (Thunb.) Bernh.)灌草丛.DCA排序结果反映海拔高度与各个森林群落的分布格局和物种组成关系不大,而环境湿度是影响森林群落物种组成的主要因素.多样性分析结果显示,台湾相思林和土沉香林多样性指数最高,说明台湾相思林逐渐向次生林演变,除了红胶木林和少数郁闭度低的台湾相思林中有强阳生性树种外,大部分人工林下植物以阳生性稍耐阴的树种为主.调查结果显示,大榄郊野公园植物生长条件东部优于西部,西部的物种丰富度和多样性指数较低,主要以人工林和灌丛为主,加上山火频繁发生,导致长期处于先锋阶段.

  10. Observações sobre o modo de reprodução em Adesmia latifolia Spreng. Vog. Observations on the mode of reproduction of Adesmia latifolia Spreng. Vog.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange Bosio Tedesco

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Um experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação, com plantas de um acesso de Adesmia latifolia, para fazer observações relativas ao seu modo de reprodução. As plantas foram isoladas individualmente e, após o florescimento, foram submetidas a três tratamentos: estímulo mecânico, cruzamentos manuais e isolamento. Os resultados indicaram versatilidade da espécie, a qual pode reproduzir-se por fecundação cruzada e por autofecundação.An experiment was carried out to study the reproduction mode of Adesmia latifolia. The experiment was conducted in greenhouse with plants of one access of this species. The plants after flowering were isolated individually and submitted to three treatments: mechanical stimulation, hand crossing and isolation. The results showed versatility of this species which could reproduce by cross-fertilization and self-fertilization.

  11. Enraizamento e germinação na propagação de Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen (ginseng-brasileiro Rooting and germination in propagation of Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen (ginseng-brasileiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana de Paula Quintão Scalon

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Conduziu-se este trabalho, com o objetivo de avaliar a propagação sexuada e assexuada de Pfaffia glomerata (ginseng brasileiro. As sementes foram pré-embebidas por 24 horas em KNO3 1%; ácido giberélico 50, 100 e 200 mg L-1 ; emágua e as sementes que não receberam tratamento serviram como testemunha. A semeadura foi em placas de petri sobre duas folhas de papel de filtro e a incubação a 25ºC, sob iluminação constante e na ausência de luz. As estacas com º15 cm foram imersas durante 6 horas em IAA 250 e IBA 500 mg L-1, ácido bórico 1% e em água e plantadas em embalagem plástica, contendo terra+areia (1:1. O primeiro experimento foi conduzido em delineamento inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 2 (níveis de luz x 6 (tratamento de pré-embebição em 4 repetições de 20 sementes. O segundo em DIC com 5 tratamentos, 4 repetições de 15 estacas por repetição. As sementes de ginseng brasileiro necessitam de tratamento de pré-embebição para acelerar a germinação, sendo a imersão em KNO3 o método mais eficiente, proporcionando 63% de germinação. Apresentam fotoblastismo neutro, com germinação média de 45%. As estacas de ginseng brasileiro imersas apenas em água apresentaram 100% de enraizamento, maior número de brotos (2,5 e maior comprimento de raiz (8,6 cm. A espécie apresenta potencial para ambos os métodos de propagação.The objective of this study was to evaluate sexual and asexual propagation of Pfaffia glomerata (Brazilian Ginseng. The seeds were pre-soaked for 24 hours in KNO3 1% , gibberellic acid 50, 100, 200 mg L-1 , and in water. Untreated seeds served as control. Sowing was accomplished in petri dishes on 2 sheets of filter paper, at 25ºC incubation, under constant illumination, and in the absence of light. The cuttings with º1,5 cm were immersed for 6 hours in IAA 250 and 500mg L-1, boric acid1% ,and in water. Soon after they were planted in plastic containers with soil + sand (1:1. The first experiment was in factorial design 2 (light levels x 6 (pre-soak treatment in 4 repetitions of 20 seeds per repetition. The second in ERD in 5 treatments, 4 repetitions of 15 cuttings per repetition. Brazilian Ginseng seeds need pre-soak treatment to accelerate germination. We found immersion in KNO3 the most efficient method, providing 63% germination. They presented neuter photoblastism with an average germination of 45%. The Brazilian Ginseng cuttings immersed in water presented 100% rooting, a higher number of sprouts (2,5, and greater length (8,6 cm. The species presents potential for both propagation methods.

  12. Morfologia do fruto, da semente e morfo-anatomia da plântula de Vitex megapotamica (Spreng. Moldenke (Lamiaceae Fruit and seed morphology and morpho-anatomy of seedlings of Vitex megapotamica (Spreng. Moldenke (Lamiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Luiz Cosmo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Vitex megapotamica (tarumã é espécie arbórea, decídua, com ocorrência, no Brasil, desde Minas Gerais até o Rio Grande do Sul. Visando à caracterização morfológica do fruto, da semente e morfo-anatômica da plântula, frutos desta espécie foram coletados e as sementes postas para germinar em laboratório. As plântulas foram coletadas desde a protrusão da raiz até o desenvolvimento do primeiro par de eofilo. Foram realizadas medições e pesagem de frutos, e contagem do número de sementes por frutos. As características morfológicas do fruto e da semente são aqui descritas e ilustradas, assim como a morfo-anatomia da plântula. O fruto é drupóide, nuculânio, tetralocular, contendo apenas uma ou duas sementes com fina camada de endosperma e embrião axial, foliáceo. O diásporo (pirênio é constituído pelo endocarpo mais a semente. O endocarpo lenhoso parece exercer restrição sobre a germinação das sementes desta espécie. A plântula é epigea, fanerocotiledonar, com paracotilédones elípticos, com margem inteira, e eofilos opostos, simples, elípticos, com margem serreada, apresentando tricomas tectores. Tanto o paracotilédone quanto o eofilo apresentam mesofilo heterogêneo, dorsiventral, feixe colateral em forma de arco e estômatos anomocíticos. A raiz é poliarca, com córtex parênquimático; o hipocótilo possui tricomas glandulares e não-glandulares, colo distinto, e com cerca de 20 dias encontra-se em início de crescimento secundário. Diversas das características da plântula de Vitex megapotamica estão relacionadas à sua condição de espécie heliófila.Vitex Megapotamica (tarumã is a deciduous tree occurring in Brazil from Minas Gerais to Rio Grande do Sul States. In order to characterize fruit and seed morphology and morpho-anatomy of seedlings, fruits of this species were collected and seeds were germinated in the laboratory. Seedlings were collected from root protrusion to development of the first pair of eophylls. The fruits were measured and weighed and the number of seeds per fruit counted. Fruit and seed morphology were described and illustrated, as well as morphoanatomy of the seedling. The fruit is a 4-locular drupe containing only one or two seeds with a thin layer of endosperm and an axial, foliate embryo. The woody endocarp seems to restrict germination in this species. The seedling has epigeal, phanerocotylar development; elliptical paracotyledons with entire margins, and opposite, simple, elliptical eophylls with serrate margins, and simple multicelullar trichomes. Paracotyledons and eophylls have heterogeneous dorsiventral mesophyll, collateral bundle, and anomocytic stomata. The root is polyarc, with parenchymatous cortex; the hypocotyl has glandular and non-glandular trichomes, a distinct collet, and within 20 days it starts secondary growth. Many characteristics of seedlings in V. megapotamica are related to the fact that it is a heliophyte.

  13. Aspectos da anatomia e do óleo essencial em folhas de Pindaíba (Xylopia brasiliensis Spreng. Aspects of the anatomy and essential oil in leaves of pindaíba (Xylopia brasiliensis Spreng.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breno Régis Santos

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, estudaram-se aspectos de anatomia foliar, extraiu-se e caracterizou-se o óleo essencial presente nos tecidos foliares de pindaíba (Xylopia brasiliensis. Os cortes transversais foram realizados à mão livre com o auxílio de uma lâmina de barbear e submetidos ao processo de coloração com safranina e azul de astra. A extração e a caracterização do óleo essencial foram realizadas pela técnica de arraste de vapor de água. Na seção transversal da folha da pindaíba foi observada a presença de cavidade oleífera, sendo o óleo constituído principalmente de óxido de cariofileno.Aspects of leaf anatomy, extraction and characterization of essential oils present in leaf tissues of Pindaíba (Xylopia brasiliensis, were studied. The anatomical cuts were manually performed and their visualization were made through a coloration process using safranine and astra blue. The extraction and characterization of the essential oil used the steam drag’s method. With these studies it was observed the presence of oily idioblasts filled mainly with cariophylene oxide.

  14. Seed production and seed quality of the dune building grass Panicum racemosum Spreng Produção e qualidade da semente da gramínea Panicum racemosum Spreng. em um gradiente de dunas costeiras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Vieira Cordazzo

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Seed production, pollination requirement, seed characteristics related to quality and the relationship between number and mass of seeds were examined for Panicum racemosum in three successional populations in southern Brazilian coastal dunes. The seed production was generally low and declined further between the frontal dunes and the backdunes, dropping from 4.05 seeds per panicle in the former to 1.8 seeds in the latter. However fertility (% fertile florets did not differ among the three habitats. Plants cross-pollinated in a glasshouse showed an increase in seed production to 41.4 seeds compared to no seed production in self-pollinated plants. Caryopses varied in mass from 3.2 to 12.2 mg with a mean of 7.98 mg. A strong negative correlation was found between mean individual seed mass and the total number of seeds per panicle in a natural population. However, this relationship did not persist in seeds produced by cultivated plants in the glasshouse. The causes of low seed production appear to be mainly pollen self-incompatibility and additionally competition for nutrients between sexual reproduction and allocation to clonal growth. Under conditions of nutrient shortage, Panicum racemosum probably allocates resources more to clonal growth and to fewer, but well-endowed seeds. This would permit emergence from deeper burial sand, faster growth and greater survival of seedlings.A produção de sementes, polinização, características das sementes e a relação entre o número e peso de sementes foram examinadas em três populações de Panicum racemosum ao longo de um gradiente nas dunas costeiras no sul do Brasil. A produção de sementes foi pequena e decresceu ao longo do gradiente, diminuindo de 4,05 sementes por espiga nas dunas frontais para 1,8 sementes por espiga nas dunas mais estáveis. Entretanto não ocorreram diferenças na fertilidade entre as populações. Plantas cultivadas em casas de vegetação e que foram polinizadas cruzadamente mostraram um aumento na produção de sementes (41,4 sementes em comparação com as plantas auto-polinizadas (nenhuma semente. As sementes variaram em relação à massa de 3,2 a 12,2 mg com uma média de 7,98 mg. Uma forte correlação negativa foi encontrada entre a massa individual das sementes e o número total de sementes por espiga nas sementes coletadas nas dunas frontais. As causas da baixa produção de sementes parecem ser principalmente devido à incompatibilidade do pólen na auto polinização e, devido à competição por nutrientes entre a reprodução sexuada e crescimento vegetativo. Em condições de deficiencia em nutrientes, provavelmente Panicum racemosum utiliza mais recursos em crescimento vegetativo e baixa produção de sementes, mas de boa qualidade. Isto, poderia permitir que as plântulas originadas destas sementes possam emergir de maiores profundidades na areia, terem maior crescimento e sobrevivência.

  15. 大管的化学成分研究%Chemical Constituents of the Plant Micromelum falcatum (Lour.) Tan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄永中; 张偲; 黄升; 罗雄明; 王建华

    2012-01-01

    Twelve compounds were isolated from Micromelum falcatum and purified by repeated column chromatography on silica,Sephadex LH-20 gel,and HPLC and structurally identified by spectral analysis. The compounds were identified as 5-formyl-6,7-dimethoxycoumarin (1) ,isoscoploletin-β-D-glucoside (2) ,6-(irarcs-l-buten-3-only)-7-methoxycouma-rin (3) ,isoscopoletin-(6-hydroxyl-7-methoxyl coumarin,isoscopoletin) (4) ,microfalcatin isovalerate (5) .micromelin (6),syringin ( 7), coniferin ( 8 ), Methyl 2-0^3-D-glucopyranosylbenzoate ( 9 ) , 2-hydroxy-5-methoxy-trans-cinnamic acid (10) ,3 ,5-dimethoxyl-4-hydroxyl benzaldehyde (11) and o-sec-butyl phenol (12). Compound 1 previously synthesized but first isolated as natural product,and the other compounds were isolated from this plant for the first time except 5 and 6.%从小芸木属植物大管茎皮部位共分离得到12个化合物,运用MS、1H NMR和13C NMR等波谱方法并结合文献对照分别鉴定为5-formyl-6,7-dimethoxycoumarin(1),isoscoploletin-β-D-glucoside(2),6-(trans-1-buten-3-only)-7-methoxycoumarin(3),6-羟基-7-甲氧基香豆素(4),microfalcatin isovalerate(5),小芸木宁(6),丁香苷(7),coniferin(8),methyl2-O-β-D-glucopyranosylbenzoate(9),2-hydroxy-5-methoxy-trans-cinnamic acid(10),3,5-二甲氧基-4-羟基苯甲醛(11)和邻仲丁基苯酚(12).其中化合物1为新的天然产物;除5和6外,其余化合物均首次从该植物中分离得到.

  16. Kinnow madarin (Citrus nobilis lour × Citrus deliciosa tenora fruit waste silage as potential feed for small ruminants

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    B. A. Malla

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Study was conducted to ascertain the quality of Kinnow mandarin waste (KMW silage and its utilization by adult male goats. Materials and Methods: KMW was collected, dried to 30% dry matter level and ensiled in silo pit after addition of disodium hydrogen orthophosphate as source of phosphorus as KMW is deficient in phosphorus. Oat was collected at milking stage, chopped finely and ensiled in a silo pit for 2 months. Twelve nondescript local adult male goats of about 8-10 months age and mean body weight of 23.00±0.90 kg were selected. The goats were randomly allotted on body weight as per randomized block design into two equal groups, six animals in each group (n=6 namely “oat silage (OS” and “Kinnow silage.” Goats were offered weighed quantities of respective silage on ad libitum basis. The silages were evaluated for proximate principles and silage quality attributes. Results: Differences were found between chemical composition of both silages with higher organic matter, ether extracts, nitrogen free extract (p0.05 for CP and possess comparable (2.23 vs. 2.06; p>0.05 calcium content. The pH, ammonia nitrogen (percent of total nitrogen and soluble carbohydrate content were lower (4.20 vs. 3.30; 4.14 vs. 3.80; 2.73 vs. 1.86; p0.05 among the two dietary groups. Conclusion: It can be concluded that KMW can be used to prepare good quality silage for feeding of goats.

  17. UJI SITOTOKSISITAS DAN ANTIPROLIFERATIF FRAKSI ETIL ASETAT EKSTRAK ETANOL BIJI JINTEN HITAM (Nigella sativa, Lour TERHADAP SEL MIELOMA

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    Laela Hayu Nurani

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is the formation of new tissue which is abnormal and malignant. A group of cells suddenly become disorganized and reduplicate themselves rigorously (hyperproliferation. Nigella sativa L. is one of the herbs which have an anticancer effect. This research aims to assess the cytotoxic and antiproliferative effect of Nigella sativa L. ethanol extract of Myeloma cells. Ethanolic extract was produced from Nigella sativa L. powder with maseration method. The cytotoxicity test was done by incubating Myeloma cells with the treatment concentration group of N. sativa L. ethyl acetic fraction of ethanolic extract 2000; 1000; 500; 250; and 62,5 µg/ml, respectively. The test was done with an MTT method and then with a calculation of its death percentage. The LC50 is calculated using a probit analysis method. The test was then continued with the antiproliferative test to assess the doubling time at treatment concentration 125; 62,5 µg/ml and cellular control at hours 24, 48, and 72. The results showed that Nigella sativa L. ethanolic extract had cytotoxic activity towards the Mieloma cells with an LC50 value 177,01 µg/ml. The antiproliferative test showed that there was a growth inhibition, even cell death at the extract treatments. The doubling time was 253 hours at 62,5 µg/ml concentration, 298,4 hours at 125 ug/ml, while the cell control had 54,52 hours.

  18. Influence of postharvest hot water treatment on nutritional and functional properties of kumquat (Fortunella japonica Lour. Swingle Cv. Ovale) fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirra, Mario; Palma, Amedeo; D'Aquino, Salvatore; Angioni, Alberto; Minello, Elisabeth V; Melis, Marinella; Cabras, Paolo

    2008-01-23

    The present study investigated the influence of a hot water dip (HWD) for 2 min at 50 degrees C, a standard and effective treatment for postharvest decay control of citrus fruit, on the nutritional and health-related properties of kumquats. The results show that most of the parameters examined, including titratable acidity, soluble solids content, maturity index, glucose, fructose, sucrose, ascorbic acid, dehydroascorbic acid, alpha- and gamma-tocopherols, beta-carotene, zeaxantin, rhoifolin, and antioxidant activity, were not significantly affected by treatment. The levels of beta-cryptoxanthin, narirutin, and total flavonoids increased after HWD, whereas lutein and total phenols decreased. The concentration of the essential oil and the relative percentage of the individual components of the essential oil were not affected by HWD except for the minor compound p-menta-1,5-dien-1-ol, which increased after HWD. After storage, lower levels of glucose, total sugars, beta-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin and lutein were recorded in HWD fruit. A decrease in antioxidant activity and increases in alpha-tocopherol and total vitamin E were found both in control and HWD fruit. The influence of HWD at 50 degrees C for 2 min on individual nutraceuticals and health-related properties was thus generally low and may depend on storage conditions.

  19. Phenylethanoid Glycoside Profiles and Antioxidant Activities of Osmanthus fragrans Lour. Flowers by UPLC/PDA/MS and Simulated Digestion Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yirong; Mao, Shuqin; Huang, Weisu; Lu, Baiyi; Cai, Zengxuan; Zhou, Fei; Li, Maiquan; Lou, Tiantian; Zhao, Yajing

    2016-03-30

    Variations of phenylethanoid glycoside profiles and antioxidant activities in Osmanthus fragrans flowers through the digestive tract were evaluated by a simulated digestion model and UPLC/PDA/MS. Major phenylethanoid glycosides and phenolic acids, namely, salidroside, acteoside, isoacteoside, chlorogenic acid, and caffeic acid, were identified in four cultivars of O. fragrans flowers, and the concentration of acteoside was the highest, being up to 71.79 mg/g dry weight. After simulated digestion, total phenylethanoid glycoside contents and antioxidant activities were significantly decreased. Acteoside was identified as decomposing into caffeic acid, whereas salidroside was found to be stable during simulated digestion. According to Pearson's correlation analysis, acteoside contents showed good correlations with antioxidant activities during simulated digestion (R(2) = 0.994, P < 0.01). In conclusion, acteoside was the major contributor to the antioxidant activity of O. fragrans flowers, and salidroside was considered as the major antioxidant compound of O. fragrans flowers in vivo.

  20. Prebiotic activity score and bioactive compounds in longan (Dimocarpus longan Lour.): influence of pectinase in enzyme-assisted extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thitiratsakul, Boossara; Anprung, Pranee

    2014-09-01

    The optimal extraction of bioactive compounds from longan fruit pulp using Pectinex® Ultra SP-L pectinase hydrolysis of the fruit homogenate was evaluated. The highest degree of hydrolysis (DH), as determined by the amount of reducing sugars released from the longan pulp, was obtained at a pectinase concentration of 2.5 % (v/w) (257 polygalacturonase units/g fruit) for 4 h. The level of bioactive compounds obtained from the pectinase-treated longan pulp increased with increasing DH to a maximum at the highest DH (21 %) obtained, with an antioxidant activity of 0.083 EC50 μg fresh mass (FM)/μg diphenyl-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)iminoazanium and 92.7 μM Trolox equivalent/g FM, respectively. The total phenolic and flavonoid contents in the 21 % DH extract were 196.0 mg gallic acid equivalents/g FM and 19.6 mg catechin equivalents/g FM, respectively. The 21 % DH longan extract showed an enhanced (3.6- to 4.0-fold) inhibition of lipid peroxidation of oil compared to the untreated (0 % DH) extract. In addition, the 21 % DH longan extract had the highest soluble dietary fiber content, which was related to the decreased particle size of 345 μM, and displayed enhanced prebiotic activity scores of 1.69 and 1.44 for Lactobacillus acidophilus La5 and Bifidabacterium lactis Bb12, respectively. Most of the 33 detected volatile compounds differed in their relative proportions after enzymic extraction (15 increased, 15 decreased with three showing no significant change) with the 0 % and 21 % DH hydrolysates exhibiting 25 and 22 different volatile compounds, respectively, with 11 and eight unique compounds between them, respectively.

  1. Cloning, expression and characterization of COI1 gene (AsCOI1 from Aquilaria sinensis (Lour. Gilg

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    Yongcui Liao

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aquilaria sinensis, a kind of typically wounding-induced medicinal plant with a great economical value, is widely used in the production of traditional Chinese medicine, perfume and incense. Coronatine-insensitive protein 1 (COI1 acts as a receptor in jasmonate (JA signaling pathway, and regulates the expression of JA-responsive genes in plant defense. However, little is known about the COI1 gene in A. sinensis. Here, based on the transcriptome data, a full-length cDNA sequence of COI1 (termed as AsCOI1 was firstly cloned by RT–PCR and rapid-amplification of cDNA ends (RACE strategies. AsCOI1 is 2330 bp in length (GenBank accession No. KM189194, and contains a complete open frame (ORF of 1839 bp. The deduced protein was composed of 612 amino acids, with a predicted molecular weight of 68.93 kDa and an isoelectric point of 6.56, and was predicted to possess F-box and LRRs domains. Combining bioinformatics prediction with subcellular localization experiment analysis, AsCOI1 was appeared to locate in nucleus. AsCOI1 gene was highly expressed in roots and stems, the major organs of agarwood formation. Methyl jasmonate (MeJA, mechanical wounding and heat stress could significantly induce the expression level of AsCOI1 gene. AsCOI1 is an early wound-responsive gene, and it likely plays some role in agarwood formation.

  2. Comparative Study of the Leaf Volatiles of Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L. Spreng. and Vaccinium vitis-idaea L. (Ericaceae

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    Radosav Palić

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The first GC and GC/MS analyses of the essential oils hydrodistilled from dry leaves of Arctostaphylos uva-ursi and Vaccinium vitis-idaea enabled the identification of 338 components in total (90.4 and 91.7% of the total GC peak areas, respectively. Terpenoids, fatty acids, fatty acid- and carotenoid derived compounds were predominant in the two samples. Both oils were characterized by high relative percentages of α-terpineol and linalool (4.7-17.0%. Compositional data on the volatiles of the presently analyzed and some other Ericaceae taxa (literature data were mutually compared by means of multivariate statistical analyses (agglomerative hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis. This was done in order to determine, based on the essential oil profiles, possible mutual relationships of the taxa within the family, especially that of species from the genera Arctostaphylos and Vaccinium. Results of the chemical and statistical analyses pointed to a strong relation between the genera Vaccinium and Arctostaphylos.

  3. Attalea phalerata MART. EX SPRENG.: ASPECTOS BOTÂNICOS, ECOLÓGICOS, ETNOBOTÂNICOS E AGRONÔMICOS

    OpenAIRE

    Raquel Rejane Bonato Negrelle

    2015-01-01

    Attalea phalerata is a neotropical species with distribution restricted to the west part of South America, found in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, Brazil and Paraguay. This species isconsidered with high economic potential, due to the diversity of popular uses associated to it. In spite of not being used in all its potentiality, this palm tree represents substantial resource for the traditional communities distributed in its area of natural occurrence. Aiming to highlight the importance of Attalea ...

  4. Human perceptions of landscape change: The case of a monodominant forest of Attalea speciosa Mart ex. Spreng (Northeast Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Gabriela M A; Ramos, Marcelo A; Araújo, Elcida L; Baldauf, Cristina; Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino

    2016-05-01

    From the perception of human populations, we can assess the changes occurring in certain landscapes and the factors that cause those changes. Such studies have proven helpful in increasing the knowledge of the history of a landscape, recognizing past formations and projecting its future. Our research objective was to determine how a landscape dominated by the palm tree Attalea speciosa, a species of ecological, economic, and cultural importance, has been changing over time by synthesizing and comparing historical documents and local perceptions. This study was conducted in Araripe Environmental Protection Area, Northeast Region, Brazil. To understand local landscape change, we interviewed active harvesters in four communities in which A. speciosa use has been documented. Historical documents were evaluated as a complement to the interview data. According to local informants, areas previously used for cultivation and animal husbandry that were abandoned or decimated by droughts in the region may have fostered the expansion of a monodominant A. speciosa forest. Furthermore, other forms of landscape management resulting from human population growth may also have affected the current and past distribution of this forest.

  5. Effect of growth regulators on the postharvest longevity of cut flowers and leaves of the calla lily (Zantedeschia Spreng.

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    Beata Janowska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The conditioning of flowers of the calla lily cultivar 'Albomaculata' in BA at concentrations of 50-150 mg×dm-3 extends their postharvest longevity by 6.2-14.5 days. An extension of the longevity of the flowers by 15 days can be obtained after the application of a solution of 8HQS with saccharose on a continuous basis. Effective in improving the longevity of leaves of cultivar 'Sunglow' is GA3 at a concentration of 400 mg×dm-3. What is more, its application at concentrations of 300-400 mg×dm-3 boosts their greenness index. GA3 at concentrations of 50 and 100 mg×dm-3 extends the postharvest longevity of leaves of the cultivar 'Black Eyed Beauty' by 18 and 11 days, respectively, while BA shortens it. A combined application of BA and GA3 inhibits chlorophyll degradation, while GA3 and a mixture of BA and GA3 inhibit protein degradation.

  6. Attalea phalerata MART. EX SPRENG.: ASPECTOS BOTÂNICOS, ECOLÓGICOS, ETNOBOTÂNICOS E AGRONÔMICOS

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    Raquel Rejane Bonato Negrelle

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Attalea phalerata is a neotropical species with distribution restricted to the west part of South America, found in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, Brazil and Paraguay. This species isconsidered with high economic potential, due to the diversity of popular uses associated to it. In spite of not being used in all its potentiality, this palm tree represents substantial resource for the traditional communities distributed in its area of natural occurrence. Aiming to highlight the importance of Attalea phalerata as source of natural products, a review on botanical, ecological, ethnobotanical and agronomical aspects of this species is presented.

  7. In vitro acaricidal activity of Murraya koenigii (L.) Spreng (Rutaceae) extracts against synthetic pyrethroid-resistant Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nirbhay Kumar; Jyoti; Vemu, Bhaskar; Singh, Harkirat; Prerna, Mranalini; Daundkar, Prashant S; Sharma, S K; Dumka, V K

    2015-04-01

    Larval packet test was used for detection of resistance status against cypermethrin and deltamethrin, the most commonly used synthetic pyrethroids in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus collected from Faridkot district, Punjab (India). The slope of mortality, lethal concentration for 50 % (LC50) and resistance levels were determined from the regression graphs of probit mortality of ticks plotted against log values of increasing concentrations of cypermethrin and deltamethrin. Results indicated presence of resistance of levels I and II against cypermethrin (resistance factor (RF) = 2.82) and deltamethrin (RF = 8.44), respectively. Adult immersion test was used to assess the acaricidal activity of aqueous (MLAq), ethanol (MLE), chloroform (MLC), acetone (MLA) and hexane (MLH) extracts of leaves of Murraya koenigii against these synthetic pyrethroid (SP)-resistant engorged adult females of R. (B.) microplus by determination of per cent adult mortality, reproductive index (RI), per cent inhibition of oviposition (%IO) and hatching rate. The per cent mortality caused by various extracts at concentrations ranging from 0.625 to 10.0% varied from 0.0 to 100.0% with maximum per cent mortality of 10.0, 100.0, 70.0, 40.0 and 10.0 recorded against MLAq, MLE, MLC, MLA and MLH, respectively. Among all extracts, the highest acaricidal property against SP-resistant R. (B.) microplus was exhibited by the MLE as it showed the minimum LC50 [95% confidence limit (CL)] values of 2.97% (2.82-3.12%), followed by MLC as 10.26% (8.84-11.91 %) and MLA as 18.22% (16.18-20.52%). The average egg mass weight recorded in live ticks treated with various concentrations of different extracts was lower than the respective control group ticks and was significantly (p < 0.01) lower in ticks treated with MLH extract. However, no significant effect on hatchability of eggs of treated groups when compared to control was recorded. A significant (p < 0.05) decrease in the RI was recorded in MLH extract-treated ticks, and the %IO varied from 0.07 to 34.73% with various extracts and was recorded maximum with highest concentration of MLH. The results of the current study indicate that the extracts of M. koenigii can be used for control of SP-resistant ticks.

  8. Morphological, physico-chemical and structural characterization of mucilage isolated from the seeds of Buchanania lanzan Spreng

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    Sudarshan Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Mucilage isolated from the seeds of Buchanania lanzan a wild Indian plant. This mucilage can be commercially exploited, by evaluating physico-chemical properties of this mucilage. Materials and Methods: Various physico-chemical parameter using scanning electron microscopy (SEM, molecular weight, X-ray diffraction (XRD spectrometry, zeta potential (ZP, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR spectroscopy and 1D ( 1 H and 13 C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR have been employed to characterize mucilage in the present study. Results: SEM analysis suggests that the mucilage has irregular particle size. Thermogravimetry analysis suggested that mucilage had good thermal stability with two stage decomposition. The weight-average molecular weight of mucilage was determined to be 4883, by gel permeation chromatography. The XRD pattern of the mucilage indicated a completely amorphous structure. The ZP was obtained 1.56 and −9.49 mV in water and 0.1 N NaCl respectively. The major functional groups identified from FT-IR spectrum include 3459/cm (-OH, 1667/cm (Alkenyl C-H and C = C stretch, 1407/cm (-COO- and 1321/cm (-CH 3 CO. Analysis of mucilage by paper chromatography and 1D NMR indicated the presence of rhamnose, arabinose and fructose. Conclusion: The spectral and chromatography analysis of mucilage indicate that the mucilage is composed of basic sugar moiety such as (arabinose, rhamnose, fructose and mannose as complex carbohydrates.

  9. The silk characteristics of jedung silkworm (Attacus atlas L. reared on senggugu (Clerodendron serratum Spreng food plant

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    MUHAMMAD INDRAWAN

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to determine the silk characteristics of Jedung silkworm reared on Senggugu food plant. Cocoon characteristics examined was the weight of cocoon and the value of Shell Ratio (SR. Meanwhile, the characteristics of fiber conclude the tensile strength, the elongation and the moisture absorption. The results showed that the range of cocoon weight was between 5.849 + 0.378 g. If it is compared to other cocoon reared on other food plants, the cocoons from Jedung silkworm were less weight. This was probably because of the characteristics of Senggugu leaf that was thinner and less water content which will produced cocoon with less weight. The lower weight of cocoon could affect to the value of measured SR. The value of SR was 9.828 + 1.475 %. The good range of SR value is between 19-20 %. The tensile strength was 14,444 + 5.270 g per denier. The good range of tensile strength is between 2.6 to 4.8 g per denier. The elongation was 2.184 + 2.168 %. This study showed the elongation was lower compared to other characteristics of good fiber with value more than 18 %. The moisture absorption varies between 20.214 + 0.618 %. It will cause fabric made from this material were considered cooler to wear, so that relatively good from the side of convenience.In general, characteristics of the fiber were relatively good. Therefore, it needs higher effort to increase weight of cocoon and the elongation of fiber.

  10. The silk characteristics of jedung silkworm (Attacus atlas L.) reared on senggugu (Clerodendron serratum Spreng) food plant

    OpenAIRE

    MUHAMMAD INDRAWAN

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the silk characteristics of Jedung silkworm reared on Senggugu food plant. Cocoon characteristics examined was the weight of cocoon and the value of Shell Ratio (SR). Meanwhile, the characteristics of fiber conclude the tensile strength, the elongation and the moisture absorption. The results showed that the range of cocoon weight was between 5.849 + 0.378 g. If it is compared to other cocoon reared on other food plants, the cocoons from Jedung ...

  11. Photosynthetic pigments and stomatal conductance in ecotypes of copoazu (Theobroma grandi orum Willd. Ex. Spreng K. Schum..

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    Juan Carlos Suárez-Salazar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the variability of photosynthetic pigment content and daily stomatal conductance was evaluated in relation to environmental variables in Copoazú (Theobroma grandi orum ecotypes. The ecotypes used were part of the germoplasm bank of the University of the Amazon (Colombia. The study was carried out during the year 2015. Four leaves of the average stratum of four plants were collected for each ecotype, to extract and read at different levels of absorbance and determine the content of photosynthetic pigments. During the hours of 04:00 a.m. to 6:00 p.m., the stomatal conductance (gs was monitored for environmental variables (relative humidity, air temperature, radiation and vapor pressure de cit (VPD. An analysis of variance was made using the Tukey test, correlations and regressions were made between gs and environmental variables. The contents of chlorophyll a, b, total and carotenoids among ecotypes were different (P<0.0001, the ecotype UA-31 presented the highest values, contrasting with the ecotype UA-37. Concerning gs, the interaction ecotype*hour showed signi cant differences (P<0.0001 .The ecotypes that presented the highest values of gs were UA-67 and UA-039, (P<0.0001, radiation (-0.91, P<0.0001 and DPV (-0.94; P<0.0001 0.0001.The results suggest that ecotypes UA-039 and UA-31 were the most suitable in terms of gaseous exchange and content of photosynthetic pigments.

  12. Atividade alelopática do extrato e frações das folhas de Dasyphyllum tomentosum (Spreng. Cabrera

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    Cristiane da Silva Paula

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Alelopatia se refere à capacidade que determinada planta tem de interferir no metabolismo de outra, por meio de substâncias liberadas no ambiente. O presente trabalho avaliou o efeito do extrato e frações das folhas de Dasyphyllum tomentosum sobre a germinação, crescimento, respiração e conteúdo de clorofila em Lactuca sativa (alface. Três concentrações em quadruplicata de solução do extrato, frações e 50 sementes de alface, por placa de petri, foram mantidas em câmara de germinação por sete dias. Contagens diárias avaliaram a germinação e medidas da radícula e do hipocótilo, o crescimento. Para o teste de respiração e clorofila total foi realizada leitura em espectrofotômetro após tratamento específico. Com relação à porcentagem, velocidade de germinação e respiração, não foram observadas diferenças quando comparadas ao controle. Observou-se atividade alelopática do extrato e frações sobre o crescimento radicular e o conteúdo de clorofila total. Conclui-se que extrato e frações testados apresentam compostos químicos com atividade alelopática.

  13. Anesthesia and transport of fat snook Centropomus parallelus with the essential oil of Nectandra megapotamica(Spreng. Mez

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    Juliana Simoni Moraes Tondolo

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the chemical composition and anesthetic potential of essential oil (EO of Nectandra megapotamica in fat snook (Centropomus parallelus. For the extraction of EO by hydrodistillation, leaves were separated in young (EO-Y or old (EO-O, and the chemical composition of the EOs was determined by CG-MS. The anesthetic potential was assessed by the evaluation of induction and recovery time of anesthesia and stress response from anesthesia and transport. Three experiments were carried out: i four different concentrations of each EO were tested to evaluate anesthesia induction and recovery time; ii two concentrations of EO-O were tested for the evaluation of its effects on stress parameters (glucose, lactate, and Na+ and K+ plasma levels caused by anesthesia; and iii fish were transported in plastic bags, supplied with two concentrations of EO-O for the evaluation of water quality and mortality. All experiments were performed on fish acclimated to 0 and 33 ppt salinity. The main constituents of the Y and O-EOs were bicyclogermacrene (46.5/34.6%, α-pinene (26.8/26.2%, β-pinene (7.9/12.3%, and germacrene D (9.6/9.1%. Mild sedation was achieved at 30 °L L-1(1.3-3.2 min and deep anesthesia at 150 °L L-1(5.6-8.0 min with both EOs. The recovery time ranged from 1-10 min. The EO-O was not able to avoid the stress of anesthesia evidenced by elevated glucose and lactate plasma levels observed in all groups. Plasma levels of Na+ and K+ were not significantly affected by treatments. During transport, the use of EO-O did not prevent deterioration in water quality and the post-transport mortality. In conclusion, the EO of N. megapotamica has anesthetic activity in fat snook, but it was not able to prevent the stress of anesthesia and transport.

  14. Development in nursery of different clones of cupuaçu tree (Theobroma grandiflorum (Wild. Ex Spreng. Schum

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    D. Franciskievicz

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to present the results of initial development in nursery of 4 genetic materials of cupuaçu trees, being one a material without selection (control and three clones of cupuaçu tree resistant to the fungus Moniliophthora perniciosa, causal agent of Witches' Broom. The seeds from Embrapa Amazônia Oriental (Belém - PA were put in seed bed for germination. After 25 days of seedling emergence these were transplanted in to plastic bags, arranged in a shade house (60%, and containing agricultural substrate and forest humus (1: 3. At the end of 130 days after sowing were compared the patterns of development of girth, height and relation height / girth in a randomized block design consisting of 4 treatments and 4 replicates, each replicate consisting of 16 seedlings. Results were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA and the averages compared by Tukey (5%. The values ​​obtained to girth not differ, presented as overall mean 5.08 mm, however in relation to height cultivar 215 (31cm excelled on the cultivar 174 (25 cm and control (23 cm, however their average not differ of material 186 (27 cm. As regards the height / girth the values ​​obtained for the control and cultivars 175, 186 and 215, were respectively, 4.6, 5.2, 5.1 and 5.9 cm / mm, being cultivar 215 different to control.

  15. Changes in root morphology and dry matter production in Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen accessions in response to excessive zinc

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    K. BERNARDY

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Zinc (Zn participates of numerous metabolic processes in plants. However, it can become toxic to plants in excessive concentrations in the soil. Pfaffia glomerata is a Brazilian medicinal species that has stood out because of its numerous chemical and functional properties, mainly by the triterpene saponins and ecdysteroids accumulated in its roots. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of zinc excess on many root morphological parameters of Pfaffia glomerata. A 4 x 3 factorial design was employed in a completely randomized scheme with 3 replicates. The treatments consisted of four concentrations of Zn (2, 100, 200, and 300 µM and three accessions of P. glomerata (BRA, GD, and JB grown in a hydroponic system for 7 and 14 days. Differences in root morphology and dry mass production were observed among the three accessions in response to excessive Zn. Some growth parameters of GD accession increased with the addition of Zn, ranging from 36 to 79 µM. However, the GD and JB accessions presented reduction in dry mass production, root area, length, and volume with increasing Zn levels. The BRA accession, which had the lowest growth among accessions, presented chlorotic leaves. The shoot/root dry mass ratio and root diameter increased linearly for BRA and GD accessions at 7 days. Based on the evaluated parameters, we observed the following order of Zn excess tolerance in P. glomerata accessions: GD> JB> BRA.

  16. TOLERANCE OF CANAFÍSTULA (Peltophorum dubium (SPRENG TAUB. SEEDLINGS INOCCULATED WITH Pisolithus microcarpus TO COPPER CONTAMINATED SOIL

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    Rodrigo Ferreira da Silva

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The ectomycorrhizal fungi symbiosis with native florestal essences may be an alternative to   revegetation of metal contaminated soils. The aim of this work was to determine canafístula seedlings behavior, inoculated to ectomycorrhizal fungi in soil with copper excess. The trial was conducted in greenhouse conditions. The ectomycorrhizal fungi used was Pisolithus microcarpus UFSC Pt116, cultivated on peat-vermiculite substrate (3:1. The canafístula seedlings were developed in washed  sand and transplanted, when showed two definitive leaves. Vase of 1L with 1 kg of soil were used as experimental unit. The inoculation was accomplished in the seedlings transplant, added 2g of inoculates for experimental unit. The experimental design was entirely casual in bi factorial scheme (2 x 4 qualitative in A, with and without fungi inoculum and quantitative in D being the control addition of 150 mg Kg -1, 300 mg Kg -1 and 450 mg Kg -1 of copper (CuSO4, with seven repetitions. Plant height, colon diameter, dry matter, copper content, mycorrhizal colonization percentage, superficial roots area and roots length were assessed. The increase of soil copper levels reduced roots length, specific superficial roots area, height and plant diameter of canafístula. Canafistula seedlings inoculated to ectomycorrhizal fungi showed low cooper amounts in their tissue and copper absortion reduced in high copper doses.

  17. Estudo da interferência de óleos essenciais sobre a atividade de alguns antibióticos usados na clínica Study of the interference of essential oils on the activity of some antibiotic used clinically

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    Rinalda A. Guerra de Oliveira

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a interferência dos óleos essenciais de Lippia sidoides Cham, Plectranthus amboinicus Lour Spr., Conyza bonariensis L. e Eucalyptus citriodora Hook sobre o efeito de antibióticos utilizados na clínica. Os ensaios foram realizados com ampicilina (10 µg/mL, cefalotina (30 µg/mL, cloranfenicol (30 µg/mL, gentamicina (10 µg/mL e tetraciclina (30 µg/mL isolados e em associação com os óleos essenciais (4% v/v através do método de difusão em meio sólido utilizando discos de papel de filtro. Os resultados mostraram interferência de alguns óleos essenciais sobre a atividade dos antibióticos ensaiados. Observou-se o desenvolvimento de halos de inibição do crescimento bacteriano com diferentes diâmetros quando da aplicação de antibióticos isolados e em combinação com os óleos essenciais. A ocorrência de comportamento sinérgico ou antagônico foi observada mais proeminentemente nas interações com cepas de S. aureus e S. epidermidis. De outra forma, observou-se uma menor interferência dos óleos essenciais no efeito dos antibióticos sobre as cepas Gram negativas, principalmente P. aeruginosa. Estes resultados mostram que o uso de produtos derivados de plantas pode em algumas situações interferir sobre a efetividade de antibióticos de uso no tratamento clínico.The aim of this study was to evaluate the interference of essential oils from Lippia sidoides Cham, Plectranthus amboinicus Lour Spr., Conyza bonariensis L. and Eucalyptus citriodora Hook on the antibacterial effect of clinically used antibiotics. The assays were carried out with ampicillin (10 µg/mL, cephalotin (30 µg/mL, chloraphenicol (30 µg/mL, gentamicin (10 µg/mL and tetracyclin (30 µg/mL isolated and associated with essential oils (4% v/v by the solid medium diffusion procedure using filter paper discs. The results showed interference of some essential oils on the antibacterial activity of the assayed antibiotics

  18. Efecto de la profundidad del suelo en rottboellia cochinchinensis (lour clayton en caña de azúcar (saccharum officinarum l.

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    Ram\\u00F3n Le\\u00F3n

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Se muestrearon cuatro lotes con diferente textura de suelo, sembrados con caña de azúcar durante cuatro años consecutivos. El lote A con suelo franco arcilloso, el lote B con suelo franco arenoso, el lote C con suelo arcilloso y el lote D con suelo franco. Se seleccionaron lotes con una población de R. cochinchinensis de 75 a 150 plantas/ m2. Se contó el número de plantas de la maleza en un área de 0,25 m2, en dos micro-hábitats: el surco y entre-surco. A cada planta se le escarbó el suelo que la rodeaba hasta encontrar la semilla de la que provenía y se midió la profundidad a la que ésta se encontró, para luego determinar qué porcentaje del total de plantas contabilizadas provenía de semillas localizadas en cada uno de los siguientes estratos: 0,0; >0,0 a 2,5; >2,5 a 5,0; >5,0 a 10 y >10,0 a 15,0 cm de profundidad. Además, se evaluó en invernadero el efecto de cada profundidad de los estratos citados. A nivel de laboratorio y en platos Petri, se evaluó el efecto de la luz y la oscuridad sobre la germinación de la semilla de R. cochinchinensis. Se encontró que la mayoría de las plantas en campo provenían de semillas que se encontraban de >0 a 2,5 cm, seguido por aquellas que estaban de >2,5 a 5,0 cm donde se dieron las mejores condiciones para la germinación. No se observaron diferencias entre los tipos de suelo o los micro-hábitats evaluados. En invernadero el tratamiento a 0,0 cm fue el que mostró la mayor germinación y esto fue producto de la exposición a la luz, lo cual se corroboró en el estudio en laboratorio donde el tratamiento con luz presentó también, la mayor germinación

  19. Exploring Antagonistic Candidate Fungi for Controling Pathogenic Fungi (Colletotricum gloeosporioides) Causing Anthracnose Disease in Kintamani Siam Orange Plants (Citrus Nobillis Lour Var. Hass)

    OpenAIRE

    Ni Nyoman Darsini; I Made Sudana; I Dewa Ngurah Suprapta; Dewa Nyoman Nyana

    2017-01-01

    Orange plantation center in Bali are located in Bangli Regency, Kintamani District. Kintamani orange plantations cultivated three types of oranges: tangerine, selayer, and mandarin oranges. The famous orange in Bali today is Kintamani orange,  tangerine type.  The typical flavor and aroma of Kintamani tangerine make it is favored by consumers from various regions. Based on the information from Bangli District Agriculture Office and the results of field surveys in the last two years (in 2013 a...

  20. The Selection of Primers Used for RAPD Analysis for Osmanthus fragrans (Thunb.) Lour.%桂花RAPD分析的引物筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷玉亭; 刘军

    2005-01-01

    从桂花4个品种群(银桂品种群、金桂品种群、丹桂品种群和四季桂品种群)中选取8个桂花样品,用于桂花RAPD分析的引物筛选试验.从Operon公司的OP系统的AB、AC、AD、Y、Z 5组共80个10碱基引物中筛选出20个扩增条带多且多态性好的引物,20个引物共扩增116条DNA条带,用100~3000bp的DNA marker标记片断长度在200~2000bp,多态性条带有72条,多态性位点比率为62.0%.不同引物的扩增带数不同,最多的可扩增出8条DNA条带.

  1. Production and Metabolism of Indole Acetic Acid in Root Nodules and Symbiont (Rhizobium undicola Isolated from Root Nodule of Aquatic Medicinal Legume Neptunia oleracea Lour.

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    Pallab Kumar Ghosh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Indole acetic acid is a phytohormone which plays a vital role in plant growth and development. The purpose of this study was to shed some light on the production of IAA in roots, nodules, and symbionts of an aquatic legume Neptunia oleracea and its possible role in nodular symbiosis. The symbiont (N37 was isolated from nodules of this plant and identified as Rhizobium undicola based on biochemical characteristics, 16S rDNA sequence homology, and DNA-DNA hybridization results. The root nodules were found to contain more IAA and tryptophan than root; however, no detectable amount of IAA was found in root. The IAA metabolizing enzymes IAA oxidase, IAA peroxidase (E.C.1.11.1.7, and polyphenol oxidase (E.C.1.14.18.1 were higher in root than nodule but total phenol and IAA content were reversed. The strain N37 was found to produce copious amount of IAA in YEM broth medium with tryptophan and reached its stationary phase at 20 h. An enrichment of the medium with mannitol, ammonium sulphate, B12, and 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde was found to promote the IAA production. The presence of IAA metabolizing enzymes and IAA production with PGPR traits including ACC deaminase activity of the symbionts was essential for plant microbe interaction and nodule function.

  2. Chemical Constituents from Branch of Litsea cubeba(Lour.) Pers.%山苍子枝的化学成分研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈湛娟; 刘秀萍; 毕和平

    2013-01-01

    山苍子的乙醇提取物用氯仿和乙酸乙酯萃取后,用硅胶柱等方法分离和提纯,鉴定出12个化合物,分别为4,4-二甲基-1,7-庚二酸(1),(-)-3,4二香草基四氢呋喃阿魏酸酯(2),酞酸双(2-乙基己基)酯(3),(+)-9′-O-(E)-阿魏酰基-5,5′-甲氧基落叶松脂醇(4),N-甲基樟苍碱(5),异紫堇定碱(6),5-(3-羟基丙基)-7-甲氧基-2,3-二氢-3-羟甲基-2-(3-甲氧基-4-羟基苯基)苯并呋喃(7),波尔定碱(8),N-(2-(4-羟基苯基)乙基)-3-(4-羟基-3,5-二甲氧基苯基)丙烯酰胺(9),反丁烯二酸(10),反式香豆酰基酪胺(11),正癸烷(12),其中化合物1、2、3、4为该科植物中首次分得,10、11为该属植物中首次分得,7、9为首次从该植物中分得.

  3. MicroRNA390-directed TAS3 cleavage leads to the production of tasiRNA-ARF3/4 during somatic embryogenesis in Dimocarpus longan Lour.

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    Yuling eLin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Trans-acting short-interfering RNAs (tasiRNAs originate from TAS3 families through microRNA (miRNA 390-guided cleavage of primary transcripts and target auxin response factors (ARF3/-4, which are involved in the normal development of lateral roots and flowers in plants. However, their roles in embryo development are still unclear. Here, the pathway miR390-TAS3-ARF3/-4 was identified systematically for the first time during somatic embryo development in Dimocarpus longan. We identified the miR390 primary transcript and promoter. The promoter contained cis-acting elements responsive to stimuli such as light, salicylic acid, anaerobic induction, fungal elicitor, circadian control and heat stress. The longan TAS3 transcript, containing two miR390-binding sites, was isolated; the miR390- guided cleavage site located near the 3' end of the TAS3 transcript was verified. Eight TAS3-tasiRNAs with the 21-nucleotide phase were found among longan small RNA data, further confirming that miR390-directed TAS3 cleavage leads to the production of tasiRNA in longan. Among them, TAS3_5'D5+ and 5'D6+ tasiRNAs were highly abundant, and verified to target ARF3 and -4, implying that miR390-guided TAS3 cleavage with 21-nucleotide phase leading to the production of tasiRNA-ARF is conserved in plants. Pri-miR390 was highly expressed in friable-embryogenic callus (EC, and less expressed in incomplete compact pro-embryogenic cultures,while miR390 showed its lowest expression in EC and highest expression in torpedo-shaped embryo. DlTAS3 and DlARF4 both exhibited their lowest expressions in EC, and reached their peaks in the globular embryos stage, which were mainly inversely proportional to the expression of miR390, especially at the GE to CE stages. While DlARF3 showed little variation from the EC to torpedo-shaped embryos stages, and exhibited its lowest expression in the cotyledonary embryos stage. There was a general lack of correlation between the expressions of DlARF3 and miR390. In addition, miR390, DlTAS3, DlARF3, and -4 were up-regulated by 2,4-D in a concentration-dependent manner. They were also preferentially expressed in roots, pulp, and seeds of ‘Sijimi’ longan, implying their extended roles in the development of longan roots and fruit. This study provided insights into a possible role of miR390-tasiRNAs-ARF in plant somatic embryo development.

  4. Endogenous target mimics down-regulate miR160 mediation of ARF10, -16 and -17 cleavage during somatic embryogenesis in Dimocarpus longan Lour.

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    yuling elin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNA160 plays a critical role in plant development by negatively regulating the auxin response factors ARF10, -16 and -17. However, the ways in which miR160 expression is regulated at the transcriptional level, and how miR160 interacts with its targets during plant embryo development, remain unknown. Here, we studied the regulatory relationships among endogenous target mimics (eTMs, and miR160 and its targets, and their involvement in hormone signaling and somatic embryogenesis (SE in Dimocarpus longan. We identified miR160 family members and isolated the miR160 precursor, primary transcript, and promoter. The promoter contained cis-acting elements responsive to stimuli such as light, abscisic acid, salicylic acid and heat stress. The pri-miR160 was down-regulated in response to salicylic acid but up-regulated by gibberellic acid, ethylene, and methyl jasmonate treatment, suggesting that pri-miR160 was associated with hormone transduction. Dlo-miR160a, -a* and -d* reached expression peaks in torpedo-shaped embryos, globular embryos and cotyledonary embryos, respectively, but were barely detectable in embryogenic callus. This suggests that they have expression-related and functional diversity, especially during the middle and later developmental stages of SE. Four potential eTMs for miR160 were identified. Two of them, glucan endo-1,3-beta- glucosidase-like protein 2-like and calpain-type cysteine protease DEK1, were confirmed to control the corresponding dlo-miR160a* expression level. This suggests that they may function to abolish the binding between dlo-miR160a* and its targets. These two eTMs also participated in auxin and ABA signal transduction. DlARF10, -16, and -17 targeting by dlo-miR160a was confirmed; their expression levels were higher in friable-embryogenic callus and incomplete compact pro-embryogenic cultures and responded to 2,4-D, suggesting they may play a major role in the early stages of longan SE dependent on 2,4-D. The eTMs, miR160, and ARF10, -16 and -17 exhibited tissue specificity in ‘Sijimi’ longan vegetative and reproductive organs, but were not negatively correlated. These results provide insights into the possible role of the eTM-miR160-ARF10-16-17 pathway in longan somatic embryo development.

  5. Exploring Antagonistic Candidate Fungi for Controling Pathogenic Fungi (Colletotricum gloeosporioides Causing Anthracnose Disease in Kintamani Siam Orange Plants (Citrus Nobillis Lour Var. Hass

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    Ni Nyoman Darsini

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Orange plantation center in Bali are located in Bangli Regency, Kintamani District. Kintamani orange plantations cultivated three types of oranges: tangerine, selayer, and mandarin oranges. The famous orange in Bali today is Kintamani orange,  tangerine type.  The typical flavor and aroma of Kintamani tangerine make it is favored by consumers from various regions. Based on the information from Bangli District Agriculture Office and the results of field surveys in the last two years (in 2013 and 2014, cultivation of orange in Kintamani has been infected with anthracnose disease. The disease is characterized by symptoms whereby brown twigs spread to the leaves and fruit, and the fruits which are about to be harvested rot simultaneously and eventually fall due to decay. This condition causes farmers to suffer significant losses. The cause of anthracnose on Kintamani orange is Colletotrichum gloeosporioides .  The Control of these diseases has been carried out by farmers with various synthetic fungicides but the disease is still widespread.   It is feared that the uncontrolled use of synthetic pesticides can harm the environment, cause resistance to C. gloeosporioides fungi, and kill non-target beneficial micro-organism. It is necessary to conduct research that aims to control anthracnose biologically to maintain the ecological balance and environmental safety. Based on the results of this research by exploring the fungi on healthy plants around orange trees infected with anthracnose diseases, nine isolates of antagonist candidate fungus were obtained based on colony color of fungal hyphae (IS1, IS2, IS3, IS4, IS5. IS6, IS7, IS8, IS9.   Based on the test results of the in vitro dual culture, two candidates of antagonistic fungal isolates were selected,  the isolates IS4 and IS7. It was because on day 7 after the second dual culture, these two isolates had the highest percentage of inhibition,  89.22% and 85.11 % respectively. Based on the conventional and molecular identifications, it is known that the two candidate isolates of antagonistic fungus (IS4 and IS7 belong to one species of the Aspergillus aculeatus.

  6. Validação da metodologia de quantificação espectrofotométrica das saponinas de Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen - Amaranthaceae

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    C.L.S. Vigo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se validação analítica espectrofotométrica das saponinas totais das raízes de Pfaffia glomerata. Em testes iniciais utilizou-se saponina Merck em cinco concentrações (0,08-0,28 mg/ml para obtenção da curva de calibração e verificação da linearidade, repetibilidade e reprodutibilidade. As raízes foram avaliadas em extratos hidroalcoólicos purificados com n-butanol. O reagente cromogênico escolhido foi Cloreto de Cobalto 0,2% em pico experimental em 284nm. O tempo de leitura ideal foi de 10-20 minutos após o início da reação. O método mostrou linearidade para a faixa de concentrações utilizadas (R²= 0,9963. A precisão (coeficientes de variação situou-se entre 7-12%, indicando boa reprodutibilidade. O limite de quantificação situou-se em 0,08 mg/ml e o limite de detecção em 0,02 mg/ml. A exatidão do procedimento forneceu erro relativo de 6,3; 3,4; 3,5; 1,8 e 0,3% para as concentrações utilizadas. Os dados da curva-padrão foram aplicados em várias amostras de raízes levando ao valor média de 13,5±2,0%. Os dados obtidos permitem a quantificação espectrofotométrica das saponinas totais das raízes de P. glomerata.

  7. Ozone-induced responses in Croton floribundus Spreng. (Euphorbiaceae): metabolic cross-talk between volatile organic compounds and calcium oxalate crystal formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso-Gustavson, Poliana; Bolsoni, Vanessa Palermo; de Oliveira, Debora Pinheiro; Guaratini, Maria Tereza Gromboni; Aidar, Marcos Pereira Marinho; Marabesi, Mauro Alexandre; Alves, Edenise Segala; de Souza, Silvia Ribeiro

    2014-01-01

    Here, we proposed that volatile organic compounds (VOC), specifically methyl salicylate (MeSA), mediate the formation of calcium oxalate crystals (COC) in the defence against ozone (O3) oxidative damage. We performed experiments using Croton floribundus, a pioneer tree species that is tolerant to O3 and widely distributed in the Brazilian forest. This species constitutively produces COC. We exposed plants to a controlled fumigation experiment and assessed biochemical, physiological, and morphological parameters. O3 induced a significant increase in the concentrations of constitutive oxygenated compounds, MeSA and terpenoids as well as in COC number. Our analysis supported the hypothesis that ozone-induced VOC (mainly MeSA) regulate ROS formation in a way that promotes the opening of calcium channels and the subsequent formation of COC in a fast and stable manner to stop the consequences of the reactive oxygen species in the tissue, indeed immobilising the excess calcium (caused by acute exposition to O3) that can be dangerous to the plant. To test this hypothesis, we performed an independent experiment spraying MeSA over C. floribundus plants and observed an increase in the number of COC, indicating that this compound has a potential to directly induce their formation. Thus, the tolerance of C. floribundus to O3 oxidative stress could be a consequence of a higher capacity for the production of VOC and COC rather than the modulation of antioxidant balance. We also present some insights into constitutive morphological features that may be related to the tolerance that this species exhibits to O3.

  8. Avaliação dos efeitos das raízes de Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen sobre o tempo de sono e crescimento bacteriano

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    C.L.S. Vigo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram realizados testes biológicos com extrato hidroalcoólico liofilizado das raízes de Pfaffia glomerata. O teste de tempo de sono em camundongos envolveu administração de 50 mg/kg de pentobarbital sódico (via i.p.. O extrato foi administrado em várias doses agudamente e após 10 e 30 dias de tratamento oral. No teste antibacteriano, pequena quantidade do extrato de P. glomerata foi misturado com o inóculo de Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillius subtilis e Pseudomonas aeruginosa diluídos 1:10 para a microdiluição em caldo. No teste de tempo de sono, no modelo agudo obteve-se efeitos depressores para as doses de 500 e 1000 mg/kg; nos animais tratados cronicamente, aos 10 dias de tratamento obteve-se efeito depressor com 50 mg/kg e efeito estimulante com 500mg/kg; aos 30 dias de tratamento outro efeito estimulante ocorreu com a dose de 1 mg/kg. No teste antibacteriano não se observou inibição de crescimento de nenhuma das amostras das bactérias na maior concentração de 1000μg/ml do extrato. Conclui-se que o extrato das raízes de P. glomerata não tem efeito antimicrobiano e parece promover alguma interferência sobre o sono de animais de modo bifásico de acordo com as doses e tempos de tratamento.

  9. Two new species of sympatric Fergusonina flies (Diptera: Fergusoninidae) from bud galls on high elevation snow gums (Eucalyptus pauciflora Sieb. ex Spreng. complex) in the Australian Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two species of Fergusonina Malloch fly, F. daviesae Nelson sp.n. and F. taylori Nelson sp.n. (Diptera: Fergusoninidae), are described from terminal leaf bud galls on high elevation snow gums (Eucalyptus pauciflora complex) in the Australian Alps. These species occur in sympatry at the six locations...

  10. Larvicidal activity of Ipomoea cairica (L.) Sweet and Ageratina adenophora (Spreng.) King & H. Rob. plant extracts against arboviral and filarial vector, Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Lallianrawna; Lalrotluanga; Muthukumaran, Rajendra Bose; Gurusubramanian, Guruswami; Senthilkumar, Nachimuthu

    2014-06-01

    Culex quinquefasciatus Say, an arboviral and filarial vector, is one of the most widespread mosquitoes in the world, and insecticide-resistant populations have been reported worldwide. Due to the emergence of resistance in C. quinquefasciatus plant based products or plant extracts may be alternative sources in integrated vector management program. The present study was carried out to establish the larvicidal activities of crude solvent extracts prepared from flowers and leaves of Ipomoea cairica and Ageratina adenophora against third instar larvae of C. quinquefasciatus as target species. The plant extracts were prepared with petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol solvents using sequential extraction method to determine the best extractant for subsequent isolation and characterization of active ingredient. The total yield of plant extract in the Soxhlet extraction ranged between 0.79% and 19.35%. The qualitative phytochemical study of the plant extracts from different solvents showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, phenols, terpenes, saponins and tannins in different combinations. I. cairica and A. adenophora plant extracts were found to be effective against third instar larvae of C. quinquefasciatus causing 77-100% mortality at 48h. Highest mortality was observed at 500ppm and the order of larvicidal action was observed to be of methanol extract of I. cairica flower>petroleum ether extract of A. adenophora leaf>chloroform extract of I. cairica leaf. High mortality (100%) with low LC50 and LT50 were observed in methanolic flower extract (LC50 - 8.43ppm; LT50 - 2.51h at 48h) of I. cairica, and petroleum ether (LC50 - 133.56ppm; LT50 - 9.45h at 48h) leaf extract of A. adenophora. Lethal concentration (LC50 and LC90) values gradually decreased with the exposure periods, lethal time (LT50 and LT90) decreased with the concentration in bioassay experiment with the crude plant extracts. There was a significant correlation (three-way factorial ANOVA) was noticed among concentration of the plant extracts, exposure time and solvent extraction in relation to larval mortality (Pactive components present in the plant solvent extracts and implement the effective arboviral and filarial mosquito vector management program.

  11. Effects of Mikania glomerata Spreng. and Mikania laevigata Schultz Bip. ex Baker (Asteraceae) extracts on pulmonary inflammation and oxidative stress caused by acute coal dust exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas, T.P.; Silveira, P.C.; Rocha, L.G.; Rezin, G.T.; Rocha, J.; Citadini-Zanette, V.; Romao, P.T.; Dal-Pizzol, F.; Pinho, R.A.; Andrade, V.M.; Streck, E.L. [University Extremo Catarinense, Criciuma (Brazil)

    2008-12-15

    Several studies have reported biological effects of Mikania glomerata and Mikania laevigata, used in Brazilian folk medicine for respiratory diseases. Pneumoconiosis is characterized by pulmonary inflammation caused by coal dust exposure. In this work, we evaluated the effect of pretreatment with M. glomerata and M. laevigata extracts (MGE and MLE, respectively) (100 mg/kg, s.c.) on inflammatory and oxidative stress parameters in lung of rats subjected to a single coal dust intratracheal instillation. Rats were pretreated for 2 weeks with saline solution, MGE, or MLE. On day 15, the animals were anesthetized, and gross mineral coal dust or saline solutions were administered directly in the lung by intratracheal instillation. Fifteen days after coal dust instillation, the animals were killed. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was obtained; total cell count and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity were determined. In the lung, myeloperoxidase activity, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) level, and protein carbonyl and sulfhydryl contents were evaluated. In BAL of treated animals, we verified an increased total cell count and LDH activity. MGE and MLE prevented the increase in cell count, but only MLE prevented the increase in LDH. Myeloperoxidase and TBARS levels were not affected, protein carbonylation was increased, and the protein thiol levels were decreased by acute coal dust intratracheal administration. The findings also suggest that both extracts present an important protective effect on the oxidation of thiol groups. Moreover, pretreatment with MGE and MLE also diminished lung inflammatory infiltration induced by coal dust, as assessed by histopathologic analyses.

  12. Plasticidade fenotípica de Baccharis genistelloides subsp. crispa (Spreng. Joch. Müll. (2006 - Asteraceae - sob manejo orgânico

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    L.A. Sousa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho, relacionado a produção orgânica, utilizou preparados homeopáticos visando incremento na biomassa e no teor de flavonóides em plantas dióicas de carqueja. Os tratamentos foram: controle com água, controle com álcool 70%, Phosphorus 12CH, Sulphur 6CH, e a combinação destas homeopatias. Variações fenotípicas foram registradas a partir da análise de crescimento, realizada quinzenalmente durante 60 dias e dos caracteres morfológicos, tais como: como altura, número de ramificações, comprimento do ramo principal, diâmetro do caule e ala caulinar mediana. Na colheita foram medidos: a fitomassa fresca/seca e o volume de raiz. Posteriormente, foi quantificado o teor de flavonóides totais conforme as análises prescritas pela Farmacopéia Brasileira. O experimento foi avaliado em delineamento de blocos casualizados (2x5x2, sendo suas médias avaliadas pelo teste Tukey e o coeficiente de variação ambiental para estimar a plasticidade. Quanto ao estudo do crescimento da planta ao longo do tempo, verificou-se aumento linear simples para a maioria das variáveis nos dois sexos. Foram detectadas respostas plásticas na maioria dos caracteres avaliados. De acordo com os resultados, em ambos os sexos, 60 dias de cultivo são suficientes para obtenção de matéria prima com teor aceitável de flavonóides, bem como para verificação dos efeitos de patogenesia e similitude na aplicação de preparados homeopáticos Phosphorus 12CH, Sulphur 6CH e sua combinação Phosphorus 12CH + Sulphur 6CH. A fitomassa e o teor de flavonóides totais foram semelhantes entre plantas dióicas durante o período de estudo.

  13. Chemical Composition, an Antioxidant, Cytotoxic and Microbiological Activity of the Essential Oil from the Leaves of Aeollanthus suaveolens Mart. ex Spreng

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Rosany Lopes; Simões, Ranggel Carvalho; Rabelo, Érica de Menezes; Farias, Ana Luzia Ferreira; Rodrigues, Alex Bruno Lobato; Ramos, Ryan da Silva; Fernandes, João Batista; Santos, Lourivaldo da Silva

    2016-01-01

    Aeollanthus suaveolens species popularly known as catinga de mulata belongs to the Lamiaceae family. In the Amazon region, it is used in folk medicine for the treatment of gastritis, convulsions of epileptic origin, stomach pain and diarrhea in the form of tea and juice. Essential oils have analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial activity. This study evaluated the chemical composition of the A. suaveolens essential oil, and its cytotoxic, antimicrobial and antioxidant activity on Artemia salina Leach. The plant species was collected in Fazendinha district in the city of Macapa-AP. The essential oil obtained from the process was performed by hydrodistillation and identification of components by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometer. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by the kidnapping method of 2,2- diphenyl -1-picrilhidrazil radical, while the cytotoxic activity was assessed using saline A. and the microbiological activity was carried out by microdilution method with Escherichia coli, Salmonella sp. and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. In a chromatographic analysis, the major constituents found in the essential oil of A. suaveolens were (E) -β-farnesene (37.615%), Linalool (33.375%), α-Santalene (3.255%) and linalyl acetate (3.222%). The results showed that the Escherichia coli and Salmonella sp. bacteria were more susceptible to MIC 50 mg.mL-1 when compared with the Staphylococcus aureus bacterium MIC 100 mg.mL-1. With respect to MBC concentration of 100 mg.mL-1 it was sufficient to inhibit the growth of E. coli. The essential oil did not show antioxidant activity, however, has a high cytotoxic activity against the A. salina, LC50 8.90 μg.mL-1. PMID:27907002

  14. Crescimento inicial de mudas de Clitoria fairchildiana Howard e Peltophorum dubium (Sprenge Taub em diferentes condições de sombreamento

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    Rita C.Q. Portela

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Este experimento teve como objetivo avaliar a influência do sombreamento no crescimento de mudas de Peltophorum dubium (Canafístula e Clitoria fairchildiana (Sombreiro, espécies utilizadas no reflorestamento de encostas do município do Rio de Janeiro. As sementes foram colhidas em diversas matrizes e semeadas em sacos plásticos. As porcentagens de sombreamento testadas foram: 0% (sol pleno, 30%, 50% e 75%. A instalação do experimento iniciou-se um mês após a semeadura. O parâmetro altura foi analisado aos 30, 60, 90, 120 e 150 dias após a semeadura. O peso da matéria seca da raiz foi analisado aos 150 dias. Os resultados demostraram que as espécies estudadas apresentam diferentes respostas para os parâmetros analisados. Para o plantio imediato recomenda-se a produção de mudas de Sombreiro sob o sombreamento de 30% e de Canafístula, sob sol pleno, 30% ou 75% de sombra. Na produção de mudas para estocagem, seria indicado para o Sombreiro, a produção a sol pleno e para Canafístula, as mudas poderiam ser mantidas sob 50% de sombreamento. Ambas as espécies podem ser plantadas sob pleno sol, 30%, 50% e 75% de sombreamento, sendo indicadas para a implantação de reflorestamentos ou para enriquecimento de área degradadas.

  15. Crescimento inicial de mudas de Clitoria fairchidiana Howard e Peltophorum dubium (Sprenge Taub em diferentes condições de sombreamento.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita C.Q. Portela

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false PT-BR X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Este experimento teve como objetivo avaliar a influência do sombreamento no crescimento de mudas de Peltophorum dubium (Canafístula e Clitoria fairchildiana (Sombreiro, espécies utilizadas no reflorestamento de encostas do município do Rio de Janeiro. As sementes foram colhidas em diversas matrizes e semeadas em sacos plásticos. As porcentagens de sombreamento testadas foram: 0% (sol pleno, 30%, 50% e 75%. A instalação do experimento iniciou-se um mês após a semeadura. O parâmetro altura foi analisado aos 30, 60, 90, 120 e 150 dias após a semeadura. O peso da matéria seca da raiz foi analisado aos 150 dias. Os resultados demostraram que as espécies estudadas apresentam diferentes respostas  para os parâmetros analisados. Para o plantio imediato recomenda-se a produção de mudas de Sombreiro sob o sombreamento de 30% e de Canafístula, sob sol pleno, 30% ou 75% de sombra. Na produção de mudas para estocagem, seria indicado para o Sombreiro, a produção a sol  pleno e para Canafístula, as mudas poderiam ser mantidas sob 50% de sombreamento. Ambas as espécies podem ser plantadas sob pleno sol, 30%, 50% e 75% de sombreamento, sendo indicadas para a implantação de reflorestamentos ou  para enriquecimento de área degradadas.

  16. Anti-inflammatory potential of different extracts isolated from the roots of Ficus lacor buch. Hum and Murraya koenigii L. spreng

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    Sindhu Rakesh K.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to evaluate the anti-inflammatory potential of Murraya koenigii root extracts petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and chloroform (MKPE, MKEA and MKCF, respectively and Ficus lacor aerial root extracts petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, chloroform and ethanol (FLPE , FLET, FLCF and FLET, respectively at doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight (b.w. using animal models of acute inflammation (carrageenan-, histamine- and serotonin-induced inflammation. The results of the Murraya koenigii roots chloroform extract caused 66.4% inhibition and the ethanol extract of Ficus lacor aerial roots caused 68.3% inhibition at the dose of 50 mg/kg b.w. At a higher dose of 100 mg/kg b.w., MKPE and MKCF showed 55.10% and 70.10% inhibition, respectively. FLPE and FLET showed 74.50% and 75.40% inhibition, respectively, in the carrageenan-induced inflammation model. In histamine-induced inflammation, the MKCF showed 60% inhibition, and 67.01% and 68.02% inhibition with the petroleum ether and ethanol extracts, respectively, in Ficus lacor aerial roots at the dose of 50 mg/kg b.w. At a higher dose (100 mg/kg b.w., MKCF showed 64% inhibition. FLPE and FLET showed 70.13%and 74.01% inhibition, respectively; 62.15% and 66.10% inhibition was observed with the petroleum ether and ethanol extracts of Ficus lacor aerial roots at 50 mg/kg b.w. At higher dose (100 mg/kg b.w., FLPE and FLET showed 69.10% and 68.72% inhibition in serotonin-induced inflammation.

  17. Ozone-Induced Responses in Croton floribundus Spreng. (Euphorbiaceae): Metabolic Cross-Talk between Volatile Organic Compounds and Calcium Oxalate Crystal Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso-Gustavson, Poliana; Bolsoni, Vanessa Palermo; de Oliveira, Debora Pinheiro; Guaratini, Maria Tereza Gromboni; Aidar, Marcos Pereira Marinho; Marabesi, Mauro Alexandre; Alves, Edenise Segala; de Souza, Silvia Ribeiro

    2014-01-01

    Here, we proposed that volatile organic compounds (VOC), specifically methyl salicylate (MeSA), mediate the formation of calcium oxalate crystals (COC) in the defence against ozone (O3) oxidative damage. We performed experiments using Croton floribundus, a pioneer tree species that is tolerant to O3 and widely distributed in the Brazilian forest. This species constitutively produces COC. We exposed plants to a controlled fumigation experiment and assessed biochemical, physiological, and morphological parameters. O3 induced a significant increase in the concentrations of constitutive oxygenated compounds, MeSA and terpenoids as well as in COC number. Our analysis supported the hypothesis that ozone-induced VOC (mainly MeSA) regulate ROS formation in a way that promotes the opening of calcium channels and the subsequent formation of COC in a fast and stable manner to stop the consequences of the reactive oxygen species in the tissue, indeed immobilising the excess calcium (caused by acute exposition to O3) that can be dangerous to the plant. To test this hypothesis, we performed an independent experiment spraying MeSA over C. floribundus plants and observed an increase in the number of COC, indicating that this compound has a potential to directly induce their formation. Thus, the tolerance of C. floribundus to O3 oxidative stress could be a consequence of a higher capacity for the production of VOC and COC rather than the modulation of antioxidant balance. We also present some insights into constitutive morphological features that may be related to the tolerance that this species exhibits to O3. PMID:25165889

  18. Produção de β-ecdisona em Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen em função da adubação orgânica em 6 épocas de crescimento β-ecdysone production by Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen under organic fertilization in 6 growth periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.P.V. Guerreiro

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como objetivo verificar a influência da adubação orgânica em 6 épocas de crescimento na produção de β-ecdisona por plantas de Pfaffia glomerata. O experimento foi conduzido na Fazenda Santo Antonio do Araquá, distrito de Catâneo Ângelo, município de São Manuel, São Paulo, Brasil. Utilizou-se o delineamento de blocos ao acaso, num esquema fatorial 5x6, com quatro repetições, considerando-se 8 plantas úteis por parcela. Os blocos foram constituídos de 6 épocas de crescimento (60, 120, 180, 240, 300 e 360 dias após a germinação e de 5 doses de esterco de galinha curtido [testemunha (sem adubação, 15, 30, 45 e 60 t ha-1]. Após cada colheita, as raízes das plantas foram secas em estufa com circulação de ar forçada a 40ºC e pesadas para posterior extração do β-ecdisona, seguindo metodologia desenvolvida por Magalhães (2000. Os resultados foram submetidos à análise de variância e ao teste de separação de médias de Scott Knott, todos a 5% de probabilidade. Quando ocorreu interação os resultados foram avaliados usando-se análise de regressão polinominal. O teor de β-ecdisona não foi influenciado pelas doses de adubo e nem pela época do crescimento das plantas. Porém a quantidade total de β-ecdisona por raiz foi influenciada pela época de crescimento, sendo que aos 360 dias após a emergência ocorreu uma maior quantidade do princípio ativo em todos os tratamentos. Apesar de não diferir estatisticamente dos demais tratamentos, aos 360 dias após a emergência das plantas, o tratamento 30 t ha-1 foi o que proporcionou maior quantidade de β-ecdisona.The aim of this study was to assess the influence of organic fertilization in 6 growth periods on β-ecdysone production by Pfaffia glomerata plants. The field work was conducted in "Santo Antonio do Araquá" Farm, Catâneo Ângelo District, São Manuel, São Paulo State, Brazil. The adopted design was in randomized blocks, in a 5x6 factorial arrangement, with four replicates and 8 useful plants per plot. Blocks were constituted of 6 growth periods (60, 120, 180, 240, 300 and 360 days after germination, and 5 chicken manure levels [control (without fertilization, 15, 30, 45 and 60 t ha-1]. After each harvest, roots were dried in forced aeration oven at 40ºC and weighed for later β-ecdysone extraction following the methodology developed by Magalhães (2000. Results were subjected to analysis of variance and mean separation by Scott-Knott test, both at 5% probability. When interaction was detected, results were evaluated using polynomial regression analysis. β-ecdysone content was not influenced by manure levels or plant growth periods. However, β-ecdysone total content per root was influenced by the growth period, and at 360 days after emergence there was a higher quantity of the active principle in all treatments. Although not statistically different from the remaining treatments, 30 t ha-1 led to the highest β-ecdysone production at 360 days after plant emergence.

  19. Influência de diferentes meios de cultura sobre o crescimento de Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen (Amaranthaceae para conservação in vitro Influence of different culture media on the growth of Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pendersen (Amaranthaceae for conservation in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.B.N. Alves

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Pfaffia glomerata ocorre em vários estados do Brasil e países limítrofes da região Sul às margens de rios e nas orlas das matas de galerias, é espécie hidrófita e heliófita. As raízes de espécies do gênero Pfaffia são usadas na medicina popular brasileira, especialmente como tônico, afrodisíaco e no controle do diabete. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estabelecer um banco de germoplasma in vitro de Pfaffia glomerata. O experimento em delineamento inteiramente casualizado foi conduzido com seis tratamentos: 1 MS + 2% de sacarose + 4% de sorbitol; 2 MS/2 + 2% de sacarose + 4% de sorbitol; 3 MS + 2% de sacarose + 4% de sorbitol + 2 mg L-1 de pantotenato de cálcio; 4 MS/2 + 2% de sacarose + 4% de sorbitol + 2 mg L-1de pantotenato de cálcio; 5 MS + 2% de sacarose + 3% de manitol + 2 mg L-1de pantotenato de cálcio; 6 MS/2 + 2% de sacarose + 3% de manitol + 2 mg L-1de pantotenato de cálcio. Os resultados obtidos foram submetidos à análise de variância e ao teste de separação de médias de Scott Knott. Os tratamentos um, três e quatro apresentaram, significativamente, o maior número de segmentos nodais por haste, quando comparados com os tratamentos dois, cinco e seis. O tratamento dois foi o mais indicado para a conservação in vitro da espécie por ter promovido menor crescimento das plantas (altura de 3,1±1,9 cm, alto índice de sobrevivência, 100% de explantes com brotação e o maior número de brotos por explante, após seis meses de cultivo. Todas as plântulas produziram raízes e não houve formação de calos, também não ocorreu hiperhidricidade nos tratamentos avaliados. As plantas aclimatizadas apresentaram 100% de sobrevivência no ambiente ex vitro. A manutenção de acessos de P. glomerata no banco de germoplasma in vitro é viável tanto do ponto de vista da conservação quanto economicamente.Pfaffia glomerata occurs in several states of Brazil and its neighboring countries in the south region at riverbanks and gallery forests. It is a hydrophyte and heliophyte species. The roots of the genus Pfaffia are used in Brazilian folk medicine especially as tonic, aphrodisiac and to control diabetes. The aim of this work was to establish an in vitro germplasm bank for Pfaffia glomerata. The experiment was carried out in completely randomized design with six treatments: 1 DM + 2% sucrose + 4% sorbitol; 2 DM/2 + 2% sucrose + 4% sorbitol; 3 DM + 2% sucrose + 4% sorbitol + 2 mg L-1 calcium pantothenate; 4 DM/2 + 2% sucrose + 4% sorbitol + 2 mg L-1 calcium pantothenate; 5 DM + 2% sucrose + 3% mannitol + 2 mg L-1 calcium pantothenate; 6 DM/2 + 2% sucrose + 3% mannitol + 2 mg L-1 calcium pantothenate. Results were subjected to analysis of variance and Scott Knott test for mean grouping. Treatments 1, 3 and 4 had a significantly larger number of nodal segments per stem, compared to Treatments 2, 5 and 6. Treatment 2 was the most appropriate for the in vitro conservation of this species since it led to the lowest growth (3.1±1.9 cm height, high survival rate, 100% explants with sprouting, and the largest number of sprouts per explant after six months of culture. All seedlings produced root and showed no formation of calluses or hyperhydricidity under the evaluated treatments. Acclimatized plants showed 100% survival in the ex vitro environment. Maintaining P. glomerata accessions in an in vitro germplasm bank is viable both economically and for conservation.

  20. Utilização de parâmetros morfoanatômicos na análise da fitotoxidez do flúor em folhas de Magnolia ovata (A. St.-Hil. Spreng. (Magnoliaceae Use of morphoanatomic parameters in the analysis of fluoride toxicity in leaves of Magnolia ovata (A. St.-Hil. Spreng. (Magnoliaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Francisco Sant'Anna-Santos

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Com os objetivos de avaliar o grau de suscetibilidade e caracterizar as injúrias na morfoanatomia de folhas de Magnolia ovata, mudas foram submetidas à chuva simulada com flúor (10 µg.ml-1 de F- por 10 dias consecutivos. No tratamento controle, utilizou-se apenas água deionizada. Folhas foram coletadas para quantificação de flúor na matéria seca e fixadas para análises em microscopia de luz e eletrônica de varredura. As folhas apicais apresentaram pequena porcentagem de necroses intervenais e marginais em uma ou ambas as faces e maior acúmulo de flúor, em relação ao controle, quando comparadas com as folhas da porção basal. A análise micromorfológica das folhas aparentemente sadias indicou alterações nas paredes periclinais externas da epiderme e formação de concavidades, além de cristas estomáticas danificadas, erosão de ceras epicuticulares e presença de esporos e hifas de fungos. A caracterização estrutural das injúrias evidenciou retração de protoplasto das células epidérmicas, colapso das células do mesofilo e da epiderme e acúmulo de compostos fenólicos em células das regiões necrosadas. As alterações micromorfológicas das folhas ocorreram antes que sintomas fossem observados, o que comprova a importância da micromorfologia na diagnose precoce da injúria. As plantas de M. ovata apresentaram poucos sintomas visuais em resposta ao flúor, entretanto as alterações morfoanatômicas indicam que essa espécie possui potencial para ser utilizada como bioindicadora.This work aimed to evaluate the degree of susceptibility and characterize the injuries caused by fluoride in the morphoanatomy of Magnolia ovata. Seedlings were subjected to fluoride simulated rain (10 µg.ml-1 of F- during 10 consecutive days. In the control treatment, only deionized water was used. Leaves were collected for quantification of fluoride in the dry weight and fixed for light and scanning electron microscopy analyses. The apical leaves presented a small percentage of interveinal and margin necrosis in one or both leaf surfaces and greater fluoride accumulation, in relation to the control, than the basal portion leaves. Micromorphological analyses indicated that the areas apparently healthy of epidermis presented alterations in the external periclinal walls and formation of concave shapes, beyond damaged stomatic ledge, erosion of epicuticular waxes and presence of spores and fungal hyphae. The structural characterization of the injuries showed retraction of the protoplast of the epidermal cells, collapse of the mesophyll and epidermal cells and accumulation of phenolic compounds in cells of the necrotic regions. The micromorphological variations occurred before leaf symptoms, confirming the importance of micromorphology in early diagnosis of the injury. Plants of M. ovata presented few visible symptoms in response to fluoride; however, morphoanatomic responses suggest that this species possesses potential features to be used as a bioindicator.

  1. Study of the Interference between Plectranthus Species Essential Oils from Brazil and Aminoglycosides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvão Rodrigues, Fabíola Fernandes; Costa, José Galberto Martins; Rodrigues, Fábio Fernandes Galvao; Campos, Adriana Rolim

    2013-01-01

    Plectranthus is one of the most representative genera of Lamiaceae family. In this study, the essential oils from Plectranthus amboinicus, Plectranthus ornatus, and Plectranthus barbatus were investigated for their chemical composition and antimicrobial and modulatory activities. The major components found were carvacrol (54.4%-P. amboinicus) and eugenol (22.9%-P. ornatus e 25.1%-P. barbatus). In vitro antimicrobial activity was conducted against Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Staphylococcus aureus (multiresistant) using microdilution method. The results of bioassay showed that all strains were sensitive to the oils, except P. aeruginosa that was resistant to P. amboinicus and P. ornatus. A synergistic effect of all essential oils combined with the aminoglycosides was demonstrated. These results show that P. amboinicus, P. ornatus, and P. barbatus inhibit the growth of pathogenic microorganism, and besides this they present antibiotic modifying activity, providing a new perspective against the problem of bacterial resistance to antibiotics.

  2. Screening and preliminary application of microbial strains for bio-retting of false stem of Musa nana Lour%香蕉假茎生物脱胶菌株筛选及其应用效果初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡勇; 韦仕岩; 吴圣进; 汪茜

    2011-01-01

    进行香蕉假茎生物脱胶菌株筛选和生物脱胶提取香蕉假茎纤维初步试验研究,为生物脱胶提取香蕉假茎纤维实际应用提供依据.从腐烂香蕉假茎和土壤等样品中分离筛选对香蕉假茎具有脱胶作用菌株,并利用筛选出优良菌株对香蕉假茎进行脱胶,测定假茎失重率、纤维得率和残胶率,对菌株脱胶性能进行综合评价.筛选出FR1和BR2-1菌株对香蕉假茎均表现出很好脱胶效,其最佳脱胶时间均为72 h,脱胶前香蕉假茎含胶率为83.6%,脱胶后分别降至24.7%和20.2%,失重率分别达72.9%和77.8%,纤维得率分别达2.27%和2.01%.筛选获得FR1和BR2-1菌株在香蕉假茎脱胶提取纤维上均有较好应用潜力,表明应用生物脱胶去除香蕉假茎中胶质物质来提取生物纤维完全可行.%[Objective]Preliminary studies on bio-retting of false stem of banana (Musa nana Lout) were carried out using microbial strains in order to provide basis for the practical application of bio-retting technique in extracting fibers from false stem of banana. [Method]Microbial strains for bio-retting were isolated from false stem of rotten banana plants and soil. The strains were screened and superior ones were used in the bio-retting experiment. Their bio-retting performance was assessed comprehensively by determining false stem weight-loss ratio, fiber yield and the rate of residual gum in fiber. [Result]Two strains, viz., FR1 and BR2-1, having good ability for bio-retting false stem of banana, were screened out. The time for bio-retting of stem taken by these strains was found to be 72 h. The rates of gum in false stem, bio-retted by FR1 and BR2-1, decreased rapidly from 83.6 to 24.7 and 20.2% , respectively. The weight-loss ratio of false stem reached 72.9 and 77.8%, and the yields of fiber recorded as 2.27 and 2.01%, after bio-retting of false stem by strains FR1 and BR2-1, respectively. [Conclusion]The screened microbial strains FR1 and BR2-1 showed good application potential for bio-retting of banana false stem, therefore, may be used for bio-retting of banana false stem for the removal of gum and extraction of fibers.

  3. 龙眼胚性愈伤组织中TFL1基因克隆及其表达分析%Cloning and Characterization of TFL1 Family Genes from Embryogenic Callus in Dimocarpus longan Lour.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    TFL1 is belonging to the FT/TFL1 family, and it is involved in delaying the plant flowering time through maintaining the apical meristem. The RT-PCR combined with RACE method was used to obtain the complete cDNA and gDNA sequences of DlTFL1 from embryogenic callus in Dimocarpus longan. The complete cDNA sequence of DlTFL1 was 866 bp, encoding 175 amino acids. The gDNA sequence of DlTFL1 was 1 492 bp, contains three introns and for exons. DlTFL1 was stable and hydrophilic proteins, without signal peptides and Tran membrane structures, had the PEBP protein function domain. Phylogenetic tree analyses indicated that DlTFL1 has a close genetic relationship with Jatropha curca、Vitis vinifera、Populus trichocarpa. qPCR result indicated that the expressing of DlTFL1 was very differential in“Sijimi” different tissues, it expressed at the highest level in the flower bud, lower in root, leaf and flower, but not expressing in other tissues. DlTFL1 is a plant TFL1 homologous gene, may have inhibitory effect on flowering, it may promote the development of early flowers of“Sijimi”longan.%TFL1是FT/TFL1家族的一个成员,TFL1通过对顶端分生组织的维持从而延迟了植物开花时间。以龙眼松散型胚性愈伤组织为材料,采用RT-PCR结合RACE法克隆了TFL1的cDNA全长和gDNA序列,命名为DlTFL1。 DlTFL1全长866 bp,编码175个氨基酸。 DlTFL1的gDNA序列长为1492 bp,由3个内含子和4个外显子组成。 DlTFL1为稳定的亲水蛋白,没有信号肽与跨膜结构,含有PEBP功能保守结构域。进化树分析表明, DlTFL1与小油桐、葡萄、毛果杨等植物TFL1的亲缘关系较近。 q-PCR表明,DlTFL1在“四季蜜”龙眼不同组织部位中的表达差异明显,在花蕾中的表达量最高,在根、叶和花中表达量较低,在其他部位甚至不表达。说明DlTFL1是植物TFL1同源基因,可能具有抑制开花作用,对“四季蜜”龙眼花早期的器官发育可能有促进作用。

  4. 两个桂花品种花色色素相关基因的差异表达%Differential expression of flower color related genes of Osmanthus fragrans Lour. ‘Chenghongdangui’ and‘Zaoyingui’

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    母洪娜; 孙陶泽; 杨秀莲; 王良桂

    2015-01-01

    The analysis of anthocyanin, carotenoid content and flower color gene expression of Osmanthus fragrans tran⁃scriptome between ‘Chenghongdangui’ and ‘Zaoyingui’ were carried out. Some genes such as phenylalanine ammonia lyase, 4-CoA ligasecoumaric acid, acetyl CoA synthase, chalcone synthase, R2R3-MYB1, cytochrome P450, lycopene epsilon cyclase did present up regulation in‘Chenghongdangui’ petals not‘Zaoyinggui’ , which was consistent with the anthocyanin and carotenoid content in‘Chenghongdangui’ and‘Zaoyinggui’ . In contrast, the expression profile of other genes was up regulation in‘Zaoyingui. In addition, polyphenol oxidase ( PPO) , cytochrome P450 gene and R2R3-MYB that probably regulated pigments accumulation of O.fragrans were analyzed in this article. Meanwhile the novel discovery that the flavonoids metabolic pathway direct to dihydroquercetin at metabolism web junction, that is naringenin, and then synthesized cyanidin with catalyzing of DFR and ANS was found out in this study.%结合桂花花青素、类胡萝卜素的含量与转录组测序检测到的花色代谢相关基因的差异表达,对品种为‘橙红丹桂’和‘早银桂’的花色变化过程进行了初步研究。结果发现:苯丙氨酸裂解酶、4-香豆酸—CoA 连接酶、乙酰辅酶A合酶、查耳酮合酶、R2R3-MYB1、细胞色素P450、番茄红素ε环化酶基因的表达与花青素和类胡萝卜素含量变化相似,这两类色素代谢路径上的其他基因均在‘早银桂’中表达量较高。此外,这种现象很可能是多酚氧化酶( PPO)、细胞色素P450基因在转录因子R2R3-MYB调控下差异表达所致,并且还发现桂花类黄酮的代谢路径是从柚皮素开始转向二氢槲皮素进而在DFR、ANS催化下形成矢车菊色素。

  5. Study on Determination of Polyphenol Content in Canarium album (Lour.) Rauesch. by Folin-Ciocalteu Colorimetry%Folin-Ciocalteu比色法测定橄榄中多酚含量的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何志勇; 夏文水

    2006-01-01

    采用Folin-Ciocalteu比色法研究了橄榄多酚的定量测定方法.结果表明:橄榄多酚提取液在加入Folin-Ciocalteu试剂1.5 mL、10%Na2CO3 6 mL、反应时间2 h、温度30 ℃的条件下进行显色,并于765 nm处测定其吸光值,多酚质量浓度在7~70 mg/L范围内与吸光值有良好的线性关系,根据此线性回归方程进行橄榄多酚的定量测定,该方法简单方便、稳定性好、准确度高.

  6. Tamandua tetradactyla Linnaeus, 1758 (Myrmecophagidae) and Rhodnius robustus Larrousse, 1927 (Triatominae) infection focus by Trypanosoma rangeli Tejera, 1920 (Trypanosomatidae) in Attalea phalerata Mart. ex Spreng (Arecaceae) palm tree in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Fernando Braga Stehling; Quartier, Marion; Romaña, Christine A; Diotaiuti, Liléia; Harry, Myriam

    2010-12-01

    A sylvatic infection focus of Trypanosoma rangeli, whose cycle involves the anteater Tamandua tetradactyla and triatomine insect Rhodnius robustus was observed in a pasture-dominated landscape of the rural riparian community of São Tomé located along the Tapajós river in the municipal district of Aveiro (State of Pará, Brazil), the Brazilian Amazon region. During a field work campaign with the objective of Chagas disease diagnosis in the Tapajós region, an anteater and 31 triatomines were found inhabiting in the same Attalea phalerata palm tree crown. Collected triatomines were identified as R. robustus with morphological and molecular procedures. The analysis of infection by T. rangeli using the repetitive ARN nucleolar Cl1 (sno-RNA-Cl1) gene showed that 25 triatomines of all stages were infected by T. rangeli (total infection rate of 80.6%). Infection by Trypanosoma cruzi using mini-exon markers was not identified. Examination of the digestive content of the triatomines demonstrated that the only feeding source found was the anteater. These results demonstrate that T. tetradactyla can be an important reservoir for T. rangeli and a good vehicle of the parasite within the Brazilian Amazon region.

  7. Redução de aminoácidos em polpas de bacuri (Platonia insignis Mart, cupuaçu (Theobroma grandiflorum Willd ex-Spreng Schum e murici (Byrsonima crassifolia L. processado (aquecido e alcalinizado Amino acids reduction in processed (heated and alkalinized pulps of bacuri (Platonia insignis Mart, cupuaçu (Theobroma grandiflorum Willd ex-Spreng Schum and murici (Byrsonima crassifolia L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Porte

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A literatura científica é pobre a respeito de frutas da Amazônia, como o murici, e suas características químicas devem ser estudadas. Por isso, esta pesquisa teve por proposta determinar o perfil aminoacídico das polpas de bacuri, cupuaçu e murici sob diferentes valores de pH (3,3, 5,8, 8,0 e 12,0, sem aquecimento ou com aquecimento por 12 horas/100 ºC com agitação e refluxo. Valores de pH, glicose, frutose e sacarose também foram determinados nas polpas sem aquecimento. Os nutrientes foram determinados por CLAE (Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Eficiência. As polpas de bacuri, cupuaçu e murici apresentaram valores de pH 3,2, 3,6 e 3,35, respectivamente. A sacarose foi, quantitativamente, o principal carboidrato nas polpas de cupuaçu (38,34% e bacuri (36,93%, sendo que os teores de frutose e glicose foram similares, tanto na polpa de cupuaçu (8,93% e 9,03% como na de bacuri (12,63% e 11,65%, respectivamente. Em contraste, a polpa de murici foi quase isenta de sacarose (0,57%, mas não de frutose (11,51% ou glicose (11,39%. Nas polpas sem aquecimento, os principais aminoácidos foram: ácido glutâmico (46,6 mg/kg, ácido aspártico (28,8 mg/kg e arginina (25,3 mg/kg na polpa de bacuri; ácido aspártico (56,3 mg/kg, ácido glutâmico (44,0 mg/kg e alanina (24,2 mg/kg na polpa de cupuaçu; prolina (73,5 mg/kg, ácido glutâmico (23,7 mg/kg e ácido aspártico (23,5 mg/kg na polpa de murici. O aquecimento reduziu as concentrações de todos os aminoácidos nas 3 polpas. O meio fortemente alcalino (pH 12 produziu a maior degradação de aminoácidos. Lisina foi mais sensível ao aquecimento do que outros aminoácidos em pH 12.Scientific literature presents few studies about fruits of the Amazonia, like murici, and yours chemical characteristics should be studied. Therefore, amino acid profiles of the bacuri, cupuaçu and murici pulps were determined under different values of pH (3.3, 5.8, 8.0 and 12.0 with heating (12 hours/100 ºC, with stirring and refluxing or without heating. Glucose, fructose, sucrose and pH values also were obtained in the pulps without heating. All nutrients were analised by HPLC. The pHs were: 3.2, 3.6 and 3.35 in the bacuri, cupuaçu and murici pulps, respectively. Sucrose (38.34% and 36.93% was the major carbohydrate while fructose (8.93% and 12.63% and glucose (9.03% and 11.65% shown similar percentages in the cupuaçu and bacuri pulps. Murici pulp was almost free of sucrose (0.57%, but not of fructose (11.51% or glucose (11.39%. In the pulps without heating the major amino acids were: glutamic acid (46.6 mg/kg, aspartic acid (28.8 mg/kg and arginine (25.3 mg/kg in the bacuri pulp; aspartic acid (56.3 mg/kg, glutamic acid (44.0 mg/kg and alanine (24.2 mg/kg in the cupuaçu pulp; proline (73.5 mg/kg, glutamic acid (23.7 mg/kg and aspartic acid (23.5 mg/kg in the murici pulp. The heating of the 3 pulps decresead the concentration of all amino acids. The medium strongly alkaline (pH 12 produced more degradation of the amino acids than others pHs. Lysine was more sensible to the heating than others amino acids in pH 12.

  8. Chemotaxonomic significance of flavonoids, coumarins and triterpenes of Augusta longifolia (Spreng. Rehder, Rubiaceae-Ixoroideae, with new insights about its systematic position within the family Significância quimiotaxômica de flavonoides, cumarinas e triterpenos de Augusta longifolia (Spreng. Rehder, Rubiaceae-Ixoroideae, com novos entendimentos sobre a posição sistemática dentro da família

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Choze

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Augusta has traditionally been placed in the tribe Rondeletieae, subfamily Cinchonoideae. However, recent molecular phylogenies positioned it near to Wendlandia (Ixoroideae, but locate A. longifolia near to the clade Ixoroidinae II. The study of A. longifolia afforded two coumarins, five flavonoids, three triterpenoids and one benzoic acid derivative. These metabolites reinforce the separation of Augusta as a monospecific genus, and Lindenia as a genus of three species, closely related to Wendlandia.Augusta tem sido tradicionalmente colocada na tribo Rondeletieae, Cinchonoideae subfamília. No entanto, recentes filogenias moleculares posicionou-a perto de Wendlandia, porém localizando A. longifolia perto do clado Ixoroidinae II. O estudo de A. longifolia resultou em duas cumarinas, cinco flavonoides, três triterpenoides e um derivado do ácido benzóico. Estes metabolitos reforçam a separação da Augusta como um gênero monoespecífico, e Lindenia como um gênero de três espécies, intimamente relacionada com Wendlandia.

  9. Carbon Fixation and Oxygen Release of 18 Shrub Greening Trees%18种常见灌木绿化树种光合特性及固碳释氧能力分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林欣; 林晨菲; 刘素青; 李林锋

    2014-01-01

    14 00 and 16 00 in the afternoon. The capacity of carbon fixation and oxygen release among the shrub species are also different. The four high carbon fixation and oxygen release species are Lantana camara L., Duranta repens L., Ficusmicrocarpa cv. Golden Leaves and Acalypha wilkesiana Muell.-Arg., and the weakest plant was Rhapis excelsa Thunb. Based on the net amount of carbon storage, the shrub trees were divided trees into three categories by using the cluster analysis. The high daily carbon storage and oxygen release group including Lantana camara L., Duranta repens L., Ficusmicrocarpa cv. Golden Leaves and Acalypha wilkesiana Muell.-Arg.[7~10 g/(m2·d) and 5~7 g/(m2·d)], medium daily carbon storage and oxygen release group including Bougainvillea spectabilis Willd., Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L., Murraya exotica L., Aglaia odorata Lour., Schefflera arboricola H., Michelia figo (Lour.) Spreng., Ervatamia divaricata (L.) Burk. cv. Gouyahua, the low daily carbon storage and oxygen release group Cordyline fruticosa (L.) A. Cheval., Codiaeum variegatum (L.) A. Juss., Excoecaria cochinchinensis Lour., Jasminum sambac (L.) Ait., Phoenix roebelenii O. Brien, Carmona microphylla (Lam.)G. Don and Rhapis excelsa (Thunb.) Henry ex Rehd. The study will provide the certain reference for greening tree species selection in order to meet carbon forestry.

  10. Chagalli näitust pikendati / Mark Soosaar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soosaar, Mark, 1946-

    2000-01-01

    Tänu Pärnu Uue kunsti muuseumi ja Sprengeli muuseumi vahel saavutatud kokkuleppele jääb Marc Chagalli litograafiate sari 'Exodus', mida eksponeeritakse koos Herman Talviku graafikaga, Pärnusse 23. jaanuarini.

  11. Performance of resistance gene pyramids to races of rice bacterial blight in Zhejiang Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENGKangle; ZHUANGJieyun; WANGHanrong

    1998-01-01

    The effect of gene pyramiding on resistance to bacterial blight (BB) in rice was evahlated among the IR24-based near isogenic lines conraining single resistance gene and gene pyramids containing two, three or lour resistancegenes (see table).

  12. Mosquito repellent activity of volatile oils from selected aromatic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalthazuali; Mathew, Nisha

    2017-02-01

    Essential oils from fresh leaves of four aromatic plants viz., Ocimum sanctum, Mentha piperita, Eucalyptus globulus and Plectranthus amboinicus were extracted by hydrodistillation. The test solutions were prepared as 20% essential oil in ethanol and positive control as 20% DEET in ethanol. Essential oil blend was prepared as 5% concentration. Nulliparous, 3-5-day-old female adult Aedes aegypti mosquitoes were used for repellency screening as per ICMR protocol. The study showed that the repellency of 20% essential oil of O. sanctum, M. piperita and P. amboinicus were comparable with that of the standard DEET (20%) as no mosquito landing on the test was observed up to 6 h. The E. globulus oil exhibited mosquito repellency only upto 1½ h. Considerable mosquito landing and feeding was displayed in negative control. In the case of the oil blend, no landing of mosquitoes was seen up to 6 h as that of positive control. The results showed that the essential oil blend from O. sanctum, M. piperita, E. globulus and P. amboinicus could repel Ae. aegypti mosquitoes or prevent from feeding as in the case of DEET even at a lower concentration of 5%. This study demonstrates the potential of essential oils from O. sanctum, M. piperita, E. globulus and P. amboinicus and their blend as mosquito repellents against Ae. aegypti, the vector of dengue, chikungunya and yellow fever.

  13. Variation of karyotype and nuclear DNA content among four species of Plectranthus L’ Héritier, 1788 (Lamiaceae) from Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nani, Thaís Furtado; Mesquita, Amanda Teixeira; Bustamante, Fernanda de Oliveira; Barbosa, Sandro; Barbosa, João Vítor Calvelli; Davide, Lisete Chamma

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Plectranthus is a genus which includes species of ornamental and medicinal potential. It faces taxonomic problems due to aggregating species previously belonging to the genus Coleus, a fact that has contributed to the existence of various synonymies. The species Plectranthus amboinicus, Plectranthus barbatus, Plectranthus grandis and Plectranthus neochilus are included in this context. Some authors consider Plectranthus barbatus and Plectranthus grandis as synonyms. The present work was carried out with the aim of comparing plants of the above-mentioned species, originating from different localities in Brazil, with regards to chromosome number and karyotypic morphology, correlated to the nuclear DNA content. There was no variation in chromosome number among plants of the same species. Plectranthus amboinicus was the only species to exhibit 2n=34, whereas the others had 2n=30. No karyotypic differences were found among the plants of each species, except for Plectranthus barbatus. The plants of the Plectranthus species revealed little coincidence between chromosome pairs. The nuclear DNA content allowed grouping Plectranthus amboinicus and Plectranthus neochilus, with the highest mean values, and Plectranthus grandis and Plectranthus barbatus with the lowest ones. Differences in DNA amount among the plants were identified only for Plectranthus barbatus. These results allow the inference that the populations of Plectranthus amboinicus and Plectranthus neochilus present coincident karyotypes among their plants, and Plectranthus grandis is probably a synonym of Plectranthus barbatus. PMID:26753074

  14. Variation of karyotype and nuclear DNA content among four species of Plectranthus L' Héritier, 1788 (Lamiaceae) from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nani, Thaís Furtado; Mesquita, Amanda Teixeira; Bustamante, Fernanda de Oliveira; Barbosa, Sandro; Barbosa, João Vítor Calvelli; Davide, Lisete Chamma

    2015-01-01

    Plectranthus is a genus which includes species of ornamental and medicinal potential. It faces taxonomic problems due to aggregating species previously belonging to the genus Coleus, a fact that has contributed to the existence of various synonymies. The species Plectranthus amboinicus, Plectranthus barbatus, Plectranthus grandis and Plectranthus neochilus are included in this context. Some authors consider Plectranthus barbatus and Plectranthus grandis as synonyms. The present work was carried out with the aim of comparing plants of the above-mentioned species, originating from different localities in Brazil, with regards to chromosome number and karyotypic morphology, correlated to the nuclear DNA content. There was no variation in chromosome number among plants of the same species. Plectranthus amboinicus was the only species to exhibit 2n=34, whereas the others had 2n=30. No karyotypic differences were found among the plants of each species, except for Plectranthus barbatus. The plants of the Plectranthus species revealed little coincidence between chromosome pairs. The nuclear DNA content allowed grouping Plectranthus amboinicus and Plectranthus neochilus, with the highest mean values, and Plectranthus grandis and Plectranthus barbatus with the lowest ones. Differences in DNA amount among the plants were identified only for Plectranthus barbatus. These results allow the inference that the populations of Plectranthus amboinicus and Plectranthus neochilus present coincident karyotypes among their plants, and Plectranthus grandis is probably a synonym of Plectranthus barbatus.

  15. Study of the Interference between Plectranthus Species Essential Oils from Brazil and Aminoglycosides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabíola Fernandes Galvão Rodrigues

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Plectranthus is one of the most representative genera of Lamiaceae family. In this study, the essential oils from Plectranthus amboinicus, Plectranthus ornatus, and Plectranthus barbatus were investigated for their chemical composition and antimicrobial and modulatory activities. The major components found were carvacrol (54.4%—P. amboinicus and eugenol (22.9%—P. ornatus e 25.1%—P. barbatus. In vitro antimicrobial activity was conducted against Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Staphylococcus aureus (multiresistant using microdilution method. The results of bioassay showed that all strains were sensitive to the oils, except P. aeruginosa that was resistant to P. amboinicus and P. ornatus. A synergistic effect of all essential oils combined with the aminoglycosides was demonstrated. These results show that P. amboinicus, P. ornatus, and P. barbatus inhibit the growth of pathogenic microorganism, and besides this they present antibiotic modifying activity, providing a new perspective against the problem of bacterial resistance to antibiotics.

  16. 龙眼胚性愈伤组织fw2.2家族2个基因的克隆与分析%Cloning and Sequence Analysis of Two Members of fw2.2 Gene Family from Embryogenic Callus in Dimocarpus longan Lour

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈裕坤; 林玉玲; 赖钟雄

    2012-01-01

    fruit weight 2.2 (fw>2.2) is an important quantitative trait locus (QTL) gene in controlling the fruit weight of plants. Based on the database of longan transcriptome, two members of fu>2.2 family genes from longan embryogenic callus were obtained by the homologous cloning and RACE technology. They were named as Dlfw2.2-1 and Dlfw2.2-2, respectively. Bioinformatics ananlyses showed that the complete cDNA sequences of Dlfw2.2-1 were 970 bp, encoding 184 amino acids and the Dlfiv2.2-2 were 941 bp, encoding 175 amino acids. Both the nucleotides and amino acids sequences of the two members were high homologous with those of the known fw2.2 genes in other species. Their proteins had no signal peptide, locating in the plasma membrane with transmembrane structure and the typical cysteine-rich protein domain. Phylogenetic tree analyses indicated that Dlfw2.2-1 and Dlfw2.2-2 belonged to the same branch with a close genetic relationship with Lycopenicon esculentum and Persea amerscarea.Therefore, the 2 members putatively belonged to the fw.2 family.%fruit weight 2.2(fw2.2)是植物中控制果实重量的重要数量性状的主效基因.以龙眼转录组数据库为基础,采用同源克隆法及RACE技术,从龙眼的胚性愈伤组织中获得fw2.2家族的2个cDNA全长序列,命名为Dlfiv2.2-1与Dlfw2.2-1,并对其核甘酸序列及推导的氨基酸序列进行生物信息学分析.结果表明:Dlfw2.2-1基因的cDNA全长为970 bp,编码184个氨基酸;Dlfw2.2-2基因的cDNA全长为941 bp,编码175个氨基酸.Dlfw2.2-1与Dlfw2.2-2的核甘酸序列及其推导的氨基酸序列与其它植物的fw2.2具有较高的同源性,亚细胞定位于细胞质膜,不含信号肽,具有跨膜结构与典型的与PLAC8同源的富半胱氨酸蛋白(Cysteine-rich Protein)的保守结构域.植物中fw2.2系统进化树分析结果表明,Dlfw2.2-1和Dlfw2.2-2为同一分枝,与番茄和油梨的fw2.2的距离最近.因此,推测Dlfw2.2-1与Dlfw2.2-2属于fw2.2基因家族的2个成员.

  17. 龙眼胚性愈伤组织Cu/Zn-SOD分子伴侣基因CCS的克隆及其在体胚发生过程中的表达分析%Cloning of Copper Chaperone for Superoxide Dismutase Gene CCS from Embryogenic Callus of Dimocarpus longan Lour.and Its Expression Analysis During Somatic Embryogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林玉玲; 赖钟雄

    2012-01-01

    Copper chaperone for superoxide dismutase gene (CCS) was cloned and its expression level was analyzed for elucidating its role during longan somatic embryogenesis. DICCS gene was isolated by RT-PCR, containing a 960-nucleotides-long open reading frame (ORF) which encoded a protein of 319 amino acid residues. Bioinformatics analysis showed that the protein encoded by DICCS with the signal peptide and transmembrane helices was hydrophilic, stable and acidic protein, located in the chloroplast. Homology researches with the deduced amino acid residues indicated that DICCS gene had a high similarity to other plant CCS genes, and the predicted DICCS polypeptide contained 3 distinct domains. The phosphorylation occurred mainly on serine, followed by threonine and thyosine residues. The DICCS protein was involved in superoxide metabolism and metal ion transport process, and played a role of oxidation-reduction during longan somatic embryogenesis. qPCR results indicated that DICCS was expressed at low levels from the friable-embryogenic callus (Stage 1) to the compact pro-embryogenic cultures (Stage 4). With further embroygenic development, its expression increased rapidly and peaked at the mature embryo stage (Stage 9), suggesting that DICCS might play a major role in the middle and late developmental stages of longan somatic embryogenesis. Fig 6, Ref 27%为了解Cu/Zn超氧化物歧化酶分子伴侣基因(CCS)在龙眼体胚发生过程中的表达调控机制,以龙眼松散型胚性愈伤组织为材料,采用RT-PCR法,克隆了长960 bp含有完整开放阅读框的龙眼DlCCS核酸序列,其编码一个含有319个氨基酸的蛋白质(GenBank登录号:FJ973472).生物信息学分析显示:该蛋白为亲水的、稳定的、含有跨膜结构域的酸性蛋白质,定位于叶绿体;与毛果杨、葡萄、拟南芥、水稻和锦鸡儿具有较高同源性,含有植物CCS蛋白所特有的3个保守结构域;预测其通过不同的磷酸化方式,改变酶活性及蛋白构象,参与龙眼体胚中超氧化物代谢以及金属离子转运等生物学过程,在氧化还原过程中发挥作用.利用实时荧光定量PCR (Qpcr)技术研究该基因在龙眼体胚发生发育过程中的表达情况,结果显示,从松散型胚性愈伤组织( Stage 1)到胚性紧实球形结构阶段(Stage 4),DlCCS Mrna的转录水平较低且波动小;当胚性紧实球形结构进一步发育到子叶形胚阶段(Stage 8),其表达量迅速增加,在成熟胚阶段( Stage 9)达到最高峰,提示DlCCS可能在龙眼体胚的中晚期起主要作用.

  18. Cloning of AGO6 from Embryogenic Callus and Its Expression Analysis by qPCR during Somatic Embryogenesis in Dimocarpus longan Lour%龙眼胚性愈伤组织AGO6基因克隆及其在体胚发生过程中的表达分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨曼曼; 林玉玲; 王天池; 赖钟雄

    2015-01-01

    Based on the database of longan transcriptome sequences,the DlAG06 from longan embryogen⁃ic callus was isolated by using RACE and PCR. The results showed that the cloned full—length cDNA se⁃quence of DlAGO6 was 3 168 bp in length( Genbank:KF819529) ,containing a 2 700 bp open reading frame ( ORF) encoding 900 amino acids. Bioinformatics predicted that the deduced DlAGO6 protein with two con⁃served PAZ and PIWI domains had the typical characteristics of the AGO family,which had a high identity with the known Arabidopsis thaliana AGO6 protein. The qPCR analysis indicated that the expression level of DlAGO6 gene was the lowest at the stage of torpedo embryo and reached the maximum at the stage of the fria⁃ble⁃embryogenic callus,which suggested that DlAGO6 may be associated with exuberant cell division.%依据龙眼胚性愈伤组织转录组数据库Unigene序列,利用RT-PCR结合RACE技术,以龙眼胚性愈伤组织cDNA为模板,获得 DlAGO6基因的 cDNA 全长序列,共3168 bp (登录号为 KF819529),完整开放阅读框2700 bp,编码900个氨基酸。生物信息学分析表明:DlAGO6的cDNA所编码的氨基酸序列含有2个高度保守的PAZ和PIWI结构域,具有典型的AGO类蛋白的结构特征;与拟南芥AGO6蛋白序列有较高的同源性。龙眼体胚发生过程中DlAGO6表达量的qPCR分析表明: DlAGO6在龙眼松散型胚性愈伤组织时期的表达量最高,在鱼雷形胚时期表达量最低,推测DLAGO6在龙眼松散型胚性愈伤组织阶段的高表达量,可能与细胞的旺盛分裂有关。

  19. 棕榈科麒麟血竭与百合科剑叶血竭HPLC指纹图谱分析与比较%Comparison Daemonorops Draco Bl.with Dracaena Cochinchinensis (Lour.) S.C.Chen by HPLC Fingerprint Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄茂华; 雍克岚

    2001-01-01

    采用反相高效液相色谱法,首次建立了进口棕榈科麒麟血竭和国产百合科剑叶血竭HPLC指纹图谱,运用相对保留指纹谱的方法,对获得的图谱进行数据化处理,得出重叠率、n强峰、特征峰群和特征指纹峰检出率等参数,从中找出不同血竭品种所含化合物之间的相互关系及特征.结果表明,进口血竭与国产血竭的HPLC指纹图谱差异明显,同一品种不同产地的国产血竭指纹谱极为相似,但主成份含量有一定的差别.

  20. 沙蒿散缓解阻生牙拔除术后日常生活活动能力影响因素的效果评价%Effect evaluation of artemisia desertorum spreng on ability of daily life after extraction of impacted tooth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史亮; 胡开进; 于擘; 彭莲

    2003-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the effect of locally used Shahaosan on preventing the complication of extraction of impacted tooth.METHODS: 274 cases patients with extraction of impacted teeth were randomly devided into 3 groups named A,B and C.Shahaosan and Yunnan white drug were processed into drug A and B by department of pharmacy with the same color, shape and quality which are blind to doctors and patients.When the impacted teeth were extracted, administed group A(92 cases) with drug A,group B(86 cases) with drug B and group C(96 cases ) was a blank control. After the operation,incidence and severe intensity of dry socket in each group were observed and evaluated by scores.RESULTS: The incidence of dry socket in group A,B and C were 0.09% (1/92),2.32% (2/86),8.33% (8/96).There was no significant difference between group A and B, group B and C, while a significant difference showed between group A and C.The PoSSe score in group A, B and C was 19.36, 27.80 and 22.83 respectively.Afer the experiment the department of pharmacy informed that drug A is Shahaosan and drug B is Yunnan white drug.CONCLUSTON:Compiments of dry socket induced by extracting of lower jaw impacted teeth can be prevented by locally administered with Shahaosan, but no significant effect of alleviating the symptom of dental extraction.

  1. 紫茎泽兰叶片凋落物对入侵地4种草本植物的化感作用%Allelopathic effect of Ageratina adenophora(Spreng.)leaf litter on four herbaceous plants in invaded regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万欢欢; 刘万学; 万方浩

    2011-01-01

    为了明确紫茎泽兰叶片凋落物对入侵地草本植物的化感作用,研究了不同浓度紫茎泽兰叶片凋落物水提液对入侵地草本植物多年生黑麦草、白三叶,辣子草和紫花苜蓿种子萌发和幼苗生长的影响,同时结合土培试验研究了叶片凋落物在入侵地土壤中的化感作用.结果表明,除多年生黑麦草外,水提液对其他3种草本植物种子萌发均产生了显著的化感抑制作用,且水提液的浓度越高抑制效果越强;低浓度水提液对紫花苜蓿和辣子草的幼苗生长存在显著化感促进作用,高浓度的水提液对除多年生黑麦草外的其他3种植物幼苗的生长存在显著化感抑制作用,水提液对多年生黑麦草幼苗生长的影响不显著;土壤中按照50g·kg-1的比例添加叶片凋落物后,显著抑制了白三叶的生长,而添加活性炭后,白三叶的单株生物量相对于未添加活性炭的处理增加71.25%,进一步证实叶片凋落物在土壤中的化感抑制作用.这说明外来入侵植物紫茎泽兰可能通过其叶片凋落物在入侵地土壤中降解,释放化感物质,抑制伴生植物的种子萌发和幼苗生长,为自身创造有利的生长环境,实现其成功入侵和扩张.%The effects of different concentrations of water extracts of A. adenophora leaf litter on the germination and seedling growth of Lolium perenne, Trifoliurn repens, Galinsoga parvifiora and Medicago sativa were determined via laboratory bioassay. The objective of the study was to elucidate allelopathic effects of A. adenophora leaf litter on herbaceous plant in invaded regions. Meanwhile, allelopathic effects ofA. adenophora leaf litter on the invaded soil were examined via pot experiments. Results showed that with the exception of L. perenne, there existed significant allelopathic inhibition effects of the water extracts on herbaceous plant seed germination. Inhibition effect increased with increasing concentration of water extract. For the growth of G parvifiora and M. sativa seedling, a significant promotion effect was noted at low water extract concentration. However, herbaceous plant seedling growth (except for L. perenne) was significantly inhibited at high water extract concentration. The effect of water extracts on L. perenne seedling growth was insignificant. Furthermore, pot experiments showed that T. repens seedling growth was significantly inhibited by 50 g · kg-1 leaf litter. T. repens biomass, however, increased by 71.25% with the addition of active carbon (AC). This further testified an obvious alteiopathic inhibition effect of leaf litter on herbaceous plant in invaded soils. By leaf litter decomposition and releasing allelochemicals into soils, A. adenophora inhibited seed germination and seedling growth of accompanying plants, created a favorable environment for invasion and expansion.

  2. Application of One-Step-bolts in drill and blast heading and roadheader development at the collieries Ost and Prosper-Haniel; Einsatz von One-Step-Ankern in Spreng- und TSM-Vortrieben auf den Bergwerken Ost und Prosper-Haniel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinewardt, K. [Deutsche Steinkohle AG, Bottrop (Germany). Bergwerk Prosper-Haniel; Kroker, J. [Deutsche Steinkohle AG, Hamm (Germany). Bergwerk Ost

    2006-09-21

    After successful trials in selected engine roads and conventional development headings completed in mid-2004, One-Step-roofbolts are now being used in the 'Ost' and 'Prosper-Haniel' collieries. Efficient driving with roofbolting combined with headway supporting methods is an essential prerequisite for high quality parallel roads to panel entries in seams characterised by their deepness. Subject to appropriate framework conditions, One-Step roofbolts make it possible to achieve a distinct drive rate increase when using the Type A combination supporting method. (orig.)

  3. Co-digestion of Eupatorium adenophonum Spreng and Potato Starch Processing Waste and the Its Residue Toxicity%紫茎泽兰与马铃薯淀粉加工废渣混合产沼气及沼渣毒性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴笛

    2016-01-01

    文章通过使用外来入侵植物—紫茎泽兰的茎杆和马铃薯深加工废渣为原料,探究该两种原料不同比例、沼气底液和温度对其厌氧发酵沼气产气量的影响.试验结果表明:在紫茎泽兰茎杆与马铃薯深加工废渣的比例为1∶2,沼气底液为100 mL和温度为30℃的厌氧发酵条件下,混合发酵的产气速率和累积产气量出现最高峰.并利用产气后的沼渣做饲料毒性研究,以小白鼠为试验对象,进行长达65天的观察.试验结果表明:当沼渣含量在10%范围内时,试验组小白鼠的生长发育情况与对照组相近.为紫茎泽兰和马铃薯深加工废渣的资源化利用提供了新的方法.

  4. Effects of Stand Types on the Community Diversity of Ground-Dwelling Beetles in the Invaded Regions of Eupatorium adenophorum Spreng.%林分类型对西昌紫茎泽兰入侵地地表甲虫群落的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    亓东明

    2013-01-01

    The diversity of ground-dwelling beetles in 5 stand types from the suburbs of Xichang city was investigated with the bait-traps method.886 beetles' specimens were gathered and belonged to 15 families.The Geotrupidae,Rutelidae and Staphylinidae were the dominant groups whose individuals were the most.The number of individuals of ground-dwelling beetles was the highest in the Pinus yunnanensis forest among the five stand types (P<0.01).The study of diversity showed that the richness of the ground-dwelling in Pinus yunnanensis forest and the Cupressus funebris forest were significantly higher than that of the Quercus acutissima forest(P<0.05).The dominance and evenness of the 5 stand types had no significant difference.The diversity of the Pinus yunnanensis forest had very significant difference with the Abies sp.forest and Dodonaea viscose shrub (P<0.01).The study of similarity showed that most of the similarity was middling dissimilar and middling similar,but the similarity of the Abies sp.forest and shurb was significantly different.The results showed that the composition and individuals of the ground-dwelling beetles in the 5 stand types of the suburbs of Xichang city had significant difference with the natural pure forest.It was suggested to design stand rebuilding for the artificial pure forest to increase the biodiversity.%2010年7~9月主要采用巴氏罐诱法对四川西昌市郊紫茎泽兰入侵地5种类型林分的地表甲虫群落进行调查,共采集地表甲虫标本886份,隶属15科,其中粪金龟科、隐翅虫科和丽金龟科昆虫个体数量多,是西昌市郊林下地表甲虫的优势类群.云南松(Pinus yunnanensis)林林下地表甲虫个体数量极显著高于其他4种林分(P<0.01).多样性分析表明,云南松林与柏木(Cupressus funebris)林林下地表甲虫丰富度指数显著高于麻栎(Quercus acutissima)林(P<0.05).各林分类型地表甲虫优势度指数及均匀度指数差异不显著,柏木林优势度指数、均匀度指数最高.云南松林与冷杉(Abies sp.)林、车桑子(Dodonaea viscose)灌丛林林下地表甲虫多样性指数差异极显著(P<0.01).相似性研究表明,不同林分类型地表甲虫群落相似性多为中等不相似及中等相似,仅冷杉林和车桑子灌丛林为极不相似.研究结果表明,西昌市郊各类型林分地表甲虫组成和数量分布与天然林存在一定差异,建议对人工纯林进行林分改造以增加生物多样性.

  5. Removal of Low-Molecular Weight Aldehydes by Selected Houseplants under Different Light Intensities and CO2 Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Li

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The removal of five low-molecular weight aldehydes by two houseplants (Schefflera octophylla (Lour. Harms and Chamaedorea elegans were investigated in a laboratory simulation environment with short-term exposure to different low light intensities and CO2 concentrations. Under normal circumstances, the C1–C5 aldehyde removal rates of Schefflera octophylla (Lour. Harms and Chamaedorea elegans (Lour. Harms ranged from 0.311 μmol/m2/h for valeraldehyde to 0.677 μmol/m2/h for formaldehyde, and 0.526 μmol/m2/h for propionaldehyde to 1.440 μmol/m2/h for formaldehyde, respectively. However, when the light intensities varied from 0 to 600 lx, a significant correlation between the aldehyde removal rate and the light intensity was found. Moreover, the CO2 experiments showed that the total aldehyde removal rates of Schefflera octophylla (Lour. Harms and Chamaedorea elegans (Lour. Harms decreased 32.0% and 43.2%, respectively, with increasing CO2 concentrations from 350 ppmv to 1400 ppmv. This might be explained by the fact that the excessive CO2 concentration decreased the stomatal conductance which limited the carbonyl uptake from the stomata.

  6. The application of HPLC ESI MS in the investigation of the flavonoids and flavonoid glycosides of a Caribbean Lamiaceae plant with potential for bioaccumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Sonia R; Peru, Kerry M; Fahlman, Brian; McMartin, Dena W; Headley, John V

    2015-01-01

    As part of an exchange technology program between the government of Barbados and Environment Canada, methanolic and aqueous extracts from the flavonoid-rich Lamiaceae family were characterized using negative-ion electrospray mass spectrometry. The species investigated is part of the Caribbean Pharmacopoeia, and is used for a variety of health issues, including colds, flu, diabetes, and hypertension. The extracts were investigated for structural elucidation of phenolics, identification of chemical taxonomic profile, and evidence of bio-accumulator potential. The methanolic and aqueous leaf extracts of Plectranthus amboinicus yielded rosmarinic acid, ladanein, cirsimaritin, and other methoxylated flavonoids. This genus also shows a tendency to form conjugates with monosaccharides, including glucose, galactose, and rhamnose. The aqueous extract yielded four isomeric rhamnosides. The formation of conjugates by Plectranthus amboinicus is thus evidence of high bioaccumulator significance.

  7. Variation of karyotype and nuclear DNA content among four species of Plectranthus L’ Héritier, 1788 ( Lamiaceae ) from Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Nani, Thaís Furtado; Mesquita, Amanda Teixeira; Bustamante,Fernanda de Oliveira; BARBOSA, Sandro; Barbosa, João Vítor Calvelli; Davide, Lisete Chamma

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Plectranthus is a genus which includes species of ornamental and medicinal potential. It faces taxonomic problems due to aggregating species previously belonging to the genus Coleus , a fact that has contributed to the existence of various synonymies. The species Plectranthus amboinicus , Plectranthus barbatus , Plectranthus grandis and Plectranthus neochilus are included in this context. Some authors consider Plectranthus barbatus and Plectranthus grandis as synonyms. The present wo...

  8. Maailmakuulsa Marc Chagalli litograafiad jõudsid Pärnusse / Ants Juske

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Juske, Ants, 1956-

    1999-01-01

    60. aastatel tehtud litograafiad on pärit Hannoveri Sprengeli muuseumist. Pärnu Uue Kunsti Muuseumis näitusel 'Testament' on need eksponeeritud koos Herman Talviku graafikaga, mis on pärit Rootsis elava Harald Keilandi (Ilmar Malini vend) kogust

  9. Pulse diversity for polyphenolic secondary metabolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    The pulse species including guar (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba L. Taub.), Lablab purpureus L. Sweet, Macrotyloma uniflorum (Lam.) Verdc., Teramnus labialis (L.f.) Spreng, alfalfa (Medicago sativa ssp. sativa), green beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), fava beans (Vicia faba L.), blackeye pea (Vigna unguiculat...

  10. Lantana montevidensis Essential Oil: Chemical Composition and Mosquito Repellent Activity against Aedes aegypti

    Science.gov (United States)

    The essential oil (EO) of Lantana montevidensis (Spreng.) Briq. (L. sellowiana Link & Otto) was investigated for its chemical composition and mosquito repellent activity. The essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation of aerial plant parts was analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. The major constituents we...

  11. Antileishmanial activity of piceatannol isolated from Euphorbia lagascae seeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duarte, Noelia; Kayser, Oliver; Abreu, Pedro; Ferreira, Maria-Jose U.

    2008-01-01

    In the search for biologically active compounds from Euphorbia lagascae Spreng, an herbaceous plant native to southeast of Iberic Peninsula, a stilbene, two coumarins and two 1-2-deoxyphorbol diterpene esters were isolated by chromatographic methods, from the methanol extracts of its defatted seeds.

  12. Review of traditional and non-traditional medicinal genetic resources in the USDA, ARS, PGRCU collection evaluated for flavonoid concentrations and anthocyanin indexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Non-traditional medicinal species include velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti Medik.), Desmodium species, Termanus labialis (L.f.) Spreng. and the traditional species consists of roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.). There is a need to identify plant sources of flavonoids and anthocyanins since they have s...

  13. Effects of shading on seedling growth and leaf anatomical characteristics of Aquilaria sinensis%遮阴处理对土沉香幼苗生长和叶片解剖特征的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    原慧芳; 魏丽萍; 田耀华; 岳海

    2013-01-01

    In order to understand the light requirement and adaptabihty of Aquilaria sinensis (Lour.) Spreng,seedlings morphology and leaf anatomical characteristics of Aquilaria sinensis seedlings under different light treatments (100%,50%,25% and 5% natural light) were studied.The results showed that different shade treatments had different effects on the leaf anatomical structure and seedling growth parameters of three Aquilaria sinensis provenances (Dabai,Dahuang and Yunnan).For all the three provenances,with the weakening of light intensity,the main veins,leaf thickness,palisade tissue thickness and leaf epidermal cells were generally decreased significantly (P < 0.05),the thickness of spongy tissue increased,and the lower leaf epidermis cell thickness showed varying change degrees.With the decrease of light intensity,leaf area ratio and leaf area increased in all the three provenances.For Yunnan provenance,the total biomass and absolute growth rate decreased as light intensity decreased,but for Dabai and Dahuang,growth parameter values under 50% and 25% light intensity were higher than that under 100% and 5% light intensity.The specific leaf weight and root weight ratio generally showed decrease trends with the decrease of light intensity in all the three provenances,except that the specific leaf weight of Dahuang in 50% light intensity was higher than other light treatments.In short,the seedlings of three Aquilaria sinensis provenances could make a series of changes in morphology to adapt to the light environment; Yunnan provenance had the best growth in natural light (100%),while Dabai and Dahuang were more suitable in moderate light intensity(50%).%研究不同光处理(100%,50%,25%和5%自然光)对土沉香幼苗形态和解剖特征的影响,以了解土沉香幼苗叶片形态结构对光的适应规律.结果表明,不同光强对3个土沉香种源(大白、大黄和云南)的解剖结构和生长参数有不同程度

  14. Systematic leaf anatomy of Baccaurea, Distichirhops, and Nothobaccaurea (Euphorbiaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodegom, S.; Haegens, R.M.A.P.; Heuven, van B.J.; Baas, P.

    2001-01-01

    The leaf anatomical diversity of the genera Baccaurea Lour. (43 species), Distichirhops Haegens (3 species) and Nothobaccaurea Haegens (2 species) (Euphorbiaceae) is described. Two species of Aporosa and three species of Maesobotrya were examined for comparison. The following characters are importan

  15. New species of Streblus and Ficus (Moraceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corner, E.J.H.

    1970-01-01

    New Taxa. — Streblus Lour. sect. Protostreblus, sect. nov., with the single species S. ascendens sp. nov. (Solomon Isl.); S. sclerophyllus sp. nou. (sect. Paratrophis, New Caledonia). Ficus cristobalensis var. malaitana var. nov. (subgen. Pharmacosycea, Solomon Isl.); F. hesperia sp. nov. (sect. Syc

  16. INDRA - Regards sur le coeur de l'atome

    CERN Multimedia

    GANIL (CEA-CNRS) and Culture Production; Eusébio Serrano

    1993-01-01

    Réalisé début 1993 à l'occasion de l'inauguration du détecteur INDRA au GANIL (Grand Accélérateur National d'Ions Lours), ce film propose à travers le récit de la construction de cet instrument, une introduction à la physique nucléaire.

  17. Music, Synergies and Interculturality: "MUSSI at School" Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corte-Real, Maria De Sao Jose

    2008-01-01

    MUSSI is the name of a she-cat from an imaginary story invented and told by children from two elementary schools through different performing modalities. It is also the name of a pilot project of Applied Ethnomusicology funded by a major Portuguese Company, SONAE Sierra, through the local Loures Shopping Centre, which paid for the musical…

  18. High-resolution hyaluronidase inhibition profiling combined with HPLC-HRMS-SPE-NMR for identification of anti-necrosis constituents in Chinese plants used to treat snakebite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Yueqiu; Stærk, Dan; Nielsen, Mia N.

    2015-01-01

    and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, i.e., HPLC–HRMS–SPE–NMR. This allowed identification of four non-tannin inhibitors, i.e., lansiumamide B (6) from Clausena excavata Burm.f., myricetin 3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (7) from Androsace umbellata (Lour.) Merr., and vitexin (8) and 4′,7-dihydroxy-5...

  19. A revision of Mischocarpus (Sapindaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ham, van der R.W.J.M.

    1977-01-01

    Mischocarpus Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 238, nom. cons.; Rumphia 3 (1849) 166; Radlk., Pfl. R. Heft 98 (1933) 1288—1310. — Cupania § Mischocarpus Miq., Fl. Ind. Bat. I, 2 (1859) 566. — Type: M. sundaicus Bl. Pedicellia Lour., Fl. Coch. (1790) 655, nom. rejic. (see under dubious names). — Type: P. oppositi

  20. Isolation and characterization of new ceramides from aerial parts of Lepidaploa cotoneaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Edlene O; Meira, Marilena; do Vale, Ademir E; David, Jorge M; de Queiróz, Luciano P; David, Juceni P

    2012-06-01

    Two new ceramides were isolated from the bulbs of Lepidaploa cotoneaster (Willd. ex Spreng.) H. Rob. [Vernonia cotoneaster (Willd. ex Spreng.) Less.)], in addition to germanicol, beta-sitosterol, stigmasterol, 3-beta-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-sitosterol, lupeol, lupeoyl acetate and tiliroside. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by spectral techniques (MS, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, HSQC, HMBC, DEPT, and TOCSY) and were compared with data reported in literature, and were established as 2S*,2'R*,3S*,4R*,11E)-N-[2'-hydroxyhenicosanoyl]-2-amino-nonadec-11-ene-1,3,4-triol (1) and (2S*,2'R*,3S*,4R*,8E)-N-[2'-hydroxytricosanoyl]-2-amino-nonadec-8-ene-1,3,4-triol (2). To establish the structure and to locate the double bond, the methyl ester of the fatty acid and dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) derivatives were prepared for both ceramides.

  1. Pollen morphology of Vochysiaceae tree species in the State of Santa Catarina, Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Ortrud Monika; Pinto Da Luz, Cynthia Fernandes

    2014-09-01

    Tropical Vochysiaceae includes mainly trees, and also shrubs and subshrubs. Three genera and seven species are present in the Brazilian state of Santa Catarina. The pollen morphology of six species of trees, belonging to three genera of the Vochysiaceae A. St-Hil. family, was studied. Herbaria samples were obtained, processed and treated by standard methods. The pollen grain morphology of Callisthene, Qualea and Vochysia is distinct. Medium sized pollen grains occur in Vochysia species, and small ones in Callisthene and Qualea. Specific characteristics were considered at species level [C. castellanosii H. F. Martins, C. kuhlmannii H. F. Martins, Qualea cordata Spreng var. cordata, Q. cryptantha (Spreng) Warm. var. cryptantha, Vochysia magnifica Warm. and V. tucanorum Mart.]. The presence ofa fastigium (vestibulum) and a thin space devoid of nexine fixing the boundary of the apertural area is characteristic of Qualea and Vochysia species only.

  2. The sarsaparilla market in the state of São Paulo (Brazil) and the challenges of cultivation

    OpenAIRE

    Soares,Marli K.M.; Martins,Aline R.; Ilio Montanari Junior; Figueira,Glyn M.; Zucchi, Maria I; Miklos M. Bajay; Beatriz Appezzato-da-Glória

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to present information about the sarsaparilla sold in establishments in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, assess the genetic diversity of Smilax brasiliensis Spreng., Smilacaceae, and examine the growing conditions and productivity of five species of Smilax. The amount of sarsaparilla sold per month at most pharmacies was 0.4 kg on average. Herbal stores and markets sold averages of 9 kg and 8 kg per month, respectively. The weight of the underground biomass of S. fluminen...

  3. The sarsaparilla market in the state of Sao Paulo (Brazil) and the challenges of cultivation

    OpenAIRE

    Soares, MKM; Martins, AR; MONTANARI, I.; Figueira, GM; ZUCCHI, MI; Bajay, MM; Appezzato-da-Gloria, B

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to present information about the sarsaparilla sold in establishments in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil, assess the genetic diversity of Smilax brasiliensis Spreng., Smilacaceae, and examine the growing conditions and productivity of five species of Smilax. The amount of sarsaparilla sold per month at most pharmacies was 0.4 kg on average. Herbal stores and markets sold averages of 9 kg and 8 kg per month, respectively. The weight of the underground biomass of S. fluminensis (...

  4. Cytotoxic effect of Argentine medicinal plant extracts on human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffa, M J; Ferraro, G; Wagner, M L; Calcagno, M L; Campos, R H; Cavallaro, L

    2002-03-01

    Methanolic extracts from Achyrocline satureioides (Dc.) Lam, Aristolochia macroura Gomez, Lithraea molleoides (Vell.) Engl., Schinus molle L., unlike those from Celtis spinosa Spreng, Chenopodium ambrosioides L., Petiveria alliacea L., and Plantago major L. showed cytotoxic activity against a human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line, Hep G2. Schinus molle L. was the most active (IC50=50+/-7 microg/ml). These results call for further studies of these extracts.

  5. Response of a lichen and two epiphytic vascular species as indicators of air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coria, G.; Gonzalez, C.M.; Gudino, G.L.; Wannaz, E.D. [Univ. Nacional de Cordoba, Cordoba (Argentina). Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Fisicas y Naturales; Carreras, H.A.; Pignata, M.L. [Univ. Nacional de Cordoba, Cordoba (Argentina). Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Fisicas y Naturales]|[Instituto Multidisciplinario de Biologia Vegetal (IMBIV-UNC), Cordoba (Argentina)

    2002-07-01

    Plant material from Ramalina celastri (Spreng.) Krog and Swinsc., Tillandsia capillaris Ruiz and Pav. f. capillaris and Tillandsia tricholepis Baker were transplanted to eleven monitoring sites, categorized as urban, farming and farming/cattle-raising. The concentrations of pigments, hydroperoxy conjugated dienes, malondialdehyde and sulfur were determined. Chlorophyll b / chlorophyll a, phaeophytin a / chlorophyll a ratios were also calculated, and a Pollution Index (PI) and a Foliar Damage Index (FDI) were calculated from some physiological parameters. (orig.)

  6. Sesquiterpene lactones. XXXVI. Sesquiterpene lactones in several subgenera of the genus Centaurea L.

    OpenAIRE

    Gerard Nowak; Miroslaw Holub; Miloš Buděšĺnský

    2014-01-01

    The occurrence of both known and new sesquiterpene lactones was determined in six species classified in different subgenera of Centaurea L. Chlorojanerin, cynaropicrin and janerin were isolated from C. phaeopappoides Bordz. and C. thracica (Janka) Hayek. C. marschalliana Spreng. was found to contain acroptilin, chlorojanerin, cebellin D and janerin while C. adjarica Alb. had repin, acroptilin, chlorojanerin, centaurepensin, janerin, repidiolide, cebellin D, E, F and L A new, hitherto underscr...

  7. 砂仁沉香的掺假及鉴别

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾相美

    2000-01-01

    @@砂仁、沉香为临床常用中药材,其价格较贵,至今市场上存在掺假现象,严重影响其临床疗效.笔者就近20余年的实践经验,谈谈两种药品掺假现象及鉴别. 1 砂仁 本品为姜科植物阳春砂Amomum villosumLour.、绿壳砂Amomum villosum Lour. var. xanthioides T. L. Wu et Senjen或海南砂Amomum longiligulare T. L. Wu的干燥成熟果实.

  8. Ethnobotanics used in folk medicine of Tamil culture in Sri Lanka: a scientific review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesuthasan, Anternite Shanthi; Uluwaduge, Deepthi Inoka

    2017-01-01

    Tamil culture has recognized the potential use of plant herbs for prevention and treatment of different diseases. These folk remedies have been practiced by Sri Lankan Tamils even after modernization. This review focuses on frequently used medicinal plants among Sri Lankan Tamil communities, such as Cuminum cyminum, Azadirechta indica, Coriandrum sativum, Sesamum indicum, Zingiber officinale, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Moringa oleifera, Plectranthus amboinicus, Allium sativum and Curcuma longa, for their documented medicinal properties, which include antimicrobial, antioxidant, antitumor, anti-inflammatory, antihypertensive, hypocholesterolemic, antidiabetic and diuretic effects.

  9. Genetic similarities among four species of the Plectranthus (L’Hér. genus - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v32i1.880 Genetic similarity among four species of Plectranthus genus - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v32i1.880

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Jacira Bolacel Braga

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The Plectranthus genus comprises several species generally referred to as boldo, which are highly used in popular medicine due to their anti-dyspeptic, analgesic and digestion-stimulating properties. The amount of natural active principles can vary greatly in the related genotypes, which may lead to the inappropriate use of these plants. This work aimed to analyze the interspecific diversity among four species of the Plectranthus genus (P. grandis, P. barbatus, P. neochilus and P. amboinicus and the intraspecific diversity of P. barbatus collected from different places in southern Brazil, by means of the RAPD technique. A higher genetic similarity was observed between the P. neochilus and P. amboinicus species (80%, followed by P. grandis and P. barbatus (77%. P. barbatus genotypes from Passo Fundo and Porto Alegre showed a genetic similarity which was close to 100%, while the genetic similarity for P. barbatus genotypes from other locations was higher than 96%. Although a low variability among genotypes of this species was found in this study, RAPD markers allowed a clear differentiation among the analyzed genotypes, showing a 53% mean genetic similarity, with a high correlation value (r = 0.99, which proves a high agreement between the genetic similarity and clustering data.Medicinal plants are widely used by the population, therefore they are important sources of natural chemical products. Plectranthus includes species related as “boldo” that have anti-dyspeptics, analgesic and stimulants of digestion properties. Related species or genotypes can differ widely in the amount of natural active principles, in such case the lack of genetic fitness can lead to the use of not appropriate plants to the population health. Molecular techniques can be used for DNA-fingerprinting of plants providing its correct identification. This work aimed at verifying the genetic diversity among four species of Plectranthus genus (P. grandis, P. barbatus, P

  10. Plants used in the treatment of leishmanial ulcers due to Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis in an endemic area of Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio França

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper records the plants used in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis (L(Vb among the rural population of a cocoa- producing coastal area of Bahia state, Brazil. An enquiry conducted among a hundred patients identified 49 plant species used to treat skin ulceration caused by this Leishmania species. The principal plants used are caju-branco (Anacardium occidentale - Anacardiaceae, used by 65% of the population, folha-fogo (Clidemia hirta - Melastomataceae 39%, alfavaca-grossa (Plectranthus amboinicus - Lamiaceae 33%, mastruz (Chenopodium ambrosioides - Chenopodiaceae 31%, erva-de-santa-maria (Solatium americanum - Solanaceae (25% and transagem (Plantago major - Plantaginaceae. 2%.

  11. Plants used in the treatment of leishmanial ulcers due to Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis in an endemic area of Bahia, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    França, F; Lago, E L; Marsden, P D

    1996-01-01

    This paper records the plants used in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis (L(V)b) among the rural population of a cocoa-producing coastal area of Bahia state, Brazil. An enquiry conducted among a hundred patients identified 49 plants species used to treat skin ulceration caused by this Leishmania species. The principal plants used are caju-branco (Anacardium occidentale, Anacardiaceae), used by 65% of the population, folha-fogo (Clidemia hirta,Melastomataceae) 39%, alfavaca-grossa (Plectranthus amboinicus, Lamiaceae) 33%, mastruz (Chenopodium ambrosioides, Chenopodiaceae) 31%, erva-de-santa-maria (Solanum americanum, Solanaceae) (25%) and transagem (Plantago major, Plantaginaceae) 2%.

  12. The genus Plectranthus in India and its chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldia, Shobha; Joshi, Bipin C; Pathak, Uma; Joshi, Mukesh C

    2011-02-01

    Phytochemical constituents isolated from Indian species of the genus Plectranthus reported up to 2009 are compiled. In India, the genus Plectranthus is found in all the habitats and altitudes, particularly in the Himalaya, the Southern Ghats, and the Nilgiri region. P. amboinicus, P. barbatus, P. caninus, P. mollis, P. coetsa, and P. incanus are the most common species found in India. Phytochemical studies of the genus revealed that Indian Plectranthus species are rich in essential oil, and that the most abundant secondary metabolites are diterpenoids, i.e., labdanes, abietanes, and ent-kauranes, as well as triterpenoids.

  13. ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY ESSENTIALS OILS PONTIANAK ORANGE PEELS AGAINST Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli

    OpenAIRE

    Sari, Rafika; Mustari, F. Nour Aulia; Wahdaningsih, Sri

    2015-01-01

    The infectious diseases can be caused by the pathogenic bacteria among Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. One of the plants that can be used as antibacterial is essential oils from Pontianak orange peels (Citrus nobilis Lour. var. microcarpa). This research aims to determine the antibacterial activity essential oils Pontianak orange peels againts the pathogenic bacteria by disc diffusion method. This research carried out by using the experimental Completely Randomized Design (CRD) Fa...

  14. A New Furost-20(22)-ene Oligoglycoside from Asparagus cochinchinensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    A new furost-20(22)-ene oligoglycoside named as aspacochioside C was isolated from the roots of Asparagus cochinchinensis (Lour.) Merr.. Its structure was elucidated to be 26-O-β- D-glucopyranosyl-(25S)-5β-furost-20(22)-en-3α,26-diol-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-D- glucopyranoside on the basis of spectroscopic techniques including 1D and 2D NMR experiments.

  15. 米仔兰枝条中杀虫活性成分研究%Insecticidal active constituents from twig of Aglaia odorata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨四海; 曾水云; 郑烈生

    2004-01-01

    Object To study the insecticidal activity constituents from the twigs of traditional Chinese folk medicine "Mizilan" or "Shu-Lan" (Aglaia odorata Lour. ). Methods Seperation and purification under bioassay-directed were performed on silica gel CC, Sephadex LH-20 CC and preparative TLC. Their structures were established on the basis of physicochemical and spectral analysis. Results Seven compounds were isolated and identified as rocaglamide ( Ⅰ ), desmethyl rocaglamide ( Ⅱ ), 8-methoxymarikarin (Ⅲ), 7-hydroxy-6-methoxy-coumarin (Ⅳ), 3′-hydroxy-methylrocaglate (Ⅴ), 3′-hydroxyrocaglamide (Ⅵ), marikarin (Ⅶ), respectively. Conclusion Compound Ⅳ is isolated from the plant of Aglaia Lour. for the first time and compounds Ⅲ and Ⅶ are isolated from A. odorata for the first time.%目的研究中国传统民族植物药米仔兰(又称树兰)Aglaia odorata Lour.枝条中杀虫活性成分.方法以生物测定为指导,采用硅胶柱、Sephadex LH-20柱以及制备薄层分离板对其成分进行分离和纯化,并通过物化性质和光谱分析对其结构鉴定.结果从中分离得到7个化合物,分别鉴定为rocaglamide(Ⅰ)、desmethyl rocaglamide(Ⅱ)、8-methoxymarikarin(Ⅲ)、7-羟基-6-甲氧基-香豆素(Ⅳ)、3′-hydroxy-methylrocaglate(Ⅴ)、3′-hydroxyrocaglamide(Ⅵ)、marikarin(Ⅶ).结论化合物Ⅳ为首次从Aglaia Lour.属植物中分离得到,化合物Ⅲ和Ⅶ为首次从米仔兰植物中分离得到.

  16. 秦岭种子植物区系新记录%Some Newly Recorded Spermatophytes to Qinling Mountain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎斌; 李思锋; 袁永明; 张莹

    2013-01-01

    报道了秦岭种子植物区系4新记录属[杜若属(Pollia Thunb.)、美冠兰属(Eulophia R.Br.ex Lindl.)、常山属(Dichroa Lour.)和吊灯花属(Ceropegia Linn.)],8新记录种[川杜若Pollia miranda (Lévl.)Hara、长距美冠兰Eulophia dabia (D.Don) Hochr.、常山Dichroa febri fuga Lour.、肉色土(栾)儿 Apios carnea (Wall.)Benth.ex Baker、柳叶蓬莱葛Gardneria lanceolata Rehd.et Wils.、显脉獐牙菜Swertia nervosa (G.Don) Wall.ex C,B.Clarke、皱果赤瓟Thladiantha henryi Hemsl.var.henryi和宝兴吊灯花Ceropegia paohsingensis Tsiang et P.T.Li].%Four genera and eight species are reported as new records of spermatophyte flora to Qinling Mountain.4 newly recorded genera are Pollia Thunb.,Eulophia R.Br.ex Lindl.,Dichroa Lour.and Ceropegia Linn..8 newly recorded species are Pollia miranda (Lévl.) Hara (Commelinaceae),Eulophia dabia (D.Don) Hochr.(Orchidaceae),Dichroa febrifuga Lour.(Saxifragaceae),Apios carnea (Wall.)Benth.ex Baker (Leguminosae),Gardneria lanceolata Rehd.et Wils.(Loganiaceae),Swertia nervosa (G.Don) Wall.ex C.B.Clarke (Gentianaceae),Thladiantha henryi Hemsl.var.henryi (Cucurbitaceae) and Ceropegia paohsingensis Tsiang et P.T.Li (Asclepiadaceae).

  17. Plants used in the treatment of leishmanial ulcers due to Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis in an endemic area of Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio França

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper records the plants used in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis (L(Vb among the rural population of a cocoa- producing coastal area of Bahia state, Brazil. An enquiry conducted among a hundred patients identified 49 plant species used to treat skin ulceration caused by this Leishmania species. The principal plants used are caju-branco (Anacardium occidentale - Anacardiaceae, used by 65% of the population, folha-fogo (Clidemia hirta - Melastomataceae 39%, alfavaca-grossa (Plectranthus amboinicus - Lamiaceae 33%, mastruz (Chenopodium ambrosioides - Chenopodiaceae 31%, erva-de-santa-maria (Solatium americanum - Solanaceae (25% and transagem (Plantago major - Plantaginaceae. 2%.Este trabalho relata as plantas usadas no tratamento da leishmaniose cutânea, causada por Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis (L(Vb, na população rural da faixa litorânea produtora de cacau do estado da Bahia, Brasil. Um inquérito realizado entre 100 pacientes, identificou 49 espécies de plantas usadas para tratar úlceras de pele causadas por esta espécie de Leishmânia. As principais plantas usadas foram o cajueiro-branco (Anacardium occidentale - Anacardiaceae usado por 65% da população, a folha-fogo (Clidemia hirta - Melastomataceae 39%, a alfavaca-grossa (Plectranthus amboinicus - Lamiaceae 33%, o mastruz (Chenopodium ambrosioides - henopodiaceae 31%, a erva-de-santa-maria (Solanum americanum - Solanaceae 25% e a transagem (Plantago major - Plantaginaceae 2%.

  18. Apoptosis Effect of Girinimbine Isolated from Murraya koenigii on Lung Cancer Cells In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syam Mohan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Murraya koenigii Spreng has been traditionally claimed as a remedy for cancer. The current study investigated the anticancer effects of girinimbine, a carbazole alkaloid isolated from Murraya koenigii Spreng, on A549 lung cancer cells in relation to apoptotic mechanistic pathway. Girinimbine was isolated from Murraya koenigii Spreng. The antiproliferative activity was assayed using MTT and the apoptosis detection was done by annexin V and lysosomal stability assays. Multiparameter cytotoxicity assays were performed to investigate the change in mitochondrial membrane potential and cytochrome c translocation. ROS, caspase, and human apoptosis proteome profiler assays were done to investigate the apoptotic mechanism of cell death. The MTT assay revealed that the girinimbine induces cell death with an IC50 of 19.01 μM. A significant induction of early phase of apoptosis was shown by annexin V and lysosomal stability assays. After 24 h treatment with 19.01 μM of girinimbine, decrease in the nuclear area and increase in mitochondrial membrane potential and plasma membrane permeability were readily visible. Moreover the translocation of cytochrome c also was observed. Girinimbine mediates its antiproliferative and apoptotic effects through up- and downregulation of apoptotic and antiapoptotic proteins. There was a significant involvement of both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways. Moreover, the upregulation of p53 as well as the cell proliferation repressor proteins, p27 and p21, and the significant role of insulin/IGF-1 signaling were also identified. Moreover the caspases 3 and 8 were found to be significantly activated. Our results taken together indicated that girinimbine may be a potential agent for anticancer drug development.

  19. Immatures of Acanthocinini (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Lamiinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia A. Casari

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Immatures of Acanthocinini (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Lamiinae. Larva and pupa of Eutrypanus dorsalis (Germar, 1928, collected in trunks of Pinus elliottii Engelm., and Paratenthras martinsi Monné, 1998, collected in spathes of Scheelea phalerata (Mart. ex Spreng. Burret, are described and illustrated. Larva and pupa of Lophopoeum timbouvae Lameere, 1884, collected in Hymenaea corbaril L., Enterolobium contortisiliquum (Vell. Morong and Pterogyne nitens Tul., are redescribed and illustrated. A table with all described immatures of Lamiinae, and a comparison among the immatures of Acanthocinini are presented. Biological notes and new records are also included.

  20. Building with mega joules; Bauen mit Megajoules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knuesel, P.

    2009-07-01

    This article takes a look at how today's recommendations for insulation thickness are practically identical to those proposed 30 years ago on the basis of optimal energy balances. Contributions made on the subject of grey energy in buildings by Daniel Spreng, Ueli Kasser and Niklaus Kohler are noted and discussed. Examples of energy balance work carried out on several buildings are quoted and the energy-balance characteristics of various materials are discussed. Grey energy is noted as being an important indicator in environmental issues connected with building activities.

  1. Screening of Brazilian fruit aromas using solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augusto, F; Valente, A L; dos Santos Tada, E; Rivellino, S R

    2000-03-17

    Manual headspace solid-phase microextraction (SPME) coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used for the qualitative analysis of the aromas of four native Brazilian fruits: cupuassu (Theobroma grandiflorum, Spreng.), cajá (Spondias lutea. L.), siriguela (Spondias purpurea, L.) and graviola (Anona reticulata, L). Industrialized pulps of these fruits were used as samples, and extractions with SPME fibers coated with polydimethylsiloxane, polyacrylate, Carbowax and Carboxen were carried out. The analytes identified included several alcohols, esters, carbonyl compounds and terpernoids. The highest amounts extracted, evaluated from the sum of peak areas, were achieved using the Carboxen fiber.

  2. Review on studies of Eupatorium adenophorum--an important invasive species in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUNXiao-yu; LUZhao-hua; SANGWei-guo

    2004-01-01

    Eupatorium adenophorum Spreng. was introduced in Yunnan Province of China around 1940. Since then it has been spreading rapidly, particularly in the southern and southwestern parts of China and caused serious economic loss. The biological research and integrated control on E. adenophorum were carried out from 1980's in Yunnan Province. Together with other 15 invasive external species, the weed has been listed in the White Paper by The State Environmental Protection Administration of China. This paper briefly reviews thestudies on natural distribution, biological character, ecological character, chemical component, hazard, potential application and the control of E. adenophorum. The research direction for this invasive external species in future was also discussed.

  3. Disturbance is required for CO2-dependent promotion of woody plant growth in grasslands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loveys, Beth R.; Egerton, John J. G.; Bruhn, Dan;

    2010-01-01

    The relative effects of disturbance (here defined as bare soil), competition for edaphic resources, thermal interference and elevated [CO2] on growth of tree seedlings in grasslands were studied under field conditions. Snow gum (Eucalyptus pauciflora Sieb. ex Spreng.) seedlings were grown in open...... due to competition with grass for soil resources or to alteration of the thermal environment caused by a grassy surface (Ball et al. 2002). After the first major autumn frost, seedlings growing in competition with grass lost 59% of their canopy area, whereas those growing in bare soil or straw...

  4. Morfologia polínica de espécies do gênero Merremia Dennst. (Convolvulaceae) ocorrentes no Estado da Bahia, Brasil Morphology pollen of species genus Merremia Dennst. (Convolvulaceae) ocurring in Bahia State, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly Regina Batista Leite; Rosângela Simão-Bianchini; Francisco de Assis Ribeiro dos Santos

    2005-01-01

    O gênero Merremia (Convolvulaceae) teve as espécies nativas na Bahia inventariadas e estudadas sob o ponto de vista palinológico. Foram registrados nove táxons do gênero: M. aegyptia (L.) Urb., M. cissoides (Lam.) Hallier f., M. digitata (Spreng.) Hall. f. var. digitata, M. digitata var. ericoides (Meissn.) Austin & Staples, M. dissecta (Jacq.) Hall. f. var. edentata (Meisn.) O'Donell, M. flagellaris (Choisy) O'Donell, M. macrocalyx (Ruiz et Pav.) O'Donell, M. tomentosa (Choisy) Hall. f. e M....

  5. Morfologia polínica de espécies do gênero Merremia Dennst. (Convolvulaceae) ocorrentes no Estado da Bahia, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Leite, Kelly Regina Batista; Simão-Bianchini,Rosângela; Santos,Francisco de Assis Ribeiro dos

    2005-01-01

    O gênero Merremia (Convolvulaceae) teve as espécies nativas na Bahia inventariadas e estudadas sob o ponto de vista palinológico. Foram registrados nove táxons do gênero: M. aegyptia (L.) Urb., M. cissoides (Lam.) Hallier f., M. digitata (Spreng.) Hall. f. var. digitata, M. digitata var. ericoides (Meissn.) Austin & Staples, M. dissecta (Jacq.) Hall. f. var. edentata (Meisn.) O'Donell, M. flagellaris (Choisy) O'Donell, M. macrocalyx (Ruiz et Pav.) O'Donell, M. tomentosa (Choisy) Hall. f. ...

  6. Mucorales (Zygomycotina) da Mata Atlântica da Reserva Biológica do Alto da Serra de Paranapiacaba, Santo André, SP Mucorales (Zygomycotina) of the Atlantic Rainforest in the "Reserva Biológica do Alto da Serra de Paranapiacaba", Santo André, SP, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    1997-01-01

    Treze táxons de Mucorales (Zygomycotina), distribuídos num total de 266 registros, foram isolados de folhas de Alchornea triplinervia (Spreng.) Müll. Arg. colocadas em ambientes terrestre e aquático, e de amostras de solo e de água de riacho, coletadas mensalmente, de julho de 1988 a maio de 1990 na Reserva Biológica do Alto da Serra de Paranapiacaba, no município de Santo André, SP. As espécies que apresentaram os maiores números de registro de ocorrência foram Mucor hiemalis Wehmer (78 regi...

  7. Dianthibiological aspects of one fungi rhizoctoniaand its in vitrointeraction withfusarium oxysporum f. sp.dianthi

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Se estudiaron diferentes aspectos de la biología de un hongo aislado de Theobromagrandiflorum(Spreng) K. Schum, tales como su comportamiento como antagonista encondiciones in vitrocon Fusarium oxysporum Schlencht f. sp. dianthi(Prill y Del) Snyder yHansen. Se encontró que el hongo cultivado en PDA, condiciones de microcultivo y luznatural a 20ºC crece lentamente y produce abundantes filamentos monilioides; a 27ºCy 30ºC, crece rápidamente. En condiciones de oscuridad a 20ºC, los resultados son...

  8. Sinopse das espécies de Croton L. (Euphorbiaceae no estado de Pernambuco, Brasil Synopsis of the species of Croton L. (Euphorbiaceae in Pernambuco state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Santos Silva

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo foi baseado na análise de materiais de herbário, referências bibliográficas e coletas, revelando a ocorrência de 35 espécies do gênero Croton para o estado de Pernambuco. A maior parte destas espécies tem distribuição exclusiva na zona fitogeográfica das Caatingas; Croton fuscescens Spreng., C. grewioides Baill. e C. blanchetianus Baill. estendem-se da zona da Mata até a zona das Caatingas; C. polyandrus Spreng. e C. sellowii Baill. ocorrem principalmente na faixa litorânea, em vegetação de restinga; C. argenteus L., C. jacobinensis Baill. e C. triqueter Lam. foram observados apenas na zona da Mata, e C. glandulosus L., C. heliotropiifolius Kunth, C. hirtus L' Her. e C. lundianus (Didr. Müll. Arg. apresentam ampla distribuição no Estado. São apresentadas chave de identificação, comentários sobre distribuição geográfica e habitats, juntamente com ilustrações de características diagnósticas das espécies.This study was based on the analysis of herbarium material, specialized bibliography and field collections, recording the occurrence of 35 species of the genus Croton for the state of Pernambuco. Most of these species are distributed exclusively in the Caatinga phytogeographic region; Croton fuscescens Spreng., C. grewioides Baill. and C. blanchetianus Baill. are found from the forest zone to the caatinga zone; C. polyandrus Spreng. and C. sellowii Baill. occur mainly along the coast, in restinga vegetation; C. argenteus L., C. jacobinensis Baill. and C. triqueter Lam. were observed only in the forest zone, and C. glandulosus L., C. heliotropiifolius Kunth, C. hirtus L' Her. and C. lundianus (Didr. Müll. Arg. are widely distributed. Identification keys, comments on geographic distribution and habitats and illustrations of diagnostic characteristics of the species are provided.

  9. Sesquiterpene lactones. XXXVI. Sesquiterpene lactones in several subgenera of the genus Centaurea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard Nowak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of both known and new sesquiterpene lactones was determined in six species classified in different subgenera of Centaurea L. Chlorojanerin, cynaropicrin and janerin were isolated from C. phaeopappoides Bordz. and C. thracica (Janka Hayek. C. marschalliana Spreng. was found to contain acroptilin, chlorojanerin, cebellin D and janerin while C. adjarica Alb. had repin, acroptilin, chlorojanerin, centaurepensin, janerin, repidiolide, cebellin D, E, F and L A new, hitherto underscribed cebellin J quaianolide was found in C. bella Trautv. and another germacranolide, 3α, 15-dihydroxycostunolide was found in C. sphaerocephala subsp. lusitanica (Boiss. et Reuter Nyman.

  10. 黄河三角洲芦苇湿地植物群落的数量分类与环境梯度关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹爱兰; 冯光海; 李艳

    2011-01-01

    运用双向指示种TWINSPAN分析方法将黄河三角洲芦苇(Phragmites communis)湿地植物群落划分为4个群落类型,分别是柽柳-翅碱蓬-青蒿-补血草-碱蓬群落(Tamarix chinensis Lour-Suaeda heteroptera-Hera Artemisiae Annuae-Limoninum bicolor Bunge--Suaeda glauca Bunge community)、柽柳-翅碱蓬-芦苇群落(Tamarix chinensis Lour -Suaeda heteroptera-Phragmites communis(L.)Trin community)、芦苇-罗布麻-苣荬菜-翅碱蓬-柽柳群落(Phragmites communis(L.)Trin-Apocyman venetum-Sonchus brachyotus-Suaeda heteroptera-Tamarix chinensis Lour com munity)和芦苇-香蒲-狐尾藻群落(Phragmites communis(L.)Trin-Lepiironia rticulate(Retz)Domin-Myriophyllun spicatum community).通过分析了解了影响芦苇湿地植被分布的关键因子,确定了黄河三角洲芦苇湿地的主要环境梯度是水位和土壤盐分、Na+、K+、Cl.根据各环境因子之间的相关性,确定黄河三角洲湿地土壤盐分的主要构成形式是NaClKCl,并指出引水提高水深可以显著降低土壤盐分.

  11. Transonic and Supersonic Phenomena in Turbomachines: Proceedings of the Propulsion and Energetics (68th)(B) Specialists’ Meeting Held in Munich, Germany on 10-12 September 1986

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-01

    roauire I. concept fordamontal de lime do ciparation kS) comae 6tan. 4 ~une ligne de frottement pabsant par un tol. Uoe telle ligne. qu aju or1...0812), peaseant- par Is c..l C16. qui "part Is& lignom do frottement co’nroulant autour du foyer FIG do celsso poorouteaiu, lour chtiain vera 1’evoi...an proposed by RMonX2 end verified by many others (e.g. Sohubauer and globanoff 51). These spots, which raise the heat transfer coefficient

  12. 防治变态反应的功能食品

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    该功能食品的组成为:枸桔Poncirus trifoliata(L.)Rafin.30%-80%(质量分数,下同)、三白草Saururus chinensis(Lour.)Baill.5%-20%、五味子Schisandra chinensis(Turcz.)Baill.5%-25%、车前Plantago asiatica L.提取物5%-30%。收集、清洗和干燥的上述草药,分别置于50-60倍水中,

  13. Two New Furostanol Glycosides from Asparagus cochinchinensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Two new furostanol oligoglycosides named as aspacochioside A (1) and B (2) were isolated from the roots of Asparagus cochinchinensis (Lour.) Merr.. Their structures were elucidated to be 3-O-[{α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4)}{β-D-glucopyranosyl}]-26-O-[β-D-glucopy- ranosyl]-(25S)-5β-furostane-3β,22α,26-triol 1 and 3-O-[{α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4)}{(-D-glu- copyranosyl}]-26-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl]-22α-methoxy-(25S)-5β-furostane-3β,26-diol 2 on the basis of spectroscopic techniques and chemical methods.

  14. COMPARATIVE MORPHOMETRIC AND ANATOMICAL ASPECTS OF THREE CITRUS L. SPECIES (RUTACEAE FRUITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica BERCU

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to present the morphometric and anatomical features of three species of Citrus L. fruits: Citrus reticulata Blanco, Citrus× sinensis Osbeck and Citrus maragarita Lour. Morphometrically were determined the length, width, area and volume for 10 fruits of each species. Anatomically, were analyzed the exocarp and mesocarp tissues, including the secretory cavities and endocarp components, respectively the number of carpels (segments and the length of the juice vesicles. The studied species fruits disclose both similarities and differences concerning their morphometric and anatomical features.

  15. Cochinchin from Dracaena cochinchinensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE,Lan(何兰); WANG,Zhu-Hong(王竹红); LIU,Xue-Hui(刘雪辉); FANG,De-Cai(方德彩); Li,Hua-Min(李华民)

    2004-01-01

    A new compound, Cochinchin (1), together with 7,4'-dihydroxyflavone (2), 7-hydroxy-4'-methoxyflavane (3),7-hydroxy-3-(4-hydroxybenzyl)chroman (4), 4'-hydroxy-2,4-dimethoxydihydrochalcone (5) and 4'-hydroxy-2,4,6-trimethoxydihydrochalcone (6) was isolated from the resin (trivial name, "dragon's blood") of Dracaena cochinchinensis (Lour.) S. C. Chen. The structure of 1 was elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data as (2,3-trans)-6-ally1-2-(3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2,3-dihydrobenzo[1,4]dioxin which is a natural product possessing a new framework.

  16. Composição do óleo essencial de quatro espécies do gênero Plectranthus Essential oil composition of four Plectranthus species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M Bandeira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O gênero Plectranthus é considerado um dos mais ricos em óleos essenciais dentro da família Lamiaceae, compreendendo muitas espécies com propriedades medicinais. Algumas destas são conhecidas popularmente como boldo, as quais possuem semelhanças taxonômicas e diversas sinonímias, possuindo ações anti-dispépticas, analgésicas e digestivas. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar quantitativa e qualitativamente os óleos essenciais presentes nas folhas das espécies P. amboinicus, P. barbatus, P. grandis e P. neochilus. A extração do óleo foi realizada por hidrodestilação, utilizando pentano como solvente extrator, repetida por três vezes para cada uma das espécies. A análise dos componentes dos óleos essenciais das quatro espécies de Plectranthus, através da CG/EM, permitiu identificar 14 componentes químicos, sendo a maioria sesquiterpenos. O trans-cariofileno se apresentou em elevada concentração nos óleos estudados. Alguns componentes químicos demonstraram ser específicos para cada espécie e outros apresentaram ocorrência comum a todas as quatro, possibilitando a diferenciação das mesmas em dois grupos, um formado por P. amboinicus e P. neochilus e o outro por P. grandis e P. barbatus. Conclui-se que as quatro espécies de boldo apresentam diferenças significativas quanto ao teor e à constituição química do óleo essencialPlectranthus has been considered one of the richest genera in essential oils within the Lamiaceae family, which includes several species with medicinal properties. Some of them are commonly known as boldo and present taxonomic similarities and several synonymies, with antidyspeptic, analgesic and digestive actions. The aim of this study was to evaluate quantitatively and qualitatively the essential oils from P. amboinicus, P. barbatus, P. grandis and P. neochilus leaves. The oil was extracted by hydrodistillation using pentane as extracting solvent and was repeated three times for each

  17. Atividade antimicrobiana in vitro de produtos vegetais em otite externa aguda In vitro antimicrobial activity of plants in Acute Otitis Externa

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    Janaina Cândida Rodrigues Nogueira

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Otite externa aguda é a inflamação do conduto auditivo externo, e plantas medicinais podem ser utilizadas, na cultura popular, para seu tratamento. OBJETIVO: Avaliar atividade antimicrobiana in vitro de Aleolanthus suaveolens, Caryophyllus aromaticus, Cymbopogon citratus, Matricaria chamomila, Pithecellobium avaremotemo, Plectranthus amboinicus e Ruta graveolens sobre agentes etiológicos de otite externa. CASUÍSTICA E MÉTODOS: A concentração inibitória mínima de extratos e óleos destas plantas foi obtida em amostras de otite externa. RESULTADOS: Staphylococcus aureus em 10 culturas, Pseudomonas aeruginosa em 8, Pseudomonas aeruginosa e Staphylococcus aureus, em associação, em 5 culturas e Candida albicans e Candida krusei em 4 culturas. P. aeruginosa foi resistente a todos os extratos e óleos essenciais testados; os extratos de A. suaveolens, P. avaremotemo e de R. graveolens foram inativos, o óleo essencial de C. aromaticus e M. chamomila foram ativos contra 3 cepas de S. aureus e as cepas de Candida; Sete das cepas de S. aureus foram sensíveis ao extrato de P. amboinicus, mas o óleo não mostrou atividade, 4 cepas de S.aureus e as cepas de Candida foram sensíveis ao óleo essencial de R. graveolens. CONCLUSÃO: Algumas plantas apresentaram resultados satisfatórios, dependendo do agente etiológico, porém se faz necessário estudos mais detalhados, para melhorar o aproveitamento destas plantas.Acute Otitis Externa is an inflammation of the outer auditory meatus, and according to popular saying, medicinal plant extracts can be used in its treatment. AIM: to assess the in vitro antimicrobial activity of the following plants: Aleolanthus suaveolens; Caryophyllus aromaticus; Cymbopogon citratus; Matricaria chamomila; Pithecellobium avaremotemo; Plectranthus amboinicus and Ruta graveolens on the germs that cause otitis externa. MATERIALS AND METHODS: the minimum inhibitory concentration of extracts and oils from these plants was

  18. Genetic similarities among four species of the Plectranthus (L’Hér. genus = Similaridade genética de quatro espécies do gênero Plectranthus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana de Magalhães Bandeira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Plectranthus genus comprises several species generally referred to as boldo, which are highly used in popular medicine due to their anti-dyspeptic, analgesic and digestion-stimulating properties. The amount of natural active principles can vary greatly in the related genotypes, which may lead to the inappropriate use of these plants. This work aimed to analyze the interspecific diversity among four species of the Plectranthus genus (P. grandis, P. barbatus, P. neochilus and P. amboinicus and the intraspecific diversity of P. barbatus collected from different places in southern Brazil, by means of the RAPD technique. A higher genetic similarity was observed between the P. neochilus and P. amboinicus species (80%, followed by P. grandis and P. barbatus (77%. P. barbatus genotypes from Passo Fundo and Porto Alegre showed a genetic similarity which was close to 100%, while the genetic similarity for P. barbatus genotypes from other locations was higher than 96%. Although a low variability among genotypes of this species was found in this study, RAPD markers allowed a clear differentiation among the analyzed genotypes, showing a 53% mean genetic similarity, with a high correlation value (r = 0.99, which proves a high agreement between the genetic similarity and clustering data.O gênero Plectranthus abrange plantas de diversas espécies, referidas como boldo, que são utilizadas na medicina popular pelas suas propriedades antidispépticas, analgésicas e estimulantes da digestão. Genótipos relacionados podem diferir amplamente na quantidade de princípios ativos naturais, resultando no uso de plantas não-apropriadas à saúde da população. O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a diversidade genética interespecífica de quatro espécies do gênero Plectranthus (P. grandis, P. barbatus, P. neochilus e P. amboinicus e intraespecífica de P. barbatus, coletadas em diferentes localidades da região Sul do Brasil, por meio da técnica de RAPD

  19. Protective effect of carvacrol on acute lung injury induced by lipopolysaccharide in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiaosheng; Jia, Aiqing

    2014-08-01

    Carvacrol, the major component of Plectranthus amboinicus, has been known to exhibit anti-inflammatory activities. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of carvacrol on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced endotoxemia and acute lung injury (ALI) in mice. Mice were injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with LPS and the mortality of mice for 7 days were observed twice a day. Meanwhile, the protective effect of carvacrol (20, 40 or 80 mg/kg) on LPS-induced endotoxemia were detected. Using an experimental model of LPS-induced ALI, we examined the effect of carvacrol in resolving lung injury. The results showed that carvacrol could improve survival during lethal endotoxemia and attenuate LPS-induced ALI in mice. The anti-inflammatory mechanisms of carvacrol may be due to its ability to inhibit NF-κB and MAPKs signaling pathways, thereby inhibiting inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β production.

  20. A tribo Hippomaneae A. Juss. ex Spach. (Euphorbiaceae Juss. no Estado de Pernambuco, Brasil The tribe Hippomaneae A. Juss. ex Spach. (Euphorbiaceae Juss. in Pernambuco State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdira de Jesus Santos

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O estudo foi baseado na análise morfológica de espécimes de herbários nacionais e provenientes de coletas. A tribo está representada no Estado por oito gêneros: Actinostemon Sw. (3 spp., Mabea Aubl. (1sp., Maprounea Aubl. (1sp., Microstachys A. Juss.(2 spp., Sapium P.Browne (2 spp., Sebastiania Spreng. (1sp., Senefeldera Mart. (1sp. e Stillingia Garden ex L. (1sp.. Os gêneros com maior distribuição no Estado são Maprounea, Sapium e Sebastiania, ocorrendo em todas as zonas fitogeográficas. Actinostemon, Mabea e Senefeldera sao restritos a floresta atlantica. São apresentadas chaves para identificação dos gêneros e espécies, descrições, comentários e ilustrações.The study was based on morphological analysis of specimens from various national herbaria as well as collected material. The tribe is represented in the study area by eight genera: Actinostemon Sw. (3 spp., Mabea Aubl. (1sp., Maprounea Aubl. (1sp., Microstachys A. Juss.(2, Sapium P. Browne (2 spp., Sebastiania Spreng. (1 spp., Senefeldera Mart. (1sp. and Stillingia Garden ex L. (1sp.. Widely distributed genera are Sapium and Sebastiania occurring in all phytogeographical zones. Actinostemon, Senefeldera and Mabea are restricted to the Atlantic rainforest. Identification keys to genera and species, descriptions, illustrations and taxonomic comments are presented.

  1. MORPHOLOGY OF EMBRYOS AND SEEDLINGS OF WOODY SPECIES NORTHEASTERN ARGENTINA MORFOLOGÍA DE EMBRIONES Y PLÁNTULAS DE ESPECIES LEÑOSAS DEL NORDESTE ARGENTINO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María C Franceschini

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available

    In this paper embryos and seedlings of six native woody species of Northeast of Argentina are studied: Chrysophyllum marginatum (Hook. et Arn. Radlk. subsp. marginatum (Sapotaceae,
    Eugenia uniflora L., Hexachlamys edulis (O. Berg Kausel et D. Legrand (Myrtaceae, Polygala albicans (A.W. Benn. Grondona (Polygalaceae, Sapium haematospermun Müll. Arg. and Sebastiania brasiliensis Spreng. (Euphorbiaceae. Descriptions and illustrations of seeds, embryos, germination and seedlings are given
    En este documento se estudian embriones y plántulas de seis especies leñosas nativas del nordeste de Argentina: Chrysophyllum marginatum (Hook. et Arn. Radlk. subsp. marginatum (Sapotaceae, Eugenia uniflora L., edulis Hexachlamys (O. Berg Kausel et D. Legrand (Myrtaceae, Polygala albicans (AW Benn. Grondona (Polygalaceae, Sapium haematospermun Müll. Arg. y Sebastiania brasiliensis Spreng. (Euphorbiaceae. Comprende las descripciones e ilustraciones de las semillas, embriones, germinación y plántulas

  2. Volatile Constituents of Three Invasive Weeds of Himalayan Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra C. Padalia

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The volatile constituents of three most common aromatic exotic weeds viz. Lantana camara L., Eupatorium adenophorum Spreng and Ageratum conyzoides L. of the Uttarakhand, India were analyzed by GC and GC-MS. The essential oil of Lantana camara L. was dominated by sesquiterpenoids (70.8% represented by sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (68.7% with germacrene D (27.9%, germacrene B (16.3%, b-caryophyllene (9.6%, b-selinene (6.2%, α-humulene (5.8% as major constituents. Other constituents in significant amount were sabinene (5.6% and 1,8-cineole (4.8%. Amorphenes viz. amorph-4-en-7-ol (9.6%, 3-acetoxyamorpha-4,7(11-dien-8-one (7.8% and amorph-4,7(11-dien-8-one (5.7% were identified as the marker constituents of Eupatorium adenophorum Spreng along with p-cymene (16.6%, bornyl acetate (15.6% and camphene (8.9%. On the contrary, the essential oil of Ageratum conyzoides L. was characterized by the presence of high percentages of ageratochromene (precocene II, 42.5%, β-caryophyllene (20.7%, demethoxyageratochromene (precocene I, 16.7%, a-humulene (6.6% and p-cymene (3.3%.

  3. Nectandra Rol. ex Rottb. (Lauraceae no Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil Nectandra Rol. ex Rottb. (Lauraceae in Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Macedo Alves

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho apresenta o estudo taxonômico das espécies do gênero Nectandra no Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil. Baseados na análise morfológica dos espécimes coletados em diferentes regiões do Estado são confirmados oito espécies de Nectandra: N. amazonum Nees, N. cissiflora Nees, N. cuspidata Nees, N. falcifolia (Nees J.A. Castigl. ex Mart. Crov. & Piccinini, N. gardneri Meisn., N. hihua (Ruiz & Pav. Rohwer, N. megapotamica (Spreng. Mez e N. psammophila Nees. É fornecida uma chave de identificação para as espécies e apresentados descrições morfológicas, dados de distribuição geográfica, habitat, aspectos fenológicos, comentários taxonômicos e ilustrações para cada espécie.This paper presents the taxonomic study of the species of Nectandra from Mato Grosso do Sul. Eight species of Nectandra were identified through the morphological analyses of specimens collected in different regions from the State: N. amazonum Nees, N. cissiflora Nees, N. cuspidata Nees, N. falcifolia (Nees J.A. Castigl. ex Mart. Crov. & Piccinini, N. gardneri Meisn., N. hihua (Ruiz & Pav. Rohwer, N. megapotamica (Spreng. Mez and N. psammophila Nees. Identification key, morphological descriptions, geographic distribution, habitat, fenologic aspect, taxonomic comments, and illustrations are presented.

  4. Epiderme e padrão de venação foliar de espécies de Lauraceae Epiderm and leaf venation pattern of Lauraceae species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Luís Rodrigues de Moraes

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available São descritas as características da epiderme e do padrão de venação foliar de eófilos e nomófilos de Cryptocarya moschata Nees, Endlicheria paniculata (Spreng. MacBride e Ocotea catharinensis Mez. Tanto C. moschata, como O. catharinensis, mostraram variação considerável no grau de sinuosidade das paredes celulares anticlinais e na venação foliar microscópica de nomófilos, dificultando o uso destes caracteres para fins taxonômicos.The epidermal and leaf venation pattern of eophylls and nomophylls of Ctyptocarya moschata Nees, Endlicheria paniculata (Spreng. MacBride, and Ocotea catharinensis Mez are described. Both C. moschata and O. catharinensis presented a pronounced variation in the rate of ondulation in the anticlinal cell walls as well as in the minor venation of nomophylls. This makes it difficult to use these features for taxonomical purposes.

  5. Comparative leaf morphology and anatomy of three Asteraceae species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Milan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper was to describe and compare the morphology and anatomy of mature leaves of Mikania glomerata Spreng., Porophyllum ruderale Cass. and Vernonia condensata Baker (Asteraceae species that have different habits emphasizing their secretory structures. Longitudinal and transversal sections of mature leaf blades of the three species were analyzed at the apex, base, and medium third part of the midvein of the leaf blade and of the margin. M. glomerata had uniseriate glandular trichomes and secretory ducts; P. ruderale had hydathodes and secretory cavities; and V. condensata had idioblasts and uni-and biseriate glandular trichomes.Este trabalho teve por objetivo descrever e comparar a morfo-anatomia das folhas adultas de Mikania glomerata Spreng., Porophyllum ruderale Cass. e Vernonia condensata Baker (Asteraceae, que possuem diferentes hábitos, enfatizando suas estruturas secretoras. Secções longitudinais e transversais dos limbos foliares foram analisadas nas regiões do ápice, da base e do terço médio na altura da nervura central, do limbo foliar e da margem. M. glomerata apresentou tricomas glandulares unisseriados e ductos secretores; P. ruderale tinha hidatódios e cavidades secretoras; e V. condensata apresentou idioblastos e tricomas glandulares uni- ou bisseriados.

  6. Qualea Aubl. from Paraná State, Brazil = Qualea Aubl. (Vochysiaceae no Estado do Paraná, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Rejane Bonato Negrelle

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The results from a survey on Qualea Aubl. (Vochysiaceae A. St.-Hil. in the State of Paraná are presented. The analysis was based on dried material from several regional herbaria as well as fresh material collected in different regions of the State. Four species were registered: Q. cordata Spreng.; Q. glaziovii Warm; Q. grandiflora Mart.; Q. multiflora Mart. spp. multiflora. A key to differentiate the species is presented and for each species, the botanical description, common names, phenology data, the geographic distribution, uses and illustrations are included.Apresentam-se resultados de levantamento das espécies de Qualea Aubl. (Vochysiaceae A. St.-Hil. no Estado do Paraná, baseado em material depositado em herbários regionais e em material coletado em diversas regiões deste Estado. Foram registradas quatro espécies: Q. cordataSpreng.; Q. glaziovii Warm; Q. grandiflora Mart.; Q. multiflora Mart. spp. multiflora. Incluemse chave dicotômica para identificação, assim como descrições, nomes populares, usos, fenologia, distribuição geográfica e ilustrações, para cada espécie identificada.

  7. Toxicological evaluation of ethanolic extract of Lychnophora trichocarpha, Brazilian arnica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda C. Ferrari

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The species of the genus Lychnophora, Asteraceae, are popularly known as "arnica" and are native from Brazilian savana (Cerrado. They are widely used in Brazilian folk medicine as anti-inflammatory, to treat bruise, pain, rheumatism and for insect bites. For evaluation of acute toxicity, the ethanolic extract was given to albino female and male mice. In open-field test, the extract of Lychnophora trichocarpha (Spreng. Spreng. (0.750 g/kg induced a significant inhibition of the spontaneous locomotor activity and exploratory behavior of the animals were observed 1 and 4 h after administration. In traction test, the same dose reduced the muscular force 1 h after administration. The exploratory behavior reduced significantly in the group that received 0.50 g/kg, 1 and 4 h after administration of the extract. The animals that received the doses of 0.25, 0.50 and 0.75 g/kg did not show any change of blood biochemical parameters comparing to control group and showed some histopathological changes such as congestion and inflammation of kidney and liver. The dose of 1.5 g/kg caused the most serious signs of toxicity. Histopathological changes observed was hemorrhage in 62.5% and pulmonary congestion in 100% of the animals. Brain and liver congestion was found in 62.5% of the animals.

  8. I remember you: a role for memory in social cognition and the functional neuroanatomy of their interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spreng, R Nathan; Mar, Raymond A

    2012-01-05

    Remembering events from the personal past (autobiographical memory) and inferring the thoughts and feelings of other people (mentalizing) share a neural substrate. The shared functional neuroanatomy of these processes has been demonstrated in a meta-analysis of independent task domains (Spreng, Mar & Kim, 2009) and within subjects performing both tasks (Rabin, Gilboa, Stuss, Mar, & Rosenbaum, 2010; Spreng & Grady, 2010). Here, we examine spontaneous low-frequency fluctuations in fMRI BOLD signal during rest from two separate regions key to memory and mentalizing, the left hippocampus and right temporal parietal junction, respectively. Activity in these two regions was then correlated with the entire brain in a resting-state functional connectivity analysis. Although the left hippocampus and right temporal parietal junction were not correlated with each other, both were correlated with a distributed network of brain regions. These regions were consistent with the previously observed overlap between autobiographical memory and mentalizing evoked brain activity found in past studies. Reliable patterns of overlap included the superior temporal sulcus, anterior temporal lobe, lateral inferior parietal cortex (angular gyrus), posterior cingulate cortex, dorsomedial and ventral prefrontal cortex, inferior frontal gyrus, and the amygdala. We propose that the functional overlap facilitates the integration of personal and interpersonal information and provides a means for personal experiences to become social conceptual knowledge. This knowledge, in turn, informs strategic social behavior in support of personal goals. In closing, we argue for a new perspective within social cognitive neuroscience, emphasizing the importance of memory in social cognition.

  9. Scopelodes testacea Butler--A new Pest Harm the Tropic Fruit Trees%危害多种热带果树的新害虫--黄褐球须刺蛾

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍有声; 高泽正

    2004-01-01

    @@ 黄褐球须刺蛾Scopelodes testacea Butler属鳞翅目,刺蛾科.该虫于1987年发现在华南植物园的大蕉和龙眼上为害,随后在广东省各地普遍发现,经笔者多年调查观察,确认其为杂食性害虫,危害多种热带果树:有芭蕉科的香蕉Musa nana Lour.、大蕉M.sapientum L.;无患子科的龙眼Dimocarpus longan Lour.、荔枝Litchi chinensis Sonn.;漆树科的杧果Mangifera indica L.、扁桃M.persiciformis C.Y.Wu et T.L.Ming、人面子Dracontomelum duperreanum Pierre;桃金娘科的洋蒲桃Syzygium samarangense(Bl.)Merr. et Perry、玫瑰苹果Eugenia malaccensis L.;大戟科的蝴蝶果Cleidiocarpon cavaleriei Airyshaw.

  10. STRUKTUR DAN KOMPOSISI JENIS HUTAN MANGROVE DI GOLO SEPANG – KECAMATAN BOLENG KABUPATEN MANGGARAI BARAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hidayatullah

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine mangrove forest structure and composition in Golo Sepang Village, Manggarai Barat District. Important value index and diversity index value obtained from mangrove vegetation analysis were used as indicators for determining mangrove forest structure and diversity. Transect method with square frame along the line was applied in vegetation analysis. Totally 10 lines and 30 plots were applied for getting types of mangrove, growth parametersvalue (height and diameter and others related information. This study found that the stucture of mangrove consist of 5 familyes with 10 species, namely: Rhizophoraceae (Ceriops tagal (Perr, Rhizophora apiculata (Bi, R. mucronata Lmk., Bruguiera parviflora (Roxb., B. sexangula (Lour dan B. gymnorrizha (L. Lamk., Fabaceae (Derris trifoliata Lour, Meliaceae (Xylocarpus granatum Koen, Pteridaceae (Acrosthicum aereum Linn and Lythraceae (Phempis acidula Forst. R. apiculata (Bi is the most dominant species founded in 7 of 10 total sites. Two sites, Sotri and Muara Kiri, have the highest important value index (300% for R. Apiculata species. The highest individual density is found at Sotri site, with value 1.300 tree/hectare, while the lowest density, 100 trees/hectare is found at Muara Kanan site. In diversity of mangrove, all sites were categorized as low with highest diversity index value 1,06.Keywords: Mangrove forest, structure and composition, Golo Sepang

  11. 中药天冬研究进展%Research Progress of Chinese Medicine Asparagus cochinchinensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦树根; 马小军; 柯芳; 黄宝优; 付金娥

    2011-01-01

    Asparagus cochinchinensis (Lour.) Merr was a kind of perennial liana plant from Asparagus Linn, of liliaceae and was one of the traditional Chinese medicine. The study on resource distribution, chemical composition, pharmacological activi-ty and clinical applications of A. Cochinchinensis in last decade was summarized. It provided a reference for the further de-velopment of A. Cochinchinensis.%天冬[Asparagus cochinchinensis (Lour.)Merr]为百合科天门冬属藤本植物,是中国传统的常用大宗中药材之一.文章分析了近十几年来国内外对天冬的研究概况,对其资源分布、化学成分、药理活性及临床应用等方面的进展进行了阐述,为天冬的进一步开发利用研究提供参考依据.

  12. The leaf essential oils of five Vietnamese Desmos species (Annonaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Do Ngoc; Hoi, Tran Minh; Thang, Tran Dinh; Ogunwande, Isiaka A

    2012-02-01

    The leaf essential oils of five Desmos species from Vietnam have been extracted by steam distillation and subjected to GC and GC-MS analyses. The plant samples were Desmos cochinchinensis Lour., D. penduculosus (A. DC.) Ban, D. penducolosus var. tonkinensis Ban, D. chinensis Lour., and D. dumosus (Roxb.) Saff. The oils were rich in sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (65.9%-88.9%) and monoterpene hydrocarbons (6.3%-30.9%). The oxygenated counterparts were less common. The quantitatively significant constituents of the oils were alpha-pinene (2.4%-12.1%), beta-elemene (2.2-39.5%), beta-caryophyllene (13.9-26.3%), germacrene D (9.9-15.5%), bicyclogermacrene (2.0-11.4%) and alpha-humulene (3.8-7.5%). The studied oils could be classified into two chemical forms: oils with abundance of beta-caryophyllene, germacrene D and alpha-pinene (D. cochinchinensis, D. penducolosus var. tonkinensis, D. chinensis and D. Dumosus) and oil with high amounts of beta-elemene, beta-caryophyllene and germacrene D (D. penduculosus).

  13. Studies on chemical constituents of Saururus chinensis (Ⅰ)%三白草的化学成分研究(Ⅰ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马敏; 阮金兰

    2001-01-01

    目的 研究三白草Saururuschinensis(Lour.)Baill.的化学成分。方法 采用硅藻土柱层析和反复硅胶柱层析分离纯化,通过理化常数测定和光谱分析鉴定其化学结构。结果 从三白草中分得了3个化合物,即三白脂素(saucernetin,Ⅰ)、三白脂素-8(saucernetin-8,Ⅱ)和三白脂素-7(saucernetin-7,Ⅲ)。结论 它们均为首次从该植物中分得的新木脂素类化合物。%Object To study the chemical constituents of Saururus chinensis(Lour.) Baill.. Methods The constituents were isolated and repeatedly purified on kieselgel/silica gel column. They were identified and structurally elucidated by physico-chemical constants and spectral anlysis. Results 3 compounds were obtained. They were saucernetin (Ⅰ),saucernetin-8 (Ⅱ) and saucernetin-7 (Ⅲ). Conclusion All of them are neolignans isolated for the first time from this plant.

  14. Taxonomic significance of trichomes micromorphology in cucurbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mohammad Ajmal; Al-Hemaid, Fahad M A

    2011-01-01

    Studies on trichomes micromorphology using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) were undertaken in 23 species with one variety under 13 genera of the family Cucurbitaceae (viz., Benincasa hispida (Thunb.) Cogn., Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai, Cucumis melo var. agrestis Naudin, Cucumis sativus L., Diplocyclos palmatus (L.) C. Jeffrey, Edgaria dargeelingensis C.B. Clarke, Gynostemma burmanicum King ex Chakr., Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino, Gynostemma pubescens (Gagnep.) C.Y. Wu, Hemsleya dipterygia Kuang & A.M. Lu, Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standl., Luffa acutangula (L.) Roxb., Luffa cylindrica M. Roem., Luffa echinata Roxb., Melothria heterophylla (Lour.) Cogn., Melothria leucocarpa (Blume) Cogn., Melothria maderspatana (L.) Cogn., Sechium edule (Jacq.) Sw., Thladiantha cordifolia (Blume) Cogn., Trichosanthes cucumerina L., T. cucumerina var. anguina (L.) Haines, Trichosanthes dioica Roxb., Trichosanthes lepiniana (Naudin) Cogn. and T. tricuspidata Lour.). The trichomes in the family Cucurbitaceae vary from unicellular to multicellular, conical to elongated, smooth to ridges, with or without flattened disk at base and cyctolithic appendages, thin to thick walled, curved at apices to blunt. Trichomes micromorphology in the family Cucurbitaceae was found significant taxonomically.

  15. Citogenética de espécies arbóreas da subfamília Caesalpinioideae-Leguminosae do sul do Brasil

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    Elaine Biondo

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Chromosome counts and meiotic behaviour analysis are excellent contributions for studies on taxonomic relationships and evolutionary patterns in plants. The tree legume species of the subfamily Caesalpinioideae have been poorly analysed cytogenetically. This work aimed at determining the number of chromosomes and analysing the meiotic behaviour in 11 species of Caesalpinioideae. Basic chromosome numbers in most of the analysed species were 2n = 28 (x = 14. Senna multijuga (L. C. Rich. H. S. Irwin & Barneby and Schizolobium parahyba (Vell. Blake presented 2n = 24 (x = 12 and Peltophorum dubium (Spreng. Taub. 2n = 26 (x = 13. In all the species nuclei presented an areticulate pattern and a regular meiosis in the six species studied. Further collections and cytogenetic analyses with a major number of individuals and species are suggested, in order to provide additional data for a more comprehensive study on this group of plants.

  16. NOVEDADES EN HOUSSAYANTHUS Y SERJANIA (SAPINDACEAE

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    María Silvia Ferrucci

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Sobre la base de Urvillea sparrei Barkl, el combiriation nueva Houssayanthus sparrei (Barkl. Ferrucci se establece, y su taxonomía es discutida en relación con las otras especies del género: H.macrolophus (Radlk. Hunzik. y H.fiebrigii (Barkl. Hunzik.Cromosoma. número de H.sparrei se informa (12 II. Un nuevo nombre, Serjania herteri Ferrucci se propone para S.australis (St. Hil. Herter no Spreng.

  17. ALGUNS ASPECTOS DA BIOLOGIA DO SERRADOR, Oncideres dejeani THOMPSON, 1868 (COLEOPTERA : CERAMBYCIDAE

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    Adriane Brill Thum

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se este trabalho objetivando determinar alguns parâmetros comparativos da biologia do serrador, Oncideres dejeani Thomson,1868 (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae sobre aroeira preta, Lithraea brasiliensis L. March (Anacardiaceae e pau de leite, Sebastiania brasiliensis Spreng. (Euphorbiaceae, em São Sepé - RS, durante o período 1989-1990. Mediu-se o comprimento e a largura do orifício de emergência dos adultos do serrador e, o comprimento e volume da galeria larval-pupal. O orifício de emergência do adulto de O. dejeani apresenta formato ovalado em pau de leite e quase circular em aroeira preta. A larva se desenvolve em galhos de vários diâmetros, independente da espécie de planta hospedeira, consome igual volume de madeira e constroi galeria de comprimento similar nas duas espécies botânicas estudadas

  18. In vitro cytotoxic activity of Brazilian Middle West plant extracts

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    Talal Suleiman Mahmoud

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Cytotoxic activity of eight plant extracts, native from the Mid-West of Brazil comprising Cerrado, Pantanal and semideciduous forest, was evaluated for MDA-MB-435, SF-295, and HCT-8 cancer cell strains. A single 100 µg.mL-1 dose of each extract was employed with 72 h of incubation for all tests. Doxorubicin (1 µg.mL-1 was used as the positive control and the MTT method was used to detect the activity. Cytotoxicity of distinct polarities was observed in thirty extracts (46%, from different parts of the following species: Tabebuia heptaphylla (Vell. Toledo, Bignoniaceae, Tapirira guianensis Aubl., Anacardiaceae, Myracrodruon urundeuva Allemão, Anacardiaceae, Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi, Anacardiaceae, Gomphrena elegans Mart., Amaranthaceae, Attalea phalerata Mart. ex Spreng., Arecaceae, Eugenia uniflora L., Myrtaceae, and Annona dioica A. St.-Hil., Annonaceae. Extracts of at least two tested cell strains were considered to be highly active since their inhibition rate was over 75%.

  19. Four newly recorded species of Dryopteridaceae from Kashmir valley, India

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    SHAKOOR AHMAD MIR

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Mir SA, Mishra AK, Reshi ZA, Sharma MP. 2014. Four newly recorded species of Dryopteridaceae from Kashmir valley, India. Biodiversitas 15: 6-11. Habitat diversity, elevation, cloud cover, rainfall, seasonal and temperature variations have created many ideal sites for the luxuriant growth of pteridophytes in the Kashmir valley, yet all the regions of the valley have not been surveyed. In Kashmir valley the family Dryopteridaceae is represented by 31 species. During the recent extensive field surveys of Shopian district four more species viz., Dryopteris caroli-hopei Fraser-Jenkins, Dryopteris blanfordii subsp. nigrosquamosa (Ching Fraser-Jenkins, Dryopteris pulvinulifera (Bedd. Kuntze and Polystichum Nepalense (Spreng C. Chr. have been recorded for the first time from the valley. The taxonomic description, synonyms, distribution and photographs of each species are given in this article.

  20. Slope variation and population structure of tree species from different ecological groups in South Brazil

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    Edmilson Bianchini

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Size structure and spatial arrangement of 13 abundant tree species were determined in a riparian forest fragment inParaná State, South Brazil (23"16'S and 51"01'W. The studied species were Aspidosperma polyneuron Müll. Arg., Astronium graveolens Jacq. and Gallesia integrifolia (Spreng Harms (emergent species; Alseis floribunda Schott, Ruprechtia laxiflora Meisn. and Bougainvillea spectabilis Willd. (shade-intolerant canopy species; Machaerium paraguariense Hassl, Myroxylum peruiferum L. and Chrysophyllum gonocarpum (Mart. & Eichler ex Miq. Engl. (shade-tolerant canopy species; Sorocea bonplandii (Baill. Bürger, Trichilia casaretti C. Dc, Trichilia catigua A. Juss. and Actinostemon concolor (Spreng. Müll. Arg. (understory small trees species. Height and diameter structures and basal area of species were analyzed. Spatial patterns and slope correlation were analyzed by Moran's / spatial autocorrelation coefficient and partial Mantel test, respectively. The emergent and small understory species showed the highest and the lowest variations in height, diameter and basal area. Size distribution differed among emergent species and also among canopy shade-intolerant species. The spatial pattern ranged among species in all groups, except in understory small tree species. The slope was correlated with spatial pattern for A. polyneuron, A. graveolens, A. floribunda, R. laxiflora, M. peruiferum and T. casaretti. The results indicated that most species occurredin specific places, suggesting that niche differentiation can be an important factor in structuring the tree community.Visando contribuir para o conhecimento das estratégias devida de espécies em fragmentos florestais, foram determinadas as estruturas de tamanho e espacial de 13 espécies arbóreas do remanescente de floresta ciliar no Estado do Paraná, no Sul do Brasil (23"16'S e 51"01'W. Foram analisadas as espécies: Aspidosperma polyneuron Müll. Arg., Astronium graveolens Jacq. e Gallesia

  1. ANTIFUNGAL AND CYTOTOXIC ACTIVITIES OF FIVE TRADITIONALLY USED INDIAN MEDICINAL PLANTS

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    Adhikarimayum Haripyaree

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Hexane, Methanol and Distilled water extracts of five Indian Medicinal plants viz., Mimosa pudica L, Vitex trifolia Linn, Leucas aspera Spreng, Centella asiatica (L Urban and Plantago major Linn belonging to different families were subjected to preliminary antimicrobial screening against six standard organisms viz., Ceratocystis paradoxa, Aspergillus niger, Penicillium citrinum, Macrophomina phaseoli, Trichoderma viride and Rhizopus nigricans. To evaluate antifungal activity agar well diffusion method was used. In addition LD50 of the same plant extracts were determined by using Range test on Mus musculus for cytotoxic activity. Methanolic extract of M. pudica showed the highest and significant inhibitory effect against some fungal species. Again, methanolic extract of M. pudica displayed the greatest cytotoxic activity.

  2. Alternative dentistry with medicinal plants in Chapada dos Guimarães – Mato Grosso – Brazil

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    Aneliza Meireles BORBA

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In Mato Grosso, the use of plant species as a therapeutic alternative is passed through generations. Objective: This research aimed at a survey of the vegetal species used by the neighborhood of Santa Cruz community, Chapada dos Guimarães city, their therapeutical indications and methods of use to the oral health. Material and methods: Forty local informers were questioned through qualitative approach. The collection of 65 vegetable species was cataloged and filed for identification in the UFMT/Herbário Central. Results and conclusion: The most cited for teeth eruption was chamomile(Matricaria chamomilla L.; to stomatitis, the saffron (Crocus sativus L.; to tooth pain, the “arnica-da-serra” (Brickelia brasiliensis (Spreng.(Robinson. The leaf was the most used part of the plant, and the tea, by decoction, the most common method of use.

  3. [Anatomy of six species of Dryopteris ferns (Dryopteridaceae) from Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Victoria; Terrazas, Teresa; Angeles, Guillermo

    2006-12-01

    Rhizome and foliar anatomy of the Mexican Dryopteris Adans. species were studied and compared with other Dryopteridaceae and other fern families to identify anatomical features with diagnostic value. The anatomy of rhizome, stipe, and blade is similar in species of the Dryopteris patula complex. The cells with un-lignified, thickened wall, with cap or U-shape around the meristeles belong to the collenchyma, in contrast with other fern families. Dryopteris wallichiana (Spreng.) Hyl. is anatomically distinguished from the other studied species by having more layers of sclerenchyma and meristeles on the stipe, and by the lack of sclereid nests on the rhizome. Dryopteris rossii C. Chr. and D. maxonii Underw. & C. Chr. are characterized by the presence of crystals on the periphery of rhizome nests. D. maxonni and D. wallichiana lack blade glands.

  4. Complete assignments of NMR data and assessment of trypanocidal activity of new eremantholide C derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saude-Guimaraes, Denia Antunes, E-mail: saude@ef.ufop.br, E-mail: saudeguima@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto (UFOP), MG (Brazil); Raslan, Delio S.; Chiari, Egler; Oliveira, Alaide B. de [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2014-12-15

    Chemical transformations of eremantholide C (1), a sesquiterpene lactone that was isolated from Lychnophora trichocarpha Spreng. led to five new derivatives: 1’,2’- epoxyeremantholide C (2), 5-n-propylamine-4,5-dihydro-1’,2’-epoxyeremantholide C (3), 5-n-propylammonium-4,5-dihydro-1’,2’-epoxyeremantholide C chloride (4), 5-n-propylammonium-4,5-dihydroeremantolide C chloride (5) and 16-O-ethyleremantholide C (6). The structures of all these derivatives were assigned on the basis of IR, MS, {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR data by 1D and 2D techniques. Eremantholide C and the derivatives 2, 4 and 5 were evaluated against trypomastigotes Y and CL strains of Trypanosoma cruzi. Eremantholide C completely inhibited the growth of both the parasites strains while all derivatives were partially active against the CL strain and inactive against the Y strain. (author)

  5. Antimicrobial activity of plant extracts against sexually transmitted pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadhav, Nutan; Kulkarni, Sangeeta; Mane, Arati; Kulkarni, Roshan; Palshetker, Aparna; Singh, Kamalinder; Joshi, Swati; Risbud, Arun; Kulkarni, Smita

    2015-01-01

    Comprehensive management of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) using vaginal or rectal microbicide-based intervention is one of the strategies for prevention of HIV infection. Herbal products have been used for treating STIs traditionally. Herein, we present in vitro activity of 10 plant extracts and their 34 fractions against three sexually transmitted/reproductive tract pathogens - Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Haemophilus ducreyi and Candida albicans. The plant parts were selected; the extracts/fractions were prepared and screened by disc diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory and minimum cidal concentrations were determined. The qualitative phytochemical analysis of selected extracts/fractions showing activity was performed. Of the extracts/fractions tested, three inhibited C. albicans, ten inhibited N. gonorrhoeae and five inhibited H. ducreyi growth. Our study demonstrated that Terminalia paniculata Roth. extracts/fractions inhibited growth of all three organisms. The ethyl acetate fraction of Syzygium cumini Linn. and Bridelia retusa (L.) Spreng. extracts was found to inhibit N. gonorrhoeae at lowest concentrations.

  6. Estimation of electric power generation using coal from the fruit peel of cupuassu in Amazonas State, Brazil; Estimativa de geracao de energia eletrica utilizando o carvao da casca do fruto do cupuacuzeiro no estado do Amazonas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Antonio Cleuder Lima da [Manaus Energia S/A., Manaus, AM (Brazil); Santos, Eyde Cristiane Saraiva dos [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (FCA/UFAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Agrarias. Dept. de Engenharia Agricola e Solos], e-mail: eyde_cristianne@yahoo.com.br

    2008-07-01

    The application of the charcoal of agroforestry residue for the generation of electric energy, for being renewable power plant and possessing technology for application, comes being evidenced. In this research the potential of generation of electric energy was estimated, in the main producing cities of the State of Amazonas of the fruit of the cupuacuzeiro (Theobroma grandiflorum Wild. Ex. Spreng. Shum.), using the rind carbonized in technology of gasification, substitution of diesel. The charcoal of the rind of the fruit of the cupuacuzeiro presents to be able calorific next to the one to the deriving coal of the wood. Known the annual production of each one the cities, the amount and the cost of production of the generated electric energy, determined in this research, it justifies the exploitation of this residue, for having economic advantages, when comparative with the tariff of the adopted electric energy in the region for the concessionaire. (author)

  7. Ethnomedicinal plants of Jodhpur District, Rajasthan used in herbal and folk remedies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.B.S.Kapoor

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Jodhpur district a part of Thar Desert is very rich in medicinal plant wealth. The medicinal plants of this region have great potential to be used in drug and pharmaceutical industries. These herbal plants have been used by local people, tribal communities, vendors, native doctors such as Ojhas, Bhagats Bhopas and experts of Ayurvedic fields since long time in herbal and folk remedies. Kalbelia, Nats, Bhils, Raika, Bhopas, Banjara, Gadolia-Lohar, Saharia and Meena communities of this district have a rich knowledge of plants based traditional medicines. Ten ethnomedicinal plants like Cleome gynandra Linn., Clerodendrum phlomidis Linn., Cassia angustifolia Vahl., Echinops echinatus Roxb., Leucas aspera (Willd. Spreng., Mimosa hamata Willd., Moringa oleifera Lamk., Pedalium murex Linn., Peganum harmala Linn., Sida cordifolia Linn. have been selected for this research work. The present investigation is aimed to create awareness about the ethnomedicinal value of the plants and their uses to draw the attention of pharmacologists, phytochemists and pharmaceuticals.

  8. Studies on the Chemical Constituents of Ferula songorica%阿魏的化学成分研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡跃; 李晓东; 李国玉; 李肖宇; 张珂; 左文健; 曾毅梅; 王金辉

    2009-01-01

    目的:研究准格尔阿魏Ferula songorica Pall.ex Spren in Roem.et Schult的化学成分.方法:利用各种色谱方法进行分离纯化,根据波谱解析、理化常数分析及文献对照进行结构鉴定.结果:从阿魏根茎95%乙醇提取物中分离得到3个化合物,分别为2,4-二羟基-α-氧代-苯乙酸(1),3,3',4,4'-联苯四甲酸(2),2,4-二羟基苯甲酮(3).结论:化合物2是新天然产物,化合物1为首次从该植物中分离得到.%Objective: To study the chemical constituents from the rhizome of Ferula songorica Pall. ex Spreng. in Roam. et Schult.. Methods: The constituents were isolated by chromatography methods such as silica gel,Sephadex LH-20, ODS column and HPLC. Physico-chemical properties and spectroscopic analysis were employed for the structural identification. Results:Three compounds were obtained and their structure were identified as 2,4-di-hydroxy-α-oxo-phenylaectic acid ( 1 ), 3,3 ; 4, 4'-biphenyhetracarboxylic acid ( 2 ), 2,4-dihydroxyacetophenone ( 3 ).Conclusion: Among these compounds, compound 2 is a new natural products and compound 1 is isolated from rhizome of Ferula songorica Pall. ex Spreng. in Roem. et Schult. for the first time.

  9. Growth analysis of Fafia in relation to the propagation method used Análise de crescimento de fáfia em função do tipo de propagação

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    André May

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A trial was carried out in Campinas, Brazil, from August 2005 to August 2006, in order to analyze the effect of two propagation methods (seeds and cuttings on the development of Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen. The experimental design was a completely randomized block, with five replications, and two methods of plant propagation. Plant height, aerial part dry mass and root dry mass were evaluated. Plants propagated from cuttings showed greater accumulation of dry mass on the aerial part. Root dry mass accumulation curves showed an exponential pattern, and at the end of the experimental period, the average of roots dry mass for both treatments were similar, up to 349,65 g plant-1.Neste trabalho, realizado no Instituto Agronômico, em Campinas-SP, de agosto/05 a agosto/06, estudou-se a influência de dois tipos de propagação no desenvolvimento de Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado com cinco repetições, sendo nos tratamentos, estudadas duas formas de propagação da planta (semente e estacas. Foi avaliada a altura da planta, massa seca da parte aérea e massa seca da raiz. As plantas propagadas por estaca apresentaram maior acúmulo de massa seca da parte aérea comparativamente àquelas propagadas por sementes. As curvas de acúmulo de massa seca da raiz apresentaram comportamento exponencial, sendo que, ao final do período experimental, a produção de raízes foi semelhante para os dois tratamentos estudados, atingindo valores de até 349,65 g planta-1 de massa seca da raiz.

  10. 皂角刺及其伪品同属植物棘刺的理化鉴别

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周日宝; 石国强

    1999-01-01

    @@ 皂角刺属常用中药,来源于豆科Leguminosae)皂荚属(Gleditsia)植物皂荚(G.sinensis Lam.)的干燥棘刺,调查研究发现,在皂角刺原药材或饮片中常混杂有同属植物山皂荚(G.japonica Miq.)、华南皂荚(G.fera (Lour.)Merr.)、绒毛皂荚(G.vestita Chan et Hou ex B.G.Li)和滇皂荚(G.delavayi Franch.)的棘刺,类似的报道也较多[1,2].为此,笔者对皂角刺及其同属植物棘刺的混伪品进行了薄层层析和紫外吸收光谱的鉴别研究,现将结果报告如下.

  11. Clinical Evaluation Of A New Emollient Cream In Cry Skin Conditions

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    Shukla V A

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Dry skin is a common problem both in healthy individuates and in patients with skin diseases. In all cases, emollients play important role in rehydrating the stratum corneum. To evaluate the efficacy of a new emollient, thirty-six patients with symptomatic dry skin disorders were enrolled. They were given the test emollient cream for topical application twice daily for 3 weeks and followed up weekly. Subjective complaints included pruritus and discomfort while objective parameters included scaling, erythema, roughness of skin, fissuring and hypopigmentation. Treatment with the test emollient cream reduced the severity in a majority of patients. Moreover, being free of perfume, co lour, urea and lanolin, the test cream was well tolerated by all participants.

  12. 黑胡椒荜澄茄与南五味子性状鉴别

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戚秀萍; 侯沧

    2000-01-01

    @@ 黑胡椒,为胡椒科植物胡椒Piper nigrum L.的干燥近成熟果实.荜澄茄,为胡椒科植物荜澄茄Piper cubeba L.或樟科植物山鸡椒Litsea cubeba(Lour.)Pers.的干燥成熟果实.南五味子,为木兰科植物华中五味子Schisandra sphenanthera Rehd.et Wils.的干燥成熟果实.三者均为直径3~6 mm的近球形果实,表面颜色相近,极易混淆.

  13. Tannins Dynamic of 15 Tropical Trees and Shrubs%15种热带乔灌木单宁含量动态分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李茂; 字学娟; 周汉林; 徐铁山; 刘国道

    2011-01-01

    Tannin contents of 15 tropical trees and shrubs were observed from March 2009 to Feb. 2010. Tannin levels of forage plants were ranked as: Ficus hispida L. F. (0. 39%), Erythrina variegata Linn. (0.77%); Cratylia argentea (Desv. ) Kuntze (0.78%); Dendrolobium triangulate (Retz. ) Schindl. (1. 16%); Cajanuscajan (Linn. ) Huth (1. 29%); Senna bicapsularis (Linn. ) Roxb. (1. 38%); Microcos paniculata Linn. (1.56%); Codariocalyx gyroides (Roxb. Ex Link) Hassk. (1.57%); Ficus auriculata Lour. (1. 62%); Senna didymobotrya (Fresen. ) H. S. Irwin et Barneby (1. 82%); Flemingia macro-phylla (Willd. ) Prain (1. 91%); Cratoxylum cochinchinense (Lour. ) Blume (2. 14%); Leucaena leuco-cephala (Lam.) de Wit (2.34%); Acacia fame siana (Linn.) Willd. (2.67%); Flueggea virosa (Roxb. Ex Willd.) Voigt (2. 80%). There were significant monthly dynamic of tannin contents in all tested tropical trees and shrubs leaves, related to species, growing period and environment. Additionally, utilization and tannin physiology were also discussed in this paper.%通过对15种热带乔灌木不同月份(2009年3月至2010年2月)单宁含量的测定,以期明确部分木本饲用植物单宁含量及其动态变化趋势.结果表明:15种热带乔灌木单宁平均含量由低到高顺序如下:对叶榕(Ficus hispida L.f.)(0.39%)<刺桐(Erythrina variegata Linn.)(0.77%)<克拉豆(Cratylia argentea( Desv.)Kuntze) (0.78%)<假木豆(Dendrolobium triangulare (Retz.) Schindl.)(1.16%)<木豆(Cajanus ca jan (Linn.)Huth)(1.29%)<双荚决明(Senna bicapsularis (Linn.) Roxb.)(1.38%)<破布叶(Microcos paniculata Linn.)(1.56%)<圆叶舞草(Codariocalyx gyroides (Roxb.ex Link) Hassk.)(1.57%)<大果榕(Ficus auriculata Lour.)(1.62%)<长穗决明(Senna did ymobotr ya( Fresen.)H.S.Irwin et Barneby)(1.82%)<大叶千斤拔(Flemingia macrophylla (Willd.) Prain)( 1.91%)<黄牛木(Cratoxylum cochinchinense (Lour.) Blume) (2.14%)<银合欢(Leucaena leucocephala( Lam

  14. Water Hyacinth Eichhornia crassipes (Mart. Solms-Laubach Dynamics and Succession in the Nyanza Gulf of Lake Victoria (East Africa: Implications for Water Quality and Biodiversity Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Gichuki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study, conducted in Nyanza Gulf of Lake Victoria, assessed ecological succession and dynamic status of water hyacinth. Results show that water hyacinth is the genesis of macrophyte succession. On establishment, water hyacinth mats are first invaded by native emergent macrophytes, Ipomoea aquatica Forsk., and Enydra fluctuans Lour., during early stages of succession. This is followed by hippo grass Vossia cuspidata (Roxb. Griff. in mid- and late stages whose population peaks during climax stages of succession with concomitant decrease in water hyacinth biomass. Hippo grass depends on water hyacinth for buoyancy, anchorage, and nutrients. The study concludes that macrophyte succession alters aquatic biodiversity and that, since water hyacinth infestation and attendant succession are a symptom of broader watershed management and pollution problems, aquatic macrophyte control should include reduction of nutrient loads and implementing multifaceted approach that incorporates biological agents, mechanical/manual control with utilization of harvested weed for cottage industry by local communities.

  15. 羊角拗根的化学成分研究%Studies on Chemical Constituents in Roots of Strophanthus divaricatus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程纹; 王祝年; 王建荣; 晏小霞; 王茂媛

    2014-01-01

    应用柱色谱技术从羊角拗[Strophanthus divaricatus(Lour.) Hook.et Arn.]根的甲醇提取物中分离纯化出6个化合物,通过1H NMR和13C NMR等波谱技术并对照文献,鉴定其分别为(+)-pinoresinol(1)、沙门苷元(2)、17βH-沙门苷元(3)、羊角拗苷(4)、β-谷甾醇(5)和胡萝卜苷(6).其中,化合物2~4均为强心苷类化合物.化合物1和3为首次从该植物中分得.

  16. Dragon's blood dropping pills have protective effects on focal cerebral ischemia rats model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Nian; Yang, Fang-Ju; Li, Yan; Li, Yu-Juan; Dai, Rong-Ji; Meng, Wei-Wei; Chen, Yan; Deng, Yu-Lin

    2013-12-15

    Dragon's blood is a bright red resin obtained from Dracaena cochinchinensis (Lour.) S.C.Chen (Yunnan, China). As a traditional Chinese medicinal herb, it has great traditional medicinal value and is used for wound healing and to stop bleeding. Its main biological activity comes from phenolic compounds. In this study, phenolic compounds were made into dropping pills and their protective effects were examined by establishing focal cerebral ischemia rats model used method of Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion (MCAO), and by investigating indexes of neurological scores, infarct volume, cerebral index, cerebral water content and oxidation stress. Compared to model group, high, middle and low groups of Dragon's blood dropping pills could improve the neurological function significantly (pDragon's blood dropping pills had protective effects on focal cerebral ischemia rats.

  17. Soil Fertility in Agroforestry System of Chinese Fir and Villous Amomum in Subtropical China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A trial of interplanting and non-interplanting villous amomum (Amomum villosum Lour.) under the canopy of Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata Hook.) at age 22 was established in Sanming, Fujian of China, and a survey on soil fertility was carried out 10 years after its establishment. Compared with the control (non-interplanting), the properties of soil humus in agroforestry system were ameliorated, with a higher level of humification and resynthesis of organic detritus. The soil microbial population and enzymatic activities were both higher under the influence of villous amomum. Both the nutrient supplying and nutrient conserving capacities of the soil were improved. This agroforestry system exhibited an advantage of improved soil fertility, as well as an accelerated growth of Chinese fir, it was, therefore, a sustainable management system suited for Chinese fir in South China.

  18. Detection of DNA Hypomethylation Mediated Floral Induction in Longan and Spinach Using the HAT-RAPD Technique

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    S. Anuntalabhochai

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the HAT-RAPD technique was used to detect DNA methylation in the four plant species, rice (Oryza sativa, petunia (Petunia hybrida, spinach (Spinacea oleracea L. and longan (Dimocarpus longan Lour., which were treated using 5-azacytidine, potassium chlorate (KClO3 and a low temperature induction. Rice and petunia were chosen to be induced because in these species it is known that 5-azacytidine is able to induce hypomethylation in their genomes leading to morphological changes, in particular floral induction, in the developing plants. Using the HAT-RAPD technique, DNA methylation was detected using the restriction enzymes HpaII and MspI in rice and petunia (as expected and in spinach, but was found to be absent in longan, which suggests that floral induction in longan is undetectable in longan.

  19. Inhibition of urinary calculi -- a spectroscopic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manciu, Felicia; Govani, Jayesh; Durrer, William; Reza, Layra; Pinales, Luis

    2008-10-01

    Although a considerable number of investigations have already been undertaken and many causes such as life habits, metabolic disorders, and genetic factors have been noted as sources that accelerate calculi depositions and aggregations, there are still plenty of unanswered questions regarding efficient inhibition and treatment mechanisms. Thus, in an attempt to acquire more insights, we propose here a detailed scientific study of kidney stone formation and growth inhibition based on a traditional medicine approach with Rotula Aquatica Lour (RAL) herbal extracts. A simplified single diffusion gel growth technique was used for synthesizing the samples for the present study. The unexpected Zn presence in the sample with RAL inhibitor, as revealed by XPS measurements, explains the inhibition process and the dramatic reflectance of the incident light observed in the infrared transmission studies. Raman data demonstrate potential binding of the inhibitor with the oxygen of the kidney stone. Photoluminescence results corroborate to provide additional evidence of Zn-related inhibition.

  20. Spectroscopic analysis of urinary calculi and inhibition of their growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manciu, Felicia; Durrer, William; Govani, Jayesh; Reza, Layra; Pinales, Luis

    2009-10-01

    We present here a study of kidney stone formation and growth inhibition based on a traditional medicine approach with Aquatica Lour (RAL) herbal extracts. Kidney stone material systems were synthesized in vitro using a simplified single diffusion gel growth technique. With the objective of revealing the mechanism of inhibition of calculi formation by RAL extracts, samples prepared without the presence of extract, and with the presence of extract, were analyzed using Raman, photoluminescence, and XPS. The unexpected presence of Zn revealed by XPS in a sample prepared with RAL provides an explanation for the inhibition process, and also explains the dramatic reflectance of incident light observed in attempts to obtain infrared transmission data. Raman data are consistent with the binding of the inhibitor to the oxygen of the kidney stone. Photoluminescence data corroborate with the other results to provide additional evidence of Zn-related inhibition.

  1. Effects of Pb stress on nutrient uptake and secondary metabolism in submerged macrophyte Vallisneria natans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Lu, Jie; Zhang, Songhe; Wang, Peifang; Hou, Jun; Qian, Jin

    2011-07-01

    For better understanding the metabolic adaptations to Pb stress in submerged plants, the alterations in mineral elements uptake and in secondary metabolism were studied in leaves of Vallisneria natans (Lour.) Hara exposed to 0-100μM Pb for 0-7d. Pb content increased in leaves in a dose-dependent way. The increase of calcium, magnesium and iron content and the decrease of phosphorus, potassium and manganese content were detected in leaves of V. natans under Pb stress, while no significant changes were detected in copper and zinc concentration. Meanwhile, there was an increase in the concentrations of total phenolic and flavonoids. Pb treatment caused an increase in the catalytic activities of shikimate dehydrogenase, phenylalanine ammonialyase and polyphenol oxidase. The results suggest that nutrient uptake and secondary metabolism were actively regulated by V. natans plants in response to Pb stress.

  2. Studies on vicissitudes of Amomum L. and its production area%砂仁产地与品种变迁的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘佑波; 吴朋光; 徐新春

    2001-01-01

    目的为弄清砂仁药材种植的历代和现状。方法查阅历代文献,深入实地调查访问,综合分析。结果历史所载砂仁,含国产品和进口品。国产品素来以广东阳春为主产区,后引种到阳春周边县市及广西、云南、福建等地。90年代末期,砂仁主产地由广东转移至云南省。进口品产自东南亚的越南、缅甸、泰国、老挝等国。国产砂仁主要品种为姜科植物阳春砂Amomumvillosum Lour.,后发现有绿壳砂A.villosum Lour.var.xanthioides(Wall.exBak.)T.L.Wu et Senjen和海南砂A.longiligulare T.L. Wu。云南省主流品种为从广东阳春引种的阳春砂A.villosum ZLour.进口品特指绿壳砂A.villosum var xanthioides(Wall.ex Bak.)T.L.Wu et Senjen。结论古今所用砂仁产地与品种变化较大,国产品与进口品并存,国产砂仁主产地为云南省,主流品种为从广东阳春引种的阳春砂A.villosum。%Object To trace the historic changes and the present status inthe cultivation of Amomum villosum Lour.. M ethods By literature retrieval, on the spotfield study and interviewin g vetern herbalists. Results According to historic records, commercial species of Amomun L. consisted of both native and i mported pro ducts. The main source of the native product was from Yangchun, Guangdong Provi nce, wh ich gradually extended to its vicinal cities and thereafter to localities as far as Guangxi, Yunnan and Fujian Provinces. Until the late 90 s, the main product io narea was finally transferred from Guangdong to Yunnan. The imported products c ame from Southeastern Asian countries including Viet Nam, Burma, Thailand and La os. Before the 50 s, the main commercial product was A. villosum, later new species such as A. villosum Lour. var. xan thi oides (Wall. ex Bak.) T. L. Wu et Senjen and A. longiligulare T.L.Wu were discovered. Currently, the main product from Yunnan is A. villosum originated from Yangchun. The A. villosum var. xa nth ioides is

  3. Bioprospecting insecticidal compounds from plants native to Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil Bioprospecção de substâncias inseticidas de plantas nativas de Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio P. Souza

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on an evaluation of the insecticidal activity of extracts prepared from leaves of Tapirira guianensis Aubl. (Anacardiaceae, Attalea phalerata (Mart. ex Spreng. Burret (Arecaceae, Eugenia uniflora L. (Myrtaceae, and Gomphrena elegans Mart. (Amaranthaceae and from stems of Myracrodruon urundeuva Allemão (Anacardiaceae. Four extracts and 18 fractions with a range of polarities were tested. Ten-gram batches of wheat grains were each nebulized with 1 mL of a separate extract at 10% w/v. After solvent evaporation at 38 ºC, the grains were placed into flasks along with 20 unsexed 10- to 20-day old adult individuals of Sitophilus zeamais. The assessment was carried out on the fifth and tenth day by counting and discarding the dead insects. Leaf extracts of G. elegans showed an insecticidal effect ranging from 27% to 60% by the fifth day, whereas the effect of the remaining extracts tested (if active at all did not exceed 20% in the same period. By the tenth day, the most active extracts were those of A. phalerata (hexanic, 36.5% and all those of G. elegans (5280.5%, whereas the effect of the other extracts did not exceed 30%.No presente trabalho foi avaliada a atividade inseticida de extratos de limbos foliares de Tapirira guianensis Aubl. (Anacardiaceae, Attalea phalerata (Mart. ex Spreng. Burret (Arecaceae, Eugenia uniflora L. (Myrtaceae e Gomphrena elegans Mart. (Amaranthaceae e de caules de Myracrodruon urundeuva Allemão (Anacardiaceae. Foram testados quatro extratos e 18 frações, com diferentes polaridades. Dez gramas de grãos de trigo foram pulverizados com 1 mL de cada extrato a 10% (p/v. Após a evaporação do solvente a 38 ºC, os grãos foram acondicionados em recipientes juntamente com 20 indivíduos adultos de Sitophilus zeamais não sexados, com 10 a 20 dias de idade. As avaliações foram feitas no quinto e no décimo dia, contando-se o número de insetos mortos e descartando-os. Os extratos foliares de G. elegans

  4. Ambientes de ocorrência e flora acompanhante do gênero Himatanthus em Alcântara, Maranhão, Brasil Occurrence environments and accompanying vegetation of genus Himatanthus in Alcântara, Maranhão, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.F.P. Linhares

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A janaúba (Himatanthus spp., ocorre em populações naturais em ecossistemas florestais e apresenta amplo espectro de usos na medicina popular que vai desde o tratamento de inflamações uterinas, gastrite, uso veterinário, complemento alimentar, até tratamento de câncer. O extrativismo de látex de janaúba em Alcântara vem adquirindo importância crescente como alternativa de renda. Sendo assim, o estabelecimento de estudos que viabilizem o manejo sustentado em seu ambiente natural é necessário. O objetivo deste trabalho foi de caracterizar os ambientes de ocorrência de Himatanthus no município de Alcântara, Maranhão, Brasil, e identificar a flora acompanhante. As amostragens foram definidas por indicação de informantes, e aparente frequência na comunidade vegetal; os ambientes foram descritos considerando as unidades de paisagem e histórico de uso. Como resultados, a maior área de ocorrência foi a terra firme seguida por várzeas de restinga; a principal tipologia vegetacional foi a mata secundária. O bacuri (Platonia insignis Mart., tucum (Astrocaryum vulgare Mart. e a murta verdadeira (Myrcia selloi (Spreng. N. Silveira, foram às principais espécies associadas.The Frangipani (Himatanthus spp. occur in natural populations in forest ecosystems and present a wide spectrum of uses. in folk medicine ranging from the treatment of uterine inflammation, gastritis, veterinary, food supplement to medicinal treatment of cancer. The extraction of latex Janaúba Alcantara has been gaining increasing importance as an alternative income. Therefore, the establishment of studies that enable sustainable management in their natural environment is necessary. The overall objective of this study was to characterize the occurrence of Himatanthus environments in the municipality of Alcântara, Maranhão, Brazil, and identify the accompanying vegetation. The samples were defined by word of informants, and apparent frequency in the plant

  5. Potencial alelopático de espécies nativas na germinação e crescimento inicial de Lactuca sativa L. (Asteraceae Allelopathic potential of native species in Lactuca sativa L. (Asteraceae germination and initial growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Maraschin-Silva

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available A alelopatia caracteriza-se pelos efeitos danosos ou benéficos sobre o desenvolvimento da vegetação, causados por substâncias químicas produzidas e liberadas para o ambiente por uma planta. Com o objetivo de avaliar o potencial alelopático de espécies brasileiras, foram testados extratos foliares de Cecropia pachystachya Trec. (Urticaceae, Peltophorum dubium (Spreng. Taub. (Fabaceae, Psychotria leiocarpa Cham. & Schltdl (Rubiaceae, Sapium glandulatum (Vell. Pax (Euphorbiaceae e Sorocea bonplandii (Baill. Burg., Lanj. & Boer (Moraceae, utilizando-se bioensaios de germinação e crescimento e alface (Lactuca sativa L. como planta alvo. Nesses bioensaios, foram usados extratos foliares aquosos nas concentrações de 2 e 4%, preparados por maceração estática com água fria e quente. Os extratos das cinco espécies causaram atraso na germinação dos aquênios da alface, bem como efeitos tóxicos no crescimento das plântulas, com redução e enfraquecimento das raízes. Os resultados obtidos mostraram a presença de substâncias químicas inibidoras nos extratos, revelando potencial alelopático para as cinco espécies avaliadas.Allelopathy is characterized by harmful or beneficial effects on vegetation development, caused by chemical substances produced and released into the environment by the plant. Aiming to assess the allelopathic potential of Brazilian species, aqueous leaf extracts of Cecropia pachystachya Trec. (Urticaceae, Peltophorum dubium (Spreng. Taub. (Fabaceae, Psychotria leiocarpa Cham. & Schltdl (Rubiaceae, Sapium glandulatum (Vell. Pax (Euphorbiaceae, and Sorocea bonplandii (Baill. Burger, Lanj. & Boer (Moraceae were tested on lettuce using germination and growth bioassays. In these bioassays, aqueous leaf extracts were used at concentrations of 2 and 4%, prepared by static maceration with cold and hot water. The five species extracts delayed lettuce germination and produced toxic effects on seedling growth, with root

  6. COCHINCHINENIN—A NEW CHALCONE DIMER FROM THE CHINESE DRAGON BLOOD%剑叶血竭素国产血竭中一个新的二聚查耳酮

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周志宏; 王锦亮; 杨崇仁

    2001-01-01

    目的研究国产商品血竭的活性成分。方法用甲醇提取,Sephadex L-20, MCI gel和硅胶柱色谱进行分离纯化,用现代波谱学方法进行结构鉴定。结果从国产雨林牌血竭的甲醇浸提物中得到9个查耳酮化合物,分别鉴定为:1-[5-(2,4,4′-三羟基二氢查耳酮基)]-1-对羟基苯基-3-(2-甲氧基-4-羟基苯基)-丙烷(1), 2′-methoxysocotrin-5′-ol (2), socotrin-4′-ol (3), 2-甲氧基-4,4′-二羟基二氢查耳酮(4), 2,4,4′-三羟基二氢查耳酮(5), 2,4,4′-三羟基-6-甲氧基二氢查耳酮(6), 2′,4′,4-三羟基查耳酮(7), 2-甲氧基-4,4′-二羟基查耳酮(8), 2′-甲氧基-4′,4-二羟基查耳酮(9)。结论 1为一新的查耳酮二聚体,命名为剑叶血竭素(cochinchinenin),2-9为首次从该血竭中分离得到。%AIM To study the active constituents of Dracaena cochinchinensis (Lour.) S.C.Chen. in the commercial dragon blood. METHODS Various column chromatographies with Sephadex L-20 gel, MCI gel and silica gel were employed for the isolation and purification. The structures of compounds were elucidated by spectral analysis. RESULTS Nine chalcones were isolated from the commercial dragon's blood which was made of D.cochinchinensis (Lour.) S.C.Chen.. By means of spectral data, they were identified as 1-[5-(2,4,4′-trihydroxydihydrochalconyl)]-1-(p-hydroxyphenyl)-3-(2-methoxy-4-hydroxy-phenyl)-propane (1), 2′-methoxysocotrin-5′-ol (2), socotrin-4′-ol (3), 2-methoxy-4,4′-dihydroxydihydrochalcone (4), 2,4,4′-trihydroxy-dihydrochalcone (5), 2,4,4′-trihydroxy-6-methoxydihydrochalcone (6), 2′,4′,4-trihydroxy-chalcone (7), 2-methoxy-4,4′-dihydroxychalcone (8) and 2′-methoxy-4′,4-dihydroxychalcone (9). CONCLUSION Compound 1 is a new chalcone dimer and named as cochinchinenin. Compounds 2-9 were isolated from D.cochinchinensis (Lour.) S.C.Chen. for the first time.

  7. 北京植物区系新资料%SOME NEWLY RECORDED FLORA PLANTS FROM BEIJING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘全儒; 张劲林

    2014-01-01

    Twelve (12)species are reported as new flora in Beijing in this paper.These species include Saururus chinensis (Lour.)Baill.,Cocculus orbiculatus (Linn.)DC.,Chenopodium ambrosioides L.,Ch. pumilio R.Br.,Mirabilis nyctaginea (Michx.)MacMill.,Cabomba caroliniana A.Gray,Solanum lyratum Thunb.,S.sarrachoides Sendtner,Physalis pubescens L.,Carpesium abrotanoides L.,Tragopogon dubius Scop.,Mariscus umbellatus Vahl.Thalictrum foeniculaceum Bunge and Tagetes minuta L.are reported as supplementary distribution in Beijing area. Most of these species are naturalized except Thalictrum foeniculaceum Bunge.Saururus,Cocculus,Cabomba,Tragopogon and Mariscus are newly recorded genera, and Saururaceae is newly recorded family of Beij ing flora.%报道了北京植物区系新记录共12种,它们是三白草(Saururus chinensis (Lour.)Baill.)、木防己(Cocculus orbiculatus (L.)DC.)、土荆芥(Chenopodium ambrosioides L.)、铺地藜(Chpumilio R.Br.)、夜香紫茉莉(Mirabilis nyctaginea (Michx.)MacMill.)、水盾草(Cabomba caroliniana A.Gray)、白英(Solanum lyratum Thunb.)、腺龙葵(S sarrachiodes Sendtner.)、毛酸浆(Physalis pubescens L.)、天名精(Carpesium abrotanoides L.)、长喙婆罗门参(Tragopogondubius Scop.)、砖子苗(Mariscusumbellatus Vahl);此外,还补充了丝叶唐松草(Thalictrumfoeniculaceum Bunge)和小花万寿菊(Tagetes minuta L.)在北京的新分布地点.除丝叶唐松草外,其余种均为归化物种.三白草科(Saururaceae)为北京新记录科,而三白草属(Saururus),木防已属(Cocculus),水盾草属(Cabomba),婆罗门参属(Tragopogon)和转子苗属(Mariscus)为北京新记录属.

  8. Ploidia e fertilidade de pólen em progênies de citros Ploidy and pollen fertility in citrus hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Cesar Brugnara

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi desenvolvido para estimar a fertilidade do pólen e determinar o nível de ploidia em progênies dos cruzamentos da tangerineira 'Montenegrina' (C. deliciosa Ten. com a tangerineira 'King' (C. nobilis Lour. e com a laranjeira 'Caipira' (C. sinensis (L. Osb.. As plantas, de pés-francos e com idade entre 11 e 12 anos, são mantidas na Estação Experimental Agronômica da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, em Eldorado do Sul. Avaliaram-se o nível de ploidia, através da contagem dos cromossomos em células em meiose, e a fertilidade do pólen, por coloração do pólen com carmim propiônico, em 2005 e 2006. Todos os híbridos avaliados são diplóides e a fertilidade de pólen variou de zero a 98%. C27 - híbrido de 'Montenegrina' x 'Caipira' - revelou-se praticamente estéril, e a fertilidade de C21, do mesmo cruzamento, é de 10%. A menor fertilidade observada no cruzamento da 'Montenegrina' x 'King' foi de 42%.This work was performed to estimate pollen fertility and determinate the ploidy level of 11 to 12 years old progenies of crosses of 'Montenegrina' mandarin (Citrus deliciosa Ten. with 'King' mandarin (C. nobilis Lour. and with 'Caipira' sweet orange (C. sinensis (L. Osb. maintained at Estação Experimental Agronômica of UFRGS, in Eldorado do Sul, Brazil. The ploidy level was determined by chromosome countings in meiosis cells and pollen fertility evaluated by staining pollen grains with propionic carmine. All evaluated hybrids are diploid and pollen fertility varied from zero to 98%. C27, a hybrid 'Montenegrina' x 'Caipira', was found is sterile, and C21, from the same cross, showed 10 % fertility. The lowest observed fertility in the progeny 'Montenegrina' x 'King' was 42 %.

  9. Optimization of AFLP reaction system in Canarium album%橄榄基因组AFLP扩增体系的优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王燕平; 陈勤; 周志钦; 周俊辉

    2012-01-01

    为建立适于橄榄研究用的AFLP技术体系,以10个橄榄品种为材料,对其基因组DNA从酶切、连接、预扩增和选择性扩增等方面进行条件优化。研究结果表明,DNA模板用量为500ng,酶切体系中限制性内切酶EcoRⅠ和MseⅠ各加入3U,37℃水浴4h;连接体系中T4 DNA连接酶加入1.5U,16℃连接6h;并利用优化后的预扩增体系和选择性扩增体系筛选出6对适合于橄榄AFLP分析的引物组合:E/AAC—M/CAT、E/AAC—M/CTT、E/ACA—M/CAA、E/AGG—M/CAA、E/ACC—M/CAA、E/ACT—M/CAT。采用该体系得到的电泳条带清晰可靠、多态性好,可用于对橄榄遗传多样性的研究。%To establish an appropriate AFLP(Amplifiied Fragment Length Polymorphism) analysis system for Canariurn album (Lour.) Raeusch, 10 cuhivars of C. album (Lour.) Raeusch were involved in optimization of enzyme digestion, ligation, pre-amplification and selective amplification. The results suggested that about 500 ng DNA should be digested with 3 units of EcoR I and Mse I enzymes respectively in a reaction volume of 20 μL, and incubated at 37 ℃ for 4 h. Double-stranded adaptors were legated to the restriction fragments with 1.5 units of T4DNA ligation enzyme at 16 ℃ for 6 h. With the optimized pre-amplifieation and selective amplification systems, 6 pairs of primers (E/AAC-M/CAT, E/AAC-M/CTT, E/ ACA-M/CAA, E/ACC-M/CAT, E/ACC-M/CAA, E/ACT-M/CAT) were selected for the AFLP reaction system of Canarium album. The clear and highly polymorphic AFLP bands could be obtained by this reaction system, which was useful for the further research on genetic diversity of Canarium album in Guangdong province.

  10. 马甲子的化学成分研究%Chemical constituents from Paliurus ramosissimus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晨; 罗观堤; 胡荣; 付宏征

    2016-01-01

    对马甲子地上部分的化学成分进行研究,采用反复硅胶、葡聚糖凝胶、ODS以及制备型高效液相色谱技术进行分离纯化.通过质谱和一维、二维核磁共振波谱方法鉴定其结构.从中共分离并鉴定了8个化合物,分别为3β-羟基-27-(3,4-二羟基)羽扇豆-20(29)-烯-28-酸(1),桦木酸(2),羽扇豆醇(3),27-O-trans-caffeoylcylicodiscic acid (4),美洲茶酸(5),24-羟基美洲茶酸(6),二氢山萘酚(7),圣草素(8).其中,化合物1是一个新的化合物,化合物3-4,7-8为首次从该种植物中分离得到.%In the present research,in order to study the chemical constituents ofPaliurus ramosissimus (Lour.) Poir.,the isolation of its ingredients was performed by repeated chromatography on silica gel,Sephadex LH-20,ODS and preparative HPLC.Their structures were elucidated on the basis of combination of mass spectrometry and 1D,2D NMR spectroscopy.A total of 8 compounds were obtained,and their structures were identified as 3β-hydroxy-27-(3,4-dihydroxybenzoyl)oxylup-20(29)-en28-oic acid (1),betulinic acid (2),lupeol (3),27-O-trans-caffeoylcylicodiscic acid (4),ceanothic acid (5),24-hydroxyceanothic acid (6),dihydrokaempferol (7),eriodictyol (8).Among them,compound 1 was a new compound.Compounds 3-4,7-8 were isolated from Paliurus ramosissimus (Lour.) Poir.for the first time.

  11. 臭草水浸提液化感作用研究%Laboratory Assessment of the Allelopathic Potential of Aqueous Extracts of Praxelis clematidea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王真辉; 陈文庆; 杨礼富; 袁坤; 陈秋波

    2011-01-01

    以小白菜(Brassica campestris L ssp.Pekinensis(Lour.)Olsson),萝卜(Raphanus sativus L.),水稻(Oryza sativaa L.),热研2号柱花草(Stylosanthes guianensis cv.Reyan No.2)作为测试植物,研究新鲜假臭草(Praxelis clematidea(Criseb.)King and Robinson)水浸提液对种子发芽,新鲜假臭草和风干假臭草水浸提液对幼苗早期生长的化感效应以及不同生长环境下的假臭草浸提液对萝卜幼苗早期生长的化感作用.结果表明:新鲜假臭草浸提液对4种测试植物的种子发芽都有抑制作用.假臭草叶和完整植株水浸提液的化感作用明显大于其它器官水浸提液化感作用,叶可能是似臭草释放化感物质的主要器官.风干和新鲜假臭草水浸提液在低浓度时抑制所有测试植物幼苗根系生长.在逆境(如干旱和养分胁迫)中,假臭草会释放更多的化感物质,从而导致其化感作用增强.%The allelopathic effect of aqueous extracts of fresh Praxelis(Praxelis clematidea)material on germination and of all extracts from fresh and dry Praxelis material on initial seedling growth were studied on the following crops: Chinese cabbage(Brassica campestris L. ssp. Pekinensis(lour.)Olsson), radish(Raphanus sativus L.), rice (Oryza sativa L.) and Stylosanthes CIAT184(Stylosanthes guianensis cv. Reyan No. 2). Allelopathic effect of extracts of Praxelis in various habitats were also studied. All aqueous extracts from fresh Praxelis inhibited seed germination of all four test species. Leaf and whole plant extracts exhibited greater phytotoxicity than extracts from other plant parts. Leaves might be the parts of Praxelis that mainly released the allelochemicals. Dry matter extracts of Praxelis severely inhibited the root growth of the crop species and there was an indication of a similar trend with extracts of fresh material at lower concentrations. Allelopathic activity of P. clematidea increased under adverse(arid or nutriental stress)conditions under which more

  12. The growth of three submerged plants in different polluted water and its impact on water quality%3种沉水植物在不同污染水体中的生长及其对水质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴旻; 赵群芬

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, three submerged plants (goldfish algae(Ceratophyllum demersum L.), bitter grass(Hydrilla verticillata)and hydrilla(Vallisneria natans (Lour.) Hara)) were chosen as the research object and placed in different polluted water to explore different submerged plant’s purification effect on the water quality by monitoring water’s total nitrogen, total phosphorus. chlorophyll a content, and pH, etc. At the same time, based on the total nitrogen and total phosphorus content in plant and superoxide enzyme (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), the growth of the plants in different polluted water was researched. The results showed that the purification effects of different submerged plants have a significant difference on different polluted water, and the stress of different polluted water on the physical growth of submerged plant also has different effects.%以金鱼藻(Ceratophyllum demersum L.)、苦草(Hydrilla verticillata)、黑藻(Vallisneria natans (Lour.) Hara)3种沉水植物作为研究对象,分别将其放置于不同污染水体中培养,通过监测水体总氮、总磷、叶绿素a含量和pH值等,探究不同沉水植物对水质的净化效果;同时通过对植物体内总氮、总磷含量以及超氧化物酶(SOD)、丙二醛(MDA)的变化,研究植物在不同污染水体中的生长情况。结果表明,不同沉水植物对不同污染水体的净水效果有着显著差异,不同污染水体的胁迫作用对沉水植物本身的生理生长也有着不同的影响。综合所研究的沉水植物的净水优势以及在不同污染水体中的适应情况,筛选出在各种污染水体中的优势种,归纳总结出生态修复组合的方案。

  13. Specific leaf mass, fresh: dry weight ratio, sugar and protein contents in species of Lamiaceae from different light environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castrillo, M; Vizcaino, D; Moreno, E; Latorraca, Z

    2005-01-01

    Samples from eleven species of Lamiaceae were collected from different light environments in Venezuela for laboratory analysis. The studied species were: Plectranthus scutellarioides (Ps), Scutellaria purpurascens (Sp), Hyptis pectinata (Hp)), H. sinuata (Hs). Leonorus japonicus (Lj), Plecthranthus amboinicus (Pa) Ocimum hasilicum (Ocb), O. campechianum (Occ) Origanum majorana (Orm), Rosmarinus officinali, (Ro) and Salvia officinalis (So). Protein and soluble sugar contents per unit of area were measured, Specific Leaf Mass (SLM) and fresh:dry weight (FW/DW) ratios were calculated. The higher values for soluble sugars contents were present in sun species: Lj, Pa, Ocb, Occ, Orm, Ro and So; the lower values were obtained in low light species: Ps, Sp, Hp, Hs. The values of protein content do not show any clear trend or difference between sun and shade environments. The lowest values for the fresh weight: dry weight ratio are observed in sun species with the exception of Lj and Pa, while the highest value is observed in Pa, a succulent plant. The higher values of specific leaf mass (SLM) (Kg DMm(-2)) are observed in sun plants. The two way ANOVA revealed that there were significant differences among species and between sun and low light environments for sugar content and FW:DW ratio. while SLM was significant for environments but no significant for species, and not significant for protein for both species and environments. The soluble sugar content, FW:DW ratio and SLM values obtained in this work, show a clear separation between sun and shade plants. The sugar content and FW:DW ratio are distinctive within the species, and the light environment affected sugar content. FW:DW ratio and SLM. These species may he shade-tolerant and able to survive in sunny environments. Perhaps these species originated in shaded environments and have been adapting to sunny habitats.

  14. Ethnomedicine and ethnobotany of fright, a Caribbean culture-bound psychiatric syndrome

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    Quinlan Marsha B

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background "Fright" is an English-speaking Caribbean idiom for an illness, or ethnomedical syndrome, of persistent distress. A parallel ethnopsychiatric idiom exists in the French Antilles as sésisma. Fright is distinct from susto among Hispanics, though both develop in the wake of traumatic events. West Indian ethnophysiology (ethnoanatomy theorizes that an overload of stressful emotions (fear, panic, anguish or worry causes a cold humoral state in which blood coagulates causing prolonged distress and increased risks of other humorally cold illnesses. Methods Qualitative data on local explanatory models and treatment of fright were collected using participant-observation, informal key informant interviews and a village health survey. Ethnobotanical and epidemiological data come from freelist (or "free-list" tasks, analyzed for salience, with nearly all adults (N = 112 of an eastern village in Dominica, and a village survey on medicinal plant recognition and use (N = 106. Results Along with prayer and exercise, three herbs are salient fright treatments: Gossypium barbadense L., Lippia micromera Schauer, and, Plectranthus [Coleus] amboinicus [Loureiro] Sprengel. The survey indicated that 27% of village adults had medicated themselves for fright. Logistic regression of fright suffering onto demographic variables of age, education, gender, parental status and wealth measured in consumer goods found age to be the only significant predictor of having had fright. The probability of having (and medicating for fright thus increases with every year. Conclusions While sufferers are often uncomfortable recalling personal fright experiences, reporting use of medicinal plants is less problematic. Inquiry on fright medical ethnobotany (or phytotherapies serves as a proxy measurement for fright occurrence. Cross-cultural and ethnopharmacology literature on the medicinal plants suggests probable efficacy in accord with Dominican ethnomedical notions

  15. Toxicity of essential oil from Indian borage on the larvae of the African malaria vector mosquito, Anopheles gambiae

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    Kweka Eliningaya J

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Essential oils are currently studied for the control of different disease vectors, because of their efficacy on targeted organisms. In the present investigation, the larvicidal potential of essential oil extracted from Indian borage (Plectranthus amboinicus was studied against the African anthropophagic malaria vector mosquito, Anopheles gambiae. The larvae of An. gambiae s.s laboratory colony and An. gambiae s.l of wild populations were assayed and the larval mortality was observed at 12, 24 and 48 h after exposure period with the concentrations of 3.125, 6.25, 12.5, 25, 50 and 100 ppm. Findings Larval mortality rates of the essential oil was entirely time and dose dependent. The LC50 values of the laboratory colony were 98.56 (after 12h 55.20 (after 24 h and 32.41 ppm (after 48 h and the LC90 values were 147.40 (after 12h, 99.09 (after 24 h and 98.84 ppm (after 48 h. The LC50 and LC90 values of the wild population were 119.52, 179.85 (after 12h 67.53, 107.60 (after 24 h and 25.51, 111.17 ppm (after 48 h respectively. The oil showed good larvicidal potential after 48 h of exposure period against An. gambiae. The essential oil of Indian borage is a renowned natural source of larvicides for the control of the African malaria vector mosquito, An. gambiae. Conclusion The larvicidal efficacy shown by plant extracts against An. gambiae should be tested in semi field and small scale trials for effective compounds to supplement the existing larval control tools.

  16. Evaluation of some aromatic plant extracts for mosquito larvicidal potential against Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti, and Anopheles stephensi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaraman, M; Senthilkumar, A; Venkatesalu, V

    2015-04-01

    In the present investigation, larvicidal potential of hexane, choloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone, and methanol extracts of seven aromatic plants, viz., Blumea mollis, Chloroxylon swietenia, Clausena anisata, Feronia limnonia, Lantana camera, Plectranthus amboinicus, and Tagetes erecta were screened against Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti, and Anopheles stephensi. The larval mortality was observed after 12 and 24 h of exposure period. The results revealed that all the extracts showed varied levels of larvicidal activity against the mosquito species tested. However, the ethyl acetate extract of Chloroxylon swietenia showed the remarkable larvicidal activity against C. quinquefasciatus, Ae. aegypti, and An. stephensi. After 12 h of exposure period, the larvicidal activity was LC50 = 194.22 and LC90 = 458.83 ppm (C. quinquefasciatus), LC50 = 173.04 and LC90 = 442.73 ppm (Ae. aegypti), and LC50 = 167.28 and LC90 = 433.07 ppm (An. stephensi), and the larvicidal activity after 24-h exposure period was LC50 = 94.12 and LC90 = 249.83 ppm (C. quinquefasciatus), LC50 = 80.58 and LC90 = 200.96 ppm (Ae. aegypti), and LC50 = 76.24 and LC90 = 194.51 ppm (An. stephensi). The larvicidal potential of other plant extracts were in order of ethyl acetate extract of Clausena anisata > methanol extract of P. amboinicus > acetone extract of F. limonia > methanol extract of T. erecta > methanol extract of B. mollis > and methanol extract of L. camera. The results of the present study offer a possible way for further investigations to find out the active molecule responsible for the activity.

  17. Herbal Antibacterials: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chirag Modi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Plants are rich source of antibacterial agents because they produce wide array of bioactive molecules, most of which probably evolved as chemical defense against predation or infection. A major part of the total population in developing countries still uses traditional folk medicine obtained from plant resources With an estimation of WHO that as many as 80% of world population living in rural areas rely on herbal traditional medicines as their primary health care, the study on properties and uses of medicinal plants are getting growing interests. In recent years this interest to evaluate plants possessing antibacterial activity for various diseases is growing. Different solvent extracts (aqueous, alcohol and ethanol of leaves, flower and seed of various plants selected based on an ethnobotanical survey from India were subjected to in vitro antibacterial activity assay against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria employing different diffusion method. Based on local use of common diseases and Ethnobotanical knowledge, an attempt has been made to assess the antibacterial properties of selected medicinal plants viz. Argemone mexicana (Shialkanta, Aster lanceolatus (White panicle, Capparis thonningii and Capparis tomentosa (Woolly caper bush, Cardiospermum halicacabum (Balloonvine, Cassia alata (Herpetic alata, Centaurea sclerolepis, Cinnamomum zeylanicum (Cinnamon, Curcuma longa (Turmeric, Cymbopogon nervatus, Ficus religiosa (Peepal, Indigofera aspalathoides (Ajara, Marrubium vulgare (Horehound, Medicago Spp.(Medick, Burclover, Morus alba (Mulberry, Ocimum sanctum (Tulsi, Origanum marjorana (Marjoram, Oxalis corniculata (Amli, Piper nigrum (Kala mirch, Plectranthus amboinicus (Indian borage, Patharchur, Plumeria acutifolia (Kachuchi, Salvadora persica (Piludi, Salvia repens and Syzygium aromaticum (Clove for potential antibacterial activity against some important bacterial strains, namely Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus

  18. Persistência de plantas medicinais em sistemas agroflorestais no município de São Bento do Sul, SC, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.L. Hanisch

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available No final da década de 90, a comunidade de Rio Natal, no município de São Bento do Sul, SC, passou a fazer parte de uma Área de Preservação Ambiental e desde então, muitas áreas de cultivo, paulatinamente, estão retomando o processo de formação florestal. Neste cenário, foi sugerido pela comunidade, a possibilidade de cultivo de plantas medicinais adaptadas às condições de sombreamento. Em atendimento a essa demanda foi realizada uma pesquisa participativa na comunidade, de 2005 a 2008, onde foram avaliadas 14 espécies de plantas medicinais com potencial de mercado, cultivadas em áreas sombreadas, em três propriedades familiares. Foram avaliados: taxa de sobrevivência das espécies, incidência de doenças e pragas, teor de massa seca e altura das plantas. Apresentaram persistência ao cultivo em áreas sombreadas as espécies: Curcuma longa L. (açafrão-da-índia; Arctium lappa L. (bardana; Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng Pedersen (fáfia ou ginseng-brasileiro; Mikania glomerata Sprengel (guaco; Alternanthera brasiliana L. Kuntze (penicilina; Pogostemon cablin (Blanco Benth (patchuli e Maytenus ilicifolia Mart. Ex Reissek (espinheira-santa.

  19. Effects of the Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Alchornea triplinervia on Healing Gastric Ulcer in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clélia A. Hiruma-Lima

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Alchornea triplinervia (Spreng. Muell. Arg (Euphorbiaceae is a medicinal plant commonly used by people living in the Cerrado region of Brazil to treat gastrointestinal ulcers. We previously described the gastroprotective action of methanolic extract (ME of Alchornea triplinervia and the ethyl acetate fraction (EAF in increasing of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 gastric levels in the mucosa. In this work we evaluated the effect of EAF in promoting the healing process in rats with acetic acid-induced gastric ulcers. In addition, toxicity was investigated during treatment with EAF. After 14 days of treatment with EAF, the potent stimulator of gastric cell proliferation contributed to the acceleration of gastric ulcer healing. Upon immunohistochemical analysis, we observed a pronounced expression of COX-2, mainly in the submucosal layer. The 14-day EAF treatment also significantly increased the number of neutrophils in the gastric mucosa regeneration area. The EAF induced angiogenesis on gastric mucosa, observed as an increase of the number of blood vessels supplying the stomach in rats treated with EAF. Oral administration for 14 days of the ethyl acetate fraction from Alchornea triplinervia accelerated the healing of gastric ulcers in rats by promoting epithelial cell proliferation, increasing the number of neutrophils and stimulation of mucus production. This fraction, which contained mainly phenolic compounds, contributed to gastric mucosa healing.

  20. Defensive Sesquiterpenoids from Leaves of Eupatorium adenophorum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石伟; 骆世洪; 黎胜红

    2012-01-01

    The invasive plant Eupatorium adenophorum Spreng has caused great economic loss in China, and is gravely threatening the native biodiversity and ecosystem. The plant has been phytochemically investigated for the defen- sive chemical substances in its leaves. Three active sesquiterpenoids were isolated and identified, which include a new sesquiterpenoid (1), and two known sesquiterpenoids (2, 3). Their structures were established by spectroscopic studies such as 1D- and 2D-NMR and MS analyses. Meanwhile, the antifeedant activities of these compounds against two generalist plant-feeding insects, Helicoverpa armigera and Spodoptera exigua, were carried out. Com- pound 1 showed significant antifeedant activity against S. exigua with ECs0 = 7.46 μg/cm^2, while compounds 2 and 3 were more active against H. armigera (EC50=2.57 and 3.04 μg/cm^2 respectively). These findings suggest a de- fensive role of sesquiterpenoids in E. adenophorum against herbivores.

  1. Relationships between structure of the tree component and environmental variables in a subtropical seasonal forest in the upper Uruguay River valley, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Máida Ariane de Mélo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze relationships among the structure of the tree component, edaphic variables and canopy discontinuity along a toposequence in a seasonal upland (hillside forest in southern Brazil. Soil and vegetation were sampled in 25 plots of 20 × 20 m each. We described the vegetation in terms of structure, richness and diversity, as well as by species distribution patterns. We evaluated canopy continuity, determined sloping and calculated spatial coordinates. We applied partial canonical correspondence analysis (pCCA to determine whether species distribution correlated with environmental and spatial variables. We identified 1201 individuals belonging to 76 species within 30 families. The species with highest density and frequency were Gymnanthes concolor Spreng., Calyptranthes tricona D.Legrand, Eugenia moraviana O.Berg and Trichilia claussenii DC. The pCCAs indicated significant correlations with environmental and spatial variables. Sand content, boron content and soil density collectively explained 36.17% of the species matrix variation (total inertia, whereas the spatial variables x, y and xy² collectively explained 14.27%. The interaction between environmental and spatial variables explained nearly 4.5%. However, 45.05% remained unexplained, attributed to stochastic variation or unmeasured variables. Terrain morphology and canopy discontinuity had no apparent influence on richness, and changes in species distribution were correlated with sloping, which affects soil features and determines the directional distribution of some species.

  2. 木鳖子油中脂肪酸成分的研究(英文)%Studies on Fatty Acid Composition in the Oil of Momordica cochinchinensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    商慧娟; 王威; 袁春芳; 牛志铎; 高启品; 王于光; 王勇琦

    2000-01-01

    对木鳖子油中脂肪酸组成进行分析,采用石油醚提取脂肪油,快速甲醇化法制备成甲酯衍生物,GC-MS联用技术分析其中的脂肪酸组成和相对百分含量,鉴定了8种脂肪酸成分,为开发利用木鳖子资源提供了依据。%To determine the fatty acid composition in the oil of Semen Momordicae to evaluate itspractical use. Fatty oil was obtained by Soxhlet extraction with petroleum ether and converted to methylester derivatives by methanolic potassium hydroxide. Contents of the resultant methyl esters were then de-termined by GC-MS. Eight fatty acids were characterized and determined. Results of the study may pro-vide some information for the exploitation and utilization in the oil of seed of Momordicae cochinchinensis(Lout.) Spreng.

  3. EVALUATION OF NEUROPHARMACOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES OF STEPHANIA VENOSA HERB CONSUMPTION IN HEALTHY RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terdthai Tong-Un

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Public concern on mental health has noticeably increased given the high prevalence of neuropsychiatric disorders especially anxiety and depression. Most of the drugs for these conditions used nowadays have adverse side effects so the need for newer, better-tolerated and more efficacious treatments is remaining high. Growing attention is being paid to traditional herbal medicines. Stephania venosa Spreng (S. venosa; SV is a Thai traditional herb which has been used for cancer treatment as well as an aphrodisiac. In addition, accumulating lines of evidence reported that the ethanol extract of SV exhibited an antioxidant and exerted acetylcholinesterase inhibitory. However, the in vivo neurophamacological activities of this plant have never been studied. The aim of this study was to examine the neurophamacological effects of a crude extract of SV introduced orally at various doses ranging from 5, 10 and 20 mg kg-1 BW once daily for a period of 2 weeks. The anxiolytic and anti-depression like activities were determined after single administration, 1 and 2 weeks of treatment using elevated plus maze and forced swimming test respectively. Only SV 20 mg kg-1 treated rats exhibited a significant anxiolytic effect at all treatment duration. Unfortunately, this substance failed to show anti-depression like activity. Our findings provide a potential of the SV consumption might be used as a novel therapeutic strategy for the anti-anxiety disorder. However, further investigations about possible active ingredients and the precise underlying mechanisms are still necessary.

  4. BC3EE2,9B, a synthetic carbazole derivative, upregulates autophagy and synergistically sensitizes human GBM8901 glioblastoma cells to temozolomide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chien-Min; Syu, Jhih-Pu; Way, Tzong-Der; Huang, Li-Jiau; Kuo, Sheng-Chu; Lin, Chung-Tien; Lin, Chih-Li

    2015-11-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most fatal form of human brain cancer. Although temozolomide (TMZ), an oral alkylating chemotherapeutic agent, improves the survival rate, the prognosis of patients with GBM remains poor. Naturally occurring carbazole alkaloids isolated from curry leaves (Murraya koenigii Spreng.) have been shown to possess a wide range of anticancer properties. However, the effects of carbazole derivatives on glioblastoma cells remain poorly understood. In the present study, anti‑glioblastoma profiles of a series of synthetic carbazole derivatives were evaluated in vitro. The most promising derivative in this series was BC3EE2,9B, which showed significant anti‑proliferative effects in GBM8401 and GBM8901 cells. BC3EE2,9B also triggered cell‑cycle arrest, most prominently at the G1 stage, and suppressed glioblastoma cell invasion and migration. Furthermore, BC3EE2,9B induced autophagy‑mediated cell death and synergistically sensitized GBM cells to TMZ cytotoxicity. The possible mechanism underlying BC3EE2,9B‑induced autophagy may involve activation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase and the attenuation of the Akt and mammalian target of the rapamycin downstream signaling pathway. Taken together, the present results provide molecular evidence for the mode of action governing the ability of BC3EE2,9B to sensitize drug‑resistant glioblastoma cells to the chemotherapeutic agent TMZ.

  5. The sarsaparilla market in the state of São Paulo (Brazil and the challenges of cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marli K.M. Soares

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to present information about the sarsaparilla sold in establishments in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, assess the genetic diversity of Smilax brasiliensis Spreng., Smilacaceae, and examine the growing conditions and productivity of five species of Smilax. The amount of sarsaparilla sold per month at most pharmacies was 0.4 kg on average. Herbal stores and markets sold averages of 9 kg and 8 kg per month, respectively. The weight of the underground biomass of S. fluminensis (188.3 g is significantly higher than those of other species (28.3-79.6 g. The study demonstrated that high genetic diversity among the Smilax brasiliensis plants belonging to the CPQBA germplasm bank, which was confirmed by the results of the genotyping study that used a SSR marker on S. brasiliensis. The high consumption of sarsaparilla and the low yield of young plants cultivated from seeds with high genetic variability reinforce the need for further studies on the production of Smilax species.

  6. Diplotaxis simplex suppresses postprandial hyperglycemia in mice by inhibiting key-enzymes linked to type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamida Jdir

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Nutritional properties of Diplotaxis simplex Spreng., Brassicaceae, an edible wild cruciferous largely distributed in North Africa, were investigated. Potassium (3690–3780 mg/100 g and calcium (900–1170 mg/100 g were the most concentrated minerals. Linoleinic acid was found to be the main fatty acid (25.4–27.7%, followed by palmitic acid (13.2–15.3%. Moreover, lipidic fraction of leaves was characterized by a relatively high rate of ethyl linoleate (14.4% and phytol (17.6%. Ethyl acetate extract of D. simplex flowers showed concentration-dependent α-amylase (IC50 3.46 mg/ml and α-glucosidase (IC50 0.046 mg/ml inhibitory activities. The positive in vitro enzymes inhibition was confirmed by a maltose tolerance test, which showed that treatment with flowers extract significantly inhibited the rise in blood glucose levels of maltose-loaded mice comparable to the standard antihyperglycemic agent acarbose. From these results, it may be concluded that D. simplex flowers can be used effectively as a safer alternative therapy to control postprandial hyperglycemia.

  7. Cytogenetics and characterization of microsatellite loci for a South American pioneer tree species, Croton floribundus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestrini, Milene; Pinto-Maglio, Cecília A F; Zucchi, Maria I; dos Santos, Flavio A M

    2013-12-01

    Despite the recent advances in plant population genetic studies, the lack of information regarding pedigree, ploidy level, or mode of inheritance for many polyploids can compromise the analysis of the molecular data produced. The aim of this study was to examine both microsatellite and cytogenetic characteristics of the pioneer tree Croton floribundus Spreng. (Euphorbiaceae) to test for the occurrence of polyploidy in the species and to evaluate its implications for the appropriate use of SSR markers. Seven microsatellite markers were developed and screened for 62 individuals from a semi-deciduous tropical forest in Brazil. Chromosome number, meiotic behavior, and pollen viability were evaluated from male flower buds. All SSR loci were highly polymorphic. The number of bivalents observed in meiosis n = 56 (2n = 8× = 112) and the maximum number of alleles per individual (Ni = 8) demonstrated the occurrence of polyploidy in C. floribundus. The normal meiotic pairing and the high pollen viability suggested that C. floribundus is a regular and stable polyploid, most likely an allopolyploid. The combined SSR and cytogenetic data provided new evidence on the origin and evolution of the species as well as assured the accurate use of SSR loci for population genetic studies of the polyploid pioneer species.

  8. Toxicity and antitumor efficacy of Croton polyandrus oil against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Déborah R.P. Meireles

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The essential oil from Croton polyandrus Spreng., Euphorbiaceae, leaves was tested for the toxicity and antitumor activity. The concentration producing 50% hemolysis was 141 µg/ml on mice erythrocytes. In the acute toxicological study, the estimated LD50 was 447.18 mg/kg. The essential oil did not induce increase in number of micronucleated erythrocytes, suggesting low genotoxicity. Essential oil (100 or 150 mg/kg showed significant antitumor activity in Ehrlich ascitic carcinoma model. We observed that essential oil induces cell-cycle arrest at the G0/G1 phase, and increases the sub-G1 peak, which represents a marker of cell death by apoptosis. Survival also increased for the treated animals. The toxicological analyses revealed reduction in body weight, increased aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase activity, hematological changes, and a thymus index reduction. These data suggest gastrointestinal and liver toxicity, anemia, leukopenia/lymphocytopenia, and immunosuppressive effects. Histopathological analysis revealed the weak hepatotoxicity of essential oil. In summary, essential oil of C. polyandrus displays in vivo antitumor activity and moderate toxicity.

  9. Floristic and phytosociological investigation of trees in a seasonal deciduous forest fragment at São Miguel do Oeste, Santa Catarina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geniane Schneider

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The forests in Santa Catarina have been reduced and fragmented, and seasonal deciduous forests are among the most afflicted. The aim of the investigation was to describe arboreal composition and structure in a seasonal deciduous forest fragment. We established ten sample units of 20x20 m, covering a total area of 0.4 ha. Trees with circumference at breast height (CBH ≥ 25 cm were identified, and species richness and diversity were evaluated. A total of 205 individuals was sampled from 54 species, representing 44 genera and 23 families. Tree diversity was estimated to be 3.472 (nats using the Shannon-Weiner index (H’, and Pielou’s evenness (J’ was estimated at 0.87. The families with the largest number of species were Fabaceae, Myrtaceae, Meliaceae, Lauraceae and Sapindaceae. The species with the highest importance and coverage values were Nectandra megapotamica (Spreng. Mez, Sorocea bonplandii (Baill. W.C. Burger, Lanjouw & Boer, and Ocotea diospyrifolia (Meisn. Mez. Species richness and diversity are within the range of values cited for seasonal deciduous forests in the Floristic Forest Inventory of Santa Catarina, which shows the impact of exploration and fragmentation on this habitat. Nevertheless, the studied area has apparently conserved a significant portion of the tree species cited for this forest type.

  10. Effect of thermal and alkaline pretreatment of giant miscanthus and Chinese fountaingrass on biogas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkemka, Valentine Nkongndem; Li, Yongqiang; Hao, Xiying

    2016-01-01

    Giant miscanthus (Miscanthus × giganteus) and Chinese fountaingrass (Pennisetum alopecuroides (L.) Spreng), cultivated for landscaping and soil conservation, are potential energy crops. The study investigated the effect of combined thermal and alkaline pretreatments on biogas production of these energy crops. The pretreatment included two types of alkali (6% CaO and 6% NaOH) at 22, 70 and 100 °C. The alkaline pretreatment resulted in a greater breakdown of the hemicellulose fraction, with CaO more effective than NaOH. Pretreatment of giant miscanthus with 6% CaO at 100 °C for 24 h produced a CH4 yield (313 mL g(-1) volatile solids (VS)) that was 1.7 times that of the untreated sample (186 mL g(-1) VS). However, pretreatment of Chinese fountaingrass with 6% CaO or 6% NaOH at 70 °C for 24 h resulted in similar CH4 yields (328 and 302 mL g(-1) VS for CaO and NaOH pretreatments) as the untreated sample (311 mL g(-1) VS). Chinese fountaingrass was more easily digestible but had a low overall CH4 yield per hectare (1,831 m(3) ha(-1) y(-1)) compared to giant miscanthus (6,868 m(3) ha(-1) y(-1)). This study demonstrates the potential of thermal/alkaline pretreatment and the use of giant miscanthus and Chinese fountaingrass for biogas production.

  11. A revision of the Dulcamaroid Clade of Solanum L. (Solanaceae

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    Sandra Knapp

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The Dulcamaroid clade of Solanum contains 45 species of mostly vining or weakly scandent species, including the common circumboreal weed Solanum dulcamara L. The group comprises members of the previously recognised infrageneric groupings sect. Andropedas Rusby, sect. Californisolanum A. Child, sect. Dulcamara (Moench Dumort., sect. Holophylla (G.Don Walp., sect. Jasminosolanum (Bitter Seithe, sect. Lysiphellos (Bitter Seithe, subsect. Nitidum A.Child and sect. Subdulcamara Dunal. These infrageneric groups are not monophyletic as traditionally recognised, and the complex history of the classification of the dulcamaroid solanums is reviewed. Many of the species in the clade are quite variable morphologically; plants are shrubs, herbaceous vines or woody canopy lianas, and habits can vary between these states in a single locality. Variation in leaf shape and pubescence density and type is also extreme and has lead to the description of many minor morphological variants as distinct species. The flowers of members of the group are generally very showy, and several species (e.g., S. crispum Ruiz & Pav., S. laxum Spreng., S. seaforthianum Andrews are popular ornamental plants that have occasionally escaped from cultivation and become naturalised. The clade is here divided into five morphologically and geographically delimited species groups to facilitate further study. One new species from southern Ecuador, Solanum agnoston S.Knapp sp. nov., is described here. Full descriptions and synonymies (including designations of lectotypes or neotypes, preliminary conservation assessments, illustrations, distribution maps, and an extensive list of localities are provided for all species.

  12. Mycorrhiza of the host-specific Lactarius deterrimus on the roots of Picea abies and Arctostaphylos uva-ursi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mühlmann, O; Göbl, F

    2006-06-01

    The ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete species Lactarius deterrimus Gröger is considered to be a strictly host-specific mycobiont of Picea abies (L.) Karst. However, we identified arbutoid mycorrhiza formed by this fungus on the roots of Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. in a mixed stand at the alpine timberline; typical ectomycorrhiza of P. abies were found in close relation. A. uva-ursi is known as an extremely unspecific phytobiont. The mycorrhizae of both associations are described and compared morphologically. The mycorrhiza formed by L. deterrimus on both A. uva-ursi and P. abies show typical ectomycorrhizal features such as a hyphal mantle and a Hartig net. The main difference between the mycorrhizal symbioses with the different phytobionts is the occurrence of intracellular hyphae in the epidermal cells of A. uva-ursi. This emphasizes the importance of the plant partner for mycorrhizal anatomy. This is the first report of a previously considered host-specific ectomycorrhizal fungus in association with A. uva-ursi under natural conditions. The advantages of this loose specificity between the fungus and plant species is discussed.

  13. New high-performance liquid chromatography-dad method for analytical determination of arbutin and hydroquinone in rat plasma

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    F R Gallo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural substances present in herbal preparations should be carefully used because they can give toxic or therapeutic effects despite of their amount or the way of administration. The safety of products of vegetable origin must be assessed before commercialisation by monitoring the active ingredients and their metabolites. This study was therefore designed to identify and quantify arbutin and its metabolite hydroquinone, naturally present in Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L. Spreng plant in rat plasma, after an acute and subacute administration of aqueous arbutin solution in Wistar rats. For this purpose a reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detection was developed to assess the pharmacokinetic of arbutin and hydroquinone in plasma of female rats treated with aqueous arbutin solutions. The detection (arbutin: 0.0617 µg/ml and hydroquinone 0.0120 µg/ml and quantification (arbutin: 0.2060 µg/ml and hydroquinone: 0.0400 µg/ml limits were determined. At the arbutin concentration level of 10.7 µg/ml repeatability was 13.33% and its recovery 93.4±6.93%, while at the hydroquinone concentration level of 10.6 µg/ml repeatability was 11.66% and its recovery 92.9±7.75%. Furthermore the method was fully validated and the obtained data indicate that the new method provides good performances.

  14. New High-performance Liquid Chromatography-DAD Method for Analytical Determination of Arbutin and Hydroquinone in Rat Plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, F R; Pagliuca, G; Multari, G; Panzini, G; D'amore, E; Altieri, I

    2015-01-01

    Natural substances present in herbal preparations should be carefully used because they can give toxic or therapeutic effects despite of their amount or the way of administration. The safety of products of vegetable origin must be assessed before commercialisation by monitoring the active ingredients and their metabolites. This study was therefore designed to identify and quantify arbutin and its metabolite hydroquinone, naturally present in Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng plant in rat plasma, after an acute and subacute administration of aqueous arbutin solution in Wistar rats. For this purpose a reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detection was developed to assess the pharmacokinetic of arbutin and hydroquinone in plasma of female rats treated with aqueous arbutin solutions. The detection (arbutin: 0.0617 µg/ml and hydroquinone 0.0120 µg/ml) and quantification (arbutin: 0.2060 µg/ml and hydroquinone: 0.0400 µg/ml) limits were determined. At the arbutin concentration level of 10.7 µg/ml repeatability was 13.33% and its recovery 93.4±6.93%, while at the hydroquinone concentration level of 10.6 µg/ml repeatability was 11.66% and its recovery 92.9±7.75%. Furthermore the method was fully validated and the obtained data indicate that the new method provides good performances.

  15. Acaricidal activity of Annonaceae fractions against Tetranychus tumidus and Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae and the metabolite profile of Duguetia lanceolata (Annonaceae using GC-MS

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    Dejane Santos Alves

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Species of the Tetranychus genus feed on plant tissues, which reduces the rate of photosynthesis and can lead to the death of plant tissues. As a result, considerable production losses are caused by these arthropods. Thus, in order to aid in the development of new products for the control of Tetranychus tumidus Banks and Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae, the initial objective of this study was to select Annonaceae derived fractions that were soluble in dichloromethane and have acaricidal activity. Then, an exploratory analysis of the metabolite profile of the most successful fraction was performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Among the dichloromethane soluble fractions derived from Annona cacans Warm., Annona coriacea Mart., Annona neolaurifolia H. Rainer, Annona sylvatica A.St.-Hil., Duguetia lanceolata A.St.-Hil., Guatteria australis A.St.-Hil., Xylopia brasiliensis Spreng., Xylopia emarginata Mart. and Xylopia sericea A.St.-Hil., only the fraction from D. lanceolata stem bark reduced the survival of T. tumidus females. However, ovicidal activity was not detected when D. lanceolata stem bark was evaluated against T. tumidus eggs. Further, we studied the effect of dichloromethane soluble fractions from D. lanceolata leaves, berry fruits and stem bark on T. urticae, and the stem bark was found to be the most active fraction against T. urticae. The metabolite profile analysis of D. lanceolata stem bark by GC-MS, suggested that the main constituents were 2,4,5-trimethoxystyrene and trans-asarone.

  16. Molecular cloning and characterization of a gene encoding RING zinc finger ankyrin protein from drought-tolerant Artemisia desertorum

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Xiuhong Yang; Chao Sun; Yuanlei Hun; Zhongping Lin

    2008-03-01

    A RING zinc finger ankyrin protein gene, designated AdZFP1, was isolated from drought-tolerant Artemisia desertorum Spreng by mRNA differential display and RACE. Its cDNA was 1723 bp and encoded a putative protein of 445 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 47.9 kDa and an isoelectric point (pI) of 7.49. A typical C3HC4-type RING finger domain was found at the C-terminal region of the AdZFP1 protein, and several groups of ankyrin repeats were found at the N-terminal region. Alignments of amino acid sequence showed that AdZFP1 was 66% identical to the Arabidopsis thaliana putative RING zinc finger ankyrin protein AAN31869. Transcriptional analysis showed that AdZFP1 was inducible under drought stress in root, stem and leaf of the plant. Semi-quantitative reverse-transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis showed that the transcript of AdZFP1 was strongly induced by exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) and also by salinity, cold and heat to some extent. Overexpression of the AdZFP1 gene in transgenic tobacco enhanced their tolerance to drought stress.

  17. New records of Pteridophytes for Kashmir Valley, India

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    SHAKOOR A. MIR

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Mir SA, Mishra AK, Reshi ZA, Sharma MP. 2014. New Records of Pteridophytes for Kashmir Valley, India. Biodiversitas 15: 131-136. During the recent field survey of district Shopian four species of Pteridophytes are reported for the first time that constitutes new records for Kashmir valley. These species are Hypolepis polypodioides (Blume Hook, Pteris stenophylla Wall. ex Hook. & Grev., Dryopteris subimpressa Loyal and Dryopteris wallichiana (Spreng. Hylander. The diagnostic features of H. polypodioides are presence of long-creeping slender rhizome and eglandular, colorless or brown tinged hairs throughout the frond. P. stenophylla is characterized by having dimorphic fronds and 3 to 5 pinnae clustered at stipe apex. D. subimpressa is marked by pale-green lamina and the largest basiscopic basal pinnule in the lowest pair of pinnae. Similarly, the characteristic features of D. wallichiana are presence of huge frond size, glossier and dark-green lamina and dense browner scales in stipe and rachis. In present communication taxonomic description, synonyms, ecology and photographs are provided for each of these newly recorded species.

  18. USE OF ULTRASOUND FOR ESTIMATIVE OF MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF Peltophorum dubium WOOD

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    Diego Martins Stangerlin

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The aimed this study was evaluate the use of dynamic elastic constant obtained by non-destructive test as a parameter in the estimative of mechanical properties of Peltophorum dubium (Spreng. Taub. wood obtained by destructive test. For this, ultrasonic equipment (not-destructive method was utilized with point-contact transducersof 45 kHz. The ultrasonic velocity was determined considering the wave transmission along the length of the samples, which dimensions of 2.5 x 2.5 x 41 cm in thickness, width and length, respectively. Based on the relationship between ultrasonic velocity and densityof the wood was determined the dynamic elastic constant. The ultrasonic method sensibility was evaluated with subsequent static-bending test where modulus of elasticity and rupture determination. The results showed that ultrasonic method it’s fast and moderately efficient tool for inference non-destructive of mechanical properties. However, was verified difference in the adjustment of statistical models generated to estimate the properties, and found the best regression parameters to estimate the modulus of elasticity,compared with the modulus of rupture.

  19. REGISTRO DA COCHONILHA-ROSADA-DO-HIBISCO INFESTANDO FRUTÍFERAS EM MACEIÓ, ALAGOAS, BRASIL

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    SÔNIA MARIA FORTI BROGLIO

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reported for the first time the occurrence of the pink hibiscus mealybug Maconelli-coccus hirsutus (Green, 1908 (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae in Maceió, Alagoas, Brazil attacking the following fruit species: soursop (Annona muricata L. (Annonaceae, guava (Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae, mango (Mangifera indica L. (Anacardiaceae, carambola (Averrhoa carambola L. (Oxalidaceae, acerola (Malpighia glaba L. (Malpighiaceae, cajazeiro (Spondias lutea L. (Anacardiaceae and cupuaçuzeiro (Theobroma gran-diflorum (Willd. ex Spreng. Schum. (Malvaceae. The percentages of injured plants were recorded for each plant species in the field. Damaged plants showed short internodes, wrinkled leaves, fruit deformation, and sooty mold developed on the honeydew excreted by the mealybugs. Infested plant structures were taken to the Laboratory of Entomology of the Center for Agricultural Sciences, of the Federal University of Alagoas, where the mealybug species was identified through morphological characteristics. The following injury percentages were recorded on the plants: soursop (100%, guava (10%, mango (10%, carambola (100%, acerola (100%, cajá (50% and cupuaçu (100%. The mealybug collected in Maceió, AL; Brazil was identified as Maconelli-coccus hirsutus (Green, 1908 (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae. It was the first record of this species in the state of Alagoas and infestation by pink hibiscus mealybug on the host plants mango, acerola and cajazeiro in Brazil.

  20. Vasoactive and antioxidant activities of plants used in Mexican traditional medicine for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarra-Alvarado, C; Rojas, A; Mendoza, S; Bah, M; Gutiérrez, D M; Hernández-Sandoval, L; Martínez, M

    2010-07-01

    This study demonstrated that the aqueous extracts of plants employed in Mexican traditional medicine for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases are able to modify the tone of arterial smooth muscle. Agastache mexicana (Kunth) Lint & Epling (Labiatae), Chenopodium murale L. (Chenopodiaceae), Chirantodendron pentadactylon Larreat (Sterculiaceae), Dracocephalum moldavica L. (Labiatae), Psittacanthus calyculatus G. Don (Loranthaceae), Prunus serotina ssp. capuli (Cav. ex Spreng) McVaugh (Rosaceae), and Sechium edule Sw. (Cucurbitaceae) contain secondary metabolites that promote vascular relaxation and display antioxidant activities. As expected, their antioxidant effects showed a significant correlation with the polyphenolics content. However, a lower correlation was found between the antioxidant activity and the maximum vasodilatory effect, suggesting that the vasodilatation elicited by the plant extracts could be only partly attributed to their antioxidant properties. The extract of P. calyculatus, which displayed a maximum vasorelaxant effect that was higher than that of acetylcholine, induced endothelium-dependent vasodilatation. Futhermore, the vasorelaxant response to the P. calyculatus extract was reduced after adding an inhibitor of soluble guanylate cyclase activity, providing evidence that the NO/cGMP pathway is involved. On the other hand, the extracts of Bocconia frutescens L. (Papaveraceae), Magnolia grandiflora L. (Magnoliaceae), and Solanum rostratum Dunal (Solanaceae) induced concentration-dependent contraction of rat aortic rings, suggesting that these plants have potential health benefits for the treatment of ailments such as venous insufficiency. The pharmacological activities of the extracts studied provide scientific support for their ethnomedical use.

  1. Bioactive Quinic Acid Derivatives from Ageratina adenophora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Wen Tan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A novel quinic acid derivative, 5-O-trans-o-coumaroylquinic acid methyl ester (1, together with three known ones, chlorogenic acid methyl ester (2, macranthoin F (3 and macranthoin G (4, were isolated from the aerial parts of the invasive plant Ageratina adenophora (Spreng.. The structure of new compound 1 was elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis, including 1D- and 2D-NMR techniques. Compounds 2–4 were isolated from plant A. adenophora for the first time. All the compounds showed in vitro antibacterial activity toward five assayed bacterial strains, especially 3 and 4, which showed in vitro antibacterial activity against Salmonella enterica with MIC values of 7.4 and 14.7 μM, respectively. Compound 1 was further found to display in vitro anti-fungal activity against spore germination of Magnaporthe grisea with an IC50 value 542.3 µM. These four compounds were also tested for their antioxidant activity against DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical.

  2. Biology and systematics of the New World Phyllocnistis Zeller leafminers of the avocado genus Persea (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Donald R; Wagner, David L

    2011-05-11

    Four New World species of Phyllocnistis Zeller are described from serpentine mines in Persea (Family Lauraceae). Phyllocnistis hyperpersea,new species, mines the upper leaf surfaces of avocado, Persea americana Mill., and red bay, Persea borbonia (L.) Spreng. and ranges over much of the southeastern United States into Central America. Phyllocnistis subpersea,new species, mines the underside and occasionally upper sides of new leaves of Persea borbonia in southeastern United States. Phyllocnistis longipalpa, new species, known only from southern Florida also mines the undersides of new leaves of Persea borbonia. Phyllocnistis perseafolia,new species, mines both leaf surfaces and possibly fruits of Persea americana in Colombia, South America. As in all known species of Phyllocnistis, the early instars are subepidermal sapfeeders in young (not fully hardened) foliage, and the final instar is an extremely specialized, nonfeeding larval form, whose primary function is to spin the silken cocoon, at the mine terminus, prior to pupation. Early stages are illustrated and described for three of the species. The unusual morphology of the pupae, particularly the frontal process of the head, is shown to be one of the most useful morphological sources of diagnostic characters for species identification of Phyllocnistis. COI barcode sequence distances are provided for the four proposed species and a fifth, undescribed species from Costa Rica.

  3. Biology and systematics of the New World Phyllocnistis Zeller leafminers of the avocado genus Persea (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald Davis

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Four New World species of Phyllocnistis Zeller are described from serpentine mines in Persea (Family Lauraceae. Phyllocnistis hyperpersea, new species, mines the upper leaf surfaces of avocado, Persea americana Mill., and red bay, Persea borbonia (L. Spreng. and ranges over much of the southeastern United States into Central America. Phyllocnistis subpersea, new species, mines the underside and occasionally upper sides of new leaves of Persea borbonia in southeastern United States. Phyllocnistis longipalpa, new species, known only from southern Florida also mines the undersides of new leaves of Persea borbonia. Phyllocnistis perseafolia, new species, mines both leaf surfaces and possibly fruits of Persea americana in Colombia, South America. As in all known species of Phyllocnistis, the early instars are subepidermal sapfeeders in young (not fully hardened foliage, and the final instar is an extremely specialized, nonfeeding larval form, whose primary function is to spin the silken cocoon, at the mine terminus, prior to pupation. Early stages are illustrated and described for three of the species. The unusual morphology of the pupae, particularly the frontal process of the head, is shown to be one of the most useful morphological sources of diagnostic characters for species identification of Phyllocnistis. COI barcode sequence distances are provided for the four proposed species and a fifth, undescribed species from Costa Rica.

  4. Effect of Hg, As and Pb on biomass production, photosynthetic rate, nutrients uptake and phytochelatin induction in Pfaffia glomerata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, D K; Huang, H G; Nicoloso, F T; Schetinger, M R; Farias, J G; Li, T Q; Razafindrabe, B H N; Aryal, N; Inouhe, M

    2013-11-01

    Plantlets of Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng.) were exposed for 28 days to three different metal/metalloid (Hg, Pb and As) with different levels (Hg 1; As 25, 50, 100 and Pb 100 and 400 μM) to analyze the possible phytochelatin initiation and affects on growth and photosynthetic pigments vis-à-vis metal accumulation potential of plants. The plantlets showed significant Hg, As and Pb accumulation in roots (150, 1267.67 and 2129 μg g(-1) DW respectively); however, a low root to shoot metal translocation was observed. It was interesting to note that all tested macronutrient (Mg, K, Ca) was higher in shoots and just opposite in case of micronutrients (Cu, Fe, Zn), was recorded highest in roots. The growth of plantlets (analyzed in terms of length and dry weight) was negatively affected by various metal treatments. In addition, the level of photosynthetic pigments alters significantly in response to all metal/metalloid treatment. In response to all tested metal/metalloids in plants only As induced phytochelatins (PC2, PC3 and PC4) in roots, and in shoots, GSH was observed in all tested metal/metalloids. In conclusion, P. glomerata plantlets could not cooperatively induce phytochelatins under any of Hg and Pb levels.

  5. Teste de especificidade hospedeira de Phaedon confinis (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, um potencial agente de biocontrole de Senecio brasiliensis (Asteraceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julianne Milléo

    2011-07-01

    Abstract. Senecio brasiliensis (Spreng. Less when ingested by cattle and horses, the plant causes seneciosis, a serious poisoning. Due to the great financial losses to cattle ranchers, controlling the plant using insects has become attractive. Systematic survey efforts have revealed that Phaedon confinis Klug causes serious damage to the plant, and may be a great biocontrol agent. The object was to extend the tests of host specificity to 52 plants using 1st larval instar and adult chrysomelid bettles. The insects were submitted to “no-choice” and “multiple-choice” tests. The following results were obtained: “NO-CHOICE” L1 – 52 plants tested: null 90.39%; negligible damage 5.77%; light 1.92%; and normal in only S. brasiliensis 1.92%, where 31.67% of larvae obtained an adult phase. “NO-CHOICE” ADULTS – 46 plants. Null damage was recorded in 82.60%; 13.04% showed negligible damage; 2.17% light; 2.17% normal in S. brasiliensis. The chysomelids oviposited during observation days only on S. brasiliensis leaves. 615 eggs were oviposited with 73.01% viability. “MULTIPLE CHOICE” LARVAE – nine plants tested. 66.67% null; 11.11% weak; 11.11% negligible damage; and 11.11% normal in S. brasiliensis. The results indicate that the normal diet, oviposition, survival and development of P. confinis is restricted to S. brasiliensis and corroborates its potential as a biocontrol agent.

  6. Alguns aspectos da biologia do serrador, Oncideres dejeani Thompson, 1868 (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dionisio Link

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Realizou-se este trabalho objetivando determinar alguns parâmetros comparativos da biologia do serrador, Oncideres dejeani Thomson,1868 (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae sobre aroeira preta, Lithraea brasiliensis L. March (Anacardiaceae e  pau de leite, Sebastiania brasiliensis Spreng. (Euphorbiaceae, em São Sepé - RS, durante o período 1989-1990. Mediu-se o comprimento e a largura do orifício de emergência dos adultos do serrador e, o comprimento e volume da galeria larval-pupal. O orifício de emergência do adulto de O. dejeani apresenta formato ovalado em pau de leite e quase circular em aroeira preta. A larva se desenvolve em galhos de vários diâmetros, independente da espécie de planta hospedeira, consome igual volume de madeira e constroi galeria de comprimento similar nas duas espécies botânicas estudadas.

  7. Antileishmanial Activity of Medicinal Plants Used in Endemic Areas in Northeastern Brazil

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    Aline Cavalcanti De Queiroz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the leishmanicidal activity of five species of plants used in folk medicine in endemic areas of the state of Alagoas, Brazil. Data were collected in the cities of Colonia Leopoldina, Novo Lino, and União dos Palmares, Alagoas state, from patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis (Leishmania amazonensis who use medicinal plants to treat this disease. Plants extracts were tested at a concentration of 1–100 μg/mL in all experiments, except in an assay to evaluate activity against amastigotes, when 10 μg/mL was used. All plants extracts did not show deleterious activity to the host cell evidenced by LDH assay at 100, 10, and 1 μg/mL after 48 h of incubation. The plants extracts Hyptis pectinata (L. Poit, Aloe vera L., Ruta graveolens L., Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen, and Chenopodium ambrosioides L. exhibited direct activity against extracellular forms at 100 μg/mL; these extracts inhibited growth by 81.9%, 82.9%, 74.4%, 88.7%, and 87.4%, respectively, when compared with promastigotes. The plants extracts H. pectinata, A. vera, and R. graveolens also significantly diminished the number of amastigotes at 10 μg/mL, inhibiting growth by 85.0%, 40.4%, 94.2%, and 97.4%, respectively, when compared with control. Based on these data, we conclude that the five plants exhibited considerable leishmanicidal activity.

  8. Preferência Floral de Vespas (Hymenoptera, Vespidae no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil

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    Alexandre Somavilla

    2012-03-01

    Abstract Wasps integrate the floral visitors’ community and they can constitute a representative portion of the pollinators. For this reason, it was aimed to know and to analyze the floral preference of the Vespidae species and to investigate the use of floral resources for these wasps. The collects were performed between 2001 and 2008 in different localities of Rio Grande do Sul state (Estrela Velha, Santa Cruz do Sul, São Francisco de Paula e Sinimbu between 08:00 at 17:00 hours, utilizing entomological nets to catch the flower-visiting wasps. The collected specimens were deposited at the Coleção Entomológica de Santa Cruz do Sul (CESC. 1.483 specimens were captured belonging to 73 wasp species, whose 78.9% were Polistinae (30 species and 21.1% Eumeninae (43 species, visiting the flowers of 33 plant species classified in 16 botanical families; the families with the larger number of plant species were Asteraceae (12, Fabaceae (4 and Apiaceae (3. The plant species with the largest number of wasps collected was Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (616, followed by Eryngium pandanifolium L. (137 and Eryngium horridum Spreng (122. The analysis of the trophic niche overlap of 26 species with four or more visited plant species, showed an overlap equal or higher than 50% in six cases.

  9. The Principal Component Analysis of Trace Elements in Asteraceae Chinese Medicinal Herbs with Anti-HIV Activity%五种抗HIV活性菊科中草药微量元素主成分分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘云华; 殷彩霞; 彭莉; 张仙; 黄红苹

    2013-01-01

    对具有抗HIV活性的菊科中草药艾叶、紫茎泽兰、臭灵丹、叶下花、辣子草进行微量元素含量测定、含量间相关性分析和主成分分析,找出微量元素主成分的影响.再根据主成分值和综合评价值进行二维聚类,发现微量元素含量与抗HIV活性呈一定正相关.为药用菊科资源的开发与利用提供了理论依据.%Folium artemisiac Argri.,Eupatorium adenophorum Spreng.,Laggera pterodonta (DC)Benth.,Ainsliaea pertyoides Franch.and Galinsoga payviflora Cav.belong to asteraceae with anti-HIV activity.The content determination,content correlation analysis and principal component analysis of trace elements were carried out to find the action of the principal components of trace elements in the five asteraceae herbs.Then,a dimensional clustering analysis was done on the grounds of principal component values and comprehensive evaluation values.The results showed that there was a positive correlation between trace elements content and anti-HIV activity.This paper provided a reference for the development and utilization of the resources of asteraceae herbs.

  10. Antioxidant and anti-glycation activities correlates with phenolic composition of tropical medicinal herbs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JS Ramkissoon; MF Mahomoodally; N Ahmed; AH Subratty

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the contribution of total phenolic content (TPC) in glycation inhibitory activity of common tropical medicinal food and spices with potential antioxidative properties. Methods: In vitro glucose-bovine serum albumin (BSA) assay was used. Ethanolic extracts of ten common household condiments/herbs (Allium sativum, Zingiber officinale, Thymus vulgaris, Petroselinum crispum, Murraya koenigii Spreng, Mentha piperita L., Curcuma longa L., Allium cepa L., Allium fistulosum and Coriandrum sativum L.) were evaluated for antioxidative activity by 2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and the TPC, flavonoid and tannins content were determined. Results: Findings showed good correlation between TPC/DPPH (r= 0.8), TPC/FRAP (r= 0.8), TPC/Anti-glycation (r=0.9), DPPH/Anti-glycation (r= 0.6), FRAP/Anti-glycation (r = 0.9), Flavonoid/Anti-glycation (r= 0.7) and Tannins/Anti-glycation (r = 0.8) and relatively fair correlation for TPC/Flavonoids (r = 0.5) and TPC/Tannins (r =0.5). Results imply that these plants are potential sources of natural antioxidants which have free radical scavenging activity and might be used for reducing oxidative stress. Conclusions: The positive glycation inhibitory and antioxidative activities of these tropical herbs suggest a possible role in targeting ageing, diabetic complications and oxidative stress related diseases.

  11. Selecting matched root architecture in tree pairs to be used for assessing N 2 fixation based on soil- 15N-labelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasr, Hafedh; Ghorbel, Mohamed Habib; Wallander, Håkan; Dommergues, Yvon René

    2005-03-01

    It is commonly assumed that soil- 15N-labelling provides reliable estimates of N 2 fixation in trees by matching N 2-fixing and non-N 2-fixing tree pairs. As root system is a key parameter in determining suitability of the tree pairs, we compared root architecture of Acacia cyanophylla Lindl. and Casuarina glauca Sieber ex. Spreng. (two N 2-fixing trees) with Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehn. and Ceratonia siliqua L. (two non-N 2-fixing trees) at 4-year-old in Mediterranean-semiarid zone. The rhizobium strain used appeared more motile than Frankia strain. A. cyanophylla and E. camaldulensis had extensive rooting area and volume of fine roots, and both species tended to develop marked horizontal rooting, compared to C. glauca and C. siliqua. Characteristics of fine- and horizontal-root components can be used in selecting matched root systems of N 2-fixing and reference-paired trees. Root architecture of C. glauca was more similar to C. siliqua, than to E. camaldulensis, and that of A. cyanophylla was more similar to E. camaldulensis than to C. siliqua. Accordingly, E. camaldulensis is an appropriate reference to estimate actual N 2 fixation by A. cyanophylla, and C. siliqua is an appropriate reference for C. glauca, when using soil- 15N-labelling method in the prevailing site environment.

  12. A win-win technique of stabilizing sand dune and purifying paper mill black-liquor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hanjie; Penning de Vries FRITS; JIN Yongcan

    2009-01-01

    The principle and technique were reported here to produce lignin-based sand stabilizing material (LSSM) using extracted lignin from black liquor of straw paper mills. Field tests by using LSSM to stabilize and green sand dunes started in 2002. The field experiment was carried out in August 2005 when the newly formed plant community was 3 years old. The results from the comprehensive field experiment demonstrated that unlike polyvinyl acetate or foamed asphalt commonly used for dune stabilization, LSSM was plant-friendly material and could be used in combination with seeding and planting of desert species. By the help of LSSM, the desert species (i.e., Agriophyllum squarrosum (L.) Moq. and Artemisia desertorum Spreng. etc.) could be used to form community in 2-3 yeas and to stabilize sand dune effectively. The newly formed community was sustainable under an extremely dry climate conditions. The organic matter and total nitrogen in the soil increased significantly as the community were formed, while the change in P and K contents of the soil was negligible.

  13. Isolation of antibacterial compounds from Quercus dilatata L. through bioassay guided fractionation

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    Jamil Maryam

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Four medicinal plants (Chrozophora hierosolymitana Spreng, Chrysanthemum leucanthemum L., Ephedra gerardiana Wall. ex Stapf, and Quercus dilatata L. used by indigenous healers to treat various infectious diseases were selected for the present study. The major objective of the present study was isolation and characterization of antimicrobial components from the crude plant extracts using bioassay guided fractionation. Methods Seven methanolic extracts of the four plants were screened to identify any antimicrobial agents present in them. The active crude plant extract was fractionated first by solvent partitioning and then by HPLC. Characterization of the active fractions was done by using spectrophotometer. Results All the seven methanolic extracts showed low antifungal activity, however, when these extracts were tested for antibacterial activity, significant activity was exhibited by two extracts. The extract of aerial parts of Q. dilatata was most active and therefore, was selected for further analysis. Initially fractionation was done by solvent-solvent partitioning and out of six partitioned fractions, ethanol fraction was selected on the basis of results of antibacterial activity and phytochemical analysis. Further, fractionation was carried out by RP- HPLC and purified active subfractions were characterized by comparing their absorption spectra with that of the known natural products isolated from the plants of Quercus genus. Discussion and conclusion The results suggest that this is the first report of the isolated antibacterial compounds from this genus.

  14. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of Thai traditional nootropic remedy and its herbal ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tappayuthpijarn, Pimolvan; Itharat, Arunporn; Makchuchit, Sunita

    2011-12-01

    The incidence of Alzheimer disease (AD) is increasing every year in accordance with the increasing of elderly population and could pose significant health problems in the future. The use of medicinal plants as an alternative prevention or even for a possible treatment of the AD is, therefore, becoming an interesting research issue. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors are well-known drugs commonly used in the treatment of AD. The aim of the present study was to screen for AChE inhibitory activity of the Thai traditional nootropic recipe and its herbal ingredients. The results showed that ethanolic extracts of four out of twenty-five herbs i.e. Stephania pierrei Diels. Kaempfera parviflora Wall. ex Baker, Stephania venosa (Blume) Spreng, Piper nigrum L at 0.1 mg/mL showed % AChE inhibition of 89, 64, 59, 50; the IC50 were 6, 21, 29, 30 microg/mL respectively. The other herbs as well as combination of the whole recipe had no synergistic inhibitory effect on AChE activity. However some plants revealed antioxidant activity. More research should have be performed on this local wisdom remedy to verify the uses in scientific term.

  15. Variation in manuka oil lure efficacy for capturing Xyleborus glabratus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), and cubeb oil as an alternative attractant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanula, James L; Sullivan, Brian T; Wakarchuk, David

    2013-04-01

    Redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichoff, is an exotic species to North America vectoring a deadly vascular wilt disease of redbay [Persea borbonia (L.) Spreng], swampbay [P. palustris (Raf.) Sarg.], avocado (P. americana Mill.), and sassafras [Sassafras albidum (Nutt.) Nees]. Xyleborus glabratus is attracted to manuka oil lures, which are commercially available, and phoebe oil. Variable efficacy of manuka oil lures and insufficient availability of phoebe oil prompted us to investigate the reasons behind changes in manuka oil lure efficacy and to test cubeb oil, a readily available essential oil from Piper cubeba L. seeds, as an alternative attractant. Attraction, release rates and durations, and volatile composition of manuka oil lures manufactured in 2008 were compared with manuka oil lures manufactured in 2012, and to whole and a distilled fraction of cubeb oil. Manuka oil lures from 2008 were more attractive to X. glabratus than controls for 8 wk, whereas lures from 2012 were attractive for only 2 wk. Cubeb oil and the distilled fraction of it were as attractive as or more attractive than manuka oil in three trials. In gravimetric studies, manuka oil lures from 2008 and cubeb oil lures continued to release volatiles for 57 d, whereas lures from 2012 stopped after 16 d. The chemical composition of volatiles released from new manuka oil lures from 2008 was similar to 2012; however, a preservative (butylated hydroxytoluene) was detected in the 2008 lures. Cubeb oil was an effective attractant for X. glabratus that lasted 8-9 wk when released from bubble lures.

  16. Neolignans from Nectandra megapotamica (Lauraceae Display in vitro Cytotoxic Activity and Induce Apoptosis in Leukemia Cells

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    Vitor Ponci

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Nectandra megapotamica (Spreng. Mez. (Lauraceae is a well-known Brazilian medicinal plant that has been used in folk medicine to treat several diseases. In continuation of our ongoing efforts to discover new bioactive natural products from the Brazilian flora, this study describes the identification of cytotoxic compounds from the MeOH extract of N. megapotamica (Lauraceae leaves using bioactivity-guided fractionation. This approach resulted in the isolation and characterization of eight tetrahydrofuran neolignans: calopeptin (1, machilin-G (2, machilin-I (3, aristolignin (4, nectandrin A (5, veraguensin (6, ganschisandrin (7, and galgravin (8. Different assays were conducted to evaluate their cytotoxic activities and to determine the possible mechanism(s related to the activity displayed against human leukemia cells. The most active compounds 4, 5 and 8 gave IC50 values of 14.2 ± 0.7, 16.9 ± 0.8 and 16.5 ± 0.8 µg/mL, respectively, against human leukemia (HL-60 tumor cells. Moreover, these compounds induced specific apoptotic hallmarks, such as plasma membrane bleb formation, nuclear DNA condensation, specific chromatin fragmentation, phosphatidyl-serine exposure on the external leaflet of the plasma membrane, cleavage of PARP as well as mitochondrial damage, which as a whole could be related to the intrinsic apoptotic pathway.

  17. A controlled study to determine the efficacy of Loxostylis alata (Anacardiaceae in the treatment of aspergillus in a chicken (Gallus domesticus model in comparison to ketoconazole

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    Suleiman Mohammed M

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The poultry industry due to intensive methods of farming is burdened with losses from numerous infectious agents, of which one is the fungus Aspergillus fumigatus. In a preliminary study, the extracts of Loxostylis alata A. Spreng, ex Rchb. showed good activity in vitro against A. fumigatus with a minimum inhibitory concentration of 0.07 mg/ml. For this study crude, a crude acetone extract of L. alata leaves was evaluated for its acute toxicity in a healthy chicken model and for efficacy in an infectious model of aspergillosis (A. fumigatus. Results At a dose of 300 mg/kg, the extract induced some toxicity characterised by decreased feed intake and weight loss. Consequently, 100 and 200 mg/kg were used to ascertain efficacy in the infectious model. The plant extract significantly reduced clinical disease in comparison to the control in a dose dependant manner. The extract was as effective as the positive control ketoconazole dosed at 60 mg/kg. Conclusions The results indicate that a crude extract of L. alata leaves has potential as an antifungal agent to protect poultry against avian aspergillosis.

  18. STRUCTURE OF THE TREE AND REGENERATION LAYER ON A SEASONAL SEMIDECIDUOUS FOREST FRAGMENT IN ITUMBIARA, GOIÁS STATE

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    Michel Eduardo Valentim Milhomem

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509812352Semideciduous forests occur in a few places in the Cerrado biome, but are being suppressed through byagriculture and livestock in central Brazil. The objective of this study was characterize the horizontaland vertical structures, the dispersal syndromes, successional groups and floristic similarity of the treelayer and regeneration in a semideciduous forest fragment in Itumbiara, Goiás state. All trees alive withcircumference at breast height (CAP ≥ 15 were identified and measured for height and diameter in 25 plotsof 20 x 20 m. To the regenerative stratum the criteria was the inclusion of individuals with height ≥ 1m untilCAP = 14.9 cm in 25 plots of 10 × 10 m. In both layers were sampled 100 species. The species with thehighest importance in the tree layer were Nectandra megapotamica (Spreng. Mez, and in the regenerativestratum, Siparuna guianensis Aubl. Both layers had a higher proportion of early secondary species and thezoochory dispersion syndrome was more frequent. Several important species are not represented in othersemideciduous forests, and then this forest is an important permanent conservation area.

  19. Antileishmanial Activity of Medicinal Plants Used in Endemic Areas in Northeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Queiroz, Aline Cavalcanti; Dias, Thays de Lima Matos Freire; Da Matta, Carolina Barbosa Brito; Cavalcante Silva, Luiz Henrique Agra; de Araújo-Júnior, João Xavier; de Araújo, Givanildo Bernardino; Moura, Flávia de Barros Prado; Alexandre-Moreira, Magna Suzana

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the leishmanicidal activity of five species of plants used in folk medicine in endemic areas of the state of Alagoas, Brazil. Data were collected in the cities of Colonia Leopoldina, Novo Lino, and União dos Palmares, Alagoas state, from patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis (Leishmania amazonensis) who use medicinal plants to treat this disease. Plants extracts were tested at a concentration of 1–100 μg/mL in all experiments, except in an assay to evaluate activity against amastigotes, when 10 μg/mL was used. All plants extracts did not show deleterious activity to the host cell evidenced by LDH assay at 100, 10, and 1 μg/mL after 48 h of incubation. The plants extracts Hyptis pectinata (L.) Poit, Aloe vera L., Ruta graveolens L., Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng.) Pedersen, and Chenopodium ambrosioides L. exhibited direct activity against extracellular forms at 100 μg/mL; these extracts inhibited growth by 81.9%, 82.9%, 74.4%, 88.7%, and 87.4%, respectively, when compared with promastigotes. The plants extracts H. pectinata, A. vera, and R. graveolens also significantly diminished the number of amastigotes at 10 μg/mL, inhibiting growth by 85.0%, 40.4%, 94.2%, and 97.4%, respectively, when compared with control. Based on these data, we conclude that the five plants exhibited considerable leishmanicidal activity. PMID:25126099

  20. In Vitro Antitumor Activity of Sesquiterpene Lactones from Lychnophora trichocarpha

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    D.A. Saúde-Guimarães

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The sesquiterpene lactones lychnopholide and eremantholide C were isolated from Lychnophora trichocarpha Spreng. (Asteraceae, which is a plant species native to the Brazilian Savannah or Cerrado and popularly known as arnica. Sesquiterpene lactones are known to present a variety of biological activities including antitumor activity. The present paper reports on the evaluation of the in vitro antitumor activity of lychnopholide and eremantholide C, in the National Cancer Institute, USA (NCI, USA, against a panel of 52 human tumor cell lines of major human tumors derived from nine cancer types. Lychnopholide disclosed significant activity against 30 cell lines of seven cancer types with IC100 (total growth concentration inhibition values between 0.41 µM and 2.82 µM. Eremantholide C showed significant activity against 30 cell lines of eight cancer types with IC100 values between 21.40 µM and 53.70 µM. Lychnopholide showed values of lethal concentration 50% (LC50 for 30 human tumor cell lines between 0.72 and 10.00 µM, whereas eremantholide C presented values of LC50 for 21 human tumor cell lines between 52.50 and 91.20 µM. Lychnopholide showed an interesting profile of antitumor activity. The α-methylene-γ-lactone present in the structure of lychnopholide, besides two α,β- unsaturated carbonyl groups, might be responsible for the better activity and higher cytotoxicity of this compound in relation to eremantholide C.

  1. Vernonanthura polyanthes leaves aqueous extract enhances doxorubicin genotoxicity in somatic cells of Drosophila melanogaster and presents no antifungal activity against Candida spp.

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    I. J. Guerra-Santos

    Full Text Available Abstract Vernonanthura polyanthes (Spreng. A.J. Vega & Dematt. (Asteraceae, known as “assa-peixe”, has been used in ethnomedicine for the treatment of various diseases such as bronchitis, pneumonia, hemoptysis, persistent cough, internal abscesses, gastric and kidney stone pain. Moreover, some studies demonstrated that species of Genus Vernonia present antifungal activity. Due to the biological relevance of this species, the aim of this study was to investigate the toxic, genotoxic, antigenotoxic and antifungal potential of V. polyanthes leaves aqueous extract in somatic cells of Drosophila melanogaster or against Candida spp. The aqueous extract of the plant showed no toxic, genotoxic and antigenotoxic activity in the experimental conditions tested using the wing somatic mutation and recombination test (SMART/wing. However, when the extract was associated with doxorubicin, used in this work as a positive control, the mutagenic potential of doxorubicin was enhanced, increasing the number of mutations in D. melanogaster somatic cells. In the other hand, no inhibitory activity against Candida spp. was observed for V. polyanthes leaves aqueous extract using agar-well diffusion assay. More studies are necessary to reveal the components present in the V. polyanthes leaves aqueous extract that could contribute to potentiate the doxorubicin genotoxicity.

  2. Anti-Salmonella Activity of Volatile Compounds of Vietnam Coriander.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Ken-Ichi; Chavasiri, Warinthorn; Kubo, Isao

    2015-07-01

    Essential oil derived from the fresh leaves of Polygonum odoratum Lour was tested for their effects on a foodborne bacterium Salmonella choleraesuis subsp. choleraesuis ATCC 35640 using a broth dilution method. This essential oil showed a significant antibacterial activity against S. choleraesuis at the concentration of 200 µg/mL. Twenty-five volatile compounds were characterized from this essential oil by GC-MS, and aldehyde compounds were found abundant and accounted for more than three-fourths of the essential oil. Among the compounds characterized, dodecanal (C12 ) was the most abundant (55.5%), followed by decanal (C10 ) (11.6%). Both alkanals were effective against S. choleraesuis with the minimum growth inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values of 100 µg/mL. The most potent antibacterial activity against this bacterium was found with two minor compounds, dodecanol (lauryl alcohol) and 2E-dodecenal, both with each MBC of 6.25 µg/mL. Their primary antibacterial action against S. choleraesuis provably comes from their ability to function as nonionic surface-active agents (surfactants), disrupting the native function of integral membrane proteins nonspecifically. Thus, the antibacterial activity is mediated by biophysical processes. In the case of 2E-alkenals, a biochemical mechanism is also somewhat involved, depending on their alkyl chain length.

  3. HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS Analysis of Flavonoids from Leaves of Different Cultivars of Sweet Osmanthus

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    Yiguang Wang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Osmanthus fragrans Lour. has traditionally been a popular ornamental plant in China. In this study, ethanol extracts of the leaves of four cultivar groups of O. fragrans were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD and high-performance liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization and mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS. The results suggest that variation in flavonoids among O. fragrans cultivars is quantitative, rather than qualitative. Fifteen components were detected and separated, among which, the structures of 11 flavonoids and two coumarins were identified or tentatively identified. According to principal component analysis (PCA and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA based on the abundance of these components (expressed as rutin equivalents, 22 selected cultivars were classified into four clusters. The seven cultivars from Cluster III (‘Xiaoye Sugui’, ‘Boye Jingui’, ‘Wuyi Dangui’, ‘Yingye Dangui’, ‘Danzhuang’, ‘Foding Zhu’, and ‘Tianxiang Taige’, which are enriched in rutin and total flavonoids, and ‘Sijigui’ from Cluster II which contained the highest amounts of kaempferol glycosides and apigenin 7-O-glucoside, could be selected as potential pharmaceutical resources. However, the chemotaxonomy in this paper does not correlate with the distribution of the existing cultivar groups, demonstrating that the distribution of flavonoids in O. fragrans leaves does not provide an effective means of classification for O. fragrans cultivars based on flower color.

  4. 天冬及其混伪品羊齿天门冬的比较鉴别

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙晓菊; 肖英华

    2001-01-01

    @@ 天冬为少常用中药,始载于《神农本草经》,商品主要为百合科植物天门冬Asparagus coch in chinensis (Lour.) Merr.的块根,具有养阴润燥,清肺生津的作用。因其不常用,其正品与混伪品常在一些医院被混为一体。笔者近日发现一种其混伪品,与正品性状相似,经鉴定为同科植物羊齿天门冬Asparagus filicinus Ham. ex D. Don的块根,药材习称羊齿天门冬。为保证药用品种正确,本文从性状,显微等方面作了比较鉴别。

  5. Evaluation of the Wound Healing Potential of Resina Draconis (Dracaena cochinchinensis in Animal Models

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    Huihui Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Resina Draconis (RD is a type of dragon's blood resin obtained from Dracaena cochinchinensis (Lour. S.C. Chen (Yunnan, China. It has been used as a medicine since ancient times by many cultures. The ethanolic extract of Resina Draconis (RDEE was evaluated for its wound-healing activity using excision and incision wound models in rats. Group I, the control group, was treated with ointment base. Group II, which served as a reference standard, was treated with moist exposed burn ointment (MEBO. Group III was treated with RDEE. The parameters observed were percentage of wound contraction, epithelialization period, tensile strength, histopathological studies, microvessel density (MVD, and the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1. The group treated with RDEE showed significantly better wound contraction and better skin-breaking strength as compared with the control group. The results of histopathological examination, MVD, and the expression levels of growth factors supported the outcome of the wound models as well. The present study provided a scientific rationale for the traditional use of RD in the management of wounds.

  6. 湖南的新记录植物(四)%SOME NEWLY RECORDED PLANTS FROM HUNAN PROVINCE OF CHINA(Ⅳ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡光万; 雷立公; 刘克明

    2002-01-01

    报道了湖南植物分布新记录,其中新记录科1个,即无叶莲科Petrosaviaceae;新记录属2个,即无叶莲属Petrosavia Becc.和鸢尾兰属Oberonia Lindl.;新记录种11个,即小药八旦子Corydalis caudata (Lam.) Pers、韫珍金腰Chrysosplenium wuwenchenii Jien、桂林乌桕Sapium chihsinianum S. K. Lee、蛛毛苣苔Paraboea sinensis (Oliv.) Burtt、扁穗牛鞭草Hemarthria compressa (Linn. f.) R. Br.、曲轴黑三棱Sparganium fallax Graebn、无叶莲Petrosavia sakuraii (Makino) J. J. Smith ex Steenis、北重楼Paris verticillata M.-Bieb.、大叶仙茅Curculigo capitulata (Lour.) O. Kuntze、狭叶鸢尾兰Oberonia caulescens Lindl.、无距虾脊兰Calanthe tsoongiana T. Tang et F. T. Wang;新记录变种1个,即峨嵋金腰Chrysosplenium hydrocotylifolium Lévl. et Vant. var. emeiense J. T. Pan.

  7. Insecticidal activity of Nerium indicum, Derris trifoliate and Sapium sebiferum against Homocentridia picta%夹竹桃、鱼藤、乌桕对锈同心舟蛾的毒杀活性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林同; 黎荣彬; 陆宁将

    2006-01-01

    为有效控制锈同心舟蛾Homocentridia picta Hampson对木荷(Schima superda Gardn.et Champ.)的危害,用索氏提取法获得夹竹桃(Nerium indicum Mill.)叶、鱼藤(Derris trifoliate Lour.)叶和乌桕(Sapium sebiferum(L.)Roxb.)皮的乙醇提取物,在室内分别测定3种植物提取物对锈同心舟蛾3龄幼虫的防治效果.实验结果和方差分析表明,3种植物提取物为锈同心舟蛾都具有防治效果,3.5 d后,受试昆虫的校正死亡率都达到60%以上;其中以夹竹桃和乌桕的提取物对受试昆虫的影响最为明显,6 d后,受试昆虫的校正死亡率都达到90%以上.3种植物对锈同心舟蛾的毒杀作用由大到小的顺序依次是乌桕、夹竹桃和鱼藤.

  8. Molecular mechanics study on conformation of perylene-quinonoid photosensitizers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张红雨; 张志义

    1997-01-01

    Using molecular mechanics method,values of the heat of formation (HF) of different conformations,of perylenequinonoid photosensitizes hypocrellin A (HA) and hypocrellin B (HB) were calculated and the variance of HF after phenolic protons’ dissociation were calculated as well The following was found:(i) The HF values of lour conformational isomers of HA and HB are similar to each other,so the four isomcrs can transform to each other room temperature,(ii) There exists the difference between the ability of dissociation of phenolic protons of HA and that of HB,the former is higher than the latter (iii) There exist two intramolecular hydrogen bonds in HA and HB The bond energy is approximately 8 kJ/mol and the energy of conformation Ⅰ is lower than that of conformationⅡ The bond energy of HA is lower than that of HB.(iv) There exists a low energy snot when phenolic hydroxyl bond twists 180° from the position where hydrogen bond is formed,which suggests that this kind of conformation probably exists,(v) Th

  9. 模拟酸雨对4种果树生长发育的影响%The effect of simulant acid rain on the growth and development of four fruit crops

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖艳; 黄建昌; 陈敬舜; 张英妹

    2004-01-01

    采用模拟酸雨的方法,研究了不同pH值酸雨对荔枝(Litchi Chinensis Sonu.)、龙眼(Dimocarpus longan Lour.)、黄皮(Clausena lansiumclour Skeels.)、芒果(Mangifera indical L.)等4种果树的新梢增长、叶片伤害、果实生长发育和叶片叶绿素含量的影响.结果表明,不同pH值酸雨对4种果树的新梢增长、果实生长发育有不同程度的抑制;酸雨的pH值越低,叶片在短期内出现的可见伤斑越多,受害叶面积越大,且叶片叶绿素含量越低.不同果树之间对酸雨的抗性有明显差异,其强弱顺序为芒果、黄皮、龙眼、荔枝.

  10. 经血宁颗粒的质量控制标准物质的筛选%Screening standard quality control substance from JingXueNing granules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许子竞; 唐艳秀; 庞国

    2014-01-01

    以经血宁颗粒配伍之一的白背叶为原料,经分离纯化得化合物Ⅰ,通过定性鉴定为黄酮苷类;HPLC检测为单一纯化合物;MS测定化其分子量为564;1H NMR和13C NMR数据分析与 Corymboside 一致,为伞房决明苷,故以化合物Ⅰ作为经血宁颗粒的质量控制标准物质。%From Mallotus apelta ( Lour.) Muell. -Arg one of JingXueNing granules component,compoundⅠwas getted by the separation and puri-fication and was identified it as flavoniods by qualitative identification. Compounds Ⅰis the single pure compounds by HPLC;the molecular weight of compound Ⅰis 564 by the analysis of MS. The data analysis of 1H NMR and 13C NMR from compoundⅠ is consistent with Corymboside. So the compo-und Ⅰwas as standard quality control substance of JingXueNing granules.

  11. Herbivory effects of Argopistes tsekooni, a chrysomelid beetle, on container-grown Chinese privet, Ligustrum sinense

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-Zhuo Zhang; James L.Hanula; Jiang-Hua Sun

    2011-01-01

    The impact of Argopistes tsekooni Chen (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), a herbivore, on Chinese privet, Ligustrum sinense Lour. (Scrophulariales: Oleaceae), an invasive shrub in the United States, was studied in China. Five densities of adults were inoculated into 3-year-old potted Chinese privet plants in cages under field conditions for 1 month. Plants exposed to high densities of adults were severely damaged and the above-ground portions of some were killed, while the survival rates of adult A. tsekooni were comparatively high. The amount of new growth of the main stem, the number of new leaves, and oven-dried biomass were significantly reduced by the combined feeding of larvae and adults. Above-ground plant mortality was 100% when plants were exposed to 24 and 30 adults/plant. In this study A. tsekooni had a significant negative impact on Chinese privet growing in pots, which suggests that it may be a promising candidate for biological control of Chinese privet in the field in North America.

  12. Parental diagnosis of satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) revealed by nuclear and cytoplasmic markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Hiroshi; Ohta, Satoshi; Nonaka, Keisuke; Katayose, Yuichi; Matsumoto, Toshimi; Endo, Tomoko; Yoshioka, Terutaka; Omura, Mitsuo; Shimada, Takehiko

    2016-12-01

    Satsuma mandarins (Citrus unshiu Marc.) are the predominant cultivated citrus variety in Japan. Clarification of its origin would prove valuable for citrus taxonomy and mandarin breeding programs; however, current information is limited. We applied genome-wide genotyping using a 384 citrus single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array and MARCO computer software to investigate the satsuma mandarin parentage. Genotyping data from 206 validated SNPs were obtained to evaluate 67 citrus varieties and lines. A total of five parent-offspring relationships were newly found by MARCO based on the 206 SNP genotypes, indicating that 'Kishuu mikan' type mandarins (Citrus kinokuni hort. ex Tanaka accession 'Kishuu mikan' and 'Nanfengmiju') and 'Kunenbo' type mandarins (Citrus nobilis Lour. var. kunip Tanaka accession 'Kunenbo' and 'Bendiguangju') are possible parents of the satsuma mandarin. Moreover, cleaved amplified polymorphic sequences analysis showed that the genotypes of four regions in chloroplast DNA of 'Kishuu mikan' type mandarins were identical to that of the satsuma mandarin. Considering the historical background, satsuma mandarins may therefore derive from an occasional cross between a 'Kishuu mikan' type mandarin seed parent (derivative or synonym of 'Nanfengmiju') and a 'Kunenbo' type mandarin pollen parent (derivative or synonym of 'Bendiguangju').

  13. The Genetic Architecture of Flowering Time and Photoperiod Sensitivity in Maize as Revealed by QTL Review and Meta Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie Xu; Tingzhao Rong; Yaxi Liu; Jian Liu; Moju Cao; Jing Wang; Hai Lan; Yunbi Xu; Yanli Lu; Guangtang Pan

    2012-01-01

    The control of flowering is not only important for reproduction,but also plays a key role in the processes of domestication and adaptation.To reveal the genetic architecture for flowering time and photoperiod sensitivity,a comprehensive evaluation of the relevant literature was performed and followed by meta analysis.A total of 25 synthetic consensus quantitative trait loci (QTL) and four hot-spot genomic regions were identified for photoperiod sensitivity including 11 genes related to photoperiod response or flower morphogenesis and development.Besides,a comparative analysis of the QTL for flowering time and photoperiod sensitivity highlighted the regions containing shared and unique QTL for the two traits.Candidate genes associated with maize flowering were identified through integrated analysis of the homologous genes for flowering time in plants and the consensus QTL regions for photoperiod sensitivity in maize (Zea mays L.).Our results suggest that the combination of literature review,meta-analysis and homologous blast is an efficient approach to identify new candidate genes and create a global view of the genetic architecture for maize photoperiodic flowering.Sequences of candidate genes can be used to develop molecular markers for various models of marker-assisted selection,such as marker-assisted recurrent selection and genomic selection that can contribute significantly to crop environmental adaptation.

  14. Efficient Developing Agriculture Measures in Salt-affected Soils%盐碱地农业高效利用措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玉珍; 刘永信

    2011-01-01

    The main ways of improving salt-affected soils to realize Efficient Developing Agriculture Measures in our country had been summaried. The regional distribution of plants in Yellow River delta was analyzed. By regional planting of four kinds of salt-tolerant plants-Suaeda crassifolia Pall., Tamarix chinensis Lour., Phragmites australis., Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch.exDC, the feasibility modes and economic benefits of Regional planting saline plants were explored and the basis for a-gricultural efficient use of saline-alkali land was provided.%概述了目前我国为实现盐碱地农业高效利用而采取的盐碱地治理的基本措施,分析了黄河三角洲滨海地区植物区域化分布情况,通过选择4种耐盐植物翅碱蓬、柽柳、芦苇和甘草,进行区域化种植,探索了盐碱地植物区域化种植的可行性模式及经济效益,为盐碱地农业高效利用提供依据.

  15. Effects of N Forms and Rates on Vegetable Growth and Nitrate Accumulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhao-Hui; LI Sheng-Xiu

    2003-01-01

    Experiments were carried out on a vegetable field with Peking cabbage (Brassica pekinensis (Lour.)Rupr.), cabbage (Brassica chinensis var. Oleifera Makino and nemoto), green cabbage (Brassica chinensis L.), spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) and rape (Brassica campestris L.) to study the effects of N forms and N rates on their growth and nitrate accumulation. The results indicated that application of ammonium chloride,ammonium nitrate, sodium nitrate and urea significantly increased the yields and nitrate concentrations of Peking cabbage and spinach. Although no significant difference was found in the yields after application of the 4 N forms, nitrate N increased nitrate accumulation in vegetables much more than ammonium N. The vegetable yields were not increased continuously with N rate increase, and oversupply of N reduced the plant growth, leading to a yield decline. This trend was also true for nitrate concentrations in some vegetables and at some sampling times. However, as a whole, the nitrate concentrations in vegetables were positively correlated with N rates. Thus, addition of N fertilizer to soil was the major cause for increases in nitrate concentrations in vegetables. Nitrate concentrations were much higher in roots, stems and petioles than in blades at any N rate.

  16. [Penicher: an manuscript addendum to his pharmacopoeia of 1695 on the copy of Pharmacy College Library].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnemain, Bruno

    2016-03-01

    Penicher's pharmacopeia (1695) was part of the Library of the "College de Pharmacie". The inventory of this Library was done in 1780 and is kept by the Library of the BIU Santé, Paris-Descartes University in Paris that digitized it recently. This copy contains handwritten texts that complete the original edition. The first main addition, at the beginning of the document, is three recipes of drugs, in Latin, one of them being well known at the early 18th century, the vulnerary balm of Leonardo Fioraventi (1517-1588), that is also known as Fioraventi's alcoholate. This product will still be present in the French Codex until 1949. The Penicher' book also includes, at the end, three handwritten pages in French which represent the equipment of apothecaries. These drawings are very close to the ones of Charas' Pharmacopeia. One can think that these additions are from the second part of the 18th century, but before the gift of the pharmacopeia to the College de Pharmacie by Fourcy en 1765. The author is unknown but he is probably one of the predecessor of Fourcy in Pharmacie de l'Ours (Bear's pharmacy). This gift done by Fourcy when joining the Community of Parisians pharmacists did not prevent the fact that Fourcy was sentenced by his colleagues pharmacists, a few years later, for the sales of "Chinese specialties" that someone called Jean-Daniel Smith, a physician installed in Paris, asked him to prepare.

  17. Évolution géodynamique de l'Indonésie orientale, de l'Éocène au Pliocène

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villeneuve, Michel; Réhault, Jean-Pierre; Cornée, Jean-Jacques; Honthaas, Christian; Gunawan c, Wahyu; le Groupe Géobanda

    1998-09-01

    Eastern Indonesia belongs to a convergent zone between the Asiatic, Australian and Pacific plates. A lot of synthetic papers have been devoted to this very technically active area. Our new geodynamic reconstruction takes into account a six year period of scientific cooperation between France and Indonesia. This cooperation provided various geological data. The hypothesis presented here is based on the geological evolution of lour small commentai blocks (two of which appear for the first time: the Banda und l.ucipara blocks) trapped by the convergence of the threemain plates. The main steps are successively: the Upper Eocene to Oligocene. during which the Banda block collided with the south east asiatic margin in Sulawesi: the Lower Miocene, during which the l.iicipara block (including (he Tukang IJesi platform) collided with the Banda block itself, mainly in the Buton area: the Upper Miocene, which is a period of large extensional regime. Most of the basins inside the Banda area opened at that time (North Banda Basin, South Banda Basin, Savu Basin, etc.). The next interesting period is the Upper Pliocene, which occurred after the main collisions between the Australian continental block and the Banda and Irian Java blocks. The Bangai Sula block collided with the eastern part of Sulawesi at the end of the Lower Pliocene.

  18. Levels,trends and risk assessment of arsenic pollution in Yangzonghai Lake,Yunnan Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The arsenic contamination accident in Yangzonghai Lake,Yunnan has been of wide concern.In order to investigate the arsenic distribution and concentration trends after the accident,samples including lake water,sediments,soil,aquatic organisms and crops were collected in November 2008,as well as in February,May and September 2009.The average arsenic concentrations (arithmetic average) in lake water in the four sampling events were 176.9,147.3,159.3,and 161.1 μg/L,while those in the sediments were 32.87,62.41,62.99,and 46.96 μg/g,respectively.The highest content of total arsenic in soil in the vicinity of Yangzonghai was 23.33 μg/g,which was below the limits of the relevant national standard.The total arsenic levels in most aquatic plants were in the range of 100-200 μg/g,with Vallisneria natans (Lour.) Hara having the highest concentration of ~300 μg/g.The arsenic levels of fish and shrimps were in the range of 1.52-11.4 μg/g (dry weight).

  19. Isolation and characterization of FLOWERING LOCUS T subforms and APETALA1 of the subtropical fruit tree Dimocarpus longan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterhagen, Patrick; Tiyayon, Pimsiri; Samach, Alon; Hegele, Martin; Wünsche, Jens N

    2013-10-01

    Longan (Dimocarpus longan Lour.) is a subtropical evergreen fruit tree, mainly cultivated in Asia. Two putative floral integrator genes, D. longan FLOWERING LOCUS T1 and 2 (DlFT1 and DlFT2) were isolated and both translated sequences revealed a high homology to FT sequences from other plants. Moreover, two APETALA1-like (DlAP1-1 and DlAP1-2) sequences from longan were isolated and characterized. Results indicate that the sequences of these genes are highly conserved, suggesting functions in the longan flowering pathway. Ectopic expression of the longan genes in arabidopsis resulted in different flowering time phenotypes of transgenic plants. Expression experiments reveal a different action of the longan FT genes and indicate that DlFT1 is a flowering promoter, while DlFT2 acts as flowering inhibitor. Overexpression of longan AP1 genes in transgenic arabidopsis results in a range of flowering time phenotypes also including early and late flowering individuals.

  20. Evaluation of the Wound Healing Potential of Resina Draconis (Dracaena cochinchinensis) in Animal Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huihui; Lin, Shaohui; Xiao, Dan; Zheng, Xiao; Gu, Yan; Guo, Shanyu

    2013-01-01

    Resina Draconis (RD) is a type of dragon's blood resin obtained from Dracaena cochinchinensis (Lour.) S.C. Chen (Yunnan, China). It has been used as a medicine since ancient times by many cultures. The ethanolic extract of Resina Draconis (RDEE) was evaluated for its wound-healing activity using excision and incision wound models in rats. Group I, the control group, was treated with ointment base. Group II, which served as a reference standard, was treated with moist exposed burn ointment (MEBO). Group III was treated with RDEE. The parameters observed were percentage of wound contraction, epithelialization period, tensile strength, histopathological studies, microvessel density (MVD), and the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and transforming growth factor- β 1 (TGF- β 1). The group treated with RDEE showed significantly better wound contraction and better skin-breaking strength as compared with the control group. The results of histopathological examination, MVD, and the expression levels of growth factors supported the outcome of the wound models as well. The present study provided a scientific rationale for the traditional use of RD in the management of wounds.

  1. Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Activity of Three Bitter Plants-Enhydra fluctuans, Andrographis Peniculata and Clerodendrum Viscosum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ruhul Amin

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In this study, three important medicinal plants (Enhydra fluctuans Lour, Clerodendrum viscosum Vent and Andrographis peniculata Wall of Bangladesh were investigated to analyze their antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities against some pathogenic microorganisms and Artemia salina (brine shrimp nauplii. Methods: The coarse powder material of leaves of each plant was extracted separately with methanol and acetone to yield methanol extracts of leaves of Enhydra fluctuans (MLE, Clerodendrum viscosum (MLC and Andrographis peniculata (MLA, and acetone extracts of leaves of Enhydra fluctuans (ALE, Clerodendrum viscosum (ALC and Andrographis peniculata (ALA. The disc diffusion method and the method described by Meyer were used to determine the antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of each plant extract. Results: Among the test samples, MLE and ALE showed comparatively better antimicrobial activity against a number of bacteria and fungi with inhibition zones in the range of 06-15 mm and according to the intensity of activity, the efficacy against microorganisms were found in the order of Enhydra fluctuans> Andrographi speniculata> Clerodendrum viscosum. In cytotoxicity assay, all samples were found to be active against brine shrimp nauplii (Artemia salina and ALA produced lowest LC50 value (7.03 μg/ml. Conclusion: Enhydra fluctuans and Andrographi speniculata possesses significant antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities.

  2. 龙眼花芽与叶芽差异蛋白分析%Analysis of Differential Proteins during Development Stages of Flower Bud and Leaf Bud in Longan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞国彩; 谢东丽; 陈清西; 陈伟; 龙强

    2009-01-01

    以龙眼(Dimocarpus longan Lour.)花芽和叶芽为材料,对龙眼花芽与叶芽分化发育过程中的差异蛋白质进行分析和鉴定,并探讨其生物学功能.本研究共鉴定出10个差异蛋白质:ATP synthase beta subunit,fructokinase,LHCII type Ⅰ chlorophyll a/b binding protein,peroxidase,ascorbate peroxidase,14-3-3 protein,14-3-3 family protein,putative cytosolic cysteine synthase 7,retrotransposon protein,putative,Ty1-copia subclass,Protein Group similar to late embryogenesis abundant proteins.这些差异蛋白质可能与龙眼花芽与叶芽的物质和能量代谢、自由基清除和抗氧化作用、信号转导和基础代谢、氨基酸代谢等生理过程密切相关.

  3. Characterization and simultaneous quantification of biological aporphine alkaloids in Litsea cubeba by HPLC with hybrid ion trap time-of-flight mass spectrometry and HPLC with diode array detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuiying; Zhang, Qian; Guo, Qiang; Zhao, Yunfang; Gao, Xiaoli; Chai, Xingyun; Tu, Pengfei

    2015-08-01

    The root and rhizome of Litsea cubeba (Lour) Pers., named 'Dou-chi-jiang' in Chinese, has been traditionally used for treatment of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, rheumatic arthralgia, and other diseases in China. Aporphine alkaloids are its characteristic ingredients and responsible for its bioactivities, especially anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects. A sensitive and reliable high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection-tandem mass spectrometry method was developed for characterization and simultaneous determination of biological aporphine alkaloids in 'Dou-chi-jiang'. The optimized chromatographic conditions were performed on an Eclipse XDB C18 column with a gradient of acetonitrile/water containing 0.1% formic acid as the mass spectrometry mobile phase and acetonitrile/water containing 0.2% diethylamine (pH 3.10, adjusted by acetic acid) as the liquid chromatography mobile phase. The fragmentation pathways by loss of CO, ·CH3 , ·NH3 , and ·NH2 CH3 were detected as characteristic for aporphine alkaloids. Based on these characteristics, total 12 analogues were identified. The quantification method was validated in terms of linearity, precision, and accuracy for six major aporphine alkaloids, which was successfully applied for simultaneous determination in ten batches of samples. The established method is simple, rapid, and specific for characterization and quantitation of aporphine alkaloids in 'Dou-chi-jiang' and other traditional Chinese medicines rich in this kind of ingredient.

  4. Investigation on Weed Species in Alfalfa Field in Qingdao%青岛苜蓿田杂草种类调查研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玉玉; 田净净; 刘志英; 孙娟; 朱华敏; 杨国锋

    2013-01-01

    An investigation on weeds in artificial alfalfa field in Qingdao Animal Husbandry Technology Demonstration Garden was made from the end of March to the end of September in 2012.Twenty-one kinds of weed species (belonging to 12 families) were found.Among them,weeds belonging to Brassicaceae,Convolvulaceae,Asteraceae,Gramineae and Chenopodiaceae were severely harmful.Descuminia Sophia (L.)webb.Ex Prantl,Cirsium setosum (Wild.) MB.and Convolvulus arvensis L.were dominant species in winter-spring.Gramineae weeds,such as Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop.,Setaria viridis (L.) Beauv.and Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) Beauv.,and Humulus scandens (Lour.) Merr.were dominant species in summer-autumn.%2012年自3月底苜蓿返青开始至9月底,对青岛畜牧科技示范园牧草试验基地的苜蓿田杂草调查发现:苜蓿田杂草种类有12科21种,其中十字花科、旋花科、菊科、禾本科和藜科的杂草危害较大;冬春季杂草优势种为麦蒿、刺菜和田旋花;夏秋季杂草优势种为马唐、狗尾草、稗草等禾本科植物和葎草.

  5. Digital Gene Expression Profiling to Explore Differentially Expressed Genes Associated with Terpenoid Biosynthesis during Fruit Development in Litsea cubeba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ming; Lin, Liyuan; Chen, Yicun; Wang, Yangdong

    2016-09-20

    Mountain pepper (Litseacubeba (Lour.) Pers.) (Lauraceae) is an important industrial crop as an ingredient in cosmetics, pesticides, food additives and potential biofuels. These properties are attributed to monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. However, there is still no integrated model describing differentially expressed genes (DEGs) involved in terpenoid biosynthesis during the fruit development of L. cubeba. Here, we performed digital gene expression (DGE) using the Illumina NGS platform to evaluated changes in gene expression during fruit development in L. cubeba. DGE generated expression data for approximately 19354 genes. Fruit at 60 days after flowering (DAF) served as the control, and a total of 415, 1255, 449 and 811 up-regulated genes and 505, 1351, 1823 and 1850 down-regulated genes were identified at 75, 90, 105 and 135 DAF, respectively. Pathway analysis revealed 26 genes involved in terpenoid biosynthesis pathways. Three DEGs had continued increasing or declining trends during the fruit development. The quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) results of five differentially expressed genes were consistent with those obtained from Illumina sequencing. These results provide a comprehensive molecular biology background for research on fruit development, and information that should aid in metabolic engineering to increase the yields of L. cubeba essential oil.

  6. Effect of fermentation on the nutrient and antinutrient composition of baobab (adansonia digitata) seeds and rice (oryza sativa) grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nnam, N M; Obiakor, P N

    2003-01-01

    This study is part of an ongoing investigation on the effect of fermentation on chemical and antinutrient compositions of baobab seeds and rice grains. Baobab seeds and rice grains were cleaned and fermented for 24, 48, and 72 h, respectively, by the microflora present in both the seed and the grains. The pH and titratable acidity of the unfermented and fermented samples were determined. The samples were dried and milled into fine flours respectively. Standard assay techniques were used to evaluate the f lours for proximate, mineral, and some antinutrient composition. Fermentation of baobab decreased protein and carbohydrate but increased fat levels. The rice carbohydrate and fat were decreased during fermentation except for the carbohydrate of the 48 and 72 h fermented samples. Protein was only increased in the 24 h fermented rice. Fermentation had varied effects on the mineral concentrations of the baobab seeds and the rice grains. It reduced their antinutrients (phytate and tannins), decreased pH, and increased the titratable acidity of the samples. The biochemical and biological evaluation of the blends of baobab and rice flours as complementary food is in progress in this laboratory.

  7. Essential oils from five species of Annonaceae from Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thang, Tran D; Dai, Do N; Hoi, Tran M; Ogunwande, Isiaka A

    2013-02-01

    The essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from the leaves of five species of Annonaceace grown in Vietnam were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The main constituents of Artabotrys hongkongensis Hance were the sesquiterpenes spathulenol (13.1%), beta-caryophyllene (6.6%), gamma-elemene (6.3%) and delta-cadinene (6.3%). beta-Caryophyllene (12.1%), bicycloelemene (11.2%) and bicyclogermacrene (11.6%) were the predominant components of the oil of Melodorum fruticosum Lour, whereas the oil of Polyalthia longifolia var. pendula Hort was comprised mainly of beta-caryophyllene (30.0%), alpha-zingiberene (21.7%), aromadendrene (15.2%) and beta-selinene (9.1%). The main constituents of Fissistigma maclurei Merr. were germacrene D (26.1%), alpha-terpinene (8.2%), spathulenol (10.0%), and bicyclogermacrene (6.6%), while alpha-santalene (14.3%), beta-caryophyllene (6.3%), terpinen-4-ol (6.3%), caryophyllene oxide (5.7%), trans-alpha-bergamotene (5.3%) and allo-ocimene (5.3%) were identified in significant quantity from Fissistigma rufinerve (Hook.f. & Thomson) Merr.

  8. 广东合欢花的本草考证与紫外光谱法鉴别

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄洁媚; 罗集鹏

    2005-01-01

    本草考证结果认为,古代本草记载之合欢为豆科植物合欢Albizia julibrissin Durazz.,多用其树皮、叶及枝.合欢花的药用记载可能始于,此种应视为合欢花之正品.同属植物山合欢A. kalkora(Roxb.)Prain可能就是记载"生益州"的合欢,故亦可能是古代本草记载之"合欢"的品种之一.木兰科植物夜合Magnolia coco (Lour.) DC.的花的药用未见本草记载,是广东、广西和福建的民间药物;其植物来源与正品相距甚远,所含化学成分及功效也极不相同,故不宜作合欢花入药,应恢复其本来名称"夜合花",区别应用.本文应用紫外光谱法对合欢花与夜合花进行了比较鉴别,两者的零阶、一阶和二阶紫外光谱差异显著,容易区别.

  9. 5'-nitro-indirubinoxime inhibits inflammatory response in TNF-alpha stimulated human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun-Jung; Park, Won-Hwan; Ahn, Sang-Gun; Yoon, Jung-Hoon; Kim, Si-Wouk; Kim, Soo-A

    2010-07-01

    Inflammation plays a critical role in the development of atherosclerosis and TNF-alpha, a major inflammatory cytokine, induces inflammatory responses by enhancing the expression of adhesion molecules and the secretion of inflammatory mediators. Indirubin is an active compound of Polygonum tinctorium Lour (P. tinctorium) that has the ability to suppress inflammation. Previously, we described the novel indirubin derivative, 5'-nitro-indirubinoxime (5'-NIO), and demonstrated that it has potent anti-proliferative activity against various human cancer cells. In this study, we examined the effect of 5'-NIO on the TNF-alpha induced inflammatory conditions of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). We found that 5'-NIO inhibited TNF-alpha induced MCP-1 and IL-8 expression at the RNA and protein levels in HUVECs. Specifically, 5'-NIO significantly inhibited the TNF-alpha stimulated release of MCP-1 and IL-8, with levels that were only 19.8% and 30.9% of those of untreated control cells, respectively. Furthermore, 5'-NIO largely inhibited the adhesion of U937 cells to HUVECs by decreasing the expression level of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1. Overall, these observations suggest that 5'-NIO has the potential for use as an anti-atherosclerotic agent.

  10. Responses in root physiological characteristics of Vallisneria natans (Hydrocharitaceae to increasing nutrient loadings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai X.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We selected the submerged macrophyte Vallisneria natans (Lour. Hara for investigating the effects of nutrient loadings (nitrogen (N-phosphorus (P in mg·L-1: